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Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. i. 


The Annual Meeting of the British Association in 1917 was can- 
celled, for the first time in the history of the Association, under 
circumstances described in The Report of the Council included in this 

The Organising Committees of the Sections, having been empowered 
by the Council to do so, held in the early part of the summer such 
meetings as were necessary to transact such business as was essential 
in spite of the cancellation of the Annual Meeting, including th< 
forwarding to the Committee of Recommendations of proposals for 
the appointment or reappointment of Research Committees, and for 
grants of money to some of them. The Organising Committees were 
also empowered to receive Reports from Research Committees, and to 
recommend for printing in the Annual Report such of these Reports 
as it was thought undesirable to delay. 

On July 6, 1917, in the rooms of the Linnean Society, meetings 
were held of : — 

The Council, at 11.30 a.m., to approve the Report of the 
Council to the General Committee, and for other business ; 

The General Committee, at 12 noon, to receive the Reports 
of the Council and of the General Treasurer, to confirm the 
arrangements made in connection with the cancellation of the 
Annual Meeting, and for other business; 

The Committee of Recommendations, at 2.30 p.m., to make 
recommendations to the General Committee concerning the appoint- 
ment of, and grants of money to, R-esearch Committees, etc. ; 

The General Committee, at 4 p.m., to receive the Report of the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

The present volume contains, as usual, the Reports of the Council 
and of the General Treasurer, and the list of Research Committees 
appointed by the General Committee. The usual lists and other 
records referring to previous meetings are* omitted. For the rest, 
the volume contains only the Reports of Research Committees, referred 
to above, of which the General Committee, on the advice of the other 
committees concerned, decided that it would be undesirable to delay 
the issue. The Report of the Meeting of the Conference of Delegates 
of Corresponding Societies, which was held in the rooms of the Geo- 
logical Society on July 5 and 6, is also included. 




Officers and Council, 1917-18 v 

Eeport of the Council to the General Committee, 1916-17 vii 

General Treasurer's Account, 1916-17 x 

Eesearch Committees xii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xxiii 

Reports on the State of Science, etc. 
Eeport of Committee on Seismological Investigations 3 

Preliminary Report on Terrestrial Magnetism. By Dr. Charles Chree, 

F.R.S 14 

Report of Committee on Colloid Chemistry and its Industrial Applications 20 

Viscosity of Colloids. By Emil Hatschek 21 

Colloid Chemistry of Tanning. By Prof. H. R. Procter 24 

General Review and Bibliography of Dyeing. By P. E. King... 39 

Colloid Chemistry in the Fermentation Industries. By Prof. 
Adrian J. Brown 57 

Rubber. By Dr. Henry P. Stevens 60 

Colloid Chemistry of Starch, Gums, Hemicelluloses, Albumin, 
Casein, Gluten, and Gelatine. By H. B. Stocks 65 

Colloids in the Setting and Hardening of Cements. By Dr. 
C. H. Desch 97 

Nitro-Cellulose Explosives from the Standpoint of Colloidal 

Chemistry. By E. E. Chrystall 101 

Celluloid from the Standpoint of Colloidal Chemistry. By 

E. E. Chrystall 103 

Colloidal and Capillary Phenomena in their Bearings on 

Physiology and Bio-Chemietry. By Prof. W. Rainsden 104 

A 2 



Report of Committee on Nomenclature of the Carboniferous, Pernio- 

Carboniferous, and Permian Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere 106 

Report of Committee on Engineering Problems affecting the Future 

Prosperity of the Country 120 

Report of Committee on Exploration of the Palteolithic Site known as 

La Cotte de St. Brelade, Jersey 121 

Report of Committee on the Structure and Function of the Mammalian 

Heart 122 

Report of the Committee on Science in Secondary Schools (with Contents) 123 

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee and of the Conference 

of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 208 

Presidential Address by John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., on the 
Work and Aims of our Corresponding Societies 209 

Regional Surveys. By C. C. Fagg 221 

Money- Scales and Weights. By T. Sheppard 228 

The Part to be played by Local Societies after the War in the 
Application of Science to the Needs of the Country. By 
W. Mark Webb 237 

List of Corresponding Societies 243 

Catalogue of Papers 248 

List of Publications 261 



SIB ARTHUR EVANS, D.Litt., LL.D., Pres.SA., F.R.S. 


The Hob. Sir A. Parsons, K.O.B., So.D., F.R.S. 

Professor John Perry, D.Se., LL.D., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Se., LL.D., F.R.S. | Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

0. J. R. Howarth, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 

H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 1. 


Armstrong, Dr. E. F. 
Bone, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, Sir Edward, C.B. 
Olerk, Sir Dugald, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
DENDY, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Dickson, Professor H. N., D.Sc. 
Dixey, Dr. F. A., F.R.S. 
Dyson, Sir F. W., F.R.S. 
Gregory, Professor R. A. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Haumer, Dr. S. F., F.R.S. 
IM Thurn, Sir E. F., K.O.M.G. 
Jeans, J. H., F.R.S. 

Keith, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Morris, Sir D., K.C.M.G. 
Perkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. E. J., F.R.S. 
Rutherford, Sir E., F.R.S. 
Saunders, Miss E. R. 
Scott, Professor W. R. 
Starling, Professor E. H., F.R.S. 
Strahan, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Weiss, Professor F. E., F.R.S. 
Whitaker, W., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R.S. 


The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
Tresident and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 



The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, O.M., MA.., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.8., F.R.A.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 




Lord Eayleigh, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir A. Geikie, K.O.B., O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir W. Crookes, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, F.R.S. 

1 Arthur J. Balfour, O.M., F.R.S. 
| Sir E.Ray Lankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 

Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., Pres.R.S. 

Sir NormanLoekyer,K.O.B.,F.R.S. ! Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 

Sir E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 
Professor W. Bateson, F.R.S. 
Professor A. Schuster, F.R.S. 


Professor T. G. Bonuey, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 

Sir E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Major P. A.. MacMahon, F.R.S. 

Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 


| Sir Everard im Thurn, O.B.. K.O.M.G. 



I. At their meeting in March the Council, after discussion of con- 
ditions arising out of the war as bearing upon the question of holding the 
Annual Meeting of the Association, passed the following resolution for 
transmission to the Executive Committee at Bournemouth : — 

1 That the Council of the British Association recognise the 
possibility that the continuous series of Meetings of the 
Association may have to be broken this year, and, though 
they would regret that contingency, they regard the question 
as an open one, and wish their prospective hosts to feel entirely 
free as to the question of renewing their invitation or not ; but 
would welcome a reply at as early a date as possible.' 

The meeting of the Council was adjourned pending a reply, but before 
the date proposed for its resumption the General Officers were informed 
of the possibilities (a) that buildings which the Association would have 
occupied at Bournemouth might be required for purposes connected with 
the war, (b) that official objection might be taken to the holding of the 
Meeting. The first possibility did not take definite shape, but as regards 
the second the General Officers learned, on consulting members of 
H.M. Government, that a Meeting would be deprecated, especially on the 
ground of the desirability of restricting railway travelling. Having 
regard to this and other considerations, it was felt that there was no 
option but to cancel the Annual Meeting. 

The Council desire to place on record their grateful appreciation of 
the cordial co-operation of the authorities at Bournemouth in the discus- 
sions which have taken place ; they are glad to believe that the decision 
to cancel the Meeting, while regretted, is approved in Bournemouth, and 
it is hoped that the Meeting there may be only deferred, and to no distant 

II. In consideration of the cancellation of the Meeting, the Council 
recommend that Sir Arthur Evans' term of office as President be 
extended over the year 1917-18, and that the Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons' 
tenure of that office be deferred to the year 1918-19 (Cardiff Meeting), 
both these gentlemen having consented to this course. 

III. Resolutions received by the General Committee at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, and referred to the Council for consideration and, if desirable, 
for action, were dealt with as follows :— 

From Sections D and E. 

That it be recommended to the Council that a grant of i?100 
from the ' Caird Fund ' be made to Dr. W. S. Bruce for the 
upkeep of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory. 

It was resolved that a grant of £100, for one year only (1910-17), be 
made to Dr. W. S. Bruce for the upkeep of the Scottish Oceanographical 


From Section K. 

That the Council be recommended to ask the Government to 
make Section K a grant of 500 reprints of a list of economic 
plant products which has been prepared by Sir David Pram, 
and is shortly to be published in the Kew Bulletin. 

It was resolved to make the above request as recommended. 

From Section L. 

The Committee of Section L has evidence that the separate issue 
of the sectional transactions has been of considerable utility 
both during and after the Meetings, and it regrets their 
discontinuance. While recognising that there are special 
difficulties as regards printing and paper at the present time, 
the Committee hope that the Council will resume next year 
the publication of the sectional transactions containing the 
President's Address, Eeports of Committees, and Abstracts 
of Papers. 

It was resolved that this expression of the Committee's views should 
receive consideration in due course. 

IV. An informal suggestion, brought forward after consultation 
between members of the- Eesearch Committee on Fuel Economy and 
members of the Advisory Committee of the Privy Council on Scientific 
Research, was laid before the Council, to the effect that the work of the 
Research Committee should be merged in that of a (proposed) Govern- 
ment Standing Committee. The Council approved. 

V. In view of the reduction in receipts caused by small attendance 
at the Meeting in Newcastle, an application was made to the Royal 
Society for a grant of ^50 in aid of printing the Annual Volume. The 
grant was made, and a vote of thanks was conveyed from the Council to 
the Society. 

VI. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His accounts are presented to the General Com- 
mittee, subject to audit. 

VII. The retiring members of the Council are : — 

By seniority. — Dr. A. C. Haddon, Principal E. H. Griffiths. 

By least attendance. — Prof, W. H. Bragg, Prof. H. B. Dixon. 

The vacancy created by the death of Prof. Silvanus Thompson has 
not been filled during the present year. 

The Council has nominated the following new members :— 

Mr. J. H. Jeans, 
Prof. Arthur Keith, 
Prof. W. H. Perkin, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 


The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows : — 

Prof. W. A. Bone. 
Sir E. Brabrook. 
Dr. Dugald Clerk. 
Prof. A. Dendy. 
Prof. H. N. Dickson. 
Dr. F. A. Dixey. 
Sir F. W. Dyson. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 
Dr. S. F. Harmer. 
Sir Everard im Thurn. 
Mr. J. H. Jeans. 

Prof. A. Keith. 
Sir Daniel Morris. 
Prof. W. H. Perkin. 
Dr. E. J. Russell. 
Sir E. Rutherford. 
Miss E. R. Saunders. 
Prof. W. R. Scott. 
Prof. E. H. Starling. 
Dr. A. Strahan. 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

VIII. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 
as follows : — 

General Treasurer : Prof. J. Perry. 

General Secretaries : Prof. W. A. Herdman. 
Prof. H. H. Turner. 

IX. Mr. I. H. N. Evans and Miss N. Layard have been admitted 
members of the General Committee. 

X. Conference of Delegates and Corresponding Societies 
Committee : — 

The following appointments have been nude by the Council : — 

Conference of Delegates. — Mr. J. Hopkinson (President), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Vice-President), Mr. W. M. Webb (Secretary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), 
Mr. W. Mark Webb (Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. 
Lewis, Mr. T. Sheppard, Eev. T. E. R. Stebbing, and the President and 
General Officers of the Association. 

The Council approved a proposal from the Committee that a 
Conference of Delegates should be held in London on or about July 5, 
and they therefore made the appointments above mentioned, as a matter 
of urgency. 






£ s. d. £ s. d. 
To Balance brought forward : — 

Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 1.769 13 

"Williams Deacon's Bank, Manchester 1,145 18 5 

Bank of England — Western Branch : — 

On ' Caird Fund ' 290 7 10 

On General Account "... 56 1 1 

346 8 11 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 

Annual Subscriptions 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 

Sale of Publications ...................!...'... 

Grant from Royal Society Publication Fund ' 

Donations " 

Interest on Deposit, Barclays Bank, Newcastle 10 10 1 

„ „ Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 53 1 2 

„ „ Williams Deacon's Bank, Manchester 25 13 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned 

Dividends on Investments: — 

Consols 2J per Cent 87 4 4 

India 3 per Cent '"'". 81 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway 'B' Annuity 24 4 3 

War Loan 4£ per Cent 80 17 9 

Dividends on ' Caird Fund ' Investments : — 

India 3J per Cent 68 19 

Londonand North-Western Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference 

Stock G5 2 

London and South- Western Railway Consolidated4 per Cent. Preference 

Stock 77 io o 

Canada 3 \ perCent. Registered Stock 65 12 6 

£ s. J. 




















273 6 4 

277 3 G 

Nominal Amount. 

£ s. d. 

4,651 10 5 


879 14 9 

2,627 10 




87 4 9 


£22,095 10 9 

Consolidated 2J per Cent. Stock 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 

£43 Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 

India 3£ per Cent. Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 

Loudon and North-Western Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. 

Preference Stock, 'Caird Fund' 
Canada 3J per Cent. (1930-50) Registered Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 
London and South- Western Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. 

Preference Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift of 2} per Cent. Self-Cumulating 

Consolidated Stock 
War Loan, 4J per Cent., 1925-45 
Lloyds Bank, Birmingham— Deposit Account iucluded in Balance 

at Bank, Sir J. Caird's Gift for Radio-Activity Investigation 

£5,448 19 9 

The Market Value of these Securities on 30th June, 1917, amounted to £15,334 13 o. 



July 1, 1916, to June 30, 1917. 


£ s. d. 

By Rent and Office Expenses 115 3 5 

Salaries, etc 730 2 7 

Printing, Binding, etc 1,154 9 8 

Expenses of Newcastle Meeting 110 19 5 

Grants to Research Committees : — £ s. d. 

Seismological Observations 100 

Tables of Constants 40 

Mathematical Tables 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 15 

Absorption Spectra, etc 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan 4 

Fatigue from Economic Standpoint 40 

Physical Character of Ancient Egyptians 2 11 11 

Palaeolithic Site in Jersey 25 

Archaeological Investigations in Malta 20 

Distribution of Bronze Age Implements 1 14 3 

Artificial Islands in Highland Lochs 2 10 

Ductless Glands 6 

Psychological War Research 10 

Physiology of Heredity 45 

Ecology of Fungi 8 

Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education 10 

Museums 15 

School Books and Eyesight 5 

Free Place System 15 

Science Teaching in Secondary Schools 8 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 

■ 427 17 2 

Grants made from ' Caird Fund' 250 

Balance at Lloyds Bank, Birmingham (with Interest accrued), including 
Sir James Oaird's Gift, Radio-Activity Investigation, of £1,000 and 

Interest accrued thereon £104 18s. 8d. 1,822 14 2 

Balance at Williams Deacon's Bank, Manchester (with Interest accrued) 421 11 5 

Balance at Barclays Bank, Newcastle (with Interest accrued) 281 4 

Balance at Bank of England — Western Branch : — 

On 'Caird Fund' £317 11 4 

Less General Account overdrawn 179 13 10 137 17 6 

2,663 3 5 
Less Petty Cash Account overspent 2 15 11 

2,660 7 6 

£5,448 19 9 

John Perry, General Treasurer. 

I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Association, and certify the 
same to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers, and have ascertained that the Invest- 
ments are registered in the names of the Trustees, except £50 Investment in the War Loan 4* per Cent. 
Stock, which stands in the name of the Treasurer. 

W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 
Approved— October 11, 1917, 

Edward Brabrook, i . ,,, litor . 





Research Committees, etc., appointed by the General Committee, 
meeting in london i july, 1917. 

1 . Receiving Grants of Money. 

Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

Members of Committee 


Seismological Investigations. 

Chairman. — Prof essorH. H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. J. Shaw. 

Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. 
Crombie, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Dr. C. Davison, Sir F.W. Dyson, 
Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Professors 
C. G. Knott and H. Lamb, Sir J. 
Larmor, Professors A. E. H. 
Love, H. M. Macdonald, J. Perry, 
and H. C. Plummer, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professors R. A. 
Sampson and A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Dr. G. T. Walker, 
and Mr. G. W. Walker. 

Section B. 

Colloid Chemistry and its In- 
dustrial Applications. 




-Professor W. C. McC. 

Researcli on Non-Aromatic Dia- 
zonium Salts. 


Secretary .- 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Professor 
A. J. Brown, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Mr. E. Hatschek, Professors 
H. R. Procter and W. Ramsden, 
Mr. A. S. Shorter, Dr. H. P. 
Stevens, and Mr. H. B. Stocks. 

Chairman. — Dr. F. D. Chattaway. 
Secretary. — Professor G. T. Morgan. 
Mr. P. G. W. Bayly and Dr. N. V. 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 



*. d. 

To investigate the Geology of 


7 8 

Chairman. — Professor W. S. 15 

Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 
Mr. G. Barrow, Professors Cadman, 

Grenville Cole, and W. G. Fearn- 

sides, Dr. J. S. Flett, Dr. Walcot 

Gibson, Professors J. W. Gregory 

and P. F. Kendall, Dr. R. Kid- 

ston, Professors G. A. Lebour 

and T. F. Sibly, Dr. A. Strahan, 

and Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 

1. Receiving Grants of Money— continued. 


Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan, Ireland. 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Professor Grenville 

Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 
Or. J. W. Evans, Dr. R. Kidston, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 


£ *. d. 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

Experiments in 

Inheritance in 

Chairman. — Professor W. Bateson. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Merritt Hawkes. 
Dr. F. A. Dixey and Dr. L. Don- 



Replacement of Men by Women 
in Industry. 

The Effects of the War on Credit, 
Currency, and Finance. 

Chairman. — Professor W. R. Scott. 

Secretary. — Professor J. C. Kydd. 

Miss Ashley, Yen. Archdeacon 
Cunningham, Professor E. C. K. 
Conner, Mr. J. E. Highton, 
Professor A. W. Kirkaldy, Miss 
Mellor, and Miss Stephens. 

Chairman. — Professor W. R. Scott. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. E. Allen. 

Professor C. F. Bastable, Sir E. 
Brabrook, Professor Dieksee, 
Mr. B. Ellinger, Mr. A. H. 
Gibson, Professor E. C. K. 
Gonner, Mr. F. W. Hirst, Pro- 
fessor A. W. Kirkaldy, Sir R. H. 
Inglis Palgrave, and Mr. E. 




To excavate a Palaeolithic Site in 

To conduct Archaeological Inves- 
tigations in Malta. 

To report on the Distribution of 
Broaze Age Implements. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. de Gruchy. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Professor A. Keith, and 
Colonel Warton. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
and Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Peake. 

Professor W. Ridgeway, Mr. H. 
Balfour, Sir C. H. Read, Pro- 
fessor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. 
R. R. Marett, and Mr. O. G. S. 
Cra wf ord. 



1 (i 


1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 

Subject, for Investigation, or Purpose 

To investigate and ascertain the 
Distribution of Artificial Islands 
in the lochs of the Highlands 
of Scotland. 

To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Daw- 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professors T. H. Bryce and W. 
Ridgeway, Mr. H. Fraser, Dr. A. 
Low, and Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor W. 
Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
Arthur Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Professors Boyd Dawkins and 
J. L. Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
and Mr. H. Peake. 


£ s. d. 
2 10 


Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The Ductless Glands. 

Chairman. — Sir E. A. Schafer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 

Dr. A. T. Cameron and Professor 
A. B. Macallum. 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

Experimental Studies in 
Physiology of Heredity. 


Chairman. — Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. P. Gregory. 
Professors Bateson and Keeble 
and Miss E. R. Saunders. 




The Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight. 

To inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 

Chairman. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 
Secretary. — Mr. G. F. Daniell. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 

Eggar, Professor R. A. Gregory, 

Dr. N. Bishop Harman, Mr. 

J. L. Holland, Dr. W. E. 

Sumpner, Mr. A. P. Trotter, and 

Mr. Trevor Walsh. 

Chairman.- — Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Secretary. — Professor J. A. Green. 
Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 

Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 

Brown, Mr. C. Burt, Professor 

E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor W. 
McDougall, Professor T. P. 
Nunn, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall, Professor H. 
Bompas Smith, Dr. C. Spearman, 
and Mr. A. E. Twentyman. 


4 5 2 

1 . Receiving Grants of Money— continued.. 


Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

The Effects of the ' Free-place ' 
System upon Secondary Educa- 


To consider and report upon the 
method and substance of 
Science Teaching in Secondary 
Schools, with particular refer- 
ence to its essential place in 
general Education. 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Mr. C. A. Buckmaster. 

Secretary. —Mr. D. Berridge. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Miss L. J. 
Clarke, Miss B. Foxley, Dr. W. 
Garnett, Professor R. A. 
Gregory, Mr. J. L. Paton, 
Professor H. Bompas Smith, 
Dr. H. Lloyd Snape, and Miss 

Chairman. — Professor R. A. Gre- 

Secretary — Dr. E. H. Tripp. 

Mr. W. Aldridge. Professor H. E. 
Armstrong, Mr. D. Berridge, 
Mr. C. A. Buckmaster, Miss 
L. J. Clarke, Mr. G. F. Daniell, 
Miss I. M. Drummond, Mr. 
G. D. Dunkerley, Miss A. E. 
Escott, Mr. Cary Gilson, Miss 
C. L. Laurie, Professor T. P. 
Nunn, and Mr A. Vassall. 


Corresponding Societies Com- Chairman.— Mr. W. Whitaker. 

mittee for the preparation of ! Secretary.— Mr. W. Mark Webb. 

their Report. Dr. F. A. Bather, Rev. J. O. 

Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, 
Sir H. G. Fordham, Mr. J. 
Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
Mr. T. Sheppard, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, and the President 
and General Officers of the 


£ s. d. 




2. Not receiving Grants of Money.* 

Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

Members of Committee 


Annual Tables of Constants and Nu- 
merical Data, chemical, physical, and 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables. 

Investigat ion of the Upper Atmosphere. 

Radiotelegraphic Investigations. 

Determination of Gravity at Sea. 

To aid the work of Establishing a Solar 
Observatory in Australia. 

To discuss the present needs of Geodesy, 
including its relation to other 
branches of Geophysics, and to report 
to the next meeting of the British 
Association, with power to present 
an interim report to the Council if 
any question of urgency should 
arise. f 

Chairman. — Sir E. Rutherford. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. C. McC. Lewis. 

Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. Hill. 

Secretary .-?ioiessor J. W. Nicholson. 

Dr. J. R. Airey, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Pro- 
fessor L. N. G. Filon, Sir G. Greenhill, 
Professor E. W. Hobson, Mr. G. 
Kennedy, and Professors Alfred 
Lodge, A. E. H. Love, H. M. Mac- 
donald, G. B. Mathews, G. N. Watson, 
and A. G. Webster. 

Chairman. — Sir Napier Shaw. 

Secretary. — 

Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. W. H. Dines, Sir 
R. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmor, 
Professors J. E. Petavel and A. 
Schuster, and Dr. W.Watson. 

Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 

Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Professor A. S. Eddington, Dr. 
Erskine-Murray, Professors J. A.Flem- 
ing, G. W. 0. Howe, H. M. Macdonald, 
and J. W. Nicholson, Sir H. Norman, 
Captain H. R. Sankey, Professor A. 
Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, and Pro- 
fessor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor A. E. H. Love. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. G. Duffield. 

Mr. T. W. Chaundy and Professors A. S. 

Eddington, A. Schuster, and H. H. 


Chairman. — Professor H. H. Turner. 
Secretary.— Dr. W. G. Duffield. 
Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 
Mr. F. McClean, and Professor A. 


Chairman. — Colonel Sir C. F. Close. 

Secretary. — Colonel E. H. Hills. 

Sir S. G. Burrard, Dr. W. G. Duffield, 
Mr. Horace Darwin, Sir F. W. Dyson, 
Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. A. R. Hinks, 
Sir T. H. Holdich, Professor Horace 
Lamb, Sir Joseph Larmor, Professor 
A. E. H. Love, Colonel H. G. Lyons, 
Professor H. Macdonald, Mr. R. D. 
Oldham, Professor A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Professor H. H. Turner, 
and Dr. G. W. Walker. 

* Excepting the case of Committees receiving grants from the ' Oaird Fund.' 
t Joint Committee with Seotion E. Empowered to report to Council. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 

XVI 1 

Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

To arrange meetings in the ensuing year 
for the discussion of papers and re- 
ports on Geophysical subjects, and to 
co-operate with existing Committees 
in making recommendations for the 
promotion of the study of such sub- 
jects in the British Empire. 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Sir F. W. Dyson. 

Secretary. — Dr. S. Chapman. 

Dr. C. Chree, Colonel C. F. Close, Pro- 
fessor E. B. Elliott, Mr. J. H. Jeans, 
Professor A. E. H. Love, Major H. G. 
LyoDs, Professor A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Dr. A. Strahan, Profes-sor 
H. H. Turner, and Dr. G. W. Walker. 

Section B.— CHEMISTKY. 

Fuel Economy ; Utilisation of Coal ; 
Smoke Prevention. 

To report on the Botanical and Chemical 
Characters of the Eucalypts and their 

Dynamic Isomerism. 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Con- 
stitution of Organic Compounds. 

Chemical Investigation of Natural Plant 
Products of Victoria. 


Chairman. — Mr. Robert Mond. 

Secretary . — 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Allerton, Mr. Robert 
Armitage, Professor J. O. Arnold, Mr. 
J. A. F. Aspinall, Mr. A. H. Barker, 
Professor P. P. Bedson, Sir G. T. 
Beilby, Sir Hugh Bell, Professor W. S. 
Bonlton, Professor E. Bury, Dr. Charles 
Carpenter, Sir Dugald Clerk, Pro- 
fessor H. B. Dixon, Dr. J. T. Dunn, 
Mr. S. Z. de Ferranti, Dr. William 
Galloway, Professors W. W. Haldane 
Gee and Thos. Gray, Mr. T. Y. 
Greener, Sir Robert Hadfield, Dr. II S. 
Hele-Shaw, Dr. D. H. Helps, Dr. G. 
Hickling, Mr. Grevil Jones, Mr. W. W. 
Lackie, Mr. Michael Longridge, Dr. 
J. W. Mellor, Mr. C. H. Merz, Mr. 
Bernard Moore, Hon. Sir Charles 
Parsons, Sir Richard Redmayne, Pro- 
fessors Ripper and L. T. O'Shea, Mr. 
R. P. Sloan, Dr. J. E. Stead, Dr. A. 
Strahan, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, Mr. 
Benjamin Talbot, Professor R. Threl- 
fall, Mr. G. Blake Walker, Dr. R. V. 
Wheeler, Mr. B. W. Winder, Mr. W. B. 
Woodhouse, Professor W. P. Wynne, 
and Mr. H. James Yates. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong- 

Secretary.— Mr. H. G. Smith. 

Dr. Andrews, Mr. R. T. Baker, Professor 
F. O. Bower, Mr. R. H. Cambage. Pro- 
fessor A. J. Ewart, Professor ('. E. 
Fawsitt, Dr. Heber Green, Dr. Cuth- 
bert Hall, Professors Orme Masson, 
Rennie, and Robinson, and Mr. St. John. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 
Dr. Desch, Sir J. J. Dobbie, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Professor Sydney Young. 

Chairman.— Sir J. J. Dobbie. 
Secretary.— Professor E. E. C. Baly. 
Mr. A. W. Stewart. 

Chairman. — Professor Orme Masson. 
Secretary.— Professor Heber Green. 
Mr. J. Cronin and Mr. P. R. H. St. John. 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 

Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

Members of Committee 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

To investigate the Flora of Lower Car- 
boniferous times as exemplified at a 
newly-discovered locality at Gullane, 

To excavate Critical Sections in the 
Paljeozoic Rocks of England and 

To excavate Critical Sections in Old 
Red Sandstone Rocks at Rhynie, 

To consider the Nomenclature of the 
Carboniferous, Permo-carboniferous, 
and Permian Rocks of the Southern 

To consider the preparation of a List 
of Characteristic Fossils. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Kidston. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 
Dr. J. S. Flett, Professor E. J. Garwood, 
Dr. J. Home, and Dr. B. N. Peach. 

Chairman. — Professor W. W. Watts. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. Fearnsides. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cob- 
bold, Professor E. J. Garwood, Mr. 
V. C. Illing, Dr. Lapworth, and Dr. 
J. E. Marr. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. Home. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. Mackie. 

Drs. J. S. Flett, W. T. Gordon, G. Hick- 
ling, R. Kidston, B. N. Peach, and 
D. M. S. Watson. 

Cliairman. — Professor T. W. Edgeworth 

Secretary. — Professor E. W. Skeats. 

Mr. W. S. Dun, Professors J. W. Gregory 
and Sir T. H. Holland, Mr. W. Howchin, 
Mr. A. E. Kitson, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
Dr. A. W. Rogers, Professor A. C. 
Seward, Mr. D. M. S. Watson, and 
Professor W. G. Woolnough. 

Chairman. — Professor P. F. Kendall. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. 
Cole, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Professors 
J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Holland, G. A. 
Lebour, and S. H. Reynolds, Dr. Marie 
C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. H. 
Woods, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. J. Garwood. 
Secretary. — Professor S. H. Reynolds. 
Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Messrs. 

C. V. Crook, R. Kidston, and A. S. Reid, 

Sir J. J. H. Teall, Professor \V. W. 

Watts, and Messrs. R. Welch and W. 


Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

An investigation of the Biology of the 
Abrolhos Islands and the North-west 
Coast of Australia (north of Shark's 
Bay to Broome), with particular 
reference to the Marine Fauna. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman. 
Secretary. — Professor W. J. Dakin. 
Dr. J. H. Ash worth and Professor F. O. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 


Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

Nomenclator Animalium Genera et 

To obtain, as nearly as possible, a Repre- 
sentative Collection of Marsupials 
for work upon (a) the Reproductive 
Apparatus and Development, (b) the 

To aid competent Investigators se- 
lected by the Committee to carry on 
definite pieces of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 

To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 

Zoological Bibliography and Publica- 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 
Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 
Dr. M. Laurie, Professor Marett Tims, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Dendy. 
Secretaries Professors T. Flynn and 

G. E. Nicholls. 
Professor E. B. Poulton and Professor 

H. W. Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. H. Ashworth. 

Mr. G. P. Bidder, Professor F. 0. Bower, 
Drs. W. B. Hardy and S. F. Harmer, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray 
Lankester, Professor W. C. Mcintosh, 
and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 
Secretary.— -Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 
Professors G. C. Bourne, A. Dendy, 

M. Hartosr, W. A. Herdman, and J. 

Graham Kerr, Dr. P. Chalmers 

Mitchell, and Professors E. B. Poulton 

and J. Stanley Gardiner. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor J. P. 

Hill, and Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Poulton. 
Secretary— Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
and Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To aid in the preparation of a Bathy- 
metrical Chart of the Southern Ocean 
between Australia and Antarctica. 

Chairman.— Professor T. W. Edgcworth 

Secretary. — Captain J. K. Davis. 
Professor J. W. Gregory and Professor 

Orme Masson. 


Industrial Unrest. 

Chairman.— Professor A. W. Kirkaldy. 

Secretary. — 

Sir H. Bell, Rt. Hon. C. W. Bowcrman, 

Professors S. J. Chapman and E. ('. K. 

Gonner, Mr. H. Gosling, Mr. G. Pickup 

Holden, Dr. G. B. Hunter, Sir 0. W. 

Macara, and Professor Vf. R. Scott. 


2. A'ot Receiving Grants of Money — -continued. 

Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

Blembers of Committee 


To report on certain of the more com- 
plex Stress Distributions in Engi- 
neering Materials. 

The Investigation of Gaseous Explo- 
sions, with special reference to Tem- 

To consider and report on the Stan- 
dardisation of Impact Tests. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Perry. 
Secretaries. — Professors E. G. Coker and 

J. E. Petavel. 
Professor A. Barr, Dr. Chas. Chree, Mr. 

Gilbert Cook, Professor W. E. Dalby, 

Sir J. A. Ewing, Professor L. N. G. 

Filon, Messrs. A. R. Fulton and J. J. 

Guest, Professors J. B. Henderson, F. 

C. Lea, and A. E. H. Love, Dr. W. 

Mason, Dr. F. Rogers, Mr. W. A. Scoble, 

Dr. T. E. Stanton, Mr. C E. Stromeyer, 

and Mr. J. S. Wilson. 

Chairman. — Sir Dugald Clerk. 
Secretary. — Professor W. E. Dalby. 
Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Burstall, 

H. L. Callendar, E. G. Coker, and H. B. 

Dixon, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. J. A. 

Harker, Colonel Sir H. C. L. Holden, 

Professors B. Hopkinson and J. E. 

Petavel, Captain H. Riall Sankey, 

Professor A. Smithells, Professor W. 

Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. 

H. E. Wimperis. 

Chairman. — Professor W. H. Warren. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Vicars. 

Professor Payne and Mr. E. H. Sainter. 


To investigate the Physical Characters 
of the Ancient Egyptians. 

The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 

The Teaching of Anthropology. 

Chairman. — Professor G. Elliot Smith. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. F. Wood-Jones, Professor A. Keith, 
and Dr. C. G. Seligman. 

Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Dr. Harrison. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, Pro- 
fessor J. L. Myres,and Dr. H.O.Forbes. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Sir Arthur Evans, Pro- 
fessor W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. 

Chairman. — Sir Richard Temple. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, Mr. W. Crooke, Dr. 
C. G. Seligman, Professor G. Elliot 
Smith, Dr. R. R. Marett, Professor 
P. E. Newberry, Dr. G. A. Auden, Pro- 
fessors T. H. Bryce, A. Keith, P. 
Thompson, R. W. Reid, H. J. Fleure, 
and J. L. Myres, Sir B. C. A. Windle, 
and Professors R.J. A. Berry, Baldwin 
Spencer, Sir T. Anderson Stuart, and 
E. C. Stirling. 


2. A'ot receiving Grants of Money — continued. 


Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

To prepare and publish Miss Byrne's 
Gazetteer and Map of the Native 
Tribes of Australia. 

To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. 

To conduct Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the Island of Cyprus. 

To investigate the Lake Villages in the 
neighbourhood of Glastonbury in 
connection with a Committee of the 
Somerset Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 

To co-operate with Local Committees 
in Excavations on Roman Sites in 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Professor Baldwin Spejcer. 
Secretary.— Dr. R. R. Marett. 
Mr. H. Balfour. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 
Professors R. C. Bosanquet and J. L. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Secretary.— Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Cliairman. — Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Mr. Willoughby Gardner. 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur Evans, 

Sir C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. 

Bulleid, and Mr. H. Peake. 

Cliairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashty, Mr. Willoughby Gardner, 
and Professor J. L. Myres. 

Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. 

Physiological Standards of Food aDd 

Cliairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. Edridge-Green. 
Professor A. W. Porter, Dr. A. D. Waller, 

Professor C. S. Sherrington, and Dr. 

F. W. Mott. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Dr. A. L>. 

Professors W. D. Halliburton and \V. H. 


Section K.— BOTANY. 

To consider and report upon the neces- 
sity for further provision for the 
Organisation of Research in Plant 
Pathology in the British Empire. 

To consider the possibilities of investi- 
gation of the Ecology of Fungi, and 
assist Mr. J. Rams bottom in his 
initial efforts in this direction. 

Chairman. — Professor M. C. Potter. 

Secretary. — 

Professor Biffen, Mr. F. T. Brooks, Pro- 
fessor!'. Johnson, Mr. J. Ramsbottcm, 
Mr. E. S. Salmon, Dr. E. N. Thomas, 
and Mr. H. W. T. Wager. 

Cliairman. — Mr. H. W. T. Wager. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Ramsbottora. 

Mr. W. B. Biierley, Mr. F. T. Brooks, 
Mr. W. Cbeesman, Professor T. John- 
son, Dr. C. E. Moss, Professor M. C. 
Potter, Mr. L. Carlton Rea, Miss A. 
Lorrain Smith, and Mr. E. W. Swanton. ' 


2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 

Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 

To carry out a Research on the Influ- 
ence of varying percentages of Oxy- 
gen and of various Atmospheric 
Pressures upon Geotropic and Helio- 
tropic Irritability and Curvature. 

To cut Sections of Australian Fossil 
Plants, with especial reference to a 
specimen of Zygopteris from Simp- 
son's Station, Barraba, N.S.W. 

The Collection and Investigation of 
Material of Australian Cycadaceaj, 
especially Bowenia from Queensland 
and Macrozamia from West Australia. 

The Investigation of the Vegetation of 
Ditcham Park, Hampshire. 

The Structure of Fossil Plants. 

The Renting of Cinchona Botanic 
Station in Jamaica. 

Members of Committee 

Chairman. — Professor F. O. Bower. 
Secretary. — Professor A. J. Ewart. 
Professor F. F. Blackman. 

Chairman. — Professor Lang. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. B. Osborn. 
Professors T. W. Edgeworth David and 
A. C. Seward. 

Chairman. — Professor A. A. Lawson. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. B. Osborn. 
Professor A. C. Seward. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. S. Adamson. 

Dr. C. E. Moss and Professor R. H. Yapp. 

Chairman. — Professor F. W. Oliver. 
Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Mr. E. Newell Arber, Professor A. C. 
Seward, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Chairman. — Professor F. 0. Bower. 
Secretary. — Professor R. H. Yapp. 
Professors R. Buller, F. W. Oliver, and 
F. E. Weiss. 


To consider the relations between the 
State and Education, and the means 
of giving effect to proposals for 
Educational Reform. 

To examine, inquire into, and report on 
the Character, Work, and Mainten- 
ance of Museums, with a view to 
their Organisation and Development 
as Institutions for Education and 
Research ; and especially to inquire 
into the Requirements of Schools. 

Chairman. — Sir Napier Shaw. 
Secretary. — Mr. Douglas Berridge. 
(Membership to be determined.) 

Chairman. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Secretaries. — Mr. H. Bolton and Dr. J. A. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. C. A. Buckmaster, 
Mr. M. D. Hill, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Pro- 
fessors E. J. Garwood and P. New- 
berry, Sir H. Miers, Sir Richard Temple, 
Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas, Professor 
F. E. Weiss, Dr. Jessie White, Rev. H. 
Browne, Drs. A. C. Haddon and H. S. 
Harrison, Mr. Herbert R. Rathbone, 
and Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 


Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Meeting in London, July 1917. 
T7ie Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for Grants are prefixed to the respective Committees. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 
Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Investigations 100 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

*Donnan, Professor F. G.— Colloid Chemistry and its 

Industrial Applications 10 

*Chattaway, Dr. F. D. — Non- Aromatic Diazonium Salts 7 7 & 

Section C. — Geology. 

*Boulton, Professor W. S.— The Geology of Coal Seams 15 

*Cole, Professor Grenville. — Old Eed Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan, Ireland 5 

Section D. — Zoology. 
*Bateson, Professor W. — Inheritance in Silkworms 20 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Scott, Professor W. R. — Women in Industry 10 

*Scott, Professor W. R.— Effects of the War on Credit, &c. ... 10 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

*Marett, Dr. R. R. — Paleolithic Site in Jersey 5 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Archaeological Investigations in 

Malta 10 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Distribution of Bronze Age Imple- 
ments 10 

*Dawkins, Professor Boyd. — Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 2 10 

*Read, Sir C. H. — Age of Stone Circles 15 

Section I. — Physiology. 
Schiifer, Sir E. A. — The Ductless Glands 9 


Section K. — Botany. 
*Blackman, Dr. F. F.— Heredity 15 

Carried forward £2M 17 8 

* Reappointed. 


Section L. — Educational Science. £ s. d. 

Brought forward 234 17 8 

*Auden, Dr. G. A.— School Books and Eyesight 2 

*Myers, Dr. C. S. — -Mental and Physical Factors involved in 

Education 4 5 2 

*Buckmaster, Mr. C. A.— The ' Free-place ' System 10 

*Gregory, Professor R. A. — Science Teaching in Secondary 

Schools 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 

*Whitaker, Mr. W. — For Preparation of Report 25 

Total £286 2 10 

Caird Fund. 

An unconditional gift of 10,000/. was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of 

The Council, in its Report to the General Committee at the Bir- 
mingham Meeting, made certain recommendations as to the administra- 
tion of this Fund. These recommendations were adopted, with the 
Report, by the General Committee at its meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The following allocations have been made from the Fund by the 
Council to September 1917 : — 

Naples Zoological Station Committee (p. xix). — 50/. (1912-13); 100/. 
(1913-14) ; 100/. annually in future, subject to the adoption of the Com- 
mittee's report. 

Seismology Committee (p. xii). — 100/. (1913-14) ; 100/. annually in 
future, subject to the adoption of the Committee's report. 

Radiotelegraphic Committee (p. xvi). - 500/. (1913-11). 

Magnetic Re-survey of the British Isles (in collaboration with the 
Royal Society).— 250/.' 

Committee on Determination of Gravity at Sea (p. xvi). — 100/. 

Mr. F. Sargent, Bristol University, in connection with his Astro- 
nomical Work.— 10/. (1914). 

Organising Committee of Section F {Economics), towards expenses o* 
an Inquiry into Outlets for Labour after the War. — 100/. (1915). 

Rev. T. E. R. Phillips, for aid in transplanting his private observa- 
tory.— 201. (1915). 

Oceanographical Laboratory — 100/. (1916-17). 

Committee on Fuel Economy. — 25/. (1915-16). 

Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of 1,000/. 
to the Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. 

* Reappointed. 




1917. B 


Seismological Investigations. — Twenty-second Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), 
Mr. J. J. Shaw (Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. 
Crombie, Mr. Horace Darwin, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir K. T. Glazebrook, Professors C. G. Knott and 
H. Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Professors A. E. H. Love, H. M. 
Macdonald, J. Perry, and H. C. Plummeb, Mr. W. E. 
Plummeb, Professors E. A. Sampson and A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Dr. G. T. Walker, and Dr. G. W. Walker. 

I. General. 

Owing to the cancelling of the Bournemouth meeting proposed for 
1017, and to other reasons connected with the war, the present Keport 
is made brief. It has been drawn up by the Chairman, except where 
specially mentioned. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed with a grant of 10CZ. (including 
printing), in addition to 100Z. from the Caird Fund already voted. The 
grant was formerly 601., with 701. for printing — 13<)Z. in all ; but during 
the war it has been reduced to 1001., partly to meet the need for economy, 
partly because the printing has necessarily been less. The Government 
Grant Fund administered by the Royal Society has voted a subsidy of 
200/. for 191 7 as in recent years. With the above modification the budget 
ins s 'i actically the same as given in the 20th Report. 

The Shide staff lias remained unchanged, though it is probable that 
changes must shortly be made. The general question of organisation of 
Beismology has not only been discussed at several meetings of the present 
Committee, but is also under consideration by the Geodetic Committee, 
appointed by Section A of the British Association in 1916. This Com- 
mittee contemplates approaching the Government with a proposal for a 
Geodetic Institute. It has been suggested that before taking definite 
steps in this direction the similar needs of other branches of geophysics 
(seismology, magnetism, tides, &c.) should be reviewed ; and the Geodetic 
Committee, suitably enlarged for the purpose, is proceeding to this review. 

The collation of the records for 1913 was completed and printed as a 
separate pamphlet, with a preliminary discussion. Further discussion is 
given in a later section of this Report. 


II. Instrumental. 

The time signals at Shide have been received regularly, with some 
interruptions chiefly due to bad weather, and consequent derangement 
of the instrument. 

The transit lent by the Royal Astronomical Society has been used in 
supplement ; but it is found difficult to secure the instrument in a per- 
manent azimuth. The method used has been to fix the feet to the pier 
with plaster-of-Paris; and this holds for a time, and then seems to give 
way for some unknown reason. On the first occasion it was naturally 
assumed that there had been some accidental blow to the instrument, 
but it is difficult to believe that this can have happened on all the occasions 

The following note has been received from the Astronomer Royal 
for Scotland : — ■ 

An Improved Method of Registration for Milne Seismographs. 

An attempt was made to improve the trace of the Milne Seismograph 
at Edinburgh by using a very small source of light. Though some improve- 
ment was obtained, a limit was soon reached in the diffraction pattern 
resulting from the crossed slits. The following arrangement was then 
adopted. The boom ends in a plate of blackened alum i nium foil, in the 
centre of which is a hole rather less than 1 mm. diameter. Over this hole 
is mounted a small lens, which forms an image on the bromide paper of 
a specially small source of light. The lens used is achromatic, of 9 mm. 
focal length. The fixed slit-plate was at first left undisturbed ; but 
subsequently the slit was widened to about 1 mm. To obtain a sufficiently 
small source of light, a four- candle-power electric lamp with coiled-up 
filament is fixed 3D cm. above the end of the boom, and 10 cm. below this 
is placed a telescope ocular of 1 cm. focus. 

The results show a striking improvement on the previous records. 
The trace is a line well under J mm. thick, and can be magnified ten or 
twentv times with advantage. In this way the short-period oscillations 
of the boom, which formerly resulted in a blurring of the trace, are clearly 
resolved. To obtain the full benefit of the magnification it would be an 
improvement to run the paper at a much slower rate than at present (say, 
at 103 mm. per hour instead of 210 mm.). 

Milne-Shaw Seismograph. 

It was submitted in the last Report that the most important work of the 
Committee for the present lies in replacing the Milne machines (either by 
G-alitzin machines or) by Milne-Shaw machines. The difficulties of 
obtaining Galitzin machines have not decreased ; but it is gratifying to 
report that a number of orders have been received for M.-S. machines, 
and that a generous subsidy of 2001- has been made from a private source. 
Hence Mr. Shaw has been working early and late to make a number of 
machines. It is perhaps better to reserve the list for the end of the war, 
but it may be stated that two have been safely delivered to America, and 
others are nearing completion. There have been considerable difficulties 
in obtaining some of the materials, but Mr. Shaw's patience and ingenuity 


have overcome them. In the course of construction and testing he has 
obtained a number of interesting results of which he has made the following 
notes. It may be added that, in spite of the pressure of this work, he 
has found time to make regular visits of superintendence to Shide, either 
in company with the Chairman or alternating with him. His instru- 
mental skill and knowledge have been freely put at the disposal of the 
Committee throughout. 

Notes on the Comparison of two Milne-Shaw Seismographs. 

By J. J. S. 

The testing of two Milne-Shaw seismographs, No. 8 and No. 9, at West 
Bromwich, during May of the present year, showed not only how stan- 
dardised machines may be relied upon to give similar seismograms, but 
also afforded an opportunity of investigating the questions of daily tilt 
and microseisms, and the degree of sensitivity to which a machine can 
be set. 

Statements have been published that, due to the mechanical imperfec- 
tions of seismographs, there is a difficulty in obtaining long periods of 
oscillation ; anything of the order of 60 seconds being an impossibility. 
The facilities for making refined adjustment provided in the Milne-Shaw 
type prompted the writer to investigate the possibilities. 

No difficulty was experienced in obtaining a period of 60 seconds, and, 
in order to test its constancy, the machine was left for five days, at the 
end of which time the period remained unchanged. 

The period was then increased to 90 seconds ; the machine had now 
become highly sensitive to the slightest tilt. "With a nominal magnifica- 
tion 150 times the horizontal ground movement, this period gave such a 
sensitivity to tilt that 1 sec. of arc produced 1-5 metre displacement 
of the light spot ; or conversely 1 mm. displacement corresponded to a 
tilt of 1 inch in about 5,000 miles. 

A subsequent attempt produced a period of approximately 120 seconds, 
which represents a sensitivity of 1 mm. amplitude for a tilt of 1 inch in 
upwards of 8.000 miles. 

With the apparatus in this condition the smallest movement of the 
observer affects the position of the light spot ; therefore the observer 
took up a seated position 6 feet from the column ; but even so, a swaying 
of the body in the chair produced an appreciable effect. 

This machine, No. 8, was mounted upon a pier measuring about a 
cubic yard, built up from the cellar floor of the writer's house. The 
weight of one person (150 lb.) in a bedroom two floors above, and not 
immediately over the instrument, produced a tilt in the cellar floor of 
about -04 second of arc, causing the light spot to be deflected more than 
100 mm. 

A test was made of the machine's sensitivity to temperature change 
at this 120 seconds period. Approaching the column for this purpose 
was out of the question, therefore the rays from a small Bijou incandescent 
gas mantle, with which the chamber was lighted, were, by means of a 
small hand mirror, so projected that they fell upon one side of the column 
and not upon the other. The heat from this small increase of illumination 
expanded the one side of the column sufficiently to drive the light spot 
off the scale. 

When timing the period of oscillation in these higher sensitivities it 


was noted that the effect of amplitude upon the period became very 
marked — increasing the amplitude of swing rapidly increased the period. 

With the pendulum set to oscillate in 10 or 12 seconds this difference 
amounts to only about T V of a second over a wide range of amplitude ; 
but at 120 seconds the fluctuation becomes important. With a change 
in amplitude from 1,000 mm. to 100 mm. there was a drop in the period 
of 20 to 30 per cent. 

Time did not permit of an investigation to determine the rateof change 
with differing periods. There was insufficient change in the damping 
ratio to account for the phenomenon, therefore it is probable that it is an 
extreme case of ' circular error.' 

This variation of period with amplitude, even when small, suggests 
that some standard amplitude should be used when determining the 
period. 10 mm. is the prescribed standard with the Milne-Shaw machine. 

The Milne-Shaw boom is short, and the magnification includes 
mechanical leverage. Though the friction of same is extremely small, 
it was expected that it would be sufficient to operate against obtaining 
excessively long periods, and would compare unfavourably with a simple 
elongated pendulum of the Milne tj^pe. The result was quite the reverse, 
thus establishing the fact that the air resistance on a long boom forms the 
major part of the total friction, and suggests that, though the design is 
simple, it is not necessarily the best for obtaining free oscillations. 

The second machine, No. 9, was mounted upon a pier in an out-building 
60 feet from No. 8. It was oriented in the same azimuth, and connected 
in series with the same time circuit. The constants of both machines 
were made equal, viz. : — 

Period .... 12 seconds. 

Sensitivity to tilt . . 26 mm. = 1 sec. of arc. 

Magnification . . . 150 : 1. 

Damping ratio . . . 20 : 1. 

The early part of the month was favoured by calm nights, and it was at 
once observed that the microseisms were identical on both machines, 
in epoch, phase, period, and amplitude, thus demonstrating that micro- 
seisms are pure ground movements as distinguished from convection 
currents in the observatory or instrument cases, and that the term 
' air-tremors,' as used by so many observers, is a misnomer ; for it is not 
conceivable that air disturbances should so exactly coincide in separate 
buildings 60 feet apart. It was found that when the microseisms were 
intermittent they could easily be identified by their amplitude and number 
of waves in a group, also by the interval between successive groups (see 
A and B, Plate). In the past, microseisms have been investigated by 
observing their period and intensity, and the results compared with 
similar data from other stations. It is here suggested that a more fruitful 
method may be by gradually separating two or more machines, com- 
mencing with a few hundred yards or a mile or two, and, if the trains of 
waves could be still identified, increasing the distance to form a base 
line of sufficient length to determine their speed of propagation and the 
direction in which they were travelling. If this much could be achieved 
it is possible their cause and origin might be discovered. 

A horizontal pendulum has two types of sensitivity, one to tilt, and the 
other to horizontal displacement. The former is regulated by the inclina- 
tion of its supports ; the latter is a result of its design, and is proportional 


to the ratio of the leverage about the mass acting as a steady-point, and 
magnifies and records the horizontal ground movements ; this sensitivity- 
is termed its ' magnification.' The constants of one of the instruments 
were then altered so that, while the magnification remained the same, the 
tilt sensitivity was raised very considerably. But alterations in sensi- 
tivity to tilt had no effect upon the recorded amplitude of the microseisms, 
suggesting that microseisms are purely compressional waves. 
The constants used were : — 

No. 8. Mag. 150 ... . Tilt 1 sec. = 110 mm. 

No. 9. „ 150 . . . „ „ = 20 mm. 

On May 4 a small earthquake shock was recorded at a moment when 
the constants of the machines were alike, and it was gratifying to find 
that two damped machines when properly standardised may be relied 
upon to give similar results. The Plate shows comparable sections of this 
record from each machine ; also part of the record taken at Shide (126 
miles distant), which shows the same characteristics as the other two — 
note the isolated movement C. (Up the film at West Bromwich compares 
with down the film at Shide, and the paper speed is slower.) The letters 
A, B, C, &c, identify corresponding movements. The discrepancy at 
G was due to a fault in the driving motor, which has since been remedied, 
otherwise the West Bromwich records are identical. 

On May 15 the maximum of another small shock was recorded when 
the periods were 40 seconds and 12 seconds respectively, and the damping 
7:1 v. 14 : 1. The longer period gave from three to seven times the 
amplitude according to the impressed earth period. As the dampings were 
unequal, the result was not strictly comparable ; but it was noted that the 
longer period, notwithstanding the advantage of less damping, was much 
slower to take up the earth wave. The long period pendulum showed a 
lag of from 5 to 9 seconds behind the other, according to the impressed 
wave period being short or long respectively. 

This points to the desirability of machines conforming to some standard 
period if the times from different records are to be strictly comparable. 

A further important observation was the fact' — previously referred to in 
these Reports — that two sites comparatively near together may be quite 
different as regards daily wandering of the zero. 

In the Plate the difference in the spacing of the lines on the two 
machines shows this clearly. The one with the wider spaces was taken 
in the out-building, and the displacement corresponded to an elongation 
of the sunny side during the day and a contraction at night, and was 
greatest on hot days. Time did not permit of sufficient investigation 
to discover whether the pier, cast-iron column, or whole house were 
affected. If only one or both of the former, then, since the heat rays 
are from the infra red end of the spectrum, protection may be afforded 
by interposing some athermanous substance, such as & lass or water. 

In the 1915 Report attention was drawn to two machines in the same 
azimuth, at Shide, behaving quite differently as regards wandering. The 
Milne-Burgess was not only less affected, but also showed a time lag 
behind the Milne-Shaw. The Milne-Burgess machine was fitted with a 
large glass cover. It seems probable that the athermancy of glass to dark 
heat may have been the cause of the observed effect. 

If the iron column only is affected, then a great advance might be 
secured by making the column of substances with very low co-efficients of 
expansion, such as silica or invar steel. 


I I 


I '{ 


I « 
































Will. Tables for P and S. 

' The Large Earthquakes of 1913 ' were collated and printed in a 
special pamphlet of xii + 74 pages. In the xii pages of introduction a 
provisional analysis of the residuals for P and S is given ; but, the deduc- 
tions there made not proving workable, a new analysis of all the 1913 
and 1914 material has been undertaken, in which the residuals for different 
types of machine were kept separate. The help of Dr. G. W. Walker, 
F.R.S., in pointing out some errors and unworkable deductions is grate- 
fully acknowledged. . - 

The correction of greatest importance refers to the identification of 
S at distances exceeding 90°. The provisional analysis of the 1913 results 
shows that there are several phenomena which have been confused as S, 
but are really separate. They were denoted First Set, Second Set, &c. 
The First Set lav near the adopted tables, but there were few of them ; 
the Second Set, arriving about a minute earlier than the First at £=100°, 
is favoured by the great majority of records from £=90° to 105° (115 
records against 29), and for this reason was assumed to be the true S. 
This assumption led to the inference that the times of transmission for 
S and P became nearly constant beyond A=100°, and an explanation was 
suggested why they became faint or even disappeared (p. viii). But 
Dr! G. W. Walker pointed out some grave objections to this identification, 
which must clearly be given up, with its consequent inferences. The 
true S is the ' First Set,' not far from the existing tables ; the ' Second 
Set ' is probably the Y phenomenon to which attention was called in the 
20th Report, and it follows that most observatories have recorded Y in 
mistake for S ; only at Pnlkovo and in cases where special care is taken 
has the true S been identified. The examples given in the 20th Report 
will serve to show how readily the mistake may be made. Y comes before 
S ; and if the first big movement is taken, it is natural to record Y. 

The discussion in the introduction to the 1913 earthquakes was made 
in terms of S— P, under the assumption that the ratio of S to P was nearly 
constant. But this assumption was one of the faulty consequences of the 
wrong identification of S, and falls with it. Hence a new discussion of 
S and P separately was undertaken, using the whole of the 1913 and 1911 
material together. The data were written on cards which could be 
arranged in various ways, and it was determined to separate the different 
types of machine. It was found that there was enough material to find 
the errors of the tables from Galitzin machines alone, and even more for 
Wiechert machines alone. Accordingly these two determinations were 
made and are given side by side in Table I. 

The first column shows the mean A for the group. On the cards A 
was entered to 1°, and a long list of residuals was made for every 1° ; but 
examination showed that little was gained by grouping in less than 5° sets. 
Under G are shown the mean residuals for Galitzin machines, followed by 
the number of records, and under W the corresponding numbers for 
Wiechert machines. In forming these means obvious mistakes were 
excluded ; there is no practical difficulty in doing this except near A =90° 
for S, to which we must devote special attention. 

It will be seen that there is a systematic difference W-G of + 3 3s. forP 
and +5 - 5s. for S. If these mean values be subtracted from the columns 
for W-G, the numerical mean of the residual differences is ±2*3s. for P 
and +3 - 5s. forS. 



Observed Corrections to P 

Table I. 

and S from Galitzin and Wiechert Machines in 



























- 1-7 


+ 8-8 


+ 105 


+ 0-6 




+ 2-6 



- 11 


+ 11-8 


- 03 





- 0-6 


+ 4-1 


+ 4-7 


- 05 





- 6-7 


- 14 


+ 5-3 


- 6-2 







- 7-7 


+ 3-2 


- 5-3 









+ 13-3 

. 38 

- 6-6 




+ 3-3 





+ 5-3 


- 2-0 




+ 1-8 





- 1-9 


- 31 




+ 5-9 



- 3-8 


+ 6-4 


- 1-9 




+ 5-5 

- 21 


- 3-0 


- 0-9 


+ 1-8 





+ 2-8 


+ 2-2 


- 0-6 




+ 5-4 


: 3-9 

- 4'0 


+ 6-8 




+ 2-2 


+ 2-2 









- 10 


+ 4-7 


+ 5-7 

- 55 


+ 32 


! 8-7 


- 1-7 





- 8-3 


- 1-1 


+ 7-2 


- 1-6 




! 0-2 



- 7-1 


+ 4-7 


+ 2-1 


+ 1-0 







+ 2-6 


- 5-7 




+ 3-9 



■ — . 




- 73 




+ 6-0 



























- 64 









— . 


- 1-2 


In the last Report corrections to the adopted tables for P were suggested 
of about +17s. near A =19°, and about —23s. near A=30°, with corre- 
spondingly larger corrections for S. These large corrections are not 
confirmed by the present investigation, which shows quite small corrections 
in this neighbourhood. The attempted explanation of the phenomenon 
PX on these lines must therefore be given up. There is no doubt about 
the reality of the phenomenon, or of that designated Y ; but the explana- 
tions of both must be sought on other lines. 

Turning to the bottom of the table we see that records of P fail rapidly 
after A =110° even for G- machines, and entirely for W machines. After 
A =105° there are two records only by W machines at all near the tables : 
—7b. at A=106°, and +10s. at A=115°. Other records are (in seconds 
of time) : — 

106-110 -91 -61 +62 +148 +156 +242 +268 

111-115 -110 +36 +147 +154 +205 +214 +271 

116-120 +204 +269 +328 +359 +611 

121-125 +180 +192 +194 +196 +197 +197 +198+208+209 
I +209+211+218+274+277+283+331 +340+621 

At distances A=121°-125° it is clear that the records of P relate 
to what has been called PX, following P by about 200 seconds, but it is 
not altogether clear whether the transition is gradual or abrupt. Several 
investigators have treated PX as the true P ; have remarked on the 



• discontinuity ' ; and have inferred surfaces of discontinuity within the 
earth to account for it. The view taken in the last Report is that PX is 
not P ; that the true P may be recorded alongside PX, but that as P 
tends to become faint after A =90°, PX is read as P by mistake. By 
A=121°-125° P has become so faint as only to be read very rarely even, 
on Galitzin machines (and only twice on W as above). Galitzin machines 
mistake PX for Pat times. We have 

Other Records 

of Galitzin Machines. 

o o 


s. s. 
+75 +220 
+ 169 
+77 +256 




s. s. s. s. 
+ 68 +114 +195+257 
+61 +200 +274 +297 
+51 +60 +199 

The discussion of the tables for both P and S beyond 90° thus involves 
special difficulties and is deferred to the next Report. Meantime the 
following table gives the best values for P and S that can be got from the 
above discussion, as applicable to G machines. In deriving them the W 
machines have of course also been used, with the above constant correc- 
tions. Further a little ' smoothing ' has been used, and the values of 
S and P compared and slightly modified so that the ratio of S to P may 
vary continuously ; the change appears indeed to be sensibly linear. 
The tenths of seconds are inserted merely to make the tables smooth ; 
in deriving the corrections, the means of five consecutive figures in the 
adopted tables have been taken. 

Table II. 

Suggested Corrections to Adopted Tables for G Machines only. 






A ! 












- 11 

- 35 






- 7-7 

- 80 







- 56 

- 7-8 







- 7-9 

- 8-3 































- 9-3 








- 1-2 







- 4-7 

- 5-9 

567 4 






- 13 

- 5-4 







- 0-9 

- 53 







- 2-3 

- 62 







- 5-3 

- 7-5 







- 8-9 

- 8-7 
























































- 9-7 


1 654-5 












As regards seismographs other than G, the corrections to G appear 
to be sensibly constant at any rate to a good first approximation. They 
are assigned by the 1913 and 1914 results as follows, omitting some of 
which observations are scanty : — 

Table III. 

Corrections to G from other Seismographs. 











to S-P 

Alfani . . . . 

+ 3-8 

- 3-2 



Bosch . 

+ 1-8 


- 2-9 



Bifilar . 

+ 1-3 


+ 9-4 




+ 1-9 


+ 4-0 



Cartuja . 

+ 33 


+ 6-8 


+ 3T. 

Heidelberg . 

4- 2-3 


+ 4-3 




+ 4-1 


+ 1-2 



La Paz . 

+ 13-8 


+ 17-0 



Mainka . 

- 0-7 


- 0-2 



Onaori . 

+ 6-5 


+ 9-8 


+ 3-3 

Omori -Alfani 

- 0-7 


+ 35 


+ 4-2 

- 26 






+ 1-6 


+ 7-2 




- 0-6 


- 1-6 




+ 0-6 


+ 2-6 




+ 3-3 


+ 5-7 



It will be seen that the corrections to the tables for G- instruments, 
and the differences between one instrument and another, are such as to 
involve sensible corrections to the determinations of epicentre; and the 
next step is clearly a revision of the epicentres before forming definitive 
corrections to tables. This revision, and the analysis of the errors beyond 
A =90°, must be reserved for another Report. 

Distribution of Epicentres. 

The epicentres (or 1913 and 1914 were entered on a map and were 
found to lie near two great circles cutting at right angles. The first of 
these has its pole just east of Malta, in 

longitude 17° E., latitude 35° N., 

which is the centre of a very good ' land-hemisphere,' the boundary of 
which skirts the E. coast of Asia ; it crosses both the Americas, and leaves 
Australia and several of the large islands in the ' water-hemisphere.' 
The other lias its pole in 

longitude 236° E. = 124° W. ; lat. 48° N. 

A third circle cutting both these at right angles does not seem to be active ; 
its pole is at 122° E. ; 20 3 N. 

In view of the proposed revision of epicentres (which, however, is 
not likely to modify these figures seriously), the reproduction of the 
maps is held over for the present. 


[The following note was received after the rest of the Report had been 
sent to press.] 

Focal Depth and the Time Curve. By Dr. G. W. Walker, F.RS. 

Assuming that P, the first impulse on a seismogram, corresponds to a 
longitudinal wave from the focus of an earthquake, the slope of the time 
curve for P as a function of the epicentral distance A is connected with the 
apparent angle of emergence e by the well-known relation 

1 f 1— sin e "1 \ 
-V, I 2~~" /" 

V 2 being the speed of transversal waves at the surface. 

e has been directly measured by Galitzin at Pulkovo for A from 2,500 
kins, to 13,000 kms., and the results differ markedly from the values of e 
calculated from Zoppritz's time curve for P. Galitzin finds a clear 
minimum of 42° for e at A =4,000 kms., whereas no minimum is indicated 
in the calcidated values of e (cf. ' Modern Seismology,' p. 54). 

Further observations are required before we can regard Galitzin's 
results as characteristic of the whole earth, but I think it will be difficult 
to explain these residts as peculiar to Pulkovo. 

It is important to see how far we can reconcile these conflicting results. 

By graphical integration of the observed values of e, we get the time 
curve, and using Zoppritz's value of V 2 I find that the two curves can be 
fitted from 6,000 kms. to 12,000 kms. with a time discrepancy of ±11 
seconds. The discrepancy would, however, reach 100 s. at 3.000 kms. 

Using a larger value of V 2 we can fit the carves from 3,500 kms. to 8,000 
kms., with a discrepancy of only ±5 sec, but the discrepancy mounts up 
beyond those limits of distance. It is not yet possible to decide what com- 
promise is most reasonable. We may note, however, that considerable 
discrepancy may be allowed for distances < 3,000 kms., as soon as we 
admit finite depth of focus. 

Kovesligethy has shown the connection that exists between a minimum 
angle of emergence and focal depth, and the obvious inference from 
Galitzin's results is that the focal depth is about 1,300 kms., or even a little 

This a very startling result, being 10 times the greatest estimate of 
depth hitherto given. Yet there appears no escape from the conclusion if 
we accept Galitzin's results, and it is remarkable that this depth is about 
the same as the depth of Wiechert's layer of discontinuity. 

If such a depth of focus is correct, the whole question of reflexions has 
to be re-examined. As a qualitative guide to this, I have considered a 
uniform earth with focal depth 0-2 of the earth's radius taking Vi/V 2 =\/ 3. 
Some remarkable results follow, which I can indicate but briefly. 

(1) Surface reflexion of waves either entirely longitudinal or entirely 
transversal over their whole path cannot occur till A =103°, and beyond 
this there are two paths for a once -reflected wave. There are no paths for 
a twice- or multiply-reflected wave. I suggest the possible association of 
this with the ambiguous character of S at 90°, noted by Professor Turner. 

(2) PS and SP waves are no longer coincident in point of time. PS 
does not occur until A=149°, and beyond this there are two possible 


paths, but there is no PS 2 or higher term. On the other hand, SP with an 
infinite series SP„ may begin at A =11°, and there is only one path for each 
member until A =99°, beyond which there are two possible paths for each 

In the range A =11° to 99°, the manufacture of Rayieigh waves goes on. 

Actual figures for the earth will, no doubt, modify these numbers in the 
sense that they will be smaller than those for a uniform earth, and careful 
analysis must" be made to see if the phenomena of the seismogram are 
consistent with a focus as deep as 1,300 kms. 

Meanwhile, it appears desirable to draw attention to this direct 
inference from Galitzin's measurements. 

Preliminary Report on Terrestrial Magnetism. 
By Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S. 

(Prepared at the request of the Organising Committee of Section A) 

§1. There are two existing agencies which should be taken into 
account by everyone anxious to promote any new or large scheme of 
work, especially co-operative work, in terrestrial magnetism, viz., the 
International Magnetic Committee and the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. In most countries, 
terrestrial magnetism is officially regarded as a branch of meteorology, 
and most professional terrestrial magneticians are attached to the meteoro- 
logical services of their respective countries. The International Magnetic 
Committee thus comes to be an offshoot of the International Meteorological 
Commission. The latter is composed of the directors of the meteorological 
services of the principal coimtries, but the International Magnetic Com- 
mittee is a more numerous and heterogeneous body. The list published in 
connection with the last meeting of the International Magnetic Committee, 
held in 1910, at Berlin, contained the following names : Rvkatckeff* 
(President) and Dubinsky (Russia) ; Schmidt* (Secretary) and Messer- 
schmitt (Germany) ; Bauer, Faris, and Mendenhall (United States) ; 
Angot* (France) ; Rucker, Schuster, and Chree* (Great Britain) ; Liznar 
and Kesslitz (Austria) ; Palazzo (Italy) ; van Everdingen* (Netherlands) ; 
Carlheim Gyllenskold* (Sweden) ; Tanakadate (Japan) ; Stupart 
(Canada) ; Bigelow (Argentine). The British representation has suffered 
a severe loss in the death of Sir Arthur Rucker. 

The International Committee can pass resolutions, but their doing so 
carries no compulsion with it. A number of definite opinions have been 
expressed, e.g., as to terminology, data to be published, time to be 
observed and sensitiveness of magnetographs, some of which have exerted 
a considerable influence. Besides debating and passing resolutions, the 
International Committee has got certain things done whose utility is 
generally recognised. Probably the most successful of these is the scheme 
of international magnetic 'quiet' days, the organisation in connection with 

* Those to whose names an * is attached compose the working Bureau, which is 
more especially intended to interest itself in current topics. 


which has been provided at De Bilt by the Meteorological Institute of the 
Netherlands, at present under the directorship of Professor van Ever- 
dingen. This scheme is so well known that a brief reference to it will 
suffice. All co-operating observatories send in a quarterly list in which 
each day has assigned to it the ' character ' figures 0, 1, or 2, according as 
the magnetograph curves are regarded as quiet, moderately disturbed, or 
highly disturbed. Using these returns, the director at De Bilt assigns a 
mean ' character ' figure to each day, and selects for each month the 
five days which seem the best representatives of quiet conditions. He 
also selects a variable but smaller number of highly disturbed days. It is 
hoped that all co-operating observatories will derive and publish diurnal 
inequalities for the five monthly ' quiet ' days, and also that they will 
publish copies of their curves for some at least of the selected disturbed days. 
A good many observatories do both these things. Some publish diurnal 
inequalities from the ' quiet ' days alone, but most which publish ' quiet ' 
day inequalities publish other inequalities as well. An international 
' quiet ' day, it is important to notice, is a twenty-four hour period com- 
mencing at Greenwich midnight, and international ' quiet ' day inequalities 
thus refer to exact hours (G.M.T.). One of the recommendations of the 
International Committee, which has not been universally acted on, has 
been that magnetic observatories should employ local mean time (L.M.T.). 
Any observatory, however, other than Greenwich, which employs L.M.T., 
or any time which differs from G.M.T. by fractions of an hour, has to take 
two different sets of measurements if it adopts the international ' quiet ' 
day system. The amplitude of magnetic disturbance varies immensely at 
different stations, and the attachment of ' character ' figures is so arbitrary 
an operation, that the standard is apt to vary considerably, even at the 
same observatory. Thus a desire to replace the existing method of 
discriminating between days by something based on exact numerical 
measurement has been somewhat widely felt. A scheme based on what its 
author, the late Professor Bidlingmaier, of Munich, called ' magnetic 
activity ' seemed to present possibilities, and the International Bureau 
appointed a sub-committee consisting of Professors van Everdingen and 
Schmidt, and the writer, to consider it. A discussion of the subject by the 
writer, based on a comparison of curves from more than twenty obser- 
vatories, appeared in the journal Terrestrial Magnetism for June 1917. 
along with a similar article by Mr. D. L. Hazard. 

Another scheme set going by the International Committee relates to the 
intercomparison of the absolute magnetic instruments of different countries. 
The scheme was that each of the principal countries should, in succession, 
undertake the duty of observing at foreign observatories, with a view to 
finding the difference between its own standard instruments and those of the 
countries visited. One or two such sets of comparisons have actually 
been made. 

§2. The second agency mentioned above, the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, is in some ways the 
antithesis of the first. It is not international, its policy is largely that 
of a single man, the Director, and it has large funds at its disposal. It 
is thus an institution which does not primarily exist for ventilating opinions, 
but for getting things done. Hitherto, it has chiefly concentrated on a 
single problem, the execution of a general magnetic survey of the earth, but 
there are indications of the development of other lines of activity. 


The work of the Carnegie Institution has two aspects which specially 
call for attention. Its work at sea by the employment of a_vessel,^the 
' Carnegie,' practically free from iron, appears to be so superior in accuracy 
to that hitherto done by the different Hydrographic Departments as to 
rather encourage these bodies to leave to the Carnegie Institution the 
business of obtaining the data necessary for the construction of charts. 
There is some risk lest the work of the Carnegie Institution be made 
an excuse for reducing official provision for necessary magnetic work, 
especially survey work. The other aspect, though perhaps less 
intrinsically important, seems more pressing. The Carnegie Department 
of Terrestrial Magnetism naturally aim at a uniform standard in their 
survey work, and they desire to use not merely their own but all available 
field observations. To this end they have carried out a large number of 
comparisons between numerous instruments of their own, and also between 
their instruments and those of many foreign observatories. They have 
recently been reducing their results to what they hope may be accepted 
as an international standard, and this standard has been already adopted 
at several observatories, including those of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. But it is important to remember that this standard is a purely 
American choice, and does not at present embody any formal international 
agreement. It seems not improbable that magneticians may presently 
find themselves in a somewhat similar position to that occupied twenty 
years ago by electricians as regards resistance standards. The increased 
refinements of late years may enable electrical measurements to be made 
with an accuracy justifying six significant figures, but I hardly think a 
5-figure accuracy — which the so-called international standards seem to 
postulate— can yet be satisfactorily claimed for absolute magnetic measure- 
ments. Until this accuracy can be secured, not occasionally and acci- 
dentally, but regularly, no convincing answer can be given to the query 
whether the indications from a so-called standard instrument are unchange- 
able from year to year. 

The construction of absolute magnetic instruments, giving a 5-figure 
accuracy, is presumably merely a question of time and expense. In the 
meantime, we shall probably have to content ourselves with something 
less. But a good deal might be learned, and a very useful purpose would be 
served, if a workable scheme could be arranged for the systematic com- 
parison of the instruments in use at the magnetic observatories in the 
British Isles. It is clear that any international scheme which may come 
into operation after the war woidd be much facilitated if each country 
made itself responsible for the intercomparison of all instruments within 
its own bounds. A satisfactory comparison of instruments, however, 
involves considerable time and expense ; thus, unless its necessity is gene- 
rally felt, it is unlikely to be accomplished. 

At one time, magnetographs of the Kew pattern were in a considerable 
majority, and absolute instruments — magnetometers and dip-circles — 
were largely made in England and verified at Kew Observatory. Also, at 
one time, a considerable number of foreign, Colonial, and Admiralty 
observers came for instruction to Kew. All these things tended to 
uniformity of practice. Circumstances have, however, greatly altered. 
Large magnets, such as those of the Kew pattern magnetograph— in their 
day representing a great reduction from the magnets of the Gaussian era — 
have gone out of fashion, partly for substantial reasons, and partly because 


the defects of more recent patterns have had less time to become generally 
recognised. The lesser cost of the small magnet Eschenhagen magno- 
tograph, and to some extent, doubtless, the greater pushfulness of German 
makers and magneticians, have led to the adoption of German magneto- 
graphs in the majority of the more recent observatories. Again, the 
tendency has been to replace dip-circles in observatory work by dip- 
inductors, for which a higher degree of accuracy seems fairly to be claimed, 
and the great majority of these instruments have been made in Germany. 
The number of new magnetic instruments wanted in a single year by all the 
observatories of the world may seem a trine from the point of view of a 
large manufacturer. The construction of these instruments is not an 
industry which promises large financial returns. On the other hand, the 
country that dominates the market, such as it is, is the one most likely to 
exert an influence on magnetic development, i.e., to be successful in what is 
known as ' peaceful penetration.' Thus the position created by the war 
calls for consideration. 

§4. Amongst the questions on which, at one time or another, the 
International Magnetic Committee has expressed opinions, mention may be 
made of the time scale and the sensitiveness of magnetographs. A 
resolution was once passed recommending 15 mm. per hour as the best time 
scale. Originally the time scale in the Kew magnetograph was three 
quarters of an inch per hour, but this was reduced to 0-6 inch (15-2 mm.), 
which is in close agreement with the resolution. All recent Kew-pattern 
magnetographs have adopted the more contracted time scale, and the same 
is true of the Watson type magnetographs. A more open scale, 20 mm. 
per hour, has, however, been generally adopted for the Eschenhagen 

Again, the sensitiveness of 1 mm. = 5y once received international 
approval. This may have been suggested by the fact that if 1 mm. 
represent 1 ' in the declination magnetograph — a convenient round figure — 
this represents not far from 5y at an average European station. Another 
consideration was probably the risk, when high sensitiveness is adopted, of 
loss of trace during disturbances. Of late years, however, many observa- 
tories using Eschenhagen instruments have adopted a considerably higher 
sensitiveness. These instruments use a wider photographic sheet than the 
ordinary Kew-pattern magnetograph, and the H magnet carries two 
mirrors inclined at a small angle. In this way, greater sensitiveness can be 
secured without increasing the risk of loss of trace. 

A common time scale is a great convenience for the comparison of 
disturbed curves from different stations, and there are also advantages in 
an approach to uniformity in the sensitiveness. Thus both subjects are of 
importance for international co-operation. 

A point, however, that should not be lost sight of, is that the advan- 
tages of great sensitiveness are thrown away and may become positive 
disadvantages at stations in high latitudes which are naturally disturbed, 
or at stations in temperate latitudes which are exposed to artificial sources 
of disturbance. In the former case, in the Eschenhagen pattern, confusion 
ensues from crossing of the traces ; in the latter case the attention is 
distracted by the artificial movements. 

§5. There are two questions of considerable importance relating to 
diurnal inequalities, which invite discussion. It may seem that tho five 
' quiet ' days provide an absolutely common set of data for all observatories. 

1917. c 


The ordinary observatory, however, has only one set of magnetographs, and 
accidents will occasionally happen. There may be loss of the whole or 
part of the trace of one or more of the five selected days of a month, and 
there is no general agreement as to the course to be then adopted. The 
omission of one day represents the absence of 20 per cent, of the material. 
On the average 'quiet' day at Kew, the n.c. (non-cyclic) change in H in the 
21 hours is a rise representing some 10 per cent, of the total range, but it 
varies much on different ' quiet ' days, and has not even an invariable sign. 
T bus the absence of one or two days from the selected five may make an 
enormous difference in the n.c. change. Then there is the allied question of 
whether or not to apply an n.c. correction. The theoretical aspect is 
complicated by the fact that most, if not all, force magnetographs have an 
instrumental drift. In some it is comparable with the true n.c. change on 
' quiet ' days, and sometimes it is even larger, especially m vertical force 
instruments. Everyone will allow that what is a purely instrumental 
effect should be eliminated, but the difficulty is to say what is instrumental 
and what is not. The question of how to deal with n.c. changes has an 
importance which has generally been somewhat imperfectly appreciated. 

A second question in connection with diurnal inequalities arises at 
stations which do not confine themselves to the international ' quiet ' days. 
The natural view to take, especially for a theorist, is that all days should be 
included in the diurnal inequality. If we take, however, a station like 
Sitka or Eskdalemuir, when a really big storm comes along it is largely a 
matter of chance whether the trace remains on the sheet. When the limit 
of registration is exceeded, the hourly value is quite unknown. Even the 
rigid moralist in such a case recognises the necessity of omitting the hour, 
and the average physicist will concede the omission of the whole day. But 
the omission or inclusion of even one day of very large disturbance may 
produce a large effect in the diurnal inequality for the month. Recognising 
this, and also the great uncertainty in measurements made on highly 
disturbed curves, those brought into intimate contact with magnetographs 
have usually decided to omit highly disturbed days, and others have gone a 
great deal farther. Disturbance is immensely greater at some stations than 
others, and even at a single station, in estimating disturbance, the personal 
clement counts for a great deal. Thus, without some systematised scheme, 
a common choice of days cannot be hoped for. This would not so much 
matter if disturbances were absolutely erratic phenomena, exercising no 
systematic effect on the diurnal inequality. Disturbance, however, 
influences botli tbe type and the amplitude of the diurnal inequality, and 
the influence may be much greater in one magnetic element than in 
another. At stations in high latitudes, a diurnal inequality, based on 
selected disturbed days, may have double the amplitude of one based on 
selected ' quiet ' days. 

§6. Another question of some practical importance may be mentioned. 
The practice of recording declination (D) and H changes was once nearly, 
if not absolutely, universal, but there are now at least four observatories 
(Batavia, Potsdam, Eskdalemuir, and Greenwich) which have departed 
from this practice, the three former recording changes in two rectangular 
components. This departure may have a balance of advantages at a very 
fully-equipped observatory, though that is a matter of opinion, but at the 
average magnetic observatory it has some very obvious practical dis- 
advantages. A declination magnetograph requires less attention and less 


time spent in observations than any force magnetograph. Also no tempera- 
ture correction is required, and there is no variability in the scale value. 
The expediency of introducing changes which are unlikely to be generally 
adopted is not a question on which general agreement is at all likely, but it 
is perhaps as well the question should be ventilated. 

A similar remark applies to a second practice introduced at Potsdam, 
viz., taking mean values, not for 60 minutes centring at an hour, but for 60 
minutes commencing at an hour. There are arguments of some weight for 
the change, and they would be weightier than they are if there were no such 
things as drift in instruments or natural n.c. changes, which stand in the 
way of treating the day as an isolated unit. This is a case in which 
magneticians might exchange ideas with meteorologists, as the problem 
presents itself in meteorology in a variety of connections. 

§7. There are two matters, less obviously of international interest, 
which call for notice, even in a preliminary report, viz., the relation of 
magnetic disturbance to Aurora, and the taking of observations in high 
latitudes. The discovery by Professor Stormer, of Christiania, of a prac- 
tical method of securing photographs of Aurora and reference stars, and 
of thus determining auroral heights and positions, has rendered possible a 
comparison of auroral and magnetic phenomena likely to throw fresh light 
on magnetic disturbances, and to provide a means of developing and 
checking theory. If this country is to participate in this promising field of 
discovery, provision must be made for auroral observations. 

Eskdalemuir is, of course, much better situated for such a purpose than 
any observatory in the South of England or Ireland, but not nearly so well 
situated as an observatory in the extreme North of Scotland. Some parts 
of Canada would probably be even more suitable for this purpose. 

The other subject is the desirability of securing continuous magnetic 
records in very high latitudes. The records obtained by Professor Birke- 
land in the Arctic, and those obtained by recent Antarctic expeditions, 
show conclusively that these are the regions where really momentous things 
in terrestrial magnetism have a way of happening. Records from higli 
latitudes may prove a key to many magnetic problems. 


Colloid Chemistry and its Industrial Applications. — First Report 
of the Committee, consisting oj Professor F. G. Donnan 
(Chairman), Professor W. C. McC. Lewis (Secretary), 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, and Mr. A. S. Shorter. 


The Committee was formed with the object of compiling information 
regarding the advances which have been made in capillary and colloid 
chemistry with special reference to industrial processes. For this purpose 
it is essential to take a broad view of the term ' colloid.' The Reports 
which it is proposed to issue will refer to the more important scientific in- 
vestigations published in recent years as well as to those possessing a more 
immediate technical bearing. The Committee has been fortunate in ob- 
taining the collaboration of a number of specialists in various branches of 
the subject who have undertaken the work of compilation. The advantage 
of this mode of procedure lies in the fact that the necessary selection and 
presentation of material has been carried out by those particularly qualified 
to deal with the various sections concerned. To these gentlemen the Com- 
mittee would express its deep sense of obligation. 

As regards the classification and division of the whole, two methods 
present themselves : first, a classification according to the nature of the 
property, principle, or phenomenon concerned, based on the recognised 
divisions of the science of colloid chemistry, e.g., Coagulation, Viscosity, 
Adsorption, Peptonisation, &c ; secondly, a classification in terms of the 
various technical processes themselves, each of which involves in general 
more than one scientific principle, e.g., the process of Tanning, which in- 
cludes Adsorption, Coagulation, ' Membrane Equilibria,' &c. Both of 
these modes of classification have been adopted. This naturally involves 
a certain amount of overlapping, but it is felt that the disadvantage is not 
serious. It is hoped that this treatment of the subject-matter will not only 
be comprehensive, but will serve at the same time to illustrate the close 
connection which exists between scientific principles and technical practice. 
At the present time many of the operations in technical colloid chemistry 
are largely empirical, the scientific basis being unknown or only imperfectly 
understood. One of the objects which the Committee has had in view is to 
emphasise the existence of this state of affairs. It is clear that the present 
position demands a vigorous prosecution of scientific research over the 
entire range of colloid chemistry. 

The marked differences of opinion which exist at the present time in 
regard to various colloid problems are themselves evidence of the relatively 
undeveloped state of the subject. As an illustration we might instance the 
phenomenon of Adsorption. On the one hand, we have the capillary view 
first stated quantitatively by Gibbs, a view which at the present time 
occupies a very strong position especially as regards liquid surfaces. On 
the other hand, we find the capillary idea dropped and the concept of 
valency beginning to take its place as an explanation of the phenomenon, 


more particularly in connection with the condensation of gases upon 
metallic and other solid surfaces (investigations of Langmuir and others). 
This is merely illustrative, but it is sufficient to emphasise the point 
referred to. 

A further object of the Committee is to render available as far as is 
practicable the information on applied colloid chemistry which is believed 
to exist among chemical technologists at the present time, but which from 
its possibly unco-ordinated nature is not regarded as suitable for publication 
through the ordinary channels. It is hoped that those possessing such 
' incidental ' information, as well as those whose information regarding 
various special technical colloid problems is of a more systematic nature, 
will see their way to communicate with the Secretary (Muspratt Laboratory, 
University of Liverpool), so that the Committee may be able to consider 
the question of publication of such material as it considers suitable. In the 
present state of the subject it is felt that more will be gained by co-operation 
of this kind than by isolated investigation ; and further it is believed that 
much may be made public without detriment to individual interests. 

It will be obvious that under the present exceptional conditions the sub- 
joined Report is of a preliminary nature only. 

As regards classification according to scientific subject, one subject only, 
namely, the Viscosity of Colloid Systems, is dealt with. As regards classi- 
fication according to technical processes and applications generally, the 
following subjects are treated :— 

1. Tanning. 

2. Dyeing. 

3. Fermentation Industries. 

4. Rubber. 

5. Starch, Gums, Albumin, Gelatine, and Gluten. 
G. Cements. 

7. Nitrocellulose Explosives. 

8. Celluloid. 

9. Physiological and Bio-chemical Subjects. 

It is proposed to deal with other branches of colloid chemistry in next 
year's Report. 


By Kmil Hatschrk, Sir John Cass Technical Institute, London. 

General Review. 

An excellent general survey of the subject as it stood at that time 
is given by the General Discussion by the Faraday Society in 1913. The 
most important advance since then is the proof, by v. Smoluchowski, 
that the electric charge on suspensoid particles contributes to the viscosity 
of systems containing such particles, and the numerical expression deduced 
by him for this increase. 

The Einstein formula, according to which the increase in viscosity 
is simply proportional to the aggregate volume of suspended spheres, 
lias again been tested by Humphrey and Hatschek on a suspension of 
starch grains (average diameter 3/x) in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride 
and toluene. The increase in viscosity was found to be more than linear 
for concentrations between 2 and 6 per cent. ; in addition, the viscosity 


was found to be a function of the rate of shear, and not, as has been 
tacitly assumed in measurements with the capillary viscometer, inde- 
pendent of it. A similar result for emulsoid sols had been obtained 
by Hatschek in 1913. The theoretical reasons why Einstein's formula 
fails, and the general difficulties of a universally applicable formula for 
systems of two liquid phases, have been fully discussed by v. Smoluchowski. 

As regards emulsoid sols, Hatschek's formula has been applied 
to the calculation of the solvation factors of proteins by Miss Chick, 
and of rubber in various solvents by Kirchof. The latter's results are of 
interest, as a comparison is possible between the amounts thus calculated 
from viscosity measurements and the amounts taken up by the rubber 
in the preliminary swelling- — remarkable agreement exists between the 
two sets of values. Arrhenius has criticised the figures for proteins, 
or rather the viscosity formula leading to them, as the hydration factors 
are much in excess of those found for hydrates of salts in solution. By 
applying his logarithmic formula to Miss Chick's measurements he obtains 
hydration factors of the same order as those of electrolytes. Hatschek 
has, however, shown that the application of Arrhenius' s formula to sols 
in organic solvents (rubber and nitrocellulose) leads to factors which 
sometimes are negative, and thus without any physical meaning, and 
sometimes positive, but many times larger than those to which Arrhenius 
takes exception. 

The great importance of viscosity measurements as the most delicate 
means of tracing slight changes in colloidal solutions is fully recognised, 
but in the present state of theory all that can be deduced from such 
measurements is that some change has taken place, the nature of which 
is either a matter for speculation or for empirical interpretation. As the 
latter is sufficient in many instances, viscometric methods appear to find 
increasing use in fields as widely different as the industries of rubber and 
nitrocellulose on one hand, and physiology and pathology on the other. 
There is also a fairly general and gratifying tendency towards the use of 
correctly designed capillary viscometers, instead of the grossly incorrect 
types used for other industrial purposes. 

Further decided progress must depend on the development of theory, 
which, considering the great inherent difficulties of mathematical treatment 
and the incompleteness of our knowledge of even simple liquids and binary 
mixtures, cannot be expected to be rapid, and also on the much extended 
use of methods of measurements permitting variation of the rate of shear 
within wider limits than have so far been attained. 

Experimented and Technical. 

The Viscostalagrnoineter : Methods for determining Surface Tension, Viscosity and 

Adsorption. J. Teaube. ' Biochern. Zeitsehr.' 1912, 42, 500. 
The Viscosity of India Rubber Sols. P. Schideowitz and A. H. Goldsbrough. 

' Le Caoutchouc et la Guttapercha,' 1912, 9, 6220. 
Studies on the Vulcanisation of India Rubber. Gustav Been stein. * Koll. 

Zeitsehr.' 1912, 11, 185. (Viscosity of sols of vulcanised India Rubber.) 
Colloidal Sulphur. Sven Oden\ ' Zeitsehr. phys. Chem.' 1912, 80, 709. (Viscosity 

of Sulphur Sols of different degrees of dispersity.) 
The Viscosity of Casein Sols. Haeeiette Chick and C. J. Maetin. ' Koll. Zeitsehr.' 

1912, 11, 102. 
The Relation between the Resin content and the Viscosity of India Rubber Sols. 

J. G. Fol. ' Gummi Zeitg.' 1912, 7, 247. 


The Viscosimetry of Blood in several Morbid Conditions. A. Plessi and D. Vandini. 

' Riv. Crit. Clin. Med.' 1912, 12, 609. 
The Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Palmitate. F. D. Farrow. 

' J. Chem. Soo.' 1912, 101, 347. 
The Viscosity of Blood in Experimental Acute Poisoning by Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, 

and Phosphorus. C. Farmachidis. ' La Clinica Medica Ital.' 1912, 5, 273. 
A Method of determining Absolute Viscosities. Harold P. Gprney. ' Mat. 

Grasses,' 1912, 5, 2614. 
Viscosity of Cellulose Acetates. G. Noyer. ' Le Caoutchouc et la Guttapercha,' 

1913, 10, 7009. 
Method of determining size of Colloidal Particles. A. Dumanski, E. Zabotinski 

and M. Eusejew. ' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1913, 12, 6. (From viscosity measurements 

by means of Einstein's first formula.) 
Viscosity and its Importance for the Chemistry of Celluloid in Theory and Practice. 

H. Schwarz. ' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1913, 12, 32. 
The Aqueous Solutions of Ammonia Soaps. F. Goldscitmidt and L. Weissmann. 

' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1913, 12, 18. (Effect of the addition of ammonia, ammonium 

chloride, and mixtures of both, on the viscosity of solutions of ammonium 

On the ' Tackiness ' of India Rubber. V. Rossem. ' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1913, 12, 78. 

(Viscosity measurements on rubber sols in benzene after exposure to light, 

and on fresh sols inoculated with such exposed sols.) 
Viscosity Measurements on India Rubber Sols. J. G. Fol. 'Koll. Zeitschr.' 

1913, 12, 131. 
Studies on the Vulcanisation of India Rubber. Gustav Bernstein. ' Koll. 

Zeitschr.' 1913, 12, 193. (Viscosity measurements on sols of india rubber 

' depolymerised ' by heating and by rolling. ) 
Tho Determination of the Viscosity of India Rubber Sols. P. Schidrowitz 

and A. H. Goldsbrough. ' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1913, 13, 46. 
Changes of Viscosity in Suspensions of Methsemoglobin by the Action of HC1 and 

NaOH. E. Bottazzi. ' Rend. d. R. Accad. dei Lincei,' 1913, 22 (5a), 263. 
The Influence of Alkaline Salts on tho Viscosity of Proteins. C. Gazzetti. ' Arch. 

diFis.' 1913,11, 173. 
The Viscosity of Solutions of Cellulose Nitrates. Frank Baker. ' J. Chem. Soc.' 

1913, 103, 1653. 
The Viscosity of Collodion. Th. Chandelon. ' Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg.' 1914, 28, 24. 
The Viscosity of some Protein Sols. Harriette Chick and E. Lttbrzynska. 

' Biochem. J.' 1914, 8, 59. 
The Viscosity of Protein Solutions. II. Pseudoglobulin and Euglobulin (Horse). 

Harriette Chick. ' Biochem. J.' 1914, 8, 261. 
The Influence of the Solvent on the Viscosity of India Rubber Sols. F. Kirchof. 

' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1914, 15, 30. (Agreement between the amounts of solvent 

taken up in swelling and the solvatation factors calculated from viscosity measure- 
Studies on the Viscosity of Nitrocellulose in Alcoholic Camphor Solutions. 

H. Nishida. ' Le Caoutchouc et la Guttapercha,' 1914, 121, 8103. 
The Viscosity of India Rubber Solutions. R. Gaunt. ' J. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1914. 

33, 446. 
The Determination of the Viscosity of Milk as a means of detecting the Addition of 

Water. W. D. Kooper. ' Milchwirtsch. Zentralblatt,' 1914, 43, 169 and 201. 
On the Influence of Temperature on the Gold Number and Viscosity of Colloidal 

Solutions. L. Lichtwitz and A. Renner. ' Zeitschr. f. physiol. Chem.' 1915, 

92, 113. 


The Existence and probable Thickness of Adsorption Envelopes on Suspensoid 

Particles. E. Hatschek. ' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1912, 11, 280. 
The Composition of the Disperse Phase of Emulsoid Sols. E. Hatschek. 

' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1912, 11, 284. (Hydratation factor calculated from the formula 

for the viscosity of systems of two liquid phases.) 
Colloids and their Viscosity. A General Discussion held by the Faraday Society 

on March 12, 1913. 'Trans. Far. Soc' 1913, 9. Containing:— 
The Importance of Viscosity for the Study of the Colloidal State. Wolfgang 

OSTWAI,D. P. 34. 


The Viscosity and Electro-chemistry of Protein Solutions. Wolfgang Pauli. P. 54. 
The Rate of Coagulation of Al(OH) 3 Sols as measured by the Viscosity Change. 

H. Fkettndlich and C. Ishizake. P. 66. 
The General Theory of Viscosity of Two-Phase Systems. E. Hatschek. P. 80. 

Does Poiseuille's Law hold good for Suspensions ? M. Rothmann. ' Pflueger's 
Arch. d. Physiol.' 1914, 155, 318. 

On the Influence of Viscosity and Surface Tension on Biological Phenomena. 
J. Tratjbe. ' Internat. Zeitschr. f. phys.-chem. Biol.' 1914, 1, 275. 

The Importance of Viscosity Measurements for the Knowledge of Organic Colloids. 
J. Schtteeg. ' Internat. Zeitschr. f. phys.-chem. Biol.' 1914, 1, 260. 

The Viscosity and Hydration of Colloidal Solutions. Svante Arrhenius. ' Med- 
delanden fran K. Vetenskapakad. Nobelinstitut.' 1916, 3. (Criticism of the 
hydration values calculated by H. Chick for various proteins by Hatschek' s 
emulsoid formula. By applying his well-known logarithmic formula Arrhenius 
linds hydration values of the same order as for hydrated salts.) 

The Viscosity and Hydration of Colloidal Solutions. E. Hatschek. ' Biochem. 
J.' 1916, 10, 325. (Reply to the foregoing. It Arrhenius's formula is applied 
to sols in organic solvents, it leads in a number of cases to negative solvatation 
factors, which are physically meaningless.) 

The Viscosity of Colloidal Solutions. E. Hatschek. ' Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond.' 1916, 
28, Part iv. 250. (Controversial.) 

The Viscosity of Suspensions of Rigid Particles at different Rates of Shear. Edith 
Humphrey and E. Hatschek. ' Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond.' 1916, 28, Part v. 274. 
(The viscosity of suspensions containing from 2 to 6 per cent, by volume of 
particles averaging 3/x diameter is a function of the rate of shear. At no rate 
examined does this suspension show the linear increase of viscosity postulated 
by the Einstein-Hatschek formula.) 

The Viscosity of Colloidal Solutions. A. v. Smoluchowski. ' Koll. Zeitschr.' 1916, 
18, 190. (Review of reasons why the Einstein formula fails to agree with measure, 
ments, especially those obtained by the capillary viscometer. Proof that the 
electric charge increases the Stokes resistance factor and therefore the viscosity 
of suspensoids.) 

By Professor H. R. Procter, University of Leeds. 

General Review.* 

The conversion of skin into leather is an art dating back many thousand 
years, and the group of phenomena now classed as capillary or colloid has 
also been long known, though the relation of the two is a matter of modern 
knowledge. Under these circumstances it is difficult to know where 
to brgin the discussion, and the question is further complicated by the 
wor ; of the present writer and his pupils, who have recently shown that 
much which has been attributed to the surface-action which is implied 
in the name ' capillary chemistry ' is really subject to more general laws, 
and can be fully explained by mass action, electro- chemical attraction, 
and osmotic pressure. The title must therefore be taken, with a wider 
meaning than its etymology would imply, to include much of physical 
chemistry, complicated, however, by structure and the special properties 
of colloids. 

The skin is constituted of collagen (probably a polymerised anhydride 

* Among the abbreviations employed in this Section are the following -.—Coll. 
^Collegium; J.A.L.C.A.=Journ. of the American Leather Chemists' Association; 
L. Coll. = London Collegium, Jan. 1915 to June 1917 ; T.C.S. - Transactions of Chemical 
Society (London). 


of gelatine) and physically is a network of fibres of colloidal jelly. In 
its natural state it has an outer coat of epidermis, with its hair and seba- 
ceous and sudoriferous glands, but it is not necessary in this Report to 
consider in detail the chemical, mechanical, and bacteriological processes 
which are used to free it from these appendages or to separate its fibre- 
bundles into their smaller constituent fibres. These gelatinous fibres 
in the dried raw hide adhere together to form an almost homogeneous 
horny mass, and the problem of the tanner is so to treat them, either bv 
chemical change or by surface-coating, as to prevent their adhesion, so 
that on drying they remain isolated and free to move, and the skin conse- 
quently flexible and porous, and at the same time without tendency to 
putrefactive change. While the durability of wet raw hide is measured 
in days or weeks, Roman boots have been dug up which are hardly in 
worse condition than those which the tramp leaves, worn out, at the road- 
side. The methods employed by the tanner, though very similar in their 
effects, are so various that no single explanation, physical or chemical, 
will cover all of them ; and often various actions are combined to produce 
the desired result. 

The first general problem, then, regards the nature of the jelly state, 
which has many peculiarities. Van Bemmelen x and Biitschli 2 believed 
it to be a network or cellular structure of microscopic dimensions, 
and this view long held the field, but is now abandoned for that which 
regards it as a solid or semi-solid solution of which the colloid and water 
(or some other solvent) are the constituents. The question is still an open 
one whether the colloid is in the form of ' micella? ' (submicroscopic 
particles) or of large conjugated or polymerised molecules, but this is 
mainly a matter of terms, and at least it is clear that the mixture is so 
intimate that both constituents are within the range of molecular and 
electro-chemical forces. 

The colloid most fully investigated in this relation is gelatine, which 
in its chemical constitution is almost identical with hide fibre, while its 
homogeneous character renders exact quantitative study much more 
possible. Soaked in water at laboratory temperature, it does not dissolve, 
but swells to a definite volume dependent to some extent on the particular 
sample and the temperature. When the temperature is raised above 25°, 
the jelly melts and becomes miscible in water in all proportions, though 
even when diluted considerably beyond its original equilibrium volume, 
it still ' sets ' on cooling to a coherent elastic mass. Gelatine, both as 
jelly and solution, always shows a slight Tyndall effect, reflecting a beam 
of light sideways ; but the ultramicroscope shows no defined particles. 
Arisz 3 has shown that the Tyndall effect increases with concentration 
and with lowered temperature, but without any break or sudden change 
at the setting point. The viscosity shows a similar increase, with no 
actual break, but a rapid rise at the temperature of gelatinisation, below 
which it speedily becomes too great to measure by ordinary methods. 
Both these effects are reversed on gradual heating, but there is a ' lag ' 
in both directions, a cooling solution only acquiring its full viscosity and 

1 Z. Anorg. Chem., 1896, 13, 304 ; 18, 15. 

2 Vnterauchungen iiber mikroskopische Schaume und das Protoplasma, Leipzig, 
1892. Verh. des naturh.-med '. Vereins zu Heidelberg, 1892, N.F. 5, 28-41 • ibid ' 
42-43; ibid., 1893, 89-102; ibid., 1896, 457-472; ibid., 1894. 230-292. 

3 Kolloidchem. Beihefte, 1915, 7, 22. 


Tyndall effect after the lapse of considerable time, which may even extend 
to weeks, but below 60°, given time, the process seems completely re- 
versible. Above 60°-70° some permanent change takes place (hydrolysis 
or depolymerisation) which results in lowered viscosity, Tyndall effect, 
and setting power. These facts are best explained by the hypothesis that 
below 60° the gelatine solution is one of molecules or small molecular 
aggregates, which, as temperature falls, gradually unite to form larger 
ones, and at the setting point unite to a complete molecular network 
analogous to a mass of tenuous crystals. Cases are known in which such 
crystalline masses closely simulate colloid jellies. Time is of course needed 
for this rearrangement, as it is for actual crystallisation, and owing to 
the size and comparative immobility of the particles, rearrangement 
is very slow. Kundt 4 has shown that under the influence of rapid 
flow at 18° (which is below the setting point) even very dilute and quite 
liquid solutions of gelatine show the polarisation effects of strain, while 
no such effect could be observed with glycerine or sugar solutions of much 
higher viscosity. The writer proposes to repeat these experiments at 
higher temperatures, but in the meantime it is clear that the viscosity 
of such solutions is not due simply to liquid friction, but includes an 
element of strain. 

Proteids, among which gelatine must be included, are now known to 
consist of open or closed chains of amino acids, linked by the carboxyl 
group of one to the amino group of the next with elimination of OH^- In 
closed chains, groups within a single molecule, forming terminal amino and 
carboxyl groups are also similarly united ring-structures. In this case the 
molecule is electrically neutral, and non-reactive till the ring is broken, 
while the open chains are amphoteric — basic by their terminal amino 
group and acid by their carboxyl. A very useful practical distinction is 
that ring proteids are unattacked by trypsin alone, while pepsin is able 
to open the ring. 5 Gelatine can be digested by trypsin, but collagen 
is only attacked by pepsin, hence the view, supported by other facts, 
that collagen is the ring or anhydride form of gelatine into which it is 
converted by continued boiling or by the action of acids or alkalies. 

If gelatine (or hide fibre) be placed in dilute acid, it swells very much 
more than in water alone, and at the same time a considerable amount 
of free acid disappears (i.e., is no longer capable of reddening methyl 
orange). The effect is most readily investigated with a strong mono- 
basic acid such as hydrochloric acid. In this case the maximum swelling, 
which may reach an absorption of 50 c.c. of liquid for 1 grm. of dry 
gelatine, occurs at an acid concentration under 0.005 N, from which it 
rapidly falls in a curve of hyperbolic type as the concentration is increased, 
the equilibrium being completely reversible up to about 0.25 N, beyond 
which some secondary reaction, probably a further breaking up of the 
proteid chain, begins to take place. At the same time the total absorption 
of acid steadily increases with concentration in a curve which may be 

closely represented by the ordinary adsorption formula, a=kx p (where 
a is total acid, x the concentration of external solution, and k and p are 

4 Wied. Ann., 1881, 13, 110. 

6 Plimmer, Chemical Constitution of the Proteids, Part II. p. 11 (Sec. Ed., Long- 
mans, Green, & Co.). The statement seems to require confirmation. 


constants) ; but which is really due to a complicated osmotic equilibrium 
which must be further explained. 6 

Gelatine, being amphoteric, acts as a very weak alkali in presence of 
hydrochloric acid, and forms a gelatine chloride, which like most salts 
is highly ionised (in fact to practically the same extent as hydrochloric 
acid itself). The base, however, is very weak, its ionisation being of the 
same order as that of water, and consequently the salt is largely hydrolysed, 
and can only exist in the presence of free acid. Thus gelatine base, 
gelatine chloride, and free hydrochloric acid are necessarily present in 
such a jelly in proportions determined by the concentration of the acid, 
and instead of a definite point of neutrality such as is given by a strong 
base, we have only a curve approaching, but never reaching, complete 
neutralisation. This is the explanation of the apparent indefiniteness 
of proteid compounds, which has led many chemists to deny the existence 
of definite proteid salts. By determining the hydrolysis curve and 
calculating the upper limit to which it tends, it is possible to calculate 
quite definite combining equivalents. Procter 7 in this way, on the 
assumption that gelatine had a second valency negligible at low acid 
concentrations, found a combining weight of 839, while Wilson, 8 from 
the same experiments, but regarding the apparent second valency as due 
to incipient decomposition or experimental error, found 768. It is not 
to be supposed, however, that these comparatively low weights represent 
the real complexity of the probably polymerised molecule in aqueous 
solution, but merely the smallest molecular division chemically possible. 

It has been stated that the swelling of gelatine in acids is due to a 
complicated osmotic equilibrium, and that it reaches a maximum at 
a very small acid concentration, and is repressed if the concentration 
is increased. A similar repression is caused by the addition of any salt 
with the same anion to the outer solution, and as neutral salts have 
no decomposing effect on gelatine, the repression can be carried much 
further than with acid ; thus a chloride jelly treated with sodium or 
potassium chlorido is reduced to a horny mass. Seeing that the jelly 
is almost as permeable as water both to ionised and unionised salts and 
acids, it is hard to see how this repressive osmotic pressure is exerted. 
The following is the explanation : — 

In equilibrium between a jelly and its external solution not only 
must all osmotic pressures be equally balanced, but, as has been shown 
by Donnan, 9 the electro-chemical condition must be fulfilled that 
the products of the concentrations of any pair of diffusible anions and 
cations common to both phases must be equal. Thus with gelatine 
chloride and free acid the chloridions multiplied by the hydrions must 
be equal in the jelly and the external acid. On the other hand, the 
osmotic pressures depend not on the products but simply on the sum 

6 It may be well to point out here that the ' adsorption formula ' just quoted is 
absolutely void of theoretical basis, as regards adsorption, but is a mathematical 
expression which will closely represent any chemical or physical phenomenon which 
proceeds at a diminishing ratio. It is, for instance, the exact law of distribution of 
a solute between two immiscible solvents, in one of which its molecular complexity 
is p times that in the other. 

' T.G.S., 1914, 105, 320. 

8 J.A.L.C.A., 1917, 12, 108, 

» Zeits. Elehrochem., 1911, 17, 572 ; Donnan and Harris, T.C.S., 1911, 99, \ol?>. 


of diffusible particles present. In the external acid the numbers of 
hydrions and chloridions are obviously equal, while in the jelly the 
chloridion of the gelatine chloride is added to the equal hydrion and 
chloridion concentrations of the free acid present, thus making the final 
concentrations of these ions in the jelly unequal. Now, as the sum 
of two unequal factors is always greater than that of two equals giving 
the same product, or, geometrically the perimeter of a square is always 
less than that of any other rectangle of equal area, and as the sides re- 
present the osmotic pressure, while the area represents the product, 
it is clear that the two equalities cannot at once be completely fulfilled, 
but in electro-chemical equilibrium the osmotic pressure must be in 
excess and the jelly must tend to swell unlimitedly and finally to dissolve. 
That it does not do so is a consequence of its colloid nature, which depends 
on cohesive attractions drawing the colloid particles together to poly- 
merised masses or to a continuous network, and which consequently 
opposes swelling and solution, while the diffusible ions are held to the 
colloid ions by electro-chemical attractions, and, as they cannot escape 
from the jelly, tend to drag it apart and dilute it by absorption of the 
external acid, from which they expel a part of its acid concentration. 
The equilibrium is therefore a very complex one, but finally depends 
on the excess of internal osmotic pressure being balanced against the 
internal attraction or cohesion of the colloid particles, both ions and 
molecules. For its mathematical discussion the reader must be referred 
to original papers by Procter and his pupils. It will, however, be obvious 
that as the external solution becomes more concentrated the proportion 
of absorbed acid (or salt) is increased, while that of gelatine chloride 
is limited to the quantity of gelatine present. The difference of con- 
centration of hydrion and chloridion in the jelly is therefore diminished, 
and it contracts under the influence of its own internal attractions. 
Precisely similar considerations apply to the action of alkalies on gelatine. 
Ionisable salts are formed by combination of the base with the carboxyl 
group of the proteid, and the osmotic equilibrium is with the cation 
and OH instead of with the anion and H. Neutral gelatine, as an ampho- 
teric body, of course ionises to a limited extent with water alone, and 
its dissociation constants are of the same order of quantity as those of 
the water with which it is in equilibrium. It is, however, slightly stronger 
as a base than as an acid, and consequently its neutral point of minimum 
swelling is slightly on the alkaline side. This has important bearings 
on manufacturing practice, the greatest flaccidity of the raw skin, whicli 
is required for the softest leather, being obtained in weakly alkaline liquids. 
It has been pointed out by Donnan l0 that in consequence of the 
unequal distribution of positive and negative diffusible ions which has 
just been described, the surface of an acid or alkaline jelly in equili- 
brium has necessarily an electrical charge or potential, greatest at the 
maximum swelling, and such charges seem an essential condition of the 
colloid state. The surface is positive or negative according to whether 
the diffusible anion or cation is retained in the colloid. Thus gelatine 
and hide fibre are negative in alkaline and positive in acid solutions, and 
it will be shown later that this has an important bearing on the theory 
of leather manufacture. 11 

10 Zeits. Elektrochem., 1911, 17, 579. 

11 See below and Papers under 13. 


Wilson 12 has extended these facts to a general theory of colloids 
and adsorption, showing that all surfaces must possess a potential due 
to unbalanced chemical forces on the surface, and therefore in a liquid 
containing electrolytes must condense ions or particles of the one sign 
on its surface, and repel those of the opposite sign ; and also showing 
that surfaces must therefore be surrounded with a film of liquid of different 
concentration to the bulk, to which the same considerations and equations 
are applicable as to the absorbed solution of colloid jellies. For fuller 
mathematical treatment the reader is referred to original papers. 

Some of the views just explained are so recent that their bearing on 
actual tanning processes has hardly had time to make itself felt in technical 
literature, and for its latest applications Papers by Procter and Wilson 
must be consulted, 13 but a brief summary may here be given. 

As has been explained, the leather-hide, freed from epidermis, consists 
of a sort of felt of fibres of gelatigenous tissue, which are themselves 
bundles of finer fibrils cemented together by some substance nearly 
identical with, but somewhat more soluble than that of the fibrils them- 
selves. Treated with dilute alkalies or acids, this cementing substance 
is more or less completely dissolved, and the fibrils themselves are swollen. 
Accurate chemical investigation of skin is complicated by this fact of 
structure, for while the free acid or alkali absorbed in the jelly of the fibre 
is subject to the mathematical laws which have been explained, the 
interstices between the fibres are also filled with external solution by 
capillarity, and no accurate means has been found of measuring the 
proportion between the two. Hide swollen in acid or alkali is tense and 
firm, and containing its liquid in jelly-form in the fibres only parts with it 
under heavy pressure ; but when the fibres are dehydrated by neutralisa- 
tion, the skin becomes ' fallen ' or flaccid, and apparently much wetter, 
since the imbibed water is easily squeezed out. If in this condition the 
loose water is removed by soaking in alcohol or other dehydrating agents, 
the fibrils no longer adhere to each other, and a soft leather is produced, 
which, however, on again soaking in water, rapidly returns to its raw 
or ' pelt ' condition." If, however, a little stearic acid is dissolved 
in the alcohol so as to coat and partially waterproof the dehydrated 
fibrils, the leather at once becomes tolerably permanent. This led Knapp 
to the view that the process of tanning was merely an isolating and coating 
of the fibrils, and, though the explanation is incomplete, it unquestionably 
is part of the true one. 

In order to make a soft leather, it is therefore necessary to have the 
skin in a flaccid or unswollen condition, and, assuming that it has been 
swollen by lime, this is brought about essentially by neutralisation. 
The older processes depend on fermentations of bran, pigeon and dog 
dung, and the like, and just as liming serves the several purposes ol 
swelling the hide, loosening the hair, and partially saponifying the 
fat, so these fermentation processes not merely neutralise the lime 
by weak acid, or salts of weak bases, but remove cementing Bubstance 

12 Jour. Am. Client. Soc, 1916, 38, 1982. 

13 Procter, Roll. Bciheftc, 1911,2, 270; T.C.S., 1914, 105, 313; and Wilson, 
T.C.S., 1916, 109, 307; 'Swelling of Colloid Jellies,' J.A.L.V.J., 1916, 11, 399; 
and Burton, D., 'The Swelling of Gelatinous Tissues,' J. S.C.I. , 1916, 35, 401. 

11 Knapp, Nalur and Wesen dcr Gerbaci, Braunschweig, 1888 ; Meunicr and 
Seyewetz, Coll., 1912, 11, 54. 


from the fibres by the digestive effects of bacterial enzymes, and complete 
the emulsification of fats and the solution of residues of the epidermis. 
It is obvious that the attainment of all these varied results by an arti- 
ficial preparation is no easy matter, but an approach to a complete solution 
has been made by J. T. Wood 15 (followed by Dr. Eohm, who has 
improved working details), by a mixture of ammonium chloride and 
pancreatic digestive ferments, which for many purposes fulfils its object 
better and much more safely than the old materials. The tryptic ferments 
dissolve the epidermis residues and cement-substance, but scarcely 
affect the collagen fibres (v.s.). They also facilitate emulsification 
of fats by reducing the surface tension between jelly matters and the 
liquid, while the presence of free ammonia and excess ammonium salts 
regulates the hydroxyl concentration to something near the alkalinity 
required for minimum swelling (v.s.). Possible improvement lies 
in the direction of the discovery of new enzymes, and of suitable weak 
bases and ' buffer ' substances, to give the precise degree of solution and 
of acidity or alkalinity required for the various leathers. For firmer 
leathers the use of weak acids regulated by excess of their salts pro- 
duces a sufficient degree of neutralisation and flaccidity. 

We must now consider the conversion of the still raw and very putre- 
scible skin into permanent leather. We have seen that this can be accom- 
plished by dehydrating the fibrils without allowing them to adhere (v.s.), 
and by coating them with water-resisting substances ; but it is known 
that similar effects of an even more permanent character can be produced 
by reagents (notably formaldehyde and bromine) which act chemically 
on the collagen fibre, rendering it insoluble in water, but which in their 
nature cannot deposit any exterior coating such as was assumed by 
Knajyp. We must therefore conceive the process as being in most cases 
a combination of both chemical and physical effects, of which sometimes 
one, sometimes the other, preponderates, according to the method employed . 
We have also to consider reactions which from their colloid character 
differ somewhat widely from those of free ions to which the term ' chemical ' 
is generally applied. It is therefore best to proceed from simple cases 
of which definite explanation can be given, to the complex in which 
more than one sort of reaction takes place. 

Knapp's alcohol leather, in which a material is produced with all the 
plrysical characteristics of a complete leather by simple dehydration of 
the hide fibres under conditions preventing adherence, has been already 
mentioned (v.s.). The theory of acid swelling has also been described, and 
it has been shown that as the anion concentration of the external solution 
is increased the difference of osmotic pressure between it and the jelly 
which causes swelling is diminished without limit, and the fibre contracts 
by its internal attractions. This fact is applied in the process of ' pick- 
ling ' which is principally employed in the preservation of sheepskins 
before tanning. The skins, after unwooling, are treated in a bath of 
dilute acid, generally sulphuric, to which some salt is added to prevent 
excessive swelling, and are then transferred to a saturated solution of 
common salt. The dehydration of the fibre is very great — the skin 
becomes thin and flat, and can be preserved almost unlimitedly in the 
wet condition ; and if dried out and loosened by a little mechanical 

16 Wood, Puering, Baling and Drenching, Spoil, 1912, p. 180. 


stretching, forms a very perfect white leather, which, however, softens 
and swells at once in water through the removal of the restraining salt. 
It is not essential that the acid should be a * strong ' one. Skins pickled 
with formic acid and salt by Mr. Seymour-Jones were sent on a voyage 
up the Amazon, and returned in perfect condition. It is obvious that 
if a skin swollen with some acid other than hydrochloric be subsequently 
treated with salt, a quadruple equilibrium results, most of the proteid salt 
being converted into chloride by the great excess of sodium chloride, with 
the formation of the sodium salt of its acid, each proteid salt being 
balanced against its own anion in the external solution. In a direct 
experiment with gelatine formate almost the whole of the formic acid 
was replaced by hydrochloric. It is probable that the so-called ' free ' 
hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice has been liberated in this way, and 
really exists as a salt of some weak colloid base. _ i 

In the ordinary processes of production of ' alumed leathers ' it is 
impossible to work without considerable addition of salt, and the process 
is largely a pickling one, the hydrolysed acid of the aluminium salt com- 
bining with the skin and leaving a basic salt which is also absorbed, 
the quantitative relation between the two independent actions depending 
on the relative concentrations. If, instead of alum or normal aluminium 
sulphate, a basic alumina solution is used, salt can be reduced or dispensed 
with, and the tanning action depends less on pickling and more on the 
fixation of alumina. What has been said about alumina tannage applies 
with little variation to tannage with chrome and iron salts. 

As regards the fixation of alumina and chrome ; there is little doubt 
that in the first instance it takes place in the form of basic insoluble 
salts and is largely physical. The more basic a solution of these metals 
and the more readily and completely it is precipitated by the withdrawal 
of a further portion of acid, the more heavily it tans. If we imagine 
a normal salt to diffuse into the skin, and its acid to combine with the 
amino group of the proteid, then the remaining insoluble basic salt must 
remain precipitated in and on the hide fibre. Whether this is the final 
stage may be doubtful — Wilson, in a recent Paper on ' Theories of Leather 
Chemistry,' 16 suggests that ultimate combination takes place with the 
carboxyl group, and this view seems well in accordance with known facts. 
A. L. Lumiere 17 has shown that the maximum amounts of chrome 
and alumina which can be fixed by gelatine accord well with this view ; 
and Wilson points out that if, as he supposes, the ultimate gelatine mole- 
cule is monacid and monobasic, a divalent ion such as Ca", joined to 
two gelatine molecules, should exert only the same osmotic pressure 
as the monovalent Na', and hence its swelling effect should be much 
less as is known to be the case; while the trivalent AT" or Cr" 
should swell still less and be yet more easily repressed ; and that therefore 
chrome or alumina gelatinates, if they exist, should be very stable and 
insoluble compounds. It is well known in practice that change in the 
direction of stability gradually takes place on storing or ' ageing ' alumed 
leather, and probably the same is true of chrome, though not so easily 

Vegetable tannage appears to be of a more colloidal or physical character 
than that with alum, or chrome. Tannins, like the proteids, appear 

16 J.A.L.C.A., 1917, 12, 108. 

" Brit. Jour. Phot., 1906, 53, 573 ; Abst., J.S.C.I., 1906, 25, 770. 


to form colloidal, rather than true ionic solutions, and the particles are 
negatively charged, going to the anode in electrophoresis. Whether 
the change is due to ionisation or to the fixation of an electrolyte ion 
is immaterial for our purpose. The gelatinous fibres, as we have seen, 
take a positive charge in acid, and a negative one in alkaline solutions 
(v.s.). Hence in faintly acid solution, which produces the strongest 
positive charge, they attract and precipitate the tannin particles, while 
in alkaline solution no tannage takes place, and in those too strongly acid, 
the tannins themselves are precipitated. 18 In fact, such colloid pre- 
cipitations due to electric charges do not seem to differ in principle 
from ionic reactions, though owing to the varying size of the particles 
and of their charges they are less definite and quantitative. Whether 
ultimately any closer combination with the fibre ensues, as is suggested 
in the case of mineral tannages, remains for the present uncertain, but 
in long-continued tannage there is a further deposition of difficultly 
soluble matters on and between the fibres by forces generally called 
' adsorption.' We may thus divide vegetable tannage into two stages, 
in the first of which the tannins combine electrically or chemically 
with the fibre and render it insoluble, and in the second matters arc 
deposited upon it which add to the weight and solidity of the leather ; 
but of course the two stages overlap in time, and the different qualities 
of leather produced by different tannages are largely due to their relative 
proportion, and the amount of precipitable matter which the tanning 
materials contain. It does not appear that the same affinities are saturated 
in mineral and vegetable tannages — chromed leather will fix as much vege- 
table tannage as raw hide, and vice versa ; and corresponding differences 
occur in their behaviour to dyestuffs. 

Besides the mineral and vegetable leathers there is a third class which 
demands consideration. If raw skins are fulled with oxidisable oils, their 
water is gradually expelled and replaced by the oil, and if the skins are 
now allowed to oxidise (which they do with considerable liberation of 
heat and of acryl aldehyde and other volatile products), and are then 
freed from unfixed oil by pressing and subsequent washing with alkaline 
solutions, such leathers as ' chamois,' ' wash-leather,' ' buckskin,' and 
' buff-leather ' are the result. Oil leathers, like chrome leathers, are 
very resistant to hot water, and also to hot soap or alkaline solutions, 
and may even be shrunk or ' tucked ' to increase their thickness and 
solidity by dipping in these liquids at boiling temperature. Their re- 
sistance to hot alkaline solutions, in which all oxidised oil products are 
soluble, proves that something more has occurred than a mere coating 
of the fibres with oils, but a full explanation has not yet been given. 
Since aldehydes are known to produce insoluble conjugated products 
with hide fibre, the explanation that acryl aldehyde (derived from the 
glycerine by dehydration) was the active agent was a plausible one, 
but is negatived by the recent knowledge that equally good leathers 
can be made with the free fatty acids alone. This, however, does not 
altogether disprove the aldehyde theory, since the unsaturated oils 
which alone will chamois are apt on oxidation to break at a double 
linkage with the production of higher aldehydes. Another possibility 
is that these oils, which are more or less colloid, form emulsions of ^.'hich 

18 T.C.S., 1916, 109, 1329. 


the particles are electrically charged, and which combine with the fibre 
in the same way as the tannin particles may be supposed to do, though 
probably with an opposite charge (v.s.). 

The oil squeezed out and known as moellon or degras is a natural 
emulsion, and finds wide use in leather-dressing for the ' stuffing ' of 
light leathers. This stuffing, the primary object of which is to lubricate 
the fibres and make the leather supple and water-resisting, may in many 
cases be also regarded as a supplementary and partial oil-tannage. The 
fats are applied to the moist leather either by hand as a pasty mixture 
of oils and harder fats, or in a melted state in a heated rotating drum. 
In the first method the main effect of the harder fats is to retain the mixture 
on the surface until the oils are absorbed. The water in the leather lowers 
the surface tension between oil and leather at the interface, and as the 
water dries out the oil replaces it by capillarity, leaving the harder fats 
outside. The surface tension of the various fats with regard to water 
and their consequent easy emulsification is thus of great practical im- 

A third way of applying fatty matters to leather much used for chrome 
and other light leathers, and called ' fat liquoring,' consists in drumming 
the skins with a prepared emulsion, which at first was the alkaline liquor 
from the washing of oil-leathers, but is now usually an artificial mixture 
of oils and soaps, though occasionally acid emulsions are employed. It 
has been found that sulphonated oils, especially castor and fish oils, have 
extraordinary emulsifying powers even on hydrocarbon oils, and the 
writer has examined a commercial product containing 80 per cent, of 
mineral oil, which yet was perfectly and spontaneously emulsifiable when 
poured into water. The question of surface tension at interfaces and 
against solid surfaces is one of much technical importance, and probably 
its effect on adsorption is greater than that of the Willard Gibbs law that 
' substances which lower surface tension accumulate on that surface.' 
The action of protective colloids on metallic sols has been explained 
as due to the fact that the surface tension of the medium at the metallic 
surface is greater than the sum of the tensions of the medium and the 
metal with regard to the protective colloid, which therefore spreads in 
a thin film between them. This coating of the metal by the colloid is 
of course an adsorption ; and a similar action may account for many 
cases of the latter which are called ' anomalous,' that is, to which_the 
Willard Gibbs law does not apply. 

General Physical Chemistry of Gelatine, dkc. 


Tbunkel, ' Pharmaceut. Ccntralhalle,' No. 38, 52 Jahrg. (Abst.., ' Coll.,' 1912, 11, 
' Ueber Leim und Tannin.' 

Volumetric determination of the proportions of gelatine and tannin giving com- 
plete precipitation. Sensitiveness of indicators. 

♦Paniker, M. A. K., and Stiasny, Edmund, 'Trans. C.S.,* 99, 1911, 1819, and 
' Coll.,' 1912, 11, 9. (Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1912, 7.) 
' An investigation into the acid character of gallotannic acid.' Determination 
by catalysis of diazo-acetic ester. Acidity very small, but more than can be attri- 
buted to hydroxyl. The most carefully purified gallotannin is probably not a single 

1917. d 


Bachmann, W., ' Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem.,* 1911, 73, 125-172. (Abst., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 


' Untersuchungen fiber die ultramikroskopische Struktur von Gallerten.' 

Investigation into the ultramicroscopic structure of jellies. Brownian movement 
slackens as jellies become concentrated, and 7-10 per cent, jellies are quiescent and 
homogeneous. The structure is much finer than that observed by Bfitschli, which 
may be reproduced by hardening agents. In solutions too dilute to set, ultramicro- 
scopic granular flocculation was observed. 
Eitner, W., ' Gerber,* 1912, 38, 43. (Abst., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 31, 241.) 

Some reactions of tannins. Colloidal precipitates. 
♦Palitsct, S., and W album, L. E., ' Compt. Rend, des trav., Lab. de Carlsberg,' 9, 
1912, 200-286. (Abst. ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 31, 1140.) 

Optimal concentration of hydrogen ions in the first phase of the tryptic decom- 
position of gelatine. 
Weimaen, P. P. von, ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 10, 1912, 131. 

' Ultramikroskopische Structure der gallertartige Niederschlage und der Gallerte.' 

Mostly polemic with Zsigmondy and Bachmann. 
*Zsigmondy, R., and Bachmann,' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1912, 11, 146. 

' Ueber Gallerten.' 

Ultramicroscopic studies on soap solutions and jellies. 
Hatschek, E., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1912, 11, 158. 

' Die Gele des Kamphorylphenylthiosemicarbamide.' 

A jelly which gradually passes into crystals. 
Weimarn, P. P. von, ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1912, 11; 239. 

' Ueber Gallerten.' 

Mostly polemic. 
Bancroft, W. D., ' J. Phys. Chem.,* 1912, 16, 395. 

' Action of water vapour upon gelatine.' 


Wood, J. T., and Law, D. J., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 43. 

' Some notes on the enzymes concerned in the puering or bating process.' 
Brochet, Andre, ' Compt, rend.,' 1912, 155, 1614. (Abst., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, ( 160.) 

' Relation entre la conductivity des acides et leur absorption par la peau.' 

Relation between the conductivity of acids and their absorption by skin. The 
determinations were made in solutions containing 100 grm. of salt per litre, and 
the acid absorbed must therefore have been mainly hydrochloric acid, as shown by 

Ehrenberg, R., ' Biochem. Zeitschr.,' 1913,53, 356, from Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1913, 
8, 442. 

Swelling of gelatine in aqueous solutions. 
Navassart, M., ' Koll. Beihefte,' 1913-14, 5. 

' Kolloid-chemische Studien fiber Tannin.' 

A very full study of the physical properties of gallotaimin. 
Ibid. ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1913, 12, 97. 

' Zur optischen Aktivitat des Tannins.' 
Zsigmondy, R., and Bachmann, W., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1913, 12, 16. 

' Ueber Gallerten.' 
Walpole, G. S., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1913, 12, 241. 

' Brechungskoefficiente von Solen u. Gelen der Gelatine.' 


Procter, H. R., ' T.C.S.,' 1914, 105, 313. Rep., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 194, and 
' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 207. 
' Equilibrium of dilute hydrochloric acid and gelatine.' 
Fischer, M. H., and Sykes, Anne, ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1914, 14, 215. (Abst., * J.C.S.,' 
1914, 100, II., 542.) 
' Ueber den Einfluss einige Nichtelektrolyte auf die Quellung von Protein.' 
Saccharose, bevulose, dextrose, methyl- and propyl-alcohols, propyleneglycol and 
acetone diminish swelling of gelatine. 


Scarpa, 0., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1914, 15, 8. (Absfc., ' J.C.S., 1914, 100, II., 720.) 

' Umkehrbare Ueberftihrung emulsoider Gummi- und Gelatinelosungen in den 
suspensoiden Zustand, und Eigenschaften derartige Systeme.' 

By addition of alcohol to solutions. 
Fischer, E., and Freudenberg, K., ' Ber.,' 1913, 46, 1116. 

Hepta-(tribenzoyl-galloyl)-p-iodophenol rualtosazone of molecular weight 4021 
obeys Raoult's law in freezing-point determination in bromoform. 
Hatschek, E., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1914, 15, 226. 

' Die Gestalt und Orientirung von Gasblasen in Gelen.' 

The bubbles formed in jellies are not spherical but lens-shaped, since the jellies 
tear, and the acute edge-angle is the weakest point. The question is discussed 
whether the jelly has geometric lines of cleavage The answer is apparently negative, 
but in jellies under pressure the split is usually normal to the direction of pressure. 

Ostwald, Wo., 'Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1915, 17, 113. 

' Zur Kinetik der Multirotatidn in Gelatincsolen. 

See also correction, ibid., 1916, 18, 32. 
Mecklenberg, W., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1915, 16, 97. 

' Ueber die Beziehung zwischen Tyndalleffekt und Teilchengrosse kolloidaler 
Fischer, M. H., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1915, 17, 1. 

'Ueber Hydratation und Losung bei Gelatine.' 
♦Gerike, K., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1915, 17, 79. 

' Dampfdruck von Gelatine-Wasser-Gemischen.' 
Upson and Calvin, ' J.Am.C.S.,' 1915, 37, 1295. 

' The colloidal swelling of wheat-gluten. The swelling is increased by acids and 
repressed by salts, like that of gelatine. 
*Arisz, L., ' Koll. Beihefte,' 1915, 7, 1-90. 

' Sol- und Golzustand von Gelatinelosungen.' 

A lengthy and very important paper. 
Powarnin, G., ' J. Russ. Phys-Chem. Soc.,' 1915, 47, 2004. (Abst., ' J. S.C.I.,' 
1916, 35, 429.) 

' Swelling of hides in presence of hydrogen ions.' 


Nagel, C. F., ' Jour, of Phys. Chem.,' 1915, 19, 331. 

' On the peptisation of chromium hydroxide by alkalies.' 
Wintgen, R., ' Sitzungsberichte der chemischen Abteilung der Niederrheinisohen 
Gesellschaft fur Natur- und Heilkunde zu Bonn,' Jahrg. 1915. ' Coll.,' 1916, 
15, 301. 

'Ueber das Gleichgewicht Gelatine-Salzsaure.' 

By catalysis of methylacetato, Wintgen confirms Procter's molecular weight 839 
for gelatine, and finds the hydrolysis K = 00004139. 

♦Procter, H. R., and Wilson, J. A., * T.C.S.,' 1916, 109, 307, and ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 
1916, 11, 261. 

' The Acid-Gelatin Equilibrium.' 

Mathematical discussion of the equilibrium between the acid and ionising colloid 

Ibid., ' J.A.L.CA.,' 1916, 11, 399. 

' The swelling of colloid jellies.' 

Ibid., 'T.C.S.,' 1916, 109, 1328. 

' Theory of vegetable tanning. ' 
Wilson, J. A., ' J.Am.C.S.,' 1916, 38, 1982. 

' Theory of Colloids.' 

A general theory of colloidal sols. 
Kubelka, V., 'Coll.,' 1915, 389. 

'Adsorption of organic acids by hide powder.' 


Papers relating to the Theory of Tanning and its Application*. 


Meunier, L., and Seyewetz, A., ' Coll.,' 1912, 11, 54. 
' Formation du cuir par deshydratation.' 
Dehydration by saturated solutions of potassium carbonate. 

Sand, H. J. S., Wood. J. T., and Law, D. J., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 31, 210, and ' Coll.,' 

1912, 11, 158. 

' Quantitative determination of the falling of skin in the puering and bating 

An apparatus for measuring compression and elasticity. 
Hough, A. T., ' Leather World,' 1912, 4, 190, 268. (Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1912, 7, 385. ) 

' Swelling and solubility of hide in acids.' 
Meunier, Louis, ' Coll.,' 1912, 11, 420. 

' Le Tannage au Formol.' 

Necessity of dehydration. 
Garelli, F., ' Coll.,' 1912, 11, 419. (Abst., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 31, 830.) 

' Le tannage par les sels de cerium.' 

(Cp. ' Coll.,' 1911, 10, and ' Gerber,' No. 887, 1911.) 
Procter, H. R., ' Coll.,' 1912, 11, 687. 

' Note on the pickling process.' 
Wood, J. T., ' Tanners' Yearbook,' 1912, 116. 

' Rising or pickling of skins.' 
Blockey, J. R., ' Tanner's Yearbook,' 1912, 98. 

' The soaking of skins by means of formic acid.' 
Stiasny, E., ' J.A.L.C.A,' 1912, 7, 301. (Abst., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 31, 694.) 

' Applications of the law of mass action to some of the reactions of the tanning 
Wood, J. T., and Law, D. J., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1912, 31, 1105, and ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 43. 

' Some notes on the enzymes concerned in the puering and bating process.' 
Chemisch-Technologische Studiengesellschaft, D.R.P., Nr. 253171, 22/3/1910 
(1/11/1912), ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1912, 11, 313. 

The use of acetone or alcoholic solutions of tannins for quick tanning. 


Thuau, N. J., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 237. 

' Developpement de l'emploi des huiles emulsionables et des emulsions en tannerie.' 
Wood, J. T., Sand, H. J. S., and Law, D. J., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1913, 32, 398, also ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 

1913, 8, 247, and ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 355. 

' The quantitative determination of the falling of skin in the puering or bating 
process, Part II.' (Cp. Part I., 1912.) Draws a distinction between capillary and 
jelly- water. 
Sommerhoff, E. O., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 381. 

' Gerbung der Haut durch " unlosliche " Metalgallerten, und Schlussfolgerungen 
auf die Tanninanalyse.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 416. 

' Ueber die katalytische Wirkung der Gerbstoffkolloide als Trager des Luftsauer- 
stoffs ' (' Pseudobacterien '). 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 531. 

' Ueber sckwerlosliche Gerbstoffe.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 533. (Abst., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1914, 38, 95.) 

' Ueber die Gerbung und Beschwerung von Haut und Seide unter besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung des Kolloidwassers.' (Cp. -ibid., 638.) 

(Wordy and theoretical papers with little experimental basis. — H. R. P.) 
Garelli, F., and Apostolo, C, ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 422. (Eng. abst., ibid., 549.) 

' Action des sels de bismuth sur la peau.' 
Garelli, F., and Apostolo, C, ' Coll.,' 1913, 12, 425. (Eng. abst., ibid., 611.) 

' Sur le tannage par les acides gras et resineux.' 
Procter, H. R., ' Leather Trades Yearbook,' 1913, 75. 

' The acid deliming process.' 
Salomon, J. B., ' Leather Trades Yearbook,' 1913, 143. 

'Notes on the theory of fat liquoring.' 


Nejedly, J. L., 'Allgemeine Gerber-Zeitung,' 15, Nr. 15. (Abst., 'Coll.,' 1913, 12, 

' Das Weissgarlcder.' 

Tannago with partially precipitated alumina salts. 
Apostolo, C, * Coll.,' 1913, 12, 420. (Eng. abst., ibid., 547.) 

' Ueber die Gerbung ruit frischgcfallteni Schwcfel.' 
Williams, 0. J., 'Coll.,' 1913, 12, 76; ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1913, 8, 328. 

1 Enquiry into electrical tannage.' — Preliminary note. 
Rideal and Evans, < J.S.C.T.,' 1913, 32, 633. 

' Electric Tannage' 


Wood, J. T., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 305, and ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 318. 

' Light leather liming control.' 

Ibid., ' Leather Trades Yearbook,' 1914, 152, and ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 390. 

' Some remarks on liming.' 
Meunier, L., and Seyewetz, A., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 532. (Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 

' Sur les proprietes tannantes comparers des differentes quinones.' 
Powahnin, G., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 634, from Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 567. 

' Active carbonyl, and tannage with organic substances.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 659. 

' Formula on swelling of hide with acids.' 
Faukion, W., ■■ Coll.,' 1914, 13, 707. (From Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1915, 10, 60.) 

Reply to Powarnin on theory of leather formation. 
Van Tassel, E. D. J., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 236. 

' A new emulsifying agent ' (Stearamid, ' Duron '). 
Muller-Jacobs, A., 'J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 234. 

' A contribution to the history of a new industry ' (Stearamid). 
Lamb, M. C, ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 359, and ' Leather Trades Yearbook,' 1914, 127. 

' Colloidal Tannins.' 

Tannage by mixtures of ' Tragasol ' (Locust-bean mucilage) and quebracho in 
Williamson, C. G., ' Leather Trades Yearbook,' 1914, 359. 

Connexion between acidity of liquor and yield of leather. 
So.mmerhoff, E. O., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 3. (Abst., ' J.S.C.T.,' 1914, 33, 152.) 

' Ueber das Loslichmachen von " Gerbmehlen " (phlobaphenen) dnrch Hydrolyse 
mit Schwefligersaure, unci iiber die Wirkung von Dextrineglucosezusatzen zu den 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 81. 

' Ueber Gerbmehlen (phlobaphene) and iiber rerschiedene Reaktionen der Hydro - 
lvse (Phytolyse).' 

Ibid., • Coll.,' 1914, 13, 225. 

' Ueber Pikrinsaure- uiul Ghinongerbung.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1914, 13, 325, 369,^499. 

' Theorie des Farbens, Beizens und Gerbens, 1 

These papers advance a theory that all tanning depends on the presence of a 
' peptisablc ' substance, a ' peptisator ' or solvent, and an ' acceptor ' (the hide) which 
again precipitates the sol. The theory may be true of certain cases, but is certainly 
not so universally, as the author appears to claim. 

Kohn-Abrest, E., ' Bulletin des Chinustes de Sucrerie et de la Distillerie ' (through 
' Tech. Sup.,' No. 7, to ' La Halle aux Cuirs,' 5 Apr. 1914.) 

Tannin compounds produced by Al-Hg couple, and a suggested method of tannin 
analysis. (Trans., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1914, 9, 260.) 


Sommerhoff, E. O., ' Coll.,' 1915, 14, 26. (From Abst., 'J.A.L.C.A.. 11)15,10, 
The new dehydration theory of leather formation as opposed to the oxidation 


Moeller, W., ' Coll.,' 1915, 14, 49, and ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1915, 16, 69. 

' Peptisationserscheinungen in Gerbstofflosungen.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1915, 14, 193, 225, 253. 

' Peptisation und Gerbprozess.' 
Kudlacek, E., ' Coll.,* 1915, 14, 1, 59, 117, 163. Abst., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1915, 10, 387. 

' Ueber das Adsorptionsverinogen von Hautblosse gegeniiber vegetablische Gerb- 

Much tabular matter of interest. 
Kobebt, R., 'Berichte der Deutschen PharmaceutischenGesellschaft,'2 Jahrg., 1915, 
Heft 9, and ' Coll.,' 1915, 14, 108, 154, 321. 

' Ueber den biologischen Nachweis und die Bewertung von Gerbstoffen.' 

Determination of astringency by the shrinking of red blood corpuscles. 
Fahbion, W., ' Coll.,* 1915, 14, 332. 

' Zur Theorie der Lederbildung.' 
Procter, H. R., ' L. Coll.,' 1915, 1, 3, 33, 67, 94, 117, 189, 257. 

' The Combination of Acids and Hide Substance.' 
Nihoul, E., ' L. Coll.,' 1915, 1, 141, 174. 

' Tannage au Tonneau.' 
Randall, P. M., 'J.A.L.C.A.,' 1915, 10, 171, and ' L. Coll.,' 1915, 1, 155. 

' Chemical Data from the Pickle Solution.' 
Seymour-Jones, Arnold, ' L. Coll.,' 1915, 1, 289. 

' The Chemistry of the Skin.' 
♦Schlichte, A. A., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1915, 10, 526, and ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2, 20, 61. 

' A study of the changes of skin during their conversion into leather.' 
Helfrich, J., ' J.A.L.C.A.,' 1915, 10, 396. 

' Chemical Control of the Beamhouse.' 
Bennett, H. G., 'J.A.L.C.A.,' 1915, 10, 569; 'Shoe and Leather Reporter,' 1915, 
Sept. 28, 31. 

' What loosens the hair in liming hides ? — an unsettled question.' 
Lauffmann, R., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1915, 17, 37. 

' Die neuere Gerbetheorien.' 
Palciola, P., ' Annalidi Chimica Applicata,' 1915, 1, 32-36. 

' Tanning power of triacetin.' 


Lauffmann, R., ' Koll. Zeitschr.,' 1916, 19, 36, 133. 

' Bericht iiber die Fortschritte in der Gerbereichemie in den Jahren 1913-1915.' 
* Wood, J. T., ' Reports of the Progress of Applied Chemistry, Soc. Chem. Ind.,' 1916. 

' Leather and Glue.' 
♦Procter, H. R., and Burton, D., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1916, 35, 404 ; ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2, 134. 

' The Swelling of Gelatinous Tissues.' 
Sowray, W. A., ' Leather Trades Yearbook,' 1916. (Abst., ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2, 224.) 

' Sulphur as a leathering material.' 
Moeller, W., ' Coll.,' 1916, 15, 1, 43, 84, 125, 175, 227, 266, 311. 

' Die pflanzliche Gerbstoff-Kolloide. Eine Theorie ihrer Zusammensetzung und 
Wirkung auf Kolloidchemischer Grundlagen.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1916, 15, 16, 51, 92, 127, 180, 236, 270, 317, 349. 

' Haut und Leder. Untersuchungen iiber Mikro- und Ultra-Strukturen der Haut- 
und Leder-Faser.' 
Fahrion, W., Book Vieweg, Braunschweig. 

' Neuere Gerbmethoden und Gerbetheorien.' 
Robert, R., ' Coll.,' 1916, 15, 164, 213. 

' Ueber den biologischen Nachweis, und die Bewertung von Gerbstoffen.' 

Astringent action on blood-corpuscles. 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1916, 15, 261, 305. 

' Ueber die biologische Bewertung der sogenannten Solvine (Turkischrotole).' 
Lauffmann, R., ' Coll.,' 1916, 15, 247, 291. 

' Die gerberisch wichtige Eigenschaften der pflanzliche Gerbstofie.' 

Ibid., ' Coll.,' 1916, 15, 417. 

' Bemerkungen zu Dr. Moeller's Anschauungen iiber die Natur und die Zusam- 
mensetzung der pflanzlichen Gerbstofie. ' 


Moeller, W., * Coll.,' 1916, 15, 330, 356, 385, 452. 

' Humussaure und Gcrbstiure.' 

Ibid., • Coll.,' 1916, 15, 179. 

'Die Theorie der Peptisation pflanzliche Kolloide.' 
Procter, H. R., and Wilson, J. A., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1916, 35, 156, and ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2. 

' The action of salts of hydro xyacids upon chrome leather.' 

Ibid., 'T.C.S.' 1916, 109, 1327. 

' The Theory of Vegetable Tanning.' 
Nihoui,, E., ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2, 178, 190. (Eng. abst., 227.) 

' Tannage a l'alun.' 
Bennett, H. G., ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2, 85. 

' Analysis of limed pelt.' 

Ibid., ' L. Coll.,' 1916, 2, 106. 

' The acidity of tannery liquors.' 
Wood, J. T., and Law, D. J., ' J.S.C.I.,' 1916, 35, 585. 

' Note on the unhairing process.' 

By P. E. Ktng, Lecturer in Dyeing, University of Leeds. 

The Present State of Development of the Theory of Dyeing, with special 
reference to colloidal and electrical hypotheses and phenomena leading 

In the present stage of the evolution of an adequate theory to explain 
the phenomena of the dyeing process, four somewhat conflicting theories 
prevail : — 

The mechanical or physical theory, 

The chemical theory. 

The colloid-diffusion and adsorption theory, 

The electrical theory. 

The two former were long the cause of energetic discussion between 
their respective upholders, the two latter have been developed since the 
beginning of the present century, and are to be looked upon, less as parallel 
theories to the first two, than as more scientific attempts to supplement 
and correlate, in the light of later physico-chemical discoveries, the 
phenomena observed and partially explained by the older theorists. 

The upholders of the mechanical theory x looked upon it merely as 
an adsorption phenomenon, of the dyestuff particles in the fibre ; the 
second group took for granted a chemical combination between fibre and 
dye. The holders of the first view based themselves primarily on the 
analogy which subsists between dyeing and the absorption of dyes by 
animal charcoal. More modern investigations by Justin-Mueller, how- 
ever, indicate that pure carbon absorbs only very little dyestuff. The 
decolourising effect of charcoal is connected with the presence of organic 
nitrogenous compounds, which are produced by the combustion of protein 
substances. The upholders of the chemical theory of dyeing, which 
may be described as the salt-formation theory, base their views upon 
the fact that the fibres, especially wool and silk, which by hydrolysis 
give amino-acids, contain salt-forming groups and produce actual salts 
with the dyestuffs, which, as is well known, contain acid and basic groups. 

At present the most prominent upholder of the purely mechanical 

1 P. Sisley, ' Augonblicklicher Stand unserer Kcnntnisse iiber die Theorie der 
Farbuug,' Chan. Zeit, 1913, 1357, 1379. 


theory is G. von Georgievics. 2 He has a long line of predecessors, from 
the earliest dyeing theorists of the first half of the 18th century, Hellot 3 
Dufay, 4 Macquer, 5 and Le Pileur d'Apligny. 6 down to Walter Cram, 7 
Persoz, Engel, and Napier. He rejects categorically the theory of chemical 
combination between dye and fibre in the case of wool, on the grounds 
that such indifferent substances as glass beads, kaolin, and various other 
inorganic substances may be dyed in exactly the same way. He objects 
in details to 0. Witt's theory of ' solid solution ' (of the dyestufi solute 
in the fibre solvent) by combating each of Witt's statements from experi- 
ments of his own. His theory of the dyeing process is that the dye par- 
ticles are in a state of adhesion on and in the fibre, and neither of solution 
nor chemical combination ; the same he considers to be true of the various 
mordants. But this ' adhesion ' is, he says, analogous to capillary attrac- 
tion, to the adhesion of solute to solvent, and to that exerted, for example, 
by glass on a liquid which ' wets ' it, and such forces as these, he admits, 
lie on the borderline between chemical and physical forces. A very 
similar conclusion had been drawn before by H. v. Perger, 8 L. Hwass, 9 
and G. Spohn. 10 

Georgievics admits that basic dyestuffs when dissolved in water are 
dissociated, and that if the base has an attraction for a substance, a coloured 
body will be formed when the two are brought together. As evidence 
for the physical and against the chemical nature of dyeing, he relies chiefly 
on various forms of Henry's law of distribution. 

He states from his experiments that in the majority of cases dyeing 
takes place according to the equation 

-p — = constant, 

in which C s denotes the colour taken up by the fibre, Cw that left in the 
bath and x indicates the affinity of the colouring-matter for the fibre. 
In some later experiments u with indigo extract and picric acid on wool 
and methylene blue on mercerised cotton, he states that dyeing proceeds 
according to the equation 

a/C dyebath ^ 


where x may be equal to one or greater than one and its value depends 
upon the temperature and additions to the bath. The rule only holds 
within certain limits of concentration of the dyebath, comparatively 
more colour being taken up from dilute than from concentrated baths. 

2 Mitteilungen des K.K. Gewer bemuse urns in Wien, pp. 165, 205, 349 (1904), p. 345 
(1905). See also Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1895, pp. 79 and 121. 

3 1734, L'art de la teinture des laines et des Ctoffes de laine. 

4 1737, TraiU sur la Teinture, observations 'physiques sur le melange de quelques 
couleurs a la teinture. 

5 1763, L'art de la teinture de la soie. 

6 1776, L'art de la teinture des fils et ttoffes de colon. 

7 1843, Journ. Ghem. Soc. 16, 1, p. 404. 

8 'Einige Farbersuche,' in Farbenzeitung, 1890-1. 
» Farbenzeitung, 1890, pp. 221, 243. 

10 Essay, ' Zur Erkenntnis des Farbevorganges ' in Dinglers' Polytech. Jour. 1893. 

11 Journ. Soc. Dyers and Gol. 1904, p. 105. 


From his experiments Georgievics considers he has proved beyond doubt 
that the dyeing process takes place according to a definite physical law 
in tlie case of acid colours on animal fibres and salt colours on cotton. 
He uses Henry's law very indiscriminately and alters it to fit his figures. 

The earliest mechanical theorists had been content with the theory 
that the dye particles from the solution wandered by endosmosis into 
the ' pores ' of the fibres and were there fixed by the formation of an 
insoluble ' lake ' with the mordant. This being done in a hot bath, the 
contraction of the pores on cooling, aided by a possible astringent action 
of the various mordants, held the dye particles fast. The first investigator 
to suggest adhesion of dye particles to the surface of the fibre was Macquer 12 
in 1768, followed by Berthollet, 13 Thomas Henry, 14 Bancroft, 15 and finally 
Walter Crurn, 16 the greatest of von Georgievics' predecessors, who defined 
this (purely physical) adhesion as ' catalytic force ' and insisted on the 
analogy between the dyeing process and the absorption of gases, salts 
dissolved in liquids and colouring matters, in an unchanged form, by 
wood-charcoal and bone-black. Crum also points out the capillary 
attractive force of fibres, in common with other porous bodies. So well 
reasoned were his theories that the upholders of the then extremely vague 
and nebulous chemical theory felt themselves impelled to greater clarity 
and more logical statement of their point of view. 

The title of "first chemical theorist' is given to Bergniann," who, 
in an essay on indigo, suggests that the wool extracts the whole of the 
indigotine disulphomc acid from the bath because it has a greater ' affinity 
for it than the latter. This vague ' affinity ' satisfied Berthollet, Henry, 
and Chaptal, but it was left to Chevreul, 18 the head of the Gobelin Dye- 
works in Paris, to speak the first clear words on the nature of this ' affinity ' 
in his ' Memoire ' of the year 1834. He divides dyes into chemical com- 
pounds, simple mixtures and substances that^partake of the nature of 
both. Then, investigating those dyeing processes which appear to lead 
to chemical combinations, he says : ' Chemical combination is analogous 
to salt formation,' but the combinations between fibre and dyestufi are 
looser and evolve less heat than is observed in the case of acid reacting 
with base, and the combining proportions are not always constant. In 
dyeing, moreover, he recognises a ' contact-effect,' adhesion, which he 
places in a position next to affinity in importance, and calls ' capillary- 
affinity ' ; his conclusion is that there are molecular forces at work between 
bodies in contact, which slowly combine. Dyeing will not take place 
unless there is a greater affinity between the fibre and the dye than between 
the dye and its solvent, and in judging of the probable result it is necessary 
to take into consideration the water, with dissolved acids, bases, or salts"; 
dyestufi ; fabric, and one or more mordants of more or less complex 
character. That one fibre dyes better than another in the same bath 
he explains by the principle of ' elective affinity,' which at that time so 
greatly exercised the minds of the students of the infant science of chemistry. 

12 Dictionnaire de Chemie, article ' Teinture.' 

13 1791, 1804, EUmenls de I' Art de la Teinture, 
11 1790, Nature of Colouring Matkrs. 

15 1794, 1813, Philosophy of Permanent Colours. 

16 loc. cit. 

17 1776, Mtmoires des Savants Strangers, t. 9. 

18 Mtmoiree de V Academic des Sciences, 1853, 1861. Cours de Chemie appliquie 
d lu Teinture, 2 me partie, 1838-1804. 


Chevreul deserves honour not only for the pioneer quality of his statements, 
but also for the detailed tabular accounts of his experiments, which gave 
a stimulus to other investigators. 

He was quickly followed by F. F. Runge 19 who confines his researches 
to cotton, discussing first the ' combat ' between the water of the bath and 
the fibre for possession of the dye, and thus explaining the decrease in 
rapidity of deposition as the bath nears exhaustion. Mordants he con- 
ceives to be substances which eagerly combine (enter into) the fabric 
to form a substance that in its turn combines with the dye. 

Persoz 20 postulates an attraction between the fibre and dye particles 
analogous to inter-molecular forces, but does not suggest true chemical 
combination between dyes and fibre. In 1 856 F. Kuhlmann drew atten- 
tion to the nitrogenous nature (' azoted fibres ') of the fibres which readily 
absorb dye, experimenting with pyroxylin and cotton. He suggests that 
the part played by capillarity and adhesion in dyeing is subordinate if 
important, and also makes the remark that ' a chemical change which 
results in a change of dyeing-capacity may often be a mere re-grouping 
of molecules.' J. B. Schlossberger 21 follows with a little more leaning 
towards the physical theory. P. A. Bolley 22 reverts, after very careful 
research with the microscope into the place and nature of the deposition of 
the dye on the fabric, to the physical theory, finding that the deposition is 
only on the surface with silk and cotton, though partly within the wool 
fibre. His experiments finally lead to the conclusion that the absorption of 
the dye, with or without mordant, is a surface phenomenon entirely 
analogous to adsorption of charcoal, and that the use of the mordant is 
merely to form lakes. But the discovery of aniline colours in 1856 by 
Perkin, and the rapid spread of inquiry into their nature and application, 
emphasised the trend of opinion in favour of the chemists. Schutz- 
berger 23 pointed out that in the dyeing of wool with aniline colours there 
was necessarily chemical action, usually between dyestufi and mordant, but 
does not suggest that the fibre in any way enters into the reaction ; 
he looks on fibres as porous bodies, carriers of the dye. Again the 
physicists prevailed, until E. J. Mills 24 reported experiments in the dyeing 
of silk red from a colourless rosaniline solution, which he took to prove that 
the silk actually entered into combination with the dissociated colourless 
rosaniline base. The observation that wool is dyed red from a colourless 
solution of rosaniline base was first pointed out by Jacquemin in 1876. 
Mills gives careful tables showing the laws governing the rate of absorption 
of colour from a cold bath, also of various acid and basic solutions, and 
finally for the result of dyeing from mixed dye-baths. 

R. Meyer, 25 on the subject of microscopic research into printed cottons, 
doubts whether the fibre enters into composition of a compound with the 
dye or acts as a containing vessel for the latter ; he considers that the 
essential factor in true dyeing is that the dye or the materials which 
produce it in the bath should penetrate the fibre, and inside it be changed 

lft Farben Chemie, Pt. 1, 1834, Pt. 11, 1850. 

20 1846, Traiti de I' Impression. 

21 1857, Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie. 

22 1859, Kritische und experimentelle Beitrage zur Theorie der Farbere Journal fiir 
praktische Chemie. 

23 1868, Traitd des Matures colorantes. 

21 Journ. Chem. Soc. 1883, 144 ; Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1889, 263. 
25 1883, Berichte. 


to an insoluble form. He, however, in 1895, admits that with animal 
fibres dyeing is a chemical process. The researches of P. Richard 26 into 
the nature of wool and silk led him to assert the existence of an amido 
group in these substances which can be diazotised and the resulting diazo 
compound coupled with phenols &c. At the same time, by decomposition 
of the diazo compound, a hydroxy group is formed which can be coupled 
with diazo compounds. 

Champion's discovery of lanuginic acid being published, Knecht 27 now 
turned his attention to this in a long series of researches that have finally 
confirmed his position as leader of the purely-chemical faction. In 1888 he 
showed that, having prepared lanuginic acid either by Champion's method 
or by dissolving wool in barium hydrate solution, precipitating the barium 
with carbon dioxide and from the filtrate precipitating the acid with lead 
acetate, then removing the lead with sulphuretted hydrogen and evaporat- 
ing the filtrate, the resultant substance gave brightly coloured precipitates 
with dye solutions of acid and basic dyes and also with solutions of metallic 
salts. Comparing this with the facts observed: that wool and silk absorb and 
hold with a tenacity which will not yield even on boiling acids and alkalies ; 
that they also absorb dye-bases from neutral baths, leaving the whole of the 
acid from the dyestuff in the bath as ammonium salt ; he deduces that 
definite chemical compounds must be formed between the colour-base (or 
under given conditions colour-acid) with some break-down products of the 
wool or silk of the nature of lanuginic or sericinic acid. With acid colours, 
the action of the acid produces in the fibre a substance capable of forming 
lakes with the acid colouring-matter. The behaviour of the fibre in 
presence of great excess of substantive dye in some experiments even 
shows the probability of combinations according to the law of multiple 
proportions. Knecht 28 undoubtedly proved that in dyeing wool with a 
series of acid colours belonging to the same homologous series the amount 
of colour taken up was in exact proportion to their molecular weights ; 
hence the laws of chemical combination are obeyed. 

These convictions of Knecht have been continuously combated by 
von Georgievics and the physicists, but a series of investigators reported 
experiments which corroborated Knecht's observations. L. Vignon 29 
tested for the amount of heat evolved in the absorption of acids (sulphuric, 
hydrochloric, stannic) and alkalies respectively by silk, wool, and cotton, 
and found that the first fibre evolves the greatest heat, even during absorp- 
tion of salts. Cotton only evolves heat with strong acids or alkalies, and 
then only feebly ; this he explains by the fact that cotton has no nitrogen 
(citing empirical formulae), 

silk = Ci4iH22iN 48 3G ; wool = C S8 Hi4 n N 27 S 3 ; cotton = C H 10 Oj, 

and that cotton previously treated with ammonia will react evolving 
heat. He obtains a substance by treating cotton with ammonia, which 
contains nitrogen, and this substance possesses greater dyeing powers, but 
in the opinion of the writer this compound is far more likely to be a 
degradation product of cotton. Wool and silk he knows to be capable of 

26 1884, Soc. Ind. de Mvihouse, ' Aufklarung der chemischen Konstitution de 

" Journ. Soc, Dyers and Col. 1888, p. 72; 1889, p. 71. 
28 Ibid., 1904, p. 242. 
" Comptea Rendu s, 1890. 


acting either as acid or as base under determining conditions, and postu- 
lates a definite acid or basic character both in the fibre and in the dye- 
stuff before true dyeing can take place (dyestuff here being taken to 
mean the system solvent plus solute dye plus mordant). In 1893, 
criticising the new Witt theory, he emphasises the chemical nature of 
his own hypotheses as being far more ' rational and in accord with facts.' 
That there is no clearly demonstrable adhesion to the law of multiple 
proportions he considers to be no unanswerable argument ; the fibre 
molecules are complicated and large in comparison with those of many 
dyes. Vignon on this and other occasions pointed out the dissociation of 
dye-solutions in presence of the fibre ; the constitution of dyes like Congo 

red (E\ v or=N — N=) that possibly makes them capable of the direct 

. X 

dyeing of cotton by combination with the cellulose. Finally, he admits the 
great value of the physical structure of the fibre in dyeing, its — , — — 

co-efficient being so large that it acts as a porous body. As did Zacharias 
later, he admits of two actions of the fibre : porosity with capillarity, and 
(usually) chemical combination. Knecht 30 also showed that hydrolytic 
dissociation played a part in dyeing and that there was an intimate con- 
nection between the dissociation of a colour and its dyeing power. 

L. Hwass and G. Spohn 31 adduce experiments in favour of the 
mechanical deposition theory, the latter insisting on deposition pure and 
simple, conditioned by molecular forces, and giving as evidence the micro- 
scopically visible crystals of lead chroma te and manganese bistre, which at 
a distance of 60/u.ju, one from the other give the illusion of homogeneous 
colour to the naked eye, but are separately and sharply deposited, some 
within, some upon, the fibre. He, like von Georgievics, refuses to admit of 
any chemical combination, since inorganic and unaffected matters like 
asbestos can be dyed just like animal and vegetable fibres, but Hwass 
admits the possibility of such combination (e.g., silk saturated with iron 
hydroxides). He looks on dyeing as dissociation phenomena ; dyestuffs 
readily dissociate, and the fibre acts towards the dissociated solute merely 
as would a thread hung in a saturated alum solution : it receives and 
encourages the deposition of insoluble bodies (the colour radicle or its 
hydrate) and rejects soluble. He is attracted to the solid solution theory 
of Witt (vid. sub.) as being the best statement of such phenomena of selec- 
tion. The appearance of von Georgievics in the arena now so thoroughly 
stated the case for the purely mechanical deposition theorists that no 
further citations need be made from the researches of his disciples to bear 
out his theories. 

Meanwhile, in the hands of C. 0. Weber, 32 W. P. Dreaper, 33 Rosen- 
stiehl, Gnehm and Rotheli, 34 A. W. Hallitt, 35 A. Reychler, 36 Prudhomme, 37 

30 Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1898, p. 59. 

31 loc. cit. 

32 Journ. Soc. Chem. hid. 1894, p. 120. 

33 Ibid., 1904, p. Ill ; 1905, pp. 118 and 136. 

34 Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1898, pp. 190 and 215. 

35 Ibid., 1899, p. 30. 

36 Bull. Soc. Chim. de Paris, 1897, p. 449. 

37 Rev. Gen. de Matt. Col. 1900, p. 184. 


and Knecht himself, the chemical theory developed, and widened its 
horizons until it merged into the view that any dyeing process is neces- 
sarily dualistic : that some physical cause of deposition, be it (1) purely 
mechanical adhesion or (2) intermolecular diffusion analogous to the 
interdiffusion of any two solutions, with miscible solvents, until a state of 
equilibrium is reached, or (3) attraction of an electrical nature due to 
contact-difference of potential in the presence of a solute hydrolysed or 
ionised, must accompany any postulated chemical combination of dye and 
fibre. The fundamental theories governing the chemical combination of 
fibre and dye are twofold : (1) All dyestuffs have either acid or basic 
properties or represent salts of acids or bases, (2) these dyestuffs combine 
with the animal fibres, especially wool, by virtue of the amphoteric nature 
of the latter. In the case of cotton, although the process is generallv 
looked upon as being of a mechanical character, it is quite conceivable that 
a chemical action may sometimes occur. 38 

If cotton be rendered more acid, i.e., by the formation of oxy-cellulose or 
nitro-cellulose, the fibre shows a marked affinity for basic colours. But 
nitrated or acetylated cotton has lost its affinity for direct colouring- 
matters. More evidence in favour of the Chemical Theory was advanced by 
Fort 39 in a series of papers in the ' Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col.' He con- 
structed a theory to explain the taking up of acid dyes by materials which 
are able to effect combination with acids and supported this theory by a 
large number of experiments. 

The first steps towards a clear and adequate explanation other than that 
of chemical combination of the phenomena of absorption by the fibre or a 
dye from its aqueous or alcoholic solution were made by A. Muller Jacobs. 40 
He bases his researches upon the known facts of diffusion of gases, of one 
liquid through another, and of crystalloid solutions through membranes 
that prevent the diffusion of colloids. Researches in the last-mentioned 
diffusions had been first published by Thomas Graham 41 in 1861-1864. 
Muller Jacobs divided the ' attraction ' between the phases of a disperse 
system into ' hygroscopy,' ' capillarity,' and ' imbibition ' between solids 
and liquids, all based on the phenomena of endosmosis. He is aware that 
even colloids will diffuse if the membrane be suitable (this confirmed in 1912 
with great accuracy by Zsigmondy and Siedentopf) and applies this to 
dyeing. Many dyestuffs, whose colloidal nature is known, will diffuse into 
and colour a parchment membrane, but will not stain the surrounding 
solvent. Some enter into the cell wall, some appear to be fixed upon it. 
Now, in dyeing the aim is either to fix this interpermeated colloid by a 
mordant which will turn it to an insoluble precipitate, still within "the 
fibre, or to cause the endosmosis of such large molecules of the colloid 
dyestuff that it will not readily diffuse out. Silk and wool have small 
interstices in their membranous structure : an ' animalising ' process is any 
which so closes up the large interstices of the cotton fibre that it will act in 
the same way. There is no need to postulate any entry into chemical com- 
bination on the part of the fibres {e.g., with the colourless rosaniline solu- 
tion). Heating is of value because it expands the pores of the fibres — here 
he reverts a century to the pure mechanicists of the infancy of the science — 

38 See Knecht, Manual of Dyeing, vol. 1, p. 19. 

39 1913, p. 269 ; 1914, p. 5 ; 1915, pp. 80, 96, and 222 ; 1916, p. 33. 

40 Textile Colorist, 1884 and 1885. 

41 Philos. Transact. 1861-1864. 


and also because it favours the combination of the dye plus mordant into 
insoluble lakes. 

0. N. Witt's 42 theory of selective solution and of solid solution was the 
next step. The phenomenon of solid solution was first noticed by Van 't 
Hoff 43 in 1890, as an explanation" of the formation of alloys by the solution 
of one solid metal in another. Witt's application of this to dyeing was, it 
must he remembered, put forth as a ' working hypothesis,' which appeared 
to its formulator as being capable of explaining many observed facts, and 
which might at least serve as starting-point for a more adequate theory. 
His initial objection to the terminology ' substantive ' and ' adjective ' 
colours is, that the success of the dyeing process depends on the fabric as 
well as on the dye : one fibre will not take all dyes nor will one dye colour all 
fabrics. This is not, he says, explained by chemical combination, but by 
choice of solvent, the fibre is a better solvent for the dyestuff than is the 
water of the bath, and absorbs the colour in the same way as ether will take 
iodine from its brownish water-solution and form a violet layer, or as ether 
absorbs resorcin from its aqueous solution, whereas benzol will not, save 
in minute quantities, though resorcin is soluble in benzol. Keratin and 
fibroin are very good solvents, cellulose a poor solvent, for colours ; but no 
dyestuff can be truly insoluble in the fibre, or it would wash out. He 
insists that the colour on the fibre is the colour of the dissolved, not the 
solid dye, e.g., magenta dyes red, not metallic green, and fluorescein dyes 
fluorescent, though it only fluoresces in solution. So illuminating was the 
theory at first glance that it found many upholders : P. Sisley, W. H. 
Perkin, Michaelis, Cross and Bevan, and at one time Dreaper ; and it was 
only when von Georgievies, Biltz, Freundlich, and Walker and Appleyard 
made exhaustive researches into the laws governing colour adsorption 
(e.g., that Henry's law is not obeyed, unless totally unfounded assumptions 
are made as to the molecular constitution of the absorbed dye) that the 
inadequacy of the theory was demonstrated. 

Cross and Bevan in 1910 still insist, from the pure transparency of 
the jute-fibre when dyed dark blue with a mixed solution of potassium 
ferricyanide and ferric chloride, that this is a case of ' solid solution' 44 
and Sisley 45 in 1913 claimed that ' Berthelot's law ' on the distribution 
of a dissolved substance between two immixable solvents holds good 
in dyeing silk with certain acid dyestuffs, and quoted his experiments 
to show the analogy between the extraction of picric acid from its aqueous 
solution by silk on the one hand and by organic solvents such as benzene 
or amyl alcohol on the other hand, the action in both cases being accelerated 
by the presence of a mineral acid, because it is found that fully ionised 
dyestuff, i.e., one in very dilute aqueous solution, will not come out of 
its water solution on to fibre or into organic solvents, and the addition 
of an electrolyte diminishes the ionisation coefficient and the solubility 
of the dyestuff in water. C. 0. Weber 46 likewise believes that benzidine 
colours go into solid solution in the cotton fibre, the fastness of the colour 
to washing being inversely proportional to the diffusion-coefficient of the 
dye. The then extant theories of colloidal solution were first applied 

12 ' Theory of the Dyeing Process,' in Farbenzeilttng, 1890-1. 

43 Zeitschr. f. phys. Ohemie (1890), 5, 322. 

44 See also Jozirn. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1893. 
46 loc. cit. 

46 Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1894, p. 120. 


by F. Krafft' 17 to the theory of dyeing. His summary of the facts then 
known is this : a colloid solution or system contains the solute in mole- 
cular form ; the molecules are large in mass and volume, and tend to 
form systems rotating round one another. When the gel coagulates 
these spheroid forms become rigid — the solid is not ' amorphous ' but 
' globomorphous ' (this is not true unless the disperse phase occupies no 
more than 74 per cent, of the total volume of the sol ; 48 above 74 per 
cent, the globules become flattened to dodecahedra, with walls, of in- 
creasing tenuity, consisting of the continuous phase — but such fine walls 
are rare save in the soaps). Krafft goes on to state that in dilute solutions 
the soaps are hydrolytically dissociated, but the constant interchange 
of + ve and — ve ions causes the neutral reaction to persist and the solution 
to remain ' clear.' His proof of dissociation is that the melting-point 
is that of stearic acid, not of sodium stearate. Hence Krafft's theory 
of the dyeing process is that it consists in the deposition of colloids in 
or on the fibre in the form of globules or membranes, very plastic, which 
(like the soaps) have the power of clinging to solid bodies. Dyes which 
have a small molecular weight must be presented to the cotton fibre in 
the form of colloidal compounds with a mordant, which is in itself always 
a colloid, to form colour lakes. Many dyes are colloids in water and not 
in alcohol ; the substance is hydrated and forms immense molecules. 
Colloid solutions of iron hydroxide, aluminium chloride, i.e., in water, 
will all form colour lakes which ' fall out of solution ' {i.e., coagulate) 
at 0° C. (see Zsigmondy's experiments in freezing sols). Their tough, 
plastic, clinging nature all makes for good dyeing, e.g., alizarin red in 
presence of a fatty acid of low melting-point forms a colloidal membranous 
deposit, Turkey red. Direct dyes are mostly colloids of more or less slight 
solubility, e.g., benzopurpurin. The direct cotton colours were supposed 
to exist in the colloidal condition to a much greater extent than the dyes 
of the acid and basic groups, and this would explain them being taken 
up direct by the cotton fibre. Wool and silk enter into combination with 
dyes, forming membranous colloidal salts ; leather in tanning forms a 
similar surface. Hence his theory is that the dyer ' imitates Nature ' 
in ' forming a protective insoluble colloid membrane on the outside of 
the fibre.' Biltz 49 also showed that colloidal solutions of inorganic sub- 
stances like selenium, tellurium, gold or molybdenum blue would dye 
wool or silk, and that analogously with organic dyestuffs an electrolyte 
(salt) hastened, while a protective colloid retarded, the process. 

Later research has confirmed much of Krafft's work, if it has also 
served to point out his errors, most glaring of which is of course that of 
the ' protective exterior membrane.' Certainly the adsorption process 
is by its very nature largely confined to the surfaces, but the entire struc- 
ture of a sol (or gel) may be permeated by another substance, colloid or 
crystalloid, and then, according to McBain and Zsigmondy, the term 
1 sorption ' is more descriptive of the phenomenon. Sisley takes exception 
to the use of the word ' adsorption ' which is now largely used in colloid 
chemistry to indicate the extraction of a dissolved body by a solid. He 
submits that the word is no improvement on absorption and that so-called 
adsorption compounds are in no way distinguishable from chemical 

47 1896-9, Berichte, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32. 

48 Zsigmondy, p. 67, 157 et seq. 

4 » Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1904, p. 146 ; 1905, p. 276. 


compounds. It is probable that their formation is incomplete, and this 
would explain their not obeying the law of multiple proportions. 

Other workers besides Krafft and Biltz are of the opinion that many 
dyestuffs form colloidal solutions. Teague, 50 Buxton, and Vignon base 
their conclusions with Krafft on diffusion experiments, Pelet-Jolivet 51 
and Wild on their ultramicroscopic studies. Knecht and Batey 52 and 
later Donna n and Harris 53 deny the colloidal nature of benzopurpurine, 
chrysophenine, and Congo red on grounds that their electrical conduc- 
tivities are normal and that they exert osmotic pressure. The work of 
Donnan and Harris is important and leads to the view that measurements 
of the osmotic pressure are of no value unless account be taken of the 
presence of an electrolyte (if present). The electrolyte distributes itself 
unequally on the two sides of the dialysing membrane and sets up an 
opposing osmotic pressure. Zsigmondy, considering their experiments, 
also those of Bajdiss, 54 Teague and Buxton, 55 Rachlmann v. Vegesack, 56 
Biltz and Bredig, places Congo red and all the other azo- dyestuffs of its 
class among the colloids, owing to their low diffusibility and optical visi- 
bility (in the ultramicroscope). On boiling Congo red dissociates ; it 
is extremely sensitive to the presence of carbon dioxide in diffusing, but 
in the matter of conductivity and osmotic stress it behaves like a crystal- 
loid or electrolyte ; the conclusion being that the salt is dissolved as 
molecules, but the presence of extremely minute amounts of electrolytes 
causes aggregation into submicrons. Dyestuffs with the alizarin group 
are highly colloidal, while the dyestuffs containing sulphonic groups not 
only form very soluble compounds in water, but their salts are very 
dialysable even with molecules of from 75-78 atoms, yet, according to 
Biltz, 57 molecules of from 70 to 95 atoms should not diffuse. 

In the light of these facts, all the recent research into the properties 
of colloids has its direct bearing upon the theory of dyeing. 

Following upon Krafft, P. D. Zacharias published in 1900 a ' Farben- 
theorie,' of which the German translation appeared in 1908. His theory 
meanwhile developed in a series of essays in the ' Farbenzeitung,' 1901, 
12, 149 and 165, and ' Ber. d.d. chem. Ges.' 1905. His earlier theory is 
one of colloid interdiffusion plus adhesion. He discounts the chemical 
theory altogether, objects to the solid solution theory pure and simple, 
but, recognising the colloidal nature of the dyes and of the fibres, he 
suggests an interdiffusion plus precipitation, followed by or resulting in 
an adhesion, whose nature he does not particularise. His later theory, 
which he insists does not essentially vary from his first statements, follows 
upon the researches of Graham, Krafft, Justin-Mueller, Biltz and Zsig- 
mondy (Biltz and Zacharias variously quarrelled about the originality 
of each other's theory and experiments ; while Zacharias continuously 
and pugnaciously defends his theory, it is Biltz who brought forward 
the experimental material for such a theory — no such experimental data 

50 Zeitschr. fiir Phys. Chem. 1907, 60, p. 419. 

51 Zeitschr. Chem. hid. Roll. 1908, 3, 174. 

52 Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1909, 25, 194. 
63 Chem. Soc. Trans. 1911, 99, 1554. 

54 Proc. Boy. Soc. 1909, 81B, 269. 

65 loc. cit. 

56 Zeitschr. physikal. Chem. 1910, 73, 481. 

67 Ibid., 1911, 77, 91 ; also Gedankboel; van Bemmelen, 1910, 108. 


having been furnished by Zacharias). He now places the dyeing process 
in close relation to that of solution, with its phenomena of hydrolysis 
and ionisation, on the border-line between chemistry and physics. The 
cohesion between fibre and dye he now conceives to be possibly electrical 
in character, comparable to the combination of ions. Essentially, 
dyeing is the coagulation of a colloid in or upon another colloid, in such 
a form as to be insoluble ; the electrolyte present in the bath causes such 
coagulation by its electrical effects on the colloid solute and its solvent. 
He does not now deny the possibility of subsequent chemical combination 
between the cohering fibre and dye, particularly in the case of animal 

"W. P. Dreaper also did something to bring the observed dyeing pheno- 
mena into line with the evolving colloid theory. In his earlier papers 
his theory is one of endosmosis, proportional to pressure and to the absolute 
temperature, coupled with chemical combination ; he also inclines to 
the solid solution theory, applying Linder and Picton's idea of ' pseudo- 
solution ' to the phenomena of dyeing. Finally he rejects both the chemi- 
cal and the solid solution theories, upholding one of pure adsorption by 
the fibre, acting as a more or less dry gel, of the hydrosols of the various 
dyes. Dyeing is always carried on in the wet condition, so that the fibre 
may be sufficiently hydrated to act as a hydrogel of the gelatine type ; the 
state of hydration Dreaper finds to influence the amount of any solution 
adsorbed. His text book (1906) ' Chemistry and Phvsics of Dyeing ' 
gives a very broad and somewhat indecisive theory of ' the phenomena 
which take place in dyeing,' including : (1) ' A solution state of the dye, 
within certain limits of aggregation, determined by the laws of size ' ; 
(2) ' a fibre state corresponding to this state of aggregation, and of a 
permeable nature ' ; (3) ' effective localisation of the dye within the fibre 
area, due to surface concentration phenomena ' ; (4) ' localisation of 
salts, acids, &c, within the fibre area ' ; (5) ' indirect entrance of dye 
aggregate by molecular migration with subsequent re-formation of aggre- 
gates within the fibre area , according to the laws of size ' ; (6) ' de-solution, 
due to secondary attraction between the fibre substance and the dye, 
or by reduced surface energy phenomena, or concentration effects ' ; (7) in 
some cases, primary or chemical action may play some part at this stage ; 
this may even, in some cases, take the place of de-solution phenomena ' ; 
(8) ' dissociation effects in the case of basic dyes which may lead to the 
production of very basic salts in a high state of aggregation within the 
fibre area.' He is aware of the electro-positive or electro-negative nature 
of all colloids, but does not connect this with the coagulating (he calls 
it ' degrading ') influence of crystalloids in the dissolved colloid. 

A similar cognition of the diverse and seemingly irreconcilable nature 
of the dyeing processes was published by Grehm and Rotheli, 5S who, after 
an exhaustive criticism of all existing theories and evidence, conclude 
that each existent theory can find place in the final and adequate one. 
They were the first to show that cotton takes up direct cotton colours in 
an unchanged condition. Later Gnehm and Kaufler performed the 
following experiment : a skein of cotton dyed with benzopurpurin was 
boiled with two undyed skeins in a small beaker. After drying, all three 
skeins were alike. This observation is in direct opposition to Krafft's 

58 Zeitschr. f. aiigewandte Ghemie, 1898, pp. 482, 501. 
1917. e 


theory of colloidal precipitation, for if the colour in the dyed skein is due 
to the formation of a colloid precipitate, it cannot be conceived that in 
one case solution should ensue and in another precipitation. 

Wilhelm Ostwald, 59 M. van Bemmelen, 60 H. Freundlich, 61 G. Losev, 62 
L. Pelet-Jolivet, 63 and W. Biltz M investigated the laws governing adsorp- 
tions by solids such as charcoal, of crystalloids and colloids, and the 
dyeing of mineral substances by dyestufis. The associated phenomena 
of contact-electrification were also studied by Perrin, 65 who formulated 
laws, 66 and by Pelet-Jolivet and Grand, 67 Miolati, 68 Gee and Harrison, 69 
and Knecht. 70 Further work in the same fields — by Svante Arrhenius 71 
(diffusion of hydrosols and adsorption isotherms), 0. Biitschli 72 (structure 
of gels, and influence of hydration on a dried gel), Wolfgang Ostwald 73 
(classification of disperse systems, conductivity of metal hydrosols, electrical 
coagulation of suspensions, &c), A. Lottermoser 74 (metallic hydrosols, 
solid sols, freezing of metallic hydrosols, mutual precipitation), W. Pauli 75 
(electric charge and coagulation of albumen, precipitation by electrolytes, 
internal friction of albuminous sols, structure of jellies, turgescence of the 
same and conditions governing its rapidity), P. P. von Weimarn 78 
(emulsoids and suspensoids, the formation of jellies from crystalloid 
solutions and the crystallisation of colloids, laws governing surface tension 
in two-phase systems), Emil Hatschek 77 and Zsigmondy, 78 working with 
Siedentopf, Ambronn, Heyer, Kirchner, Schultz and Wilke Dorfurt — baa 
resulted in a comprehensive theory of colloidal systems, which many 
of the investigators have themselves applied to the dyeing process. 

The idea of ' solution ' is to be widened to embrace all possible com- 
binations of a solid, liquid or gaseous disperse phase with a solid, liquid 
or gaseous continuous phase. 79 The most common solutions still are 
those having a liquid continuous phase, and the most common solvent 
is water — few, if any, substances refusing to go into colloid, if not crystal- 
loidal, solution in water. Now, the obvious method of differentiating 
between crystalloids and colloids is by means of dialysis, whether it be 
carried out by the Graham dialyser or the far more complicated and efficient 
ones of Kuhne, Jordis, or Zsigmondy and Heyer. But a substance may 
be colloid in some solvents and crystalloid in others ; nor is it only crystal- 

69 Zeitschr. f. phys. Chemie, 1890, 6, 71-82; Lehrbuch der allgem. Chemie, 1 Aufl, 
1. 778-791 (1885), 2 Aufl. 2, 3, 217 et seq. (1906). 

m Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chemie, 1903, 23, 238, 18, 114-7, 13, 350. 

61 ' Kapillar Chemie,' 1909, Zeitschr. f. phys. Chemie, 1909, 44, 129. 

62 Zeitschr. f. phys. Chemie, 1907, 59, 284-312, &c. 

63 ' Theorie des Farbeprozesses ' (1910), Kolloidzeitschr. 1909, 5, 238-243. 

64 Berichte, 1904, 37, 1095-1116; van Bemmelen, Qedankboek, 1910, 108-20. 

65 Annates de Chim. 1909. 18, 5-114; Comptes Rendus, 1903, 136, 1388-1391, 
137, 513, 564. 

66 Journal de Chim. Physique, 1904, p. 619, and 1905, p. 100. 

67 Rev. Gen. 1907, p. 225; Koll. Zeitschr. 1907, 2, 41. 
c8 Berichte, 1893, 26, 1788. 

f ' 9 'The electrical theory of dyeing,' 1910, Journ.Soc. Dyers and Col. 1911, p. 279. 

70 J own. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1909, 25, No. 7. 

71 Immuno Chemie, 1907, p. 17. 
7275 See Zsigmondy, Kolloid Chemie. 

76 ' Zur Lehre von den Zustanden der Materie ' in Koll. Zeitschr. 1907-9, 2-5. 
'Crundzuge der Dispersoid Chemie ' (1911), Chemikerzcitung, p. 725. 

77 Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Colloids, 1916. 

78 Kolloid Chemie, 1912. 

79 Zsigmondy, ibid. p. 25. 


loids that form geometric crystals colloirl gold, silver, albumen, globulin 
and hsemoglobin will all give crystals, while it is possible to obtain ' globo- 
morphous ' sodium chloride, and many crystalloid solutions pass through 
a jelly-like stage immediately before solidifying into crystals. It is more 
correct to speak of a ' colloidal state of matter : than of ' colloids ' as a 
sharply defined class. Colloidal solutions are either ' suspensoid ' (i.e., 
having a solid disperse phase) or ' emulsoid ' (having a finely divided 
liquid disperse phase) ; the particles or ' micelli ' varying in size from 
•1 fj-fj. (crystalloid) to 1 ^ (hydrosols) to 100 /x/x (turbidities) and from 
100 w to 1 mm. (suspensions fine or coarse). Below 1000 //./a the so- 
called Brownian movement is visible, both in true colloid-solutions and 
fine suspensions ; the motion is the more rapid the smaller the particles 
are ; it does not vary on admitting or excluding the dark heat-rays ; 
it is independent of the direction of admitted light-rays, or the length 
and intensity of its subjection to these ; it will continue for months and 
even years ; it does not depend on the charge upon the particles ; it is 
affected by dilution, and the particles appear to influence one another. 
Various theories have been put forward to explain it. Quincke 80 considered 
it due to the spreading of liquid layers over the surfaces of the particles ; 
Wiener, 81 Cantori, Renard, Boussinesq. and Gourg based it upon collisions 
between the particles and the molecules of the solvent ; Einstein, 82 von 
Smoluchowski, 83 Zsigmondy, 84 The. Svedberg, 85 and Perrin 8 " ascribe it 
to kinetic energy. 

The particles migrate, under the influence of the electric current 
(' cataphoresis '), in a direction determined by their charge. The same 
colloidal solution may be positive* or negative — it depends on the 
nature of the continuous phase (' intermicellary liquid ') and the 
electrolytes it may contain. The direction can be measured by Coehn's 87 
apparatus, or that of A. Cotton and H. Mouton, 88 or of The. Svedberg 89 ; 
colloidal iron oxide, cadmium hydroxide, titanic acid, &c, and all basic 
dyestuffs, colloid or crystalloid, are positive and wander to the cathode ; 
colloidal gold, silver, platinum, sulphides, mastic, starch, gums, stannic 
acid, molybdenum blue, &c, and all acid dyestuffs, colloid or crystalloid, 
are negative and wander to the anode. 90 A trace of added alkali causes a 
neutral colloid (e.g., suspended white of egg in pure water) to become 
negative, added acid causes a cathodic convection. 91 The electrical 

8 " Verh. d. Gcs. d. Nalurf. v. Arztc, 1898; Beibl. zu d . Annalen d. Phys. 1899, 
23, 934-7. 

81 Poggendorff's Annalen d. Phys. u. Chemie, 1803, 118, 79-94. 

82 Drude's Annalen d. Phys. (4) 1905, 17, 549-560; 1906,19,371-381 ; Zdtschr. 
f. EMtrochemie, 1908, 14, 235-239. 

83 Drvde's Annalen d. Phys. (4) 1906, 21, 756-780 ; 1908, 25. 205-226. 

81 Zeitschr. f. EleHrochemie, 1902, 8, 684-687; Roll. Chemie, p. 38 9 ; Zur 
Brkenntnis der Kottohle, 1905, S. 106-111, with tables. 

85 'Studien zur Lehve von don kolloidcn Losungen,' 1907, 125-160; Zeitschr. f. 
phys. Chem. 1910, 73, 547-556. 

86 Annates de Chimie et de Phys. 1909, (8) 18, 5-114. 

87 Zeitschr. f. Electrochemie, 1909, 15, 653. 

88 Les Ultramicroscopes, &c, 1906, p. 144. 

89 Loc. cit. 

90 Zsigmondy, Kolloid Chemie, p. 44. 

91 Hardy, Journal of Physiology, 1899, 24, 288-304 ; Hardy, Zeitschr. f. p. 
Chemie, 1900, 33, 385-400; Perrin, Comptcs Bmdvs, 1903, 136. 1388-1391 : 1903, 
137, 513-514, 564-6. 

e 2 


property of electrolytes is well known to be due to their dissociation into 
negative anions and positive cations ; the charge on the colloid particles is 
not so easy to explain, as they are not generally supposed to be ionised. 
Yet Zsigmondy gives three various explanations, 92 and Bredig 93 and 
Billitzer 94 assume the same, i.e., difference of dielectric constant between 
particle and intermicellary fluid ; capture (e.g., colloid gold with H ions) or 
deposition of ions. Hardy 95 has the distinction of pointing out that it is 
the electrification of the particles of any irreversible colloid that causes it 
to remain in solution ; if an electrolyte of opposite charge be added till the 
isoelectric point be reached, the colloid will coagulate into a gel ; the ions of 
the electrolyte bearing the opposite charge to the colloid particles also take 
part in the precipitation. 96 Schulze 97 has pointed out, and this has been 
many times corroborated, that the valency of the ion is of great influence in 
this coagulating process : a trivalent ion is worth 1 ,000 monovalent or 30 
divalent ions. The curve is the same as the adsorptions curve, as Freund- 
lich 98 has pointed out, and Pelet-Jolivet's " table of comparisons between 
the laws of contact electrification, colloid coagulation, dyeing and capillary 
attraction bears out in a remarkable way. Not only do crystalloids 
precipitate colloids, but two colloids of o]:>posite charge will precipitate each 
other, unless one is in overwhelming excess of the other ; there is a more or 
less wide zone within which mutual coagulation will take place, though 
there is only one point at which the charges actually neutralise each other. 
For dyeing, this rule is of the widest importance. 100 

If the dry gel of a reversible colloid like gelatine or agar be put into 
water to be dissolved, it behaves in a manner quite distinct from a crystal- 
loid. The latter gives off particles from its surface till all is dissolved, in a 
manner analogous to the evaporation or sublimation in a gaseous medium, 
and the solution obeys Boyle-Gray-Lussac's laws of gases, within certain 
limits. The gelatine swells up and absorbs the water into its own sub- 
stance, but does not dissolve until the temperature rises to above 25° C. 

Van Bemmelen and Batschli believed that jellies possessed a porous 
structure of microscopic dimensions, but this theory is now abandoned ; 
such pores can be produced by irregular contraction under the action of 
alcohol or chromic acid, and the structure of natural jellies is molecular, and 
they are of the nature of solid solutions. Capillarity may cause imbibition 
but cannot produce swelling in itself, though it may iiberate the elasticity of 
the imbibing substance, as water does that of a dried sponge. 

Similar phenomena will explain the adsorption of liquids by charcoal, 
unglazed pottery, &c, though, as von Georgievics points out, not the 
decolorisation of liquids : this is, according to Knecht and Suida, 101 due to 
the activity of the nitrogen compounds of the charcoal, and to the acid 
nature of the silicates. 

92 Kolloid Chemie, p. 48. 
9:1 Anorganische Fermente, 1901, p. 16. 

M Zeitschr. f. Elecktrochemie, 1902, 8, 638-642; Zeitschr. f. phys. Chemie, 1903, 
45, 307-330. 
1,3 Loc. cit. 

9,; See also Dreaper, Chemistry and Physics of Dyeing, p. 123. 
97 Joum. f. praHische Chemie, 1882 (2), 25, 431-452; 1883, 27, 320-332. 
9i Zeitschr. filr phys. Chemie, 1910, 73, pp. 385^23. 
• l! ' Theorie des Farbeprozesses, 1910. 
Il)u See Zsigmondy, Roll. Chem., Cli. 98, ' Kolloidfalhmg der Farbsfcoffe.' 
101 SitzvnjsbBr, d. Akai. d. Wiss., Wien, 1904, 113, lib, 725-761. 


Pieces of such colourless and transparent silicic-acid-gel thrown into 
colloidal dye solutions Zsigmondy found to behave as ' ultra-filters,' the 
dispersion-medium being absorbed as by a sponge, and the dye-particles 
held on the surface of the gel-particles in a semiliquid state. Silk, cotton, 
and wool fibres show a similar hygroscopy and were described by Dreapor. 
as - colloidal substances dry to the touch,' like solid gelatine. Like it, they 
swell up in water and other solvents but do not dissolve ; they may be 
looked on as irreversible gels, like silicic acid. Their ' pores,' however, are 
not of the extreme minuteness of those of the latter substance : they do not 
show anything like the same optical homogeneity ; and therefore they are 
not ' ultra-filters ' to the same degree. Moreover, the fact that they show no 
readiness to enter into solution, in spite of their ' swelling,' causes Justin- 
Mueller 102 to suggest the name ' turgoids,' not ' colloids,' for them, and to 
call the process turgescence and not colloidal solution. He considers this 
turgescence of the fibre to be a necessary part of the process of adsorption of 
ihe dye ; colours that rub off do so because adhesion, not adsorption, has 
taken place, and the dye has been ' salted out ' or coagulated on the 
fibre. Both the deposition and the adsorption arc reveisible according 
as the adsorption-coefficient and solubility-coefficient approach each 

Some such laws appear to be followed as were noticed by Pelet- Jolivet 
and his assistants in recording the capillary attraction of filter-paper on 
various kinds of solutions ; the height to which the coloured layer, or the 
layer that gives a direct reaction acid or basic, apjjeared to rise, was found 
to agree in a remarkable way with the observed electrical and colloid- 
precipitating effects of the same solutions. Schoenbein, W. Ostbald, 
Goppelsroder, and Fichter and Sahlbom have recorded the following 
results : Alkali and acid solutions give reaction up to seven- tenths of the 
wetted paper ; calcium carbonate only about one-tenth, and barium 
hydrate about three-tenths. Positively-charged colloids are found to be 
deposited on the paper at the surface of the liquid, while negative colloids 
mount with the water. (Thus Fichter and Sahlbom refer to the currents 
set up in the capillaries of the paper : even in glass capillaries water rises 
much higher than basic dyestuff solutions or positive colloids in general.) 
Thus any influence which causes colloidal coagulation, or decreases solu- 
bility, limits the capillary rise and favours dyeing ; the influences which 
keep the particles small and disperse act in the other direction and are 
against rapidity of colouring. From this the actual value of ' assistants ' 
in the dye-bath may be deduced, without postulating a liberation of the 
free dye-acid, which has been diversely shown to be little, if any, more 
effective pure than combined to form a dye salt. 

The work of Alexander 103 is of interest as showing the influence of 
protective colloids on dye solutions. He has previously pointed out 
that, after the addition of protective colloids (gelatine &c.) to solutions 
of benzopurpurin, dilute acids produce colour changes analogous to 
those adsorbed in the dyed animal fibres. In the case of a dilute solution 
of benzopurpurin, addition of dilute mineral acid quickly changes the 
bright red colour to dark blue, and stronger acid coagulates the dye 
which settles out of solution. If gelatine is added to the benzopurpurin 
solution, dilute mineral acids give a claret-red solution, and stronger 

102 Chemikerzeitung, \). 8-15, 1914. 

1US J mm. iSoc. Ghent. Lid. 191 1, p. 517. 


acid changes the shade to chocolate-brown, without, however, causing 
any precipitate. ?* Alexander has examined these colour-changes at the 
ordinary temperature in the ultra-microscope, and reports — dilute benzo- 
purpurin solution shows a field full of ultra-microns which from their 
brilliancy and motion appear to be 50-60/x//. in size. When a little 
acid is added, the ultra-microns gradually gather together into clumps, 
or groups, whose motion decreases as their size increases, until the whole 
of the dye is deposited in coagulated masses of bright ultra-microns. 
Stronger acid causes instant coagulation in large masses when acid is 
added to the gelatine dye solution ; no change is produced unless the 
acid is strong enough to cause a more or less extensive agglutination 
of ultra-microns into small groups of 2 or 3, which, however, have still 
sufficient motion to keep afloat. The cause of the variation in the colour- 
changes produced by immersion in dilute acid on the different fibres dyed 
with benzopurpurin is due (according to author) to their difference in 
protecting action on the adsorbed dye. A practical application for 
the use of protective colloids is found in Feilmann's English patent, 
10,693, 1906, where the employment of casein is made to produce colloidal 
solutions of various unsulphonated dyestuffs, particularly azo- dyes. 
But this application has not found much use up to the present. 

Similarly Mohlau and Zimmermann m produce colloidal indigo by 
means of protalbumic and lysalbumic acids — also Fabrik v. Heyden 
produce the same substance by the use of various protein substances. 105 

The phenomenon of ' contact electrification ' and its value in dyeing 
remains. Whenever two substances solid, liquid, or gaseous are in contact, 
having a common surface, all kinds of forces come into play, which 
are difficult indeed to study when acting between solid and solid or solid 
and liquid or solid and gas, but between liquid and gas have been formulated. 
Surface tension and surface electrification are. the problems which parti- 
cularly concern colloidalists, the surfaces between the disperse and the 
continuous phase being so immense in comparison with the mass. 

Gibbs 106 enunciated the theorem ' Those substances which lower 
the surface tension of a solution with respect to another phase must 
concentrate themselves upon the latter.' This can be experimentally 
proved with gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, for it is possible to 
measure their surface tensions ; but Freundlick has lately shown that 
those substances which lower the surface tension between two liquids 
are strongly adsorbed, not only by these but also by solid bodies ; hence 
the rule would seem to have general application. Moreover, the adsorp- 
tion-isotherm (showing quantitative adsorption by solid bodies) will 
hold also for the gas-liquid and liquid-liquid boundary. Freundlich, 
Schmidt 107 and Svante Arrhenius 108 have given formulae for this adsorp- 
tion, which within certain limits holds for the adsorption of crystalloids 
by charcoal and by hydrogels. 109 Ultra-microns of one colloid likewise 
adsorb ultra-microns of another colloid, and even when they both bear 
the same charge ; this can be seen in the ultra-microscope and goes 

»** Zeitschr. f. Farboi und Textil Chemie,. 1903, 25. 

105 German Patent Application, 112,051, 1903. 

me Thermo-Dynamische Studien, p. 321. 

'»' Zeitschr. /. phi/s. Client. 1911, 77, 641-660 ; 1912, 78, 667-681. 

lUb Meddelanden frail K. Velenskapsakad. Nobdinstitttl, I.9J1, 2 N. 7. 

109 Van Bemmelen. 


to show that the electrolyte-coagulation theory is not quite adequate 
to explain all dyeing phenomena. When one colloid so unites with the 
other it forms a ' protective colloid ' and shows the utmost reluctance 
to coagulate. This is connected with P. P. von Weimarn's ' Grundgesetz 
der Dispersoidologie' : ' When a substance suffers physical or chemical 
division it strives with all possible means for a diminution of its 
free surface energy.' This diminution of surface energy may take 
place by coagulation, which, however, is impossible so long as all 
the particles have the same charge, and only takes place in presence of 
an electrolyte or under influence of a current or by deposition upon a 
surface whose charge is opposite to their own, giving adsorption according 
to Freundlich's rules. Perrin's 110 and Pelet-Jolivet's researches into 
the contact charges which appear on various solid substances, including 
textile fibres, when brought into contact with liquids show, not only 
a definite ' latent heat of adsorption, ' but also a charge (measured by 
the electrosmosis of the liquid through the diaphragm) in the case of 
ionising solvents, but not of non-ionising solvents like chloroform, petro- 
leum, and benzol. All solid substances take on a positive charge in an 
acid liquid, a negative charge in an alkaline liquid ; the difference of 
potential is greater when the number of II ions is greater, and smaller 
in presence of a greater number of OH ions. These phenomena show 
a remarkable parallelism to the results observed in the coagulation of 
colloids and point to some deep-seated analogy. Wool, cotton, silk, 
&c, follow the general charge-law in acids and alkalies, but they all 
take a negative charge already in pure distilled water ; this charge is 
increased in contact with alkaline solutions and decreased in acid 
solutions with silk and wool it is possible to show an actual change 
in sign of charge. 

The work of Linder and Picton IU may be mentioned here. They stated 
that dyeing is connected with the electrical charges which substances carry 
when existing in colloidal solution. They experimented on colloidal ferric 
hydroxide and basic dyes which carry positive charges and arsenious 
sulphide and acid dyes which are negatively charged. Hence — as two 
oppositely-charged colloidal solutions precipitate one another- — soluble 
blue (acid) precipitates ferric hydroxide, but methyl violet does not. 
Exactly the reverse process occurs with arsenious sulphide. Ammonium 
sulphate also precipitates colloidal ferric hydroxide, but they found a 
distinction between its action and that of the dye. A definite quantity only 
of the salt is required to precipitate the colloid, and more added remains in 
solution. However, with the dye, after the colloid had been precipitated the 
dye continued to be adsorbed by the ferric hydroxide as a whole. They 
explained this by assuming that the precipitated colloid still retained a 
portion of its original charge, and that by virtue of this it still continued to 
take up more dye. The same kind of action was supposed to take place in 
dyeing — the fibre taking the place of ferric hydroxide or arsenious sulphide. 

These facts will account for the phenomena of dyeing wool with a basic 
dyestufl of the methylene-blue type : it is an evident case of mutual 
discharge and consequent precipitation by two oppositely-charged colloids, 

11U Loc. cit. 

111 J own. Chem. Soc. 1905, pp. 1931-1935. See also Joum. Chem. Soc. 1892, 
61, 111, 137, 148; ibid., 1895, 67, 63 ; ibid., 1897, 71, 568. 


and the effect of adding either acid, base, or salt to the bath can also be* 
demonstrated. But the colloid-precipitation theory can by no means be 
directly applied to dj^eing with acid dyes upon animal fibres in the neutral 
bath : the fibre charges itself negatively, the dye also has a negative charge, 
and no two colloids of the same sign will precipitate each other. This leads 
Pelet- Jolivet 112 to revert to the adsorption theory, assuming that the 
dyestuffs act as unhydrolysed electrolytes in their solutions, and are 
adsorbed according to the valency of their combining ion, e.g. — the sodium 
salt of the colour acid should dye less strongly than the calcium or 
magnesium salt, and this less strongly than the aluminium salt or than the 
free acid with its hydrogen ion ; similarly the hydrochloride of a basic 
dyestufi should give weaker colours than the sulphate or than the phosphate, 
or finally than the hydrate with its OH ion. This theory Pelet was able to 
demonstrate clearly by experiments both with acid and basic dj^es upon 
wool ; he concludes that the dyes, as von Georgievics, Walker Appleyard, 
and Vignon had already stated, act as dissociable electrolytes in the bath 
and dye according to valency — the H and OH ions always having dis- 
proportionate action to their valency. 

These results also accord with his experiments (following Goppels- 
roder 113 ) in capillary-ascent of various dyes (in water-solution) in strips of 
linen, cotton, flannel, and silk cloth, as well as filter-paper. Positive 
dyestufis (colloid) cease to ascend at the actual surface of the liquid; 
added acids cause them to ascend, and decrease the ascent of acid dyes ; 
alkalies will not cause acid dyes to ascend further, and actually decrease the 
ascent of basic dyes. 

The dyeing process by adsorption plus dissociation Pelet ingeniously 
explains by assuming an accompanying dissociation of the water ; the fibre 
becomes covered in the case of basic dyes by a ' double layer ' of H and OH 
ions, which, like those of the sodium, &c, base in acid dyes and the S0 4 , 
&c, ion in basic dyes, are very small and mobile in contrast with the large 
organic ion, and therefore reach the fibre first and deposit themselves as a 
film upon it, giving it thus their charge. The organic ion of the dyestufi has 
an opposite charge to these, and fixes itself, by a process analogous to 
coagulation, upon them. The actual existence of this ' double layer,' which 
by selection results in a fixation of the dye accompanied by a quantitative 
survival of the acid in the bath, has been demonstrated by Pelet, von 
Helrnholtz, G. Quincke, and A. Pellot to exist on the surface of solid bodies 
immersed in water. Similar cases of chemical action subsequent to 
adsorption have been noticed by H. Freundlich and W. Neumann. 114 

It would appear that in this theory — which takes account of the 
electrical properties of solutions colloidal and crystalloidal, of the 
phenomena of contact-electrification and surface-tension expressed in 
terms of capillary attraction, of the effect of temperature upon all these, 
without denying the possibility of chemical reaction between the fibre and 
the dye presented to it— lines are laid down upon which an adequate theory 
of the dyeing process miay develop. 

112 Theorie des Farbeprozcsses, p. 105, Pelet- J olivet and N. Anderson, Roll. 
Zeitschr. 1908,3,206. 

113 ' Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Basel,' Roll. Zeitschr. 
1909-10, 4, 5, 6. 

111 Zeitschr. f. phys. Chem. 67, 538. 


Win. Harrison and Haldane Gee 115 proceeded now to carry out their 
experiments testing this electrical theory and found it to explain phenomena, 
observed better than the adsorption theory, which Lewis 110 had discredited 
on the grounds that it demands a decrease in amount of dye adsorbed under 
increase of temperature. These authors claim that it is always an 
electrical phenomenon : if the dye be colloid, then coagulation results 
from neutralisation of charge ; if not colloidal, then it is ionised in solution 
and deposited by contact-electrification charges acting on the ions. 

They discovered a most important phenomenon, i.e., that the maximum 
negative charge attained by wool, silk, and cotton was at 40°. This is 
undoubtedly strong evidence in favour of an electrical phenomenon, as 
Brown 117 found that wool absorbed most basic colour at about 40°. 

Harrison refers to the physical constitution of the fibres, as the surface 
(on which the charge rests and to which the dye-particles wander to fix 
themselves) is greatly increased by the porosity and irregularity of the 
fibre. He suggests that the dye-particles, if very large, will not fix on silk 
so well as on wool or as on cotton (this being the order of increasing size of 
their pores) ; by this theory Harrison also explains the adsorption and 
fixation of the direct cotton-colours. 

In his dyeing experiments various salts, &c, are added, none of which 
tend to retard coagulation or to decrease the size of the particles, but rather 
the reverse. The dye should, therefore, be fastest dyed without salts, and 
this Harrison finds to be the case. Also, as an increase in temperature 
decreases the size of the particles, it should increase the fastness of the 
resulting dyeings. This also he finds to be true. 

Feilmann expressed his ideas of dyeing similarly to those of Gee and 
Harrison, i.e., that the dye was attracted electrically by the oppositely- 
charged fibre. He also asserted that the ion of the dyestuff penetrated the 
fibre more or less deeply, and was retained either because the fibre acted 
as a protective colloid or because chemical action took place between the 
ion and the fibre. 

By Prof. Adrian J . Brown, University of BirmitigJtam. 


' .Studies oil the Coagulation of Starch. ' A. Eernbach and J. WOLFF. (' J. lust 

Brewing,' 1904, lO, 216.) 

On the coagulation of soluble starch by aniylocoagulase, an enzyme existing in 
the germinated seeds of barley and other cereals. 
' The Diastatic Coagulation of Starch.' A. Eernbach and J. Wolee. (' Conip. 

Bend.' 1904, 139, 217. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1905, 11, 190.) 
' Anti-amylocoagulase.' A. Fernbacu and J. Wolfe. ('Ann. Brass. et.Dist.' 1900, 

9, 513. Abst. ' J. List. Brewing,' 1907, 13, 184.) 
' Colloidal Properties and Spontaneous Coagulation of Starch.' E. Pouard. (' Conip, 

Bend.' 1908, 147, 931. Abst. 'J. lust. Brewing,' 1909, 15, 330.) 

115 Trans. Faraday Society, 1910, April [Journ. Mum,:. Sch. Techn. Manchester, 
vol. iv., 1911, pp. 131-154), Paper (Harrison) Journ. Hoc. Dyers and Col., 1911, p. 279. 
They append to their paper a translation of Pelet's tables of ailinity between 
colloid-coagulation, contact-electrification, capillary ascent and dyeing, as does also 
Zsigmondy (Kollvid Chemie, p. 229). 

116 Phil. Mag. 1908 (6) 15, p. 499. 

117 Journ. Soc. Dyers and Col. 1901, p. 92. 


' Colloidal Properties of Starch in Eolation to its Chemical Constitution.' E. Fouard. 

('Comp. Rend.' 1909, 148, 502. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1909, 15, 411.) 
' Researches on the Physico-Chemical Constitution of Starch.' E. Fouard. (' Lxter- 

nat. Congress of Applied Chemistry,' 1909. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1909, 15, 

' Catalytic Changes in Starch Paste.' A. Fernbach and J. Wolff. (' Internat. 

Congress of Applied Chemistry,' 1909. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1909, 15, 632.) 
•The Selective Permeability of the Coverings of the Seeds of Hordeum vulgare.' 

Adrian J. Brown. (' Proc. Royal Soc. B. Vol. 81, 1909, ) 
The seeds are furnished with a covering permeable by water and certain classes 
of solutes when in aqueous solution ; with the majority of solutes, however, the 
covering behaves as a true semipermeable membrane. 
' Colloidal State of Brewing Materials, and its Lnportance for the Brewery.' C. J. 

Llntner. ('Zeitschr. ges. Brauw.' 1909, 32, 633. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 

1910, 16, 211.) 
Discusses the colloidal properties of starch and of the protein constituents of 
' Spring's Optically Transparent Liquids and Diastatic Properties.' H. Van Laer. 

(' Internat. Brew. Congress, Brussels,' 1910. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1910, 

16, 670.) 
' Colloidal Chemical Processes which occur in Brewing.' F. Emslander. (' Zeitschr. 

Chem. und Ind. Kolloide,' 1910, 6, 156. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1910, 16, 

Discusses surf ace influences — colloid -forming — and stabilising influences in brewing. 
' Metal-protein Turbidity of Pale Beers.' F. Schonfeld and W. HrRT. (' Wochen- 

schr. Brau.' 1910, 27, 633. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1911, 17, 288.) 
' Adsorption of various Substances by Starches,' H. Lloyd. (' J. Amer. Chem. 

Soc.' 1911, 33, 1213. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1911, 17, 693.) 
' Cause of Precipitation in Finished Pasteurised Bottled Beer.' F. Emslander. 

(' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1912, 18, 484.) 
The ' head-retaining power ' and ' palatefulness ' of beer are due to ultrarnicro- 
scopic particles of albumen existing in the form of an emulsion-colloid. Turbidity 
is occasioned by coagulation of the particles induced by physical or chemical influences. 
The stabilising influence of acids (i.e., H ions) is discussed. 
L. Wallerstein. New York. (Eng. Patent 12,350, May 22, 1911.) 

Object of process is the rendering of beer chill-proof by treatment previous to 
bottling with proteolytic enzymes (e.g., pepsin or papain), to hydrolyse albumins 
causing turbidity. (See ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1912, 18, 491.) 
' Colloidal Chemistry and Brewing.' Emil Hatschek (' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1912, 

18, 494.) 
A general survey of colloidal chemistry, with special reference to questions such 
us ' head ' formation, haze, &c., which are of particular importance in brewing. 
' Plant Colloids : Gelatinisation of Starch in Presence of Crystalloids.' M. Samei'. 

(' Kolloidchem. Beiheft,' 1911, 3, 123. Abst. ' J. List. Brewing,' 1912, 18, 694.) 
Discusses the influence of crystalloids on temperature of gelatinisation. 
' Reactions of Tannin and their Importance in Brewing.' A. Reichard. (' Zeitschr. 

Chem. und Ind. Kolloide,' 1912, 209. Abst. ' J. List. Brewing,' 1912, 18, 695.) 
'The Tannin in the Testa of the Barleycorn.' A. Reichard. ('Zeitschr. Chem. 

u. Ind. Kolloide,' 1912, 214. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1912, 18, 696.) 
Author suggests that the selective permeability of the inner covering of barley- 
corn may be occasioned by the tannin present. (See A. J. Brown, p. 1.) 
'Beer Haze.' F. Schuxfeld. (' Wochenschr. Brau.' 1912, 29,557. Abst. 'J. Inst. 

Brewing,' 1912, 18, 696.) 
The paper contains illustrations of different types of beer haze. 
' The Influence of Temperature on the Absorption of Water by the Seeds of Hordeum 

vulgare in relation to the Temperature Coefficient of Chemical Change.' Adrian 

J. Brown and F. P. Worley. (' Proc. of Royal Soc' B. 1912, 85, 546.) 
The velocity with which water is adsorbed by the seeds is an exponential function 
of the temperature, and is comparable with the vapour pressure of water, which i8 
also approximately an exponential function of the temperature. The velocity of 
adsorption of water from a solution of ethyl acetate is also an exponential function 
of the temperature, but the actual velocity is higher in the presence of ethyl acetate 
than in the presence of pure water. Probably the partial pressure of water vapour 
is increased by the presence of ethyl acetate. 


'Use of Gelatinous Silica for the Clarification of Beer.' P. Deprax. (' Ann. Brass. 

et. Dist.' 1912, 15, 410. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1913, 19, 52.) 
' On the Flocculation or " Break " of Worts and Beers and its Significance in Brewing 

Practice.' Horace T. Brow. ('J. Inst. Brewing,' 1913, 19, 84.) 
The persistent turbidity produced on cooling a hopped malt wort is occasioned 
by a suspension of particles of a tannin-protein compound soluble in hot wort, in- 
soluble in cold. Most of the particles are formed during cooling between the limits 
of 49° C. and 27° C. If the wort is strongly agitated when cooling between these 
limits, flocculation takes place, otherwise flocculation is rendered difficult owing to 
the protective influence of the dextrins of the wort. A suspension of the tannin- 
protein compound is injurious to the propagation and fermentative power of yeast, 
and adversely affects the flavour of the resulting beer owing to adsorption of hop 
resin on the surface of the suspended particles. A technical means of inducing 
flocculation during cooling of the wort is indicated. 
' Practical Observations and Studies of Albumin Turbidities in Beer caused by Tin 

and Iron.' G. L. Goob. (' Eighth Internat. Cong. Appl. Chemistry,' 1912. 

Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1913, 19, 147.) 
'Head on Beer.' A. Fernbach. ('Ann. Brass, et Dist.' 1913, 16, 145. Abst. 'J. 

Inst. Brewing,' 1913, 19, 400.) 
The relation of the colloids of beer to the formation, nature, and retention of 
' head ' is discussed. 
' Electrical Dialysis of Enzymes : Application of the Principle to the Purification of 

Malt Diastase.' M. Lisbonne and M. Vitlqiun. (' Journ. de Physiol, et Pathol.' 

1913, 15, 24. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 64.) 

' Removal of Oil from Condenser Water by Electrolysis.' H. Winkelmann. 

('Zeitschr. ges. Brauw. 1913, 36, 664. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 78.) 
' Colloids as Vohicles of Undesirable Flavour in Beer. ' F. Emslander. ( ' Wochenschr. 

Brau.' 1913, 30, 387. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 80.) 
' Plant Colloids, III. — Processes of Solution and Removal of the Ash of Starch.' 

M. Samec and F. vox Hoefft. (' Koll. Chem. Beihefte,' 1913, 5, 141. Abst. 

'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 124.) 
' Concentration of Hydrogen Ions in Beer, and its Relation to the Brewing Process 

F. Emslander. (' Zeitschr. Ges. Brauw.' 1914, 37, 2. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 

1914, 20, 136.) 

Tho colloids of beer migrato towards the cathode. The difference between the 
eentration of hydrogen ions and the acidity of beer as found by titration is dis- 
cussed. A form of apparatus is suggested for the measurement of ion concentration 
for technical use. 

' An Account of Some Investigations on the White Wines of South Africa : an (Etio- 
logical Study.' Horace T. Brown. (' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 345.) 
The white wines of the Cape are peculiarly liable to turbidity or ' casse,' accom- 
panied by an increase in colour and a bitter flavour. ' Casse ' is not due to micro- 
organisms, but is conditioned by purely chemical changes, and only arises in contact 
with air or with oxygen derived from some such source as hydrogen peroxide. The 
oxidising agent inducing ' casse ' does not belong to the class of vegetable oxidases, 
but consists of a small amount of iron in the ferrous state present in the wine, which 
behaves as a carrier of oxygen (Fenton's reaction). Tho ' casse ' itself consists of 
colloidal particles of a combination of iron with products derived from the limited 
oxidation of tannins and certain proteins present in the wine. The grape contains 
a peroxidase in the inner cells of the epidermis and in the vascular bundles of the 
fruit, but freshly expressed grape-juice contains no peroxidase unless the juice of 
the fruit has remained in contact with the skin for some time. If the amount of 
oxidase in the juice is considerable it has a tendency to brown on exposure to the 
air, but there appears to bo no connection between the occurrence of oxidase and the 
casse ferrique referred to above. 

'Estimation of Colloids in Beers.' R.Marc. (* Kolloid -Zeitschr.' 1914, 14. Abst. 
'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 431.) 
Measurements made by means of refractometer readings before and after adsorp- 
tion of colloids by barium sulphate. 

' Green Sickness (Verdisscment) of Ciders.' Warcollier. (' Coniptes Rendus,' 
1914, 158, 973. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 457.) 


' Variations in the Phosphorus-content of Starch accompanying its Changes of 

State.' M. Samec (' Kolloidchemische Beihefte,' 1914, 6, 23. Abst. * J. Inst. 

Brewing,' 1914, 20, 716.) 
" Influence of some Colloids on Alcoholic Fermentation.' N. L. SoHNGEN. (' Folia 

Microbiologica,' 1913, 2,94. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 720.) 
' Retention of Head on Beer.' 0. Furnrohr. (' Zeitschr. Ges. Brauw.' 1913, 36, 473. 

Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1914, 20, 596.) 
' Melanoidines in Roasted Malt.' W. Ruckdischel. (' American Brewers' Journal,' 

1915, 39, 107. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1915, 21, 123.) 

The melanoidines are colloidal condensation products formed during the heating 
of amino-acids and dextrose present in malted grain. 
' The Rate of Adsorption of Various Phenolic Solutions by Seeds of Hordeum vulgare, 

and the Factors Governing the Rate of Diffusion of Aqueous Solutions across 

Semipermeable Membranes.' Adeian J. Brown and F. Tinker. (' Proc. 

Royal Soc.' B. Vol. 89, 1915.) 
When the osmotic pressures, vapour pressures, and viscosities of a series of solutions 
of permeable solutes such as the phenols are equal, their rates of diffusion across 
the barley membrane are inversely proportional to their surface tensions. 
'Gluten Turbidity.' E. Moufang. ('Allgem. Zeitschr. fur Bierbrau. und Malz- 

fabr.' 1915, 43, 275. Abst. 'J. Inst. Brewing,' 1916, 22, 468.) 
' Brewers' Filter Pulp.' W. A. J. Foster. ('J. Inst. Brewing,' 1916, 22, 413.) 
'Sensitiveness of Beer towards Cold and the Wallerstein Process.' P. Petit. 

(' Brasserie et Malterie,' 1916, 6, 61. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 1916, 22, 468.) 
' Prc-mashing and Protein Haze: Concentration of Hydrogen Ions in Beer.' F. 

Emslander (' Wochenschr. Brauw.' 1916, 33, 169. Abst. ' J. Inst. Brewing,' 

1916, 22, 509.) 

' Selective Permeability : The Absorption of Phenol and other Solutions by the Seeds 

of Hordeum vulgare.' Adrian J. Brown and F. Tinker. (' Proc. Royal Soc' 

B. vol. 89, 1916. 

The various solutes enter the barley seeds in an amount which is indicated by 

the extent to which they are adsorbed by the barley membrane and by the colloidal 

contents of the seeds. The solutes which are most strongly adsorbed are those 

which give solutions having low surface tensions and vice versd. 

Bij Dr. Henry P. Stevens. 

(1) Composition and Properties oj Lak.c und Raw Rubber. 

' Some Analyses of Hevea Latex,' C. Beadle and H. P. Stevens (' The 
Analyst,' 1911, 36, 8). Gives the results of analyses of latex from the cortex of the 
trunks of trees of different ages and also from leaf petioles. 

' An Investigation into the Nature and Properties of Hevea Latex,' C. Beadle 
and H. P. Stevens ('8th Inter. Congress of Applied Chem.' Vol. 9, pp. 40-43). 
Part 1 contains a study of the phenomena accompanying coagulation ; distinctions 
are drawn between the microscopic and macroscopic forms in which coagulation takes 
place and the effect of formaline on latex. The quantities of acid required for coagula- 
tion under different conditions are given. Part 2 contains the results of the chemical 
analyses of three samples of Hevea latex. 

' The Carbohydrate Constituents of Para Rubber,' Pickles and Whitfield 
(' Proc. Chem. Soc' 1911, p. 54). It is shown that sheet rubber from Hevea latex 
contains appreciable quantities of 1-methy] inositol. 

(2) Production oj Raw Rubber. 

The Rubber Growers' Association, ' Revised Tables of Recommendations for 
the Treatment of Latex and Curing of Rubber,' 1917. The original table has been 
revised and split up into two tables, one dealing with sheet and the other with crepe 
rubber. These tables give concise instructions for the preparation of rubber from the 
latex, giving proportion of coagulant, preservatives, &c,to be used, types, construc- 
tion and handling of plant and machinery, instructions for straining, bulking, standard- 


iaing, coagulating, washing, rolling, drying and sorting, grading, curing, packing, and 
a list of defects commonly met with and the preventives which can be adopted, 

' A Comparison of the Brazilian and Plantation Methods of Preparing Para Rubber,' 
G. S. Whitbv (' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1916, p. 493). Gives the results of com- 
parative tests on rubber prepared in the East by the Brazilian method, smoking and 
coagulation in thin films, and the typical plantation method of coagulation and rolling 
to sheets, followed by smoke-drying. Two series of samples were prepared, one from 
the latex from young trees (five years old) and old trees (fifteen years old). The con- 
clusions arrived at were that the rubber prepared by the Brazilian method was a little 
inferior to that produced by the plantation method. It was, however, suggested in the 
discussion following the paper that the Brazilian method of smoking had not been 
exactly imitated. There was little difference between the rubber from young and old 
trees. The following conclusions were also arrived at : — -Phenols absorbed from the 
smoke reduce the rate of cure, and, generally speaking, rubber is not improved by 
smoking, and latex crepe may be very seriously deteriorated by this means ; ' oxida- 
tion ' has no ill effect on the quality, and, contrary to the generally accepted view, 
there is practically no difference in quality botween the outer ' oxidised ' portion and 
inner portion of a ball of fine hard Para. 

Comparative tests on rubber from groups of trees in different areas showed marked 
variation. Also latex allowed to stand before coagulation gave rather better results 
than that coagulated straight away. 

'On the Coagulation of Hevea Latex and a New Method of Coagulation,' B. J. Eaton 
and J. Grantham (' Agric. Bull. Federated Malay States,' vol.4, No. 2 (1915), p. 26). 
When latex is coagulated spontaneously by exposure to the air there is formed an 
alkaline scum on the surface where coagulation does not take place, while underneath 
the serum reacts acid and coagulation is more or less complete (G. S. Whitby, 
' Congress of Applied Chem.' 1912 ; ' Koll. Zeit.,' 12, 153). At the same time, strong 
putrefactive odours develop. The authors find that the putrefactive changes are 
inhibited while the development of the coagulating agencies have free play if a small 
quantity of sugar, e.g., - 2 per cent, dextrine, be added to the latex. 

Eng. Pat. 104,323 of 1916, G. M. Thomas and M. D. M utde, claims the process for 
allowing latex to coagulate spontaneously out of contact with the air, by which the 
formation of the surface scum is prevented. Eaton and Grantham, however, state in 
the above communication that the coagulation is frequently incomplete when this is 
offected merely by exclusion of air, whereas in the presence of sugar coagulation is 
complete either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. S. Morgan, however, finds that 
even in the presence of sugar coagulation is often incomplete (private communication). 

Other patents deal mostly with methods of evaporating latex in thin layers, as in 
native Brazilian Para. 

' Bull. Agric. Intell.' 1915-16, 1703-4. M. Kerbosch states that rubber obtained 
by evaporation of latex is less readily oxidised under the influence of sunlight than that 
produced by coagulation in the ordinary manner. 

(3) The Non-Caoutchouc Constituents of Raw Rubber. 

Nitrogenous constituent. — D. Spence was the first to show that the insoluble con- 
stituent of rubber (i.e., insoluble in organic solvents such as chloroform, benzene, &c. ) 
was highly nitrogenous, and in fact consisted of protein matter coagulated with the 
caoutchouc in the latex (' Journ. Liverpool Univ. Inst, of Commercial Research in the 
Tropics,' No. 13, 1907). Distribution of the protein in Para rubber. 

C. Beadle and H. P. Stevens subsequently showed that the nitrogenous or 
insoluble constituent was necessary for satisfactory vulcanisation, as its removal 
reduced the proportion of combined sulphur, and such rubber, vulcanised under normal 
conditions, had poor physical properties. It was also found that the nitrogenous con- 
stituent could be satisfactorily replaced by nitrogenous matter of foreign origin, such as 
peptone, and less satisfactorily by casein. The choice of nitrogenous substances was 
limited by the difficulty of incorporating them with the rubber. (' Koll. Zeit.' 1912, 
11, p. 61, 1913, 12, p. 46 ; ' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1912, 31. p. 1099; H. P. Stevens, 
' Koll. Zeit.' 1914, 14, p. 91.) 

D. Spexce and G. D. Kbatz ('Koll. Zeit.') employ a -3-5 per cent, solution of tri- 
chloracetic acid in benzene for separating tho nitrogenous constituent. When the rubber 
is swollen in this solvent it rapidly breaks down, giving a solution of low viscosity from 
which the insolublo nitrogonous constituent is easily separated. Spence examined the 


product thus obtained, which contains about 10 per cent, of nitrogen, and regards it as 
a glycoprotein. 

Eaton and Grantham found that if freshly coagulated latex be allowed to remain 
for a few days before washing or rolling the rubber eventually obtained is rapidly-curing 
and possesses considerably superior physical properties after vulcanisation (' Agric. 
Bull. F.M.S.' 1915, 3, p. 442, and 4, p. 58, also ' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1916, 35, p. 
715). This increase in rate of cure they attributed to some accelerating substance 
formed in the rubber by the action of micro-organisms, as they found that freezing the 
rubber inhibited the development of the rapid-curing properties, but these were 
restored on allowing the temperature to rise again. Further, formalin and other 
antiseptic treatment, e.g., smoking, had also an inhibiting effect. They also observed 
that once the rapid -curing effect was produced, this was not destroyed by heating to 
relatively high temperatures, as in the treatment of the rubber in a hot-air drier or by 
washing on crepeing rolls. 

J. Grantham ('Agric. Bull. F.M.S.' 4, pp. 1-4) published a number of nitrogen 
determinations of plantation rubber and concludes that smoking appears to fix the 
nitrogen. Generally speaking, matured ' slab ' gave low figures, especially after 
crepeing, in spite of the rapid-curing properties of this rubber. 

H. P. Stevens confirmed Eaton and Grantham's results and succeeded in 
separating the accelerating substance, which wasfound to be an organic base or mixture 
of bases formed during putrefaction. Tho rapid-curing properties were found to be 
partly, but not completely, removed by washing on crepeing rollers. (' Journ. Soc. 
Chem. Ind.' 1917, 36, p. 305.) Larger quantities of base could be extracted from 
rapidly-curing rubber than from slow-curing rubber. The bases can also be obtained 
from the latex serum and produce acceleration of vulcanisation when added to ordinary 

Synthetic organic accelerators. — A general description of organic accelerators for 
vulcanisation and their characteristics have appeared at various times (Ditmar, 
' Gummi Zeitung,' 1915, 29, p. 425 ; Gottlob, ' Gummi Zeitung,' 1916. 30, p. 303 ; A. H. 
King, 'India Rubber Journ.' 1916, 52, p. 440; S. J. Peachey, ' I.R.J. ' 1916, 52. 
p. 603; S. J. Peachey, ' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1917, 36, p. 424)/ The first patent of 
importance is given as that of Bayer & Co., Elberfeld Farbenfabrik, Ger. Pat. 265,221 of 
Nov. 16, 1912. This was for the use of piperidene. Subsequently it was recognised 
that all organic bases act as accelerators, but that only those having a high dissociation 
constant are sufficiently powerful for teclinical work. This led to the patent taken out 
by Bayer & Co., claiming all organic bases having a dissociation constant greater 
than 1 x 10 s (Ger. Pat. 280,198 of 1914). S. J. Peachey has patented tho nitroso- 
derivativos of certain bases (Eng. Pat. 4,263 of 1914), particularly p-nitroso-dimethyl 
aniline, which differ from compounds previously referred to in that they are not strong 
bases and are yet very effective accelerators. Peachey lias also patented condensa- 
tion compounds formed by the interaction of aldehydes and amines (Eng. Pat. 7,370 of 
1914), but these substances are not so powerful as thenitroso- derivatives. 

D. Spence ('Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1917, 36, p. 118) claims to dispose of the 
novelty of all these inventions, and states that, six months previous to the date of 
application of the Bayer patent of 1912 (covering the use of piperidene), ho described 
experiments in which piperidene was used in the ' Kolloid Zeitschrift,' 1912, 10, 
pp. 303-305. 

Dunlop Rubber Co. and Twiss (Eng. Pat. 1916, 17,756) have patented the use 
of caustic soda or potash in solution in glycerol as a vulcanising accelerator. The 
accelerating effect of mineral bases is well known, particularly lime and magnesia. The 
glycerol is used as an agent for incorporating the alkali in the rubber (sec also paper by 
D. F. Twiss ('Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1917, 36, 782). 

Resinous constituent. — L. E. Weber, ' The Action of Resins in the Vulcanising of 
Rubber ' (* Inter. Congress of Applied Chem.' 1912, 9, 95). The author prepared three 
compounds from the same mixing, containing rubber, litharge, sulphur, and whiting, as 
follows : — Compound A was prepared with plantation-smoked sheet, which had been cut 
up and extracted for fifteen hours with acetone. Compound B exactly resembled tho 
foregoing except that the rubber was used without previous extraction. Compound 
C was identical with compound B except that it contained in addition the resins 
(acetone extract) obtained from the rubber used for compound A. On vulcanising (in 
water ) it was found that compound A ' could not bo vulcanised, ' that is to say, cured for 
one hour at 140° C. ; 'it showed a strength of less than 20 lb. ,' while compounds B and 
C variously cured gave figures up to 800 lb. with irregular differences. The author 


concludes that ' tho resins play an active part in the vulcanisation and not merely the 
part of catalyser. Their presence is absolutely essential.' 

C. Beadle and H. P. Stevens, ' The Nature of the Resinous Constituent and its 
Influence on the Quality of Rubber ' (' Inter. Congress of Applied Chem.' 1912, 25, 
581). The authors made comparative vulcanising tests with Hcvea and Rambong 
(Ficus elastica) rubbers, one compound prepared from acetone (or alcohol) extracted 
rubber and the other from the untreated rubber. Tho compound employed consisted 
of the rubber (treated or untreated) and sulphur without other ingredients. They 
noted that the compound prepared from the extracted rubber appeared undercured 
when compared with a control specimen of untreated rubber, but the main difference 
between the vulcanised samples was shown on keeping the vulcanised specimens, when 
those prepared from the extracted rubber rapidly hardoned and deteriorated (perished). 

H. P. Stevens, 'The Function of Litharge in the Vulcanisation of Rubber,' 
Part II., 'The Influence of the Resinous Constituents' ('Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 
1916, 35, p. 874). The author describes further comparative tests with resin- 
extracted rubber, using compounds with and without litharge and determining the 
coefficient of vulcanisation. 

(4) Vulcanisation. 

Spence and his collaborators (' Koll. Zeit.' 1911, 8, 304, 9, 83, 300 ; 1912, 10, 299 ; 
11, 28, 274 ; 1913, 13, 265). — The process of vulcanisation is studied in a systematic 
series of experiments, and the conclusions arrived at point to vulcanisation as essen- 
tially a chemical reaction between sulphur and the caoutchouc, the amount of combined 
sulphur being proportional to the time of heating with a temperature coefficient of 
approximately 2-7 for a rise of 10° C. Moreover, when the amount of sulphur is 
limited (e.g., 10 per cent, on the caoutchouc), the whole becomes combined on prolonged 
heating, and with an excess of sulphur the maximum combined sulphur corresponds 
approximately to the formula C, H !e S., (compare also C. O. Weber, ' The Chemistry of 
India Rubber,' pp. 87-91 : also Hinrichsen and Kindscher, ' Gummi Zeit.' 1903, 18, 
251 ; ' Koll. Zeit.' 1912, 11, 191 ; ' Ber.' 1913, 46, 1291). 

Skellon, in more recent work, gives a great amount of data which confirms the 
above ('Koll. Zeit.' 1914, 66, p. 96; 'The Rubber Industry papers read at the 
Exhibition held in London in 1914,' p. 172). 

F. W. Hinrichsen and K. Meizenbeeg (' Ch. Zeit.' 1909, 33, p. 756). Quantitative 
experiments on cold vulcanisation. 

E. Stern (' Ch. Zeit.' 1909, 33, p. 256), ' Study of the Reaction between Rubber and 
Sulphur in Solution in Naphthalene.' 

Harries and Fonrobert ('Ber.' 1916, 49, 1196 and 1390). Rubber was 
vulcanised in sheets 6 mm. thick by heating a mix containing 10 per cent, of sulphur for 
thirty minutes at 145° C. After sixty days' extraction with hot acetone, only 0-25 per 
cent, sulphur remained, and it is concluded that this would have been removed' if the ex- 
traction had proceeded long enough. It is therefore concluded that vulcanisation is a 
physical change. A distinction, however, is drawn between vulcanisation as carried out 
above, which the authors term ' primary vulcanisation,' and the more fully vulcanised 
product obtained by longer heating or by ' after-vulcanisation ' of the primary 
vulcanised body. 

D. F. Twiss ('Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1917, 36, 782). This paper contains a 
rcviow of the subject and a very full reference list. The original work contained in it 
deals particularly with the relative reactivities of S,u and SA. as vulcanising agents. 
It is concluded that the modification in which the sulphur is employed is practically 
without influenco on the course of vulcanisation. Compare also Dubosc (' Le Caout- 
chouc et la Gutta Percha,' Jan. 1917). 

I. I. Ostromyslenski (' Journ. Russ. Physico-Cheni. Soc' 1915, 47, 1453 et seq., 
1885 et seq. ; also 

Vulcanisation of caoutchouc by means of 'Journ. Soc. Chem. Tnd.' 1916, 35, 370 

halogen compounds, and mechanism of 

tho vulcanisation process. 
Hot vulcanisation of caoutchouc by means „ „ „ ,, r>9 

of nitro-compounds in absence of 

Hot vulcanisation of caoutchouc by means ,, „ ,, „ 59 

of peroxides or per-acids, in absence of 



Cold vulcanisation of caoutchouc by means ' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' ]916, 35, 369 

of sulphur, trinitrobenzene, or benzoyl 

Mechanism of vulcanisation of caoutchouc. „ ,, „ ,, 59 

Mechanism of action of amines and metallic ,, ,, „ „ 370 

oxides on the vulcanisation of 

Vulcanisation of caoutchouc by molecular ,, ,, „ ,, 370 

oxygen, ozone, or organic ozonides. 
Vulcanisation of synthetic caoutchouc. ,, ,, ,, ,, 58 

Preparation of vulcanised caoutchouc ,, ., ,, ,, 371 

coloured by organic colouring matters. 
Process for obtaining a substance identical ,, ,, ,, ,,131 

with or analogous to natural vulcanised 


T. I. Ostromyslenski and I. M. Kelbasinskaja (' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 35, 58, 
' New Constants of Caoutchouc, Elasticity Point and Fatal Temperature '). 

The first three papers describe methods for producing a vulcanised rubber without 
the use of sulphur by heating the rubber (a) with nitro -aromatic derivatives, e.g., 
•trinitrobenzene, or (b) with organic peroxides, e.g., benzoyl peroxides. 

H. P. Stevens (' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1917, 36, 107) has shown that reaction («) 
'only proceeds in the presence of a base such as PbO or MgO, and that the products are 
inferior technically to rubber vulcanised with sulphur. Compare also Twiss (p. 63). 

H. Heilbronner and J. Bernstein (' Rubber Industry,' 1914, 156 ; ' Caoutchouc 
'et C4utta Percha,' 1915, 12, 8720) describe a method of vulcanisation in which rubber 
and sulphur in solution are exposed to the action of ultra-violet light from a quartz 
mercury vapour-lamp. Once the solvent has evaporated from this solution the rubber 
•becomes insoluble. 

(5) Physical Testing of Vulcanised Rubber. 

P. L. Wormeley (' Rubber Industry,' 1914, 24G-256). This paper brings out the 
great influence exerted by temperature on the results of physical tests. 

P. Schidrowitz (' Rubber Industry,' 1914, 230-245), ' Outline of a Method of 
Physical Tests.' 

H. P. Stevens (' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1916, 35). Criticises current methods of 
testing, particularly with regard to state of cure of the specimens tested and the ageing 

A. van Rossem (' Bijdrage tot de Kennis van bet vulcanisatieproces,' Amsterdam, 
1916) contains the results of tests on a very large number of vulcanised rubber samples, 
with mathematical treatment of same. 

See also publications of the International Association for Rubber Cultivation in the 
Netherlands Indies, Delft, Part I., published in 1917 ; ' Bulletin of Imperial Institute,' 

(0) Synthetic Rubber. 

1. 1. Ostromyslenski (' Journ. Russ. Phys.-Chem. Soc.' 1915, 47, 1441 et seq., 1928 
etseq. ; 1916,48, 1071 ct seq. 

Condensation of alcohols and aldehydes in 'Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1916, 35, 69 

presence of dehydrating agents. 
New syntheses of caoutchouc and its „ ,, „ „ 368 

Mechanism of transformation of isoprene ,, ,, ,, „ 369 

and /3 myrcene into caoutchouc. 
Production of caoutchouc. „ „ „ „ 130 

Constitution of caoutchoucs. „ „ ,, ,, 369 

Definition, classification and evaluation of ,, ,, ,, ,, ."7 

New methods of preparation of divinyl, „ „ ,, „ 380 

isoprene, piperylene, and dimethyl- 

Formation of erythrene „ ,, „ „ 69 

New methods of preparation of erythrene. „ „ ,, „ 69 


Transformation of cyclobutane derivatives 'Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1916,35, 381 

into erythreno. 
Synthesis of the symmetrical bromide of „ ,, ,, „ 368 

erythrene-caoutchoue, of caoutchouc 

itself and of caouprene. 
Preparation of esters of unsaturated alcohols ,, ,, ,, ,, 382 

from aklols. 
Polymerisation of ethylenic compounds and ,, ,, ,, ,, 369 

mechanism of transformation of vinyl 

bromide into bromide of erythrene- 
Analysis, purification, and reactions of „ ,, ,, ,, 381 

Polymerisation of isoprene. divinyl and 

dimethylerythrene to caoutchouc or 

its homologues. 
Preparation of substances equivalent to 

ebonite, celluloid or gutta percha. 

Synthesis of vulcanised caoutchouc. 
Synthesis of the symmetrical chloride ,, ,, ,, ,, i. 404 

and of the higher chloride of erythrene 

caoutchouc. New chlorides of natural 

isoprene and erythreno caoutchoucs. 

(*J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc.' 1916, 


B. D. W. Luff (' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1916, 35, 983). 
Synthesis of Caoutchouc.' 

Koxdakow (' Caoutchouc et Gutta Percha,' 1917, July 15). 
his own researches. 

Note. — ' Rubber,' by Dr. H. P. Stevens, forms one of the sections in the ' Annual 
Reports on Industrial Chemistry,' vol. i., issued by the Society of Chemical 

Journ. Chem. Soc' 1917, 112, i. 399 


' Some Aspects of the 
Deals historically with 


By H. B. Stocks, F.I.C. 


The application of starch in the sizing and finishing industries, for which 
it is used in very large quantities, depends entirely upon its colloidal 
properties. That is, on heating with water, it forms a plastic mass, or 
adhesive sol, according to the concentration and the temperature. It can 
therefore be readily applied to textile fibres or fabrics. In the sizing 
industry it is applied to the yarn — the warp — to strengthen it, render it 
smoother (i.e., lay the individual fibres), and thus facilitates weaving, while 
in heavy sizing it acts as a binder to hold the weighting material, usually 
china clay, which is employed. Eor these purposes, although very useful, 
it is not altogether perfect, since, on drying, it does not form a continuous 
film. In calico-printing it is one of the mediums employed for carrying 
or thickening the colours, thus preventing them spreading into the 
surrounding tissues. For these purposes potato starch or farina, wheat- 
starch and wheat-flour, sago, tapioca, maize, cassava, and rice-starch are 

It is well known that the granules of the various starches vary in 
appearance under the microscope, they also vary somewhat in their 
properties ; for instance, sago, tapioca, and cassava starches yield more 

1917. p 


tenacious or glutinous sols than the others, and for particular purposes 
certain starches may be found more suitable than others. 

Starch absorbs a certain amount of water from the atmosphere ; this 
varies with the conditions, but is usually from 13 to 15 per cent. ; it also 
contains a small proportion of mineral matter, which is, in all cases, 
alkaline; this amounts in potato-starch to about 0-22 per cent., sago 04, 
cassava 0-12, maize 0-11, and wheat 0-23, therefore in dealing with natural 
starch we have to take into account the influence the electrolytes in this 
mineral matter will have upon the starch molecules. 

On heating with water no action whatever is apparent until a tempera- 
ture of about 55° C. is reached, when it is noticed that a few granules have 
swollen enormously ; from this point onwards there is a progressive increase 
in the number of swollen granules, till at a certain temperature all the 
granules have become fully hydrated and most, if not all, have burst, 
although the granules can still be observed more or less distorted. The 
temperature at which this occurs is the maximum thickening-point of the 
mixture, this occurring with wheat-starch at 65° C, maize 70°, sago 72°. 
rice 74°, and potato-starch 63°. 

The viscosity of solutions made from different starches varies ; thus, 
G. M. MacNider (' Journ. Ind. and Eng. Chem.' 1912, 4, 417-422) found the 
viscosity of potato-starch to be 14-31, maize 249-2-86, cassava 3-88-3-97, 
wheat 1-24-1-26, and rice 1-00 for solutions containing 12 grams in 30 c.c. 
of water. These figures need verification, as the differences appear to be 
very much greater than one would suppose possible, although, no doubt, 
a certain amount of variation does really exist. It was noted also by 
the above observer that very small quantities of borax (i.e., -08 gram) and 
of caustic soda (-06 gram) lowered the viscosity, while larger quantities 
(i.e., 1-0 gram) increased it, the viscosity being also lowered by boric acid. 

Since writing the above, the author has found that the time factor is 
most important. For instance, freshly prepared and quickly cooled 
potato-starch solution of 2 per cent, concentration gave the following 
figures (water = 1) : — 


5 min. later. 

40 min. later. 

18 hours later. 





At the last period quite a considerable quantity of the starch granules 
had deposited, leaving a clear liquid on the surface, which could be filtered. 

The viscosity of starch solution does not therefore increase, as with 
other colloids, with the time. 

It was at one time believed that starch granules consisted of two distinct 
substances, an inner material or granulose (amylose), and an outer material 
named starch cellulose or amylopectin ; but according to Harrison (' Journ. 
Soc. Dyers and Colourists,' 1916, 32, 40-44) the outer portion of the starch 
granules does not differ in composition from the inner material although it 
is more resistant to hydrolytic agents. By physical means alone they are 
capable of being changed one into the other. Z. Gatin-Gruzewska and L. 
Macquenne (' Compt. Rend.' 1908, 146, 540-545) also conclude that there is 
a structural relationship between amylose and amylopectin, and that 
probably each is composed of a series of closely related substances. 

The addition of certain substances to starch and water lowers the surface 
tension of the granules so that the thickening-point is more or less 
depressed ; this is especially the case with caustic soda, zinc chloride, and 


hydrochloric acid, which in concentrated solutions form a tenacious white 
translucent gel with starch even at the ordinary temperature ; other 
metallic chlorides behave similarly to zinc chloride, although less marked in 
their action, but the chlorides of the alkalies appeared to be without effect. 
Gels made on these lines, containing 9 to 34 per cent, of starch, 4 to 20 per 
cent, of zinc chloride, and to 19 per cent, of magnesium chloride, are 
sometimes sold for sizing purposes (H. B. Stocks and H. G. White, ' J.S.C.T.,' 
1903, 22, and ' Jour. Soc. Dyers and Colourists,' March 1894). 

E. Fouard (' Comp. Rend.' 1907, 144, 501-503 and 1366-1368) found 
the amount of phosphoric acid in a starch containing 0-331 per cent, of ash 
to be 0-1915 per cent. By treatment with acid these were reduced to 
0-123 and 0-1117 per cent, respectively, and he is of opinion that the acid is 
absorbed by the insoluble starch granule. Acids have a coagulating effect 
upon starch in proportion to their hydrogen-ion concentration, very weak 
acids having no appreciable effect. Alkalies, on the other hand, have an 
exactly opposite effect, either dissolving the starch or decreasing its 
tendency to coagulation, the retardation being strictly in proportion to their 
hydroxyl-ion concentration. Salts which hydrolyse in solution act upon 
starch in one or other of these directions according to the predominance of 
the hydrogen or hydroxyl-ions respectively. This coagulating effect of the 
hydrogen-ions and the swelling effect of the hydroxyl-ions is general 
throughout the whole of the organic and some of the inorganic colloids, and 
is a capillary phenomenon of the greatest importance. 

The mineral matter of starch can be to a certain extent removed by 
precipitating a dilute sol with alcohol, or, better, by addition of ammonium 
carbonate. Sols of starch purified by these means are very unstable, the 
starch reverting to the insoluble form in very minute granules on standing. 
W. Harrison (' Jour. Soc. Dyers and Colourists,' 1916, 32, 40-44), also 
L. Macquenne (' Compt. Rend.' 1908, 146, 317-318), G. Malfitano and A. 
Moschkoff ('Compt. Rend.' 1910, 150, 710-711), by successive freezing and 
thawing of solutions of starch, have obtained it almost free from mineral 
matter which remained in solution in the water. The starch thus prepared 
formed a heterogeneous mixture with water even after heating, and on 
standing the starch settled out again. These authors believe that starch is 
entirely insoluble in water but that in association with electrolytes it 
forms colloidal solutions. 

The Arabol Man. Co. (Fr. Pat. 394,167, 1908) use KCNS for preparing 
starch soluble in cold water, while, according to W. Lenz (' 7th Int. Cong. 
Appl. Chem. Lond.' 1909), sodium salicylate causes some starch granules, 
though not all, to swell. 

Starch adsorbs alkalies and alkaline earths ; the adsorption com- 
pounds, although unstable in water, appear to be more stable in contact 
with alcohol ; thus starch precipitated from a solution in caustic potash by 
alcohol contains potassium in proportion to the strength of the caustic 
potash solution (E. Fouard, ' Bull. Soc. Chim.' 1909, 5, 828-834). Precipi- 
tation of starch in presence of barium hydroxide by means of alcohol has 
also been proposed by Asboth (' Analyst,' July 1887 ; also ' Jour. Soc. Chem. 
Ind.' 1888, 77) as a method of estimating this substance by volumetric 
means, the compound containing 19-1 per cent, of BaO, corresponding with 
the formula C,j4H4o02oBaO. In order to get concordant results it is 
necessary that certain conditions as to strength of reagents, &c. should 
always be complied with. According to W. Harrison (" Jour. Soc. Dyers 

P 2 


and Colourists,' 1916, 32, 40-44), the composition of the precipitate varies 
with the concentration of the barium hydrate according to the laws of 
adsorption. According to Tollens, starch combines with Na or K in the 
proportion of 1 atom to 4 (C 6 H| n O.-,) ; on addition of alcohol amorphous 
precipitates with alkaline reaction are formed ; these are represented as 
potassium starch C. 24 H 10 O 20 K and sodium starch Co 1 H 39 2 nNa. 

On heating starch with caustic alkalies a change takes place with the 
scission of acetic acid, the amount of alkali neutralised when N strength of 
solution is employed being equal to 8-33 per cent, of KHO. A similar 
change takes place with all carbohydrates, but the amount of acid liberated 
varies very considerably, pointing to differences in structural arrangement. 

The stiffening power of starch appears to depend upon the amount of 
swelling to which individual starches are liable on heating with water ; in 
other words, to the extent of the dispersion ; thus, by heating to a few 
degrees above the temperature of swelling and centrifuging the sol, W. 
Harrison (' Jour. Soc. Dyers and Colourists,' 1911, 27, 84-88) found the 
volume of the swollen granules to be directly proportional to the stiffening 
power, the experiments agreeing closely with the formula 

Vol. of granules 
Viscosity = 1 (4-75^ x total vol. of solution) ; alkalies if present cause 
high results, as might be expected. 

Starch gel on standing separates into two phases, a more solid gel and a 
liquid phase, the latter containing very little starch ; several other colloids 
behave in a similar way, notably cellulose xanthate or viscose ; some 
colloids, such as gelatine, do not behave in this manner. The phenomenon 
is probably due to the aggregation of the molecular complexes, the colloid 
becoming less dispersed. Starch shows practically no osmotic pressure 
{i.e., only 2 m.m. at 13° for a 1 per cent, solution) in a parchment paper 
diaphragm (Moore and Roaf, ' Biochem. Jour.' II. 39), neither does it show 
any appreciable depression by the freezing-point method of Raoult, pointing 
to a very high molecular weight (E. Fouard, ' Compt. Rend.' 1908, 
146, 978-981). On the other hand, pure soluble starch, according to 
L. Macquenne (' Compt. Rend.' 1908, 146, 317-318), passes through filtering 
material, even the Chamberland filter, and E. Fouard ('Compt. Rend.' 1908, 
146, 285-287) found that a solution containing 2 "74 per cent, of pure 
starch could be filtered through a collodion membrane. The molecular 
solution volume is lower than that calculated by Taube's method (' Ber.' 
1895, 28, 410), i.e., 92-6-93-3 instead of 102-6 (Cross and Bevan, ' Ber." 
1909, 42, 2,198-2,204), which the authors regard as evidence of ring- 
formation. Other colloids show a similar result 

AVith regard to the action of reagents, other than those mentioned, upon 
starch, it is capable of forming a xanthic derivative in the same way as 
cellulose by action of caustic soda and carbon bisulphide (C. F. Cross, J. F. 
Briggs, and Societe Francaise de la Viscose, Fr. Pat. 370,505, 1905), 
while a nitro-derivative of starch has been suggested as a substitute for 
celluloid (G. E. Arnold, A. S. Fox, A. C. Scott, and H. E. V. Roberts, Eng. 
Pat. 3,450, 1906). 

Oxidising agents have a marked effect upon starch (see soluble starch). 
F. G. Perkins (U.S. Pat. 1,020, 656, 1912) proposes to prepare a glue from 
cassava starch by acting upon it with sodium peroxide and caustic soda. 

Starch and tannic acid mutually precipitate each other, this being also 


the case with soluble starch and dextrin, but in lessening degree. This 
fact should be borne in mind in testing a colloid for gelatine by means of 
tannic acid. 

Ordinary wheat-flour is used very largely for sizing purposes, both in its 
fresh state and after long-continued fermentation. It differs from the 
starches in containing the nitrogenous colloid gluten, a coagulable albumen, 
sugar, dextrin, &c. It is doubtful if in the fresh state the gluten exerts any 
marked influence, but during fei mentation the gluten, which suffers 
little in the process, becomes dispersed and forms a colloidal solution in the 
acids, which are generated, thus becoming available as a binding agent ; 
other marked changes also take place (H. B. Stocks, ' Jour. Soc. Dyers and 
Oolourists,' 1912, 28, 148-151, also H. B. Stocks and H. G. White, ' Jour. 
Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1903, 22). 

Soluble Starch. 

The so-called ' soluble ' starch may be formed from ordinary starch 
in a variety of ways, the processes which have been proposed falling 
naturally into certain classes. 

1. By heating starch at a regulated temperature but lower than that 
which will convert it into dextrin. 

2. Heating starch with water under pressure (H. Hale, Eng. Pat. 3,311, 

3. Treating starch with acids, J. Sellars (Eng. Pat. 2,810, 1865) pro- 
posed to heat the starch with a mineral or vegetable acid, then neutralise 
with "soda. Relhms steeps starch in a 1 to 3 per cent, solution of a mineral 
acid at 50° to 55°. Fols carries out the same process at 80° C. A. Schuh- 
mann (Eng. Pat. 5,460, 1887) treats starch with acid in the cold, washes 
out the acid, and heats with S0 2 under pressure. W. P. Thompson (A. H. J. 
Beige, Eng. Pat. 7,272, 1891) employs S0 2 under pressure, while W. 
Thompson and J. Morris (Eng. Pat. 21,973, 1906) claim to employ S0 2 at 
200°-220° E. H. H. Lake (W. Angelo, Eng. Pat. 5,617, 1893) treats starch 
with strong HG1 and dries at a low temperature. G. Eivat (Er. Pat. 433,726, 
1910) claims the application at 100° C. of dilute solutions of H 3 P0 4 ,HF, 
potassium bitartrate, acid potassium oxalate, or aromatic sulphonic acids. 
Reumer (Eng. Pat. 10,873, 1902) proposed the application of organic acids 
at 115°, while Cross and Traquair (Eng. Pat. 9,868, 1902) claimed the applica- 
tion of carboxylic acids, such as acetic or formic, but specially the former, 
together with dehydrating agents, e.g., alcohol or concentrated solutions 
of salts. The amount of glacial acetic acid employed is from one-third to 
one-half the weight of the starch, and they claim that under these con- 
ditions an acetyl derivative of starch is formed. The product has been 
named ' feculose ' (see also Traquair, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1909, 

4. Oxidising agents. — Starch is treated with chlorine or calcium hypo- 
chlorite (C. H. Meyer, Eng. Pat. 1,146, 1893), with hypochlorite or 
chlorate of potassium or sodium (C. Brender, Eng. Pat. 17,650, 1898). 
A. Ashworth (Eng. Pat. 19,720, 1901) treats starch with acid and a chlorate, 
with or without the addition of a catalytic agent, e.g., vanadium chloride, 
CuSO.,, or CuCl 2 . Siemens and Halske (U.S. Pat. 798,509, 1905) propose 
the use of chlorine gas; the use of acids, such as HC1, H 2 S0 4 , and organic 
acids, is also mentioned in the specification. Chlorine is claimed by H. 
Kindscher (Ger. Pat. 168,980, 1902). In W. von Siemens and C. Witt's 


patent (Eng. Pat. 24,455, 1895) it is proposed to treat first with K.Mn0 4 , 
then by HC1, and finally to remove excess of CI, by means of S0 2 , or 
a dilute solution of a bisulphite. The soluble starch is stated to form 
a clear filterable solution with dilute potash solution. 

F. Fritsche (Eng. Pat. 1,351, 1908) claims the application of perborates 
for the preparation of soluble starch ; perborate of soda is also used for 
rendering starch, gums, algee, lichens, &c, soluble bv heating (Stolbe 
and Kopke, Fr. Pat. 384,704, 1907, and addition Jan." 23, 1908) ; F. G. 
Perkins (U.S. Pat. — 1,020, 656 — 1912) uses sodium peroxide for rendering 
starch soluble. 

5. Alkalies. — J. Kantorowitz (Eng. Pat. 5,844, 1896) claims the pre- 
paration of soluble starch by treating ordinary starch with NaHO, neutra- 
lising with HC1, and precipitating the product with MgSO , or by keeping 
at a temperature of 20° C. for several hours. In a later patent (Eng. 
Pat. 10.216, 1910) Kantorowitz claims the application of caustic soda, 
but to prevent the former swelling the reaction is carried on in presence 
of concentrated solutions of salts, e.g., Na 2 S0 4 . 

6. Treatment with neutral salts.- — Soluble starch can be formed by 
heating starch with a strong solution of KCNS and alcohol, the latter 
probably added to prevent swelling, as in the last example. (The Arabol 
Man. Co., Fr. Pat. 394,167, 1908.) 

C. F. Cross and J. S. Eemington (Eng. Pat. 1,035, 1899) propose to 
use the fruit of the horse-chestnut as a source of starch or soluble starch. 

Soluble starch does not differ in appearance from ordinary starch, 
except that in some cases the hilum of the granules appears to be fractured. 
On heating with water, however, it behaves quite differently ; thus 
1 part of ordinary starch heated with 9 parts of water yields a stiff white 
paste, which on cooling becomes a white opaque gel from which after 
a time water separates. On the other hand, soluble starch in the same 
proportion forms a thin opalescent but nearly clear sol which remains 
fluid on cooling, for which reason it is known as thin-boiling starch. The 
change which has taken place is probably largely one of de-polymerisation. 

M. Saurec and S. Jencic (' Koll. chem. Beihefte,' 1915, 7, 137-171) 
state that the formation of soluble starch is accompanied by a reduction 
in the size of the molecule, but this is not always the case. Dextrin is 
almost always present, although it is claimed that in certain products 
it is absent. The soluble starches usually, although not invariably, con- 
tain a higher mineral content than ordinary starch, amounting to about 
1*5 per cent., and this being alkaline will have a decided effect upon their 
properties ; the amount of water is also higher, i.e., 17 to 21 per cent. 
Soluble starch on heating with caustic alkali yields a higher percentage 
of acetic acid, i.e., about 13 per cent, of KHO is neutralised, pointing to 
a molecular change. It is precipitated by tannic acid, but to a lesser extent 
than ordinary starch. Soluble starch reverts to the insoluble form when 
a solution is allowed to stand (E. Fouard, ' Compt. Kend.' 1908, 147, 
931-933). Soluble starch is used in sizing and finishing, but more parti- 
cularly for the latter purpose ; it yields a continuous film and imparts 
a ' fuller ' feel to fabrics than does ordinary starch. 

The products sold under the name of dextrin or ' British gum ' vary 
very widely in their properties, being complexes of true dextrin, soluble 


starch, poasibly unaltered starch and glucose. There appear to be several 
modifications of dextrin, known as ery thro dextrin, amylodextrin, achro- 
dextrin, &c, which differ from each other in their molecular weights. 

Pure dextrin can be prepared by dissolving starch in moderately con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, quickly neutralising with alkali and precipitating 
with aloohol. 

The commercial dextrins are prepared by heating dry starch either 
alone or after sprinkling with nitric acid to temperatures between 100° 
and 280° C. Nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid are 
used (W. S. Hayward, Eng. Pat. 2,612, 1858). It is also produced by 
the restrained action of malt extract upon starch (B. J. B. Mills (T. Sim 
and E. S. Hutchinson), Eng. Pat. 933, 1869). The products vary according 
to the method of treatment, white dextrin containing soluble starch and 
possibly unaltered starch,while brown dextrin contains more or less glucose. 

Dextrin contains about 12 per cent, of water and about 0-2 per cent, 
of mineral matter. On heating with normal alkali solution the acetic 
acid liberated neutralises 15 to 24 per cent, of KHO. According to G. 
Malfitano and A. Moschkoff (' Compt. Rend.' 1912, 154, 443-446), starch 
is converted into dextrins by drying over P 2 5 . When the desiccation 
is prolonged so that the water of constitution is removed the solubility 
is diminished. They regard the molecule of starch as consisting of C G H, O., 
aggregates linked together by OH.H molecules and that by the loss of 
the latter the molecule becomes disintegrated. 

Dextrin is only slightly precipitated by tannic acid ; it is precipitated 
readily by alcohol, but is not readily salted out by electrolytes, only con- 
centrated solutions of sulphates and not those of other salts causing it 
to separate (S. Levites, ' Zeit. Chem. Ind. Kolloide,' 1908, 3, 145-153). 

Dextrin is used to a considerable extent in finishing and calico-printing, 
imparting a very hard ' boardy ' feel to cloth, which for certain purposes 
is much desired. It is also employed as an adhesive under the name 
of British gum, in place of gum arabic, but the solutions have much less 
viscosity, and therefore stronger sols have to be employed. It has, how- 
ever, two advantages, that is, it can be spread in a thinner layer and is 
more readily softened when moistened ; for these reasons it has largely 
replaced the natural gum. It is remarkable that, although a profound 
modification must have been made by treating starch at high temperatures, 
the structure of the granules is in no way affected until water is added, when 
they entirely dissolve. It is used to some extent in painting (Church, 
' Chemistry of Paints and Painting,' p. 72), but it is rarely used for emul- 
sifying purposes. 

Pfeft'er, using a membrane of copper ferrocyanide, found the osmotic 
pressure of dextrin to be 16-6 cm. of mercury (Ostwald, ' Solutions,' 
p. 94) ; Musculus and A. Meyer (Bull. Soc. Chim., 30, 370) found the rate 
of diffusion of dextrin through membranes to be for Y dextrin (achroo- 
dextrin) 7, and amylodextrin, 1 ; dextrose hydrate being taken as 100. 

Barium oxide is adsorbed by commercial dextrins, but it has been found 
that the amount varies with the percentage of starch present, the following 
results having been obtained : 


BaO adsorbed 

Dextrin 1 



„ 2 



„ 3 

. 2472 



. 1000 



Gum Arabic. 

The commercial gum arabic is often a mixture of gums from several 
species of trees, and is therefore a variable product. The best gum arabic 
is that obtained from Acacia Senegal, known as Hashab gum, which comes 
from Kordofan and the Blue Nile District. Gums are also obtained from 
several other species of acacia, and, although these resemble gum arabic 
in appearance, they differ from it more or less in constitution and also 
notably in yielding solutions which are less viscous and much less adhesive. 
They therefore rarely appear in commerce except in admixture as above 

Gum arabic contains normally about 15 per cent, of water and 3?, per 
cent, of mineral matter, which consists largely of the carbonates of potash 
and lime. It has long been regarded as an acid— arabic acid— in com- 
bination with bases. The same acid is supposed to be present in beet- 
root juice. More recently the researches of O'Sullivan and others have, 
according to H. H. Eobinson (' Report on the Chemistry of Gums,' British 
Association, 1906), appeared to prove that the gums are composed of 
complex acids built up of a nucleus acid associated with the sugars 
galactose, arabinose, and xylose. Arabic acid is the nucleus acid in gum 
arabic and geddic acid in gedda-gum. Without subscribing to this 
decision, it may be stated that gum arabic functions as an acid, and 
either combines with or adsorbs metallic bases ; it is a complex of the 
two carbohydrates galactan and araban. 

Gum arabic is employed more for its adhesiveness than for any other 
property, but closely allied to adhesiveness is viscosity, the gums which 
yield the most viscous solutions being the most valuable". It is employed in 
painting (Church, ' Chemistry of Paints and Painting ') as a glaze or varnish, 
in the manufacture of sweets, and for emulsifying oils, for which purposes 
it is eminently fitted. 

Gum arabic is usually entirely soluble in water. The gum from the 
earliest exudation is, however, notentirely soluble, yielding a glairy mucus- 
like fluid, from which a perfect solution separates after a time. After 
storage for two to three months a change has taken place in the product, 
probably due to enzymes, so that it dissolves entirely (F. Reinitzer, 
' Zeitschr. f. Physiolog. Chem.' 1909, 352-392, also ' 3rd Report of the 
Wellcome Research Laboratories, Khartoum '). Dr. Beam (' 2nd Report 
of the Wellcome Research Laboratories ') notes the fact, which, however, 
was previously well known, that the viscosity of a solution prepared in the 
cold is greater than when heat is employed. It may be mentioned that 
gum arabic contains at least three enzymes, an oxidase, a peroxidase, and a 
diastase (F. Reinitzer, ' J. Physiol. Chem.' 1909, 61, 352-392), the functions 
of which have not yet been determined, but these render the gum incom- 
patible for use with several medicinal preparations ; incidentally they also 
serve for detecting gum arabic in admixture with other gums, e.g., traga- 
canth, which are free from these enzymes. 

Hashab gum was found to be composed of two gums, a hard and a 
soft one. On exposure to the sun the hard gum remains glassy, but the 
soft kind becomes white and opaque, owing to the development of 
innumerable tiny fissures. By this treatment it appears to be bleached, 
although this is really not the case. There is a marked difference in the 


viscosities of the two varieties in the torsion viscosimeter, a 20 per cent, 
solution of the hard gum indicating a retardation of 60 to 70 deg., whereas 
the soft gum showed a retardation of only 28 to 33 deg. The difference in 
these two varieties has not yet heen determined, the amount of mineral 
matter and the acidity being practically the same. It was found, how- 
ever, that gum from tapped trees had a higher viscosity than that which 
exuded naturally (' 4th Report Wellcome Research Laboratories, Khar- 
toum '). A solution of gum arabic yields an opaque white gel with basic 
lead acetate — no doubt, due to the adsorption of PbHo0 2 . It becomes 
more glutinous on addition of borax and is not precipitated by tannic acid. 
It is insoluble in liquid phenol and in pyridine, in which gelatine is readily 

On adding alcohol to a solution of the gum, it is precipitated, but more 
readily in presence of hydrochloric acid. The precipitate has been regarded 
as ' arabic acid,' but this cannot be the case, since the mineral matter 
adheres very strongly to the carbohydrates, and, unless the solution is 
dilute, the gum is precipitated almost unaltered. 

Thus a solution precipitated once by alcohol in presence of dilute 
hydrochloric acid yielded a product containing 2-73 per cent, of mineral 
matter, while after three precipitations it still contained 2-24 per cent. 
In presence of sulphuric acid the precipitate contained 2-30 per cent, of 
mineral matter, while, in presence of ammonium oxalate, the precipitate 
contained 1-29 per cent. The proportion of galactan and araban did not 
appear to differ markedly from the original gum. After precipitating in 
this way, however, the gum does not dissolve to a clear sol, but is more or 
less turbid, and after about three precipitations with alcohol it ceases to be 
precipitated, but remains as a turbid sol, from which it deposits on addition 
uf acids or electrolytes. On the other hand, Rideal and Youle (' Jour. Soc. 
Chem. Ind.' 1891, 60) tound a difference in the optical rotation between the 
gum precipitated (amounting to about half the original) and that which 
remained in solution, from which they concluded that at least two sub- 
stances were present. O'Sullivan obtained a similar result with ' pure 

Attempts have been made to utilise this reaction for estimating the gum 
in syrups (as also the amount of precipitate obtained with lead acetate in 
alcoholic solution), gum arabic yielding 85 per cent, of ' pure gum ' calcu- 
lated free from ash (A. C. Chauvin, ' Ann. Falsif.' 1912, 5, 27-30, also 
X. Roques and G. Sellier, ' Ann. Chim. Analyt.' 1911, 16, 218-220). 

An interesting case of the mutual precipitation of two colloids is afforded' 
by the interaction of gum arabic and gelatin, under certain conditions, 
which have been closely studied by F. W. Tiebackx (' Z. Chem. Ind. 
Kolloide,' 1911, 8, 198-201, and 1911, 9, 61-65). The precipitation takes; 
place in acid solution only within certain limits depending upon the' 
strength of the solutions. Thus, with 2 c.c. of a 0-5 per cent, gelatin 
solution and 2 c.c. of a 2 per cent, solution of gum, coagidation takes place' 
with 2 c.c. of N/40 HC1, whereas with 2 c.c. of N/25 or N/125 acid, the' 
solution, after becoming turbid, clears again. With a solution containing 
0-5 per cent, of gelatin and 0-5 per cent, of gum arabic, a turbidity is 
produced when the acidity = -002 N.HCI ; on further addition of acid a 
precipitate occurs which passes again to a turbidity and at a concentration 
of 0-01 N the liquid becomes clear again. Increasing the percentage of. 
gelatin and gum, or raising the temperature, restricts the action, until at a. 


concentration of 2 per cent, each of gelatin and gum, at a temperature of 
SO C, there is no sign of flocculation. If, however, the proportion of g um 
is increased, a turbidity appears which again disappears on increasing the 
proportion of gelatin and gum. Strong solutions of gelatin and gum, e.g., 
50 c.c. of 50 per cent, solutions of each, yielded no precipitate with N/10 
HC1, or stronger solutions of the acid. When sulphuric acid is added to a 
solution containing 0-5 per cent, of gelatin and 0-7 per cent, of gum, a 
turbidity occurs when the acidity of the solution is ±0 003N. A solution ot 
100 c.c. of a 04 per cent, solution of gelatin and 100 c.c. of a 2 per cent, 
solution of gum is coagulated by the addition of 500 c.c. of 6 per cent, acetic 
acid. The coagulum consists of an adsorption compound containing 
gelatin, gum, and acid, the gelatin being enclosed by the gum, which latter 
adsorbs the acid. On washing or drying at 100° C. the acid is removed. 
Two layers are formed, tbe lower one behaving in a similar way to globulin 
or casein in presence of electrolytes, the view being expressed that casein 
and other proteids may also be adsorption compounds, the constituents 
resembling one another both in properties and in composition. In the 
above reaction the acid may be replaced by salts, the most active being 
tartrates, citrates, phosphates, and acetates, followed by sulphates, 
chlorides, bromides, and iodides, the activity of the cations being in the 
following order, Na)K)NH 4 )Mg)Zn). Salts cause the coagulum produced 
by acids to swell, the activity of the anions in this respect being in the 
order I)Br)Cl)S0 4 )C0 3 ) and the cations K)Na) alkalies) alkaline earths). 
When, however, concentrated solutions of salts or those of ^ gram molecule 
strength or less are employed, the already swollen transparent gel becomes 
again opaque. The tendency of a saline solution is to remove the acid, 
while in presence of salts greater concentration of acid is required to 
produce a given effect. 

Gum arabic solutions show a very high osmotic pressure, which remains 
constant over a long period. Thus Pfeffer, using a copper ferrocyanide 
membrane, records a pressure of 7-2 cm. of mercury with a 1 per cent, 
solution and 120-4 cm. with an 18 per cent, solution (Ostwald, ' Solutions,' 
p. 91), while Moore and Roaf (' Biochem. Jour.' 2, 39) and Edie (' 4th 
Report Wellcome Research Laboratories, Khartoum : ), using a parchment 
paper diaphragm, found for 6 per cent, solutions pressures of 114-170 m.m., 
and for a 10 per cent, solution 276 m.m. The reason for these high 
pressures, which remain almost constant after reaching a maximum, has 
not yet been explained ; it may be due to the slow diffusion of the elec- 
trolytes associated with the carbohydrates, or it may be a swelling or 
imbibition pressure (pseudo-osmotic). 

In testing gum arabic for commercial purposes the viscosity is the most 
important property (R. Hefelmann, ' Zeitschr. Ofientl. Chem.' 7, 195-198). 
0. Fromm (' Zeitschr. Annal. Chem.' 1901, 40, 143-168) soaks strips of paper 
in solutions of the gums to be tested and notes the increase in weight and 
tensile strength of the paper which serves as a measure of the value of the 
gums for adhesive purposes. The latter author also states that on keeping 
gums a gradual change takes place in them which in the trade is known 
as ' ripening ' ; this change leads to a decrease in strength, viscosity, and 
acidity, at the same time there is an increase in the proportion of gelatinised 
insoluble gum. 

The problem of the effect of colloids upon the precipitation of mineral 
matter is a very interesting one, which would well repay further study, not 


otilv because of the remarkable results which have been obtained, but also 
in view of the difficulties which are encountered in many industries because 
of their presence. Generally speaking, colloids are more or less protective 
in their effect; that is to say, in the case of two solutions which in the ordin- 
ary way react to form aninsoluble precipitate which settles easily, in presence 
of a colloid either no precijiitate is formed or the precipitate is much more 
finely divided, and refuses to settle, or it settles much more slowly. 
Problems of this kind often occur in chemical works, sewage works, and 
in water filtration, &c, the remedies being either application of heat or 
addition of some chemical which in itself is colloidal, or which forms a precipitate of opposite sign, as, for instance, alum, ferrous sulphate, 
potassium permanganate, &c. ; in the case of sewage also the colloidal 
matter may be destroyed or flocculated by bacterial action. On the other 
hand, it may be advantageous to form a highly flocculent precipitate 
instead of a crystalline one, as, for instance, in steam boilers, the deposit 
then being easier to deal with — a result which is brought about by the 
addition of colloids, e.g., tannin and soda, infusion of straw, &c. The 
precipitation of mineral matter by slow diffusion of salts through colloidal 
jellies leads to the production either of spheroidal or nodular aggregates 
(Rainey, ' On the Mode of Formation of Shells of Animals, Bone, &c.,' 
published in 1858 ; also H. B. Stocks, ' Precipitation of Carbonate of Lime 
under Varying Conditions,' ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1912, 21, 527) or to 
banded structure, which appears to explain the formation of mineral lodes 
(Hatschek, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1911, 256; F. S. Shannon, ' Jour. Ind. 
and Eng. Chem.' 1912, 526-528, and E. Marriage, ' Z. Chem. Ind. Kolloide,' 
1912, 11, 1-5). 

Other Soluble Gums. 

There are two other types of soluble gums differing from gum arabic in 
their properties which are worth considering : the one the ghatti-gums, 
because of their high viscosity, the other the wattle-gums, because of their 

Ghatti-gum is the product of Anogeissus latifolia, but the commercial 
varieties are mixed products containing the gums from several species, and 
therefore are very variable. The solutions of ghatti-gums are very much 
more viscous than those of gum arabic, and also contain more or less of a 
product which swells to a gel in water, but does not pass into the state of 
solution (metarabin). (' Colonial Reports,' No. 63, Imperial Institute, 
' Report, Gums and Resins,' p. 160.) 

The moisture in these gums ranges from -1 to 7 per cent., mineral matter 
2 to 3 per cent., and potash neutralised on heating 0-22 to 3-99 per cent. 
(Rideal and Youle, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1891, 160). Ghatti-gum 
contains more araban and less galactan than arabic gums. 

The wattle-gums of Australia and South Africa are of two types — 
although there are many gradations — the one entirely soluble in water, the 
other leaving more or less swollen but insoluble gum. To the former group 
belong the gums of Acacia faniesiana, A. ferruginea, A. leucoflilaea, &c, 
and to the latter gums from A. decurrens, A. mollissima, A. vestiia, &c. 
For a full account of the wattle-gums see J. H. Maiden (' Pharm. Jour. 
20, 869-980). Several of the wattle-gums contain a low mineral content, 
i.e., 1 per cent, or less, and they are all very low in viscosity. The wattle- 
gums are distinguished by containing a much greater proportion of galactan 


and less araban than gum arabics. If the viscosity of these gums could be 
improved there would be a great demand for them ; they are very plentiful, 
and exude freely in large tears or masses, often very fine. 

A very large number of trees of other species and genera yield soluble 
gums, but none of these have ever come into extended use. 


Tragacanth is employed in calico-printing, for painting on linen (A. H. 
Church, ' Chemistry of Paints and Paintings,' p. 70), in the preparation 
oi lozenges, for cosmetic purposes, and in the manufacture of oil emulsions. 
This gum is the product of various species of Astragalus (Imperial Insti- 
tute, ' Report on Gums and Kesins,' p. 161), and it differs from gum arabic 
in that it is almost always the product of incisions. It shows distinct evi- 
dence of metamorphosed or swollen vegetable tissue, the cells containing 
a few granules which have the character of starch, which, however, appear 
to resist hot water to a considerable extent. The content of water varies 
according to the state of the atmosphere ; normally this is about 17 per 
cent., but in moist air it may be as much as 26 per cent. (H. B. Stocks and 
H. G. White, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1903, 4) ; it contains 3 to 5 per 
cent, of mineral matter, which is largely composed of carbonates (Rideal 
and Youle, ' Jour Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1891, 610), that produced by incision 
containing the larger quantity (Hilger and Dreyfus, ' Ber.' 189], 33, 610). 
The amount of acetic acid formed on heating with potash is much higher 
than gum arabic, corresponding to 15 to 26-61 per cent, of alkali neutra- 
lised (Rideal and Youle, Stocks), showing a different constitution. The 
carbon and hydrogen in this gum approximate to the formula C c H ]0 O 5 , 
but both galactan and araban are present, even more of the iatter than 
in gum arabic ; there is also a methylpentosan present, as fucose is found 
in the products of hydrolysis (A. Widtsoe and B. Tollens, ' Ber.' 1900, 
133, 132-143). 

On heating tragacanth with water it swells very considerably, forming 
a stiff paste, even at 5 per cent, concentration, which by straining can 
be separated into a white translucent sol and an opaque insoluble gel, 
known as tragacanthine or bassorin. O'Sullivan (' Proc. Chem. Soc' 
1901, 17, 156-157) states that the gum contains a series of gum acids 
similar to geddic acid, which he termed polyarabin-galactan geddic acids, 
and bassorin, which yields tragacanthan-xylan-bassoric acid by action 
of alkalies and xylan-bassoric acids on partial hydrolysis with acids. 
Xylan-bassoric acid is nearly insoluble in water, and bassoric acid insoluble, 
but the alkali salts are soluble. 

According to Hilger and Dreyfus, on treating bassorin with 35 per cent, 
caustic potash and acidifying with acetic acid, oxybassorin (C u H :iO O 10 ) 2 O 
is formed. If the alkaline solution is neutralised with acetic acid 
and precipitated by alcohol, the potassium derivative of oxybassorin is 
produced ; this is soluble in water and yields insoluble calcium and silver 
derivatives by double decomposition. These salts do not respond to 
the usual tests for the metals, and therefore do not appear to be true 
salts. These are probably adsorption compounds of the bases. Traga- 
canth is not precipitated by ferric chloride, it is precipitated by alcohol 
and also by basic lead acetate. Dilute solutions of bassoric acid arc 
precipitated by alcohol and also by electrolytes ; it can be titrated, using 


phenol-phthalein as indicator (T. von Fellenbera, ' Mitt. Lebensmittel, 
unters. Hyg.' 1914, 5, 56-259). 

Tragacanth gives with borax a slightly more viscous mass, a reaction 
which is sometimes made use of in detecting adidteration (W. L. Scoville, 
' Drugg. Oil.' 1909,53, 116-117; also H. C. Fuller, ' Amer. Jour. Pharm.' 
1912, 84, 155-158). It can be distinguished by not containing oxydates. 

Tragacanth yields a much more viscous solution than gum arabic, 
but does not form a continuous film on drying, breaking up into large 
curved flal< es. The viscosity is lowered by heating under pressure. Traga- 
canth more nearly resembles starch than gum arabic in its properties. 
It shows only a slight osmotic pressure, i.e., a 0-72 per cent, solution gave 
a pressure of 5 m.m. at 17° C. with a parchment paper membrane (Moore 
and Eoaf, ' Biochem. Jour.' 2, 39). 

The commoner qualities of gum tragacanth, known in the market as 
( gum trag ' or ' hog gum,' is in larger and thicker pieces, white or yellow 
in colour, and often quite opaque. It yields a solution which is more 
pasty than real tragacanth and also contains more insoluble matter. The 
moisture in this gum is about 11 to 12 per cent., mineral matter 3-16, 
and potash neutralised after heating 8-14 per cent. 

For certain purposes mixtures of two or more colloids are sometimes 
preferable to a single one (F. Beckmann, Ger. Pats. 219,651 and 223,709, 

In a general paper on thickenings for calico-printing from a colloid 
point of view, E. Austin-Muller (' Chem. Zeit.' 1910, 34, 598-599) divides 
them into three classes : 

(1) Homogeneous, i.e., those which dissolve to a clear sol which can 
be filtered through paper — examples, gum arabic and better qualities 
of gum Senegal. 

(2) Heterogeneous. Those which form two phases, a sol and a gel, 
the latter retained by a filter, e.g., tragacanth. 

(3) Heterogeneous. Those forming micella-sols, which are entirely 
retained by a filter, e.g., starch paste. The latter can be rendered more 
homogeneous by acetic acid. The products obtained from starch by roast- 
ing, i.e., soluble starches and dextrins, fall between classes 2 and 3 or 
1 and 2, according to their properties. By addition of NaHO they form 
homogeneous sols. 

Insoluble Gums. 

The gums which are insoluble in water exude naturally from cherry 
and peach trees, &c. ; there are also certain gums found in India, known 
as Indian gum or Bombay gum, the products of species of Slerculia, and 
the gum of Gochlospermum yossypium, which have the remarkable property 
ot spontaneously evolving acetic acid. H. H. Robinson ('Jour. Chem. 
yoc' 1906, 89, 1496) regards the latter as an acetyl derivative, and found 
that on distillation it yielded 14 per cent, of acetic acid. 

Bombay gum and the gum of Cochlospermum gossijpium are very similar 
iu composition. They lose 19 to 21$ per cent, on heating at 100° 0. (water 
and acetic acid), and contain 7 to 9 per cent, of mineral matter. On 
heating with alkali, the amount of KHO neutralised equals 13 to 16 
per cent. They contain galactan and araban, but less of the former 
than in gum arabic ; there is probably a third carbohydrate present. 

On treatment with water they swell up very quickly to form nearly 


transparent gels, which, however, are so brittle that they can be pulverised 
between the fingers into innumerable minute angular particles which do 
not coalesce. 

These insoluble gums are not at present of any value, the chief interest 
in them commercially centring round the possibility of converting them 
into soluble products. Several patents have been taken out with the 
view of converting such gums into colloid sols, other colloidal products 
being also mentioned. Thus L. Kern (Eng. Pat. 21,370, 1891) purposes 
to render cherry, peach, and other gums soluble by heating with water 
under pressure; F. Fritsche (Eng. Pat. 1,353, 1908) prepares soluble gums 
by acting upon the products obtained from algse and lichens — carrageen 
moss, agar, Iceland moss, &c. — East India gum, bassorine, &c, with 
sodium perborate after boiling with water under pressure ; A. Bcidin 
(Eng. Pat. 16,589, 1905) proposes to render starch, inulin, glycogen, 
gelose from agar-agar, gums and mucilages more readily soluble, by con- 
verting the phosphates which they contain into insoluble phosphates 
by addition of metallic salts or into monobasic acid salts by acidifying. 

Vegetable Mucilages. 

A variety of vegetable mucilages can be prepared by treating seeds, 
roots, &c, of various plants with water. These products, which were 
investigated many years ago by Fremy, Mulder, Chodnew, &c, were 
known as pectins or pectinous substances. Our knowledge of these 
materials needs revision. They are more nearly related to gum arabic 
than to the hemicelluloses. Pectose was the soluble colloidal material 
contained in beetroot ; this was converted by means of an enzyme or 
ferment called pectase into pectin and subsequently into pectic acid, 
coagulation not occurring except in presence of CaO or a salt of Ca, Ba, or 
Sr. The coagulated mass is not pectic acid but a pectate of one of the 
alkaline earths (A. Mallevre, ' Bull. Soc. Chem.' 1895, 13, 77-82). This 
looks like adsorption compounds. 

The gelatinous material pectose is present in the pulp of ripe fruits, 
such as apples or pears, and in roots, e.g., carrots and beetroot, in association 
with cellulose. It is insoluble in water (Fremy). By the action of the 
ferment pectase, or acids, alkalies, or milk of lime, pectose is converted 
into pectin or pectic acid ; in ' other words, it . is converted into a sol. 
Pectin is contained in the juice of ripe fruits, from which it is pre- 
cipitated by alcohol in presence of HC1. It is soluble in water and is 
precipitated from the solution by basic lead acetate, also by Ba(OH)n 
and Ca(OH) 2 in excess, but not by NH.HO, NaHO, HC1,"H 3 B0 3 or 
borax. On boiling an aqueous solution of pectin it becomes insoluble, 
being converted into parapectin (Fremy, Sidersky), parapectic acid 
( ; Watts' Diet.,' vol. 4, p. 365), metapectic acid (J. Weisberg, ' Chem. 
Zeit.' 13, 2). Parapectin is converted by dilute acids and bases into 
metapectin, and with concentrated solutions of the same into para- 
pectic acid. Metapectic acid has an acid reaction ; it is completely 
precipitated by lime and basic lead acetate. On prolonged heating it 
is converted into metapectic acid (J. Weisberg, 'Chem. Zeit.' 13, 2). 
Pectous or pectosic acid is obtained by the action of pectase upon a solution 
of pectin, also produced by the action of cold solutions of the alkalies 
upon the same substances. It is a gelatinous substance, slightly soluble 


in cold water, but quite soluble in dilute acids. On boiling with water 
it dissolves, but reverts to a gel on cooling. It is very quickly converted 
into pectic acid by boiling with water, by pectase, and by alkalies in 
excess. The pectosates form amorphous gels (Pelouze et Fremy). Pectic 
acid is formed by the action of alkalies upon pectin, also by the action 
of HC1 upon beetroot pulp ; it dissolves in boiling water, but reverts 
to a gel on cooling (Pelouze et Fremy). By long-coutinued boiling with 
water or by acids it is converted into parapectic acid ; alkalies convert 
it into metapectic acid. Parapectic acid dissolves in cold water, and 
the solution on evaporation leaves a residue which resembles gum or 
gelatin. The solution reddens litmus and is precipitated on addition of 
a mineral acid, acetic acid, or Ba(OH) 2 . It yields a gelatinous precipitate 
with alcohol. Metapectic acid is stated to be identical with arabic acid. 
It is soluble in water, forming turbid or heterogeneous sols, yields a barium 
salt and is precipitated by alcohol, but not completely by basic lead 
acetate in excess (J. Weisberg, ' Ghem. Zeit." 13, 2). 
We have therefore the following series of products : 

Pectose Metapectin Parapectic acid 

Pectin Pectosic acid Metapectic acid 

Parapectin Pectic acid 

The ultimate analyses of these products by various observers do not 
agree among themselves, therefore we do not know how many individual 
members really exist ; one fact, however, is clear, that is, that they contain 
more oxygen and less hydrogen than the true carbohydrates and that 
they have for the most part acid functions which become more marked 
by partial hydrolysis, showing that they contain one or more COOH 
groupings. According to later investigations (E. Bourquelot, ' Comptes 
Rend.' 128, 1241-1244, and Bourquelot and Herissy, ' Jour. Pharm. 
Chem.' 1899, 9, 281-286), the pectens so far examined yield galactose 
and arabinose on hydrolysis, so that they probably contain galactan 
and araban. Cross and Bevan (' Cellulose,' p. 217) state that ' the pectic 
group of compounds may be regarded as compounds of carbohydrates 
of varied constitution with acid groups of undetermined constitution 
associated to form molecular complexes, more or less homogeneous, but 
entirely resolved by the continued action of simple hydrolytic agency.' 
According to S. B. Schryver and D. Haynes (' Biochem. Jour.' 1906, 
10, 539-547), ' pectinogen ' is obtained by treating turnips with a solution 
of ammonium oxalate and precipitating with alcohol. It has acid func- 
tions, and when kept in alkaline solutions it readily reverts to pectin, 
which also has acid characters. It is soluble in alkalies and is precipi- 
tated as a gel on addition of acids. Analysis shows it to have the com- 
position 0,711240, 6 . It yields furfural equivalent to one atom of carbon 
in each complex of C, 7 . Pectin would therefore appear to be an acid 
and not a carbohydrate. 

Pectins are more particularly interesting since they form the basis 
of fruit- jellies, such fruits as currants, gooseberries, and apples being 
especially rich in these constituents. The mucilages of linseed, marsh- 
mallows, orchids, and other plants are also worth attention. 

Several colloidal products from plants have been proposed for use 
from time to time, but very few have been found sufficiently valuable to 


be retained in industry. A list of the more interesting patents in this 
connection is given below : 

Preparation of a sizing material from the juice of linseed, hemp-seed, 
plantain-seed, &c. (F. C. Calvert, Eng. Pat. 164, 1857). 

Obtaining fecula from bulbs of the lily tvpe (E. I. C. Dubus, Eng. 
Pat. 2,801, 1857). 

Preparation of a mucilage from quince-seeds (G. Norris, Eng. Pat. 
2,240, 1861). 

Preparation of a substance named ' parapectin ' from the juice of 
the fruit of the arbutus tree by precipitating with alcohol. This substance 
resembles pectin but has greater consistency and strength (P. Mingaud, 
Eng. Pat. 1,619, 1865). 

Obtaining a mucilaginous substance from flax, China grass, sorghum, 
Phormium tenax, and other fibre-yielding material by boiling with alkali 
(T. Gray, Eng. Pat. 1,058, 1866). 

Preparing size from the fruit of the augustus palm (S. C. Dhondy, 
Eng. Pat. 7,458, 1891). 

Preparation of a gum from plants of the Mesembryanthaceae family 
(R. Haddon (R. My Glyvares), Eng. Pat. 23,555, 1898). 

Preparation of vegetable glue or sizing material from the palmetto 
palm and similar plants (F. Hepburn, Eng. Pat. 10,814, 1898). 

Obtaining a glutinous substance from beetroot by treatment with 
SO 2 and neutralising with chalk. The acid calcium salt which is obtained 
is evaporated in vacuo. The product is rendered gelatinous by an alkali 
or ammonia, but this property is obviated by previous treatment with 
H 2 2 (G. B. Ellis (F. Hornung), Eng. Pat. 22,788, 1898). 
" Using mucilage from linseed for sizing yarn (J. Pate, Eng. Pat. 2,645, 


Obtaining ' viscine ' from plants of the Ilex class (W. Loebell, Eng. 
Pat. 26,383, 1904). 

Obtaining gum for sizing purposes from flax, hemp, and other textile 
fibres (H. Sefton Jones, Eng. Pat. 18,337, 1907). 

Bacterial Gums. 

The bacterial gums are of interest in connection with the mode of 
genesis of exudation gums and also as to their influence in certain in- 
dustries such as sugar manufacture and brewing. A. Greig Smith appears 
to have been the first to connect the formation of gum, or gum flux, with 
bacterial action. In researches into the mode of formation of the gum 
from Acacia perennis (wattle-gum) he isolated from the twigs of the tree 
two kinds of bacteria, one of which, the most prevalent, named by him 
Bacterium acacia, when grown upon suitable media produced a slime 
of the araban-galactan class (' Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W.' 1902, Pt. III. 
Sept. 24). The view that a specific organism is responsible for the forma- 
tion of gum is also held by Bean and Edie (' 4th Report Wellcome Tropical 
Research Laboratories, Khartoum ') as a result of their researches. 
Attempts to inoculate gum-bearing trees with this organism, however, led 
only to a decreased product of gum. Ruhland (' Ber. Deutsch. botan. Ges.,' 
1906, XXIV. 393) holds the contrary opinion, although he was able to isolate 
a bacterium — Bacillus spongiosus — from diseased cherry-trees which 
formed a gum yielding only arabinose on hydrolysis. R. Greig Smith 


(' Centr. Bakt.' Par. II. 698-703) also discovered a bacterium— Bacterium 
acacice—\n the gum of plum, cedar, peach, almond, and date trees. B. 
persicce, found on peach and almond trees and Cedrela Auslralis, also pro- 
bably influences the formation of gum. In a medium containing sucrose 
it forms a mucus or gummy matter which yields galactose and arabinose 
on hydrolysis. The gum of the fruit of Sterculia diversiola contains arabin 
and par-arabin (insoluble gum) ; these are stated to be produced by 
two organisms, B. acacice and B. par-arabinium respectively. Several 
varieties of the litter have been isolated and they produce par-arabin 
(i.e., insoluble mucus) when grown under suitable conditions. 

In the manufacture of sugar the juice sometimes becomes extremely 
viscous and very difficult to filter. This has been found to be due to an 
organism, Bacillus levaniformis, which forms a viscous or gummy product 
known as levan ; this yields only Isevulose on hydrolysis (Greig Smith and 
Thomas Steel, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1902, 1381, 1901, 105). The product 
differs from that formed during the ' gummosis ' disease or ' gumming ' 
which takes place within the sugar-cane, the fibro- vascular bundles becom- 
ing filled with a viscous gum to which the name ' vasculin ' has been 
applied by Cobb (' Agric. Gaz. N.S.W.' 1893, 777). Levan dissolves 
in cold water, but on dilution the sol becomes turbid and opaque, although 
no separation takes place either on standing or on centrifuging. It is 
not precipitated by basic lead acetate, but it forms an adsorption product 
with BaO containing 19*85 per cent, of the latter, similarly to starch. 

Gum appears, however, to be present normally in unripe cane-juice, 
as this after evaporation thickens with acetic acid and on cooling sets 
to a solid mass. The amount of gum in the molasses was found to be 
8 per cent. (Hazewinkel, ' Archiv Suikerind. Nederl. Ind.' 1910, 18, 41-15). 

Beet-juice sometimes becomes mucilaginous owing to a peculiar fer- 
mentation which is induced by an organism, Leucostoc-cus mesenteroides , 
resulting in the conversion of the sugar into a carbohydrate known as 
dextran or fermentation gum. Two varieties of this carbohydrate appear 
to be formed, one of which is soluble, the other insoluble in water. Bacillus 
gummosis also develops in sugar solution, forming a gum having the com- 
position represented by the formula C r> H| O 5 (Happ). It is remarkable 
that in both these cases at a certain period in the growth of the organism 
it swells up enormously, diffusing itself through the liquid, thus forming 
a mucilaginous fluid. 

Ropiness also occurs in beer, milk, wine, infusions of Ipecacuanha, 
Radix Althaea, Senegae, Folia Farfaraa, Folia Digitalis, &c, from time 
to time ; in all cases the cause has been traced to the action of micro- 
organisms. (For further information on this subject see Lafar, ' Micro- 
organisms and Fermentation,' pp. 270-278.) 


The hemicelluloses constitute a group of closely related substances 
contained in the seeds, roots, &c, of various plants, the cellular tissues of 
certain plants consisting largely of these products intimately associated 
with cellulose, to which they are also allied. 

On heating with water, some of the hemicelluloses swell up enormously 
and pass into the state of colloidal sols, which are extremely viscous and 
which revert to non-rigid gels after keeping for a few days. 

1917. g 


Hemicelluloses from seeds are employed in the manufacture of sizing 
materials (P. C. D. Castle, Eng. Pat. 10,822, 1905, 0. V. Greenwood, 
Eng. Pat. 564, 1912). The hemicelluloses, no doubt, vary in composition, 
but that from the locust-bean (Ceretonia siliqua) consists of a complex 
of mannan and galactan in the proportion of about 2 : 1, mannose and 
galactose in these proportions being the products of hydrolysis (Bourquelot 
and Herissy, ' Compt. Rend.' 1889, 129, 228, 231, also 1889, 129, 391-393). 
Solutions of hemicelluloses of this type yield, on evaporation, clear trans- 
parent continuous films which have considerable tensile strength and 
are much tougher than films of nitrocellulose. In composition they 
approximate to the formula C, ; H lu 5 (H. B. Stocks and H. G. White, 
' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1903, -1, also C.F. Gross, ' Lectures on Cellulose, 
Inst, of Chem.' 1912). They contain but little mineral matter and are 
not acidic in character. Sols of the hemicelluloses show a very high 
viscosity, increasing enormously with the concentration, but heat has 
only a slight effect in decreasing it. Dilute acids lower the viscosity 
very considerably, especially the mineral acids ; alkalies increase the 
viscosity, especially of strong sols, which become glutinous or tenacious. 
Salts generally have very little effect except in strong solutions, in which 
case the complex is in many cases precipitated. Iron and copper salts, 
hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide, and potassium persulphate all 
lower the viscosity of the product. Heating under pressure and with 
organic acids renders the material quite fluid (C. V. Greenwood, Eng. 
Pat. 569, 1908), but partial reversion takes place after a time. 

Hemicelluloses form adsorption compounds with bases such as Ba(OH) 2 
and Ca(OH) 2 becoming more or less solidified and in diluted sol precipitated. 
Basic lead acetate forms a heavy solid white opaque gel, KMn0 4 and 
Eehling's solution also forms solid gels. Boric acid renders the gel more 
viscous, while the action is still more marked with borax, a solution of 
the complex being solidified to a brittle gel, while even in very dilute 
solution the material becomes so viscous that it ceases to flow and also 
does not wet the containing vessel. The mixing of viscous gels of this 
type with water is an interesting proposition ; the surface tension is so high 
that water will not penetrate. On stirring, the gel breaks up into small 
particles, which by long-continued stirring gradually absorb the water 
and coalesce, the mixture becoming homogeneous again. Friction is 
a considerable factor in the mixing, but, as dilution proceeds, the surface 
tension being progressively lowered, mixing becomes more and more 
easy. If the material is added to a large volume of water it is practi- 
cally impossible to obtain a homogeneous solution. Mixtures of hemi- 
celluloses with starch paste, some soluble starches, dextrin, if not too 
concentrated, Irish moss mucilage, and agar mucilage are easy to prepare, 
and homogeneous probably because the surface tensions are equal or nearly 
so ; but with hemicelluloses and gum arabic, gelatin, and strong solutions 
of dextrin the interfacial pressure must be considerable as there is no 
interpenetration, and although vigorously agitated they form granular 
or frothy heterogeneous mixtures which sooner or later separate into 
two layers of the different materials. The reason for this difference is 
not very apparent. 

The hemicelluloses, consisting of mannan and galactan, react with 
tannic acid to form complexes, which in presence of excess of tannic 
acid appear as an opaque turbid sol with considerable reduction in 


viscosity, immediately after mixing ; upon standing, however, the viscosity 
progressively increases until after a few hours the product forms a soft 
gel which takes the form of the containing vessel ; after a still further 
period the material separates into a stiffer gel and a clear supernatant 
liquid, about equal parts. On removing from the liquid, the gel pro- 
gressively dehydrates imtil it forms a tough material like leather, and 
on fully drying it forms a hard solid. This product is an adsorption 
compound containing C, 4 H 10 O 9 and C 6 H l0 O fi molecules in the proportion 
1 : 2. Owing to the special properties of this material, it is employed for 
the purpose of tanning, the colloidal carbohydrate having a restraining 
influence on the tannic acid, so that concentrated tanning liquors can 
be employed at the commencement and tanning completed in a few days 
(0. V. Greenwood, Eng. Pat. 5,018, 1910, and 7,635, 1915 ; also C. F. 
Cross, 'Lectures on Cellulose,' p. 38). On treating the material with 
water, tannic acid first dissolves, but on further dilution the complex 
becomes dispersed. Alcohol dissolves the whole of the tannic acid, pre- 
cipitating. the carbohydrate in the form of a flocculent gel. Some salts 
such as alum, Fe 2 Cl 6 ,FeS0 4 ,and ZnCl 2 , which yield precipitates with tannic 
acid, do not coagulate the hexosan-tannin complex, while others such 
as lead acetate, tartar emetic, SnCl 2 , Na 2 W0 4 , and ammoniacal copper 
solution coagulate it. 

The turbid complex becomes clear and much more viscous, i.e., more 
dispersed at a temperature of about 42° C, reverting to the original con- 
dition on cooling ; this change is strictly reversible. Alkalies and certain 
salts, e.g., sodium benzoate and KCNS, also strong formaldehyde, sugar, 
glucose, and glycerine, cause a similar dispersion, the effect of hydroxyl, 
ions and groups, being most marked in this respect. Acids appear to have 
veiy little action. 

The nuts of vegetable ivory (Phytekphas maorocarpa) and also probably 
of the dum dum palm ('Bull. Imp. Inst.' 1911, 105-109), coffee, date 
stones, &c, contain the carbohydrate mannan, which on hydrolysis with 
acid yields mannose. Vegetable ivory consists of almost "pure mannan, 
which has been carefully studied by S.'W. Johnson (' J. Amer. Soc' 1896, 
211-222). The nuts at present used in turnery work in place of real ivory 
are very large, extremely hard and tough white seeds. On treatment with 
water it is not dissolved, but it is readily soluble in 70 per cent, sulphuric 
acid, from which it is precipitated unchanged by addition of alcohol and 
ether. The mannan thus formed swells in water and partially dissolves ; it 
is more readily soluble in alkalies. This would be a very useful product if a 
colloidal solution in water could be prepared. 

There is also contained in woods generally a gummy product known as 
xylan, which yields xylose on hydrolysis. This dissolves in solutions of the 
alkalies, but is insoluble in water. It is contained in large quantity in the 
alkaline liquors of paper-pulp manufactories, but has not yet been utilised 
for technical purposes. 

Seaweed Jellies. 

Several algae yield colloidal products when boiled with water, but only a 
few have been utilised for technical purposes. They differ in composition 
and properties from the colloids previously described, containing less 
carbon and more oxygen, and in addition 0-15 to 10 per cent, of nitrogen, 
but in what state of combination is not known. They contain galactan and 



a methyl pentosan — fucosan — which hydrolyses to form the methyl pentose 
— fucose. 

Irish moss grows extensively oa the coasts of Ireland and Scotland, and 
was at one time largely used for sizing linen ; it is still used to a limited 
extent. On soaking in water the plant breaks down to form a gelatinous 
mass, and on boiling with water it forms a colloidal sol which is quite fluid 
while hot, but sets to a gel on cooling. This material contains a con- 
siderable amount of finely divided cellular tissue and usually has a high 
mineral content, i.e., about 18 per cent. (H. B. Stocks and H. G. White, 
' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1903, 4). Irish moss gel becomes less viscous 
with caustic soda ; Ba(OH) 2 and Fe 2 Cl 6 both yield precipitates and 
alcohol partly precipitates it. 

Agar-agar is a Japanese product derived from a seaweed ; it occurs in 
thin crinkled ribbons, and is extremely bulky. On heating with water it 
does not swell very appreciably or easily dissolve, but when solution is com- 
plete the liquid is very thin while hot, but on cooling it very quickly sets at 
about 50° C. to a solid brittle gel, which does not readily melt below the 
temperature of boiling water. These properties render it extremely useful 
for bacteriological investigations and other purposes. A solution con- 
taining only 1 per cent, of agar is quite solid at the ordinary temperature. 

Agar contains about 20 per cent, of moisture and only about 1 per cent, 
of mineral matter. It has no acid characters. It is only slightly acted 
upon when heated with caustic soda solution. Alcohol yields a white 
curdy precipitate, and it is also precipitated by basic lead acetate, and 
tannic acid, which latter does not affect Irish moss jelly. It mixes 
readily with gum arabic and hemicellulose solutions. 

Japanese isinglass is very similar to agar, sometimes being sold in the 
ribbon form and sometimes in rods about 1 in. square, which, however, 
consist merely of membranes filled with air bubbles, so that in this form it is 
equally bulky. 

It contains about 23 per cent, of moisture and 2-9 per cent, of mineral 
matter, but likewise has a similar composition to agar (see. also C. F. Cross, 
' Lectures on Cellulose '). It dissolves more easily and more completely in 
water than does agar, and on cooling forms even a stiffer gel. The gel is 
clear at first, but after a time it becomes opaque. It yields a white cloudy 
precipitate with alcohol and is precipitated by basic lead acetate. It mixes 
readily with gum arabic solution. 

Evaporated seaweed products in the form of scales are sold for sizing and 
finishing purposes under the names of ' Algin,' ' Blandola,' ' Norgine,' &c. 
Norgine is stated by E. Schmidt (' Chem. Zeit.' 1910, 1,149-1,150) to be 
the sodium salt of laminaria acid. It is probably an adsorption com- 
pound, as are several of the products mentioned in the patents below. 

E. C. C. Stanford (Eng. Pat. 142, 1881, also 8,075, 1899 ; see also 
' Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1886, 218) prepared a product (which he named 
' algin ') by heating marine algse with caustic soda or sodium carbonate. 
The material was regarded by him as an acid, which he named ' alginic 
acid ' ; this combined with alkalies to form soluble compounds — algenoids — 
which could be used for a variety of purposes, notably for sizing. By 
adding metallic salts such as those of iron, mercury, silver, &c, to the 
alkaline solutions, precipitates were obtained which he regarded as 
insoluble alginates, proposed to be used for medicinal and other purposes. 
Most of these were soluble in ammonia. The British Algin Co., T. Ingham 


and H. Bunzyl, took out patents for the preparation and application of such 
double alginates for waterproofing purposes (Eng. Pats. 25,187 and 

Preparation of a size for raw silk consisting of Japanese isinglass, 
gelatin, alum, spermaceti, and glycerine (J. F. Girard, Eng. Pat. 
8,402, 1885). 

Preparation of Irish moss for sizing paper (C. Morfitt, Eng. Pat. 
8,148, 1886). 

Preparation of mucilage or size (6. Laurean, Eng. Pat. 6,988, 1894), 
removing the saline ingredients preliminary to treatment with alkali ; also 
S. Pitt (Laurean, Son & Co.), Eng. Pat. 28,356, 1898. 

A solution of kelp is fixed with an alumina or other metallic salt for 
waterproofing purposes (Laurance & Co., Eng. Pat., 20,356, 1898). 

Mixtures of starch and seaweed are used (M. Cerf, Fr. Pat. 317,942, 
1902). A. Krefting (Eng. Pat. 7,913, 1903) precipitates the jelly as ' tan- 
gate ' of lime and mixes the product with carbonate of soda. P. Jensen 
(Eng. Pat. 11,625, 1903) claims the use of agar, after treating with citric 
acid and filtration, for films for photographic purposes. W . F. Cooper (Eng. 
Pat. 2,156, 1907) also claims the use of agar for the same purpose. W. F. 
Cooper and W. H. Nuttall ('Phot. Jour.' 190S, 48, 11-25) state that agar 
has certain advantages over gelatine for photographic purposes, it sets at a 
higher temperature, the viscosity is eight times greater ; 1 per [cent. 
3olutions can be employed which enables thinner films to be obtained. 

Preparation of mucilages (J. H. Laurean, Eng. Pat. 5,169, 1906, and 
F. F. Figgis, Eng. Pat. 22,247, 1906). 

H. Bruhn and C. Timpkc (Fr. Pat. 381,323, 1907) propose seaweed 
j elly as a size for use in paints. 

Chem. Fabrik, Griiman, Landshoff und Meyer, A. G. and R. May (Ger. 
Pat. 240,832, 1911) claim the preparation of ' Norgine ' insoluble in water 
and alkalies, formed bv action of formaldehyde, also use of ' Norgine ' as a 
protective colloid (Ger". Pat. 248,526, 1911). M. P. Gloess (Fr. Pat. 445,771, 
1912) proposes to use sodium peroxide in preparing gums from seaweeds. 

T. Ingham (Eng. Pat. 13,777, 1913) employs double alginates of 
alkali and heavy metal as sizing and dressing materials. 

E. Hastaden ('Farber Zeitung,' 1909, 20, 107-109) describes the use of 
carrageen moss in finishing. 

Albuminous Substances. 

The group of albuminous compounds have a similar percentage com- 
position, containing a high percentage of nitrogen, but differ very con- 
siderably in their properties. They are all typical colloids, and several are 
exceedingly useful for technical purposes. 


Albumin is not only valuable as a food product, but it is employed in 
calico-printing, leather-dressing, bookbinding, for clarifying liquids. 4c. 
It is derived either from white of egg or from blood serum after purification 
with animal charcoal. Both forms are met with in commerce in the form of 
scales. Egg albumin is pale yellow and is used for fine purposes ; blood 
albumin is red or brown and has an odour of meat. The latter can be 
distinguished also by containing an oxidase. 


White of egg contains 10 to 12 per cent, of albumin, about 88 per cent, 
of water, rather less than 1 per cent, of mineral matter, and also about 
1 per cent, of a carbohydrate. In dealing with white of egg, usually 
the hen's egg is implied. There are differences in the properties of the 
whites of eggs from different birds. For instance, the white of the duck 
egg has a bluish-cast and on heating coagulates to a stiffer gel. 

Egg white consists of a glairy liquid portion and a glutinous portion ; 
the latter, equal to about one-fifth of the whole, does not mix with the 
former but can be separated by means of a sieve. In what respect these 
two portions differ from one another we do not know, but there is certainly 
a difference in their alkalinity, the alkalinity of the glutinous portion 
being — to 0473 per cent, of NaHO, and the more fluid portion, alkalinity 
= 0*585 per cent. NaHO. White of egg when fresh shows a distinct 
alkalinity to phenol-phthalein, showing the presence of HO ions, this being 
= to 0-026 to 0-159 per cent. NaHO ; after keeping for a time, which may 
vary according to the quality of the ogg, this reaction is not observed. 
The white is, however, always alkaline to methyl orange — to about 0-5 
per cent, of NaHO. Addition of alkali to albumin results in a considerable 
increase in viscosity ; with 20 c.c. white of egg and 3 c.c. N.NaHO the 
mixture sets to a solid gel after standing for a few hours ; on further 
addition of alkali the albumin again becomes liquid, forming a thin fluid 
(alkali-albumin). Acids reduce the viscosity and finally coagulate the 
albumin, or, in solution, cause a flocculent precipitate. (For the effect 
of electrolytes on the viscosity, coagulation, and osmotic pressure of albumin 
see ' Colloids and their Viscosity,' Faraday Soc, March 12, 1913.) Acids, 
especially mineral acids, readily coagulate albumin ; potassium ferro- 
cyanide in acid solution is a powerful coagulant, being used as a test for 
traces of albumin. It is also coagulated by phenol, cresol, tannic acid, 
and by formaldehyde. It gradually yields a precipitate when shaken 
with ether or turpentine. 

Egg white is purified for use in painting by adding dilute acetic acid 
till neutral and straining ; this removes the glutinous portion and renders 
the material much more fluid. The painting can be rendered insoluble 
either by heat or by tannic acid (A. H. Church, ' Chemistry of Paints and 
Painting,' p. 63). 

Dialysed albumin yields a clear gel with acetic acid ; on heating, the 
mixture forms a clear fluid which gelatinises again on cooling. The 
viscosity of sols of albumin and acetic acid increases by keeping up to 
18 to 20 days ; the viscosity of albumen is also increased by addition of 
acetic acid up to 7-01 per cent. ; further addition decreases the viscosity 
up to 11-22 per cent., when there is again a rise. Salts cause a rise in the 
rapidity of the reaction but not in the intensity (L. Zoja, ' Zeitschr. Chem. 
Ind. Kolloide,' 1908, 3, 249, 269). 

Albumin is readily salted out, salts of alkaline earths acting in this 
respect more powerfully than the alkalies, salts of zinc aluminium, and the 
heavy metals powerfully coagulate albumin. 

Slaked lime and white of egg set to a solid ; this mixture has been used 
as a cement for a very long time (D. C. Souef (J. Schuberth), Eng. Pat. 
1,225, 1862). A mixture of blood and slaked lime is a variant. White 
of egg in contact with iron or iron rust adsorbs Fe 2 (HO),,, becoming blood- 
red in colour (iron albuminate), at the same time losing its viscosity. 

Albumin in solution is coagulated at temperatures above 54° ; at that 


temperature it commenees to coagulate and at 70° it is converted into a 
solid white gel. If, however, it is evaporated at temperatures below 10° 
it dries to _ form a paie yellow, transparent, brilliant Sim which is easily 
broken up into scales, in which form it is sold. 

Salts, e.g. (NH 4 ),S0 4 , lower the coagulation point of albumin. The 
effect is not so marked with egg albumin as with serum albumin, while 
milk albumin is much more sensitive (K. Micho, ' Zeitschr. Unters. Nahr 
Genussm.' 1911, 646-654). 

Dried albumin contains about 12 per cent, of moisture and 5 to 6 per 
cent, of mineral matter ; the alkalinity equals about 2-1 per cent, of NaHO, 
but on boiling with water the alkalinity is increased to 4-13 per cent. ; 
it would appear, therefore, that on coagulating a chemical change takes 
place. The alkalinity is probably due to phosphates. 

• Albumin forms homogeneous systems with gum arabic and with agar. 
The specific gravity of egg-white is 1*045. Harriette Chick and C. J. 
Martin (' Zeitschr. Chem. Ind. Kolloide,' 1913, 12, 69-71) found that 
the densities of egg albumin, crystalline scrum albumin, serum globulin, &c, 
compared with the densities of the same products in the solid state, show 
that on dissolution there is a contraction amounting to from 5 to 8 per cent. 
It was also found that with serum albumin and serum globulin the solution 
volume was independent of the concentration, but that with casein the 
contraction which takes place diminishes with increasing concentration. 

Albumin adsorbs Ag 2 from a solution of the nitrate, forming silver 
albuminate ; and it was found that in photography the whole of the silver 
was not removed from this compound after fixing with sodium thiosulphate 
(Luppo Cramer, ' Zeitschr. Chem. Ind. Kolloide,' 1907, 2, 171-172). A 
compound of albumin and copper is also formed by adding CuS0 4 to a 
solution of albumen, with or without the addition of KHO. In the absence 
of alkali the product had an almost constant composition, the Cu and S0 4 
being present in equivalent amounts, the product containing albumin 
86-67, Cu 5*26, and S0 4 807. In presence of alkali the proportion of 
S0 4 in the compound decreased as the alkali was increased, until the 
product had the composition albumin 68-75, Cu 31-25 (G. Bonamartin and 
M. Lombardi, ' Zeitschr. Physiol. Chem.' 1908, 58, 165-174). 

When aqueous sols of albumin, tannic acid, and a metallic salt, &c, are 
mixed, a precipitate is obtained which contains albumin, tannic acid, and 
the metal. Using 20 per cent, sols in all cases the precipitates had the, 
following molecular composition calculating tannic acid as a dibasic acid . 




Ag salt . 

. 18 



Bi „ . 

. 14 

4 1 


Hg „ . 

. 15 



Zn „ . 




Cu „ . 




Pb „ . 

. 16 



Fe „ . 




Br „ . 




I „ • 

. 23 



G. Grasser, -Collegium,' 1911, 185-192 and 199-200. 
A compound or combination of chloroform with an albumin h;is. 
according to C S. Schleich (' Therapie der Gegenwart,' 1909, 138), been 
prepared. This preparation, which has been named ' clesalgin," contains 
25 per cent, of chloroform in a solid colloidal form. 


Both egg albumin and blood albumin are used for clarifying or ' fining ' 
liquids. They owe their special functions to the fact that on heating, 
or by action of acids or tannin, the coagulum forms upon and around 
finely divided suspended matter; at the same time impurities maybe 
adsorbed so that the liquids after settlement or filtration remain quite 
clear and bright. 

Albumin or white of egg is used in baking for the preparation of light 
pastry, in which its film-producing properties are of great service. 

Albumin is also very useful for glazing purposes and in the manu- 
facture of leather finishes. (For the composition of leather finishes and 
the. materials used in their manufacture see ' Leather Dressing,' by M. C. 
Lamb, pp. 263-282, also M. C. Lamb and A. Harvey, ' Jour. Soc. Dyers and 
Colourists,' 1917, 19.) 

Egg-yolk, although it contains 33 per cent, of fatty matter, is also 
an albuminous product, seeing that it contains more albumin than egg- 
white, e.g., about 15 per cent. It also contains about 1 per cent, of a 
carbohydrate and 1 per cent, of mineral matter. It is probably one of the 
most perfect emulsions known, since, however long it is kept, it shows 
no sign of separation or even on centrifuging or after considerable dilution. 
The albumin in egg-yolk, however, is not the same as that in the white, but 
consists, according to Gobley, of vitellin, nuclein, and cerebrin. 

Egg-yolk is always slightly acid to phenol-phthalein, although alkaline 
to methyl orange, the alkalinity equalling about 0-87 per cent, of NaHO. 

Egg-yolk is a very efficient emulsifying agent, being often used for this 
purpose. This property is, no doubt, due, partially at any rate, to the 
presence of lecithin in the fatty material ; the amount of lecithin in the 
yolk equals about 10 per cent. Egg-yolk is employed in the preparation 
of ' fat liquors ' for treating leather (' Leather Dressing,' by M. C. Lamb, 
pp. 214-228, also H. R. Procter, ' Leather Industries Laboratory Book,' 
1908, p. 353), also in the manufacture of embrocations, being capable of 
emulsifying such incompatibles as acetic acid and olive oil or turpentine. 
^ Certain salts, e.g., NaCl, KC1, and KN0 3 , cause a dispersion of the albu- 
min in egg-yolk, the material becoming almost transparent. The same 
effect is produced with HC1, only that after a time the material sets to a 
gel and subsequently becomes opaque. ' Salted yolks,' that is, yolks 
containing about 10 per cent, of common salt, are an article of commerce. 

Yolk of egg was one of the earliest mediums used in painting, being 
employed in ancient times as a medium for laying on the pigments in 
tempera painting. A. H. Church (' Chemistry of Paints and Painting,' 
1892, p. 65) states that after a time the yolk becomes insoluble, the change 
being hastened by exposing the painting to sunlight, a practice which 
was quite common. Desiccated egg and yolk dried at a temperature of 
100° F. also become gradually insoluble on keeping, this change being 
accelerated by heating at 100° F. or over, light not being necessary. 


Casein is the albuminoid of milk, which contains about 4 per cent., 
and in which it plays the part of an emulsifier, although in this respect 
it is not a perfect agent, seeing that milk separates on standing into two 
phases, the cream and skimmed milk. Cream separated by the centrifugal 
machine, however, is a perfect emulsion in which both the fat and casein 


are more concentrated than in milk ; in ordinary cream the two phases 
oil-casein and casein-water tend to progressive separation up to a limit. 
Milk also contains about 08 per cent, of a coagulable albumen which is 
stated to be identical with serum albumen. 

Milk has an amphoteric reaction, i.e., when fresh, it reacts feebly 
both acid and alkaline according to the indicator used ; on keeping, it 
develops lactic acid by bacterial action, and at a certain acidity the whole 
solidifies to a gel, which after a time or with pressure separates into a 
solid ' curd ' (casein or cheese) and a liquid ' whey.' 

With hydrochloric acid the amount required to produce clotting was 
20 c.c. of N/10 HC1 for 20 c.c. of milk. 

An investigation has been made into the influence of the hydrogen 
ion in milk clotting by C. Allemann (' Biochem. Zeitschr.' 1912, 45, 346- 
358), who found that when different acids were added to milk together 
with rennet the time of clotting depended, not upon the acidity, but 
upon the hydrogen ion concentration. The clotting time diminishing 
up to a concentration of H ions of 1'3 x 10~ 5 the point at which acid 
alone caused coagulation. The effect of salts, e.g., mixtures of phosphates 
and of sodium acetate and acetic acid, was also studied. It was found 
that the clotting points of whole milk, skimmed milk, and caseinogenate 
solutions showed certain differences. 

When the precipitation of casein is brought about by acid in presence 
of a protective colloid, e.g., gelatin or isinglass, the coagulum is much 
more diffuse, not separating in curds ; hence these additions are useful 
for milk foods. The coagulum is also more finely divided when produced 
by kephir, koumiss, or youghout (i.e., ferments producing lactic acid), 
the proteids being probably to some extent peptonised. 

When albumin is added to milk and the mixture heated, the albumin 
and casein separate together as a complex in the form of a gel. 

Commercial casein is prepared from skimmed milk by addition of 
rennet or acids (acetic, hydrochloric), in the case of rennet a certain amount 
of peptone may be formed by the digestive ferment. There is a difference 
in the behaviour of caseins according to the method of preparation. They 
contain about 11 per cent, of water and 7 per cent, of mineral matter, 
mostly calcium phosphate ; usually also a small quantity of fat is present 
which has an influence on its properties. 

On treatment with water, casein swells to a certain extent but does 
not dissolve ; with NH[H0 there is a considerable increase in the swelling, 
but the mixture is heterogeneous ; with caustic alkalies, alkaline carbonates, 
alkaline earths, and alkaline salts, e.g., borax, sodium phosphate, &c, 
it forms various states of solution, those with alkalies showing the least 
viscosity. On heating with alkali there is a slight decomposition, ammonia 
being evolved and the liquid becoming extremely thin. Casein is also 
soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

The amount of hydrochloric acid required for solution of 1 gram of 
casein at 1"25 per cent, concentration was found to be 32 x 10 -5 equiva- 
lent gram mols of HC1, and the amount of caustic soda at 2 per cent, 
concentration 114 x 10^ 5 equivalent gram mols of NaHO (J. B. Robertson, 
• Jour. Phys. Cheni.' 1909, 13, 469-489) ; casein is dissolved much less 
readily by solutions of alkaline earths (J. B. Robertson, ' Jour. Phys. 
Chem.' 1910, 14, 377-392j. On boiling casein with acids the rate of 
solution is directly in proportion to the strength and concentration of 


the acid (i.e., the H ion cone). Acids are adsorbed by casein; thus 
from 100 c.c. of N/ 100 HC1 nearly 50 per cent, was adsorbed in 3 hours ; 
the amount varies almost directly with the concentration of the acid. 
With 1 gram of casein the equilibrium ratios at 0° C. with N/500 solutions 
were H 2 S0 4 675, HC1 147, lactic acid 80, acetic 30. The affinity of casein 
for acids is, however, less than that for bases ; 1 gram of casein combines 
with 9 c.c. of N/10 solutions of the hydroxides of Na,K,Li and NH 4 
(F. Tangl, ' Pflliger's Archiv d. Physiol.' 1908, 121, 534-549, ' Chem. 
Zeit,' 1908, 1, 1288). 

Casein forms, with certain electrolytes, e.g., KI, NaCNS, NaoHPCv 
and KN0 3 , fairly stable opalescent sols, which can be filtered ; these are 
precipitated on addition of acids. It is insoluble in pyridine, but in a solu- 
tion of pyridine it dissolves up to a maximum with increase of pyridine 
to C s H R N.H 2 0. It is almost insoluble in formamide (S. Levites, ' Zeitschr. 
Chem. Ind. Kolloide,' 1910, 8, 4-8). Casein is rendered insoluble by 
formaldehyde. Tannic acid is absorbed by casein and can be quantita- 
tively estimated, although the results are 1 to 1*5 per cent, too high (M. 
Nierenstein, ' Chem. Zeit.' 1911, 35, 31). 

Casein is utilised in many different ways in industry. It is employed 
along with lime, with or without pigments, as a washable distemper ; 
as the lime carbonates it becomes insoluble. It is also used as a sizing 
material for textiles and paper (E. Sutermeister, ' Paper Making,' 1914, 
33, 140-143), being dissolved by ammonia (T. J. Denne and A. Hentschel, 
Eng. Pat. 2,429, 1872) or borax (H. V. Dunham, U.S. Pat. 897,885, 1908 ; 
see also F. W. Richardson, ' Jour.J5oc. Dyers and. Colourists,' 1909, 25, 
4-3). Casein may be used as a cement along with sodium phosphate 
(W. A. Hall, Eng. Pat. 2,949, 1903), water glass (C. Wittkowsky, Eng. 
Pat. 9,070, 1905), slaked lime (C. W. Luther, Eng. Pat. 6,104, 1892), 
casein, rosin, and an alkali (C. and A. Bernstein, Ger. Pat. 270,200, 1913), 
sodium silicate and a strong solution of a salt of Ca, Ba, or Mg (A. Bernstein, 
Fr. Pat. 370,940, 1906). 

Casein is a useful material for the manufacture of plastic masses, 
which can be readily moulded and set hard after a time. ' G-alalith,' 
a combination of casein and formaldehyde, is a material of this kind which 
closely resembles bone or ivory and can be turned or carved (G. Bonitt, 
' Zeitschr. angew. Chem.' 1914, 27, 2). 

Plastic masses can be formed by precipitating alkali-albuminate with 
acids and mixing the coagulum with a carbohydrate formed by the action 
of alkali solution on cellulose hydrate or starch. The mixture first liquefies 
and then progressively hardens (J. G. Jurgens and H. Timpke, Fr. Pat. 
420,164, 1890). Combinations of casein and amines, amides or their 
derivatives (e.g., aniline, acetanilide) are also employed (Soc. anon. 
L'Oyonnaxienne, Fr. Pat. 472,192, 1914). A substitute for horn or ivory 
is made from albumin or casein or alkali-albuminates by treating with 
the neutral esters of higher alcohols or amino-fatty acids which harden 
and coagulate them (W. Plinatus, Fr. Pat. 465,048, 1913). A mixture 
of casein and gelatin is treated with Na 2 Si0 3 and then hardened with alum 
(F. von Kagenek, Ger. Pat. 281,541, 1915). Hydrochloric acid forms 
a gel with casein which is plastic (Eborit. Ges.m.b.H., Ger. Pat. 191,125, 
1902). Casein is heated with water under pressure and the mass hardened 
with formaldehyde (Soc. anon, franc, de Chini. Ind., Fr. Pat. 425,204, 
1910). A combination of casein, gum, glue, and rosin oil is also similarly 

on cttemtstry and its tndttsttuat, applications. 01 

hardened with formaldehyde (Sop. anon, franc, do Chim. Tnd., Fr. Pat 
425,204, 1910). 

Casein is also used for waterproofing fabrics and for calico-printing, 
being rendered insoluble by vapours of formaldehyde (J. E. Bousfield 
(P. Cautin, G. Miglioretti, and G. Maffei), Eng. Pat. 1,160, 1901) or alu- 
minium acetate. 

Albuminous substances, particularly casein, are converted into sols 
by alkali sulphocarbonates, the same being coagulated by (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 
and the product drawn into threads, films, &c. (Fr. Pat. 395,402, 1907, 
and addition of July 31, 1909). 

For the preparation, properties, and applications of casein sea also 
' Casein and its Technical Utilisation,' by Robert Scherer, 1906 (Scott, 
Greenwood & Son). 

Gluten is one of the proteids of flour, wheat-flour containing a coagu- 
lable albumin, gluten, and gliadin, the total being about 10 per cent, in 
the soft wheats and about 15 per cent, in the hard. When flour is first 
mixed with water it forms a very sticky tenacious mass, but after kneading 
for a little while it becomes quite plastic and may be freely handled. 
The baking properties of flour, i.e., its capacity for imbibing water 
and retaining the gases generated during the fermentation, are very 
largely dependent upon the quantity and quality of the gluten present. 
Flour which has become deteriorated by storage or damaged by water 
has a weak gluten (i.e., bacterial activity has lowered its viscosity) ; in 
such cases it forms very heavy and dark-coloured bread. 

The baking properties of the flours from different cereals vary con- 
siderably ; this is due not so much to the quantity of gluten present 
as to its quality, and also to the physical characters of the flour. Everyone 
is familiar, for instance, with the differences between wheat and oat bread. 
Gluten is obtained from wheat-flour by washing it in a muslin bag 
in a stream of water, and kneading it till all the starch has passed through 
the cloth ; this is the basis of the manufacture of macaroni and vermicelli 
and also of some of the American chewing gums. The gluten prepared 
in this way is crude, since it contains the cellular tissue of the flour. This 
method is employed in testing flour for sizing purposes. If the flour 
is fresh, the gluten is cream-coloured, stiff, and tenacious, but with deterio- 
rated llour it is grey, soft, and pulpy, even sometimes passing along with 
the starch through the muslin. Gluten absorbs water to form a plastic 
mass, but after fully drying it does not again swell to the original extent. 
It is readily swollen by alkalies and by dilute acids, eventually passing 
into the state of a colloidal solution. The gluten of wheat-flour is rendered 
soluble by acetic and lactic acids formed during fermentation for sizing 
purposes, but it appears in other respects to be but slightly affected (H. B. 
Stocks and H. G. White, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1903, 4). This is also 
the reason for the deterioration of baking-flour, and at one time it was 
corrected for by addition of alum, or copper sulphate, which rendered 
the gluten insoluble again and the bread whiter ; the addition of these 
substances to flour is now illegal. 

n«* Fermented gluten dissolved in ammonia was proposed to be used 
in place of albumin for calico-printing, also for clarifying liquids and for 
photographic purposes (R. A. Brooman (C. Kestner), Eng. Pat. 2,428, 


According to J. B. Wood (' Jour. Agric. Science,' 1907, 2, 267-277), 
the properties of gluten are influenced by acids, by alkalies, and by salts. 
For instance, with HC1 of N/100 strength it loses its coherence and 
commences to disintegrate, this effect increases with the concentration 
up to N/30, above which the opposite effect is noted, until with N/12 
acid it becomes permanently coherent, less sticky, harder, and more 
elastic. Similar effects are noted with H 2 S0 4 , H 3 P0 4 and H 2 C 2 4 , 
but acetic, lactic, citric, and tartaric acids, irrespective of concentration, 
produce only loss of coherence with no subsequent recovery of strength. 
Soluble salts induce greater coherence with weak solutions of HC1, sodium 
sulphate acting more strongly than NaCl and Mg and Al sulphates still 
more so. Alkalies cause the gluten to become negatively charged, while 
acids have the opposite effect. Long-continued washing with water 
causes the dispersion of the gluten, owing to the COo which it contains 
(J. B. Wood and W. B. Hardy, ' Proc. Kov. Soc' 1909, B. 81, 

When moist gluten is juaced in a solution of a salt, the salt is adsorbed 
by the gluten and at the same time water passes into the solution, the 
result being partial dehydration. The most active in this respect are 
the sulphates ; chlorides and nitrates being apparently equal. Salts 
of the alkalies are more active than those of the alkaline earths. The 
' partition constants ' of MgS0 4 and (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 , both of which are used 
as protein precipitants, are stated to be considerable (A. J. J. Vandervelde 
and L. Bosmans, ' Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg.' 1912, 26, 249-254). 

When gluten is bleached by S0 2 its elasticity is destroyed (M. G. 
Carteret, ' Bull. Soc. Chim.' 1909, 5, 270-272). S0 2 gas has been proposed 
as a solvent for gluten in the preparation of an adhesive (E. Donath, Ger. Pat. 
172,610, 1905). Gluten is also brought into solution by means of a per- salt 
of an alkali (Erste Triester Reisschal-Fabriks Aktien-Ges. Trieste, Eng. Pat. 
8,203, 1910). 

A patent has been granted to G. von Riegler (Fr. Pat. 461,131, 1913) for 
the preparation of artificial milk by dissolving gluten in KHO, salts, &c. 

Soya beans (Soya hispida) contain about 38 per cent, of a proteid which 
resembles casein or gluten in its properties. In Japan and China it is the 
basis of several kinds of food, and it is also interesting, because it has been 
used more or less successfully in the manufacture of artificial milk, being 
converted into a colloidal solution by means of the phosphates of potash or 
soda and water and then emulsified with oil and lactose (F. Gassel, Fr. Pat. 
451,447, 1912, Eng. Pat. 27,860, 1912, also J. Monahan and C. J. Pope, 
U.S. Pat. 1,104, 376, 1914) ; it has also been proposed as a plastic material, 
for the manufacture of artificial horn, bone, &c, for which purpose it is 
boiled with water and then coagulated with A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , or formaldehyde 
(R. Dodd and H. B. P. Humphries, Eng. Pat. 15,316, 1913). 

Gelatin or Glutin. 

Gelatin is the most typical of the reversible colloids, a solution con- 
taining it being very fluid when hot, but setting to a clear stiff gel on 
cooling, which again becomes fluid at a temperature of about 25°C Dry 
gelatin imbibes a certain amount of water in the cold,the quantity depending 
upon, and is used a test for, the quality of the material, but it retains its 
shape and does not dissolve unless it is very impure. In the case of glue 


which is moderately impure, a portion may diffuse from the swollen gel 
into the water. 

Gelatin is used for food purposes, as an adhesive, in sizing paper and 
cloth, in the manufacture of photographic plates, printers' rollers and 
similar compositions, and as a size for painters' use. 

In addition to having considerable viscosity, gelatin or glue solutions 
show in the most marked manner the properties of adhesiveness or 
' stickiness,' which renders it so useful in many different trades. It also 
forms continuous films on drying, these beiug perfectly transparent when 
the material is pure, and having considerable toughness, except when the 
natural moisture is dried out, when it becomes brittle. 

On long-continued heating, gelatin solutions lose viscosity ; heatin<' 
with acids and alkalies has a more pronounced effect, in some cases the 
product remaining fluid even at the ordinary temperature (basis of liquid 
glues) ; these products, however, have less viscosity and adhesiveness than 
the original material. Impurities, both organic and inorganic, tend to 
produce a similar effect, thus fish glue is often quite fluid and does not set 
to a gel, even when concentrated. 

Moore and Roaf (' Biochem. Jour.' vol. 2, 39) found the osmotic 
pressure of a 10 per cent, gelatin, using a parchment paper membrane, to be 
90 mm. at 40°, and 158 mm. at 91°. "When injected into the blood, 
gelatin has the remarkable property of increasing its coagulability (H. 
Grau, ' Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift,' 1910, 27, also Schultz, as 
quoted by Umber, ' Zeitschr. fur arztliche Fortbildung,' 1912, No. 20). 
Gelatin swells in glacial acetic acid and on heating forms a fluid sol, used as a 
liquid, glue ; it is readily dissolved by crude carbolic and cresylic acids. 
It dissolves to the extent of 40 per cent, in a saturated solution of urea, the 
sol reverting to a gel on dialysing. 

Gelatin is powerfully affected by even weak solutions of NaHO, KHO, 
and LiHO ; which cause solution even in the cold ; in presence of ammonia it 
swells considerably but does not pass beyond this stage. Alkaline car- 
bonates and tribasic phosphates have the opposite effect, retarding solution, 
and with concentrated solutions entirely preventing solution even at 100° 
(A. L. Lumiere and A. Seyewetz, 'Bull. Soc. Franc. Photo.' 1912, 3, 

The effect of dilute acids, alkalies and salts upon gelatin has been closely 
studied by H. R. Procter (' Kolloidchem. Beihefte,' 1911, 2, 243-284), who 
found that the swelling of gelatin in highly ionised acids is considerably 
greater than in water, but weak acids, e.g., H 3 B0 3 , C0 3 and SH 2 , have not 
the same effect. Some of the acid is fixed either as a salt or by adsorption, 
the whole reacting to phenolphthalein but not to methyl orange. The 
swelling is partly due to the hydrogen-ion concentration. Swelling is 
retarded by salts, especially when concentrated. Alkalies also cause the 
swelling of gelatin, but in this case the swelling is not inhibited by neutral 
salts, and therefore appears to be due to the H-0 ions and not to the 
cation. See also M. H. Fischer and A. Sykes (' Les Matieres Grasses,' 191 1, 
4202-4204). The last-named authors state that with non-electrolytes the 
maximum dehydrating effect is observed only with high concentration, 
\vhereas,with electrolytes it is attained at a lower concentration, there being 
only slight increase in action for each successive increase in concentration. 

According to J. L. de Bancels (' Compt. Rend.' 1908, 146, 290-291), 
gelatin dissolves in water in presence of certain salts at the ordinary 


temperature, the bivalent metals acting more strongly than univalent 
metals in equal concentrations. 

The nitrates of the metals have a greater influence than the chlorides. 
The addition of electrolytes also causes the gelatin to dissolve in mixtures 
of non-electrolytes and water, e.g., alcohol or acetone. On removing the 
salt by dialysis or by precipitation the gelatin separates. 

The effect on gelatin of a large number of reagents, including acids, 
salts, phenols, &c, is described by A. L. Lumiere and A. Seyewetz (' Bull. 
Soc. Chim.' 1908, 3, 713-750). 

Certain salts, e.g., those of Va, Ni, Co, and Cr, render gelatin insoluble 
(Liippo-Crainer, ' Zeitschr. Chern. Ind. Kolloide,' 1909, 1, 21-23). Salts of 
Al and especially Fe Cly have a similar effect (C. E. Millar, ' Jour. Soc. 
Chem. Ind.' 1900, 326). 

With regard to the effect of chromium salts on gelatin, the action 
depends upon the constitution of the chromium compound employed. 
Thus when a small quantity of bichromate of potash is added to gelatin it 
has no sensible effect except after exposure to light, when the organic 
colloid becomes insoluble in hot water. The action of the bichromate is 
not well understood, although it is regarded as an oxidation process. The 
reaction, however, is made use of to a very large extent in photography, 
especially in the photomechanical processes. Dealing with gelatin from 
this point of view, C. W, Gamble (' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1910, 65) states 
that it is a conrplex, the parent substance being ' collagen.' After heating 
for some time, gelatin passes into ' gelatose ' which does not gel, this change 
being also brought about by bacterial action and by proteolytic enzymes, 
especially trypsin. Bone gelatin and fish glue are classed as gelatoscs. 
Gelatin and gelatose are precipitated by bromine in acid solution (A. H. 
Allen, ' Analyst,' 1897, 258) and also by chromic acid. Gelatin peptone is 
not precipitated by chromic acid, nor is it rendered insoluble after addition 
of bichromate and exposure to light ; it also passes freely through a 
membrane. Gelatin peptone has a marked effect upon gelatin causing a 
greater tendency to dispersion. Glucose has a similar effect. Both these 
substances counteract the effect of bichromates after action of light, the 
film tending to dissolve on washing. 

Gelatin has now almost entirely replaced albumin and collodion in the 
manufacture of photographic plates and papers. It is more reliable and 
more easily penetrated by the solutions employed ; the introduction of this 
colloid for these purposes entirely revolutionised the photographic trade, 
and is largely responsible for the enormous developments which have taken 

The preparation of photographic emulsions is based on the knowledge 
gained after years of practical work, and may be regarded as an industry 
founded upon the application of capillary phenomena. 

There are many interesting points in connection with photography ; for 
instance, Luppo-Cramer (' Zeitschr. Chem. Ind. Kolloide,' 1907, 2, 171-172) 
found that silver oxide formed in a gelatin film by the action of NaHO 
caused the gelatin to become opalescent and insoluble in boiling water. 

It is proposed to purify gelatin for photographic purposes by means 
of electro-osmosis, the fat and electrolytes passing through the membrane 
while the albuminoid substances are precipitated (Ges. fur Elektro- 
Osniose, Eng. Pat. 21,118, and 21,181, 1911). 

Electro-osmosis is likely to play an important part in industry in the 


future, and several patents have bceu taken out in this connection for 
separating ions from colloids, for removal of water from peat, for removal 
of impurities from clay, &c. 

Reverting again to the action of chromium compounds on gelatin, the 
effect of chromic compounds is also important since it has developed into an 
industry, that of ' chrome tannage.' According to Lumiere and Sevcwetz 
C Bull. Soc. Chim.' 1903, 1077), 100 grams of gelatin fix from 3-2'to 3-5 
grams Cr a 3 irrespective of the chromium salt employed. On the other 
hand, J. T. Wood (* Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1908, 381) found that the amount 
of chromic oxide taken up varied with the concentration of the salt ; in 
dilute solution it amounted to 5 per cent, and in a strong solution 13-6 per 
cent., showing that it is an adsorption phenomenon. 

Formaldehyde added to a gelatin sol raises the viscosity and finally 
solidifies it to an irreversible gel. This reaction is made use of in water- 
proofing, preparation of artificial silk, &c. 

The maximum amount of formalin absorbed by gelatin is between 
4-0 and 4-8 grams per 100 grams of dry gelatin (A. L. Lumiere and A. 
Seyewctz, ' Bull. Soc. Chim.' 1906, 35, 872-879). 

Compositions containing gelatin and glucose, invert sugar (treacle), 
or glycerine are employed in the manufacture of printers' rollers, ' jelly- 
graphs,' and for moulding purposes. 

The permanent softening effect which these products have upon 
gelatin is probably due to their OH groups. 

The gelatinising temperature or setting-point of gelatin is raised by 
partial purification by washing out some of the salts with water (K. 
Wenkiblech, ' Zeitschr. angew. Chem.' 1906, 19, 1260-1262). 

Alum and aluminium salts also raise the setting-point or ' harden ' 
gelatin ; in this respect the alkali aluminates have no action. In the 
case of alum or aluminium sulphate, the salt is first adsorbed, then by 
washing with water the S0 4 is removed, finally leaving A1 2 0, V The 
amount of A1 2 3 adsorbed increases with increase in concentration up 
to a maximum of 3-6 per cent. A1,0 3 (A. L. Lumiere, ' Brit. Jour. Phot.' 
1906, 53, 573-4). 

The most important reaction of gelatin especially in connection with 
tanning is that with tannic acid, the two being mutually precipitated 
in neutral or acid solutions, the gelatin then having a positive charge and 
the tannic acid a negative one. In a paper by J. T. Wood (' Jour. Soc. 
Chem. Ind.' 1908, 384) it is mentioned that Humphry Davy (* Proe. Roy. 
Soc' Feb. 4, 1803) found the amount of precipitate to increase with the 
concentration, 100 parts of the coagulum containing 54 of gelatin and 
16 of tannin. Lipovitz (' Jahres. Forts. Chemie,' 1861, p. 624) states that 
100 parts of dry isinglass precipitates 65 of tannin. Rideal (' Clue and 
Clue Testing,' 1900, p. Ill) found 42-7 gelatin and 57-3 tannin, Mulder 
(Allen, ' Com. Org. An.' iv. 463) says that 100 parts of dry gelatin precipi- 
tates 135 of gallotanmc acid. R. Williams (Allen, p. 484), using 1 per cent. 
solutions of glue and tannic acid, and estimating the excess ol tannic acid 
in the filtrate, arrived at the figures 77-5, 77-9, and 78-6 parts of tannin for 
100 of gelatin. Bottinger, quoted by Procter (' Principles,' p. 63) found 
60 per cent, of gelatin in the precipitate, which equals 50 parts of tannin 
to 100 ports of gelatin. These figures vary to such a degree as to prove 
that the reaction is not truly a chemical one. J. T. Wood (ibid.) found 
the amount of tannin precipitated by 1 part of gelatin to vary from 0-91 


to 3-25 according to the concentration of the solutions and the time, 
and gives the following figures showing the composition of the precipitate : 



Gelatin . 

. 25 


Tannin . 

. 75 


According to Trunkel (< Biochem. Zeitschr.' 1910, 26, 458h192), the 
reaction between tannin and gelatin is an adsorption phenomenon. Under 
certain conditions the whole of the gelatin and tannic icid can be pre- 
cipitated quantitatively, the product then being insoluble and resistant 
to water. With excess of tannin the amount of tannin may be three 
times that of the gelatin, but the precipitate is then unstable and affected 
by water. By continued treatment with alcohol, 97 per cent, of the tannin 
can be removed, the remainder being retained. From the residue only 
about 6 per cent, of gelatin could be obtained in an unaltered condition. 
Trunkel also states that, with a freshly prepared solution of tannin, 1 part 
of gelatin required 0-7 part of tannin for complete precipitation, whereas 
with a solution 24 hours old only 0-4 part was required. 

H. R. Procter v' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 1910, 329) also states that the 
precipitate is a colloidal combination, not a truly chemical (ionic) re- 
action, the precipitate is not definitely quantitative, and that the tannin 
can be removed to an almost unlimited extent by washing with water. 

Gelatin in dilute solution, mixed with Japanese isinglass and also 
with agar, gives a somewhat similar reaction to that with gum arabic, 
a turbidity appearing which is increased on acidifying with HC1. 

Chondrin from cartilage, although similar in its properties to gelatin, 
does not form such a stiff gel on cooling, it is also precipitated by alum and 
other salts which do not precipitate gelatin (Church, ' The Chemistry of 
Paints and Painting,' 1892, p. 65). Isinglass is somewhat similar to 
gelatin in its properties although it is not so easily soluble ; it is used in 
' fining ' wine in which case it is coagulated, and carries down with it the 
finely divided suspended matter which rendered the liquid turbid. 

The properties of gelatin are very considerably affected by impurities 
(decomposition products = gelatin peptone, &c.) and according to C. 
Dhere and M. Gorgolewski (' Compt. Rend.' 1910, 150, 934-936) the 
latter can be almost entirely' removed by dialysis over a long period, i.e., 
li to 3 months, or by freezing a weak solution, when flocks of demineralised 
gelatin separate. Commercial gelatin carries a positive charge while 
demineralised gelatin is negative, therefore pure gelatin will be electrically 
neutral. Gelatin purified by these methods yields opalescent sols within 
certain limits of concentration. At 2 per cent, the sol is turbid, at 8 per 
cent, nearly clear, and at 10 per cent, quite so. Addition of alkali either 
partially or entirely removes the turbidity, but acids have not such a 
strong effect. A solution of such purified gelatin does not form such a 
strong gel as the original, a flocculent product settling out. Traces of 
electrolytes, i.e., acids, alkalies, and salts, cause gelatinisation to take 
place ; this is the case with salts like KI which have an opposite effect 
upon ordinary gelatin. 

According to J. T. Wood (' Collegium,' 1908, 12, 494-5), the removal 
of the salts or the precipitation of lime by ammonium oxalate affects the 
tannin precipitate, rendering it less in amount. He is therefore of opinion 
that the predominant ions are those of calcium. Meunier states that a 


small quantity of borax entirely inhibits the precipitation of gelatin by 
tannin, but boric acid does not influence it. Gelatin which has been 
precipitated by alcohol contains the whole of the mineral matter, and is, 
in fact, practically unaltered by the treatment. 

In addition to the patents in connection with gelatin mentioned in the 
text the following are of interest : — 

J. A. Swan (Eng. Pat. 3,303, 1S66) claimed the use of chrome alum 
and other salts of chromium for rendering gelatin insoluble. 

E. M. Knight and A. H. Hobson (Eng. Pat. 13,168, 1887) prepare a 
cement or gum by heating glue or gelatin with soda. 

A. Zimmermann (Chem. Fabrik auf Actien vorm. E. Schering, Eng. Pat. 
2,036, 1894) patented the application of formaldehyde for rendering gelatin 
and isinglass insoluble. The same firm claimed that the addition of a very 
3mall quantity of formaldehyde to glue materially increased its strength 
without rendering it insoluble (Eng. Pat. 4,696, 1894). J. Hofert (Eng. 
Pat. 4,697, 1894) uses gelatin as a waterproofing agent, rendering it 
insoluble with formaldehyde. An artificial silk (Vandaura silk) is manu- 
factured from gelatin threads rendered insoluble by formaldehyde (A. 
Millar, Eng. Pat. 6,700, 1898 ; see also A. Millar, ' Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind.' 
1899, 17, and C. E. Millar, ibid., 1900, 326). 

E. J. Mills (Eng. Pat. 8,847, 1895) proposed to use alkali and microbes, 
such as Bacillus liquefaciens, and liquid glue. Plastic substances are 
obtained by digesting ' ossein ' in NaHO solution (A. Heilbronner and 
E. A. Vallce, Eng. Pat. 20,548, 1906). 

A mixture of gelatin, glycerine, formaldehyde (trioxymethylene), 
and an oxidising material, is employed for moulding purposes (B. Sauton, 
Eng. Pat. 27,616, 1906). 

W. H. Perkin and Wbipp Bros. & Tod (Eng. Pat. 23,030, 1907) claim 
the use of coal-tar creosote for dissolving gelatin. 

The coagulation of colloids, e.g., gelatin, glue, agar, casein, starch 
(commercial dextrin), is prevented by treatment with a salt of an organic 
sulphonic acid or derivative (The Arabol Man. Co., Fr. Pat. 394,173, 1908). 

Use of laevulose for softening gelatin and glue (F. Evers, Eng. Pat. 
25,145, 1909). See also A. H. Church, ' Chemistry of Paints and Painting,' 
p. 72. 

By Dr. C. H. Desch, Metallurgical Laboratory, University of Glasgow. 

The most important chemical investigation of the setting and hardening 
of calcareous cements is that which was submitted by Henry Le Chatelier 
in 1887 as a thesis for the Doctorate in the University of Paris. The 
setting of plaster of Paris was there shown to be due to the formation of 
an unstable solution of the hemihydrate in water, soon followed by the 
crystallisation of the less soluble dihydrate in spherulitic forms, the 
strength of the plaster after setting being due to the interlacing of crystals 
from neighbouring centres. Later investigations have only confirmed 
the truth of this explanation. In the case of Portland cement, it was 
shown that the basic silicates and aluminates of calcium contained in the 
cement clinker were hydrolysed by water, forming less basic salts and 
free calcium hydroxide. The most stable of these salts were determined 

1917. « 


to be CaO, Si0 2 , 2-5H 2 and 4CaO, A1 2 3 , 12H 2 0, and microscopical 
examination showed that all the products formed more or less sphernlitic 
groups of crystals when the hydration took place in presence of an excess 
of water. 1 Le Chatelier's explanation was generally accepted. The 
alternative hypothesis, that ' the calcareous hydraulic cements owe 
their hardening mainly to the formation of colloidal calcium hydrosilicate,' 
was proposed by W. Michaelis in 1S93, 2 but attracted little attention until 
much later, when it was expanded into a detailed memoir, 3 at a time 
when the interest in colloidal substances had become much more general. 

According to the hypothesis proposed by Michaelis, the first effect 
of the action of water on the ground cement is the hydrolysis of aluminates. 
An unstable solution is rapidly formed, from which calcium sulpho- 
aluminate, 3CaO, A1 2 3 , 3CaS0 4 , «H 2 (due to the action of the calcium 
sulphate which is present in all commercial cements), and calcium alumina te 
separate as stable phases. The former compound is soluble, and crystal- 
lises readily in needles. The aluminate is less soluble, but is also crystalline 
under normal conditions, forming hexagonal plates. At this stage the 
silicates of the clinker are scarcely attacked. When the hydrolysis 
of the di- and tri-calcium silicates sets in, the only stable products are 
the hydrated metasilicate and calcium hydroxide, of which the latter 
crystallises in large plates, as observed by Le Chatelier. The case of 
the very insoluble metasilicate is different. The investigations of von 
Weimarn 4 have shown that a solid phase separating slowly from a 
moderately supersaturated solution forms well-defined crystals, that 
separation from a highly supersaturated solution . favours the formation 
of crystal skeletons or spherulitic groups of needles, and that the 
formation of a highly insoluble product in a strongly supersaturated 
solution gives rise to the formation of gels. Michaelis found that the 
Hydrated calcium metasilicate almost invariably took the form of a gel, 
and that even the aluminate assumed that form if the solution were 
sufficiently supersaturated. The coating of the. particles of ground clinker 
with a gelatinous sheath is readily observed under the microscope. The 
particles increase in size by the swelling of the gel — a fact which is very 
obvious in photographs taken at different intervals after the addition 
of water. 5 

This hypothesis has been challenged on the ground that if swelling 
actually took place, as in the absorption of water by starch grains or 
gelatin, the volume of the cement during setting must increase, and 
that no such increase does in fact occur. 6 This objection is based 
on a misunderstanding. 7 The individual particles increase in size, but 

1 These de Doctoral, 1887, ' Recherckes experimentales sur la Constitution dcs 
Mortiers Hydrauliques,' Paris, 1904. 

2 Ghem., 1893, 17, 982. 

8 ' Der Erhartungsprozess der kalkkaltigen hydraulisclien Bindemittel,' Dresden, 
1909. Partly in Kolloid Zeitschr. 1909, 5, 9. An account of the hypothesis is given 
by C. H. Desch, The Chemistry and Testing of Cement, London, Arnold, 1911. 

* The papers of P. P. von Weimarn in the Kolloid Zeitschr. for 1908-9 were collected 
in book form, Zur Lehre von den Zustdndender Materie, 2 vols., Dresden, 1914. 

5 H. Ambronn, Tonind. Zeit. 1909, 33, 270. 

6 C. Schumann, Tonind. Zeit., 1909, 33, 465. See also A. Martens, Mitt. L 
Material-Prilf. Amt., 1897, 15, 109. 

' A. G. Larsson, Tonind. Zeit., 1909, 33, 785 ; W. Michaelis, ibid., 615. See also 
H. Kuhl, ibid., 556. 


the total volume of cement and water diminishes during setting, a similar 
statement being true of the swelling of starch grains in water. 8 

A gelatinous coating having once been formed around the particles 
of clinker, which are thus protected from direct contact with the solution, 
a further series of changes sets in. Water is withdrawn from the gel 
by the unchanged core of clinker, which thus becomes progressively 
more hydrated, although even after many years the proportion of cement 
which has escaped hydration is always considerable. At the same time, 
according to Michaelis, lime is adsorbed from the solution by the outer 
layers of the gel, which thus become harder and less permeable. On 
this view, the ' initial set ' of cement corresponds with the hydration 
of the aluminates, forming crystalline masses comparable with plaster 
of Paris. The ' final set ' is due to the formation of a silicate gel, traversed 
by crystals of calcium hydroxide, whilst the subsequent processes of 
desiccation and adsorption account for the progressive hardening of 
cement, which continues over a period of years. 

A modification of this hypothesis was proposed by G. Becker, 9 according 
to whom the gelatinous membranes become stretched by the osmotic 
pressure, and then, through adsorption, undergo a change similar to that 
involved in the lignification of plant fibres. Becker also assigns a some- 
what greater share in the process to the crystalline products of hydration. 

Further evidence in favour of the colloidal hypothesis was adduced 
by Michaelis. If the calcium compounds in Portland cement be replaced 
by barium, a similar series of changes takes place, but the product is 
not hydraulic, owing to the much greater solubility of the barium meta- 
silicate, and the resulting compounds are entirely crystalline, so that the 
process of setting resembles that of plaster rather than of Portland cement. 
The presence of gelatinous material in briquettes of Portland cement 
alter setting and hardening was observed by E. Stern, 10 opaque sections 
being examined by reflected light. Stern considered the gelatinous 
constituents to be alumina and calcium metasilicate, fine fibro-crystalline 
calcium aluminate also playing a part in the binding together of the mass, 
whilst the presence of calcium metasilicate in a crystalline form Was 

The interest shown in the chemistry of hydraulic cements shortly 
after the appearance of Michaelis's paper was such as to justify the publica- 
tion of a special periodical devoted to the subject, which however only 
survived for eighteen months. 11 

An attempt was made to distinguish the various products of hydration 
by the application of organic dyes, which staiu colloidal and zeolitic 
mineral substances selectively. By examining the behaviour of different 
substances, such as silica., alumina, calcium silicate, and calcium aluminate, 
when immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline solutions of such dyes 
as patent blue, anthrapurpurin, and methylene blue, and then testing 
hydrated cements with the same reagents, conclusions may be drawn 
as to the nature of the products contained in the cement. 1 '- The result 

8 H. Bodewald, Zeitachr. phyaikal. Chem., 1807, 24, 193. 

9 Tonind., 1909, 33, 1493. 

10 Bar., 1908, 41, 147:2 ; Zeitschr. anorg. CJiem., 1909, 63, 1(50 ; Mitt. I;. Material- 
Prill. Ami., 1910,28, 173. 

11 Zentralblatt filr Chettoit mid Analyse der SydnuiUsthen Zement*, cd. !•'. R, \. 
Arlt, Halle a. S., 1910-11. 

lt ii. Keisermauu, KoUoidchcntinc/ta Beihe/ic, 1910, 1, 423. 



of these observations is to show that calcium metasilicate is"present 
both in the crystalline and the gelatinous forms, but that the tricalcium 
aluminate is entirely crystalline. The effect of stains varies considerably 
with the conditions of the experiment, and the present writer has been 
in many instances unable to confirm the observations of Keisermann. 
It should be added that so experienced an observer as Le Chatelier still 
considers that the process of setting of hydraulic cements is entirely one 
of crystallisation, and denies the influence of colloidal substances. 1 * 
In repeating experiments on this point, it is important to remember 
that the process is not necessarily the same when a small quantity of 
cement is mixed with a relatively large proportion of water on a microscope 
slide and when, as in the practical use of cement or the making of test 
briquettes, the cement and water are mixed to a stiff paste ; and neglect 
of this fact, no doubt, accounts for some of the divergences between the 
conclusions of different investigators. The influence of the size of grain 
was pointed out by Wetzel in a criticism of the work of Keisermann. 14 
An explanation of the hardening of cement in air, based on the assumption 
of the presence of colloids, which then absorb water vapour from the 
air, was given by L. Jesser. 15 

Experiments in which stains were used led F. Blumenthal 16 to the 
conclusion that crystalline monocalcium silicate was among the first 
products of hydration, together with the aluminate, and that the formation 
of the gelatinous silicate took place subsequently. The setting of the 
cement was then due to crystallisation alone, the later hardening being 
due to the binding together of the crystals by means of a gel, and the 
filling of the pores in the same manner. 

The chemistry of Portland cement was set on an entirely new basis 
by the splendid investigations of the lime-silica-alumina system in 
the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, Washington. 
As the result of these investigations, the constitution of cement clinker 
became kno*vn in detail, and it was then possible to consider the process 
of hydration as one of a definite series of chemical reactions. The study 
of the setting and hardening processes was taken up by the staff of the 
U.S. Bureau of Standards, whose results have been published in the 
form of monographs. 17 The general conclusions may be summarised 
as follows. 

Tricalcium aluminate sets so rapidly that it is practically impossible 
to form it into test pieces, but it develops little strength. The hydrated 
product is mostly crystalline. The aluminate 5CaO,Al 3 3 also hydrates 
rapidly, forming an amorphous mass, which partly crystallises, the product 
being apparently the hydrate of tricalcimn aluminate. Dicalcium silicate 
hydrates exceedingly slowly, and the product is entirely amorphous, 
except for the crystals of calcium hydroxide which make their appearance 
after a time. It is not believed that this amorphous or colloidal mass 
corresponds with any definite calcium silicate, but rather that it is an 

13 Private communication. 

14 Zentr. hydraul. Zemente, 1911, 2, 34. 

15 Ibid., 51. 

16 Dissertation, Jena, 1912 ; Silikat Zeitschr., 1914, 2, 43. 

17 A. A. Klein and A. J. Phillips, U.S. Bureau of Standards, Technological Paper 43 
(1914) ; P. H. Bates and A. A. Klein, Technol. Paper 78 (1916). See also G. A. Rankin, 
J, Franklin Inst. 1916, 747. 


indefinite colloid, which undergoes further hydrolysis in contact with 
an excess of water, progressively losing lime, until a residue of gelatinous 
silica remains. Dicalcium silicate is rendered more soluble by the presence 
of the soluble aluminate. Tricalcium silicate hydrolyses fairly rapidly, 
the product being of the same general character as in the last-mentioned 
case. A strong mass is obtained, and there is little doubt that pure 
tricalcium silicate would form a satisfactory Portland cement, as was 
in fact observed in the early experiments of Newberry. 

According to the experiments of the Bureau of Standards, then, the initial 
set of Portland cement is due to the hydration of tricalcium aluminate, 
the product being amorphous. At the same time any sulpho-aluminate 
which may be present crystallises, and any excess of free lime becomes 
hydrated. Within twenty-four hours, the hydration of tricalcium silicate 
begins, usually becoming complete within seven days. Between seven 
and twenty-eight days, the hydration of the dicalcium silicate, which 
is present in considerable proportion in most cements, and the passage 
of the aluminate to the crystalline condition, are the chief stages in the 
process. Of these, the increase in strength is attributed to the formation 
of colloidal material, whilst the change from the colloidal to the crystalline 
state is regarded as involving an actual diminution of strength, the net 
effect being a gain. These results stand in conflict with many previous 
observations, but they have not yet been directly challenged. 

Lastly, reference should be made to the influence of salts and other 
soluble substances on the rate of setting of cements. The addition of 
calcium sulphate to Portland cement for the purpose of retarding the 
setting has long been practised on the large scale, and the action of 
a number of ' catalysts,' both positive and negative, was studied by 
Rohland. 18 Michaehs regarded the action as dependent on the change 
of solubility of the aluminates and silicates due to the presence of 
foreign salts, but Rohland,"in more recent papers, has attributed it rather 
to their influence on the rate of coagulation of colloids. 19 The action of 
colloidal additions, such as tannin, straw infusion, &c, is very irregular, 
and no connection between the accelerating or retarding influence 
and the chemical composition has been found. 20 The changes in setting 
time which many cements undergo on storage, even out of contact 
with moisture, are probably of the same character, and the subject calls 
for much closer investigation than it has yet received. 

By E. R. Chrystall, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C. 

General Review. 

The work which has been done on this subject from a scientific point 
of view is meagre in the extreme. The text-books on colloids barely 
mention the fact that nitro-cellulose forms colloidal solutions with organic 
solvents. The papers published for the most part deal with isolated 
cases investigated for the purpose of elucidating troubles in manufacture. 

" P. Rohland, Der Portland- Zement vom physikalisch-chemischen Standpunkte, 
Liipzig, 1903. 

" KoUoil Ziitschr. 1911, 8, 251 ; 9, 21. 

» H. K.. Bunion, C. A. Newhill, and B. Tremper, J. hid. Eng. Ohem., 1914, 6, 795. 


The reason for the neglect of this branch of work is undoubtedly due 
in large measure to the nature of the raw material cellulose. This sub- 
stance, not occurring naturally in a pure state, has to undergo drastic 
treatment in the way of bleaching, cleaning, and so forth before it is 
suitable for the manufacture of nitro-cellulose, and all treatment of the 
cellulose has a large influence on the character of the finished product. 
Furthermore the material largely employed in the explosive nitro-cellulose 
industry, namely cotton waste, is in itself waste product from the spinning 
mills. As most of the investigations are carried out by the chemists 
of the manufacturing firms, much of the work, probably the most valuable 
part, is never published. 

The colloidal solutions which have been investigated fail roughly 
into two classes, those made with volatile solvents such as ether-alcohol, 
acetone, ethyl acetate, &c, and those made with comparatively non- 
volatile solvents, of which nitro-glycerin and camphor are the chief. 

The principal work in the former class is that of Baker, who has investi- 
gated the viscosity of three important manufactured varieties of nitro- 
cellulose in various solvents, namely, acetone, ethyl formate, methyl, 
ethyl, propyl and amyl acetates, ethyl butyrate, aceto-ethyl-toluidide, 
ethyl tolyl ethyl carbamate, ethyl phthalate, ether-alcohol, ether-methyl 
alcohol, &c. He finds that the viscosity follows the law N=N (1 + AC)", 
where N and N are the viscosities of solution and solvent respectively, 
C is the concentration, and A and R are constants depending both on 
solvent and solute. 

In general the viscosities of nitro-cellulose solutions arc diminished 
by all treatment which the substance or its raw material undergoes, 
such as bleaching and cleaning the cellulose, stabilising the nitro-cellulose 
by boiling, heating the nitrating mixture or the finished product, and 
heating or exposing to light the solutions under investigation. The 
presence of traces of impurities in all stages of the work also adversely 
affects the viscosity. These causes, as well &s fundamental differences 
in the cellulose itself, account for the varying and discordant results 
obtained by different workers. 

Tn the system nitro-cellulose-nitro-glycerin, i.e., blasting gelatine, 
the problem is to obtain a stiff gelatinous colloid which will not exude 
nitro-glycerin and will transmit the explosive wave with certainty. The 
preparation of a suitable nitro-cellulose, which in practice forms about 
7-8 per cent, of the mixture, is a matter of great delicacy both in 
selection of raw material and method of procedure, and practically no 
information is available on the subject. 

Hargreaves explains the behaviour of blasting gelatine by assuming 
a webbed structure of nitro-glycerin and nitro-cellulose, through the 
meshes of which free nitro-glycerin passes. As the colloid ages, more 
and more of the free liquid is absorbed into the gel, thus producing the. 
state of insensitiveness to detonation which is one of the great troubles of 
the manufacturer. Comoy (' Seventh Int. Cong. App. Ch.') has, however, 
shown that liquid nitro-glycerin when confined in narrow tubes is but 
a poor transmitter of the detonating wave. Experiments by G. W. 
MacDonald and the writer have shown that the problem is still more 
complicated, and that, although the colloidal condition of the system 
has a large influence on the detonation of the explosive, its behaviour 
can be totally altered in a few hours merely by exhausting the air which 


is mechanically entangled in it during the process of incorporation. Aubert 
and Nauckoff have patented the addition of cork dust for the purpose 
of retaining air in the explosive. Colloids can be made with nitro-cellulose 
and liquid aromatic nitro-hydrocarbons. These are used both with 
and without nitro-glycerin. When used with the latter the purpose 
is to prevent the freezing of the explosive, since on thawing dangerous 
exudation of nitro-glycerin is apt to occur by the liquid not being completely 
re-absorbed into the colloid. Modern propellant explosives all consist 
of a colloided nitro-cellulose with or without admixture of nitro-glycerin. 
Investigations into their micro-structure and other properties have 
been carried out, but have not been published. 


Piest, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose, ' Zeit. f. ges. Schiess u. Sprengstoffwesen,' 1910 

(5), 409-4:13. 
jIusenthal, Nitro-cellulose, ' J.S.C.I.' 1911 (30), 782-786. 
Piest, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose, ' Zeit. f. Ang. Ok.' 1911 (24), 908-972. 
.Mann, Oases from Blasting Explosives, Perth, W.A. 1911, ' J.S.C.I,' 1911 (30), 447. 

Fiuc, Action of Heat on Nitro-cellulose, ' Cornpt. llend.' 1912 (154), 31-32. 
BaKER, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose Solutions, 'J. Chern. Hoc' 1912 (101), 1409 

1410; 1913" (103), 1653-1675. 
Bingham, Viscosity, 'J. Chem. Soc' 1913 (103), 964. 

Schwabz, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose, 'Zeit. Ch. Ind. Koll.' 1913 (12), 32-42. 
Ambronn, Polarisation of Nitro-cellulose, ' Koll. Zeit.' 1913 (13), 200-207. 
Piest, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose, 'Zeit. Ang. Chem.' 1913 (26), 24-30. 
Schwabz, Viscosity of Celluloid, ' Zeit. Ch. Ind. Koll.' 1913 (12), 32-42. 
OirANDELox, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose, 'Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg.' 1914 (28), 24-32. 
MattkoSchat, Solubility of Nitro-cellulose in Ether-Alcohol, ' Zeit. Schiess u. Spreng- 
stoffwesen,' 1914 (9), 105-106. 
Schwabz, Solubility of Nitro-cellulose in Alcohol, 'Caoutchouc et Gutta,' 1914 

(11), 7964-7967, 8199-8200, 8359-8360. 
Nisiiida, Viscosity of Nitro-cellulose, ' Caoutchouc et Gutta,' 1914 (11), 8103- 

8115, 8200-8207. 
SohwaRZ, Celluloid: The necessity of colloid chemical views in this industry, 'Koll. 

Beihefte,' 1914 (6), 90-126. 
Hakgreayes, Blasting Gelatine, 'J.S.C.I.,' 1914 (33), 337-340. 
( Ihiaraviglio and Corbino, The system nitro-cellulose-nitro-glvccrine, ' Rend. d. 1!. 

Acad. Lincei,' 1915 (24), 247, 361; ' Annali Chim. Appl/ 1915 (3), 270-271. 
Aubert and Nauckoff, Cork Powder in Nitro-glycerin Explosives, Brit. Pat. 1,283, 

Jan. 26, 1915. 



By E. R. Chrystall, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C. 

1 . Celluloid : Viscosity and its importance for the Chemistry of Celluloid in theory 

and practice. H. Schwabz, ' Zeitschr. Chem. Ind. Koll.' 1913 (12), 32-42. 

2. Celluloid : The Absorption of Gases, by V. Lefebure, ' J. Chem. Soc' 1914 (105), 

:!. Celluloid Chemistry: Problems of, and the necessity of colloid chemical views 
in this industry. " H. Schwabz, ' Kolloidchem. Beihefte,' 1914 (6), 90-126. 

General Review. 

The literature on the celluloid branch of the nitro-cellulose industry, 
as far as colloidal chemistry is concerned, is as meagre as that on the 
explosive branch. Three papers have been found bearing on this subject : 

(1) The author deals with the viscosity of alcohol celluloid solutions 


in connection with ageing, percentage of camphor, temperature, and 
brittleness of the finished product. 

(2) The absorption, diffusion, and equilibrium curves of carbon- 
di-oxide are determined and discussed. 

(3) The stability of the colloid against latent acidity is considered, 
together with the so-called antacid treatment. The efficiency of the 
latter the author considers to be dependent on the size of the molecular 
aggregates suspended in the colloid. 



By Prof. W. Ramsden, Bio-Chemical Laboratory, University of Liverpool. 



Bayliss, W. M. (1915), ' Principles of General Physiology,' pp. 816 (Longmans & Co.). 
Mathews, A. P. (1916), ' Physiological Chemistry ' (Bailliere & Co.). See pp. 190- 

265 on 'The Physical Chemistry of Protoplasm.' 
In the two books cited will be found full references to literature and an 
admirable treatment of the following subjects :• — 

Adsorption. The Ultramicroscope. Dialysis. Ultra-filtration. Gels. Im- 
bibition. Salting-out. Permeability-changes in cell-membranes during excitation 
or narcosis ; Haemolysis ; Secretion ; the Nerve Synapse. Osmotic pressure in 
its relations to — volume-changes of cells ; effects of drugs ; root-pressure ; lymph- 
production. Enzyme action as a surface -phenomenon. 
Bargee, G., and Field, E. (1912 and 1915), Blue Adsorption compounds of Iodine. 

' Trans. Chem. Soc.' 101, pp. 1394-1408 ; and with Stabling, W. W., ' Trans. 

Chem. Soc.,' 107, pp. 411-124. 
Dbeyee, G., and Douglas, J. S. C. (1910), The Absorption of Aglutinin by Bacteria 

and the application of physico-chemical laws thereto. ' Proe. Roy. Soc' B. 

82, pp. 185-205. 
Mines, G. R., Die Einfluss gewisser Ionen auf die clektrische Ladung von Ober- 

flachen und ihre Beziehungen zu einigen Problemen der Kolloidchemie und 

Biologie. ' Kolloidchem. Beihefte,' Bd. III., pp. 191-236. 
Sabbatini, L., Adsorptive effect of Colloid Carbon as Antidote to Strychnine, ' Arch. 

di Farmacol.' 16, pp. 518-524. 
Coplans, M. (1913), The Action of Asbestos and allied materials on bacterial pro- 
ducts and other substances. ' Brit. Med. Jour.' 1913, vol. ii. p. 1360. 


Bayliss, W. M. (1914), ' The Nature of Enzyme Action,' pp. 180, 3rd edit. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

Dont-Henatjlt, Octave (1908), 'Contribution A l'etude methodique des oxidases.' 
' Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique,' pp. 105-163. 

Coagulation of Proteins. 

Chick, H., and Martin, C. J. (1910 and 1912), ' Heat-coagulation of Proteins,' ' Jour. 

of Physiology,' 40, pp. 404-430 ; 45, 261-295. 
Ramsden, W., ' Mechanical Coagulation of Protein ' (1894), ' Archiv f. Anat. u. 

Physiol.' pp. 517-534 ; ' Separation of Solids in Surface-layers of Solutions ' 

(1903), ' Proc. Roy. Soc' 72, pp. 156-164. 
Banceoft, W. D. (1915), ' Coagulation of Albumin by Electrolytes,' ' Jour, of Physical 

Chem.' 19, p. 349. 

Permeability of the Surfaces of Cells. 

Ltllie, R. S. (1912), 'Antagonism between Salts and Anaesthetics,' ' Amcr. Jour. 
^ of Physiology/ 29, pp. 372. 


Loeb, J. (1915), ' Influence of Salt-solution upon the Osmotic Pressure of body-liquids 
of Fundulus,' ' Jour. Biol. Chemistry,' 21, p. 213. 

Dale, H. H. (1913), 'The Anaphylactic Reaction of Plain Muscle in the Guinea- 
pig,' ' Jour, of Pharmacology and Exp. Therapeutics,' vol. 4, pp. 167-221. 

Osterhout, W. I. V. (1912), ' Reversible Changes in Permeability produced by Electro- 
lytes,' * Science,' 30, pp. 350-352. 

Imbibition by Gels. 

Patjli, W. (1910), 'Alterations in the Colloid States of Albumin and their physiological 

significance,' ' Pfliiger's Arehiv der Physiol.' 136, pp. 483-501. 
Fischer, M. H. (1915), ' (Edema and Nephritis ' (J. Wiley & Son). 
Meigs, E. B. (1910), ' Effects of Water upon the Weight and Length of Striated 

Muscle,' ' Amer. Jour, of Physiol.' 26, p. 191. 
Samec, Max (1912), 'Die Losungsquellung der Starke,' ' Kolloidchemische Beiheftc.' 

B. III. 
Br ailseord -Robertson, T. (1909), ' The Theory of Protoplasmic Movement and 

Excitation,' ' Quart. Journal of Exp. Physiol.' 2, pp. 303-316. 
Pribram, E., ' Die Bedeutung der Quellung und Entquellung fur physiologische 

und pathologische Erscheinungen,' ' Kolloidchem. Beihefte,' Bd. II., pp. 1-78. 


Arrhenius, S. (1907), ' Immuno-Chemistry,' pp. 309 (Macmillan & Co.). 

Bordet, J. (1899), ' Le mechanismo de l'agglutination,' ' Annales de l'lnst. Pasteur,' 

13, pp. 225-272. 

Titcxoch, W. J. (1914), ' Mechanism of Agglutination of Bacteria by Specific Sera,' 
' Biochem. Jour.' 8, pp. 294-319. 


Zsigmondy, R., and Bachmann, W. (1914), ' Handhabung des Immersions-ultra- 

microscopie,' ' Kolloid Zeitschr.,' XIV., pp. 281-294. 
Zsigmondy, R. (1909), ' Colloids and the Ultramicroscope,' pp. 245, J. Wiley & Sons. 
Gaidukow (1910), ' Dunkelfeld beleuchtung und Ultramikroscopie in der Biologic 

und in der Medizin ' (Jena). 
Folin, G., and Bell, R. D. (1917), ' A new Reagent for the Separation of Ammonia 

from Urine,' ' Jour, of Biol. Chem.' 29, p. 329. 
Cameron, F. K. (1915), ' Soil Colloids and Soil Solution,' ' Journal of Physical Chem. 

19, p. 1. 
Rhumbler, L. (1914), 'Protoplasm as a Physical System,' ' Ergebnisse der Physiol.' 

14, pp. 475-617. 

Fischer, M. H.,and Hooker, M. O. (1916), ' Analogy in the behaviour of Emulsions 
and of the Fats in Protoplasm,' ' Kolloid Zeitschr.' 18, pp. 242-262. 

Harrison, W. (1916), 'Some properties of Starch considered from a Colloid-Chemical 
point of view,' ' Jour. Soc. Dyers,' 32, pp. 40-43. 

Rossi, G. (1906), ' Sulla viscosita degli idrosoli e sulla funzione di essa negH esseri 
viventi,' ' Arehiv. di Fisiol.' 3, p. 507. 

Pauli, W., and others (1913), ' Colloids and their Viscosity,' 'Trans. Faraday Soc' 
pp. 75. 

Hekma, E. (1914), ' On Fibrin and its relation to some problems of Biology and 
Colloid Chemistry,' ' Biochem. Zeitschr.' 62, p. 161, and 63, p. 184. 

Walpole, G. S. (1915), ' Collodion Membranes for Ultrafiltration and Pressure Dia- 
lysis,' ' Biochem. Jour.' 9, pp. 284-297. 

Brown, W. (1915), 'Preparation of Collodion Membranesof Differential Permeability,' 
' Biochem. Jour.,' 9, pp. 591-617. 


Nomenclature of the Carboniferous, Permo-Carboniferous, and 
Permian Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere. — Report of the 
Committee consisting of Professor T. W. Edgeworth 
David (Chairman), Professor E. W. Skeats (Secretary), 
Mr. W. S. Dun, Professors J. W. Gregory and Sir T. H. 
Holland, Mr. W. Howchin, Mr. A. E. Kitson, Mr. G. 
W. Lamplugh, Dr. A. W. Eogers, Professor A. C. Seward, 
Mr. D. M. S. Watson, and Professor W. G. Woolnough, 
• appointed to consider the above. 

After the publication of the First Report the Secretary of the Com- 
mittee sent requests for further communications on the subject under 
consideration to members of the enlarged Committee and to other geolo- 
gists and palaeontologists likely to contribute usefully to the discussion. 

In spite of the continuance of untoward conditions due to the war, 
several replies have been received as mentioned in the Interim Report 
of last year, and are printed below. Five of these relate more particu- 
larly to the Australasian deposits and the other two to the equivalent 
formations in South Africa. The series of questions sent out by the 
Secretary and answered in the communications were printed in the 
First Report, 1 to which reference should be made in reading the 

It is still desirable to secure the opinion of geologists who have 
worked in India on the classification of the rocks of the same age in 
that region. The Committee therefore asks for reappointment without 

Notes on Report of Committee on Carboniferous and> Per inn-Carboni- 
ferous and Permian Rocks of Southern Hemisphere. 
By F. Chapman, A.Tj.S., Paleontologist to National Museum, 


In points for discussion raised by Prof. Skeats : 

1. It is advisable to retain the local terms, since they may represent 
slightly different horizons in different areas; but they should be included 
under a general systematic term. 

2. A general name is to be preferred for the system, since no local 
terms may exactly agree with terrains elsewhere. For example, Jan- 
jukian in Cainozoic strata cannot be restricted to strata as developed 
in the Torquay cliffs. 

3. I would favour Carbopermian, (a) because the sequence of the 
beds is a gradual one, and it is therefore impossible to define its limits 
above or below, (b) because this order of the word-particles is correct 
according to the time-sequence, unless it is held to be a Carboniferous 
deposit qualified by a Permian admixture, which is hardly the case. 
The term Carbopermian was strongly favoured by the late Prof. 
Rupert Jones. 

4. The evidence re glaciation points to a recurrence of the pheno- 
menon in some places but not in others. The plants (e.g. Gangamo- 
pteris) and Foraminifera (in N.S. Wales and W. Australia) should be 
studied for notions of general horizons (as, for example, Nubecularia 

1 Rep. British Assoc, for 1915, pp. 263-266. 


stophensi occurs at Pokolbin in the Lower foraminiferal band, and is 
also found at the Irwin Biver in W.A., where Foord regarded the beds 
as Carboniferous). 

5. Vredenburg correlates the Middle Gondwana with the New Bed 
Sandstone. This would make our Glossopteris flora much younger 
than generally believed. 

6. They are often so conformable as to be indefinable as separate 
systems at their junction. 

Notes on Prof. Skeats' Table of Correlation. 

In the Indian column should not the ' Panchet ' series read ' Eani- 
ganj ' ? The Panchet series equals New Eed Sandstone. Between the 
Damuda and the Talchir comes the sub-stage of the Karharbari beds. 

In the Victorian column the upper plant-bearing sandstones of 
Baochus Marsh are probably Triassio. 

In the Queensland column I would place the Star series low down 
in the Carboniferous, since Lepidodendron is so abundant, and there 
also occurs Receptaculites australis (at Mt. Wyatt), which in Victoria 
and N.S. Wales is found in the Middle Devonian. 

The Permo-Carboniferous System in Tasmania. 
By W. H. Tvvei.vetrees, F.O.S., Government Geologist of Tasmania. 

The slratigraphical development of this system in Tasmania is, in 
descending order, as follows : 

5. Coal measures at Mt. Cygnet and on Bnmy Island, which are 
perhaps the uppermost beds of the system. 

4. Upper marine series of mudstones, sandstones, and limestones. 

3. Coal measures and Tasmanite beds in the Mersey basin. Coal 
measures at Preolenna. 

2. Lower marine series of mudstones, limestones, and mudstone 
conglomerates, frequently carrying glacial erratics. 

1. Basal beds of glacial conglomerate and till. 

The beds nowhere rest on Carboniferous strata, but on Devonian 
granite or on Silurian or older rocks. 

The coal measures of the system are characterised by a Gangamo- 
pleris and Glossopteris flora. 

The only correlation with other countries suggesting itself as practi- 
cable and reasonable (and that a partial one) is with the Gondwana and 
Salt Bange deposits in India, the Karroo in South Africa, the Orleans 
conglomerate in Brazil, and the San Luis conglomerate in Argentina. 

The glacial conglomerates and tills at the base of the system in Tas- 
mania are with great probability homotaxial with the basal conglomerates 
in New South Wales, the Bacchus Marsh conglomerates in Victoria, 
the Dwyka conglomerate in South Africa, the Indian Talchir conglome- 
rate, and the Boulder bed of the Salt Bange in the Punjab. In all 
these continents the overlying beds contain the remains of a common 
flora (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) and pass upwards into strata 
with plants of a Triasso-Bhsetic type. 

The peculiar types of marine fossils met with in the basal beds of 
Tasmania, such as Convlaria, Martinopsis darwini, AviculopBcUn 


(Deltopecten) limaformis , &c, are repeated in the Salt Range Boulder 
bed, which lies there also at the base of the system. Moreover the 
same fossils, as well as Productus brachytharus, Spirifera vesperiilio, 
Furydesma globosum, E. cordatum, Ac, contained in the Speckled 
Sandstone and Lower Limestones which succeed the Boulder bed in 
the Salt Eange, are also common forms in the Tasmanian Lower Marine 

The Indian Gondwana beds of the Talchir division which succeed the 
Talchir Boulder bed, and the succeeding Karharbari beds, contain a 
flora identical with that of the Mersey Coal measures in Tasmania; 
and the same may be said of the Ecca series which succeeds the Dwyka 
basal conglomerate of the Karroo system in South Africa. 

In Tasmania the Lower Marine strata are overlain by the Mersey 
Coal measures with the Glossopteris and Gangamopteris flora, and 
these are succeeded by the Upper Marine beds containing organic 
remains for the most part similar to those of the Lower Marine, but 
less abundant, and some familiar species of the lower division appear 
to be absent. 

The thickness of the maximum development of the beds belonging 
to this system is estimated at nearly 3,000 feet. The strata are hori- 
zontal or gently inclined. They have not been deformed by crustal 
folding, but have been greatly depressed or raised by block-faulting. 

The whole assemblage of the Permo-Carboniferous and Trias-Jura 
sediments in Tasmania may in a broad sense be conceived as belonging 
to a Gondwana Land system if we extend the meaning of the latter 
term so as to include both continental formations and the marine de- 
posits fringing the shores of the ancient continent. It would seem 
desirable to devise some name which would express this relationship 
and at the same time put an end to the controversies which rage round 
the use of the terms Permian and Permo-Carboniferous, besides avoid- 
ing the unnatural and confused employment of European nomenclature. 

Provisionally, however, the term Permo-Carboniferous is in common 
use, gives expression to the facts, and ought not to be exchanged for 
any other which implies homotaxial correspondence or contemporaneity 
with European systems. 

There seems to be no stratigraphical reason why the Permo-Carboni- 
ferous of this island should not share any common name which may be 
decided on for the same system as a whole as developed in Australia. 

Permo-Carboniferous Rocks in New Zealand. 
By Professor P. Marshall, M.A., D.Sc, The University, Dunedin, 

S. Island, New Zealand. 

The fossils originally recorded by McKay from the Wairoa Gorge, 
Nelson, viz. Productus brachytharus, Spirifera bisulcata, S. glabra, 
Cyathocrinus and Cyathophyllum, have recently been unpacked at the 
Dominion Museum, Wellington, and are now available for study. 
TEey are quite different from any fossils that have been found else- 
where in New Zealand. Additional specimens have lately been found 
in the same place by Mr. C. T. Trechmann. These fossils quite 
possibly indicate a Permo-Carboniferous age, but accurate identifi- 


cation and description are still required. In the same formation and 
also in quite a different horizon a series of imperfect remains of a 
bivalve always referred to Inoceramus have been long known. It 
appears that these may be the remains of a species of Pinna or allied 
genus. The limestone in which the fossils named occur is in contact 
with strata that contain Triassic fossils (the so-called Mytilus proble- 
maticus, Zittel). If the fossils in the limestone are truly Permo- 
Carboniferous a disconformity of some sort must be present. A 
thrust plane has been described by McKay at this point. Elsewhere 
no Permo-Carboniferous fossils have been found anywhere in New 
Zealand. Park's Aorangi series is based upon no exact information 
of any kind. The Mount Potts beds often referred to the Carboni- 
ferous or to the Permian are now known to be of Bhsetic age, for the 
plant remains have been identified by Arber. Halobia is common 
amongst the marine shells at Mount Potts. 

Fossils have been collected from the Kaihiku formation both in 
the Kaihiku Gorge and in the Hokanni Hills by C. T. Trechmann 
and P. Marshall. They will shortly be described by the former. It 
may be stated provisionally that they appear to indicate a middle 
Triassic age. The Kaihiku formation has often been classed as 
Permian. The Mount St. Mary fossils at one time referred by Park 
to the Permo-Carboniferous are also known to be of Triassic age. 
It thus appears that at the Wairoa Gorge alone definite Permo-Car- 
boniferous fossils have been found. The occurrence of red shales 
with the series in which these fossils occur suggests that much of the 
Maitai series which contains such shales in many parts of the moun- 
tain ranges of New Zealand should also be classed in the Permo- 
Carboniferous. This problem, which is difficult because of the absence 
of fossiliferous beds, remains to be solved by future study. 

To sum up, it can be definitely stated that Permo-Carboniferous 
beds are known to occur at the Wairoa Gorge only and this opinion 
is based on the expectation that the fossils are of the nature described. 
Fossils of Middle and Upper Triassic age occur at several places in 
the rocks of the mountain ranges of New Zealand. The strata at 
the Wairoa Gorge show no indications of glacial erosion or of glacial 
deposition in any of the horizons. 

The Nomenclature of the Carboniferous, Permo-Carboniferous, and 
Permian Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere. 
By A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., Principal of the Mineral Survey 
of the Gold Coast. 

Questions 1, 2, and 3. — I prefer a single name for all the Australian 
late-Palaeozoic glacial deposits, but think that the local names, such 
as Hunter, Lochinvar, Wynyard, Inman series should be retained. 
Inman is, -I think, preferable to Baminyere. For the Bacchus Marsh 
area I think the name might be changed with advantage, since the 
typical deposits are some miles away from that place, on the Werribee 
River and Korkuperrimul Creek. Moreover, the double name is a 
drawback. I would suggest the name Werribee (or Werribi, the 
geographical spelling of the sound). It is an aboriginal name, and is as 


intimately connected with the literature of the deposits as is Bacchus 
Marsh, and it is certainly more appropriate, since the Werribee River 
has cut the famous gorge through these glacial deposits, and thus 
enabled the series to be so well exposed. 

Though the term Permo-Carboniferous has priority and was made 
by such an eminent palaeontologist as Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun., 
I prefer the term Carbo-Permian, for — 

(1) it would be uniform with the other Australian linked system 

names, such as Siluro-DevoniaD and Trias-Jura instituted by 
the same author; 

(2) it is a simpler term ; and 

(3) it is I think equally expressive. 

I do not favour a single Australian name such as Hunterian for 
the whole of the deposits with glacial becte, having the same objection 
to that as Professor Skeats has. Neither Victoria nor South Australia 
has any known equivalents of the marine portion of the Hunter series. 
I may add that I think the Victorian glacials are lacustrine, as well 
as fluvio-glacial and land-ice deposits. 

Question 4. — I regard all the lower main glacial beds as contem- 
poraneous, and the differences in their upper portions as due to local 
glaciations of varying character, intensity, and extent. 

Question 5. — It appears desirable at present to accept the classi- 
fication suggested by Professor Skeats with the additions and modi- 
fications made by Professor David and Professor Woolnough, except- 

(a) the Lower Maitai of New Zealand, and the Schizoneura Sand- 

stone of Victoria, about which I hold the same opinion as 
Professor Skeats ; 

(b) the separation anywhere by a definite line of the division between 

Permo-Carboniferous and Permian. 

In the light of our present knowledge it seems to me impossible 
to divide them. If the upper limit of Glossopteris marks the upper 
limit of the Permo-Carboniferous — and this seems doubtful— the 
deposits in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, South 
Africa, South America, Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and India 
can scarcely be called Permian, and consequently the lines of division 
between the Permo-Carboniferous and Permian should be excised 
therefrom. The Beaufort and Ecca series are conformable according 
to Hatch and Corstorphine. 2 

Question 6. — The Devonian and Carboniferous are conformable in 
Victoria. I offer no opinion regarding the other countries. 

Question 7. — The Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous appear 
to be conformable in parts of New South Wales, and certainly uncon- 
formable in other parts of that State, as proved by Professor David. 

There is no known contact of these in Victoria. The uppermost 
beds of the Grampians sandstones, however, when carefully examined 
may yield some useful information on the point. 

Question 8. — It seems to me that there is no definite evidence to 
separate the Permo-Carboniferous from the Permian in the Southern 

2 Gtology of South Africa, p. 244. 


Hemisphere if Glossopteris is to be taken as the upper limit of the 
Permo-Carboniferous. Further, since Glossopteris has such an extended 
range upward it appears unsafe to regard it as a strictly zonal fossil. 

Nomenclature of the Permo-Carboniferous Rocks in South Africa. 

By A. W. Rogers, D.Sc, F.G.S., 
Director of the Geological Survey of the Union of South Africa. 

In South Africa there is an apparently conformable succession from 
the base of the Cape system, which includes beds with marine fossils 
of Devonian affinities, up to beds at the top of the Karroo system for 
which a Jurassic age has been claimed on account of a crocodile found 
in them. 

This great thickness of rocks has been divided mainly on litho- 
logical grounds, and at the present time it is impossible to point out 
horizons definitely corresponding to the bases of the Carboniferous, 
Permian, and Trias. An attempt to fix such horizons for the purpose 
of applying these widely used terms to South African maps, &c, instead 
of local names would be a mistake. 

The Karroo system is generally understood to include all the strata 
above the Witteberg series up to and including the volcanic beds of the 
Drakensberg. The base of the Karroo system in the south, where there 
is an apparently conformable passage from the Witteberg series, is 
arbitrarily chosen as lying at the top of the highest band of quartzites, 
above which are shales passing into tillite. Further north the base is 
defined by an unconformity which increases in importance northwards. 
The main sub-divisions of the system are as follows : 

Stormberg series. 

Beaufort series. 

Ecca series. 

Dwyka series. 
One South African geologist 3 separates a ' Stormberg formation ' 
from the Karroo, drawing the line at the base of the Molteno beds. 
This suggestion has not been adopted generally because there is not a 
sufficiently marked break at the horizon in question, and certain plant 
species occur both above and below it. There seems to be no need 
to make a separate ' formation ' of what are conveniently regarded as 
the uppermost strata of the Karroo system. Whether this horizon is 
one which marks an extensive overlap northwards from the Stormberg 
region across the Orange Free State and the Transvaal remains to be 
proved by mapping; at present the known facts do not favour. that view, 
but important overlaps exist at some horizon within the Ecca or Beau- 
fort series and at another horizon above the Molteno beds. 

The Dwyka Series. 
There is no difficulty in defining this group in the Cape Province 
and Natal and the South- West Protectorate, but in the Transvaal the 
term has not been used in official publications because of the uncertainty 
whether the ' glacial conglomerate ' there is really the correlative of 
the Dwyka or whether it was formed at a slightly later time when the 

' Schwarz, S.A. Geology, 1912. 


southern Ecca beds were being laid down. At present the north- 
eastern limit of the Upper Dwyka shales is not known, but some beds 
characteristic of those shales in the Cape and S.W. Protectorate are 
missing in the areas yet mapped in the Transvaal and Natal. 

It is likely that the term ' Dwyka ' will be found suitable for the 
' glacial conglomerate ' in the Transvaal also, and it is already used 
there by several geologists. 

There are different opinions held as to whether the Dwyka series 
is of Upper Carboniferous or of Lower Permian age, but the few 
fossils found in it are not in conflict with the former view. 

The Ecca Series. 

The Ecca series is best known in the Cape and Natal, and the in- 
formation as to its distribution in the Orange Free State and Transvaal 
is not sufficient to decide disputed points such as whether the Ver- 
eeniging coal-beds belong to the Ecca or Beaufort. 

The fossils from undoubted Ecca beds, i.e., beds above the Upper 
Dwyka shales and below those in which there are many genera of Dinoce- 
phalians and Therocephalians, are but few in number. The thickness 
of the series at its maximum is 6,000 feet, and the fossils are 
chiefly fragments of Gangamopteris, Glossopteris, Phyllotheca and 
wood, all of which, except perhaps the first named, occur in the Beaufort 
beds also. The reptiles are very little known, Archceosuchus and Ecca- 
saurus are fragmentary specimens. Whether the so-called Ecca beds 
of Woi-cester with Gangamopteris really belong to this group is un- 
certain, for superficial deposits conceal the passage down into the 
Dwyka, outcrops of which he four miles away. 

It thus happens that in the absence of reptilian-bearing Beaufort 
beds the determination of the Ecca is practically impossible in an 
area which has not been connected by mapping with a better-known 

The Beaufort Beds. 

The Beaufort beds contain many reptilian fossils in certain areas, 
but there appears to be a lack of them elsewhere, and the few plants 
found in the lower portion of the series are not known to be characteris- 
tic. The Beaufort beds have been divided into three sub-groups which 
are again sub-divided: — 

-rr t, , j , j Gynoqnathus zone. 

Upper or Burghersdorp beds. ^ y , , 
rr or Frocolophon zone. 

Middle Beaufort beds. Lystrosaurus zone. 

' Cistecephalus zone. 
- Endothiodon zone. 
Tapinocephaloid zone. 4 
Owing to the comparative rarity of the fossil reptiles and the diffi- 
culty of determinations of individual bones other than parts of the 
skull, these fossils are not well suited for the purpose of the field 

* This term is substituted for Pareiasaurus zone on account of the revision 
of the genus Pareiasaurvs by Mr. Watson, according to which no species of it are 
left in the beds concerned. 

Lower Beaufort beds. 


geologist. The recurrence of similnr types of sandstone, mudstone, 
and shale makes lithological distinction between the two lower zones 
impossible, but their demarcation is being carried out; at present their 
bstribution is only Vnown in a general way in the Cape and a part of 
the O.F.S. and Natal. The coal-bearing Karroo beds of the Transvaal 
of Ecca or Beaufort age cannot yet be correlated more closely with any 
horizons in the Cape. 

The plants of the Upper Beaufort beds include genera which are not 
yet known above or below, as well as species which occur in the over- 
lying Molteno Beds, and the genera Schizon&wra and Glossopteris , which 
have great vertical distribution. These plants have been collected in 
a few localities only. 

The Stormberg Series. 

The Stormberg series is generallv considered to begin at a certain 
horizon which is convenient for mapping, and above which the reptilian 
genera found in the Upper Beaufort beds do not occur. The character- 
istic plants of the lowest group (Molteno beds) of this series are known 
from the Cape, Orange Free State, and Natal only, and in Natal they 
are accompanied, according to recent observations of Dr. Du Toit, by 
the long-lived genus Glossopteris. The sub-divisions of the Stormberg 
series into Molteno beds, Bed beds, Cave Sandstone, and the Drakens- 
berg or Volcanic beds depend on lithological characters which are 
remarkablv persistent, but the Dinosaurian genera found in the Bed 
beds and Cave Sandstone of the Cape have representatives further north 
in areas where the Molteno beds have not vet been identified. 

The following table gives a possible correlation with systems adopted 
in Europe. The position of the Bhastic horizon has been shifted up- 
wards in consequence of a recent examination of the question by 
Dr. Du Toit and Mr. S. TT. Haughton : 

Cave Sandstone .... Bhastic. 

Bed beds .... 
Molteno beds 

Upper Beaufort beds . 
Middle Beaufort beds 

Lower Beaufort beds . 

Ecca beds I Lower I Permian. 

Dwyka (Upper shales and Tillite) Upper Carboniferous (Uralian). 

Notes on the Nomenclature of the Carboniferous, Permo-Carboniferous, 
and Permian Bootes of the Southern Hemisphere. By D. M. S. 
Watson, M.Sc, Lecturer on Vertebrate Paleontology, University 
College, London. 

These notes are written mainly from the standpoint of South African 
stratigraphy, and deal with points raised by the views of the Australian 
members of the Committee. 

(A.) Question 4. — Judging from the evidence which exists to show 
that the Northern and Southern Fleistocene glaciations are approxi- 
mated, at anv rate, contemporaneous, it seems certain that the Dwyka 
1917, i 


beds of South Africa are contemporaneous (in a geological sense) with 
those of Bacchus Marsh. The fact that there is a glacial horizon in 
the Upper Marine series in New South Wales some distance above the 
main Lochinvar glacials shows that it is not possible to use the occur- 
rence of boulder beds for a very close correlation. From personal 
observation I fancy that there is a more considerable faunal difference 
between the Lower and Upper Marine series in the Hunter Valley than 
is usually recognised. 

(B.) Questions 1 and 2. — Mr. Etheridge's first use of the term 
Permo-Carboniferous was for the Gympie of Queensland (= Lower 
Marine) with an admixture of Star (Carboniferous) forms. According 
to Prof. T. W. Edgeworth David, Mr. Etheridge now extends this term 
to include all Australian formations from the bottom of the glacial series 
to the uppermost beds which contain Glossopteris. 

The term Permo-Carboniferous has, however, been incorrectly used 
by many authors to imply a restricted series of beds of either lowest 
Permian or Upper Carboniferous age, such as the reptile-bearing 
Wichita and Clear Fork of Texas, the Artinsk stuff e of Eussia, and 
certain parts of the Salt Eange succession. In most of these cases it 
has been made use of to escape the difficulty of deciding on a definite 
Permo-Carboniferous boundary in a consecutive series of rocks, a diffi- 
culty which is really exactly doubled by such action. 

In South Africa the series of rocks to which the term could be 
applied are all of land origin, partly lacustrine, partly seolian, and partly 
river deposits, and hence very considerable discontinuities of deposition 
may occur in an apparently conformable series. Bearing this caution 
in mind, the following represents the apparent conditions : 

The Witteberg beds are directly and apparently conformably suc- 
ceeded along the whole southern margin of the Karroo by the Dwyka 
shales, in which are included the glacial beds. Further north the 
Dwyka conglomerates rest on older beds, partly, no doubt, as a result 
of overlap of land deposits from the area of deposition of the Witteberg, 
•but apparently also partly owing to real unconformity. The Upper 
Dwyka shales pass into the Ecca, which is directly continued by the 
Beaufort series, which is again conformable to the overlying Stormberg 

This statement is founded on the conditions in the area south of 
the Orange Eiver. In the Orange Free State there seem to be very 
large gaps in the series, the Stormberg series resting on the Beaufort 
series some distance below its top, and this in turn directly on the 
Dwyka, or at most separated from it by a very thin Ecca. 

The Beaufort series is divided into the following zones : 

Stormberg series . . . Upper Trias — Ehsetic. 

Cynognathus beds . . . Middle ( ? Lower in part) Trias. 

Procolophon beds . . . No direct evidence of age. 

Lystrosaurus beds . . . ,, ,, ,, 

Cisticephalus beds . . . Upper Zechstein (=Dwina beds). 

Endothiodon beds . . .No direct evidence of age. 

Tapinocephalus beds. . . ? Lower Zechstein. Evidence from 
(olim Pareiasaurus zone) comparison with copper-bearing 

beds of Orenburg. 


According to Du Toit, Glosso-pleris occurs in the Gynogndthus beds 
of Aliwal North. Permo-Carboniferous in Mr. Etheridge's latest sense 
would therefore include nearly all the Trias and Permian. 

The age of the Witteberg is uncertain; the few fossil plants found 
in it suggest an Upper Devonian or at latest Lower Carboniferous age, 
which on the evidence for its conformity would suggest a Carboni- 
ferous age for the Dwyka. The occurrence of Bothrodendron, which 
is not known above the Carboniferous, and is exceedingly rare in the 
Upper Coal Measures, if indeed it occurs in them, above the Dwyka 
at Vereeniging, supports this view. The lower end of the Permo- 
Carboniferous would therefore be in the Carboniferous, and it would 
have no stratigraphical break either above or below. 

I am therefore inclined to abandon the term Permo-Carboniferous 
and use Prof. David's suggested term Palaeo-Permian for the Dwyka 
and Ecca. 

(C.) Question 8. — In connection with the conformable passage of 
the Glossopieris beds into the Mesozoic in New South Wales and in 
South Africa, it is perhaps interesting fco note that the huge labyrintho- 
dont collected by Mr. Dunston from the Wianamatta beds at St. Peter's 
is, so far as can be seen from a short inspection, a typical Cyclotosaurus 
which marks a definite evolutionary stage of the Stereospondyli, always 
of Upper Triassic age in Europe. 

The Australian Permian and Carboniferous. 

By Professor J. W. Cregory, D.Sc, F.B.S., The University of 


1. In time the term Permo-Carboniferous may, it is hoped, be 
rendered unnecessary by more precise correlation of the Australian 
deposits. Correlation of distant formations rests ultimately on their 
fossils, and mainly on their marine fossils ; and with increased know- 
ledge of the Australian Upper Palaeozoic faunas and floras the term 
Permo-C'irboniferous, which was introduced provisionally owing to 
imperfect stratigraphical evidence, may suffer the fate that has already 
overtaken such compounds as Devono-Silurian, Cambro-Silurian, 
< Yetaceo-Tertiary, &c, which have been of temporary service else- 
where. Mr. Etheridge's introduction of the term was the soundest 
course then available, but its permanent retention may be unnecessary. 

The Permian and Carboniferous systems are divided into five or 
six series. The Carboniferous system includes three series: 

Upper Carboniferous . . Uralian (or Stephanian, &c). 
Middle ,, . . Moscovian (or Westphalian, &c). 

Lower ,, . Dinantian (or Culm, &c). 

The Permian system is divided into two or three series. Many 
authorities adopt three series, for which well-accepted names are as 
follows : 

Upper Permian Thuringian. 

Middle ,, Punjaubian. 

Lower ,, Artinskian. 

The Artinskian fauna is strikingly similar to the Uralian. The 

I 2 


geography of the Artinskian was also very similar to that of the 
Uralian. Lithologically the predominance in the Artinskian of gray 
sandstones and bituminous beds over red beds (which occur occasionally, 
as at Brives in S.W. France) indicates formation under Carboniferous 
rather than Permian climatic conditions. The Artinskian Brachiopods 
include P. com, P. punctatus, P. semireticulatus, &c, which are 
Carboniferous species. De Lapparent has stated the general affinity 
of the Artinskian ammonites in his remark that they have intimate 
relations with those of the Uralian. The Artinskian does not seem 
entitled to rank as a distinct geological series. It may be merged in 
the Uralian. If so, the Permian consists of two series, which is 
consistent with its old name of Dyas. 

Taking, then, the Permian and Carboniferous systems of Europe as 
divisible into five series, the question is, Can the Australian deposits be 
correlated with them? 

The Australian Carboniferous-Permian sequence begins with the 
Lepidodendron beds, which are admittedly Lower Carboniferous. 
Above them is a great unconformity, above which in New South "Wales 
occurs the following succession : 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Dempsey series. 

Middle or Tomago Coal Measures. 

Upper Marine series. 

Lower Coal Measures. 

Lower Marine series. 
The fauna of the two Marine series seems essentially Uralian. Thus 
Cephalopoda usually give very reliable evidence as to correlation. 
Unfortunately the New South Wales Marine series are very poor in 
Cephalopods, but they have yielded two. The Actinoceras has 'been 
identified as A. striatum, a British Lower Carboniferous species; the 
specific identification is, however, doubtful, but Foord and Crick accept 
it as an Actinoceras, a genus which has a wide Palaeozoic range but 
does not occur in the Permian. This fossil is in favour of an age not 
later than Carboniferous. The other Cephalopod, Agathiceras micro- 
p'hyllum, comes from the Upper Marine series ; it is recognised as closely 
related to Agathiceras uralicum, which, according to Tschernichef, is a 
Uralian but not a Permian species. Mr. Crick has kindly looked up 
A. microphyllum again and regards it as of Uralian affinities. 

The Brachiopods of the two Marine series are abundant. They 
also appear of Carboniferous affinities. Two of the most characteristic 
of the Productus, P. com and P. brachythcerus , are both typical 
Uralian species. Many of the Brachiopods have been identified as 
Carboniferous, and some of them as Lower Carboniferous species. 
Amongst them are P. longispinus, P. punctatus, P. pustulosus, 
P. scabriculus, P. semireticulatus, P. undatus, Rhynchonella pleurodon, 
R. pugnus, Spirifera striata, S. rotundata, S. trigonalis, &c. It is, no 
doubt, probable that the Australian species may ultimately be separated 
from the European, but any such change will not set aside the fact 
that a whole series of fossils from the Upper and Lower Marine series 
of New South Wales are so similar to European Carboniferous species 


that they have been long regarded as identical. In spite of the many 
Lower Carboniferous species, the Brachiopodsj owing to the absence 
of the P. gigauieus group and the presence of Martinice (Stropholasia), 
indicate that the fauna is later than Lower Carboniferous. 

The evidence of the Bryozoa agrees with that of the Brachiopods. 
The fauna is distinctively Carboniferous and not Permian. The 
Trilobites, Griffithides, Brachymelopus, and Phillip sia indicate the 

Prof. Freeh, however, although admitting the Carboniferous 
affinities of many of the fossils, is in favour of assigning the whole 
fauna to the Permian, mainly on the ground that some of the Spirifers 
and the genus Martinia (which includes S. Darwini and S. horr&scens 
from Tasmania) are of Permian affinities. 

The bulk of the palseontological evidence seems, however, to favour 
the Carboniferous age of the Marine series, and it appears that, in spite 
of the survival of some species which in Europe are Lower Carboni- 
ferous, the fauna may be regarded as Uralian and that any later age 
is improbable. 

The stratigraphical evidence appears consistent with this conclusion. 
According to Prof. David, there is a great stratigraphical break just 
above the Upper Marine series, for the two next members of the 
sequence, viz. the Middle Coal Measures and Dempsey beds, are often 
absent. Proceeding from the central part of the Carboniferous area, 
these two members disappear southward towards Illawarra, westward 
at Lithgow, and northward along the Macleay River, where the Upper 
Coal Measures also are absent. 

There is accordingly both stratigraphical and palaeontological 
evidence that the line between the Upper Marine series and the Middle 
Coal Measures is an important stratigraphical horizon. Of the beds 
above it the most widespread is the Upper Coal Measures ; and both its 
flora and fauna mark an important advance upon that of the Lower Coal 
Measures, which are interstratified with the two Marine series. In 
the Upper Coal Measures one of the most significant fossils is tho 
Labyrinthodont, Bothriceps, which can hardly be pre-Permian, and 
Huxley indeed assigned it to the Trias. The fossil plants of the Upper 
Coal Measures, Bciiem, Schizoneura, Alethopleris, mark the incoming 
of the newer flora, for these genera are absent from the Lower Coal 
Measures of New South Wales. They are Permian and Triassic types. 
Hence I am disposed to regard the upper limit of the Carboniferous in 
New South Wales as at the top of the Upper Marine series, and to 
assign the Middle and Upper Coal Measures to the Permian. 

As regards the other Australian States the question is simpler. In 
Queensland the Bowen River beds, with their Productus bracliythcerus, 
Glossopteris and Gangamopteris, may be correlated with the Marine 
series of New South Wales, and therefore as Uralian. Above the 
Bowen Coal Measures are the Burrum Coal Measures, and from their 
flora, with Taniopteris Daintreei, they are probably not earlier than 

In Victoria some difficulty has been introduced by M'Coy's deserip 
tion of a fossil plant from Bacchus Marsh as Taniopteris Sweeti, as 
on this ground (he upper part of the Bacchus Marsh Sandstones have 


been regarded as much later than the lower part. But, according to 
Arber, the specimen on which T. Sweeti was founded is so imperfect 
that the genus is indeterminable. The Bacchus Marsh Sandstones 
with Gangamopteris are generally correlated with the Lower Coal 
Measures of New South Wales, through Kitson's proof that the glacial 
beds on the northern coast of Tasmania are of that age. 

The correlation suggested for the beds of Eastern Australia may be 
tabulated as on next page. 

If this correlation be correct, the use of the term Fermo-Carboni- 
ferous is one of definition and there are four available courses : 

(1) To retain Permo-Carboniferous for some undefined parts of both 
the Carboniferous and Permian. 

(2) To retain it for the combined Uralian-Artinskian as a passage 

(3) To abandon it by referring all the beds above the unconformity 
at the top of the Lepidodendron beds to the Permian — the course 
followed by Freeh. 

(4) To abandon it by referring the beds above that unconformity 
and the top of the Upper Marine series (with the exception perhaps of 
the Aneimites beds) to the Upper Carboniferous (Uralian), and by 
assigning all the beds above the Upper Marine series to the Permian 

Of these four courses the last seems to me the best, for the first 
doubles the difficulty of definition and retains a provisional term after 
it has served its purpose; according to the second, the term is unneces- 
sary; and the paleeontological evidence is against tire third. 

The con-elation suggested is open to one objection, based on 
geo-tectonic grounds. According to it, the Middle Carboniferous in 
Australia was a great period of earth movement and non-deposition. 
In N.W. Europe the corresponding disturbances were in the Upper 
Carboniferous. If the earth movements in Europe and Australia were 
necessarily synchronous, then the Australian beds here assigned to the 
Uralian must be referred to the Moscovian. The paleeontologieal 
evidence appears entitled to more weight than the geo-tectonic. 

"While there is so much difference of opinion as to the system to 
which these beds belong, it may seem premature to attempt to determine 
their series. But the system can only be settled by agreeing which 
of the beds are Upper Carboniferous and which are Lower Permian. 
The problem appears easier in Australia than in South Africa, where 
there is continuous sequence from the Carboniferous to the Jurassic 
and there are no Marine beds to help the correlation. 

The main argument against attempting a definite correlation with 
the European horizons is based on the doctrine of homotaxis. That 
principle seemed so reasonable that it required careful consideration. 
According to the present trend of opinion, the importance once attached 
to homotaxis was exaggerated. Huxley raised the question whether the 
Carboniferous fauna in Europe might have been contemporaneous with 
the Devonian fauna in Australia. That question has now been generally 
answered in the negative, since the geological time was so vast that 
the length required for the spread of a marine fauna from one sea 
















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through all the suitable seas open to it is relatively insignificant. 
Zonal palaeontology has answered Huxley's question and shown that 
komotaxis concerns only the smaller divisions of geological time. 

It follows from the foregoing that I reply as follows : 

1a. No; and that covers also 2, 3. 

1b. No. Eetain them for sub-divisions. 

4. No : the Glacial beds may be on somewhat different horizons. 

5. The basis for correlation is reliable. 

7. Generally conformable. 

8. The view suggested in this paragraph is not yet established. 

Engineering Problems affecting the Future Prosperity of the 
Country. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. S. 
Hele-Shaw (Chairman) , Professor G. W. Howe (Secretary), 
Professor E. G. Coker, Sir Eobert Hadfield, Sir W. 
Mather, Mr. W. Maw, and Mr. C. E. Stromeyer. 

This Committee was formed as a result of suggestions of the Chairman 
in his presidential address at Manchester. 

The chief object m view was to prepare a report dealing with various 
problems which would affect the future of engineering of our country. 
At that time, two years ago, the war was comparatively young, and it 
seemed to many that we were as a nation not alive to the importance 
of certain far-reaching questions which confronted us at the time, and 
of others which would require all our energy to prepare for the con- 
ditions which would arise after the war was over. 

The Committee held a number of meetings in London, and con- 
sidered carefully what problems should be dealt with as being of im- 
mediate importance. It was decided at once to form sub-committees 
to draw up reports on the four following subjects :■ — 

1. Scientific research in relation to engineering. 

2. Patent laws. 

3. Scientific and practical revision ©f our catalogues, especially 

in relation to the metric and decimal system. 

4. Problems relating to labour. 

Eeports on the first and last subjects were duly prepared and circu- 
lated for consideration, and in others the work of collecting informa- 
tion and preparing reports was taken in hand. 

It happened that the members of the Committee engaged in pre- 
paring various reports became more and more occupied with war work, 
and it was found impossible through this and other causes to secure 
meetings of the Committee. Meanwhile, by degrees the great import- 
ance of the problems in view, which would have been dealt with by 
the Committee, became more clearly recognised by the British public 
generally, and these problems were not only taken up by various bodies, 
such as engineering societies and kindred institutions, but new bodies 
were formed for the purpose of dealing with particular subjects. The 
Government also has appointed committees and departments to deal 
with certain of these questions, notably on research and problems 
relating to labour. 


The object of the Committee being largely in the nature of moving 
public opinion and getting action taken by the Government, it is not 
considered desirable, in view of the above facts, to ask for its reappoint- 
ment at the present time. At a future date it is probable that there 
will be important work for an independent public body in reviewing 
the operation of various agencies and making recommendations, and a 
committee may be then appointed for this purpose. 

The question arises as to whether the Council shall be recommended 
to print in the Annual Report of the Association the reports already 
prepared. The Council has recently circularised Organising Committees 
req uesting them to limit printing ' as rigidly as possible. ' For this 
reason, and in view of the fact that other arrangements are being made 
to publish some of the matter, the Committee have reluctantly decided 
that they are unable to recommend the printing in the Annual Report of 
the draft reports already prepared, but suggest that these draft reports 
and various documents containing information and suggestions shall be 
deposited in the offices of the British Association, where they can be 
inspected or copied. 

Exploration of the Palceolithic Site known as La Cotte de 
St. Brelade, Jersey. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. E. E. Marett (Chairman), Mr. G. F. B. de Gruchy 
(Secretary), Dr. A. Keith, Dr. C. Andrews, Colonel E. 
Gardner Warton, and Mr. H. Balfour. 

Report on Work done in April 1917. 

During the last fortnight of April 1917 operations were resumed, 
being exclusively confined to the north side. Their object was to deepen 
the trench affording access to the cave from this its rearward end. 
Here a natural gully of unknown depth exists, filled with a very com- 
pact clay intermixed with heavy rock-rubbish. An area of some 300 
square feet was excavated to an average depth of TO feet, so as to 
bring the floor down to about 20 feet above the lowest floor-level of the 
cave. Flint and bone occurred sparsely over a space of 10 feet, viz., 
50-60 feet from the cave entrance, and at a height of 20-25 feet above 
lowest floor-level, but otherwise the filling of the gully was completely 
sterile. A well-developed rodent-bed was discovered at the point 
nearest the old workings, viz., 50 feet from the entrance. The flint 
included only a few good implements. The bone consists mostly of 
microtine remains, and is being determined at the British Museum. 
One bone appears to be that of the red-legged partridge, still known 
to sportsmen as the ' Jerseyman,' though now locally extinct. 

In view of war conditions, professional labour was not employed, 
but, thanks to Mr. A. J. Robinson, M.Sc, B.A.', a Master at Victoria 
College, digging-squads were organised in which the following College 
boys served:— J. W. Buck, F. R. Dorey, T. D. C. Faed, B. C. Le 
Cras, C. Le Marquand, W. P. Le Scelleur, D. Poingdestre, J. Pollock- 
Core, R, R. Proud, and C. F. Watkin. Mr. G. Le Bas, B.Sc., also 


helped. The Chairman and the Secretary were in charge of operations 

Supplementary Report, on Work done July-October 1917. 

Prom July 16 to October 6 excavation proceeded continuously, 
professional labour being available only during the last five weeks. The 
gully on the north side was deepened a further 10 feet, while on the 
interior side the cave-floor was cleared back to about 60 feet from the 
entrance. The rubbish-dump near the entrance was also partially 
removed, so as to render possible the exploration of the lower depths 
next year. It turns out that the cave narrows considerably at about 
50 feet in, and that the base of the human deposit, never more than 
10 feet thick, is at this point as much as 10-15 feet above the con- 
ventional floor-level. It looks as if the cave at the time of occupation 
had a sharply sloping back. Tbc rodent-bed here, as elsewhere, 
immediately overlays the human deposit. The microtine remains in- 
clude about 20Q fairly perfect jaws, which ought greatly to assist the 
work of determination. Otherwise the yield of the summer's labours is 
rather poor, amounting to no more than 189 pieces of flint (5 imple- 
ments of the first class, 51 of the second, the rest unshaped flakes, 
mostly used) and 108 hammer-stones of granite or greenstone, of which 
84 show obvious marks of use. In fact, it would appear that in pre- 
vious years the cream had already been skimmed off by partial clearance 
from all rearmost portion of the cave. As it is, very little more remains 
to be done in order to complete the excavation of the main cave down to 
the lowest level of Mousterian occupation. 

The Chairman and Secretary personally directed the work through- 
out. Mrs. Jenkinson, Miss Moss, Miss de Brisay, and Mr. Fleming- 
Struthers came over from Oxford to render most valuable assistance. 
Mr. Robinson and his College boys lent a frequent hand, as also did 
other local helpers. The labour was supplied by Mr. W. J. Boniface, 
whose quarrymen, even if they were long past military age, performed 
their heavy task with zeal and success. 


The Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart. — Report 
of the Committee, co)isisting of Professor C. S. Sherrington 
(Chairman), Professor Stanley Kent (Secretary), and Dr. 
Florence Buchanan, appointed to make further Researches 
thereon. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Owing to existing circumstances it has been impossible to devote as 
much time as usual to the work. This has been mainly in the direc- 
tion of preparation of material for use at a future date. 

Some progress has been made in connection with the working out 
in various animals of details of structure of the new connections between 
auricle and ventricle already described. The points established are of 
interest, since they illustrate the manner in which necessary physio- 
logical function is secured by the development of special histological 

The Committee does not seek reappointment. 


Science in Secondary Schools. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor B. A. Gregory (Chairman) , Dr. E. H. 
Tripp (Secretary), Mr. W. Aldridge, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Mr. D. Berridge, Mr. C. A. Buckmaster, Dr. 
Lilian J. Clarke, Mr. G-. F. Daniell, Miss I. M. Drum- 
M0nd, Mr. Or. D. Dunkerley, Miss A. E. Escott, Mr. E. 
Cary Gtlson, Miss C. L. Laurie, Professor T. P. Nunn, 
Mr. F. W. Sanderson, Mr. A. Vassall, and Professor 
A. M. Worthington, appointed to consider and report upon 
the Method, and Substance of Science Teaching in Secondary 
Scliools, with particular reference to the essential place of 
Science hi General Education. 


1. Introduction 124 

2. Position of Science Teaching in Schools of Different Types : — ■ 

(a) State-aided Secondary Schools 128 

(b) Boys' Secondary Schools of the Public School Type .... 12!) 

(c) Public Secondary Schools for Girls 131 

3. Time Required for the Teaching of Science 132 

4. Method in Science Teaching 133 

5. Experimental and Descriptive Teaching 137 

6. Sup-ply of Science Teachers in State-aided Schools 142 

7. Academic Qualifications of Headmasters 143 

8. Inspection and Examination 144 

9. Typical Science Courses : — 

i. ' Science for All' in a Public School. By Archer Vassall . . . 149 
ii. Science in a Public School. By F. W. Sanderson .... 15o 
iii. Scheme of Science Work for an Urban Secondary School lor Boys. 

By T. Percy Nunn H30 

iv. Science Scheme of a Mural Secondary School. By William Aldridge 1".'! 
v. Science Course for a Public Secondary School for Girls. By 

Isabella M. Drummond and Rose Stern 177 

vi. Scheme of Science Work in a Public Secondary School for Girls. 

By Lilian J. Clarke 182 

vii. Suggestions for a Course of Practical Food Stw.lics. By Henry E. 

Armstrong 188 

Appendices : — • 

i. Salaries of Teachers 203 

ii. Science Subjects in Typical Girls' Schools 204 

iii. Laboratory Accommodation and Staffing in Girls' Schools . . . 200 

iv. Academic Qualifications of Headmasters and Headmistresses . . 200 


I. Inteoduction. 

The British Association has on several occasions exerted a formative 
influence upon the teaching of science in secondary schools. At the 
Nottingham meeting in 1866 a Committee, consisting of Dean Farrar, 
Professor Huxley, Professor Tyndall, and Canon Wilson, with Mr. 
G. Griffith, the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, as Secre- 
tary, was appointed ' To consider the best means of promoting Scientific 
Education in Schools.' The report presented in the following year 
related the experience gained at Eugby and Harrow, and described the 
position of science teaching at Oxford, Cambridge, and London, and 
in French and German Schools. Four years previously, in 1860, the 
report of the Eoyal Commission on the nine Public Schools — Eton, 
Harrow, Winchester, Shrewsbury, St. Paul's, Westminster, Merchant 
Taylors', Charterhouse, and Eugby — had been published. In this 
report the Commissioners recommended that all boys should receive 
instruction in some branch of natural science during at least a part 
of their school life; and that there should be two principal branches, 
one consisting of chemistry and physics, and the other of physiology 
and natural history. 

The science teaching contemplated in both these reports was that 
which should form part of the educational course of every boy in a 
secondary school; its intention was not to train physicists or chemists 
or to prepare for any other professional occupation, but to make science 
an essential subject in the curriculum and an effective instrument of 
mental development. Fifty years ago the advocates of scientific 
instruction in schools saw clearly that merely to provide information 
about natural objects and phenomena is of little use, and that a know- 
ledge of the true spirit of science can be obtained only by personal 
observation and experiment in the field or the laboratory. The follow- 
ing words from the report presented to the Council in 1867 might- 
have been written to-day : — 

' There is an important distinction between scientific information and 
scientific training ; in other words, between general literary acquaintance with 
scientific facts and the knowledge of methods that may be gained by studying 
the facts at first hand under the guidance of a competent teacher. Both of 
these are valuable ; it is very desirable, for example, that boys should have 
some general information about the ordinary phenomena of Nature, 6uch as 
the simple facts of Astronomy, of Geology, of Physical Geography, and of 
Elementary Physiology. On the other hand, the scientific habit of mind, 
which is the principal benefit resulting from scientific training, and which is 
of incalculable value whatever be the pursuits of after-life, can better be 
attained by a thorough knowledge of the facts and principles of one science 
than by a general acquaintance with what has been said or written about 
many. Both of these should co-exist, we think, at any school which professes 
to offer the highest liberal education: and at every school it will be easy to 
provide at least for giving some scientific information, 

' 1. The subjects that we recommend for scientific information, as distin- 
truished from training, should comprehend a general description of the solar 
system; of the form and physical geography of the earth, and of such natural 
phenomena as tides, currents, winds, and the causes that influence 
climate ; of the broad facts of geology ; of elementary natural history, 
with especial reference to the useful plants and animals ; and of the rudiments 
nf physiology. This is a kind of information which requires le»ss preparation 


on the part of the teacher; and its effectiveness will depend on his knowledge, 
clearness, method, and sympathy with his pupils. Nothing will be gained by 
circumscribing these subjects by any general syllabus ; they may safely be 
left to the discretion of the masters who teach them. 

' 2. And for scientific training we are decidedly of opinion that the subjects 
which have paramount claims are Experimental Physics, Elementary Chemistry, 
and Botany.' 

Canon Wilson, the only surviving member of the British Asso- 
ciation Committee, in his paper on ' Teaching Natural Science in 
Schools,' published in 1867 in a volume entitled ' Essays on a Liberal 
Education,' gave a full account of the methods adopted in introducing 
science teaching in Rugby School. Botany was then selected as the 
best subject for beginning to train boys in scientific methods, and it 
was followed by experimental physics, the two being claimed as standard 
subjects for the scientific teaching in schools. As to other subjects, 
Chemistry was not considered suitable for lecture instruction, and few 
laboratories then existed in which the necessary practical knowledge 
for its intelligent study could be obtained; Geology 'lies outside the 
subjects which best illustrate scientific method,' and 'Physiology 
cannot be taught to classes at school. Nor ought it to be learat before 
Physics and Chemistry.' 

Though most of the instruction was given by means of experimental 
lectures, the main aim of the best science teachers was the same in 
those days as now — namely, to train in independent observation and 
reasoning. Canon Wilson, in the essay to which reference has been 
made already, states this principle in words which possess the per- 
sistence of truth', and are, therefore, worthy of repetition in our own 
time — fifty years after they were written : — 

' Theory and experience alike convince me that the master who is teaching 
a class quite unfamiliar with scientific method ought to make his class teach 
themselves, by thinking out the subject of the lecture with them, taking up 
their suggestions and illustrations, criticising them, hunting them down, and 
proving a suggestion barren or an illustration inapt; starting them on a fresh 
scent when they are at fault, reminding them of some familiar fact they had 
overlooked, and so eliciting out of the chaos of vague notions that are afloat 
on the matter in hand, be it the laws of motion, the evaporation of water, or 
the origin of the Drift, something of order, and concatenation, and interest, 
before the key to the mystery is given, even if after all it has to be given. 
Training to think, not to be a mechanic or surveyor, must be first and foremost 
as his object. So valuable are the subjects intrinsically, and such excellent 
models do they provide, that the most stupid and didactic teaching will not 
be useless; but it will not be the same source of power that "the method of 
investigation " will be in the hands of a good master. Some few will work out 
a logic of proof and a logic of discovery, when the facts and laws that are 
discovered and proved have had time to lie and crystallise in their minds. 
I5ut imbued with scientific method they scarcely will be, unless it springs up 
spontaneously in them. 

' For all classes, except those which are beginning, the union of the two 
methods is best. If they have once thoroughly learnt that the truths of 
science are to be got from what they see, and not from the assertions of a 
master or a text-book, the^' can never quite forget it, and allow their science 
to exist in a cloud-world apart from the earth. And undoubtedly the rigid 
and exact teaching from a book, insuring a complete and formularised and 
producible knowledge, is very valuable, especially with older classes.' 

When these words were written it seems to have been supposed 


that a training in scientific method could be obtained by attention to 
experimental lectures, and independent practical work in school labora- 
tories was scarcely contemplated. The apparatus used for lectures in 
physics was designed for demonstration purposes, and was not suitable 
for use by individual pupils even if its price did not render the purchase 
of sufficient sets for laboratory use prohibitive. It was Professor 
Worthington, whose death while a member of the present Committee is 
deeply deplored, who was chiefly responsible for the introduction of 
courses of practical work with simple apparatus in school physical labora- 
tories. His ' Physical Laboratory Practice, ' published in 1886, embodies 
the experimental course followed successfully at Clifton College, and 
afterwards introduced into many other secondary schools. Experience 
showed that quantitative results sufficiently accurate to suggest or 
confirm fundamental principles could be secured by the use of very 
simple apparatus, and that the work thus done by pupils individually 
created a far deeper impression than lectures alone could give. Re- 
ferring to the work at Clifton, Professor Worthington said: 

' It is undertaken there, like all the scientific teaching, not with a view 
of training physicists, but with the object of evoking in the boys a genuine 
and generous interest in natural phenomena, and of training them to habits of 
patient and conscientious study ; and those of us who have devoted themselves 
more particularly to the physical sciences are confident that the serious interest 
thus early aroused in a large number is the best guarantee of future excellence 
in the few who may afterwards become specialists.' 

The teaching of practical chemistry at that time consisted chiefly of 
more or less mechanical drill in the operations of qualitative analysis. 
The result was unsatisfactory, and the general adoption of science work 
in schools could not be justified by it. In 1884, at an International 
Conference on Education held in London, Professor H. E. Armstrong- 
gave the outline of a more intelligent method of teaching chemistry in 
which the pupil is faced with problems to be solved experimentally by 
him. Three years later a Committee was appointed by the British 
Association for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting upon the 
methods of teaching chemistry in schools. This Committee presented 
a report at the Bath meeting in 1888, and suggested that ' ieachers 
stand very much in need of advice and assistance in preparing a 
modified scheme of teaching suitable for general adoption in schools.' 
In response to this suggestion Professor Armstrong gave, in reports 
presented at the meetings of 1889 and 1890, details of practical courses 
of instruction deliberately intended to develop the faculties of indepen- 
dent inquiry, accurate observation, and intelligent reasoning. The 
' heuristic ' methods which he advocated were ' methods which in- 
volve our placing students so far as possible in the attitude of the dis- 
coverer—methods which involve their finding out instead of behi£ 
merely told about things.' 

The British Association schemes revolutionised the teaching of 
chemistry, and physics also to a large exte»t, in schools. The pre- 
scribed preparation of gases and the drill in qualitative analysis, which 
had constituted the practical work in school chemical laboratories, were 
superseded by inquiries into the composition of such common sub- 
stances as air and water, and no experiment was undertaken without 


a scientific motive. The Headmasters' Association afterwards approved 
a course of work based upon the principles laid down by Professor 
Armstrong; and the Joint Scholarships Board instituted by the Asso- 
ciation adopted this scheme, which is published under the title ' Syllabus 
of an Elementary Course in Physics and Chemistry ' (Educational 
Supply Association, price 3d. ; postage \d.). 

The history of the change in methods of teaching science initiated by 
Professor Armstrong will be found in his work ' The Teaching of 
Scientific Method ' (Macmillan, price 5s. net). There are differences 
of opinion as to whether strictly heuristic methods are practicable with 
large classes, but objections raised to them are often based upon mis- 
apprehension, and there can be no question that the introduction of the 
methods have been the means of effecting substantial improvements 
in the teaching of science in schools. Unfortunately, in concentrating 
attention upon training in experimental method, the complementary 
teaching of science as a body of inspiring principles and a truly human- 
ising influence has been neglected ; and it is to this aspect of the subject 
Hint particular importance is attached in the present report. 

What Professor Armstrong did for the study of physics and 
chemistry has been done by Professor L. C. Miall for experimental 
natural history. Beginning with such a simple natural object as a bean, 
pupils are led to examine the seed ; to record its form, size, and general 
structure ; to notice the early stages of the bean-plant by sprouting 
seeds in wet sawdust ; to find what difference it makes to the seedlings 
whether they are kept in the dark, exposed to faint light, or to full 
sunlight ; to determine the nutritive salts required for the continued 
growth of the plants; to demonstrate that green plants draw carbon 
dioxide from the air, forming starch from it, and using up the starch 
in the manufacture of their permanent tissues, as well ns in other ways ; 
and so on. The study of plant or animal life based upon such methods 
of observation and inquiry has been a valuable means of scientific 
education in many schools. 

The Committee has not considered it necessary to make an ex- 
haustive inquiry into the position of science teaching in secondary 
schools. This will no doubt be done by the Government Committee 
appointed under the Chairmanship of Sir J. J. Thomson to inquire 
into the position occupied by natural science in the educational systems 
of Great Britain. That Committee, however, has industrial and pro- 
fessional interests to consider, as well as the claims of science in 
education, and it includes only three or four members familiar with the 
science work carried on in secondary schools. It is believed, therefore, 
that a Committee consisting almost entirely of teachers with experience 
in such schools should be able to perform a. useful function by pre- 
senting a report concerned chiefly with existing methods and scope of 
science teaching, and giving scbemes of work in which humanistic 
aspects of science occupy a prominent place. 


II. Position op Science Teaching in Schools of DiffePvEnt Types. 

In considering the amount of time devoted to science teaching it 
is necessary to distinguish different types of secondary schools both 
for boys and girls. Schools in receipt of State aid are inspected by 
the Board of Education, and they include old-established Grammar 
Schools as well as Municipal and County Schools under Local Educa- 
tion Authorities. State-aided schools for boys number about 620, and 
the great majority of these are represented by the Incorporated Asso- 
ciation of Headmasters. In addition to these State-aided schools there 
are a number of public schools which are independent of the Board of 
Education or other public body. All these public schools are repre- 
sented upon the Headmasters' Conference, together with about forty- 
five schools which are in receipt of State aid, and therefore come 
under the regulations of the Board of Education. One hundred and 
twenty schools are represented on the Conference, and the general 
condition of admission of a school to representation is that the school 
has at least 100 boys and about 10 per cent, of its pupils are resident 
undergraduates at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge direct 
from the school. The Association of Headmistresses represents in 
much the same way about 415 public secondary schools for girls, of 
which 330 are State-aided. 

On account of these distinctions the particulars as to science subjects 
studied in secondary schools are arranged under three heads — namely, 
(1) State-aided secondary schools for boys, (2) secondary schools with- 
out Government grant or control for boys, (3) public secondary schools 
for girls. In the case of the first two types particulars presented by a 
Committee in 1908 have been brought up to date, but for the girls' public 
schools a special inquiry has been instituted, the results of which are 
here described, and the details are given in Appendices II. and III. : — 

(a) State-aided Secondary Schools. 

The Board of Education's Regulations for Secondary Schools require 
that the curriculum of every such school in receipt of annual grants 
must make provision for instruction in science, and that this instruction 
' must include practical work by the pupils.' 

In secondary schools for girls housecraft subjects may be substi- 
tuted partially or wholly for science and for mathematics other than 

About 1,000 secondary schools in England and Wales come under 
these Regulations, and the number of pupils in them is about 180,000. 
The leaving age is nominally sixteen or eighteen, but most of the 
pupils leave before they reach the lower age. In the majority of the 
schools earning the full grant of the Board of Education science occu- 
pies a prominent place in the curriculum, and the provision and equip- 
ment of laboratories are usually sufficient. 

Owing to the close agreement of the curriculum, the accompanying 
Table, from a report presented at the Dublin meeting of the Associa- 
tion in 1908, represents the range and sequence of subjects in the 
majority of boys' schools. 


Table I. 
Usual science subjects in schools where the leaving age is sixteen 



Average Ages. 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

Nature Study 

Elementary Physical Mea- 1 
surements J 

Elementary Heat 

Mechanics .... 

Heat and Light . 

Electricity .... 

Elementary Chemistry 

Systematic Chemistry 

Subject taught in a few schools 

majority of schools, 
nearly all schools . 

9f !> 

tt 91 

There is a tendency to begin electricity earlier than the last year, 
but otherwise the subjects remain in much the same position as they 
were in 1908. Biology does not appear in the Table except as nature 
study, and it is studied only by a few boys specialising after matricula- 
tion. Physics and chemistry practically monopolise the field; geology, 
natural history, archaeology, and astronomy depending upon the boys' 
voluntary efforts, encouraged by school scientific or natural history 

As regards subjects of instruction, there is a wide difference between 
boys' and girls' schools. In many girls' schools botany is the main 
science subject; physics, or more often chemistry, is taken in others 
as an alternative or in addition to botany. In some girls' schools 
physics and chemistry are taught on the same lines as in boys'; 
in others, these subjects are used as introductions to a course of 
domestic science and hygiene or of botany. A course of experimental 
science which embodies rudiments of both physics and chemistry 
sometimes precedes formal teaching of these separate branches of 
science both in boys' and girls' schools, and may be carried through 
the curricula. 

(b) Boys' Secondary Schools of the Public School Type. 

Rather more than eighty of the schools represented on the Head- 
masters' Conference receive no grants from the Board of Education, 
1917. K 


and although a few of these are inspected by the Board, the majority 
are 'inspected by the Universities, and have therefore no connection 
with the Board. In most of these there is a strong classical tradition. 
The actual number of boys (about 36,000) taught in these schools is 
small compared with those who receive their education in State-aided 
schools, but the fact that the public schools educate the majority ot 
the future statesmen gives them special importance. The Headmasters 
are with few exceptions classical specialists. The leaving age beiore 
the war was nominally nineteen, but a considerable number of boys 
leave when they are eighteen. ...... . . . 

The schools are generally, but not always, divided into classical, 
modern, and Army sides, science being taught universally on the two 
latter sides, but to only a certain number of the boys on the classical 
side. On the Army side the science subjects are determined by the 
requirements of the Civil Service Commissioners, and are consequently 
entirely confined to chemistry and physics; on the modern side the 
tendency is also to limit the science teaching to these two subjects, 
although in some schools the younger pupils are given courses of 
geologv and elementary biology. Of course, the senior boys who 
specialise in science have a considerably wider range, but these do 
not form a part of the Modem side proper. On the classical side 
progress has been made during the past twenty years. Formerly few 
schools made any provision for science teaching ; now it is the excep- 
tion to find a school in which science does not appear in the time- 
table of the great majority of boys at some period of their school career. 
Since these boys have, as a rule, no science examination in view, 
educational experiments are more frequently made upon them than 
on others ; hence there is far less uniformity in the teaching in this 
part of the school than on the modern side; in some the work is 
of the same nature as upon the modern side; but,_ since the time 
devoted to science is as a rule less, the standard attained is naturally 
lower, whilst in others the ' object ' rather than the ' subject ' method 
is pursued — e.g., water is investigated in its biological, geological, 
sociological, chemical, and physical aspects in one course. 

In addition to the fact that some attention is now given to the 
teaching of science on the classical side, the more important changes 
which have taken place since a Sub-Committee presented a report to 
Section L. at the Dublin meeting in 1908 seem to be that (1) less 
attention is now paid to elementary practical measurements ; this is 
partly due to the difficulty which has been experienced in many schools 
in persuading the mathematical staff, without whose co-operation pro- 
gress is impossible, to undertake laboratory work. There can be but 
little doubt that many science-masters have found that such work does 
not interest their pupils, and is apt to give them a disinclination to 
science. (2) Mechanics is less frequently made a part of the science 
curriculum, and there is a growing tendency to leave it to the mathe- 
matical staff, with the unfortunate result that the experimental side is 
neglected. (3) Biology is certainly receiving more attention than it 
did ; this may be due to the action of certain Universities in making it 
a compulsory subject for their first M.B. examination; but it is 



probable thai the importance of the subject is better realised now than 
it was a few years ago. 

The following table, which is based upon the one presented to the 
Dublin meeting, snows what is believed to be the present position: — 

Usual science subjects in schools where the leaving age is eighteen and 



Average Ages 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Nature Study 

Elementary Physical Mea- 1 
sure merits / 

Elementary Heat . 

General Physics . 

Elementary Chemistry 

Systematic Chemistry . 


_ . . 

(c) Public Secondary Schools for Girls. 

(A Memorandum based on replies sent in by 171 typical schools to 
a questionnaire issued by the Association of Science Mistresses. 
November 1916.) 

Some science forms part of the curriculum throughout the whole 
of the pre-specialisation period in almost every public secondary school 
for girls. In one or two exceptional cases the continuous course is 
broken at a certain stage for one year. 

In nearly every school nature study forms the basis of the work 
with children below eleven or twelve years of age. For the following 
two or three years there is, most often, a continuous course of elemen- 
tary physics and chemistry treated experimentally. Though the total 
time given to science at this stage does not, as a rule, exceed two hours 
per week this experimental course frequently runs concurrently with 
a course of lessons in some other subject, as hygiene. Botany is 
most commonly taught above this stage, but in a considerable number 
of the larger schools there are alternative courses of botany and' 
chemistry, and a few schools make chemistry their main subject. 
Physics is rarely taught above a very elementary standard. 

In very few cases does the science course appear to be determined 
by correlation with courses of lessons in the domestic arts. 

- , 12 



The following table indicates the subjects most commonly taught 
at different stages : — 


Nature Study . 
Elementary Physics 
Elementary Chemistry 
Systematic Chemistry 
Heat and Light 
Biology . 
Hygiene . 
Domestic Science 
Botany . 

8-10 11 

Average Ages 
12 13 14 15 16 17 


means taught in some schools. 

means taught in the majority of schools. 

means taught in nearly all schools. 

The time spent on science in the majority of schools is from 
1 to 1| hours per week below twelve years of age, and from 2 to 2i 
between the ages of twelve and sixteen or seventeen, above which 
specialisation begins. In a considerable number of cases (see Appen- 
dix III.) the laboratory accommodation is insufficient to allow of the 
whole even of this time being spent in experimental work, and a part 
is therefore frequently given to some subject as, for example, hygiene 
or descriptive botany, which can be taught in the classroom. 

III. Time Required for the Teaching op Science. 

There is a tendency at the present time, especially in some of the 
more conservative schools, to introduce science teaching for two hours 
per week, end to regard this as sufficient to meet the claims of science 
to an adequate place in the curriculum. In the opinion of the Com- 
mittee it is impossible for any real training in scientific method, or for 
knowledge of any practical value, to be secured with so short an allow- 
ance of time. Also pupils are apt to consider that the importance of 
a subject may be judged by the time allotted to it in school, or to 


imagine they have acquired a grasp of a subject of which they know 
only the introduction. 

Whilst the actual number of school hours is fairly uniform in 
boys' schools, there is considerable difference in the number of periods 
into which these are divided ; and in girls' schools the number of hours 
per week is, as a rule, much less than in boys' schools. The Com- 
mittee hesitates, therefore, to specify how many hours per week 
should be devoted to science teaching; it is, however, of the opinion 
that for pupils who are not specialising — i.e. , for those who are between 
the ages of twelve and about sixteen and a half — an average of at least 
one-sixth for boys and one-seventh for girls of the total number of 
teaching periods in each week should be used for science work inde- 
pendent of work in geography and mathematics. 

IV. Method in Science Teaching. 

In recent years more attention has been given to method in science 
teaching than to substance. One result of this has been to promote 
the view that all subjects, in different ways and to different degrees, 
can be made to give a training in scientific method; and that, therefore, 
instruction in science has no specific educational advantage over that 
of any other subject in the curriculum taught by methods of deduction 
and induction. It will be shown later in this respect how science — 
by which is here meant all departments of natural knowledge which 
depend for their development upon observation and experiment — 
differs from other subjects of instruction, but a general statement as 
to the meaning and application of scientific method in science teaching 
seems to be necessary. 

Ambiguity of ' scientific method.' — It has often been remarked that 
the adjective ' scientific ' has a double significance. Sometimes it is 
used to distinguish one kind of knowledge, such as physics, from 
another kind, such as history. At other times the distinction it con- 
notes is not between objects of knowledge but between modes of inves- 
tigation — between the ' conduct of the understanding ' which alone 
leads to certain truth and ways of thought that inevitably end in error. 
The second sense of the word is evidently much wider than the first; 
for, while the realm of ' scientific knowledge,' though vast, is limited, 
the dominion of ' scientific method ' is universal, extending wherever 
there are facts to be determined or general truths to be ascertained. 

If, however, it is admitted (1) that the chief business of the science 
teacher is to train in scientific method, and (2) that scientific method is 
the characteristic not of science only but of every properly conducted 
intellectual inquiry, the science teacher is perilously near to the sur- 
render of his special claim to existence. For does scientific method 
imply the habits of observing facts with care, of classifying them 
clearly and exhaustively, of forming hypotheses without bias, of testing 
them with rigour? Then a good classical teacher may make the study 
of Latin grammar as ' scientific ' as the study of chemistry, while, 
under a bad teacher, work in the laboratory may be as little ' scientific ' 
as anything ever done in a Latin lesson. Again, does scientific method 


imply ' respect for fact ' and the pursuit of truth in defiance of 
prejudice? Then it may be maintained that the study of recent history 
offers a field for its exercise at least as favourable as (say) an inquiry 
into the composition of water. 

Matter and Method not separable. — This paradoxical conclusion 
depends upon the assumption that the method of scientific investi- 
gation can be regarded as separable from the matter, which is not 
correct. In other words, it is not strictly true that scientific method 
is one and the same wherever it is employed. The physical method 
and the historical method, for example, have common fundamental 
features, but cannot be simply identified the one with the other. In 
short, scientific method is an abstraction which does not exist apart 
from its concrete embodiments ; and the person who desires adequate 
knowledge of it must study it in all its typical manifestations. No 
one ought to expect a training in scientific method acquired in one field 
of inquiry to be transferable to— that is, to guarantee competence in — 
a. field substantially different from the former. This conclusion is 
illustrated and supported by many recent experimental investigations. 
For instance, Dr. W. G. Sleight l has shown conclusively that practice 
in one form of memorising {e.g., the reproduction of the substance of 
a passage of prose) produces no general improvement of the memory, 
but may even cause deterioration in the power to memorise material 
of a different kind. Ability acquired in memory-exercises of one type 
is, in fact, transferable to exercises of another type only if the second 
contains special elements that are also characteristic of the former, 
and then only if the learner perceives and deliberately takes advantage 
of the partial identity. Thus a boy trained in memorising series of 
numbers shows an improved power to memorise ' nonsense-syllables ' 
if, and only if, he has recognised that the use of rhythm is an aid to 
the mastery of the material m both cases. 

It appears, then, that the training received in a specific course of 
study is an ability acquired in dealing with situations of a certain 
kind, and is of service without the boundaries of the study only in 
situations that can be regarded as substantially identical with those 
within it. Scientific knowledge and scientific method must not, there- 
fore, be thought of as distinct and separable things, but as things 
whose relation is comparable with the relation between a living body 
and its life. Just as the life of a body consists in its growth and activi- 
ties, and in nothing else, so the methods of a science are nothing other 
than the ways in which it grows, reaching ever wider and deeper views 
of some aspect or department of nature. The science teacher has not, 
therefore, to adjust or to choose between the claims of knowledge and 
of training, for the two are inseparable. Let him give his pupils 
the knowledge that (in Spencer's classic phrase) is ' of most worth ' — 
that is, the knowledge which best expresses the special genius of his 
science — and he may be confident that he is at the same time giving 
them the best training the subject can supply. It need only be added 

* Dr. Sleight's book, Educational Values (Clarendon Press), gives a 
critical account of all the more important researches on the transference of 
acquired abilities. 


(for feur of misunderstanding) that this giving of knowledge is not to 
be confounded with the mere imparting of ' facts. ' It implies in the 
pupil a genuine -pxirsuit of knowledge — an activity, guided by the 
teacher but motived from within, which represents, so far as the neces- 
sarily artificial conditions of teaching permit, the historic activities 
of scientific minds working at their best. 

Principles and Motives in Teaching. — In selecting what is to be 
taught the teacher must take account not only of the intrinsic worth 
of the knowledge but also of the varying powers and interests of 
immature minds at different ages. Are there any general principles 
to guide him in ordering his curriculum to meet their needs? The 
obvious maxim that the easy things should come first and the more 
difficult things later is not in itself sufficient, for it gives no principle 
for determining what is easy and what is difficult from the point of 
view of the pupil. Some of the simplest ideas in science may prove 
to be quite out of the natural range of activity of young minds because 
they appeal effectively only to a riper experience or to a developed 
scientific interest. It is, indeed, for these reasons that such ideas 
have often emerged late rather than early in the history of a science. 
Can we, then, find criteria which will discriminate between things 
suitable and things unsuitable for pupils at different stages of pro- 
gress? In other words, is there a normal course of development of 
the scientific interest in the young? 

In considering this question we must, in view of the infinite variety 
of human minds, be on our guard against sweeping and dogmatic 
generalisations. At best we can hope to discover laws that hold good, 
as Aristotle said, inl to tto\v : rules that give general guidance but 
do not free the teacher from the obligation to treat individual pupils 
in accordance with their special natures and needs. Attacking the 
problem in this modest spirit, we may usefully note that, among the 
motives which have prompted men to make those persistent attempts 
to understand nature which we call science, three have always been 
especially conspicuous. First, and in a sense foremost, is delight in 
the intrinsic beauty and charm of natural phenomena — delight in the 
forms and ways of plants and animals, in the splendour of the heavens, 
in the surprising behaviour and transformations of matter under 
certain assignable conditions. To use a familiar phrase, the foundation 
of science is the love of nature. Next, we may distinguish the motive 
that springs from the perception that man can exploit the forces of 
nature for his own purposes only if he is prepared to take the trouble 
to understand them — that man must become the interpreter of nature 
if nature is to become the handmaid of man. This is the motive that 
has created the vast fabric of ' applied science.' Lastly, there is the 
craving for theoretical completeness and unity — the motive that 
prompts men on one hand to seek ' fundamental principles ' in nature, 
and on the other to organise their ideas about the different aspects or 
departments of nature into closely knitted logical systems. These 
three— which may be called the ' wonder motive ' (in the absence of a 
better term), the 'utility motive,' and the ' systematising motive' — 
are not, of course, to be thought of as working in isolation. In differing 


degrees all are, no doubt, present in all scientific activity. Never- 
theless, they are evidently distinct sources of such activity, whose 
relative predominance at different stages in the history of a science, 
and in minds of differing cast, may vary to a very great extent. 

Our question resolves itself, therefore, into the following: Can 
we count upon the presence and activity of these motives in the minds 
of boys and girls, and is there any normal order of predominance 
among them? To the first part of the question, thus expressed, we 
can give a confident reply. There are few children, if any, who do 
uot feel the charm of natural phenomena and cannot be led by it to 
pursue inquiries which, however rudimentary they may be, are yet in 
the direct line of the development of science. The ' utility motive,' 
represented by the desire to find out ' how it works ' or ' how it is 
made,' is notoriously conspicuous. The systematising motive, while 
apparently much more variable in strength, cannot be said to be 
inoperative in any normal child. With regard to the second and more 
important part of the question, it may be said (subject to the reserva- 
tion mentioned above) that, although young minds feel the pressure of 
all the motives, yet each of the three enjoys its special period of empire. 
Children before an age which is not far above or below eleven years 
seem to respond most surely and actively to the direct appeal of striking 
and beautiful phenomena. From eleven or twelve to (say) fifteen or 
sixteen the ' utility motive ' assumes the mastery, and may, at least 
in boys, reach the force and volume of a passion. With the full advent 
of adolescence the ' systematising motive ' has for the first time its 
opportunity of predominance, but there seem to be many minds in 
which its full power is never developed. 

Practical Conclusions. — The practical bearing of these observations 
is clear. It is important, in the first place, that the teacher should 
not fail to give due scope to the ' wonder motive. ' A science lesson 
should not degenerate into a display of fireworks or into sentimental 
vapourings about the ' marvels of nature.' but it is easy to fall into the 
opposite error. Science-teachers have by no means always avoided 
it. It must be remembered that teaching which is not founded upon 
the pupil's direct interest in natural phenomena for their own sake 
cannot stimulate genuine scientific activity, and that no ' scientific 
training ' can be effective which kills instead of fostering the root from 
tvhich all scientific activity has grown. In addition to this general 
consideration, applicable to all ages of the pupil, we draw the particular 
conclusion that the first stage in science teaching should be a stage 
of ' nature study, ' of which the distinctive aim should be not to estab- 
lish the logical foundations of any science, but to awaken the pupil's 
interest in the more attractive and obvious happenings in garden and 
wood, in pond and field, in sea and sky, and to begin the work of 
disciplining this interest into scientific inquiry. 

Next, it is suggested that to fail to make full use of the ' utility 
motive ' is to allow one of the richest sources of intellectual activity to 
run to waste. Many teachei's of science are discovering that for pupils 
between the ages of twelve and sixteen (or later) the most effective 
method of instruction takes the form of an analysis directed to the 


discovery of the principles involved in the typical triumphs of applied 
science. In this method Archimedes' Principle is regarded not as a 
' property of fluids ' nor as means of determining specific gravities, but 
as the principle that explains the flotation of ships; the study of the 
processes by which metals are won from their ores displaces chemical 
inquiries of academic interest ; to study electricity is to analyse the 
working of the electric bell, the dynamo, the installation for wireless 
telegraphy. In other words, such topics as these, instead of being 
regarded as ' applications ' of scientific principles, to be taught if time 
and the demands of a public examination allow, are treated as the foci 
of interest from whose study the pupil's knowledge of the scientific 
principles is to emerge. 

Lastly, we must recognise that the ' systematising motive ' is one 
that has long been worked in our schools beyond its natural strength. 
Not infrequently teachers of some experience express the doubt 
whether boys and girls are capable of studying science before the age 
of fifteen or sixteen. Still more often university professors of science 
express the wish that their students might come to them with minds 
unperverted by the teaching of the schools. Whatever truth these 
pessimistic suggestions contain is probably accounted for by the failure 
of teachers to mould their instruction in conformity with the natural 
development of children's minds. The young man (or woman) who 
teaches science in schools from the point of view of the university often 
achieves with the best intentions a disastrous amount of harm. The 
mischief will not be j^revented until it is universally recognised that 
the logical theory of a science should be not the terminus a quo of 
instruction, but the terminus ad quern. 

V. Experimental and Descriptive Teaching. 

Methods of Instruction. — School instruction in science has, in 
England, taken the form of individual practical work, laboratory 
demonstrations, and lectures. In some cases laboratory work is carried 
on independently of the lectures as regards subjects, while in others it 
is arranged to run parallel with the theoretical course. Frequently 
all lessons are given in the laboratory by means of demonstrations 
and discussions in conjunction with practical work, and there is little 
lecturing in the usual sense of the term. The basis of the instruction 
in science in schools where tins plan is adopted is the laboratory work, 
and points are explained or elaborated as they are reached in the 
practical course. 

Another plan is to make the laboratory work ancillary to the lectures, 
and to regard it as a necessary means of making the pupil understand 
clearly some points dealt with in them or met with in his reading. 

The Unique Value of Laboratory Work. — The primary value of 
laboratory work in schools is that it brings the pupil into direct contact 
with reality through his own senses and his own manipulation. In 
this way only can he learn to see things in their right proportions, to 
distinguish the essentials of an experiment from the non-essentials, 
and obtain a firm grasp of a scientific subject. Reading about an 


experiment, or even seeing an experiment performed, cannot give that 
security of knowledge which practical contact affords. 

Experience shows that when scientific knowledge has been secured 
by practical work it becomes part of tho permanent mental equipment 
of the pupil. The laboratory is, further, the one place where the pupil 
learns to acquire first-hand evidence, and to distinguish between tliat 
and information obtained verbally or by reading; for this reason also 
it alone fulfils an essential function in an educational course. 

It is possible to use scientific method in the study of history, lan- 
guages, and other literary subjects, but applied in this way the method 
can never be accepted as providing the same means of training as 
laboratory experiment. 

Distinction between Manual Training and Experiment. — Although 
the principle of ' learning by doing ' is followed also in courses of 
manual instruction in which each pupil is impressed with the necessity 
of relying upon himself, of arranging and carrying out his work in an 
orderly manner, and of interpreting instructions accurately, and though 
other advantages may be justly claimed for such work, yet there is 
always a decided difference between the best scheme of workshop 
exercises and the experimental work of a rightly arranged experimental 
course. In the laboratory the development of dexterity and skill is 
only a secondary consideration, and the attention is fastened on the 
answer given by Nature to the question put to it : on the method to 
be adopted for eliciting the answer, on its significance when obtained, 
and on the degree of accuracy with which it can be credited. 

Preliminary Work to Systematic Instruction in Science. — It is 
because of the demand thus made on the reasoning powers that in 1910 
a Joint Committee of the Mathematical Association and the Association 
of Public School Science Masters expressed the decided opinion that 
systematic work in science should not be taken at too early a stage; 
laying down that ' It is undesirable that either formal physics or 
chemistry be taught in Preparatory Schools,' and that 'Questions 
should not be set in formal physics or chemistry at the entrance or 
entrance scholarship examinations to the Public Schools.' The same 
Committee, however, recommended that instruction which could be 
taken at an early stage, in elementary practical measurements of length, 
area, volume, mass, and density, should be given by the mathematical 
staff and not by the science staff. Such work can be done in an ordinary 
class-room with the simplest apparatus, and is thus more easily co- 
ordinated with the mathematical lessons than when carried on in a 
room specially devoted to it. The course of measurements, including 
the use of simple balances, need very seldom exceed twenty hours of 
practical work; and there can be no doubt that it is of the highest 
value in giving actuality to the mathematical teaching. Unfortunately, 
mathematical teachers have often been found to have little sympathy 
with these practical methods of illustration. 

Introductory work in science, whether in preparatory schools or 
in the lower forms of State-aided secondary schools, should consist 
of such elementary practical measurements as are referred to above, 
and of a course intended to interest pupils in natural knowledge and 


to encourage observations of animal and plant life, earth and sky, and 
of everyday phenomena manifested in them. Such observations pro- 
vide material for cultivating the art of expression, and with suitable 
reading or descriptive lessons will create and foster attention to many 
aspects of Nature. 

Laboratory Methods and Scope. — In laboratory courses two methods 
of instruction may be distinguished — the subject-method and the 
problem-method — one or both of which may be followed, or, more often, 
a combination of the two. The subject-method may be described as a 
system of impressing fundamental* properties and principles upon the 
minds of pupils by means of a graduated course of experimental exer- 
cises. The pupils usually work independently or in pairs, but in some 
schools the same exercises are performed by a whole class simulta- 
neously as a form of drill, in which case they tend to become of the type 
of cookery-book recipes rather than that of scientific experiment. 

The problem -method aims at suggesting a motive and purpose for 
every experiment, and thus of creating the spirit of experimental 
scientific inquiry. It consists in facing a problem, and by means of 
experiment endeavouring to solve it and related questions which arise 
during the work. The intention is not, as is sometimes supposed, In 
make pupils discover for themselves laws and principles previously un- 
known to them, though to some extent this can be done, but rather to 
provide a continuous thread of reasoning for the practical work and a 
definite purpose for whatever is undertaken. It is obvious that this 
method demands much more intensive work on the part of the teacher 
than is required when a prescribed course of exercises is followed; and 
on this account varying opinions are held as to its practicability and 
value. What is wanted for the teacher is a laboratorv which he has 
freedom to use exactly when and for whom the teaching requires it, 
and independently of syllabuses prescribed by external authorities, 
whether the subject-method with a definite laboratory course is being 
followed, or the ancillary method in which the experiment to be under- 
taken by any pupil may arise from his own demand, or be assigned to 
him to clear up some observed misapprehension, or as a challenge to 
test his knowledge of what he has been taught, and his resourcefulness, 
or simply to give the final security of personal practical experience, as 
already mentioned. 

The field which can be surveyed practically in any school course of 
laboratory work which forms part of a general education is necessarily 
limited in scope even when the subject-method is followed, and is more 
so when the object of the work is to encourage the natural spirit of 
inquiry, and thus to create a perception of the means by which new 
scientific knowledge is gained. Increased attention to laboratory exer- 
cises has, indeed, in recent years often been associated with a very 
restricted acquaintance with the world of science. The tendency has 
been to make all the teaching a matter of measurement, to the neglect 
of the human aspects of the pursuit of natural knowledge. The teach- 
ing is, in fact, inclined to be narrow and special rather than broad and 
catholic. Experimental work should bring appreciation of the preci- 
sion and methods of scientific inquiry, but, in addition to this instruction, 


an attempt should be made to cultivate interest in achievements of 
research outside the school walls. 

While, therefore, prime importance must be attached to adequate 
provision for laboratory work undertaken with the view of imparting 
a knowledge of experimental methods of inquiry, it is essential that there 
should also be instruction in the broad principles and results of scientific 
work which cannot be brought within the limits of a laboratory course. 
Every pupil should not only receive training in observational and 
experimental work but should also be given a view of natural knowledge 
as a whole. The object should be to evoke interest rather than to impart 
facts or data of science prescribed by an examination syllabus, or even to 
systematise their rediscovery. There should be no specialisation before 
the stage of Matriculation has been reached, and whatever instruction 
is given should be from the point of view of general education. 

Human Aspects of Science- — Assuming that laboratory work is 
commenced at a suitable stage, the question arises as to the best means 
of presenting the broad view of scientific facts and principles desirable 
in a modern liberal education. It should not be possible for any pupil 
to complete a course et any secondary school without a knowledge not 
only of experimental methods but also of the meaning of common 
natural phenomena. Much of this knowledge can be given, and is 
being given, to an increasing extent, in connection with the teaching of 
geography ; but in any case descriptive lessons are required in which 
the aim should be to impart broad ideas, and promote interest in Nature, 
rather than to train in practical methods applied to a limited field. 

It is desirable also, by means of general lectures, discussions, or 
reading, to introduce into the teaching some account of the main 
achievements of science and of the methods by which they have been 
attained. Science must not be considered merely as a burden of material 
fact and precise principle which needs a special type of mind to bear it. 
There should be more of the spirit, and less of the valley of dry bones, 
if science is to be of living interest, either during school life or afterwards. 
Everyone should be given the opportunity of knowing something of the 
lives and work of such men as Galileo and Newton, Faraday and Kelvin, 
Pasteur and Lister, Darwin and Mendel, and many other pioneers of 
science. One way of doing this is by lessons on the history of science, 
biographies of discoverers, with studies of their successes and failures, 
and outlines of the main road along which natural knowledge has 
advanced. It would be far better, from the point of view of general 
education, to introduce courses of this kind, intended to direct attention 
and stimulate interest in scientific greatness and its relation to modern 
life, than to limit the teaching to dehumanised material of physics and 
chemistry which leaves but little impression upon the minds of boys 
if seen only ' in disconnection, dull and spiritless.' 

Under existing conditions, which are largely controlled by prescribed 
syllabuses and external examinations, there is little opportunity for 
teachers to direct attention to the useful applications of science on one 
hand, or on the other to awaken interest in the solution of the mysteries 
which surround us, though this could be done incidentally in connection 
with lectures or practical work if the present pressure were removed. 


History and biography enable a comprehensive view of science to 
be constructed which cannot be obtained by laboratory work. They 
supply a solvent of that artificial barrier between literary studies and 
science which a school time-table usually sets up. In the study of 
hydrostatics, heat, current electricity, optics, and inorganic chemistry, 
the attention which has been given to laboratory work has succeeded 
in developing the powers of doing and describing. The weak points 
have been insufficient attention to the broader aspects and to scientific 
discovery and invention as human achievements, and failure to con- 
nect school work with the big applications of science by which mankind 
is benefiting. The study of optics is seldom pursued to a useful 
point, and in the teaching of mechanics there are more failures than 
in other science subjects. The time-table is particularly overcrowded 
during the last two years in the State-aided secondary schools; the 
work is over-compressed, and the philosophical aspects cannot, there- 
fore, be presented effectively. The extension of the normal leaving 
age to seventeen years would have a valuable effect in raising the 
potential standard of scientific knowledge, and in spreading intelligent 
appreciation of science throughout the country. 

At present, as instruction in science proceeds in the school, there is a 
tendency for it to become detached from the facts and affairs of life, by 
which alone stimulus and interest can be secured. It is important that 
every opportunity should be taken to counteract this tendency by descrip- 
tive lessons in which everyday phenomena are explained and the utility 
of discovery and invention is illustrated. 

Domestic science and hygiene are frequently introduced into girls' 
schools with the object of effecting a link between science and the 
experience of everyday life. It must be pointed out, however, that 
such courses are incoherent and of little value unless science or 
domesticity is the definite objective. If the scientific aim predominates, 
the course can be made to give a good training in elementary experi- 
mental science and should afford a useful background to later practical 
study of domestic arts. If domesticity is dominant, the work cannot 
be accepted as an effective substitute for a proper science course. 


The observational work by which the study of science should begin 
opens the eyes of the pupils and may be used to train them in the correct 
expression of thought and of accurate description. The practical 
measurements in the class-room have for their object the fixing of ideas 
met with in the mathematical teaching. Every pupil should undergo a 
course of training in experimental scientific inquiry as a part of his 
general education up to a certain stage, after which the laboratory work 
may become specialised and be used to supply facts which may be a 
basis for more advanced work or to prepare pupils for scientific or 
industrial careers. 

At suitable stages, when pupils are capable of taking intelligent 
interest in the knowledge presented, there should be courses of descrip- 
tive lessons and reading broad enough to appeal to all minds and to 
give a general view of natural facts and principles not limited to the 


range of any laboratory course or detailed lecture instruction, and 
differing from them by being extensive instead of intensive. 

Finally, the aims of the teaching of science may be stated to be : 
(1) To train the powers of accurate observation of natural facts and 
phenomena and of clear description of what is observed ; (2) To impart 
a knowledge of the method of experimental inquiry which distinguishes 
modern science from the philosophy of earlier times, and by which 
advance is secured; (3) To provide a broad basis of fact as to man's 
environment and his relation to it; (4) To give an acquaintance with 
scientific words and ideas now common in progressive life and thought.. 

VI. Supply of Science Teachers in State-aided Schools. 

Salaries.- — It is upon the efforts of those actually engaged in the 
work of education that the degree of success of any scheme for educ? 
tional reform depends ; the standard of education rises or falls with the 
teachers, and is largely influenced by the conditions under which their 
services are rendered. A careful review of the present conditions of 
service compels the conclusion that nothing approacbing adequate com- 
pensation is afforded for the outlay of time, money, ability, and energy 
entailed on the properly equipped science master or mistress in a Stale- 
aided secondary school. The average salary paid to the assistant 
masters in these schools in England and Wales is only 175L 10s., 
and to mistresses 150L, after eleven or twelve years' service. If an 
adequate supply of properly qualified science teachers is to be secured 
the question of salaries should receive immediate attention; the best 
type of man will not be obtained unless the nation is prepared to pay 
more than SI. 7s. 6d. per week for his services after long experience. 

Many men accept posts as teachers in secondary schools when 
leaving the University because the teaching profession offers them an 
immediate means of maintenance. A man leaves the University at an 
average age of twenty-two years, or later if he ha3 thought it necessary 
to take a course at a Training College. He then can command a salary 
of from 1207. to 1501. per annum — rarely more — according to his quali- 
fications; and this compares favourably on the average with what can 
be offered him to begin with in other professional spheres. But he 
soon finds that tenure is insecure, that superannuation is still ' under 
consideration,' and that he may in the course of some twenty years 
secure on the average a competence of not more than 190Z. per annum. 
Under these conditions teaching cannot be a profession which will 
attract into it the best intellects from all classes and spheres of life, 
but will be regarded by many merely as a temporary occupation until 
the opportunity arises of entering a more remunerative and encouraging 

It is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the demand for efficient 
science teachers, and a considerable improvement in the salaries and 
conditions of service will be required before this problem can be settled 
satisfactorily. In secondary schools for boys teaching is not an attrac- 
tive profession ; parents have a poor opinion of it, schoolmasters rarely 
recommend it, and the best students in recent years have avoided it 


because its obvious disadvantages overshadow the few advantages it 

The supply of masters is being maintained at its present level only 
by the large influx of clever pupils who pass from the elementary 
schools to the secondary schools and are maintained out of public 
funds almost entirely throughout their scholastic career. The time 
seems fast approaching when the scholarship will be recognised as the 
normal means of entry into the profession. 

The scarcity of well-qualified science masters and mistresses will 
become accentuated in the near future by the fast-growing demand for 
scientific experts from the various branches of manufacture and 
industry, and by the attractions offered by medicine as a profession for 
women. Unless far better salaries and conditions of service are offered, 
it is hopeless to expect that sufficient numbers of well-trained scientific 
men and women will take up teaching in preference to much more 
remunerative and less exacting appointments in other spheres of life. 

Promotion. — Headmasterships and administrative posts connected 
with education should be filled from the ranks of the teaching profession. 

Classes. — The large size of classes is one of the greatest obstacles 
to successful science teaching. Modern methods demand classes not 
exceeding sixteen to eighteen if efficient supervision is to be given in 
the laboratory. 

Hours of Teaching.- — A science teacher should be afforded oppor- 
tunities for study and research in order that his instruction may repre- 
sent increasing scientific knowledge. On this account it may reasonably 
be urged that his teaching hours should be less than those of masters 
concerned with literary or mathematical subjects. In the case of the 
senior science master, who is responsible for the organisation of the 
science department as a whole, including the supervision and upkeep 
of the laboratories, much more non-teaching time is necessary. 

Tabulated statements on salaries and other details will be found 
in Appendix I. 

VII. Academic Qualifications of Headmasters. 

Closely related to the questions of the prospects of science teachers 
and the position of science teaching are the academic qualifications of 
headmasters. Inquiry has shown that schools of the Public School 
type are to a very large extent in the charge of classical specialists. 
Only a numerically insignificant minority have been recruited from 
the ranks of graduates in science, and not one of the largest or best- 
known Public Schools has a science graduate as headmaster. Without 
in any way wishing to maintain or imply that academic qualifications 
are, or should be, regarded as the sole, or even the chief, criterion of 
eligibility for such posts, it is difficult not to recognise that many of 
the defects and deficiencies in the organisation of the schools (from 
the science point of view) are related to the apathy or antipathy 
"of their headmasters towards science. Among such defects are : The 
bins given to classics and literary subjects in the Entrance Examina- 


tion to the Public Schools; the preponderance of scholarships, prizes, 
and other tokens of success given to boys who are specially proficient 
in classics ; the existence of an exclusively classical ' atmosphere ' ; 
the absence of efficient organisation to ensure the timely and regular 
promotion of boys who do well in science ; under-staffing of the science 
instruction and insufficient time-allowance for science subjects. 

The position in the State-aided schools is more satisfactory, but 
even here it may be reasonably contended that a more even distribution 
of headmasterships among teachers of different academic qualifications 
would not only help to improve the position and facilitate the progress 
of school science, but would also tend to remedy the ignorance and 
neglect of science which have prevailed so long in the nation at large. 

VIII. Inspection and Examination. 

Certain broad distinctions may be distinguished between the func- 
tions of inspection and examination. Inspection tests school and 
class. It should guarantee that the curricula and syllabuses are suitable 
and that the teaching is efficient. Examinations test individuals. 
Inspection does not aim at testing individual pupils. During a visit an 
inspector may question pupils, inspect note-books, essays, &c. So 
far as the information thus obtained is used for sampling the class, the 
process is part of inspection; when judging the individual pupil, the 
inspector acts as examiner. Conversely, the summarised results of 
examinations may be used to supplement inspection. Judgment of the 
teacher's efficiency solely — or even mainly — from the results of a central 
examination is to be deprecated, since the influence of parentage, 
environment, and the conditions of work in and out of school are 
necessarily ignored. (In this report a central examination means one 
in which the same questions are set to a group of schools without regard 
to the varying syllabuses of instruction.) 

We have to apply the above general principles to the consideration 
of science teaching as part of the education of non-specialists. Inspec- 
tion should guarantee that the school provides, and that every pupil 
at the appropriate age pursues, a suitable course of instruction in science. 
While the examiner's criticism should aim at improving the method 
and content of the teaching, the more personal aspects of efficiency are 
the concern of the headmaster and the inspector. It is obvious that 
genuine guarantees of efficiency can be given only by qualified inspectors 
and examiners, who should have had experience in teaching. 

With certain important exceptions, to which reference will be made 
later, the principal examining bodies have adopted in the past the 
method of central examinations. Whatever arguments may be urged 
in favour of this method for students aged eighteen or older who are 
entering upon a specialist training, the testimony as to its injurious 
influence on earlier teaching has been remarkable for a practical unani- 
mity sustained for several years. Evidence has been quoted to this 
effect in reports by investigating committees, notably by the Committee 
which reported at Dublin on the sequence of Science Studies in Secon- ' 


dary Schools. Accordingly the present Committee passed the following 
resolution and issued it for publication in November 1916 : 

' That in order to secure freedom of action for teachers of science 
in schools, and to prevent the instruction from becoming 
stereotyped, it is undesirable for any examining authority 
to prescribe a detailed syllabus in science for use in schools, 
whether intended as the basis of examinations or otherwise.' 
It is of special importance to general science teaching that schools 
examination by an external authority should be based upon the work of 
the individual school. We recommend also that all schools should be 
inspected, that examiners should consult teachers before setting 
question-papers, and that teachers should exercise great care in pre- 
paring syllabuses of instruction accompanied by illustrative detail suffi- 
cient to show clearly the aim, method, and limits of the courses. 
Co-operation between inspectors and examiners should be encouraged. 
Inspectors and examiners, as well as teachers, should be trained for 
their work, seeing that testing by the inexpert is an expensive farce. 

An effective science course being guaranteed for every inspected 
school, it will be natural and desirable that science should form an 
important subject in such school examinations as those proposed for 
the ' First Examination ' by the Board of Education in Circular 849. 
It should not be grouped with mathematics in the sense that a pass in 
science may excuse mathematics, or vice versa. In order to obtain a 
certificate a candidate should reach a satisfactory standard in a sub- 
stantial portion of the school curriculum, considerable option being 
allowed as to subjects in which the pass is demanded. The pupils 
should be required to pursue a wider curriculum than would suffice for 
the passing of the test, and the headmaster should guarantee this, and 
that the course has been followed for a sufficient period to ensure a 
training of real value. It would be unwise to make passing in science 
compulsory ; the aim should rather be to remove compulsion in other 
subjects. The teaching of science, as of other subjects, has suffered 
from academic tradition ; rigidity of examination requirements is adverse 
to progress by educational experiments. At the same time it is impor- 
tant that science should not be placed in a position inferior to classics, 
modern ' humanistic ' studies, or mathematics, in the examinations 
which form the gate to university or professional courses, to the Army, 
and to junior appointments of the Civil Service. 

The examinations for the 1st Division of the Civil Service do not 
directly come within the reference of this Committee ; but we have to 
report evidence that boys have been discouraged from the study of 
science in the great Public Schools through the mistaken view that 
scientific knowledge and training in experimental method were of little 
use to administrators, and that the allotment of marks in this and other 
competitions has tended to the neglect of science. The Consultative 
Committee, in its reports to the Board of Education on Scholarships 
for Higher Education, states : ' It is desirable in the national interest 
that after the war the Public Schools should devote more energy to 
sriV-nfifir and practical training. ' We endorse this statement and regret 

1917. l 


to observe that the recommendations which follow must inevitably, 
unless modified, tend in the opposite direction. By limiting the 
Government scholarships to pupils from grant-earning schools, the 
Consultative Committee's proposals would seriously reduce the field of 
competition, lower in quantity and quality the supply of well-trained 
students, and increase the difficulty of following a scientific career which 
now faces the sons and daughters of the poorer professional men. It 
would be wiser to leave these scholarships open to pupils from all 
inspected schools, and to utilise the Second School examination of 
Circular 849 as one avenue to a Government scholarship. The Board's 
proposals for the Second Examination accord well with the principle 
of giving considerable latitude to school and candidate ; if the school is 
inspected, there should be no hesitation on the part of Universities in 
approving the free play to the individuality of the teacher which is 

The Application of the Principle of Decentralisation to the First School 


Objections have been urged against the adoption of decentralisa- 
tion — i.e. of examining each school on its own curriculum and sylla- 
buses. The main are (1) inequality of syllabuses, (2) inequality of 
question-papers, (3) increased expense. 

With reference to (1) and (2), it should be observed that the certifi- 
cate will not be merely a record of a certain performance in the 
examination-room ; it will guarantee a course of training in an inspected 
school. Moreover, it should be possible to obtain standards which can 
be equated by utilising the judgment of experienced, trained examiners. 
If the ground covered according to the syllabus is restricted, the 
examiners should reduce or omit the opportunity of selecting questions. 
They should also be empowered to determine (within reasonable limits) 
the minima for a ' Pass ' and a ' Pass with Credit. ' 

As regards expense, it is to be observed that the University of 
London has successfully conducted school examinations on the decen- 
tralised plan for several years. Science has formed an important part 
of these examinations in all three grades, Higher, Senior, and Junior. 
Even when the policy has been pushed to the extreme limit of a separate 
question-paper for each school, the cost has not proved prohibitive. 
The present Committee is, however, of opinion that it will be found in 
practice that school syllabuses fall into certain groups, and that 
question-papers can be readily framed for all schools in a group. Thus 
a paper of twelve questions might ask for eight to be attempted, and 
include eisrht questions directly on the syllabus of each school in the 
group. While considering the difference in cost between such a plan 
and that of a central question-paper for all schools, it is necessary also 
to reflect upon the great influence which the questions have upon all 
the teaching in the schools, as well as upon the success of the candi- 
dates. Central examinations should not be adopted for administrative 
convenience, nor to coerce instruction into grooves favoured by members 
of examining bodies, 


Oral and Laboratory Tests. 

It will usually be desirable to associate oral with laboratory tests. 
Such oral tests might include (1) discussion arising from inspection 
of the note-books of the candidates ; (2) discussion of the effect of 
varying conditions of experiment or of the actual placing and dis- 
placing of apparatus, such as lamp, lenses and screen, prisms, &c. (in 
such cases the candidate may be asked to predict effects and to verify) ; 
(3) examination of electrical connections, of a lock, &c, affording useful 
supplementary exercises serving to initiate oral discussion of principles. 

Laboratory tests are unsatisfactory unless the examiner is present. 
Examiners should rehearse each exercise under examination conditions 
as to limits of time, method, and apparatus (including drying facilities). 
The available supplies of water, heat, electrical power need to be known. 
The best tests are, as a rule, those which require scientific examination 
of common things other than laboratory specimens. One of the tests 
(which we will call type A) may usefully involve the carrying out of 
printed instructions ; marks depending much on accuracy of result. 
The other (type B) may be a trial of resourcefulness in experiment; 
originality of idea and its general correctness being rewarded, while it is 
recognised that accuracy of result would be somewhat providential in 
the circumstances. 

The Committee is of opinion that teachers should take part in the 
setting of laboratory tests. It is not desirable to prescribe any plan 
for universal adoption, but the following is a possible method. Let four 
questions be set, numbers 1 (type A) and 3 (type B) by the external 
examiners, numbers 2 (A) and 4 (B) by the teacher, candidates being at 
liberty to select either 1 and 4 or 2 and 3. If time and laboratory 
arrangements permit, it will be useful to add a drawing test — e.g., of a 
biological specimen seen in the field of a microscope — or of apparatus 
arranged for a physical or chemical experiment. 

The use of squared paper should be restricted to purposes for which 
ordinary writing-paper is insufficient. The use of logarithms should be 
encouraged. In the more advanced examinations the use of books of 
reference (not notes) may be permitted; this is scarcely to be recom- 
mended for examinations below the level of the Second (Higher) School 
certificate. When the examination will determine the award of a 
scholarship, or of a certificate affecting the career of a candidate, the 
examiner should inspect the candidate's note-books and take into con- 
sideration the order of merit in which the teacher of the subject has 
placed the candidates. 

It is hoped that, with precautions such as are suggested above, 
laboratory tests may afford trustworthy evidence which may be used in 
conjunction with the written examination to determine the abilities and 
training of the candidates. At the same time such tests will afford 
valuable opportunities for associating examiner and teacher, and prevent 
neglect of laboratory work, or its relegation to an inferior position, as 
hfcs often occurred in the past in cases where written examinations only 
have been employed. 



IX. Typical Science Courses. 

Experience has shown that the most useful function a committee 
on science teaching can perform is to present schemes of work which 
can be earned out practically. Examples of the influence of such 
schemes are afforded by the Reports on Teaching Chemistry presented by 
Committees at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1889 and Leeds 1890, and the 
Report on the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics presented at the 
Belfast meeting in 1902. The effects of these Reports have been so 
beneficial and far-reaching that the present Committee is hopeful that 
the specimen courses here submitted will have a like influence upon 
science teaching. It is not suggested that the schemes should be 
prescribed for any particular schools, but rather that they should be 
considered as examples of courses which have been proved successful. 



By Archer Vassall, Harrow School. 

I. A scheme of work in science at a Public School must allow for the special 
features which obtain normally there as compared with the conditions at many 
other secondary schools. The peculiar features which affect the science scheme 
are that (1) practically all the boys come from a particular class of preparatory 
school; (2) their age at entrance is just under fourteen; (3) they may join the 
school over a wide range of Forms; (4) they may remain till they are eighteen 
and a-half years old. 

The terminology of Forms varies so much at different schools that it is 
convenient to regard the school as divided into four blocks, ABC D— A con- 
taining the Upper School, B and C the Middle School, and D the lowest Forms. 
The abler boys are expected to join the school in B and Upper C, the less able 
in Lower C, and the worst (intellectually) in D. 

Roughly, the majority of Block A corresponds to a post-matriculation stage 
and the rest to a pre-matriculation stage. The latter are entirely concerned 
with their general education, but the former in the lower Forms of Block A 
are beginning a semi-specialisation in groups of subjects which will culminate 
at the top in completely specialised or even vocationalised worK. 

' Science for All ' constitutes an essential part of general education ; therefore 
it must be compulsory where it will embrace the greatest number of boys for a 
sufficient portion of their general time-table. This is best achieved by making 
it compulsory in Block B and Upper C, equally for Classical and Modern sides 
if such exist in this part of the school. There is no difficulty about this or the 
other suggestions which are put forward when the ultimate school authority is 
sympathetic; they are possible at any Public School, but they may not be 
desired by those in power. 

Compulsory science in B and Upper C, however, may not secure the ablest 
boys for a sufficient length of time, as they may pass into A very quickly. This 
can be corrected by making science compulsory for a minimum number of terms— 
i.e., a boy passing quickly into A must continue science in A until he has com- 
pleted the science comprised in the general education. 

A. Science should be alternative with other subjects in A for such boys as 
have completed the compulsory 'Science for All.' The boys taking science 
then will have completed the general courses and will begin the systematic 
study of science -with a view to their after-life profession, reading further 
science on leaving school, &c. They should give not less than eight iiours per 
week to the subject. Classical and Modern side boys should come together and 
be re-graded in divisions according to their progress and ability in the subject. 
The alternative subjects for those boys in A who do not take science must 
be decided by each school for itself. There is obviously one main consideration 
for a boy of scientific aptitude in deciding whether he will take science or the 
alternative subjects in A. The other subjects can be studied by securing a 
competent teacher, whether in the holidays or in ' out-of -school ' hours in term 
time. But for science a laboratory is essential, and term time at school will be 
for many boys their one and only opportunity of doing experimental work in a 
laboratory. At one school where this scheme is in force the alternative subjects 
for the Classical side in A are French and Classical Verse Composition, whilst 
for the Modern side they are Latin and Extra History. 

The boys in A who do not join the science divisions proper can profitably 
devote some two hours per week to certain scientific principles as an extension of 
the ' Science for All ' which they have done — e.g., history of science progress, 
agriculture, geology, &c. 

Thus the science in A comprises four sets of boys : (1) Science specialists, 
(2) those giving eight hours per week to science, (3) those giving two hours per 
week, (4) those completing ' Science for All." 

B and Upper C. — Science is compulsory for a minimum of five hours in 
school and one hour's preparation per week for six terms — or its equivalent. 
The boys should be re-graded for science as in A. 


Lower C. — The work consists of object courses of a heuristic nature. These 
boys need not be re-graded. 

D. Natural knowledge and practical work in connexion with mathematics 
co-ordinated with similar work begun at the preparatory school. 

II. Aims of the Compulsory Science. 

1. Training in scientific method by experimental investigation. 

2. Conveying useful information and fixing it by practical exercises 

3. Arousing interest and discovering special aptitude for science. 

4. Emphasising the human aspect of the work as much as possible by using 
daily-life phenomena, practical applications, machines, agricultural processes, 
&c, as the material wherever possible. 

III. Freedom of the Teacher. 

Within the above principles complete freedom should be left to the teacher 
in accordance with his interests and opportunities. He should arrange his own 
courses, syllabuses, &c, decide what material he employs for any of the above 
objects, and whether he achieves them by 'object,' ' subject,' 'problem,' or any 
other method. 

IV. The ' Science for All ' should be carefully co-ordinated with the other 
work of the school — more especially the mathematics and geography. Where 
essential work is not adequately dealt with under these subjects, it must be 
included in the science course — e.g., elementary mechanics with sufficient prac- 
tical work, and elementary physiography. 

V. Every school should be free to create its own syllabuses and treatment 
of them, provided the two vital essentials of conducting experimental investiga- 
tions and emphasising the human aspects of the subject are attained. 

Some examples are here given — they are not prescribed or even recom- 
mended but simply selected as illustrating the above points. 

A. A course taken by boys in Lower C as an introduction to the experimental 

Experimental Investigation of Chalk. 

Experiments to be done by the boys themselves in the laboratory, with 
occasional lecture demonstrations and discussions to connect up the resxdts 
arrived at and for those experiments which are unsuitable for the boys to 
perform at this stage, such as the electrolysis of fused calcium chloride. 

Examine chalk, notice its physical properties, and find out if it is soluble 
in water. Is it an element or a compound ? Effect of heat on it. Does it 
change in weight when heated ? 

Collect the gas given off on heating chalk in a silica tube. Study the pro- 
perties of this gas. The same gas is given off when chalk is treated with acids, 
and this is a more convenient way of making it. 

The gas will not support the combustion of most substances. Try if burning 
phosphorus and magnesium will continue to burn the gas. The latter con- 
tinues to burn with a spluttering noise. The residue left is composed of a 
white substance, similar to the ash left when magnesium bums in air or oxygen 
and black specks. 

This white ash is a compound of magnesium and oxygen, therefore the gas 
contains oxygen. Separate the black specks from the white ash by treating the 
whole ash with hydrochloric acid ; wash with water — collect and dry. The 
black stuff looks like charcoal. It burns in air or oxygen and forms a gas 
which turns lime-water milky. But carbon burns in air and forms the same gas. 
Therefore the black specks are carbon, and the gas from the chalk is composed 
of carbon and oxygen. We call it carbon dioxide or carbonic acid gas. 

Return to the residue left when all the gas has been driven off by heating 
chalk. It is a white substance. Try the action of water on it. Is it soluble in 
water? Shake it up with water filter, and blow air from the lungs into the 
clear filtrate. It turns milky. It is lime-water. Excursions here into the 
slaking of quicklime, and the uses of slaked lime. Demonstration of the pre- 
paration of calcium by the electrolysis of fused calcium chloride. 


Burn some of the calcium obtained in oxygen and prove that the white 

substance obtained is identical with quicklime. Therefore quicklime is a 
compound of calcium and oxygen. 



! Carbon 
1 Oxygen 

Quicklime . . . /Calcium 

1 Oxygen 

Many objects are suitable for such courses— e.g., the candle, commo". salt^ 
hmmatite, Jkc. 

B. Some teachers prefer to take the work as a problem rather than as 
subjects. Much of the conventional ' subject ' matter naturally arises when this 
treatment is adopted, and each suitable occasion for experimental inquiries 
germane to the general inquiry is taken. Moreover, the manipulation and 
laboratory practice arise as a necessity in the course of the investigation and 
the various subjects are correlated. Of course, both these ends should be 
attained whatever the method employed. But in ' subjects ' there is a strong 
temptation to take elementary practice as an end in itself ; something to be ' got 
through.' There are few things more unattractive and dehumanised than such 
courses, which seem absolutely pointless to the boy. For example, he does not 
feel the need of accurate weighing, determination of density, specific gravity, 
&c, and he has no mental picture of any problem on which such matters bear. 
When they are not done as 'ends in themselves,' but taken as they occur as 
necessary machinery in the course of an investigation, their apparent pointlessness 
disappears, and the boy is at least reconciled to them as necessary evils. 

In ' subject ' courses also so much time is often taken over the laws and 
their establishment that the applications and machines are never reached ; of 
twelve elementary text-books on ' Heat ' taken at random from a shelf, not one 
mentions the existence of such a machine as the steam-engine. 

This result is avoided if the course starts from a machine and is then left to 
create itself under the direction of the teacher. Suggestion and discussion at 
the end of a period as to the next thing to ' go for ' result in some questions 
being simply answered, some discarded by consent for various reasons, whilst 
others are dealt with experimentally by the boys themselves or by demonstration 

Thus the properties of water can be investigated as so many geological, 
biological, chemical, and physical ' subjects.' Or they can be correlated into 
one problem course beginning, for instance, with the hydraulic press and then 
developed as above. Starting from the press, there immediately arise trans- 
mission of pressure, fluids and solids, principles of machines, work and force. 
Various pumps follow, leading directly to air pressure and experimental 
investigation into it by the boys themselves. Barometers, pressure on divers. 
dams, lock-gates, together with deep-sea sounding, chalk, sand, clay, and 
Artesian wells provide the humanising element. Flotation follows with Archi- 
medes' Principle, buoyancy, &c. ; where there is a school bathing-place it is 
best worked out there practically with a raft, a Taft of casks, and a weighing 

Sea-water's buoyancy leads on to its properties, solution of solids, crystallisa- 
tion and solution — all arising out of the problem, instead of as pointless and 
seemingly useless preliminaries necessary for some future unknown work of 
which the boy is ignorant. Solution of air and its influence on fish, &c, lead to 
Harrogate water, soda-water, sparkling wines, bread or sugar in a lemon squash. 

Carbon dioxide suggests its preparation and properties, respiration, breath- 
ing, burning, and decay, and so nitrates and manures on the one hand, and 
limestone, with limestone caverns, stalactites, hard and soft water, water supply, 
good and bad water on the other. Organic matter in water and its purification 
can extend as far into typhoid, diphtheria, bacteria, infection, inoculation, 
vaccination, milk, &c, as the teacher desires. 

The compounds and mixtures reached as above lead to inquiries as to the 
nature of water and suitable chemical investigations, which are followed 
naturally by more physical considerations — its change of volume on becoming 


steam, pressure in boilers, and the steam-engine with B.H.P., ending in the 
boys determining their own B.H.P. The source of the energy being heat, the 
rate at which the gas-burners supply heat can be determined, and so the 
unit of heat is reached, together with the mechanical equivalent (Callender's 
Apparatus) and the thermal efficiency of the engine. The effect of pressure 
on the boiling-point introduces evaporation and boiling, together with rain, 
dew, and hydrometers. 

They are now ready for another change of state, so formation of ice, bursting 
water-pipes, disintegration of soil, icebergs, deep sea and life in the abyss, 
provide one line, whilst latent-heat cooling by evaporation, freezing machines, 
and liquefaction of gases afford another. 

C. The majority of echools, however, find the ' subject ' method more 
convenient. Except perhaps in the matter of correlation, the disadvantages 
mentioned above can be avoided if it is realised that the introduction of the 
human element and experimental investigations should be the main features. 
Since this is the only science work many of these boys will get, the object is 
not to clear the way for a future study of science, but to provide self- 
contained work complete in itself. This means a broad landscape as the general 
picture, with detailed work in particular fields to provide the experimental 
inquiries. The geographical work of the school may provide it; but, if not, 
an introductory course should present a broad view of the Universe, the position 
of the earth in it, the changes which the earth undergoes by volcanic and other 
action, as well as some of the usual physical and chemical properties of the 

Forms of life on the earth can be begun here, but not taken very far, as 
much of this biological work is helped by some physical and chemical under- 
standing. It is a disadvantage where the ' subject ' method is employed to 
get the biological work ahead of this ancillary knowledge. The most satis- 
factory results are attained by retaining a portion of the time each week for 
biological work throughout the six terms. Different stages in it are then 
reached pari passu with the progress in physics and chemistry. The final 
stages are attacked with the more adult and trained grip, following four or 
five terms' work at science. At the least the biological work should comprise 
the life of a plant, simple agriculture, crop6, fixation of nitrogen, manures ; 
an excellent experimental investigation into the overthrow of the humus theory 
by Ingenhauss can be carried out; together with other practical work. In the 
botanical section there should come an introduction to the work of Darwin, 
Mendel, Pasteur, and others. In fact, this acquaintance with the foremost 
men in the history of scientific knowledge should be included in each subject. 
Material full of human interest is provided by coal, fungi, yeast and its uses, 
bacteria, ferments and fermentation, with many examples, pasteurisation, tinned 
and bottled goods, ptomaines, infection, refrigeration, and so on. University 
framers of a syllabus for the average boy and external examiners revel in the 
action of sulphuric acid on copper and similar phenomena as an educational 
medium ; the vast majority of candidates pass through life without ever meeting 
such an action outside the academic atmosphere of the class-room, any more 
than they meet the Greek particles. Bread, cheese, and beer are apparently 
beneath the consideration of academic science specialists. None the less, 
fermentation, moulds, bacteria in hay infusions, &c, are unequalled as a material 
for experimental investigation and instilling a true scientific habit. 

In the same way in zoology, the work of Jenner, Lister, Metchnikoff, and 
other great discoverers should be brought out in connexion with simple hygiene. 
This course should also include reference to microscopic animal life and its 
effect on the earth's surface {e.g., chalk and flint), respiration, blood circulation, 
malaria, sleeping sickness, or to useful natural products within the Empire, and 
some simple agriculture. 

The other subject courses are more familiar. It is only necessary to direct 
attention to the special human features of the work and to give one or two 
examples of experimental investigations. Thus, the hydrostatics can be based 
on a machine and involve consideration of other familiar applications in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned in A, such as pulleys, jacks, balloons, siphons, 
and turbines. If the mathematical work of the school does not comprise them, 
then falling bodies, Newton, &c. , Galileo's disproof of Aristotle should be 


taken here. It is important that typical instances of the overthrow of a 
generally accepted theory, as well as the work of some of the great pioneers, 
should be familiar. The elementary chemistry affords excellent material for 
this, as well as for experimental investigation. For example, in the considera- 
tion of combustion and the phlogistic theory, let the boys perform the six 
following experiments : 

1. Does magnesium really lose weight when burnt? Gain in weight may 
bo due to crucible, therefore 

2. Does crucible gain in weight ? Perhaps the air is concerned in the 
increase, therefore 

3. Burn phosphorus in bell-jar over water. One-fifth of air active ; rest, 
inactive. What has become of the phosphorus and the active constituent ? 

4. Test water with litmus. Dissolve some phosphorus pentoxide in water 
and add litmus. 

5. Burn phosphorus in a weighed round-bottomed flask with stopper and 
valve, (a) Heat has no weight, (b) conservation of mass, (c) gain in weight 
on opening valve shows that air has been used. 

6. Burn candle and catch products ; determine gain in weight. 

7. Demonstration with oxygen and nitrogen to show properties of active and 
inactive constituents. 

8. Lecture on history and overthrow of phlogistic theory. 

The study of the atmosphere and the chemistry of daily life should form 
the basis of the whole chemical course in this general science. In connexion 
with flame, the simpler hydrocarbons and their combustion should be dealt 
with, and the artificial distinction of ' organic ' chemistry should not preclude 
the average boy from dealing with the petroleum industry, coal-tar products, 
benzene, phenol, toluene, aniline dyes and mordants, sugar, alcohol and its 
uses, oils, fats, soaps and glycerine, nitroglycerine, and other explosives. 

The subject of heat probably provides the ideal experimental investigation 
in heat quantity — e.g. : 

1. Heat 500 grammes and 1,000 grammes of water over a steady flame ; plot 
graph of time and temperature for each. 

2. Mix 500 grammes of hot water with 500 grammes of cold water. 

3. Mix 500 grammes of hot water with 1,000 grammes of cold water. 

4. Mix 1,000 grammes of various cold metals with 500 grammes of hot water. 

5. Mix 100 grammes of hot water with 200 grammes of cold mercury. 

6. Make a cooling curve for, say, phenol. 

7. Heat ice steadily until the water formed boils — make a temperature- 
time curve. 

8. More accurate determination of specific heat and latent heat. 

The rest of the work should be associated with practical applications as much 
as possible. Out of the 6mall total time available for science, it is an unjustifi- 
able waste to devote part to filling and sealing thermometers, coefficients of 
expansion, &c, beloved of the text-book and the examiner. All of this type 
of work is very necessary for those who are going to continue the study of 
science, but perfectly useless for that majority which will not do so. Men of 
science' are prepared to use a watch without having made one. Why should 
not the ' general science ' pupil use a thermometer without first making' it ? 
With the saving of time thus effected, there is plenty available for work which 
really interests them, such as heat values of fuels, heat and work, work and 
power, horse-power, B.H.P. of an engine, steam-engine, energy losses, I.H.P. 
efficiency, and so on. 

In the Light course the simplest treatment of rectilinear propagations, candle- 
power, intensity, photometers, plane mirrors, laws of reflection and refraction, 
images, internal reflection, and dispersions will allow the pupil to deal with 
what he ' wants to know about '—viz., searchlights, prisms, lenses, the eye, 
spectacle's, magnifying glasses, telescopes, microscopes, rainbows, the spectrum, 
and fluorescence. 

In the subject of sound, waves and frequency are practically all the average 
boy requires in addition to the ear, Doppler effect, siren, gramophones, and 
Claxon horn. In all these he is interested. 


After magnetism, electro-magnets, and telegraphs, the boy reaches his 
electrical paradise. The effects of a current and its measurements by any of 
these effects, B.O.T. unit of current, ammeters, voltmeters, microphone tele- 
phone, dynamo, magnets, motor, X-rays, wireless telegraphy, electrical energy 
and power Watt lamps, wiring of houses — these abolish all need of punishment 
for lack 01 industry in trying to understand physical laws ; indeed, they help 
that understanding. 

In this scheme emphasis has been laid especially on those aspects of the 
work which make the subject alive and personal ; this treatment does not 
exclude a grasp of those elementary laws with which an educated man should 
be familiar. It only insists on associating such laws with their practical 
applications. This generalised science scheme for those boys who are not 
pursuing the subject any further has been evolved during ten years at a school. 
In arriving at its present stage, which is far from perfect, some golden rules 
have been applied : 

1. Make sure of the landscape ; do not start the boy on a niggling bit of 
formal science. 

2. Exclude rigorously any work, practical or otherwise, which is not worth 
doing for itself. 

3. Some work is worth doing because it is valuable educationally — e.g., 
experimental investigations. Other work is worth doing not only because it 
has educational value ; it also concerns itself with matters which occur in the 
average life of an educated citizen who is not actively concerned with a 
scientific career. 

4. Some work is only contributory to the further study of science beyond 
what is necessary for a general education. This work is an unjustifiable waste 
of time for those boys who will never study science further. 

5. Be suspicious of anything which occurs in any existing examination 
syllabus. It is usually there for the convenience of the examiner, or because 
it is contributory to the formal study of science. 

6. Consider the conditions of the school and the personal equation of the 
teachers rather than examinations in drawing up a syllabus for the average boy. 

His need is to understand (1) the multifarious ways in which the results 
of scientific investigation affect his daily life, (2) the experimental methods 
by which the natural phenomena of daily life are being investigated, (3) whilst 
knowing the value of an expert, none the less to be confident and resourceful 
within his own limitations. 



By F. W. Sanderson, Headmaster, Oundle School. 

The course here outlined indicates the kind of work which may be done in 
schools by boys below the age at which specialising begins. This age depends 
upon the type of school and the leaving age, and varies with the tastes and 
capacities of individual boys. In a Public School where the leaving age is 
nineteen the specialising age is about seventeen years. The course presented 
applies to boys below the age of seventeen — i.e., to boys of the Preparatory 
School age, and to the lower and middle forms of the Public School. The 
methods proposed are based on the belief that the early stages of science 
teaching may be taken through applied science. Science, like history, may 
with advantage be read backwards. Pure science and pure mathematics may 
be taught in parallel with applied science, as the grammar of the science, 
but it will be found for the most part that the amount of pure science 
that the average boy can understand will be included in the applied work. 

A claim is therefore made for the inclusion of applied science within the 
general science curriculum of a school. There is some reason for this now, 
when so many of the applications of science come within the daily life of 
the people. It is a well-known saying that a motor-bicycle has taught a 
boy more of true dynamics than he has ever learnt from the Laws of Motion. 
However this may be, it is obviously a wise educational principle to base 
teaching on all that is now common knowledge. 

It must be confessed that much of the pure science which comes within 
an elementary course is better left to a later age. Experiments on Boyle's 
law, and the other law of gases; the discussion of the laws of motion; complex 
questions on specific heats, should be reserved for the specialising age. This 
is following in the wake of the reforms in the teaching of geometry. Applied 
science actually simplifies the problems. The steam-engine is a good example, 
as is shown in many parts of Perry's ' Steam Engine.' Here is material for 
an elementary course on heat, and a source for easy direct calculations of 
practical importance. Moreover, the method is informative, and gives a 
working knowledge of the engine which will stand in good stead. 

A further claim is made. This form of science teaching is stimulating and 
arresting, and gives the boy plenty to do and much to think about. It arouses 
interest, develops intelligence, and promotes catholicity of taste. Teachers will 
find that the application of science, and all that may be called the romance 
of science, are alive with possibilities for the education of the young in every- 
thing connoted under the words Culture, the Humanities, and Art. Much 
depends upon the faith of the teacher, but no one can study the life and 
works of a great discoverer without finding himself within a realm of art. 
There is abundance of evidence for this in the works of those masters of science 
who to their creative faculties have added the literary art. But the science 
art remains even without its literary expression, and men and women may 
learn to appreciate the art as they appreciate music and painting, though they 
have no skill as musicians or painters. 

Science in a General School Course. 

There are many considerations why the science in a general course, 
especially for those boys who will not specialise in science, should not be 
restricted to the elementary syllabuses. Many of the syllabuses and elementary 
text-books dwell upon principles which now form the grammar of science, 
whilst the larger developments of modern days are not touched iipon. ' Science 
for all ' does not mean this kind of science — grammar without the books. 
Except in the hands of a good teacher such work may have little of inspira- 
tion, and in a general course inspiration is everything. A claim is therefore 
made for a kind of science teaching which at first sight may be thought 
specialising and technical. In sympathetic hands specialising need not be 


The branches of science which may be included in a general course for 
schools are indicated below. These can be organised according to the ages 
of the boys. The methods of teaching which they imply will be especially 
valuable for young boys of the Preparatory School age. In his early years 
the small boy can wander through these fields of knowledge. He can learn 
to handle tools in an engineering shop ; he can work with motors and other 
machines; he can open his eyes in the romance of physics, chemistry, and 
biology; and he can practise weighing and measuring in his class-room. The 
older boys, from fourteen to seventeen, will go over the same ground, but 
on a higher plane, and will in the later stages acquire a working knowledge 
of applied science. 

The following are the subjects : — (1) Workshops ; (2) ' Eomance of Science,' 
including Astronomy ; (3) Experiments on the Use of Machines ; (4) Biology ; 
(5) Chemistry ; (6) Physical Measurements, and, at a later stage, (7) Applied 
and Pure Science. 

1. Workshop Practice. — Belief in the value of a continuous workshop train- 
ing must be the excuse for the space here given to the organisation of shops. 
In the first place, the shops must be on a scale which will employ a class of 
twenty-five boys effectively. They must form a small manufactory, and have 
an engineering machine shop, a carpenter's or patternmaker's shop, a smithy 
and foundry of some size. These conditions are essential for true work. 
Smaller shops tend to be of an amateur character, and only a few boys can 
get the best out of them. Workshops to be effective must be on a large scale. 
It is seriously necessary that such shops should be established, not for Public 
Schools only, but for Secondary and Elementary Schools, nor should expense 
stand in the way. Such shops could be made self-supporting. Schools should 
be able to turn out good craftsmen as leaders or workers in the industrial 
life of the country, and the training can be given in schools better than in 
works. In works, unfortunately, much of what is good is spoilt by the spirit 
which competition and the conflict of capital and labour engender. Boys 
sent out from the schools can not only be made good craftsmen, but they can 
also be inspired with ambition to rise to high standards of skill, and to have 
a deep insight into the significance of their work- Enthusiasts believe that 
vocational teaching is capable of giving the highest training for life. 

There are two methods of working shops. Under one system boys make 
things for themselves, and may follow some hobby. This is the individualistic 
principle, and is the only one possible in small shops. The other system 
is to organise the shops on manufacturing or co-operative lines. The war 
has given the opportunity of doing this more effectively than before, and the 
possibility for true education of this kind of working has been discovered. 
Co-operative work involves repetition work, and there are many excellences 
in this repetition. In shops of fair size a variety of work can be contracted 
for, and this work will fill several types of machines, such as the lathe, 
drilling, planing, milling, slotting, grinding machines. A contract of the 
kind now being given for munition work provides work both rough and fine, 
so that all boys can be occupied ; and no boy need be kept too long at the 
same class of work. This work gives opportunities for boys who do not dis- 
tinguish themselves in other parts of the school ; and they can therefore take a 
higher place among their fellows, as well as gain self-respect and reliance. 

The following are some influences of workshop training : — 

(a) One chief characteristic is the attitude of mind which is fostered 
by the shops. This is all towards attention and creativeness. Workshops 
are places where things are made, and the objective is to make something. 
A boy goes there to do, and not to learn. His attention is fixed on his work. 
Determination to do the work in front of him and to acquire skill and 
practice is the chief aim. This spirit towards work is transferred to the 
class-room and changes the boy's view-point there. The influence is infectious, 
and keeps alive the spirit of creativeness. 

(b) Another effect of the workshops is to develop craftsmanship. A boy 
acquires the virtues of a first-class workman. He becomes deft with his tools, 


learns to be patient, careful, accurate, inventive. He acquires the power of 
construction and of initiative. 

(c) In a workshop a boy lives in the atmosphere of mechanics and physics, 
and is continually either making or reading engineering drawings. He has 
the chance to acquire a mechanical sense, and to learn by intuition the signifi- 
cance of force, speed, acceleration, rotation. He has many opportunities of 
using measuring instruments, and of making physical measurements. He 
learns machine drawing, and mechanical drawing is becoming daily of more 
interest and importance — even to the non-specialist. A drawing-office can be 
made the very heart of mathematical teaching, as it is the centre of engineering 
works. Very young boys can be effectively employed in a drawing-office, and 
they learn in a practical way many of the principles of geometry. 

(d) Incidentally, boys are given a vocational teaching. There are many 
professions where a knowledge of technical work is essential. A craftsman's 
knowledge is of value to barristers, solicitors, clergymen, social workers, land- 
owners, and all whose aim in life is ' to do. v 

2. Bomance. of Science. — It is about fifty years ago since science was intro- 
duced into the Public Schools. This was done largely by the influence of 
Huxley and Tyndall, and the form it first took was that of demonstration 
lectures. The object in view was to interest the sons of the governing classes 
in the astonishing discoveries that were being made, and to inspire them with 
the love of science. Many a boy must have found inspiration in these lectures, 
but for the great mass of boys the results on the whole were not successful, 
and the chief reason for this is that boys like to do things for themselves 
rather than watch other people doing them. They want a share in the doing, 
and to investigate for themselves. Some years later a change came, and the 
lecture theatre gave place to the laboratory. Boys were set to work for them- 
selves. The heuristic method was emphasised, and courses were arranged in 
physical measurements, chemical experiments, and nature study. This method 
is now well established in schools, and forms the basis of most schemes of 
study and syllabuses for examinations. It would seem, however, that this 
necessary laboratory work has driven the more inspiring experiments into the 
background. At the moment it is important to return to the lecture theatre, 
to come into contact again with striking experiments, the history and develop- 
ment of discoveries, the lives of the great; in fact, to the romance of science. 
It is the romance of science which contains within itself the great inspiration, 
and the first duty of the teacher is to inspire boys with an awakening love of the 
natural world and bring them to the verge of knowledge where lies the mystery. 

There are difficulties in the way of holding the balance between the two 
methods. Romance of science opens out ideals, whilst physical measurement 
trains for exact work in investigation. Both aims are necessary. The regular 
laboratory work should therefore go on pari passu with any system of demonstra- 
tion experiments. 

A suggestion may be made for the ' Romance of Science ' experiments. 
Groups of Forms, Senior, Junior, or Preparatory, may be organised to prepare 
an exhibition of experiments and demonstrations. The masters apportion the 
work to groups of boys, and these groups prepare the exhibits and experiments. 
They make the diagrams and sketches required, write up expiratory and 
historical matter, work the experiments, and explain the exhibits. Such 
exhibitions can be left in working order for the instruction of the science 
classes. Mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology, provide a host of such exhibits. 
Junior Forms may set up a series of well-known historical experiments ; Senior 
boys may be encouraged to illustrate modern advances. There are many books 
amongst the classics in science which will form the basis of such an exhibition. 
The '"Heat and Sound ' of Tyndall : Ball's ' Experimental Mechanics,' or Perry's 
' Steam Engine ' ; Thompson's ' Light : Visible and Invisible ' : Wright on 
'Projection,' Boys's ' Soap Bubbles ' or Perry's 'Tops'; Wort hi niton's 
'Splash of a Drop'; Lodge's 'Pioneers of Science.' There are fascinating 
experiments on the discharge through rarefied gases, with radium and X-rays, 
vibrating, liquid air, rotatiner bodies; many chemical experiments and 
biological exhibits. Lectures or exhibits can be prepared to illustrate the life 
and works of a great investigator — men like Faraday, Dalton, Darwin, Pasteur. 


Original papers can in this way be brought before the school. If the school 
possesses plenty of space, many exhibits can be on view permanently. 

A valuable addition to a school, or combination of schools, is a museum of 
history, where developments in art and science may be illustrated. In the 
museum there should be a gallery of the world's workers and pioneers, that 
something may be learnt of their lives and what they looked like. Here may be 
shown such things as the genealogical tree of the aeroplane, the uprising of 
biology, the influence of science in the social life, and so on. 

3. Experiments Rased on the Use of Machinery. — The teacher of science has 
now at his command a large number of machines, tools, and measuring instru- 
ments. The use of these for their normal purpose, or the testing of them, 
affords a striking method of introducing young boys to the principles of 
science, and gives good exercise in mathematics. Experiments can be arranged 
for young boys of the Preparatory or Elementary School age with engines, 
dynamos, measuring instruments, testing machines, &c.,_ to infuse the spirit of 
science and lay a foundation of information upon which to build at a later 
stage. A few of the experiments can be given as examples : (1) To find the 
horse-power and efficiency of a motor; (2) to run a test of a gas-engine — B.H.P., 
consumption of gas, I.H.P., working out of cards, efficiency; (3) steam-engine 
with varying loads and cut-offs ; (4) experiments with voltmeters and ammeters ; 
(5) testing strength of material. Very young boys can with advantage be 
brought to this kind of work, but the teacher must be content to sow in 
faith. He must sow the seed and wait for the fruit. 

The calculations required in experiments of this kind will suggest their 
extension into the mathematical class-room. The mathematical class-room may 
be used as an office, for it is a useful thing in all parts of the school, especially 
the lower half, to give practice in working out a series of continuous calcula- 
tions. Data may be given drawn from an engine test, from the working of a 
crank shaft, from agricultural operations, trench fire, artillery maps, food 
rations, measuring velocity of wind ; and the class may be 6et to work out the 
calculations required. It is useful for the master to talk round the problem 
for a few minutes before starting work. If many calculations are required, 
the work can be divided up amongst the boys. The results can be stated not 
as an answer, but in the form of a written report. This form of teaching 
considerably extends the range of mathematics which may be covered in the 
early years, and boys of fourteen or fifteen may be introduced through it to the 
study of the calculus and co-ordinate geometry. 

4. Biology. — The importance of biology in a scheme of general education 
cannot be overstated. It is the science which very closely touches the life of 
the nation, and its economic value is found in all directions. Every branch of 
knowledge in the years to come will be influenced by the study of biology, and 
the humane studies in history, economics, sociology will be re-written under 
the same. 

Biology should be an integral part of school studies, and take its place by 
the side of languages and mathematics. In the early years it should be taught 
to all, and later to a group of specialists. 

The following brief notes on equipment may be useful : — 

The neighbourhood can provide material for observation and study, but in 
addition to this there are needed for experiment and observation some or all of 
the following : (a) Biological or botanical .garden ; if possible, a small experi- 
mental farm. The gardens may contain natural-order beds, herbaceous border, 
Alpine garden, pond, marsh, seashore, climbing plants, &c. (b) Experimental 
plots, (c) Laboratory and museum; in these, aquaria, breeding cages for life- 
history of insects, terraria, vivaria, insect incubators, &c. ; microscopes and 
lenses, &c. 

5. Chemistry. — Here again the work should be almost entirely experimental, 
enlarged by demonstration. Much help can be given by the boys who are 
specialising in chemistry. Much of the work should be of a quantitative 
character, and this aspect should develop side by 6ide with the qualitative 
nature of the same. Many points of contact with the order of Nature in 
everyday life will occur, and the utmost should be made of these in correlation 
with biology and physics. None but exact scientific types of apparatus should 


be ueed where there exists no valid reason to the contrary. As an example, a 
boy should, after his discovery, of the composition of the atmosphere, make an 
exact determination of the properties of oxygen by Hempel's or some similar 
apparatus. A muffle furnace should be in the laboratory for use in metallurgical 

6. Applied Science. — It is strongly recommended as an alternative course in 
the later years of the general school teaching — i.e., from the ages of 15£ to 
17 years — that the ordinary mechanics and physics should be replaced by a 
careful experimental study of applied mechanics, heat, and electricity. In 
the reorgauisation of examinations it i6 to be hoped that an examination on 
these subjects will be included in the leaving certificate, and wherever possible 
a practical examination be held on the experiments which belong to a well- 
equipped engineering laboratory. A syllabus based on these lines is now adopted 
by the Admiralty for two of the papers of the Direct Entry examination. 



By T. Percy Nunn. 1 

[Professor of Education in the University of London; formerly Chief Science 

and Mathematics Master in the William Ellis School.] 

The following scheme is drawn up for a four years' course (ages twelve to 
sixteen) in an urban Secondary School for boys. The work of each year is 
divided into two sections — 'biological ' and ' physical.' The proportion of time 
assigned to biology decreases from more than a half in the first year to a 
fifth or less in the last year, with a corresponding increase in the relative 
importance of the physical section. It is assumed that about five hours a week 
are assigned to science teaching in each year, and the great bulk of the matter 
here set down is to be dealt with in this time. It may, however, be taken for 
granted that in a well-organised school there will be close co-ordination between 
the teaching of science and the teaching of mathematics and geography. It 
has seemed advisable, therefore, to include in the science syllabus the cor- 
responding programme of work in mechanics and geology, though much of the 
former, and possibly the whole of the latter, may and should be taught in 
lessons assigned to the teachers of mathematics and geography as integral parts 
of their work. 

In a condensed outline it is not possible to give a full programme of the 
practical work to be done by the boys, or to distinguish those topics that are 
more suitable for demonstration. It is to be understood that the course is 
intended to throw into clear relief the fundamental ideas and results of science, 
and to give the pupil a real, if rudimentary, acquaintance with the true 
character of scientific inquiry. To attain these ends the work will often be 
' heuristic ' in character and as often take the form of lecture-discussions 
between teacher and class, preceded, accompanied, and followed by experimental 
work. Occasional practical exercises of the ' drill ' type will be necessary to 
give the pupil a sound grasp of a principle or a method, but one of the pre- 
suppositions underlying the scheme is that technical exercises of this kind 
divorced from the development of a definite scientific argument have compara- 
tively little value and have received too much emphasis in the past. 

First Year. 

[In Section I. the work is arranged in accordance with the seasonal sequence. 
In Section II. the work in astronomy should also run throughout the year side 
by side with the other subjects] 

I. Biological Section. 
A. Autumn Term. 

1. Life-history and habits of wasp and humble-bee. 

2. Study of a few typical flowers ; plan of a flower. 

3. Change of flower to fruit. Collection and examination of fruits ; classi- 
fication ; methods of seed dispersal. 

4. Winter sleep of seeds and other plant forms. The planting of sleeping 
bulbs. Winter sleep of animals. 

B. Spring Term. 

1. Trees in winter: recognition by (i) branching; (ii) bark, (iii) buds. 
Examination of buds. 

2. Seed-sowing. The forms of familiar seeds. How the farmer and the 
gardener sow. 

3. Seeds grown for study in lamp chimneys, gas jars or test tubes ; 
diagrams of growth. Discovery (i) that water is needed for germination, 
(ii) that light is needed for healthy growth, and (iii) that seedlings grown 
apart from soil die when the cotyledons are exhausted. 

1 With the assistance (for the Biological Sections) of Miss C, von Wyss, 


4. Subjects to be taken while seed-growing is in progress : — 

(a) Study of structure of seed and bulb. Were the shoots originally packed 
within ? 

(b) Comparison of seed with egg; study of hen's egg. Parental care of 

(c) Frog's eggs ; weekly record of changes. Habits of frogs and newts. 

C. Summer Term. 

Studies of plants and animals to be pursued concurrently. 

1. Plant Life. Typical spring and summer flowers; need for classification; 
natural orders; how to use a 'Flora.' 

Insect visitors to flowers. Transference of pollen ; significance of pollina- 
tion ; fertilisation and cross-fertilisation. 
2. Animal life in the pond. 

(«) Record of growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles. 

(b) Life-history and habits of : Water-beetle, water-boatman, water-scorpion, 
caddis-fly, dragon-fly, gnat, water-spider, water-snail. 

[c) Common pond weeds. 

{(I) Study of green water-plants in aquaria. Evolution of gas noted for 
future investigation. 

Notk — It is desirable that the formal work should be supplemented by 
(") rambles and excursions to study plants and animals in their natural 
setting; (b) holiday work, including collection of specimens, records of life- 
phases of some animal or plant, drawings and paintings; (c) gardening. 
Common plots may be worked in school hours for demonstrations and experi- 
ments ; individual plots in leisure hours. 

II. Physical Section. 

A. Astronomy. 

Simple observations and graphic records (i) to establish the (apparent) 
diurnal rotation of sun and stars about an axis directed (nearly) to the Pole 
Star, and (ii) to explain the principle of civil time-measurement. The observa- 
tions are to be made, as opportunity offers, partly in and partly out of 
school hours. The graphic records will be drawn and discussed from time to 
time in class. The data for the several records may be accumulated con- 

1. Direct observation that the sun appears to move. Closer study by 
means of the shadow of an upright rod gives data for graphic records showing 
(a) the direction of the shadow at a series of fixed times of the day in different 
months, (b) the lengths of the shadow at these times. The latter brings out 
the facts (i) that the shortest shadow has a fixed direction (south to north), 
and (ii) that the shadow is shortest (i.e., the sun highest) at varying times 
shortly before or after 12 o'clock (or 1 p.m. 'summer time '). 

Discussion of results (supplemented by the table of ' equation of time ' 
in ' Whitaker's Almanack ') leads to the notions of ' mean noon ' and the ' mean 
solar time ' kept by an ordinary clock. The difference between ' local mean 
time' and 'Greenwich mean time.' Longitude lines as lines of identical 
local mean time. The international system of standard time-zones, and time- 
signals by wireless telegraphy. Determination of longitude at sea, &c. 

2. Graphic records of the sun's track across the sky on typical days at 
or near midwinter, the equinoxes, and midsummer. Discussion of these eluci- 
dates the varying length of day and night and the correlative phenomena at 
the antipodes. 1 

1 The following method works well. A number of thin rods {e.g., long 
knitting-needles) are mounted perpendicularly at equal intervals along the 
circumference of a circle marked out on a drawing-board. Bach rod carries 
a small paper or cardboard slider. The board is fixed horizontally in sun- 
shine. As, from time to time during the day., the shadow of one of the rods 
falls across the centre of the circle the slider is so adjusted that its shadow 
covers the centre. The heights thus registered are entered upon a sheet 

1917. w 


3. Some conspicuous stars and constellations. A circular chart to be drawn 
showing the Plough, Cassiopeia, Vega, and Capella, with the Pole Star 
occupying (nearly) the centre. This, pinned to rotate on a cardboard base, 
serves to record roughly the positions of the stars at different hours of the 
night and early morning. 

Discussion of the records indicates a uniform diurnal rotation of the starry 
sky about an axis drawn (nearly) to the Pole Star. Specially enterprising 
pupils determine the approximate inclination of the axis to the horizon. 

4. Does the sun appear to move around the same point in the sky as the 
stars? An affirmative answer obtained by observing the uniform rotation of 
the shadow of a thin rod, directed towards the stellar pole, upon a cardboard 
disc fixed at right angles to its length. Use of this (or equivalent) apparatus 
as a sun-dial. 

At the earth's poles the rod (or ' style ' of the sun-dial) would be vertical : 
on the equator it would be horizontal. Parallels of latitude are lines of 
identical inclination of the style. Elucidation by means of a globe. 

5. The following may be commenced in preparation for discussion in 
Second Year : 

(«) Record of the noonday (or ' meridian ') altitude of the sun measured 
in degrees by a simple instrument ; 

{(/) Record (by means of the rotating star-chart in § 3) of the position of the 
circumpolar stars at the same hour {e.g., 9 p.m.) on different datee. 

B. General Physics. 

Under this title are grouped simple exercises preparatory to the formal 
study of hydrostatics, mechanics, and the 'properties of matter.' Much of the 
work should be taken in close association with the course in mathematics. 

1. Density and specific gravity. Determination of weights by the balance 
and of volume by calculation or displacement. 

2. The mechanism of the balance and the conditions for true weighing. 
The laws of the lever. The grocer's scales. Weighing-machines. 

The pressure on the fulcrum of a loaded lever. The centre of gravity of 
a body as a fulcrum, and as the ' centre ' of the weights of its parts. 
Experiments, toys, &c, illustrating stable and unstable equilibrium. 

Simple calculations and laboratory experiments on centre of gravity, &c. 

3. Time-measurement. (To be taken in connection with A. 4.) Essentials 
of the mechanism of a simple clock driven by a weight or a spring and 
controlled by a pendulum. (A single-handed clock, like that of Westminster 
Abbey, is most suitable.) 

Isochronism of the pendulum. Effects of loading or changing length 
of pendulum. The ' simple ' pendulum ; connection between swing-period and 
length. Experimental determination of simple pendulum equivalent to a 
given pendulum. The balance-wheel in watches and clocks. 

Ancient time-measures : the water-clock, the hourglass, &c. 

4. Examination of common pieces of mechanism, such as a door-lock, the 
' three-speed ' gear of a bicycle. (There is scope here for individual work, 
involving written descriptions aided by diagrams, &c.) 

5. The mariner's compass ; simple investigation of properties of magnets 
to elucidate its use. Measurement of deviation of magnet from the south- 
north line established in A. 1. 

C. Beat. 

1. The varying warmth and coldness of weather as dependent on the 
season, direction of wind, &c. The thermometer: how it works; expansion 
of mercury. Necessity of a standard scale of graduation (compare weights and 

of graph-paper whose length is equal to the circumference of the circle, and a 
smooth curve is drawn through the recording points A well-drawn specimen 
is pasted on a wooden or cardboard cylinder to be used in the discussion and 
to serve as a permanent record. The method of ' cylindrical projection ' thus 
taught may usefully be applied in subsequent geography lessons. 


measures). Experimental graduation of a thermometer by placing it in hot 
and cold water together with a thermometer already graduated. 

2. Expansion as a phenomenon generally accompanying heating. Rough 
estimates of expansion of water and of metal rods. Expansion and pressure- 
increase of heated air. Geographical applications. 

3. Examination of the steady heating and cooling of water; discovery of 
constancy of temperature during boiling and freezing. 

Definite melting and boiling points of substances. Freezing of sea-water. 
Melting-points of alloys, &c. Change of volume on solidification : ice, type- 
metal, dentist's filling, &c. 

4. Maximum and minimum thermometers ; construction of temperature- 
charts. (Records of wind-directions and rainfall should also be kept throughout 
the year.) 

Second Year. 

[Section I. must be taken, as before, in seasonal order. Section II., E., is 
closely related to it and should be begun in the autumn term.] 

I. Biological Section. 

A. Autumn Term. 

1. Animal life in the garden. Individual observations, guided by question 
papers, directions for practical work, reference books, &c, supplemented by 
class-work. The following are suitable subjects : snail and slug, earthworm, 
centipede and millipede, earwig, green-fly, lady-bird, hover-fly, lace-wing fly, 

2. Soil : general characters of clay, sand, chalk, peat, &c. ; closer study of 
local soil ; subsoil. Simple experiments to ascertain proportions of water, clay, 
sand, silt, grit, and organic matter in a sample of soil. 

3. The ingredients of soil. Clay : why called ' heavy ' ; impervious to water 
and air; comparison of growth of seeds in pure clay and garden soil ; experiments 
on effects of 'liming.' Experiments to test properties of sand and chalk. Leaf- 
mould and humus : origin and distribution. 

4. Biology of soil. Adaptations of animals that inhabit soil. Why the 
farmer thinks soil itself ' alive ' ; demonstration of activity by respiration within 
the soil. Soil bacteria and protozoa needing air, water, and food. 

B. Spring Term. 

Relation of plant life to soil. 

1. Soil-water ; comparison of retentive power of different soils. Rise of water 
in soils; capillarity (see II., C, 3). Importance of hoeing and mulching. 

2. Local differences in water-supply of soil; effects on plant forms studied 
in situ. 

3. Differences in form of leaves of plants from dry and wet localities. 
Experimental investigation of differences directed to (i) absorption of water by 
roots, (ii) loss of water by leaves. Hale's experiments. Construction of 
potometer. Microscopic examination of leaf -epidermis ; stomata, water-pores. 

Ascent of water in stem; osmosis (see II., C, 4). 

4. Mineral substances in soil as food for plants. 

(«) Soil-water shown by evaporation (II., E., 1) to contain dissolved mineral 
matter; comparison with transpired water suggests that the matter is retained 
by the plant. Suggestion confirmed by examination of ash of burnt plant. 
The more important constituents. Practical preparation of water and sand 
cultures. Selective absorption by roots. 

(b) Rotation of crops. The nodules on roots of leguminous plants ; fixation 
of nitrogen by bacteria. Bottomley's researches. ' Symbiotic ' relations 
between green plants and fungi. 

C. Summer Term. 

Studies in plant physiology. 

1. Respiration. Germinating seeds found, like human beings, to emit 
carbon dioxide. Probability (in spite of negative experimental tests) that the 

M 2 


developed plant continues to respire. Reference to behaviour of water-plants 
(First Year, I., C, 2 (<7)) leads to discovery that they emit oxygen. Distinction 
between respiration and assimilation of carbon dioxide. Experimental dis- 
covery (i) that both processes occur in plants growing in air, (ii) that oxygen is 
necessary to plant life, (iii) that breathing proceeds in light and darkness, in 
cold and warmth. 

2. Assimilation of carbon dioxide by plants; importance in general life- 
economy. Plant substances built up mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen. The leaf the organ of assimilation of carbon ; microscopic differences 
between leaves according as carbon dioxide is supplied or withheld ; starch 
grains, the iodine test. Starch shown to contain carbon. Manufacture of 
starch. Relation of starch to other substances in plants. Experiments on rela- 
tion of light and darkness, cold and warmth, to assimilation; also of seedling 
leaves, green leaves, and variegated leaves. 

3. Assimilation of carbon dioxide as feeding. Comparison of food-processes 
in plants and animals. Dependence of animal life on activity of the green plant. 

II. Physical Section. 

A. Astronomy. 

Observations and discussions to lead up to the explanation of the (apparent) 
annual motion of the sun. The work to be conducted as in the First Year. 

1. Revision of, and exercises upon, First Year's work — including the problem 
of graduating a horizontal sun-dial. (Dials for permanent use may be made in 
the handwork class, also simple altitude-meters for home observations.) 

2. The moon. The class to make a collection of drawings of the phases 
preparatory to explanation by means of a simple model. The moon observed to 
move among the stars. Rough measurement of interval between southings. 
Conception of 'mean lunar day.' (Compare with First Year, II., A., 1. A 
clock may be regulated to keep 'mean lunar time.') Lunar and calendar 
months. 'Note that at the same ' lunar time ' on different dates the constellations 
occupy a series of different positions, repeated each month. 

3. Completion of the record begun in First Year, II., A., 5 (b). At the 
same ' solar time ' the constellations occupy a series of positions repeated each 
year. Comparison with results in § 2 brings out that the sun moves among the 

4. Continuation of First Year record, II., A., 5 (a). Graph of a year's 
observations to be drawn and compared with similar graphs of former years. 

A horizontal line across graph represents the sun's mean altitude at noon and 
divides the curve into two balancing segments. The sun spends half the year 
above and half below this line (the 'celestial equator'). The equator cor- 
responds to the plane of the sun-dial used in First Year, II., A., 4. Compila- 
tion of a table of the sun's ' declination ' from the graph. Use of this table 
in determining latitude at sea. 

Representation of the curve on a cylindrical projection (see footnote to First 
Year, II., A., 2), the equator being taken as datum-line. The paper above the 
curve is cut away and the residue bent into a cylinder. The (apparent) annual 
path of the sun among the stars is then seen to be a plane (the ' ecliptic ') 
inclined at 23£° to the plane of the equator. Explanation of the seasons. 

5. Revision and summary of the two years' work. Distinction between the 
' solar,' ' lunar,' and ' sidereal ' days. Explanation in terms of (i) a diurnal 
rotation of the earth about its axis, (ii) an annual revolution of the earth about 
the sun, (iii) a monthly revolution of the moon about the earth. The Gregorian 

B. Geology. 

Field-work arranged as part of the course in biology or geography should 
include observations of the stratigraphical disposition of different types of 
earth and rock (e.g. of the sand and clay on Hampstead Heath in London), 
and of the relations thereto of the surface features (including the outflow 
of streams). The nature and effects of river action should also be studied unless 
taken in a previous year. 


C. General Physics. 

1. How ships float. Measurement of extra displacement produced by adding 
cargo' to a box floating in water suggests Archimedes' Principle. Confirma- 
tion in case of other liquids. Extension of principle to bodies that sink. Use 
of camels and pontoons. Submarine boats. Balloons and airships; contrast with 


Exercises on use of Archimedes' Principle in determining volumes and specific 

2. The barometer as a meteorological instrument. Construction of siphon 
barometer. Pascal's theory of action illustrated by demonstrating increasing 
pressure at lower depths in a jar of water. The experiment of the Puy do 
Dome. Reduction of barometer readings to sea-level for construction of 
barometric charts. Relation' between isobars and -winds. 

Boyle's experiments in confirmation of Pascal ; leading to notion of the 
' spring ' of the air and to Boyle's Law. 

Experiments and apparatus illustrating air-pressure : pumps, vacuum-brake, 
parcel-transmitter, siphon, &c. The aneroid barometer : its use' in determining 
heights in mountaineering, aeroplaning, &c. 

Archimedes' Principle explained by theory of liquid-pressure. The theorv 
applied to explain water-supply systems, hydraulic lifts and engines. 

3. Capillarity. Experiments to supplement those of I., C, 1. Measurement 
of surface tension (in grams-weight per cm.) by rise of water in tube. Simple 
study of bubbles, drops, and jets; also of common phenomena such as writing 
with ink. 

4. Osmosis. Simple experiments to supplement I., C. 1. Passage of dis- 
solved salts through a porous partition until equality of concentration is set up. 
Use in purifying beet-molasses. Semi-permeable membranes; law of osmotic 
pressure; comparison with Boyle's Law for gases. Application to plant-cell. 

5. Revision of work of First Year, IT., B., 2. Use of spring balance to 
measure a ' force ' (i.e. a push or a pull) in terms of weight. Hooke's Law in 
the stretching of strings, the bending of beams, &c. Use of a single (rough) 
fixed pulley; measurement of its ' efficiency. ' Use of movable pulleys. The 
Principle of Work introduced for the determination of their efficiency. ' 

Loss of work by friction ; simple laws of friction. 

Application of Principle of Work to lever, to haulage on an incline (without 
and with friction), &c. 

6. Conditions of equivalence of a single force (e.g. a pull in a cord) to two 
others. The vector law. Applications : the suspension bridge, cantilever 
frames, &c. 

D. Heat. 

1. Revision of First Year work. Mean temperatures in meteorology ; regu- 
larity of mean seasonal changes over long periods. Geographical isotherms. ° 

Temperatures at high altitudes and at great depths in sea. 
Dependence of boiling and freezing points on pressure: regelation, skating, 

2. Hot-water circulation; convection. Function of radiators. Loss of tem- 
perature through conduction. Experiments on and illustrations of convection. 
radiation, and conduction : clothing, bark of trees, radiation from gravel and 
vegetation, &c. ; thermostats, the thermos flask, temperature of 'Tube' rail 
ways, &c. 

Curves of cooling of equal amounts of different substances (e.g. water and 
sand); geographical importance of slow rate of cooling and heating' of water. 

Lagging of temperature at different depths below surface of soil. (To be 
taken in connection with I., B.) 

3. Extension of First Year, II., C, 3; separation of liquids by distillation. 
Applications : petroleum industry, turpentine and resin. 

Simple treatment of vapour pressure. 

Evaporation and condensation. Precipitation of rain and dew. Simple 
hygrometry; determination of dew-point; relative humidity. Wet and dry 
bulb thermometer. 

Cold produced by evaporation. Ice-making, cold storage. 


E. Chemistry. 

Note. — §§ 1-4 should be taken during Autumn Term. 

1. Washing soda a crystalline substance which degenerates (especially in 
warm weather) into a shapeless powder. Distillation shows changes to be due 
to loss of 'water of crystallisation.' Water derivable from other crystals (but 
not all) and from vegetable and animal substances (e.g. a potato) where its 
presence is not apparent. First notions of chemical combination between 

Crystallisation from solution in water. Manufacture of common salt, cane 
and beet sugar; plaster of Paris; ' sympathetic inks.' Variations in solubility. 
Crystalloids and colloids. Other solvents (e.g. petrol, solvent naphtha in water- 
proofing, turpentine, &c.) and their uses. 

Soluble and insoluble substances in soil. Residue from evaporation of tap- 
water ; formation of sea-water. 

2. Use of soda in cookery leads to discovery that it turns the juice of 
pickling cabbage green. (The juice is extracted by pounding in a mortar.) 
Vinegar (preferably ' white ' vinegar) turns the juice red. Soda and vinegar 
can ' overcome ' one another's effects. Caustic soda, mild and caustic potash, 
ammonia and lime, being found to turn the juice green, are classed with washing 
soda as alkalis ; acids are found to turn it red. Other vegetable extracts found 
to show colour changes with acids and alkalis, e.g. litmus. Other ' indicators ' : 
phenolphthalein, methyl orange. 

Neutralisation; careful study by means of burette, different boys working 
with different acids and alkalis. Evaporation of neutral solutions reveals 
presence of common salt when mild or caustic soda is neutralised by hydrochloric 
acid, and other ' salts ' in the other cases. Salts named from acid and alkali 
(e.g. sulphate of ammonia). Manufacture of sulphate of ammonia for manure, 
and of sal-ammoniac. 

3. How does caustic differ from washing soda? On addition of acid the 
latter yields a heavy gas which extinguishes flames, turns lime-water cloudy 
and ultimately clears it again. The cloudy matter, when collected, returns the 
gas if acid is added. Chalk is known to yield the same gas when ' burnt ' 
to make lime. Finally, caustic soda is made by boiling washing soda with 
lime, the latter becoming converted into chalk. (Similar statements apply to 
mild and caustic potash.) Thus, washing soda, mild potash, and chalk are to 
be classed together, and also caustic soda, caustic potash and lime. But there 
are two ' limes ' — quicklime and slaked lime. Dry ' heavy gas ' liberates water 
from caustic soda, caustic potash and slaked lime, but not from quicklime ; 
hence the analogy is with slaked lime. 

4. The ' heavy gas ' is produced in breathing, and also in the burning of 
coal-gas, candles, &c. Burning of these substances in a jar demonstrates its 
production together with water, and shows, further, that one-fifth of the air 
is consumed. The burning of metals (e.g. magnesium), arcd of phosphorus, 
sulphur, &c, the rusting of iron, the 'drying ' of boiled oil, &c, also remove 
the 'active' one-fifth of the air and leave four-fifths 'inactive.' Consideration 
of the mode of manufacture of red lead suggests that if heated it may restore 
the absorbed active constituent. Oxygen and nitrogen ; argon. Manufacture of 
oxygen from liquid air. Properties and uses of oxygen. Oxides. 

The ' heavy gas ' is produced without water when pure carbon is burnt in 
oxygen. It is, therefore, an oxide of carbon. Confirmation by burning mag- 
nesium in gas. Oxygen passed over red-hot carbon (as in a domestic fire and 
in the smelting furnace) produces a gas which burns to form the heavy gas. 
The latter must, therefore, contain more oxygen (compare litharge and red 
lead) ; hence the names carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. 

5. Oxides and oxidation in nature and industry. Oxides of iron, copper, 
magnesium, aluminium, &c. ; ochres and other painter's colours ; ' drying ' of 
oils ; linoleum. 

6. Is water also an oxide ? Affirmative answer obtained by passing steam 
over hot magnesium. Discovery of hydrogen. Production in bulk by passing 
steam over hot iron ; properties. Known to be produced also when the plumber 
' kills spirits of salt ' with zinc. Composition of water confirmed by burning a 


jet of hydrogen obtained by this method, and by using the gas to ' reduce ' 
oxides ; also by electrolysis. Reducing action of coal-gas. 

Carbon and hydrogen constituents of living matter ; also nitrogen, sulphur, 
and phosphorus. 

Solutions of the oxides of carbon, sulphur, and phosphorus are acids. 
Carbonates, sulphites, sulphates, phosphates. 

7. Action of sodium, potassium, calcium (all obtained by electrolysis) on 
water. Deductions: quicklime is an oxide; slaked lime, caustic potash and 
caustic soda are hydroxides; chalk, mild potash, and soda are carbonates. 
Action of heat on carbonates : iron carbonate (spathic ore), zinc carbonate 
(calamine), magnesium carbonate (magnesian limestone) ; manufacture of white 

8. Examination of action of dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids on 
zinc, iron, magnesium. Salts of these metals. Salts also produced (without 
hydrogen) by action of acids on oxides. Theory of action confirmed by passing 
dry hydrochloric acid over heated oxides. Salts named from acid and metal 
(e.g. sodium chloride). The special case of ' ammonium ' salts. 

9. Manufacture of sulphuric acid by 'contact process.' Manufacture of 
hydrochloric, nitric, and phosphoric acids from salt, saltpetre, and calcium 
phosphate. Sources of these salts. Salts in the soil (see I., B., 4). 

10. Summary of results in (verbal) chemical equations. The quantitative 
constancy of chemical reactions and combinations (discovered in numerous 
simple gravimetric and volumetric exercises during the course) is also to be 
brought out and emphasised. 

Third Year. 

[Section I. is assigned to the second and third terms. The divisions of 
Section II. may be taken in any convenient order.] 

I. Biological Section. 
A. Spring Term. A study of micro-organisms. 

1. Action of yeast in bread-making as an example of fermentation. Culti- 
vation of yeast in Pasteur's solution. Fermentation in manufacture of beer 
and wine ; acetic-acid fermentation. Pasteur's proof that different effects are 
due to activity of definite plant-growths. Association of fungi with other 
changes in food materials: moulds on bread, jam, &e. ; fungi in milk; colonies 
of bacteria in putrefying broth, meat-jelly, &c. Germ-cultures ; practice and 
theory of staining. 

2. The source of fermentation-fungi. The ' spontaneous generation ' con- 
troversy ; Appert's invention (c. 1800) for fruit preservation ; experiments of 
Schultze and Swan, sterilised air; germs and dust, the Pasteur flask. 

Presence of germs in tapwater, dust, and surface soil demonstrated by 
cultivation in Lister's tubes. 

Sterilisation by heat; resisting germs (e.g. in dirty milk). 
Sterilisation of food by preservatives — harmless and harmful. 

3. Micro-organisms in disease. Pasteur and silk-worm disease; Lister and 
the antiseptic treatment of wounds; Manson and Ross and malaria. Phagocytes 
and bacteria; recent developments of antiseptic practice. Vaccines and anti- 
toxins : Jenner and vaccination; Koch and Pasteur and anthrax, rabies; Wright 
and typhoid fever. Anti-toxins in diphtheria, tetanus, &c. 

The extermination of infectious diseases : rabies in England, malaria in 
Panama, &c. Preventable diseases still to be exterminated ; need of scientific 
investigation, educational enlightenment, and administrative action. 

4. Micro-organisms as useful agents : cheese-making, tanning, &c. ; micro- 
organisms as scavengers; the fixation of nitrogen. 

B. Summer Term. 

1. The structure and life-history of select animal types : Euglena. 
Paramoecium, Vorticella, Hydra, sea-anemone, earthworm, crayfish, frog, rat, 
or rabbit. 

2. Structure and life-history of Spirogyra, a moss, a fern. 


II. Physical Section. 

A. Astronomy. 

The following subjects should be taken in class. Further voluntary work 
may be directed and encouraged by the School Science Club. 

1. Revision of previous work. The fundamental importance of sidereal 
time. The astronomical clock. Fixing positions of stars by right ascension 
and declination. Construction of star-charts. (In connection with these the 
use of the polar and meridional gnomonic projections may be either taught or 
applied from the geography course.) 

2. Plotting of monthly course of the moon upon a cylindrical projection 
(compare Second Year, II., A., 4), right ascensions and declinations being taken 
from ' Whitaker's Almanack.' The path of the moon thus shown to be approxi- 
mately a plane inclined to the ecliptic. 

Plotting on enlarged scale of paths of moon and sun about the times of 
new and full moon. (It is best to use the gnomonic projection, since the paths 
are then straight lines.) Conditions for eclipses. 

3. The variation in distances of sun and moon deduced from varying 
observed diameter. (Data from 'Whitaker's Almanack.') Perihelion and 
aphelion ; perigee and apogee. The orbits of earth and moon elliptical. Calcu- 
lation of eccentricities. 

Regression of moon's node; influence on dates of eclipses. The precession 
of the equinoxes. 

Simple theory of tides. 

4. The planets. The Ptolemaic and Copernican theories. 

The relative distances of the planets from the sun and of the moon from 
the earth. Measurements of absolute distances by parallax, transit of Venus, 
&c. Kepler's laws. 

B. Geology. 

The following subjects may be expected to be taken during this year in 
geography lessons : — 

1. The stratigraphy of the home region. One or two lessons based on 
evidence acquired on field-excursions or reported by individual pupils, museum 
collections, &c. Thus, in London a clear idea should be given of the geology 
of the Thames basin from the northern to the southern chalk heights, the 
evidence of borings for artesian wells, &c, being examined. The probable 
geological history of the region. 

2. Extension to neighbouring regions : for example, in London to the Weald, 
Surrey, Hants, and the Isle of Wight. 

3. Outline of the geological structure of typical regions, such as Wales and 
the northern coal-fields of England. 

C. Mechanics. 

The following subjects are to be regarded as territory common to the 
courses in science and mathematics. Much (or all) of the work may be taken 
in mathematics lessons. 

1. Uniform and variable velocity (linear and angular), average velocity, 
velocity at a given moment ; distance-time and speed -time graphs. 

Two cases of special importance : (i) Falling bodies and projectiles. The 
vertical distance fallen found to vary with the square of the time ; hence the 
average, and therefore the final, vertical velocity must be proportional to the 
time. Value of 'a.' (ii) Pendulum motion. Here, since the time of swing is 
constant for small arcs, the average velocity is proportional to the amplitude. 
It follows that the velocities at all corresponding moments, including the 
moment of mean position, are proportional to the amplitude. 

2. Velocity as a vector. Relative velocity. Vectorial representation of 
changes of velocity. Utilisation of the property given in 1 (ii) to measure 
changes of velocity produced by collision of swinging balls (Goodwill's ' Vector 
Balance '). 


Discussion of results leads to distinction between weight and mass, to the 
idea of change of momentum as the measure of the dynamical action of bodies 
upon one another, and to the principle of conservation of momentum. 
Alternative measure of force (hitherto measured in terms of weight) as rate 
of change of momentum. The poundal and dyne. 

Weight as rate of change of momentum. Newton's Law of Gravitation. 
His verification by calculation of rate of fall of moon. 

3. A suspended ball is made to swing through a constant vertical distance 
along various curves, and to collide directly with a stationary suspended ball. 
Measurements show that the velocity immediately before impact depends entirely 
o'i vertical distance fallen. Connection of result with Principle of Work 
(Second Year, II., C 5). Kinetic energy. Apparent loss of energy in collisions 
(considered in connection with D., 4). 

D. Physics. 

1. Revision and extension of Second Year work on radiation and conduction. 
Graphic study of temperatures at points on a bar heated (i) steadily (Forbes), 
(ii) rhythmically (Angstrom), to illustrate measurement of conductivity and 
seasonal temperature-changes of soil. 

2. Solar radiation : its fundamental importance. Separation by prism into 
light and dark radiation. Intensity of radiation: law of inverse squares; 
photometry; the cosine-law; Newton's law of cooling. Influence of character 
of radiating and absorbing material; the incandescent gas-mantle, &c. Absorp- 
tion and reflection of light and dark radiation. Laws of reflection : plane and 
curved mirrors. Applications : periscope, searchlights, lighthouses, &c. The 
sine-law of refraction; indices of refraction. 

3. Heat as a measurable quantity. Study of the temperature-changes of 
variable weights of water heated for the same period by a constant flame leads 
to the formula H = W£, where W is the weight of water, t the rise of tempera- 
ture, and H the number of ' calories ' represented by the heating. Repetition 
with other liquids (c<7. linseed oil, glycerine) leads to the more general formula 
H=«W<, where s is a constant for each substance (the 'specific heat '). Con- 
firmation by ' the method of mixtures.' Measurements of specific heat. 

Latent heat. Rough determination of latent heat of steam by Black's 
method, of water by method of mixtures. 

4. Temperature-changes of gases under the conditions (i) of constant pres- 
sure and (ii) of constant volume. Absolute temperature. 

Cooling and heating of gases by adiabatic expansion and compression. 
Applications of results in meteorology. Equivalence of the heat-change to work 
done. Joule's experiments, &c. Internal-combustion engines. Liquefaction of 
gases ; cold storage, &c. 

5. Vapour pressure. Variations of boiling-point with pressure. Steam- 
engines (cylinder and turbine). Uses of superheated steam (in engines, in 
chemical industries, &c), and of subheated steam (concentration of beet sugar). 

6. Electricity : a preliminary course of work, almost entirely qualitative in 
character ; the quantitative aspect of the subject being reserved for study in the 
Fourth Year. Examination of an electric-bell circuit as a type of electro- 
magnetic mechanism. Analysis of magnetic effects of the current : Oersted's 
experiment, Maxwell's screw rule. Industrial and other uses of electro-magnets. 
The electric telegraph. Magnetic effect as an index of current strength ; the 
n-alvanometer. Preliminary notions of voltage and resistance. 

The electric bell as a motor; elaboration of the same principles in the motors 
used for locomotion and power. 

Faraday's experiments on electro-magnetic induction. The induction coil. 
The dynamo ; the ' magneto ' ; reciprocal relation between the principles of the 
motor and dynamo; conversion of mechanical into electrical energy, and of 
electrical into mechanical. The telephone. 

Conversion of electrical energy into heat; the incandescent and arc lamps; 
'he electric furnace. 

Electrolysis : industrial applications. Secondary batteries : relation with 


primary batteries with reference to conversion of chemical into electrical energy 
and electrical into chemical. 

E. Chemistry. 

1. Revision and extension of Second Year work. 

(a) The aim of chemistry to regard all substances as elements or compounds 
of elements. Quantitative definiteness the mark of chemical union. Distinction 
between compounds, mixtures, and solutions. 

Alloys and glass as ' solid solutions ' : conversion of iron into steel ; 
manganese steel ; manufacture of glass. Amalgams of mercury ; the extraction 
of gold. 

(b) Law of multiple proportions, based on analysis of sodium bicarbonate, 
lead peroxide, &c. Provisional use of the terms ' molecule ' and ' atom ' to 
describe results. Molecular composition of water. The basicity of acids. Use of 
chemical formula; and equations. Valency of the common metals. 

(c) Combustion. Nature of flames. The incandescent gas-mantle. Use of 
high-temperature flames in welding, cutting steel, &c. Flameless combustion. 

(d) Sulphides, sulphuretted hydrogen : their analogy with oxides and water. 
Action when sulphides are roasted ; applications in metallurgy. 

(c) Acidic and basic oxides, peroxides. Action of sulphuric acid on 
peroxides ; hydrogen peroxide. Dry hydrochloric acid passed over a heated 
peroxide (e.g. red lead) yields chlorine. Its properties. Molecular constitution 
of hydrochloric acid. Bromine and iodine. Oxidation and reduction as general 
chemical processes. 

(/) Ammonia : its composition. Ammonium salts. 

2. The law of chemical equivalence. Determination of weights of metals 
that (i) displace equal volumes of hydrogen, (ii) unite with equal weights of 
oxygen, (iii) replace one another in salts. Confirmation of results by deter- 
mining the volume of hydrogen and the weight of oxygen involved in the 
decomposition of steam by hot iron. Equivalent weights*. Smallest combining 
(or 'atomic') weights, that of hydrogen being taken as unity. 

3. Revision and further applications of previous work in simple explanation 
of some important chemical industries and processes, (a) The winning of the 
more important metals, (o) Coal-distillation ; the main products and their 
uses, (c) Soda ; bleaching powder. Bleaching, (d) Tanning, (e) Dyeing. 
(/) Phosphorus : matches, (g) Photography. (/() Glass and pottery. 

Fourth Year. 

[In schools where the arrangement is possible the subjects marked with an 
asterisk should be reserved for a course of lectures and discussions to be given 
(to non-speeialisfis in science together with specialists) in the fifth year. This 
course should include some treatment of the philosophy of science illustrated 
from the history of scientific discovery. Classical works in biology or physical 
science may be recommended for private reading and discussion.] 

I. Biological Section. 

1. Civilisation based on the domestication of plants and animals. The 
history of food-plants, &c. Modern methods of improving breeds of plants 
and animals. Vegetable and animal products in industries and manufactures : 
cotton, timber, paper manufacture, wool, silk, &c. Importance of forestry. 

* 2. The theory of organic evolution. The evidences and main phases of 
the evolutionary process : the beginnings of life ; divergence of animals and 
plants from one another ; main morphological developments along each line ; 
origin of sex; general character of progress — 'progressive differentiation and 
integration ' ; adaptation to environment, degeneration. 

Problems of heredity and variation : Darwin, Mendel, de Vries. Selection. 
Function and environment. 

II. Pliysical Section. 

A. Geology. 

Lessons should be given (in, or in close connection with, the geography 
course) on (i) the forms of life characteristic of the chief geological horizons, 


including the earliest appearances of man (c/. I., 2); (ii) special subjects 
of geographical importance, e.g. the coal age and the ice age, ' block ' and 
' fold ' mountains, rifts and faults ; (iii) questions of economic geology selected 
on the ground of either local or national importance. In connection with 
(i) visits should be made to a geological museum, and holiday collections of 
fossils encouraged by the School Science Club. 

B. Mechanics. 

1. Revision of work of Second and Third Years; straightforward problems 
on motion and equilibrium to .give a firm grasp of principles. 

Rate of doing work ; horse-power ; dynamometers. Work of engines in road, 
rail, and water traffic. Economy of power. 
Simple theory of the aeroplane. 

2. Circular motion. Harmonic motion of pendulum, vibrating spring, &c. 
Connection with Hooke's Law (Second Year, II., C, 5). 

The formula? y = a sin — (x±vt) as descriptive of progressive harmonic 

waves. Stationary waves. Wave-motion as a mode of transmission of energy. 

3. The principle of energy in the case of a thin cylinder rotating about its 
axis while the latter is moving parallel to itself. Determination of 'g' by 
measuring time taken by such a cylinder to roll down a sloping plane. 

Derivation of the principle of Conservation of Moment of^Momentum, and 
of the formula torque = rate of change of moment of momentum. Applications 
to phenomena of bicycling, spinning tops, gyroscopes, &c. Moment of inertia 
and radius of gyration in simple cases. Motion of a rod struck at a given 
point. Harmonic vibration of a compound pendulum and of a horizontally 
suspended magnet. Inversion of compound pend'dum; ' centre of percussion.' 

C. Physics. 

1. Electro-magnetic measurements : 

(a) Distribution of magnetism along a bar-magnet. Magnetic fields; lines 
of force ; use of small compass-needle to map field near magnet or current 

Deflection of small compass-needle by magnet ; the tangent law ; application 
in the tangent galvanometer. The moment of a magnet. 

{b) Chemical equivalence of substances liberated by a current passing 
through electrolytic cells in series. Definition of the ampere in terms of silver 
deposited per second. Congruence with measurement in terms of deflection in 
tangent galvanometer. 

(c) A long platinoid wire is ' tapped ' by the terminals of a high-resistance 
galvanometer. The results lead to the notions of a regular ' fall of potential ' 
and of the connection of potential difference with current-strength and 
resistance. Definition of the ohm and the volt. Ohm's law. 

(d) Quantitative statement of Faraday's law of induction. The earth- 
inductor ; the transformer. Magnetic force and magnetic induction in iron ; 
permeability ; hysteresis. 

2. Optical measurements and calculations. 

(a) Spherical mirrors; theoretical derivation of the formula l/v+l/« = l//; 
experimental verification. 

(6) Lenses: experimental discovery of the formula UV = / a ; deduction from 
this of the formula 1/v — l/w = l//. Magnification; telescopes, microscopes; 
the prismatic field-glass. Achromatic lenses. The lens of the eye and its 
optical defects ; spectacles. 

(c) Methods of determining the velocity of light. 

3. Wave-motion in sound, light, and electricity. 

(a) General properties of harmonic wave-motion, longitudinal and trans- 
verse (to be taken in connection with B. , 2). Application to elucidate the 
behaviour of sounding forks, strings, and pipes. Free and forced vibrations; 

(6) The undulatory theory of light. Colours of thin films, interference ; 
diffraction; polarisation. Deduction of behaviour of mirrors, prisms, and lenses 


from wave-theory. Spectrum analysis : applications in chemistry, astronomy, 

(c) Electro-magnetic waves. Wireless telegraphy. Electro-magnetic theory 
of light. 

* 4. The main results of modern investigations on the discharge of elec- 
tricity through gases; Rout gen rays; radioactivity. The ultimate constitution 
of matter: the kinetic theory of gases, the radiometer; experiments of Perrin 
and Bragg; theories of solution, osmosis, and electrolysis. 

*5. A general review of physical (including chemical) phenomena from the 
standpoint of the principle of the Conservation of Energy. Availability and 
degradation of energy. The world's present and possible future sources of 
energy. Economy of energy. 

D. Chemistry. 

1. The atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis. The density of a gas and 
its volumetric reactions as an index of its molecular constitution. Relations 
between oxygen and ozone, acetylene and benzene. 

2. Composition of ordinary alcohol. It behaves like a weak hydroxide, 
yielding ' ethereal salts ' and a substance, ether, which is analogous to an 
oxide. Ethane and its relations to alcohol. Comparison of ethane with 
methane ('natural gas'), alcohol with wood-spirit. The paraffins, their 
alcohols, ethers, &c, as homologous series. Theory of the carbon atom. 
Formic and acetic acid : their relations to and reactions with alcohols. 
Chloroform and iodoform. 

3. The manufacture of soap, candles, and glycerine. Fats and vegetable 
oils are ethereal salts, glycerine an alcohol ; hydrolysis. Nitro-glycerine and 

Cellulose, collodion, gun-cotton, blasting, gelatine, cordite. 

4. Benzene and toluene as ' closed chain ' compounds. Isomerism. Carbolic 
acid ; salicyclic acid, ' aspirin ' ; tannin, nitro-benzene, aniline and the aniline 
dyes. ' T.N.T.' explosive. Picric acid. 

5. The proximate constituents of food : proteins, carbo-hydrates, fats. 
Separation of the protein (gluten) and the carbo-hydrate (starch) in flour; of 
the protein (curd), carbo-hydrate (whey), and the fat (cream) in milk. Tests. 
The conversion of starch into soluble sugar, solution of meat-stuffs ; enzymes, 
their role m plant life and animal digestion. Food values. Ultimate con- 
stituents of foods and of living matter. Anabolism and katabolism. 

* 6. General review. 

(a) Chemical industries from the standpoint of the nation and the world. 
By-products, economy. Interrelations of theory and practice ; synthetic 
chemistry, the microscope in metallurgy, &c. 

(o) Inorganic and organic chemistry. Families of elements and compounds. 
The periodic table of the elements. The new elements. 



By William Aldbidge, Headmaster, Shepton Mallet Grammar School. 

The school in which the work here described is carried on is an old 
endowed Grammar School, founded in 1627, which was reconstituted and trans- 
ferred to new buildings nearly twenty years ago. The commencement of the 
experiment in rural education in this school was coeval with this change, and 
the work has been continued ever since. For the first few years aid' was 
given by the County Council alone, but grants were afterwards obtained from 
the Science and Art Department, and ultimately the school came under the 
Board of Education, which, however, refused to give a special grant under 
Article 39 of the Regulations for Secondary Schools, on the ground that the 
work was no longer an educational experiment but was a proved success. 

The scheme has undergone modifications since its inception, but the position 
reached is roughly outlined below, and there is no doubt as to its efficiency 
as a means of general education. 

The underlying motive of the scheme is to vivify the class-room teaching 
by bringing it into intimate contact with the out-of-school life of the district 
in which the pupils move, thereby making the pupil an interested learner, 
developing into an accurate, observant, reasoning, and adaptable man, with 
bodily, mental, and spiritual faculties developed to the fullest possible extent. 

The school is situated in a small market-town of 5,000 inhabitants, served 
by two lines of railway. The number of pupils has varied from fourteen at 
the start to eight-five, and now averages about seventy to seventy-five boys, aged 
eight to eighteen, of whom all, except at most half-a-dozen, are day boys. About 
two-thirds of the total come from surrounding towns and villages. The chief 
industries of the locality comprise farming (milk, cheese, butter, and cider 
making, with little arable land), brewing, quarrying, coal-mining, a little 
lime-burning, brick-making, and the manufacture of lace-making machinery. 
The school staff consists of the headmaster and four assistants, who receive 
occasional help in the more technical portions of the science course from the 
county experts in agriculture and horticulture. 

The buildings comprise a main block, including headmaster's house and 
three class-rooms, cloak-room, lc, and a detached block containing workshop, 
physical and chemical laboratories, lecture-room, balance-room, and store- 
rooms. The physical laboratory is also used for practical botany, but experi- 
ments in this connection are also set up in the lecture-rooms and chemical 

Out-of-doors about two-fifths of an acre are devoted to experimental and 
demonstration plots, and there is a meteorological station. Formerly the plots 
included gardens cultivated by individual boys, but they proved to be unsatis- 
factory and of little real educational value, and were ultimately abandoned. 
A model fruit plantation has been substituted. The boys are not called upon 
to do much manual labour in connection with these plots, but they use them 
largely for experimental and observational work. 

For science work the school may be divided into three main divisions — 
Preparatory, Middle, and Upper — and a boy spends an average of three years 
in the Middle Division after reaching the age of twelve years. The following 
is the division of time in class which has been found to give satisfactory 
results : — ■ 

Preparatory Division, 8-12 years old. — Religious knowledge, 1£ hour per 
week ; English subjects, including reading, writing, spelling, grammar, composi- 
tion, history, geography, 15 hours; arithmetic. 7£ hours; physical exercises 
(excluding organised games), % hour; art and music (singing), 2{ hours: 
science, \' 2 hour. 

Middle Division, 12-15 years.— Literary subjects, including religious know- 
ledge, English, geography, history, 7£ hours; mathematics, 6 hours; language 
(French), 3£ hours; manual tiv.d physical training (apart from organised 
games), 3 hours; science, G hours; art and music 2^ hours. 


Upper Division, 15-18 years.— Literary subjects, 9 hours; mathematics, 
6 hours; language, 5^ hours; science, 6 hours; physical training, § hour; art, 
1^ hour. 

In the Preparatory Division the science taken is of an informal character, 
such as that usually included under the term 'Nature Study.' The object 
of the course is to stir up interest in Nature at large, and to develop the 
observational and descriptive powers. Plants, animals, insects, natural 
phenomena, simple experiments in mechanics, chemistry, physics, &c, are all 
drawn upon to furnish subject-matter. Scientific terms are, as a rule, avoided, 
but accuracy of observation and of description are demanded. The lessons 
usually take the form of a conversation between the teacher and the class on 
the specimens to be described, or the experiment to be observed. It is a general 
rule all through the school that every observation made or answer given shall 
be a complete sentence grammatically constructed, and ' No ' or ' Yes ' without 
amplification is never accepted as a satisfactory reply. Sketches are frequently 
made in the course of the lesson, and the information gained is often utilised 
in the next lesson on English composition or a question upon it is set to be 
answered as home-work. The boys frequently suggest subjects for future 
lessons, and the indoor lessons sometimes develop into country rambles and 
scientific excursions with a definite object in view on half-holidays. Outdoor 
lessons in class hours are not usual. They have been found unsatisfactory, as 
there are too many distractions and much valuable time is lost. 

In the Middle Division science becomes more systematic ; the system is 
not, however, that of the text-book, but is determined by the underlying 
principle that the elements of botany, physics, chemistry, &c, shall be made 
to throw as much light on country life as possible. The various subjects are 
therefore blended more or less into a whole and not kept in watertight com- 
partments. For convenience, chemistry, physics, and botany are treated 
separately in different lessons, but one period per week is devoted to what 
is called ' Eural Economy '■ — an application of scientific knowledge to the 
elucidation of the mysteries of rural life. 

The outlines of the chemistry, course at this 6tage aTe published and need 
not be repeated here. (See ' A First Course in Practical Chemistry for Rural 
Secondary Schools,' published by G. Bell & Sons, Is. 6d.) 

The physics course begins with a general lesson or two on matter and 
its properties, and proceeds with heat — expansion, liquefaction, vaporisation, 
conduction, radiation, absorption — temperature and its measurement; heat as a 
form of energy — its production by chemical and physical means — its measure- 
ment — specific heat — latent heat ; anomalous behaviour of water with respect 
to heat and its importance in the economy of nature — vapour pressure — boiling ; 
atmospheric moisture — its measurement — effect on barometric height — the con- 
nection of the barometer with weather phenomena, &c. 

General Physic* and Mechanics. — Methods of measurement — mass — density — 
flotation — osmosis — surface tension — capillarity — fluid pressures — siphon — pumps 
■ — hydraulic press — barometer — Boyle's and Charles' Laws — levers — pulleys — 
work — time and its measurements — friction (how minimised in machinery) — 
inclined plane — parallelogram and triangle of forces — motion — velocity — 
acceleration — momentum, &c. 

Botany. — The structure of a plant so far as observable with a pocket lens. 
Seeds and seedlings — roots, their structure and work — stems, branching, buds, 
effects of pruning — the green leaf and its work— flowers, essential and non- 
essential parts, their use and importance — fruits, how formed, uses, dispersal, 
life-histories of common plants and weeds. How plants feed — comparison of 
plants, leading to a system of natural classification — contents of plant cells — 
enzymes and their work — the nutrition of plants and animals compared — repro- 
duction processes, &c. 

Rural Economy. — Soil, its origin, composition — agents of denudation — work 
of lowly animal and plant life in formation of soil — characteristics of sand, 
clay, silt, lime, humus — heavy and light soils — soil and subsoil — why differ- 
ences — food materials of plants, how and whence obtained — fertility, how 


maintained — tillage — reasons for operations — effects on soil moisture, soil air, 
soil temperature, plant food, &c. — chemical knowledge applied to manuring 
and its principles — farmyard dung— chemical fertilisers, their composition 3 , 
production, and mode of action — application of scientific principles to farm 
operations, e.g. haymaking, grazing, ensilage — bacteria, yeasts, moulds and their 
work — nitrification and densification — souring of milk — putrefaction — decay — 
ripening of cheese — souring of cider — sterilisation — pasteurisation — preserva- 
tives — plant diseases and pests — remedies and preventives, &e. 

The above is not an exhaustive syllabus, but it gives an idea of subjects 
treated, though not of the order in which they are taken up. The lessons con- 
sist of conversations and discussions carried on in connection with specimens, 
experiments, demonstrations, diagrams, and so forth. The whole is treated in 
an experimental and descriptive manner, and the connection with local indus- 
tries and phenomena is constantly kept in view. Laboratory work goes en in con- 
nection with the course, but, except in chemistry and botany, no attempt is 
made to keep lecture discussions and practical work together. In the physical 
laboratory the course commences with practical mathematical measurements 
and verification of mensuration formulae, and then proceeds to determinations of 
volumes, densities, &c, llotation, hydrometers and their uses — mechanics and 
simple machines — capillarity, surface tension, friction, gravitational and other 
forces, and so on, always keeping the fundamental object of the course in view 
and choosing objects and illustrations in accordance therewith. The object of 
each experiment is stated, results obtained, and finally a full description of 
the method followed is written out in pencil at the bench, deductions and 
inferences are drawn, sources of error are sought for, and their effects esti- 
mated. As a rule each boy, or pair of boys, has a separate problem from his 

As a sample outline of a lesson in ' Rural Economy ' — suppose the subject 
is Foiling, which the boys have seen proceeding in the meadows early in March 
as they came to school. The investigation probably brings out the following 
points : — Smooth surface — hoof-marks of animals — presses in stones (how came 
they to surface? lifted by frost — laid bare by washing of rain, &c), hence 
minimises risk to mowing machine later on — makes surface firm — loosened by 
winter frost; effect on capillarity — capillary tubes made finer, therefore water 
rises to top; effect on evaporation — air usually moist at this season, therefore 
slight ; effect on soil temperature — evaporation causes cooling tendency — tight 
soil a better conductor than loose soil — sun beginning to have more power — 
tends to make soil warmer — total of effects, warming; effect on plants — warmth 
causes more rapid growth — roots in loosened soil would tend to be short of 
food and to be dried up and withered — seedling grasses pressed into soil and 
enabled to grow — shoots broken — causes dormant buds to grow out — result, a 
thicker and more abundant crop of grass. Effect on conservation al soluble 
plant food formed during winter — capillarity keeps it near roots. Why do we 
HOW start rolling the cricket pitch? 

The whole of the information can be elicited from the class by serial 

Up to this point few text-books have been used, but note-books contain 
summaries of all lessons and home-work exercises on them. In the course of 
the lessons interesting facts about the history of science and its pioneers are 
given as occasion arises. 

In, the higher division text-books are used more freely and the different 
branches of science are followed out still more systematically; but the under- 
lying principle of the course is never forgotten, and applications of the facts 
are constantlv demanded. Heat, light, and sound, studied as forms of energy, 
and magnetism and electricity are taken in alternate years. Chemistry is 
further developed, and botany is revised and extended to include plant 
ecology and the study of some of the commoner orders. Soil physics and soil 
biology are further developed, and the chemistry is applied to crops, animals 
and .animal products, feeding stuffs, manures. &c. Enough animal physiology 
is given to enable boys to understand the digestive and feeding processes in 
animals, and to compare these processes with those in plants, bringing out the 
fundamental difference that plants in total store up energy, and animals in the 


total liberate and use that energy in various ways. An outline of the 
chemistry of foods and the principles upon which animals are fed is dealt with 
(the boy's own body being the specimen usually under immediate consideration). 
The reproductive process is traced through plants, and the principles of 
breeding can thus be dealt -with in systematic order, while many valuable 
lessons can be impressed without difficulty. 

The laboratory work takes on a character more closely resembling research 
work, and sometimes deals with problems connected with soils, plants, feeding 
materials, manures, milk and milk-products, &c, requiring the application of 
knowledge and methods previously studied in some other connection. The lines 
along which such studies are to be conducted are usually suggested by the 
master, but may be modified by the pupil at his discretion. 

In the physical laboratory the exercises are connected with the branch of 
science under study, and the compound microscope is now used in the study 
of botany. 

Meteorological instruments, soil temperatures, &C, are read and recorded 
daily, with occasional discussion of the meaning and explanation of the records. 

The school has a Natural History Club. Excursions are frequent. Regular 
meetings are held at which boys read papers which usually embody their own 
observations and are illustrated in their own ways. These meetings and 
excursions take place out of school hours. 




By I. M. Drummond, Headmistress, Camden School, formerly Science Mistress, 

North London Collegiate School; and R. Stern, Science Mistress, North 

London Collegiate School. 

(Average time given about three hours per week from twelve years of age.) 

I. Ages up to 11 or 12.— The power of clear, logical reasoning makes rapid 

strides about the age of twelve, and this, therefore, would seem the most 

suitable age at which to begin a definite course of experimental science. This 

by no means precludes the study of natural phenomena before this stage. 

Indeed, such study must begin as soon as a child wakens to interest in the 

world around her. Science for these younger children will take the form of 

observations on, and very simple experiments with, growing plants, caring 

for animals, and watching them ; recording observations on sun, sky, and 

weather; investigating the structure of simple machines in daily use, and 

finding out how they work. The material should be as varied as possible, and 

should follow, as far as this can be done, the interest of the children at the 

moment, the continuity of work throughout a course of lessons being, as a 

rule, a minor consideration. 

II. Ages 12 and 13. — When regular work in the laboratory first begins at 
about the age of twelve the lessons must necessarily become more systematic. 
The main objects of the teacher at this stage will be : — 

(a) To encourage the natural inventiveness of the child and to help her to 
direct it towards definite ends. 

(o) To encourage her to give practical expression to her ideas by her own 
manipulative skill. 

(c) To help her to distinguish between observed facts and the inferences to 
be drawn from them, and to express herself accurately in written records. 

The problems must be closely connected with the everyday life of the child, 
and at first should be so simple that an experiment, complete in itself as far as 
it goes, can be carried out in a single lesson. The power to follow a line of 
argument, and to draw inferences by collating the results of several experi- 
ments, comes at a later stage. Easy problems relating to simple mechanical 
appliances, flotation, pressure of liquids and gases, effect of heat on sub- 
stances, its method of transmission and its measurement, all form excellent 
material. The method of attack and the actual choice of problems may vary 
widely. Some teachers may begin with the investigation of an actual instru- 
ment; others prefer to begin with a discussion of the phenomenon of weight, 
leading the children to realise at the outset how little they know as to what 
weight really is, but that they have some knowledge to start with in their 
experience that one body is harder to lift than another, and that one presses 
more heavily on the hand than another. The idea of a downward force is thus 
obtained, and methods of measuring it may be discussed. The impossibility 
of making accurate comparisons by means of feeling the weights leads to the 
devising of a simple instrument. The pull on a bit of elastic may be measured, 
and a realisation of the imperfections of this instrument, owing to incomplete 
elasticity, will lead up to the spring balance. Other methods of comparing 
weights lead up to the see-saw, and so on to the structure of the kitchen scale* 
and the laboratory balance. The value of a piece of fine and delicate machinery 
is thus appreciated and it is treated with respect. A comparison of the 
weights of different objects leads rapidly to the need for a standard or unit 
of weight. 

Experiments with the see-saw show the result of altering the position of the 
fulcrum, and this leads on to levers and experiments on mechanical advantage. 
Pulleys and inclined planes will now naturally be experimented with. Obser 
vations will be made on the working of pickaxes, cranes, wheel and axle, and 
so forth. Models may be made by the children, and many problems may be 
answered by their own experiments, as, for example, if a loaded wheelbarrow 

1917. ' n 


has to be raised to a certain height, is it better to have a short steep slope or 
a longer and more gradual one ? 

A study of notation may very naturally develop from such a course as 
this. Why do some bodies float on water and others sink ? Why do some 
bodies float higher in the water than others? Why do bodies float higher in 
salt than in fresh water ? Is any of the weight of a body that sinks supported 
by the water? These will be among the questions asked and answered by 
experiments. They will lead up to an understanding of relative density, and 
of the Principle of Archimedes. When the principle has been grasped, prac- 
tical applications should be worked out, calculations being made and the 
results tested by experience. The weight of cargo which it is safe for a boat 
to carry, or the size of a cork life-belt necessary to support a person, are 
problems which, even if toy boats and tin soldiers are used, help the children 
both to grasp the practical value of the knowledge gained and also to appre- 
ciate the need for accuracy. 

The fact that ice floats on water may well lead on here to investigations 
into (1) changes of density and volume produced in substances by change of 
temperature, (2) change of state, together with the influence of pressure upon 
it, (3) some methods of transmission of heat, and (4) means of measuring 
temperature and heat. Plotting curves of temperature for the heating of 
water over a flame till it boils, and for the cooling of melted paraffin wax, will 
give the idea of latent heat. The heating of a definite weight of water by the 
immersion in it of given weights of different substances at the same tempera- 
ture will give the idea of specific heat, and these conceptions may now be 
developed in their geographical and practical bearings. Discussions as to the 
methods of heating buildings and obtaining hot-water supply, the working of 
a cooking-box, &c, will naturally arise during this course. 

Flotation in the air will lead on to an estimate of the weight of air by 
the method of driving it from a flask by boiling water, and this to the idea 
of pressure of the air. The experiments of Torricelli and the work of Boyle 
on the ' Spring of the Air ' may here be considered in historical order, and 
different form6 of barometer, pumps, siphons, and so forth may be studied. 
A consideration of winds and of weather charts will here, again, form a link 
with geography. 

At this stage a continuous piece of investigation necessitating the framing 
of tentative inferences or hypotheses, and the testing of these by further experi- 
ment, becomes increasingly possible, and helps greatly to deepen the under- 
standing of the method of development of scientific knowledge. Many 
chemical problems form excellent material. Amongst others, the problem as 
to what we understand by burning arises very naturally out of work already 

Preliminary questioning as to what burning is will usually lead to the sug- 
gestion that it consists in a partial or complete disappearance or ' consuming ' 
of the object burned. Experiments with match, candle, &c, seem to confirm 
this ; the weighing of magnesium before and after burning discredits it, and 
demands, therefore, further investigation. The fact that some member of the 
class has probably observed the magnesium glow more brightly on the lid of 
the crucible being removed, suggests that air influences burning and may cause 
the increase of weight. The question then arises, does the air then diminish ? 
Burning magnesium in a crucible floating on water under a bell-glass shows 
that it does. Therefore the magnesium calx must represent magnesium and 
air. Why has the whole air not disappeared ? Suggestions that this may 
bo due to insufficient magnesium being burned must be put to the test, and the 
properties of the gas left compared with the properties of the air to begin with. 
Details of Priestley's and Lavoisier's experiments with the red calx of mercury 
may now be given for comparison, and the red calx heated by the pupils. Other 
substances may then be dealt with, e.g., carbon. Carbon disappears. Is a new 
gas formed? Collection of the air above the heated carbon and testing of this, 
together with ordinary air, by a match, by litmus, and by lime-water, reveal 
the fact that a new gas has appeared. Probably someone, in the effort to 
collect the gas, has failed to get the carbon to disappear, owing to heating 
it in too limited a supply of air; this will lead to the suggestion that the 


carbon also unites with oxygen. Heating small quantities in oxygen and 
nitrogen will reveal the fact that no new gas is formed in the latter case, while 
it is formed abundantly in the former. A further confirmatory experiment may 
be made by the burning of magnesium in carbon dioxide. 

The candle can now be more thoroughly investigated, the decrease in volume 
of air demonstrated by burning it over water under a bell-jar, and the products 
of combustion found. This will naturally lead to the question — Is water an 
oxide? and its composition may be proved by the burning of magnesium 
powder in steam, with the formation of magnesium oxide and a new gas, 

A closely knit piece of work of this kind, in which fresh materials and 
facte are arbitrarily introduced by the teacher as little as possible, is of the 
utmost value. The girls may be left very free to suggest and carry out their 
own experiments, the class being pulled together from time to time by dis- 
cussion, summarising of results, and formulation of fresh problems. Variety 
of method will enable different members of the class to make their own 
individual contributions to the discussion, and excellent practice in clear 
exposition may be given by allowing one member who has performed a par- 
ticularly useful experiment to demonstrate to the whole class and be questioned 
by the others. 

III. Ages 14 and 15. — As adolescence progresses the mind rapidly expands, 
and more or less consciously craves wide horizons and bread and generous 
views. Very simple astronomy, giving some idea of our present knowledge of 
the Universe and how it has been attained, may be made a most fruitful and 
stimulating study at this stage. While it must be in large part didactic, it can 
be taught in such a way that the pupils' own observations, supplemented by 
diagrams and lantern slides, are used as the groundwork, and the gradual 
accumulation of observed fact and consequent modification of opinion can be 
appreciated. An historical treatment is at the same time both helpful to a 
clear understanding and very rich in human interest. 

The following practical work can easily be done by girls of this age, in 
a school situated in a district not too liable to fogs, if the work is begun 
in the autumn term. The observations must of necessity be made out of school 
and must constantly be discussed and checked in class. 

1. Identification of the chief constellations ; observation of the fact that the 
fixed stars and constellations keep the same relative position but trace out a 
circle round the Pole Star complete in twenty-four hours ; and that the whole 
scenery of the sky shifts its position as the seasons progress. 

2. Identification of such planets as may be visible ; the keeping of careful 
charts to show the apparent movement of one which moves in a larger, and 
one which moves in a smaller, orbit than the earth. 

3. Observations on time of rising and setting, position of rising and setting, 
and path across sky of sun and moon. 

4. Phases of the moon. 

With a small telescope or even very good field-glasses the work can be 
greatly extended, the nebula in Orion which can just be detected by the naked 
eye can be found with certainty ; the surface of the moon can be studied ; the 
moons of Jupiter can be found, their movements observed ; and the fact dis- 
covered that whereas the planets can be magnified to appear as discs, the fixed 
stars cannot. 

It is important that the observational work should get well ahead of the 
lessons which deal with its interpretation, and there is no difficulty in this 
as at first a good deal of help will have to be given in suggesting points for 
observation, in criticism of charts, and so forth. Early ideas with regard to 
the earth, sun, and stars may be described, and possible interpretations of the 
girls' own observations of the apparent movements of the fixed stars and 
of the sun discussed. It is important that, at the outset, they should fealise 
the possibility of the movement being regarded as either real or only apparent, 
and what the acceptance of either theory would involve. They are then pre- 
pared to follow with zest the interpretations given by Ptolemy, Kepler and 
Copernicus, to sympathise with those who still doubted the real movement of 



the earth, and to be thrilled at the discovery of the parallax of some of the 
fixed stars. The scope of the course must vary greatly with the ability of the 
class and with its mathematical knowledge, but it must not only deal with the 
solar system, but give an idea of the magnitude of the Universe as a whole. 
Theories of the origin of the solar system, the history of the earth and its 
movements, may lead naturally to a discussion of the seasons, of early modifi- 
cations of the earth's crust, and of the great wind belts. 

Such a course as this may run concurrently with a course of experimental 
work on light, the two sets of lessons being constantly linked together. 
Very simple experiments showing propagation of light in straight lines, 
formation of shadows, reflection and refraction will lead on to the study of 
the eye, and of optical instruments and their use in the observatory. Colour, 
the wave theory of light, and means of measuring the velocity of light can 
also be simply dealt with. 

IV. Ages 15 and 16. — During the last two years of the general school course 
the pupils should be introduced to some of the theories -which dominate 
scientific thought at the present day. They should realise how great theories 
grow — the industrious collection of data, the leap forward of some master- 
mind to grasp the deeper truth which underlies and unifies the apparently 
disconnected facts, the laborious process of verification, (a) The object of the 
first term's work is to bring forward the wide conception that all forms of 
energy are convertible one into another, and that the great mechanical devices 
which have been invented are methods of converting the forms of energy into 
the most useful kind for any special piece of work. It may also form an intro- 
duction to the study of magnetism and electricity and show how the electric 
power used in every-day life is generated. For example, it is quite easy to 
measure the mechanical equivalent of heat, to show how chemical energy can 
be used to generate electric energy, and to show how electric energy can cause 
chemical change. In the study of the dynamo, magnetic and electric energy 
can be shown to help each other and to produce heat, light, and mechanical 
work. This will lead to a discussion of the working of electric trams, the 
production of electric light, and of much else, (b) The object of this part of 
the course is to obtain experimental results which lead on to an understanding 
of the general theories with regard to the constitution of matter. 

The experiments can be made to develop in a logical sequence starting from 
the study of air and the oxides. They can be carried out both qualitatively 
and quantitatively, leading to the knowledge of the quantitative nature of 
chemical action and also to the properties of many substances — e.g. , acids, 
alkalies, and salts. Equivalent weights of some of the elements may be found 
by simple but accurate work. 

A possible arrangement of this experimental work is as follows : — ■ 

1. Chemical changes caused by heating substances in air. 

2. Chemical changes due to heating substances out of contact with air. 

3. Chemical changes due to the action of substances on each other. 

When new substances are discovered their properties can be investigated and 
the history of the discovery in many cases given. 

An important bit of work which should not be omitted in a course of this 
kind is the application of chemical properties of substances used in every- 
day life — e.g. , the softening of water, the preparation of explosives and fertilis- 
ing agents, the comparison of baking-soda and washing-soda, the manufacture 
of matches.. &c. But these will be side issues. 

The collection of experimental results and a discussion of the explanation of 
these will give rise to an historical treatment of the molecular and atomic 
theory, Dalton's work being dealt with. The newer theories of the constitution 
of matter and their bearing on the older theories may then be discussed. The 
theoretical explanation of many results obtained in the early part of the course 
now becomes evident, and facts which had hitherto appeared disconnected and 
comparatively meaningless are suddenly seen to be intimately connected and 
interdependent ; a new mental outlook is reached which both transforms the 
view of knowledge already obtained and suggests fresh problems to attack. 

V. Ages 17 and 18. — No girl should leave school without some acquaintance 


with the laws of health based upon a knowledge of the working of a living 
body. It is preferable that this should be given at a late stage in the school 
course, both on account of the greater maturity of mind and body which 
has been attained, and also because sound elementary knowledge of physics 
and chemistry is a necessary antecedent. It is best to put such a course 
between the years of 17 and 18, and it might well be given to all at this 
age, even if specialisation has begun; where, however, the majority of girls 
leave when they are about 16, some part of it at least should be allowed to 
run concurrently with Science lower down the school. It should, if possible, 
be prefaced by a course of general elementary biology, and in any case as much 
experimental and observational work should be introduced as will give the girls 
an understanding of the metabolism of a green plant, a fungoid plant, and an 
animal, transformation of energy being dealt with as well as transformation of 
matter, and the interdependence of the three types being clearly brought out. 
The actual processes in the human body may be dealt with more in detail, the 
work being given a definitely human trend and used, not only to instruct the 
girls in personal hygiene, but still more to give some knowledge of the social 
problems of the present day. Thus the nutrition of the body leads directly to a 
consideration of dietaries and to the effect of an insufficient or badly balanced 
diet, and this especially in the case of growing children. The function of 
respiration will lead to a consideration of methods of ventilation and to the 
harm inevitably resulting from lack of ventilation and from overcrowding. 
This will be followed by some consideration of present housing conditions in 
town and country, the powers of local authorities in the matter and steps 
already taken for improvement. The functions of nerve and brain lead to the 
influence of narcotics and stimulants and also to the study of fatigue. An 
account of the growth of legislation with regard to work in factories and to 
child labour naturally follows. 

This last course goes considerably beyond the work usually undertaken by 
the Science Mistress, but it is very valuable that such questions should be 
studied in a scientific manner and with a sound scientific background. It is 
of the utmost importance that the general mass of citizens shall learn to think 
more biologically on such questions, and this link between live human interests 
and their scientific studies is invaluable for the girls. 

In every school course much is necessarily omitted, but it is understood that 
voluntary work done in connection with school societies will supplement the 
laboratory teaching to some extent. Thus through a Field Club may be given 
familiarity with common plants and their habitats, or, again, a knowledge of 
the geological structure of the neighbourhood with its effect on scenery and on 




By Lilian J. Clarke, Senior Science Mistress, James Allen's Girls' School, 


The following scheme of science -work has been thought out and adopted in 
a large secondary school for girls, but it is not put forward as one to be 
followed by all. Each teacher must herself decide what is best suited to the 
special conditions of the school in which she works. The school in which this 
scheme is followed is an endowed day school containing nearly 400 girls, who 
are allowed to enter at the age of seven, and may stay until they are nineteen. 
Special permission is needed for girls to remain after they reach the age of 

Post-matriculation work in botany and chemistry is taken by some girls, 
but details of the general or pre-matriculation science course only are here given. 
For many reasons great value is attached to the study of botany; and botany 
is the science to which most time is given ; it was felt, however, to be so 
essential that all girls should have some knowledge of physics and chemistry 
that half the time given to science in the three forms of the Middle School 
(two hours per week) is allotted to elementary physics and chemistry, and 
half to botany. Every girl who passes through the school studies elementary 
physics and chemistry for three years. 

In the classes above the Middle School, all the time allotted to science is 
given to botany, but lately a voluntary class has been arranged, so that girls 
wishing to continue the study of elementary physics and chemistry may do so 
on one afternoon a week. 

The aim throughout is for the work in both botany and chemistry to be 
thoroughly practical; the girls have, therefore, to make their own experiments. 
After experiments have been carried out the results obtained by each girl are 
received and tabulated and conclusions are then drawn from these results by the 
whole class. If some results are in opposition to the greater number they are 
carefully examined, and the girls themselves often suggest possible explanations 
of the discrepancies. 

No text-books are used, but each girl in the Upper Forms possesses a small 

In the botany classes the plants are studied mainly as living things by 
means of observations and experiments. Drawings are made from actual 
specimens and experiments, and not from drawings on the blackboard. 

Microscopes are not used by girls taking the pre-specialisation science course, 
except in the highest classes, where the structure of a green cell, a stomate, and 
a leaf are studied. 

Great help has been derived in the study of botany from the botany 
gardens which have been gradually made in response to the needs of the 
botany teaching in the laboratory. As a rule two girls are responsible for a 
garden ; and every year the girls change their gardens. The work in the 
botany gardens each year is determined by the nature of the work in the 
laboratory, and the indoor and out-of-door work are closely connected. So far 
as possible the girls choose the gardens for which they will be responsible. 

No time is allowed in the actual school hours for gardening (except in the 
case of a few girls responsible for vegetable gardens) : the girls look after their 
gardens in the mid-morning and mid-day recesses. The work is voluntary, but 
so many applications are received for botany gardens that the difficulty has 
been to provide gardens for all who wished to have them. 

The science work of the pre-specialisation period may be divided roughly into 
three stages, namely : — 

Division I. — The -work in the younger forms, before a course of systematic 
science is begun. 

Division II. — The work in the Middle School, where definite courses of 
botany, and elementary physics and chemistry, are taken. 


Division III. — The work in the Upper Forms, where botany is the only 
science studied as a regular class subject. 

Division I. 

Age of girls, seven to eleven approximately. Average time per week, 
| hour. 

The work varies in different years : an account of what is done in a 
particular year is given below : — 

Land plants and animals in school gardens. Water plants and animals in 
school gardens. Trees in winter, spring, summer. Study of common weeds, 
with special reference to the reasons for their success in competition with other 
plants. Simple descriptions of flowers. Stages in life-histories of various 
plants grown by the girls in their own plots. Study of fruits in the lane and 
wood of botany gardens, and various methods of dispersal of seeds observed in 
the botany gardens and elsewhere. 

Division II. 

Science in the Middle School — a three years' course. Age of girls eleven to 
fourteen approximately. 

A. Elementary physics and chemistry. B. Botany. Total amount of time 
given, two hours per week in each of the three Forms. (One and a-half hour a 
week has lately been given to elementary physics and chemistry, and no time 
allowed for "homework ; one hour a week, as in former years, being given to 

A. General Elementary Course in Physics and Chemistry. 

So far as possible all girls, working in pairs, carry out separate experiments 
along the lines indicated, enter during the lesson all measurements taken, make 
sketches of apparatus, and learn to express themselves accurately and concisely 
in written records. Some experiments are, of necessity, demonstrations. 

The course need not follow the prescribed lines, and is open to modification 
by the girls themselves ; the ground can generally be covered, though the 
details may vary. The spirit of experimental inquiry is always encouraged, 
and the girls are led to depend upon the results they themselves obtain. 

I. First Year. 

Elementary Physics and Mensuration. 

(The mensuration is partly taken in arithmetic lessons.) 

(a) Measurement of Length. — The measurement of the straight edges of a 
variety of objects in English and metric units. The measurement of the curved 
lines of a variety of objects. The discovery of the ratio ir. 

(b) Measurement of Area (English and metric units). — Areas of rectangles, 
triangles, parallelograms, and circles; first from drawings on squared paper. 
Simple examples of the division of irregular areas into known figures. The 
making of plans to scale (maps). Measurement of the surface area of some 
common solids. 

(c) Measurement of Volume. The units of volume (from actual models). — 
The volumes of rectangular blocks, prisms and cylinders. The volumes of 
irregular solids (floating and non-floating) by the method of displacement. 

(d) The unit of weight being given, the simple lever (see-saw) is examined 
and the Law of Moments arrived at. The application of this principle and the 
use and construction of the Beam Balance follows. The densities of some 
solids (the volumes have been previously measured) is found ; also the densities 
of some common liquids. Archimedes' Principle is then discovered, and some 
of its applications are discussed (the principle of ship-loading and Phmsoll s 
mark is introduced). The specific gravity of some solids and liquids is found 
by varying methods, and seen to be useful as a means of identification and of 
determining purity. . . 

(e) Atmospheric Pressure.— Simple experiments on the pressure of the air 
Measurement of air pressure. Barometers. A barometer chart is kept and 
observations are made of wind and weather. 


Simple experiments follow on the vapour pressure of water and of methylated 
spirit at different temperatures. Conditions determining evaporation of water 
are discussed, and the application of this to everyday life (drying of clothes, &c). 

(/) Other Physical Properties of the Air. — Air is seen to possess weight. 
Air is seen to expand when heated and contract when cooled. Its density is 
roughly determined. 

II. Second Year. 
Elementary Chemistry. 

The rction of air on a variety of common substances, suggested by the 
class, is examined, the balance being used. Iron — having shown an increase 
in weight — is left to rust in an enclosed space. The air is thus seen to consist 
of at least two gases — active and inactive, so far as burning and rusting are 
concerned — called oxygen and nitrogen. 

A candle, phosphorus, and other combustible substances are burned in an 
enclosed space and observations recorded. Increase in weight of phosphorus is 
discovered on burning it in a tube plugged with asbestos. 

Phosphorus burned in a closed vessel shows no change in weight until the 
vessel is opened. The Law of the Conservation of Matter is thus illustrated. 

Various metals are heated in the air, and observations recorded. The pro- 
cesses of rusting and burning are compared, and a definite statement of the 
composition of air is arrived at; also a first insight into the differences between 
mixtures and compounds. 

Two oxides easily decomposed by heat (red lead and mercury oxide) are 
examined ; and oxygen tested for. Potassium chlorate is also found to yield 
oxygen on heating, and, with manganese dioxide, is used in the preparation of 
the gas. 

Various metals and non-metals are burned in the oxygen prepared, and, 
when possible, the oxides are dissolved and their solutions tested with litmus. 

Thus a chemical distinction between metals and non-metals is arrived at. 
The terms Element, Compound, Mixture are discussed. 

The work of Priestley and Lavoisier is briefly described, together with an 
outline of the development of theories relating to combustion. 

The properties of Acids are next examined, especially their corrosive action 
on metals (suggested by the known effect of vinegar on a steel knife). A 
new explosive gas [Hydrogen) is discovered ; and green vitriol and white 
vitriol are prepared and examined. A chemical change is seen to have taken 
place when the metal dissolved in acid. Heat was evolved. Hydrogen is 
prepared and its properties examined. The formation of a mist after 
exploding or burning the gas suggests that its oxide is a liquid, and an 
apparatus is set up for collecting hydrogen oxide. Some of the physical and 
chemical properties of the liquid so made are examined and compared -with 
those of the only other known liquid which is colourless, tasteless, odourless, 
and neutral. The oxide of hydrogen is thus proved to be water (synthetical 

By using 6odium, potassium, magnesium, and other metals with water or 
steam, the chemical composition of water is further confirmed, and the alkaline 
hydroxides are met with again. 

Water is also analysed by the use of an electric current, and the volume 
relationship of the gases composing it is established. 

III. Third Year. 
Elementary Physics and Chemistry. 

The various physical changes undergone by water under the influence of 
heat are observed, and some of the laws of heat thus taught incidentally. 

Other substances (liquids, gases, metals, and glass) are found to expand 
with heat. 

Methylated spirit is found to expand more than water for the same amount 
of heat. The construction of a Thermometer is explained, and scales of tem- 
perature are compared. Convection is found to take place in air as well as in 


Ventilation and the heating of buildings by hot-water pipes are studied in 
the light of this knowledge. 

Conduction of heat is seen in metals, and the conductivity of copper and 
iron is compared. Wire gauze is seen to cool a flame below the ignition point 
of the gas. The historical application of this in the Davy lamp is explained. 
Air and water are found to be bad conductors. Radiation is discussed very 
briefly, together with the general heating of the school building by radiators 
and fires. 

The effect of cooling water is observed, and attention is directed to the 
importance of the anomalous behaviour . of water on freezing. Reference is 
made to the bursting of pipes in winter, weathering of rocks, movement of 
glaciers, &c. 

Tap water is now examined, its solid and gaseous impurities being separately 
obtained and investigated. Carbon dioxide is discovered in the atmosphere, 
and also in the gas given off when tap water is boiled. 

The percentage volume of air dissolved in the laboratory water is measured 
and its composition determined. Reference is made to animals and plants 
living in water. 

Chalk — over which the London water has certainly passed — is examined ; 
also marble, and the ' furring ' from a kettle. 

Carbon dioxide is prepared, And a connection is discovered between the 
presence of this gas dissolved in tap water and the presence of chalk in the 

Lime is obtained from chalk, and the chemical constitution of chalk 

The action of air on lime is found ; hence the hardening of mortar. 

The sources of carbon dioxide and the means of renewing it from the air 
are discussed, and again the weathering of rocks is explained. 

The hardness of tap water, boiled tap water, and rain water is compared, 
and methods of softening are suggested and tried; among others, the effect 
of Washing soda is ascertained. The cleansing properties of this and other 
alkalies is examined. 

Acids and Alkalies are found to neutralise one another; salts are formed. 
(Common salt and potassium nitrate are prepared, and others as time allows.) 

At the close of this course voluntary classes are held for girls wishing to 
continue the study of chemistry, and during the next year they become 
acquainted with the preparation and properties of the three "chief mineral acids 
and of seme of the elements and compounds derived from them. They also 
make a series of simple quantitative experiments, which lead to an elementary 
introduction to the rudiments of chemical theory. 

B. Botany in the Middle School. One hour per week. 

1. Study of Plants in Lane in Botany Gardens.— The girls of the youngest 
class in this section are responsible for the care and develo)nnent of the lane 
in the botany gardens, and the work in the laboratory for the year is in close 
connection with the out-of-door work. 

The plants are examined in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. As often 
as possible the whole plant is taken. Drawings of the plant are made bv the 
girls, and detailed descriptions are given of various parts. In this way roots, 
underground stems, above-ground stems, foliage leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, 
and seedlings are studied in a simple way, and practice is obtained in making 
accurate drawings. Records are kept of the plants in the lane in successive 

Study of Plants in Wood in Botany Gardens.— In some years the girls in a 
class, parallel to that in which the girls are responsible "for the lane, have 
charge of a small wood and study, woodland plants. In other years the "iris 
of the class above this one may undertake the work. 

2. Study of Trees.— There has been planted in the gardens an example of 
every tree common in England ; also in the oak wood recently made there are 
numbers of oak trees and ash trees. With the help of these and twigs given 
by various people the girls are able to study trees. The following are some 
of the points taken : Branching (monopodial and sympodial) ; structure of buds; 
development of buds; structure of wood as seen with the naked eve; sections 


of dicotyledon stems and monocotyledon stems, ae seen with a hand lens ; 
lenticels; experiments to show passage of gases through lenticels. 

3. Pollination Experiments. — The girls have charge of many plots in which 
they grow plants which they use in pollination experiments. When the plants 
are bearing flower-buds, many botany lesson-times are spent in the garden. _ 

Experiments are first made to see if pollen is necessary for the formation of 
fruit, and the girls themselves usually suggest that another set of experiments 
should be made in order to see if the non-formation of fruit is due to shock 
caused by cutting out the stamens of the flower. Experiments are then made 
to see if self-pollination can take place in various plants. Many different genera 
are taken, and as many experiments made in each case ae time will allow. 

In the year 1916, after the girls had made experiments to see if pollen is 
necessary for the formation of fruit in a certain plant, and were comparing 
the results they had obtained with results obtained in previous years, they had 
the records of 500 experiments to consider before they drew any conclusions. 

The experiments in pollination afford good training in manipulation, in 
noting results of experiments, in comparing these results with other results, and 
in drawing conclusions from a large number of facts. 

After the results of a number of experiments have been noted and tabulated, 
references are made to Darwin's and Miiller's experiments in pollination ; and if 
the girls happen to have chosen any of the plants used in the experiments 
described in ' Cross- and Self -Fertilisation ' or ' The Fertilisation of Flowers,' 
they often hear the results obtained by Darwin and others and compare them 
with the results of their own experiments. 

4. Study of Fruits. — There are many opportunities for the girls to study 
and draw the fruits in the lane, the wood, the Order beds, and the pollination 
beds. The observations enable the fruits to be classified. Many opportunities 
for the study of dispersal of seeds are also found in the botany gardens. The 
girls find growing in their gardens plants which had not been planted by 
them ; and after the long holidays thousands of groundsel plants have been 
found in the wood. Dispersal of winged and plumed seeds and fruits by wind, 
and of hooked fruits by animals, are soon noted. Reference is made to Darwin's 
observations and experiments on the dispersal of seed, and many of the girls 
read the chapter on dispersal of seeds in ' Origin of Species.' 

Division III. 

Age of Girls, 14-17. Average time per week, 2^ hours. 

1. Detailed study of 6eeds and seedlings, leading to many experiments, are 
carried out by the girls themselves in laboratory and garden. Various 
dicotyledon and monocotyledon seeds are examined and drawn. Experiments 
are made to see in what gases seeds germinate, and if seeds germinate at all 
temperatures. After the germination of various seeds has been watched, and 
successive stages in the seedlings drawn to scale, simple experiments are made 
to see in what parts of the root and stem growth is most rapid, to find if 
roots can absorb solids, to trace the path of the water in the plant, to deter- 
mine the influence of light, gravity, and moisture on the direction of growth 
of roots, and the influence of light and gravity on the direction of .growth of 

Experiments are made by the girls to find what gas is given off by 
germinating seeds, and to determine if there is a rise of temperature when 
respiration takes place. 

Other experiments show what gas is given off by a green plant in the presence 
of light and carbon dioxide ; the formation of starch in a green plant in the 
presence of light and carbon dioxide ; the influence of light, warmth, and the 
presence of carbon dioxide and chlorophyll on the production of starch. 

Experiments are made to find whether a plant gives off water, to prove the 
presence of pores in leaves, to see from which side of a leaf more water is 
given off, and to measure the weight and volume of water given off by a plant 
in a certain time. 

The percentage of water and ash is found in plants, and then the composition 
of the ash is taken. Sometimes a girl in the Upper VI., specialising in science, 
may be able to analyse the ash ; but, failing this, an analysis of the ash by 


an expert is given to the girls. A list of elements constantly present in plants 
is thus obtained, and the girls can then find out by means of growing plants 
in food solutions which of those elements is necessary to the life of plants. 
Many perennials are grown in normal food solutions, and generations of plants 
that have never been in the soil have been reared. 

2. Climbing Plants. — The girls compare the rates of revolution of various 
twining plants, see if twining is influenced by the nature of the support, and 
make many other experiments. 

3. Classification. — Before the girls study classification they become familiar 
with many of the British plants growing in the lane, wood, heath, and pond 
of the botany gardens. When they are studying the Natural Orders they, have 
charge of the Order beds in the garden. 

4. Soil Experiments. — Experiments are made on soils from different parts 
of the botany gardens. Some of the experiments are : Comparison of the rates 
at which water passes down through various soils ; comparison of the rates at 
which water passes up through various soils ; comparison of the rates at which 
air passes through various soils ; determination of percentage of humus in 
various soils ; determination of some of the effects of the presence of humus. 

5. Ecology. 

(1) Water plants. 

(2) Freeh- water marsh plants. 

J" Pebble beach, 

(3) Sea-shore plants \ Sand dune, 

[ Salt marsh. 

(4) Heath and moorland plants. 

(5) Plants of oak wood. 

The botany gardens include a pond, fresh-water marshes, a pebble beach, a 
sand-dune, a salt marsh, a heath, and an oak wood, and in these the above 
plants are studied. In addition to the study of the structure of characteristic 
plants in these ecological gardens, many, interesting problems are taken, and 
original investigations can be made. For example, experiments are being made 
in the oak wood to investigate the gradual changes in the character of the soil, 
in the total evaporating power of the atmosphere, and in the light intensity 
as the trees develop more leaves ; and observations will be made of the effects of 
these changes on the ground vegetation. 




By Henry E. Armstrong. 
(The following suggestions for a series of practical food studies are very 
similar in form and purpose to those given in the schemes accepted by the 
Association in 1889 and 1890. This scheme was offered to the Association, pre- 
cisely in the form in which it is now printed, at the Norwich meeting in 1907 ; 
the Committee of Section L suggested that it should be published in full but 
this recommendation was not adopted by the Committee of Recommendations. 
My object was to aid teachers, especially in girls' schools, -who desired to 
develop a logical, comprehensive laboratory course of instruction based upon 
food materials. At the time I stated that the scheme was not half complete : it 
needs elaboration, especially on the physical, botanical and biological sides ; and 
had the slightest encouragement been given, I should have developed it. Its 
present belated appearance may perhaps serve to stimulate a few teachers to take 
up a line of work which is certainly of promise, if only it be pursued in a 
proper scientific spirit. My desire has been to see a "scheme of instruction 
gradually introduced into girls' education which will make them scientific 
observers and thinkers in relation to all home matters : if this position were 
gained, they would stand on an intellectual plane far higher than that they now 

Study of Food. 
At the outset, children might be asked what they know about food — what people 
take as food — to draw up a list of foods, arranging the different kinds together 
according &s they are vegetable, animal, etc. — to think what infants live on 
(milk and air) • what is the simplest food we can live on when we have teeth 
(bread and water and air) ; that if butter or dripping (fat) be added to bread, it 
becomes improved both to taste and as food ; and that bread and butter together 
with milk and water and air are a thoroughly satisfying food. 

After much talking about such matters, they should be led to write simple 
accounts of what they know or can find out by observation and inquiry about 
foods under heads similar to the above. It would be well to let them find out 
what animals generally live on, so that they may understand the distinction 
between carnivorous and herbivorous animals. 

As it is possible to live on bread, air and water, bread may be studied 
thoroughly as a typical solid food. The answer to the question ' What is it made 
from? ' 'Flour or wheat ' — would lead to the further question 'What is flour? ' 
Flour should then be made by each child — practically, as it is still made by 
savage races and as it was made before flour mills were invented — by pounding 
wheat in a mortar or crushing it with a rolling pin. The exercise should be 
carried out seriously and with scrupulous care, each child being made to weigh 
out a certain quantity of wheat, then to powder or crush it and to separate the 
flour from the bran by sieving through book muslin ; the flour and bran should 
then be weighed separately and the percentage of each calculated and the loss. 
A record in writing of this work should be kept by each child. 

In the course of the lessons, the production of wheat should be discussed — 
where and how it is grown. This would give an opportunity for geography 
teaching and for economic teaching, which might well be utilised : diagrams 
might be made to illustrate the consumption, yield per acre, price, imports and 
exports, etc. 

The children should be set to examine and describe wheat — the average size 
and weight of the grains, their appearance, density, etc. They should also be 
set to grow it — to plant it in different ways, in dry and wet sawdust, in sand 


and in soil and also just dipping into water on muslin tied over the mouth of a 
bottle. Wherever possible, wheat should be grown as a crop in the school 

A regular account of all that went on should be kept. 

To return to bread— having made flour (or before this, if desirable) they 
should assist in actually making a batch of bread in the kitchen and be led to 
observe (not be told merely, by the teacher) and record everything that happened 
and was done. 

Wheat having been thus dealt with, barley and oats and even maize and rice 
should be studied in a similar way— and cakes should be made by the children 
(and afterwards eaten) from barley-meal, oatmeal, maize-meal and rice-meal, in 
order that the value of cereal grains generally as foods might be impressed upon 
them. A valuable lesson would be given if cakes were made, at this stage, from 
various kinds of meal. 

Study of Flour. 

It would be learnt in the kitchen that flour forms a paste which is scarcely 
sticky when mixed with not too much water, but that more water makes it 
sticky; the question arises— What does water do to flour? Some things— salt 
and sugar, for instance— dissolve in water : does flour ? Each child should work 
a pellet of flour paste between its thumb and two fingers under water (in a 
common tumbler) : it would then be discovered that something is washed away 
from the sticky mass and that at last a peculiar stringy rather than sticky mass 
remains from which nothing more can be washed away even by running water. 
From the turbid water in the tumbler, a white solid gradually settles down 
which is not in the least sticky. The experiment should be repeated on a 
larger scale by each child with "say 30 grams of flour. This should be put 
into a basin and mixed, by means of a short stout glass rod or stick, with about 
half its weight of water. The paste should then be kneaded between the 
fingers under a tap from which water trickles, the washings being collected in 
a basin over which a square of muslin is spread, so as to catch any sticky 
particles which may be broken away. When the washings are no longer milky, 
the stringy mass should be dried by rolling it on the palm of the hand, con- 
stantly drying the hand with a towel, just up to the point at which it shows 
signs of sticking — but no longer; then it should be placed on a 2 or 3 inch 
square of grease-proof paper and dried in a water oven. When dry it should be 

The washings should be poured into a large pickle-jar or cylinder and 
allowed to settle. After an interval, as much as possible of the clear liquid 
should be syphoned off and the residue collected on a filter, dried and weighed. 

In this way, the flour would be separated into gluten and starch and a fair 
estimate would be made of the amounts of each. 

On treating barley -meal, oatmeal, maize-meal and rice-meal in the same way. 
it would be found that they did not yield the sticky substance (gluten) when 
kneaded with water. One reason why wheaten meal is more suitable for kitchen 
purposes than other kinds of cereal meals would then be made clear. 

Study of Starch. 

Starch is in common use — for what purpose ? For stiffening articles of 
clothing — collars, cuffs, shirt fronts, etc. What is it like and how is it used ? 
Examine samples and describe it. Prepare a quantity for starching by mixing 
. . . grams with . . . cubic centimetres of cold water, using your forefinger to 
stir them together, then pour the paste in a thin stream into . . . cubic centi- 
metres of boiling hot water contained in a dish or saucepan of suitable size, stir- 
ring constantly, as you pour in the paste, with a wooden spoon or rod. Set the 
liquid aside to cool but cool a portion rapidly in a test tube under the tap. 
Taste it and solid starch. Describe the appearance of the liquid and everything 
that happens to it as it cools. Dilute a small portion considerably, to a 
known extent; then add a drop or two of a solution of iodine to a litre of the 
diluted liquid. You will thus become acquainted with the characteristic test 
for starch. 


Carry out a like series of operations with the starch you have prepared from 

Examine starches from different sources under the microscope — note the effect 
of iodine. 

Test arrowroot, sago, tapioca, macaroni, vermicelli, for starch ; also try 
if you can extract gluten from these materials. 

The presence of starch, in considerable quantity, in important f aod materials, 
having been thus established and something learnt of its properties, the part 
it plays in cereal grains may be considered. 

What happens to the seed when it germinates and a plant grows out of it? 
Some information will have been gained already on this point. The gradual 
disappearance of the starch will have been noted. By tasting grains which 
have been soaked in water and then kept for various periods, the development 
of a sweet taste will be noticed. Malt may then be introduced and an account 
given of the way in which it is made and what it is used for. Malt should be 
made by steeping barley in water during .... hours, then keeping it and 
allowing it to germinate until the young plantlet is about .... inches long, 
after which it is dried at a temperature not exceeding . . . . C. The appearance 
of the starch grains of the malted and unmalted barley should be noticed under 
the microscope. Then equal quantities of barley and of malt which have been 
ground in a coffee mill should each be mixed with about .... times their 
weight of ordinary water and the mixture allowed to stand .... hours. It 
would then be discovered that in one case the starch disappears. The liquids 
should be examined and the weights of equal volumes (the relative densities) 
contrasted with that of water. Known quantities should be evaporated in 
weighed dishes on the water bath, in order that the weights of matter in solu- 
tion might be determined. It would thus be discovered that the starch is 
changed into a soluble sugar-like material and the disappearance of the starch 
from the seed during germination would be explained. 

Foster's ' Primer of Physiology ' (Macmillan & Co., Ltd., Is.) might be 
studied at this stage with advantage and the nature of the stomach and 
intestines made clear. At some time also the stomach and the intestines of a 
freshly killed rabbit should be laid bare before the class and their character and 
arrangement fully explained. 

The children might then be asked — What happens to the starch in our food ? 
What is done with it? — It is first chewed in the mouth and becomes mixed 
with spittle or saliva, is it not? Does this latter produce any effect on it? 
Try ! Spit freely into a test tube half full of solidified starch paste prepared 
as directed ; mix the starch and saliva well together with the aid of a light 
wooden rod which you have made for the purpose. Plunge the tube into a 
water bath kept at about . . . C. ; examine it at intervals. Repeat the experi- 
ment but first spit into the test tube and then plunge it into boiling water ; 
after about five minutes' heating add the starch and digest the mixture : at the 
same time digest a mixture of starch with similar unheated saliva. Also make 
comparative experiments in a similar way with unboiled and boiled malt-extract. 

It would then be discovered that starch is rendered soluble by something 
which is present both in malt-extract and in saliva — something, moreover, which 
is rendered inactive by heating to near the boiling point of water. This sub- 
stance has been named Diastase. 

The importance of the change thus undergone by starch when ' digested ' 
with the aid of the diastase either in malt-extract or in saliva would be more 
obvious when it is realised that starch diffuses with extreme slowness into 
water and that it does not pass through wet bladder or vegetable parchment, 
whereas the sugar which is formed from it on digestion, like ordinary sugar 
and salt, diffuses readily. 

Our starchy food is cooked either by baking or by boiling it — what is the 
effect on the starch of baking and boiling ? 

When heated in the oven, as in baking bread or pastry, flour is browned 
and may easily be burnt ; but flour is more than starch — what happens to 


starch when it is heated alone ? Study the effect of heat on starch very care- 
fully, at gradually increasing temperatures. 

At an early stage, vapour is given off— what does this look like ? Steam- 
that is to say, water vapour. Perhaps the starch was not dry— dry it carefully 
at a temperature at which wet things are easily dried and repeat the experiment. 
Vapour is still given off when the dried starch is heated — is it water vapour ? 
How can you find out ? What happens when water vapour meets a cold 
surface ? Try ! The vapour becomes liquid— it condenses. See if the 
vapour from starch can be condensed. You find it can and that the liquid is 
like water— is it water? Would not the discovery that it is water be of in- 
terest and importance as an indication that water is in 6ome way contained 
in starch? Try therefore to prove that the liquid is water. Heat . . . grams 
of starch in a vessel from which the vapour can only escape through a cooled 
tube (a condenser), and when you have sufficient of the liquid, contrast it 
carefully with water. 

But water is not the only product on heating starch : as the heating is 
continued, the starch becomes more and more burnt or charred ; at last, it is 
converted into a mass of very light charcoal, which easily takes fire and burns 
away to nothing ! Are not these strange changes— who would suppose that in 
white starch there are hidden away in some mysterious manner both black 
charcoal or carbon (to give it its Latin name) and water? 

How comes it that starch is useful to us as food — has the presence of carbon 
and water in it anything to do with its value as a foodstuff? We certainly 
cannot eat charcoal as such but what can we do with it ? What is it used 
for? In England, we no longer use it as fuel, as it is too expensive; in France 
and Japan, however, it is still much used in cooking and also for warming 
rooms. And have you not heard through the newspapers of people being killed 
by the fumes of burning charcoal ? Does not this show that it must not be 
assumed, because nothing is seen to escape, that charcoal gives nothing when 
burnt ? 

What does food do for us ? It makes us grow, you will say ! But does it 
not also keep U6 warm— may not perhaps the warmth be produced at least in 
part by the burning of the carbon which is in the starch we eat ? Is not the 
suggestion one which it is well worth following up — will it not be well to 
study burning ? What are the things we burn or which we know will burn ? 
Make out a list. 


From the domestic point of view, our most important fuel or combustible is 
coal — what do you know of the way in which coal burns — does it just burn when 
set fire to? You know it does not. To keep a fire burning, air must be sup- 
plied to it ; if a fire be low, it is often restored by holding a newspaper in front 
of the stove or grate in such a way that a draught of air is forced through 
the feebly glowing embers — very soon these begin to burn brightly; and at 
any time a fire may be caused to burn brightly by increasing the draught 
through it : by using bellows, we often make a fire burn up quickly. 

Must we not conclude, therefore, that air ha6 something to do with the 
burning of coal? Is this true of other combustibles? Consider what you know 
and if you cannot produce evidence one way or the other — but such questions 
should be settled by trial or by experiment, not by guessing. 

Under ordinary conditions, we cannot see what happens to the air during 
burning — suppose you shut up a burning candle with air so that you can watch 
the air as well as the candle flame. You will probably think of several ways 
of making such an experiment; the easiest perhaps is to place a small piece 
of candle on a block of wood floating on -water in a basin and cautiously to 
invert over the flame a bell jar provided with a stopper which you insert* the 
moment the bell jar is in position ; or you may use a small statuette cover. 
Noting everything that happens, you see that almost at once the sides of the 
jar become bedewed ; the flame grows dim and after a time goes out ; at the 
same time the water rises in the jar, showing that some of the air is used up. 
It is desirable to paint a line a short way up the jar with Brunswick black, 
such as is used in blacking stoves, to mark the position of the water at the 


start. When the jar is again cool, the point to which the water rises should 
be marked in some suitable way and the capacity of the jar ascertained above 
this mark and also between it and the lower mark : the amount of air which 
disappears is then ascertained. 

Similar experiments should then be made with other combustibles — spirit, 
different oils and gas. In every case, the flame soon gives out and some air 
disappears : less than a fifth. Clearly the air is concerned in the burning — but 
very partially : does it not seem that it contains something which is active rather 
than that it is active as a whole ? 

Solid combustibles are not so easily dealt with : if an electric current be 
available, you may fire such substances in air, in a bell jar standing over water, 
by means of a spiral of platinum heated to redness by the current — in every 
case air disappears ; but never quite a fifth. 

But why does some of the air disappear — is it because it is in some way 
changed into water vapour which condenses on the jar and on contact with the 
water used in shutting up the air in the bell jar ? Do all combustible substances 
give water when burnt? Can water be condensed from the candle flame and 
other flames ? Try the effect of exposing a cold surface (a flask full of cold 
water) to each. At once it is bedewed but except in the case of the spirit 
flame it is> soon smoked or coated with soot, which looks like charcoal or carbon 
in a fine state of division — so there seems to be carbon in combustibles, as there 
is in starch. Although the liquid which bedews the flask looks like water, 
you have no proof that it is water : as nothing is to be taken for granted, you 
must burn the several combustibles in such a way that you can collect enough 
of the liquid from each to contrast it with water. 

Having done tins, you feel sure that water comes from each of the liquid 
combustibles when they are burnt in air. But what of solid combustibles such 
as wood, charcoal, coal, coke ? It should not be difficult to make observations 
over fires made with these and to convince yourself that charcoal and coke give 
practically no water although indications are obtained that it is formed on 
burning wood and coal. 

What becomes of carbon when it is burnt, therefore, remains a mystery to 
be solved only by further inquiry. 

Although there is yet much to learn as to what happens when things burn, 
it is now at least clear that starch may be burnt with the aid of air and that 
much heat is given out : knowing as we all do that we must have air to live, 
may it not be that the air we inhale serves- to burn part, at least, of our food, 
quietly and in such a way that we are kept warm by the process ? If so, the 
fact that it is an indispensable article of food meets with an explanation. 

Before taking up fresh subjects, it is worth while to take stock of the 
knowledge gained by studying flour and starch experimentally : Flour has been 
resolved into starch and gluten ; the latter, however, has been set aside tem- 
porarily while starch was being examined It has been ascertained that although 
wheaten flour has certain advantages, owing to the peculiar properties of its 
gluten, other cereal grains give flours which are also mixtures of starch and 
gluten-like substances ; potatoes, however, have been found to consist almost 
wholly of starch. Starch, it has been discovered, contains both carbon and 
water, associated apparently in some strange way which altogether masks their 
ordinary properties. Itself insoluble but convertible into a peculiar jelly-like 
material (starch paste) by heating with water, starch is changed by diastase 
(a constituent of barley and of human saliva) into a soluble diffusible sugar. 
A little reflection will show that these properties give starch its peculiar value. 
It occurs in the seed of cereals and in the potato tuber — the resting parts of 
the plant* : if it were soluble, it could not well be stored up ; and unless it 
could be rendered soluble by digestion, it could not pass into circulation and 
serve as food — in fact it has just the attributes which are required of a sub- 
stance occupying the position it holds in the plant world. Starch is a substance 
which is easily burnt : in studying it from this point of view, it has been 
discovered that burning is a process in which air is concerned — not air as a 
whole but an active portion in it. 


The Kitchen. 

Books are usually divided into chapters : when the story is carried to a 
certain point it is broken off and a new chapter is begun, in which some other 
set of characters is considered. It will be well to leave the study of food for 
a time and pass to the kitchen, where the stove and fender and fire irons are 
to lie found. All these are made of iron and, like steel knives, must be care- 
fully looked after and kept bright. Why? Why too is so much care taken 
to paint ironwork out of doors? We use many other metals and leave them 
unpointed — at most they are tarnished, but iron rusts and spoils. What happens 
to it— what makes it rust? Water, you say — if water be dropped on the fender 
and be allowed to remain there or if knives are left wet, rust soon appears. 
You must not be hasty in your conclusions — you will soon find out if you are 
that your conclusions are often wrong. If water be the cause of ru6t, should 
not iron rust if corked up with water, say, in an ordinary medicine bottle? 
Get some bright iron nails (ware or French nails) and try the experiment; at 
the same time expose some nails in a saucer along with a little water — not 
enough to cover them. .Scarcely any rusting takes place in the bottle, while 
outside the bottle the nails rust considerably. Why is this — what was the 
difference between the two experiments? If air were present in the one case 
and not in the other and in some way play a part, it may be possible by watching 
the air to find out if it be concerned. Shut some air up over water along with 
some wetted iron. Some of the air disappears — how much — is the amount 
definite? — make sure by repeating the experiment several times. What is the 
remaining air like— is it unchanged air — how will you try? Think of a test. 
Have you not made a great discovery about air when you take into account 
what you had previously learnt in your experiments on burning? What will 
you call this active part of air — may it not, for the time, be called Fire air — the 
air which, in some way, gives rise to fire; or rust air, if you will? In the latter 
case, however, the name has reference to a less striking property of the air 
or gas ; it is less significant though appropriate in its way. What becomes of 
the ' Fire air ' as the iron rusts — it changes the iron into rust, is it in the rust ? 
If this be so, what must happen as the iron rusts — iron rust, when you handle 
it, seems to be a much lighter substance than iron (find its exact density as 
well as that of iron), but is the rusted iron lighter or heavier than the unrusted ? 
Try ! 

The result of this experiment should leave no doubt in your mind that iron 
rust is formed by the association or combination of the active gas in air with 
the iron— that it is a compound of iron with the active gas. It is clear also, 
is it not? that in some way the water plays a part — as the rusting only takes 
place when the air and water act together — what that part is cannot be deter- 
mined at present, however. 

Probably you never suspected that the kitchen range, the fender and the 
fire irons were in any way to be associated with your food except that they 
were of use in preparing it — that they could be brought into relation with it 
through air and water cannot well have entered into your thoughts. Is not 
the lesson a very valuable one — is it not one that teaches you that no opportunity 
is to be neglected — that eyes must always be open and willing to see, willing 
also to send messages to the brain ? 

Is not the formation of a substance such as iron rust from the metal in>n 
very remarkable ? Compare them carefully in every way you can and consider 
the nature or properties of the two substances. The one, like metals generally, 
is bright or lustrous when polished and is relatively heavy ; it can be bent 
and beaten and drawn out without breaking — its strength being one reason 
why it is so useful. Rust, however, is quite unlike a metal — it has no strength 
and is easily powdered. What does it most resemble, especially when powdered ? 
Red earth, does it not? It may be best described as an earthy substance — in 
fact, in some parts of our country, in Devonshire particularly, the soil looks 
just like iron rust and red soils are frequently met with. You may have noticed 
too that burnt clay is not unlike iron rust. Burn some clay, if you have not. 

What is iron itself — is it found anywhere; if not, how is it made? It is 

1917. o 

lyi REPORTS ON The! STATE of science. — 1917. 

well worth while to inquire what is known of the early use of iroll and to 
consider how, probably, the way to make it was first found out. It is made 
from ironstone — 'from iron ore's as they are called, some of which are very 
like iron rust and others like hardened clay. It is made from an earth, in 
fact — by smelting or heating the earth together with charcoal or coke. You 
know that carbon burns in air — in the active part of it (Fire air) that is to 
say : does it perhaps associate with the Fire air as the iron does in rusting and 
does it release the iron in the ore when it is smelted with it by depriving it 
of Fire air ? Questions such as these are not to be answered without further 

Study of Burning. 

As food and fire seem to be closely connected, it may be well now to study 
fire a little more fully and carefully. How do we produce fire — in the morning 
when lighting the fire ; or- at any other time ? You say at once — by striking 
a match. What is a match ? — nothing is more commonly used and yet few know 
anything about it. 

The easily inflammable substance — that which is fired by the heat developed 
by friction in drawing the match over the rough surface of the box — is 
phosphorus. What does the word mean — what language is it derived from ? 
Phosphorus is made largely from animal bones. From bones, you say : can't 
we get away from ourselves and our food even in studying the matches used 
in lighting the fire with the aid of which our food is cooked ? Do all things 
move in a circle ? 

Phosphorus, you will see, when it is put before you, is a yellow wax-like 
solid ; it is always kept under water and must be handled with extreme care 
and only kept in the fingers during a short time, as it takes fire very easily 
and the burns it produces heal with difficulty. Why should it inflame sooner 
or later when taken out of water and not in water ? Does this behaviour 
suggest anything to you? If so, make an experiment to verify your idea. 
What has this experiment taught you — does it not serve also to bring the match 
more closely into relationship with the iron stove than you before thought to 
be likely? 

Very little phosphorus is used in matches — how does it burn alone? Care- 
fully dry a small piece, first on a duster and then on porous paper, place it on 
a brick or tile and touch it with a warm wire : at once it takes fire and burns 
brightly; as it burns, dense white smoke is given off. Try to stop the smoke 
from escaping by covering the burning phosphorus with a glass shade. Note 
what happens — describe the product. 

In burning other substances, you have found that the air is concerned — 
that, in part, it is ' burnt ' as well as the inflammable substance : is the air 
concerned in the burning of phosphorus ? Try. 

But as phosphorus takes fire so very easily, will it not be well to try to 
burn it alone to make sure that the air is concerned ? It is possible to remove 
the air from a vessel by means of an air pump. Let us put a piece of carefully 
dried phosphorus into a strong globular flask, provided with a tightly fitting 
rubber stopper to which a glass tap is fitted : having exhausted the air by means 
of the pump and closed the tap, let us now cautiously heat the flask, where the 
phosphorus lies, over a small flame, sufficiently to melt the phosphorus : nothing 
happens. Now let us repeat the experiment with a strong flask full of air closed 
by a simple rubber stopper : the phosphorus takes fire but soon ceases to burn 
and apparently some remains unburnt. There was not much air in the flask- 
was any or all of it burnt along with the phosphorus? Think what happened 
when the phosphorus was exposed in air over water. What then will happen 
if the stopper be withdrawn from the flask while the neck of the flask is under 
water ? See ! 

It is clear therefore that whether it be merely exposed in air or burnt in 
air, the phosphorus kills, as it were, very nearly one-fifth of the air— its 
behaviour is much like that of all other burning substances, except that, to be 
precise, it is more like that of iron — which also gives a solid product, unlike the 
other substances which were burnt. But the air behaves alike to iron and 
phosphorus, seeing that one-fifth disappears under the influence of each. This 


fact would seem to indicate that the same constituent of the air is concerned 
in both cases — try to place this beyond doubt by experiment. 

How does the phosphorus act— does it associate with the active gas in air — ■ 
is the white sinow-like product a rust? How will you ascertain? You must 
prevent the smoke from escaping, must you not, if you wish to contrast its 
weight with that of the phosphorus — how will you do this — how is smoke to 
be held back or screened off — what is a respirator used for? Very well, then; 
fit up a suitable respirator to prevent the smoke from escaping from a tube in 
which phosphorus is burnt. 

From the result, it is clear, you see, that the phosphorus and iron behave 
alike towards air, withdrawing and combining with the same proportion — very 
nearly one-fifth; and it seems probable, does it not, that this one-fifth about 
(the Fire air, as we have called it) is a special constituent present to this extent 
in air? You have thus discovered what of air— that air is a mixture of at 
least two kinds of air, have you not ? 

Where does the fire come from ? It seems to have its origin in the act of 
association, does it not ? What becomes of the fire or heat produced on 
associating phosphorus with Fire air? It escapes, does it not? The flask in 
which the phosphorus is burnt becomes unbearably hot in places but soon cools — ■ 
the heat is soon lost : does it, the heat that is lost, weigh anything ? Try ! 

You have thus made the discovery — the wonderful discovery — that fire is 
weightless — something unsubstantial, unmaterial — but consider what strange 
changes attend its production : the metal iron and Fire gas give rise to the 
earth-like rust ; the phosphorus and the Fire air to phosphorus snow ; the various 
ordinary combustibles, whether gaseous, liquid or solid, seem to afford water 
and something which has escaped our notice hitherto and which probably there- 
fore is an air-like or gaseous substance : but if so, it must be quite soluble in 
water, mu6t it not, as nearly one-fifth of the air disappears when the various 
substances are burnt in it ? But stay, do you know that all substances burn at the 
expense of one and the same constituent of air ? Will it not be well to try 
whether, in all cases, the inactive four-fifths left after exposing iron or 
phosphorus in air be inactive also towards all ordinary combustibles? In this 
work, nothing must be taken for granted. And do you know that when iron and 
phosphorus ' rust ' in air heat i6 produced as when phosphorus actually burns 
in air? Is heat given out when the phosphorus is merely exposed in air? 
Make the experiment in a really warm room, using a thin rod of phosphorus 
lashed to a wooden rod. 

You thus obtain evidence that even when the Fire air is absorbed slowly, 
heat is produced ; and you can believe that whether the phosphorus burn 
visibly or not is merely a question of the rate at which the change takes place — 
whether the heat have time to get away or not. 

You may ask : Is the rusting of iron a case of slow burning ? The reply is — 
Can iron burn ? How were fires lighted before matches were known — how 
were guns fired before percussion caps were invented? With the aid of a 
flint and steel. Try the effect of striking pieces of flint and of iron together. 
If you can find a smithy, watch the blacksmith at work at his forge ; or still 
better, go to a steelworks where iron is rolled into bars and plates. Examine 
a new horseshoe and contrast its surface with that of one which has been in 
use. Examine the ground near the smith's anvil. Heat a piece of bright 
iron to redness for some time and notice the effect ; or prepare some coarse 
iron filings and heat them in a muffle furnace on a clay support, weighing them 
before and after heating. 

Having thus ascertained that iron can be burnt, you will be prepared to 
regard rusting also as a case of slow burning — whether it rust slowly or burn 
rapidly, it equally combines with Fire air and becomes converted into a 
pulverulent, earthy substance : a red earth in the one case, a black earth 
in the other. 

You will perhaps ask — do other metals burn? Do other metals give earths 
when burnt? Metals are so commonly used in household practice that it will 
be well to know something about them. Copper vessels are commonly used — 
does copper combine with Fire air and burn ? Try ! Does lead, does zinc, does 



tin? You can easily try. Magnesium, in the form of ribbon, burns very 
easily — study the change carefully. And try if silver can be burnt. _ 

Having previously contrasted iron with iron rust by determining their 
densities, it will be well in the case of other metals to contrast each of the 
products with the metal from which it is formed and to draw up a tabular 
statement of the results arrived at. It will be well, instead of making all the 
substances, to inquire if you cannot obtain the various burnt metals and at 
the same time to collect information as to the use that is made of them and 
of their market value in comparison with that of the metals. At the same 
time, it will be well to inquire now the metals are made. 

Such a comparison affords most instructive results — in every case, the metal 
affords an earthy product : some of the earths are relatively light, others 
heavy — some are coloured, others colourless; how do they behave towards 
water — have they any taste ? 

All this time, the snow formed on burning phosphorus — which is certainly 
not at all like a metal — has been left out of consideration : it should therefore 
be compared with the earths formed from the metals. You have already learnt 
that its behaviour is somewhat peculiar — what became of it when the phosphorus 
was burnt over water ? I f you did not notice, repeat the experiment. What 
happened to the snow which fell on the tile when the phosphorus was burnt 
under the glass shade? Can the snow be kept in a closed bottle? Has it any 
taste ? 

It seems then that earths are produced when Fire air is combined with 
metals — what other combustible substances yield when combined with it is not 
yet clear : only in one case, that of phosphorus, have you learnt that a sour 
or acid-forming substance is produced. 

To understand what becomes of food when it is burnt, it is clearly de- 
sirable to extend the inquiry — carbon is certainly not a metal and there is no 
evidence yet that any earthy substance is formed when it is burnt, apart from 
the small quantity of ashes which remains. 

Has it not struck you as remarkable, when you were hearing of the ways 
in which the various metals were made, that in most cases carbon in the form 
of anthracite, coal or coke, was used to separate the metal ? The metallic 
ores are mostly earthy substances and most of the metals are converted into 
earths by roasting them in air — what then is perhaps the nature of the action 
which the carbon exercises in separating the metal ? Will it not be well to 
try experiments with the earths prepared from the metals or with those 
which afford metals and to heat them with charcoal ? In some cases, you obtain 
the metal easily — what else ? Nothing solid or liquid — perhaps an air or gas 
is produced. Try; and if one be obtained collect it and examine it in com- 
parison with air by determining its density, &c. Then see what happens on 
burning starch in a similar way. After these experiments, there can be no 
doubt that the carbon in starch is of value as a combustible. 

Plants and Soils. 

Although our food is partly of animal and partly of vegetable origin, ex- 
cepting fish, poultry and game, the animals we use as food are entirely vegetable 
feeders : directly or indirectly, therefore, we are dependent on plants for our 
food — we could not live on air and water and the soil as they do. The knowledge 
gained from the experiments you have made enables you already to ask of 
what use is air to plants — do they breathe as we do ? They are not warm, as 
we are— nevertheless, it may help them to burn some of their food slowly. 
What is their food — where do they obtain the carbon which is contained in 
starch and which we must suppose is a chief constituent of plants, of wood 
and of all vegetable materials, as they all give more or less charcoal when 
heated sufficiently strongly ? The use to them of water we can understand to 
some extent, as they are full of watery juices, like ourselves. Of what use 
to them are roots — do they isuck all their food out of the soil with their aid? 
As roots are peculiar to plants, it does not seem unlikely that this is the 


case. Considerations such as these make it desirable to know something of the 

To grow plants properly, they must be cultivated ; all soils are not equally 
good. What is soil? The surface crust of the earth. Even in those regions 
which consist of hard rock, the surface is usually soft soil formed by the 
gradual decay of the rock under the influence of the weather. What kinds of 
soft rock or 6oil do you know — what kinds of hard rock? 

The soft soil everywhere is either sand or clay or a mixture of these (loam). 
You probably know both kinds and are well aware that they are very different, 
but it is better that you should examine them carefully. Take grams of 

each, examine them — if possible with a magnifying lens; describe them, con- 
trast their behaviour, also their behaviour with water, both when wetted with 
it and when stirred up with a considerable quantity. Afterwards examine some 
garden and field soil and see what you can separate by stirring up the soil 
with water and decanting off the water before the lighter particles have 

The separation of sand from clay is always going on in rivers and in many 
V>laces along the sea-coast : and it is on this account that sand-banks are 
formed in rivers and that the sea-shore more often than not consists of sand. 

Sandstone. — Sand is found in many places mixed up with pebbles of various 
sizes — how are such rounded pebbles produced, do you suppose? If you have 
been on the sea-coast where there is a shingle beach, you will probably be able 
to account for the rounding of the pebbles. What are gravel pebbles like 
inside — do they in any way resemble sand ? 

Hard rocks are of frequent occurrence which are obviously formed of sand 
particles stuck firmly together — these are commonly known as sandstones: they 
are usually coloured more or less — yellow, brown, or even bright red. Flint, 
chert and quartz are solid, somewhat glass-like iocks, which when broken into 
small pebbles give a material like sand. 

Clay. — In many places, soft rocks are found which are more or less easily 
split up into slabs or sheets ; these are known as shales or slate rock. If the 
fine powder formed by grinding them be mixed with water, it forms a more or 
less sticky, clay-like mass. 

Limestones. — Rocks which yield lime when burnt are very generally met 
with together with sand and clay; they vary much in character according to 
the district, some being soft like chalk, others hard and crystalline like mountain 
limestone. The limestones are always full of fossils ; chalk under the microscope. 
appears to consist almost entirely of shell-like remains. 

Igneous rocks. — Sandstone, clay and limestone are known as sedimentary 
rocks — there being complete proof that they have been deposited as sediments 
from water. 

A fourth class of rock includes all rocks which have cooled down from the 
fused state. Granite is one of the most characteristic of these rocks and is 
well known, as it is much used as an ornamental stone for building. 

Everyone should be familiar with the common rocks and take some interest 
in their history : and the wonderful 6tory they tell when properly interpreted : 
but this should be made almost entirely an outdoor occupation. 

Nature of Limestone. 

In studying starch, we have taken into account thinas which were known 
about it and have based experiments on these : the results have enabled us to 
arrive at certain conclusions; our discovery that starch contains carbon and 
perhaps water was based on the study of the changes which it undergoes when 
heated and when burnt in air. We were led on to study the changes which 
metals undergo when burnt and to discover that the earthy substances into 
which they are converted are compounds of the metals with Fire air. We were 
able to take away the Fire air from the metal in some of the earths by means 
of carbon. In every case a change was effected — we arrived at our knowledge 
of the nature of the subiect by studying a chance in which it was concerned. 
Can this method be applied to the study of soil materials — in appearance they 
resemble closely the earths obtained by burning metals — are any of them known 


to undergo change in any characteristic way ? What is done with sand ? It is 
used along with lime in making mortar and when fused with soda forms glass. 

Clay in admixture with sand is used in making bricks and when burnt with 
chalk yields cement. 

Limestone when burnt is changed into lime; in the form of soft chalk 
or preferably of lime, it is applied to the soil as manure. 

Apparently, all undergo change; limestone, however, is changed when heated 
alone and therefore seems to offer the simplest case for study. 

A series of experiments might follow, on lines like those indicated on 
pp. 355-359 and 444-448 of my ' Teaching of Scientific Method ' (Macmillan & 
Co., Ltd.), leading up to the discovery of the compound nature of limestone. 
Limestone has thus been resolved into two substances — solid lime and a gas : 
although not itself an earth like any of those formed on burning metals, the 
lime obtained from it is very similar in appearance at least to the earths 
which are formed from some o'f them; as to the gas, being colourless, it is not 
easily compared with other gases. What are the properties of the gases you 
have dealt with thus far? Of the two gases in air, one, you know, promotes 
combustion, the other does not; the gas you obtained by burning carbon by 
means of red lead and copper scale was heavier than air and more soluble in 
water than air and a taper would not burn in it. On testing the gas from lime- 
stone, you find that it resembles the latter gas rather than air. But you have 
discovered that the gas from limestone can be reconverted into limestone stuff. 
Does the gas prepared from carbon at all resemble it in this respect ? On making 
the experiment you find it does ; indeed you cannot distinguish between the 
t wo — they are the same material. Think what a momentous discovery you 
have made ! That carbon is an important constituent not only of vegetable 
and animal matter but also of the earth limestone — it seems to be every- 
where, in some cases in an unburnt, in others in a burnt state. You may ask, 
how comes it to be in limestone — in a burnt state? What is limestone com- 
posed of ? Chalk, the form which you have examined, consists of the remains 
of minute shells — shells are of animal origin — are all shells alike in composition ? 
Such reflections should lead you to study a variety of shells, salt-water, fresh- 
water and land shells, the shells of birds' eggs. 

In the course of the experiments with limestone, it has been discovered 
that the gas which is a constituent of limestone stuff is present in minute pro- 
portion in the air. How does it get there? You know that it is formed by 
the combusion of coal, wood, &c. But as we are kept warm by our food and 
it is probable that it is more or less burnt up in our bodies and that the air 
we breathe in is used for the purpose, may it not be that the gas is also given 
out by us? Try to find out by contrasting ordinary air with expired air. See 
also if the gas be given off by animals, such as mice, by caterpillars feeding on 
green leaves, by snails, &c, by keeping these under a bell jar through which 
air is passed after scrubbing it free from the gas by means of lime. Also en- 
deavour to find out if air be concerned in the germination of seeds by ascei'tain- 
ing if they germinate in air over water and whether the air be affected, and 
also whether as germination takes place the gas be given off. 

Study of Acids. 

Are you not surprised that you have been able to find out so much — and 
especially that whatever you do you are always led, sooner or later, to dis- 
cover something of interest in relation to yourselves ? No doubt you are anxious 
to continue your inquiries now that you begin to understand what wonderful 
changes are going on everywhere. 

The gas obtained by burning carbon resembles the product from phosphorus 
and differs from the earths derived from the metals inasmuch as they are 
both formed from substances which are clearly not metals — but one being a gas 
aud the other a solid they are not directly comparable as are the products from 
the metals. Have they any property in common ? What property is character- 
istic oi the phosphorus snow? Its taste, is it not? Has the gas an acid 
taste? Try! Acids stain coloured clothes, do they not? The colours of flowers 
are very sensitive — make coloured solutions from a variety of flowers and see 
whether they are affected by solutions of the two substances which you are 


studying and by the common acids. You find that the product from carbon 
has only a weak action but it seem6 to act in the same direction as the acids. 
Things which are similar may sometimes be substituted for one another, may 
they not? You know that limestone contains the gas which is derived from 
carbon and that the common acids in some way turn the gas out — will the 
acid product from phosphorus have a similar effect? Try! You thus discover 
that the two substances have similar properties, although not alike in strength 
— both are acidic substances. Are there any other non-metallic combustibles 
which you can study to ascertain if they yield acidic products? Although 
3ulphur matches are not much used nowadays and almost the only occasion when 
sulphur is used in the house is when it is put into the dog's water, you perhaps 
know the smell of burning sulphur. Burn some sulphur, pass the fumes into 
distilled water; taste the solution, test it with colours and add some chalk to 
it. You thus become acquainted with a third acidic product of combustion 
derived from a non-metal : the probability that non-metals form acid com- 
pounds and metals earths when associated with Fire air is therefore increased. 
Years ago, when it became desirable to give significant names to substances, 
the great French chemist Lavoisier introduced the name oxygen for the gas 
we have spoken of hitherto as Fire air ; it retains this name to the present 
day, except among the Germans, who call it Sauerstoff, or sour-stuff — the stuff 
of which acids are made; but thi6 is the meaning of the word oxygen, which 
is derived from two Greek words, oxus — acid and gennao — I produce. The 
compounds of oxygen are termed oxides and it may be mentioned here that the 
terminal ide is always restricted to substances which like those in question 
consist of only two others. 

Thus far you have been led to conclude that there are two kinds or classes 
of oxides— metallic and non-metallic : oxides of metals and oxides of non- 
metals. The latter it is found are acidic — they form acids when dissolved 
in water; except that the former are more or less earth-like in appearance, 
nothing has been observed which seems to be characteristic of these oxides as 
a class. Have you not noticed, however, that lime resembles the metallic 
oxides — is it perhaps a metallic oxide — what is characteristic of it : is it not 
its power of combining with carbonic gas and other acidic oxides — if then it be 
a metallic oxide, the metallic oxides generally may be expected to resemble it in 
combining with acidic oxides, may they not? You have found that not only is 
limestone acted upon by the common acids (muriatic acid, aquafortis and 
vitriolic acid) but lime also : in what way are they acted upon — comparing the 
effect of heat on limestone with that produced by acids, does it not seem that 
the lime in it is acted upon by the acid and the carbonic gas just let go? Does 
it not therefore seem desirable to study the action of the common acids on the 
metallic oxides generally in comparison with lime ? 

But you will ask : what are these acids : how are they obtained? Surely, 
if we are to use them, we should know something about them. 

[Sketch history, of the discovery of oil of vitriol — pyrites used by palaeolithic 
man — decay of and conversion into green vitriol and rust — distillation of green 
vitriol, production of oil of vitriol — strong sulphur smell, pyrites combustible, 
burning like sulphur but giving rust-like earth as well — preparation of vitriolic 
acid by burning sulphur, later with the aid of aquafortis.] 

Knowing what happens to sulphur when burnt, you will at once reason 
that vitriolic acid is in some way connected with the oxide you have prepared 
from sulphur — but you are told that it is formed from this oxide with the 
aid of air, water and aquafortis ; or nowadays by passing the gas formed by 
burning sulphur together with air over heated finely divided platinum. Suppose 
you try this experiment. 

You will now realise that vitriolic acid consists of sulphur, oxygen and water, 
and that it is derived from an oxide which contains more oxygen than is con- 
tained in that formed on merely burning sulphur in air ; this latter is a colourless 
gas, whilst the former is solid and forms a dense white smoke. To distinguish 
the two oxides, one is called sulphurous oxide, the other sulphuric oxide : 
whilst the acid formed from the one is called sulphurous acid and that formed 
from the other sulphuric ;iri<). Yon know that vnu can associate sulphurous 


oxkle with lime and that you can displace carbonic gas from limestone by 
sulphurous oxide and also by phosphoric oxide ; and as you know that sulphuric 
acid acts on limestone, you will be prepared to argue that sulphuric oxide can 
also combine with lime. Phosphoric oxide has proved to be stronger than 
sulphurous oxide — try whether sulphuric or sulphurous oxide be the stronger, 
in a similar sense. 

Contrast sulphurous with sulphuric acids. The fact that sulphuric oxide 
proves to be the stronger is clearly of interest in justification of the name 
sour-stuff, or oxygen : the stronger and more pronounced acid being that which 
contains the major proportion of oxygen. 

Aquafortis. — There is no doubt that, in early times, as soon as the alchemists 
found a new substance, they tried its effect on all the substances with which 
they were acquainted. In this way, when they discovered oil of vitriol, besides 
finding out more or less by accident if not by carelessness that it was very 
corrosive and destructive of their skin and clothes, they probably very soon 
tried what action it would have on substances such as nitre or saltpetre and 
sea salt. The former often appears in the form of crystals on the soil in the 
neighbourhood of manure heaps ; saltpetre occurs in large quantities in Chili in 
certain districts where there is no rain to wash it away. Both kinds of salt- 
petre are very valuable as manures. When vitriolic acid is added to saltpetre 
and the mixture is gently warmed in a retort, a very volatile and acid liquid 
distils over, the retort becoming full of brownish vapour. This liquid is very 
corrosive, staining the skin a deep yellow. Of course, the alchemists tried 
the action of this acid on everything at hand, metals such as gold, silver, 
copper, lead, tin, zinc and iron, and found that it dissolved all but gold : as it 
was much stronger than the other acids they knew, they called it aquafortis. 
To the present day, the jeweller uses aquafortis to distinguish spurious from 
real gold. 

Aquafortis — or nitric acid as it is called on account of its formation from 
nitre — you have learnt, is used in converting sulphurous into sulphuric acid ; 
it must therefore be capable of giving off oxygen and must contain an oxide. 
Nitre, or villainous saltpetre, as Hotspur calls it in Shakespeare's ' Henry IV..' 
has been used for centuries past in making gunpowder — a mixture of charcoal, 
sulphur and nitre : aLso in fireworks. The modern explosives — gun-cotton and 
nitroglycerin — are also made with the aid of nitric acid. What happens when 
gunpowder is fired — in what way do charcoal or sulphur and nitre interact? 
Try to find out. 

Muriatic acid. — We get back to the kitchen and our own food once more 
when we come to salt. Oil of vitriol acts upon it at once — fizzing takes place 
and an acid fume escapes — spirit of salt, the old alchemists called it. They 
were clever enough to find out that this fume is very soluble in water and 
the solution is known to the present day by the oii-and-colour man, the plumber, 
and in kitchen regions, as spirit of salt. It is used in cleaning and removing 
scale from baths, closet pans, etc. You will find that it is very acid and that 
it stains Ine clothes but is not corrosive like oil of vitriol and aquafortis. The 
plumber uses it in soldering, after ' killing it ' with zinc — everyone should 
learn to solder, and it may be worth your while to take the hint given by the 
plumber and see if you cannot follow up the clue. What is the action of the 
oil of vitriol on the nitre and salt ? You know that it displaces the carbonic 
gas from limestone stuff — is its action on the salt and nitre a similar one — are 
they comparable with limestone stuff ? 

The zinc, you find, is Teadily acted upon by the muriatic acid — examine the 
product and compare it with similar substances which you have prepared pre- 
viously ; it will be well to fit up apparatus which will enable you to prepare it 
at will, at any desired rate. Contrast it with coal gas and determine very 
carefully what is formed from it when it is burnt. 

When this inquiry is complete, you should recognise that you have made 
a discovery of the greatest importance with reference to your previous work 
and to the nature of foodstuffs such as starch. Again, you have an illustration 
of the fact that information is to be gained from the most unexpected quarters 
— who would suppose that the plumber could help you to determine the com- 
position of starch ? 


Nature of Water. 

You believe that you have obtained this clue to the composition of water — 
that it consists of the gas which is called water-stuff, or hydrogen (because it 
affords water when burnt) and oxygen : as you know that all other things 
which you have burnt combined with the oxygen. But nothing must be taken 
for granted in our work : it is possible that the oxygen in air is not alone 
concerned ; cannot you devise some method of using oxygen in a form in which 
there can be no doubt that if water is obtained it is formed from oxygen and 
hydrogen alone? How did you burn carbon with oxygen, alone ? 

You are now satisfied that you have established the fact that water con- 
sists of hydrogen and oxygen. Is it not worth while to submit the oxides 
generally to the action of hydrogen ? Will you not be able to test lime if 
you find that they all give up their oxygen to hydrogen ? The results enable 
you to classify the metallic oxides in two groups; although you have not yet 
solved the problem regarding lime, have you not narrowed it — i9 it not clear 
that if it be a metallic oxide it is the oxide of a metal of a particular kind ? 

Perhaps by studying the action of spirit of salt, which dissolves oxides, it 
may be possible to obtain further information of assistance in solving the 
problem as to the nature, of lime. Where does the hydrogen come from which is 
obtained when zinc is dissolved in muriatic acid ? As this is a solution of 
spirit of salt in water, obviously it might come from the water in the solution, 
since this is known to contain hydrogen ; it might come, however, from the 
dissolved gas. How shall we decide whether or no this be the case? We 
must eliminate the water, must we not ? Try the experiment without water. 

There are still two ways possible in which the gas may be formed— it may 
be present either in the metal or in the gas. Can any argument be adduced 
in favour of the one view or the other? Zinc oxide is produced on a large 
scale for making white paint (zinc white paint) and it should be possible 
to ascertain if water be formed on burning the zinc; if not, the experiment 
must be tried. 

As there is reason to suppose that the hydrogen is contained in the spirit 
of salt, it is probable that the zinc displaces it, combining with whatever is 
associated with the hydrogen. How does the oxide behave towards the acid — 
like lime? It dissolves quietly. What then becomes of the hydrogen, sup- 
posing this to be in the spirit of salt — is not its disappearance to be accounted 
for, if it combine with the oxygen in the oxide? The product in solution will 
be the same, will it not, according to this view, whether zinc or zinc oxide 
be dissolved : in what will the difference consist? Is water formed when zinc 
oxide is acted upon by the spirit of salt? Experiment shows that a liquid 
is formed — can this be water? As the water will be in presence of the gas, 
it will be saturated with it — the gas must be got rid of from the liquid to 
obtain proof that water is formed. 

Having ascertained that water isi formed when zinc oxide is acted upon 
by spirit of salt, the production of water becomes a proof of the presence of 
oxygen — you are able now to test lime — again water is obtained. It is therefore 
established that lime is an oxide — probably the oxide of a metal like magnesium 
Or zinc. Limestone stuff is therefore a distinct type of earthy substance, 
different from the earthy metallic oxides, formed by the association of a 
metallic oxide with a non-metallic oxide. You have yet to extend your ex- 
periments to the other metallic oxides to ascertain whether they all form 
compounds similar to limestone stuff. 

If a course of experiments with the metals and metallic oxides (iron, copper, 
zinc, lead, magnesium, etc.) and acids (muriatic, nitric, sulphuric) were introduced 
here, there would be considerable opportunity of cultivating preparative skill. 

Literary Work. 
In carrying out such a course attention must ever be paid to the literary 
side of the work. Rough but clear notes, of the arguments used, of the things 
done and of the observations made, must be jotted down, from time to time, 


as each experiment proceeds : on no account must this be done at any other 
time. A reasoned account of the work should then be written out at leisure, 
in flowing language, with due regard to style, never in the inexcusable form of 
a statement in advance of the conclusion to be arrived at ultimately, nor in 
the graceless hackneyed form of Experiment, Observation, Inference. It should 
never be forgotten that the prime object in view is to develop habits of 
logical thought and logical statement, together with the habit of inquiry. 
The clearest possible distinction must be drawn, therefore, between an experi- 
mental, reasoned inquiry into an undetermined issue and the practical demonstra- 
tion or verification of a stated fact. It must be made clear that an experiment 
is an act performed with the definite object either of finding out something 
novel in the experience of the worker or of testing an assumption — that the mere 
demonstration or verification of the truth of a statement is not an experiment. 
The accounts should be fully illustrated by drawings and photographs. 

In order to teach the use of books and develop the habit of purposed, serious 
reading, as wide a course as possible of reading should be associated with the 
experimental work. The books used should be mainly of general interest, and 
informative — books of reference, books of travel, &c. — though technical books 
may be consulted occasionally with advantage. 




A. Tabulated Statements on Salaries of Teachers in the Aided and 
Maintained Secondary Schools of England, and other Details. 


Average Salary 

Average Number of Years 
of Service 

England and Wales 
England alone . 
Wales alone 





B. Salary Scales Reaching a Maximum of: 


Over £250 


£2 11 -£250 




Under £180 . 

E iglish) 







Other Scales 










There is only one authority which publishes a scale in which the ordinary 
maximum salary (after 15 years' service) is £300. 

In County and County Borough areas a salary of £200 is regarded as a fitting 
reward for a successful life's work. In one case Honours Graduates can look forward 
to £190 after 16 years' service. In another the maximum is £160 after 10 years. There 
are ten schools with a maximum of £150 — one of which announces an initial salary 
of £140 rising by annual increments of £5 to a maximum of £150 — while 5 go below 
even that figure. 

C. Percentage of Masters Receiving : 


Less than 
£200 p.a. 

£200 to £251 1 




£251 to £350 

£351 and over ' 

England .... 
Wales .... 
England and Wales 







1). Percentage of Schools in which the Highest Salary is : 


Less than 
£200 p.a. 


£200 to £250 


£251 to £350 

t':i."1 and over 


England .... 
Wales .... 
England and Wales 



The smallest salary is £30 and the largest £500. A Headmaster may receive 
£2,000, whilst his Senior Assistant has a salary of £230. 

Number of cases are included of Graduates and even Honours Graduates with 
long service, having salaries of about £200, and in Wales as little as £70 is paid for 
an Honours Graduate. 



E. Salaries and Prospects in Careers Considered bt many Boys from 

the Secondary Schools. 



Salary at 



22-23 Years 

A. Intermediate 


£100, rising 

£100 . 

£850-£1,000 . 

Pension and ! 

Civil Ser- 

to £350 

tenure se- 



B. Second Di- 


£70, rising 

£130 . 

Possible trans- 


vision Civil 

to £300 

fer to other 



C. Banking 


£60 to £80, 
rising to 

£130 . 

Transfer to 
higher posi- 
tion if suc- 


D. Teaching 


£120 to £150, 

£120 to £150 

Indefinite pos- 

No pension, 

rising to 

sibility of 

tenure in- 





F. Model Scale Suggested by the Assistant Masters' Association 


Initial Salary, £150 per annum. 

Increments of £10 per annum to £300, and then £15 per annum to 
a maximum of £450. 
Additional allowances in centres where the cost of living is higher. 

More complete details will be found in : — 

1. The Conditions of Service of Teachers in English and Foreign Secondary 
Schools. Published by Messrs. Bell and Sons for the Incorporated Association of 
Assistant Masters. 

2. Statistics of Salaries of Assistant Masters. Published by the Incorporated 
\ssociation of Assistant Masters. 


Science Subjects in Typical Girls' Schools. 
(The figures indicate the number of schools teaching a specified subject at a 

given age.) 

Leaving Age, 16. 

Grant Aided 

36 Typical Schools. 

Age : 


11 + 

12 + 






Nature Study . 






General Elementary 








Elementary Chem- 










Systematic Chem- 









— . 







Heat .... 




















Hygiene . 







*Domestic Science . 








* In some cases this means actual cookery, &c. 



Leaving Ago, 18. 

Grant Aided. 

103 Typical .Schools. 


Nature Study 
* ieneral Elementary Physics 
Elementary Chemistry 
Systematic Chemistry 

Heat .... 
Light .... 
Botany .... 
•Domestic Science 
Physiology . 

Mag. and Elcc. . 
Hound .... 



11 + 






12 ; 13 -I 14 : 

21 7 1 

78 78 31 

27 50 

1 i 3 


1 8 







33 57 


6 ! 10 

19 24 

— — 1 

15+ 16+ 17 + 
















16 13 

2 2 

1 1 

1 I 2 
-I 2 


Leaving Age, 18. No Grant. 19 Typical Schools. 

Age : 


11 + 















16 + 







Nature Study 

I ieneral Elementary P] 

Elementary Chemistry 

Systematic Chemistry 


Heat . 

Botany . 


1 *Doniestie Science 

Physiology . 
! Sound . 

Elem. and Mag. . 


























Private Schools. 13 Typical Schools. 

Age : 


Nature Study 

General Elementary Physics 
Elementary Chemistry 
Systematic Chemistry 
Mechanics .... 




Biology .... 

Hygiene .... 
♦Domestic Science 
Physiology .... 
Geology .... 

11+ 12+13 + 




5 3 
4 5 


17 + 



* In some cases this means actual cookery, &c. 




laboratory accommodation and staffing in glrls' schools. 

Laboratory Accommodation. 

89 Typical Girls' Schools. 

No. of Girls in School 

No. of 

1 Lab. 2 Labs. 


3 Labs. 

4 Labs. 



35 1 
20 7 
10 1 

— 4 




146 Typical Girls' Schools. 

No. of Science Staff 

No. of Girls 
in School 

No. of 



1 + 








































1 + means that there is one full-time and one part-time science mistress, and so on. 


Academic Qualifications of Headmasters and Headmistresses. 

A. Schools Represented on the Headmasters' Conference. 

Number, 118. Boys, 36,393. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 

Classical . 
Theological ] 
Pass Degrees J 

82 | 
13 . 33 | Literary 











* The fractions originate from the fact that a few headmasters possess more than 
one qualification. Three headmasters (two mathematical and one classical) also 
possess an additional scientific qualification. 

B. Non-State-Aided Schools in England Represented on the 
Headmasters' Conference. 

Number, 73. Boys, 23,269. 



Per cent. 


Per cent. 

Classical . . 50 | 
Theological "1 , , ,.,., Literary 
Pass Degrees J 













U. Qualifications of 200 Headmistresses of Public Secondaey .Schools 

for Girls. 

Classics 34. 

History 40 

Mediaeval and Modern Languages . 31 

English Language and Literature . 18 

Mental and Moral Science . . 5] 






Per cent. 



In the case of the B.A. and B.Sc. London, only the Honours Degree is included, 
as the subjects of the ordinary degree are not specified in the calendars. 

The schools have been taken from the ' Girls' School Year Book,' and the 
majority are represented on the Headmistresses' Association. 


Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman) , Mr. Wilfred 
Mark Webb (Secretary), the Eev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Pordham, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Sir Thomas 
Holland, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. 
A. L. Lewis, Mr. Thomas Sheppard, the Bev. T. E. B. 
Stebbing, and the President and General Officers. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The Committee regrets that the Institution of Mining Engineers has 
withdrawn from affiliation. 

The Conference will be held in the apartments of the Geological 
Society, Burlington House, London (by kind permission of the 
Council), on Thursday, July 5, and Friday, July 6. 

The President, Mr. John Hopkinson, will take as his subject 
'The Work and Aims of our Corresponding Societies.' Dr. F. A. 
Bather has consented to act as Vice-President of the Conference. 

The following subjects will be discussed : ' Eegional Surveys ' 
(suggested by the Letchworth and District Naturalists' Society), to 
be introduced by Mr. C. C. Fagg; 'Weights and Measures,' to 
be introduced by Mr. Thomas Sheppard ; ' The part to be played 
by Local Societies after the War in the application of Science to 
the Needs of the Country ' (suggested by the Selborne Society), to be 
introduced by Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee has accepted, on behalf 
of the delegates, an invitation from the Selborne Society to a meeting 
on July 6, when Professor E. A. Gregory will speak on 'The 
Popularisation of Science,' and Professor H. E. Armstrong will give 
a lecture on ' Fuel Economy. ' 

The Committee asks to be reappointed and for a grant of £25. 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held 
in London on Thursday, July 5, and Friday, July 6, 1917. 

President . John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., Assoc. Inst.C.E. 

Vice-President Dr. F. A. Bather, F.E.S. 

Secretary . Wilfred Mark Webb, F.L.S., F.E.M.S. 

By the courtesy of the Council of the Geological Society the three 
meetings of the Conference were held in its rooms at Burlington 
House, and at the first meeting the President took the chair and 
delivered the following Address: — 


The Work and Aims of Our Corresponding Societies. 

It is nearly forty years since I suggested that the Delegates from provincial 
societies should hold a Conference at each meeting of the British Association, 
subsequently arranging for the first Conference to be held at Swansea in 1880. 
Although sanctioned by the Council of the Association it was not an official 
Conference, being the first of five managed and supported financially by the 
Delegates only. Having then been in the Chair I accept with the greater satis- 
faction after so many years the honour conferred upon me to preside at the 
present Conference. 

It was not at first, nor was it for several years, the custom for the Chairman 
to give an address. A few remarks were made by Dr. J. G. Garson on opening 
the Conference at Nottingham in 1893, but the first formal address from the 
Chair was delivered at Ipswich in 1895 by the late Mr. G. J. Symons, who took 
for his subject certain systematic meteorological work which might be done by 
members of provincial societies. 

At the Conference held at Swansea in 1880 the following resolution was 
passed : ' That this Conference recommends that at future meetings of the 
British Association the delegates from the various scientific societies should meet 
with the view of promoting the best interests of the Association and of the 
several societies represented.' With this end in view it seems to me that 
Mr. Symons' address was particularly appropriate, for it is surely in the best 
interests of the Association as well as of its Corresponding Societies that con- 
certed systematic work should be done. 

The main object of our Societies is, or should be, to undertake local 
scientific investigation, and we are here assembled chiefly to discuss the best 
means of doing so and of obtaining the most valuable results. While all should 
work to the same end, that end, whatever it may be, can best be achieved by all 
working in the same manner, or at least on some definite plan, so that the results 
may be comparable. 

It is not, however, to stimulate and direct scientific investigation only that 
this Conference should aim ; there is also for it the wider field of influencing 
public opinion on the importance of far greater attention than at present being 
given to scientific education and to many problems concerned with the future 
welfare of our nation in which science may lend a fostering hand. There is no 
other country in the world which has nearly so many scientific societies as we 
have. There are on our list 120 Corresponding Societies (ninety Affiliated 
and thirty Associated) with an aggregate membership exceeding 46,000, subject 
to a slight reduction, as some of these societies are represented individually as 
well as by the Union to "which they belong, and some have members who are 
also members of other societies on our list; but we may, I think, estimate the 
number of individual members represented as not less than 45,000, while 
Principal Griffiths, in his address at our Cambridge Conference in 1.904, 
estimated the total number of scientific societies in the kingdom as about 500 
with a membership approaching 100,000. If we could all agree upon some 
beneficial project what an immense influence we might have ! 

The ' Circular referring to subjects recommended for investigation by Local 
Scientific Societies,' issued by our original Committee in 1882, had good results, 
enlisting observers and investigators in the study of the various subjects on 
which information was desired, and an extended list with instructions published 
in 1891 in the ' Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society ' 
(vol. vi., pt. 2, pp. 40-44) may still be consulted with advantage. 

In the Report of the Council of the Association for the year 1881-82 it is 
stated that in respect of a resolution referred by the General Committee the 
Council recommended (inter alia) 'The appointment of a Committee in order to 
draw up suggestions upon methods of more systematic observation and plans of 
operation for local societies, together -with a more uniform mode of publishing 
the results of their work. It is recommended that this Committee should draw 
np a list of societies which publish their proceedings.' The Committee was 
appointed, and its first report -was printed in the Report of the Association for 
1883 (pp. 318-345). The list, drawn up by Mr. (now Sir) H. George Fordham, 
1917. p 


crives in tabular form the most important particulars of 175 publishing societies, 
while appendices give less full information on eleven societies of -which the 
Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science then 
consisted, of twenty-one which formed the Midland Union of Natural History 
Societies, and of thirty-eight also included in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
with the exception of twenty in the two Unions, appearing in the main 
list. This 'was the origin of the official Corresponding Societies Committee, 
which presented its first report in 1885, giving in it a list of thirty-eight Corre- 
sponding Societies and appending to it an ' Index of Papers referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations published during the past year ' by those societies. 
Such an index has since then been annually appended to the report of the 
Committee. The first official Conference of Delegates was held in the same 
year at Aberdeen, reports of that and of every subsequent Conference appear- 
ing in the annual Reports of the British Association. The last unofficial Con- 
ference having been held at Montreal in 1884, the official Conferences followed 
without a break. 

In the report of the Corresponding Societies Committee printed in the 
Report of the British Association for 1902, there is (pp. 852-853) a list of 
Committees of the Association which desire the co-operation of the Corre- 
sponding Societies, and one of subjects selected by the Delegates for investiga- 
tion which are not included in that list. The two lists embrace all the 
Sections of the Association except A, Mathematical and Physical Science; 
F, Economic Science and Statistics ; I, Physiology ; L, Educational Science ; and 
necessarily M, Agriculture, that being a Section formed since that date. In the 
following remarks I dwell most fully on some subjects which are within the 
scope of the omitted Sections, except that of Physiology, a science which does 
not appeal for concerted action by our Corresponding Societies. 

Section A, Mathematical and Physical Science, ought to be divided as it 
is in the French Association, which has a Section dealing with the Meteorology 
and Physics of the Globe. Meteorology in our Association is almost ignored, 
and yet there is no other science to which assistance can be so easily rendered 
by the members of our Corresponding Societies, nor one in which uniformity of 
observation is so important. Observations need only be taken once a day, at 
9 a.m., and are mostly only taken at that hour, but may also be taken at 9 p.m. ; 
if three times a day, the other hour is 3 p.m., in 'summer time' necessarily 
an hour later by the clock. 

The chief object for which meteorological observations are taken, apart 
from that of forecasting the weather, is to arrive at a knowledge of the 
climate of a place, and we can only compare the climate of one place with that 
of another from the results of observations taken at the same local time at 
each place — that is, at the same interval of time after sunrise. This does 
not vary so greatly within the area of the British Isles but that Greenwich 
time gives satisfactory results, and with rainfall only the difference is of no 
moment. Suggestions for certain meteorological observations were given by 
Mr. Symons in the address referred to, but with evident intent he does not 
specially treat of the subject to which he gave his greatest attention — rainfall. 
Although since that address was delivered observers of rainfall have increased 
in- number in the British Isles from about 3,000 to 5,500, the variations in 
rainfall from place to place are so great that many more observers are still 
required, especially in Ireland, in the western counties of Wales, in Shropshire 
and Staffordshire, and along the east coast of England. Each delegate should 
see to it that his own neighbourhood is adequately represented. A knowledge 
of the mean and extreme rainfall in any district is most important in relation 
to water-supply and agriculture, and it can only be gained from the records 
of a great number of rain-gauges taken for many years. Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Director of the British Rainfall Organisation, has twice brought this subject 
before the Conference of Delegates, and has added to records of rainfall more 
records of bright sunshine as urgently required. Observations with a Campbell- 
Stokes sunshine-recorder give little more trouble than those of rainfall with 
a Snowdon rain-gauge, but it is not so easy to measure the records, and the 
instrument is expensive. 

At the Conference held at Leeds in 1890 I suggested the formation of a 


Committee on meteorological photography ; the idea was approved, members of 
the Committee were chosen, and I was requested to endeavour to secure the 
appointment of the Committee through Section A. This was done by reading 
a paper on the subject before the Section, the Committee appointed presenting 
ten reports. Its work was eventually restricted to experiments by the Secre- 
tary, Mr. A. W. Clayden, with the object of devising the best meane of 
ascertaining the height of clouds, his method being the taking of photographs 
by two cameras in electric connection at a great distance apart. A collection 
of meteorological photographs of various kinds was also made and presented 
to the Royal Meteorological Society, forming the nucleus of a very fine collection 
of lantern-slides available for lectures. Additions will be welcome. 

Closely related with meteorology, or a branch of it, is phenology — the study 
of the i elation between the weather and the dates of flowering of plants, 
arrival and departure of migratory birds, and appearance of insects, and also 
its effect upon our field- and garden-crops. Here again more observers are 
urgently required, for it is only with a very large number of observers that 
we can feel confident that first appearances, whether of flowers, birds, or 
insects, have not been overlooked. Forms for recording may be obtained from 
the Royal Meteorological Society. 1 

For Section C, Geology, much good work has been done by the Corre- 
sponding Societies, especially for the Committee on Geological Photographs, 
which was formed by the joint action of the Section and the Conference of 
Delegates at the Bath meeting in 1888. The photographs (a very large number) 
are deposited in the Geological Museum in Jermyn Street, where they may be 
seen ; also numerous lantern-slides which are lent for lectures. The Committee 
is still in existence and photographs are acceptable. 

Other important geological subjects which have been brought before our 
Conference are earth-tremors, underground water, and coast-erosion, in the 
investigation of one or other of which all our Corresponding Societies can help. 

The fhjects embraced in Section D, Zoology, are by far the most 
attract' * members of our natural history societies, to whom we owe nearly 
all our knowledge of the distribution of animal life in the British Isles, far 
more perhaps of that of the Invertebrata than that of the Vertebrata, about 
which much was known in very early days. It should be the aim of all such 
societies to compile and publish lists of the animals inhabiting their areas, 
recording their localities, carefully noting their habitats, and studying their 
habits and life-histories. Increasing attention is being paid to our Invertebrate 
fauna, but there is still very much to be done, especially in the collection and 
study of the microscopic forms of life in our rivers, lakes, ponds, and ditches, 
on our stately trees and humble mosses, and even in our soils. Almost every 
tuft of moist moss teems with animal life which will well repay microscopic 

There is another aspect of the subject which has frequently been brought 
before us, that is the preservation of our native fauna. In endeavouring to 
prevent the destruction of rare animals or of those approaching extinction all 
may help. We cannot well make sure of the presence of a rare moth or 
butterfly without capturing it, but there is never need to take a large series, 
as is the practice of some entomologists ; with birds and mammals it is different ; 
they can mostly be identified by the practised naturalist without shooting 
them. There are birds, such as the rook and the wood-pigeon, which should 
be reduced in number, as they are so destructive to our field- and garden-crops, 
but such birds as hawks and owls, which are persecuted by gamekeepers, are 
our farmers' best friends, and their extermination ought not to be allowed. The 
same may be said of all insectivorous birds. Hawks may occasionally kill a 
partridge or even a pheasant, the beautiful kingfisher may take a few fish, but 
the food of the owls, with the exception of a few rare species such as the eagle 
owl and the snowy owl, consists almost entirely of small rodents. 3 With regard 

1 Copies of a list with instructions, printed for the Hertfordshire Natural 
History Society, were distributed. 

3 Taken out of a barn-owl's tree at Keswick in Norfolk in April, 1911, were 
114 ' pellets ' containing the skulls of 10 very small rats, 126 long- and short- 
tailed field-mice, 69 shrews, and 3 small birds (perhaps greenfinches), but no came. 



to the species which should be protected, the ornithologists in a natural history 
society can render County Councils valuable help. An order for the protection 
of certain birds was issued by the Hertfordshire County Council in 1895 on 
the representation of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society, the schedule 
being drawn up by ornithological members of the Society and accepted by the 
County Council. 

The next Section is Geography, but it will be better to take here Section K, 
Botany, especially as most of the remarks on zoology apply also to botany. 
Such is the duty of compiling a floTa, as well as a fauna, of each Society's area ; 
of recording the habitats of plants, with special reference to the study of 
ecology or plant-associations ; of studying their life-histories, and protecting the 
rarer species from extermination. As with animals, so with plants, it is the 
distribution of the microscopic forms, such as the desmids and diatoms, about 
which we know least, and although they cannot lay claim to such beauty of form 
and coloration as the freshwater rhizopods and heliozoans, they will •well repay 
far more attention than they have hitherto received. The study of fungi has 
several times been brought before our Conference, and I will only add that we 
know least and ought to know most about our leaf -fungi as being of great 
economic importance. More frequently still have we discussed the question of 
the preservation of our native plants. 

The action of some societies in providing reservations for plants and animals, 
as the Selborne Society has done in its Brent Valley Bird Sanctuary, or in 
urging other bodies to acquire sites for such purposes, is much to be commended. 
So also is that of endeavouring to retain wild spots in their primitive state. 
The Hertfordshire Natural History Society has done something towards this 
end. In 1892 an attempt was made to carry out a scheme for the ' regulation ' 
of Bricket Wood Common, between Watford and St. Albans, by the sale of 
certain outlying parts of the common and the building of houses thereon in 
order to provide funds for making gravel-paths over it, draining it, and 
providing a park-keeper to look after it. The Society devoted part of two of 
its meetings to a discussion of the scheme, the Lord of the Manor and some 
of the copyholders being present at the second meeting, when the opposition 
to curtailing the common by selling outlying portions as building-land was so 
strong that a resolution protesting against it was carried by a large majority, 
and the scheme was dropped, a vigilance committee being appointed to report 
any attempt to revive it, for if such an attempt were carried out we should 
lose the greater part of the intei*esting flora and fauna of the common and its 
scrubs and woodland. More recently, when part of Cassiobury Park was sold 
for building and it was proposed that Watford should purchase from the buyers 
a portion of the part acquired, they building houses round it and leaving the 
enclosed space as a public park, our Society, in conjunction with its offshoot, 
the Watford Field-Path Association, called a public meeting which made a 
recommendation that no houses should be built between the proposed public 
park and the remaining private park, which, being acceded to, was so grate- 
fully and courteously accepted by the original owner, the Earl of Essex, that he 
consented to his park being divided only from the public park by an open 
iron fence. Thus the public secured a sight of the whole of the old park, which 
Lord Essex secured from being overlooked by houses. These instances are 
given as examples of the good which can be done by scientific societies in 
their corporate capacity, outside the scope of their usual activities, and which 
could not be done by any of their members individually. 

Taking now Section E. Geography, it is not a science which can be much 
advanced by the concerted action of our societies, except by urging its efficient 
teaching in schools. With the branch of it called Topography Ave have more 
concern. It should be our first aim to define the area of our operations 
precisely and in accord with neighbouring societies, so that there may be no 
overlapping in our investigations, and to work that area thoroughly. For this 
purpose our 6-in. to the mile Ordnance Map is essential. The methods of our 
Ordnance Survey have been severely criticised at our Conferences, especially 
with regard to the inch-to-the-mile maps, now much improved but too dear for 
a ready sale. 

Section F, Economic Science and Statistics, might well have occupied the 


whole of this address, being of such very great importance at t.'ie present 
time. It is difficult, however, to treat of it in relation to the well-being of 
our Nation, in furtherance of which the members of our Corresponding 
Societies could exert by their concerted action a most valuable pressure, 
without trenching upon the forbidden sphere of party politics. The question of 
tariffs against so-called ' free trade,' surely a false term for allowing other 
nations to put a prohibitive duty on the import of our manufactures while 
we let them dump their surplus products into our country free, ought to have 
no connection with politics. Had it been considered in the past a purely 
economic question we should not have been in our present unfortunate position 
of dependence upon other countries for nearly all the necessitiee of life. 
Britain, once a great producing country, then became a manufacturing one, 
importing raw material and exporting the finished products, but latterly has 
been degenerating into a mere commercial country, importing finished articles 
to the detriment of the products of our soil and of the output of our fac- 
tories. This has brought us to our present critical state. Not only have 
we encouraged the importation of goods we can well make ourselves, and of 
food we can now in part produce, and shall in future have to produce to a 
much greater extent, and so keep our workers, whether out-door or in-door, 
busy, but we have freely exported our very life-blood, that which (with iron) 
made England a manufacturing country, our coal, the exhaustion of which would 
reduce us to abject dependence upon the resources and good-will of countries 
beyond our seas. Germany has been fighting us with coal from Eolith Wales for 
the motive power of her ships and with toluol from our gasworks for her 
most explosive munitions, having imported from us vast quantities of both 
during many years. Should there be no other result of the present war than 
to bring about a radical change in our fiscal system, the loss of men and 
money which it has occasioned would be greatly compensated. I repeat that 
this ought not to be a question for politicians, and there are signs that soon it, 
will not be considered one. It ought to be vigorously taken up as a scientific and 
economic question by all the members of our Corresponding Societies, for all 
must have the future welfare of our country at heart. 

In Section H, Anthropology, the work of the ' Ethnographical Survey 
of the United Kingdom,' a Committee of the British Association, has frequently 
been brought before the Conference, and I believe that great assistance has 
been given to it by our Corresponding Societies. The Committee is no longer 
in existence, but of lasting importance for continued vigilance is that branch 
of it entrusted with the recording of monuments and other remains of ancient 
culture. It is rather the preservation than the recording of such remains 
that is now of greatest importance, and in this most of our societies could 
help by appointing vigilance committees to report any attempts at vandalism. 
Much good has resulted from the ' Ancient Monuments Act,' but it does not 
go far enough, being permissive only, not compulsory. At present the most 
pressing need of protection seems to lie that of Kent's Cavern, near Torquay, 
in the exploration of which Mr. William Pengelly spent the best years of his 
life, and an endeavour should be made to get it placed under the protection 
of this Act, if a prehistoric cave can be considered a monument, or under 
the National Trust. 3 I visited it last autumn and found that the custodian had 
relics for sale. 

To treat adequately of Section L, Educational Science, would require 
several addresses. It embraces the teaching of the various subjects already 
discussed and many others. As to the vexed question of a classical against 
a scientific education, I would give almost equal weight to each, but let the 
balance preponderate towards science. I doubt if there is a single naturalist 
amongst us who would consider a little knowledge of Latin and Greek 
unnecessary. We ought to know sufficient of Greek to devise from it, for 
instance, a name for a new genus, and when we see a name derived from the 
Greek to be able to ascertain its meaning; we must know sufficient of Latin 
to give a suitable name to a new species and to be sure that we give it a correct 

J Resolutions to this effect should be passed by all our Corresponding 
Societies, and made widely known. 


termination, to know why a certain name has been bestowed and to give in 
Latin a brief diagnosis of a genus or a species. A certain knowledge of Latin 
is also important for the profitable study of our own and several other lan- 
guages, so many words being derived from it ; but I consider it almost a 
criminal waste of time to spend the best days of our school or college life in 
so mastering any dead language that we could give an oration in it, except for 
those who aim at a classical professorship. It is more necessary that we 
should have a better acquaintance with one or other of such modern languages 
as French, Italian, or Spanish, for any of which some knowledge of Latin is 
most helpful, or of German, so replete is it with biological information, but 
still more so that we should have a thorough knowledge of that most neglected 
language in the teaching curriculum of our own country, English, at least in 
higher education. 

With reference to Latin, I will just touch upon one point in my own 
education. Of course I was first put to Caesar's ' De Bello Gallico.' I utterly 
failed with it, owing probably to complete laok of interest. In a higher class 
I was given Virgil's ' Georgics ' to translate and soon took an interest in it — 
in its four books treating of the cultivation of the soil and the management 
of fruit trees, of cattle, and of bees. The moral seems to be that the teacher 
should first learn the bent of mind of his pupils and should modify his teaching 

I presume that most of you have, or may some time have, children to send 
to school, and may have some influence over their education. You are more 
likely to know their capabilities than are the teachers to whom you send them, 
and you should make use of this knowledge for their benefit. 

With regard to the teaching of science, all books should at first be eschewed 
and the child should be taught to make some simple experiments. Every child, 
out of curiosity almost from its babyhood, wants to experiment, even if it may 
only be to take its doll to pieces to see what is inside it, and this desire of 
experimenting, though not of destroying, should be fostered. The natural 
desire to know all about the things around one is preliminary to the desire to 
know why certain things are as we see them; that is, to a knowledge of causes 
and their effects, which is science. The scientific teaching of the present day in 
our elementary schools is generally the mere imparting of a knowledge of the 
names and properties of things, and does not develop the intellectual powers. 
It is only when properly taught that the reason lately given by Professor D. 
Fraser Harris why a knowledge of science is useful to the general community 
truly applies. He said, in an address to the Nova Scotian Institute of Science 
(printed in ' Nature ' of May 17) : ' Apart altogether from the way in which 
science makes for technical efficiency, it is a means second to none in the training 
of the intellectual powers. It trains us in accuracy of observation, in the power 
of drawing trustworthy conclusions, in habits of precise thinking generally; an J 
these are not small things. Science, the true, is the patient, loving interpreta- 
tion of the world we live in; it is a striving to attain not merely to an under- 
standing of the laws whereby the world is governed, but to the enjoyment of the 
beauty and order which are everywhere revealed.' 

The Rev. Hilderic Friend, in reviewing the last report of the Rugby School 
Natural History Society (in the same number of ' Nature'), says, with special 
reference to the Society's work in ornithology : ' Such studies are of inestimable 
value to young people. They develop the powers of observation, teach patience, 
sympathy, endurance, and kindness, divert the mind from base pursuits, and 
open out a fairy realm of beauty and delight, which cannot fail to ennoble, as 
well as entertain, those who pursue them.' This Society is doing excellent work, 
so also is the Marlborough College Natural History Society; the latter on our 
list of Affiliated Societies. The formation of such scholastic societies should be 
greatly encouraged. 

The subject of museums comes, I think, most appropriately under this 
Section, for they are of very great educational value. One of the most 
important committees of the Association was that appointed in 1886, by the 
co-operation of Sections C and D and the Conference of Delegates, for the 
purpose of preparing a report on the provincial museums of the United King- 
dom. The Committee was very expeditious, thanks to the energy of its 


Secretary, Mr. F. T. Mott, presenting in the following year a valuable report 
which appeared in the Report of the Association for 1887 (pp. 97-130) and a further 
report the next year (Report for 1888, pp. 124-132). In the first report there 
are tables (I) giving particulars of 211 provincial museums under headings 
extending across two pages, (II) an approximate estimate of the number of 
specimens contained in these museums, and (III) a list of collections of special 
interest indicating the museums in which they are preserved. A large portion 
of this report is occupied with ' Discussion of Details ' under thirty-six heads. 
The second report considers ' the ideal to which provincial museums should 
endeavour to attain,' and suggests 'practical methods for approaching that 
ideal.' It is not too much to say that these reports are invaluable, not only to 
those who have the management of museums, but also to all scientific workers 
who wish to know where, apart from our national museums, the materials for 
study in their own branch of science are to be found. 

The Hertfordshire County Museum at St. Albans — the only one with which 
I am connected — was not then founded, but I may mention that it is visited 
largely by children from the Board Schools in the neighbourhood, who take 
an intelligent interest in the exhibits, quickly find out accessions, and collect 
and bring to the Curator objects they wish to know the names of, presenting 
to the Museum any worthy of acceptance. To young children there is one 
drawback in a museum, which has been felt at St. Albans : they wish to handle 
the specimens, rightly judging that by so doing they can learn more about 
them than by merely looking at them. Every museum should, if possible, have 
duplicates of the commoner objects, accurately named, to lend to schools. 

The last Section, M, Agriculture, is at the present day the most important 
of all, at least economically. It ought, I think, to be extended to include 
Forestry. But what, it may be asked, have the members of our Corresponding 
Societies in general to do with agriculture or forestry? Perhaps not much 
collectively, but they will have a great deal to do individually when more 
labour is available on the conclusion of the present war. We must no longer 
look down upon our farmers. One consequence of our present fiscal system ia 
that the social status of our workers is now generally in an ascending scale 
from producers, through manufacturers, to merchants, being in relation to 
the amount of money each class makes ; but we must reverse this, even to the 
extent of placing our tenant-farmers on a social level with professional men. 
such as doctors. The medical profession, rightly, stands high ; doctors look 
after our health, but we are dependent upon farmers for our life. We cannot 
exist without food ; we cannot get food except by the tillage of land, and it 
is going to be, as it once was, chiefly by the tillage of our own land. Many 
of our soldiers, after living much in the open air, improved greatly in physique, 
will not go back to office work. We must welcome them to the land ; give 
them a real hearty welcome, and not an empty one, for their comfort will 
have to be looked after and their companionship will have to be sought, not 
avoided. Of course the necessary raising of the social status of our farmers 
cannot come altogether from without ; it implies a higher education, and that 
implies a longer school-life, followed, if possible, by special training in an 
agricultural college; 1 and this again implies a sufficiency of income. There 
are not many of our landowners who can afford materially to reduce the rent 
of their farms ; their tenants will have to pay higher wages to their labourers, 
and they must earn an increased income. Thus we are led to the conclusion 
that there must be a better husbandry, implying an education in which 
chemistry and biology will play an important part ; a more economic distribu- 
tion of the products of the farm, which might be achieved by co-operation; 
and that we must be content to pay more for our food by import duties keeping 
up the cost of supplies from abroad to that of production and distribution at 
home. The extent of arable land has greatly decreased. From the address of 
the President of this Section at the Manchester meeting of the Association in 
1915, Mr. H. R. Rew, we learn that the acreage under wheat in England and 
Wales has been reduced nearly half since 1808, while the population has nearly 

4 There should be a Chair of Agriculture and Forestry at each of our 
Universities supported by the State; or of Rural Economy, as at Oxford. 


quadrupled ; but we are now getting four quarters of wheat per acre, whereas 
then we only got three quarters, the result working out at eight and a half 
bushels per annum per head of the population in 1808, and one and a half in 
1914, between one-fifth and one-sixth of our needs. 

Here is much lost ground to be regained, and all of you can help to regain 
it, especially those who live in or near agricultural districts, by helping the 
farmers with your sympathy and with your support in all legislative measures 
for their benefit. Then in time, as a powerful writer has recently said : ' Sturdy 
sons of hill and dale shall till the soil which in years gone by gave us the 
stout yeomen and the bowmen of old England ; agriculture, the purest of all 
industries, shall resume its rightful sway over the labours of mankind, and, 
come what may, our granaries and barns shall be stored with the rich harvests 
of God's generous earth.' 

In the heart of the New Forest there is, or was last summer, a small Por- 
tuguese colony, its home a hut in a valley, its handiwork a large gap in the 
adjoining woodlands. In five weeks 26 men cut down and prepared for use 
in the trenches in France 26,000 pine trees. Not far off, Irishmen, and soldiers 
called up but found unfit for foreign service, had then cleared some 300 out of 
450 acres of Scotch fir. These are only two of several lumber camps in various 
parts of the forest where saw-mills have been set up worked by Canadian and 
English sawyers. This depletion of forests ie going on in various parts 
of the United Kingdom ; I have seen whole mountain-sides in Wales so depleted, 
while little is being done to replenish them. Afforestation on a very large scale 
will be necessary on the conclusion of the war unless we are content to 
let our country become an arid waste. There is plenty of land available, 
unfit, or nearly so, for agriculture, but few will go to the expense of planting 
trees which may yield no return during their lifetime. No return can be 
expected for 30 years or so, and it may be 60 or 70 years before the profit over- 
takes the original cost with (say) five per cent, per annum compound interest. 
Moreover the planting must be done on too large a scale for private individuals, 
however wealthy and patriotic, to do more than a small fraction of it; it will 
have to be done by the State. It will not interfere with agriculture, for most 
work is required in the winter when least is required on the farm, and no valu- 
able agricultural land need be taken. As with agriculture, there will be men 
for the work, soldiers returned from abroad who will not go back to sedentary 

In walking over the Welsh hills I have repeatedly come across roofs and 
stumps of trees in the peat-mosses which frequently cover them; they are 
evidences of former forests. The land is worthless except for the value of 
the peat, the removal of which would, for its valuable by-products, not only as 
a fuel, well repay the expense, and the ground would be rendered suitable for 
planting coniferous trees. It is true that most of our peat-covered mountain- 
land is above the elevation a£ which it is generally considered that trees will 
flourish (1,500 ft.), but if they did so in the past there seems no reason why 
they should not do so in the future, for it is far more likely that our climate 
has become warmer since trees grew on that land than it is that it has become 
colder. We have also large areas of waste land at lower elevations, extensive 
slopes which are too steep for ordinary cultivation between, and on sheep, 
farms much very poor grazing land which would be more profitably used in 
growing timber. As to the best trees to be planted at different elevations and 
on different soils, at least by private landowners, no doubt there are many 
botanists in our societies who could greatly help with their advice. In the 
last half-century we have doubled our imports of timber and now do not produce 
more than' a tenth part of our requirements, although our climate is admirably 
suited to the production of nearly the whole. 

We are far behind most European countries in the relative area of our tim- 
bered land. For instance, nearly half the area of Eussia and of the Scandi. 
navian countries is wooded, about 26 per cent, of the area of Germany, about 
17 per cent, of that of France, and the same of Belgium, the most densely 
populated country in Europe until its devastation and depopulation by the 
Germans, but only about four per cent, of the area of the United Kingdom, 


which will probably be reduced, owing to the requirements of the war, to not 
more than two or three per cent. 

Next to fostering agriculture let it be your aim, individually as well as 
collectively in your capacity as members of societies working in harmonious 
co-operation, to promote to the best of your ability the re-afforestation of our 
country. By encouraging these two industries you will help to secure its future 
safety and prosperity. 

I have said nothing about three Sections of the British Association : B, 
Chemistry; G, Engineering; and I, Physiology. In them concerted action is 
not so much required as in those which I have brought before you, but I hope 
that I have given, for a single address, a sufficient number of examples of good 
work done by our Corresponding Societies in the past and a sufficiency of hints 
of what their aims should be in the future. I will only add that it should 
be the chief aim of each of us 

' To make the world within his reach 

Somewhat the better for his being, 
And gladder for his human speech.' 

A vote of thanks was passed to the President on the proposition of Mr. 
William Whitaker, Chairman of the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
.seconded by Sir Edward Brabrook, and afterwards the following- discussion 
took place. 

Mr. William Whitaker (Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society) 
said : I heartily agree with the President in pretty nearly the whole of his 
address. That he was the President of the first unofficial Congress of the 
British Association interests me especially, as I happen to have been that of 
the last. 

It is a great thing that all societies should know of the slides mentioned by 
the President, and that they can be borrowed. I should like to emphasise 
what the President says of Topography. It is very important that tins par 
ticular branch of Geography should be studied, not only by observation in 
the field, but by the consideration of its literature, which is an exceedingly 
large and important one. I am not going to defend the Ordnance Survey ; it is 
their business, not mine; but there is a good deal to be said for them in regard 
to prices. If any societies want a large number of maps for their use as a 
society — not for sale — they can get them at a ridiculously low price. We in 
Croydon have done it. We not merely got a map at a low price, but got the 
copy printed as we wanted it — that is, with Croydon as a centre ; five hundred 
copies, and I think the cost was about a penny a copy. Of course they cannot 
be sold to members, but they can be given to them for use in marking scientific 
areas and sites. In Croydon every subject of importance we put on a map. 

The President says that Economic Science should be separated from 
Politics. But you cannot, the two sciences go together. Economics is a very 
important part of political science ; in fact, political science cannot get on without 
it. There is one economic law you cannot get rid of, and that is simply to 
buy in the cheapest market. In the end it comes to this, that the law- will 
conquer. I need not go into the reasons Of course the war is making lis 
think of these things, rightly in many cases, wrongly in others. 

I am not inclined to go so far as the President in favour of classical 
languages, but I heartily agree with him in what he said about English. We 
have in this country one of the finest languages, if not the finest, that ever 
was invented, and we ought, instead of neglecting it, to make it one of our 
chief studies. It is one of those things in which we English, as we generally 
do, depreciate our own things, and make out that the English people are doing 
wrong and other people doing right. One of the changes wanted in English 
education is the proper study of the English language. 

The President has rightly put to the front the Hertfordshire County 
Museum. One of the societies I represent is the Essex Field Club, and we have 
two museums to look after. I do not know whether any other society can go as 
far as that. One museum is managed in concert with what I venture to call 
the enlightened Borough of West Ham, with a Council which does not mind 


spending a little on scientific purposes. If anything is going at a fair reasonable 
price it will get it. Another point which our societies will have to study is 
working in concert with municipal and county authorities, with which they 
should be more connected. 

There is one thing our President has not noticed : the need of some altera- 
tions in our land laws. You will not advance very much without this. The 
farmers do not want our sympathy : they want the power of doing what is 
right. In Essex there are, or were, square miles of uncultivated land. 

The Rev. J. 0. Bevan (Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club) spoke as follows : 
I joined the Association in the year 1879. The first meeting I attended was at 
Swansea in 1880, and I did not understand at that time that such a mountain 
was in labour. One is delighted to find that, although the mountain was in 
labour, it has not brought forth a ridiculous mouse ; it has brought forth the 
Conference we have the pleasure of attending to-day. 

One cannot fail to notice that we have, and have had, some very eminent 
meteorologists at our meetings. I especially remember Mr. Symons, whose 
personal qualities were as high as his scientific attainments in the department 
which he had made his own. Another that occurs to me is Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Not only in our own country, but throughout the entire Empire, afforestation 
is of interest. When, as one of the members of the Association, I visited 
Canada in 1884 and 1897 I was saddened by the consideration of the great 
destruction that is going on in the forests in that wonderful portion of our 
Empire. I was told that the timber was cut day by day to make paper-pulp 
for a New York paper. What one complains of is that a simultaneous effort 
was not made to supply the waste. In the United States there is Arbor 
Day, and on that day every person who is able is required to plant a tree. 
Our societies would be very well advised to suggest that a day of that sort 
should be inaugurated throughout the British Islands. Those who have really 
wanted to study forestry have had to go to Germany. This is not only 
unfortunate ; it is disastrous. It is in line with the policy which the President 
has touched upon with regard to our dependence upon Germany and foreign 
countries for things for which we ought to depend upon ourselves. 

It is a kind of irony of fate, when Kent's Cavern has been so handsomely 
and wonderfully worked for so many years by Mr. Pengelly and others, that it 
should have been allowed to pass out of the hands of scientific people and 
scientific associations. A certain measure of blame, I dare say, is to be attached 
to local associations, and perhaps to our great Association. But the thing is 
done, and ought to be amended as soon as possible. It is a feature of our 
Association and our Conference, that much of our effort is spent in simple talk ; 
the matter ends with talk. I hope that something may be done at this Con- 
ference of Delegates to set matters in train whereby the working out of the 
cavern shall be carried on by scientific people in a scientific way. There is very 
little doubt that considerable elements in the past history of our globe are now 
enthroned in that cavern which in existing circumstances will not be brought up. 

Sir Edward Brabrook (Balham and District Antiquarian and Natural His- 
tory Society) stated that the matter of Kent's Cavern was brought before the 
Council, and they expressed their entire sympathy with the object, but the 
Ancient Monuments Act, unfortunately, does not apply to objects of natural 
formation, such as Kent's Cavern. Therefore he was afraid, after having 
inquired of the best authority on that subject — that is, the Chief Inspector of 
Ancient Monuments — that nothing could be done for it. 

The Secretary reported that the Council had officially informed him of the 
facts which Sir Edward had put before the Conference, and he alluded to what 
Mr. Mark Sykes said at Newcastle that he was prepared to do. It is now up to 
the Conference, as Mr. Bevan has said, to try to carry the matter further. 

The Rev. J. 0. Bevan said that he would be very glad to formulate a 

Mrs. Forbes Julian (Torquay Natural History Society) was very grateful 
for the remarks that had been made about her father (Mr. Pengelly). The 
working of Kent's Cavern was a great work in any man's life. When the cavern 
was offered for sale her husband knew nothing about it. She would be very 
glad if anything could be done, because it was a very great loss to science, as 


not only could one not make further investigations there, but it was difficult to 
trace even those of the past. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies) 
was bound to say that his nephew, E. P. Stebbing, a lecturer on forestry in 
the University of Edinburgh, would be happy to give instruction to anyone 
particularly interested in that industry. 

Miss Layaed (the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia) pointed out that there 
were few English caves or caverns available for research, and that they were 
extremely valuable, especially with regard to surface flints and the discussions 
which arise with regard to whether these are of neolithic or late palaeolithic 
origin. There is also a danger of the site of the Anglo-Saxon cemetery which 
was discovered at Ipswich several years ago being lost sight of, as it would pro- 
bably be soon built over. She asked whether a suggestion could not be made by 
the British Association that some kind of small monument should be placed there. 

Mr. A. W. Oke (the Brighton and Hove Natural History Society) then 
made further suggestions, and asked whether a committee, consisting of Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Mr. Whitaker, and others, could not be formed to deal with 
the question. 

Dr. F. A. Bather (Museums Association, and Wimbledon Natural History 
Society) pointed out that everything that was made by man went to the British 
Museum as historic; the animals with which man was associated went to the 
Natural History Museum. It was obvious, therefore, that the main interest 
in Kent's Cavern was historic ; certainly it should come under the National 
Trust for Places of Historic Interest. In further remarks, Dr. Bather said 
that as they met in London it might be of interest, at all events to those in 
London, to know that the John Evelyn Club for Wimbledon, the parent of the 
society that he represented, was instrumental in saving to the public a very 
large tract of land that had recently been added to Wimbledon Common. 
The great advantage of saving this land was that having it built over would 
have spoilt the view from Wimbledon Common. Also the smoke would have 
added to the damage. It was the hope of the Natural History Society to 
try to form out of a portion of this something like a sanctuary. The other 
body which he had the honour to represent was the Museums Association. The 
President had alluded to a very valuable report on museums drawn up in 1887 
by the British Association. Of course that was long ago, but years afterwards 
the Museums Association produced a Directory to the Museums in this country 
which v ould be found more up to date, and rather more complete, than the 
old report. Also there was at the present moment sitting a British Association 
committee which was discussing the educational aspect of museums. The 
work had been held up because a good many of its members were otherwise 
engaged. He hoped a valuable report might be issued, but education does not, 
or should not, cease when we leave school. Education by museums was not 
confined to school children, but they had the opportunity of educating the whole 
of the public, and during this time of war some of our museums had recognised 
their duty as educational media. There were so many ways in which museums 
could educate the public, if only people would utilise the museums, which would 
be only too ready to help. 

He was very strongly in favour of Latin and Greek, but would remind them 
that ' a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.' He studied Latin and Greek 
for a number of years, and though he thought he knew enough to construct 
names correctly and make new specific names he found he was mistaken. The 
ability to look up a lexicon and a dictionary and some knowledge of inflections 
and so forth was not enough, and it was generally advisable to take counsel 
with a real classical scholar. 

He did not wish to discuss the question of Free Trade, but he did wish to 
say he agreed with Mr. Whitaker. As to saying that economics should be 
divorced from politics, he would rather go to the other extreme, and say that 
not anything that interests us as human beings and citizens of the British Empire 
should be divorced from politics. The trouble was, we had allowed politics to 
be divorced from us. We ought to keep a hold on politics; to keep up our 
interest; to take part in all affairs, and to take care that we did not draw 
distinctions between certain subjects and politics, and then blame politicians 


because they did not understand us. They could not go very far, even in the 
pursuit of science, before they found it necessary to begin to talk to the 

The Secretary, speaking as Secretary of the Selborne Society, added his 
testimony to that of the others as to the pleasure he had received from hearing 
Mr. Hopkinson's address. 

With regard to Arbor Day, the Society for the Protection of Birds had 
for some years had an Arbor Day. It was also a matter not entirely lost 
sight of in this country by individuals, such as Mr. Till, of Eynsford, but 
it should be instituted by the State or as it was in America. The ordinary 
landowner was supposed to be in difficulties when he cut down the trees, but 
this was not always the case. One of Lord Yarborough's ancestors looked at 
the bare hills round his house, and thought it would be a very good idea to 
plant trees, and he planted hundreds and hundreds of acres. The present Lord 
Yarborough came to the conclusion that it would be a rather good idea to treat 
the trees as if they were corn, and cut down a number of acres every year; but 
he planted several times as many trees as he cut down. Speaking of a visit 
paid to Lord Yarborough's estate, Mr. Webb said the forester told him that 
instead of having a difficulty to part with timber he had a regular market 
every year for the best ; the poorer wood they kept and creosoted for their own 
use. This was a sort of thing that might be done all over the country. 

The President had said that one of the difficulties was that children could 
not handle things in museums. He (Mr. Webb) had the pleasure a year or two 
ago of devising a museum which might be made for the use of children, and 
lie had shown one at the Children's Welfare Exhibition. The exhibits which 
were not living were changed according to the season and time of the year, and 
there were specimens that anybody could pick up and examine, specimens 
chosen because they could not be easily damaged. 

If Mr. Bevan would give them a resolution with regard to Kent's Cavern, 
asking them to go forward, he would, as the Secretary of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee, see what he could do in the matter. He did not think 
they could appoint, as Mr. Oke suggested, a definite committee, because it was 
not within the power of the Conference, but they might nominate representa- 
tives to serve on any outside committee that could be brought into existence. 

Mr. Henry Barnes (Worcester Naturalists' Club), speaking on the subject 
of museums and their educational value, said this was very much weakened 
by reason of there being no guide, either in the person of the curator or some 
assistant, who could point out to the many persons visiting them the various 
objects and their classification and relation. People wander in the vaguest way 
through a museum, not knowing what they are looking at. If the curator 
observed an interested visitor who did not appear to know much about the 
object he was looking at, and could just put in a word and give some informa- 
tion which would arouse interest and curiosity, the educational value of museums 
would be very much enhanced. If there were anyone present belonging to 
the Museums Association, a suggestion in that direction would not do any 

The President, replying on the, debate, said : T was very pleased to hear 
what Mr. Whitaker said about Ordnance maps. I was not at all aware that 
maps could be had at less than the published price, and I hope that that fact 
will be made widely known, so that local societies can get them at a very 
greatly reduced rate. 

A society's journal is an encouragement to members to contribute papers 
to the society. I have been editor of one since 1875 ; members have given 
us good papers who had never written anything before, and probably never 
would have written anything had it not been for the society. I have found 
that members who had never had any previous scientific training and had 
not had a college education have written better English than some highly 
educated scientific men. 

As to meteorology being almost ignored in the Association, I have a 
personal experience of the difficulty of bringing forward meteorological papers, 
finding that they are nearly always relegated to the very last place, when there 
are only two or three minutes left. 


It would be an excellent thing if we could settle upon an Arbor Day and 
induce all our societies to get all their members to plant a tree on that day. It 
could be initiated perhaps better from this Conference than in any other way. 

Perhaps, instead of politics, I ought to have said party iH.lit i< .<, for I used 
the word in its usual restricted sense as the art of forwarding the interests 
of a political party. 

Mr. Fagg then read the following paper upon 

Regional Surveys. 

At the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne last year, your President, Professor Lebour, chose for the 
title of his address 'Co-operation.' I might very appropriately preface my 
remarks on Eegional iSurveys by some quotations from that address, but I 
will reserve these until the end, when you will be better able to see that 
the regional survey provides the means for carrying into effect, systematically 
and in detail, Professor Lebour's suggestions. The regional survey is in fact 
the materialisation of the spirit which animated hie address, which itself gave 
voice to the spirit of the times in matters of local research, and indeed in 
matters of far wider interest. 

The same is equally true of your present President's stimulating address. 

The subject of regional surveys is a very large one, and we must concentrate 
our attention on one or two aspects of it. I cannot do better than tell 
you of the regional survey activities of three societies with which I am 
connected, namely, the . Croydon Natural History and Scientific 
.Society, the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, and the Regional 
Survey Association. The two former are Corresponding Societies of (his 
Association, and the third, which is a newer society, will probably shortly apply 
to be admitted as such. 

I will commence by describing the methods we have adopted in conducting 
the survey at Croydon ; next I will give an account of the scheme for co-ordinat- 
ing all surveys in the South-Eastern Counties, which is being developed by the 
Regional Survey Committee of the South-Eastern Union; and finally say some 
thing of the activities of the Regional Survey Association, which exists for the 
purpose of promoting regional surveys throughout the British Isles. In so 
doing, I shall of necessity repeat to some extent what I have said in former 
papers, but I will avoid this evil as far as possible, and for the sake of 
brevity refer you especially to two of these papers, namely, ' Regional Surveys 
and Local Societies ' 1 and ' Regional Surveys and Public Libraries,' a in which 
I have briefly traced the history of the movement and dealt with some points 
at greater length than is here possible. 

A regional survey may be described as the organised study of a region and 
its inhabitants, plant, animal, and human, from every aspect, and the correla- 
tion of all aspects so as to give a complete picture of the region, both in its 
past history and its present features, and from these to indicate its probable 
future development. Such a survey is a very comprehensive task, providing 
activity for every class of research student, and opening up problems of 
methodology and technique such as Committees of the British Association 
delight in solving. If Regional Survey is proper to one section of this Asso- 
ciation more than another it is the Geographical Section, but the equipment of 
the Regional Surveyor, or collectively of the Regional Survey Society, must 
include some knowledge of the subjects dealt with by every section. The 
Croydon Survey was the outcome of some suggestions made by myself in 
April 1912, in which the following reasons for undertaking it were advanced : 
' The survey will give the society a concrete scheme of work which will last 
for many years and provide activities for every section. It will revive the life 

1 Trans. S.E. Union of Scientific Societies, 1915, p. 21. 

2 Read before the Library Association and Library Assistants' Association. 
March 15, 1916; abstract in 'The Library Assistant,' May 1916. 


of some of the sections which are now slumbering and give greatly increased 
interest to others. By relating the work of all the sections to a common 
scheme these will be brought into more vital contact with one another and 
become mutually dependent in a variety of ways. All this means that new life 
will be brought into the society, and the results in a few years' time should be 
of great scientific interest and educational value.' 3 

The work of making a survey may be conveniently divided into three 
branches : observation and record, interpretation, and exhibition. In record- 
ing regional observations the aims should be conciseness, ease of reference, 
and suggestiveness in arrangement, and the most concise, convenient, and 
suggestive means of making records is on a map. The basis of our records, 
therefore, will be a large series of maps. But we must not overlook 
the limitations of the map nor forsake other methods of recording data, 
and in most cases our maps will be freely supplemented by written descriptions 
and photographs, statistical tables and diagrams. But maps will form the 
foundation of the survey, and it will be necessary for this reason to set 
geographical limits to the area to be surveyed. I shall return to this question 
of denning the limits of the region when speaking of the South-Eastern Union. 
For the present suffice it to say that at Croydon we have chosen a rectilinear 
area sixteen miles long and twelve miles wide. I need not enter into our reasons 
for this choice, much less describe the area itself, my sole object being to 
demonstrate the methods we adopt. Having defined the area, we must procure 
a number of maps upon which to make the records. The 1-inch scale will 
be large enough for most general records, but not for use in the field nor for 
some special records. For field work the 6-inch maps are indispensable. The 
best way to obtain the 1-inch maps is from the Ordnance Survey Depart- 
ment, which issues for educational purposes lightly printed maps, with any 
heading we may choose, at very greatly reduced prices. This privileged issue 
of maps is in abeyance during the war, but I am informed that it will 
be resumed when the present pressure on the department due to war work is 

(A specimen of the Croydon map, of which 500 copies were procured, and a 
number showing different features of the district in manuscript, e.g., geology, 
rainfall, population, &c, and a selection of photographs, were exhibited to 
illustrate the paper from this point onward.) 

There are many maps which can be prepared without leaving the study, from 
material already available. The mere transference of written records to maps 
is often vei'y enlightening. At the least it helps us greatly in visualising 
them. The Ordnance maps themselves contain data for several maps {e.g., 
contours, parish-boundaries, rivers), and it is only necessary to accentuate 
each set of data by coloured inks or washes upon a separate map. In most 
cases, however, the work of compilation will need supplementing to a greater 
or less extent by field observations. Concurrently with the field-work and map- 
making a systematic hunting up of all existing records of the region under 
survey will be carried out. A classified bibliography capable of indefinite 
expansion will be prepared, and a collection made of books, pamphlets, old 
maps, and manuscripts dealing with the district. In this search we shall 
rediscover many useful items which have been buried away in back numbers of 
our societies' publications. 

Let us next pass briefly in review from the regional standpoint the various 
sections of the survey, and in so doing endeavour to arrange them so as to 
bring out their relations to and dependence upon one another. The diagram 
will help us in this. From our point of view it would be difficult 
to over-emphasise the importance of tile geology of the region. It is the 
foundation upon which all else is built. Palaeontology is a subject not to be 
ignored, but except in the Pleistocene beds or as an aid to zoning it has little 
regional significance. The same is true of past geological history. It is the 
present disposition of the strata and their physical and mineralogical characters 
that determine the topography of the district and profoundly influence all life 

3 Proc. Croydon Nat. Hist, and Sci. Soc. 1912, p. exxxvii. 



9. Incipient Evolution. 

7. Historic Record. 

8. Social Evolution. 

6. Prehistoric Man. 

5. Animal Like. 

4. Vegetation. 

(Edaphic Factors). (Climatic Factors). 

3. Hydrography and Orography. 

1. Geology. 

2. Meteorology. 

upon the surface, from the types of vegetation to the occupations and habits 
and even the ideals of the human inhabitants. 

In geology a century of survey-work has been accomplished, and we have 
the Geological Survey maps and memoirs and much valuable amateur work to 
start with We may commence by copying on two of the maps the Drift and 
solid geology from the official maps. Where only the old inch maps are 
available it will be found impossible satisfactorily to transfer the geology to 
the new editions of Ordnance maps without some field observations. Many 
districts are more fortunate in having the new series of inch geological maps, 
while some parts have been surveyed on the 6-inch scale, and the manuscript 
maps are available for reference at Jermyn Street. 

The geological map is one of those which, like the contour and other leading 
maps, should be prepared in outline as a transparency for the purpose of 
placing over other maps for comparison. In this way many interesting points 
will be brought out. A geological model and vertical sections should also be 

Although so much has been done in geology, there is still plenty of scope 
for the local worker. Several lines of investigation open to him were mentioned 
by Professor Lebonr in his address last year. 

Next in importance to geology is meteorology or climate — that is, the rain- 
fall, temperature, sunshine, wind, &c. The charting of meteorological records 
will add greatly to their value, and other branches of the survey will make 
good use of them. The Croydon Society has for many years made and published 
daily rainfall observations for about 100 stations Tinder the direction of Mr. F. 
Campbell-Bayard, and in transferring some of these to maps we were fortunate 
in obtaining the help of Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, who very kindly had three of 
our maps prepared for us from his British Rainfall Organisation charts — namely, 
the average annual rainfall, and a very wet and a very dry year (1903 and 
1898). One of our members is engaged in working out a further series of 
rainfall maps. 

Meteorology competes with geology as an influence upon life, and the two 
sets of phenomena act and react upon one another. The rainfall playing upon 
the geological strata determines the hydrography of the region — that is, tli<> 
surface and underground drainage, which, with the other atmospheric agents 
of erosion, gives us the orography or contour. 

These three branches together form the physical environment, and directly 
dependent upon them all is the vegetation or plant-ecology. The geology and 
the hydrography on the one hand give us the edaphic ecological factors, while 


the meteorology and orography together constitute the climatic factors. In the 
local study of vegetation in this country there is little left to do in making 
floras. We have our local floras complete, except for occasional new records. 
The distribution of some important or interesting species may be shown on 
our maps, but it is to the study of the plant formations and associations and to 
the preparation of vegetation maps that the botanists of the regional survey 
will devote most attention. Vegetation maps have been published for a few 
districts. Those of the Peak District by Dr. Moss are excellent examples. 
Other vegetation surveys have been made by members of the British Ecological 
Society, but their publication is in many cases held up on account of expense. 

Dependent again upon the vegetation and physical environment, and react- 
ing upon them in a variety of ways, is the animal life of the region, which is 
capable, of treatment similar to that given to the vegetation. 

Finally, we have mankind dependent upon his whole environment, physical 
and organic, and to an ever-increasing extent master of it. It is in mankind 
and his contemporaries that we find regional links with recent palaeontology, 
and we have to follow his career from his advent in our regions through the 
realms of archaeology and history to that of modern sociology. 

Prehistoric man is worthy of a place to himself. We shall have to deal with 
his implements, weapons, earthworks, and other remains, paying special heed to 
locality, and to reconstruct as far as may be the picture of his life in our 

From the dawn of history the human survey may well be divided into two 
parallel branches, which in the preceding diagram I have provisionally called 
' Historic Record v and ' Social Evolution.' The former will be an analysis 
and record to any degree of minuteness of all human institutions and activities 
in each historic period ; the latter a synthesis and interpretation of the records, 
its aim being to show what each successive period has stood for in the region, 
and in particular what heritage it has handed down to the complex of our 
present civilisation. 

The object of all research is to establish relations of cause and effect, and to 
enable us to foresee events and, if necessary, to deal with them in advance. 
The most valuable result of our surveys, therefore, apart from their great 
educational value to the surveyors themselves, will be to enable us to detect 
and understand the tendencies of our times, and put us in a position, as citizens, 
intelligently to encourage good and discourage evil ones. For this reason, in 
the above outline scheme, I have given a special heading to what I have called 
'Incipient Evolution.' By so doing we are not so likely to overlook this all- 
important aspect of the survey. We shall find, indeed, when the survey is in 
progress, that this branch will often give temporary direction to our efforts. 

The above primary classification is, by accident, ninefold, and therefore well 
adapted to a decimal system of notation for indexing, the cipher being left 
free for methodology. 

When we commenced to get to work at Croydon we found there were many 
questions of technique to be settled, and that the whole scheme of work needed 
carefully thinking out, and it appeared to us that many things could be better 
settled by a larger body representing a number of societies which might in the 
future be undertaking surveys. Such an organisation, for instance, as the 
South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies would, it appeared, be able to 
encourage, co-ordinate, and secure some measure of uniformity in survey work 
by its constituent societies. Accordingly I introduced the subject to the South- 
Eastern Union at its Brighton Congress in 1915, and as a result a Regional 
Survey Committee of members of the Union, with Professor G. S. Boulger as 
its Chairman, was formed. After some preliminary work this committee has 
settled for the present upon four lines of action. I will deal with each of these 

1. The partition of the south-eastern counties into areas suitable for local 
surveys. — This involves the question, 'What is a region?' Strictly speaking, 
the term used in this connection is a centre of civilisation (a city, town, or even 
a village) and its natural environs. It is not always easy to define the limits 
of such a region, and" the task of the committee, which aims at covering the 
whole of the Union's area by a mosaic of small regions, is not a light one. 


We have decided that for many reasons the civil parish will form the most 
generally suitable unit of area, and that a local survey should deal with at 
least one parish, or more often with a group of parishes around a civic centre 
The grouping of parishes into survey areas, and of these again into larger 
natural regions, is a piece of work that will take some time, and will depend 
for its success largely upon the help of local societies. 

2. The preparation of an outline scheme or •conspectus' for local surveys — 
Ihis will be a general and detailed analysis of the whole field of survey with 
suggestions for the maps to be made and work to be done in each section 
Appended to the committee's report in the forthcoming volume of Trans- 
actions of the South-Eastern Union will be some notes on a method of surveying 
rural parishes which will be useful to anyone engaging in survey work in 
country districts. 

3. A regional survey bibliography.— -This will contain references to books 
pamphlets, maps, manuscripts, &c, dealing with any part of the Union's area 
and with any subject, and its arrangement will follow that of the conspectus. 

4. The preparation of a series of maps of the Union's area showing different 
features of interest.— This will be on a small scale (i inch) series to serve as an 
index series to the larger scale maps prepared by the local societies. 

iSince the formation by the South-Eastern Union of a Eegional Survey Com- 
mittee some of its affiliated societies have taken up survey work. After the 
•war we expect several others will do the same, and possibly in some unrepre- 
sented districts new societies for carrying out surveys will be formed. 

I may now appropriately repeat what Professor Lebour said in his Presi- 
dential Address to this Conference last year, and I may claim that the regional 
survey offers to local societies a means both practical and thorough of carrying 
out the spirit of his suggestions. 

' The above are some only of very many directions in which the clubs and 
societies, working on pre-arranged lines with each other, may, in the field of 
our branch of science alone (geology), induce their members to take part in 
wide-reaching research with the certainty that no bit of work, however small, 
will, so long as it is honestly and carefully done, be lost, but will find its place' 
as a stone in some worthy edifice erected by the joint efforts of many others. 
Co-operation of the kind I have in mind should be so planned that the 
maximum value in useful results will be obtained from the maximum number 
of co-workers. . . . The machinery to carry out such schemes must be left to 
those in whose hands lies the management of the different societies.' 

In conclusion, let us take a brief glance at the Eegional Association. This 
Association has wider contacts than either the Croydon Society or the South- 
Eastern Union, inasmuch as it covers the whole of 'the British" Isles and takes 
an active interest in the application of regional survey to education, to town- 
planning, and to civic development generally. It was formed as the Provisional 
Committee for the development of Regional Survey at a conference held at 
the Outlook Tower at Edinburgh in 1914, and having done much good work 
under that title is now preparing its constitution as the Regional Survey 
Association^. Professor Geddes, to whom, perhaps, more than anyone else the 
Regional Survey movement in its wider sense owes its inspiration, is the 
President of the Association. It is an itinerant Association, holding one or 
two meetings annually at different centres and an annual meeting in London. 
In the three and a half years of its existence it has held meetings of a week 
or more duration at Edinburgh, Dublin, Aherystwith. Ludlow, and Newbury. 

The Association has, among its several committees, a Publication Com- 
mittee, which, in addition to obtaining reprints of regional survey contributions 
to other societies' publications for distribution, has issued three leaflets with 
suggestions for starting regional surveys written respectively from the physio- 
graphical, natural history, and humanistic standpoints. 4 Others are in *he 
course of preparation. 

Finally, what shall we do with our accumulating survey material ? It is rot 
in the spirit of the movement that we should hide it away in cupboards at our 

* Obtainable from Geo. Morris, B.Sc, 18 West Road, Saffron Walden, 

1917. o 


societies' headquarters. At Croydon we deposit the maps, photographs, and 
other material at the public library, where they are available for public refer- 
ence and are of great use to local teachers. The ideal to aim at, however, is 
the formation at each centre of a regional museum. Such museums, and there 
are some in existence, with regional surveys behind them, become very living 
institutions in the districts, and help both visitors and inhabitants to under- 
stand what the places have been in the past, what they now stand for, and 
what are their possibilities for the future. 

Mr. George Morris (of the Regional Survey Association, a visitor) said : 
I should like to point out the rather wider aspect of the Regional Survey as 
we consider it in the Regional Survey Committee. During the last twenty 
years a great deal of change has taken place in the teaching of geography and 
in the teaching of history. As regards archaeology, the practical end of the 
teacher's work is gradually to reach out to taking the child from the confines 
cf the schoolroom, and putting him in his education in contact with actualities. 
That is one of the things we of the Regional Survey are out for, and it is 
almost impossible for the average school-teacher, who comes from a hundred 
miles away and knows very little about the surroundings, to effect this. We 
should like to see every secondary school in England, both teachers and pupils, 
undertaking a regional survey on the lines Mr. Fagg has put before us. The 
history, the geography, and the archaeology would be indicated on maps. The 
zone where the school is would be the regional zone, and the map would show 
the local applications, where the local remains or the local specimens and so on 
are. To do this we have an Educational Sub-Committee which is trying to 
institute such surveys. Then we have a sub-committee which is endeavour- 
ing to register at any rate and obtain the interest of the scientific societies in 
local work of the kind : and also we have a Museums and Local Societies 
Sub-Committee. We hold meetings to which we invite teachers from the 
different schools. We invite scientific men who have special knowledge to 
join us, and we ask the local people who are interested in archaeology or 
geology, and so on, to give us help. Then we devote a week to study and the 
reading of papers. This has been done with success. We have invited the 
co-operation of various bodies, specialist association bodies, and an inter- 
committee has been formed. I should point out that this Regional 
Committee is endeavouring to synthesise in different directions the various 
branches of inquiry, and make th<=m available for general reference. The under- 
lying idea of the whole of the Regional Survey is that you have a communitv 
which is an organic entity, and, like every organic being, is dependent on its 
surroundings for its being and for its present condition. In other words, I 
define it as the study of the Ecology of the Human Community. 

Mr. J. Oscar Parker (Chairman of the Council of the Relbome Societv, 
a visitor) said : I do not know how I can convey a better impression of the scheme 
which has developed than by suggesting that if a second William the Con- 
queror took up his residence in England at some shortly future day, he would, 
if this work has been completed according to the lines which Mr. Fagg has 
presented to us, find a Domesday Rook ready to his hand. He would be able to 
gather into his autocratic hand all the estates, all the woods, all the lands that 
exist to-day, without appointing a commission to go about the country. Why, 
then, should it not be of tremendous interest to ourselves? If this work is 
carried out throughout the country we shall have a remarkable survey of the 
whole of our beloved country right at hand. 

Miss Layard said that some years ago, when she was making excavations on 
the site of conventual buildings in Ipswich, she made use of the Ordnance 
Survey map, and distinguished in colours the buildings of the convent*, 
priories, and so on. 

The Rev. J. 0. Bevan said they wanted specialists for carrying on a survey 
of this kind : persons specially trained in other matters (ethnological, for 
instance) that are involved in a survey of this sort, sc as to secure that one 
series of facts will not interfere with another. It is oftentimes a danger when 
you get persons partially educated involved in such work. 

Mr. Harry Sowerbutts (Manchester Geographical Society) referred to 
regional surveys that were being carried on for the improvement and replanning 

corresponding; societies. 227 

of towns. Thia work was sanctioned by Government, and was being carried 
out by local architects and surveyors. A diagram of the road traffic would 
be imposed on the Ordnance Survey maps, depicting very clearly the widen- 
ing of the roads, and by different colours the detailed volume, and different 
classes of traffic passing over main roads at a fixed hour of the day. The 
great value of a plan of this sjort was that it showed fairly accurately to a 
local authority from which diiection the greatest volume of trade entered 
its town, and in the case of the through traffic how it could easily be diverted 
in order to lessen the congestion in the centre. Mr. Sowerbutts mentioned maps 
showing by different colours the growth of Manchester from 1650 to 1885. All 
the different periods were shown by different colours, and the different bI 
were clearly seen. It was intended to let the plane give details of the growth 
as affected directly by manufactures and by position as a distributing a 
Then there was a plan dealing with the accessibility of the area by trams 
and by trains, and how better communication could be obtained. A third 
plan showed the two systems superimposed. Two maps showing the rainfall 
might be very instructive when associated with rain statistics; the first one 
to give the average rainfall for a period, the second the dumber of days in 
which more than "01 inch fell. It was almost impossible to describe adequately 
the value of this work : surveyors, medical officers, and other officials had 
testified to its usefulness ; in fact, some had gone so far as to suggest that a 
permanent department on the lines of the Ordnance Survey should be established. 
Mr. Sowerbutts advocated regional surveying in connection with those matters 
so vital to trade after the war. The point that struck him was, How was it 
going to be carried on? At present the Government was paying for it. 
supplying architects with work during the war. 

Dr. Bather was very much puzzled about the architects, and wanted to 
know what Department was paying them. 

Mr. Fagg : The Local Government Board is paying, them. 

The President spoke of the duty of societies to the best of their ability 
making a survey of their own locality or their own town and district. Aa an 
example, he handed round a pamphlet which was brought out by the Hertford- 
shire Natural History Society for the South-Eastern Union at its St. Albans 
Congress in 1911. Members of the society took particular divisions of the 
subjeot, and the area was restricted to a radius of five miles. Topography, 
geology, hydrology, climate, flora, fauna, and archaeology were given divisions. 
They also added an account of the County Museum. If societies would do this 
in their own districts, and hand the result to the Regional Survey, he thought it 
would help considerably in a much larger scheme. With regard to the survey 
of the footpaths, they thought it would be better to have a separate association, 
and one was formed with a small subscription of 2s. 6d. a year — now no longer 
required. They were now in the fourth thousand of tlieir map, and something 
like a thousand must have been bought by soldiers. 

Mr. Fagg said, with regard to Mr. Sevan's remark about specialists, I 
quite a number of maps have been prepared for them by specialists, and in all 
the survey societies they made use of all the specialists they could get together. 
On the other hand, he still maintained that a vast amount of work in I 
surveys can be done by people who are not specialist.;. With regard to the civic 
surveys, those who were instrumental in getting them carried on did not intend 
them to stop after the war. He had not the slightest doubt that all this work 
would sooner or later get Government recognition. He had brought together a 
number of pamphlets dealing with the Regional Survey. Some of them they 
had in the transactions of the societies; those they had not got he thought 
might be of interest for their library. 

The President said that the great, advantage of their library was thai every 
paper published by their corresponding societies and indexed in their report 
could be seen in it at the offices of the British Association. 


Second Meeting. 

At the meeting held in the afternoon of Thursday, July 5, it was decided to 
ask the Council to add the name of Dr. Bather, the Vice-President of the 
Conference, to the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

The Conference appointed Mr. Whitaker, Mr. Webb, and Mr. Mark Sykes 
to confer with others who might be interested in Kent's Cavern. 

Mr. Thomas Sheppaed then read the following paper upon 

Money -Scales and Weights. 

Terrible as the present war is, there is no doubt that it has had, and will 
have, many good results. It has demonstrated that the British nation is more 
united than was ever dreamed of, and that the people, rich and poor alike, are 
prepared to give everything, to make the greatest sacrifice, for the common 
good. We do not hear much to-day of the 'idle rich,' nor of the Piccadilly 
'nut.' They have done, are doing, and will do their share for their country. 
The working classes are not pushed by the rich into the battle line, they are led 
by them. Men and women of all grades have come to understand each other in 
a way which would have been very difficult, it not impossible, without a war. 
The formation, training, equipment, and upkeep of one of the greatest armies 
on record is a feat of oi'ganisation and management which would have been 
unbelievable a few years ago. The manner in which those at home, both women 
and men, have helped the war by working, or by grappling with the food 
problem, is nothing short of miraculous. Many expensive luxuries which had 
almost become necessities with the wealthy are now cheerfully discarded. To 
the members of the British Association it must be more than gratifying to find 
that at last the value of 6cience is recognised, albeit that armies of educated 
people are devoting their scientific work to inventing, perfecting, and manu- 
facturing various machines and materials for the destruction of humanity, or 
perhaps I should say for the destruction of 'inhumanity.' The co-operation and 
friendship of the Allies, now so thoroughly cemented, will be rigidly maintained 
after the war, and it is certain that many schemes which have been under dis- 
cussion for years will be shortly carried out. The war brought home to us the 
great economical advantages of the Daylight Saving Bill, against which the 
disadvantages have been proved to be practically nil. The necessity for a 
Channel Tunnel has been more than demonstrated, though we believe the scheme 
would have been carried out years ago had it not been for the opposition of a 
military expert. The present war would certainly have been considerably 
shortened, and thousands of precious lives and, what may appeal to many, 
enormous sums of money, would have been saved, had the Channel Tunnel been 
carried out when the idea was first mooted. 

In many minor ways the war will result in numerous needed reforms ; among 
these (though possibly the word ' minor ' is hardly accurate) is the general 
adoption of the metric system for weights and measures. The advantages of 
such a system are so obvious that it is hardly complimentary to an audience such 
as this to attempt to point them out. In our stubborn, what-was-good-enough- 
for-our-grandfathers-is-,good-enough-for-us sort of way, we have adhered to a 
series of complicated systems of weights and measures, such as no other civilised 
country in the world would tolerate. We estimate aluminium by avoidupois 
weight, silver by troy, peas by the peck, potatoes by the pound, fowl and 
pheasant by the couple or brace, fish and flesh by the pound, oranges and 
whisky by the dozen, stockings by the pair, pears by the pound, and beer by 
the gallon. But these absurdities are as naught when compared with other 
measures and weights. A draper sells most of his things at llf d. or 2s. llfrf. 
or 4s. l\%d. Books are sold at two shillings or three shillings or seven shillings 
and sixpence. A car or a house realises so many pounds, but a picture or a 
horse realises guineas or half -guineas. Cotton is sold by the yard, wool by the 
pound, land by chain, rod, or perch, cloth by the ell, timber by the standard. 


The question of the origin and evolution of the various systems of weights 
and measures is of engrossing interest, but is hardly the subject of these notes. 
I propose therefore to refer to one small branch of the subject, a branch that 
has been considerably neglected — I mean to money-scales and weights. The 
subjects brought before the delegates from the Corresponding Societies have 
varied considerably, but as a rule an effort is made to suggest lines in which 
work might be accomplished by them. In the first place, 1 would like to urge 
upon the delegates the necessity of every care being taken, preferably in the 
local museum, of objects which are going out of date or out of fashion ; object* 
which come under the heading of 'bygones.' It is amazing how soon a once 
common thing becomes scarce as the inevitable result of evolution and improve- 
ment. Should anyone doubt this, let him try to obtain a tinder-box, a flail, or a 
' bone-ehakea- ' bicycle; yet all of you have probably seen them used. Other 
objects once common, which can yet be picked up, are the various forms of 
boxes of scales and weights for dealing with money. No one seems to have 
made a particular study of these. In most museums perhaps two or three can 
he seen ; but even the National Museums in London contain very few examples. 
The following notes are based upon a collection of over 200 specimens, each of 
which has some particular characteristic, now in the museum at Hull. These, 
with the help of Mr. J. F. Musham, I have been able to get together during the 
past few years. The majority of them date from the seventeenth to the nine- 
teenth centuries, though a few are much earlier and others later. In addition 
to showing ways in "which local societies can do good by preserving relics of the 
past, the necessity for the first manufacture of these scales and the extra- 
ordinary variety of the weights, which varied from time to time, demonstrate 
the desirability of still more simplifying the complicated though relatively 
simple system now in vogue. 

The necessity for money-scales and weights arose long ago, but was accen- 
tuated in this country and on the Continent, in the Middle Ages, in conse- 
quence of the interchange in the process of trade of an enormous number of 
varieties of coins ; so much so that in some sets of English examples as many as 
twenty or more weights) were required, even greater numbers being found in 
foreign boxes of scales and weights — -these foreign sets being frequently used 
by English merchants to assist them in their financial transactions. 

Judging from Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and even Chinese antiquities, it 
is clear that from the earliest times there have been scales and weights, and as 
the earlier coins w T ere valued by their weight it is obvious there were coin 
scales to test them. 

Though the Romans used boxes of money-scales and weights, it is hardly to 
be expected that many such things would be preserved in anything like a 
complete state. In Egypt, however, where the conditions are so eminently 
favourable, such objects have been found, and Professor Flinders Petrie has 
kindly permitted me to examine some very interesting examples in his remark- 
able collection at University College, Gower Street. One of these sets is in a 
wooden box, about a foot in length, and is provided with a tray. In the box 
are round, square, and other receptacles for the weights, scales, balance-beam, 
&c, with lidded lockers for the smaller weights. Though -this set is dated 
about A.D. 340, it is almost similar in construction and appearance to the 
boxes of scales and weights so much in vogue in England from the sixteenth to 
the eighteenth centuries ; the construction of the weights (of brass, square 
and circular) and that of the balance-beam with circular brass pans. &c., are 
almost alike, though separated in date by something like twelve or thirteen 
centuries. Frescoes in the houses at Pompeii have also provided illustrations 
of the money-scales in use in those early times. 

In the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is a 6ot, dating from the 
Coptic period, -which even better matches English early Georgian boxes, in the 
shape of the box, the brass hinges, and the impressed concentric rings decorating 
the lid. 8 

In Anglo-Saxon times money-scales were in U6e. In Saxon graves in Kent 

8 Egyptian Weights and Balances. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, vol. 12, No. 4, April 1917, pp. 85-90. 


have been found sets of these scales and weights, the weights being sometimes 
made from Roman coins rubbed down to the required size. 

All the early forms of money-scales are of the well-known type, with a balance- 
beam and two suspended brass pans, somewhat similar to the familiar copper 
scales in use in grocers' shops to-day, excepting that the coin scales have shallow 
pans. With very slight variations this type has been in vogue for two thousand 
years, being in use in this country up to half a century ago. In recent times 
the difficulty of making counterfeit coins without detection has been so great 
that testing coins for weight and size is almost unknown. The withdrawal of 
various kinds of foreign coins in England has also assisted in scales being 
dispensed with. Formerly, however, coiners and coin-clippers were eo much in 
evidence that the Beggars' Litany ' from Hull, Hell, and Halifax, Good Lord 
deliver us ' is said to have originated from the fact that at Hull and Halifax, 
at any rate, coiners were punished with unusual severity. 

The earliest illustration of a pair of English coin-scales that I have been able 
to trace is dated 1496, and occurs in Vetusta Monumenla, vol. i. 1747. It is on 
a plate described as ' The Standard of Antient Weights and Measures, from a 
table in the Exchequer. From the original Table formerly in the Treasury of 
the Kings {sic) Exchequer at Westminster, and now preserved in the MS. 
Library of the late Earl of Oxford, anno 12 Henrici Septimi [1496], N.B. 
The original Parchment is fix't on an oak table.' On this there are illustra- 
tions of various kinds of weights and measures, a view of the Exchequer, a man 
in the pillory for giving short weight, &c. 

From the centre of this document we learn that ' By the discrecion & 
Ordinaunce of or-soueraigne lorde ye kinge & of his lordes spuall & tepall 
wth ye commons of ye same his realme of England of all manr of weight and 
measure yt was made by ye grayne of wheate. This is to understande yt xxxjj 
graynes of wheat taken out of ye middell of ye yeare weieth a starlinge other- 
wise called a penny & xx starlinge maketh an ounce,' &c. 

In the top left-hand corner of this remarkable document are illustrations of 
' The Whete eare,' with the information that ' Two graynes maketh ye xvj pte 
of a penny. The conage of ye mynte ffower graynes maketh the viij pt of a 
penny. The iiij pte of a penny is a farthinge, xvj graynes an halpeny, the 
halpeny wth ye peny and halpeny and the farthinge is all poore mens, upon 
all manner of vitelers of the realme. . . . The cuynars to be sworne in 
speciallie yt ye thirde pte of ye Bullion be made in halpence & farthings, 
yt is to saie that one half of the saide third in halpens & ye other in 

Accompanying this quaint information is a sketch of a pair of coin-scales 
with a penny (on edge) in one tray, the other being full of grains, presumably 
thirty-two. It is to be hoped that the eceentric fork to the scales is merely 
an error in the drawing ! 

It occasionally happens that representations of antique money-scales occur 
on old pictures. Perhaps one of the most interesting examples cf these is 
' The Banker and his Wife ' by Corneille de Lyon, which was at Antwerp 
before the war. In this case a gold piece is about to be weighed in a pair of 
scales with triangular pans, the weights being square ; on the table is the box 
for the scales, with twenty-four oblong pans for the weights. Similar old sets 
of scales are shown on the picture by Quentin Matsys in the Louvre, in 
' The Misers ' at Windsor Castle, and other paintings in the National Gallery 
and elsewhere. 7 

In the middle of the seventeenth century a ' steelyard ' type of scale was 
in use in Ireland for weighing coins, an illustration of which appears with the 
following 'Extracts from the Journal of Thomas Dineley, Esqr., giving some 
account of his visit to Ireland in the reign of Charles II.' G : — 

' The most usual money and that which passeth in the greatest quantity of 

" For illustrations see I nventorium Sepulchrale, 1856, pp. 22-23, and Archceo- 
logia Cantiana, vol. vi. 1866, pp. 157-185. 

7 See Burlington Magazine, vol. xx. No. 107, February 1912. 

8 Journ. Kilkenny Arch. Soc, vol. ii. N.S. 1858-9. 


silver in Ireland is Spanish Coyne known here by the name of a cob, or half 
a cob or a quarter cob.' 

' A sort of pieces of eight at 4-6rf each, which they call plate pieces. 
Mexicos, and Perues.' 

' The cobs that are weight, as well as the french crown, pass at 4s 9d, 
but if they want a grain, or turn not the scale or stilyard, they pass but at 
4s. 6rf.' 

' None here, either in market or publicl; -house, but with small scales weigh 
their silver, as well as their gold, before they take it.' 

' Here are also pieces of Portugall coyne weh go at 7a Od, these only, and 
now and then a piece of English money pass unweighed.' 

The early English types of scales were usually in elaborate wooden boxes, 
with recesses, pans, or lockers, cut out of the solid, for the scales and weights, 
the latter often being very numerous. Usually the balance-beam was of steel, 
the suspension-cords of twisted silk, and the pans and weights of brass. 
Occasionally tin, iron, copper, and even silver were used for pans, beams, and 
weights. Afterwards the boxes were covered with shagreen, leather, and 
other materials ; still later they were usually of polished rosewood or mahogany ; 
then the boxes were of brass, steel, iron, or tin ; the latest of all being made 
without boxes, on turned wood pillars or standards, and usually in brass. 

Early types of scales in boxes, though suitable for the office or counting- 
house, were rather cumbersome for the purpose of carrying about, and con- 
sequently neat scales in boxes with fewer weights, or weights made one to fit 
within another, were brought into use. These at first were of the ordinary 
hanging-pan type, but the inconvenience of using separate weights, and the 
fact that they were liable to get lost, were apparently felt, and less awkward 
varieties were made. At first these appear to have been in the form of a 
fixed steelyard with a sliding weight, but Inter were supplanted by the 
familiar compact folding scales, with all the pieces fixed, the weights of 
the different coins being ascertained by an ingenious arrangement of 
hinged weights made to turn over according to the nature of the coin to be 
dealt with. With some an additional slide indicates slight variations in the 
weights of the coins ; so much so that, according to the directions on some of 
the boxes and the figures marked on the balance-beams, the loss of even a 
farthing's worth of gold could be ascertained. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, and early in the nineteenth, 
when the Yorkshire coiners were in vogue, scales for testing the weight and 
thickness of the gold coins, and even of the silver coins, were common, 
especially in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Names of scale-makers in Ormskirk, 
Kirkby, Warrington, and Liverpool are frequent. Usually the scales were 
made by watch- and clock-makers, a fact plainly obvious on an examination 
of the details of the scales. The boxes were made of a suitable size for 
carrying in the waistcoat pocket, and averaged five inches in length by 
one inch in width and three-quarters of an inch in depth. Sometimes they were 
even less one in our possession being less than two and a quarter inches in 
length, three-quarters of an inch in width, and slightly over a quarter of an 
inch in depth. This is the smallest I have seen. These boxes were made in 
considerable numbers, so great indeed that the early directories contain entries 
of 'watch makers and scale makers,' &c. 

In Queen Elizabeth's reign a proclamation was issued' (158.-8) giving 
details of the money-scales and weights issued in her time. The proclamation 
contains 'a declaration of an order for the making of certain small cases 
for balances and weights, to weigh all manner of gold coin current within 
the realm, provided to be sold to all persons that should have cause to use 
the same, and which had been viewed by the wardens and assistants of the 
company of goldsmiths in London, by whom it was signed, limiting the 
sundry prices thereof according to their several quantities; which cases, with 
the balances and weights, had been made by order of the master of her 
Majesty's mint in the Tower of London, and viewed, allowed, and set at 

9 See L. A. Lawrence, 'Coin Weights." Brit. Numismatic Joam. vol. vi. 



reasonable prices by the said wardens of the goldsmiths in London, and 
thereupon according to her Majesty's proclamation heretofore made for the 
purpose, now put into print, by order of the Lord Burghley, Lord Treasurer 
of England, whereof the original forms (so rated and prized) remained in the 
receipt of the master of the mint, according to their several forms and prices. 

The First and Greatest Case. 

First, a case of wood with several partitions for xiiij printed 
weights, iiij other partitions for other weights, and 

one partition with cover for grains, esteemed at . . viijd. 

The balance of the same case at xvjd. 

The xiiij printed weights for coins xviijd. \ iiijs. vid. 

The suit of ldwt. from ob. weight to odwt. . . . ixd. 

The suit of grains from di. grain to v grains . . . iijd. 

The Second Case. 

Item, a lesser or second case of wood, having a partition 
for a balance, partitions for xiiij several weights for 
coins, and one partition for small grains, esteemed at vjd. 

The balance of the same case at xijd. 

The xiiij printed weights at xviijd. 

The grains at iijd. 



The Third Case. 

Item, a lesser or third case of wood having a partition for 
the balance, partitions for xiiij several weights for 

coins and one partition for small grains, esteemed at iiijd. 

The balance of the same case at xijd. 

The xiiij printed weights at xviijd. 

The grains iijd. 

The Fourth Case, being Leather. 

Item, a leather case printed and gilded with gold, having 
in it a partition for the balance, two partitions for 
weights and grains, esteemed at 

The balance of the same case at 

The xiiij printed weights at . 

The suit of j dwt. at 

The suit of grains at 








iiijs. vjd. 

The Fifth Case, being Latlen. 

Item, a case of latten for a pair of folding balance, also of 

latten, at viijd. 

The balance of the same case at xijd. 

The xiiij printed weights at xviijd. 

The grains at iijd. 



This proclamation appears to have been but little attended to, for on 
February 18, 1588-9, 10 Kichard Martin complained to the Lord Treasurer that, 
notwithstanding her Majesty's proclamation respecting the weighing of gold 
and silver coins, they still continue to pass without being weighed, and that 
he had expended above six hundred pounds in providing scales and weights 
marked with an E crowned, the far greater part of which still remained upon 
his hands. He proposed, therefore, that the warden of the mint, &c, should 
have authority to see that the said proclamation be observed, and that all 
other weights and grains used against the meaning of the same should be 

10 The 

date given, loc. cit. p. 291, is 1558-9 ; apparently an error for 


























So far I have not been able to trace a single example of these particular 

An examination of early scale-boxes indicates to what an enormous extent 
foreign money was in circulation in this country, necessitating the issue of 
special weights, albeit they bore the effigy of the English monarch. For 
instance, in the reign of Charles II. weights were known for: 11 


Weight. Value, 

ilwt. grs.. 

The golden rider 6 12 

„ half golden rider 3 6 

,, Spanish or French quadruple pistole 17 4 

., ,, ,, double pistole ... 8 14 

,, „ single pistole ... 4 7 

,, „ „ half pistole ... 2 3£ 

,, double ducat 4 12 

,, single ducat 2 6 

,, Spanish suffrance 7 2 

,, „ half-suffrance 3 13 


The ducatoon 20 16 6 

Half and quarter in proportion. 

The Mexico, Sevil or pillar piece of eight, the rix 

dollar, cross dollar and French Lewis 17 4 9 

Half, quarter, and half -quarter in proportion. 

The Portugal royal 14 3 8 

Half and quarter in proportion. 

Royal proclamations referring to coin-weights, and occasionally to scales, 
were issued in various reigns ; the earliest by King John (1205) stated that for 
discovering lack of weight ' there was issued from the mint office a penny- 
poise, wanting one-eighth of a penny, to be delivered to anyone who would 
have it. ' 

Various other references occur in proclamations issued by Edward I., 
Henry V., Henry VI., Henry VII., Elizabeth, James I., Charles 1., 
Charles II., and William III. 

Returning to the coin-scales, it may be as well to state that the largest 
collection in the country has been classified in the following series :— (1) Tooled 
and plain wood boxes; (2) shagreen-covered boxes; (3) japanned iron boxes, 
usually oval ; (4) narrow boxes with automatic balances ; (5) brass sovereign- 
balances ; (6) miscellaneous. 

From the preceding I think it is demonstrated that there have been and still 
are difficulties in our system of coinage, difficulties which would be imnieasur 
ably simplified by the use of the metric system. Similar or greater difficulties 
exist in all our other weights and measures, and these could be similarly 
surmounted with equal ease. 

(Typical forms of boxes of coin-scales were exhibited in illustration of the 

Mr. G. C. Hart Gordon opened the discussion as follows : I compliment 
the author on his very interesting paper. As an ardent advocate of the metric 
system I would have wished for a little more about it ; but I feel that Mr. 
Sheppard has conveyed some very interesting information in showing that in 
this country great changes have taken place. One thing I would notice is this : 
he made no reference to an interesting coin, the Novus denarius, which was 
introduced into Europe by Pepin the Short. It was a silver penny which 
obtained currency throughout Europe. I think it is the only case after the 

11 See L. A. Lawrence, 'Coin Weights,' Brit. Numismatic .loum. vol. vi. 
1909, p. 294. 


Roman Empire. It is the extraordinary instance of an international coin, which 
drove all the Roman coins out of the market, and practically took charge of 
European trade until .Pepin's Government, 1 suppose, became organised and 
started making coins that were of different weights. Another thing that is rf 
gjreat interest to us — particularly when we think of decimal coinage and of Mr. 
Uladstone's celebrated attack on decimal coinage because of the working man's 
interest in the penny, and what he called the dishonest proposal of decreasing 
the penny, which would take place, of course, if the sovereign were divided into 
one thousand parts — I understand that there were no copper coins in use in 
England (no copper coins made) until the time of the Georges. All the coinage 
used throughout the country was silver or gold ; and the scales business throws a 
great deal of light upon it. As a matter of fact, coins in those days were in no 
sense tokens, 'lo-day the coin is a promissory note, to be redeemed by the King 
in gold. The reason why .Pepin's denarius continued was that it was exactly 
the value in silver that it was represented to be; its purchasing power was 
according to the silver it contained. Apparently, it was a great thing for a 
Government to introduce a copper coin; it needed a very powerful Government, 
and one which had a reputation for redeeming its promissory notes, to issue 
bronze coins. It would be rather interesting to hear from Mr. Sheppard what 
were the controlling factors which led to the issuing of bronze coinage, which 
apparently was unknown in the earlier stages of our civilisation. Another thing 
that was mentioned by Mr. bheppard was very interesting from a coinage- 
reform point of view, and that is the use of the Black Art in trade by the 
assistance or connivance of difficult systems of weights and coinage. The 
curious custom of the draper of pricing goods at Is. lljtf. is one which is 
admirably justified by the result. He can produce an effect by Is. lljrf. which 
is not produced by 2.s. I have been interested in the fact that at a Congress 
here in London in 1911 agriculturists decided practically unanimously in favour 
of decimal coinage, a remarkable thing for farmers. The reason given was 
that a farmer has to study so many things that he cannot be an expert in 
weights and measures. At Cardiff an enthusiastic flour-miller produced a book 
in which there were 800 pages devoted to nothing but weights and measures 
used in the corn trade in various markets in England and Wales. When a farmer 
has not time to study this 600 or 800 page book, another man gets ahead of him. 
This is one of the reasons from the commercial point of view why it is all- 
important we should adapt the decimal system to coinage. 

I have come from Australia, and I have preached the metric system over 
there ; but when I came to this country I got rather a shock. Since then I have 
been trying to use metric measures everywhere that I can, to see what is the 
effect. Now after three months I go back to inches, which I had used all my life, 
with difficulty. A gentleman, our chairman at a meeting in Bath recently, 
is a jeweller, and he told us a most extraordinary thing, borne three years ago 
a bolt out of the blue came to the jewellers in the shape of a ukase from tha 
Board of Trade, or something similar, saying that they must no longer use 
the old carat divided into halves and fourths and eighths and sixteenths ; 
they should use the metric carat, and it should be decimally divided. An 
indignation meeting" was held. Sitting up one night, at the end of fifteen 
minutes the jeweller had mastered the new system, and at the end of the week 
he would not have used anything else. His assistants were of the same 
opinion, and they sometimes look back on the old system as a joke. This 
shows that once you introduce decimal methods they will drive out the 
farrago of old weights that has been growing through the centuries in all 
the different countries. In a little country part of Germany, in Hanover, 
•which at that time was under the Kings of England, they had some coins 
called groschen. One of the Kings of England tried an improvement, 
and introduced what was called the new groschen. For something like one 
hundred and fifty years the new and old groschen existed side by side, 
and when something else was introduced in 1870 the new and old groschen 
were gone in two years. I think that is the hope for this country — that the 
new system will drive out the old. It has not succeeded in driving everything 
out of France. One of the reasons of that is that we took into France 
machinery and other things on the old measures, and we purchased from 


France on the old measures. The consequence is we preserved il in France. 
You can preserve anything if you make it profitable for it to bo preserved. 
The man who gains by Black Art will fight for that by which he profits, 
and will try to make the people believe that if they abandon it they will 
go to ruin. 

Mr. Harry Alcock said : I agree with Mr. Sheppard that it is superfluous 
to dwell upon the beauties of the metric system before a body of 
people. Wo shall have to make up our minds on what lines reform shall be 
approached. There are two schools. One says you retain our present measures, 
inch and pound and gallon, and divide them into decimal portions. In that way 
you will get the advantage of the decimal ; but the most superficial examination 
will satisfy us that this is indefensible. The manufacturer must have his inch, 
the surveyor and civil engineer his foot, and the navigator his fathom. In 
addition to that, one has to bear in mind that after you had succeeded in 
adapting the system of British weights and measures to these alterations yen 
would still have a bad system, because there would be no correlation between 
the units in the same simple delightful way we have in the metric system. So 
we find we could not very much improve our system by simply re-arranging 
existing units on the decimal system. It comes back to this : we must have 
one universal unit of quantity by which manufacturers and consumers can 
communicate without any possibility of doubt. 

On the question of the metric system becoming uniform throughout the 
world, the speaker referred specifically to America and Russia as follows : 

America's trade is largely a domestic trade. The market for her manu- 
facturers has been until quite recently a domestic market. What happens 
as soon as a nation aspires to become an exporting nation? People tell you 
that if you are to cater for the foreign markets you must adopt a new system 
Comparing Great Britain and America, we depend on the volume of our export 
trade, and it is therefore very much more to our interest that we should change 
to the metric system than even America ; and once we have taken the plunge 
here we shall be followed by America. 

Russia is quoted as a non-metric country; but it is an interesting fact that, 
in so far as she is a manufacturing State, work has been for some years 
conducted on the metric basis. The Russian measures relate to the land 
measurements, railway measures, and so on ; but in trade and manufacture these 
are already converted to the metric system. 

We could not have a suitable discussion of the metric system without paying 
tribute to the very excellent work done in the interest of the system by Lord 
Kelvin. He was a stalwart advocate of it; he was in advance of his time; but 
when the turmoil of the war opens our eyes to the weakness of our national 
system we shall achieve the reform which Lord Kelvin so strenuously advocated 
for many years. . 

At the end of the war we shall be burdened with a huge national debt. 
The only way to remove the pressure of that burden will be to export produce 
in enormously increased quantity, and export it throughout the world. We 
shall be awfully lacking if we continue to use our British weights and measures 
and absurd arrangements when we attempt to trade with nations abroad who 
have adopted what we are now advocating. 

The President said : I am sure we are indebted to Mr. Hart Gordon 
and Mr Alcock for their remarks, and also to Mr. Sheppard for his paper. 
One point that has not been touched upon is the immense amount of saying 
the metric system would be in education. It would take years of school it<\ 
or, rather, the children would be able to do so much more in other ways which 
they cannot possibly now do, because they have to learn our intricate system 
of weights and measures. I have a good deal of calculation to do myself, 
and I very frequently put the figures into decimals, and work out my cal- 
culations and re-convert them into our system. That would not have to be 
done if we had the metric system established. Not only in such calculation 
but in all commercial transactions, in all book-keeping, an increased amount ot 
work could be done in the same time. I believe there are some here who are not so 
fully alive to the advantages of the metric system as I am. They wul have a 
good opportunitv to-morrow morning of stating their views. 


Third Meeting. 

At the third meeting, held on 'Friday, July 6, the discussion on Mr. Sheppard's 
paper ' Money-Scales and Weights ' was continued. 

Mr. Whitaker said : Our decimal friends go a little too far. They think 
decimals a cure for everything. It depends on decimal notation, which is a 
bad one. 

Dr. Bather said : If you have read much foreign literature as well as 
English, you will find there is an extraordinary variety in expression, of 
notation, and it is extremely difficult to say what is meant. For instance, 
we in this country are accustomed to write 33.25m. for metres or any other 
decimal measure or weight. Jf you go to the people who invented the system 
— the French — they put 33m. 25; that is how they do it. There is a worse 
difficulty almost than that. Of course it would be perfectly intelligible to put 
m.33.25; that can't mean anything but 33£ metres. But here is a diversity 
which creates considerable difficulty. Where we wish to put a decimal point we 
often put a full stop. That is not the French way of doing it. For our 33.251 
the French write 33,251. To an Englishman that means 33 thousand and 251. 
I have found authors using both these forms on the same page. If we are going 
to use the metric system all over the world, let us see that we all write it in 
the same way. In this case the least ambiguous form undoubtedly is 33.251 
In simple numeration similar questions arise. For a number in the thousands 
a Frenchman writes 33 251. If he wants to make it longer : 125 103 717. That 
is not nearly so clear as to put in the comma. When the ordinary person writes, 
it is a very difficult thing for the printer to tell whether he is to put the hair 
spaces in or not. It is also necessary to indicate the unit in each case. To say 
that a fish is 2.34 long is meaningless, yet there are British authors who do this 
with, presumably, the permission of their British editors. 

Mr. A. L. Lewis said : With regard to measures, I have found in some of 
our stone circles which go back to Neolithic times the Mediterranean measures. 
At Stonehenge there is an old Mediterranean foot, which is somewhat less than 
our own foot. At Stanton Drew, Somerset, there is the same. In addition to 
that, at Stanton Drew you have a series of measurements working out with 
that of the Mediterranean foot. In other stone circles, in other parts of the 
country, I have found measurements not working out to that foot, but to other 
old Mediterranean measures. This was in prehistoric times. No doubt it was 
so from influences from the Mediterranean which I take to have been rather 
personal than tribal. That is, the measurements were brought over here by 
individuals coming casually — it might be as traders or explorers ; it might be 
as fugitives from justice, or injustice, or even missioners. There was no doubt 
p great deal of travelling about in Neolithic times — much more than we think. 

The President said : There is one point with regard to the expressing of 
decimals to which I should like to refer : that of adopting a uniform method. 
There is only one way of doing it — that of using the full stop and putting it 
above the line. Everyone would know that this indicates decimals. 

Mr. Sheppard, in reply, said : With regard to Mr. Gordon's suggestion that 
he would have liked to have heard a little more about the metric system, may I 
say that the entire object of the paper has been to demonstrate the necessity 
for the metric system ? I felt that it was unnecessary to point out the advan- 
tages of such a system to this audience, and the recitation of the difficulties 
that have existed in the past, owing to the absence of the metric system, is 
surely the best evidence in favour of a change. One speaker asked when 
copper coins were introduced. Well, of course, there was the Harrington 
farthing in the reign of Charles II., but the great circulation of copper coins 
was in the reigns of the Georges. In the early days we only had the silver 
penny, which had to be kept up. The introduction of milled edges prevented a 
good deal of the coin clipping, and as soon as we got the milled edge, which 
could not be interfered with, the necessity for weighing coin was largely done 
away with. In Elizabeth's time nearly everybody who could get hold of any 
money cut a nice respectable portion from the edge. 

The President said : We could scarcely have a subject more important for 


the advancement of science than a discussion of the metric system, and I think 
it is \yell within the scope of the Conference. At the meeting of the French 
Association for the Advancement of Science one Conference was devoted almost 
entirely to it. Our Secretary was asked to make inquiries of the British 
Association as to its opinion on an alteration that was to be made in French 
units. I am very glad that we have followed it in our Conference. 

Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb then read his paper entitled 

The part to be played by Local Societies after the War in the Application 
oj Science to the Needs of the Country. 

One of the penalties of making a suggestion nowadays is that one is 
often forthwith asked to carry it out, and if I had had the pleasure of hearing 
Mr. Hopkinson's Address when the Corresponding Societies Committee asked 
me to introduce my present subject, I could perhaps have excused myself 
by claiming that my remarks would be unnecessary. 

The key-note, in fact, of what I had in mind to say was that a force must 
be generated in this country which will enable us to raise ourselves above 
party politics. There are many matters much less debatable than free trade, 
which our President mentioned, that could be settled much more satisfactorily 
on a business, common-sense, or scientific basis. 

Before going farther, however, in this direction, it may be well to con- 
sider the position of science. It has certainly played a big part in the war, 
and several times during this Conference the general feeling has been expressed 
that it will make itself felt in our everyday life in the near future to a much 
greater extent than it did in the recent past. That it ought to do so is 
certain. The seed no doubt is sown, but, as is the case with many a choice 
plant, fruit will not again be ripened to perfection unless conditions are 
favourable, time and care lavished upon the seedling, when it struggles forth 
from, the soil, unless difficulties are surmounted and enemies warded off. 

In order fully to realise that even now an effort must be made, that old 
methods of advancing science must be improved and new ones devised, let 
us hark back for a moment to the state of affairs which prevailed before the 
war began, at the time, I may remind you, when the members of this Conference 
were the guests of France at Le Havre. 

What was the position of a scientific person? That is to say one who 
had some claim to be acquainted with things and facts, with causes, and effects ; 
not an individual trained to gauge his success by how easily he could for the 
moment put a complexion upon circumstances which would convince twelve 
men good and true and unpaid, or prevail upon the mobile-minded members 
of a constituency, who carry the elections, that he was the right person to go 
to Parliament and help to swell the majority that would bring emoluments, 
and ultimately honours, to his party -without their being sought. 

The person we have in mind, if he had been asked five or six years ago 
what he thought would happen, and the pressing things that ought to be done, 
would have said, as many have done, that within the next ten years there 
would be a big war in Europe, and that England and Germany would be 
involved, and, apart from naval and military matters, it was the duty of thosa 
in authority to accumulate stores of food an this country, and to see that we 
produced as much as possible and bought as little as may be. He might also 
have added that our educational outlook should be altered, and if he had 
been tempted to touch on business he would have pointed out the folly of 
allowing Germans to undersell our own people as clerks, and to learn all 
our customers' names. 

Mr. Whitaker said yesterday that we should always buy in the cheapest 
market. Doing this has been our curse. It is possible, I believe, sometimes 
even to get rid of a curse. 

What could such an individual as we have been considering do to bring 
about the improvements which he knew were wanted ? Practically nothing 
directlv. His vote was one amongst thousands. He had very little time to 
spare if he had to get his living from science, and perhaps even still less if 


he devoted himself to some other pursuit to earn his bread and devoted his 
leisure to research. 

It was only indirectly, by trying gradually to educate educationists, 
Government departments, and the public, that he could see any hope for the 

Twelve or fourteen years ago some of us thought that the nature-study 
movement would do a greal deal, but it is not everyone who would take the 
trouble to understand what wa6 meant. Mr. Fagg said of nature-study yesterday 
that it was responsible for much. To it is due to a great extent the new teaching 
of geography upon which he commented. Eegional Surveys are but one branch 
of the nature-study which we advocated. A great object was to get plastic minds 
away from books until these are really U6eful, and the burden of any bad 
results which may have accrued lies on those who looked upon nature-study 
as a new subject or a poor kind of elementary didactic science. 

The greatest triumph achieved by the nature-study movement was the decision 
of the Eton College authorities to accept nature-study in the entrance examination 
as an alternative to Latin verse. 

Another habit of human nature akin to buying in the cheapest market, or 
possibly the same ono in another guise, is the wish to get as much as you can 
for your money, and I never heard that any boys from the regular preparatory 
schools offered nature-study instead of Latin verses, their schoolmasters knowing 
that the latter would count for more in th© long run if not immediately. 

This brings me to consider some of the reasons why science has not 
advanced as quickly as it might in the past. What we may perhaps still 
call the ruling classes are brought up as ignorant of science as they often are 
of business. They cannot help looking down upon it, or ignoring it, because 
they do not understand .it. They also have been accustomed to see all the 
most successful boys in their schools put to learn Latin and Greek, leaving 
the others who counted for little to turn to scientific pursuits. 

There is one class of schools which has been an outstanding exception, 
though unfortunately they do not rank with Eton, Harrow, and Winchester. 
I mean the Friends' Schools, where natural-history pursuits enter into the cur- 
riculum and take the place to some extent of games. Bootham School had 
a natural-history magazine eighty or more years ago, when the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science came into existence. It was 
this school which produced men like Silvanus Thompson, a scientific man of 
the first calibre as a physicist, a clever artist, a polished writer, 
and an ardent lover of Nature. It was he who gave the finest Presidential 
address that I remember to the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies 
at Woolwich. He took for his text two proverbial sayings, one of 
which, usually misquoted, Dr. Bather mentioned yesterday, ' a little learning 
is a dangerous thing' and 'a cobbler should stick to his last.' These Professor 
Silvanus Thompson, in his fascinating way, proceeded to show were fallacies, 
finishing his argument with an instance of a cobbler who lived in Woolwich, 
where he was speaking, who invented the electro-magnet, which is used in 
millions of instruments all the world over. 

Another reason why scientific people have been looked down upon is because 
many of those who have been successful in science, like their classical brethren, 
are, to use the late Lord Avebury's words, applied to the latter, only half- 
educated. They have often picked up their knowledge in evening classes 
after the business of the day was done, and they have not had time to acquire 
what we may term literary culture. They do not as a rule write with the 
style that they might, and their social position originally is not of the highest. 
Still, as the President said yesterday, a knowledge of English is lacked by very 
many of all classes, and one of the column-editors of The Fid J once told 
me that the writing of many of our country gentlemen was appalling. He 
had had very many years' experience of it. 

Then, again, if the classical scholar looks down on the scientific one, the 
same is true of the business-man. Scientific people, in the past at any rate, 
have worked for nothing. In the commercial eye a man who does this is a 
fool, and what you can get for nothing is not worth having. 

It is rather a pity that any labour for love should cease, but the man whu 
has a scientific education should get something on his investment, and I feel 


sure that no scientific man who really works will ever be repaid from a 
monetary point of view. 

The war has done more than give a greater appreciation of science : it has 
given a chance to men who would not otherwise have made themselves felt in 
the work of shaping our destiny, and it will have removed some of those 
prejudices which I mentioned. TheTe is a chance that our ruling classes, as 
I call them, will not be quite the same in the future. 

The Government set up a department of scientific and industrial research 
in 1915. Two of its publications are in front of me. One deals with 
Industrial Research in the United States of America. This bears out Mr. 
Whitaker'e contention that we always go to other people to see what they 
are doing, and to hold up their methods as a model. Occasionally it is 
justified. The second publication is a report on the resous ea and production 
of iron-ores, and so on, used in the iron and steel industry in the United 
Kingdom, so that we are beginning to get along. 

I have also before me the report of a conference held last year in the Linnean 
Society's Rooms at the instance of the Committee on the Neglect of Science, 
which is well worth reading ; and, again, I have the Presidential address of 
Dr. W. Martin to the South-Eastern Union, given in the same rooms last month, 
on 'Science and the Industries.' 

There is a conjoint board of scientific societies at work. The British Science 
Guild is extending its sphere of influence, and yet I think that the local societies 
could play a very important part in the directions mentioned by our President 
yesterday, and in others. The bodies mentioned above reflect the opinion of 
scientific men who are already convinced of the importance of science ; the 
principal work is to make others see it. The local scientific societies should 
consist of all scientific men in the neighbourhood to which they belong. They 
would belong to all political sections if political parties still remain. The 
Sections should be constituted to deal with general questions which will occur 
in every neighbourhood, and special questions which apply to their own. 
As a biologist, I naturally think of the same illustrations as Mr. Hopkinson, 
such as useful birds. If our crops are to be increased one-hundredfold, so 
should the insect-eating birds, and care should be taken that the species which 
live at our expense should not increase. There should be a body of scientific 
opinion, backed by evidence, which should be able to prevent the cherry orchards 
of a district from being rendered worthless by the number of starlings, provided 
that other and more important crops should not instead be ravaged by caterpillars 
because the starlings have been eliminated. 

It should be the part of the local society to point out the places where trees 
should be planted, and further than this they could deal with manufactures 
in urban districts, individually they could bring pressure to bear on municipal 
bodies and members of Parliament, while by concerted action they might 
influence the Government on questions of importance which affected the country 
as a whole. It will fall on a few people in each place, in the beginning, to 
carry out the work, but if such a echeme could be put into practice the results 
of their labours would be very far-reaching. 

Mr. Whitaker said : Mr. Webb falls a little foul of certain economic notions. 
England has been able in the most wonderful manner to help the Allies in various 
ways, largely in matters of money; nearly all our Allies, except America, which 
has just come in. Why? "Because England has followed economic laws far more 
than any other countries have, and has bought in the cheapest market for many 
years. The result is that she has had a great reserve, and thereby has hi 
her Allies. How could that be effected if we had not followed economic laws? 
We should not have been the wealthy country we are. We may have been worse 
off in some ways. Mr. Webb finds fault with our ruling classes for noi u 
standing science, but I do not know how he can make them. ^ on cannot tone 
them. Education should be so arranged that those children who prefer scientific 
studies should not be handicapped. I do not ask for favouritism for science ■ 
give us equality, give us justice. If English people cannot make things as well 
as the people of some other nations, whose fault is it? If. on the other hand, 
they cannot make them eo cheaply, whose fault is it? Let these faults be 
remedied. There is no nation in the world, be it ever so humble, that cannot 


do something better than other nations. It is a good thing that all nations, 
Germany included, if you like, should have some point in which they are 
superior to others. We should look at the world as a whole, and not simply at 
ourselves as a particular part of it. We do that too little. 

Local societies form one point in which England excels. In local societies 
she certainly has a very proud position, and anything that tends to improve 
our local societies, and to give them a larger occupation that may bear on the 
public good and the public interest, is distinctly for the good of the nation as 
a whole, as well as for that of the local societies. Do not let us think that 
there is nothing but science in the world. We must recognise that there are 
other things that are equally important and equally valued by other people. 
We have a right and a duty to stand up for science, to push science forward, 
but let us do it in the way that was advocated by the President yesterday as to 
agriculture and forestry ; let us do it side by side, and not antagonistically. 
Let us work our science with literature, with art. 

I am sorry to agree that a great many scientific people are not able to write 
English ; but they are no worse than other people. You may say just the same 
of some politicians and artists, and even professional writers. Many profes- 
sional writers write most unmitigated nonsense occasionally. Our scientific 
men must not follow the precedent of other English classes in letting themselves 
down. I do not say that we are better than other people, but I certainly will 
not allow that we are worse. Scientific people are just an average of a 
more or less educated people. Certainly there is a distinct want in all classes 
of a full English education. That is one point that should be considered indis- 
pensable, and in the matter of science what we want to see and hope to see is 
all science, all knowledge, leading up to the perfection of what is really the 
highest science of all : that is, political science. 

The Rev. J. 0. Bevan made the following remarks : There is one point in 
Mr. Webb's paper to which I want to refer, and that is the interest of bird-life. 
Periodically I talk to our young people about the preservation of bird-life. 
Some few weeks ago a copy of a leaflet was sent to me just published by the 
Society for the Protection of Birds. I am rather sorry to see that this pamphlet 
is written on lines of special pleading, and it takes up those birds which are 
insect-destroyers. It does not mention the fact that a great many birds are 
also grain-destroyers. It is rather an unfortunate leaflet to put into the 
hands of farmers. They say : ' We know a great many that are insect-destroyers, 
but we have to deal with a great many that are grain-de6troyers. We want to 
know what is the difference between the two classes of birds ; between the two 
classes of sparrows, for instance.' I think it is very unfortunate that the society 
should put forth a pamphlet which in its effect is misleading and creates a certain 
amount of disfavour amongst the class to whom it would be addressed, that is, 
the farmers. 

Miss Crosfield (Holmesdale Natural History Club) said : Local societies 
should make themselves an influence, by approaching local bodies, occasionally 
sending resolutions on any subjects on which the local societies feel strongly. 
The matter of the introduction of the metric system is one on which they might 
act. Not that they would immediately do very much good, but it would 
introduce a certain amount of discussion at Town Councils, and so ultimately 
advance something which would benefit the world. 

Miss Layard asked whether it would be any good approaching the editors 
of local papers and asking that they should make room for popular scientific 
subjects ; also when a paper is read, such as one at the Anthropological 
Institute, it would be good to send the pamphlet to be reviewed by the local 
paper. That might be brought forward before our local people. 

Dr. Bather said : My experience recently, when I have an axe to grind, has 
been that local papers are only too glad to get an article on a scientific subject 
written by somebody who knows what he is talking about. I write about a 
great many subjects I do not know anything about, but I have the advantage 
of a great many friends who know more than I do, and I endeavour to make 
sure of my facts by making use of my friends. The thing is to write English 
which can be understood by the people. I find not the slightest difficultv in 
interesting people, simply speaking in an intelligible way. A good deal might 


be done by people interesting the public in this way. What seems to me to b« 
the difficulty is that we have not time. I have not time myself in ordinary 
circumstances to write popular articles and not be paid for them. I am doinc 
it now as a piece of war-work. 

The President : I should like before we part to mention one point and answer 
one question, about buying in the cheapest market. I will just give you a very 
simple illustration, which should satisfy Mr. Whitaker. Supposing' we could 
get twenty-one nails for a penny of a certain kind of which we cannot in this 
country make more than twenty for a penny. We buy them from Germany 
whilst our workers are starving. Why can we get twenty-one nails from Germany 
for a penny? The Germans get their profit cut of their home-business, and 
they keep their works going by dumping their surplus stock on the world. We 
cannot compete with them because of their heavy duty. We should have to 
make thirty for a penny to export to them. There is another point. If they 
want to extend the sale of their goods the German Government subsidise 
steamers. I know positively a certain thing that will perhaps astonish you. You 
can get a pianoforte from Germany sent by Southampton to any of our colonies, 
and the freight will be much less than from this country to our colonies. 
There is no way to get out of that difficulty other than by retaliating, by 
putting a duty on their goods. Of course I allude to pre-war transactions. 

With regard to the point mentioned by Mr. Bevan, it is correct that the 
advice of the Society for tho Protection of Birds is not always good. As to 
sparrows, we know that the sparrow feeds its young with insects such as 
caterpillars, not with grain. That is the time when the sparrows do the 
farmer good. They catch the caterpillars and give them to their young. Do 
not prevent them from doing their work in eating the insects which do us 

Another point which has been raised is the inquiry for copies of my address. 
The proper thing is for every delegate to write a report and get that report printed 
in the proceedings of his society. That is the only way in which we can get a 
knowledge of our proceedings spread amongst all the members of the societies. 
The delegate should have a copy of our printed report and make an abstract of 
that for his society. That has been done from the very first by the Hertfordshire 

I am sure we have had a very interesting conference, and I do hope it will 
bear good results. I am very much indebted to those who have brought forward 
papers and to those who have contributed to the discussions. 

The Secretary : I think Mr. Whitaker is right as to buying raw material 
in the cheapest market abroad, but I do not see why he should buy in the 
cheapest market at home. I think English people can make almost anything 
better than anybody else. If the foreigner wants to get anything from this 
country very little trouble is taken, whereas the German is at great pains to do 
business. Mr. Whitaker did not notice that I said that anybody might be 
half -educated, scientific people and classical people alike. Unless the scientific 
know something of the classics and the classical something of science, they are 
both half-educated. Miss Crosfield said that local societies might be able to 
influence municipal bodies. I urged that we should bring pressure to bear 
upon them. The idea of going to local editors would be very good, but hardly 
now, when they have little room and paper is very dear. With regard to 
Dr. Bather's remarks, I am a person who has had a classical and a scientific 
education. I have come to the conclusion that you must write what people 
want, not what you think they ought to have. I might claim some little 
success in this matter, and I should say the person who writes the best 
article from the paying point of view and the popular point of view is one who, 
like Dr. Bather, does not know anything about the subject, but is steeped 
in all the things that are round that subject; that is to say, knows enough 
of the science with which he is dealing not to make any mistakes, and is just in 
the position to pick out those points which are suited to the public. He is 
able to treat those things which are interesting and may be fresh to the reader, 
while the specialist is apt to drag in all sorts of petty points which the public 
does not care anything about. 

1917. t: 



The following Delegates attended the Conference and signed the attendance book 


Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philo- 
sophical Society ...... 

British Mycological Society ..... 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society ..... 

Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society 

East Anglian Prehistoric Society .... 

Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and Microscopical 
Society ........ 

Edinburgh Geological Society .... 

Essex Field Club 

Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society . 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club 

Hohnesdale Natural History Club 

Hull Geological Society ..... 

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club 

Manchester Geographical Society .... 

Museums Association ...... 

Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Natural History Society ..... 

Selborne Society, London ..... 

Sheffield Naturalists' Club 

Torquay Natural History Society .... 

Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club 

Yorkshire Geological Society .... 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union .... 

Alfred W. Oke, F.G.S. 
Miss A. Lorrain Smith. 
Dr. W. Evans Hoyle. 
W. Whitaker, F.R.S. 
Miss Nina F. Layard. 

T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
W. Whitaker, F.R.S. 
W. Dale, F.S.A. 
John Hopkinson, F.L.S. 
Miss M. C. Crosfield. 
T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
Harry Sowerbutts. 
Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Meek, F.L.S. 
W. M. Webb, F.L.S. 
T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
Mrs. H. Forbes Julian. 
Rev. J. 0. Bevan, M.A. 
T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 



Balham and District Antiquarian and 

History Society .... 
Ealing Scientific and Microscopical Society 
Lewisham Antiquarian Society 
Wimbledon Natural History Society 

Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 
J. Stark Browne, F.R.A.S. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 
Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 




















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Catalogue of the more important Papers, especially those referring to 
Local Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1917. 

* # * This Catalogue contains only the titles of papers published in the volumes or 
parts of the publications of the Corresponding Societies sent to the Secretary of 
the Committee in accordance with Rule 2. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Alsop, J. C. Summary of Meteorological Observations, 1916. ' Report Marlb. 

Coll. N. H. Soc.' No. 65, 59-80. 1917. 
Barnard, E. E. Some Dark Markings on the Sky and What They Suggest. ' Journal 

Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 241-249. 1916. 
Bassett, Rev. H. H. Tilney. Returns of Rainfall in Dorset in 1915. ' Proc. Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C xxxvn. 198-209. 1916. 
Beattie, Prof. J. C. Further Magnetic Observations in South Africa during the 

years 1913-1915. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 669-670. 1917. 
True Isogonics and Isoclinals for South Africa for the Epoch July 1, 1913. 

' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 671-684. 1917. 
Bohle, H. The Heating Coefficients of Rheostats and the Calculation of Resistances 

for Currents of Short and Moderate Durations. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South 

Africa,' v. 685-694. 1917. 
Brown, Alexander. The Equivalent Mass of a Spring Vibrating Longitudinally. 

' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 565-570. 1916. 
The Arrangement of Successive Convergent^ in Order of Accuracy. ' Trans. 

Royal Soc. of South Africa, v. 653-657. 1916. 
The Use of a Standard Parabola for drawing Diagrams of Bending Moment and 

of Shear in a Beam Uniformly Loaded. 'Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 

659-667. 1916. 
Campbell-Bayard, Francis. Report of the Meteorological Committee, 1915. ' Trans. 

Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc' vm. 97-112, and Appendices, 60 pp. 1916. 
Cannon, J. B. Orbit of Spectroscopic Binary 125 Tauri. ' Journal Royal Astr. 

Soc. of Canada,' x. 377-381. 1916. 
Chamberltn, T. C. The Planetesimal Hypothesis. ' Journal Royal Astr. Sec. 

of Canada,' x. 473-497. 1916. 
Chant, C. A., and W. E. W. Jackson. The Great Aurora of August 26, 1916. 

' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada.' xi. 5-22. 1917. 
Clark, G. Napier. Sketch of the Life and Works of Rev. Jeremiah Horrox. 

'Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 523-536. 1916. 
Coates, Henry. Meteorological Observations, Perth, 1915. ' Proc. Perthshire 

Soc. Nat. Sci.' vi. exxxiii.-exxxvi. 1916. 
— — ■ Floods and Droughts of the Tav Valley. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. Nat. Sci.' 

vi. 103-126. 1916. 
■ Notes on an Old Weather Record found amongst the MSS. of the Antiquarian 

Museum. 'Trans. Perthshire Soc. Nat. Sci.' vi. 126-133. 1916. 
Craw, James Hewat. Account of Rainfall in Berwickshire — Year 1915. ' History 

Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xxn. 403. 1916. 
Account of Rainfall in Berwickshire during 1916. ' History Berwickshire Nat. 

Club,' xxm. 240. 1917. 
Creswell, Alfred. Records of Meteorological Observations taken at the Obser- 
vatory, Edgbaston, 1915. 27 pp. Birm. and Mid. Inst. Sci. Soc. 1916. 
DeLctry, Ralph E. Some Measurements of Blended Spectra. ' Journal Royal 

Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 201-219. 1916. 


DeLury, Ralph E. The Effect of Haze on Spectroscopic Measures of theft bj 
Rotation: Explanation of Differences in Values, and Differences dependin" on 
the Intensities of Spectrum Lines. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada ' x 
345-357. 1916. J ' 

The Question of the Presence of Haze Spectrum in the Mount Wilson Observa- 
tions of the Solar Rotation. 'Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada' n 23 "I 

Denning, W. F. The Great Meteoric Stream of February 9th, 1913 'Journal 
Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 294-296. 1916. 

A Meteoric Shower in June. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 446- 

448. 1916. 

Fox, Wilson Lloyd. Report of the Observatory Committee for the year I'M 5 

' Report Royal Cornwall Poly. Soc,' 3, 14 pp. 1916. 
Habpeb, W. E. The Swarthmore Meeting of the American Astronomical Society 

' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 421-429. 1916. 

The Orbits of the Spectroscopic Components of Boss 2484. ' Journal Rov-ii 

Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 442-445. 1916. 

Hassard, A. R. Amateur Work in Astronomy. ' Journal Roval Astr Soc of 

Canada,' xi. 99-102. 1917. 
Haughtoin, J. L., and D. Hanson. Observations on the Transit of Mercury of 

November 7th, 1914. ' Proc. Birmingham Nat. Hist. Phil. Soc.' xiv. 36-41. 1916. 
Hawke, E. L. Meteorological Report for 1915. ' Report Hampstead Sci Soc ' 

1915-1916, 33-36. 1917. 
Hopkins, Mary Murray. The Parallax of 61 Cygni. ' Journal Royal Astr Soc 

of Canada,' x. 498-504. 1916. 
Hopkinson, John. The Weather of the year 1915 in Hertfordshire ' Trans 

Herts N. H. S. F. C xvi. 125-140. 1917. 
Hunter, A. F, and H. B. Collier. A Prismatic Arc. ' Journal Royal Astr Soc 

of Canada,' x. 235-240. 1916. 
Innes, R. T. A. On the Development of the Perturbative Function in the Theory 

of Planetary Motion. 'Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' vi. 19-23. 1917. 
Klotz, Otto. Location of Epicentres for 1914 and 1915. ' Journal Roval Astr 

Soc. of Canada,' x. 302-313. 1916. 
Magnetic Results, 1913. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 314-320 

The Scientific Work of the Government : The Observatory. ' Journal Roval 

Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 449-453. 1916. 

Constant of Gravitation. 'Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' xi. 135-137. 


Lawson, Graham C. Meteorological Report. 'Trans. N. Staffs F. C i. 140-148 

Lowell, Percival. The Genesis of Planets. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soe. of Canada ' 

x. 281-293. 1916. 
McDiarmid, F. A. Gravity. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 537-552. 

McDiarmid, R. J. A Study of the Light Variation of the Star B.D. 61493. ' Journal 

Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 430^41. 1916. 
Markkam. ChrioTopher A., and R. H. Primavesi. Meteorological Report. ' Journal 

Northants N. H. Soc.' xvin. 191-194, 219-222, 243-246. 1916, ID] 7. 
Muir, Sir Thomas. Note on the so-called Vahlen Relations between the Minors 

of a Matrix. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 695-701. 1917. 
■ — — -Note on Pfaihans Connected with the Difference-product. 'Trans, Royal 

Soc. of South Africa,' vi. 29-36. 1917. 
Patterson, Arthur H. The January Flood of 1916 at Gre;vt Yarmouth ' Trans. 

Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc.' x. 162-167. 1916. 
Plaskett, H. H. Tho Psychology of Differential Measurements. ' Journal Roval 

Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 220-234. 1916. 
Plaskett. J. S. The 72-inch Reflecting Telescope. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. 

of Canada,' x. 275-280. 1916. 
Preston, Arthur W. Meteorological Notes, 1915. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. 

Soe.' x. 155-161. 1916. 
Rambaut, Dr. Arthur A. Meteorological Reports for 1915 and 1916. ' Report 

Ashmolean Nat, Hist. Soc' 1916, 16-18. 1917. 


Ridyard, 0. J. (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc). Note upon a Flash in the Workings 

of a Mine at Tyldeslev, probablv caused by a Lightning Discharge conducted 

from the Surface. 'Trans. Inst.*Min. Eng.' Lin. 135-136. 1917. 
Rutherford, John. Weather and other Notes taken at Jardington during 1915. 

' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. E. A. Soc' iv. (Third Series), 58-68. 1916. 
St. John, C. E-, and W. S. Adams. The Question of Diffused Light in Mount Wilson 

Solar Observations. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 553-555. 1916. 
Stebbins, Joel. The Aurora of August 26, 1916. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of 

Canada,' xi. 133-134. 1917. 
Stobbs, J. T. The Earthquake of January 14th, 1916, 'Trans. N. Staffs F. C 

L. 63-68. 1916. 
Swtnton, A. E. Meteorological Observations in Berwickshire for 1915. ' History 

Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xxn. 404. 1913. 

Meteorological Observations in Berwickshire for 1916. ' History Berwickshire 

Nat. Club,' xxin. 239. 1917. 

van der Lingen, J. Stepii. On the ' Lines ' within Rontgen Interference Photo- 
grams. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 571-573. 1916. 

Simple Apparatus for use in Applied Mathematics. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of 

South Africa,' v. 599-602, 1916. 

Heating and Cooling Apparatus for Rontgen Crystallographic Work. ' Trans. 

Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 647-651. 1916. 
Waleord, Dr. E. Meteorological Observations in the Society's District, 1915. 

' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xlvui. 75-96. 1916. 
Watson, Albert D. Companions of the Sun. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' 

x. 3S4-401. 1916. 

President's Address : Astronomy in Canada. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of 

Canada,' XI. 47-78. 1917. 

Williams, A. R. The Great Frost, 1917. ' Selbornc Magazine,' xxvm. 49-54. 

Young, J. Earthquakes of January 29 and February 20, 1917. ' Journal Royal 

Astr. Soc. of Canada,' xi. 146-147. 1917. 
Young, Reynold K. Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary Boss 6142. ' Journal 

Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 297-301. 1916. 

Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary \p Aurigse. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. 

of Canada,' x. 358-374. 1916. 

Note on the Spectroscopic Binary 12 Lacerttc ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. 

of Canada,' x. 375-376. 1916. 

Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary 2 Sagittse. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of 

Canada,' xi. 127-132. 1917. 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

Armstrong, Dr. E. Frankland. Modern Explosives. ' Proc. Warrington Lit. 
Phil. Soc' 1914-1916, 8 pp. 1916. 

Asiiwortii, Dr. J. R. Rochdale Soot-Fall. ' Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' xn. 
50-53. 1916. 

Beringer, J. J. The Physical Condition of Cassitcrite in Cornish Mill Products. 
' Report Royal Cornwall Poly. Soc' 3, 56-72. 1916. 

Drew, W. Newton (Midland List. Eng.). The Rectification of Benzol. 'Trans. 
Inst. Min. Eng.' Lni. 10-21. 1917. 

Ferguson, Prof. John. Some Early Treatises on Technological Chemistry. Supple- 
ment V. ' Proc. Glasgow Royal Phil. Soc' xlvii. 176-228. 1917. 

Graham, J. Ivon. Tho Permeability of Coal to Air or Gas, and the Solubilities of 
different Gases hi Coal. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' m. 338-347. 1917. 

The Absorption of Oxygen by Coal. Part X. — The Formation of Water in 

the Oxidation of Coal. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' lii. 348-353. 1917. 

Winmxll, T. F. Th.6 Estimation of Moisture in Coal. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 
li. 484-492. 1916. 

- The Absorption of Oxygen by Coal. Part VIII. — The Effect on the Absorption 
of the Size of the Coal-particles and the Percentage of Oxygen in the Air. ' Trans. 
Inst. Min. Eng.' li. 493-499. 1916. 

Part IX. — Comparison of Rates of Absorption of Oxygen by different 

Varieties of Coal. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' li. 510-531. 1916. 


Section C— Geology. 

Abbott, W. J. Lewis. The Pliocene Deposits of the South-East of England. ' Proe 
Prehistoric) Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 175-191. L916. 

Arber, Dr. E. A. Newell (Min. Inst. Scotland). The Structure of the South Stafford- 
shire Coalfield, with special reforouce to the Concoalod Areas and tho Neighbouring 
Fields. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' Ln. 35-67. 1910. 

Barke, F. Geological Report. ' Trans. N. Staffs F. C.' l. 138-139. 1910. 

Bell, Alfred. The Shells of tho Holderness Basement Clays. 'The Naturalist 
for 1917,' 95-98, 135-139. 1917. 

Boulton, Prof. W. S. An Esker near Kingswinford, South Staffordshire. ' Proe. 
Birmingham Nat. Hist. Phil. Soc' xiv. 25-35. 1910. 

Collins, J. H. Tin and Tungsten in the West of England. ' Report Royal Corn- 
wall Poly. Soc' 3, 89-99. 1916. 

Da vies, G. M. The Rocks and Minerals of the Croydon Regional Survey Area. ' Trail . 
Croydon N. H. Sei. Soc.' vni. 53-90. 1916. 

Edwards, E. J. Tho Origin of tho Varieties of Coal. ' Proe. Glasgow Royal Phil. 
Soc' xlvii. 86-101. 1917. 

E.ubrey, George. Tho Story of Ophiolepis Damesii. 'Proe Cottcswold X. F. C 
xix. 125-128. 1917. 

Fearnsides, Prof. W. G. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Somo Effects of Earth-movement 
on tho Coal Measures of the Sheffield District (South Yorkshire and the Neigl • 
houring Parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire). Part II. ' Trans. lust. Min. 
Eng.' li. 409-149. 1916. 

— — ■ (Midland Inst. Eng.) Supplies of Refractory Materials available in the South 
Yorkshire Coalfield. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' lii. 261-274. 1917. 

Ferguson, David (Min. Inst. Scotland). The Hurlet Sequence and the Baso of the 
Carboniferous Limestone Series in the districts of Campsie and Kilsyth. ' Trans. 
Inst. Min. Eng.' Ln. 7-32. 1916. 

The Form and Structure of the Coalfields of Scotland. ' Trans. Inst. Mm. Eng. 

lii. 355-391. 1917. 

Foxai.l, W. H. The Geology of the Eastern Boundary Fault of the South Stafford- 
shire Coalfield. 'Proe Birmingham Nat. Hist. Phil. Soc' xiv. 46-54. 1910. 
Gardiner, C. I. The Silurian Inlier of Usk, with a Pakeontologieal Appendix by 

Dr. F. R. Cowper Reed. 'Proe Cotteswold N. F. C xix. 129-172. 1917. 
Gilligan, A. Norwegian Boulder in the Millstone Grit of Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist 

for 1917.' 56-57. 1917. 
The Occurrence of the Rare Mineral, Monazitc, in the Millstone Grit of \ ork- 

shire. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 87-88. 1917. 
Greenwood, Herbert W. The Origin of the British Trias : A Re-statement of the 

Problem in the Light of Recent Research. ' Proe Liverpool Geol. Soc' xn. 209- 

235. 1916. , _.. .. 

Gregory Prof. J. W. Presidential Address : The Geological I- actors affecting tne 

Strategy of the War and the Geology of the Potash Salts. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. 

Soc' xvi. 1-33. 1916. 
Harris A. W. A Note on an Exposure in the Lower Pebble Beds at Mossloy Hill, 

Juno 1915. 'Proe. Liverpool Geol. Soc' xu. 236-237. 1916. 
Jones T. A. Notes on some Ferruginous Nodules in the Permo-Tnassic Si ndstonea 

of South-West Lancashire. 'Proe. Liverpool Geol. Soc.' xn. 252-263. L916. 

Kennard, A. S. The Pleistocene Succession in England. ' Proe Prehistoric hoc 

of East Anglia,' ii. 249-267. 1916. , 

Macgregor.M. A Jurassic Shore Line. 'Trans. Glasgow (.«., l.Su SVT.70 •>■ l»lt». 

Macnair, Peter. The Horizon of the Type Specimens of Ihth 

Scouler, andD. testwdinea, Scouler. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Boo. xn. 40- 60. 1. IK 

North, F. J. On a Boring for Water at Rotah, Cardiff ; with a Note on the Under- 
ground Structure of the Pre-Triassic Rocks of the Vicinity. Irans. Cardiff Nat. 
Soc' xlviii. 36-49. 1916. , , , . x . .. , _, r .i„ c „„„ 

Scott, Dr. Alexander. On Primary Analcite and Analcitization. Trans. Glasgow 

Geol. Soc' xvi. 34-45. 1916. , ... 

Dry Channels in Glen Lednock. 'Trans. Glasgow < leohSoo. ™ '• «-**; ';* lb , 

Sheppard, T. Glacial Beds at Hunmanby, E. Yorks. The Naturalist foi 1916, 

248-249. 1910. 


Sheppard, T. Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and 

Palaeontology of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted) published during 

1916, ' The Naturalist for 1917/ 106-109, 171-175. 1917. +■ , 

Simpson, J. R. Edustus neivtoni at Brockholes. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 352-353. 

Smythe, Dr. J. A. The Newly-discovered Whin-Dykes on the Coast of Northumber- 
land. ' Trans. Northumberland, &c, N. H. Soc' iv. 330-343. 1916. 
Staples, Ernest H. (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc). Some Effects of the Master Folds 

upon the Structure of the Bristol and Somerset Coalfields. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' lii. 187-197. 1917. 
Stobbs, J. T. A Glossary of the Geological Terms in use in the North Staffordshire 

Coalfields. 'Trans. N. Staffs F. C L. 44-62. 1916. 
Upton, Charles. Notes on Chirodota Spicules from the Lias and Inferior Oolite. 

' Proc. Cotteswold N. F. C xix. 115-117. 1917. 
Whitehead, W. A. Presidential Address : Sand-banks and Sand-dunes. ' Free 

Liverpool Geol. Soc.' xn. 189-206. 1916. 
Wilson, G. V. Preliminary Notes on Volcanic Necks in North-West Ayrshire. 

'TTans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' xvi. 86-99. 1916. 
Woodheap, Dr. T. W. A Quorn at Huddersfield. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 376. 

Wray, D. A. A Description of the Strata exposed during the Construction of the 

New Main Outfall Sewer in Liverpool, 1935. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' xn. 

238-251. 1916. 

Section D. — Zoology. 

Adams, J. H. Report of the Malocological Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 65, 40-41. 1917. ' 

Adkin, Robert. Ocneria dispar in Britain. ' Proc South London Ent. N. H. Soc' 

1916-17, 1-5. 1917. 
Allen, W. Bird. The Derivation of Bird-Names. ' Sclborne Magazine,' xxviii. 

20-22. 1917. 
Bagnall, Richard S. Report on the Field Meetings of the Natural Historv Society 

for 1911. ' Trans. Northumberland, etc., N. H. Soc' iv. 344-365. 1916. 
Barclay, W. Opening Address. [The Life and Work of Henry Fabre.] ' Proc. 

Perthshire Soc Nat. Sci.' VI. ciii.-cxi. 1916. 
Bennett, W. H. The Colcoptera of the Hastings District. ' Hastings and East 

Sussex Naturalist,' n. 208-212. 1916. 
Bickerton, William. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during 1915. 

'Trans. Herts N. H. S. F. C xvi. 141-156. 1917. 
Birks, Rev. S. Graham. Megalichtkys : A Study incorporating the Results of 

Work on previously undescribed Material. ' Trans. Northumberland, etc., N. H. 

Soc' iv. 307-329. 1916. 
Bolam, George. The Fishes of Northumberland and the Eastern Borders. ' History 

Berwickshire Nat. Club.' xxin. 153-197. 1917. 
Booth, H. B. Notes on the Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler in the West Riding. 

'The Naturalist for 1916.' 199-203. 1916. 
Reported Nesting of the White Wagtail in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 

1916,' 354-355. 1916. 
Boycott, Prof. A. E. On the Occurrence of Manganese in Land and Freshwater 

Mollusca. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 11-18, 69-73. 1917. 
Brade, Hilda K., and Rev. S. Graham Birks. Notes on Myriapoda, III. Two 

Irish Chilopods : Lithob-us Duboscqui Brolemann and Lithobius lapidicola Meinert. 

* Irish Naturalist,' xxv. 121-135. 1916. 
Brown, Col. Alexander Murray. Annual Address. [Bird Life] ' History Ber- 
wickshire Nat. Club.' xxii. 335-346. 1916. 
Bryan, B. On the Occurrence of Natterer's Bat {Myoiis Nattercri, Kuhl.) in Stafford- 
shire. ' Trans. N. Staffs F. C l. 87-89. 1916. 
Bryce, David. Notes on the Collection of Bdelloid and other Rotifera. ' Journal 

Quekett Mic. Club.' xm. 205-230. 1917. 
Burkitt, Jas. P. The Nightjar. ' Irish Naturalist,' xxv. 157-160. 1916. 
Btttterfield, W. Ruskin. Notes on the Local Fauna, Flora, etc., for the year 

1915. ' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' n. 196-206. 1916. 


Buxton, Major Anthony. Birds on the Westein Front (Flanders). 'Tram X. if 

Norw. Nat. Soc' x. 148-154. 1910. 
Caruer, Prof. E. Wace. Post-Pericardial Body of Skate (Baia batia). 'Proc. 

Birmingham Nat. Hist. Phil. Soc' xiv. 21 24 1916. 
Carpenter, Prof. Geo. H. Centipedes and Millipedes : a Systematic Note ' Irish 

Naturalist,' xxv. 164-168. 1916. 

Useful Studies for Field Naturalists. 'Irish Naturalist,' wvi. 66 70. 1917. 

Carr, J. W. Hemiptera collected at Baslow, Derbyshire. ' The Naturalist for 

1916,' 287-289. 1916. 
Carter, C. S. Mr. J. Hawkins' Collection of Grantham Shells. ' The Naturalist 

for 1916,' 290-292. 1916. 
Clarke, W. J. White-billed Northern Diver {CciynUnu adamsi) and other Sea Fowl 

at Scarborough. 'The Naturalist for 1916,' 217-219. 1916. 
Ichthyological Notes from the Scarborough District, 1915-1916. * The Natura- 
list for 1917,' 58-60. 1917. 
Cleqg, Thomas. Notes on the Moth Fly {Psychoda sexpmtata) frequenting the 

Sewage Works, 1914-1915-1916. ' Trans. Rochdale Lit. and Sci. Soc' xn 82 84 

Coates, Henry. ' Wanted to Complete '—Perthshire Vertebrates. ' Trans. Perth- 
shire Soc. Nat. Sci.' vr. 85-102. 1916. 
Craig, John. Ornithological Notes from Beith (Ayrshire). ' Glasgow Naturalist ' 

vin. 22-24. 1916. 
Cruttenden, C. Ornithological List. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc.' No. 65. 

42^4. 1917. 
Curtis, W. Parkinson. Phenological Report on First Appearances of Birds, Insects, 

etc., and First Flowering of Plants. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C wxvii. 137- 

193. 1916. 
Day, F. H. Cumberland Hemiptera-Heteroptera. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 262 

257. 1916. 

Cumberland Coleoptera in 1916. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 93-94. 1917. 

Dean, J. Davy. Land Mollusca in the Vale of Glamorgan. ' 'Iran.-. Cardiff Nat. 

Soc.' xlviii. 50-58. 1916. 
Dendy, Prof. Arthur. The President's Address : The Chessman Spicule of the 

Genus Latrunculia — A Study in the Origin of Specific Characters. ' Journal 

Quekett Mic. Club,' xm. 231-246. 1917. 
Durnfobd, W. A. Decreases in Yorkshire Birds. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 237- 

238. 1916. 
Falconer, Wm. The Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 1916,' 191-193. 1916. 

Foreign Spiders in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 350-351. 1916. 

Feilden, H. W. Snipe and Redshank Nesting in Sussex. ' Hastings and East 

Sussex Naturalist,' n. 193-195. 1916. 
Fergusson, Anderson. Some Records of Coleoptera from Cantyre (Vice-County 

No. 101). ' Glasgow Naturalist,' vin. 46-52. 1916. 
Fordham, W. J. Coleoptera in Yorkshire in 1915. 'The Naturalist for 1916,' 

204-207, 258-264. 1916. 

Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1916. ' The Naturalist for 1917.' 74-70. 160. 1917. 

Fortune, R. The Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. (Presidential Address 

to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union.) ' The Naturalist for 1916, ' 154-188 1916. 
Foster, Nevin H. Measurements and Weights of Birds' Eggs. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

xxvi. 41-47. 1917. 
George, G. F. Trombidium parvum, n. sp. ' The Naturalist for 1910,' 1S9-190. 1918. 
Gibbs, A. E. Presidential Address : The Satyrid Butterflies of Hertfordshire, with 

a short Study of Pararge cegeria. ' Trans. Herts N. H S. F. 0.' xvi. 173-188. 1917. 
Greer, TnoMAS. Notes on Lepidoptera from East Tvrono in 1916. ' Irish Natu- 
ralist,' xxv. 161-163. 1916. 
Gurney, J. H. Immigration of Rough-legged Buzzards in 1915-16. ' Tri OS. Xorf. 

Norw. Nat. Soc' x. 168-170. 1916. 
Gyngell, W. Conchologieal Notes from Malton. 'The Naturalist for 1916,' 

356-357. 1916. 
Hallett, H. N. Entomological Notes. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc ' xi.vm. 71-74. 1916. 
Hargreaves, J. A., and J. Digby Firth. Pseudanodonta flongata (?) in Yorks, 

' The Naturalist for 1916,' 229-230. 1916. 


Harbison, J. W. Heslop. The Geographical Distribution of the Moths of the Sub 
Family Bistoninje. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 194-198, 273-278, 358-362, 377- 
382. 1916. 

Cleveland Hymenoptera. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 125-126. 1917. 

— The Geographical Distribution of the Moths of the Sub-Family Bistoninse. 
' The Naturalist for 1917,' 161-164. 1917. 

Holt, A. E. Report of the Entomological Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 65, 31-36. 1917. 
Hull, Rev. J. E. Terrestrial Acari of the Tyne Province. ' Trans. Northumber- 
land, etc., N. H. Soc' rv. 381-409. 1916. 
Johnson, Rev. W. F. Some Irish Ichneunionidse. ' Irish Naturalist.' xxvi. 37- 

40. 1917. 
— — Lissonota basilis Brischke in Ireland. ' Irish Naturalist,' xxvi. 82-83. 1917. 
Kew, H. Wallis. Ad Historical Account of the Pseudoscorpion-f auna of the British 

Islands. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' xra. 117-136. 1916. 
Kirkpatrick, T. W. Report of the Diptera Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 65, 37-39. 1917. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. Sphinges. ' Report Lane. 

and Cheshire Ent. Soc' 1914 and 1915, 10 pp. 1916. 
Lones, Dr. T. E. Rotifers of the Country of the Chess and Gade. ' Trans. Herts 

N. H. S. F. C xvi. 109-120. 1917. 
Macdonald, D. On the Little Gull (Larus minutus) and other Rare Birds near 

Glasgow. ' Glasgow Naturalist,' vm. 35-37. 1916. 
Main, Hugh. On Rearing Beetles of the Genus Oeotrapes. ' Proc South London 

Ent. N. H. Soc' 1916-17, 18-22. 1917. 
Masefield, J. R. B. Zoological Report. ' Trans. N. Staffs F- C L. 123-133. 1916. 
Maxwell, Sir Herbert. The Hedgehog. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway 

N. H. A. Soc' iv. (Third Ser.}, 84-87. 1916. 
Milne, W. On the Bdelloid Rotifera of South Africa. Part II. ' Journal Quekett 

Mic. Club,' xm. 149-184. 1916. 
Morley, B. Yorkshire Entomology in 1916. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 77-79. 1917. 
Nicholson, Dr. G. W. Additional Coleoptera from Meath and Cavan. 'Irish 

Naturalist,' xxvi. 28-31. 1917. 
Oldham, Charles. Report on Land and Freshwater Mollusca observed in Hert- 
fordshire in 1913, 1914, and 1915. 'Trans. Herts N. H. S. F. C xvi. 121-124. 

Parkin, Thomas. The Mediterranean Black -headed Gull in Sussex. 'Hastings 

and East Sussex Naturalist,' n. 207. 1916. 
Patten, Prof. C. J. Fragmentary Remains of a Tree-Pipit found on Tuskar Rock. 

' Irish Naturalist,' xxv. 85-93. 1916. 
Phillips, R. A. On Two Species of Pisidium (Fossil) new to Ireland. ' Irish Natura- 
list,' xxv. 101-105. 1916. 
Popple, Edward. Additions to the Crustacea of Hertfordshire. ' Trans. Herts 

N. H. S. F. C xvi. 167-168. 1917. 
Proger, T. W., and D. R. Patterson. Ornithological Notes. ' Trans. Cardifl Nat. 

Soc' XLvm. 59-70. 1916. 
Rennie, William. Bird Notes from Possil Marsh, January-June 1916. ' Glasgow 

Naturalist,' vm. 56-63. 1916. 
Richardson, L. On the Stratigraphical Distribution of the Inferior-Oolite Verte- 
brates of the Cotteswold Hills and the Bath-Burton Bradstock District. ' Proc 

Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxxvn. 48-55. 1916. 
Richardson, Nelson M. Anniversary Address. 'Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C 

xxxvn. 1-25. 1916. 
Ritchie, John, jun. Notes on some Scottish Leeches. ' Glasgow Naturalist,' 

vm. 8-11. 1916. 
■ On an Ayrshire Great Grey Shrike (Laniui excubiton L.). ' Glasgow Naturalist,' 

vm. 42^15. 1916. 
Rutherfurd, Capt. W. J. Unexpected Data as to the previous occurrence of the 

Chough on the Middle Marches. ' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xxm. 201- 

204. 1917. 
Ruttledge. Robert F. The Birds of Lough Carra, ' Irish Naturalist,' xxv. 96- 
97. 1916. 

CORRESPONDING: societie 255 

Ruttledge, W. Some Uncommon Lepidoplera taken in Sooth 'Irish 

Naturalist,' xxv. 139. 1916. 
Sanderson, A. R. Polyncma naiann in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1910,' 

346-347. 1916. 
Scharff, Dr. R. F. On the Irish Names of Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes. ' [run 

Naturalist,' xxv. 106-119. 1916. 
On the Irish Names of Invertebrate Animals. ' Irish Naturalist,' xxv. 140- 

152. 1916. 
On the Variation of the Lizard {Liu ara). 'Irish Naturalist.' \\\t. 

84. 1917. 
Schlesch, Hans. Faunula Littorinidae Ielandiae Borealis. 'The Naturalist for 

1916,' 279-280. 1916. 

The Icelandic Pisidium-Fauna. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 281-282. 1916. 

— — -Notes on Helix (Acanthinaia) ha r pa, Sav, and it < Distribution. 'The 

Naturalist for 1917,' 166-168. 1917. 
Malacological Fauna of Halldorsstodum, North Iceland. ' The Naturalist 

for 1917,' 169. 1917. 
— — - List of Iceland Land and Freshwater Mollusca. 'The Naturalist for 1917.' 

169-170. 1917. 
Selous, Edmund. Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 'The 

Naturalist for 1916,' 324-326, 363-366, 384-388. 1916; for 1917, 89-92. 1917. 
Sevvell, J. T. Notes on the Wood Ant ( Formica ruja). ' The Naturalist for 1917.' 

158-159. 1917. 
Shufeldt, R. W. Osteology of Palseornis, with other Notes on the Genus. ' Trans. 

Royal Soc. of South Africa,' v. 575-591. 1916. 
Sich, Alfred. A Hawthorn Hedge in Middlesex. ' Trans. London H. N. Soc. 

1915,' 48-57. 1916. 
Smith, Arthur. The Fishes of Lincolnshire. 'Trans. Lincolnshire Nat. Union,' 

1915, 239-256. 1916. 
Soar, Chas. D. Two New Species of Hydracarina or Water-mitos, Dartia Harriet 

and EyJais Wilsoni. 'Journal Quekett Mie. Club,' xni. 277-282. 1917. 
Stainforth, T. The Bristly Millipede in East Yorkshire. • ' The Naturalist for 

1916,' 181-182. 1916. 
The Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding. 'The Naturalist for 1916.' 

282-286, 389-399. 1916. 
Stendall, J. A. Sidney. Ulster Spiders collected in 1915. ' Troc. Belfast N. 11. 

Phil. Soc.' 1915-1916, 95-101. 1917. 
Swanton, E. W. Notes on some Dorset Sand Shells. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. P. I . 

xxxvn. 194-197. 1916. 
Thouless, N. J. Presidential Address : Insects in their relation to Mankind. 'Trans. 

Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' x. 80-107. 1916. 
Tomlin, J. R. le B. The Coleoptera of Glamorgan. 'Trans. Cardiff Nat. Boc.' 

XLvm. 17-35. 1916. 
Trueman, A. E. The Lineage of Tragophylloccras loscombi (J. Sow.) ' The Natura- 
list for 1916,' 220-224. 1916. 
Turner, Hy. J. The Genus Pararge. ' Proc. South London Ent. N. EL Si o.' 1916 - 

17, 7-17. 1917. 
Vaughan, Matthew. A Visit to a Dutch Sanctuary, with Notes on the Bird Life 

of Texel Island. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' x. 107-125. 1916 
Walker, J. J. Interim Report on Coleoptera. 'Report Ashmolean Nat. Hist. 

Soc' 1916, 44. 1917. 
Wallis, Albert. The Snail and its Name. 'Journal Northants N. If. Soc' xyiii. 

143-154, 171-181. 1910. 
Webb, Wilfred Mark. Bird Movements. ' Selborno Magazine,' xxvrr. 88-89. 

Wilding, R. Presidential Address. [The Entomological Events of the past j 

* Proc Lane and Cheshire Ent. Soc' 1914 and 1915, 20-28. 1916. 
Williams, Harold B. Notes on the Life History and Variation of EwhloX car- 

damine,«,L. * Trans. London N. H. Soc' 1915, 62-84. 1916. 
Wills, Leonard J. The Structure of the Lower Jaw of Triassic Labyrinths 

'Proc. Birmingham Nat. Hist, Phil. See.' xiv. 5- 20. 191(1. 


Section E. — Geography. 

Czaplicka, Miss M. A. Siberia and some Siberians. ' Journal Manchester Geog. 
Soc.' xxxn. 27-42. 1917. 

Dick, Rev. C. H. Sources of the Galloway Dee. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Gallo- 
way H. N. A. Soc' iv. (Third Ser.) 36-38, 1916. 

Foxall, W. H. The Drainage of Shenstone Vale. ' Proc. Birmingham Nat. Hist. 
Phil. Soc' xiv. 42-45. 1916. 

Hopkinson, John. The Hertfordshire Bourne in 1916. ' Trans. Herts N. H. S. F. C 
xvi. 169-172. 1917. 

Keltie, Dr. J. Scott. A Half -century of Geographical Progress. ' Journal Man- 
chester Geog. Soc' xxxn. 55-80. 1917. 

Melloe, E. W. Southern India — Some Dravidian Landmarks. ' Journal Man- 
chester Geog. Soc' xxxn. 1-26. 1917. 

Reeves, Edward A. The Mapping of the Earth — Past, Present, and Future. ' Jour- 
nal Manchester Geog. Soc' xxxn. 81-101. 1917. 

Thompson, Beeby. The River System of Northamptonshire. ' Journal Northants 
N. H. Soc' xvra. 203-217. 1916. 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

Bain, H. Fosteb. Prospects for Tin in the United States. ' Report Royal Corn- 
wall Poly. Soc' 3, 114-125. 1916. 
Bakee, G. S. The Immediate Commercial Advantages of Experiment Tank Tests. 

' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxxvu. 302-313. 1916. 
Daniels, G. W. The Cotton Trade during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. 

' Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc' 1915-1916, 53-84. 1916. 
Ellingeb, Babnard. The Position of the Doctrine of Laissez-faire after the War. 

' Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc' 1915-16, 1-24. 1916. 
Fbaseb. D. Dbummond. Treasury War Bonds. ' Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc' 

1915-16, 25-39. 1916. 
Jack, A. FrNGHND. The Value of Monev. ' Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc' 1915-16, 

41-51. 1916. 
Jones, J. H. The War and Economic Progress. ' Proc Glasgow Royal Phil. Soc' 

xlvti. 25^47. 1917. 
Mowat, David M. (Min. Inst. Scotland). Presidential Address : Trade After the 

War. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' Lin. 108-111. 1917. 
Pattebson. Aethub H. The Yarmouth Herring Fishery of 1913. ' Trans. Norf. 

Norw. Nat. Soc' x. 174-176. 1916. 
Pickup, William (Manchester Geol. Min. SocA Presidential Address : The Effect 

of Modern Labour Movements and Legislation on the Economic Position of Coal 

Mining. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' Ln. 199-208. 1917. 
Ridsdale, Langpobd (S. Staffs and Warw. Inst. Eng.). Presidential Address. [The 

Cost of Coal Production.] ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' Ln. 219-226. 1917. 
Scott, Prof. W. R. On Paying our War Bill. ' Proc. Glasgow Royal Phil. Soc' 

XLvn. 122-137. 1917. 
Stewabt, Dr. C. Pabkeb. Perth's Infant Mortality. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. Nat. 

Sci.' vi. 133-143. 1916. 
Symonds, Henby. The Silk Industry in Wessex. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C 

xxxvn. 66-93. 1916. 
Taylob, Edwabd Lyon. Presidential Address : The Early Wool Trade of Rochdale. 

' Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' xn. 71-78. 1916. 
Wilson, Alec. The Shipbuilding Industry in Belfast. ' Proc Belfast N. H. Phil. 

Soc' 1895-1916. 5-29. 1917. 

Section G. — Engineering. 

Abell, Prof. T. B. Some Principles underlying the Water-tight Sub-division of Ships. 

' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxxvn. 15-39. 1916. 
Andebson, J. Wemyss. Marine Refrigeration. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc." 

xxxvn. 120-139. 1916. 
Andebson, William Thomson (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc). Notes on an Old 

Colliery Pumping Engine (1791). ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' Ln. 396-445. 1917 


Atkinson, H. J. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Widening the Upcast Shaft at Tinslcv Par] 
Colliery. 'Trans. Inst. Mm. Eng.' lit. 117- 124. 11)16. 

Blandford, Thomas (Midland Inst. Eng.). The Cementation Process as applied 
to Mining (Francois System). 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' uir. 22-29. 1917. 

Coon, J. M. Development of Mechanical Appliances in China ( 'lav Works. * Report 
Royal Cornwall Poly. Soe.' 3, 100-110. 1016. 

Corlett, G. S. (Manchester Geol. Min. Soe.). Electric Supply to Collieries. 'Trans 
Inst. Min. Eng.' liti. 121-1.10. 1917. 

Garforth, Sir William. Opening Address. : Tho Production and Consumption 
of Coal. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' li. 462H168. 1916. 

Hardwick, Prof. F. W., and Prof. L. T. O'Stif.a. Notes on tho History of the Safetv- 
lamp. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' li. 548-718. 1916. 

Harrison, Haydn T. Efficiency of Projectors and Reflectors. ' Trans. Liverpool 
Eng. Soe.' xxxvtt. 237-247. 1916. 

Hollingsworth, E. M. Notes on the Modernising of an Electric Supply Under- 
taking. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soe' xxxvn. 263-282. 1916. 

Jones, C. E. Electrical Machinery for Ship Use. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soe ' 
xxxvrr. 86-110. 1916. 

Lee, F. C. (N. England Inst. Eng.). Some Practical Notes on the Economical Use of 
Timber in Coal-mines. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' ltti. 80-97. 1917. 

Mairet, F. F. (Midland Inst. Eng.). The Economical Production and Utilization 
of Power at Collieries. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' lit. 71-101. 1910. 

Marchant, Prof. E. W. Inaugural Address: The Relation of Science to Practice 
in Engineering. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soe.' xxxvn. 2-14. 1916. 

Marris, G. C. Recent Developments in Telephony. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng Soe ' 
xxxvn. 154-172. 1916. 

Mowat, David M. (Min. Inst. Scotland). The ' Summerlcc ' Visual Indicator. 
'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' lh. 296-300. 1917. 

Neachell, E. J. Notes on the Overhead Railwav. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soe.' 
xxxvn. 47-55. 1916. 

Nicholson, George R. (N. England Inst. Eng.). The Horsley and Nicholson Auto- 
matic Compound Syphon. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 99-103. 1917. 

Paton, G. K. Electric Power in Slate Quarries. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soe.' 
xxxvn. 326-359. 1916. 

Rtddell, Henry. The Search for Perpetual Motion. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. 
Soe' 1915-1916, 62-89. 1917. 

Schmidt, Frederick (Manchester Geol. Min. Soe.). Shaft-sinking by the Freezing 
Process. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' lii. 141-183. 1917. 

Shaw, Joshua. Notes on the Mersey Railway. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soe.' 
xxxvn. 56-73. 1916. 

Tate, Simon (N. England Inst. Eng.). Further Notes on Safety Lamps. 'Trans. 
Inst. Min. Eng.' lhi. 60-70. 1917. 

Thomson, John B. (Min. Inst. Scotland). The ' Chalmers-Black ' Non-Accumula- 
tive Visual Indicator for Shaft-signalling. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' liti. .".l-.">7. 1917. 

Thorneycroft, Wallace. Presidential Address : The Influence of Science, Educa- 
tion, and Legislation on Mining. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' Ln. 322-333. 1917. 

Walker, George Blake (Midland Inst. Eng.). Making a Shaft Upwards. ' 'Jrans. 
Inst. Min. Eng.' r.n. 227-229. 1917. 

Section H. — Anthropology. 
Alsop, J. C. Anthropometrical Report. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soe.' No. 65, 

81-108. 1917. 
Barnes, the late Rev. William. Edge Tools in Earlv Britain. ' Proc. Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C xxxvn. 133-136. 1916. 
Chandler, R. H. The Implement and Cores of Crayford. ' Proc. Prehistoric Soe. 

of Ea*t Anglia,' n. 240-248. 1916. 
Clarke, W. G. The Norfolk Sub-Crag Implements. ' Proc. Prehistoric Soe. of 

East Anglia,' n. 213-222. 1916. 
■ Tho Grime's Graves Excavations, 1914. ' Proc. Prehistoric Soe. of East Anglia,' 

it. 319. 1916. 

and H. H. Halls. Cone Cultures in the Wensum Valley : lt< llcsdon. ' Proc. 

Prehistoric Soe. of East Anglia,' n. 194-203. 1916. 
Dixon, S. E. Some Earthworks and Standing Stones in East Anglia in relation to a 
Prehistoric Solar C'ultus. ' Proc. Prehistoric Soe. of Ens! Anglia, it. 171-173. 1916. 

1917. s 


George, T. J. Early Man in Northamptonshire, with particular reference to the 
late Celtic Period as illustrated by Hunsbury Camp. ' Journal Northants N. H. 
Soc' xvm. 182-189, 195-202, 223-230. 1916, 1917. 

Haughton, S. H., R. B. Thomson, and L. Peringtjey. Preliminary Note on the 
Ancient Human Skull-remains from the Transvaal, with Notes appended on 
Fragments of Limb-bones and Fragments of Stone. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of 
South Africa,' vi. 1-14. 1917. 

Kendall, Rev. H. G. 0. Windmill Hill, Avebury, and Grime's Graves. ' Proc. 
Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 230-239. 1916. 

Lawlor, H. C. Some Notes on the Investigation of Dwelling Places of Prehistoric 
Man in N. E. Ireland. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc' 1915-1916, 31-61. 1917. 

Marsden, J. G. Further Note on Workshop Floor near Porthcurno. ' Proc. Pre- 
historic Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 173-175. 1916. 

Motr, J. Reid. A Series of Pre-Palseolithic Implements from Darmsden, Suffolk. 
' Proc. Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 210-213. 1916. 

Peake, A. E. The Gravel at No Man's Land Common, Hertfordshire. * Proc. 
Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 222-229. 1916. 

Presidential Address : Recent Excavations at Grime's Graves. ' Proc. Pre- 
historic Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 268. 1916. 

Sainty, J. E. Cone Cultures in the Wensum Valley : Sparkham and Lyng. 'Proc. 
Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia,' n. 203-209. 1916. 

Sheppard, T. A Hoard of Axes, etc., of the Bronze Age, from Scarborough. ' The 
Naturalist for 1917,' 151-154. 1917. 

Some Weapons of the Bronze Age recently found in East Yorkshire. ' The 

Naturalist for 1917,' 155-157. 1917. 

Smith, Prof. G. Elliot. Note upon the Endocranial Cast obtained from the Ancient 
Calvaria found at Boskop, Transvaal. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' 
vi. 15-17. 1917. 

Wagner, P. A. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the National Game of Skill 
of Africa. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' Vi. 47-68. 1917. 

Woodhouse, Ellen E. Pre-Saxon Civilisation in Dorset. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. 
A. F. C xxxvn. 210-227. 1916. 

Section I. — Physiology. 

Asher, W. Bacteriology of Milk. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. Nat. Sci.' vi. 71 -84. 1916. 
Cockayne, Dr. E. A. Presidential Address : Insects and War. ' Trans. London 

N. H. Soc' 1915, 31-40. 1916. 
Haldane, Dr. J. S. The Health of Old Colliers. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' li. 469- 

477. 191 'i. 
Valentine, Prof. Mental and Physical Fatigue. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc' 

1915-1916. 92-94. 1917. 
Van der Lingen. J. Steph. Note on the lonisation produced by Degenerating 

Nerve-muscle Preparations. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of South Africa,' vi. 25-27. 1917. 
Ainslie, M. A. Nitzschia singalensis. A.*Note on Mr. Merlin's paper. ' Journal 

Quekett Mic Club.' xm. 113-116. 1916. 
Arnott, S. The Fasciation of Plants. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway 

N. H. A. Soc' iv. (Third Ser.) 22-26. 1916. 
Barclay, W. Annual Address ; Notes on Roses. Part II. ' Proc. Perthshire 

Soc. Nat. Sci.' vi. cxv.-oxxiv. 1916. 
Bennett, Arthur. Notes on Mr. Nicholson's Flora of Norfolk. ' Trans. Norf. 

Norw. Nat. Soc* x. 126-137. 1916. 

Orobanche reiicidata, Wallruth. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 165. 1917. 

Bews, J. W. The Growth-Forms of Natal Plants. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of S. 

Africa,' v. 605-636. 1916. 
Boucher, A. S. Afforestation in North Staffordshire. 'Trans. N. Staffs F. C 

l. 113-118. 1916. 
Boyd, D. A. Notes on the Microfungi of the Kyles of Bute District. ' Glasgow 

Naturalist,' in. 1-8. 1916. 
Additional Records of Microfungi for the Clyde Area. ' Glasgow Naturalist,' 

vm. 52-56. 1916. 
Bullock- Webster, Canon G. R. The Characese of Fanad, East Donegal. ' Irish 

Naturalist,' xxvi. 1-5. 1917. 


Scctian K. — Botany. 

Bubrell, W. H. The Mosses and Liverworts of an Industrial City [Leeds]. ' The 

Naturalist for 1917,' 119-124. 1917. 
Cairns, John. Trees and Shrubs in a Renfrewshire Garden. ' Glasgow Naturalist,' 

vni. 11-17. 1916. 
On some Eucalypti in the West of Scotland. ' Glasgow Naturalist,' vm. 37- 

41. 1916. 
Chadwiok, J. A. Report of the Botanical Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc.' No. 65, 21-30. 1917. 
Cheetham, C. A. Botanical Problems at Austwick. 'The Naturalist for 1916,' 

246-247. 1916. 
Clarke, W. G. The Brockland Sandpall and its V< getation. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. 

Nat, Soc' x. 138-148. 1916. 
The Flora of a Norwich Waste Patch. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' x. 171- 

173. 1916. 
Copland, L. An Old Brickfield. ' Sclborne Magazine,' xxvu. 106-108. 1918. 
Cryer, John. Casual and Alien Plants from Wakefield. ' The Naturalist for 1916.' 

250-251. 1916. 
Dixon, H. N. Northampton Racecourse Flora. ' Journal Northants H. N. Soc-.' 

xviii. 231-232. 1917. 
Doidqe, Dr. Ethel M. South African Perisporiales. 'Trans. Royal Soc of South 

Africa,' v. 713-750. 1917. 
Dcitiue, A. V. Note on Apparent Apogamy in Pterygodhun Newdigatae. ' Trans. 

Royal Soc of S. Africa,' v. 593-598. 1916. 
Evans, A. H. Notes on Plants found in the District worked by the Berwickshire 

Naturalists' Club. ' History Berwickshire Nat. Club.' xxin. 217-235. 1917. 
Evans, I. B. Pole. A New Aloe from Swaziland. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of S. Africa,' 

v. 603-604. 1916. 

The South African Rust Fungi. ' Trans. Royal Soc of S. Africa,' v. 637 646. 1916. 

Descriptions of some New Aloes from the Transvaal. ' Trans. Royal Soc. of 

South Africa,' v. 703-712. 1917. 
Eyles, Fred. A Record of Plants collected in Southern Rhodesia. ' Trans. Royal 

Soc. of South Africa,' v. 273-564. 1916. 
Goode, G. H. Notes on Leptobri/uni, pyriforme. ' Journal Northants N. H. Soc' 

xvhi. 233-234. 1917. 
Haines, J. W. Some Notes on the Flora of the Gloucester Docks. ' Proc. Cottes- 

wold N. F. C xix. 119-124. 1917. 
Harris, G. T. The Desmid Flora of Dartmoor. ' Journal Quekett Mic Club,' xui. 

247-276. 1917. 
Hastings, Somerville. The Fungi of Bare Fine Wood-;. ' Selborne Magazine, ' 

xxvii. 63-67, 73-79. 1916. 
Hick, Rev. J. M. Report on the Field Meetings of the Natural Historv Societj for 

1912. 'Trans. Northumberland, etc, N. H. Soc' iv. 366- 380. 1916. 
Hilton, A. E. On Sporangia! Characters of Mvcetozoa and Factors which influence 

them. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' xni. 137-248. 1916. 
Hopkinson, John. Report on tho Phonological Observations in Hertfordshire 

for the year 1915. 'Trans. Herts N. H. S. F. C* xvi. 161-166. 1917. 
Johnson, Rev. W. A New British Lichen. ' The Naturalist for 1917/ 88. 1917. 
Johnstone, Mary A. Observations on Ranunculus Fiearia. ' The Naturalist for 

1917.' 103-105, 127-129. 1917. 
Jones, Chapman. The Secondaries or Dotted Structure in Pinnulariac 'Journal 

Quekett Mic Club,' m 107-110. 1916. 
Lef, Johv R. Excursions in Breatlalbanc (Killin District), Julv 1915. [With List 

of Plants Observed"!. 'Glasgow Naturalist,' vni. 17-22. 1916. 
McArdle, David. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Glen of the Downs, ( 'o. Wicklow. 

'Irish Naturalist,' xxvi. 73-82. 1917. 
Merlin, A. A. C. Eliot. On NiUsclda siw/alaisi* ns a Test-object for the Highest 

Powers. 'Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' xni. 111-112. 1916. 
Mitchell, J. (Midland Inst. Eng.). Some Causes of Decay of Timbers in Coal Mines. 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' lii. 246-256. 1917. 
Morris, Sir Daniel. Australian Trees and Shrubs. 'Proc, D i •■' V H. \. F. C 

xxxvn. 94-115. 1916. 


Nicholson, C. S. The Botany of the District. ' Trans. London N. H. Soc. 1915,' 

40-43. 1916. 
Paterson, John. On Matricaria discoidea DC. in Central Scotland. ' Glasgow 

Naturalist,' vnr. 25-28. 1916. 
Pearson, H. H. W. On the Morphology of the Female Flower of Gnetum. ' Trans. 

Royal Soc. of South Africa,' VI. 69-87. 1917. 
Peck, A. E. Yorkshire Mycologists at Buckden. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 99- 

102, 130-132. 19 17. 
Potts, A. J. Fruit-growing in Small Gardens. ' School Nature Study,' 12,20-21. 1917. 
Rea, Margaret W., and Margarita D. Stelfox. Some Records for Irish Mycetozoa. 

' Irish Naturalist,' xxvi. 57-65. 1917. 
Riddlesdell, Rev. H. J. Report (No. 6) on the Progress made in connection with 

the Flora of Gloucestershire. ' Proc. Cotteswold N. F. C xix. 101-102. 1917. 
Ridge, W. T. Boydon. Botanical Report. ' Trans. N. Staffs F. C l. 134-137. 1916. 
Rosbins, R. W. The Flora of Epping Forest. ' Trans. London N. H. Soc. 1915,' 

44-48. 1916. 
Salisbury, Dr. E. J. Report on Botanical Observations in Hertfordshire during 

the year 1915. ' Trans. Herts N. H. S. F. C xvi. 157-160. 1917. 
Sanderson, A. R. Observations on Brefeldia maxima Rost. ' The Naturalist for 

1916,' 225-228. 1916. 
Saxton, W. T. Oecological Notes on the District of Manubie, Transkei. ' Trans. 

Royal Soc. of South Africa,' VI. 37-45. 1917. 
Stow, Miss S. C. Lincolnshire Galled-Plants. ' Trans. Lincolnshire Nat. Union, 

1915/ 237-238. 1916. 
Swan, Joseph. Some Local Plants : their Beauty and Utility. ' Trans. Dumfries- 
shire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' iv. (Third Ser.) 54-58. 1916. 
Waddell, Rev. C. H. Rare Plants of the Co. Down Coast. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

xxvi. 12-13. 1917. 
Woodruffe-Peacock, Rev. E. Adrian. The East Fen. ' Trans. Lincolnshire 

Nat. Union, 1915,' 228-236. 1916. 
The Means of Plant Dispersal : I. Storm Columns. ' Selborne Magazine,' 

xxvni. 40^4. 1917. 

Section L. — Educational Science. 

Jeffrey, J. B. The Education of a Marine Engineer. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. 

Soc.' xxxvu. 203-209. 1916. 
Liverpool Engineering Society. Report of a Committee on tho Education of 

the Marine Engineer. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxxvu. 385-396. 1916. 
Robarts, N. F. Presidential Address : Local Museums. ' Proc. Croydon N. H. 

Sci. Soc' vnr. xli.-liii. 1916. 

Section M. — -Agriculture. 

Dudgeon, Miss E. C. Electro-Culture ; with Brief Account of some Experiments 
, conducted at Lincluden Mains. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. 
Soc' iv- (Third Ser.) 88-96. 1916. 

Crossland, Charles. By T. S[heppard]. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 24-26. 1917. 
Drane, RonERT. By D. R. Patterson. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' XLVin. 1-4. 1916. 
Galitzin, Prince Boris. By Otto Klotz. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada.' 

x. 382-383. 1916. 
Johnstone, Thos. Scott. By F. H. D. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 110-111. 1917. 
King, Dr. W. F. By J. S. Plaskett. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' x. 267- 

274. 1916. 
Lowell, Percival. By Frank W. Very. ' Journal Royal Astr. Soc. of Canada,' 

xi. 3-4. 1917. 
Massee, George. By T. S[heppard]. ' The Naturalist for 1917,' 139-142. 1917. 
Nelson, T. H. Py R. F. ' The Naturalist for 1916,' 404-405 1916. 
Reid, Clement. Bv T. S[heppard]. ' The Naturalist for 1917.' 26-2". 1917. 
Selbie, Colin M. By J. N. Halbert. ' Irish Naturalist,' xxv. 137-138. 1916. 
Thomas, Thomas Henry. By John Ballinger. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xlviii. 

5-16. 1916. 
Tiddeman, R. H. By T. S[heppard]. 'The Naturalist for 1917,' 142-143. 1917. 




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The Relative Progress of the Coal-tar Industry in England and Germany during the 

past Fifteen Years, by Arthur G. Green, 1901, Qd. 
The Methods for the Determination of Hydrolytic Dissociation of Salt Solutions, by 

R. C. Farmer, 1901, Qd. 
The Application of the Equilibrium Law to the Separation of Crystals from Complex 

Solutions and to the Formation of Oceanic Salt Deposits, by Dr. E. Frankland 

Armstrong, 1901, Is. 
Our Present Knowledge of Aromatic Diazo-compounds, by Dr. Gilbert Thomas Morgan, 

1902, Qd. 

The Present Position of the Chemistry of Rubber, by S. S. Pickles, 1906, Qd. 

The Present Position of the Chemistry of Gums, by H. Robinson, 1906, 3d. 

The Sensitiveness of Indicators, by H. T. Tizard, 1911, 3d. 

Diffusion in Solids, by Dr. C. H. Desch, 1912, 3d. 

Solubility, by J. Vargas Eyre, Ph.D. Part I., 1910, Is. ; Part II., 1913, Is. 

Report oh the Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds, 

1916, Is. 
First Report on Colloid Chemistry and its Industrial Applications, 1917, 2s. 

Report on the Character of the High-level Shell-bearing Deposits at Clava, Chapelhall, 

and other Localities, 1893, Qd. 
Fourth Report on the Erosion of the Sea Coast of England and Wales, 1895, 9d. 
Report on the Changes in the Sea Coast, 1903, Is. 
Report on the Structure of Crystals, 1901, Is. 


Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks, 1901, Gd. ; 1902, Qd. ; 

The Formation of ' Rostro-Carinate ' Flints, by Professor W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., 1913, 3d. 
Missing Links among Extinct Animals, by Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 1913, 3rf. 

Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, Is. 

Digest of Observations on the Migration of Birds, made at Lighthouses, by W. Eagle 

Clarke, 1896, Gd. 
Report on the Migratory Habits of the Song-thrush and the White Wagtail, by W. 

Eagle Clarke, 1900, Gd. 
Report on the Migratory Habits of the Skylark and the Swallow, by W. Eagle Clarke, 

1901, Gd. 

Report on the Migratory Habits of the Fieldfare and the Lapwing, by W. Eagle Clarke , 

1902, Gd. 

Report on the Migratory Habits of the Fieldfare and the Lapwing, by W. Eagle Clarke, 

1903, Gd. 

Melanism in Yorkshire Lepidoptera, by G. T. Porritt, 1906, Gd. 

Report on the Biological Problems incidental to the Belmullet Whaling Station, 1912, 

3d. ; 1914, Is. 
On the Phylogeny of the Carapace, and on the Affinities of the Leathery Turtlo, 

Dermochelys coriacea, by Dr. J. Versluys, 1913, Gd. 

On the Regulation of Wages by means of Lists in the Cotton Industry :— Spinning, 
2s. ; Weaving, la. 

Report on Future Dealings in Raw Produce, 1900, Gd. 

Report on Women's Labour, 1903, Gd. 

Report on the Accuracy and Comparability of British and Foreign Statistics of Inter- 
national Trade, 1904, Gd. 

Report on the Amount and Distribution of Income (other than Wages) below the 
Income-tax Exemption Limit in the United Kingdom, 1910, Qd. 

Report on the Effects of the War on Credit, Currency, and Finance, 1915, Qd. 

Report on the Question of Fatigue from the Economic Standpoint, 1915, Gd. ; 1!»10, Gd. 

Report on Outlets for Labour after the War, 1915, Gd. 

Second Report on the Development of Graphic Methods in Mechanical Science, 1892, 1 1. 

Report on Planimeters, by Prof. O. Henrici, F.R.S., 1894, U. 

Second Report on a Gauge for Small Screws, 1884, reprinted 1895, Gd. 

Report on giving practical effect to the Introduction of the British Association Screw 
Gauge, 1896, Gd. ; 1901, Gd. ; 1903, Gd. 

Report on Proposed Modification of the Thread of the B.A. Screw, 1900, Gd. 

Report on the Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction, 1901, 3d. 

The Road Problem, by Sir J. H. A. Macdonald, 1912, 3d. 

Standardisation in British Engineering Practice, by Sir John Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 
1906, 3d. 

Report on the Investigation of Gaseous Explosions, with special reference to Tem- 
perature, 1909, Gd. ; 1910, 3d. ; 1912, 3d. 

Gaseous Combustion, by William Arthur Bone, D.Sc, F.R.S., 1910, Gd. 

Tho Present Position of Electric Steel Melting, by Professor A. McWilliam, 1911, 3d. 


Discussion on the Proper Utilisation of Coal, and Fuels derived therefrom, 1913, Gd. 
Liquid, Solid, and Gaseous Fuels for Power Production, by Professor F. W. Burstall, 
1913, 3d. 

Report on the Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom, 1893, Gd. ; 1894, Gd. 
Report on Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles, 1906, Is. ; 1907, 3d. 
Fifth to Twelfth Reports on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, 1889, Is. ; 1890, 
25. Gd. ; 1891, Is. ; 1892, Is. ; 1894, Gd. ; 1895, Is. Gd. ; 1896, Gd. ; 1898, 1*. Gd. 
Report on the Ethnological Survey of Canada, 1899, Is. Gd. ; 1900, Is. Gd. ; 1902, Is. 
Report on Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the Highlands of Scotland, 1912, 3d. 
Report on the Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete, 1910, Gd. ; 1912, Gd. 
Report on Physical Characters of the Ancient Egyptians, 1914, Gd. 

The Claim of Sir Charles Bell to the Discovery of Motor and Sensory Nerve Channels 
(an Examination of the Original Documents of 1811-1830), by Dr. A. D. Waller, 
F.R.S., 1911, Gd. 

Heat Coagulation of Proteins, by Dr. Chick and Dr. Martin, 1911, 3d. 

The Influence of the Universities on School Education, by the Right Rev. John 
Percival, D.D., Lord Bishop of Hereford, 1901, 3d. 

Report on the Curricula of Secondary Schools, 1907, 3d. 

Report on Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education, 1910,3d. ; 1911, 3d. ; 
1912, 3d. 

Report on the Influence of School Books upon Eyesight, 1913 (Second Edition 
revised), 4d. 

Report on the number, distribution, and respective values of Scholarships, Exhibi- 
tions, and Bursaries held by LTniversity students during their undergraduate 
course, and on funds private and open available for their augmentation, 1913, 3d. 

Report on the best means for promoting Scientific Education in Schools, 1867, 6rf. 

Report on the Sequence of Studies in the Science Section of the Curriculum of Secondary 
Schools, 1908, 3d. 

Second Report on the present Methods of Teaching Chemistry, 1889, 6ci. 

Report on the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics, 1902, 3d. 

Report on the Teaching of Botany in Schools, 1903, 3d. 

Report on the Position of Geography in the Educational System of the Country, 1897, 

Report on Geographical Teaching in Scotland, 1913, 3d. 

Interim Report on the Popularisation of Science through TuMie Lectures, 191 G, Gd. 

Report on Science Teaching in Secondary Schools, 1917, Is. 

Discussion on Agriculture and Science, Ipswich, 1895, 3d. 

The Development of Wheat Culture in North America, by Professor A. P. Brigham, 
1909, 3d. 

A number of shorter Reports, etc , for recent years, in addition to the above, are also 
available in separate form ; inquiries should be addressed to the Office.