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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



EIGHTY^SEVENTH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 








BOURNEMOUTH: 1919 



SEPTEMBER 9—13 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1920 

Office of the Associaiwn : Burliiigioti House, London, W . t. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Officers and Council, 1919-1920 Hi 

bules of the british association v 

Tables : Past Annual Meetings : ^'■ 

Trustees, General Officers, &c. (1831-1919) xxi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries (1901-1916) xxii 

Evening Discourses (1901-1916) xxxi 

Public Lectures (1912-1916) xxxii 

Chairmen, Presidents, and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates 

(1901-1916) xxxiii 

Grants for Scientific Purposes (1901-1918) xxxiv 

Bournemouth Meeting (1919) : 

General Meetings xlii 

Sectional Officers xliii 

Officers of Conference of Delegates xliv 

Eepoet of the Council to the General Committee (1918-1919) xlv 

Report of the Council on the Working of the Association xlix 

General Treasurer's Account (1918-1919) liv 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, and Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1919) Ivi 

Analysis of Attendances Iviii 

Research Committees (1919-20) Ix 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxi 

Gaird Fund Ixxii 

Resolutions referred to the Council Ixxiii 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso Ixxv 

Public Lectures in Bournemouth Ixxv 

* Particulars for Early Meetings not furnished in the following Tables will 
be found in Volumes for 1911 and previous years. 

a2 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Address by the President, the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, K.C.B., 

F.R.S 3 

Reports on the State op Science, &c 27 

Transactions of the Sections : 

A. — Mathematical and Physical Science 1 35 

B.— Chemistry 161 

C— Geology 172 

D.— Zoology 199 

E.— Geography 212 

F, — Economic Science and Statistics 232 

G. — Engineering 256 

H. — Anthropology 275 

I . — Physiology 294 

K.— Botany 316 

L.— Education 342 

M. — Agriculture 364 

Oommunications printed in extenso 385 

Etening Discourses 416 

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee and of the 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 422 

Report of Committee on Stress Distribution 465 

List of Publications 496 

Index 501 

List of Members 98 pages 



LIST OF PLATES. Facing 

Plate page 

I., 11. Illustrating Report on Determination of Gravity at Sea b3 

III. Illustrating the Geographical Factor in Mimicry (Address to 

Section D) 204 

IV. Illustrating Paper on the Measurement of Emotion 307 

V. I 1 468 

Yjj r Illustrating Report on Stress Distribution . „_ 

Vlli. ' ' 489 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1919-20. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



PRESIDENT. 
The Hon-. Sm CHARLES A. PARSONS, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



Their Worships the Mayors of Bourkemodth, 

Christchurch, and Poole. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op Winchester. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbdry. 
The Most Noble the Marquess of Salisbury, 

K.Ct., G.C.V.O. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Shaptesbuhy, 

K.C.V.O., K.P. 
The Right Hon. Che Earl op Malmksbury, M.A., 

D.L., J.P. 
The Right Hon. the EARL OP NORTHBROOK. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl op Sklborne, K.G., 

G.C.M.G., P.O., D.C.L., LL.D., J.P. 



The Right Hon. Lord Wimborxe, P.O. 
Field-Marshal Lord Grenfkll, P.O., G.O.B., 

G.O.M.G. 
Brigadier-General the Right Hon. J. E. B. Seely, 

P.O., 0..B., C.M.G., D.S.O., M.P. 
The Right Hon. Sir William Mather, P.O., LL.D. 

J.P. 
Sir E. RAY La.vkestkr, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Sir Daniel Morris, K.O.M.G., M.A., D.Sc., D.C.L. 

LL.D. 
Sir Mertox Russell Cotes, J.P., F.R.G.S. 
Arthur Ransome, Esq., M.A., M.D., P.R.S. 
ALEX. Hill, Esq., O.B.E., M.A., M.D. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor W. A. Herdmas, C.B.B., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Lord M.^yor of Cardiff 

(Councillor G. F. Forsdike, J.P.). 
The Most Noble the Marquis of Bote. 
The Right Hon. the Earl op Plysiouth, P.O. 

(Lord-Lieatenant of the County of Glamorgan). 
Major-Gen. the Right Hon. Lord Treowes, O.B., 

C.M.G. (Lord-Lieutenant of the County of 

Monmoutli}. 
The Right Hon. Lord Aberdare, D.L. 
The Right Hon. Lord Pontypridd, D.L. 



The Right Hon Lord Tredegar, D.L. 

E. H. Griffiths, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Sir J. Herbert Ooby, Bart., M.P. 

Principal A. H. Trow, D.Sc. (Principal of Uni. 

versity College of S. Wales and Monmouthshire ; 

President. Cardiff Naturalists' Society). 
J. Dyer Lewis (President, South Wales Institute 

of Engineers). 
R. 0. Sanderson (President, Cardiff Chamber of 

Commerce). 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.O.L., F.E.S. | Professor J. L. Myrbs, M.A., F.S.A. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. HowABTH, O.B.B., M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 

H. C. Stewaedson, Burlington House, London, W. 1. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Armstrong, Dr. E. F. 
Bone, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Clerk, Sir Duoald, F.R.S. 
Dendy, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Dixry, Dr. P. A., F.R.S. 
DYSON,Sir F. W.,F.R.S. 
Fowler, Professor A., F.R.S. • 
Gregory, Sir R. A. 
Grii-iths, Dr. E. H., F.R.S. 
Hadpield, Sir R., Bart., F.H.S. 
Harmer, Sir S. F., F.R.S. 
Jeans, J. H., F.R.S., K.B.E. 



Keith, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Keltie, Sir J. Scott. 
KlRKALDY, Professor A. W. 
Morris, Sir D., K.O.M.G. 
Perkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Rivers, Dr. W. H. R., F.E.S. 
Russell, Dr. E. J., O.B.E., F.R.S. 
Saunders, Miss E. R. 
Scott, Professor W. R. 
Starling, Professor B. H., F.R.S. 
Strahan, Sir Aubrey, F.E.S. 
Whitaker, W., F.R.S. 
WooD(TARD, Dr. A. Smith, F.R.S. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 



LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT CARDIFF. 

Archibalb Brown. | sir Thomas E. Watson. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT CARDIFF. 
Cecil G. Shown, Town Clerk of Cardiff. 
W. Evans Hotlb, M.A.., D.Sc. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vioe-Preaidents for the year the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present Ueneral Treasurers and General Secretaries.'past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., P.R.S., P.R.A.S. 
Sir Arthur Evans, M.A., LL.D., P.R.S., P.S.A. 

PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir A. Geikle, K.O.B., O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, F.R.S. 
Sir NortnanLockyer,K.C.B.,P.R.S 
Arthur J. Balfour, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir E.Ray Lankester,K.O.B., F.R.S. 



Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 

Sir J.J.Thomsou,O.M.,Pres.R.S. Professor W. Bateson F.R S 

Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. Sir Arthur Schuster F R S 

Sir B. Sharpey Schafer, P.R.S. Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. I Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. I Major P. A, MacMahon. F.R S 

Sir B. Sharpey Schafer, F.R.S. | Dr. J. G. Garson. | Professor W. A. Herdman, C.B.E.. 

P.R.S. 
HON. AUDITORS. 
Sir Edward Brabrook.C.B. | Professor A. Bowlbv. 



KULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted by the Geiieral Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
with subsequent amendments.'] 



Chapter I. 
Objects and ConstittUion, 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects, 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members and Constitution. 
Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Ofi&cers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings. 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Memhers — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



Admission. 



Meetifigs. 



Functions. 



Vi RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

{d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 
number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall — 

(i) Receive and consider the Report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the Report of the Committee 
of Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the Officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 



I 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. Vll 

Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations, 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution, 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the President of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions, 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble. Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909, and 
Manchester, 1915. 



vm 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter IV, 
Research Committees. 

Procedure. 1- Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 

money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee to conduct research or administer a grant in aid of 
research, and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; 
and the Committee of Recommendations may include such 
recommendation in their Report to the General Committee. 

Such Research Committee shall be composed of Members 
of the Association, provided that it shall be competent for the 
General Committee to appoint, or for a Research Committee to 
co-opt, as an assessor or consultative member, any per.son, not 
being a Member of the Association, whose assistance may be 
regarded as of special importance to the research undertaken.* 

Constitution. 2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 

proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

Tenure 4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 

If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

Reports. 5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 

whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 

that at which it was appointed or reappointed, and may in the 

* Amended by the General Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1916. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. IX 

meantime present a Report through a Sectional Organising 
Committee to the Council.* Interim Reports, whether in- 
tended for publication or not, must be submitted in writing. 
Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain whether a Report 
has been made by each Research Committee appointed on their 
recommendation, and shall report to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations on or before the Monday of the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money grants 

has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call (."') Drawn by 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 
as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (ft) Expire on 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not ^°® 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before (c) Accounts, 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of fnd balance 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains un- 
expended ; provided that a Research Committee may, in the 
first year of its appointment only, apply for leave to retain 
an unexpended balance when or before its Report is presented, 
due reason being given for such application.f 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- id) Addi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and tio^al Grant. 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
• Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with suras of money Disposal of 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their specimens, 

fi nTi3,r3.L us 

Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens &c. 
thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 

' Amended by the General Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1916. 
t Amended by the General Committee at Dundee, 1912. 



X 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



Chapter V. 
The Council. 

Constitution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 



THE COUNCIL. XI 

The Council sliall have power to appoint and dismiss Elections, 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same 
time as that of the OflBcers of the Association. 

(1) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 
(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 
(6) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 
London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth, 
(ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
Members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five Members at least require it to be by ballot. 

Chapter VI. 

The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. "®'^*- 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. Officers. 



Xli 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Olficers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

.3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial aSairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the Genera] Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
rovitine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 
June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 



FINANCE. XIU 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinai-y pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable. Cheques. 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his ofiBce, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General ^°°^^ 0®" 
Omcers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and Committees, 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members, and to receive 
subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections, 

Chapter IX. 

The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- Thh 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time Sections. 
to time by the General Committee. 



XIV 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Kooms. 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Go-optation. 



Additional 
Vice-Presi- 
dents. 



Executive 
Functions 



It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office, 
(ii) All past Presidents of that Section, 
(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 
Provided always that— 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 



(b) 



that Committee at their first meeting. 



A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members, 
(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 
5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 
be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
.Tiittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 



THE WORE OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be al)solute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- and of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed retui-ns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 
the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and may at any such 
meeting resolve to present a report to the Council upon any 
matter of interest to the Section,* and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt o™™i ^^• 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted ^P°' ^' 
on its Minutes. 

Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- Kecommen- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding Nations. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 191 6. 



XVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Publication. 



Copyright. 



Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Committee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports of 
Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere than in 
the Annual Report without the express sanction of the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the Reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members* 

ApplicafcioBs. 1. No technical qualification shall be required on the 

part of au applicant for admission as a Member of the 
British Association ; but the Council is empowered, in the 
event of special circumstances arising, to impose suitable 
conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

Obligations. Every person admitted as a Member shall conform to 

the Rules and Regulations of the Association, and for any 
infringement thereof shall be liable to exclusion by the 
Council, who have also authority, if they think it necessary, 
to withhold from any person tlie privilege of attending any 

* Ameuded by the General Committee, 1908, 1918, 1919. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. XVU 

Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of admission already 
issued. 

If it appears to the Council that it is not desirable that a Expulsion, 
person shall continue to be a Member of the Association, 
the Council shall direct the General Secretaries to ascertain 
whether that person is willing to resign his membership. 

If that person do not, within a time to be fixed by the 
Council, either resign or appeal in writing to the General 
Committee, the Council may declare such person to be no 
longer a Member. Upon the appeal, the General Committee 
may make the like declaration by a majority of two-thirds of 
those present and voting. 

The Council shall also have power to refuse any application 
for membership. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

2. All Members, except as hereafter provided, are eligible Conditions 

to any office in the Association. and Privileges 

(i) Every Life Member hereafter admitted shall pay, on g^ip 

admission, the sum of Fifteen Pounds, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of One Pound, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

(iii) University and other Students and Teachers, 
vouched for by the Local Executive Committee as 
resident or working in the locality where the 
Annual Meeting takes place, may obtain ' students' 
tickets ' for the Meeting on payment of 10s. 
Holders of such tickets shall not be entitled to any 
pi'ivilege beyond attendance at the Annual Meeting. 

(iv) Transferable tickets, admitting one person to any 
meeting or function during the Annual Meeting, 
shall be issued at the price of £1 5s. Holders of 
such tickets shall not be entitled to any privilege 
beyond such admission. No other tickets issued 
by the Association shall be transferable. 

3. Honorary Corresponding Members may be appointed Correspond- 
by the General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. i°& Members. 
They shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual Annual Sub- 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may scriptions. 

B 



XVlll 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Meeting 



make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

(i) Every Life Member, whether admitted before or after 
the adoption of these Rules,shall be entitled to receive 
g'raiiSjOn demand, the Annual Eeports of the Associa- 
tion issued in and after the year of admission 

(ii) Annual Members attending an Annual 

shall be entitled to obtain the Report of that 
Meeting for an additional payment of 10s. made 
before or during the Annual Meeting, or of 12s. 6cl. 
made after the Annual Meeting within a period 
not extending beyond the close of the financial 
year (June 30). 

Provided that Annual Members who have paid 
the annual subscription of £1 without intermission 
from a date anterior to September 14, 1919, and con- 
tinue to do so, shall be entitled to receive the Annual 
Report, on demand, without further payment. 

(iii) Annual Members who pay the annual subscription 
of £1, but do not attend the Annual Meeting, shall 
be entitled to receive the Annual Report, on 
demand, without further payment. 

(iv) Holders of Students' or transferable tickets shall not 
be entitled to receive the Annual Report on the 
teims above stated, 
(v) Subject to any statutory rights, or other considera- 
tions in the discretion of the Council, libraries and 
institutions shall be entitled to purchase the Annual 
Volume at a subscription rate of 12s. 6d. per annum. 

(vi) The publication price of the Annual Report shall be 

£1 5s. 
(vii) Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the 
Council. 

Chapter XI. 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 
Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 
1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES. XIX 



(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become 
Members of the British Association, and shall have 
all the rights of Delegates appointed by the 
Affiliated Societies, except that of membership of 
the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 
be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
•June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 
papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society .shall forward every year 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1,* such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies dui-ing the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- 
tute a Conference, of which the President,* Vice-President,* 

• Amended by the General Committee at Manchester, 1915. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Applications. 



CORKE- 

sponding 
Societies 
Committee. 



Procedure. 



CONFEHENCE 

OP Dele- 
gates. 

B 2 



XX RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex ojficio members of the Conference. 
P'"o^°e^^^'^eand ^-^ T^g Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by 

the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during 
each Annual Meeting of the Association, and shall 
be empowered to invite any Member to take part 
in the discussions. 
(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee, 
(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect, 
(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves 
familiar with the purport of the several recommen- 
dations brought before the Conference, in order that 
they may be able to bring such recommendations 
adequately before their respective Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 

Chapter XII. 
Amendments and New Rules. 
Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



XXI 



TRUSTEES, GENERAL OFFICERS, &c., 1831-1919. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Murchison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 
1872- j Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (after- 
1913 \ wards Lord Avebury), F.R.S. 

GENERAL 
Jonathan Gray, Esq. 



TRUSTEES. 

1881- 



1883- 
1883- 

1898- 
1913 
1915- 
1919- 



83 W. SPOTTiswoODE,Esq.,Pres.R.S. 

-1919 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 

98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfair, F.R.S. 
1915 Prof.(Sir) A.W.RiJCKER.F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
19 Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
■ Sir A. Evans, F.R.S. 



1831 

1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



TREASURERS. 

1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Rucker, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 



35 



36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Vernon Harcodrt, 

Vfrnon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1837- 

1839- 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 
1866- 



1868-71 



Vernon Harcourt, 

F.R.S., and R. I. Murchison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S,, 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq.. F.R.S, 

66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

68 F. Galton, Esq., F.K.S., and 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 
T. Thomson, F.R.S. 



1871-72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, y.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G.Vernon Harcourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G.Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S. 
1897- / Prof. Schafer, F.R.S., and Sir 

1900 \ W.C.ROBERTS-AUSTEN,F.R.S. 

1900-02 Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. ScoTT, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
1903-13 Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 
1913-19 Prof. W. A. Hebdman, F.R.S., 

and Prof. H.H.Turner, F.R.S. 
1919- Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S., 

and Prof. J. L. Myres. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq.. M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Garson, Esq., M.D. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 



1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. 
1904-09 A. SiLVA White, Esq. 



1909- O. J. R. Howarth. Esq., M.A. 



xxii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAEIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 

1901-1916. 

(The List of Sectional Officers for 1919 will be found on p. xliii.) 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(jR<?c. = Recorder) 



SECTION A.'— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 
190-t. Cambridge 

1905." SouthAfrica 
York 



1906, 
1907. 

1908. Dublin .... 



Leicester 



1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



Winnipeg 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 



1913. Birmingham 



1914. Australia. 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— DeiJ- of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— i5e/>. 
of Astronomy and Meteoro- 
logy, Dr. W.N. Shaw, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— 5?/*- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Principal B. F.Griffiths.F.R.S. 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 



Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S..., 



Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S... 



Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. H. L. Callendai-, F.R.S. 



Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. T. Trouton, F.R.S. 



H. S. Carslaw, C. H.Lees (^Rec), W. 
Stewart, Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees (Bee), Prof. 
W. B. Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees 
(Rec), .1. Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees (Rec), Dr. W. J. S. 

Lockyer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 

Whetham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees 

(Rec). 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 

A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter 

{Ree.),}i. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter (Rec). 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 
Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A. 
McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter 
{Rec), Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 

Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 
Torter (^Ree.), Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 

H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter (Rec). 
H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Prof. A. W. 

Porter (Rec), P. A. Yapp. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Heywood, R. Norrie, Prof. A. W. 

Porter (Rec), W. G. Robson, 

F. J. M. Stratton. 

Prof. P. V. Bevan (Rec), Prof. A. S. 
Eddington, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 
Heywood, Dr. A. O. Rankine, Dr. 

G. A. Shakespear. 

Prof. A. S. Eddington (Rec), 
E. Gold, Prof. T. R. Lyle, F.R.S., 
Prof. S. B. McLaren, Prof. J. A. 
Pollock, Dr. A. O. Rankine. 



' Section A was constituted under this title in 1835, when the sectional division 
was introduced. The previous division was into ' Committees of Sciences.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). Xxiii 



Date and Place 



1915. Manchester 



Presidents 



Sir F. W. Dyson, F.R.S. 



1916. Newcastle Prof. A. N. Whitehead, F.R.S 



Secretaries 
(JRec. = Recorder) 



Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S. 

(i?6'f.), E. Gold, Dr. W. Makower, 

Dr. A. O. Rankine. 
C. M. Gaunt, Prof. A. S. Eddington, 

F.R.S. (Rcc), H. R. Hass6, Dr. W. 

Makower, Dr. A. 0. Rankine. 



SECTION B.2— CHEMISTRY. 



1901, 
1902. 

1903. 

1904, 



Glasgow .. 
Belfast 



Southport 
Cambridge 



1905. SouthAfrica 



1906. 



1907. 



York 

Leicester . . . 



1908. Dublin , 



1909. Winnipeg.. 

1910. Sheffield .. 



Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc. 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S..., 



George T. Beilby 



1911. 


Portsmouth 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


1913. 


Birmingham 


1914. 


Australia... 


1915. 


Manchester 


1916. 


Newcastle 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S, 



J. E. Stead, F.R.S 



Swh-section of Agriculture- 

A. D. Hall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S 



Prof. A. Senier, M.D 

Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Bone, F.R.S. .., 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, F.R.S. 



W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 
W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose (Bee). 

R. F. Blake, M. 0. Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope 
(Bee). 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope 
(Eec). 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. 
W. J. Pope (Bee). 

W. A. Caldecott, Mr. M. 0. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson (Rec), C. F. 
Juritz. 

Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope 
(Bee.). 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley (Bee), J. H. Hawthorn, 
Dr. F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Bee), Dr. A. 
McKenzie, Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. 
J. H. Pollock. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. 
T. M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, 
J. W. Shipley. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Bee), Dr. 
T. M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, 
W. E. S. Turner. 

Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. 

E. J. Russell. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Bee), Dr. 

F. Beddow, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Bee), Dr. 

C. H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. 

J. K. Wood. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Bee), Dr. 

C. H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. H. 

McCombie. 
D. Avery, Prof. C. Fawsitt, Dr. A. 

Holt (Bee), Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 
Dr. H. F. Coward, Dr. C. H. Desch, 

Dr. A. Holt (Bee). 
Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt (Bee), 

Prof. R. Robinson,Dr.J.A. Smythe. 



' Chemistry and Mineralogy,' 1835-1894. 



XXiv PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Bee. = Recorder) 



1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast... 



SECTION 0.3 -GEOLOGY 

John Home, F.R.S 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester. 

1908. Dublin.... 



1909. Winnipeg 

1910. Sheffield , 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 

1916. Newcastle 



Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 

Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... 

A. Harker, F.R.S 

Dr. B.N. Peach, F.R.S 

Prof. E. J. Garwood, M.A. ... 
Prof. Sir T. H. Holland, F.R.S. 
Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole . . . 



Prof. W. S. Boulton 



H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

(Rec). 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

(Bec.% J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. 

Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton (Bee). 
H. L. Bowman {Bee.}, Rev. W. L. 

Carter, J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman (Reo.'), J. Lomas, Dr. 

Molengraaff, Prof. A. Young, Prof. 

R. B. Young. 
H. L. Bowman (Ren.), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas (.Kw.). 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas (Rec), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Sey- 
mour. 
W. L. Carter (^^c), Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 

house, R. T. Hodgson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter (ffee.). Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 

house, B. Hobson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter {Rec), 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. 8. 

H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. B. Boulton, A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Rec.'), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. R. 

Dwerryhouse {Ree.), F. Raw, 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Rec), B. F. 

Pittman, Prof. S. H. Reynolds, 

Prof. B. W. Skeats. 
W. Lower Carter (Reo.), Dr. W. T. 

Gordon, Dr. G. Hickling, Dr. 

D. M. S. Watson. 
W. Lower Carter (Rec), Dr. W. T. 

Gordon, Dr. G. Hickling, Dr. D. 

Woolacott. 



SECTION D."— ZOOLOGY 

1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast iProf. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 

1903. Southport [Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. J. G. Kerr (Rec), J. Rankin, J. Y. 

! Simnson. 



Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 
Simpson (Rec). 

Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, 
A. Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson 
(Rea.), Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 



• Geology and Geography,' 1835-1850. 

' Zoology and Botany,' 1835-1847 ; 'Zoology and Botany, including Physiology,' 
1848-1865 ;• Biology,' 1866-1894. e, J bj< 



4 I ' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). 



XXV 



Date and Place 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester . 

1908. Dublin.... 

1909. Winnipeg. 

1910. Sheffield . 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 

1916. Newcastle 



Presidents 



William Bateson, F.R.S. 

G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 
J. J. Lister, F.R.S 



Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A 

Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S... 
Dr. A. B. Shipley, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. 

Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, 

C.B. 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 

F.R.S. 

Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Dendy, F.R.S 

Prof. B. A. Minchin, F.R.S.... 



Secretaries 
(ffec. = Recorder) 



Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson {Rec.'), Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Prof. J. Y. 

Simpson {Ii.eo.),V)r. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxlcy Grabham, Dr. H.W. M. Tims 

{Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

B. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

{Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

iRec). 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

{Rec.'). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

{Bee). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 

Laurie, Dr. H. W. M. Tims {Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, R. D. Laurie, 

Miss D. L. Mackinnon, Dr 

H. W. M. Tims {Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. C. L. 

Boulenger, R. D. Laurie, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims {Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. T. S. Hall, 

Prof. W. A. Haswell, R. D. Laurie, 

Prof. H. W. Marett Tims {Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth {Rec), F. 

Balfour Browne, R. D. Laurie, 

Dr. J. Stuart Thomson. 



Prof, B. W. MacBride, F.R.S. | Dr. J. H. Ashworth {Rec), R. A. H. 

Gray, R. D. Laurie. 

SECTION E.5— GEOGEAPHY. 



1901. Glasgow ... \)c. H. U. Mill, F.U.G.S 

i 

1902. Belfast Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 



1903. Southport... Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
I F.R.S. 



1904. Cambridge 



Douglas W, Freshfield. 



1905. SouthAfrica I Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 

R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

1906. York !Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 

I K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



H. N. Dickson {Rec), E. Heawood, 
G. Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. 
Lindsay. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. 
Underwood. 

B. Heawood (a?<i.), Dr. A. J. Herbert- 
son, H. Y. Oldham, B. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson {Rec), H. Y. 
Oldham. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, B. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 



' Section E was that of ' Anatomy and Medicine,' 1835 ; of ' Medical Science, 
1836-44 ; of Physiology ' (afterwards incorporated in Section D), 1844-1817. It was 
assigned to ' Geography and Ethnology,' 1851-1S68 ; 'Geography,' 1869. 



XXvi PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). 



Date and Place 



1907. Leicester 

1908. Dublin... 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 

1915. Manchester 

1916. Newcastle 



Presidents 



George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... 

Major E. H. Hills, CM.G., 

R.E. 
Col. SirD. Johnston,K.C.M.G., 

G.B., R.E. 
Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M.A., 

Ph.D. 
Col. C. F. Close, R.E., CM.G. 

Col. Sir C. M. Watson, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof. H. N. Dickson, D.Sc. ... 



Sir C. P. Lucas, K.C.B., 

K.C.M.G. 
Major H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. ... 



E. A. Reeves 



Secretaries 
(Reo. = Recorder) 



B. Heawood (Bee.), 0. J. R. How- 
arth, E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 

W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. P. 
Howarth {Jtec), E. A. Reeves. 

G. G. Chisholm (Rec), J. McFar- 
lane, A. Mclntyre. 

Rev. W. J. Barton (Ree.), Dr. R. 
Brown, J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

J. McFarlane (Rec), E. A. Reeves, 
W. F. Smith. 

Rev. W. J. Barton (Rec.), J. McFar- 
lane, E. A. Reeves, D. Wylie. 

Rev. W. J. Barton (Rec), P. E. Mar- 
tineau, J. McFarlane, E.A.Reeves. 

J. A. Leach, J. McFarlane, H. Yule 
Oldham (Ree.), F. Poate. 

Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, J. 
McFarlane (Bee). 

Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, J. Mc- 
Farlane (Rec), H. Shaw, B. C. 
Wallis. 



SECTION F.6— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

1901. Glasgow ... Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S 



1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 

1901. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 



B. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc. 

A. L. Bowley, M.A 

Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A 

W. M. Acworth, M.A 



Sub-seotion of Agriculture — 
Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
1909. Winnipeg... Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 



1910. Sheffield 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee , 



Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, 

K.C.B., M.A. 
Hon. W. Pember Reeves 

Sir H. H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. 



W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan (Rec), S. J. Chapman. 
A, L. Bowley {Rec), Prof. S. J. 

Chapman, Dr. A. Duffin. 
A. L. Bowley (Rec), Prof. S. J. 

Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. 

Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley (Rec), 

Prof. S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. 

Ginsburg. 
R. k Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley (Rec), 

Prof. H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. 

Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman (Rec), D. H. 

Macgregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman (Rec), D. H. 

Macgregor, H. O. Meredith, T. S. 

Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man (Rec), Prof. D. H. Macgre- 
gor, H. O. Meredith. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 

Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han. Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec). 
C. R. Fay, H. 0. Meredith (Rec), 

Dr. W. B. Scott, R. Wilson. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec), 

H. A. Stibbs. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Bee), E. 

Tosh. 



• ' Statistics,' 1835-1855. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP SECTIONS (1901-16). XXVlI 



Date and Place 



1913. Birmingham 



1914. Australia... 



Presidents 



Prof. E. C. K. Gonner . 



1915. Manchester Prof. W. R. Soott 



1916. Newcastle 



Secretaries 
{Rec. = Recorder) 



Rev. P. H. Wicksteed, M.A. C. R. Fay, Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, 

Prof. H. 0. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 
Scott {Rsfl.). 
Prof. R. F. Irvine, Prof. A. W. 
Kirkaldy {Bee). G. H. Knibbs, 
Prof. H. 0. Meredith. 
B. Ellinger, E. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy {Rec). 

Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy iMiss Ashley (Mec), J. Gunnison, 

I C. R. Pay, Prof. H. M. Hallsworlh 
I E. J. W. Jackson. 



SECTION G.7— ENGINEERING. 



1901. Glasgow ... 



1902. 
1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 

1910. 
1911. 
1912. 

1913, 
1914. 

1915. 
I9I6. 



Belfast 
Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester . . . 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 

Sheffield .. 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 

Birmingham 
Australia ... 

Manchester 
Newcastle 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir C. Scott- Moncrieff, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.B. 
J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S. 
Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 

Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., 

D.Sc. 
Prof. A. Barr, D.Sc 



Prof. Gisbert Kapp.D.Eng. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc 



Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, F.R.S. 
G. G. Stoney, F.R.S 



H.Bamford,W. E. Dalby, W. A. Price 

(Rec). 
M. Barr, W. A. Price (Rec), J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price (Rec). 
J. B. Peace,W. T. Maccall, W. A.Price 

(Rec). 
W. T. Maccall,W. B. Marshall (Rec), 

Prof. H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price (Rec), 

J. Triffit. 
Prof. B. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W. A. Price (Rec), H. E.Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price (Rec), H. E. Wimperis. 

E. E. Brydone- Jack, Prof. E. G.Coker, 
Prof. E. W. Marchant. W. A. Price 
(Rec). 

F. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

H. Ashley, Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), A. R. Ful- 
ton, H. Richardson, A. A. Rowse, 
H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), J. Purser, 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe (Rec), Prof. 
H. Payne, Prof. W. M. Thornton, 
Prof. W. H. Warren. 

Dr. W. Cramp, J. Frith, Prof. 
G. W. 0. Howe (Rec). 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe (Rec), Prof. 
E. W. Marchant, Prof. W. M. 
Thornton. 



1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast 



SECTION H.»— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Prof. D. J. Cunningham, W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

F.R.S. Gemmill, J. L. Myres (Rec). 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres (Rec). 



■ Mechanical Science,' 1836-1900. 



« Established 1884. 



XXviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1903. Southport... Prof. J. Symington, F.E.S. 

1904. Cambridge I H. Balfour, M.A 



1905. South Africa 

1906. York 



Dr. A. C. HaddoD.F.R.S. 
E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. 



1907. Leicester .. D. G. Hogarth, M.A.... 



1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 



Prof. W, Ridgeway, M.A. ... 

Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A 

W. Orooke, B.A 

W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart. ... 



1914. Australia... Sir E. F. im Thurn, C.B., 

K.O.M.G. 

1915. Manchester jProf. C. G. Seligman 

1916. Newcastle Dr. R. R. Marett 



Secretaries 
(^Rec. = Recorder) 



E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres (Rec.'). 
W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres {Bee.'). 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 

Hartland (Rec). 
Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize 

(Reo.),H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. 

Shrubsall. 

C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize (Rec), 
H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrub- 
sail. 

E. N. Fallaize (Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. 
Steele 

H. S. Kingsford (Rec), Prof. C. J. 
Patten. Dr. F. 0. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize [Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Prof. C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, E. W. Martindell, H. Rundle, 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

D. D. Craig, E. N. Fallaize (Rec), E. 
W. Martindell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Rec), E. W. Martin- 
dell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, T. Yeates. 

Prof. R. J. A. Berry, Dr. B. Malin- 
owski, Dr. R. R. Marett (Rec), 
Prof. J. T. Wilson. 

E. N. Fallaize (Bee), Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall, J. S. B. Stopford. 

Rev. E. O. James, Dr F. S. Shrub- 
sall (Rec), B. P. Stibbe. 



SECTION 1.9— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 



1906. York. 



1907. Leicester... 



Prof .J. G. McKendrick, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. D. HaUiburton, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

Col. D. Bruce, O.B., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 



W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson (fl«c.). 
J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne 

(Rec), Dr. 0. Shaw. 
J. Barcroft (Rec), Prof. T. G. Brodie, 

Dr. L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft (Rec), Dr. Baumann, . 

Dr. Mackenzie, Dr. G. W. Robert- 
son, Dr. Stanwell. 
,1. Barcroft (Rec), Dr. J. M. Hamill, 

Dr. D. S. Long, Prof. J. S. Mac- 

donald. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft (Ree.), 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. 

Warner. 



Established 1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETArvIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). Xxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(Rec. = 'RecorAer) 



1908. Dublin. 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 

1916. Newcastle 



Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S.i 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 

Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 

Prof. W. M. Bayliss, F.R.S. 
Prof. A. R. Cushny, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. D. J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 
Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. H. E. 
Roaf (Bee). 
Dr. N.H. Alcock (.ff^c). Prof. P. T. 

Herring, Dr. W. Webster. 

Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 

Dr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (i?ec.),Dr. J. Tait. 

Dr. Keith Lucas, W. Moodie, Dr. 

H. B. Roaf (Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring, Dr. 
T. G. Maitland, Dr. H. E. Roaf 
(Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
Prof. P. T. Herring (Rec), Prof. 
T. H. Milroy, Prof. W. A. Osborne, 
Prof. Sir T. P. Anderson Stuart. 
C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring 
(Rec.), Dr. F. W. Lamb, Dr. J. 
Tait. 
C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring(iZec.), 
Prof. J. A. Menzies, 



SECTION K.'«— BOTANY. 



1901. Glasgow ... 



1902. 
1903. 
1904. 

1905. 
1906. 

1907. 
1908. 



Belfast ... 

Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 
York 



Leicester . . . 
Dublin 



1909. "Winnipeg... 



1910. 
1911. 



Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 



Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Sub-section of Agriculture— 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. .. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S... 



Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, CLE 
F.R.S. 

Sub-section of AgriculUi/re- 
Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc. 



D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott" 
Elliot, A. C. Seward (Bee), H- 
Wager. 
A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

H. Wager (Rec), R. H. Yapp. 
,H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager 

(Bee), R. H. Yapp. 
1 Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 
H. Wager (Bee), T. B. Wood, R. H. 
S Yapp. 

R. P. Gregory, Dr. Mario th, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp (Bee). 

Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley (Bee), Prof. R. H. 

Yapp. 

.jW. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

I Tansley (Bee), Prof. R. H. Yapp. 

.Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

! A. G. Tansley (Bee), Prof. R. H. 

Yapp. 
, I Prof. A. H. R. BuUer, Prof. D. T. 
Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. R. H. Yapp 
I (Bee). 
-|W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 
J. Wilson. 
I B, H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp (Bee). 
. 'C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
I Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp (Bee). 



'".^Established 1896. 



XXX PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-16). 



Date and Place 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 

1916. Newcastle 



Presidents 



Suh-section of Agrioulture- 

W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Keeble, D.Sc 



Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.S. 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Lang, F.R.S. ., 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S 



Secretaries 
(Rec. = Recorder) 



J. Golding, H.. R. Pink, Dr. B. J. 

Russell. 
J. Brebner, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 

Vaughan {Rec), Dr. C. E. Moss, 

D. Thoday. 
W. B. Grove, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 

Vaughan {Rec), Dr. C. E. Moss, 

D. Thoday. 

Prof. A. J. Ewart, Prof. T. Johnson 
{Ren.), Prof. A. A. Lawson, Miss 

E. N. Thomas. 

R. S. Adamson, Dr. C. E. Moss 
j {Rec), D. Thoday. 
JR. C. Davie, J. Small, D. Thoday 
{Bee), Dr. Ethel Thomas. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport .. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906 


York 


1907. 


Leicester ... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


1913. 


Birmingham 


1914. 


Australia . . . 


1915. 


Manchester 


1916. 


Newcastle 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S, 



Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 



Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 



Prof. L. 0. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H. B.Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 

D.D. 
Prof. J. Adams, M. A 



Principal E. H. Griffiths, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 



Mrs. Henry Sidgwick 
Rev. W. Temple 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers {Rec). 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Rec), R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins, Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Bee). Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. 

H. L. Snape. 
J. H. Flatber, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller {Rec), Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

Kimmins {Rec), J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory 

{Rec), J. S. Laver, Hugh Rich- 
ardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. L. 

Holland {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, O. Freeman, J. L. 

Holland {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
D. Berridge, Dr. J. Davidson, Prof. 

J. A. Green (Sfic), Hugh Richard- 
son. 
D. Berridge, Rev. S. Blofeld, Prof. 

J. A. Green {Rec), H. Richardson. 
P. Board, C. A. Buckmaster, Prof. 

J. A. Green {Bee), J. Smyth'. 
D. Berridge, F. A. Bruton, Prof. 

J, A. Green {Bee), H. Richard.<;on . 
D. Berridge, Prof . J. A. Green (J^^c), 

P. Sharp, Dr. E. H. Tripp. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



XXXI 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Eec. = Recorder) 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birminghain 

1914. Australia ... 



T. H. Middieton, M.A Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. A. 

Lauder, Dr. E. J. Kussell (Men.). 
..jW. E. CoUinge, Dr. C. Crowther, 
i J. Golding, Dr. B. J. Russell (Rec). 
...I Prof. T. Cherry, J. Golding (Mec), 

Dr. A. Lauder, Prof. R. D. Watt. 
.. Prof. C. Crowther (Ree.), Dr. A. 
I Lauder, T. J. Young. 

1916. Newcastle l Dr. E. J. Kussell jS. H. Collins, Prof. C. Crowther 

(Mec), Dr. A. Lauder. 



Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A. 
A. D.Hall, F.R.S 



1915. Manchester R. H. Rew, C.B. 



Date and Place 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport.., 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. S. Africa: 
Cape Town ... 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein 

Kimberley 



Bulawayo 
1906. York.. 



1908. Dublin , 



EVENING DISCOURSES, 1901-16. 

(For 1919, see General Meetings, p. xlii.) 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro 



Subject of Discourse 



Dr. A. Rowe 



Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 



1907. Leicester,.. 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 

H. T. Ferrar 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. O. Arnold 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 



A. R. Hinks 



Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. B. Porter 



D, Randall-Mad ver 

Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

W. Duddell, F.R.S 

Dr. F. A. Dixey 



Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. .. 
Prof. W. M. Davis 



The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palffiolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 
Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Palfeontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 

VV. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

The Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the ' Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 

The Ruins of Rhodesia. 

Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 



XXXll 



PUBLIC OR CITIZENS LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1909. Winnipeg.. 



Lecturer 



1910. 
1911. 

1912. 
1913. 

1914. 



1915. 
1916. 



Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 

Dundee . . . 
Birmingham 

Australia : 
Adelaide 

Melbourne 

Sydney ... 

Brisbane 

Manchester 
Newcastle 



Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
'Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 
' Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. H. Bragg, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. Keith, M.D 

SirH. H. Cunynghame,K.C.B. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W.J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. B. Ponlton, F.R.S.... 
Dr. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 
Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H.E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe 

SirE. A. Schiifer, F.R.S 

H. W. T. Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. R. A. Sampson, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. A. Bone, F.R.S 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movement. - 

New Discoveries about the Hittites. 

The Physiology of Submiarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 

Radiations, Old and New. 

The Antiquity of Man. 

Explosions in Mines and the Means 
of Preventing Them. 

Missing Links among Extinct 
Animals. 

The Ether of Space. 

Ancient Hunters. 

Mimicry. 

Greenwich Observatory. 

Primitive Man. 

Atoms and Electrons. 

The Materials of Life. 

Wireless Telegraphy. 

Australia and the British Associa- 
tion. 

The Behaviour of Plants in Re- 
sponse to Light. 

A Census of the Skies. 

Flame and Flameless Combustion. 

Evolution and the War. 



PUBLIC OE CITIZENS' LECTUEES, 1912-16. 

(For 1919, see p. Ixxv.) 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1912. Dundee ... 


Prof. B. Moore, D.Sc 


Science and National Health. 




Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 


Prices and Wages. 




Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S 


The Sun. 


1913. Birmingham 


Dr. A. C. HaddoD, F.R.S. ... 


The Decorative Art of Savages. 




Dr. Vaugban Cornish 


The Panama Canal. 




Leonard Doncaster, M.A. ... 


Recent Work on Heredity and its 
Application to Man. 




Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Metals under the Microscope. 




Frederick Soddy, F.R.S 


The Evolution of Matter. 


1914. Australia : 






Perth ... 


Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Why we Investigate the Ocean. 




Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S. 


Stars and their Movements. 




H. Balfour, M.A 


Primitive Methods of Making Fire. 




Prof. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. ... 


Electrical Action of the Human 
Heart. 



' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 
Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



CONFERENCES OF DELEGATES. 



XXXIU 



Date and Place 

Kalgoorlie 

Adelaide 

Melbourne 



Lecturer 



Subject of Lecture 



C. A. Buckmaster, M.A 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 

Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.ll.S. .. 

Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. .. 
Sydnej' ... Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 

Prof. H. H. Turner, P.R.S. .. 
Brisbane Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. .. 

1915. Manchester Prof. F. W. Gamble, F.R.S. 

and Neigh- Dr. Vaughan Cornish 

bourhood Dr. VV. Rosenhain, F.R.S. . 

]Prof. W. Stirling 

A. R. Hinks, F.R.S 

|Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 

iRev. A. L. Gertie 

' Prof. H. U. Turner, F.R.S. . 

1916. Newcastle j 

and Neigh- i 

bourhood : 

Newcastle Dr. Dugald Clerk, F.R.S. . 

A. L. Smith, M.A 

Sunderland Dr. F. A. Dixey 

Durham ... Prof. J. W. Gregory 

Ashington... Prof. A. W. Kirkcaldy 



Mining Education in England. 
Saving and Spending. 
Making of a Big Gun. 
Explosions. 

Brown Earth and Bright Sunshine. 
Comets. 

Decorative Art in Papua. 
Evolution and War. 
Strategic Geography of the War. 
Making of a Big Gun. 
Curiosities and Defects of Sight. 
Daily Uses of Astronomy. 
Health Conditions in the Modern 
\ Workshop. 

Formation of the Sun and Stars. 
Some Lessons from Astronomy. 



Gas, Oil and Petrol Engines. 
Education after the War. 
Warfare in Nature. 
The Evolution of Geography. 
The Economic Outlook after the 
War. 



CHAIRMEN, PRESIDENT, and SECRETARIES of the 
CONFERENCES OP DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES, 1901-16.' 
(For 1919, seep, xliv.) 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville. 


1902. 


Belfast 


Prof. W. VV. Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 


1903. 


Southport .. 


W. Whitaker. F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1905. 


London . . . 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1906. 


York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 


F. W. Rudler. 


1907. 


Leicester... 


n. J. Mackinder, M.A 


F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 


1908. 


Dublin 


Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1909. 


London ... 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


Dr. Tempest Anderson 


W P. D. Stebbing. 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1913. 


Birmingham 


Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
F.R.S. 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1914. 


Le Havre... 


Sir H. George Fordham 


W. Mark Webb. 


1915. 


Manchester 


Sir T. H. Holland, F.R.S. ... 
Pr evident. 


W. Mark Webb. 


1916 


Newcastle 


' Prof. G. A. Lebour 


W. Mark Webb. 









Established 1S85. 



1919. 



XXXIV 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes, 1901-1918. 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 

Seismological Observations... 

Wave-length Tables 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 

Underground Water of North- 
West Yorkshire 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 

Migration of Birds 

Terrestrial Surface Waves . . . 

Changes of Land-level in the 
Phlegrfean Fields 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 

Small Screw Gauge 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 

Silchester Excavation 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada , 

Anthropological Teaching . . . 

Exploration in Crete 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 
Rabbit 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceae 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
macese 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ s. d. 
45 



£920 9 11 



75 








4 


14 





35 








20 








50 








15 








100 








20 








75 








10 








5 








50 








15 








45 








75 








10 








.30 








6 








145 








30 








5 


15 


11 


5 








15 








20 





i 



15 









1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 



Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 
Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 

Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hasmoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycete lO 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 



s. 


d. 













































































































































£947 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 

West Yorkshire 40 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXV 



£ s. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 6 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phycefe 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13"^ 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 

Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 

of International Trade 25 ! 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 



£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 1 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 Ts TI 



1905. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations ... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosj^here by means of 

Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitroamines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

€928 




























































4 




8 



























17 






6 






2 2 



c2 



XXXVl 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



1906. £ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

"Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitroamines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the Bri-tish 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles ... 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

andDisease 20 

Research on South African 

Cycads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£882 9 



1907. 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 7 6 

Wave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Favmal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 
South- West England 15 



£ s. d. 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, «S:c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 
in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 
Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 



1908. 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

W^ave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Signiticance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXVU 



Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 
in the United Kingdom 

Electrical Standards 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 

Age of Stone Circles 

Anthropological Notes and 
Queries 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 

The Ductless Glands 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and D isease 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 

Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spa- 
diees 

Marsh Vegetation 

Succession of Plant Remains 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ s. d. 

30 

3 7 G 

50 

30 

15 

50 

40 

40 

13 14 8 

35 

30 



10 
15 
18 



1909. 

Seismological Observations... 
Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 

Electroanalysis 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 

Palapozoic Rocks of Wales and 

the West of England 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 

Investigations at Biskra 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 

Heredity Experiments 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 

Index Animalium 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 

Gaseous Explosions 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 

Age of Stone Circles 

Researches in Crete 







£1,157 18 8 



60 








10 








50 








50 








9 


16 





15 








35 








10 








30 









8 



8 








9 








11 


13 


9 


50 








00 








10 








5 








75 








35 








75 








5 








30 








70 









£ s. d. 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena andMe- 

tabolism of Arum Spadices 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anesthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algse 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 



£1,014 9 9 



1910. 



Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 
Standards Reports 

Seismological Observations... 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines 

Electroanalysis 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 

South African Strata 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 

Index Animalium 

Heredity Experiments 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 

Amount Und Distribution of 
Income 

Gaseous Explosions 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 
Greece 

The Ductless Glands 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 

Anaesthetics 

Tissue Metabolism 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 



100 








60 








25 








25 








25 








35 








15 








10 








10 








5 








25 








100 








75 








15 








5 








15 








75 









5 







5 








40 








20 





(1 


25 








25 








18 


17 





10 








10 









xxxviu 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



£ s. d. 

Survey of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£'963 17 



1911. 

Seismological Investigations 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere 

International Commission on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines 

Electroanalysis 

Influence of Carbon, &c., on 
Corrosion of Steel 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 

Index Animalium 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 

Map of Prince Charles Fore- 
land 

Gaseous Explosions 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 

Age of Stone Circles 

Artificial Islands in Highland 
Lochs 

The Ductless Glands 

Ansesthetics 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 

Dissociation of Oxy-Haemo- 
globin 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 

Experimental Study of 
Heredity 

Survey of Clare Island 

Registration of Botanical 
Photographs 

Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



60 
25 



100 
75 

5 
30 

30 
90 

5 
30 

10 
40 
20 



25 
15 

45 
20 

10 

10 

20 









30 



20 








25 








15 








15 








15 








2 





































10 



















£922 






£ g. d. 
1912.' 

Seismological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at. 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere 30 

International Commission on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 30 

Further TaDulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 

of Glensaul, &c 15 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Sutton Bone Bed 15 

Bembridge Limestone at 
Creechbarrow Hill 20 

Table at the Zoological 

Station at Naples 50 

Index Animalium 75 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 

Secondary Sexual Characters 
inBirds 10 

Gaseous Explosions 60 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Artificial Islands in High- 
land Lochs 10 

Physical Character of Ancient 

Egyptians 40 

Excavation in Easter Island 15 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 35 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 

Overlapping between Second- 
ary and Higher Education 1 18 6 

Curricula, &c,, of Industrial 

and Poor Law Schools 10 

Influence of School Books 

upon Eyesight 3 9 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

Collections illustrating 
Natural History of Isle of 
Wight 40 

£845 7 6 



' For grants from Caird Fund in this and following years, see p. Ixxii. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXIX 



1913. £ s. (I. 

Seismological Investigations (50 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 50 

International Commission on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 40 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 30 

Study of Hvdro-aromatic 
Substances..." 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 20 

Study of Plant Enz3'mes 30 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 
of Glensaul, &c 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Exploration of the Upper Old 

Ked Sandstone of Dura Den 75 

Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan l.'i 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 50 

Ditto (Special Grant) 50 

Nomenclator Animalium 
Generum et Sub-generum 100 

BelmuUet Whaling Station... 15 

Ditto (Special Grant) 10 

Ga.seous Explosions 80 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles (Special 

Grant) 15 

.Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Hausa Manuscripts 20 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Calorimetric Observations on 
Man 45 

Dissociation of Oxy-Hasmo- 
globin at High Altitudes... 15 

Structure and Function of 

the Mammalian Heart 20 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 4 12 4 

Vegetation of Ditcham Park, 

Hampshire 45 

Influence of School Books on 
Eyesight 9 4 9 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£978 17 1 



1914. 

Seismological Investigations 130 
Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 



£ s. (I. 

International Commission on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 40 

Calculation of Mathematical 

Tables 20 

Disposal of Copies of the 
' Binivry Canon ' 4 9 

Study of Hj'dro-aromatic 
Substances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Study of Plant Enzymes 25 

Correlation of Crystalline 
Form with Molecular Struc- 
ture 25 

Study of Solubility Pheno- 
mena 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 

Fauna and Flora of Trias of 

Western Midlands 10 

Critical Sections in Lower 

Palaeozoic Rocks 15 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 

Nomenclator Animalium 

Generum et Sub-generum 50 

Antarctic Whaling Industry 75 

Maps for School and Univer- 
sity Use 40 

Gaseous Explosions 50 

Stress Distributions in Engi- 
neering Materials 50 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 20 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 20 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in Cyprus 50 

Palaeolithic Site in Jersey ... 50 

The Ductless Glands ...." 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 30 

Binocular Combination of 

Kinematograph Pictures ... 17 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 5 

Flora of the Peat of the 

Kennet Valley 15 

Vegetation of Ditcham Park 14 4 3 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Breeding Experiments with 

(Enotheras 19 17 4 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 20 

Influence of School Books on 
Eyesight 2 8 9 



xl 



GBANTS OF MONEY. 



£ s. d. 

Character, Work, and Main- 
tenance of Museums 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee.. 25 

£1,086 16 4 
1915. =^^= 

Seismological Observations... 130 

Annual Table of Constants, 

&c 40 

Calculation of Mathematical 
Tables 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 20 

Study of Plant Enzymes lu 

Chemical Investigation of 

Natural Plant Products ... 50 

Influence of Weather Condi- 
tions on Nitrogen Acids in 
Rainfall 40 

Non-Aromatic Diazonium 

Salts 5 

Biology of Abrolhos Islands 40 

Collection of Marsupials 100 

Survey of Stor Fjord, Spits- 
bergen 50 

Antarctic Bathymetrical 

Chart 100 

Fatigue from Economic Stand- 
point 30 

Gaseous Explosions 50 

Stress Distributions .50 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 20 

Age of Stone Circles 10 

Palaeolithic Site in Jersey ... 50 

Excavations in Malta 10 

Gazetteer and Map of Native 

Tribes in Australia 20 

Electromotive Phenomena of 
the Heart 20 

Metabolism of Phosphates ... 20 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... GOO 

Physiology of Heredity 45 

Renting of Cinchona Botanic 

Station, Jamaica 25 

Influence of Percentages 

of Oxygen .50 

Australian Cycadaceaa 25 

Sections of Australian Fossil 

Plants 25 

Influence of School Books on 

Eyesight 5 

Scholarships, &c., held by 

University Students 3 2 8 

Character, Work, and Main- 
tenance of Museums 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,159 2 8 



191 G. £ ."I. d. 

Seismological Investigations 130 

Tables of Constants 40 

Mathematical Tables 35 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Non-Aromatic Diazonium 

Salts 8 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rock of 

Kiltorcan 7 

Old Red Sandstone Rock, of 

Rhynie 25 

Belmullet Whaling Station ... 25 
Fatigue from Economic Stand- 
point 20 

Industrial Unrest .., 20 

Women in Industry 90 

EflEect of War on Credit 25 

Stress Distributions 40 

Engineering Problems affect- 
ing the Prosperity of the 

Country ' 10 

Physical Characters of Ancient 

Egyptians 12 8 1 

Palaeolithic Site in Jersey ... 25 
Distribution of Bronze Age 

Implements 3 5 9 

Ductless Glands (1914) .35 

(1915) 14 

Physiology of Heredity 45 

Renting of Cinchona Station 12 10 
Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 20 

School Books and Eyesight... 3 5 

Museums 15 

Free Place System 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£715 18 10 



1917. 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Tables of Constants 40 

Mathematical Tables 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 15 

Absorption Spectra, &c 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan 4 

Fatigue from Economic 

Standpoint 40 

Physical Character of Ancient 

Egyptians 2 11 11 

Palagolithic Site in Jersey ... 25 
Archseological Investigation 

in Malta 20 

Distribution of Bronze Age 

Implements 1 14 3 

Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 2 10 

Ductless Glands 6 

Psychological War Research 10 o 

Physiology of Heredity 15 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xli 



£ «. d. 

Ecology of Fungi 8 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 10 

Museums 15 

School Books and Eyesight 5 

Free Place System 15 

Science Teaching in Second- 
ary Schools 8 1 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

"£427 17 2 



1918. 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Colloid Chemistry and its In- 
dustrial Applications 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan 5 



£ s. d. 

Inheritance in Silkworms ... 3 

Women in Industry 10 

(1917)... 10 11 

Effects of the War on Credit 

etc 10 

(1917) 10 

Archaeological Investigation 

in Malta 10 

Distribution of Bronze Age 

Implements 18 6 

Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs ;. 2 10 

Physiology of Heredity 15 

Free Place System 5 

Science Teaching in Second- 
ary Schools 4 3 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 



£220 13 3 



Xlii GENERAL MEETINGS, 



GENEEAL MEETINGS AT BOURNEMOUTH. 

On Tuesday, September 9, at 8.30 p.m., in tlie Winter Gardens 
Pavilion, Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S., resigned the office of President to 
the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, K.C.B., P.R.S. Before vacating the 
chair, Sir Arthur Evans moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that 
the following message be forwarded to His Majesty the King: — 

Your Majesty, — 

On the occasion of the outbreak of the great war we, the Members of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, at that time assembled in 
our eighty-fifth Congress, gave an unanimous expression to our devoted loyalty 
to Your Majesty's person, which Your ilajesty was graciously pleased to 
acknowledge. 

To-day, once more assembled in our eighty-seventh Congress, it is our heart- 
felt desire on the victorious conclusion of the war and the formal proclamation of 
peace, to renew those assurances and to express, in more than a formal manner, 
our high sense of the example of self -sacrificing devotion to the service of the 
country that has been so simply offered by Your Majesty throughout this long 
and arduous struggle. 

We are painfully, aware indeed that, in spite of the decision in the fieM, the 
peiiod of stress is by no means over. We cannot from our special point of view 
be blind to the extent to which the bitter emergencies of war-time have been 
prejudicial to those ideas and methods which it is our mission to promote. But 
in the not less arduous struggle that lies before us to regain the stable paths of 
peace we are heartened by the knowledge that the same wise and conciliating 
influence and high example that was of such sovran help to the British people 
in war-time will still be with them. 

His Majesty was graciously jileased to accept the above Address. 

Sir Arthur Evans referred to eminent members of the Association 
who had died since the previous meeting. These included the follow- 
ing:— 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, P.R.S. , President, 1884; Trustee- 
1883-1919. 

Sir William Crookes, P.R.S., President, 1898. 

Professor G. Carey Foster, P.R.S. , General Treasurer, 1898-1904; 
Trustee, 1916-19. 

Dr. A. G. Vernon Harcourt P.R.S. , General Secretary, 1883-1897 

Sir Charles Parsons then delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Wednesday evening, September 10, at 8 p.m., a conversazione 
was given in the Winter Gardens Pavilion by His Worship the Mayor 
of Bournemouth. 

On Thursday, September 11, at 8.30 p.m., in the Winter Gardens 
Pavilion, Sir Arthur Evans, P.R.S. , delivered a discourse on 'The 
Palace of Minos and the Prehistoric Civilisation of Crete. ' (See p. 416.) 

On Friday, September 12, at 8.30 p.m., in the Winter Gardens 
Pavilion, Mr. Sidney G. Brown, P.R.S. , delivered a discourse on 
' The Gyroscopic Compass.' (See p. 418.) 

After the above discourse (the occasion being the concluding General 
Meeting), the following resolution was unanimously adopted on the 
motion of the President: — - 

That the cordial thanks of the British Association be extended to the INIayor. 
Corporation, and Citizens of the Borough of Bournemouth (especially to the 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1919. xlUJ 

members of Bournemouth Natural History Society) foi' their hearty welcome, to 
the Corporation in particular for placing their magnificent Municipal College 
and the Winter Gardens Pavilion at the disposal of the Association ; to the 
Municipal and other Authorities, particularly those of H.M. Cordite Factory, 
Holton Heath, who have authorised facilities for excursions of high scientific; 
interest ; and finally to the Local Officers and their able assistants, and to the 
Local Executive Committee and individual members thereof for the admirable 
arrangements made for the meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS AT THE BOUENEMOUTH 
MEETING, 1919. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Vrot A. Gray, M.A., LL.D., P.E.S. Vice-Presidents.— Col. 
Sir Charles Close, K.B.E., C.B., F.R.S., Sir Oliver Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., 
Prof. A. N. Whitehead, Sc.D., F.E.S. Secretaries.— W. Makower, M.A., D.Sc. 
(Recorder) ; H. R. Hasse ; J. Jackson ; A. O. Rankine, D.Sc; E. Fenwick, M.A., 
LL.D., B.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Pvof. P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents.— FroL E. C. 
C. Baly, C.B.E., M.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. G. G. Henderson, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.I.C. Secretaries.— A. Holt, M.A., D.Sc. (Recorder) ; Prof. C. H. 
Desch, D.Sc, Ph.D. ; Prof. R. Robinson, D.Sc. ; H. Painter, B.Sc, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY, 

President.— J. W. Evans, D.Sc, LL.B., F.G.S. Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. 
W. S. Boulton, D.Sc, F.G.S. ; Sir W, Boyd Dawkins, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. G. 
Miller ; Prof. S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D. ; Prof. W. J. Sollas, Sc.D., F.R.S. ; 
Sir A. Strahan, K.B.E.,' F.R.S. Secretaries.— Vf. T. Gordon, D.Sc (Recorder) ; 
Prof. A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc. ; G. Hickling, D.Sc ; W. T. Ord, L.R.C.P. 
Lond., M.R.C.S. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— F. A. Dixey, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— E. J. Allen, 
D.Sc, F.R.S, ; Prof. E. W. MacBride, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Lt.-Col. H. W. Marett 
Tims, O.B.E., M.D. Secretaries.— Froi. J. H. Ashworth, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Re- 
corder) ; F. Balfour Browne, M.A. ; R. Douglas Laurie, M.A. ; F. G. Penrose, 
M.D., M.E.C.P., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Prof. L. W. Lyde, M.A. Vice-Presidents.— G. G. Chisholm, 
M.A., B.Sc. ; Prof. H. J. Fleure, D.Sc. ; Col. Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.M.G., 
K.C.I.E., C.B. ; Miss M, I. Newbigin, D.Sc. ; E. A. Reeves, F.R.G.S. Secre- 
taries.— J. McFarlane, M.A. (Recorder) ; C. B. Fawcett ; J. Scattergood. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., D.L., J.P. Vice-Presidents.— FroL A. 
W. Kirkaldy, M.A., M.Com. ; Prof. W. R. Scott, M.A., Litt.D. Secretaries.— 
C. R. Fay, M.A. (Recorder) ; A. W. Ashby ; J. Gunnison ; F. H. Pilcher. 



xliv OFFICERS OF SECTIONS. 



SECTION G. — ^ENGINEERING. 

President.— Trot. J. E. Petavel, D.Sc, F.E.S. Vice-Presidents.— Vrof. W. 
E. Dalby, M.A., B.Sc, F.E.S. ; Sir A. Ewing, F.E.S. ; Sir E. Tennyson d'Eyn- 
court.K.C.B. ; Sir E. Hadfield, Bart., D.Sc, F.E.S. ; Prof. G. G. Stoney, F.E.S. 
Secretaries.— Proi. G. W. 0. Howe, D.Sc. (Eecorder) ; Prof. W. H. Watkinson; 
I. Bulfin, B.A., A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., M.I.E.E. 



SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Trot A. Keith, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S. Vice-Presidents.— ^Y. 
Crooke, B.A. ; E. E. Marett, D.Sc. ; Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A. F.S.A. Secre- 
taries.— F. C. Shrubsall, M.A., M.D. (Eecorder) ; E. N. Fallaize. B.A. ; Eev. 
E. 0. James ; Claude Lyon. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Vrol D. Noel Paton, M.D., F.E.S. Vice-Presidents.— Trot 
W. M. Bayliss, D.Sc, F.E.S. ; Prof. A. E. Cushny, M.D., F.E.S. ; Prof. W. D. 
Halliburton, M.D., F.E.S. ; C. S. Myers, M.D., Sc.D., F.E.S. ; Prof. W. H. E. 
Eivers, M.D., F.E.S. ; Prof. E. H. Starling, M.D. Secretaries— U. E. Eoaf, 
M.D., D.Sc (Eecorder) ; C.L.Burt; A. C. Coles, M.D., D.Sc ; C. Lovatt 
Evans, D.Sc. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, D.C.L., LL.D. 
Vice-Presidents.— Bev. Prof. Henslow ; Prof. M. C. Potter, M.A. : A. B. 
Eendle, M.A., F.E.S. ; Miss E. E. Saunders, F.L.S. ; D. H. Scott, LL.D., 
D.Sc, F.E.S. ; H. W. T. Wager, F.E.S. /Secretaries.— Miss E. N. Thomas, 
D.Sc (Eecorder) ; F. T. Brooks ; W. E. Hiley ; W. Munn Eankin, M.Sc, B.Sc. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir Napier Shaw, M.A., Sc.D., F.E.S. Vice-Presidents. — 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong. Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Sir E. Blair, M.A., B.Sc. ; Prof. 
J. A. Green, M.A. ; Sir R. A. Gregory ; E. H. Griffiths, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; 
Rev. Canon W. Temple, M.A. Secretaries. — D. Berridge, M.A. (Recorder) ; 
C. E. Browne, B.Sc ; E. H. Tripp, Ph.D. ; C. J. Whitting. 

SECTION M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President.— Troi. \V. Somerville, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents. — Principal P. H. 
Foulkes ; F. W. Keeble, C.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S. ; E. J. Russell, O.B.E,, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. ; Rt. Hon. Viscount Wimborne. Secretaries. — A. Lauder, D.Sc 
(Recorder) ; C. G. T. Morrison ; T. J. Meaby, F.S.L 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

President. — The Right Hon. Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, C.C., J. P., V.D., 
D.L. Vice-President— \N. Dale, F.S.A. Secretartj.-W. Mark Webb. 



REPORT Of THE COUNCIL. xlv 



I 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1918-19. 

I. The Council have lo record with deep regret the death of Lord 
Rayleigh, cm., P.E.S. (President, 1884; Trustee, 1883-1919), of Sir 
William Ceookes, O.M., P.E.S. (President, 1898), of George 
Carey Foster, LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S. (General Treasurer, 1898-1904; 
Tli-ustee, 1916-19); and of Augustus George Vernon Harcourt, 
M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S. (General Secretary, 1883-97). 

II. Professor W. A. Herdman, F.E.S., has been unanimously 
nominated by the Council to fill the office of President of the Associa- 
tion for the year 1920-21 (Cardiff Meeting). 

III. Eesolutions referred by the General Committee, July 5, 1918, 
to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, were dealt 
with as follows : — 

From the General Committee. 

' That, having regard to the expression of opinion here and else- 
where, the Council be respectfully requested to consider the 
question of holding a Meeting of the Association in or near 
London during) the year 1919, if the Bournemouth Meeting 
be dropped. ' 

On consideration of this resolution, the Council appointed the follow- 
ing Committee (with power to add to their number) : — 

The President and General Officers, the President-elect, Sir E. 
Brabrook, Sir Dugald Clerk, Sir E. A. Gregory, Sir E. im 
Thurn, Major P. A. MacMahon, 

with the following terms of reference : 

' To consider and report upon the question whether, in the event 
of it being impossible to hold an ordinary Annual Meeting in 
1919 in Bournemouth or elsewhere, a Meeting of the Associa- 
tion in London is desii'ahle, and, if so, to suggest an-angements 
for such a Meeting. ' 

It was fortunately, however, imnecessary for the above Committee 
to meet, as the invitation from Bournemouth was cordially renewed and 
unanimously accepted, the Council expressing thanks on behalf of the 
Association to the municipality of Bournemouth for the renewed 
invitation. 



xlvi REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

From Section H. 

' The Organising Committee of Section H submit to the Committee 
of JKecommendations that they should recommend the Council 
of the Association to send ,a communication on behalf of the 
Association to the University of New Zealand, Wellington, 
stating that " the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science expresses its strong approval of the movement 
for promoting the teaching of anthropology by the University 
of New Zealand." ' 

The Council resolved that such a communication should be for- 
warded. 

IV. The General Officers reported to the Council that they had 
received from the Assistant Secretary a memorandum dealing with the 
future cost and distribution of the Annual Volume, with membership 
fees and rights, and with certain arrangements at Annual Meetings, 
and that they considered these matters worthy of consideration by the 
Council. 

The Council appointed the following Committee (with power to add 
to tlieir number) : — 

I he President and General Officers, the President-elect, Mr. D. 
Berridge, Sir E. Brabrook, Sir Dugald Clerk, Sir R. A. 
Gregory, Dr. E. H. Griffiths, Prof. S. J. Hickson, Dr. A 
Holt, Dr. Ethel Thomas, 

with the following terms of reference: — 

' To review and report upon the working of the Association, with 
especial refei^ence to the future cost and distribution of the 
Annual Volume, membership fees and rights, aiTangements 
at the Annual Meeting, and other matters germane to the 
receipts and expenditure of the Association.' 

The Committee duly reported, and the Council, having adopted the 
report with one amendment, transmit it to the General Committee as 
a separate addendum to the present report. 

V. On the proposal of the South African Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, it was resolved that the trustees of the South African 
Medal Fund should in futm'e be designated as follows (in amendment 
of resolution under Minute of Council, Nov. 1906, §3): — 

The Superintendent-General of Education lor the Cape Province, 
the Controller and Auditor-General for tlie Union of Soutli 
Africa, the Registrar of the University of South Africa. 

VI. The Eoyal Society made a grant to the Association of £100 
for physical research and £150 for purposes of publication. The gi'ate- 
ful thanks of the Co'uncil were conveyed to the Society. 

VII. The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research were 
asked, and consented, to recommend the publication of the Second 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. xlvii 

Eeport on Colloid CHemistry by H.M. Stationery Office, and this has 
.been done in the name of the Association, the Stationery Office 
acquiring the copyright, and the Association receiving 2,000 copies of 
the report for incorporation witli the Annual Volume, at the cost piice 
of £70. 

VIII. Cairo Fund. — The Council made the following grant during 
the year, additional to annual grants previously made: — 

Conjoint Board of Scientific Societies . . . . £10 

IX. Conference of Delegates and Corresponding Societies 
Committee : — 

The following Nominations are made by the Council : — 

Conference of Delegates. — Lord Montagu of Beaulieu (President), 
Mr. W. Dale {Vice-President), Mr. W. Mark Webb (Secretary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Oiair- 
rna.n), Mr. W. Mark Webb {Secretary), Eev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, Mr. A. L. Lewis, Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, 
Mr. Mark L. Sykes, and the President and General Officers of the 
Association. 

X. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His accounts have been audited and are presented 
to the General Committee. 

XI. The retiring members of the Council are : — 

By seniority. — Sir E. Brabrook, Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 
By least attendance. — Prof. H. N. Dickson, Sir E. Eutherford, 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

The Council nominated the following members: — 

Prof. A. Fowler, 

»Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, 
Prof. J. L. Myres, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows: — 



Di". E. F. Armstrong. 
Prof. W. A. Bone. 
Sir Dugald Clerk. 
Prof. A. Dendy. 
Dr. F. A. Dixey. 
Sir F. W. Dyson. 
Prof. A. Fowler. 
Sir R. A. Gregory. 
Dr. S. F. Harmer. 
Sir Everard im Thurn. 
Prof. J. fl. Jeans. 
Prof. A. Keith. 



Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy. 
Sir Daniel Morris. 
Prof. J. L. Myres. 
Prof. W. H. Perkin. 
Dr. E. J. Russell. 
Jliss E. R. Saunders. 
Prof. W. R. Scott. 
Prof. E. H. Starling. 
Sir A. Stralian. 
Mr. W. Whitaker. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 



xl 



via 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



XII. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 

as follows : — 

General Treasurer: Prof. J. Perry. 
General Secretarry : Prof. H. H. Turner. 

The Council received, with great regret, Prof. W. A. Herdman's 
resignation of the office of General Secretary, which he had held since 
1903. 

The Council appointed a committee, consisting of the President and 
General Officers, the President-elect, Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. T. G. 
Bonney, Sir E. Sharpey Schafer, Sir Oliver Lodge, Prof. W. Bate- 
son, Prof. A. Schuster, Dr. A. Vernon Harcourt, Dr. D. H. Scott, 
Major P. A. MacMahon, and Sir E. Brabrook, to select a name or 
names for the consideration of the Council when nominating Prof. 
Herdman's successor. 

On the report of this Committee, the Council have made the following 
nomination : — 

General Secretary : Prof. J. L. Myres. 

XIII. Tlie following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : — 



Dr. E. N. da C. Andrade. 
Prof. P. G. H. Boswell. 
Prof. L. Doncaster. 
Prof. A. Fowler. 
Sir E. Hadfield. 
Prof. H. H. Hilton. 
Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis. 



Prof. F. A. Lindemann. 

Dr. A. Low. 

Miss T. L. Prankerd. 

Lady Shaw. 

Sir E. F. Stupart. 

Dr. 0. Tierney. 



THE WORKING OP THE ASSOCIATION. xlix 



THE WOEKING OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



EEPOET BY THE COUNCIL TO THE GENEEAL 
COMMITTEE, 1919. 

Introduction. 

The Council, having received a report from the General 
Officers in 1918, appointed a Committee consisting of the Presi- 
dent and Genei-al Officers, the President-elect, Mr. D. Berridge, 
Sir Edward Brabrcok, Sir Dugald Clerk, Sir E. A. Gregory, 
Dr. E. H. Griffiths, Prof. S. J. Hickson, Dr. A. Holt, and Dr. 
Ethel Thomas, 

' To consider and report upon the working of the Asso- 
ciation, with especial reference to the future cost and distri- 
bution of the Annual Volume, membership fees and rights, 
arrangements at the Annual Meetings, and other matters 
germane to the receipts and expenditure of the Association.' 

The Council also referred to the Committee a suggestion re- 
ceived from Mr. E. T. A. Innes (Union Astronomer, Johannes- 
burg Observatory) that a system of ' institutional membership ' 
should be adopted, whereby institutions should be enabled tc 
subscribe to the Association, send representatives, and receive 
the Annual Eeport. 

In the first instance each member of the Committee received 
a copy of a memorandum prepared by the Assistant Secretary, 
and was asked to comment upon it in writing, and at the same 
time to bring forward any matters, not covered by the memoran- 
dum, which it might seem desirable for the Committee to discuss. 
A digest of the views expressed by members in response to this 
request was drawn up and circulated, and the Committee dis- 
cussed the various questions thus raised at a meeting on March 7. 
1919. The Committee's r-eport was afterwards drawn up, and 
was presented to the Council on June 6, 1919, aud their recom- 
mendations, with one exception, were adopted by the Council (see 
next page), and ordered to be forwarded to the General Committee. 
1919. D 



1 the working of the association. 

Subjects Considered and Eecommendations. 

(A) Membership Subscriptions, Rights of Members, and 
Distribution of the Annual Volume. 

In dealing with these the Committee had before them the 
following principal considerations : 

(a) That the cost of printing, and therefore the cost of the 
Annual Volume of the Association, had considerably increased in 
recent years before the war, and has done so very largely during 
the war. 

{b) That under the present system whereby Life Members, 
New Annual Members, Old Annual Members subscribing regu- 
larly, and Honorary Corresponding Members, are entitled to the 
Annual Volume free, a not inconsiderable iiumber receive the 
volume who do not really require it. 

(c) That an excessive number of libraries and institutions 
receive the volume free, and that any publications received by 
the Association in exchange are not of commensurate value. 

(d) That in view of the above conditions the cost of the Annual 
Volume has become an excessive charge upon the funds of the 
Association. 

(e) That the division between Members and Associates (of 
whom the latter have no right to hold office, serve on committees, 
or receive the volume free) gives rise to frequent difficulty, as 
when it is desired to appoint to office or on a committee a person 
who has joined only as an Associate, and it becomes necessary 
to demand from him a further subscription of £1 so that he 
may become a ' new annual member. ' 

(/) That the present subscription for life membership (£10, 
with right to receive the Annual Volume free) is too low. 

With these and other considerations in mind, the Committee 
reviewed the whole question of subscriptions and the distribution 
of the Annual Volume, and after consideration of their report, the 
Council make the following recommendations : 

(1) New Life Membership Fee, £\b, including right to receive 
the Annual Volume free. — Under present arrangements, Life 
Members are asked each year whether they wish to claim the 
Annual Volume : they should be invited to refrain from doing 
so unless they have a real use for it. 

The Council recognise that the position of present Life 
Members must remain unaffected. But they recommend that 
the General Treasurer be instructed to lay before present Life 
Members the position in respect of the increase in the cost of 
the Annual Volume (and of the administration of the Association 
in other directions), and to invite them, if they wish to continue 
to receive the volume, to add a sum not exceeding £5 to their 
previous subscription. 

(It should be added that the Committee had before thejn 
proposals on equitable grounds for a sliding scale of life-member- 



THE WORKING OF THE ASSOCIATION. H 

ship fees according tc age, but after consideration they preferred 
to recommend the continuance of the usual arrangement of a 
flat rate.) 

(2) Scale of Fees for New Annual Members — 

(a') Subscription payable before the close of the Annual 
Meeting, including right to attend the Meeting and 
to receive the Annual Volume— £1 10s. 

(b) Subscription for the Annual Meeting but excluding 

right to receive the Annual Volume — £1. 

(c) Subscription of members not attending the Annual 

Meeting, but desiring to receive the Annual Volume 
—£1. 
(Any of the above subscriptions to carry the present eligi- 
bility to service as officers or on committees.) 

The Council recognise that the right of old annual mem- 
bers subscribing regularly to receive the Annual Volume free (if 
they wish it) must remain unaffected. 

(3) Abolition of present ' entrance fee ' of £1 for new annual 
members. 

(4) Abolition of Associateship. — All persons joining the Asso- 
ciation would thus have the same rights and privileges in respect 
of eligibility to office or ccmmittee-sei-vic€ ; the Council believe 
that by this means a not uncommon source of friction would be 
removed; moreover, a measure of simplification in the issue of 
tickets, accounting, etc., would be introduced. 

(5) Transferable Tickets, £1 5s. — These should not be con- 
fined to Ladies, as at present. They should carry no right to 
the Annual Volume. 

(6) 'Students' Tickets,' 10s. — These, confined to university 
and other students, teachers, etc., vouched for by the Local 
Executive as resident or working in the locality where the 
Annual Meeting takes place, have already been experimentally 
introduced with success, and should be established on a regular 
footing. 

(7) All Annual Members who, having attended the Annual 
Meeting, have not paid the subsci-iption entitling them to the 
Annual Volume, should be advised, shortly before the volume is 
ready for issue, that they may obtain it by payment of 12s. 6d. 
within a fixed period, not extending beyond the close of the 
financial year (June 30). 

(8) Publication price of the Annual Volume, £1 5s. 

(9) Honorary Corresponding Members should be entitled 
to the Annual Volume free upon application each year. 

(10) Libraries and Institutions should be entitled to purchase 
the Annual Volume at a subscription rate of 12s. 6d. per annum, 
and libraries and institutions which at present receive the Volume 
free should be infonned accordingly, subject to any statutory 
•rights or other considerations. 

D 2 



lii THE WORKING OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(11) The Council do not recommend the adoption of 
' Institutional Membership.' 

(12) Membership Tickets for Subscribers to Local Funds.— 

When a guarantee or subscription fund is to be raised, to meet 
local expenses of an Annual Meeting, in the locality where the 
meeting is to be held, there should be a regular understanding 
that £1 fro^T each guarantee or subscription of £5 or over should 
be paid by the Local Executive to the Association, in return for 
which the Association will provide each guarantor of £5 or over 
with a ticket of membership for the meeting. 

(B) Changes in the Anmial Volume, and Separate Issue of 

Sectional Transactions. 

Questions of possible changes in the contents of the Annual 
Volume, and the partial substitution of an issue of separate 
transactions of individual Sections, were I'oopened before the 
Committee, but they considered that the discussion of these ques- 
tions in recent years (culminating in a plebiscite of members) has 
disposed of them. 

The Committee considered, however, that if any Sectional 
Committee in any year is aware of a demand for not less than 
60 copies of a separate issue of its transactions, and will under- 
take their distribution by sale so as to repay the extra cost of 
these copies, the Council should sanction such separate sale. The 
Council accepts tliis recommendation. 

(C) Arrangements at Annual Meetings. 

(1) Duration of Annual Meeting. — ^There is support for the 
permanent adoption of the period Tuesday — Saturday for the 
Annual Meeting (as at the recent Manchester and Newcastle 
meetings), and there are strong arguments in its favour as against 
the old period, "Wednesday — Wednesday. But the period Tues- 
day — Saturday has been decided upon for the meeting this year 
at Bournemouth, and the Council consider that this will afford 
further opportunity for consideration of the question ; they there- 
fore make no recommendation. 

(2) Numbering of Seats at Inaugural Meetings and Evening 
Discourses. — It has been proposed that this practice should be 
given up, in order to simplify work at the Reception Boom 
counters, and to avoid penalising members who cannot arrive, and 
book seats, early. On this proposal all seating (except any 
retained for officers, members of General Committee, or guests) 
would be unreserved, and the membership ticket alone would adroit. 

The Committee made no recommendation, but they suggested 
that the General Officers, with the Assistant Secretary, at the 
forthcoming meeting, be instructed to inquire into the question 
on the spot, and this suggestion will be carried out. 

(3)^ Excursions. — An opinion has long existed that the general 
excursions which used to be arranged for Members attending 



THE WORKING OF THE ASSOCIATION. liii 

Annual Meetings had little or no connection with the scientific 
work of the Association, and had besides other obvious dis- 
advantages. 

The Council consider that the question whether general 
excursions be arranged, and their aiTangement, if decided 
upon, ought to be left entirely to the Local Executive: that the 
Association should not ask for them as part of the regular pro- 
gramme, and that the permanent officials of the Association should 
undertake no duties in connection with them. 

The Council consider that sectional excursions for the 
purpose of field-work, visits to works, etc., arranged by Organis- 
ing Sectional Committees, are appropriate to the work of the 
Association and should be encouraged. 

(4) Attendance of non-Members as Speakers at Sectional 
Meetings. — The Council recognise that on occasion a discussion 
in a Section may be enhanced in value by the presence of specially 
qualified speakers, who may not be Members of the Association, 
invited by the Organising Committee. But they consider that 
Organising Committees should exercise discretion as to the number 
of speakers so invited, and. (while not proposing a fixed limit to 
the number of such invitations) they recommend that it be a 
direction to Organising Committees that their Eecorders shall 
acquaint the Assistant Secretary with the names of non-members 
proposed as speakers, in order that he may inform such persons of 
the terms and privileges of membership or (a^t the General 
Treasurer's discretion) issue ' special admission ' tickets to them 
for any particular sectional meeting. 

(5) Service of non-Members on Research Committees. — The 

Council recognise that the expert assistance of non-members 
may, on occasion, be essential to the success of a Research Com- 
mitte.e's work. They recommend that the names of such persons 
should appear in a separate category as assessors or consultative 
or co-opted members of the Committee. 

(D) Grants. 

The Committee received a suggestion that in view of the 
increase of other claims upon the revenue of the Association, the 
funds devoted to purposes connected with research should be more 
closely limited to incidental expenses, inasmuch as other funds 
have become available to assist research itself. While recog- 
nising the extreme importance of, this question, the Committee 
did not discuss it at length, understanding that another opportunity 
might arise for the Council to consider it. 

The Council will make a separate report to the General 
Committee on this question. 

(Note. — The recommendations in the above report were adopted by 
the General Committee, which ordered that alterations in the Rules, 
where necessary to give effect to changes proposed, shonUl be made.) 



liv 



GBNEBAL TREASURER S ACCOUNT. 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

RECEIPTS. 

£, s. d. £ s. d. £, 3. d. 
To Balauoe brought forward : — 

Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 1,877 C U 

Bank of England — Western Branch :— 

On ' Caird Fund ' 493 10 4 

ieis General Account overdrawn 68 4 lU 

425 5 G 

2,302 12 5 

Cash in hand 1 1 11 

Z«s Petty Cash overdrawn 13 1 

8 10 

2,303 1 3 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 153 U 

Annual Subscriptions 345 U 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 20 U 

Sale of Publications 182 12 3 

Grants from Royal Society: — 

In aid of Publication Expenses 150 

For purposes of Research 100 

• 250 

Donations 35 

Income Tax Recovered 443 18 2 

Interest on Deposits : — 

Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 16 6 8 

„ „ 'OairdGift' 35 3 10 

51 10 6 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned 9 G 10 

Dividends on Investments: — 

Consols 24 per Cent 81 8 

India 3 per Cent 75 12 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 23 4 5 

War Stock 6 per Cent 43 3 

War Bonds 5 per Cent 49 

272 7 5 

Dividends on 'Caird Fund' Investments: — 

India 35 per Cent 64 7 4 

Canada 34 per Cent, (including extra 4 per Cent.) 70 

London and South- Western Railway Consolidated4 per Cent. Preference 

Stock 71 5 

London and Nortb-Western Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference 

Stock 59 17 

265 9 4 

Mem.— Sales of tickets for September 1919 Meeting, £45 ^0s., are not included above. 



Nominal 
£ 

4,651 
3,600 
879 
2,627 
2,100 

2,500 
2,500 



Amouut 
s. d, 
10 5 


14 9 

10 





Investments. 



863 
1,400 
1,000 



96 3 6 



£22,217 12 4 



Consolidated 2i per Cent. Stock 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway £43 'B' Annuity 

India 3J per Cent. Stock, ' Cairil Fund ' 

London and North-Westeru Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. 

Preference Stock, 'Caird Fund' 
Canada 3^ per Cent. (1930-50) Registered Stock 'Caird Fund' 
Loudon and South-Western Railway (Jonsolidated 4 per Cent. 

Preference Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift of 2J per Cent. Self -Cumulating 

Consolidated Stock 
War Loan 5 per Cent. Stock 
War Bonds 5 per Cent., 1929-47 
Lloyds Bank, Birmingham — Deposit Account included in Balance 

at Bank, Sir J. Caird's Gift for Radio-Activity Investigation 



£4,331 5 9 



Value at 30th June, 1919, £15,087 Os. 5.7. 



GENERAL TREASUREB'S ACCOUNT. Iv 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE Cr. 

July 1, 1918, to June 30, 1919. 

PAYMENTS. 

By Rent and OfBce Expenses \ jlg 3 3' 

Salaries ami Travellinjir Expenses !..'.."..........,,........"..!.!." 758 4 11 

Printing, Binding, etc. ,' ..'.!.,."!..............!"!.'. 636 19 !" 

Grants to Researoli Committees : — ' £, ii. d. 

Palasolithic Site in Jersey 5 11 

Colloid Clieraistry 5 

Geophysical Discussion Id (J 

Physiology of Heredity .....................] 15 

Seismological Investigations |. 100 

Corresponding Societies Oommittee 25 

160 

(tr.ints made from 'Caird Fund' 250 

Balance.it Lloyds Bank, Birmingham (witii Interest accrued), including 
Sir James Caird'sGift, Radio-Activity Investigation, of £1,000 and 

Interest accrued thereon £173 5s. " 1,728 17 3 

Balance at Bank of England— Western Branch : — 

On 'Caird Fund' £508 19 8 

„ General Account 172 4 2 

„ , . 681 3 10 

Cash m hand 1 11 



, „ 2,410 3 

£esi Petty Cash overdrawn 2 5 2 



2,407 17 10 



£4,331 5 9 



John Perry, General Treasurer: 



I hare examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Association, and certify the 
same to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers, and have ascertained that the Inve8^ 
ments are registered in the names of the Trustees, or held by the Bank of England on account of the 
Association. 

W. B. Kben, Chartered Aceounlanl. 
Approved— Aufust 28, 1919. 

Edward Bb a brook, Audilor. 



Ivi 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 



Date o£ Meeting 



1831, 
1832, 
1833, 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837, 
1838, 
1839, 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 
1861, 
1852, 
1853 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1868, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1876, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 
1897, 
1898, 
1899, 
1900, 



Sept. 27... 
June 19... 
June 25 ... 
Sept. 8 ... 
Aug. 10 ... 
Aug. 22... 
Sept. 11... 
Aug. 10... 
Aug. 26... 
Sept. 17... 
July 20 ... 
June 23... 
Aug. 17... 
Sept. 26... 
June 19 ... 
Sept. 10... 
June 23... 
Aug. 9 ... 
Sept. 12... 
July 21 ... 

July 2 

Sept. 1 ... 
Sept. 3 ... 
Sept. 20... 
Sept. 12 ... 
Aug. 6 ... 
Aug. 26 ... 
Sept. 22 ... 
Sept. 14... 
June 27 ... 
Sept. 4 ... 
Oct. 1 ... 
Au2. 26 ... 
Sept. 13... 
Sept. 6 ... 
Aug. 22 ... 
Sept. 4 ... 
Aug. 19... 
Aug. 18 ... 
Sept. 14... 
Aug. 2 ... 
Aug. 14 ... 
Sept. 17... 
Aug. 19 ... 
Aug. 25 ... 
Sept. 6 ... 
Aug. 15 ... 
Aug. 14 ... 
Aug. 20 ... 
Aug. 25 ... 
Aug. 31 ... 
Aug. 23 ... 
Sept. 19 ... 
Aug. 27... 
Sept. 9 ... 
Sept. 1 ... 
Aug. 31... 
Sept. 5 ... 
Sept. 11 ... 
Sept. 3 ... 
Aug. 19 ... 
Aug. 3 ... 
Sept. 13... 
Aug. 8 ... 
Sept. 11... 
Sept. 16... 
Aug. 18 ... 
Sept. 7 ... 
Sept. 13... 
Sept. 5 .... 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull , 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin , 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne... 

Leeds " 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford * 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 



Presidents 



Old Life 

Members 



New Life 
Members 



Viscount Milton, D.O.L., P.R.S. .. 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S ; 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., P.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdownc, P.R.S.... i 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S \ 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S.I 

The Rev. W. Whewell, P.R.S \ 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ...; 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S ' 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John P. W. Herschel, Bart., P.R.S. j 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ...! 
TheMarquis of Northampton, Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, P.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, P.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B.Daubeny, M.D., P.R.S... 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., P.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., P.R.S. .. 

William Pau-bairn, LL.D., P.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WiUis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Sir William G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., P.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., P.R.S 

The Duke of Bueoleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., P.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., P.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., P.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., P.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., P.R.S 

Prof. Lord Raylei gh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playf air, K.C.B., P.R.S.... 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. B. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir P. A. Abel, O.B., P.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., P.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisburv,K.G..F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Gallon, K.C.B., P.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, P.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 






169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


16 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


26 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


36 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


236 


20 


226 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 



• Ljidies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
[Continued on p. Iviii, 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



Ivii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association, 

Foreigners 



Old 
Annual 
Members 



New 
Annual 
Members 



;^^f- ; Ladies 
ciates 



46 


317 


76 


376 


71 


185 


46 


190 


94 


22 


66 


39 


197 


40 


54 


25 


93 


33 


128 


42 


61 


47 


63 


60 


56 


57 


121 


121 


142 


101 


104 


48 


156 


120 


111 


91 


126 


179 


177 


69 


184 


125 


150 


57 


154 


209 


182 


103 


215 


149 


218 


105 


193 


118 


226 


117 


229 


107 


303 


196 


311 


127 


280 


80 


237 


99 


232 


85 


307 


93 


331 


185 


238 


59 


290 


93 


239 


74 


171 


41 


313 


176 


253 


79 


330 


323 


317 


219 


332 


122 


428 


179 


610 


244 


399 


100 


412 


113 


368 


92 


341 


162 


413 


141 


328 


67 


435 


69 


290 


31 


383 


139 


286 


125 


327 


96 


324 


68 


297 


46 



33t I 



9t 
407 
270 
495 
376 
447 
610 
244 
510 
367 
765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

120B 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
826 

1053 

1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 

1384 

682 

1051 

648 

801 



1100» 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
669 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 

74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
107 
4H9 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 
482 



Total 



34 

40 



28 



35 
36 
53 
16 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45J 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
26 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

6 
26 & 60 H.J 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
36 
50 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 
33 
27 
9 



353, 

900 
1298 

1360 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

867 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

916 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2463 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1661 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 
2446 
1403 
1915 



, . I Sums paid 
^'"?"'\' I on account 
received of Grants 
during the for Scientific 
Meeting purposes 



I £707 
! 963 
I 1085 
I 620 
i 1085 
903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 
899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 
1664 
2007 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 
1398 
2399 
1328 
1801 




























































































n 



£20 





167 





435 





922 12 


6 


932 2 


2 


1595 11 





1546 16 


4 


1235 10 


11 


1449 17 


8 


1565 10 


2 


981 12 


8 


831 9 


9 


685 16 





208 5 


4 


275 1 


8 


169 19 


6 


345 18 





391 9 


7 


304 6 


7 


205 





380 19 


7 


480 16 


4 


734 13 


9 


507 15 


4 


618 18 


2 


684 11 


1 


766 19 


6 


1111 6 


10 


1293 16 


6 


1608 3 


10 


1289 15 


8 


1591 7 


10 


1750 13 


4 


1739 4 





1940 





1622 





1572 





1472 2 


6 


1285 





1685 





1161 16 





960 





1092 4 


2 


1128 9 


7 


725 16 


6 


1080 11 


11 


731 7 


7 


476 8 


1 


1126 1 


11 


1083 3 


3 


1173 4 





1385 





995 


6 


1186 18 





1511 


6 


1417 


11 


789 16 


8 


1029 10 





864 10 





907 15 


6 


583 15 


6 


977 15 


6 


1104 6 


1 


1059 10 


8 


1212 





1430 14 


2 


1072 10 






Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1856 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 



^ Including Ladies. J Fellows of the American Association were admitted asHon. Members for this Meeting. 

[Continued on p. lix. 



Iviii 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 

Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1901, Sept. 11.. 

1902, Sept. 10... 

1903, Sept. 9 ... 

1904, Auk. 17... 

1905, Aug. 15... 

1906, Aug. 1 ... 

1907, July 31 .., 

1908, Sept. 2 ... 

1909, A.ug. 25... 

1910, Aug. 31 ... 

1911, Aug. 30.., 

1912, Sept. 4 .., 

1913, Sept. 10 .. 

1914, Jialy-Sept, 

1915, Sept. 7 ... 

1916, Kept. 5 .. 
1917 

1918 

1919, Sept. 9 .. 



Where held 



Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham 

Australia 

Manchester 

Newcastle-on-Tvne. . 

(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 

Bournemoutli 



Presidents 



Prof. A. W. Rticker, D.Sc, SecJl.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Et. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Schafer. F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 



Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 



Hon. Sir 0. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R S... 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 


376 


40 


172 


13 


242 


19 


164 


12 


235 


47 



I 164 



T Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 
II Grants from the Caird Fund are not Included in this and subsequent sums. 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT 
[The total attendances for the years 1832, 
Average attendance at 83 Meetings : 2130, 

(The above figure iucludes, but the following exclude, the Australian Meeting, July-Sept., 1914.) 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during Jw)i£, betiveen 

1833 and 1860 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during" July, betrveeri 

1841 and 1907 ; . . . 1122 

Average attendance at 32 Meetings beginning during August, between 

1SS6 and 19U 1927 

Average attendance at 40 Meetings beginning during September, 

betiveen 1831 and 1919 1431 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . .1161 



Meetings beginning during August. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in AvgustC 1st- 7th) 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ _ „ „ ( 8th-14th) 
9 1. ,, „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st) 

14 „ „ „ ,. 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) 



1905 
2130 
1802 
1935 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



lix 



at Annual Meetings of the Association — (continued). 



Old 
Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Members 


Members 








S74 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


937t 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


4G5 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


290»» 


162 


789 


90 


t 


1468 


379 


57 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


368 


95 


1292 


359 


88 


2504 


480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


2643 


139 


4160D 


63911 


— 


21 


504411 


287 


116 


628* 


141 


8 


1441 


250 


76 


251» 


73 


. 


826 


254 


102 


688 


153 


3 


1482 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£2046 
1644 
1762 
2650 
2422 
1811 
1561 
2317 
1623 
1439 
1176 
2349 
2756 
4873 
1406 
821 



























1736 



Sums paid I 

on account j 

of Grants I 

for Scientific 

Purposes i 



£920 9 11 
947 
845 13 2 
887 18 11 
928 2 2 
882 
757 12 10 

U57 18 8 

1014 9 9 
963 17 
922 
845 7 
978 17 

1086 16 

1159 2 
715 18 10 
427 17 2 
220 13 3 
160 



9 



in 

4 



Year 



1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 



•* Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

II Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Associ»tion Franc^aise at Le Havre. 

* Including Student's Tickets, 10«. 



THE ANNUAL MEETINGS, 1831-1919. 
1835, 1843, and 1844 are unknown.'] 

Meetings beginning during September. 

Average attendance at — 

Average 
Attendance 
1,5 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September^ 1st- 7th). 1459 
18 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14th). 1693 

5 „ , 3rd „ „ „ (15th_21st). 2206 

2 „ ,. „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 



Meetings beginning during June, Jidy, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in June (15th-21st) 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 130G 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7th) 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

July (15th-21st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

week in July (29th~31st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in t>ctoJer (lst-7th) 



1079 



710 
1066 
1647 
1161 



Ix 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



Research Committees, etc., appointed by the General Committee, 
Meeting in Bournemouth : September, 1919. 

(Names marked with an asterisk are those of Assessors or 
Consultative Members.) 



1. Receiving Grants of Aloney, 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 


Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 








£ 


». d. 


Seismological Investigations. i Chairman. — ProfessorH. H.Turner. 


100 





Secretary. — Mr. J. J. Shaw. 






Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. B. 






Crombie, Sir Horace Darwin, 






Dr. C. Davison, Sir F.W. Dyson, 






Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Professors 






C. G. Knott and H. Lamb, Sir J. 






Larmor, Professors A. E. H. 






Love, H. M. Macdonald, J. Perry, 






and H. C. Plumraer, Mr. W. E. 






Plummer, Professor R. A. 






Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir 






Napier Shaw. Dr. G. T. Walker, 






and Mr. G. W. Walker. 






Annual Tables of Constants and Chairman. — Sir B. Rutherford. 


40 





Numerical Data, chemical, phy- Secretary.— Prof. A. W. Porter. 






sical, and technological. Mr. A. E. G. Egerton.* 






Determination of Gravity at Sea. Chairman. — Professor A. E. H. 


10 





Love. 






' Secretary. —Bt. W. G. Duffield. 






Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Sir H. 






Darwin, Professor A. S. 






Eddington, Maj. E. 0. Henrici, 






1 Sir A. Schuster, and Professor 








1 H. H. Turner. 







I 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixi 




Badiotelegraphic Investigations. 



Calculation 
Tables. 



of Mathematical 



To assist the work of the Tidal 
Institute at Liverpool. 



Chairman. — ^\T Oliver Lodge. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 
Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Sir 

F. W. Dyson, Professor A. S. 
Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murray, 
Professors J. A. Fleming, 

G. W. O. Howe, H. M. Mac- 
donald, and J. W. Nicholson, 
Sir H. Norman, Captain H. R. 
Sankey, Sir A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, and Professor 
H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — 

Secretary. -^Yoiessox J. W. Nichol- 
son. 

Dr. J. R. Airey, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Sir G. 
Greenhill, Colonel Hippisley,* 
Professor E. W. Hobson, Mr. G. 
Kennedy, and Professors Alfred 
Lodge, A. E. H. Love, H. M. j 
Macdonald, G. B. Mathews, 
G. N.Watson, and A. G. Webster. 

Chairman Professor H, Lamb. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. T. Doodson. j 
Sir S. G. Burrard,* Colonel Sir ' 
C. F. Close, Dr. P. H. Cowell, | 
Sir H. Darwin, Dr. G. H. ; 
Fowler,* Admiral F. C. Lear- 
month,* Professor J. E. Petavel, ! 
Dr. J. Proudman, Major G. I. j 
Taylor,* Professor D'Arcy W. 
Thompson, Sir J. J. Thomson, ' 
Professor H. H. Turner. 



£ s.d. 
100 



JO 



150 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



I Colloid Chemistry and its In. 
dustrial Applications. 



Chairman. — Professor F. G . 
Donnan. 

Secretary. — Professor W. C. McC. 
Lewis. 

Mr. E. Ardern,* Dr. B. F. Arm- 
strong, Professor W. M. Bavliss, 
Mr. VV. Clavton,* Prof. C, H. 
Desch, Mr. W. Harrison, Mr. 
E. Hatschek, Professors H. R. 
Proctor and W. Ramsden, Dr. 
E. J. Russell, Mr. A. B. Searle*, 
Dr. S. A. Shorter, Dr. H. P. 
Stevens, and Mr. H. B. Stocks. 



5 



Ixii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Fuel Economy ; Utilisation of 
Coal ; Smoke Prevention. 



Members of Committee 



Absorption Spectra and Chemical 
Constitution of Organic Com- 
pounds. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Bone. 

Vice- Chairman.— "SIt. H. James 
Yates. 

Secretary. — Mr. Robert Mond. 

Mr. A. H. Barker, Professor P. P. 
Bedson, Dr. W. S. Boulton, Mr. 
E. Bury, Professor W. E. Dalby, 
Mr. E. V. Erans, Dr. W. Gallo- 
way, Sir Robert Hadfield, Bart., 
Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, Mr. D. H. 
Helps, Dr. G. Hickling, Mr. 

D. V. Hollingworth, Mr. A. 
Hutchinson, Principal G. Knox, 
Mr. Michael Longridge, Pro- 
fessor Henry Louis, Mr. G. E. 
Morgans, Professor L. T. 
O'Shea, Mr. W. H. Patchell, Mr. 

E. D. Simon, Mr. A. T. Smith. 
Dr. J. E. Stead, Mr. C. E. 
Stromeyer, Mr. G. Blake Walker, 
Sir Joseph Walton, Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. W. B. Wood- 
house, and Mr. C. H. Wording- 
ham. 

Chairman. — Sir J. J. Dobbie. 
Secretary. — Professor E. E. C. Baly. 
Dr. A. VV. Stewart. 



Grants 

£ s. d. 
5 



10 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan, Ireland. 



To investigate the Geology of 
Coal-Seams. 



15 



CliMirman. — Professor Grenville 15 
Cole. I 

Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 

Dr. J. W. Evans, Dr. R. Kidston, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. S. 

Boulton. 
Secretary — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 
Mr. G. Barrow, Sir J. Cadman, 

Professor W. G. Fearnsides, 

Dr. J. S. Flett, Dr. Walcot 

Gibson, Professors J. W. 

Gregory and P. F. Kendall, Dr. 

R. Kidston, Professor T. F. 

Sibly, Sir A. Strahan, and Mr. 

J. R. R. Wilson. 

To excavate Critical Sections in Chairman. — Dr. J. Home. I 15 

Old Red Sand.stone Rocks at Secretary. — Dr. W. Mackie. ! 

Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. Drs. J. "S. Flett, W. T. Gordon, ! 

G. Hickling, R. Kidston, B. N. 
Peach, and D. M. S. Watson. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixiii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



i Grants 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Palaeozoic Rocks of England 
and Wales. 



Chairman. — Professor W. W. 
Watts. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. 
Fearnsides. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Mr. B. S. 
Cobbold, Professor E. J. Gar- 
wood, Mr. V. C. Illing, Dr. Lap- 
worth, Dr. J. E. Marr, and Dr. 
W. K. Spencer. 



£ s.d. 
30 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



Experiments in Inheritance in 
Silkworms. 



Experiments in Inheritance of 
Colour in Lepidoptera. 



Zoological Bibliography and Pub- 
lication. 



Chairman. — Professor W.Bateson. 17 
Secretary. — Mrs. Merritt Hawkes. , 
Dr. F. A. Dixey and Dr. L. Don- | 
caster. 

Chairman. — Professor W Bateson. 50 
Secretary. — The Hon. H. Onslow.* 
Dr. F. A. Dixey. 

CJuxirman. — Professor E. B. Poul- I 10 

ton. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. E. 

Hoyle, and Dr. P. Chalmers 

Mitchell. 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Effects of the War on Credit, 
Currency, Finance, and Foreign 
Exchanges. 



Replacement of Men by Women 
in Industry. 



Chairman. — Professor W. E. Scott. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. E. Allen. 

Professor C. F. Bastable, Sir E. 
Brabrook, Professor L. R. 
Dicksee, Mr. B. Ellinger, 
Mr. E. L. Franklin*, Mr. A. H. 
Gibson, Mr. C. W. Guilleband,* 
Mr. P. W. Hirst, Mr. J. M. 
Keynes*, Professor A. W. 
Kirkaldy, Mr. F. Lavington,* 
Mr. R. McKenna,* Mr. B. 
Sykes, Mr. Herbert Samuel,* 
Dr. J. C. Stamp,* Mr. Hartley 
Withers,* Mr. Hilton Young.* 

Chairman.— VxolessoT W. R. Scott. 

Secretary. — Miss Grier. 

Miss Ashley, Mr. J. Cunnison, Mr. 

Daniels, Mr. C. R. Fay, Mr. J. E. 

Highton, and Professor A. W. 

Kirkaldy. 



100 



30 



Ixiv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To co-operate with the National 
Association of Railway Tra- 
vellers in obtaining better 
conditions of travel for members 
of this Association. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman.— ^iv E. Brabrook. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. H. Garstang.* 
Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Sir Philip 
Magnus. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To report on certain of the more 
complex Stress Distributions in 
Engineering Materials. 



Section H. 

To excavate a Palaeolithic Site in 
Jersey. 



To conduct Archseoiogical Inves- 
tigations in Malta. 



[To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 

(^Committee in suspense: grant for 
contingent liability.') 



To report on the Distribution of 
Bronze Age Implements. 



Chairman. — Professor E. G.Coker. 

Secretary. — Professor A. F. 
Robertson. 

Professor A. Barr.Dr. Chas. Chree, 
Mr. Gilbert Cook, Professor 
W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Messrs. 

A. R. Fulton and J. J. Guest, 
Dr. B. P. Haigh, Professors J. 

B. Henderson, F. C. Lea, and 
A. E. H. Love, Dr. W. Mason, 
Professor J. Perry, Sir J. E. 
Petavel, Dr. F. Rogers, Mr. 
W. A. Scoble, Dr. T. E. Stanton, 
Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, and Mr. 
J. S. Wilson. 



-ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Secretary.— Mt. G. de Gruchy. 

Dr. G. W. Andrews, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Professor A. Keith, and 
Colonel Warton. 

Cliairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 

Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 

Professor A. Keith, Dr. R. R. 

Marett, and Mr. H. Peake. 

Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor Sir W. 
Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
Arthur Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Sir W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor 
J. L. Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
and Mr. H. Peake.] 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Peake. 

Dr. E. C. R. Armstrong, Dr. H. A. 
Auden, Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. 
L. H. D. Buxton, Mr. 0. G. S. 
Crawford, Sir W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Professor H. J. Fleure, Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt, Dr. R. R. Marett, 
Sir C. H. Read, Sir W. Ridgeway. 



Grants 

£ s. d. 
5 



80 



5 



10 



15 



100 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Cfrants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Ixv 



Grants 



To report on the Classification 
and Distribution of Rude Stone 
Monuments. 



Chairman. — Dr. K. R. Marett. 
Secretary. — Professor H. J. Fleure. 
Professor J. L. My res, Mr. H. 
Peake. 



£ s. d. 
20 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



Experimental Studies in 
Physiology of Heredity. 



the 



To continue Breeding Experi- 
ments on Oenothera and other 
Genera. 



Chairman.~Dr. V. ¥. Blackman. 40 
Secretary. — Miss E. R Saunders 
Professors Bateson and Keeble. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. B. Eendle. 30 

Secretary. — Dr. R. R. Gates. 
Professor O. V. Darbishire, Dr. 
M. C. Rayner, Mr. W. Brierley. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



The Effects of the 'Free-place' 
System upon Secondary Educa- 
tion. 



To Enquire into the Practicability 
of an International Auxiliary 
Language. 



To examine, enquire into and 
report upon the character, work 
and maintenance of Museums, 
with a view to their organisa- 
tion and development as Insti- 
tutions for Education and 
Research, and especially to 
enquire into the requirements 
of schools. 



Chairman. — Mr. C. A. Buckmaster. 
Secretary. —Mr. D. Berridge. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Miss L. J. 

Clarke, Miss B. Foxley, Dr. W. 

Garnett, Sir R. A. Gregory, 

and Miss Walter. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. B. Hardy. 

Secrefari/. — Dr. E. H. Tripp. 

Mr. E. ijullough.* 

Professor J., T. Findlay, Sir Richard 
Gregory, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
Dr. H. Foster Morley, Professor 
W. Ripman,* Mr. F. Nowell 
Smith,* Mr. A. E. Twentyman.* 

Chairtnan. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Secretaries. — Mr. H. Bolton, and 
Dr. J. A. Clubb. 

Dr. P. A. Bather, Rev. H. Browne, 
Mr. C. A. Buckmaster, Professor 
E. J. Garwood, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Dr. H. S. Harrison, 
Mr. M. D. Hill, Dr. W. E. 
Hoyle, Sir H. Miers, Professor 
P. Newberry, Mr. H. R. Rath- 
bone, Dr. W. M. Tattersall, Sir 
Richard Temple, Mr. H. Ham- 
.shaw Thomas, Professor F. E. 
"Weiss, Dr. Jessie White. 



10 







15 



1919. 



Ixvi 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 






£ 


g. d. 


To inquire into the provision of 


Cfiairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 


10 





Educational Charts and Pictures 


strong. 






for display in schools. 


Secretary. — Sir R. A. Gregory. 

Mr. D. Berridge, Miss L. J. 
Clarke, Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, 
Sir Napier Shaw, Professor 
H. H. Turner, 






CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 






Corresponding Societies Com- 


Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 


50 





mittee for the preparation of 


Secretary. — Mr. W. Mark Webb. 






their Report. 


Mr. P. J. Ashton, Dr. F. A. Bather, 
Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Mr. T. Shep- 
pard, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Mr. Mark L. Sykes, and the 
President and General Officers 
of the Association. 







2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 'f 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere, 



To aid the work of Establishing a Solar 
Observatory in Australia. 



Chairman. — Sir Napier Shaw. 

Secretary. — 

Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. W. H. Dines, Sir 
R. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmor, 
Sir J. E. Petavel, and Sir A. 
Schuster. 

Chairman. — Professor H. H. Turner. 

Secretary.— Dt. W. G. Duffield. 

Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 

Mr. F. McClean, and Sir A. 

Schuster. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Research on 
zonium Salts. 



Non-Aromatic Dia- 



Chairman. — Dr. F. D. Chattaway. 
Secretary. — Professor G. T. Morgan. 
Mr. P. G. W. Bayly and Dr. N. V. 
Sidgwick. 



t Excepting the case of Committees receiving grants from the ' Oaird Fund,' for which see p. l.xxii. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receivitig Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixvii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To consider the Nomenclature of the 
Carboniferous, Permo-carboniferous, 
and Permian Bocks of the Southern 
Hemisphere. 



CliaiTman. — Professor T. W. Edgeworth 
David. 

Secretai-y. — Professor E. W. Skeats. 

Mr. W. S. Dun, Professor J. W. Gregory, 
Sir T. H. Holland, Messrs. W. Howchin, 
A. E. Kitson, and G. W. Lamplugh, 
Dr. A. W. Rogers, Professor A. C. 
Seward, Mr. D. M. S. Watson, and 
Professor W. G. Woolnough. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. J. Garwood. 
Secretary. — Professor S. H. Eeynolds. 
Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Messrs. 

C. V. Crook, R. Kidston, and A. S. Reid, 

Sir J. J. H. Teall, Professor W. W. 

Watts, and Messrs. R. Welch and W. 

Whitaker. 

Cliairman. — Professor P. F. Kendall. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. R. 
Dwerryhouse, Professors J. W. 
Gregory, Sir T. H. Holland, and 
S. H. Reynolds, Dr. Marie C. 
Stopes, Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, and 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

To investigate the Flora of Lower Car- Chairman. — Dr. E. Kidston. 

boniferous times as exemplified at a ' Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon, 

newly-discovered locality at Gullane, ' Dr. J. S. Flett, Professor B. J. Garwood, 

Haddingtonshire. Dr. J. Horne, and Dr. B. N. Peach. 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To consider the preparation of a List 
of Characteristic Fossils. 



To aid competent Investigators selected 
by the Committee to carry on definite 
pieces of work at the Zoological 
Station at Naples. 



To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 

To summon meetings in London or 
elsewhere for the consideration of 
matters affecting the interests of 
Zoology, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
organisation. 



Chairman, — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. H. Ash worth. 

Dr. G. P. Bidder, Professor F. 0. Bower, 
Drs. W. B. Hardy and S. F. Harmer, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray 
Lankester, Professor W. C. Mcintosh, 
Dr. A. D. Waller. 

Cliairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 

Dendy. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor J. P. 
I Hill, and Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Secretary Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, A. Dendy, 
J. Stanley Gardiner, Marcus Hartog, 
W. A. Herdman, J. Graham Kerr, 
E. W. MacBride, Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, and Professor E. B. Poulton. 



E 2 



Ixviii 



RESEAECH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

(See under Section H helow.) 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference to 
temperature. 



To consider and report on the Stan- 
dardisation of Impact Tests. 



Chairman. — Sir Dugald Clerk. 
Secretary. — Professor W. E. Dalby. 
Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Burstall, 

H. L. Callendar, and E. G. Coker, 

Mr. D. L. Chapman, Professor H. B. 

Dixon, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. J. 

A. Harker, Colonel SirH. C. L. Holden, 

Professor J. E. Petavel, Captain H. 

R. Santey, Professor A. Smithells, and 

Mr. H. Wimperis. 

Chairman. — Professor W. H. Warren. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Vicars. 

Professor Payne and Mr. E. H. Saniter. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Ethnography and Geo- 
graphy of Captured Territories in the 
Pacific.^ 



Chairman. — Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 

Secretary. — Professor C. G. Seligman. 

Mr. J. Bolton, Mr. E. W. Pearson 
Chinnery, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Professor 
L. W. Lyde, Sir E. F. im Thurn, Mr. 
E. A. Reeves, and Dr.W. Mersh Strong. 



To report on the present state of know- Chairman. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

ledge of the Ethnography of former ; Secretary. — Professor C. G. Seligman. 
German Territories in Africa. | Mr. E. S. Hartland, Sir H. H. Johnston. 



To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Anthropological Interest. 



ClMirman. — Professor Sir W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 
Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Mr. L. H. D. 

Buxton, Mr. S. Casson, Dr. W. L. H. 

Duckworth, Professor J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Dr. Harrison. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. H. O. Forbes, Mr. E. 
Heawood, and Professor J. L. Myres. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. 



Food Standards and Man-power. 



Chairman.^DT. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Dr. F. O'B. Ellison,* Professor J. B. 
Farmer. 

Chairman. — Professor W. D. Halliburton. 
Secretary. — Professor A. D. Waller. 
Professor E. H. Starling. 



IT Joint Committee with Section E. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



Ixix 



2. Not receiving Orants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To consider the possibilities of investi- 
gation of the Ecology of Fungi, and 
assist Mr. J. Kamsbottom in his 
initial efforts in this direction. 



The Investigation of the Vegetation of 
Ditcham Park, Hampshire. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



To consider and report upon the neces- 
sity for Further Provision for Train- 
ing and Kesearch in Horticulture. 



Ckairma?).— Dr. H. W. T. Wager. 
Secretaries. — Mr. J. Ramsbottom and 

Miss A. Lorrain Smith. 
Mr. W. B. Brierley, Mr. F. T. Brooks, 

Mr. W. N. Cheesman, Professor T. 

Johnson, Professor M. C. Potter, Mr. L. 

Carleton Rea, and Mr. E. W. Swanton. 

Cliairnian. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. S. Adamson. 
Professor R. H. Yapp. 

Chairman. — Professor F. W. Oliver. 
Secreta/ry. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Professor A. C. Seward and Dr. D. H. 
Scott. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Bateson. 
Secretary. — Dr. E. N. Thomas. 
Mr. F. T. Brooks, Dr. A. B. Rendle, 
and Sir Albert Rollit. 



Section L.— EDUCATION. 



The Influence of School Books upon 
Eyesight. 



Training in Citizenship. 



Chairman. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. F. Daniell. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. Eggar, 

Sir R. A. Gregory, Dr. N. Bishop 

Harman. Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. W. E. 

Humpner, Mr. A. P. Trotter, and Mr. 

Trevor Walsh. 

Chairtnan.—^t. Rtv. J. E. C. Welldon. 

Secretary. — Lady Shaw. 

Sir R. Baden-Powell,* Mr. C. H. Blakis- 

ton, Mr. G. D. Dunkerley, Mr. VV. D. 

Eggar, Mr. C. R. Fay, Principal J. C. 

Maxwell Garnett, Sir R. A. Gregory, 

and Sir T. Morison.* 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES COMMITTEE. 



To take steps to obtain Kent's Cavern 
for the Nation. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whi taker. 
Secretary.— Mr. W. M. Webb. 
Mr. Mark L. Sykes. 



ixx besbarch committees. 

Eeseaech Committees ' in Suspense.' 

The work of the following Committees is in suspense until further 
notice. The personnel of these Committees will be found in the Report 
for 1917. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

To report on the Botanical and Chemical Characters of the Eucalypts and their 
Correlation. 

Chemical Investigation of Natural Plant Products of Victoria. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

An investigation of the Biology of the Abrolhos Islands and the Noilh-west Coast 
of Australia (north of Shark's Bay to Broome), with particular reference to the 
Marine Fauna. 

Nomenclator Animalium Genera et Sub-genera. 

To obtain, as nearly as possible, a Representative Collection of Marsupials for 
work upon (a) the Reproductive Apparatus and Development, (6) the Brain. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To aid in the preparation of a Bathymetrical Chart of the Southern Ocean 
between Australia and Antarctica. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. 

To investigate and ascertain the Distribution of Artificial Islands in the Lochs 
of the Highlands of Scotland. 

To investigate the Physical Characters of the Ancient Egyptians. 

To conduct Archseological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. 

The Teaching of Anthropology. 

To prepare and publish Miss Byrne's Gazetteer and Map of the Native Tribes 
of Australia. 

To conduct Anthropometric Investigations in the Island of Cyprus. 

To investigate the Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury in connec- 
tion with a Committee of the Somerset Archseological and Natural History Society. 

To co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. 

SECTION K, — BOTANY. 

To carry out a Research on the influence of varying percentages of Oxygen and 
of various Atmospheric Pressures upon Geotropic and Heliotropic Irritability and 
Curvature. 

The Renting of Cinchona Botanic Station in Jamaica. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixxi 

Synopsis of Gh-ants of Money afpropriated for Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Bournemouth Meeting, Se2)temher 1919. 
Tlie Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for Grants are jyreflxed to the respective Committees. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations 100 

*Rutherford, Sir E. — Tables of Constants 40 

*Love, Professor A. E. H.— Gravity at Sea 10 

*LodgG, Sir 0. — Radiotelegraphic Investigations 100 

*Hill, Professor M. J. M.— Mathematical Tables 30 

Lamb, Professor H. — Tidal Institute at Liverpool 150 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

*Donnan, Professor F. G. — Colloid Chemistry 5 

*Mond, Mr. R.— Fuel Economy 5 

*Dobbie, Sir J. J. — Absorption Spectra, &c 10 

Section C. — Geology. 

*Cole, Professor Grenville. — Old Red Sandstone Eocks of 

Kiltorcan 15 

*Boulton, Professor W. B.— Geology of Coal Seams 15 

*Horne, Dr. J. — Old Red Sandstone at Ehynie 15 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Critical Sections in Palajozoic 

Eocks 30 

Section D. — Zoology. 

*Bateson, Professor W. — Inheritance in Silkworms 17 

Bateson, Professor W. — Inheritance of Colour in Lepidoptera 50 

*Poulton, Professor E. B. — Zoological Bibliography 10 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Scott, Professor W. E. — Effects of War on Credit, &c 100 

*Scott, Professor W. E. — Women in Industry 80 

Brabrook, Sir E. — Eailway Travel 5 

Section G. — Engineering. 

*Coker, Professor E. G. — Complex Stress Distributions 80 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

*Marett, Dr. R. E. — Palaeolithic Site in Jersey 5 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Archaeological Investigations in 

Malta 10 

*Read, Sir C. H. — Stone Circles (Contingent Liability) ..... 15 
*Myres, Professor J. L. — Distribution of Bronze Age Imple- 
ments 100 

Marett, Dr. E. E.—Eude Stone Monuments 20 

Carried forward £967 

* Reappointed. 



Ixxii CAIRD FUND. 

£ s. cl. 

Brought forward 967 

Section K. — Botany. 

*Blackman, Dr. F. F.— Physiology of Heredity 40 

Rendle, Dr. A. B.— Oenothera 30 

Section L.— Educational Science. 

*Buckmaster, Mr. C. A. — ' Free-place ' System 10 

Hardy, Mr. W. B. — Intel-national Language 5 

*Green, Professor J. A. — Museums 15 

Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Educational Charts 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 

*Whitaker, Mr. W. — For Preparation of Eeport 50 

Total ^1,127 



Cairo Fund. 

An unconditional gift of lO.OOOZ. was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of 
Dundee. 

The Council, in its report to the General Committee at the Bir- 
mingham Meeting, made certain recommendations as to the administra- 
tion of this Fund. These recommendations were adopted, with the 
Report, by the General Committee at its meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The following allocations have been made from the Fund by the 
Council to September 1919 : — 

Najjles Zoological Station Committee (p. Ixvii). — 501. (1912-13) ; lOOL 
(1913-14) ; 100/. annually in future, subject to the adoption of the Com- 
mittee's report. (Reduced to 50/. during war.) 

Seismology Committee (p. Ix). — lOOZ. (1913-14) ; lOOZ. annually in 
future, subject to the adoption of the Committee's report. 

Badiotelegraphic Covimittee (p. Ixi). — 500Z. (1913-14). 

Magnetic Re-survey of the British Isles (in collaboration with the 
Royal Society).— 250Z. 

Committee on Determination of Gravity at Sea (p. Ix). — lOOZ. 
(1914-15). 

Mr. F. Sargent, Bristol University, in connection ivith his Astro- 
nomical Work. — 101. (1914). 

Organising Committee of Section F (Economics), towards expenses of 
an Inquiry into Outlets for Labour after the War. — 1001. (1915). 

Bev. T. E. B. Phillips, for aid in transpla^iting his private observa- 
tory.— 201. (1915). 

Committee on Fuel Economy (p. Ixii).— 25Z. (1915-16). 

Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of l,000i. 
to the Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. 

* Keappointed. 



RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Ixxiii 



Eesolutions and Eecommendatioins. 

The General Committee gave instructions to the General Officers 
upon which the following Resolutions were forwarded after the close 
of the meeting in Bournemouth : — 

To the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in reviewing the 
results of scientific metliod applied to military and other practical arts, recog- 
nises that the successful issue of the War has sprung from the efforts of scientific 
men concentrated on those problems, and, with the conviction that the well-being 
and security, of the nation is dependent on the continuous study of such matters, 
would urge on H.M. Government the necessity for apportioning an adequate sum 
from that allocated to home administration and the upkeep of the fighting forces 
for the purpose of a definitely organised scheme of research, as, for example, 
on problems connected with health, food, and commerce, on explosives, on 
chemical warfare, and on physical and engineering problems bearing on military 
work. 

To the First Lord of the Admiralty. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in reviewing the 
results of scientific method applied to naval and military arte, recognises that the 
success of our equipment has sprung from the efforts of scientific men concen- 
trated on those problems, and, with the conviction that the security of the nation 
is dependent on the continuous study of such matters, would urge on H.M. 
Government the necessity for apportioning an adequate sum from that allocated 
to the upkeep of the fighting forces for tlie purpose of a definitely organised 
scheme of research on physical and engineering problems bearing on naval and 
military work, on explosives, and on biological and other problems related to 
military treatment, and to the work of the Naval Intelligence Service. 

To the Secretary of State for War. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in reviewing the 
results of scientific method applied to military arts, recognises that the success 
of our equipment has sprung from the efforts of scientific men concentrated on 
those problems, and, with the conviction that the security of the nation is 
dependent on the continuous study of such matters, would urge on H.M. Govern- 
ment the necessity for apportioning an adequate sum from that allocated to the 
fighting forces for the purpose of a definitely organised scheme of research on 
explosives, on chemical warfare, on physical and engineering problems bearing 
on military work, and on biological and other problems related to the work of 
the Army Medical Service and the ^Military Intelligence Department. 

To the President of the Board of Trade. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in reviewing the 
results of scientific method applied to practical arts, recognises that the successful 
issue of the War has sprung from tlie efforts of scientific men concentrated on 
those problems, and, with the conviction that the welfare of the nation and its 
economic recovery from the effects of the War are dependent on the continuous 
fitudy of such matters, would urge on H.M. Government the necessity for appor- 
tioning an adequate sum from that allocated to the upkeep of the Board of Trade 
for the purpose of a definitely organised scheme of research on scientific problems 
relating to the objects and methods of the nation's commerce and industry. 



Ixxiv RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

To the Minister of Health. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in reviewing the 
results of scientific method applied to practical arts, recognises that the successful 
issue of the War has sprung from the efforts of scientific men concentrated on 
those problems, and, with the conviction that the welfare of the nation is 
dependent on the continuous study of such matters, would urge on H.M. Govern- 
ment the necessity, for apportioning an adequate sum from that allocated to the 
upkeep of the jMinistry of Health for the purpose of a definitely organised scheme 
of research on biological and other problems in connection with the causes and 
communication of disease, and the preservation of the national health. 

To the Food Controller. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in reviewing the 
results' of scientific method applied to practical arts, recognises that the successful 
issue of the War has sprung from the efforts of scientific men concentrated on 
those problems, and, with the conviction that the security of the nation is 
dependent on the continuous study of such matters, would urge on H.M. Govern- 
ment the necessity, for apportioning an adequate sum from that allocated to the 
upkeep of the Ministry of Food for the purpose of a definitely organised scheme 
of research on scientific problems connected with the production, preservation, 
and distribution of foods. 

Resolutions and Recommendations referred to the Council for con- 
sideration, and, ^f desirable, for action: — 

From Section D. 

That in the case of pe,rsons applying for membership of the General Com- 
mittee who are not known to the Council the matter should be referred to the 
Organising Committee of the Section concerned. 

From Section E. 

The Committee of Section E recommends the Council to ask the Australian 
Government if they would kindly inform the British Association as to the 
nature and amount of the geographical and anthropological material which the 
Committee understands was left by the Germans in New Guinea, and if they 
would forward to the Association copies for any maps which they desire to 
base upon such material. 

From Section H. 

To recommend that the Council of the Association approach the Australian 
Government to urge that steps be taken to secure the collection and publication 
of German anthropological and .geographical material, and other scientific data, 
captured in New Guinea and the adjacent enemy territories in the Pacific. 

From Section H. 

To recommend that the Council of the Association express to the appropriate 
department of His ^Majesty's Government their warm approval of the proposal 
to establish a British Institute of Archaeology in Egypt with annual grants 
from public moneys. 

From Section H. 

To recommend the Council of the British Association to represent to His 
Majesty's Government the desirability of taking steps to secure the uniform 
description and nomenclature of ancient remains in respect to the Ordnance 
Survey of the British Isles. 



PUBLIC OR citizens' LECTURES. IxxV 

From Section I. 

That the Council be asked to consider the advisability of changing the name 
of the Section of Physiology to that of Section of Physiology and Psychology, 
and that the Pre«iidents in alternate years represent the two branches of the 
Section. 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies of the British Asso- 
ciation asks that the taxes derived from motor spirit and carriages should once 
more be ear-marked for the improvement of the roads, and urges that in future 
these taxes should be entirely devoted to road improvements. 

From the General Committee. 

That a joint committee of the General Committee and Council be appointed 
to consider and advise on the future policy of the Association towards grants 
in aid, and the organisation of research. 

(The General Committee appointed as its representatives Prof. H. E. Arm- 
.strong, Prof. A. Gray, Dr. Alex. Hill, ;Mr. A. G. Tansley.) 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth's Paper on ' Gauss's Theorem for Quadrature and the 
approximate Evaluation of Definite Integrals.' 

Sir G. Greenhill's Report on 'Wave ]\Iotion.' 

Brig.-Gen. H. Hartley's Paper on ' Chemical Warfare.' 



Public or Citizens' Lectures. 



During the Meeting the following Citizens' Lectures were arranged, in 
co-operation with the local branch of the Workers' Educational Associa- 
tion in Bournemouth : — 

September 9th at 7.30 p.m. in St. Andrew's Institute, Professor 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S., on ' Modern Astronomy.' 

September 11th at 7.30 p.m. in the Technical Hall, Pokesdown, 
Professor S. H. Reynolds on ' Purbeck Isle and its Geology and 
Scenery.' 

September 12th at 7.30 p.m. in the Eechabite Hall, Winton, Professor 
J. L. Myres on ' Women's Place in Nature from an Anthropological 
Standpoint.' 




i 




PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

The Hon. Sir CHARLES A. PARSONS, 
K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT. 

Three years of anxiety and stress have passed since the last Meeting 
of the British Association. The weight of the struggle which pressed 
heavily upon us at the time of the Newcastle Meeting in 1916 had 
increased so much in intensity by the Spring of 1917 that the Council, 
after consultation with the Local Committee at Bournemouth, finally 
decided to cancel the Summer Meeting of that year. This was the 
first time in the history of the Association that an Annual Meeting 
was not held. 

We all rejoice to feel that the terrible ordeal through which the 
whole Empire has been passing has now reached its final phases, and 
that during the period of reorganisation, social and industrial, it is 
possible to resume the Annual Meetings of the Association under 
happier conditions. We have gladly and with much appreciation 
accepted the renewed invitation of our friends and colleagues at 
Bournemouth. 

We are gathered together at a time when, after a great upheaval, 
the elemental conditions of organisation of the world are still in flux, 
and we have to consider how to mould and influence the recrystallisa- 
tion of these elements into the best forms and most economic re- 
arrangements for the benefit of civilisation. That tlie British Associa- 
tion has exerted a great influence in guiding the nation towards advance- 
ment in the Sciences and Arts in the most general sense thei'e can be 
no question, and of this we may be assured by a study of its proceedings 
in conjunction with the history of contemporary progress. Although 
the British Association cannot claim any paramount prerogative in this 
good work, yet it can certainly claim to provide a free arena for dis- 
cussion where in the past new theories in Science, new propositions for 
beneficial change, new suggestions for casting aside fetters to advance- 



4 president's address. 

merit in Science, Art, and Economics have first seen the light of 
publication and discussion. 

For more than half a century it has pleaded strongly for the advance- 
ment of Science and its apphcation to the Arts. In the yearly volume 
for 1855 will be found a report in which it is stated that ' The Objects for 
which the Association was established have been carried out in three 
ways : First, by requisitioning and printing reports on tRe present state 
of different branches of Science; secondly, by granting sums of money 
to small committees or individuals, to enable them to carry on new 
researches; thirdly, by recommending the Government to undertake 
expeditions of discovery, or to make grants of money for certain and 
national purposes, which were beyond the means of the Association.' 
As a matter of fact it has, since its commencement, paid out of its own 
funds upwards of 80,000L in grants in aid of research. 

Developments Prior to the War. 

It is twenty-nine years since an engineer, Sir Frederick Bramwell, 
occupied this chair and discoursed so charmingly on the great import- 
ance of the next to nothing, the importance of looking after little 
things which, in engineering, as in other walks of life, are often too 
lightly considered. 

The advances in engineering during the last twenty years are too 
many and complex to allow of their description, however short', being 
included in one Address, and, following the example of some of my 
predecessors in this chair, I shall refer only to some of the most 
important features of this wide subject. I feel that I cannot do 
better than begin by quoting from a speech made recently by Lord 
Inchcape, when speaking on the question of the nationalisation of 
coal : ' It is no exaggeration to say that coal has been the maker of 
modern Britain, and that those who discovered and developed the 
methods of working it have done more to determine the bent of 
British activities and the form of British society than all the Parlia- 
ments of the past hundred and twenty years. ' 

James Watt. — No excuse is necessary for entering upon this theme, 
because this year marks the hundredth anniversary of the death of 
James Watt, and in reviewing the past, it appears that England has 
gained her present proud position by her early enterprise and by the 
success of the Watt steam engine, which enabled her to become the 
first country to develop her resources in coal, and led to the estab- 
lishment of her great manufactures and her immense mercantile 
marine. 

The laws of steam which James Watt discovered are simply these : 
That the latent heat is nearly constant for dift'erent pressures within 



president's address. 5 







the ranges used in steam engines, and that, consequently, the greater 
the steam pressure and the greater the range of expansion the greater 
will be the work obtained from a given amount of steam. Secondly, 
as may now seem to us obvious, that steam from its expansive force 
will rush into a vacuum. Having regard to the state of knowledge 
at the time, his conclusions appear to have been the result of close 
and patient reasoning by a mind endowed with extraordinary powers 
of insight into physical questions, and wdth the faculty of drawing 
sound practical conclusions from numerous experiments devised to 
throw light on the subject under investigation. His resource, courage, 
and devotion were extraordinaiy. 

In commencing his investigations on the steam engine he soon 
discovered that there was a tremendous loss in the Newoomen engine, 
which he thought might be remedied. This was the loss caused by 
condensation of the steam on the cold metal walls of the cylinder. 
He first commenced by lining the walls with wood, a material of low 
thermal conductivity. Though this improved matters, he was not 
satisfied; his intuition probably told him that there should be some 
better solution of the problem, and doubtless he made many experi- 
ments before he realised that the true solution lay in a condenser separate 
from the cylinder of the engine. It is easy after discovery to say, 
' How obvious and how simple ! ' but many of us here know how difficult 
is any step of advance when shrouded by unknown surroundings, 
and we can well appreciate the courage and the amount of investigation 
necessary before James Watt thought himself justified in trying the 
separate condenser. But to us now, and to the youngest student who 
knows the laws of steam as formulated by Carnot, Joule, and Kelvin, 
the separate condenser is the obvious means of constructing an 
economical condensing engine. 

Watt's experiments led him to a clear view of the great importance 
of securing as much expansion as possible in his engines. The 
materials and appliances for boiler and machine construction were at that 
time so undeveloped that steam pressures were practically limited to a 
few pounds above atmospheric pressure. The cylinders and pistons of 
his engines were not constructed with the facility and accuracy to which 
we are now accustomed, and chiefly for these reasons expansion ratios 
of from two to threefold were the usual practice. Watt had given 
to the world an engine which consumed from five to seven pounds of 
coal per horse-power hour, or one-quarter of the fuel previously used 
by any engine. With this consumption of fuel its field under the con- 
ditions prevaihng at the time was practically unlimited. What need 
was there, therefore, for commercial reasons, to endeavour still further 
improve the engine at the risk of encountering fresh difficulties and 
greater commercial embarrassments ? The course was rather for him 
1919. 



6 president's address. 

and his partners to devote all their energy to extend the adoption of 
the engine as it stood, and this they did, and to the Watt engine, 
consuming from five to seven pounds of coal per horse-power, mankind 
owes the greatest permanent advances in material welfare recorded in 
history. 

With secondary modifications, it was the prime mover in most 
general use for eighty years — i.e., till the middle of last century. It 
remained for others to carry the expansion of steam still further in 
the compound, triple, and, lastly, in the quadnaple expansion engine, 
which is the most economical reciprocating engine of to-day. 

Watt had considered the practicability of the turbine. He writes 
to his partner, Boulton, in 1784: ' The whole success of the machine 
depends on the possibility of prodigious velocities. In short, without 
God makes it possible for things to move them one thousand feet per 
second, it cannot do us much harm.' The advance in tools of pre- 
cision, and a clearer knowledge of the dynamics of rotating bodies, 
have now made the speeds mentioned by Watt feasible, and indeed 
common, everyday practice. 

Turbines. — The turbine of to-day carries the expansion of steam 
much further than has been found possible in any reciprocating engine, 
and owing to this property it has surpassed it in economy of coal, 
and it realises to the fullest extent Watt's ideal of the expansion of steam 
from the boiler to the lowest vapour pressure obtainable in the condenser. 

Among the minor improvements which in recent years have con- 
duced to a liigher efficiency in turbines are the more accurate curvature 
of the blades to avoid eddy losses in the steam, the raising of the 
peripheral velocities of the blades to nearly the velocity of the steam 
impinging upon them, and details of construction to reduce leakages 
to a minimum. In turbines of 20,000 to 30,000 horse-power 82 per 
cent, of the available energy in the steam is now obtainable as brake 
horse-power; and with a boiler efficiency of 85 per cent, the thermo- 
dynamic efficiency from the fuel to the electrical output of the alter- 
nator has reached 23 per cent., and shortly may reach 28 per cent., 
a result rivalling the efficiency of internal combustion engines worked 
by producer gas. 

During the twenty years immediately preceding the war turbo- 
generators had increased in size from 500 kilowatts to 25,000 kilowatts, 
and the consumption of steam had fallen from 17 lb. per kw. hour 
to 10.3 lb. per kw. hour. Turbines have become the recognised means 
of generating electricity from steam on a large scale, although they 
have not superseded the Watt engine for pumping mines or the drawing 
of coal, except as a means for generating electricity for these purposes. 
In the same period the engine power in the mercantile marine had risen 
from 3,900 of the King Edward to 75,000 of the Mauretania. 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. ' 

As regards the Eoyal Navy, the engine power of battleships, prior 
to the war, had increased from 12,000 i.h.p. to 30,000 s.h.p., while 
the speed advanced from 17 knots to 23 knots, and during the war, 
in ships of the Queen Elizabeth class the power amounted to 
75,000 s.h.p., with a speed of 25 knots. In cruisers similar 
advances were made. The i.h.p. of the Powerful was 25,000, while 
the s.h.p. of the Queen Mary was 78,000, with a speed of 28 knots. 
During the war the power obtained with geared turbines in the 
Courageous class was 100,000 s.h.p. with a speed of 32 knots, the 
maximum power transmitted through one gear w^heel being 25,000 
h.p., and through one pinion 15,500 h.p., while in destroyers, speeds 
up to 39 knots have been obtained. The aggi-egate horse-power of 
war and mercantile turbined vessels throughout the world is now about 
35 millions. 

These advances in power and speed have been made possible mainly 
by the successive increase in economy and diminution of weight derived 
from the replacement of reciprocating engines by turbines direct coupled 
to the propellers, and, later, by the introduction of reduction gearing 
between the turbines and the propellers ; also by the adoption of water- 
tube boilers and of oil fuel. ^Yith these advances the names of Lord 
Fisher, Sir William White, and Sir Hemy Oram will always be 
associated. 

The British Navy has led the world for a century and more. Lord 
Fisher has recently said that many of the ships are already obsolete 
and must soon be replaced if supremacy is to be maintained ; and there 
can be no question that, to guide the advance and development on tlie 
best lines, continuous scientific experiment, though costly at the time, 
will prove the cheapest in the long run. 

The Work of Sir Wm. White.— \\ith. the great work of the Eoyal 
Navy fresh in our minds, we cannot but recall the prominent part 
taken by the late Sir William White in its construction. His sudden 
death, when President-elect for 1913, lost to the nation and to the Asso- 
ciation the services of a great naval architect who possessed remarkable 
powers of prevision and dialectic. He was Chief Consti'uctor to the 
Admiralty from 1885 to 1901, and largely to him was due the efficiency 
of our vessels in the Great War. 

White often referred to the work of Brunei as the designer of the 
Great Eastern, and spoke of him as the originator of the cellular con- 
struction of the bottoms of ships, since universally adopted, as a means 
of strengthening the hull and for obtaining additional safety in case 
of damage. Scott Russell was the builder of this great pioneer vessel, 
the forerunner of the Atlantic hners, and the British Association may 
rightly feel satisfaction in having aided him wlien a young man by 
pecuniary grants to develop his researches into the design and cori- 

r 2 



8 PKESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

struction of sliips and the wave-line form of hull which he originated, 
a form of special importance in paddle-wheel vessels. 

So much discussion has taken place in the last four years as to 
the best construction of ship to resist torpedo attacks that it is inter- 
esting to recall briefly at the present time what was said by White in 
his Cantor Lectures to the Eoyal Society of Arts in 1906: 'Great 
attention has been bestowed upon means of defence against underwater 
torpedo attacks. From the first introduction of torpedoes it was re- 
cognised that extreme watertight subdivision in the interior of warships 
would be the most important means of defence. Experiments have 
been made with triple watertight skins forming double cellular sides, 
the compartments nearest the outer bottom being filled, in some cases, 
with water, coal, cellulose, or other materials. Armour plating has 
been used both on the outer bottom and on inner skins.' He also 
alludes to several Eussian ships which were torpedoed by the Japanese, 
and he concludes by saying : ' Up to date the balance of opinion has 
favoured minute watertight subdivisions and comparatively thin water- 
tight compartments, rather than the use of internal armour, whose 
use, of course, involves large expenditure of weight and cost.' 

The present war has most amply confirmed his views and conclu- 
sions, then so lucidly and concisely expressed. 

While on the subject of steamships, it may perhaps be opportune 
to say one word as to their further development. The size of sliips 
had been steadily increasing up to the time of the war, resulting in 
a reduction of power required to propel them per ton of displacement. 
On the other hand, thanks to their greater size and more economical 
machinery, speeds have been increased when the traffic has justified 
the greater cost. The limiting factor to further increase in size is 
the depth of water in the harbours. With this restriction removed 
there is no obstacle to building ships up to 1,000 feet in length or more, 
provided the volume and character of the traffic are such as to justify 
the capital outlay. 

Tungsten Steel. — Among other important pre-war developments 
that have had a direct bearing upon the war, mention should be made 
of the discovery and extensive use of alloys of steel. Th© wonderful 
properties conferred upon steel by the addition of tungsten were dis- 
covered by Muschet ^ in 1868, and later this alloy was investigated and 
improved by Maunsel White and Taylor, of Philadelphia. The latter 
showed that the addition of tungsten to steel has the following effect : 
Tliat after the steel has been quenched at a very high temperature near 
its melting point it can be raised to a much higher temperature than is 
possible with ordinary carbon tool steel, without losing its hardness 

' Who has not been sufficiently credited with his share in making the Bessemer 
process a practical success. 



president's address. 9 

and power of cutting metal. In otbei^ words, it holds the carbon more 
tenaciously in the hardened state, and hence tungsten steel tools, even 
when red hot, can cut ordinary mild steel. It has revolutionised the 
design of machine tools and has increased the output on heavy munition 
work by 100 per cent., and in ordinary engineering by 50 per cent. 

The alloys of steel and manganese with which the name of Sir Robert 
Hadfield is associated have proved of utility in immensely increasing 
the durability of railway and tramway points and crossings, and for 
the hard teeth of machinery for the crushing of stone and other materials, 
and, in fact, for any purposes where great hardness and strength are 
essential. 

Investigation of Gaseous Explosions. — Brief reference must also 
be made — and it will be gi'atifying to do so — to the important work 
of one of the Committees of the British Association appointed in 1908, 
under the chairmanship of the late Sir William Preece, for the investi- 
gation of gaseous explosions, with special reference to temperature. 
The investigations of the Committee are contained in seven yearly 
reports up to 1914. Of the very important work of the Committee I 
wish to refer to one investigation in particular, which has proved to 
be a guiding star to the designers and manufacturers of internal com- 
bustion engines in this country. The members of the Committee more 
directly associated with this particular investigation were Sir Dugald 
Clerk, Professor Callendar, and the late Pi'ofessor Bertram Hopkinson. 

The investigation showed that the intensity of the heat radiated 
by the incandescent gases to the walls of the cylinder of a gas engine 
increases with the size of the cylinder, the actual rate of this increase 
being approximately proportional to the square root of the depth of 
the radiating incandescent gas ; the intensity was also shown to increase 
rapidly with the richness of the gas. It suffices now to say that the 
heat in a large cylinder with a rich explosive mixture is so intense 
that the metal eventually cracks. The investigation shows why this 
occurs, and by doing so has saved enormous sums to the makers of 
gas and oil engines in this countiy, and has led them to avoid Hie 
large cylinder, so common in Germany before the war, in favour of 
a multiplicity of smaller cylinders. 

Science and the War. 
In coming to this section of my Address I am reminded that in 
the course of his Presidential Address to Section G, in 1858, Lord 
Eosse said : ' Another object of the Mechanical Section of the Associa- 
tion has been effected — the importance of engineering science in the 
service of the State has been brought more prominently forward. There 
seems, however, something still wanting. Science may yet do more 
for the Navy and Army if more called upon. ' 



10 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

Comparatively recently, too, Lord French remarked : ' We have 
failed during the past to read accurately the lessons as regards the 
fighting of the future which modern science and invention should have 
taught us.' 

In view of the eminent services which scientists have rendered 
during the war, I think that we may be justified in I'egarding the 
requirement stated by Lord Eosse as having at last been satisfied, 
and also in believing that such a criticism as Lord French rightly 
uttered will not be levelled against the country in the future. 

Though British men of Science had not formerly been adequately 
recognised in relation to war and the safety of their country, yet at 
the call of the sailors and the soldiers they whole-heartedly, and with 
intense zeal, devoted themselves to repair the negligence of the past, 
and to apply their unrivalled powers and skill to encounter and over- 
come the long-standing machinations of the enemy. They worked in 
close collaboration with the men of Science of the Allied Nations, and 
eventually produced better war material, chemicals, and apparatus 
of all kinds for vanquishing the enemy and the saving of our own men 
than had been devised by the enemy during many years of preparation 
planned on the basis of a total disregard of treaties and the conventions 
of war. 

Four years is too short a time for much scientific invention to 
blossom to useful maturity, even under the forced exigencies of war 
and Government control. It must be remembered that in the past the 
great majority of new discoveries and inventions of merit have taken 
many years — sometimes generations — to bring them into general use. 
It must also be ,mentioned that in some instances discoveries and inven- 
tions are attributable to the general advance in Science and the Arts 
which has brought within the region of practical politics an attack on 
some particular problem. So the work of the scientists during the 
war has perforce been directed more to the application of known prin- 
ciples, trade knowledge, and properties of matter to the waging of war, 
than to the making of new and laborious discoveries ; though, in effecting 
such applications, inventions of a high order have been achieved, some 
of which promise to be of great usefulness in time of peace. 

The advance of Science and the Arts in the last century had, how- 
ever, wrought a great change in the implements of war. The steam 
engine, the internal combustion engine, electricity, and the advances in 
metallurgy and chemistry had led to the building up of immense indus- 
tries which, when diverted from their normal uses, have produced 
unprecedented quantities of war material for the enormous armies, 
and also for the greatest Navy which the world has ever seen. 

The destructive energy in the field and afloat has multiplied many 
hundredfold since the time of the Napoleonic wars; both before and 



president's address. 11 

during the war the size of guns and the efficiency of explosives and shell 
increased immensely, and many new implements of destruction were 
added. Modern Science and Engineering enabled armies unprecedented 
in size, efficiency and equipment to be drawn from all parts of the world 
and to be concentrated rapidly in the fighting line. 

To build up the stupendous fighting organisation, ships have been 
taken from their normal trade routes, locomotives and material from 
the home railways, the normal manufactures of the country have been 
largely diverted to nmnitions of war; the home railways, tramways, 
roads, buildings and constructions, and material of all kinds have been 
allo^ved to depreciate. The amount of depreciation in roads and rail- 
ways alone has been estimated at 400 millions per annum at present 
prices. Upon the community at home a very great and abnormal strain 
has been thrown, notwithstanding the increased output per head of 
the workers derived from modern methods and improved machinery. 
In short, we have seen for the first time in history nearly the whole 
populations of the principal contending nations enlisted in intense 
personal and collective effort in the contest, resulting in unprecedented 
loss of life and destruction of capital. 

A few figures will assist us to reahse the great difference between 
this war and all preceding wars. At Waterloo, in 1815, 9,044 artillery 
rounds were fired, having a total weight of 37-3 tons, while on one 
day during the last offensive in France, on the British Front alone, 
943,837 artillery rounds were fired, weighing 18,0B0 tons — over 100 
times the number of rounds, and 485 times the weight of pro- 
jectiles. Again, in the whole of the South African War, 273,000 artil- 
lery rounds were fired, weighing approximately 2,800 tons ; while during 
the whole war in France, on the British Front alone, over 170 million 
artillery rounds were fired, weighing nearly 3i milHon tons — 622 times 
the number of rounds, and about 1,250 times the weight of projectiles. 

However great these figures in connection with modern land 
artillery may be, they become almost insignificant when compared with 
those in respect of a modern naval battle squadron. The Queen Eliza- 
beth when firing all her guns discharges 18 tons of metal and develops 
1,870,000 foot-tons of energy. She is capable of repeating this discharge 
once every minute, and when doing so develops by her guns an average 
of 127,000 effective horse-power, or more than one-and-a-half times the 
power of her propelling machinery ; and this energy is five times greater 
than the maximum average energy developed on the Western Front by 
British guns. Furthermore, if all her guns were fired simultaneously, 
they would for the instant be developing energy at the rate of 13,132,000 
horse-power. From 'these figures we can form some conception of the 
vast destructive energy developed in a modern naval battle. 



12 pkesident's addbess. 

Engineering and the War. 

With regard to the many important engineering developments made 
during the war, several papers by authorities are announced in the 
syllabus of papers constituting the sectional proceedings of this year's 
Meeting. Among them are ' Tanks, ' by Sir Eustace d'Eyncourt; ' Scien- 
tific Progress of Aviation during the War, ' by Dr. Bairstow ; * Airships, ' 
by Lieut. -Col. Cave-Brown-Cave; 'Directional Wireless, with Special 
Eeference to Aircraft,' by Capt. Robinson; 'Wireless in Aircraft,', by 
Major Erskine Murray; 'Wireless Telegraphy during the First Three 
Years of the War,' by Major Vincent Smith; ' Submarine Mining,' by 
Com. Gwynne; 'Emergency Bridge Construction,' by Prof. Ingles; 
and ' The Paravane,' by Com. Burney. Accordingly, it is quite un- 
necessary here to particularise further except in the few following 
instances : — 

Sound-ranging and Listening Devices. — Probably the most inter- 
esting development during the war has been the extensive application 
of sound-listening devices for detecting and localising the enemy. The 
Indian hunter puts his ear to the ground to listen for the sound of the 
footsteps of his enemy. So in modern warfare science has placed in 
the hands of the sailor and soldier elaborate instruments to aid the 
ear in the detection of noises transmitt€d through earth, water, air, or 
ether, and also in some cases to record these sounds graphically or 
photographically, so that their character and the time of their oocuirence 
may be tabulated. 

The sound-ranging apparatus by which the position of an enemy 
gun can be detemiined from electrically recorded times at which the 
sound wave from the gun passes over a number of receiving stations, 
has enabled our artillery to concentrate their fire on the enemy's guns, 
and often to destroy them. 

The French began experimenting in September 1914 with methods 
of locating enemy guns by sound. The English section began work 
in October 1915, adopting the French methods in the first instance. 
By the end of 1916 the whole Front was covered, and sound-ranging 
began to play an important part in the location of. enemy batteries. 
During 1917 locations by sound-ranging reached about 30,000 for the 
whole army, this number being greater than that given by any other 
means of location. A single good set of observations could be relied 
upon to give the position of an enemy gun to about 50 yards at 7,000 
yards' range. It could also be carried on during considerable artillery 
activity. 

The apparatus for localising noises transmitted through the ground 
has been much used for the detection of enemv mining and counter- 



president's address. 13 

mining opei-ations. Acoustic tubes, microphones, and amplifying valves 
have been employed to increase the volume of very faint noises. 

For many years before the war the Bell Submarine Signalling Com- 
pany, of which Sir WiUiam White was one of the early directors, used 
submerged microphones for detecting sound transmitted through the 
water, and a submerged bell for sending signals to distances up to one 
mile. With this apparatus passing ships could be heard at a distance 
of nearly a mile when the sea was calm and the listening vessel 
stationary. 

Of all the physical disturbances emitted or produced by a moving 
submarine, those most easily detected, and at the gi'eatest distance, 
are the pressure waves set up in the water by vibrations produced by 
the vessel and her machinery. A great variety of instruments have 
been devised during the war for detecting these noises, depending on 
microphones and magnetophones of exceedingly high sensitivity. Among 
them may be particularly mentioned the hydrophones devised by Captain 
Eyan and Professor Bragg, being adaptations of the telephone trans- 
mitter to work in water, instead of air. These instruments, when 
mounted so as to rotate, are directional, being insensitive to soundwaves 
whose front is perpendicular to the plane of the diaphragm, and giving 
the loudest sound when the diaphragm is parallel to the wave front. 

Another preferable method for determining direction is to use two 
hydrophones coupled to two receivers, one held to each ear. This is 
called the biaural method, and enables the listener to recognise the 
direction from which the sound emanates. 

When the vessel is in motion or the sea is rough the water noises 
from the dragging of the instrument through the water and from the 
waves striking the ship drown the noises from the enemy vessel, and 
under such conditions the insti-uments are useless. The assistance of 
eminent biologists was of invaluable help at this juncture. Experiments 
were made with sea-lions by Sir Eichard Paget, who found that they have 
directional hearing under water up to speeds of six knots. Also Professor 
Keith explained the construction of the hearing organs of the whale, 
tlie ear proper being a capillary tube, too small to be capable of per- 
forming any useful function in transmitting sound to the relatively large 
aural organs, which are deep set in the head. The v/hale therefore hears 
by means of the sound waves transmitted through the substance of the 
head. It was further seen that the organs of hearing of the whale to 
some degree resembled the hydrophone. 

The course now became clear. Hollow towing bodies in the form 
of fish or porpoises were made of celluloid, varnished canvas, or very 
thin metal, and the hydrophone suitably fixed in the centre of the 
head. The body is filled with water, and the cable towing the fish 
contains the insulated leads to the observer on board the vessel. When 



14 president's address. 

towed at some distance behind the chasing ship disturbing noises are 
small, and enemy noises can be heard up to speeds of 14 knots, 
and at considerable distances. Thermionic amplifying valves have been 
extensively used, and have added much to the sensitiveness of the 
hydrophone in its many forms. 

After the loss of the Titanic by collision with an iceberg, Lewis 
Richardson was grant-ed two patents in 1912 for the detection of above- 
water objects by their echo in the air, and underwater objects by their 
echo transmitted through the water. The principles governing the 
production and the concentration of beams of sound are described in 
his specifications, and he recommends frequencies ranging from 4,786 
to 100,000 complete vibrations per second, and also suggests that the 
rate of approach or recession from the object may be determined from 
the difference in the pitch of the echo from the pitch of the blast sent 
out. Hiram Maxim also suggested similar apparatus a little later. 

The echo method of detection was not, however, practically deve- 
loped until French and English scientists, with whom was associated 
Professor Langevin, of the College de France, realising its importance 
for submarine detection, brought the apparatus to a high degree of 
perfection and utility shortly before the Armistice. Now, with beams 
of high-frequency sound waves, it is possible to sweep the seas for the 
detection of any submerged object, such as icebergs, submarines, surface 
vessels, and rocks ; they may also be used to make soundings. It 
enables a chasing ship to pick up and close in on a submarine situated 
more than a mile away. 

The successful development of sound-ranging appai'atus on land 
led to the suggestion by Professor Bragg that a modified form could be 
used to locate under- water explosions. It has been found that the 
shock of an explosion can be detected hundreds of miles from its source 
by means of a submerged hydrophone, and that the time of the arrival 
of the sound wave can be recorded with great precision. At the end 
of the war the sound-ranging stations were being used for the detection 
of positions at sea, required for strategical purposes. The same stations 
are now being used extensively for the determination of such positions 
at sea as light- vessels, buoys which indicate channels, and obstructions 
such as sunken ships. By this means ships steaming in fog can be 
given their positions with accuracy for ranges up to 500 miles. 

Among the many other important technical systems and devices 
brought out during the war which will find useful application under 
peace conditions as aids to navigation I may mention directional wire- 
less, by which ships and aircraft can be given their positions and 
directed, and on this subject we are to have a paper in Section G. 

Leader gear, first used by the Germans to direct their ships through 
their minefields, and subsequently used by the Allies, consists of an 



president's address. 15 

insulated cable laid on the bottom of the sea, earthed at the further 
end, and through which an alternating current is passed. By means 
of delicate devices installed on a ship, she is able to follow the cable 
at any speed with as much precision as a railless electric 'bus can 
follow its trolley wire. Cables up to 50 miles long have been used, 
and this device promises to be invaluable to ships navigating narrow 
and tortuous channels and entering or leaving harbours in a fog. 

Aircraft. — It may be justly said that the development in air- 
craft design and manufacture is one of the astonishing engineering 
feats of the war. In August 1914 the British Air Services possessed 
a total of 272 machines, whereas in October 1918, just prior to the 
Armistice, the Eoyal Air Force possessed over 22,000 effective machines. 
During the first twelve months of the war the average monthly delivery 
of aeroplanes to our Flying Service was fifty, while during the last 
twelve months of the war the average deliveries were 2,700 per month. 
So far as aero-engines are concerned, our position in 1914 was by no 
means satisfactory. We depended for a large proportion of our supplies 
on other countries. In the Aerial Derby of 1913, of the eleven machines 
that started, not one had a British engine. By the end of the war, 
however, British aero-engines had gained the foremost place in design 
and manufacture, and were well up to requirements as regards supply. 
The total horse-power produced in the last twelve months of the war 
approximated to eight millions of brake horse-power, a figm-e quite 
comparable with the total horse-power of the marine engine output of 
the country. - 

Much might be written on the progress in aircraft, but the subject 
will be treated at length in the sectional papers. In view of the recent 
trans-Atlantic flights, however, I feel that it may be opportune to make 
the following observations on the comparative utility of aeroplanes and 
airships for commercial purposes. In the case of the aeroplane, the 
weight per horse-power increases with the size, other things being equal. 
This increase, however, is met to some extent by a multiplicity of 
engines, though in the fusilage the increase remains. 

On the other hand, with the airship the advantage increases with 
the size, as in all ships. The tractive effort per ton of displacement 
diminishes in inverse proportion to the dimensions, other things, includ- 
ing the speed, being the same. Thus, an airship of 750 feet length 
and 60 tons displacement may require a tractive force of 5 per cent., 
or 3 tons, at 60 miles per hour; while one of 1,500 feet in length and 
8x60=480 tons displacement vsould only require 2i per cent, x 480 = 12 
tons at the same speed, and would carry fuel for double the distance. 

^ See Lord Weir'.s Paper read at the Victory Meeting of the North-East 
Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, July 1919. 



16 president's address. 

With the same proportion of weight of hull to displacement, the 
larger airship would stand double the wind pressure, and would weather 
storms of greater violence and hailstones of greater size. It would be 
more durable, the proportional upkeep would be less, and the propor- 
tional loss of gas considerably less. In other words, it would lose a 
less proportion of its buoyancy per day. It is a development in which 
success depends upon the project being well thought out and the job 
being thoroughly well done. The equipment of the airsheds with 
numerous electric haulage winches, and all other appliances to make 
egress and ingress to the sheds safe from danger and accident, must 
be ample and efficient. 

The airship appears to have a great future for special commerce 
where time is a dominant factor and the demand is sufficient to justify 
a large airship. It has also a great field in the opening up of new 
countries where other means of communication are difficult. The only 
limitation to size will be the cost of the airship and its sheds, just as in 
steam vessels it is the cost of the vessels and the cost of deepening the 
harbours that limit the size of Atlantic liners. 

Such developments generally take place slowly, otherwise failures 
occur — as in the case of the Great Easiern — and it may be many years 
before the airship is increased from the present maximum of 750 feet 
to 1,500 feet with success, but it will assuredly come. If, however, 
the development is subsidised or assisted by Government, incidental 
failures may be faced with equanimity and very rapid development 
accomplished.^ In peace time the seaplane, aeroplane, and airship 
will most certainly have their uses. But, except for special services 
of high utility, it is questionable whether they will play more than a 
minor part as compared with the steamship, railway, and motor 
transport. 

Electricity. — The supply and use of electricity has developed rapidly 
in recent yeai'S. For lighting it is the rival of gas, though each has 
its advantages. As a means of transmitting power over long 
distances it has no rival, and its efficiency is so high that when generated 
on a large scale and distributed over large areas it is a cheap and 
reliable source of power for working factories, tramways, suburban 
railways, and innumerable other purposes, including metallurgical and 
chemical processes. It is rapidly superseding locally generated steam- 
power, and is a rival to the small and moderate-sized gas and oil engine. 
It has made practicable the use of wat-er-power through the generation 
of electricity in bulk at the natural falls, from which the power is trans- 
mitted to the consumers, sometimes at great distances. 

^ The literature on this subject includes an article which appeared in 
Engineering on January 3, 1919. 



i 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 17 

Fifteen years ago electricity was generated chiefly by large recipro- 
cating steam engines, direct coupled to dynamos or alternators, but 
of late years steam turbines have in most instances replaced them, and 
are now exclusively used in large generating stations, because of their 
smaller cost and greater economy in fuel. The size of the turbines 
may vary from a few thousand horse-power up to about 50,000 horse- 
power. At the end of last year the central electric stations in the 
United Kingdom contained plant aggregating 2f million kilowatts, 
79 per cent, of which was driven by steam turbines. 

Much discussion has taken place as to the most economical size 
of generating stations, their number, the size of the generating units, 
and the size of the area to be supphed. On the one hand, a compara- 
tively small number oi very large or super-stations, instead of 
a large number of moderate-sized stations dotted over the area, results 
in a small decrease in the cost of production of the electricity, because 
in the super-stations larger and slightly more economical engines are 
employed, while the larger stations permit of higher organisation and 
more elaborate labour-saving appliances. Further, if in the future the 
recovery of the by-products of coal should become a practical realisation 
as part of the process in the manufacture of the electric current, the 
larger super-stations present greater facilities than' the smaller 
stations. On the other hand, super-stations involve the transmission 
of the electricity over greater distances, and consequently greater capital 
expenditure and cost of maintenance of mains and transmission appa- 
ratus, and greater electrical transmission losses, while the larger 
generating unit takes longer to overhaul or repair, and consequently a 
larger percentage of spare plant is necessary. 

The greatest element in reducing the cost of electricity is the pro- 
vision of a good load factor; in other words, the utilisation of the 
generating plant and mains to the greatest extent during the twenty- 
four hours of each day throughout the year. This is a far more 
important consideration than the size of the station, and it is secured 
to the best advantage in most cases by a widespread network of mains, 
supplying a diversity of consimiers and uses, each requiring current 
at different times of the day. The total load of each station being thus 
an average of the individual loads of a number of consumers is, in 
general, far less fluctuating than in the case of small generating and 
distributing systems, which supply principally one class of consumer, 
a state of affairs that exists in London, for instance, at the present 
time. It is true that there may be exceptional cases, such as at 
Kilmarnock, where a good load factor may be found in a small area, 
but in this case the consumers are chiefly mills, which require current 
for many hours daily. 

There is no golden rule to secure cheap electricity. The most 



18 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

favourable size, locality, and number of generating stations in each 
area can only be arrived at by a close study of the local conditions, 
but there is no doubt that, generally speaking, to secure cheap elec- 
tricity a widespread network of mains is in most cases a very important, 
if not an essential, factor. 

The electrification of tramways and suburban railways has been an 
undoubted success where the volume of traffic has justified a frequent 
service, and it has been remarkable that where suburban lines have 
been worked by frequent and fast electrical trains there has resulted 
a great growth of passenger traffic. The electrification of main line 
railways would no doubt result in a saving of coal; at the same time, 
the economical success would largely depend on the broader question 
as to whether the volume of the traffic ^^'ould suffice to pay the working 
expenses, and provide a satisfactory return on the capital. 

Municipal and company generating stations have been nearly 
doubled in capacity during the war to meet the demand from munition 
works, steel works, chemical works, and for many other purposes. The 
provision of this increased supply was an enormous help in the produc- 
tion of adequate munitions. At the commencement of the war there 
were few steel electric furnaces in the country ; at the end of last year 
117 were at work, producing 20,000 tons of steel per month, consisting 
chiefly of high-grade ferro alloys used in munitions. 

The Future. 

The nations who have exerted the most influence in the war have 
been those who have developed to the greatest extent their resources, 
their manufactures, and their commerce. As in the war, so in the 
civilisation of mankind. But, viewing the present trend of develop- 
ments in harnessing water-power and using up the fuel resources of 
the world for the use and convenience of man, one cannot but realise 
that, failing new and unexpected discoveries in science, such as the 
harnessing of the latent molecular and atomic energy in matter, as 
foreshadowed by Clerk Maxwell, Kelvin, Eutherford, and others, the 
great position of England cannot be maintained for an indefinite period. 
At some time more or less remote — long before the exhaustion of our 
coal — the population will gradually migrate to those countries v/here 
the natural sources of energy are the most abundant. 

Water-'power and Coal. — The amount of available water-power in 
the British Isles is very small as compared with the total in other 
countries. According to the latest estimates, the total in the British 
Isles is under li million horse-power, whereas Canada alone possesses 
over 20 millions, of which over 2 millions have already been harnessed. 
In the rest of the British Empire there are upwards of 30 millions 
and in the remainder of the world at least 150 millions, so that England 



president's address. 19 

herself possesses less than 1 per cent, of the water-power of the world. 
Further, it has been estimated that she only possesses 2| per cent, of 
the whole coal of the world. To this question I would wish to direct 
our attention for a few minutes. 

I have said that England owes her modern greatness to the early 
development of her coal. Upon it she must continue to depend almost 
exclusively for her heat and source of power, including that required for 
propelling her vast mercantile marine. Nevertheless, she is using up 
her resources in coal much more rapidly than most other countries are 
consuming theirs, and long before any near approach to exhaustion is 
reached her richer seams will have become impoverished, and the cost 
of mining so much increased that, given cheap transport, it might pay 
her better to import coal from richer fields of almost limitless extent 
belonging to foreign countries, and workable at a much lower cost than 
her own. 

Let us endeavour to arrive at some approximate estimate of the 
economic value of the principal sources of power. The present average 
value of the royalties on coal in England is about Qd. per ton, but to 
this must be added the profit derived from mining operations after pay- 
ing royalties and providing for interest on the capital expended and for 
its redemption as wasting capital. After consultation with several 
leading experts in these matters, I have come to the conclusion that 
about Is. per ton represents the pre-war market value of coal in the 
seams in England. 

It must, however, be remembered that, in addition, coal has a con- 
siderable value as a national asset, for on it depends the prosperity of 
the great industrial interests of the country, which contribute a large 
portion of the wealth and revenue. From this point of view the present 
value of unmined coal seems not to have been sufficiently appreciated 
in the past, and that in the future it should be better appraised at 
its true value to the nation. 

This question may be viewed from another aspect by making a 
comparison of the cost of producing a given amount of electrical power 
from coal and from water-power. Assuming that one horse-power of 
electrical energy maintained for one year had a pre-war value of 51., 
and that it requires about eight tons of average coal to produce it, 
we arrive at the price of 6s. 3d. per ton — i.e., crediting the coal with 
half the cost. The capital required to mine eight tons of coal a year 
in England is difficult to estimate, but it may be taken approximately 
to be 5/-., and the capital for plant and machinery to convert it into 
electricity at 101., making a total of 15L In the case of water-power 
the average capital cost on the above basis is 40Z., including water rights 
(though in exceptionally favoured districts much lower costs ai-e 
recorded). 



•20 president's address. 

From these figures it appears that the average capital required to 
produce electrical power from coal is less than one half the amount that 
is required in the case of water-power. The running costs, however, in 
connection with water-power are much less than those in respect of 
coal. Another interesting consideration is that the cost of harnessing 
all the water-power of the world would be about 8,000 milhons, or equal 
to the cost of the war to England. 

DowHng has estimated the total coal of the world as over seven 
million million tons, and whether we appraise it at Is. or more per ton 
its present and prospective value is prodigious. For instance, at 6s. 3d. 
per ton it amounts to nearly one hundred times the cost of the war to 
all the belligei'ents. 

In some foreign countries the capital costs of mining are far below 
fhe figures I have taken, and, as coal is transportable over long distances 
and, generally speaking, electricity is not so at present, therefore it 
seems probable that capital will in the immediate future flow in increas- 
ing quantity to mining operations in foreign countries rather than to 
the development of the more difficult and costly water-power schemes. 
When, however, capital becomes more jalentiful the lower running costs 
of water-power will prevail, with the result that it will then be rapidly 
developed. 

As to the possible new sources of power, I have already mentioned 
molecular energy, but there is another alternative which appears to 
merit attention. 

Bore Hole. — In my address to Section G in 1904 I discussed the 
question of sinking a shaft to a depth of twelve miles, which is about 
ten times the depth of any shaft in existence. The estimated cost was 
5,000,000L, and the time required about eighty-five years. 

The method of cooling the au'-locks to limit the barometric pressure 
on the miners and other precautions were described, and the project 
appeared feasible. One essential factor has, however, been 
queried by some persons : Would the rock at the great depth crush 
in and destroy the shaft? Subsequent to my address, I wrote a letter 
to Nature, suggesting that the question might be tested experimentally. 
Professor Frank D. Adams, of McGill University, Montreal, acting on 
the suggestion, has since carried out exhaustive experiments, published 
in the Journal of Geology for February 1912, showing that in limestone 
a depth of fifteen miles is probably practicable, and that in granite a 
depth of thirty miles might be reached. 

Little is at present known of the earth's interior, except by inference 
fi'O'm a study of its surface, upturned strata, shallow shafts, the velocity 
of transmission of seismic disturbances, its rigidity and specific gravity, 
and it seems reasonable to suggest that some attempt should be made 



president's address. 21 

to sink a shaft as deep as may 'be found practicable and at some locality 
selected by geologists as the most likely to afford useful information. 

When we consider that the estimated cost of sinking a shaft to a 
depth of twelve miles, at present-day prices, is not much more than 
the cost of one day of the war to Great Britain alone, the expense 
seems trivial as compared with the possible knowledge that might be 
gained by an investigation into this unexplored region of the earth. It 
might, indeed, prove of inestimable value to Science, and also throw 
additional hght on the internal constitution of the earth in relation to 
minerals of high specific gravity. 

In Italy, at Lardarello, bore-holes have been sunk, which dis- 
charge large volumes of high-pressure steam, which is being utilised 
to generate about 10,000 horse-power by turbines. At Solfatara, near 
Naples, a similar project is on foot lo supply power to the great works 
in the district. It seems, indeed, probable that in volcanic regions a 
very large amount of power may be, in the future, obtained directly 
or indirectly by boring into the earth, and that the whole subject merits 
the most careful consideration. 

While on the subject of obtaining power, may I digress for a few 
moments and describe an interesting phenomenon of a somewhat con- 
verse nature — viz. that of intense pressure produced by moderate forces 
closing up cavities in water. 

A Committee was appointed by the Admiralty in 1916 to investigate 
the cause of the rapid erosion of the propellers of some of the ships 
doing arduous duties. This was the first time that the problem had 
been systematically considered. The Committee found that the 
erosion was due to the intense blows struck upon the blades of the 
propellers by the nuclei of vacuous cavities closing up against them. 
Though the pressure bringing the water together was only that of the 
atmosphere, yet it was proved that at the nucleus 20,000 atmospheres 
might be produced. 

The phenomenon may be described as being analagous to the well- 
known fact that nearly all the energy of the arm that swings it is con- 
centrated in the tag of a whip. It was shown that when water flowed 
into a conical tube which had been evacuated a pressure of over 140 tons 
per square inch was recorded at the apex, which was capable of eroding 
brass, steel, and in time even the hardest steel. The phenomenon may 
occur under some conditions in rivers and waterfalls where the velocity 
exceeds 50 feet per second, and it is probably as great a source of erosion 
as by the washing down of boulders and pebbles. Then again, when 
waves beat on a rocky shore, under some conditions, intense hydraulic 
pressures will occur, quite sufficient of themselves to crush the rock 
and to open out narrow fissures into caves. 

Research. — The whole question of the future resources of the Empire 
1919. o 



22 president's address. 

is, I venture to think, one which demands the serious attention of all 
scientists. It should be attacked in a comprehensive manner, and with 
that insistence which has been so notable in connection with the efforts 
of British investigators in the past. In such a task, some people might 
suggest, we need encouragement and assistance from the Government 
of the country. Surely we have it. As many here know, a great 
experimental step towards the practical realisation of Solomon's House 
as prefigured by Francis Bacon in the Neiv Atlantis is being made by the 
Government at the present time. The inception, constitution, and 
methods of procedure of the Department, which was constituted in 
1915, were fully described by Sh Frank Heath in his paper to the Eoyal 
Society of Arts last February, and it was there stated by Lord Crewe 
that, so far as he knew, this was the only country in which a Govern- 
ment Department of Eesearch existed." 

It is obvious that the work of a Department of this kind must be 
one of gradual development with small beginnings, in order that it 
may be sound and lasting. The work commenced by assisting a number 
of researches conducted by scientific and professional societies which 
were languishing as a result of the war, and grants were also made to 
the National Physical Laboratory and to the Central School of Pottery 
at Stoke-on-Trent. The grants for investigation and research for the 
year 1916-17 totalled 11,055L, and for the present year are anticipated 
to be 93,570J. The total income of the National Physical Laboratory 
in 1913-14 was 43,713Z., and owing to the great enlargement of the 
Laboratory the total estimate of the Eesearch Department for this 
service during the current year is 154,650L 

Another important part of the work of the Department has been 
to foster and to aid financially Associations of the trades for the purpose 
of research. Nine of these Associations are already at work; eight 
more are approved, and will probably be at work within the next two 
months ; and another twelve are in the earlier stage of formation. There 
are also signs of increased research by individual factories. Whether 
this is due to the indirect influence of the Eesearch Department or to a 
change in public opinion and a more general recognition of the im- 
portance of scientific industrial research it is difficult to say. 

The possibility of the uncontrolled use on the part of a nation of 
the power which Science has placed within its reach is so great a 
menace to civilisation ° that the ardent wish of all reasonable people 
is to possess some radical means of prevention through the establishment 

* Th© Italian Government are now, however, establishing a National Council 
for Research, and a Bill is before the French Chamber for the establishment of 
a National Ofl&ce of Scientific, Industrial, and Agricultural Research and 
Inventions. 

* For instance, it might eom© day be discovered how to liberate instan- 
taneously the energy in radium, and radium contains 2^ million times the 
energy of the same weight of T.N.T. 



president's address. 23 

of some form of wide and powerful control. Has not Science forged 
the remedy, by making the woi-ld a smaller arena for the activities of 
civilisation, by reducing distance in terms of time? Alliances and 
unions, which have successfully controlled and stimulated republics of 
heterogeneous races during the last century, will therefore have become 
possible on a wider and grander scale, thus uniting all civilised nations 
in a great League to maintain order, security, and freedom for every 
individual, and for every State and nation liberty to devote their energies 
to the controlling of the great forces of Nature for the use and con- 
venience of man, instead of applying tliem to the killing of each other. 

Many of us remember the President's Banner at the Manchester 
Meeting in 1915, where Science is allegorically represented by a sorrow- 
ful figure covering her eyes from the sight of the guns in the foreground. 
This year Science is represented in her more joyful mien, encouraging 
the arts and industries. It is to be sincerely hoped that the future 
will justify our present optimism. 



G 3 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, Etc. 



Reports on Phijsical Sciences for which World-wide Observations 

are important. 

At a meeting of the Organising Committee of Section A, held on 
May 11, 1916, the following Eesolution was passed: — 

That the Organising Committee of Section A endeavour to obtain 
a series of Reports on the present state and prospects of those sciences 
for which world-wide observations are important, such reports to aim 
at: — 

(a!) A brief statement of present achievements. 

(b) A specification of problems immediately pressing. 

(c) A further specification of problems which should be considered 

in the near future, though not perhaps immediately. 

This Eesolution would apply in the cases of : — 

1. Geodesy and Surveying, including Gravity work. It was deter- 
mined to invite a report from the Astronomer Eoyal, the Director of 
the Ordnance Survey, and Major Hills, R.E., acting in concert and 
with power to ask assistance from others. They were further requested 
specially to consider the past and future relations to such work of the 
International Geodetic Association. 

2. Meteorology. It was determined to invite a report from Sir 
W. N. Shaw, asking him specially to consider the relation of the Inter- 
national Meteorological Coiki^I to the work. 

3. Magnetic Observations. It was determined to invite a report from 
Dr. Chree, asking him specially to consider the relation of the work 
of the Carnegie Institution to other work. 

4. Tidal Observations and Currents. It was determined to invite a 
report from Professor Lamb. 

5. Seismology. It was determined to invite a report from Dr. 
G. W. Walker.' 

The following Reports have been received: — 

1. Report on Terrestrial Magnetism. By C. Chbee, D.Sc., F.B.S. 
(See Report, 1917, p. 14.) 

2. Preliminary Report on Tides and Currents. By Professor H. 
Lamb, F.R.S., and J. Peoudman. (See Report, 1918, p. 15.) 



28 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

3. Report of Geodetic Committee, February 1918. 

1. The Geodetic Committee, having been desired to reconsider their 
proposals for a Geodetic Institute in the hght of tlie needs of Tidal Pheno- 
mena, Seismology, and Terrestrial Magnetism, as well as Geodesy, have 
reviewed the whole question. 

2. Evidence has been laid before the Committee of the present posi- 
tion in the Empire of each of these branches of Geophysical Science, of 
the provision for dealing with them, and of the shortcomings of existing 
aiTangements. 

Careful consideration of the evidence submitted has shown that the 
needs of Geodesy are to a large extent similar to those of the other sub- 
jects, and that the following general summary is applicable to Geodesy, 
Tidal Phenomena, Seismology, and Terrestrial Magnetism. 

General Summary. 

(a) There is no provision for the collection and critical discussion 
of the work which is being done within the Empire or for its comparison 
with that which is being done in other countries. 

(b) The various State Departments and local authorities have no 
British institution to which they can refer for the latest and most accurate 
technical data, for the methods which have been found most effective 
in various circumstances in the Dominions, Colonies, Protectorates, or 
foreign countries, or the improvements that have been made in instru- 
ments, or for the latest advances in the theoretical fields of these sub- 
jects, except imperfectly in the case of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

(c) There is no institution where those who have devoted themselves 
to these geophysical sciences can still further improve then- knowledge 
of them, investigate the problems that arise, and have at their disposal 
all the necessary material and instrumental equipment to carry out 
research work. 

Geodesy. 

3. The position of Geodesy and its special needs may be stated as 
follows : — 

Besides providing the data from which the true form and dimensions 
of the earth may be determined — from Avhich, also, can be derived 
information as to its local irregularities and attractions, its crustal sta- 
bility and structure — triangulation and levelling, of the degree of pre- 
cision which geodetic investigations require, piT)vide the most economical 
basis of work wherever large areas of country have to be surveyed and 
the boundaries of property defined. They not only provide a reliable 
control for all other surveying, but also materially raise the standard of 
accuracy of such work; and, even where second-order surveys are at 
first employed, work of a geodetic standard must sooner or later be 
introduced. 

Geodetic trianoulation and precise levelling are, or have been, in 
progress in the United Kmgdom, India, Egypt, and in Australia, New 
Zealand, Canada, and South Africa; while work of a similar character 
will become necessary to a gi-eater or less extent in most of the Crown 
Colonies and Protectorates as their development proceeds. 



OEODETIC COMMITTEE. 



29 



Determinations of gravity have been made in the United Kingdom, 
Egypt, and at numerous coast stations, and form part of the regular work 
of the Survey of India and are desirable in other parts of the Empire. 

Geodetic work must foi-m the basis of the control of all the State 
Surveys of the Empire, on which about a million sterling was being spent 
annually before the war. 

An institution in which the results of such work in all parts of the 
Empire would be systematically collected and reviewed, where the 
methods and instruments were discussed, and where the corresponding 
work of other nations would be regularly brought into relation with it, 
would be of great value to all these State Surveys. 

Tides. 

4. The navigational applications of tidal phenomena are provided 
for by the Hydrographical Department of the Navy, but there is a 
part of the subject which is closely related to Geodesy and especially 
to precise levelling. 

Oceanic tide gauges are maintained in the United Kingdom (3), 
India (9), Canada (4), New Zealand (2), and Australia (1), and their 
data, which are utilised for providing tide-tables, are valuable also in 
discussions of sea-level, reference data, and the movements of the crust 
of the earth. The work of correlating these observations in different 
countries could be very suitably undertaken in an institution devoted 
to Geodesy and allied subjects. 

Seismology. 

5. While there are nine places in the Empire where seismographs 
exist capable of furnishing data for the determination of the physical 
properties of the earth, there is a widely spread network of stations 
equipped with a simpler form of seismograph, which was instituted and 
developed by the late Professor J. Milne, F.E.S. These stations are 
situated in all parts of the Empire and also in some foreign countries. 
During Professor Milne's lifetime he received and discussed the records 
of all these stations, and practically maintained a Seismological Institute, 
so far as these instruments were concerned, in the Isle of Wight. Since 
his death the work has been carried on by the Gom<mittee of the British 
Association, of which he was formerly Secretary. 

6. It seems to the Committee that there are two classes of require- 
ments to be considei'ed : — 

(1) The need for a few first-class seismological stations, equipped 

with the best type of seismographs and established in 
different parts of the Empire, to record the vibrations caused 
by earth shocks which affect the earth as a whole; and 

(2) The study of earthquake frequency, crustal movement, and 

local earthquake phenomena genei-ally. which may be 
studied with simpler forms of instrument and under local 
arrangements. 

In the United Kingdom one first-class station would probably suflBce, 
and this might form part of the Geodetic Institute, since the equipment 



30 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1919. 



is not cumbersome, the material received from the Colonies and Pro- 
tectorates would not be unmanageable, and the seismological study of 
the physical structure of the earth is closely allied to the investigations of 
structural pi'oblems by geodetic methods. This Institute would form a 
centre to which local autliorities in the Colonies and Protectorates could 
turn for advice or assistance. 

Such a centre would also communicate with the seismological centres 
in other parts of the Empire, exchange data, and co-operate in the 
study of the subject. It would also correspond with the Seismological 
Institutes of other countries, and actively promote the development of 
this branch of Geophysics in this country. 

Terrestrial Magnetism. 

7. There is more adequate national pro^dsion for the study of Terres- 
trial Ma,£rne'tism than is the ca.se with Seismology, though the require- 
ments of Terrestrial Magnetism are not fully met as yet. 

Magnetographs are in operation or are about to be established at : — 



Great Britain 

India 
Burma 



t To 



Greenwich. 

Kew. 

Eskdalemuir. 

StonyhuTst. 

Dehra Dun. 

Alibag. 

Kodaikanal. 

Toungoo. 

be moved. ! 



Egypt . 
Australia 
New Zealand 
South Africa 

Canada 

Not yet established. 





Helwan. 




West Australia 


Melbourne, t 




Christchurch. 


■f 


Capetown.^ 


Mauritius. 


■{ 


Toronto. 


]Meanook. 



Magnetic observations at sea are made under the direction ol the 
Hydrographer of the Navy, under whom the Superintendent of Naval 
Compasses works. 

Greenwich Observatory, including the Magnetic Department, is 
maintained by the Admiralty. Continuous magnetic observations have 
been taken since 1841, and in recent years new housing and equipment 
have been provided. The observations are published annually and have 
been discussed at the Observatorv and elsewhere. The magnetic 
observations made by officers of H.M. ships are received from the 
Hydrographer of the Navy and are used with others in the preparation 
at the Observatorv of the Admiralty Magnetic Charts. 

In the year 1871 the late Mr. John Peter Gassiot conveyed to the 
Eoyal Society a sum of £10,000 for the purpose of assisting in carrying 
on and continuing magnetic and meteorological observations and related 
physical investis:ations. The proceeds of this fund, together with the 
grant in aid made by the Treasury to the Eoyal Society for Eskdalemuir 
Obsei-vatoiT, are now administered by a Committee of the Eoyal Society 
for the work assigned, in augmentation of the sums at the disposal of 
the Meteorological Committee of H.M. Treasury. 

There is, however, no provision for the collection and discussion of 
the records obtained bv tbe magnetographs in operation in the Empire, 
nor for the investigation of various problems in terrestrial magnetism 
which from time to time arise, nor for the periodical revision of such 
magnetic surveys as have been or may be made of the United Kingdom, 



GEODETIC COMMITTEE. 31 

or of the Colonies and Protectorates, nor for any special investigations 
that may be necessary. 

The Committee are of opinion that these needs might be met if for 
that purpose the resources of the Meteorological Office, which now 
directs the Observatories of Kew and Eskdalemuir, and receives through 
the Eoyal Society the Government grant which has been referred to, 
were correspondingly increased. 

Conclusions. 

8. The Committee conclude therefore: — 

(a) That a Geophysical Institute providing for the requirements 
of Geodesy, Tidal Phenomena, and Seismology, as above 
summarised, is requu'ed. 

(h) That such an Insti'tute would pi'ove to be of great service to 
the State Surveys of the Empire, in providing a centre for 
research and for the dissemination of information. 

(c) For such an Institute to be of value it must possess the good 

will of the State Surveys, and they should be represente<l 
on its governing body. 

(d) Tliat the Institute should be situated near London, and have 

access to open ground on which practical operations could 
be carried out ; or, alternatively, should be situated in 
London, with, an experimental station near London. 

(e) That the Institute should form part of, or be affiliated to, an 

existing educational establishment. 

9. The Committee do not find it possible to draw up any estimate of 
the ini-tial or annual cost of such an Institute that would be of any sub- 
stantial value until this question of affihation has been decided and the 
possibilities as to accommodation investigated. 

Procedure. 

10. The Committee do not feel that they themselves can carry the 
matter much further for the present, and they suggest, for the considera- 
tion of the Conjoint Board (to which there might, perhaps, be added, 
for this purpose, representatives of the Colonial Office and of this Com- 
mittee), that the Board should, in the first instance, approach the 
Imperial College of Science and Technology and ascertain whether that 
Institution would be inclined to consider favourably a proposal to esta- 
blish a Geophysical Institute as one of its Departments. 

Should the reply be in the affirmative, any future steps should, 
perhaps, be taken by the Governing Body of the Imperial College, who 
would doubtless consult the Conjoint Board and this Committee. 

(Note. — The Committee proceeded no further, inasmuch as it was reported 
that further steps had been taken by the Conjoint Board of Scientific Studies 
and by the University of Cambridge, and an appeal had been issued by -the 
University for funds to found a professorship of geodynamics and a Geodetic 
Institute.) 



32 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



4. Seismology after the War. By G. W. Walker, A.R.C.Sc, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

The lamented death in 1913 of that great pioneer of earthquake investi- 
gation, Dr. John Milne, followed only two years later by the untimely 
demise of Prince Boris Galitzin, left the young art of seismometry 
poor indeed. 

The war now ended has rendered impossible for many years to 
come those friendly personal relations with German seismologists 
which some of us valued very highly, and has also given the quietus 
to the International Association of Seismology. 

It is with sadness and diffidence that I agree to the request of the 
British Association Organising Committee, Section A, to give some 
outline of my views as to the future of the subject, more especially 
as the matter is not solely a scientific one, but involves also the 
question of finance and policy. As to the precise meaning and scope 
of seismology, different opinions may reasonably be held. 1 sympathise 
with the view entertamed by some geologists that the name has been 
appropriated by physicists to a subject tiiat has little to do with 
earthquakes. That is so, for to the modern seismologist, unless he 
happens to live in a seismic region, tlie eai-thquake is of interest only 
in so far as it reveals the internal dynamical properties of the earth. 

Others hold the view (which 1 share) that all phenomena revealed 
by seismograplis, such as microseisms, earth tides, and the cognate 
theoretical problems of the form and distortion of the earth, are properly 
included in seismology. 

It has been mj privilege for some years to apply the principles 
of seismology to the study of small-scale artificial earthquakes, and, 
althougli I cannot give details at present, I have the greatest confidence 
in saying that a rich practical hai-vest is in promise. 

The name ' seismology ' is probably not the best for the wide field 
of investigation that is possible by means of seismographs. After all, 
it is really the application of dynamics to the earth, and thus the 
term ' geodynamics, ' recently used by the Cambridge Committee, strikes 
me as being an eminently suitable one for the subject, and one to 
which little objection could be taken. 

There is perhaps no other subject in which the need for international 
co-operation and a widespread distribution of observing stations is more 
cleai'ly evident. This was recognised by Dr. Milne, and it would 
be a lasting disgrace to this country if the scheme he established were 
allowed to fall tlirough for want of financial support. Doubtless the 
scheme requires revision, and the' instruments should be brought up 
to date, while stations which are clearly insufficient or unsuitable might 
be abandoned or replaced by others. 

But this raises the question of what scheme is feasible and ef&cienl 
and most likely to be generally conducive to progress. 

From time to time, largely as the result of individual effort, different 
branches will attain prominence and they may require special legis- 



ON SEISMOLOGY AFTER THE WAK. 33 

lation. But among matters which appear to me the most pressing 
at present are : — 

(1) The precise investigation of time curves and earth tides 

and their interpretation. 

(2) Investigations in manifestly seismic regions. 

The first is concerned with large-scale uniformities of the earth, 
and the stations should be in non-seismic regions. The instruments 
must be of the highest degree of precision as regards sensitiveness 
and time accuracy, and it is vital that the vertical component, as 
well as the horizontal components, of motion should be I'ecorded and 
analysed. I do not think any great improvement in time curves will 
be obtained without the use of the vertical component. A somewhat 
analogous case occurs in terrestrial magnetism, where the vertical 
component is the discriminating factor. 

Earth tides are important, among other reasons, because they 
provide a check on the internal properties of the earth deduced from 
the time curves. 

As regards the number of stations, the more the better, provided 
they are really efficient. But much could be done by com- 
paratively few stations. Is it too much to suggest that, as a start, 
England and each of the Dominions — Australia, Canada, India, and 
South Africa — should provide a fully-equipped first-order station? 
These might be supplemented as occasion aiises in order to fill up 
lacunae in the time cui'ves. 

For the second investigation more numerous stations are required 
near the regions selected, but the instruments would not, in general, 
require to be so sensitive, nor need three components be r-egistered 
at all the stations. The object of such investigation is to some 
extent local, and the co-operation of geologists would clearly be fruitful 
in throwing light on the connection between volcanic action and earth- 
quakes. One thinks of New Zealand as an obvious field for such work. 

Such a scheme requires close co-operation between parts (1) and (2) 
for success, but I can ;imagine that the first-order station for (1) would 
in its own region supervise (2) — e.g. Australia and New Zealand or 
India and the East Indies. 

The first-order stations, limited in number, would in turn co-operate 
with a central body, which I will assume is in England. 

This brings one to the question of apparatus and standardisation. 

Whatever instruments are used, standardisation is really essential. 
It involves equipment for determining all the constants of the apparatus 
and an experimental table by means of which a variety of artificial 
motions can be given to the instrument and the results observed. 
The necessity is almost self-evident, and its practical use was fully 
demonstrated by Prince Galitzin. 

The question of instruments is somewhat more difficult, as we 
may ex,pect these to be modified and improved in course of time. 

At present it is recognised that the most precise and most sensitive 
installation for all three components is Galitzin 's system of aperiodic 
pendulums, with galvanometric registration, and until something better 
has been devised it would be a good thing if all the first-order stations 



34 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

were furnished with these. They do not, however, give the earth 
tides, and, like all other seismographs, they do not give a precise 
reproduction of the earth movement. This was recognised by Galitzin, 
and, shortly before his death, he brought out his new apparatus for 
measuring the acceleration of the ground directly, by using the piezo- 
electric property of quartz. Whether these instruments will do for 
continuous seismometry remains to be proved. There are, however, 
other methods, and there is ample scope for work in this direction. 

As the question of instruments is so essential to progress in obtain- 
ing records in the simplest form, I may be permitted to add some 
remarks on a subject so frequently ignored. 

In the initial search for a new effect one works rather in the dark, 
and it is simply a question of getting an effect at all. But when we 
have obtained some idea of the order of magnitude, and especially of the 
time element of change, the suitable instrument for measuring it is 
not a mere accident, but a matter for scientific design. 

A seismometer being essentially a pendulum, and the disturbance 
due to an earthquake a complex phenomenon, the instrument in general 
gives a record which is neither displacement, velocity, nor accelera- 
tion, but a mixture, while some parts of the disturbance are exag- 
gerated relative to others. Strict aperiodicity is a great help, and, in 
my view, essential. And here may I enter a protest against the 
frequent application of the term ' dead-beat,' which is really the same 
as aperiodic (and has a precise quantitative signifacance), to cases where 
large damping of indefinite amount is all that is meant? 

The primary period of the apparatus is a very important element in 
an instrumental record, so that an apparatus suitable for giving the 
long-wave phase of an earthquake may not be so suitable for the first 
phase. 

In conclusion, it appears that there is ample scope in the future 
for: — 

(1) The scientific design of apparatus suitable for recording the 

various movements of the earth. 

(2) The establishment of even a few first-order stations, one in 

each of the principal countries of the Empire, for record- 
insf all three components of motion with a view to a deter- 
mination of the mechanical properties of the interior of 
the earth. 

(3) The establishment of a larger number of second-order stations 

for the investigation of local earthquakes. 

(4) Theoretical investigation of the form and stability of the 

crust, and the propagation of wave motion throughout 
the interior. 



ON SEISMOLOQICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 35 



Seismological Investigations.— Twenty-tJiird Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner {GhairmMn), 
Mr. J. J. Shaw [Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. 
Crombib, Sir Horace Darwin, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir E. T. Glazebrook, Professors C. G. Knott and 
H. Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Professors A. E. H. Love, H. M. 
Macdonald, J. Perry, afid H. 0. Plummer, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professors K. A. Sampson and A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Dr. G. T. Walker, and Dr. G. W. Walker. 

General. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, with a grant of lOOZ. (including 
printing), in addition to lOOi. from the Caird Fund already voted. The 
Government Grant Fund administered by tlie Eoyal Society has voted 
a subsidy of 2001. for 1919, as in recent years. 

It was hoped that some modification of this application might have 
been made this year. Under the auspices of the International Eesearch 
Council, which met at Bi'ussels July 18-28, a Geodetic and Geophysical 
Union was constituted, with Seismolo'gy as one of its sections. This 
involves ultimately the establishment of a Seismological Bureau or 
Central Office, where different records may be collated and discussed, 
and experimental and standardisation work carried out ; and in view 
of all the chcumstances (including the death of Prince Galitzin and 
the uncertain future of seismology in Eussia, the interruption of 
relations with Germany, and the previous history of seismology in 
the British Empire) it was hoped that some locality in England, and 
probably Oxford, might be chosen as the locality for the Bureau. 

In anticipation of the Brussels meeting a National Eesearch Council 
for Geophysics had been constituted under the auspices of the Eoyal 
Society, and at the meeting of this Council on June 20 the followmg 
resolution was adopted, on the motion of Professor Schuster: — 

' That an offer be made to the Section of Seismology of 
the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics to locate its 
Central Bureau at Oxford; but that the Executive Committee 
of the Section have power to transfer it to another locality in 
Great Britain on the recommendation of the National Eesearch 
Council for Geophysics in that country.' 

When, however, the location of the Central Bm-eau came up for 
preliminary discussion at Brussels, it was found that the French were 
anxious that the claims of Strasbourg, now so dramatically restored 
to them, should be considered. As a possible way of meeting both 
wishes, a division of the work of the Bureau between Strasbourg and 
Oxford was suggested; but at this point it was remarked that there 
were still some points to be settled in connection with the formerly 
existing International Seismological Association, and ultimately it was 
decided to defer Ihe formation of the Seismological Section until these 



36 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

points had been finally disposed of, for there was a general agreement 
that a totally new departure, untrammelled by links with the past, 
was desirable at this juncture. Hence no definite steps towai'ds the 
formation of a Seisinological Section wei-e taken at Brussels, and the 
work of the Committee will proceed as nearly as possible on the same 
lines as before for the next year or two. 

But an important change of locality has become inevitable. On 
the approach of Peace, Mrs. Milne decided to return to Japan as 
soon as her voyage could be arranged. This involved the sale of the 
house at Shide to which the Milne Observatory (partly a disused 
stable, partly an office specially built) is attached, and it was not 
feasible to continue the use of the observatory under these conditions. 
As a provisional measure the instruments and apparatus are being 
transferred to Oxford, where a Milne-Shaw machine had already been 
set up (see last Eeport), and where the facilities temporarily accorded 
by Mr. James Walker have been kindly continued by the newly 
appointed Professor (Dr. F. A. Lindemann). At the moment of 
writing this transference is not complete, and a fuller account of it 
is deferred to the next report. 

Instrumental. 

Wireless time signals were received at Shide regularly up to the 
time of removal of the seismographs. The transit lent by the Eoyal 
Astronomical Society has been returned. 

The wireless receiving apparatus which had been installed at Oxford 
before the War, but taken down on the commencement of hostilities, 
was again set up last autumn, and signals have been regularly received. 

Milne-Sliaiu Seismogrwphs. 

One of these was set up in the Clarendon basement at Oxford by 
Mr. J. J. Shaw on October 8, 1918, just in time to catch the big 
earthquake of October 10. Others are completed, or nearly com- 
pleted, but it will be convenient to defer details of their installation 
to the next report. One of them has been installed by Mr. J. J. 
Shaw for trial in a ' dug-out ' at some distance from his house at 
West Bromwich, and some interesting results obtained. But of these 
again details are defended. The past year, owing to the cessation of 
hostilities, has brought with it so many needs and distractions that 
this report is necessarily somewhat imperfect. 

Suggested Corrections to Adopted Tables. 

This work is proceeding. The suggested corrections are being 
applied provisionally to obtain new determinations of epicentres in the 
cases of well-observed earthquakes. This second approximation should 
show how far the corrections are valid. The work is, however, some- 
what extensive, and no report can be profitably made as yet. 

Earthquake Periodicity. 

In the 1912 Eeport of this Committee evidence was given for the 
existence of a periodicity of nearly 15 months (there identified as 



ON SEISMO LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 37 

104/7 mouths) deducted from the Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes 
compiled under Milne's superintendence. It was natural to examine 
the independent Catalogue 0/ Chinese Earthquakes compiled by Milne's 
Japanese assistant, Shinobu Hirota, and published in the 1908 Report 
of this Committee (Section XI.), with additions by Professor E. H. 
Parker in the 1909 Eeport (Section XII.). The result was to confirm 
the periodicity and to define it more exactly as of period 451"805 days = 
14'8438 months = l'2370 years. The investigation is given in the 
Monthly Notices R.A.S., Ixxix., p. 461, and it is pointed out that 
the periodicity seems to be affected by one of long period (about 78 
years). This led to the examination of the same Chinese series for 
long periods (see Man. Not. R.A.S. Ixxix., p. 531), of which several 
seem to be worth further investigation. The most notable is not the 
one above mentioned (78 years), but one of about 240 years (which 
may therefore be 3x78 years), which is conspicuous in the Chinese 
earthquakes and was also found in the recoi-ds of Nile flood. It is, 
however, only faintly traceable in Milne's Catalogue of Destructive 
Earthquakes, and the question arises how far the heterogeneous nature 
of the latter can be held responsible for the loss of this periodicity, 
and how far, on the other hand, the Chinese records can be regarded 
as possessing the necessary homogeneity. There is no doubt of the 
defective nature of the material in the Destructive Earthquakes in the 
early centuries. The increase in volume of the records is so consider- 
able as quite possibly to overwhelm any signs of periodicity. For 
example, let us limit attention to European earthquakes and to those 
marked III. by Milne (i.e., as ' having destroyed towns and devastated 
districts '). It might be supposed that these would be recorded with 
some approach to completeness, yet the numbers for successive periods 
of 180 years are as shown: — 

AD 631 — 811 — 991 — 1171 — 1351 — 1531 — 1711 — 1891 
11 9 14 22 19 39 117 

Unless there has been an improbable increase in the number of 
such quakes, the figures for 1711-1891 show that oaily about one in 
ten was recorded in earlier centuries. If this happens for European 
records, others will scarcely be in better case, and when we compound 
the different sources it is perhaps not surprising if the accidental errors 
are large enough to mask periodic phenomena. 

The Chinese records are also probably far from complete, but they 
have an appearance of much greater steadiness of some kind, which 
may quite possibly be real. A critical discussion by Chinese scholars 
would be of great interest. 

Meanwhile we turn to some numerical relations among the periodi- 
cities indicated, which seem to strengthen the evidence for their reality. 

Firstly, remark that the period of 451'805 days (or 1'2370 years) 
is sensibly different from that found for the movements of the earth's 
axis from astronomical observations. The most recent discussion of 
this latter period by Sir F. W. Dyson (Mon. Not. R.A.S., Ixxviii., 
p. 452) gives it as about 432 days, or accurately 7'10/6 years = 
1'1833 years. Neither determination can be so much in error as 
1919. H 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

20 days. We must apparently recognise two distinct periodicities 
connected in some way with our earth, and our attention is naturally 
directed to possibilities of interference. 

Now 21 X 1-23698 years = 25-97658 years. 
22 X 1-18333 years = 26-03333 years. 

So that the two periodicities interfere in approximately 26 years. 
But the differences from 26 years are by no means negligible. If we 
adopted exactly 26/21 years for the former we should be returning 
to the period of 104/7 months tentatively deduced from the Catalogue 
of Destructive Earthquakes and shown by the Chinese Earthquakes 
to be in error by about one month in 78 years. The length of the 
Chinese series warrants our retaining 5 significant figures. 

The astronomical determination, though deduced from observations 
of a much higher order O'f accuracy, depends on a much shorter series, 
and the number of significant figures is fewer. Dyson contents 
himself with 3, and if we vary his last figure by a few units we get : — - 

22 X 7-08/6 = 22 X 1-18000 = 25-9600 

22 X 7-09/6 = 22 X 1-18167 = 25-9967 

22 X 7-10/6 = 22 X 1-18333 = 26-0333 

22 X 7-11/6 = 22 X 1-18500 = 26-0700 

In the first case interference with the earthquake period would 
take place in rather less than 26 years, in the other cases in rather 
m.ore. To put the point in another way, let us calculate the period 
of the earth's axis which would interfere with that deduced from 
earthquakes (supposed accurate) in various assigned times, say 25 years, 
26, years, and 27 years. 



Period of Interference 


Period of Earth's Axis 


Six times 


25 years 

26 years 

27 years 


years 
1-1784 
1-1805 
1-1825 


years 
7-070 
7-083 
7-095 



It will be seen that if this period of interference could in any way 
be independently identified we might deduce a close value for the period 
of the earth's axis. 

Now, although this actual period has not as yet presented itself in 
other connections, its multiples, and perhaps its submultiples, have 
8o presented themselves several times over. 

Thus we have: — 

3 X 26 years = 78 years 
6 X 26 years =156 years 
9 X 26 years = 234 years 

The last may possibly be the 240-year period already mentioned 
as conspicuous in the Chinese earthquakes {Mon. Not. Ixxix., p. 531) in 
the Nile floods, and possibly in the motion of the moon. A period 
of 156 years approximately was found by Mr. A. E. Douglass in the 
growth of trees (Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc. xlvi., pp. 321-335, 1914), 
and is illustrated by a striking diagram in Professor D'Arcy Thompson's 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



39 



book on Growth and Form, p. 122 (Camb. Univ. Press, 1917). The 
actual length is apparently shorter than 156 years — nearer 150 years, 
but the material is scarcely sufficient to warrant a very precise estimate. 
The Chinese earthquakes show this periodicity of 156 years very 
clearly. Dividing the period into 18 equal parts the totals are as in 
the columns 0, the columns C being calculated from the formula : — 

C = 45 + 15-6 Cos (0 - 225°). 

Period of 156 years in Chinese Earthquakes, exhibited in 18 groufs 

of 7 years. 






C 


0-C 





C 


0-C 





C 


0-C 
2 


29 


34 


- 5 


30 


41 


-11 


59 


61 


38 


31 


+ 7 


32 


46 


-14 


54 


68 


-14 


32 


30 


+ 2 


40 


51 


-11 


63 


54 


+ 9 


56 


29 


+ 27 


69 


56 


+ 13 


41 


49 


- 8 


30 


32 


- 2 


70 


59 


+ 11 


32 


44 


-12 


29 


36 


- 7 


66 


60 


+ 6 


35 


39 


- 4 



The differences 0—0 show a variation in the half -cycle of 78 years, 
to which attention has already been drawn in the paper on the 15-month 
period {loc. cit.), and, moreover, the phases of the 15-month term 
vary in this half-cycle of 78 years and in the quarter-cycle of 39 years. 
This quarter-cycle appears in numerous meteorological phenomena, 
and should probably i-eplace the supposed ' Briickner Cycle ' of 35 
years (see Q.J.R. Met. Sac. xh., p. 322). 

But 39 years is no longer a multiple of 26 years, though related 
to it. The submultiple of both — viz., 13 years — has, however, been 
shown to affect a large number of meteorological phenomena, being a 
double ' chapter ' of the kind indicated in the paper just cited, and 
others which have followed it. 

As yet it cannot be said that we have anything really tangible in 
the shape of a physical hypothesis, but these numerical relations are 
certainly suggestive, and are sufficient to guide further inquiry. 
Naturally in tentative exploration of this kind much time is spent 
in unproductive essays, but this need not be grudged. 



B 2 



40 REPORTS ON THK STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Radiotelegraphic Investigations. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir Oliver Lodge (Chairman) , Dr. W. H. Eccles 
(Secretary), Mr. S. G-. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Professor A. S. Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murray, 
Professors J. A. Fleming, O. W. 0. Howe, H. M. Mac- 
DONALD, and J. W. Nicholson, Sir H. Norman, Captain 
H. E. Sankby, Professor A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, 
and Professor H. H. Turner. 

During the past twelve months the war-time restrictions on wireless- 
telegraphy have continued in operation. A few statistical records 
from British Colonial Eadio Stations have been sent regularly to the 
Committee, and occasional information from other parts of the world 
has been received. 

Solar Eclipse of May 29. 

In connection with the solar eclipse of May 29 the Committee 
arranged for the carrying out of experiments on the effect of the eclipse 
on signals ti'ansmitted across the central line. The British Admiralty 
stations at Ascension and the Azores transmitted continuously during 
the transit of the umbra across the Atlantic Ocean. Observing stations 
north of the equator were for the most part asked to listen to Ascension 
for at least an hour round about the time when the umbra passed 
between themselves and Ascension ; observers south of the equator 
were asked for the most part to listen to the Azores. Certain selected 
stations north of the equator were asked to listen to the Azores, so as 
to afford check observatio'ns upon the variations which might be 
observed in signals jiassing across the central line of the eclipse, and, 
similarly, selected stations south of the central line were asked to listen 
to Ascension. The American station at Sayville also transmitted a 
programme during a portion of the period of the eclipse, and ai'range- 
ments were made for special experiments between Darien and the 
Falklands, and between an Egyptian station and a South African 
station. 

The main portion O'f the experiment hinged upon Ascension. The 
umbral cone passed from West to East, and was expected to affect in 
succession the strength in which signals were received at such stations 
as Demerara, Jamaica, the stations on the coast of the United States 
and Canada, stations in Ireland, England, France, Italy, in the Mediter- 
ranean and Egypt. 

The shadow of the mooin struck the earth first at dawn on the coast 
of South America and swept across the Continent in the course of half 
an hour, at first with enormous velocity, but losing speed as the Atlantic 
Ocean was approached. About the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and 
near the equator the speed of the shadow was about one-third of a mile 
per second. On crossing the African Continent from the Gulf of 
Guinea to the Mozambique Channel the speed gi'adually increased, and 



ON RADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 41 

the eclipse finished at sunset near Madagascar. The effects of the 
moving shadow were investigated under three heads: — 

(1) Strays. 

(2) Signals not crossing the denser parts of the shadow. 

(3) Signals crossing through or near the umbra. 

Strays. 

These were bad on the day of the eclipse and on the preceding day 
in Europe, North America, and in temperate latitudes on the Atlantic 
Ocean. They were very few in Central and South America and in the 
central equatorial Atlantic. In Central America the conditions were 
exceptional meteorologically, the day having less rain than nearly every 
day of the preceding three weeks. The preliminary survey ol the 
results recorded throughout the part of the globe reaching from Con- 
stantinople to Eio Janeiro suggests that there was no outstanding 
occurrence in regard to frequency or intensity of strays that could 
be directly ascribed to the passage of the shadow. 

Signals not traversing the cleanse shad'OW. 

Many observations were made in Northern Europe and America 
on the signals from the Azores, which were arc signals of 4,700 metres 
wave-length. The observing points extended from Berhn through 
Holland, France, Italy, Spain, and Great Britain to stations near the 
Atlantic coast of the United States. There were no unusual variations 
in the strength of the signals from the Azores. 

Anothei; class of experiment comes under this heading. It was 
suggested by the effect sometimes observed at sunset or sunrise, in 
which the twilight band when on one side of a transmitting station 
appears to strengthen as if by reflection the waves received at a station 
on the other side of the transmitting station. In order to test whether 
such reflections oocm-red during an eclipse certain stations on the 
south of the central line of the eclipse were asked to listen to Ascension, 
which was also south of the central line. The stations at Durban and 
Port NoUoth (South- West Africa.) found no trace of the effect, and in 
fact the former concluded that the signals from Ascension were rather 
worse after the eclipse began. An analogous experiment on the 
northern side was carried out by one o^f the Malta stations and also at 
Rosyth, listening to Cairo, with similar conclusions. 

Effect on Signals passing across the Central Line. 

Arrangements were made for the transmission of signals from the 
Darien station of the Panama Canal zone, and several stations in South 
America attempted to receive the signals. The report from the Falkland 
Islands has not yet come to hand, and the other stations in South 
America did not succeed in picking up the signals. The only observa- 
tion made on the earlier stag:es of the eclipse are those of Demerara 
listening to Ascension. Fluctuations in signal strength are repoi'ted, 
but no steady increase or decrease in strength. Ships at sea within 
the penumbra report a strengthening of all signals during the eclipse. 



42 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1919. 

The most striking results were obtained at some of the stations in 
France, Malta, and Teneriffe. At Meudon and at Eoussillon the signals 
from Ascension were received practically only while the eclipse was in 
progress. Both Malta and Teneriffe found that the eclipse produced a 
great improvement in the strength of signals. On the other hand, 
Durban was unable to pick up Cairo, though this is usually possible, 
but Aden was picked up with greater intensity than normal. On the 
whole, the records show that the improvement in signal strength 
reached its highest value long before the umbra intervened between 
the stations, and this value persisted after the umbra had passed; that 
is to say, if ionising processes are the cause of the change in the 
strength of signals, the results indicate that the processes are prac- 
tically fully accomplished in a given region of the air before the a^Tival 
of the umbra at that place, so that there appears to be nothing left for 
the umbra to do in the few minutes of complete shadow it brings. 

The thanks of the Committee are due especially to the Admiralty 
for arranging that their stations at Ascension and the Azores should 
transmit the necessary signals, and also to the American Government 
for making similar arrangements i-egarding Sayville and Darien. 
Thanks are due also to the American, French, and Itahan Govern- 
ments, the Admiralty, the War Office, the Air Ministry, and Marconi's 
Wireless Telegi-aph Co., Ltd., for undertaking observations and record- 
ing the variations in signal sti'ength. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 43 



The Calculation of Mathematical Tablcf;. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hiij, (Chairman), 
Professor .T. W. Nicholson {Secretary'), Dr. J. R. Airey, 
Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Professor L. N. G. Filon, Sir G. Green- 
hill, Professor E. W. Hobson, Mr. G. Kennedy, and Professors 
Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, H. M. Macdonald, G. B. 
Mathews, G. N. Watson, and A. G. Webster. 

Report on Mathematical Tables of the Elliptic Function. 

Ckiticism was invited of the arrangement of the system proposed of 
tabulation, and of the accuracy of the tables calculated as specimens, in 
the Reports 1911, 1912, 1913, on the Elliptic Function. ' 

Some fault was found with the final decimals in the table of the 
Lemniscate Function K=K', 0=45°, p. riO, Report 1912. 

As this table has been used as the base of the calculation of the table 
for 

K=(2, 3, 4, 5, 7, . . . .) K', 

by means of a transformation of the order 2, 3, 4, .... as explained, 
p. 88, Report 1913, it was decided to make a recalculation to a higher 
accuracy, going to 10 decimals. 

This was undertaken by Colonel R. L. Hippisley, and is given here 
in Table I, with a description of the formulas of the series employed ; 
and also of the independent verification by the division values, trisection, 
quinquisection, and others, given by expressions of finite form. 

The notation proposed in Report 1911 may be recalled here, of the 
six functions tabulated. A, B, C, D, E, F, with r=90/, 

^^'> 00' ^' HK ' 

C(r) = D(90-r) = ®(l-/IK B(r) = A(90-r) =:H(W)K 

in terms of the theta and eta function of Jacobi. 
The elliptic functions are then given by 

Jacobi 's zeta function is given by 

zn/K = E(r), zn(l-/)K = F(r) .-: E(90-;). 

The table runs down to 7=45, and then up again to r = 90, as in the 
ordinary circular function, 



44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1919. 

A connexion is made with the original Table IX of Legendre, for 
F<t> in terms of f, by the two outside columns ; of <t> and if/, given in degrees, 
where 

^=am/K, F</,=/K = JqK, 

90 f 

^=am (1 -/)K, F^={1 -/)K=-gQ-K, 

proceeding by equal increments of r and/, whereas Legendre's Table IX 
takes equal steps in <j). 

The basis on which these three tables have been calculated is the 
value of e-'^ which Gauss has given to 51 places of decimals (Werke, 

vol. iii., p. 426). This is the value of q for the modulus — , when 

K=K' and ^=45°. The various powers of q, integral and fractional, 
required for the q series were calculated to 20 places by the aid of an 
arithmometer, kindly lent for the purpose by Dr. Western, and are 
collected in the accompanying table. 

In the case of the lemniscate functions (K=K') all the entries were 
computed by means of the q formulae, 

®2i=l— 2?cos2a; + 2g*cos4a;— 25°cos6a;+ . . . , 

B.ti=2qi sin x - 2q" sin 3a; + 2g V sin 5a; - . . . , 

Z^i=^2, [sin 2nx{q'' + q"'+q"'+ . • •)]. 
TT-^ sin nr° 

where u=fK, x=-^irf, sin wa;=sin nr°, cos 2Ma;=cos 2m-°. 

The tables for K=2K' and K=4K' have been determined by trans- 
formation from the Lemniscate Functions, according to the formula given 
by Sir George Greenhill in Report iii. 1913 of the British Association 
Committee on Mathematical Tables. 

The q formulae for the higher values of the modulus, especially that 
for Zu, are very slowly convergent. From 35 to 40 terms in the series 
for Zm would be required for each entry in the table for K = 4K' 
to ensure an accuracy of ten significant figures. Check values for 
r = 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 have, however, been obtained by the q formulae, 
and all the tables have been submitted to scrutiny by the method of 
differences to the fifth and sixth orders. 

The values of K have been obtained from the formula 

K=£, ®o^ 

and E' from 

*^-2L ^^1 V 2.4.6...2r ) 2r-lJ 

but E, for which the above series is slowly convergent, has been 
calculated from 

EK'+E'K-KK'=i7r. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 45 

The Lemniscate Function. 

1. This is the name given to the elliptic function when the modular 
angle 61=45°, and K=K'=L. 

It arises in the Weierstrass form when (/:!=0 in S = 4.s''-;7vS-(7:, ; 
and then taking ^7.2=1. -^=1' W|=o)3=L, and the period parallelogram is 
a square ; and S\=\, So=0, §3=—^. 

Some writers prefer s, = l, So=0, 83= — !, g-.^^, A = 64, but this has 
the disadvantage of making 

o,,=o,, = --'^ =1-B1102877714605987 . . . 

which is Stirling's A, given in Halphen's Functions elliptiques, I., p. 64. 
But with (/2=1> 5^3=0. S=4s=»—s, 

00,0 i, -i 



ds f ds 



= 1.8540740773, 



the number employed by Legendre, Jacobi, and all subsequent writers. 
In the general case, with S resolved into real factors, 
(2) S=4s3— 5r2S-r73=4 . s—s^ . s—s., . S-S3, s,>s.2>S3, 

,„, , so-s, ,, s,-s, f s/{s,-s,)ds r ^{s,-s,)ds 



A" I , S^ 



and the first elliptic integral will be expressible by the inverse elliptic 
function of Jacobi, in one of the forms 



CO 

(4) oo>s>S|,cK= -^g = 

(l-e)K=J 



S—S2 
S-S3 



V Si-s,, V S1-S2 V Si -S3 

s 

(1-/)K'=| „ 

.So 

V Si— S2.S — S3 V Si— Sj.S— S3 V S — S3 



46 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

5 

/ S ] '~~ S-i • So S - /Si — St) a S ~^'S'i - , / S \ tSo 

V Sj— S;, . s, — s \/ Sq — S3 . s, — s V Si — s 

s 

.K=J „ = 

sa-./^-^=cn-. /^-i^ =dn-,. /^i:^, 

V «:'— S3 V S2 — S3 \/ S,-S2 

\^ So— S \/ So — .V V^ S,-S:j.S3 — S 

V s^—s \/ Si— s V Si— s 

In the special lemniscate case, where (73=0, ^2=1) 

k2 = /c'2 = |, S =i, S2=0, .S3 = -i, n/(s,-S3) = 1, K = K' = L. 

The name arose historically in the rectification of the lemniscate 

(8) r2=2a2 cos 26, 

(9) '^=_ tan 29, ^l'=r2 sec''' 2d=2a' sec 2^, 

e 

(10) ^= f__^l-- . for the arc AP=s. 

^ ' a Jv/(icos29) 



Then putting cos 2^=cos^<^, 

'"' H:y (4 .-itw*)=l7(n|iro'.)=^<*' ^'° *^°»='^' 

and writing cl for en, . . . ., to represent the lemniscate function, 

(12) cos <&=cl eL=cl -, cos 29=cPeL, cos 6=dl eL, 

tan 0=cl(l— e)L ; 

and so the en, cl function is the first in importance compared with sn, 
dn, or si, dl. 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 






With cos 26=~~ =2^ as variable in the integral, 



2a2 



(13) 
bnt 
(14) 



:=«^=f7a^.r"'"'- 



|y(i..*-i)-'' 



obtained from the Weierstrass form by putting s=^z-. 

The lemniscate can be described by means of a three-bar linkage, 
where the rotating links FG, F'G' in the figure are equal, and the 
traversing link GG' and fixed link FF' are each \/2 times the length 
of a rotating link. 

The mid-point P of the traversing link will then describe the 
lemniscate curve. 




Fig. 1. 
Lemniscate APO. 



OF = OF' = 25 mm. 
OA = OA' = 35 mm. = FG = F'G'. 
GG' = 50 mm. 



GP = PG' = 25 mm. 
AOP = H0° = fl. 
FAF' = FGF = 45°. 



48 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENOE.^ — 1919. 

Produce FP to meet the circle round FG, F'G' in Q. Then, since 
FG2=2GP2=GP.GG', the circle round FPG' touches FG ; QF'G = 
QFG=GG'F. G'GF, so that F'Q is parallel to GG', and PF'=PQ. 
Then FP.PF=FP.FQ-GP.PG'=a2, if GP=OF=a, FG=F'G' 
=a\/2, FF'=GG'=2a. This is the property of the lemniscate, leading 
to the polar equation r^=2a' cos 20, with OP=r, AOP=e, FQF'=FGF' 
= (/), FG sin ^=FF' sin 6, sm^<f>—2 sin^^, cos2</>=cos2^, 

r=0P=2PH cos ^=FG cos (^, r-=:2a2cosV=2a2cos2^. 

The rectification of the lemniscate may be considered to have 
originated the true theory of the Elliptic Function in that it introduced 
the First Elliptic Integral, inverse of the uniform Elliptic Function. 

The previous efforts at the rectification of the Ellipse, which gave 
the name to the Elliptic Integral, were on the wrong track, as leading to 
the Second Elliptic Integral, not the inverse of a uniform function. 

The lemniscate can be expressed in the vector form, in terms of a 
parameter u, 

(15) x + iy—a seGh{u + ^iri), o-'^ = 2a^ sech 2u, for K'=^7r, k = 1, 
degenerate case of the confocal Cassinians given by 

(16) x + iy=aGn{eK + ^K'i), or ^, dn{eK + Ui'i). 

Then 

(17) ch2tt=sec 26, sh2tt=tan 26, 
th u =tan 6=cl(l— e)L. 

Important memoirs to consult on the Lemniscate Function are by 
Kiepert, Crelle 75, 1873; Schwering, Crelle 107, 110; Mathews, 
Proceedings London Mathematical Society 1896, 1915. 

Other forms of the lemniscate integral may be given, such as that 
obtained from the Weierstrass integral with g^= —1, (73=0, and then 

with s=^z'^, 

ii_, ^=icr'l:^'=eL. 

V(l + ^^)' ' l+;j2 



(19) 



2_1 — cl2^; ^\v 

^ ~1 + q\2v' ^"^L-v)' 

dl2v=^^-^ + ^'A s\2v= ^ , tl2^;- -}- . 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 49 

And in a Quadric Transformation, with 
(20) 



(21) 
(22) 



X, — 
as in Table II. 



Jv/(i . l + 6a;2 + a;^). 
, ^=v/k' tn Um^K, k' = (s/^-1\\ K=2K', 



Lemniscate Bisection : r = 45. 
2. These are given page 72, Report 1911, for the general case, 

E(45) -^(1-K') = tav mod. angle=|^l--L^ =0-1464466094. 

Introducing the angle a=^(45), cot a-^\/ k', 

A(45)=sin 45 (sin 2a)J, D(45)=A(45)sec a, 

A(45) / k' 1„ 

cosa=:^^^,, { = . / ^ ,=cn-K. 

D(45) V IfK' 2 

sin 2a=?^'''=2V2(v^2-l) 2=al 0-30102 99957 

1 +K 

V 2=al 0-07525 74989 

>/2-l=ali;61722 43147 

sin 2a=al 19935^80 93 

Vsin 2a=al 1-99837 79523 

sin 45 = all -84948 50022 

A(45)=al 1-84786 29545 

A(45)=0-70447 07318 

A(45) = al 1-84786 29545 

sec a=al 0-19138 78426 

D(45)=al 0-03925 07971 

D(45) = l-09458 82886 
sliL=v'(2-s/2), cliL=V(v/2-l), dliL = ^-^-, tl|L=V2. 



50 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Lemniscate Trisection : r=30. 

8. L'hfc general formulas are given in p. 72, Keport 1911, as taken 
from Phil. Trans. 1904, p. 261, 'The Ellipsotomic Problem,' and for the 

special case of the lemniscate, where b=2i/'d sin 75 = i?^?-^^' sinJ75^ 

(sin 45I'-! 
the trigonometrical form of the division values can be written 



D{:-]0) 



^ (sin 75 )' 
(sin 45)J 



B(:30): 



.(sin 45)3 (sin 60)^ 
(sin 75).' 



C(30) + A^30) = i^ELi^, C(30)- A(30) = ( ^i^L^OjiJ^in J5)^ 
, (sin 75)J ' ^ ' ^ ' (sin 45)J 

or otherwise, 

C(30)3 + A(30)'' -..= V 33V =: i^^*^-^^) \ C(30)3 - A(30)^^= ^ ^ + ^ = ^i^l^ , 

(sm 45) 2 sin 45 

E(30) = (^" ^?'^i^^', F(30)=E(60)=a-^ 
(sm 60)t 

= (sin 45)i (sin 60)1 (sin 75) "^'^^ ^^)* ('^^ ^^P. 
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ (sin 60); 

Thus for D(30) 

sin 75 = al 1-98494 37781 
sin 45=al 1-84948 50022 



(sin 75)5=al 1-99498 12594 

. (sin 45)?^ = al 1-97491 41670 

D(30) = al 0-02006 70924 

= 1 04729 03271 

(sin 75). i = al 1-94982 83340 

(sin 60)!= i-98438 26579 

1-93421 09919 

(sin 75)i'= 1.99749 06297 

B(30)=al 1-93672 03622 

= 0-86441 11542 

B(30)nX30)''* - sin 45" sin 60°. 

For C(30) and A(30) 

sin 60=al 1-93753 06317 



For B(30) 

sin 45 = al 1-84948 50022 
sin 60=al 1-93753 06317 

sin75=al ] -98494 37781 



sin 75=al 1-98494 37781 
sin 45=al 1-84948 50022 



sin 45=al 1-84948 50022 
sin 75=al 1-98494 37781 



C(80) = 1-14189 38846, 



(sin 60)J = al 1-96876 53158 
(sin 75): = al 1-99498 1259 3 

1-96374 65751 

(sin 45):;=a] 1-74914 16703 

C(30) f A(30)=al 0-21460 49048 

= 1-63909 79420 

(sin 45)5=al 1-79981 33829 

(sin 75)S = al 1-98996 25187 

C(3O)-A(30)=aH-80935 08142 

= 0-64468 98272 

A(30)= 0-49720 40572 



A(30)3 C(30)-^=sin 45° sin 15° 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 51 

(sin 45)5=al 1-92474 25011 
sin I5=al 1-41299 62306 (sin 15)' -al 1-11949 43459 

1-04423 68470 

(sin 60)1= i-98438 26579 

E(30) = ali-05985 41891 

= 0-13253 28561 

(sin 45)? = al f-92474 25011 
(sin 60)! = al 1-98438 26579 
(sin 75)*= al 1-99247 18890 

a=.(sin 45)! (sin 60)! (sin 75)?=al 1-90159 70480 

= 0-79725 46262 
(sin 45)?=al 1-77422 75033 
(sin 75)i=al 1-97741 56671 

(sin 45)? (sin 75)?=al 1-75164 31704 
(sin 60)'; = al 1-92191 32897 



/5 = (sin 45i) (sin 76)*=:al f-82972 98807 
(sin 60)1= 0-67566 26010 
F{30) = a-/3 

= 0-79725 46262 
— 0-67566 26010 
= 0-12159 20252 

This checks all the trisection values in the lemniscate table ; but 
some other corresponding values of the elliptic function may be 
cited here. 

Among all the trisection values for the different modular angles, the 
simplest appear to arise for 6=75° and there 

*¥' = V3=V(si^60°)' ^"3^^= ,/2=«i°45S 

D(30) ®3^^ 1., ^, , 1 1 2^2 

D(90)= ®K -2^^' ^(^^)= v'K' = ^(sTnl5)'^(^^) = sT(sin"l5°)' 

A(30)=^|---\ C(30)=^^ + \ B(30)=^2V3y(sin 15), 

E(30)=,^3, F(30)=^2^3 ■ 

The Table for a=75°, K=KV3 is given in Report 1912, p. 52 ; and 
it might have been derived by the cubic transformation of p. 89, Report 
1913, applied to the Table for 6=15°, K'=Kv/3, p- 48, Report 1912, for 
which a q series expansion is rapidly convergent. 

These division values are useful in settling the number of terms to be 
employed in the series. 



52 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

For trisection in general, a;=/csn^|K is a root of the Jacobian 
quartic 

a;=N/(l + c)+v/(l + a)c)+ v/(l + oj2c), a)"=l, c-'=^r -^j . 

K iX \-^ K J iX 

_{l-xY{3 +x), or {l+xf{S-x) 
4^ ' 

„ , - 2,^ b-1 ^ 2„ 6-1 
So also, for cn^K = c~: -i ' or dn3E. = tr ' 

d 0+ i tJ ■^ 

Thus, for the lemniscate function, with c=^, 

1,2 /3 /3+y3 ' /3 ^ „n/3+1 

'^^V=-V 2+\/ -2" = -V 2 + ^^"^^' 

Ji_6&2_3=0, 6=</3'^^^\ 

1 V cos 30 _sin45(sin60)i 

^^3-'^= V 1+ cos 30- sin75 ' 
1^ V3 + 1+^^2V3 ,2^ _V3 + l-y2V3_ V/l^lineON 

2 "V U+\/sin60/ 



sIgL= 2 , cl3L = 



-.1^ V3- 1 + N/2V3 2 ,,ov/3 + l 1 
^k^ = 2V2 ' ^h^ = ^ ^ 2^2^-2" 



Quarter Section : ?'=225. 

4. Taking the formulas in Phil. Trans. 1904, p. 278, for /x=8, and 
changing to the angle a=^(45), cot a=s/K, tan^a=a, the expressions 
may be deduced 

^ ^^ Sin(j7r + a) 

-Qf22i.Y=^^^3l±M cos'ia(sin 2a) ' 
^ ^^ sin(J7r + a) ' 

D(22i)4=cos2ia sin (l7r + a)(sin2a)'^ 
^ ^' 2 Sin2(j7r + la) COS^a 



and then 



P,ooi\4_sin24a sin + a) (sin^a) -' 
^ ^^ 2 sin^d-Tr-ia) COS^a ' 

k' tn^iK=-^igi)J=tan (i^-ia) tan ^a, 

dn2JK_C (22i)^_ tan( i7r- ^a) 
k' ■-D(22i)2 tanW ' 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 53 

Also 

E(22|) + F(22^)=^4°4*-H , E(22i)-F(22i)=^M«^li5). 

Thus, for example, we find for 

K=2K', K' = (y2-1)-, a=^7r. 

8 

For the lemniscate function 

tan a=V2, =al 0-07525750=tan 49° 56'. 

But taking a=50° in a first approximation, with four-figure 
logarithms, as a test of the formulas, 

sin(^7r— ia)=sin20 =al 1-5341 

sin ^a=sin 25 =al 1-6259 

sin (:^7r + a) = sin 95o=al 1-9983 

sin2a=sinlOO =al 1-9934 

sin (^+ ia)=sin 70°=al 1-9780 

cos a=sin 40° = al 1-8081 

Thus A(22i)^='^'''2^ ^^" 25(sm 80)* 

sin 85 
=al 2-3200 
A(22i)=al 1-5800=0-3802 
R(99.i)4_ siP^70 sin^65(sin 80) ^ 
sin 86 
=al i-8601 
B(22i)=al 1-9650=0-9226 
j)/'22i)4_sin''65 sin 85(sin 80)* 

^' 2 sin270 sin'''40 

=al 00481 
D(22i)=al 0-0120=1-026 

C(22i)* = sin^^n 85(sin 8 0) ' 
2sin^20^n240 
=al 0-2630 
C(22i)=al 0-06575 = l-168. 

Testing r=22^ in Table II, where the angle a is exactly three quarters 
of a right angle, 

31l7rll77rl 5 

=r' 4''-2"=16' r'^2*=16' r + ^^S'"' 



Ni 



a=r,7r. 



A/221 )4 ^ siP^n°j: sin^33j (sin 45) 



sin 67^ 



1919. 



B/22iv<=s^"'78°| sin256°J (sin 46)* 
^ ""' sin67°i 

p/ggi u_sin' 56°| sin 67°^ (sin 46) 
'^ ^^ 2 sin278°| sin222°i 

C(22M<=^^"*^^°li^" 67°| (si n 45) 
^^ 2 8in2il°isin222°i 



54 REPOBTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Here the seven or ten figure logarithms may be used in the test 
calculation. 
But tested with ordinary seven figure logarithms 

,,„ ,,^ sinni°15'sin233°45'(sin45)' 
^^'^''s; - sin67°30' 

-p/om ^4_ sin^78°45' sin '^56°15' (sin 45)' 
B{IZ^J - sin67'30' 

A(22i)^=al 2-0667053 
A(22i)=al i-5166763=0-32860 

ST^=tan278°45'tan-''56°15' 

■ ^S»y =al 0-4382228 

A(22|)=al 1-5166763 

B(22i)=al 1-9548991=0-90136 

1 ;_sin^66° 15^3in 67°30 (sin 45)^ 
D(22|) — 2 sin278°45'sin-22°30' 
D(22i)''=al 0-3178220 
D(22i) =al 0-0794555=1-2008... 

sin''33°45'sin 67°30'(sin 45) ^ 
0(222)'— 2 sinni°15'sin22°30' 
C(22i)< 



1\4 



=tan233°45'tan278°45' 



D(22i) 
^^^^i|=al 0-2630154 



D(22^)' 
D(22i)=al 0-0794555 
C(224)=al 0-3424709=2-2003 
E-F=tan222°30' 

=ari-2344486=0-171573 
tan 22°30^ 
■*" sin 45° sin 67°80' 

=al 1-8021240=0-634051 
E(22i)=0-402812 
F(22i,) =0-231239 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 55 

Lemniscatc 5 section: r=18, 86. 

5. The formulas to be employed are given on p. 7, Eeport 1911, where 
we put 

_ (c-l)(o2_4 c-i) _ (c-H)(c^-4 c-l) 

^>- (c + l)3 '«2- (c_l)3 

(c + l)Mc-I). (c + lH(c-l)^ 

"'- 2cJ '''^- 2ci 

_ _ (c + l>V(c-iy.(c^-4c- l)i 

, _, va _(c + m(c-l)X(c^-4c-l)i 

taken from Phil. Trans. 1904, p. 264 ; and apply the numerical values of 
c in the three regions, I, II, III. And with 

u _(c + 3)(c2-4c-l) , _(3c-l)(c2-4c-l) 

Oj — ^ ,02 :j 

20ci{c-^-+l)i 20c?(c- +1)' 

c c 

4c*(c-^ + I)i 4(-- + l)i 

c c 

4ri(c-l^j), 4(0-1 + 1)1 

c c 



Begion II. 

C(36)=:^, D(18)=^^; , A(36)=4' , B(18)=4' 

c— =4 sin 54, c + -=4 sin 72 
c c 

c=2 sin 72 + 2 sin 54=4 sin 63 sin 81 

c--^-4=-8sin218, c-i + l=8sin354=(2sin54)3 
c 

c + ^— 2=4 sin 72 + 4 sin 30=8 sin 51 sin 69 
c 

c + ^— 2=4 sin 72—4 sin 30=8 sin 39 sin 21 
c 

,. 2 sin^51 sin-'69 sin254 ,(, oo • eo • oi • %on ■ %c-i ■ ■>ka 

c, "= . „„ . - ^ , c,^°=32 sm 63 sm 81 sm'39 sm321 sm^S^ 

' sm 63 sm 81 

^ ,0^2 sini54 sin5l8 sin239 sin221 
sin 45 sin 63 sin 81 

g io_32jinj54 sinn8 sin^S l 8in^69 sin 63 sin 81 

sin^ 45 

I 2 



56 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



cliL= ^ , ,., , r^— , =cos 74°8, 



a/ 



v^l+V5 + -^-^+l' 



n/5 + 1 



■ + 



cl L= 



V 2 ^^ 



n/5 + 1 



+ 



v/ 



v/5 + 1 



=cos 40* 75. 



fV5 



2 "^ V 2 
Legendre, F. E. II. p. 283, has calculated 

,^(9) = 10° . 59286766=10° 35' 34" . 3235850 
which can be used in a numerical test. 



N^imeriral Calculation 



sin 5l=al 1-89050 25944 
sin 69= 1-97015 17377 
sin 54= i-90795 76446 



sin 63= 
sin 81= 



i-94988 08840 
i -99461 99270 



D=al i-94450 08110 



For c. 



sin 39=al i-79887 18039 
sin 21= i-55432 91617 
sin 54= f-90795 76446 
sin 63= i-94988 08840 
sin 81= i-99461 99270 
2= 0-30102 99957 



sin^51 

sin-'69 

sin^54 

2 

N 
D 



forc\ 

=al 1-67150 
= i-91045 
= i-81591 
= 0-80102 



77832 
52131 
52892 
99957 



=al 1-69890 
=al i-94450 



c'"=^ 



=V2 



C(86) = 



v/k 



D(18) = 



sin»39 
sin321 
sin254 
sin 63 
sin 81 
2^ 

1 

C2 



=al 1-75440 
=al i-97544 

=al 0-07525 

=al 005069 
= 1-12382 

=al 1-39661 
2-66298 
i-81591 
i-94988 
1-99461 
1-50514 

=al i-32516 
=al i-98251 



82812 
08110 

74702 
07470 
74990 

82460 
38587 

54117 
74851 
52892 
08840 
99270 
99785 
89755 
68975 



=al 0-07525 74990 



n/k 



c(36)D(18)=^^'^=^!'' 
^ ' ^ ' K sin 



=al 0-00777 

= 1.01806 
54 

45 



43965 
23966 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES, 



57 



Numerical Calculation : for e^. 



sin 54=al 1-90795 76446 
sin 39=al 1-79887 18039 
sin 21=al 1-55432 91618 
sin 18=al 1-48998 23641 

sin 45=al 1-84948 50022 
sin 63=al 1-94988 08841 



For e^ and B(18), 



sin 5l=al 1-89050 25945 
sin 69=al 1-97015 17377 
sin 18=al 1-48998 28641 

sin 45 = al 1-84948 50022; 



(sin 54)5 =al 1-95397 88228 

(sin 89)2 =al 1-59774 36078 

(sin 21)2 ^al 1-10865 88286 

(sin 18)^ =al 8-4 49&1 18205 

N =al 4-11029 25743 

(sin 45)>o=al 2-49485 00220 

sin 63 = al 1-94988 08841 

sin 81 =al 199461 99271 

D =al 2-43935 08332 

A(86)'o= ^ =al 3-67094 17411 

A(36) =4' =al i-76709 41741 

= 0-58491 69061 

(sin 54)^ =al 1-95397 88223 

sin 63 =al 1-94988 08841 

sin 81 =al 1-99461 99271 

(sin 51)-' =:al 1-78100 51890 

(sin 69)2 =al 1-94030 34754 

(sin 18)5 =al 3-44991 18205 

N =al 3-06970 01184 

D=(sin 45)'«=al 8-29073 00396 

B(l8)i»=^=al i-77897 00788 

B(l8)=4-=al i-97789 70079 

= 0-95087 93863 
A(36)B(18)='i^2^2(sin 54°)i sin 18°. 



In Region I, c =D(86), C2=C(18) 



with 



1 (^~^)=^^ + l=2 sin 72v/(2 sin 18) + 1 

2 (^+g)= 2sin 72+v'(2sinl8) 

■. + ,.- (c + mc-l ) (c + l)(c-lY 
S2c' + 32^2 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

=^(V5 + 1)(n/5 + V5 + 2) = ^V5(s/+S) + 1(v'-5+1) 

=(2 sin 54)3 sin 72 + 2 sin 54 

2sin 54=^(v/5 + l)= 1-61803 39888 

=al 0-20898 76403 

(2 sin 54)^=al 0-B1348 14604 

sin 72 =al 1-97820 63255 

(2 sin 54); sin 72 =al 0-29168 77859 

= 1-95713 69676 





c,Hc./= 3-57547 09563 




-"--'=4{'-:)('-:-)(-:) 




=K-o^(-:) 




=sin 18[2 sin 72+ V (2 sin 18;] 




. an . (sin 18)=' 

=sin 36 + ^—. '- 

sin 4ft 


(sin 18)5 
sin 45 


=0-24293 41359 


sin 36 


=0-5s778 52523 


Ca'-Ci'' 


=0-83071 93882 


c,-^ 


= 1-37237 57840=al 013747 30637 



Ci =1-06535 56397=al 0-02749 46127=D(36) 

c/ =2-20309 51722=al 0-34303 32570 

cl =1-17113 41680=al 0-06860 66514 = 0(18) 

C(18)D(36)=c,Co=-^(V5 + l) 

In Eegion III, c,=B(36), C2=-A(18), 
i(c--W-V5 + l = ~2 sin 72 (sin 18) + 1 

Uc + l\= 2 sin 72- V (2 sin 18) 

c,5 + C25=-(2 sin 54)1 sin 72 + 2 sin 64= 0-33940 29785 

c^^-c^^=-smSQ-^^^^ = 0-34485 11165 

sm 45 

c,5= 0-34212 70475 =al i-53418 74095 
c,=al 1-90683 74819 = 0-80693 30099=B(36) 
. -02^= 0-00272 40690 =al 3-43521 81065 

-C2=al i-48704 36213 = 0-30673 80262=A(18) 
A(18)B(36)= -CiC2=KV6-l). 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 59 

In Region II, b, = ^, b,=^-^^^\ 

„, , 4 sin489 sinJ21 sinns , , o^ 4 sin451 sini69 sinns 
^ ' sini54 sml54 

2fe2-fci ^tan439 tan421. 

62 + 26, 

tan 39=al 1-90836 92094 tani39=al 1-95418 46047 

tan 21=al i-58417 74241 tan»21 = al 1-79208 87121 

^^2-6| ^g^l i-74627 33168 

62 + 26, 

sin 39=al 1-79887 18039 (sin 39)i=al i-89943 59019 

sin 21=al i-55432 91618 (sin 21)4=al i-77716 45809 

sin 18=al 1-48998 23641 sinn8 = 2"-979 96 47282 

2-65656 52110 
sin 54=al 1-90795 76446 (sin 54)?= i-93096 82334 

al 2-72559 69776 
4=al 0-60205 99920 
262-6, =ali-82765 69696 
x/K' = al 1-92474 25010 
2F(36}-E(18)=ari-25239 94706=0-17881 81556 

|||i=|l|l = al i.74627 88168 

F(36) + 2E(18)=al 1-50612 61624=0-32082 06813 
E(18)= 0-09252 54012 
F(36)= 0-13566 92789 

Thus Eegion II gives B(18), D(8), E(18), A(36), C(36), F(36) ; and 
the remaining six values will be given in Region I or III. 

In Region I, 6i = ?^M, bi = ^^, and we have to verify that 

F(18)=0-08047 39933 
E(36) =0-14308 64509 

F(18)=al 2-90565 55525 E(36)=al 1-15557 89315 

J^,=al 0-07525 74989 -?^=al 0-07525 74989 

6, =al 2-98091 30514 62=al 1-28085 60108 

= 0-09570 02454 = 0-17015 94254 

26i= 0-19140 48908 26,= 0-34081 88508 

262-6,= 0-24461 86054 62 + 26,= 0-86156 43162 



60 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

and the verification can be carried out with the formulas given above for 
6, and h^, ^b^ — b^ and 62 + 2&1, taking (c— i)=V5 + l in Region I as 
before, and working with 

(26,-6,)(62 + 26,)=tV ^ 26,-6.^0-1 

(c_l+i)i ^2 + 26, c + 1 

c 

It is not difficult to determine the value of c in a quinquisection for 
K=2K', and to make the algebraical numerical verifications in Table II. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 61 

Lemniscate Seven Section. 

6. With the Weierstrass functions of the First Stage, as defined in 
Phil. Trans. 1904, p. 250, and in the 2?z + l section of a period, 

(1) ,.,„,=0, A=^^., X.=r^; /=^, r=.90/. 

_1 1 

(2) A(2r) =i/{e,-e^.e,-e^)x »A ^"^'' 

_i jt^ 
(8) A(2^r)=V (61-^2 • e,-e^)x 'A-='"+V' 
but still requiring the condition of the Second Stage, that the factors 
of S should be known. 

But with the Lemniscate Function, where 

(4) gr3=0, A=sr23=(«,-e3)«=64(e,-e2)«=64(e2-C3)« 

(5) Ki2r)=i\^fi\~'^\ 



Li2pr)=.(^^^Y\~K~'--\,. 



Turning to the case of 2w + l=7, Phil. Trans., §9, p. 230, and Proc. 
L.M.S., 1893-4, p. 223, where Klein's modular equation is 

J:J-l:l = (T^ + 13r + 49)(TH5r + l)3 : (T^ + UfHeSr-' + TOT-T)^: 1728t, 
^^l-8z + 5z-^ + z^ ^13^(1+^) . ( 2-.Z) . (l-2g) 
z{l—z) ' "^ 2 2z . 1—z ' 

\ 2 J 4 z^{l—z)- 4 

r + ^^=l-z-±—'-^=:l^3cot Se; 
2 2 1—x z 2 

and then, according to Mr. Alfred Lodge, the three roots of this cubic 
equation for z, when t is given and the auxiliary angle 0, are given by 

^ sin ^ J__sin(60+^) 2-l_sina20 + i9) 

sin(60 + ^)' 1-2 sin(120 + (9)' z sin(18O + 0)' 

The lemniscate condition, J=l, requires 

t< + 14t3 + 63t2 + 70t-7=(t2 + 7t + 21)2-7(2t + 8P=0, 

r= -'^y^'^ + ^^1^^7=0-09219 27 .... 

2t + 13=13-1843854, cot 36l=al 0-40437bO=cot 21° 30'. 606 

sin7°10'.202 , f-0960644 i i iqicoqc aiqk.oqq 
^=sInW°T0'.202=^^ 1-9645709=^^ M316935=0-1354233 

1 _ sin 67° 10' . 202^^^ 1:9645709^^1 00681965=M566355 



\—z sin 127° 10'. 202 1-9013744 

.-1^ sin 127° 10'. 202 1-9013744^^1 0-8051100=6-384251 

t -sin 187° 10'. 202 1-0960644 



62 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Here, in Proc. L.M.S. 1898-4, p. 223, 

with y,=0, x=z{l-zy, y=z{l-z), X=y^=y=z*(l-z)^ 

21 



Ai2r) = (lrYz'' (l-z) 
A(4r) = g.)^\"^'(l-.r^ 
Aier) = {lrfz'''\l-zf 



Jt= 0-011524088 

8 

= al 20616065 

1 

al i-8384672 



af'= 



/^=al 1-7932604 
1 



/JL_Vi=al 0-0030094 

A(2r) =al 1-6347369=0-4312577=a('— ^ 

A(4r)_ ^-7(1-.^)-? 
A(2r)- ^ '' 

2 

0^=al 1-7519124 
(ji-y=al 0-0090281 

^f^'"j=al 0-2571157 
A(2r) 

A(2r)=al 1-6347369 

A(4r)=al 1-8918526=0-7796654= A Z"?^) 

A(6r) ^-7(1 _ J 

A(2r) ^ ^^ ^^ 

A(6r)=alI-9888121=0-9745680=A/^] 
A(2r)A(4r)A(6r)=(^o'^)*. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 63 

C^^y2-cMl ^^^^-JZ^-Y,'^' 12" ' 

2 2 

C(2r)2=a;"3>V"2„ViP|V2 

2 8 

C(4r)2=a;~3A"2;r^iP2N/2 



C(2pr)2=« SA 2nTlyp2p^^2, 

12P,=(l + 2/)2 + 4a;, 12P2=(1 +?/)«- 8a;, 
2P,+P,='' 



'•HH' 



P,-P2=a;, Pi-P3=2/, P,-P4=^(l-^^), 

C(2j^r)^_ -^£^ P, 
■C(2r)2 ^' Pi' 



Then 



2uo) 2 Pu 



.i^(i-2a^)L 6.K1-.)^(1.)^- 



is a root of the equation *7=0, given by Mathews, Proc. L.M.S., 1915, 
p. 464 ; and 

1 2 2 

2w . 4o) , 6a) 4(1-^+^^) 





j^ 


7 "'7 '"7 ^.,, ,./l \^' 
62'(l-^)^^gTJ 






2=al 1-1316935 






L-2=al 1-9368085 






2/=al 1-0684970=0-1170839 


a;= 


^(1- 


-zy=^al 1-0053005=0-1012280 


X3 = 


z^{l. 


-z)=a\ 2-2001905=0-0158559 


A. 




=al i-4000635 
= al 0-5999365 


\~7 




=al 0-0857052 
=al 0-9946995 


£C -^ 




=al 0-3315665 


X '^ 




=al 0-6631330 


X 7 

1 + 2/ 

(1+2/)* 
4 




=al 0-1714104 

=al 0-0480858=1-1170839 

=al 0-0961716 

=al 0-6020600 


2P,+P3 




=al 1-4941116=0-3119691 


P. -Pa 




=x =0-1012280 



64 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

3Pi =0-4131971, P, =01377324 

2/=01170889 
P2=P,-a; =0-0365044 

P,=P,-2/ =0-0206485 



)ck) Po 


_P3 = A.3 


=00158559 


C(2r)2 


2 2 

= » 3X~7P,^/2 




= al 0-1240945 




C(2r) : 


= al 0-0620472 


= 1-153579 


C(4r)2 


=X^F^ 




C(2r)2 


P, 
=al i-9375405 




C(2r)2 


=al 0-1240945 




C(4r)2 


=al 0-0616350 




C(4r) 


=al 0-0308175= 


= 1-073538 


C(6r)2 


18 

= A 'P3v/2 
=al 0-0080973 




C(6r) 


= al 0-0040486= 


=1-0093660 



Considering the uncertainty involved in working with only 7 figure 
logarithms, the agreement is quite close with the numbers calculated by 
Colonel Hippisley from the series given in Table V. 

Seventeen Section values are given, too, in Table VI, to serve for future 
reference. 

These numerical verifications of Seven Section, as well as of Nine 
Section, in § 7 were carried out by Mr. Alfred Lodge. He has shown also 
that, for the Seven Section, 

C(2r) C(4r) C(6r)=(T2+9T + 17)-f-12(2T),. 

which serves therefore as a check on the calculations. Thus 

T2 + 9T + 17=17-8882328=al 1-2513519 

12(2)?= =al 1-1544387 

C(2r) C(4r) C(6r) =al 0-0969132. 

And in the calculations above 

C(2r) =al 0-0620473 

C(4r) =al 0-0308075 

C(6r) =al 0-0040486 

C(2r) C(4r) C(6r) =al 0-0969133. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES, 65 

Lemniscate Nine Section; r=10. 

7. Here, in L.M.S. 1893, p. 233, with ^+3=a;, the modular equation 
of the 9th order becomes 

J : J-1 : l=xV-24)-^ : (x6-36x-^ + 2]6)'^ : 1728(a;=*-27), 

so that the lemniscate condition, J=:l, requires 

a;6_36^3 + 216=0, a:»=18 + 6v/3, x=n/3^(2s/3 + 2) 

a;=al 0-4844002 =3-050705 .... 

Then from Phil. Trans. 1904, p. 231, § 10, 

y,=o, x=f-{i-p){i-p+p% y=p\l-p), A=.^=l-^=2P(l-p), 

A=jy-'(l-_p)i-^(a;^-27), with x3-27=6s/3-9=l-3923048 

^A=p'-'{l-py^a\ 1-2406443 
8 

'•9367280 



(^^^y'=p{l-p) all'- 



The cubic for the parameter p is here 

p{l—p) 1—p p 

^2 p{l-p) 2 

^^^oot36=^+P^-^-^4^^ =-«,-! = -4-550705 . . 

from which cot (180°-3e)=al 0-2434268 

.-. 3^-180°-2y° 43' 22"-06 • 

6=50° 5' 32"-65 

P= ■ !!.^^ .. =al 1-9121104=0-8167900 

^ sin(60 + ^) 

-L= s""'(60 + ^) =al 0-7370511 = 5-4582210 

1-^ sm(12O + 0) 

— ^i = -^^(M+^ =al 1-3508385=0-2248048 

p sin(180 + 6) 

ri(a;3-27)y^=al 1-9367204 



66 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



^=al i-9804690 



(l_^)#=al i-5905271 

(l_^+^2)-^^al 0-0234665 

A(2r) = al l"-5311830=0-3397634=A(20) 

= al 0-2749802 

A(4r)= al i-8061632=0-6399753=A(40) 
A(6r) = A(60), given already in trisection. 

= al 0-4620709 
A(8r)= al i-9932589=0-9845866=A(80) 
y=f{l—p)=z3il i-8242208 
-0-7370511 
= ari-0871697=0-1222277 

\=z=p{i-p)=al i-9121104 
-0-7370511 
= i-1750593=0-1496440 
l__p + 2,2=l-A=al 1-9296008=0-8503560 
a;=al 1-0167705=0-1039370 
• l+2/=al 0-0500810=1-1222277 
(l+7/)2=al 0-1001620 
4=al 0-6020600 

2Pi+P2=^(l+2/]^=al 1-4981020=0-3148488 

Pi-P2= X =0-1039370 

BP, =0-4187858, P, =0-1395953 ; 

P2=P,-a; =0-0356583; 

P^=P,-3(l-«> =0-0123447. 

C(2r)2=al 0-1341924 
C(20) = C(2r) =al 0-0670962 = 1 -1670680 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 67 

C(2r)2 P, 

=al i-9572505 

C(4r)2=al 0-0914429 

C(40)=C(4r)=alO-0457214=M110187 

C(80)2=X-V.^?i 
C(20)2 ^ Pi 

=al i -870751 5 

0(80)2= al 0-00496439 

C(80)=al 0-0024719= 1-005708 

As a check on the A values, the product 

A(20) A(40) A(80)=(^sin^38)^(--!^27^^=(^)^(-^)^'^ 

Where a;=8-05070502 , . . , 

a;3_27=l-3923048454=al 0-3305999 ; 
and thus 

A(20) A(40) A(80)=al 1-3306001, 
in agreement with the calculations above. 



68 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Lemniscate Five Section, again. 

8. A return can be made to Five Section in this method of the First 
Stage, as in Phil. Trans. 1904, p. 229 ; there with 

75=0, y=x, X=y'^=x^, 

and the modular equation 

J : J-1 : 1=(7^-10t -1-5)3 : (T2-22r + 125) (t2-4t-1)2 : -1728r, 

J=l, t2-4t-1=0, t=2-v/5, ^-a;=ll-T=9+ V5=8-|-4 sin 54 

X 

^+a;=12sin72° 

X 



x=Q sin 72-4-2 sin 54° 

= I6sin29 sin 39° sin 51°=al2-9459 .... 
A=-«6^-a;«(v/5-2)=a;«(2 sin 18)^ 

A(2r)=a;"^X"'^Yl ^WV^jjVo /gin igVi 

«i'»=al i-89459 . . . 

(sin 18)^=al 1-87250 . . . 

A(2r)=al 1-76709 . . . =0-5849 . . . =A(36) 

AL*i:)=a;~i=al 0-2108 . . . 
A(2r) 

A(2r) =al 1-7671 

A(4r) =al 1-9779=0-95 =A(72) 

ij."« J-a;{2sinl8°)* ^(2 sin 18)* 

cl>3 L= ^ — ^ ^ = ^ 

l^^l+xf + ^x] ,^xQ+. + 6) sin72+l 



^(2 si 



sml8°]^ _sinH5° (sin 18°)* 



"2 sin 51° sin 69° sin 51° sin 69° 
. . =al i-7164 . . . =cos 58°.6=cos^(54) 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. fW 

^^ h] 2(sin 18)^ ^ siD345(8inl8 )^ 

^^^^ ^~ 1 rn,^\2_Qx~\ ~ ^^^ 72-sin 30 sin 89 sin 21 

= . . . =al 1-9702 =cos21°=cos^(18). 

So also for C(36) and C(72). 

C(27-)»=a;' *"i"^ V2 ^ ■'' ^^ +^' 



12 



-'#^-«) 



1 



=a;^v/2(sin72 + sin30) 



1 



=2^2 0;^ sin 51 sin 69 

C(2r)=al 0-0507 . . . =M24 . . . =C(36) 
C(4r)2= 2n/2x" ^' sin 39 sin 21 

C(4r)=ai 0-00775 . . .=1-018 . . . =C(72) 



zstL = 



10v/(si-S3) iOa;7(2 gin 18)^ 

_— 3a; + l _ -3x+l 
10>/(si-S3) i0a;%sinl8)^ 

2zs|L-zsfL=2A^^^/ 
(2 sin 18)^ 

zs|L + 2zsiL=^A^^^ / 

(2 sin 18)* 

9. Table II for K=2K', k'=(V2— l)^ is derived from the Lemniscate 
Table I by an application of the Quadric Transformation, using the 
formulas in Report 1913, p. 88, and so may be considered of equal 
accuracy. 
1919. « 



70 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Writing any function A(r) as A(rK), to distinguish the period and 
modulus, then with 

K_oL ,_ 1-A 
K'~ L" ~'1+A' 

these formulas may be replaced by 

B(rK)2±A(rK)2= ^/VC(2rL), B(2rL), 

C(rK)2±D(rK)2 = ^^'c(2rL), , ^^^ B(2rL), 
1 — A. 1 — A 

E(rK)-f-F(rK)= ^^ A(2^1^ 2E(2rL) 

with A=A' = - v/2 in the Lemniscate Table I. 

A second application of this Quadric Transformation will give the 
numbers of Table III, where 



G=4G', y'=( yi~] Y=co8 89° 34' 
^ VV2 + 1/ 



-V 

so that the modular angle is more than half-way through the last degree 
of the quadrant ; and to go further does not seem of practical utility, as 
on to K=8K'. 

The geometry of these two Quadric Transformations is shown on the 
ellipse, of excentricity k, drawn for semi-axes 

a=50(v/2-hl) = 120-21 mm, & = 50(v' 2-1) =20-21 mm. 

The Quadric Transformations. 

To show the relation geometrically, connecting the three Tables I, 
If, III, corresponding to 

G ^ K ^ oL 
2G' K' L" 

2n/»c , 1—k' 

1 + K 1 + K 

the ellipse is drawn with excentricity k, taking 
..=(V2-1F, .= ^A^. 

Then with <^=am/K the minor excentric angle of a point P on the 
ellipse, and a)=am (1— /)K the angle AOY of the perpendicular OY 
on the tangent at P, 0Y= a dn(l— /)K, and the coordinates of P are 
a, h sn/K, b cn/K. 

The longitude of P, perihelion and aphelion, is 

ASP = 2 am } (1-/)G, A'S'P = 2am J (1+/)G, 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



dn^(l-/)G dn^(l+/)G 



71 



\/y' 



>/y' 



ka=b^y'tnl (1-/)G, A'ft' = 6s/ytnJ(l+/)G, 
dn^(l-f)G /i + «gn;^K , ,,1., ...^ /1-sn/K 

PQ = (rt - 6)sn2/L, FJ = (« - 6)cn 2/L, FI = (a + 5)dn 2/L, and 
OJP=am 2/L, and so on, showing the geometrical interpretation of 
the elliptic function and its Quadric Transformations. 

But the A, B, C, D functions cannot be shown in the figure ; and 
E(r), F{r) arise in the rectification of the elliptic arc. 




In the motion of the simple pendulum, oscillating through a finite 
angle, four times the modular angle, the pendulum beats the elliptic 

function of the time t, such that t=^fT, if T is the beat in seconds. 

The lemniscate function is required when the pendulum swings 
through two right angles. 
From the relation 

1- .^f._,\/l-sn/K or^^^'^^^^ + i^OG , .,_ 1..,,^ 
-^^^- ^ fWK ^nT(45)G =M45-2<^(rK)], 



^y'tn^(l-f)G: 



the column of Legendre's <^ in Table III can be deduced from that in 
Table II ; and so also in II from I. 

A slide rule may be used in a first approximation to the nearest 
degree, to read off from the scale of tangents on a fixed setting of the 
cursor. 

K 2 



72 



reports on the state of science. — 1919* 

Elliptic Function 

Table I. — Lemniscate Function, 

K=1-8540746773=K', E=1-3506438810=E', 



r 


F(p 


<t> 


E{r) 


D(r) 


A(r) 





0-00000 00000 


0-000 


0-00000 00000 


1-00000 00000 


0-00000 00000 


1 


0-02060 08297 


1-180 


0-00559 22185 


1-00005 76114 


0-01732 23240 


2 


0-04120 16595 


2-360 


0-01117 56998 


1-00023 03752 


0-03463 96092 


3 


0-06180 24892 


3-540 


0-01674 17286 


1-00051 80814 


0-05194 68175 


4 


0-08240 33190 


4-719 


0-02228 16343 


1-00092 03796 


0-06923 89126 


5 


0-10300 41487 


5-896 


0-02778 68123 


1-00143 67802 


0-08651 08611 


6 


0-12360 49785 


7-073 


0-03324 87460 


1-00206 66547 


0-10375 76329 


7 


0-14420 68082 


8-248 


0-03865 90273 


1-00280 92364 


0-12097 42023 


8 


0-16480 66380 


9-421 


0-04400 93780 


1-00366 36213 


0-13815 55494 


9 


0-18540 74677 


10-593 


0-04929 16689 


1-00462 87696 


0-15529 66598 


10 


0-20600 82975 


11-762 


0-05449 79400 


1-00570 35065 


0-17239 25270 


11 


0-22660 91272 


12-929 


0-05962 04166 


1-00688 65237 


0-18943 81524 


12 


0-24720 99570 


14-093 


0-06465 15306 


1-00817 63813 


0-20642 85463 


13 


0-26781 07867 


15-254 


0-06958 39334 


1-00957 15091 


0-22335 87294 


14 


0-28841 16165 


16-412 


0-07441 05129 


1-01107 02088 


0-24022 37330 


15 


0-30901 24462 


17-567 


0-07912 44078 


1-01267 06562 


0-25701 86008 


16 


0-32961 32760 


18-718 


0-08371 90207 


1-01437 09030 


0-27373 83893 


17 


0-35021 41057 


19-866 


0-08818 80301 


1-01616 88793 


0-29037 81691 


18 


0-37081 49355 


21-010 


0-09252 54012 


101806 23965 


0-30693 30262 


19 


0-39141 57652 


22-150 


0-09672 53955 


1-02004 91494 


0-32339 80622 


20 


0-4120165950 


23-285 


0-10078 25794 


1-02212 67193 


0-33976 83967 


21 


0-43261 74247 


24-416 


0-10469 18308 


1-02429 25769 


0-35603 91671 


22 


0-45321 82545 


25-543 


0-10844 83455 


1-02654 40853 


0-37220 55308 


23 


0-47381 90842 


26-664 


0-11204 76417 


1-02887 85035 


0-38826 26656 


24 


0-49441 99139 


27-781 


0-11548 55630 


1-03129 29893 


0-40420 57714 


25 


0-51502 07437 


28-893 


0-11875 82813 


1-03378 46028 


0-42003 00711 


26 


0-53562 15734 


30-000 


0-12186 22978 


1-03635 03103 


0-43573 08120 


27 


0-55622 24032 


31-101 


0-12479 44426 


1-03898 69880 


0-45130 32670 


28 


0-57682 32329 


32-197 


0-12755 18736 


1-04169 14251 


0-46674 27359 


29 


0-59742 40627 


33-288 


0-13013 20757 


1-04446 03288 


0-48204 45468 


30 


0-61802 48924 


34-373 


0-13253 28561 


1-04729 03271 


0-49720 40572 


31 


0-63862 57222 


35-451 


0-13475 23413 


1-05017 79739 


0-51221 66556 


32 


0-65922 65519 


36-526 


0-13678 89725 


1-0531197528 


0-52707 77628 


33 


0-07982 73817 


37-594 


0-1386414993 


1-0561120812 


0-54178 28334 


34 


0-70042 82114 


38-656 


0-14030 89744 


1-05915 13149 


0-55632 73569 


35 


0-72102 90412 


39-712 


0-14179 07457 


1-06223 37524 


0-57070 68597 


36 


0-74162 98709 


40-762 


0-14308 64509 


1-06535 56397 


0-58491 69061 


37 


0-76223 07007 


41-806 


0-14419 60059 


1-0685131742 


0-59895 31001 


38 


0-78283 15304 


42-844 


0-1451196000 


1-07170 25103 


0-61281 10868 


39 


0-80343 23602 


43-874 


0-14585 76849 


1-07491 97630 


0-62648 65539 


40 


0-82403 31899 


44-901 


0-14641 09671 


1-0781610137 


0-63997 52334 


41 


0-84463 40197 


45-921 


0-14678 03964 


1-08142 23139 


0-65327 29030 


42 


0-86523 48494 


46-935 


0-14696 71583 


1-08469 96910 


0-66637 63880 


43 


0-88583 56792 


47-942 


0-14697 26631 


1-08798 91523 


0-67927 85625 


44 


0-90643 65089 


48-944 


0-14679 85365 


1-09128 66907 


0-69197 83514 


45 

! 


0-92703 73387 


49-940 


0-14644 66094 


1-09458 82886 


0-70447 07318 


90 -r 


r(^) 


^ 


¥{r) 


C(r) 


B(r) 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 
rABT.E. ^=45°. 



73 



K = K'=L,K = AC 


_ 1 

v/2"' 










^=e--=0-0432139l826377 










B(r) 


C(r) 


F(r) 


^ 


F{^|,) 


90-r 


1-00000 00000 


1-18920 71150 


0-00000 00000 


90 000 


1-85407 46773 


90 


-99984 54246 


1-18914 94665 


0-00470 60108 


89-165 


1-83347 38476 


89 


0-99938 17514 


1-18897 65912 


0-00940 76502 


88-330 


1-81287 30178 


88 


0-99860 91406 


1-18868 87000 


0-01410 05467 


87-495 


1-79227 21881 


87 


0-99752 78584 


1-18828 61440 


0-01878 03289 


86-659 


1-77167 13583 


86 


0-99613 82775 


1-18776 94140 


0-02344 26255 


85-823 


1-76107 05286 


85 


0-99444 08767 


1-18713 91403 


002808 30663 


84-986 


1-73046 96988 


84 


, 0-99243 62407 


1-18639 60914 


0-03269 72774 


84-147 


1-70986 88601 


83 


, 0-99012 50593 


1-18554 11736 


0-03728 08916 


83-308 


1-68926 80393 


82 


0-98750 81276 


1-18457 54293 


0-04182 95382 


82-467 


1-66866 72096 


81 


0-98458 63450 


1-18350 00363 


0-04633 88487 


81-624 


1-64806 63798 


80 


0-98136 07151 


1-18231 63059 


0-06080 44576 


80-780 


1-62746 55501 


79 


0-97783 23446 


1-18102 56817 


0-05522 19994 


79-934 


1-60686 47203 


78 


0-97400 24430 


1-17962 97376 


0-05958 71139 


79-085 


1-58626 38906 


77 


0-96987 23216 


1-1781301756 


0-06389 64439 


78-235 


1-56566 30608 


76 


0-96544 33929 


1-17652 88244 


0-06814 26379 


77-382 


1-54606 22311 


75 


0-96071 71696 


1-17482 76366 


0-07232 43506 


76-626 


1-52446 14013 


74 


0-95569 52639 


1-17302 86866 


0-07643 62449 


75-667 


1-50386 05716 


73 


0-95037 93863 


1-1711341680 


0-08047 39933 


74-806 


1-48325 97418 


72 


0-94477 13447 


1-16914 63907 


0-08443 32799 


73-942 


1-46266 89121 


71 


' 0-93887 30433 


1-16706 77783 


0-08830 98027 


73-074 


1-44205 80823 


70 


0-93268 64814 


1-16490 08653 


0-09209 92756 


72-203 


1-42146 72526 


69 


0-92621 37526 


1-16264 82937 


0-09579 74315 


71-329 


1-40086 64228 


68 


0-91945 70430 


1-1603128097 


0-09940 00252 


70-450 


1-38026 65931 


67 


0-9124186305 


1-15789 72608 


0-10290 28362 


69-568 


1-35965 47634 


66 


0-90510 08831 


1-15540 45920 


0-10630 16727 


68-682 


1-33906 39336 


65 


0-89750 62579 


1-15283 78419 


0-10959 23752 


67-792 


1-31845 31039 


64 


0-88963 72995 


1-15020 01398 


0-11277 08206 


66-898 


1-29786 22741 


63 


> 0-88149 66386 


1-14749 47011 


0-11583 29266 


65-999 


1-27726 14444 


62 


0-87308 69906 


1-14472 48239 


0-11877 46567 


65-096 


1-25665 06146 


61 


0-86441 11542 


1-14189 38846 


0-12159 20262 


64-188 


1-23604 97849 


60 


I 0-85547 20099 


1-13900 63339 


0-12428 11025 


63-276 


1-21644 89551 


59 


0-84627 25182 


1-13606 26928 


0-12683 80211 


62-369 


1-19484 81254 


68 


0-83681 57184 


1-13306 95480 


0-12925 89815 


61-435 


1-17424 72956 


57 


0-82710 47269 


1-13002 95477 


0-13154 02588 


60-507 


1-16364 64659 


56 


0-81714 27355 


1 12694 63970 


0-13367 82099 


59-574 


1-13304 56361 


55 


0-80693 30099 


1-12382 38537 


0-13566 92789 


58-636 


1-11244 48064 


54 


0-79647 88881 


1-12066 57231 


0-13751 00077 


57-692 


1-09184 39766 


53 


0-78578 37785 


1-11747 58542 


0-13919 70407 


56-743 


1-07124 31469 


52 


0-77485 11587 


1-11425 81342 


0-14072 71344 


55-788 


1 05064 23171 


51 


0-76368 45735 


1-1110164844 


0-14209 71663 


54-828 


1-03004 14874 


50 


0-75228 76332 


1-10775 48548 


0-14330 41416 


63-862 


1-00944 06576 


49 


0-74066 40121 


110447 72199 


0-14434 52037 


52-890 


0-98883 98279 


48 


0-72881 74469 


1-10118 75735 


0-14521 76436 


51-913 


0-96823 89981 


47 


0-71675 17348 


1-09788 99237 


0-14691 89078 


50-929 


0-94763 81684 


46 


0-70447 07318 

i 


1-09458 82886 


0-14644 66094 


49-940 


0-92703 73387 


45 


Mr) 


D(r) 


E(r) 





F(<p) 


r 















74 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Table II. — Elliptic Function Table. 
K=3-1651034544=2K' ; E=l-0393418350 ; 



r 


F<p 


<P 


E(r) 


D(r) 


A(r) 





0-00000 00000 


o / 




0-00000 00000 


1-0000000000 


0-00000 00000 


1 


0-03516 78162 


2 1 


0-02360 56201 


1-0004152890 


0-01456 71194 


2 


0-07033 56323 


4 2 


0-04712 70168 


1-00166 07060 


0-02913 50336 


3 


0-10550 34485 


6 2 


0-07048 07843 


1-00373 49030 


0-04370 45234 


4 


0-14067 12646 


8 2 


0-09358 51350 


1-00663 56333 


0-05827 63405 


5 


0-17583 90808 


10 1 


0-11636 06632 


1-01035 97538 


0-07285 11940 


6 


0-21100 68970 


12 


0-13873 10806 


1-01490 32269 


0-08742 97360 


7 


0-24617 47131 


13 58 


0-16062 38448 


1-0202611222 


0-10201 25476 


8 


0-28134 25293 


15 55 


0-18197 07731 


1-02642 76205 


0-11660 01256 


9 


0-31651 03454 


17 51 


0-20270 85318 


1-03339 60172 


0-13119 28682 


10 


0-35167 81616 


19 45 


0-22277 90541 


1-04115 87266 


0-14579 10626 


11 


0-38684 59778 


2139 


0-24212 98632 


1-04970 72852 


0-16039 48718 


12 


0-42201 37939 


23 31 


0-26071 43027 


1-05903 23605 


0-17500 43219 


13 


0-45718 16101 


25 21 


0-27849 16735 


1-06912 37540 


0-18961 92905 


14 


0-49234 94262 


27 10 


0-29542 72842 


1-07997 04090 


0-20423 94944 


15 


0-52751 72424 


28 57 


0-31149 24171 


1-09166 04191 


0-21886 44785 


16 


0-56268 50586 


30 42 


0-32666 42186 


1-1038810347 


0-23349 36066 


17 


0-59785 28747 


32 26 


0-34092 55218 


1-1169186724 


0-24812 60455 


18 


0-63302 06909 


34 8 


0-35426 46104 


1-13065 89258 


0-26276 07658 , 


19 


0-66818 85070 


35 48 


0-36667 49334 


1-14508 65738 


0-27739 65226 i 


20 


0-70335 63232 


37 25 


0-37816 47792 


1-16018 55937 


0-2920318523 1 


21 


0-73852 41394 


39 1 


0-38870 69215 


1-17593 91716 


0-30666 50639 1 


22 


0-77369 19555 


40 35 


0-39833 82422 


1-19232 97163 


0-32129 42310 


23 


0-80886 97717 


42 7 


0-40705 93432 


1-20933 88725 


0-33691 71882 


24 


0-84402 75878 


43 36 


0-41488 41519 


1-22694 75354 


0-35053 15206 


25 


0-87919 54040 


45 4 


0-42182 95296 


1-24513 58656 


0-3651345630 


26 


0-91436 32202 


46 30 


0-42791 48870 


1-26388 33062 


0-37972 33943 


27 


0-94953 10363 


47 53 


0-43316 18134 


1-28316 86000 


0-39429 48341 


28 


0-98469 88525 


4915 


0-43759 37213 


1-30296 98066 


0-40884 54396 


29 


1-01986 66686 


50 34 


0-44123 55115 


1-32326 43235 


0-42337 15048 


30 


1-05503 44848 


5152 


0-4441132602 


1-34402 89037 


0-43786 90584 


31 


1-09020 23010 


53 7 


0-44625 39305 


1-36523 96792 


0-46233 38641 


32 


1-1253701171 


54 20 


0-44768 51059 


1-38687 21817 


0-4667614214 


33 


1-16053 79333 


55 32 


0-44843 47531 


1-4089013667 


0-48114 69663 


34 


1-19570 57494 


56 42 


0-44853 10050 


1-4313016359 


0-49548 54743 


35 


1-23087 35656 


57 49 


0-44800 19712 


1-45404 68644 


0-50977 16634 


36 


1-2660413818 


58 55 


0-44687 56682 


1-4771104260 


0-52399 99970 


37 


1-30120 91979 


60 1 


0-44517 93763 


1-50046 52195 


0-53816 46898 


38 


1-33637 70141 


61 1 


0-44294 05137 


1-52408 36987 


0-56225 97131 


39 


1-37154 48302 


62 2 


0-44018 55303 


1-54793 78991 


0-56627 88000 j 


40 


1-4067126464 


63 1 


0-43694 03214 


1-57199 94709 


0-5802154642 


41 


1-44188 04626 


63 57 


0-43323 00564 


1-59623 97068 


0-59406 29564 


42 


1-47704 82787 


64 53 


0-42907 91183 


1-62062 95774 


0-60781 43734 


43 


1-51221 60949 


65 47 


C-42451 10688 


1-64513 97610 


0-62146 25679 
0-63500 02078 


44 


1-54738 39110 


66 39 


0-41954 86092 


1-66974 06801 


45 


1-5825517272 


67 30 


0-41421 35624 


1-69440 25335 


0-64841 97773 


90-r 


F(^) 


^ 


F(r) 


C(r) 


B(r) 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



75 



K=2K'. k' = {^2-1)\ e=80°TU"-5S. 
B'=l-5591717446 ; 2=e-4'=0-207879576350762. 



B(r) 


C(r) 


F(r) 


"^ 


F^ 


90-)- 


1-00000 00000 


2-41421 36624 


0-00000 00000 


90 6 


3-16510 34644 


90 


0-99979 69556 


2-41376 73268 


001051 24733 


89 39 


3-12993 56382 


89 


0-99918 80246 


2-41242 92194 


0-02102 24584 


89 19 


3-09476 78221 


88 


0-99817 38136 


2-41020 10412 


0-03152 74554 


88 58 


3-05960 00059 


87 


0-99675 53317 


2-40708 57883 


0-04202 49414 


88 37 


3-02443 21898 


86 


0-99493 39885 


2-40308 76487 


0-05251 23580 


88 16 


2-98926 43736 


85 


0-99271 15912 


2-39821 19957 


0-06298 71010 


87 65 


2-96409 66574 


84 


0-99009 03401 


2-39246 53776 


0-07344 65063 


87 33 


2-91892 87413 


83 


0-98707 28236 


2-38585 55074 


0-08388 78393 


87 12 


2-88376 09251 


82 


0-98366 20127 


2-37839 12498 


0-09430 82815 


86 50 


2-84859 31090 


81 


0-9798612540 


2-37008 26067 


0-10470 49177 


86 28 


2-81342 52928 


80 


0-97567 42629 


2-36094 07003 


0-11507 47232 


86 6 


2-77825 74766 


79 


0-97110 51144 


2-35097 77549 


0-12541 45496 


85 44 


2-74308 90605 


78 


0-96615 82342 


2-34020 70768 


0-1357211109 


86 21 


2-70792 18443 


77 


0-96083 83890 


2-32864 30309 


0-14599 09689 


84 58 


2-67275 40282 


76 


0-95515 06763 


2-31630 10195 


0-15622 05178 


84 35 


2-63768 62120 


75 


0-94910 05121 


2-30319 74557 


0-16640 69688 


84 11 


2-60241 83958 


74 


0-94269 36200 


2-28934 97370 


0-17664 33333 


83 47 


2-56725 06797 


73 


0-93593 60181 


2-27477 62174 


0-18662 84057 


83 22 


2-63208 27635 


72 


0-92883 40053 


2-25949 61767 


0-19665 67464 


82 57 


2-49691 49474 


71 


1 0-92139 41482 


2-24352 97905 


0-20662 36615 


82 31 


2-46174 71312 


70 


1 0-91362 32667 


2-22689 80986 


0-21662 41863 


82 5 


2-4265793150 


69 


0-90552 84193 


2-20962 29703 


0-22635 30587 


8142 


2-39141 14989 


68 


' 0-8971168870 


2-19172 70703 


0-23610 47089 


8111 


2-35624 36827 


67 


0-88839 61588 


2-17323 38239 


0-24577 32266 


80 43 


2-32107 58666 


66 


0-87937 39151 


2-15416 73798 


0-25635 23439 


8014 


2-28590 80504 


65 


0-87005 80112 


2-13455 25727 


0-26483 54098 


79 46 


2-25074 02342 


64 


0-86045 64616 


2-1144148863 


0-27421 53662 


79 15 


2-21657 24181 


63 


0-85057 74217 


2-09378 04130 


0-28348 47221 


78 44 


2-18040 46019 


62 


0-84042 91725 


2-07267 58157 


0-29263 55265 


78 13 


2-14523 67858 


61 


0-83002 01019 


2-05112 82872 


0-30165 93417 


77 40 


2-11006 89696 • 


60 


0-81935 86887 


202916 55104 


0-31054 72166 


77 7 


2-0749011534 


59 


0-80845 34845 


2-00681 56171 


0-31928 96618 


76 33 


2-03973 33373 


58 


0-79731 30970 


1-98410 71472 


0-32787 65814 


75 58 


2-00456 55211 


57 


'0-78594 61725 


1-96106 90080 


0-33629 73328 


75 22 


1-96939 77050 


56 


0-77436 13791 


1-93773 04319 


0-34454 06018 


74 45 


1-93422 98888 


55 


0-76256 73892 


1-91412 09366 


0-35259 44205 


74 7 


1-89906 20726 


54 


0-75057 28631 


1-89027 02821 


0-36044 61289 


73 28 


1-86389 42565 


63 


0-73838 64325 


1-86620 84313 


0-36808 23448 


72 47 


1-82872 64403 


52 


0-72601 66842 


1-84196 55077 


0-37548 89337 


72 6 


1-79355 86242 


51 


0-71347 21440 


1-81757 17564 


0-38265 09832 


7123 


1-75839 08080 


50 


0-70076 12613 


1-79305 75014 


0-38955 27740 


70 39 


1-72322 29918 


49 


0-68789 23937 


1-76845 31081 


0-39617 77607 


69 54 


1-68805 51757 


48 


0-67487 37926 


1-74378 89429 


0-40250 85448 


69 7 


1-65288 73595 


47 


0-66171 35884 


1-71909 53339 


0-40852 68614 


6819 


1-6177195434 


46 


0-64841 97773 


1-69440 25335 


0-41421 35624 


67 30 


1-6825517272 


45 


A(r) 

1, 


D(r) 


E(r) 


<P 


F(*) 


r 



76 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Table III. — Elliptic Function 
K=4K'=6-28327 29540 E = l-00016 13425 E' = l-57077 44156 



r 


Fp 


'P 


E{r) 


T>:r) I 


A{r) 





0-00000 00000 


O / 




0-00000 00000 


1-00000 00000 


0-00000 00000 


1 


0-06981 41439 


4 


0-05858 80421 


1-00204 92085 


0-00603 64042 


2 


0-13962 82879 


7 58 


0-11650 21507 


1-00819 82674 


0-01208 81679 


3 


0-20944 24318 


1155 


0-17309 42086 


1-01845 14653 


0-01817 06193 


4 


0-27925 65757 


15 48 


0-22776 56568 


1-03281 58868 


0-02429 90271 


5 


0-34907 07196 


19 36 


0-27998 73710 


1-05130 13277 


0-03048 85680 


6 


0-41888 48636 


23 20 


0-32931 43867 


1-07392 01702 


0-03675 42965 


7 


0-48869 90075 


26 57 


0-37539 48102 


1-10068 72231 


0-04311 11140 


8 


0-55851 31514 


30 27 


0-41797 29107 


1-13161 95325 


0-04957 37375 


9 


0-62832 72954 


33 51 


0-45688 69337 


1-16673 61537 


0-05615 66670 


10 


0-69814 14393 


37 6 


0-49206 25794 


1-20605 78963 


0-06285 41547 


11 


0-76795 55a32 


4013 


0-52350 33154 


1-24960 70304 


0-06974 01705 


12 


0-83776 97272 


4312 


0-55127 87232 


1-29740 69731 


0-07676 83701 


13 


0-90758 38711 


46 3 


0-57551 19971 


1-34948 19370 


0-08397 20607 


14 


0-97739 80150 


48 46 


0-59636 75186 


1-40585 65533 


0-09136 41666 


15 


1-04721 21590 


5119 


0-61403 92034 


1-46655 54743 


0-09895 71948 


16 


1-11702 63029 


53 46 


0-62874 00873 


1-53160 29461 


0-10676 31990 


17 


1-18684 04468 


56 3 


0-64069 34062 


1 -60102 23549 


0-11479 37439 


18 


1-2566545908 


58 14 


0-65012 52555 


1-67483 57686 


0-12305 98692 


19 


1-32646 87347 


60 16 


0-65725 87889 


1-75306 34391 


0-13157 20525 


20 


1-39628 28787 


62 12 


0-66230 98356 


1-83572 32845 


014034 01725 


21 


1-46609 70226 


64 


0-66548 37561 


1-92283 04806 


0-14937 34717 


22 


1-5359111665 


65 42 


0-66697 33531 


2-01439 67047 


0-15868 05185 


23 


1-60572 53104 


67 18 


0-66695 76408 


2-11042 98279 


0-16826 91705 


24 


1-67553 94544 


68 48 


0-66560 12877 


2-21093 32570 


0-17814 65368 


25 


1-74535 35983 


70 12 


0-66305 45812 


2-31590 54054 


0-18831 89404 


26 


1-81516 77422 


7130 


0-65945 37698 


2-42533 91499 


0-19879 18825 


27 


1-88498 18862 


72 44 


0-65492 16739 


2-53922 12848 


0-20957 00058 


28 


1-95479 60301 


73 53 


0-64956 84700 


2-65753 19744 


0-22065 70585 


29 


2-0246101740 


74 57 


0-64349 25792 


2-78024 42315 


0-23205 58614 


30 


2-09442 43180 


75 58 


0-63678 16067 


2-90732 33850 


0-24376 82728 


31 


2-16423 84619 


76 54 


0-62951 32880 


3-03872 65788 


0-25579 51579 


32 


2-23405 26058 


77 47 


0-62175 64169 


3-17440 22854 


0-26813 63574 


33 


2-30386 67498 


78 36 


0-61357 17327 


3-31428 98349 


0-28079 06595 


34 


2-37368 08937 


79 21 


0-60501 27571 


3-45831 89676 


0-29375 57725 


35 


2-44349 50376 


80 5 


0-59612 65692 


3-60640 94238 


0-30702 83011 


36 


2-51330 91816 


80 45 


0-58695 45195 


3-75847 05548 


0-32060 37240 


37 


2-58312 33255 


8122 


0-57753 28798 


3-91440 09654 


0-33447 63744 


38 


2-65293 74694 


8157 


0-56789 34314 


4-07408 82075 


0-34863 94241 


39 


2-72275 16133 


82 29 


0-55806 39922 


4-23740 84869 


0-36308 48693 


40 


2-79256 57573 


83 


0-54806 88926 


4-40422 64464 


0-37780 35221 


41 


2-86237 99012 


83 28 


0-53792 93957 


4-57439 49541 


0-39278 50021 


42 


2-93219 40452 


83 54 


0-52766 40718 


4-74775 49776 


0-40801 77356 


43 


3-0020081891 


8419 


0-51728 91320 


4-92413 54739 


0-42348 89556 


44 


3-07182 23330 


84 42 


0-50681 87187 


5-10335 33598 


0-43918 47081 


45 


3-14163 64770 


85 4 


0-49626 51667 


5-28521 35079 


0-45508 98606 


90-'- 


F(^) 


^ 


F(r) 


C(r) 


B(r) 

1 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



77 



Table. G=4G', ^=89°34'19"-25. 

2=6^=0-45593 81277 65996 ''-(K|^)'= 0-00746 96667 29510 



(Br) 


C(r) 


F(r) 


^ 


Fif 


90-r 


1-00000 00000 


11-57042 70157 


0-00000 00000 


90 6 


6-28327 29640 


90 


0-99961 21582 


11-56594 10742 


0-01110 90021 


89 59 


6-21345 88100 


89 


0-99844 95255 


11-55249 36903 


0-02221 79661 


89 57 


6-14364 46661 


88 


0-99651 48079 


11-5301161748 


0-03332 68530 


89 56 


607383 05221 


87 


0-99381 24905 


11-49886 05646 


04443 56226 


89 53 


6-00401 63782 


86 


0-99034 88308 


11-45879 94288 


0-05554 42316 


89 51 


5-93420 22343 


85 


0-98613 18332 


11-41022 56023 


0-06665 26351 


89 49 


5-86438 80903 


84 


0-98117 12170 


11-3526518136 


0-07776 07826 


89 47 


6-79457 39464 


83 


0-97547 83788 


11-2868102299 


0-08886 86193 


89 45 


5-72475 98025 


82 


0-96906 63493 


11-21265 20961 


0-09997 60847 


89 43 


5-66494 56586 


81 


0-96194 97426 


11 13034 68769 


0-11108 31100 


89 41 


6-68613 16146 


80 


0-95414 47008 


1104008 19014 


0-12218 96192 


89 38 


5-51631 73707 


79 


0-94566 88326 


10-94206 15129 


0-13329 55250 


89 36 


5-44550 32267 


78 


0-9365411461 


10-836.50 63340 


0-14440 07287 


89 33 


5-37568 90828 


77 


0-92678 19770 


10-72365 24380 


0-15550 51181 


89 31 


5-30587 49389 


76 


0-91641 29136 


10-60375 04891 


0-16660 85650 


89 28 


5-23606 07949 


75 


0-90545 67162 


10-47706 48340 


0-1777109231 


89 25 


5-16624 66610 


74 


0-89393 72325 


10-34387 25033 


0-18881 20240 


89 22 


5-09643 25071 


73 


0-88187 93117 


10-20446 22560 


0-19991 16757 


89 18 


6-02661 83632 


72 


0-86930 87124 


1005913 35212 


0-21100 96573 


89 15 


4-95680 42192 


71 


0-85625 20119 


9-90819 53545 


0-22210 57166 


89 11 


4-88699 00753 


70 


0-84273 65113 


9-75196 53632 


0-23319 95599 


89 7 


4-81717 59313 


69 


0-82879 01396 


9-59076 86075 


0-24429 08657 


89 3 


4-74736 17874 


68 


0-81444 13555 


9-42493 64896 


0-25537 92198 


88 59 


4-67754 76435 


67 


0-79971 90518 


9-25480 56616 


0-26646 42111 


88 54 


4-60773 34995 


66 


0-78465 24565 


9-08071 69028 


0-27754 53228 


88 49 


4-53791 93656 


66 


0-76927 10360 


8-90301 40169 


0-28862 19726 


88 43 


4-46810 62117 


64 


0-75360 43950 


8-72204 27514 


0-29969 34905 


88 37 


4-39829 10678 


63 


0-73768 21889 


8-53814 96983 


0-31075 91082 


88 31 


4-32847 69238 


62 


0-72163 40215 


8-35168 12558 


0-32181 79402 


88 24 


4-26866 27799 


61 


0-70618 93568 


8-16298 25852 


0-33286 89701 


88 17 


4-18884 86360 


60 


0-68867 74299 


7-97239 66050 


0-34391 10296 


88 10 


4-11903 44920 


69 


0-67202 71576 


7-78026 30340 


0-35494 27749 


88 1 


4-04922 03481 


58 


0-65526 70562 


7-58691 74407 


0-36596 26621 


87 63 


3-97940 62041 


57 


0-63842 51604 


7-39269 03659 


0-37696 89165 


87 43 


3-90959 20602 


66 


0-62152 89454 


7-19790 64627 


0-38795 94978 


87 33 


3-83977 79163 


65 


0-60460 52544 


7-00288 37071 


0-39893 20617 


87 23 


3-76996 37724 


64 


0-58768 02283 


6-80793 26319 


0-40988 39140 


87 11 


3-70014 96284 


53 


0-57077 92414 


6-61335 56443 


0-42081 19586 


86 59 


3-63033 64846 


52 


0-55392 64801 


6-41944 63701 


0-43171 26378 


86 45 


3-56062 13406 


51 


0-53714 66874 


6-22648 90707 


0-44258 18640 


86 31 


3-49070 71966 


60 


0-52046 15100 


6-03475 81051 


0-45341 49423 


86 16 


3-42089 30527 


49 


0-50389 30526 


5-84451 74622 


0-46420 64782 


86 


3-35107 89087 


48 


0-48746 20355 


5-65602 03474 


0-47495 02782 


85 42 


3-28126 47648 


47 


0-47118 81168 


5-46950 88405 


0-48663 92289 


86 24 


3-21145 06209 


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REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



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ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 79 





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80 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Table V. 

Le)miiscate Seven-Section. 



p 


K^^) 


-m 


P 




0(0) 


H(L) 







1-00000 ooooo ooooo 


0-00000 ooooo ooooo 





1 


1-00936 58229 47993 


0-22129 74250 79583 


1 


2 


1-03560 98708 92518 


0-43125 77701 68692 


2 


3 


1-07353 77726 58000 


0-62064 82635 15161 


3 


4 


1-11564 03165 97640 


0-77956 54242 21669 


4 


5 


1-15357 85775 32318 


0-89970 42569 08297 


5 


6 


117983 55431 49531 


0-97456 79842 81221 


6 


7 


1-18920 71150 02721 


1-00000 OOOOO OOOOO 


7 



P 


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(f) 


P 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


0-00000 ooooo ooooo 

0-06888 56201 24538 
0-12099 28414 62009 
0-14556 40387 29594 
0-14009 08003 46822 
0-10866 34496 84876 
0-05896 69011 38268 
0-00000 OOOOO OOOOO 


0-00000 OOOOO OOOOO 
0-26486 78110 43001 
0-52973 56220 86002 
0-79460 34331 29003 
1-05947 12441 72005 
1-32433 90552 15006 
1-58920 68662 58007 
1-85407 46773 01008 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Table VI. 

Lemniscate Seventeen-Section. 



p 


^(S) 


«m 


P 




0(0) 


H (L) 







1-00000 ooooo ooooo 


0-00000 ooooo ooooo 





1 


1-00161 02898 05115 


0-09158 62798 43390 


1 


2 


1-00638 63848 02693 


0-18242 57702 30559 


2 


3 


1-01416 57603 24650 


0-27177 54128 50753 


3 


4 


1-02468 37547 43416 


0-35889 97495 23133 


4 


5 


103758 24532 97111 


0-44307 62939 95940 


5 


6 


1-05242 28880 79385 


0-52359 49017 76129 


6 


7 


1-06869 99396 73849 


0-59977 32511 86474 


7 


8 


1-08575 95035 19737 


0-67095 24177 31026 


8 


9 


1-10331 73336 19295 


0-73650 81367 60541 


9 


10 


1-12047 89245 06076 


0-79585 64012 36780 


10 


11 


1-13675 97564 18633 


0-84846 03671 08601 


11 


12 


1-15160 52142 43612 


0-89385 30966 27869 


12 


13 


1-16450 95001 74870 


0-93156 49681 79213 


13 


14 


1-17503 28916 997.58 


0-96128 85747 77562 


14 


16 


1-18281 67451 47327 


0-98272 56451 55777 


15 


16 


1-18759 57941 21283 


0-99567 09714 29336 


16 


17 


1-18920 71150 02721 


1-00000 OOOOO OOOOO 


17 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



81 



p 


-m 


m 


■P 





0-00000 00000 00000 


0-00000 00000 00000 





1 


002939 81312 61952 


0-10906 32163 11824 


1 


2 


0-05762 18038 88374 


0-21812 64326 23648 


2 


3 


0-08318 49781 09218 


0-32718 96489 35472 


3 


4 


010536 59754 05873 


0-43625 28652 47296 


4 


5 


0-12326 37214 11676 


0-54531 60815 59120 


5 


6 


0-13632 86187 09034 


0-65437 92978 70944 


6 


7 


0-14425 54793 12253 


0-76344 25141 82768 


7 


8 


0-14698 97191 03705 


0-87250 57304 94592 


8 


9 


0-14467 25130 68447 


0-98156 89468 06416 


9 


10 


0-13761 35319 00651 


1-09063 21631 18240 


10 


11 


0-12625 08170 11686 


1-19969 63794 30064 


11 


12 


0-11110 23480 17156 


1-30875 85957 41888 


12 


13 


0-09275 86478 88789 


1-41782 18120 53712 


13 


14 


0-07183 58238 46666 


1-52688 50283 65536 


14 


15 


0-04897 12544 34710 


1-63594 82446 77360 


15 


16 


0-02480 99252 72634 


1-74601 14609 89184 


16 


17 


0-00000 00000 00000 


1-86407 46773 01008 


17 



Geophysical Discussions.— Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir F. W. Dyson (Chairman), Dr. S. Chapman (Secre- 
tary), Dr. C. Chree, Colonel Sir C. F. Close, Mr. J. H. 
Jeans, Professor A. E. H. Love, Colonel H. G. Lyons, 
Professor H. F. Newall, Professor A. Schuster, Sir Napier 
Shaw, Sir Aubrey Strahan, Professor H. H. Turner, and 
Mr. G. W. Walker. 

In accordance with the terms of reference to this Committee, ' To 
ari-ange meetings in the ensuing year for the discussion of papers and 
reports on Geophysical subjects, and to co-operate with existing 
Committees in making recommendations for the promotion of the study 
of such subjects in the British. Empire, ' the following meetings were 
arranged during the session 1918-19 : — 

1918. Nov. 19. Discussion on the Constitution of the Earth's 
Interior, Mr. R. D. Oldham, P.R.S.— Chairman, Major 
P. A. Macmahon, F.E.S. 

1919. Jan. 21. Report on Seiches, Dr. E. M. Wedderburn ; Tidal 
Motions in the Atmosphere, Major G. I. Taylor and Dr. S. 
Chapman. — Chairman, Sir Napier Shaw, F.R.S. 

1919. Feb. 18. Report on Seismology, Prof. H. H. Turner, 
F.R.S. ; Account of two papers by the late Prince Galitzin, 
Mr. G. W. Walker, F.R.S.— Chairman, Dr. A. Schuster, 
Sec.E.S. 

1919. March 18. Discussion on the Measurement, by means of 
Horizontal Coils, of Pulsations in the Earth's Vertical Mag- 
netic Force, Dr. Crichton Mitchell, Prof. W. H. Bragg, 



82 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919, 

F.E.S.; Report on a Survey of Magnetically Disturbed 
Localities in England, and of the Geological Significance of 
the Disturbances, Prof. H. Cox and Prof. E. Wilson. — 
Chairman, Prof. H. F. Newall, F.R.S. 

1919. May 20. Discussion on the Functions of a Geodetic Insti- 
tute, Col. H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. , Col. Sir C. F. Close, 
K.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. Sir J. Larmor, M.P., F.R.S., 
Admiral J. F. Parry, Sir F. W. Dyson, F.R.S., and others. 
—Chairman, Brig. -Gen. E. H. Hills, F.R.S. 

1919. June 17. Report on Atmospheric Electricity, Dr. C. T. R. 
Wilson, F.R.S.— Chainnan, Mr. J. H. Jeans, F.R.S. 

These meetings were held at 5 p.m. on the third Tuesdays of the 
respective months. The Royal Astronomical Society continued its 
hospitality by allowing the use of its rooms for the discussions and 
Committee meetings. The attendance at the discussions was well 
maintained throughout the year. 

The Committee is glad to be able to report that proposals for the 
continuance of their work, placed before the Royal Astronomical Society, 
were favourably received, and that the Society has appointed a 
Geophysical Committee for the said purpose. The new Committee 
consists) of twelve members, of whom five are appointed on the nomina- 
tion, and as the representatives, oi the following Societies, which are 
thus associated with the Royal Astronomical Society in the work of 
the Committee : — 

The Royal Geographical Society. 

The Royal Meteorological Society. 

The Geological Society. 

The Physical Society. 

The British Astronomical Association.. 

The present Committee of the British Association, in consequence, does 
not ask to be reappointed. 



British Association Report, Bourne mo ath, 1919.] 



Sheatlis contaiii- 

ing barometer 

tulip s 




Camera liox sup- 
ported on central 
gimlials and carry- 
ing the four baro- 
meters 



Barometer cis- 
terns contained in 
Dewar flasks 



CIoca for dri\ing 
film 



Camera box show- 
ing side film I ox 
open 



5Iain gimbals sup- 
porting camera 
box 



Fig. 1. 
General View of Hecker's Apparatus. 



Illustrating the Report on % 



[PlATKS I. AND II. 




'l)?wai' flasks sur- 
jOirmliiiK baro- 
meter cistorns 



Dash pots 



liarometers witli 
niioroscopes for 
rpadiuff t-istorn 
and stf'in thcr- 
moineters 



Telescope for 
nliserving: position 
of images on films. 
In froiit and be- 
lilnd are electric 
lamps for illumin- 
alint^ the mi-rcury 
surfaces 

Rack and pinion 

for adjusting 

lieighi of liaro- 

meter 



Vui. 2. 
Sliowing- the Pliotographic Appaiatus. 



minafioit of Gravity at Sea. 



[Between pages 82 and 83 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA. 83 



Determination of Gravity at Sea. — Second Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor A. E. H. Love (Chairman)_ 
Professor W. G. Duffield (Secretary), Mr. T. W. Chaundy, 
Sir H. Darwin, Professor A. S. Eddington, Major E. 0. 
Henrk'I, Professor A. Schuster, and Professor H. H. 
Turner. 

[Plates I. and II.] 

I. Report upon Hecker's New Method of Measuring Gravity at 
Sea with Apparatus of the Enclosed Mercury Barometer 
Type. By Professor W. G. Duffield. 

Two methods used by the writer in 1914, during the voyage of the 
British Association to Australia, have been described in i2o?/. (Soc. Proc. A., 
vol. xcii., p. 505, and in the British Association Report, Newcastle, 1916. 
It remains to discuss the third method of attack. The apparatus employed 
was lent to the writer in June 1914 by Professor Hecker, of Strassburg, 
who was anxious to have it tested at sea, and welcomed the opportunity 
which the voyage of the British Association aflforded- Although less 
successful than either of the other methods emjjloyed, it will be useful to 
put upon record an account of the apparatus, the manner of making 
the experiments, and the causes of failure, in order that subsequent 
workers may benefit from the experience gained during the voyages. 

The apparatus (fig. 1) was of the enclosed barometer type arranged for 
photographic records. The air sealed in the barometer cistern was main- 
tained at as constant a temperature as possible in order that its pressure 
might vary but slightly during the voyage. This pressure, is equal to pgh, 
where p is the density and h the height of the mercury column. It is clear 
that any variation in g will occasion a change in the level of the mercury, 
and that the column will be shorter if gravity increases and longer if it 
diminishes, provided that isothermal conditions are maintained ; con- 
versely, a measure of the displacement of the mercury is a measure of the 
change of gravity. Four similar barometers were provided, each with a 
constriction to prevent excessive ' piunping ' of the mercury surface at 
sea ; each was mounted in a metal sheath and provided with two ther- 
mometers, one, graduated in 0-01° C, for measuring the temperature of 
the air in the reservoir, and another, graduated in 1-0° C, for obtaining 
the stem temperature. 

The barometers were mounted in pairs at the ends of a wooden light- 
tight box, through the centre of which passed a photographic film operated 
by clockwork (fig. 2). An 8-volt lamp illuminated each meicury surface 
and a separate lens focussed the image of each meniscus upon the moving 



84 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

film, one above the other, vertical slits in the metal sheaths limiting the 
widths of the images to narrow lines. As the mercm-y pumped up and 
down each trace upon the moving film was bounded by a wavy line 
which represented the combined eiiect of rolling and pitching, and of 
the vertical motion of the ship as it rose or fell upon the ocean waves 
(fig. 3). The box was supported centrally on gimbals, dash pots being 
provided to check the swinging. The metal stand supporting the 
apparatus rested upon three thick felt pads to absorb as much vibration 
as possible and the top kept in position by ropes tied to hooks on the 
walls. In order to maintain as constant a temperature as possible the 
experiments were conducted in the refrigerating chambers of the ships 
upon which the voyages were made (see British Association Eeport, 
1916), the reservoirs of the barometer being specially protected by large 
Dewar vessels filled with cork shavings. 

Save in one respect, the whole apparatus is most beautifully constructed, 
and it is all superbly finished, great attention being paid to making the 
cabinet work light-tight, to the accuracy of the clockwork driving the 
film and to the focussing and adjustment of the several images upon it. 

The general type of barometer tube favoured by Hecker has been 
described by him in volumes entitled * Bestimmung der Schwerkraft auf 
dem Atlantischen Ozean' (Berlin, 1903) and ' Bestimmung der Schwerkraft 
auf dem Indischen und Grossen Ozean ' (Berlin, 1908). They possess a 
larger space than usual above the mercury in the barometer tube to 
diminish the effect of any residual gas, since, with a fine constriction, it 
was not feasible to boil the mercury after it had been introduced. The 
constriction has symmetrical, funnel-shaped entrances. Hecker claims 
that this ensures equal resistance to the flow of mercury when rising and 
falling, and that it possesses an advantage over the Kew marine pattern 
in this respect. A small trap is provided to catch minute bubbles of air. 
All barometers are engraved with short lines at equal distances apart, 
which can be identified upon the films. 

Method of Observation. 

Before entering the small laboratory partitioned off from the main 
refrigerating chamber, the temperature was ascertained by extracting 
a thermometer which penetrated the wall, the door opened and closed 
behind the observer as quickly as possible, lamps illuminating the 
mercury surfaces switched on, heights of barometers adjusted to give the 
images in their proper places on the films, and sheath readings noted. 
The temperatures of all cistern and stem thermometers were recorded 
as quickly as possible, the clockwork for driving the film started, an 
identification mark made on the film by occulting one or other of the 
barometer lights a certain number of times, and the room left for fifteen 
to twenty minutes. At the end of this period aU observations were 
repeated. A fan ran continuously in the refrigerator day and night. 
Rubber overalls were worn in the chamber, they had some effect in 
reducing the influence of the observer's body upon the thermometers. 
Three sets of observations were carried out on an average each day. 

After every three or four days the exposed film was removed and 



ON THE DETERMIKATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA. 



85 



c 

Hi 



e4 



2 
o 



m 



P3 






ro 



<N 



Fig. 3. 



Types of records obtained with one of Hecker's self-recording enclosed barometers 
on four different days, showing approximate time-scale and the engraved fiducial 
lines, which are 2'84 mm. apart on the barometer tube. Sept. 12 and Oct. 8 were 
very rough days. The reproductions represent positives, hence the black portion 
represents the mercury in the tube. The depths are in fathoms. 



1919. 



86 TlEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

developed on board ship ; on the Morea this was done in the refrigeratot, 
and the results are better than thosr- obtained on the Ascauius when 
developing was carried out in a cabin. Rodinol and Eastman's cine- 
matograph films were very satisfactory. During the voyages over 5,000 
readings of the thermometers, &c., were made and 100 feet of film 
developed. 

Reduction of Results. 

A measuring machine originally constructed by Hilger for spectroscopic 
work and accurate to -002 mm. was used. Each film was placed so that 
its length was perpendicular to the direction of travel of the micrometer 
eye-piece. A double thread was sighted along the line of hollows, then 
along the line of crests, then upon the images of the engraved lines, and 
finally upon the top edge of the exposed portion of the film. This was 
done in three different parts of each exposed strip, the results tabulated 
and the distances calculated. 

Two errors peculiar to photographic registration have to be corrected :— 

(1) The scale is engraved on the glass, and unless the ray of light 
passes horizontally over the curved meniscus the relative positions of 
mercury and scale will not be correctly shown upon the film. Assuming 
that the shape of the meniscus is known, the correction can be calculated 
for different heights of the mercury above the horizontal ray, but it is 
more satisfactory to find it experimentally by taking a number of photo- 
graphs in harbour when the barometer is steady, thus: — the whole 
instrument is moved up and down, so that the mercury surface is at 
various heights above and below the horizontal ray, and the distances 
on the film of the mercury surface from one of the engraved lines are 
tabulated against the depth of the mercury from the top of the wmdow 
through which the light passes, a distance easily calculated from measure- 
ments of the widths of the exposed band. To correct for any variations 
in the barometer during the test it is advisable to return to a fixed reading 
at frequent intervals. Experiments according to this programme were 
carried out in Cape Town Harbour on July 13, 1914. 

The correction to the observed reading of one of Hecker's barometers 
is approximately -008 mm. for a difference of 0-1 mm. in the width of 
the exposed strip. 

(2) The brightness of the lamps, the rate of running of the film, and 
the time of development being variable, all developed images are not of 
equal blackness. The position of the boundary of this image depends 
to some extent upon its density, hence it is necessary to introduce a correc- 
tion on this account. 

This can be evaluated by taking a series of records with constant 
barometer with illuminations of different powers. The density of each 
deposit may be measured by a density meter, and the corresponding 
measurement of the film plotted against it. On Hartmann's scale of 
densities the correction varies from - 0-02 mm. for density 5 to + 0-02 mm,, 
for densitv 75. The densities of the films varied over very narrow limits, 
so for this reason and others which will appear, these corrections were 
regarded as too small to merit application to any of the figures obtained. 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA. 87 

though had conditions been more favourable they would have been taken 
into account. 

From the dimensions of the apparatus and the coefficients of expansion 
of its various parts it is possible to calculate the relationshiji between 8g 
and the variations in T, the temperature of the air reservoir, in t, the stem 
temperature, and in h, the height of the mercury column in millimetres. 
But, in view of the difficulty of accurate determinations of the volumes 
of the various parts of the barometers (though this was tried), it 
was considered more convenient to use observations made in harbour 
stations, where gravity was known from pendulum observations, for the 
determinations of the coefficients in the equation 

83 = AJh + B,ST + CJt. 

From a knowledge of A^, B^, C^ and the variations in h, T and t from 
their values at a primary standard station, the variation, 8j, from the 
value at that station is theoretically obtainable for any observation made 
during the voyage. 

The Results of the Test. 

The generous provision by Messrs. Holt of a laboratory in the refri- 
gerator of s.s. Ascanitis has been referred to in previous reports and the 
excellent results as regards temperature regulation put on record. It 
was with the utmost disappointment that between Cape Town and Austra- 
lia after nearly four weeks of continuous observation, it was discovered 
that all four barometers, instead of being sealed up, had developed leaks, 
and that they were resj)oncling to the changes in the external atmosjDheric 
pressure. This was in spite of great care on the part of the writer in 
assembling the apparatus, the whole reservoir having been coated, after 
screwing up, with white lead paint. It is believed that the leak occurred 
where a glass tube and tap runs into the cistern, and that a much better 
fit would be possible. 

By collecting all the paraffin candles on board and melting them in a 
pot, into which the barometer tubes were immersed to about 8 inches, the 
writer, before reaching Fremantle, had sealed up all the barometers. But 
the opportunity of using the excellent refrigerator laboratory for the 
return voyage vanished on arrival in Adelaide, when it was found that 
war had broken out and that the ship had been commandeered as a 
troopship. 

It has already been exjjlained in the Interim Report that accommodation 
was found on R.M.S. Morea for the return voyage, but that the tempera- 
ture regulation was exceedingly inefficient. Nevertheless, an attempt 
was made, and after resealing the barometers in Sydney Harbour, the 
whole of the foregoing operations were carried out on the Morea from 
September 9 to October 20, 1914. 

It was not until the Armistice that the writer found an opportunity 
of attempting the immense labour of the measurement of the films and 
of the reduction of the results, but that occasion found him vnth a staff of 
officers of the Royal Air Force, some of them with considerable qualifica- 
tions for the work. Other work being in abeyance, they readily agreed to 

L 2 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

co-operate with him in this research. The films were measured up in the 
Physics Laboratory of University College, Reading, by Mr. Whittall, 
and the calculations carried, out by Mr. F. S. Hayhoe and Mr. Harrenden 
Harker. 

The first point to be decided was whether the variations in temperature 
during the course of each experiment, due probably in part at least to 
the lamps used for illuminating the mercury surfaces, occasioned a change 
which ruled the whole investigation out of account. It was, however, 
found that in general the mercury did not rise as the run proceeded, in 
spite of the usual increase in temperature registered on the stem. It 
was decided, therefore, to take the first reading of the stem thermometer 
as correct, and it was presumed that the lag of the barometer temperature 
was greater than that of the indicating thermometer on the stem within 
the casing. 

The readings taken as standards were any four observations made at 
the following ports — there was usually a choice of two at each port : — Fre- 
mantle, Colombo, Bombay, Aden, Malta, Gibraltar. 

The following are the constants in the above equation obtained by 
taking two Colombo and two Bombay observations as standards : — 

A„ = -1*2395, B„ =2*0364, C„ = 0'131* 

Whereas, taking one each for Colombo, Bombay, Aden and Malta, the 
values were 

A„ = -11364, B„ = 1-816, C„ = 0*211. 

Using the former values, we note that Fremantle (Film 9) works out 
as g = 978-904 instead of 979-485 given by pendulum observation, and 
that, if the data obtained from Fremantle (Film 8) are used, the value 
of g obtained is 978*736. There is thus no agreement between the values 
obtained from consecutive films for the same port. Similar discrepancies 
were obtained by using the second set of values, and other harbour 
stations provided equally imsatisfactory results. 

The investigation was thereupon abandoned. 

Discussion of the Method. 

Apart from the possibility of leakage, which only was obvious in one 
barometer on the return voyage, there are difficulties in the method. One 
barometer could not be measured up because the image of the engraving 
could not be seen on the film, though -visible during the adjustments. 
The great difficulty, however, lies in the temperature measurement. The 
value of the coefficient of U (C^, = -211) indicates that a variation in 
ht of 0-1° C. means a change in the value of g of about -02 cm. /sec. ^ ; it is 
essential chat this temperature should be measured on a thermometer 
graduated to divisions less than 1-0° C. It is further necessary that this 
thermometer should read the temperature of the mercury within the 
barometer tube, and with the present arrangement this is not accomplished ; 
it is important that the temperature lags of the barometer stem and of 
the attached thermometer should be equal. 



ON THE DETERMINATION OP GRAVITY AT SEA. 89 

The method of immersing the cistern in a vacuum flask, while satis- 
factory in preserving the temperature of the enclosed air at a nearly constant 
value during each run, involves a difference in temperature between various 
parts of the barometer tube, and this gradient cannot accurately be allowed 
for. On the homeward voyage, when temperature conditions were noto- 
riously adverse, there was sometimes a difEerence between reservoir and 
stem which amounted to 3° or 4°. Even on s.s. Ascanius, where conditions 
were exceptionally favourable, there was seldom a difference less than 
0°'2 to 0°"3. These considerations involve errors much larger than the 
differences in gravity which it is sought to discover. 

The aneroid method with a plain mercury barometer is in this respect 
better than one which involves a gradient within the tube itself, though 
it has other objections. 

It is the wi-iter"s opinion that all barometers used for gravity work 
must be of uniform temperature and that they should be immersed in a 
well-stirred bath of liquid which is kept at as constant a temperature as 
possible by a thermostatic device. 

It is the writer's opinion that Hecker's method of an enclosed barometer, 
which is photographically recording, could, if modified in the respect 
indicated, be made to yield satisfactory results at sea. 

In concluding this report upon the three methods tested dm^ing the 
voyages to and from Australia of the British Association in 1914, the writer 
expresses his thanks to Professor Hecker for giving him the opportunity 
of testing the apparatus and to the Council of the British Association for 
their grant from the Caird Fund for the purpose of these tests, which are 
only to be regarded as prehminary to what it is hoped may prove a suc- 
cessfid attempt at a later date. For this purpose apparatus is already 
in course of preparation. 

II. The Influence upon a Marine Barometer op the Ship's Motion 
THROUGH the Air. By Professor W. G. Duffield. 

Before a further attempt is made to determine the value of gravity at 
sea there are certain jKoblems to be solved. These are chiefly concerned 
with the behaviour on board ship of a mercury barometer, which in one 
form or another is employed in all methods to which extended trials have 
been given. 

Both Hecker and the writer have had reason to question the accuracy 
of a comparison between readings made in harbour and those on the high 
seas, and a far more careful examination of the effect of the ship's vibration, 
due to the throbbing of the engines, as well as to the tossing on the waves, 
is necessary. 

It was with the object of testing this point amongst others that the 
writer sought and obtained permission to carry out experiments on one 
of His Majesty's Destroyers, and in August 1919 two marine barometers 
were mounted on board H.M.S. Plucky, one in the chart-room below the 
bridge, where the vibration appeared to be least, and the other in the ward- 
room, where it was greatest. It was intended to compare their readings 
with one another and with those of a barometer on board a stationary 



90 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 



ship in the neighbourhood of which the Destroyer manoeuvred.- It was 
dining these experiments that a new difficulty appeared which seems to 
add materially to the task of determining gravity over the ocean. It 
certainly adds to the difficulty of determining the effects of vibration. 

The preliminary experiments showed that the vibration on a Destroyer 
in calm water does not greatly increase the difficulty of reading the instru- 
ment. Even when the ship was running at 22 knots in the sheltered waters 
off Spithead it was not difficult to obtain readings which were consistent 
to O'l mb., and the writer believes that on many occasions the readings 
were consistent to 0'05 mb., even with the ordinary vernier type of scale. 
Had the dial instrument previously employed by the writer been available, 
the readings coidd have been made with at least as great accuracy, and 
certainly much more quickly and easily. 

August 29, 1919, was the first day of the trials, which took place off 
Sj)ithead ; a fresh breeze was blowing from almost due west, which gradually 
strengthened to about 20 or 25 knots. It was found that the barometer 
in the chart-room suffered small fluctuations according to the direction 
in which the ship was heading ; this was at first attributed to the gravita- 
tional change due to the E.-W. motion of the ship, but, as the wind freshened, 
the fluctuations became much more marked, and of an order of magnitude 
which ruled this effect out of account as the main cause. Moreover, the 
ship 's aneroid, also in the chart-house, showed similar fluctuations. It was 
evident that the changes of pressure were real, and that they were due to 
the eddy motion of the wind about the ship's hull. Going West the baro- 
meters in the chart-house showed invariably a reduced pressure, indicating 
a suction effect as the ship met the wind with a relative velocity of about 
45 knots. 

Typical readings in the chart-room are shown below, the aneroid 
referred to was that belonging to the ship : — 



Time 


11.19-11.26 


11.30-11.39 


11.43-11.53 


1.16-1.26 


1.30-1.42 


1.46-1.55 


Course . 


B 


W 


E 


W 


E 


W 


Mercury Bar. 


994'4- 994-7 


994-0-993-6 


994-0-994-4 


993-2-993-9 


993-2-993-8 


993-5-992-e 


Aneroid Bar. 


987-8 


987-0 


987-2 


986-0 


986-8 


985-5 



The aneroid scale is very much in error, but the changes recorded by it 
are certainly real. Two features are obvious : (1) the fall going west 
against the wind, and the rise going east, the difference sometimes 
amounting to 1-3 mb., and (2) the gradual change in the reading of the 
mercury barometer during each run. The lag is due to the constriction 
in the barometer tube ; the lag of the aneroid was scarcely appreciable. 

Closing the port-holes and the door of the chart-house made little 
difference to the readings, the fluctuations being just as marked as when 
they were all open. In the ward -room the barometer showed fluctuations 
in the same sense, a fall going west and a rise going east ; but the change 
was far less, amounting to 0-6 mb. as a maximum, of which 0-2 mb. is 
probably due to the gravitational effect of the E.-W. motion. Subsequent 
experiments with a specially sensitive aneroid confirmed the existence of 
these fluctuations, which are superposed upon any general atmospheric 
change of pressure. Few cabins could be more favourably situated for 
avoiding eddies than the ward-room, as its only opening to the deck is 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA. 91 

through a lobby and up a companion-way barely wide enough to permit 
the entrance of a rotund seaman. 

The point that the writer wishes to make is that, apart from the ordi- 
nary atmospheric changes of pressure which are troublesome enough, there 
are fluctuations which are due to the relation of the ship's motion to 
the speed and direction of the wind. An anemometer chart has only 
to be studied to show how variable these are, so that, even if the ship 
does not deviate from her course by a hair's breadth, there is ample reason 
for expecting changes during the time taken for an observation. 

As far as the determination of gravity is concerned these fluctuations 
would not matter if both the mercury barometer and the comparison 
instrument, aneroid or hypsometer, possessed the same amount of ' lag,' 
but this is not the case, and there arises the possibility that the readings 
of the two instruments do not give truly simultaneous values of the 
j)ressure. To take an extreme instance — if the aneroid method of 
estimating gravity were employed, we should obtain a value for the accele- 
ration due to gra\aty which at 1.55 p.m. w^ould be 0-883 cm./sec.^ higher 
than the value calculated at 1-46 p.m. As we wish to measure gravity to 
•005 cm. /sec. ^ we see that on an ocean liner moving through still air the 
fluctuations may introduce errors many times larger than this amount, 
unless special precautions are taken to obviate this source of error. 

As the result of these experiments it appears that a new difficulty is 
added to the already complex problem, of measuring gravity at sia. 
Such methods as employ a mercury barometer exposed to the atmosj)here 
(as distinct from the enclosed type) are one degree less satisfactory than 
was hitherto supposed. In addition to a measurement of the atmospheric 
jiressure by the height of a column of mercury, some other instrument 
for measuring it must be employed, and, if their lags are different, any 
additional fluctuation in the pressures to which the instruments are exposed 
adversely affects the accuracy of the method. In the method which the 
Avriter has already tested, whereby the readings of an aneroid are compared 
with those of a mercury barometer, the two instruments possess very 
different rates of lag, so that a momentary change of velocity in the 
wind will certainly affect one instrument more than the other ; moreover, 
d. comparatively small change in its direction may change the eddy pressure 
from a jJositive to a negative quantity. Probably the writer in his 
laboratory, in the refrigerator of the Ascanius or the Morea, protected 
by two very well-fitting doors from the rest of the ship, and situated in 
the bowels of the ship, was as free from this disturbing influence as 
one could possibly be on board ; but, nevertheless, he was not quite 
secure against a possible fluctuation during the few seconds necessary 
for taking the aneroid readings. 

Hecker's experiments were, as far as the writer can gather, carried 
out in passenger cabins which were presumably well above the water- 
line, and that is a disadvantage. He refers to one cabin as well ventilated, 
which might after all not be an advantage. In one voyage his work 
was done in two cabins, in one of which he had his barometer, and in 
the other his boiling-point apparatus. Without knowing how the cabins 
were ventilated it is impossible to say whether the results thus obtained 



92 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

were reliable ; if elbch had its own port-hole or its own cowl (as is 
arranged in ' inside ' cabins) it is highly probable that there was a differ- 
ence in the pressures in the cabins, and that the difference varied with 
the speed of the ship and the direction of the wind. Experiments should 
have been made to test their equality of pressure. 

It is, however, easy in the light of later knowledge to find fault with 
Hecker's work, but after all it was the pioneer work in this branch of a 
very difl&cult subject, and it has guided the work of all experimenters 
who have followed. 

It was rather surprising to watch a barometer falling at the rate of 
about 1 mb. a minute as the ship turned about ; it might be useful to 
inform navigators of the effect of eddies in order that wrong meteorological 
inferences may not be drawn from barometric observations on fast- 
moving craft. 

III. The GtRavity Correction for the Ship's Motion in Longitude. 
By Professor W. G. Duffield. 

Geophysicists who are interested in the determination of gravity at sea 
will remember that, on the completion of his voyages over the Atlantic, 
Indian and Pacific Oceans, Hecker published his conclusion that gravity 
at sea conformed within narrow limits to the formula obtained by Helmert 
from observations made at land stations. Eotvos, however, called his 
attention to a possible source of error which had not been taken into 
account. The ship when on an east or west course is subject to an 
increase or a diminution of the centrifugal force acting upon her, which 
results in an apparent decrease or increase in the value of gravity. During 
the course of subsequent experiments in the Black Sea, Hecker made 
two short series of observations to ascertain if this correction should, in 
fact, be made, and came to the conclusion that it should. Reference 
to Hecker's paper shows that he employed the boiling-point method, with 
which it is very difficult to get consistent results, and that he had reasons 
for rejecting the first set, which appeared to give positive results, and 
also that in the second set, upon which he relies, there appears, to the 
writer's judgment at least, to be a considerable degree of uncertainty. It 
was partly for these reasons, and largely for reasons which are discussed by 
the writer in his account of the influence of the motion of the ship through 
the air, that it was considered of importance to make a special examination 
of this point, in order that there should be no uncertainty in the matter ; 
the effect of E.-W. motion is of such a magnitude that it might mask the 
variations of gravity that it is required to examine at sea. 

Through the kindness of Captain Stapleton-Cotton, R.N., it was 
arranged that the destroyer Plucky should steam east and west alter- 
nately, while a comparison was made between the readings of the mercury 
and aneroid barometers which had been installed on board. The captain 
of the Plucky, Lieut. J. M. Smith, R.N., gave his whole-hearted co-opera- 
tion, and to him and to the chief engineer is very largely due the successful 
issue of the experiments. In order that we might have a check upon the 
natural changes of pressure which occurred during the experiments, 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA, 93 

Captain Backhouse, R.N., kindly arranged that observations of the 
barometer carried by the Battleship Royal Sovereign, which was anchored 
in the neighbourhood, should be taken simultaneously. The writer 
expresses his thanks to Lieut.-CommanclerW. R. Priston, R.N., for taking 
these readings at intervals of five minutes during the three hours required 
for the work. 

The marine barometers were all of the Kew standard pattern, those 
on the Plucky being specially provided by the Meteorological Ofl&ce for 
this work. The aneroid was that made by the Cambridge Scientific Com- 
pany for the writer's previous experiments on gravity at sea,^ but on 
this occasion a new mounting was devised. It was placed on a swinging 
table which was hung from a hook by rubber cords, a wooden rod sup- 
porting a heavy weight being screwed to the centre of the table to give it 
a longer period of swing ; this acted very well, and obviated most of the 
small vibrations due to the engines. Chief Artificer-Engineer S. Dawson 
was chiefly responsible for its introduction. 

On the first day of the trials it was evident that when the ship was on 
an east course the mercury barometer stood relatively higher than the 
barometer on the Royal Sovereign, and also than the aneroid reading, 
but that the difference only became marked when the Plucky had nearly 
completed her run of nine or ten minutes ; this is, of course, due to the 
lag of the mercury barometer. The residts were fully in accord with 
the existence of an effect due to B.-W. motion, but it was decided to 
repeat the observations with a longer run. Unfortunately the Royal 
Sovereign was not ofi Spithead during the second trial, but the stationary 
barometer readings on the first day gave the writer confidence in his 
interpretation of the readings on the moving ship. On the second day 
Captain Smith managed to find a longer stretch of sheltered water, which 
permitted a run of twelve to fifteen minutes in a true east or west 
direction at a speed of 22 knots, which gave better results. 

On this day (September 1, 1919) the wind at the outset was from 
the south and estimated at about 3 knots. This direction was very favour- 
able, because the speeds through the air were the same whether going east 
or west, and the disturbing influence was reduced to a minimum. Later 
in the day, however, the wind blew from the S.W. at about 8 knots, 
subsequently freshening to, say, 10 knots, when the observations became 
less reliable. Meeting the breeze on a west course, and doing 22 knots, 
the destroyer pitched a little, causing the aneroid to ' pump ' appreciably ; 
this, as has been explained elsewhere {he. cit.), introduces a systematic 
error into its readings, making them too low. 

The results of the day's observations are shown in the diagrams (fig. 4), 
in which the times are indicated on the horizontal axis and the reduced 
readings of the barometers in millibars on the vertical axis. The mercury 
barometer readings were treated according to the method of the Meteoro- 
logical Office, the aneroid constant being determined by comparison 
with the mercury instrument in harbour. It was found that one division 
= 0-214 mb., rather less than in 1914. Since the aneroid possesses no 
absolute scale, its graph occupies an arbitrary position on the diagrams 

' B.A Report, Newcastle, 1916. 



94 j:j ''^ REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Mbs. 



Diagram 1. 




o MercLiru Barometer i 
-e- .. .. 2 

• AneroLd •• 



loia-o 



W.M.S. "Plucky? 
Set^t I, 1919 





-W *■ 



L > 



-W- 



"To To 



J .1 



Mbs. 



SO 40" 

Diagram 2. 



o o 





Mercurij Barometer 
• Aneroid " 




I0I70 



J_ 



-« W >- < [ >• < W *• ■< L *■ 

2lHr. . , . I . I . 



"20 30 40 50 

Diagram 3. 



To 20 3o 




• W — » 



c- 



-N- -^5- 



To To 



Fig. 4 



ON THE DETERMINATION OP GRAVITY AT SEA. 95 

It was, however, chosen so that it is approximatvly just as much below 
the mercury graph on the eastward run as it is above it on the west- 
ward run ; the values of a vertical scale division are, of course, the same 
for the two barometers. As the aneroid was moved a few inches on its 
table at 12.10 p.m., the subsequent readings are not strictly comparable 
with those which preceded that time. 

From the diagrams it indubitably appears that there is a rise of the 
mercury barometer when the Destroyer steams east and a fall when she 
steams west. The precise amount is difficult to estimate, but from the 
first three observations, made when the wind was on the beam and the 
sea smooth, the difference amounts to approximately 2 mbs. The sub- 
sequent readings, though made imder less favourable conditions, in 
general agree with this. Where the ' pumping ' was particularly notice- 
able the diagrams are marked ' P,' and there it is that the aneroid is 
erroneously low, and it is only at the end of the run, where the water was 
smoother and the pumping less troublesome, and when enough time had 
elapsed to enable the mercury to fall nearly to its true level, that the 
aneroid reading exceeds the mercury reading. 

As a depression was approaching from the west, the fall in pressure 
going west was greater than the rise going east. Fortunately the aneroid 
possesses a very small lag, so with it small and rapid changes can be 
detected which would escape a boiling-point method. Mr. F. T. Whipple 
and the writer had tested the lag by taking the instrument up and down 
in the lift at the Meteorological Office. Each aneroid reading is the 
result of five separate observations, each of which took from two to 
three seconds. 

The last two runs were made on north and south courses, and here, 
save for one observation, the agreement is remarkably good, the difference 
between the two barometers being in fact smaller than the probable 
error of each measurement. 

The term involving the correction for E.-W. motion is 2 <dv cos A. sin a, 
where w is the earth's angular velocity, v the speed of the ship, X the 
latitude, and a the deviation of the ship's course from true north or 
south. For V = 22 knots, X = 50° 46', and a = 90°, the expected 
difference between east and west amounts to 2-15 mbs. From comparison 
with the experimental results we may conclude with assurance that it is 
essential that this term shall be introduced into all gravity determinations 
made on a moving ship. 

In the Committee's Report for 1916 (Newcastle) the writer, basing 
his conclusion upon an erroneous estimate of Hecker's exj^eriments, 
assumed the necessity for including this term, and briefly discussed its 
bearing upon meteorological phenomena. During the War the attention 
of gunners was drawn to its application to ballistics. It is clear that a 
shell fired east will weigh less than when fired west ; assuming a horizontal 
velocity of 500 metres per second, a shell fired at an 8,000-yard range 
will carry east about 80 yards further than if fired west in these latitudes; 
At the Equator the difference amounts to 120 yards ; it seems useful, 
therefore, to introduce a bearing correction into gunnery. The load which 
an airship can carry also depends upon its speed and course ; flying east 
at 60 knots an airship of 60 tons can carry about 100 pounds (the weight 



96 REPORTSON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

of a fair-sized bomb) more than when flying west. During the war it is 
evident that in this respect the western position possessed a natural, 
though perhaps small, advantage. 

In addition to Lieut. Smith, E.N., of H.M.S. Plucky, and others 
named in the text, the WTiter's thanks are accorded to Captain H. P. 
Douglas, E.N., for helping in the organisation of these tests, and to 
Mr. P. E. Turner for assisting in the reduction of the results. Once 
again the very kind assistance, which Sir Napier Shaw and the Meteoro- 
logical Office Staff are always ready to give, is gratefully acknowledged. 



Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), Professor 
W. G. DuFFiELD (Secretary), Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. 
W. J. S. LocKYBR, Mr. F. MacClban, and Professor A. 
Schuster. (Drawn up by the Secretary). 

It will be remembered from previous reports that the Commonwealth 
Government accepted the offer to provide a considerable portion of 
the equipment of the Solar Observatory, and promised to proceed after 
the War with the necessaiy buildings upon the site of the temporary 
observatory at CanbeiTa. This observatoiy at jsresent contains the 
Oddie telescopes, which were contributed to further the purposes of 
this Committee in 1909; the six-inch Grubb Equatorial, presented by 
the trustees of the estate of the late Lord Farnham, reached Mel- 
bourne soon after the outbreak of war and awaits erection. 

It is not considered that the present is an opportune time to press 
for the erection of the observatory buildings and the provision of the 
neccssarv staff. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 97 



Fuel Economy — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor W. A. Bone* (Chairman), Mr. H. James Yates* 
{Vice-Chairman) , Mr. Eobebt Mond* (Secretary), Mr. A. H. 
Barker, Professor P. P. Bedson, Dr. W. S. Boulton, Mr. 
E. Bury, Professor W. E. Dalby, Mr. E. V. Evans,* Dr. 
W. Galloway, Sir Egbert Habfield, Bart.,* Dr. H. S. 
Hele-Shaw,* Mr. D. H. Helps, Dr. G. Hickling, Mr. 
D. V. Hgllingworth, Mr. A. Hutchinson,* Principal G. 
Knox, Mr. Michael Longridge, Professor Henry Louis,* 
Mr. G. E. Morgans, Mr. W. H. Patchell,* Professor L. T. 
O'Shea, Mr. E. D. Simon, Mr. A. T. Smith, Dr. J. E. 
Stead, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, Mr. G. Blake Walker, 
Sir Joseph Walton,* Professor W. W. Watts,* Mr. W. B. 
WooDHOusE, and Mr. C. H. Wordingham,* appointed for 
the Investigation of Fuel Economy, the Utilisation of Coal, 
and Smoke Prevention. 

Introduction. 

Soon after the Committee had drawn up its First Eeport, which was 
presented at the last meeting of the Association at Newcastle-on-Tyne 
in 1916, certain important developments took place in regard to the 
subject of its inquiry which it seems desirable now briefly to recount. 

In July 1916, largely as the result of the work of the Committee, 
the Government, having at length realised the importance of the 
problem of fuel economy, appointed what afterwards became the Coal 
Conservation Committee of the Ministry of Reconstruction, under the 
chairmanship of Lord Haldane. Altogether seven of the then members 
of this Committee were invited, in their individual capacities, to serve 
on the Government Committee. An advance copy of the First Eeport 
was placed at Lord Haldane's disposal for the information of his 
Committee, which ultimately issued its Eeport and concluded its labours 
in 1918. 

One of the first acts of the Coal Conservation Committee was to ' 
memorialise the Advisory Council (afterwards the Department) of 
Scientific and Industrial Eesearch as to the need of a Chemical Survey 
of British Coalfields, a proposal which, it may be pointed out, had 
originated with this Committee, and had already been strongly urged 
in its First Eeport. 

Matters having thus progressed so far, and it being clear that 
nothing further could be done without considerable grants of money, 
steps were taken, with the concurrence of the Council of the Associa- 
tion, to ascertain the attitude and intentions of the Advisory Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Eesearch towards fuel research, and in 

* Denotes a Member of the Executive Committee. 



98 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 



what way, if any, the work of this Committee could be assisted and 
co-ordinated with that of other similar bodies concerned in the matter. 

On 2nd November, 1916, an informal conference was held at the 
Board of Education between representatives of this Committee and 
of the Advisory Council, with a view to arriving at some mutually 
satisfactory arrangement whereby the work of the Committee would 
be taken over and continued under the segis of the new Department 
of Scientific and Industrial Eesearch. It was then represented, on 
behalf of the Advisory Council, that it was their intention to set up, 
in the near future, a new Standing Committee on Fuel to organise 
and carry out, with adequate financial provision, the various lines of 
research already recommended by this and Lord Haldane's Committee, 
and that they desired to take over and incorporate in some way with 
the proposed new organisation the more active members of this Com- 
mittee. Unfortunately, however, the plan then proposed for so doing 
(which would have been entirely acceptable to this Committee) was 
eventually set aside by the Department, which, in February 1917, 
established its own Fuel Eesearch Board on a different basis. As it 
soon became clear that the new Board did not desire any assistance 
from an outside Committee, no basis of co-operation could be an-anged, 
although the Committee had intimated to the Director of Fuel Eesearch 
its willingness to collaborate. 

For a period of a year afterwards the Committee did not meet, and 
its work was suspended, although a nucleus of its members informally, 
kept in touch with developments. In October 1918, however, in 
response to a widespread and growing feeling that there was need of 
an organised body of independent scientific opinion that could be 
brought to bear, in the public interest, upon any proposals for research 
of public policy with regard to fuel, the Committee resumed its labours, 
'having been empowered by the Association to reorganise its work and 
personnel, to enter into communication, at its discretion, with Govern- 
ment Departments, the Federation of British Industries, and other 
bodies concerned with fuel economy, and to publish from time to time 
through the medium of the technical Press, or otherwise, any informa- 
tion or recommendations in the national interest, without prejudice to 
the presentation of its Eeport to the Association. 

Reorganisation. 

The reconstituted Committee comprised thirty instead of (as for- 
merly) forty-five members, and the number of the Sub-Committees was 
reduced from five to three, each with its own Chairman and Vice- 
Chairman, as follows: — 






Numlier of 
Meniber.s 


Chairman 


Vice-Chairman 


A. Chemical and Statis- 

tical 

B. Carbonisation and 

Metallurgical 

C. Power . 


12 

9 
10 


Prof. Henry Louis. 

Sir Robert Hadfield. 
Mr. C. H. Wording- 
ham. 


Prof. W. W. Watts. 

Mr. A. Hutchinson. 
Mr. W. H. Patchell. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 99 

Each of the following Societies and Institutions was invited to 
nominate for co-option (if not already a member) a representative on 
the Committee, which they did, as follows: — 

(1) Federation of British Industries . . Mr. A. T. Smith. 

(2) Association of British Ciiemical Manufacturers Mr. Robert Mend. 

(3) Society of Chemical Industry . . . Mr. E. V. Evans. 



(4) Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

(5) Institution of Electrical Engineers . 

(6) Institution of Mining Engineers 

(7) Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 

(8) Iron and Steel Institute 

(9) Coke Oven Managers' Association . 



Mr. W. H. Patchell. 
Mr. C. H. Wordingham. 
Mr. G. Blake Walker. 
Mr. G. E. Morgans. 
Sir Robert Hadfield. 
Mr. D. V. Hollingworth. 



In addition, Mr. D. H. Helps has continued to represent the Insti- 
tution of Gas Engineers, and Mr. H. James Yates the Society of British 
Gas Industries. 

Finally, an Executive Committee of twelve members was appointed, 
including ex-officio the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Secretary of 
the General Committee, the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of each Sub- 
Committee, and in addition, one other representative member from each 
Sub-Committee. 

Since its reconstruction the General Committee has held four meet- 
ings, whilst the Executive has met seven times. In view, however, of 
the vastness and complexity of the manifold issues involved in the 
present coal situation, and the difficulty of formulating any definite con- 
clusion as to the effects of the war until coaiditions have become 
stabilised once more, the Committee decided to postpone presenting 
any final Report until some future year. The present Eeport is, there- 
fore, of an interim nature, concerning such items only as appear to 
warrant publication at this juncture. 

Coal Outputs and Prices since 1913. 

In its First Report the Committee drew attention to the vital im- 
portance of relatively cheap coal to the nation's industrial prosperity, 
and stated that, .for some years before the war, the average price of coal 
at the pithead had been decidedly on the up-grade, a tendency which 
might be expected to continue at an accelerated rate. As the result of 
circumstances created by, or arising out of, the war, the average pit- 
head price of coal has already almost trebled since the year 1913, and 
is likely to rise still higher, a matter of most serious concern to the 
whole nation. 

How basic is the necessity of relatively cheap coal to the recovery 
of our pre-war prosperity will at once be apparent when it is realised 
how absolutely dependent are all our principal manufacturing industries 
upon imported raw materials. Our own natural resources do not 
enable us to provide ourselves, in quantity sufficient for the needs of a 
modern industrial community, with a great variety of raw materials; 
nor can we grow sufficient food for our present population. But our 
ships can bring abundance of raw materials from all parts of the world 
to our coal. Without the impelling power of relatively cheap coal, we 
should neither be able to attract the raw materials, nor yet to build 
or maintain the ships in which to convey them. Relatively cheap coal 



100 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



is, in fact, a fundamental necessity to the maintenance, not only of our 
great iron, steel, engineering, shipbuilding, and textile industries, but 
of our shipping trade and sea power. 

Thus in 1913, the chief raw materials which we produced in excess of 
our requirements were coal, clay, and salt. By far the most important 
of these was coal, of which we exported 97-5 million tons valued (f.o.b.) 
at 52 milHon pounds steiiing. Half of the 10-5 million tons of iron 
smelted in our furnaces was from imported ores. We imported also the 
whole of the copper and cotton, 95 per cent, of the zinc, 90 per cent, of 
the lead, and about 80 per cent, of all the wool and timber used in 
British industrial establishments. In addition, we import.ed some 257 
million pounds' worth of food, drink, and tobacco. 

The great need of the moment is that the true facts of the situation 
shall be brought home to all sections of the community. The Com- 
mittee, therefore, desires to draw attention to the following compara- 
tive data concerning the movement of coal prices in Great Britain and 
the United States during the war-period. The British figures are all 
derived from official, or other equally reliable sources, whilst those 
relating to America have been extracted from the Bulletins issued by 
the Bureau of Labour Statistics (U.S. Department of Labour), to which 
the Committee desires to acknowledge its indebtedness. In converting 
the American prices into their English equivalents a dollar has been 
taken as 50 pence. 

Outputs of Coal and Average Pithead Prices in Great Britain. 



Year 


Total Output 
Million Tons 


Annual Output per 

person employed 

Tons 


Average Pithead Price 
Per Ton 


1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


287-4 
265-6 
253-2 
256-3 
248-0 
227-7 


260 
238 
270 
260 
247 
232 


s. d. 
10 1 
10 
12 6 

15 7 

16 9 
f24 0)1 



1 Estimated. 



Prices per ton paid hy Consumers in Great Britain. 



Year 


In London for 

Best House Coal 

delivered 


For Gas Coal by the South 
Metropolitan Gas Co. 


For Durham 
Coking Coal at a 
Cleveland Iron- 
works 2 


f.o.b. at IS'.E.CoasI 


Cost into Works 


1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


s. d. 
29 
34 3 

37 

38 
44 


s. d. 
11 2 

15 5 

16 5 
16 8 
20 11 


5. d. 
14 6 
22 11 
26 4 
32 5 
34 4 


s. d. 
13 
16 2 
22 3 
22 10 
24 5 



2 The corresponding pithead prices would be about 3s. 6id. less than these. The 
average price (at the works) during the first six months of 1919 has been 26s. 6rf. 
per ton. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 



101 



The upward tendency of prices has continued since the close of 1918, 
and, according to a recent declaration made on behalf of the Government 
in the House of Commons, consumers will have to face an all-round 
increase on the foregoing prices of 6s. per ton during the coming winter. 

The Committee views with concern the recent rapid decline of the 
annual outputs per worker employed in British mines. During the 
thirty years preceding the war the returns had shown a steady decline, 
as follows : — 

Average Annual Output 
per Worker 
Decade Tons 

1883-92 320 

1893-02 295 

1903-12 280 

That this downward tendency was peculiar to British mines is shown 
by the following comparative figures : — 

Comparative Annual Outputs per Worker employed in the Mines in 



Triennial Period 


Great Britain 


Germany 


United States 


1905-7 

1908-10 

1911-13 


Tons 
289 
265 
254 


Tons 
248 
239 
263 


Tons 
589 
591 
651 



During the war the British outputs have continued to fall at an 
alarming rate, until in 1918 they reached the low level of 232 tons per 
worker employed. In marked contrast to this, the American figures 
have continued to rise at an accelerated rate until in 1916 they reached 
732, and in 1917 the phenomenal record of 768, tons per worker em- 
ployed. The official figures for the total production of coal in American 
mines in respect of each year since 1913 are as follows: — 



Outputs of Coal in the United States during the Period 1913-17 

inclusive . 



Year 


Total Output 


Output per Worker 
employed at the Mines 


1913 
1914 
1916 
1916 
1917 


Million Tons 
508-9 
458-5 
474-6 
526-9 
581-7 


681 
601 
647 
732 
768 



It would thus appear that in the year 1917 the American output per 
worker employed was more than three times that realised in British 
mines. 

_ The following figures may be given, as showing how the wholesale 
prices of typical classes of American fuels have moved during the 
war: — 

1919. H 



102 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 



Average Wholesale Prices of Coal and Coke per Long Ton in the Urnted 
States for each Year since 1913. 







Semi-bitumin- 


Bituminous 






Stove Anthracite 


ous Pocahontas, 


Pittsburg, Run 


Connelsville 




at New York 


f.o.b. Norfolk, 
Va. 


of Mine, f.o.b. 
Cincinnati 


Coke 




•v. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


1914 


21 1 


12 6 


10 3 


8 5 


1915 


21 


11 10 


10 3 


8 4 


1916 


22 9 


15 6 


12 6 


15 2 


1917 


23 5 


22 8 


21 5 


38 6 


1918 


27 1 


18 8 


18 1 


28 



From an examination of the monthly returns it appears that, with 
the exception of those of anthracite, American wholesale coal and coke 
prices rose sharply during the latter half of 1916, and reached a maxi- 
mum about the middle of 1917. Thus Pocahontas reached a maximum 
of 29s. 2d. (f.o.b. Norfolk, Va.) in May-June 1917, and bituminous 
one of 28s. per ton (f.o.b. Cincinnati) at the same period. Connels- 
ville coke, which is that used in the Pittsburgh blast furnaces, touched 
a maximum of 57s. 2d. per ton in 1917. After that period prices fell 
'under control.' Thus Pocahontas fell to a minimum of 16s. 3d. in 
August-October 1917, since which time they have steadily risen until in 
April 1919 they were at 20s. bd. per ton. Bituminous fell to 14s. in 
September- October 1917, but have since risen to 18s. 8d. per ton (f.o.b. 
Cincinnati) in April 1919. Connelsville coke kept at 28s. for a period 
of fifteen months from October 1917 to December 19l8 (both inclusive), 
since which it has steadily declined, month by month, until in April 
1919 it stood at 18s. 2d. per ton. In the same month the price of 
Durham coke at the ovens was 33s. per ton -plus a subsidy (paid by the 
Government) of 5s. 7d. per ton. It thus appears that already American 
fuel prices have fallen to a level considerably below those ruling in this 
country, a circumstance which gives American 'manufacturers a great 
initial advantage over our own. 



Research on the Chemistry of Coal. 

Since the previous Eeport, Professor Bone has continued to direct 
the research work upon the Chemistry of Coal at the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology, London, which he originally undertook in 1916 
at the instance of the Committee. In conjunction with Mr. R. J. 
Sarjant he has recently published, in the ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, ' the results of a series of experiments upon the so-called solvent 
action of pyridine ujjon coal, to which Bedson first drew attention in 
the year 1899.^ Since that time it has been investigated by a number 
of other chemists as a possible means of discriminating between the chief 
types of constituents of the coal substance. Wheeler and his co-workers 
nave employed it extensively in their researches, claiming that if the 

3 Bedson, Journ. Soc. Ghent. Ind. 1908, p. 147. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 103 

portion of (he coal removed by pyridine be subsequently extracted with 
chloroform, a complete separation of the resinic from the cellulosic 
constituents may be effected.* On the other hand, the independent 
work of Harger^, WahP, Vignon ^, and others raised the question 
whether the action of pyridine, and other similar basic solvents, is really 
one of ordinary solution, and much of the evidence obtained by them 
suggested that it is chiefly a depolymerising one. Professor Bone's 
recent experiments support this latter view, and point to the conclusion 
that the action in question affects the coal substance as a whole, and is 
by no means confined to any one constituent of it. The action is 
retarded, in a degree which may vary considerably according to the 
character of the coal, by the presence either of water in the solvent or 
of oxygen in the atmosphere in which the extraction is earned out. In 
order to obtain comparable results with a series of different coals it is, 
therefore, necessary to operate with a carefully dried solvent, and in 
an atmosphere from which oxygen is excluded. Suitable means and 
apparatus have been devised for carrying out extractions under such 
precautions. It has also been shown that the action of pyridine at its 
boiling point (under atmospheric pressure) upon a particular coal 
approaches in time a practical limit which, however, may be consider- 
ably exceeded if the extraction is carried out at higher temperatures 
(e.g. in sealed tubes under pressure). Professor Bone and his co- 
workers have also devised a method for extracting in a pure condition 
the resinic constituents of coal, particulars of which will shortly be 
published. 

In connection with the Question of the organisation of systematic 
investigations upon the chemical characters of the principal British coal 
seams, this Committee desires to reiterate the opinion expressed in its 
First Report, namely ' that the resources, both of existinsr laboratories 
which have been established in this country for the special investigation 
of fuel problems, and of other laboratories where the technique of the 
subject has been developed, might be utilised more than they are in 
this connection, and that the time is ripe for the organisation of a scheme 
of systematic co-operative research aided by national funds in which all 
such laboratories may participate. ' 

The Committee regi'ets to say. however, that, notwitlistanding the 
establishment of the Fuel Eesearch Board, with large funds at its dis- 
posal, no attempt has apparently yet been made to organise any such 
comprehensive scheme as was recommended in 1916 ; and it wishes again 
to impress upon both the public and the Department of Scientific and 
Industrial Eesearch the danger of sterilising fuel research by a policy of 
over-centralisation. On the contrary, it is of the opinion that what is 
most needed is a broadlv-planned policv which will aim at stimulating 
and assisting experimental work on the chemistry of coal, fuel economy, 
and cognate su'bjects everywhere throughout the whole Kingdom. 

4 Dark & Wheeler, Trnn.i. Chew. Snr. 1913. 103, p. 1704. 
•5 TTarorpr. Journ. Soc. Chem. Tnd. 1914. t). 384. 

6 Wahl, Compt. Rend. 1912. I";*. r>. 1094. 

7 Vignon, Compt. Rend. 1914, 158, p. 1421. 

M 2 



104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Fuel Co7isumptions m the Iron and Steel and other Industries. 

During 1916 the Committee circulated a series of carefully drawn 
questions among selected representative iron and steel works in Cleve- 
land, Lincolnshire, Sheffield, and the Midlands generally, with a view 
to collecting reliable data concerning the then fuel consumptions in blast 
furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills. This information has since been 
analysed and embodied in a Report which, by arrangement with the 
Council of the Iron and Steel Institute, is to form the basis of a full 
day's discussion on the question of fuel economy at their forthcoming 
Autumn Meeting in London on 18th September next. It will subse- 
quently be published in extenso in their Journal, and thus be made 
available to the industry at an early date. On the same occasion also, 
a valuable Memorandum, written for the Committee by Mr. H. James 
Yates, on ' Fuel Economy in Cupola Practice ' will be presented and 
discussed. The Committee is thus actively co-operating with the Iron 
and Steel Institute in promoting fuel economy in iron and steel works. 

The Committee has also been in touch with the Federation of British 
Industries with regard to the setting up of an organisation for promoting 
fuel economy in industrial establishments generally, and for helping 
manufacturers by expert guidance on matters connected with the use 
of coal. The question was referred to a special Committee of the 
Federation, who reported to its Executive that it is in the province of 
the Federation to initiate a scheme, which it hopes shortly to do. 

Electric Pouter Supply. 

The Committee has had under consideration the recent Reports of 
various Government Committees upon the question of the reorgani- 
sation of Public Electric Power Supplies in Great Britain, which is now 
engaging the attention of Parliament. Whilst recognising the need of 
such reorganisation, and generally approving (a) of the proposed division 
of the country into areas in which the authorities dealing with the 
generation and main distribution of electricity shall be co-ordinated, 
and (b) of standardising in each of such areas the frequency and voltage 
of the main transmission and distribution system, the Committee desires 
to reserve any expressio'U of opinion as to the best means of carrying 
out the needed reform until the Electricity Commissioners have been 
appointed and their specific recommendations for the various areas have 
been published. 

Future Standards of Public Gas Supplies. 

The Committee has had under consideration the Report issued on 
29th January, 1919 (Parhamentary Paper, Cmd. 108) by the Fuel 
Research Board in reply to the inquiry of the Board of Trade as to 
' What is the most suitable composition and qualfty of gas and the 
minimum pressure at which it should be generally supplied, having 
regard to the desirability of economy in the use of coal, the adequate 
recovery of by-products, and the purposes for which gas is now used. ' 

Recognising that the said Report opened up important and far- 
reaching questions of public policy with regard to the manufacture and 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 105 

distribution of town's gas, the Executive, after receiving separate 
Memoranda on tlie subject from Professor Bone and Mr. E. V. Evans, 
referred the whole matter for detailed consideration to a Sub-Committee 
consisting of Sir Eobert Hadfield, Professor Bone, Dr. J. E. Stead, 
Messrs. A. H. Barker, E. Bury, E. V. Evans, D. H. ELelps, D. V. 
Hollingworth, A. Hutchinson, E. Mond, W. H. Patchell, and H. James 
Yates. 

This Sub-Committee having reported that it had arrived, by an 
eight to one majority, at the conclusions embodied in the following 
numbered paragraphs, they were formally adopted by the Committee 
as a whole, and ordered to be incorporated in the Eeport as the find- 
ings of the Committee on the subject. 

(1) The chief recommendations made by the Fuel Eesearch Board 
embody substantially the following propositions: — 

(a) That the consumer shall in future be charged according to the 

thermal units in the gas actually received by him, just as 
a consumer of electricity is charged for the Board of Trade 
units which have passed through his meter. 

(b) That, subject to a maximum limit of 12 per cent, of inert 

constituents, and of its undertaking to adjust consumers' 
lighting, heating, and cooking appliances so that the gas can 
be burnt in them with both safety and efficiency, the gas 
undertaking shall be at liberty to fix the calorific value of 
the gas it supplies to its customers, although in the common 
interests of producers and consumers it is suggested that 
burners shall be standardised for a limited number of calorific 
values of gas of which (it is suggested) four grades may be 
sufficient, namely, 400, 433, 466, and 500 B.Th.Us. per 
cubic foot. 

(c) That every supply district above a certain magnitude ought to 

be provided with one or more gas examiners and, if neces- 
sary, a staff of inspectors, whose whole time should be 
devoted to looking after the interests of gas consumers, and 
that the smaller supply centres should be grouped into 
districts for such purposes. 

(d) That, provided customers' appliances are properly adjusted to 

the grade of gas supplied, it may be tentatively accepted 
that the relative values of different grades of gas are strictly 
proportional to their calorific values. Thus, for example, 
' the relative values to the consumer of gases of 500 and 
400 B.Th.Us. could be taken as exactly in that ratio.' 

(e) That there shall be more complete removal of sulphur and 

cyanogen compounds from the gas. 
(/) That, under normal conditions of supply and equipment, there 
shall be a pressure of not less than two inches of water in 
the gas at the exit of the consumer's meter. 

(2) With regard to these recommendations, the Committee 
generally agrees that, provided (a) that simple and effective means or 
apparatus could be devised, and put in general operation, for determining 



lOG REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

the heat units actually received by each individual gas consumer 
tlu'oughout the Kingdom, and {h) that certain other conditions (herein- 
after set forth) were assured, it would be more equitable to charge the 
consumer on a basis of ' heat units ' than on one of ' cubic feet ' 
supplied. 

(3) The Committee also agrees generally with the Fuel Eesearch 
Board's recommendations as to (a) the maximum limit of 12 per cent, 
of inert constituents, and (5) the minimum pressure of two inches of 
water in the gas at the exit of the consumer's meter. 

(4) The Committee considers that it should be the aim of any national 
policy in regard to gas standards to ensure (a) to the consumer, and 
especially to the domestic consumer, a supply of gas suitable to his 
requn^ements at the lowest cost consistent v/ith reasonable safety, and 
[b) to the community at large, as great a recovery of valuable by-products 
in the carbonising process as is consistent with the production of a 
reasonably safe and usable gas. It certainly ought not to exclude the 
possibility of (a) distributing through the public mains surplus coke- 
oven gas or [b) securing, to a safe and reasonable degree, the advantages 
in regard to reduced costs of production accruing from the modern 
practice of steaming the incandescent coke produced by carbonising 
coal in vertical retorts on the continuous system. It by no means 
necessarily follows, however, that a gas undertaking ought tO' convert 
all its coke into water gas, as some of them apparently would like to do. 
It might conceivably be better policy to require gas undertakings, or 
at least some of them, to produce and supply the community with (a) a 
straight coal gas obtained simply by carbonising the coal, and (6) a 
free-burning coke, or semi-coke, fit for consumption in domestic grates. 

(5) From information supplied to the Committee it would appear 
that, with regard to the quality of the gas generally supplied to con- 
sumers in days immediately preceding the war, the following figures 
may be quoted for the average gross calorific values, per cubic foot 
at 60° Fahr. and 30 in. barometer, of the gas supplied during the year 
1913 in six of the largest cities of Great Britain : — 



'&"- 



620, 596, 593, 582, 580, and 540 B.Th.Us. 

Whilst it may be freely admitted that calorific value, although always 
an important one, is by no means the only factor to be considered in 
selecting a gaseous fuel for any particular purpose, the Committee is 
of the opinion that the proposal of the Fuel Research Board that in 
future gas undertakings may be allowed to supply, at their sole dis- 
cretion, gas of any calorific value between 400 and 500 B.Th.Us., ought 
to be very carefully scrutinised in all its bearings, especially as it involves 
a considerable dilution of the old ' coal gas ' by ' water gas,' with conse- 
quent much higher carbonic oxide and lower methane contents. Indeed 
the Fuel Research Boaixl holds that * the natural diluent for coal gas 
is water gas, made either from coke in a separate producer, or in retorts 
by steaming the hot coke. ' 

(6) The composition of the gas obtainable by carbonising British gas 
coals at high temperatures either in modern vertical retorts or coke 



2 to 3, 


5 to 10, 


2 to 4, 


25 to 35, 


Approx. 








Mean 25 


7-5 


30 


300 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 107 

ovens, without steaming the charge, usually varies between the following 
limits, approximately: — 

COa CO CnHm CH^ H^ Na 

45 to 55, 5 to 10 per cent. 

50-0 7-0 

The calorific value of a gas of the mean composition indicated would be 
about 560 gross and 495 net B.Th.Us. per cubic foot at 00° Fahr. and 
30 in. barometer. The con-esponding values for a ' debenzolised ' coke- 
oven gas, containing only 25 per cent, of methane, would be about 485 
gross and 425 net. And inasmuch as the thei-mal efficiency of such 
carbonisation processes is admittedly high,^ there would appear to be no 
particular reason, on the ground merely of thermal efficiency, for seek- 
ing to supersede the 1913 practice. The plea for the change is presum- 
ably based on the desire, on the part of gas undertakings, to convert a 
substantial part (or possibly the whole) of the coke into water gas, and 
thus to increase the gas-make per ton of coal at a corresponding 
sacrifice of the coke-yield. 

(7) Water gas may be generated from coke with a thermal efficiency 
of (up to) 70 per cent. ; it contains on an average: — 

CO2 CO H2 CH4 Na 

4-5 430 480 05 4-0 per cent. 

Its calorific values per cubic foot at G0° Fahr. and 30 in. barometer 
are approximately 300 B.Th.Us. gross, and 275 net, or rather more 
than half those of the ' straight ' coal gas already referred to. Its 
calorific intensity, however, is distinctly higher, but its range of 
inflammability with air considerably wider, than that of coal gas. Its 
high carbonic oxide content makes it a poisonous gas, and, owing to 
its high hydrogen and low methane contents, its mixtures with air are 
very liable to back-fire. For these reasons it is not a desirable gas for 
domestic uses unless largely diluted ; and any large admixture of it 
with coal gas in public supplies would undoubtedly add materially to 
the dangers of carbonic oxide poisoning and of gas explosions in houses. 
(S) With regard to the question of the dangers of carbonic oxide 
poisoning with a gas containing a, large proportion of water gas, it 
may be recalled that twenty years ago this was the subject of an official 
Inquiry by a Committee appointed by the Home Office, of which Dr. 
J. S. Haldane and the late Sir William Eamsay were members. They 
had laid before them detailed infonnation as to the Uses of Water Gas 
in the United States and its effect upon Human Health. In their 
Report (C. 9164 of 1899) they stated: — 

' The most direct, and in our opinion, the only effective method 
of preventing danger from water gas is to fix a limit which 
the carbonic oxide in a public and domestic gas supply 

" It has recently been shewn that the two Metropolitan Gas Companies in the year 
1013 actually sent out in the form of gas, coke, and tar, rather more than 70 per cent. 
of the potential energy of the coal carbonised, and that over-all efficiencies exceeding" 
82 per cent, have been attained in large-scale carbonising tests. 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

shall not, in ordinary circumstances, exceed. It is diffi- 
cult to assign a limit applicable to all circumstances. In 
some cases 12 per cent, of carbonic oxide in the gas 
supplied might be jD-roper, in others 16, or perhaps 20. 
. . . We are of opinion that with the present conditions 
of gas supply 20 per cent, is the highest proportion of 
carbonic oxide that should be allowed, and that this per- 
centage should be used only under special circumstances. 
. . . Our attention has been called by several witnesses 
to the very imperfect and unsatisfactory gas-fittings often 
used in the poorer class of houses in large towns, and the 
constant leakages which exist without any attempt to 
discover or rectify them. . .' 

Clearly then, the 1899 Committee, having in mind the nature of 
carbonic oxide poisoning and the faulty character of gas pipes and 
fittings in the poorer class of houses, considered that the carbonic 
oxide content of a public gas supply should in no circumstances be 
allowed to exceed 20 per cent., and only exceptionally 16 per cent. 
This Committee considers that even to-day a maximum limit of 20 per 
cent, of carbonic oxide ought not to be exceeded. It may be pointed out 
tha.t the Fuel Eesearch Board's recommendations would allow of a 
gas company distributing a 40 per cent, coal gas plus 60 per cent, 
water gas mixture containing between 27.5 and 30.0 per cent, of 
carbonic oxide. 

(9) The Committee is unable to agree with the Fuel Eesearch 
Board's apparent endorsement of the proposition that the relative 
values of different grades of gases are strictly proportional to their 
calorific values. On the contrary, they are of the opinion that the 
chemical composition of the gas is not a matter of indifference to the 
consumer, and that the cumulative results of forty years of scientific 
research on the subject prove that the fundamental properties of the 
explosive mixtures formed by different combustible gases with air. 
arising from their own peculiar chemical characters and modes of 
combustion, do affect profoundly their uses for power and heating 
purposes. 

(10) It appears to the Committee that, in pai'ticular, the Board's 
Eeport does not recognise sufficiently the importance of methane as 
a constituent of a public gas supply. Owing to the relatively narrow 
range of explosibility of its mixtures with air, and the low speeds at 
which flame is propagated through them, methane (in addition to the 
advantages of its high concentration of potential heat units) as a consti- 
tuent has an important ' steadying' influence upon coal gas, rendering 
it eminently us'able for domestic purposes. Hitherto the public 
has been accustomed to using a gas containing 30 per cent, or more 
of methane, and it is important that such proportions shall not 
be unduly diminished. Accordingly the Committee would urge the 
adoption of 20 per cent, as a minimum methane content in a public 
gas supply intended for domestic consumption. 

(11) If the Committee's proposals in the preceding paragraphs be 
adopted as safe and reasonable in the interests of domestic consumers, 



ON FUEL ECONOMY, 109 

the gas might be sold (as proposed by the Board) on a thermal basis, 
subject to the following provisos: — 

(a) that its methane content shall not be less than 20 per cent., 

its carbonic oxide content not more than 20 per cent., and 
its content of ' inerts ' not more than 12 per cent. ; 

(b) that its gross calorific value per cubic foot at 60° Fahr. and 

30 in. barometer shall not fall below 450 B.Th.Us- 

Within such limits a gas undertaking would be at liberty to supply for 
domestic use either (a) ' straight ' coal gas, (b) ' debenzolised ' coke- 
oven gas, or (c) a mixture of 100 parts of coal gas with (up to) 50 parts 
of blue water gas. Where, however, gas is supplied in bulk for 
industrial uses only, a relaxation in the above conditions might be 
permitted subject to agi'eement as regards cost between gas under- 
takings and the consumers. 

(12) In conclusion, the Committee hopes that scientific men 
generally will strongly support the important recommendation made in 
paragraph 53 of the Board's Eeport in regard to sulphur purification. 
The Board rightly urges ' the more complete removal not only of the 
sulphur compounds but also of the cyanogen compounds.' The 
important investigations carried out, from 1906 onwards, at the South 
Metropolitan Gas Works by Dr. Charles Carpenter, in conjunction with 
Messrs. E. V. Evans and Doig Gibb, resulting as they did in a process 
whereby the sulphur content of the gas sent out from these works 
has been reduced from 40 to about 8 grains per 100 cubio feet, con- 
stitute so notable an advance in the technology of gas purification that 
the time haiS surely come for legislative action in the direction of making 
such sulphur removal generally compulsory for all large gas under- 
takings. 

Mr. D. H. Helps, representing the Institution of Gas Engineers on 
the Committee, dissented from certain of the foregoing conclusions on 
the grounds that if in future the consumer is charged for gas accord- 
ing to the number of heat imits supplied to him in it, it will not be 
necessary to impose upon gas undertakings the restrictions in regard 
to inert constituents which the Committee has recommended. He was 
also opposed to the suggested limitation in regard to the carbonic oxide 
content, as well as to any re-imposition of the obligation upon gas 
undertakings to remove sulphur impurities other than sulphuretted 
hydrogen from the gas ; and in regard to the question of pressure he 
was of opinion that a minimum of li-inch water gauge would be 
found sufficient. 

During the discussions which took place upon the question of gas 
standards, the attention of the Committee was called to what is known 
as the ' stripping of coal gas,' by which is meant the extraction of 
benzenoid hydrocarbons from it. This process has been instituted as 
a war measure in view of the necessity for providing sufficient raw 
material for the manufacture of high explosives. 

It was pointed out to the Committee, however, that with gas selling 
at its present average price: it would probably be of greater financial 
advantage to the gas undertaking to allow the benzenoid hydrocarbons 



110 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1919. 

to remain in the gas if the sale of gas on the proposed new thermal 
basis is instituted. Though fully realising the present national 
shortage of motor s.pirit, the Committee felt that gas undertakings 
should be under no obligation to remove benzenoid hydi'ocarbons unless 
the selling price of motor spirit would justify their doing so on financial 
grounds. 

The Committee reco'mmends that it be reappointed to continue its 
investigations, with a grant of 25L 



RJiynie, Ahcrdeensliire.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. J. HoRNE {Chairman) , Dr. W. Mackie (Secretary), and 
Drs. J. S. Flett, W. T. Gordon, G. Hickling, 11 Kidston, 
B. N. Peach, and D. M. S. Watson, appointed to excavate 
Critical Sections in the Old Red Sandstone of Rhynie, Aber- 
deenshire. 

The plant-bearing cherts discovered by Dr. Mackie in the Old Eed 
Sandstone at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, when examined under the micro- 
scope, showed fragments of Crustacea in certain sections. Some of 
the sections were submitted to Dr. W. T. Caiman and Mr. D. I. 
Scourfield, who have furnished the following report. ' The animal 
remains are, for the most part, very fragmentary and confused, but 
they are in an excellent state of preservation, even the fine feathering 
on small setfe being, in some cases, easily recognisable. All the remains 
examined appear to be referable to the class Crustacea, and to have 
belonged to animals comparable in size to the Copepoda of the present 
day. The most complete portions hitherto found have been tails, 
consisting each of a number of seginents and ending in a furca. Both 
lateral and dorsal views Have been seen, and the general arrangement 
of tlie parts fairly well made out. Two distinct species appear to 'be 
represented, belonging either to a primitive group of the Copepoda or 
to very small Branchiopoda ( ? Anostraca). Fragments O'f appendages 
are numerous in nearly all the slides, but are extremely difficult to 
interpret. One slide, however, shows a series of about three pairs 
of biramous feet in their natural connections. They are remarkably 
similar to the swimming feet of Copepods of the genus Cyclops, except 
that the branches are unjointed instead of being composed of the usual 
three segments. A considerable number of detached mandibles have 
also been seen, all of them most closely comparable to those of the 
Branchiopoda. It is evident that these remains are of extraordinary 
interest, and, although little progress has been made towards reconstruct- 
ing any one of the several species that are represented in the material, 
enough has been done to show that, given a sufficient number of 
sections, the structure of the body and limbs could almost certainly 
be worked out, even if no entire specimens should be brought to light.' 
During 1918 Mr. D. Tait, H.M. Geological Survey, obtained addi- 



ON OLD RED^ SANDSTONE OF RHYNlE. Ill 

tional specimens of chert from the Rhynie outcrop, to be examined by 
Dr. Caiman and Mr. Scourfield. A grant from the Royal Society has 
been received to aid the investigation. 



Photograplis of Geological Interest. — 'Nineteenth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professors E. J. Garwood (Chair- 
man) and S. H. Ebynolds (Secretary), Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. 
T. G. BoNNEY, Messrs. C. V. Crook and W. Gray, Dr. E. 
KiDSTON, Mr. A. S. Eeid, Sir J. J. H. Tball,^ Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. E. Welch, and Mr. W. Whitaker. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Since the issue of the previous Report (Newcastle 1916) 205 photographs 
have been added to the collection, which now numbers 5,861. 

Although the Committee has lost no member since the issue of its 
last Report, it has sufiered an incalculable loss in the resignation of the 
Secretaryship by Professor Watts, who had held it since 1896. No one 
who has knowledge of the facts can doubt that the whole success of 
the Geological Photographs Committee has bei n due to his energy and 
business-like qualities. Fortunately Professor Watts is always ready to 
help and advise his successor. 

For the first time for many years the Committee is not in receipt of any 
photographs from its most generous contributor, Mr. Godfrey Bingley. 
Mr. Bingley's name figures in the first list of contributors (Leeds 1890) 
and in two only of the subsequent Reports does he not appear. The 
number of photographs presented by him is as many as 1,123. The 
Committee wish to condole with Mr. Bingley most sincerely as regards the 
eye trouble which has interfered with his work, and trust that it may 
pass away. 

Dorset is the county most fully reijresented in the present Report, 
sets having been contributed by the Secretary and by Mr. C. J. Watson. 
Mr. Watson, whose first photographs were received as early as 1892, sends 
a varied series, including examples from Cornwall, Derbyshire, Durham, 
the Isle of Wight, Monmouth, Nottingham, Stafford, Warwick, Worcester, 
Anglesey, Edinburgli, Antrim, and Kerry. The Secretary further 
contributes views from Cornwall, Cumberland, Gloucestershire, Lancashire, 
and Somerset. 

Another early contributor, Mr, Henry Preston, sends photographs 
from Dartmoor and Nottingham, and a considerable series from Lincoln. 
Mr. J. W. Tutcher's work is illustrated by a set from Somersetshire 
illustrating a paper by Mr. L. Richardson, and contributed by him. 

The Committee are very glad to welcome a new contributor in Dr. B. 
Pope Bartlett, who sends some photographs illustrative of the Cretaceous 
succession in the Mere and Shaftesbury districts, which are a model of 
what detailed stratigraphical photographs should be. Some characteristic 
views of the Burren, co. Clare, have been received fromCapt. J. A. Douglas, 
having been taken by him and by Mi-. B. R. Lloyd. 



112 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

P' Photographs of considerable value have been received through Mr. 
Whitaker from the executors of the late Mr. H. B. Woodward. They 
include photographs of Gotham Marble, and of a perhaps analogous rock 
from the Purbeck, the latter being from negatives by Professor Watts. 
They further include views from Norfolk, Herts (Sir J. J. H. Teall), and 
Kent (H. C. McNeill), and three from Skye by Messrs. G. P. Abraham, 
Valentine and Sons, Ltd., and G. W. Wilson. The Committee are much 
indebted to Dr. Alfred Harker for the full descriptions, with illustrative 
sketches, which he kindly provided for the Skye views. 

Mr. W. Whitaker sends a set of picture postcards, illustrating the geology 
of the neighbourhood of Brighton. Many excellent postcards of geological 
subjects are obtainable, and it is to be hoped that other contributors will 
follow Mr. Whitaker's example. 

Photographs bv Mr. J. G. Hamling, Miss B. Hendriks, Miss M. S. 
Johnston, Mr. J. H. Pledge, Miss H. D. Sharpe, Sir A. Strahan, Mr. G. W. 
Young and Mr. W. P. Young have also been received. To all contributors 
the Committee tender sincere thanks. 

The Committee hope that before the issue of the next Report the new 
series of geological photographs which has so long been promised will be 
published. Reissue of the former series is also under consideration. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed. 



NINETEENTH LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 
From September 1, 1916, to August 31, 1919. 

List of the geological photographs received and registered by the 
Secretary of the Committee since the publication of the last Report. 

Contributors are asked to affix the registered numbers, as given below, 
to their negatives, for convenience of future reference. Their own numbers 
are added in order to enable them to do so. Copies of photographs desired 
can, in most instances, be obtained from the photographer direct. The 
cost at which copies may be obtained depends on the size of the print and 
on local circumstances, over which the Committee have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any photograph 
included in this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications 
for permission to reproduce them, should be addressed to the photo- 
graphers direct. 

Copies of photographs should be sent, unmounted, to 

Professor S. H. Reynolds, 

The University, Bristol, 

accompanied by descriptions written on a form prepared for the purpose, 
copies of which may be obtained from him. 

The size of the photographs is indicated as follows : — 

L= Lantern size. 1/1 = Whole plate. 

1/4= Quarter-plate. 10/8 = 10 inches by 8. 

1/2= Half -plate. 12/10=12 inches by 10, &c. 

E signifies Enlargement. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



113 



ACCESSIONS 1916-1919. 

ENGLAND. 

Buckinghamshire.— ^P/io«o<7ra|)7te(^ hy J. H. Pledge, 115 Richmond Road, 

Dalston, N.E. 1/4. 
Regd. 

No. 
5640 { ) Bugle Pit, nr. Aylesbury . Contemporaneous erosion in Purbecks, 

about 1900. 

Cornwall. — Photographed by Miss E. Hendriks, 405 Hagley Road, 
Edxjbaston, Birmingham. 1/4. 



5641 ( ) Gunwalloe, nr. Helston 

5642 ( ) „ 

5643 ( ) „ 

5644 ( ) „ 



Manaecan Beds (Devonian). 1913. 
Contorted Manaccan Beds. 1913. 



Photographed hy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5645 (U-15) Delabole . . . Slate Works. 1914. 

5646 (li-U) „ . . . „ „ 

5647 (14-35) Cataclews, Trevose . . Sills of Minverite in Slate. 1914. 

5648 U4-34) Dinas Head, Trevose . Spherulitic Adinole. 1914. 

5649 {14-22) Church Hill Quarry, Port Pillow Lava. 1914. 

Isaac. 
6650 (14-21) Church Hill Quarry, Port 
Isaac. 

5651 (14-24) Pentire Head . . „ „ 

5652 (14-23) „ „ . . 

5653 (14-25) „ „ . . „ „ 

5654 (14-5) Brown Willy from Rough Granite country. 1914. 

Tor. 

5655 (14-8) Rough Tor 

5656 (14-6) „" 

5657 (14-9) „ 
6658 (14-10) „ 

5659 (14-11) „ 

5660 (14-12) .. 

5661 (14-13) „ 

5662 (14-40) Lantern Pit, St. Austell 

5663 (14-38) 

5664 (14-39) 

5665 (14-42) 

5666 (14-41) 

5667 (14-43) Roche Rock 



Weathering of Granite. 1914. 



Schorl Veins in China Clay. 1914. 
China-clay Working. 1914. 
Big Schorl-rock Vein. 1914. 
Settling Tanks. 1914. 

'» 19 yf 

Mass of Schorl-rock. 1914. 



Photographed by C. J. "Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's Green, 

Birmingham. 1/4. 



5668 (2174) Trewavas 



. The Bishop rock, Weathered Granite. 
1910. 

Cumberland. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5669 (74-13) Napes Rocks, Great Gable 1913. 

5670 (71-13) West of Styhead Tarn . Fine bedded Tuffs. 1913. 

5671 (70-13) Styhead Tarn. . . Silting up of Tarn. 1913. 

5672 (69-13) South of Rossthwaite . Boulder Clay on Glaciated surface. 1913. 



114 REPORT ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Derbyshire. — Photoyraphed hy C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 

Green, Birmingham. 1/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

5673 (2194) Dsrwent Reservoir . . Contorted Yorcdalc Grit. 1310. 

Devon. — Photographed hij Miss M. S. JoknstoN; Hazlewood, Wimbledon, 
presented hy the executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/4. 

5674 ( ) Pinhay Bay, Lyme Regis . Junction of M'liite .'ind Blue Lias. 100(i. 

Photographed hy G. W. Younh, F.G.S., 20 Grange Road, Barnes, S.W. 

1/4. 

5675 ( ) Between Corabpyne and ' Cloud bur.st ' efiect. 1903. 

Lyme Regis. 

Photograjyhed hy , presented hy the executors of the late 

H. B. Woodward. 1/2. 

5676 ( ) Petitor Bay, Torquay . . Clift' of Permian breccia. 1900. 

Photographed by Henry Preston, Waterworks, Grantham, presented 
hy the executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/4. 

5677 ( ) Hound Tor, Dartmoor . Weathering of Granite, 

Photographed hy J. G. Hamling, F.G.S., The Close, Barnstaple. 1/2. 

5678 ( ) Highdown Quarry, Codden Chert Beds in Culm. 

Hill. 

Dorset. — Photographed hy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5679 (1'17) Broad Bench, Kimeridge Limestone band in Kimeridge Clay. 

Bay. 1917. 

5680 iflV) Gad Cliff from W. . . Portlandian Section. 1917. 

5681 W'I7) ,, ,, ,, S, • • 39 ,, 5) 

5682 (7-17) „ „ „ „ . 

5683 (10-17) Gad Cliff from Worberrow Portland Stone and L. Purbeck. 1917. 

Tout. 

5684 (0-17) Gad Cliff from Worberrow ,, ,, „ ,, „ 

Tout. 

5685 (12-17) Worberrow Bay, E. end . Wealden Section. 1917. 

5686 (5-18) Worberrow Bay . . Cretaceous Section. 1918. 

5687 (2-18) Arishmell Gap and Flower's Chalk Cliffs and sub-chalk section. 1918. 

Barrows. 

5688 (9-18) Mewp Bay . . . Lignite in Wealden. 1918. 

5689 (10-18) „ ,, ... Unio Bed, Upper Purbeck. 1918. 
6690 (4-18) ,, ,, ... Wealden Section. 1918. 

5691 (7-18) Mewp Rocks from Bindon Sea Stacks of Up. Portland and Low. 

Hill. Purbeck. 1918. 

5692 (11-18) Mewp Rocks . . . Sea Stacks of Portland Stone capped by 

Low. Purbeck. 1918. 

5693 (18-17) ,, „ . . . Sea Stacks of Portland Stone capped by 

Low. Purbeck. 1917. 

5694 (19-17) „ „ . . . Lower Purbeck Section. 1917. 

5695 (20-17) „ „ . . . 

5696 (11-18) Largest Mewp Rock . Broken Beds in Cypris Free.stone. 1918. 

5697 (8-18) Bacon Hole, Mewp Bay . Section Middle and Upper Purbecks. 

1918. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 115 

Regd. 

No. 

5698 (I7(rt)l 8) Bacon Hole, Mewp Bay, Purbeck Section. 1918. 

and Worberrow. 

5699 (17-18) Bacon Hole, Mewp Bay . Middle and Lower Purbeck Section. 

1918. 

5700 (19-18) Smuggler's Cave, Bacon Lower Purbeck Section. 1918. 

Hole, Mewp Bay. 

5701 (23-18) Bacon Hole, Mewp Bay . Cherty Freshwater Bed. 1918. 

5702 (20-18) „ . „ „ „ . i'old "in Cypris Freestone. 1918. 

5703 (30-17) Fossil Forest, Lulworth . General View. 1917. 

5704 (3.2-17) „ „ „ . Tufaceous Deposit round tree stumps. 

1917. 

5705 (31-17) „ „ „ . Tufaceous Deposit round tree stumps. 

1917. 

5706 (23-17) ,, ,, „ . Tufaceous Deposit round tree stumps. 

1917. 

5707 (24-18) „ „ „. . Caps and associated beds. 1918. 

5708 (28-17) „ „ „ . „ „ „ „ 1917. 

5709 (2218) „ „ „ . Dirt Bed and Caps. 1918. 

5710 (28-18) „ „ „ . „ „ overlying Soft Cap. 1918. 

5711 (25-18) „ „ „ . „ „ „ I ,, ,/ „ 

5712 (29-17) „ „ „ . „ „ „ „ ,; ;; ign. 

5713 (2417) „ „ „ . Broken Beds. 1917. 

5714 (27-17) ., ., ., . „ „ ,, 

5715 (2.5-1/) ,, ,, ,, . Broken and associated beds. 1917. 

5716 i26-18) Lulworth Cove . . Wealden. Section. 1918. 

5717 (29-18) E. .side Durdle Door pro- Wealden and Purbeck Section. 1918. 

montory, I,ulworth. 

5718 (30-18) Man of War Cove, Lul- Crushed Flints. 1918. 

worth. 

5719 (42-17) Man of War Cove, Lul- The Man of War from Durdle Door. 

worth. 1917. 

5720 (44-17) Duidle Door, Lulworth Western Termination of the Portland 

and Bull Rock. ' Screen.' 1917. 

5721 (47-17) W. side of Durdle Door Purbeck and Cretaceous Section. 1917. 

promontory, Lulworth. 

5722 (48-17) Chalk Cliffs, W. of Durdle Thrust plane traversing Chalk. 1917. 

Door, Lulworth. 

5723 (49-17) W. of Durdle Door, Lul- Sea Caves worn along Thrust plane. 

worth. 1917. 

5724 (40-17) Durdle Door, Lulworth . Vertical Chert Beds of Upper Greensand 

and Chloritio Marl. 1917. 

5725 (31-18) ,, ,, „ . Ei-oqyra conica in Upper Greensand. 

1918. 

5726 (32-18) White Nothe . . . Upper Greensand Section. 1918 

5727 (33-18) „ „ . . . ,, 

5728 (39-18) Undercliff below White Weathering out of Chert in Upper 

Nothe. Greensand. 1918. 

5729 (37-18) Undercliff below White Weathering out of Chert in Upper 

Nothe. Greensand. 1918. 

5730 (38-18) Undercliff below White Weathering out of Chert in Upper 

Nothe. <:ireensand. 1918. 

5731 (36-18) Shore below White Nothe Top of Upper Greensand and base of 

Chalk. 1918. 

Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock' s Green, 
Birmingham. 1/2 and 1/4. 

6732 (983) Lulworth Cove, E. side . Purbeck Section. 1893 

5733 (985) „ „ W. side . 

5734 (986) Stair Cove, Lulworth . Contorted Middle Purbecks. 1893. 

5735 (988) „ „ „ . Breach in the ' Screen.' 1893. 



116 REPORT ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Photographed by Sir A. Strahan, Director, H.M. Geological Survey, 
28 Jermyn Street, London, "W., presented by the executors of the late 
H. B. WOODWAED. 1/4. 

No. 

5736 ( ) Stair Cove, Luhvortli . . Contorted Middle Purbecks. 

5737 ( ) Winspit Quarry, Isle of Pur- Lower Purbeck on Portland Stone. 

beck. 

Photographed by Professor W. W. Watts, F.R.S., Imperial College 

of Science, S. Kensington, S.W., presented by the executors of the late 

H. B. Woodward. 1/4. 

5738 ( ) Durlston Head, Swanage . Lower Purbeck Limestone with Cotham 

Marble structure. 

5739 ( ) Durlston Bay, Swanage . IMammillated surface of Lower Purbeck 

Limestone. Prior to 1895. 

Photographed by W. P. Young, presented by the executcns of the late 
H. B. Woodward. 1/4. 

5740 ( ) Black Veu, nr. Lj'me Regis Lower Lias capped by Selbornian. 1906. 

Photographed by Dr. B. Pope Bartlett, Bourton, Dorset. 1/2 and 1/4. 

5741 ( ) Melbury Hill, Shaftesbury . Junction of Lower Chalk and Upper 

Greensand. 1915. 

5742 { ) „ „ .) • Junction of Lower Chalk and Upper 

Greensand. 1915. 

5743 ( ) Cann Common, Shaftesbury Passage Beds between Cenomanian and 

Selbornian. 1915. 

Durham. — Photographed by 0. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acoclcs 
Green, Birmingham. 1/2 and 1/4. 

5744 (110) Marsden rock, Sunderland . Marine erosion of Magnesian Limestone. 

1889. 

5745 (104) Marsden .... Marine erosion of Magnesian Limestone. 

1889. 

5746 (2473) Sunderland . . . Concretionary Magnesian Limestone. 

1912. 

5747 (2474) „ ... Concretionary Magnesian Limestone. 

1912. 

Gloucester. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D.,\ 

The University, Bristol. 1/2. 

5748 (43-18) Southmead bathing-pool Caninia-ooMtc and overlying dolomite. 

Quarry. 1918. 

5749 (42-18) Southmead bathing-pool On left iammosa-dolomite, on right 

Quarry. Ca?w«/a-oolite and dolomite. 1918. 

5750 (45-18) Southmead bathing-pool ' Sub-oolite bed ' (top of Laminosa- 

Quarry. dolomite). 

Photographed under the direction of W. H. Wickes ; presented by the 
executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/2. 

5751 ( ) Redland, Bristol . . Bouble Cotham Marble. 1906. 

Photographed by ; presented by the executors of the late 

H. B. Woodward. 1/2. 

5752 ( ) Near Bristol . . . Abnormal Cotham Marble. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 117 

Hants. (I. of Wight). — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Boitville 
Road, Acock's Green, Birmingham. ]/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

5753 (2434) The Needles . . . Chalk Sea-stacks. 1911. 

5754 (2435) „ „ . . . „ 

5755 (2439) Freshwater . . . Sea-worn arch in clialk. 1911. 

5756 (2141) „ ... Sea-cave in chalk. 1911. 

Herts. — Photographed by Sir J. J. H. Teall, 174 Rosendale Road, 

West Duhvich, S.E. 21, presented by the executors of the late 

H. B. Woodward. 

5757 ( ) Reed, 2 miles S. of Royston Disturbed chalk. 

OTOO \ / J, )> ,» ,, ,9 99 



Kent. — Photographed by H. C. McNeill, Juniwari Mine, Ramteh P.O., 
Nagpur, India. 1/2. Presented by the executors of the late 
H. B. Woodward. 

5759 ( ) Chiselluirst . . . . Thanet Sand, overlying Chalk with 

old working. 

5760 ( ) Crayford .... Junction of Thanet Sands and Chalk. 

Lancashire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5761 (1"16) Hampsfell, Grange-over- Grikes in Carboru'ferous Limestone. 

Sands. 1916. 

5762 (2-16) Hampsfell, Grange-over- Grikes in Carboniferous Limestone. 

Sands. 1916. 

5763 (4"16) Hampsfell, Grange-over- Grikes in Carboniferous Limestone. 

Sands. 1916. 

5764 (5-16) Hampsfell, Grange-over- Grikes in Carboniferous Limestone. 

Sands. 1916. 



Lincoln. — Photographed by Henry Preston, The Waterworks, Grantham. 

1/2 and 1/4. 

5765 (1031) Handley's Pit, Lincoln . Middle Lias. 1905. 

5766 (1030) Lincoln .... Ironstone quarry in Northampton Sands. 

1905. 

5767 (1025) Little Ponton, Grantham . Plateau Gravel Pit. 1905. 

5768 (57) Great Ponton . . . Lincolnshire Limestone. 1893. 

5769 (1090) VVelsford . . . Upper Estuarine Beds on Lincolnshire 

Limestone. 1905. 

5770 (492) Old railway, Little Byt ham Cornbrash. 1900. 

5771 (502) Midland Railway cutting, Great Oolite Limestone. 1900. 

Little Bytham. 

5772 (1369) Leadenham . . . Ironstone in Northampton Sands. 

5773 (1367) „ . . . „ 

5774 (1368) ,, ... Undulating Iron.stone in Northampton 

Sands. 'l900. 
5776 (1382) Drake Stone.?, Anwick . Boulders probablv of Spilsby Sandstone. 

1912. 
5776 (1381) Anwick .... Glaciated end of large Drake Stone. 

1912. 



1919. 



N 



118 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Monmouth. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, 
Acock's Green, Birmingham. 1/2. 
Regd. 
No. 

5777 (1138) Lancaut bend of the Wye, Incised meander. 

near Chepstow. 

5778 (1136) Near Chepstow Anticline in Carboniferous Limestone. 

Norfolk. — Photographed bij H. Preston, The Waterworks, Grantham, 
presented by the executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/4. 

5779 { ) Thorpe Pit, Norwich . . Norwich Crag Series. 

Photographed under the direction of the late H. B. Woodward, and 
presented by his executors. 1/2. 

5780 ( ) Near Norwich and N. of Flints with appearance of working. 

Lowestoft. 

Notts. — Photographed by H. Preston, The Waterworks. Grantham. 

1/2. 

5781 ( ) Hemlock Stone, Bramcote . Stack of current-bedded Bunter cemented 

by barytes. 

5782 (),,,, ,, . Stackof current-bedded Bunter cemented 

by barytes. 

Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's Green, 

Birmingham. 1/4 

5783 (1065) Hemlock Stone, Bramcote Stack of current-bedded Bunter cemented 

by barytes. 

Somerset — Photographed by ? presented by the executors of the late 
H. B. Woodward. 1/2. 

5784 ( ) Chilcompton railway cutting Lower Lias and Hhaetic folded into a 

syncline and faulted against Dolo- 
mitic Conglomerate. 

Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. 1/2. 

5785 (70-18) Quarry 3, left bank of CaMirwa-dolomites and shales [C^ resting 

Avon, Clifton. on Canima-ooUtes [C^]. 1918. 

Photographed by J. W. Tutcher, 57 Berkeley Road., Bishopston, Bristol, 
presented by L. Richardson, F.R.S.E. 1/2. 

5786 ( ) Sunnyhill Quarry, Cole, nr. Inferior Oolite — Doulting Stone to Dis- 

Bruton. cites-heds. 1914. 

5787 \ ) Strutter's Hill, nr. Cole . Inferior Oolite — Astarie obliqua-hed to 

Dumortierice-heds. 1914. 

5788 ( ) Mill Pitch, nr. Cole . . Inferior Oolite — Garantiana-beds. 1914. 

5789 ( ) Limekiln Quarry, Hadspen, Inferior Oolite — Garantiana-beds and 

nr. Castle Carey. Hadspen Stone. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 119 

Stafford. — Photographed by G. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock' s 
Green, Birmingham. 1/4 and 1/2. 
Regd. 
No. 

5790 (1182) Kinver .... Inliabited houses in Bunter Sandstone. 

1894. 

5791 (1087) Holy Austin Rock, Kinver. Inhabited houses in Bunter Sandstone. 

18M. 

5792 (596) Tipton .... Open Coal Worldngs. 1891. 

5793 (9321 Cox's Rough Quarry, Columnar Dolerite. 1898. 

Rowley. 

Sussex. — Photographed by A. W. W., presented by W. Whitaker. 

Postcard. 

5794 ( ) Black Rock, Brighton . Recession of coast bj' fall of cliff-drift 

overlying Chalk. 

5795 ( ) Devil's Dyke, nr. Brighton . Dry Valley in Chalk. 

5796 ( ) Poynings from the Devil's Chalk Escarpment of South Downs. 

Dyke. 

Photographed by H. Preston, The Waterworks, Grantham. 1/4. 

5797 ( ) South Downs, nr. Eastbourne Mass of ferruginous sandstone. 

5798 ( ) Beachy Head . . . Weathered surface of Melbourn Rock. 

1898. 

Photographed by Professor W. W. Watts, F.R.S., Imperial College 
of Science, S. Kensington ; presented by the executors of the late 

H. B. Woodward. 

5799 ( ) Near Battle . . . ' Cutlet Bed ' from Purbeck, before 1895. 

Warwick. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 
Green, Birmingham. 1/4 

5800 (2522) Icknield St., Birmingham . Boulder clay with Erratic. 1913. 

5801 (2533) 

5802 (812) Wilmcote . . . Lias shale and limestone. 1893. 

Wilts. — Photographed by Dr. B. Pope Bartlett, Bourton, Dorset. 1/2. 

5803 ( ) Dead Maid Quarry, Mere . Junction of Cenomanian and Selbornian 

(general). 1915. 

5804 ( ) „ ,. „ • Junction of Cenomanian and Selbornian 

(detail). 1915. 

5805 ( ) Norton Ferris, Kilmington . Junction of Cenomanian and Selbornian. 

1915. 

Worcester. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 

Green, Birmingham. 1/4. 

5806 (295F) Cotteridge Park, Bir- Erratics. 1911. 

mingham. 

WALES. 

Anql^s^y.— Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 
Green, Birmingham. 1/2. 

5807 (730) South Stack, nr. Holyhead Marine erosion of Precambrian Schists. 

1892. 
6808 (729) „ „ Contorted Precambrian Schists. 1892. 

N 2 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Carnarvon. — Photographed by Miss E. Hendriks, 405 Hagley Road, 
Edghaston, Birmingham. 1/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

5809 ( ) Merllyn, Criccieth . . ' Boulders ' of Boulder Clay. 

Photographed by ? presented by executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 

1/2. 

5810 ( ) Tremadoc .... Dolerite Sill. 

Glamorgan. — Photographed by 1 presented by the executors of the late 
H. B. Woodward. 1/1. 

5811 ( ) Southerndown CliiTs, E. part Lower Lias limestone and shale. 

5812 ( ) Soutlierndovvn Cliffy, nr. Lower Lias (Sutton Stone) unconformable 

Bridgend. on Carbonifcroiis Limestone. 

Merioneth. — Photographed by Miss H. D. Sharpe, presented by the 
executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/4. 

5813 ( ) Near Harlech . . . Peat cutting. 

5814 ( ) Near Bala Junction . . Meanders of River Dee. 

Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, AcocJc's Green, 

Birmingham. 1/4. 



5815 (1159) Llanbedr 

5816 (244F) Pant Einion, nr. Bar 

mouth .Junction 

5817 (24.50) Svlfacn, Barmouth . 

5818 (2446) " „ „ - 

5819 ^266'') Barmouth 

5820 ^846) 



5821 (1398) Llanaber 

5822 (2462) Barmouth 

5823 (781 ) Cader Idris, upper part 



Erratics on glaciated surface. 1894. 
Boulder clay on Vertical Cambrians. 

191.5. 
The ' Sword Stones.' 1912. 



Glacial Grooves. 

Entrance to Manganese Mine in Cam- 
brian. 1894. 
Submersed forest. 1897. 
Sand ripples. 1912. 
Ordovician Igneous rocks, intrusive and 
contemporaneous. 1893. 
5824 (782) Cader Idris and Llyn-y- Arenig and Llandeilo volcanic rocks and 
G.ider. intrusive sills. 1893. 



SCOTLAND. 

Edinburgh. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, AcocFs 

Green, Birmingham. 1/2. 

5825 (765) Salislnir}' Crags, Arthur's Dolerite on Carboniferous Sandstone. 

Seat. 1892. 

5826 (762) Salisburv Crags, Arthur's Dolerite on Carboniferous Sandstone. 

Seat. ' 1892. 

5827 (760) Sampsou's ribs, Arthur's Columnar dolerite. 1892. 

Seat. 

5828 (701) Arthur's Seat, Edinburgh. . Volcanic agglomerate. 1892. 

Inverness. — Photographed by Valentine & Sons, Ltd., Dundee, 
presented by the executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/1. 

5829 ( ) Ben-na-Cailleagh, Broadford, Granite mountains, Lias in foreground. 

Skye. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS 0*F GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 121 

Photographed by G. P. Abraham, Ltd., Kesu-ick, j)rese»ted by the 
executors of the late H. B. Woodward. 1/2. 
Re<;(l. 
No. 

5830 { ) Cnillin's from Bruach-na- Gabbro scenery. 

Frithe, ,Skye. 

Photographed by G. W. Wilson, Aberdeen, ^wesented by the executors of 
the late H. B. Woodward, 8x5j. 

5831 ( ) Blaven rantje from Torran . CJabbro mountains, Cambrian limestone 

in foretrround. 

IRELAND. 

Antrim. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 
Green, Birmingham. 1/2 and 1/4. 

5835 (643) Giant's Ca\isewav . . The ' Giant's loom,' columnar basalt. 

1892. 

5836 (642) „ „ . • The ' fan,' columnar basalt. 1892. 

5837 (645) Giant's Causeway ; the Basalt columnar and non-columnar. 

' Spanish organ and chimneys.' 1892. 

5838 (2269) Cave Hill, Belfast . . Dolerite dyke penetrating chalk and 

basalt. 1911. 

5839 (2253) Ballvpalidy . . . Basalt columnar and non-columnar. 

1911. 

5840 (2234) Larne 'mad man's windcw' Natural arch in chalk. 

Clare. — Photographed by Capt. J. A. Douglas, M.A., F.G.S., 

University Museum, Oxford. 1/4. 

5841 ( ) Glencolombkille . . . Edge of Burren plateau ;reprod. Q.J. G.S., 

LXV. (1909) p. 546. 

5842 ( ) Burren .... Terrace in the limestone e.scarpment ; 

reprod. Q.J.G.S. LXV. (1909) p. 546. 

Photographed by E. R. Lloyd. 

5843 ( ) Ballvveghan . . . Natural limestone amphitheatre; reprod. 

Q.J.G.S. LXV. (1909) p. 546. 

Kerry. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 
Green, Birmingham. 1/2. 

5844 (699) Glengariff . . . Glaciated rock. 

Jersey. — Photographed by C. J. Watson, 14 Bottville Road, Acock's 
Green, Birmingham. 1/4. 

5845 (1429) St. Ilelier . . . Dyke in granite. 



For Report of the Committee on Stress Distribution in Engineering 

Materials, see page 465. 



122 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Report of the Com- 
mittee consisting of Professor E. B. Poulton {Chairman), 
Dr. F. A. Bather {Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. 
W. Evans Hoylb, and Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 
Since the last published report, the attention of a few societies has 
been drawn to their custom of issuing authors' reprints without the 
required bibliographic details. 

So far as work germane to tliis Committee is concerned, the 
activities of its secretarj^ have mainly consisted in service on two com- 
mittees, appointed respectively by the Conjoint Board of Scientific 
Societies and by the Council of the Eoyal Society to report on the 
futm'e of scientific bibliography. 

In Science for July 5, 1918, there appeared a set of rules adopted 
by the Entomological Society of Washington to govern publication in 
its Proceedings. Some of these are essentially the same as those 
already issued as suggestions by the Committee. Others, which seem to 
us worthy of general adoption, are the following: — 

Eule 1. — No description of a new genus, or subgenus, will be pub- 
lished unless there is cited as genotype a species which is established in 
accordance with the current practice of zoological nomenclature. 

Eule 2. — In all cases a new genus, or subgenus, must be charac- 
terised, and, if it is based on an undescribed species, the two must be 
characterised separately. 

Eule 3. — No description of a species subspecies, variety, or form 
will be published unless it is accompanied by a statement which includes 
the following information, where known : (1) the type-locality ; (2) of 
what the type material consists — with statement of sex, full data on 
localities, dates, collectors, etc. ; and (3) present location of type 
material. 

Eule 5. — The ordinal (or class) position of the group treated in any 
paper must be clearly given in the title or in parentheses following 
the title. 

Suggestion 3. — In discussion of type-material modern terms indi- 
cating its precise nature will be found useful. Examples of these 
terms are : type [or holotype] , allotype, paratype, cotype [or syntype] , 
lectotype, neotype, etc. 

Suggestion 4. — In all cases in the serial treatment of genera or 
species, and where first used in general articles, the authority for the 
species, or genus, should be given; and the name of the authority 
should not be abbreviated. 

Suggestion 6. — When a species discussed has been determined by 
some one other than the author, it is important that reference be made 
to the worker making the identification. 

We would also add, as a Eule, That when a new genus, sub-genus, 
species, or variety is introduced, it should be accompanied by a dis- 
tinct statement that it is new, e.g. by the addition of 'n.sp.,' etc. 
Also that a species, etc., should not be described as new when it has 
been introduced in a previous publication. 

Your Committee asks for reappointment, with a grant of £10 to 
defray the expense of circulating these and its previous suggestions 
among editors of zoological and cognate publicntions. 



ON ARCH^O LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 123 

Archceological Investigations in Malta. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. L. Myres (Chairman) , 
Dr. T. AsHBY {Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C 
Haddon, and Dr. E. E. Maeett. 

This year's work has consisted of excavations at Ghar Dalam, 
commenced in the summer of 1918, and still in progress. 
The grant of lOL was spent in the exploration of that part of the cave 
floor separating the Trench described in the Report of the British 
Association of 1916, and Trench No. II, described in the Eeport pub- 
Hshed in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of 1917. 

The layers in this part did not, of course, differ much from those 
described in the above-mentioned reports. Potsherds occun-ed in 
equal quantity, and belonged to various epochs, some being of a very 
fine pattern, a few implements were also met with, and animal bones 
were, as usual, found in great profusion. The most important fact, 
however, in tliis part of the cave floor is the occurrence of some 
human remains at a lower level than that in which the Neanderthaloid 
molars were found in 1917. This particular grant was exhausted by 
September 4, but the work continued, and was carried on for the 
greater part of the year, with only an interruption of about three months, 
the average number of men employed being six. 

This work consisted in the digging of three trenches, which will 
be fully described in a report when the work is complete, and this will 
probably be in about two months more. 

Trench I extends from the outer wall of Trench No. II of 1917 to 
an old inibble wall towards the entrance. It is about 30 feet long, having 
an average width of 2-5 feet. In this trench potsherds were found 
in profusion and belonged to various epochs. Animal bones were also 
found in the greatest abundance, and evidence of man's work has been 
traced to a rather low level. 

Trench II is still nearer to the entrance of the cavern, extending 
from the above-mentioned rubble wall to Trench No. I of 1917. In 
both length and width this trench is practically equal to Trench I. 
As a considerable difference has been observed in the layers at various 
parts, two columns of material, about four feet in diameter, have been 
left standing for future reference, which, together with that part of 
the cave floor which has been left dividing the present trenches, will 
preserve for the cave an interest even when it is totally explored. In 
Trench II potsherds were not so common as in Trench I, but animal 
remains were found in equal abundance. Amongst the important finds 
in this trench are several specimens and many fragments of a marine 
shell belonging to a species which is at present very rare in Maltese 
waters, not to say extinct. 

Trench III is s<:ill being excavated. It is situated further inside of 
Trench I, and is about 18 or 20 feet in length, and lesser in width than 
Trenches I and II. Here are to be seen some groups of stalagmites of 
various sizes, one of them being nearly equal to that described in my 
report of 1916. A coating of stalagmitic formation has preserved in 
this trench many of the animal remains in their anatomical position. 



124 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

The state of the bones varied considerably in the various parts of 
the area excavated, some being very well presei^ed, others, however, 
could not be subjected to the slightest handling. Some of the smaller 
bones, especially, have already been sent to the British Museum', where 
they await determination. In none of the three trenches has the bottom 
of the cavern been reached, but in No. I and No. II we have come to a 
conglomerate oi bones, consisting chiefly of teeth, which is very hard 
to dig, but which it is hoped to work when the digging up of Trench III 
is complete. 



Experimental Studies in the FJiysiologij of Heredity. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. F. F. Blackman (Chair- 
man), Professors Batbson and Keeble, wnd Miss E. E. 
Saunders. 

During the past year the investigation carried on by Miss Saunders 
on the inheritance of surface characters in Matlhiola has yielded the 
further evidence which was needed in order to render clear the factorial 
relations underlying the results obtained. These results show that 
Matthiola iyicana type and its well-known glabrous variety are not the 
isolated forms which they appear to be, but represent the end turns 
of a series, the intermediate members of which are characterised by 
a gradual increase in degree of hairiness in the course of development, 
so that the range in one grade overlaps that of the next in the series, 
in strong contrast with the constant, vniform appearance exhibited 
by the type and the wholly glabrous form. The range limits and the 
gejietic behaviour of the several grades have now been determined, 
the appearance in one at least of the lower grades when hair develop- 
ment is almost at vanishing point being such as to suggest that we 
have in this case reached limiting physiological conditions. 

It is proposed to continue the work on Matthiola and also certain 
experiments already in progress on other genera. The expensiveness 
of this work has much increased, and from last year's grant of 15L 
they were unable to provide skilled labour. The Committee hope that 
it may now be found possible to^ increase the grant to iOl., which sum 
falls a long way below the cost of the work. 



Australian Fossil Plants. — Final Report of the Committee consist- 
ing of Professor W. H. Lang (Chairman) , Professor T. G. B. 
OsBORN (Secretary), Professors T. W. Edgeworth David 
and A. C. Seward, appointed to cut sections of Australian 
Fossil Plants, tcith especial reference to a specimen of 
Zygopteris from Simpson's Station, Barraha, New South 
Wales. 

The Committee reports that the whole of the block of Zygopteris stem 
from Barraba has been sectioned after sfecuring accurate casts of the 



ON AUSTRALIAN FOSSIL PLANTS. 125 

specimen. All the slides have safely arrived in Australia, and are in 
Mrs. Osborn's hands. The work of description is proceeding, but final 
results cannot be published until her retui^n to England, it is hoped in 
1920, owing to lack of essential literature in Australia. There is no 
immediate prospect that a committee operating from Adelaide will 
be able to secure further petrified material ; hence the Committee 
feel that, the terms of appointment being fulfilled, its work is finished. 



i 



Australian Cycadacece. — Final Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor A. A. Lawson (Chairman), Professor 
T. G. B. OsBOBN {Secretary), and Professor A. C. Seward, 
appointed to collect and investigate material thereof. 

The Committee regretfully reports that all attempts to secure regular 
supplies of cycads by post from Queensland and Western Australia 
have proved unsuccessful. Under the circumstances, therefore, the 
Committee does not ask for reappointment, and returns the balance 
of the gi'ant herewith. A small amount of material, notably geiTnina- 
tion stages of Macrozamia Frazeri and some stages in development of 
the female cone of Bowenia spectabilis, has been secured and handed 
to Mrs. Osborn for investigation. 



Museums. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor J. \. Green {Chairman), Mr. H. Bolton and Dr. 
J. A. Clubb {Secretaries), Dr. F. A. Bather, Messrs. C. A. 
BucKMASTER and M. D. Hill, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Professors 

E. J. Garwood and P. JSTewberry, Sir Henry Miers, Sir 
EiCHARD Temple, Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas, Professor 

F. E. Weiss, Dr. Jessie White, Eev. H. Browne, Drs. 
A. C. Haddon and H. S. Harrison, Mr. Herbert E. Eath- 
BONE, and Dr. W. M. Tatters.'^ll, appointed to examine the 
Character, Work, and Maintenance of Museums. 

The Committee have to report that their work has been suspended 
for two years, owing to the absence of members upon active service 
at home and abroad. Owing to the likelihood of the educational work 
of museums being recognised under the Education Act of 1918, the 
Committee are revising the several reports they had previously con- 
sidered and bringing them up to date. A comprehensive statement 
upon the whole question will be presented at the 1920 Meeting. 

The Committee present a. report upon the relation of Overseas 
Museums to Education drawn up by the Secretary (Mr. H. Bolton) 
and Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 

The Committee seek reappointment, with a grant of 151. 



126 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Report of Secretary and Dr. W. M. Tattersall upon Overseas 

Museums. 

Introductory Note. 

Mr. Bolton and Dr. Tattersall were requested by the Committee 
to take advantage of the British Association Meeting in Australia to 
visit museums in the States and Australia, and to draw up a report 
thereon for the Committee's use. The following is an abstract of 
their report :- — 

Australian Museums. 

West Australian Museum and Art Gallery. 

Lectures are given by request upon museum collections on stated 
days to schools and classes. 

A few museum lectures are delivered annually. 

Special student series of specimens, furnished with explanatory 
labels, are now being set up. 

Adelaide Museum. 
Public lectures occasionally, but no definite educational scheme. 

Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Students and pupils of public and private schools and colleges 
are admitted by an-angement on Monday afternoons, and facilities 
for study given. 

Evening lectures. 

Technological Museum, Sydney. 

No lectures are given in connection with the museum, but the 
specimens in the museum are lent to illustrate lectures given in the 
local technical colleges and lessons upon Nature study in the public 
schools. 

Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

(1) Elementary. — Certain members of the scientific staff — chosen 
for this purpose — deliver elementary lectures and give demonstrations, 
with specimens, to classes not exceeding thirty students. Special 
afternoons are also allotted to junior classes of all grades to visit the 
galleries for the purpose of definite work, and a guide is placed at 
their disposal whenever one is desired. 

(2) Secondary. — The remarks made under ' Elementary ' apply also 
to this section, except that the lectures are of a more advanced 
character, and more care is taken in the selection of specimens, which, 
if opportunity permits, are handed round to each individual student. 

(3) Higher Education. — The work in this respect is similar to that 
of the Universities, except that the staff are unable to give students 
any large amount of personal attention — rare instances excepted. 

(4) Research. — Every facility is given for research, both to visiting 
students and members of the museum staff. Some of the latter are 
able to carry on solid work of this kind for the greater part of the year. 



i 



I 



on museums. 127 

American Museums. 

Academy of Sciences, Chicago. 

This museum is now specialising upon natural history work for 
schools : 

(1) By the formation of a large series of group cases of examples 
of the Illinois fauna, each group being set up in life positions, backed 
by coloured reproductions of the actual Illinois scenery in which the 
specimens lived. 

(2) The provision of an extensive series of lantern slides, which 
are lent to the schools for lectures. 

(3) Special series of natural study courses at the museum to 
teachers and to children delegates from schools. 

(4) Laboratory courses for children are arranged after school hours 
and on Saturday mornings. 

(5) Aquaria and a reference library are maintained for children. 

(6) School visits are encouraged, and teachers and children are 
provided with lists of questions to answer from their observations of 
the museum specimens. 

(7) Public lectures and lectures in schools are delivered by members 
of the museum staff. 

(8) Future plans include the provision of a children's museum 
and lecture theatre. 

Lecturing is paid for at a rate of fifteen dollars per lecture, and 
IS not necessarily a part of the duty of the staff. Qualified lecturers 
are sometimes engaged from outside the museum. 

Field Museum, Chicago. 

A gift of $250,000 has been received for the formation of a Circula- 
tion Series of Specimens to Chicago schools. These are estimated to 
reach a quarter of a million of scholars. The Circulation Series are 
arranged in compact cases, furnished with pockets, in which are placed 
detailed descriptions of the specimens. Natural history specimens 
are mounted amongst natural suiToundings. 

The plans of the new museum include provision for lecture theatres 
in each of its four great departments, and for an elaborate scheme of 
supply of material and information to schools. 

Art Institute, Chicago. 

The character of the collections and their display is much similar 
to that of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. 

A large art school is maintained in connection with the museum, 
and many students work in the museum. 

Art classes also work under guidance of teachers in the museum. 

A full series of lectures are available for schools and classes which 
desire them. 

Several lecturers (ladies) are attached to the museum, and frequently 
i| several lectures are delivered in the museum on the same day. 



128 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. 

(1) Elementarij Schools. — Visits of classes of school children to 
the museum are arranged under competent guides from the museum 
staff. Specimens are removed from the cases for the better instruction 
of school children. 

Loan collections are made to schools. 

Lectures to school children, and prize essay contests are arranged. 

(2) Secondary Schools. — Special demonstrations similar in kind to 
those given to elementary schools are arranged, but of a more intensive 
character and more adapted to the higher attainments of the pupils. 

(3) Higher Institutions of Learning. — Advanced students from the 
University attend the museum to carry on special researches under 
the direction of the staff, many of whom are also professors in the 
University. 

Special provision is made for the instruction of the blind. 

United States National Museum, Washington. 
Members of the museum staff are also professors in the University, 
•and have established the closest connection between the museum and 
the student, who carries out much of his study in the museum. 

The museum is one of the recognised institutions at which research 
work can be done for the degree of Ph.D. of the George Washington 
University. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
The educational work of this museum is as follows: — 

(1) Special Sunday decent services — i.e., two informal talks by 
specialists, who give their services free, on Sunday afternoons, during 
the winter. 

(2) Members of the staff meet visitors on request on weekdays for 
guidance through the museum. No charge. 

(3) Public lectures : 

(a) Museum school courses. I ^,^^^ \^^ ^^^^_ 

(b) University Lxtension courses. J 

(4) Loan collections of lantern slides, photographs, and duplicate 
textiles and prints. 

(4a) Loan collections for instruction. 

(5) School of art in connection with the museum. 

(6) Issue of free tickets to teachers and students. 

(7) Free conferences by specialists on particular objects or groups 
of objects in the museum. 

(8) Docent service for school children. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Members, visitors, and teachers desiring to see the collections under 
expert guidance may secure the services of a member of the staff 
detailed for the purpose. 

The sei-vice is free to teachers and to scholars under their guidance. 

Easels and modelling stands may be used. 

Copyists may be asked to satisfy the authorities as to their ability. 



ON MUSEUMS. 129 

Copying permitted on all days except Saturdays. 

Museum instruction for pu,pils of public schools. Schools pay 
part cost of lecture or part cost of course. 

' Sample ' classes are given to teachers. 

Lectures also given to selected classes of children. 

The city maintains one paid lecturer. 

Regular visits are paid from schools for instruction upon the history 
of art. 

Children are sent to the museum to study and then write up com- 
positions upon the objects studied. 

The University and the museum are in close co-operation, especially 
on classical and historical sides. 

The director hopes yet to see a Faculty of Arts in the. museum, 
with special lectures upon special collections. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

This museum has for many years done a remarkable work in 
education. Its activities are much summarised in the following: — 

Lecture courses for teachers. 

Teaching collections. 

Circulating Nature study collections to 501 schools in 1913, v/hich 
reached over IJ million of pupils. 

597 study collections for circulation. 

Lectures to pupils. 

A special guide service. 

Special class-rooms for students. 

30,000 lantern slides. 

A large loan series of lantern slides. 

Provision for blind students. 

Propose to establish ten ' Lecture Centres ' of 18 lectures per year 
in various parts of New York. 

Suggested branch teaching museums in a number of centrally 
located schools. 

Columbian University and the American Mus-eum- of Natural History. 

Professors of the University lecture and demonstrate to their 
students in the museum, the Professors occupying the dual position of 
Curator in the museum and Professor in the University. 

Specimens are provided for the students to handle. 

Pennsylvania Museum. 

Lectures are given to teachers, also addresses to children in classes 
of 50 to 200. 

In the latter case teachers attend, and can thus follow up the 
instruction given. 

The city has been asked to provide instructors. 

At present the burden is thrown upon the museum staff. 

The following educational establishments send students: — 

(1) Preparatory schools. 

Carrying students up to Matriculation standard. 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1919. 

(2) Small colleges. 

(3) Grammar, higher grade schools, and ladies' colleges. 

(4) Post-graduate classes. These do good work in museum. 

Curators rank as Professors in the University. 
The museum is supported by 15,000 dollars from State. 
There is an endowment of 150,000 dollars and a bequest of 
200,000 dollars, wliich yield 5 per cent. 

All researches are published by the museum. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 

Lectures every day to scholars from the public schools. 
Occasional lectures to high school students and to University 

classes. 

University Professors bring classes to the museum, and demonstrate 

at the cases. 

The museum has sent out 600 cabinets of gi'oup preparations, 
showing various cereals, foods, ores, minerals, &c. Each shows its 
mercantile use and value. 

The museum answers all inquiries, and also obtains infoiTnation for 
business men. This work has proved of the utmost value to the 
commerce of the city. 

Memorial Hall Museum, Philadelphia. 

Art and industrial art collections only. 

The museum is in close connection with technical schools of city. 

Classes are held regularly at the museum. 

The museum is specially used to stimulate art and industrial 
development, and in giving suggestions and aid to students in design 
and construction. 

It is maintained partly by the city and partly by student fees. 

Museum of the BrooUyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Possesses two docents : 

(1) A museum docent. 

(2) An art docent, maintained by an Art League. 
The two lectured to 114,000 pupils in 1913. 

Teachers and pupils are most appreciative and enthusiastic. 
Children's Museum, Bedford Park, seeks co-operation with the 
schools : 

(1) By correlating its exhibits with school courses of study. 

(2) By maintaining a free reference library. 

(3) By conducting courses of free illustrated lectures for school 
children. 

(4) By lending charts and natural history specimens for class-room 
use, and 

(5) By giving much individual attention and instruction in the 
exhibition halls. 



ON MUSEUMS. 131 

Public Museum of Milwaukee. 
Lectures are given for four classes : 

(1) General adult public. 

(2) School teachers. 

(3) Students of normal, vocational, and high schools. 

(4) Grammar school childi-en. 

The Education Department consists of : 

A curator, associate lecturers, professional photographer and lantern 
operator, and an expert slide colourist. 

Special Sunday afternoon and evening lectures are given. 

Museum lecturers give ' talks,' or series of ' talks,' at the schools, 
or give lectures, or conduct parties through the museum upon request. 

A science club is maintained for high school students. 

Arrangements are made whereby all public school children of 
certain grades come to the museum twice each year for half-day visits. 

The lessons of the American museums may be briefly summarised : 

(1) They have solved in the most admirable fashion the problem of 
reachmg all classes of students. 

(2) The educational work is carefully systematised and adapted to 
the recipients. 

(3) The range of influence of the museum has been in most cases 
determined, and the nature of the educational requirements, and these 
are well catered for. 

(4) The highest degree and research work are encouraged, and the 
University and museum work in complete harmony. 



TfiANSAOTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



1919. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

President op the Section: Professor A. Gray, M.A., LL.D FES 

F.E.S.E. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

The President delivered the following Address : — 

I HAVE devoted some little time to the perusal of the Addresses of my pre- 
decessors in this Chair. These have a wide range. They include valuable 
philosophical discussions of the nature of scientific knowledge and exposition.s 
of scientific method, ae well as highly instructive resumes and appreciations of 
the progress of mathematics and physics. But as this is the first meeting of 
the British Association since the conclusion of peace I have decided to disregard 
in the main these precedents, and to endeavour to point out, in the first place, 
some of the lessons which the war has, or ought to have, taught our country 
and those who direct its policy, and in particular ourselves, whose vocation it 
is to cultivate and to teach mathematical and physical science. 

Before proceeding with this task I must refer to the loss which physical 
science and the British Association have suffered this year through the deaths 
of Professor Carey Foster and Lord Rayleigh. Both of these great physicists 
were regular in attendance at the meetings of the Association, and they will 
be greatly missed. 

What Carey Foster was as a man of science, as a teacher, and as a friend of 
all students of physics, has been worthily set forth in the columns of Nature, 
with all the knowledge and affectionate reverence of one who was at once his 
pupil and his fellow-worker at University College. To that eloquent tribute I 
will not, though I knew Carey Foster well, venture to add a word. 

I shall not attempt to appraise here the work of Lord Rayleigh. But I may say 
that for something like half a century his name has stood not only, for things that 
are great in physical discovery, but for sanity of judgment, and clarity, elegance, 
and soundness of treatment of outstanding and difficult problems of mathe- 
matical physics. His researches, too, in experimental science have been fruitful 
in results of the utmost importance in chemistry as well as in physics. With 
him there was no shirking of the toil of monotonous and systematic observation 
from day to day, in the pursuit of the greatest attainable accuracy : take, for 
example, his work on electrical units. But his influence on applied mathematics 
has a/lso been enormous, and places him for all time in the foremost rank of the 
great physical mathematicians, at the head of which stands Isaac Newton. 
One has only to read his Treatise on the Theory of Sound, and his papers on 
Optics and Wave Theory, to find some of the mo.st striking examples in all 
scientific literature of the working of a mind not only of the first order of 
originality, but imbued with a feeling for symmetry of form and clearness of 
exposition. 

Lord Rayleigh's genius was, it seems to me, essentially intuitive and prac- 
tical. Though he was not given to any striving after the utmost rigidity of 
formal proof, which, as he himself remarked, might not be more but less 
demonstrative to the physicist than physical reasons, no man made fewer 
mistakes. He is gone, but he has left an inspiring example to his order and to 
his countrymen of a long life consecrated to the object for which the Royal 

o 2 



136 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

Society, of which he had been the honoured Preeident, was founded, the further- 
ance of Natural Knowledge. 

The part which physical science has played in the conduct of the war on 
our side has been an important one, but it has by no means been so decisive as 
it might and ought to have been. And here lie the lessons which I think we 
can draw from the terrible events which have taken place. Some few people, 
mostly hostile to or jealous of science, whose vision of facts and tendencies 
seems to me to be hopelessly obscured by prejudice, would try to impose on 
the advance of natural knowledge and the supposed increased influence of 
scientific ideas on the minds of men, or, perhaps more precisely, on the diminu- 
tion of the study of the so-ca.lled humanities, the sole or the main re.sponsibility 
for the outbreak of war. It seems to me that a good many people allow 
themselves to be misled by a name. The name Hwnanity is given in the Scottish 
Universities to the department of the Latin language and literature, and in a 
wider usage the study of Latin and Greek is referred to as that of Ljtterm 
Humaniores. But I am not aware that there is any more humanity, in the 
common acceptation of the term, about these studies than there is in many 
others. And experience has shown that the assertion that these studies have 
a special refining influence, while the pursuit of science has a brutalising 
tendency, is based on ignorance and partiality. The truth is that the man who 
knows nothing of science, and he who has neglected the study of letters, are both 
imperfectly educated. 

Well, the accusation I refer to may be dismissed without argument. 
This is certainly not the time nor the place for a discnssion of the causes of 
the war, or of the ethics of the extraordinary methods introduced into warfare 
by our enemies. But one- thing I will say in this connection. Even poison gas 
is innocent in itself, and it occurs as a product in perfectly indispensable and 
eminently useful chemical processes. The extraordinary potency of scientific 
knowledge for the good of civilised mankind is frequently conjoined with a 
potency for evil ; but the responsibility, for an inhuman use of it does not lie 
with the scientific investigator. The gui'lt lies at the door of the High Com- 
mand, of the high and mighty persons, themselves in feeling and temper 
utterly imscientific, who approved and directed the employment of methods of 
attack which destroyed the wounded and helpless, and wrecked for ever the 
health of many of those who emerged alive from the inferno. 

As regards the help which British science was able to render in the defence 
against the German attack and the operations which followed when the fortune 
of war changed so dramatically, and the enemy, was driven back towards the 
chain of fastnesses from behind which he originally emerged, one or two obvious 
reflections must have occurred to everyone. In one form or another these have 
been referred to by various writers, but I may recall one or two of them, for as 
a people we are incorrigibly forgetful and appear to be almost incapable of 
profiting from experience, which, according to the Latin proverb, teaches even 
fools. 

Nearly twenty years ago the urgent necessity for the reorganisation of our 
military machinery had been, in the view of civilians at least, who had t« bear 
the cost of the war in South Africa, demonstrated ad nmiseam, but nothing of 
real importance in the way of reforming the War Office seems to have been done. 
The shocks we had received were forgotten, and soon the nation returned to 
its insular complacency, the old party, cries resounded in the market-place, the 
hacks of party politics again resum.ed their occupation of camouflage and hood- 
winking, and of giving 'parliamentary answers,' and the country drifted on 
towards its fate. 

All this time an enormously powerful war machine was being built up on 
the Continent, and its diiTerent parts tested so far as that could be done with- 
out actual warfare. The real object of these preparations was carefully^ veiled 
by an appearance of frankness and professions of good will, though it was 
revealed every now and then by the indiscretions of the German military caste. 
To these indications and to others the country, ostrich-like, covered its eyes. 

Now, it is often alleged that men engrossed in the pursuit of science are 
unbusinesslike, but I think that, if there had been any truly scientific element 
in the personnel of the Government (there never is by any chance), attention 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 137 

would have been directed at a much earlier period to our hopeless state of 
unpreparedness for the storm which was gradually gathering up against us on 
the other side of the German Ocean. In discussions of our unpreparedness the 
emphasis has been placed on our lack of ai'ms and munitions. But important 
as these are, the entire absence of a scientific organisation to guide us in the 
exigencies of a defensive war with the most scientific and most military nation 
of Europe was even more serious. 

It is this deficiency in our organisation, a deficiency the avoidance of 
■which would have had no provocative effect whatever, which concerns us 
here very specially. It is, moreover, a deficiency which, in spite of the lessons 
they have received, has, I fear, not yet been brought home to our military chiefs. 
When war broke out nothing had been done to ensure the utilisation for special 
service in the multitude of scientific operations, which war as carried on by the 
German armies involved, of the great number of well-trained young scientific 
men available in the country. The one single idea of our mobilisers was to send 
men to the trenches to kill Germans, and for this simple duty all except certain 
munition workers and men in the public services were summoned to the Army. 
Some modifications were made afterwards, but I am speaking of the failure of 
prevision at the outset. The need of men for special service, the inevitable 
expansion of the Navy for patrol and other purposes and the like, were, if they 
were thought of at all, put aside, without regard to the difficulties which would 
inevitably arise if these matters were delayed. Even how the new soldiers 
were to be trained, almost without rifles or machine guns, to meet the Germans 
in the field nobody knew. And I for one believe that but for the vigour and 
energy of Lord Kitchener, and the almost too late expression of conviction of 
our danger, and consequent action, by one outstanding politician, all would have 
been lost. We worried through, but at a loss of life and treasure from which 
it wil'l take us long to recover, and which I could wish seemed to weigh more 
heavily on the minds and consciences of politicians. 

The Germans, I believe, had a complete record not only of all their men 
fitted only for the rank and file, but also of all who had been trained to observe 
and measure. For the use of even the very simplest apparatus of observation a 
certain expertness in reading graduated scales, and generally a certain amount 
of trained intelligence is required. For this the laboratories of Germany amply 
provided, and the provision had its place in the enemy's mobilisation. Our 
people apparently did not even know that such a need existed or might arise. 

In a letter which I sent to the Council of the Royal Society at the end of 1915 
I ventured to propose that the Royal Society might set on foot an organisation 
of some such character as the following : — First, a Central Committee should be 
established, in some degree representative of the different centres of scientific 
teaching and work in pure and applied science. Then this Committee should 
nominate representatives at each centre, at least one at each University, or 
College, and one at the headquarters of each local society, such, for example, 
as the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders of Scotland, and the similar 
Society which represents the North-East of England, and has its offices at New- 
castle-on-Tyne. This arrangement, it was hoped, would enable the Central 
Committee to oljtain readily information as to what men were available, and 
•would therefore do something to bring the schools of science, and all the great 
workshops and laboratories of applied science, into co-operation. Thus 
could be formed at once a list of men available for particular poste, for the 
task of solving the problems that were certain to arise from day to day, and 
for the special corps which it was soon, if dimly, perceived were a necessity. 
Some such linking up of London with the provinces is reaily indispensable. 
The districts of, for example, the Tyne and the Clyde are too much ignored in 
almost all Government action of a general kind. 

My letter was printed and sent out to some prominent men, by whom its 
proposals were highly approved. A Conference on its subject was held in 
London, and two special Committees were appointed. I was a member of 
one of these, the principal duty of which was to provide scientific men for 
special service. It included representatives of the various great departments, 
actively engaged in the conduct of the war. For some reason or other, which 
I never learned, the Committee after a week or two ceased to be called, and 
I believe that little was done in comparison with what might have been 



IBS TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

accomplished. It was certaiii'ly not because sucli a committee would not work. 
Everybody was most willing, with proper notice, to attend such meetings as 
were involved, and to take any amount of personal trouble ; moreover, the 
scheme was such as to provide that there should always be a nucleus of members 
in London to consult and act in any emergency. 

I may briefly refer to one or two examples of the chaos which prevailed 
and the attempts that were made to cope with it. Very soon after the formation 
of the first Kitchener Army the organisation of the different corps apparently 
became a source of anxiety to the War Office. It began to be seen that officers 
in sufficient numbers could not possibly be obtained by the usual channels, so 
the expedient (a poor one by itself) wae hit upon of placing the nominatione 
to commissions in one at least of the two great scientific corps of the Army — 
the Royal Engineers — in the hands of the presidents of certain technical Institu- 
tions which have their headquarters in London. These gentlemen, with the help 
of the official secretaries, no doubt did the best they could, but a very regrettable, 
though perfectly natural, amount of strong feeling weis evoked among the young 
scientifically educated men in the provinces, who were keenly anxious to join 
this corps. The Engineers, I may hardly say, is no refuge for men who are 
in the least Concerned about their personal safety, for the percentage of casual- 
ties among Engineers on active service was notably higher than in the regiments 
of the line. Over and over again young engineers came to me, and complained 
that under the arrangements made they had no chance of obtaining commis- 
sions, or of qualifying as cadets, and begged me to write to the authorities. 
Of course, young graduate engineers do not as a rule join Societies such as the 
Institution of Civil, Mechanical, or Electricai Engineers, until they have made 
their way to some little extent, and begun to earn a little money. 

The procedure I have indicated had in time to be relaxed, but such a Central 
Committee as I suggested, with antennae stretching out to the educational and 
technical centres of the country would, I am sure, have recruited the Engineers 
quickly with the best possible material for officers to be found in the country, to 
the satisfaction of all concerned. It may be said that full information regarding 
every man in the country was in the hands of the authorities. In a sense this 
was true ; the information existed in millions of returns, and thousands of 
pigeon-holes, but no attempt was made, or could be made, by office staffs in 
London, enormous as these quickly became, to digest and utilise it. 

A large number of engineers and physicists and many others of mechanical 
skill and aptitudes found congenial occupation in the Royal Naval Air Service 
and the Royal Flying Corps ; but even there, where things could be better done, 
since a new force had to be brought into existence, arrangements were to a 
considerable extent haphazard and ill thought out. Excel'lent self-sacrificing 
service was rendered by many, who risked and gave their lives, and of what 
was done we may. well be proud. But from a .scientific point of view there is 
room for great improvement. The, as I think, hasty and ill-considered amal- 
gamation of these two branches of the Air Service, in which naval traditions 
were sacrified to those of the War Office, which deserved no such deference, 
will certainly have to be undone in the near future, or very greatly transformed. 
To anyone who considers the possibilities and probabilities of warfare in the 
future, it appears clear that this country will have to depend more and more 
upon its Navy, and that an Air Service Corps will be the companion of every 
division of our Fleet, with landings on the warships. Thus a new and highly 
scientific service, which will have to be to a great extent naval, is certain to be 
brought into existence. 

Well, then, to return for a moment to my proposal to the Royal Society, why 
should the organisation which I suggested in 1915 not be established now ? 1 
wish all success to the League of Nations, but we ehall prove ourselves even 
greater fools than we have been in the past if we do not use all possible 
means to prepare ourselves against eventualities. One attempt by our enemies 
outside our own borders to hold us to ransom has failed. Can we be so sure 
that no other attempt will ever be made, or that no cnsits hcUi between our- 
selves and another great nation will ever arise? This, I notice, is beginning to 
be assumed even in the midst of the welter of confusion and unrest that exists, 
and, among others, by just the very people who used to teach that the possibility 
of war was a great illusion. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 139 

The formation of a record of scientific graduates for special service ouglit not 
to be difficult. The material already in great measure exists. Each University 
and College has its roll of graduates or diploma holders, and with slightly more 
detailed entries these rolls would give the record. Each graduate of a University 
is kept track of through the necessity for keeping the electoral roll up to date, 
and it ought to be possible to devise a means of maintaining touch with the 
diploma holder. If each University or College were a local centre of the 
Central Committee, the making of the roll of graduates would be achieved at the 
different local headquarters, and would be a valuable supplement to the O.T.C. 
work now undertaken so willingly, and done so well. The Government 
machinery which manages the O.T.C. movement might control the keeping of 
the register which I have suggested. 

I turn now^ to another side of scientific work during the war. It was my lot 
to serve for nearly three years on the Inventions Panef of the Ministry of Muni- 
tions, and as the result of that experience I venture to make some observations 
on the utilisation of scientific knowledge and genius in the production of inven- 
tions useful for the public service. We had an enormous multitude of inven- 
tions to consider, and the Panel was divided into Committees for this purpose. 
For each invention or proposal a file or dossier was prepared and most carefully 
kept. There were also present at the meetings of the Panel very efficient officers 
representing different branches of the service. Everything received careful 
attention, and for the ability and fairness with which the initial examination 
was made by the corps of examiners, and the precis of the invention presented, 
I have great admiration. Much has been said about the inefficiency and the 
mistakes of various Government Departments during the war. The Ministry 
of Munitions Inventions Department was, so far as I could see, eminently well 
managed. 

Many of the so-called inventions were not inventions at all. Some were not 
at all new; in other cases an idea only was mooted. Could so-and-so not be 
done? and so on, and the Department was supposed to be grateful for the 
idea, and to do the rest, besides rewarding the proposer. A favourite notion, 
which illustrates the diffusion of scientific knowledge among different classes 
of people, was that of taking a magnet — any magnet — up on an aeroplane, and 
using it to attract Zeppelins and other aircraft. Others suggested electro- 
magnets fed by machines which would have involved carrying into the air on 
an aeroplane a fully equipped power-house ! Another favourite idea, inspired, 
no doubt, by a certain sensational type of article in the fiction magazines, was 
that of rays charged in some way with electricity, or some other mysterious 
agency, and therefore, intensely destructive! 

But there was a residuum of valuable invientions, which fully justified the 
existence of the Department. These were recommended for further considera- 
tion by the various departments of the services, or by General Headquarters. 
It by no means followed that all that came to this stage received careful further 
consideration. Everybody was very hard worked, and many were overdriven. 
And it was by no means certain that when important approved appliances were 
sent to G.H.Q. a thoroughly well-informed and capable officer would in all 
cases have the duty of explaining and .showing their action. The absence of 
such an officer, I am sure, often resulted in delay and serious error, and, I 
fear, also in the rejection of what was in itself exceed-'ngly good, but was not 
understood. People who knew nothing about the matter took charge, and ordered 
things to be done v?hich brought disaster to the apparatus. I know of one ver)' 
important machine which was ruined, with much resulting delay. A Brigadier- 
or Maior-General, with a confidence born of blank ignorance, ordered a motor 
generator to be put on town electric mains, and of course burnt it out. 

Then, again, we were told that G.H.Q. did not want this or that, and here, 
as in all human affairs, mental inertia certainly okayed a considerable nart 
The willingness, however, of some departments to adopt at once a rievice captured 
from the enemy was pathetic. Often quite clumsv and relatively inferior con- 
trivances were adopted in the midst of hesitation about our own. Anvthing 
German of this sort some people assumed must be good — a foolish idea, the 
resu'lt nf want of confidence, often well founded I am afraid, in their own 



140 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

judgment. It is legitimate to copy from the enemy, and in several important 
things we have not been slow to do so. 

The delays that occurred •were to some of us at home, who were anxiously 
dealing with all kinds of contrivances, exceedingly exasperating. Some were 
undoubtedly unavoidable, but others were, as I have indicated, far otherwise. 
Deficiency in scientific education was the cause. It is to enforce the need for 
such education that I refer to such matters at all. The " playing fields of Eton " 
are all very well. I for one do not scoS at what the old saying stands for, 
but scientific laboratories and good intelligent work in them are indispensable. 
A man who directs in whole or in part a great machine must know something 
of its structure and capabilities. This apparently does not hold in politics. 

I feel bound to allude to another aspect of the inventions business which to 
my mind was very serious. In doing so, however, I wish it to be clearly 
understood that I am criticising a system and in no way here referring to particu- 
lar individuals concerned in its administration. Various inventions which had 
passed satisfactorily the first examinations by responsible judges were sub- 
mitted to technical departments at home to be subjected to practical tests. 
These inventions were, frequently, solutions proposed of problems on which 
technical officers, of the departments required to conduct the tests, had long 
been engaged. It was natural, indeed inevitable, that some of these ofiicers 
should have come to regard the solving of these problems as their own special 
job, and so did not much welcome the coming of the outside inventor. Then, 
no doubt, they often felt that they were just on the point of arriving at a 
solution — a feeling that certainly could not facilitate the avoidance of delay. 
It was manifestly most unfair to ask them to judge the work of the outside 
inventor, or to place in their hands details of his proposals, for exactly the 
same reason which in civil life restrains a man from acting ae a juror in a 
case in which he is personally interested. Nobody of good sense feels offended 
when attention is called to such a rule in practice. 

Thus I have no hesitation in expressing the opinion that a testing board of 
practical, well-qualified physicists and other experts, with .a properly qualified 
staff, should be formed for the purpose of carrying out all tests of inventions. 
No insuperable difficulty wou'ld, I believe, be experienced in forming such a 
board. It should be formed carefully, not by more or less casual nomination 
of one another by a few persons. Expert knowledge of a subject 
should be a necessary qualification ; the so-called ' open mind ' of the much- 
lauded but untrained practical man is not worth having. But on that board 
neither inside nor outside inventors of tlie same kind of appliances should have 
any place, though of course consultation with the author of an invention under 
test would be absolutely necessary. Also those actually carrying out the tests 
and those collating the results should not be men in any way in the employ- 
ment of or under the supervision of inventors, whether 'outside ' or 'inside.' 
It is imperative in the interests of the country that delay in such matters 
should be avoided, and that all such work should be done without fear or 
favour. 

The value of University and College men trained in science has been 
thoroughly proved in the Artillery, the Engineers, and in their offshoots, the 
Special Sound Ranginsj and Survey Corps, though its recognition by the 
authorities of Whitehall has been scanty and grudging. Some of the oid- 
fashioned generals and staff officers could not be got to see the use of men who 
had not been trained to field exercises by a long course of drill. What is the 
good of officers, they said, who are not skilled leaders of men? This is the 
old crude idea aa;ain of destroying Germans with rifles, bayonets, and hand 
grenades. The falsity of these antiquated notions has now, I believe, been 
amply demonstrated. 

The objection to these men, however, lies a good deal deeper. Even those 
scientifically educated officers who came into the new armies when they were 
formed, and were trained by the service of years of warfare superadded to the 
initial course of drill, have been demobilised in a nearly wholesale manner, 
without the least regard to even very exceptional qualifications. Many of these 
were, it seems to me, the very men who ought, above all, to have been retained 
in the service. Now (though, as I write, improved regulations are being 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 141 

issued) they are to a great extent to be replaced by the Public School cum Sand- 
hurst young gentlemen, -who. it appears, are the ' pucea ' officers par excellence. 

The old system of the rule of politician chiefs whose only or main function 
is to sign the edicts of heads of departments seems to have returned in full 
force, and the coming of the cleansing Hercules that many people desire for 
the War Office does not seem to be within the bounds of possibMity. 

The real cause of the prevailing neglect of science, with all its pernicious 
results, is that almost all our political leaders have received the most favoured 
a.nd fashionable form of public school education, and are without any scientific 
education. An education in classics and dialectics, the education of a lawyer, may 
be a good thing — for lawyers ; though even that is doubtful. For the training of 
men who are to govern a State whose very existence depends on applications of 
science, and on the proper utilisation of available stores of energy, it is 
ludicrously unsuitable. We hear of the judicia'l frame of mind which lawyers 
bring to the discussion of matters of high policy, but in the majority of scientific 
cases it is the open mind of crass ignorance. The restilt is lamentable : I myself 
heard a very eminent counsel declare in a case of some importance, involving 
practical applications of science, that one of Newton's laws of motion was that 
' friction is the cause of oscMlations ' ! And the helplessness of some eminent 
counsel and judges in patent cases is a byword. 

As things are. eminence in science is no qualification ; it would even seem 
to be a positive disqualification, for any share in the conduct of the affairs of 
this great industrial country. The scientific sides of public questions are 
ignored ; nay, in many cases our rulers are unconscious of their existence. 
Recently in a discussion on the Fnrestrv Bill in the House of Lords a member 
of that illustrious body made the foolish assertion that forestry had nothing to 
do with science; all that was needed was to dig holes and stick young trees 
into them. Could fatuity go fiirther ? This hereditary legislator who, as 
things are, has it in his power to manage, or mismanage, the conversion into 
available energy of the radiation beneficently showered on a certain area (his 
area) of this country of ours does not seem tc be aware that the growing of 
trees is a highly scientific industry, that there are habits and diseases of trees 
which have been nrofoundlv studied, that, in short, the whole subject of silvi- 
culture brist'les with scientific problems, the solutions of -which have by patient 
labour been to a considerable extent obtained. 

Take also the case of the Dyes Industries. The publicists and the ' good 
business men ' — the supermen of the present age — who wish to control and foster 
an industry which owes its very existence to an English chemist refuse to have 
on the Committee which is to manage this important affair any man of scientific 
eminence, and no remonstrance has any effect. These great business men are 
as a rule not scientific at all. They are all very weW for finance, in other 
respect's their businesses are run by their works-managers, and. in general, they 
are not remarkable for paying handsomely their scientific assistants. 

I myself once heard it suggested by an eminent statesman that an electrical 
efficiency of 98 per cent, mieht by the progress of electrical science be increased 
fourfold ! This, I am afraid, is more or less typical of the highly educated 
classical man's appreciation of the law of conservation of energy; and he is, 
save the mark, to be our minister or proconsul, and the conservator of our 
national resources. It is not surprising, therefore, that in connection with a 
subject which for sever*! weeks occupied a great space in the newspapers, and 
is now agitating a large section of the community, the nationalisation of our 
coal mines, there was not a single word, except perhaps a casual vague 
reference in the Report of the Chairman, to the question, which is intimately 
bound up with any solution of the problem which statesmen may adopt. I mean 
the question of the economic utilisation, in the interests of the country at large, 
of this great inheritance which Nature has best-owed upon us. In short, are 
Tom. Dick, and Harry, if we may so refer to noble and other coalowners, and 
to our masters the miners, to remain free to waste or to conserve at their own 
sweet will, or to exploit as they please, this necessity of the country's existence? 

The fact is that until scientific education has gone forward far beyond the 
point it has yet reached, until it has become a living force in the world of 
politics and statesmanship, we shall hardly escape the ruin of our oountty. 



IJr'i . TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

The business men will not save us ; as has been said with much truth, the products 
of modern business methods are to a great extent slums and niMlionaires. It 
lies to a great extent with scientific men themselves to see that reform is 
forthcoming ; and more power to the Guild of Science and to any other agency 
which can help to bring about this much-needed result. 

While scientifically educated men, whether doing special work or acting as 
officers, have been held of far slighter account in the services than they ought 
to have been, for physicists as such there has been little or no recognition, 
except, I believe, when they happened to be ranked as research chemists ! How 
did this happen ?_ Wny. the various trades asserted themselves, and the result 
was a sufficiently long list of ' reserved occupations,' a list remarkable both for 
its inclusions and for its exclusions. There was, for example, a class of 'opti- 
cians.' many of whom have no knowledge of optics worth mentioning. They are 
merely traders. One of these, for example, the proprietor of a business, made a 
plaintive appeal to myself as to how he could determine the magnifying powers 
of certain field-glasses which he wished the Ministry of Munitions to purchase. 
But for a young scientific man, even if he were an eminent authority oni 
theoretical and practical optics, but who was not in the trade, there was 
no p'lace. 

Research chemists received their recognition in consequence of the existence 
of the Institute of Chemistry. I am extremely glad to find that something is 
now being done to found an Institute of Physics. I hope this movement will be 
successful, and that it will be thoroughly practical and eflficient. I hope its 
President and Council, its Members and its Associates, will be zealous for 
science, and especially for physics. It ought to be a thoroughly hard-working 
body, without any frills destitute of work value. Of honorary Members or 
honorary Fellows there should be none. There are enough of limelight spots for 
those who deserve and like that kind of illumination. 

I am glad that something is being done at last for the organisation of 
scientific research. This movement has started well in several, if .not in all, 
respects, and I wish it all success. There are, however, one or two dangers 
to be avoided, and I am not sure — I may be miich too timid and suspicious — 
that they are fully recognised, and that the result will not be too much of a 
bureaucracy. Somehow or other I am reminded by the papers I have seen of the 
remark of a poor man who, asking charity of someone in Glasgow, was referred 
to the Charity Organisation Society of that city. 'No. thank you,' he said; 
'there is a good dea'l more organisation than charity about that institution.' 
So I hope that in the movement on foot the organisation will not be more 
prominent than the science, and the organisers than the scientific workers. 

There is to my mind too much centralisation aimed at. Everything is to 
be done from London : a body sitting there is to decide the subjects of research 
and to allocate the grants. "There may be a good deal to be said for that in the 
case of funds obtained in London. But apparently already existing local incen- 
tives to research work are to be transferred to London. The Carnegie Trust 
for the Universities of Scotland, soon after its work began, inaugurated a scheme 
for research work in connection with these Universities. The beneficiaries of 
the Trust, it is well known, must be students of Scottish nationality. The 
action of the Trust has been most excellent, and much good work has been 
done. Now, so far as chemistry and nhys'cs are concerned, it has been pro- 
posed, if not decided, to hand over to the organisation in London the making of 
the awards, a process of centralisation that will probably not end with these 
subjects. I venture to protest against any such proceeding. The more incen- 
tives and endowments of research that exist and are administered in the pro- 
vinces the better. Moreover, this is a benefaction to Scottish students which 
ought not to be withdrawn and merged in any provision made for the whole 
country, and administered in London by a bureau which may know little ot 
the Scottish Universities or of Scottish students. The bureau might, with 
equal justice or injustice, be given command of the special-research scholarships 
of all the Universities both in England and Scotland, and administer theni in 
the name of the fetish of unification of effort. I do not know, but can imagine, 
what Oxford and Cambridge and Manchester and Liverpool would say to that. 
But even Scotland, where of course we knoAv little or nothing about education 



I'RESlUEi^l'IAL AUORESS. 143 

of auy kiiid, may also have something to say before this uitra-ceiitralisatiou 
becomes an accomplished fact. 

There is, it seems to me, another danger to be avoided besides that of 
undue centralisation in London, in most of the statements 1 have seen regarding 
the promotion of research work the emphasis seems to be on industrial research, 
that IS m applied science. This kind of research includes the investigation oi 
physical and chemical products of various kinds which may be used in arts and 
manufactures, and its deliberate organised promotion ought to be a commercial 
aflair. 1 observed, by the way, with some amusement, that according to the 
proposals of one Committee for Applied JScience, which is prepared to give grants 
and premiums for researches and results, the JProfessor or Head of a JL)epart- 
ment, from whom will generally come what are most important, the ideas, is to 
have no payment. He is supposed to be so well paid by the institution he 
belongs to as to require no remuneration for his supervision of the Committee's 
researches. And the results are to be the sole property of the Committee ! 

There is in this delightfully calm proposal at least a suggestion of compulsion 
and of interference with institutions and their stafi's, which ought to be well 
examined. Also some light is thrown on the ideas of such people as managing 
directors of limited rliabiiity companies, who are members of such a committee, 
as to what might reasonably be expected of men of high attainments and skill, 
whose emoluments taken aJl round are on the whole miserably insufficient. 

I think that it is in danger of being forgotten that, after ail, pui-e 
science is by far the most important thing. Most of the great applications of 
science have been the products of discoveries which were made without any 
notion of such an outcome. Witness the tremendous series of results in 
electricity of which the beginning was Faraday's and Henry's researches on 
induction of currents, and the conclusion was the work of Hertz om electric waves. 
From the first came the production and ti-ansmission of power by electricity, 
from the last the world has received the gift of wireless telegraphy. 1 am not 
at all sure whether the great men who worked in the sixty or seventy years 
which I have indicated would have always received grants for proposed 
researches, which to many of the good business directors and other supermen 
serving on a great bureau of investigation, had such then existed, would have 
appeared fantastic and visionary. In research, in pure science at least, control 
will inevitably defeat itself. The scientific discoverer hardly knows whither 
he is being led; by a path he knows not he comes to his own. He should be 
free as the wind. But I must not be misunderstood. Most certainly it is rigut 
to encourage research in applied science by all available and legitimate means. 
But beware of attempting to control or ' capture ' the laboratories of pure 
science in the Universities and Colleges of the country. Let there be also ample 
provision for the pursuit of science for it.^ own sake; the return will in the 
future as in the past surpass all expectation. 

I had intended to say .something about scientific education as exemplified by 
the teaching of physics. 1 have left myself little time or space for this, i 
cannot quite pass the matter over, but I shall compress my remarks. In the first 
place I regard dynamics, especially rotatioinal dynamics, as the foundation of all 
physics, and it is axiomatic that the foundation of a great structure should be 
soundly and solidly laid. The implications of dynamics are at present undergoing 
a very strict and searching examimation, and now we may say that a step in 
advance has been taken from the Newtonian standpoint, and that a new and 
important development of dynamics has come into being. I refer of course to the 
new theories of relativity, which are now attracting so much attention. I hope to 
learn from the discussions, which we may possibly have, something of the latest 
ideas on this very fundamental subject of research. It is a matter for con- 
gratulation that 60 many excellent accounts of relativity are now available in 
English. Some earlier discussions are so very general in their mathematical 
treatment and notation as to be exceedingly difficult to master completely. I 
have attacked Minkowski's paper more than once, but have felt repelled, not bv 
the difficulties of his analysis, but by that of marshalling and keeping track of 
all his results. Einstein's papers I have not yet been able to obtain. Hence it 
18 a source of gratification to have Professor Eddington's interesting Eeport to 
the Physical Society and the otlier excellent treatises which we have^in Eng-lish. 



144 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

But continual thought and envisaging of the subject is still required to give 
anything approaching to instinctive appreciation such as we have in ordinary 
Newtonian dynamics. I venture to say that the subject is pre-eminently one 
for physicists and physical mathematicians. In some ways the new ideas bring 
us back to Newton's standpoint as regards so-called absolute rotation, a subject 
on which I have never thought that discussions of the foundations of dynamics 
had said absolutely the last word. Some relativists would abolish the ether, 
1 hope they will not be successful. I am convinced that the whole subject requires 
much more consideration from the physical point of view than it has yet received 
from relativists. 

The better the student of physics is grounded in the older dynamics, and 
especially in the dynamics of rotation, the sooner will he be able to place himself 
at the new point of view, and the sooner will his way of looking at things begin 
to become instructive. 

With regard to the study of physics in our Universities and Colleges, I had 
written a good deal. I have fut that aside for the present, and will content 
myself with only a few general observations. First, then, it would, I think, be 
conducive to progress if it were more generally recognised that dynamics is a 
physical subject, and only secondarily a mathematical one. Its study should 
be carried on in the departments of physics, not in those of mathematics or in 
separate departments of applied mathematics. It is, or ought to be, essentially 
a subject of the physical lecture-room and the physical laboratory, it belongs 
in short to natural philosophy , but not to physics divorced from mathematics, 
nor to the arid region of so-called applied mathematics, where nothing experi- 
mental ever interrupts the flow of "blackboard analysis. The student should be 
able to handle rotating bodies, to observe and test the laws of precession and 
nutation, to work himself, in a word, into an instinctive appreciation of at least 
the simpler results of rotational theory. He should learn to tliink in vectors, 
without necessarily referring either to Hamilton or to Grassmann. Some people 
appear to censure the use of vector ideas without the introduction at the same 
time of some form of vector notation. I cannot agree with them. Personally 1 do 
not feel drawn to any system of vectors in particular — all have their good points, 
and in some ways for three dimensional work the quaternion analj'sis is very 
attractive — but vector ideas are of the very utmost importance. 

Hence I deprecate the teaching, however elementary, which as a beginning 
contents itself with rectilineal motion. The true meaning of rate of change of a 
directed quantity, even of velocity and acceleration, is missed, and instead of 
having laid a foundation for further progress the teacher, when he desires to 
go beyond the mere elements, has not merely to relay his foundations, he has in 
fact to extract imperfect ideas from hie pupils' minds and substitute new ones, 
with the result that a great deal of avoidable perplexity and vexation is pro- 
duced. The consideration of the manner of growth of vectors — the resultant vector 
or it may. be component vectors, according to convenience — is the whole affair. 
As a simple illustration of what I mean, take this : A vector quantity has a 
Certain direction, and also a magnitude L. It is turning im a certain plane with 
angular speed te. This turning causes a rate of production of the vector quantity 
about a line in that plane and perpendicular to the former, and towards which 
the former is turning, of amount Lw. Thus a particle moving in a curve with 
speed v has momentum mv forwards along the tangent at the position of the 
particle. The vector is turning towards the principal radius (length R) of 
curvature at the point at rate v/R. Hence towards the centre of curvature 
momentum is growing up at time rate mv-/R. 

Dealt with in this way, with angular momentum instead of simple momentum, 
the motions of the principal axes of a rigid body give the equations of Euler 
instantly and intuitively, and all the mind-stupefying notions of centrifugal 
couples, end the like, are swept away. 

Witli regard to mathematics, the more the physicist knows the better, and 
he should continually add to his store by making each physical subject he takes 
up a starting-point for further acquisition. Some very philistiiie notions as to 
mathematics prevail, and are very mischievous. For example, I once heard an 
eminent practical engineer declare that all the calculus an engineering student 
requires could be learned in an hour or two. This is simply not true, nor is 
it (rue, as some exponents of ultrasimplicity seem to suggest, that the profes- 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 145 

sional mathematicai teacher wilfully makes his subject difficult in order to 
preserve its esoteric character. Like the engineer or physicist himself, he is 
not always so simple as he might be ; but the plain truth is that no good 
progressive mathematical study can be carried out without hard and continued 
application of the mind of the student to the subject. And why should he 
depend on the mathematical teacher? Let him be his own teacher! There are 
plenty of excellent books. If he has a determination to help himself he will, if 
he makes a practice of reserving difficulties and returning to them, find them 
vanish from his path. Let him also cultivate the power of giving attention, and 
he will both understand and remember. 

As I have said, I am specially interested in rotational dynamics. In the 
course of the war I have been appalled by the want of appreciation of 
the principles of this subject, which, in spite of considerable acquaintance with 
the formal theory, seemed to prevail in some quarters. I don't refer to mistakes 
made by competent people — it is human to err — ^but to the want of appreciation 
of the true physical meaning of the results expressed by equations. A gyrostat 
as ordinarily considered is a closed system, and its dynamical theory is of a 
certain kind. But do away with the closedness, amd the dynamical theory is 
quite a different affair. Take, as an example, the case of two interlinked 
systems which are separately unstable. This compound system can be 
made stable even in the presence of dissipative forces. A certain product of 
terms must be positive, so that the roots of a certain determinantal equation 
of the fourth degree may all be positive. The resu'lt shows that there must be 
angular acceleration, not retardation, of the gyrostat frame. This acceleration 
is a means of supplying energy from without to the system, the energy necessary 
to preserve in operation the functions of the system. 

I ha,ve ventured to think this stabilising action by acceleration of the 
compound motion very important. It is lost sight of by those who consider 
and criticise gyrostatic appliances from the usual and erroneous point of view. 
Also I believe that it is by analogy a guide to the explanation of more com- 
plicated systems in the presence of pnergy-dissipating influences, and that the 
breaking down of stability or death of the system is due to the fact that 
energy can no longer be supplied from without in the manner prescribed for 
the system by its constitution. 

I had just concluded this somewhat fragmentary address when the number 
of Nature for July 24 came to hand, containing a report of Sir Ernest Ruther- 
ford's lecture at the Royal Institution on June 6. The general result of Sir 
Ernest's experiments on the collision of a-particles with atoms of small mass is, 
it seems to me, a discovery of great importance, whatever may be its final inter- 
pretation. The conclusion that ' the long-range atoms arising from the collision of 
a-particles with nitrogen are not nitrogen atoms, but probably chareed atoms of 
hydrogen or atoms of mass 2,' is of the iitmost possible interest. The ajparticle 
(the helium atom, as Rutherford supposes it to be) is extraordinarily stable in its 
constitution, and probablv consists of three Helium nuclei each of mass 4, with 
two attached nuclei of hydrogen, or one attached nucleus of mass 2. The 
intensely violent convulsion of the nitrogen atom produced 'by the collision 
causes the attached nuclei, or nucleus, to part company with the helium nuclei, 
and the nitrogen is resolved into helium and hydrogen. 

It seems that, in order that atoms may be broken down into some primordial 
constituents, it is only, necessary to strike the more complex atom sufficiently 
violently with the proper kind of hammer. Of course, we are already familiar 
with the fact that radio-active forces produce changes that are never produced by 
so-called chemical action ; but we seem now to be beginning to get a clearer notion 
of the rationale of radio-action. It seems to me that it might be interesting to 
observe whether any, or what kind of, radiation is produced by the great 
tribulation of the disturbed atoms and continued during its dying away. If 
there is such radiation, determinations of wave lengths would be of much 
importance in many respects. 

I may perhaps mention here that long ago. when the cause of X-rays was 
a subject of speculation, and the doctrine that mainly fonnd acceptance was 
that they were not light waves at all. I suggested to the late Professor Viriamii 
Jones that radiation of extremely small wave length would be produced if 



146 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

atomic or molecular vibration, as distinguished from what in comparison might 
be called molar vibration, could be excited. An illustration that suggested 
itself was this : Take a vibrator composed of a series of small masses with 
spring connections. If these masses are of atomic or molecular dimensions any 
ordinary impulse or impact would leave them unaffected, while vibrations 
of large groups of them, vibrations depending on the connections, would result. 
But the impact on one of the masses of a hammer of sufficiently small dimensions 
and mass would give vibrations depending on the structure of the mass struck, 
and independent o't the connections, just as the bars of a xylophone ring, while 
the suspended series of bars, if it swings at all, does so without emitting any 
audible sound. This is, I be'lieve, in accordance with the theory now held as 
to X-rays. We now have some information as to the mode of producing a local 
excitement so intense as to cause not merely atomic disturbance, but actual 
disruption of the atomic structure. Further developments of Sir Ernest Ruther- 
ford's experiments and of his theory of their explanation will be eagerly awaited. 



The following Reports and Papers were then read : 

1. Report of Committee on Radiotelegraphic Investigations. 
See Eeports, p. 40. 



2. The S'pednim of Nova Geminorum. 
By P. J. M. Steatton, D.S.O., M.A.^ 

The following types of spectrum occur in the course of the star's history : 
(1) An absorption spectrum of hydrogen and enhanced lines of calcium, iron, 
and titanium, displaced towards the violet by amounts varying on different 
dates between 0.0035A.and 0.0005X. (2) An absorption spectrum of hydrogen, 
oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and helium displaced towards the violet by amounts 
varying on different dates from 0.0061 A to 0.0027 A. (3) A spectrum of bright 
bands corresponding to both sets of lines represented in the absorption spectrum. 
The bands were generally about 24 tm. wide, were slightly displaced to the 
red, and appeared later than the corresponding absorption lines. For some 
elements these bands were flanked by faint wings at each end, giving a wider 
band of double the width. In the bright central band two maxima appeared 
which for hydrogen varied in brightness with the strength of the two 
absorptions. (4) A bright band spectrum, consisting of hydrogen and helium 
lines and the nebulium lines known in the planetary nebulae. The structure 
of the bright bands is maintained unaltered, the same maxima showing as 
in stage (3). (5) A bright band spectrum, with the nebulium giving place to 
the lines typical of the bright-line Wolf-Rayet stars. 

In addition, there are present in the early stages certain undisplaced narrow 
dark lines, notably D,, D, of sodium and H and K of calcium. All structure 
in the bright bands and displacements of dark lines of an element vary directly 
as the wave-length of the presumed source; velocity is the only physical 
cause which seems capable of producing the results. The velocities are so 
large, reaching up to 2 x 10' cm./ sec, that electrical causes are suggested 
for them. The sequence of spectral type from heavy elements to light ones 
and the maintenance of a common structure in the bright bands for many 
months after the initial changes seem typical of all Novas, but the structure 
of these bands is different for each Nova. 

'■ To be published in Annals of Solar Physics Observatory, Cambridge, Vol. 4. 
See also Monthly Notices. B. Astronomical Soc, Vols. 73, 79. 



TEANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 147 

3. The Progressive Spectra oj Nova Aquila. 1918-i'J. 
By the Rev. A. L. Cohtie, S.J., F.R.A.Sr 

The present paper gives a general account of the changes in the spectrum 
of Nova Aquilic, between the dates June 10 and October 23, 1918, and in 
July, August 1919. iMeasurements and comparisons of the earlier plates lend 
little, if any, countenance to the view that a spectrum of the G, or solar type, 
was present in the ultra-violet regions of the spectrum. The broad dark bands 
observed in this part of the spectrum were mainly due to the doubling of 
the dark hydrogen series, and the superposition with decreasing wave-length 
of members of the second series over those of the first, on account of then- 
relative displacements. The blends so formed probably contained also enliauced 
lines of titanium, vanadium, and calcium, found in the spectrmn of a Cygni. 

There is more evidence for a spectrum of the Procyon, or F type, in the 
ultra-violet spectrum of the Nova in its earlier stages. The K line of calcium, 
and the H^ line of liydrogen, with which possibly is blended a magnesium 
hue, bear a greater likeness to Procyon than to a Cygni. But, with these 
exceptions, tue dark line spectiuiiis of the Nova, even in the ultra-violet, 
exactly matclies that of a Cygni, the great majority of the lines in the 
spectrum of which are characteristic of the solar chromospheric spectrum. 

Although the increase in brilliancy of the star in its earlier life-stages was 
rapid, 2-41 magnitudes in 2i hours, yet it was not much greater than that 
of some variable stars; e.g. R. Ursee Maj., 1-87 mag., and S.S. Cygni 
1-97 mag. per 24 hours. 

The whole of the hydrogen series of dark lines was represented in the 
spectrum, which extended very far into the ultra-violet. These dark hydroo-en 
lines were doubled, and greatly displaced. The displacements were prop°or- 
tionaJl to wave-length. These dark lines were accompanied on their more 
refrangible sides by broad bright bands, about 50 A.U. in average width The 
bright red band of liydrogen was by far the brightest in the early stages of 
the spectrmn. A noimal spectrum of a Cygni fits the centres of these bright 
bands. This entails that the dark nydrogen lines were displayed with a velocity 
of approach of the order of 1700 km/ sec for the first set, and 2400 km/ sec 
for the second set, twice and thrice respectively the velocity of the quickest 
moving solar prominences. The dark line a Cvgni spectrum was displaced 
concomitantly with the first set of hydrogen lines. 

The regularly decreasing widths of the hydrogen bright bands with 
decreasing wave-length indicates also velocity in the line of sight. These brio-ht 
bands were very complicated in structure in the earlier spectra, but by June" 15 
showed a definite triple character, which was maintained until they began 
to fade away at the end of August 1918. That is, for about five months they 
maintained their relative widths and displacements, of the order of 1300 km/ 
sec approach and 1200 km/sec recession. The spectium represented by the 
middle members of the trip-le bright bands remained stationary. The lono- 
continuance of the widths and great velocities of these bright bands present 
a great difhculty for any explanation based on a motion in the line of sight 
Is it possibly a Zeeman magnetic effect? 

By June 15 the spectrum was almost entirely a bright band spectrum of 
the a Cygni or A type. The bright bands were in many cases doubled, notably 
in the band X 4640, which is a nebula band appearing thus early in the 
spectrum. This band grew in intensity until the end of August 

By the end of July 1918 the bright band a Cygni spectrum had become 
very taint, which phase was accompanied by the brightening of a bright band 
7 Ononis, or B type spectrum, chiefly helium lines. The brighter nebula 
imes were also vei-y prominent. 

After August 23 the predominant type of spectrum was that of a pinnetnry 
nebula. The chief nebula and 0-type star lines were lelatively much the 
stronger. But the y Ononis lines remained untH at least October 23- helium 
oxygen, nitrogen. Some o Cygni lines also still faintly subsisted ; e.g. titanium'. 

= See Ohservatonj, Oct. 1^19, Vol. 42. No. 544, pp. Pm. ZCT. 



148 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

The star was again observed in July and August 1919. Visually it showed 
a planetary nebula disc surmounting a bright stellar point. Its usual spec- 
trum too was concentrated in a tingle green line X 5007. The photographic 
spectrum showed in addition A. 4363 very prominently, and other nebula lines 
faintly. 

The sequence of progressive changes was therefore from a possible Procyon 
type spectrum (FSG) through an a Cygni spectrum (A2F.p.), and a y Orionis 
spectnim (B^), to that of a planetary nebula. This sequence is in agreement 
with that generally adopted for giant stars rising in temperature. But in 
the Nova it was accompanied by a gradual lowering in magnitude, and pre- 
sumably of temperature. The nebula was therefore most probably present 
at the very beginning of the changes. A solar eruption on a magnified scale 
in a giant star situated in a dark nebula would square with the observed spectral 
changes. The nebula would be put into sympathetic luminous ^abration by 
the eruption. The a Cygni lines are chromospheric lines. The displaced hydro- 
gen is characteristic of such eruptions. The 7 Orionis, the 0-type star and 
nebula lines belong to the nebula in which the eruption took place. 



4. Report on Wave Motion. By Sir G. Gbeenhill, F.R.S. 

See p. 403. 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 
Discussion on Thermionic Tubes. 



The following Papers were read : — 

Discussion on Thermionic Tubes, opened by Professor W. H. Eccles, 

D.Sc. 

Professor Eccles gave a general description of the history and development 
of the three electrode valve, and explained its rectifying property and its uses 
in amplifiers, heterodyne reception, and the arrangements necessary to produce 
continuous waves. Experiments were shown illustrating theee uses of the valve; 
and the way was thus prepared for the discussion of special points by subsequent 
speakers. Professor Fortescue drew attention to the functions and properties of 
the various parts of the valve in some detail. The hot filament is the source ot 
the electrons upon which the action of the valve fundamentally depends, and 
with tungsten filaments as at present used only 4^ per cent, of the energy heating 
the filament is usefully employed as electron emission. This efficiency might be 
improved by using oxide-coated filaments or higher temperatures, but at present 
neither of these methods has been entirely successful in practice. The construc- 
tion of the grid and the question of freeing the anode and containing vessel from 
occluded gas were also discussed, and the importance of investigating the methods 
of removing the last traces of gases and examining their nature was emphasised. 
Dr. VVhiddington drew attention to tlie possibility of using valves and oscillating 
circuits for making many standard physical measurements. Thus, for instance, 
the coefficient of mutual induction between two coils can be measured by deter- 
mining the degree of coupling at which oscillations are just started and main- 
tained in the valve circuit. He also alluded to Professor Eccles' example of the 
extreme sensitiveness of heterodyne reception as represented by the effect of 
passing coal gas between the plates of a condenser in an oscillating circuit. The 
temperature coefficient of resistance, the conductivity of flames, the permeability 
of liquids and other quantities could also be measured by this delicate method. 



TRAKSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 



149 



1. A Wireless Method of Measuring e/m. 
By R. Whiddinoton, M.A., D.Sc.^ 

It is well known that if inductance capacity circuits of low resistance be 
associated with a three electrode thermionic valve in the manner shown in 
fig. 1, oscillations may be set up in the anode circuit having a period 2 irv/LC 
(very nearly), providing that 

(1) The resistance R of the anode circuit is small. 

(2) The ' resistance ' p of the valve is great. 

(3) The mutual induction M between the grid and anode coils is only 
just great enough to maintain the oscillations, a condition approximately 

realized -wlien M > 



\Q * =«)• 



In the arrangement of fig. 1, which represents a typical oscillation circuit, 
the ionic flow within the valve pulsates at a frequency determined by the 
values of the inductance and capacity associated with the anode circuit. 

This method of producing oscillations has been very largely used for many 
purposes, particularly in wireless telegraphy and telephony, and in modern 
practice is usually employed in conjunction with ' hard ' valves — that is to 




Fig. 1. 

say, valves from which gas and vapour have been removed to such a degree 
that ionisation by collision is negligible. 

The arrangement of fig. 1 can be used equally successfully, however, and 
usually more efficiently with ' soft ' valves — that is to say, valves containing 
small quantities of gas or vapour so that ionisation by collision can occur. 

It is the object of this short paper to show that in the case of soft valves 
a simpler scheme than the one just outlined — and, moreover, one involving 
entirely different principles — can be used to produce oscillations. This new 
arrangement is represented in fig. 2. 

There are in this arrangement no capacity inductance circuits, as in fig. 1, 
but simply a non-inductive potentiometer device in the grid circuit and a 
constant source of high potential in the anode circuit. 

It is found in practice that quite strong oscillations can be produced, of 
a frequency dependent almost altogether on the grid potential and geometrical 
dimensions of the valve electrodes. 

It will be convenient at this stage to outline a simple theory which explains 
broadly the observed phenomena. 



1 See Radio Bevieto, Nov. 1919. 



1919. 



150 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 



An assumption that has to be made at the outset is that, although one 
filament as a whole is emitting electrons continuously according to the accepted 
exponential temperature law, yet there are often one or more spots which 
are emitting with exceptional power. Such spots in the case of a tungsten 
filament are probably of chemical origin, due to the presence of local impurity, 
and would be very sensitive to small changes of temperature. In the theory 
to be developed it is supposed that the bombardment by positive ions of the 
filament in the neighbourhood of such an emitting spot would greatly increase 
the local electronic emission so long as the bombardment lasted. Very direct 





rAA/\A/WWVVWW\/\A 



I I 



Fig. 2. 



evidence of the existence of such selectively emitting spots on a tungsten 
filament is afforded by the experience of manufacturers of hard valves. It 
is customary in the factories to ' clean up ' the anode by passing a heavy 
thermionic discharge through the valve when on the pump. The dissipation 
of energy at the anode is regulated to such a point that the metal of the 
anode is maintained at a cherry-red heat. During this process it is frequently 
observed that one or more points on the anode are very much hotter than 
the main surface, a fact which can only be explained on the assumption that 
there is exceptionally powerful emission from the corresponding points on 
the hot filament. 

Consider one of these spots on the filament. If a burst of electrons be 
emitted they proceed towards the filament with a speed u given by 



= Ve ; or, ?< = \/ 2 V , e/w 



where e/m is the charge to mass ratio for the electron and V is the positive 
grid potential with respect to the particular point on the filament considered. 

(It is assumed as an approximation that the filament is screened from 
the anode by the grid, approximately true for the particular type of valve 
used in the experiments, which had a fine-meshed grid.) 

The electrons will thus take a definite and calculable time to travel from 
filament to grid under the moderate potential applied. On passing through 
the grid, however, the electrons emerge into a strong electric field and assume 
ionising speed. The negative ions produced follow the electrons to the anode, 
but the positive ions pass back through the grid towards the filament with speed 

w, = v/2 V77/ot^ 

where e/m is in fhis case the charge to mass ratio of the atom or molecule 
concerned. 

There will thus be a cloud of positive ions focussed on the filament and 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 



151 



bombarding the original electron emitting spot. This bombardment produces 
a new burst of electrons, and so a self-sustaining current oscillation may be 
set up, the period of which depends on the applied grid potential. 

The following table shows what frequency and wave-length of oscillation 
would be expected from the above general theory in the case of a valve with 
cylindrical gauze grid 6 millimetres in diameter and an axial hot wire. The 
singly-charged ions of hydrogen and mercury are there worked out for a grid 
potential of 1 volt. 



Nature of Charged I e/m i u ' n i Wave-length 

Particle j (approximate) (cms/sec) i (cycles/see) (metres) 



Electron 
Hydrogen Atom. 
Mercury Atom . 



1-7 



10^ 


6 X 10' 


40 X 10" 


0-^7 


10' 


1-4 X lO'' 


10 X 10^ 


30 


50 


10 X 10^ 


6-6 X 10^ 


450 



In actual experiments it was found that the arrangement of fig. 2 usually 
radiated energy at a frequency varying between 7.0 X 10= and 4.0 X id- 
cycles. The wave-lengths (from which the frequencies were deduced) were 
measured by means of a heterodyne wave-meter in the vicinity. 

The oscillations may therefore be safely ascribed to mercury vapour. It 
is to be observed, however, that the above calculated frequencies are based 
on singly-charged monatomic molecules, and that the frequency 6.6 X 10- 
cycles corresponds to the monatomic mercury molecule. If polyatomic molecules 
are involved the frequencies to be expected would be 1 \/2, 1 \/3, iVITetc, times 
6.6 X 10= cycles. 

In the following table are shown the frequencies to be expected theoretically, 
and for comparison those actually observed. 



Number of 
atoms in 
Molecule 



1 

2 
3 

4 



Theoretical 
Frequency 



6.6 X 10- 

4.7 X 10'5 

3.8 X 10* 
3.3 X 10- 



Observed 
Frequency 



6-4 X 10- 
4-5 X 105 
3-5 X 105 



Oscillations in addition to the above have been detected, believed to be 
clue to the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, but have not yet been 
investigated in detail. 

Referring back to the formula, it will be seen that the square of the 
speed of the ions (and therefore the square of the oscillation frequency) should 
be proportional to the potential applied to the grid. 

This prediction is amply borne out in practice (the frequency of oscilla- 
tion) - plotted against the grid potential yielding in all cases so far studied 
an excellent straight line. These lines cut the axis of potential at points 
determined partly by the position of the emitting spot on the filament and 
partly by the natural velocity emission of the electrons. This is a point 
which is being investigated in further detail, particularly from the point of 
view of getting a more accurate value for the ratio e/m than has hitherto 
been found possible. 



P 3 



152 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

2. The Diffraction of Electric Waves. 
By G. N." Watson, Sc.T)., F.R.S. 

The theory of the fundamental mathematical problem presented by long- 
distance wireless telegraphy has been investigated by Poincare, Nicholson, 
Macdonald, Love, and by some of Sommerfeld's pupils, on the hypothesis that 
the earth consists of a sphere of high conductivity surrounded by dielectric. 
The results obtained are not obviously consistent, and thev do not agree -with 
experimental results. I have recently obtained a general formula whereby the 
theoretical results can be reconciled . and this formula shows that the magnetic 
force at angular distance and from the transmitter is roughly proportional to 
exp( — 23-94 e/yx), where \ is the wave-length in kilometres. The experimental 
result obtained bv Austin is exp( — 9-6 9/a/X). In order to obtain this result 
(which is obviously inconsistent with the result of the diffraction theory) by 
mathematical reasoning, I have investigated by my method the Heaviside- 
Ekicles hypothesis that the upper regions of the atmosphere act as a conductor, 
and Austin's formula is exactly obtained if 

AV =z 1-67 X 10", 

where h is the height in kilometres of the conducting layer above the surface 
of the earth and o- is the conductivity of the layer in rational units. If 
A = 100, this formula gives the layer a conductivity of about 3-5 times the con- 
ductivity of fresh water. The mathematical investigations are given in detaii 
in tvro papers, Pror. Tioyal Boc. 95a, and also in a paper by Dr. van der Pol 
in the Phil. Mag., September 1919. 

In the course of discussion of the above paper. Dr. B. van der Pol said : — 

I consider that the mathematical work of Macdonald. Nicholson, and Watson 
does not leave the slightest doubt that the propagation round the earth of wire- 
less waves cannot be explained by means of pure diffraction only. 

As expounded by Prof. Watson, numerical agreement with experiments can 
be obtained when a concentric spherical shell ha^^ng a certain conductivity is 
supposed to surround the globe. This shell was taken for mathematical reasons 
to have a sharp inner boundary. Such a boundary can hardly be expected to 
exist in the upper atmosphere, and it is likely that in a transition resjion con- 
siderable amounts of energy will be dissipated. When, however, regard is taken 
of the equation of motion of free ions in an alternating field, as indicated by 
Professor Eccles several vears ago, it appears that the medium has not only a 
finite conductivity, but also an apparent diminution of the dielectric constant e 
must occur. 

In some experiments carried out at the Cavendish Laboratoi"^', Cambridge, 
I have used as ionised medium the negative glow of a p-low- discharge, and 
waves were sent through it. Results were obtained confirming- thp above view. 
As this diminution of e with height causes the wnvefront to fall over in the 
direction of propagation, and is therefore favourable to wireless tr.nnsmission, 
it is not unlikely that, when this increase of phase velocity -with height is taken 
into account, the propagation of waves round the earth can be explained with 
the assumption of a gradual variation with height of conductivit}' and apparent 
dielectric constant. 

3. 0)7 a possible Theory of Vision. By Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S.i 

A resonance view of the action of the retina has long been in contemplation.! 
The present writer pointed out in Nature for March 1890 that the rods audi 
cones were of reasonably right dimensions to respond, like Hertz resonators,! 
to transverse vibrations falling on their ends with the frequency of luminous^ 
waves. (See also Modern Views nf Elecfririty , § 157A and fig. 60.) 

But this gave no indication of how the nerves were thereby stimulated. Thel 
subsequent discoveries of excited radioactivity, and of the astronomical structure! 
of an atom, give a hope of a more detailed theory. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 153 

An atom with K,L_,M orbits is known to respond to K,L,M frequencies of 
X radiation, and to be ionised thereby. 

Outlying electrons, such as are often held responsible for chemical or molecular 
processes, could respond to lower frequencies characteristic of visible light. 

And if the orbital radius is estimated which shall enable an electron to 
respond to red, green, or violet light, the order of magnitude is not much 
larger than the atomic size 10'^ centimetre, even for heavy atoms. The necessary 
radius varies as the cube root of Moseley's atomic number, and with the two- 
thirds power of the wave length. 

The suggestion is that the retina may be found to contain atoms in such a 
condition of incipient instability ('sub-generative,' as Professor Eccles calls 
the state of certain wireless ' valves ') as to be readily excited by cumulative 
impulses of the right luminous frequency, and thereby to be stimulated so as 
to expel an electron and excite a nerve. The energy of expulsion could only 
be attributable to the incident light on the principle of syntonic accimaulation — 
the ionisation-energy might be represented as hn — and so the extreme sensi- 
tiveness of the eye would be accounted for. The atom would be an amplifier 
or relay, able to respond to the faintest vibration of the right frequency. Re- 
tinal fatigue and other phenomena of vision could also be accounted for. 

If, however, vision is tri-chromic, the tuning must not be too precise, the 
responders must be somewhat damped so as to respond over a fair range ; and 
in the current Phil. Mag. (September 1919) Professor Barton, of Nottingham, 
claims to have shown by mechanical experiments on damped pendulums that 
three suitably damped and connected vibrators will exhibit phenomena which 
by an effort may be regarded as analogous to colour-vision. 

Whether three varieties of vibrator are sufficient, or whether more are 
necessary, makes no difference to the present communication, which is intended 
to suggest to physico-physiological experimenters the attempt to examine whether 
chemical substances can be found in a recently removed retina which are able 
to emit high-speed electrons when subjected to light. 



THURSDAY, Sb]PT EMBER 11. 

The foMowing Papers and Reports were read : — 

1. The ilanisation of Argon and Helium by Electron Collisions. 
By Professor F. Horton and Miss A. C. Davies.^ 

Experiments were described showing that there are two critical velocities 
for eleotroins in both Argon and Helium. At the lower critical velocity, radiation 
is produced from the gas ; at the higher critical velocity ionisation of the gas 
takes place. In the case of Argon these velocities correspond to potential 
differences of 11-5 volts and 15T volts respectively, and in Helium to potential 
differences of 20-4 volts and 25-6 volts respectively. From the values found for 
the ionisation velocities the high-frequency limits of the spectra of the two 
gases were calculated by applying the quantum relation e V = /i n and it was 
shown that these Imiits agree with those recently determined spectroscopically 
by Lyman. 

2. The Production of Luminosity in Helium by Electron Coliisions. 
By Professor F. Horton and Miss J). Bailey. " 

Helium atoms were bombarded by electrons, the veiocity of which was 
gradually increased until luminosity was produced in the gas. It was found 
that the electron velocity could then be decreased slightly and the luminosity 
maintained. Experiments were made to determine the least velocity of the 

1 Partly published in Proc. Roy. Soc. A, vol. 95, p. 408. Remainder to be 
published in the same. 

- To be published in 7*^(7. Mag. 



154 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

electrons which sufficed to maintain the hnninosity, and observations were made 
to ascertain whether the different series of lines in the Helium spectrum required 
different e'lectron velocities for their production. It was found that luminosity 
was never produced until the electron velocity was about 25 volts, and that 
it could not be maintained at velocities lower than 23 volts, and then only in 
the presence of traces of impurity. No evidence was obtained that any one of 
the Helium series could be excited without producing the others also. 

3. The Mther and the Perihelion of Mercury. By Dr. E. A. Houstoun.^ 

It is well known that the perihelion of Mercury advances some 42 seconds of arc 
per century, and that this progression has been explained by Einstein on his theory 
of generalised relativity. Sir Oliver Lodge attempted to explain it by assuming that 
the mass of Mercury was given hj m„/(l—v^/c^)i, where v was the velocity of mercury 
relative to the jether, the asther being at rest in space, the same law of variation as 
holds for the mass of a cathode particle, but his attempt was unsuccessful. I recently' 
suggested that the optical difficulties associated with the earth's motion through space 
were best met by assuming that the sether to the uttermost corners of space had the 
same velocity of translation as the earth had, by making it, in fact, geocentric. This 
suggestion leads to a very interesting result as regards the jserihelion of Mercury. 

For if we use Eddington's equation for the orbit, 

de^ h'hi-^ Too' 

and Sir Oliver Lodge's expression for the mass, but regard v as the velocitj^ of Mercury 
relative to the earth, since according to my view the aether moves with the earth, the 
problem reduces to Newton's revolving orbit, and we find that the perihelion rotates a 
fraction of a revolution equal to 

d^T^l -e'^y 

while the planet moves through one revolution. This expression is the same as 
Einstein's, except that he has the factor 12 instead of 2. Hence, if the mass of Mercury 
varied six times as fast as the mass of a cathode particle, we would have perfect 
agreement. 



4. The Interpretation of the Quantum. By Dr. E. A. Houstoun. 

Planck's theory of radiation assumes that a certain quantity of energy hv, the 
quantum, is associated with radiation of frequency v. This quantum is alleged to 
be inexplicable on the basis of Newtonian mechanics and has given rise to much 
theorising of a revolutionary nature : it seems to have altogether escaped notice, 
that it can be quite tolerably explained by the ordinary model atom which some of 
us use in our lectures. 

This model atom consists of a sphere of positive electricity of uniform density p, 
the radius of the sjihere being a. Inside the sphere there is one electron, which oscil- 
lates about its centre through the positive electricity. Let v be the frequency (recipro- 
cal of the period) of the oscillations, and suppose that the radius of the sphere is just 
large enough for the positive electricity to neutralise the electron. Then 



'' V \3n,n) 



and e = ^ ira V- 

3 '^ 



The sphere is supposed to be rigid. 

Now sujjpose that the electron starts from rest on the surface of the sphere and 
falls towards the centre of the atom. Let v be the velocity accjuired by the time it 
reaches the centre. Then v = 2irav. On eliminating p and a these three relations 
give 

1 Phil. Mag., Feb. 1919. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 155 

If an electron has one quantum kinetic energj', its velocity is given by 

The difference between the two formulae for v amounts to the sixth root of v. an 
amount which would hardly matter if only the visible spectrum were in question, 
but is much too great when we take the X-ray region also into consideration. But 
there is a surprising numerical agreement. If we fix our attention on two wave- 
lengths, Ji.) that of sodium in the visible spectrum and (ii.) the wave-length 10"' cm. 
in the X-ray region, we find that the two expressions for v give, in the case of (i.) 
9-29 X 10' cms./sec, and 8-64 x 10' cms./sec, and in the case of (ii.) 1-68 x 10" cms./sec, 
and 6-64x 10" cms./sec, the second value in each case being given by the quantum 
formula. Thus, there is fair agreement for sodium, but the new formula gives only 
one-quarter of the correct value in the X-ray region. If we make the electron fall 
from infinity, or vary the law of density of the positive electricity, we can shift the 
point of exact numerical agreement along the spectrum, but the power of v always 
remains the same. 

However, the agreement, such as it is, is sufficient to make it probable, that the 
quantum is the amount of energy acquired by a free electron in falling into a void 
atom. 



5. On Gmiss's Theorem for Quadrature and the Approximate Evaluation 
of definite Integrals ivith finite Limits. By Professor A E 
Forsyth, F.E.S.— See p. 385. 



6. On certain Types of Plane Algebraic Curve. 
By Professor Harold Hilton.^ 

The equation of the most general plane algebraic curve of degree six with 
deficiency 1 or 0, having a triple point at which two linear branches have 
five or six-pomt contact, while a third linear branch has ordinary contact 
with them both, can be put in one of the forms 

{u-ay"-) (u- y-) (u-y y^) = k^xu-y^y, 
(u-a if) {u-$ y«) (m-7 ?/-) = kiKu"; 

where a, ^8, y ai-e constants and u is written for yz-^-x'K 

If in these equations we put /t; = l and divide through by y, we get the 
most general quintic curve of deficiency 1 or 0, whose double points all coalesce 
at a single double point. 

In general all these double points are nodes; but one is a cusp, if one 
or all of o, /?, y are zero. The deficiency is zero, if {&-y) (7-0) (o-;8) = 0- 
otherwise it is unity. ' ' 

The properties of the curve may be investigated in two ways : 

(i.) The co-ordinates of any point on the curve may be expressed in terms 
of a_ parameter t by finding the intersections of the curve with u = ty-. 

(ii.) The curve may be transformed into the cubic 

^x"-z = in-az) 0/-^:) (!/-y:) 

by the birational transformation which replaces u by y^ / z and x by x+i 
X in the case of the second of the equations). 

7. Some unsolved Problems of Canadian Weather. 
By Sir Frederic Stup.\rt. 



or 



loon ^'^^ P'obably be published in Rc.iidirontl (hi C'ircoJo Matematico di Palermo. 



l56 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

8. Report of Seismology Committee. — See Reports, p. 35. 



9. Report of Commiltee on Gravity at Sea. — See Reports, p. 83. 

10. Report on Seismology after the War. By Dr. G. W. Walker, 
F.R.S.—See Reports, p. 32. 



FBIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 
The following Papers and Report were read, and Discussion took place : — 

1. Photographs taken at Principe during the Total Eclipse of the Sun, 
May 29th. By Professor A. S. Eddingtoin, F.R.S., and E. T. 
CoTTiNGHAM, followed by a Discussion on Relativity, opened by 
Professor Eddington, F.R.S. 

Professor Eddington gave an account of the observations which had been 
made at Principe during the solar eclipse. The main object in view was to 
observe the displacement (if any) of stars, the light from which passed through 
the gravitational field of the sun. To establish the existence of such an effect 
and the determination of its magnitude gives, as is well known, a crucial test of 
the theory of gravitation enunciated by Einstein. Professor Eddington explained 
that the observations had been partially vitiated by the presence of clouds, but 
the plates already measured indicated the existence of a deflection intermediate 
between the two theoretically, possible values 0-87" and 1-75". He hoped that 
when the measurements were completed the latter figiire would prove to be 
verified. Incidentally Professor Eddington pointed out that the presence of 
clouds had resulted in a solar prominence being photographed and its history 
followed in some detail ; some very striking photographs were shown. 

Following on thie account Professor Eddington opened the discussion on 
relativity, and referred again to the bending of the wave front of light to be 
expected from Einstein's new law when the light passes near a heavy body. It 
should be possible to test experimentally, this law, which demands that the speed 
of light varies as 1 — 2 H where fl is the gravitational potential. He showed that 
whether Einstein's solution of the problem be correct or not, it has at any rate 
given a new orientation to our ideas of space and time. Sir Oliver Lodge 
regarded the relativity theory of 1905 as a supplement to Newtonian dynamics 

by the adoption of the "factor (l — -^j and its powers necessitated by experi- 
mental results ; but he did not consider this dependence of mass and length on 
velocity as entailing any revolutionary changee of our ideas of space and time, or 
a* rendering necessary the further complexities of 1915. He compared the diffi- 
culties involved with the case of measuring temperature, defined in terms of a 
perfect gas, and made with gases which only approximate to this ideal state. 
Dr. Silberstein pointed out that Einstein's theory of gravitation predicts three 
verifiable phenomena, i.e., a shift of spectral lines, the bending of light round 
the sun and the secular motion of the perihelion of a planet. In the neighbour- 
hood of a radially symmetric mass, such as our sun, the -line element (hs is given 
by:- 

The coefficient c-dt^ gives by itself a lengthening of the period of oscillation for 
a terrestrial observer in the ratio (l-fM/c-r) : 1, demanding a shift of spectral 
lines of about OIA.U. Secondly., the path of rays of light is obtained by putting 
ds = o, and the first and second coefficients give jointly a bending which, for rays 
almost grazing the sun, is 1-75". Thirdly, Keplerian motion is predicted with a 
progressively moving perihelion which in the case of iMercury turns out to be 
43" per century. He drew attention to the fact that St. John's results in 1917 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 157 

showed no shift of the spectral lines, a fact which in itself ■would overthrow the 
theory in question. Father Cortie pointed out that C<ampbeirs photographs, 
taken in 1918 and measured by Curtis, gave no trace of any displacement of the 
images of 43 stars distributed irregularly round the sun. 



Spectrum Emission of Atomic Systems containing a Double or More 
Complex Nucleus. By L. Silberstein, Ph.D. 

The subject proper of the paper is preceded by a short historical account 
of the work done since 1913 by Bohr, the pioneer of the quantum theory 
of spectra; by Sommerfeld (relativistic refinement of Bohr's theory leading 
to the fine structure of spectrum lines) ; and by Ep.stein (Stark effect). 

In all these investigations the nucleus of the atom is assumed to be a 
homogeneous spherical charge, or, which is the same thing, a point charge. 

The corresponding spectra are all series of the Balmer type, = const. ( — ^ — ^j 

m and ti being integers. These series consist, apart from relativistic refine- 
ments, of sharp (ideally monochromatic) lines. 

In order to obtain series of other more complicated types, and, moreover, 
consisting of ' lines ' which, even without taking into account the relativistic 
terms, will show a complicated fine structure, the author works out, on the 
lines of the quantum theory, the spectra emitted by atoms containing 
aspherical nuclei. As a first example the case of two fixed positive centres 
as nucleus is treated without restrictions of the dimensions of the 
electron's orbits. This being the famous soluble case of Euler and Jacobi, 
the author treats it by the method of separation of variables. A variety of 
orbits and of the corresponding types of spectrum series are described and 
illustrated in their general features. The sub-case of comparatively large 
orbits, which is physically the most interesting one, is treated, with all details, 
by the method of perturbations. If 2a be the mutual distance of the two 
centres, the negatived ■energy belonging to any stationary orbit, in three 

dimensions, is, u't {■• ( I -terms, 

W = - N 1 1+7 /•- - J F(W|,"».M3) } . ■ (I) 

where ks is the total charge of the nucleus, N the Bohr excression of the 
Rydberg constant, 

7 = "^"' (2) 

M,, »:, «.3 three independent integers, and 

n = ni-l-n2-!-?!,, ; e the eccentricity of the 'osculating' orbit, which is quantitized 
by the usual principles so that 

2 , (n- w,)" 

€ = i — s • 

n- 

and finally a a number contained between 1 and 3, namely 

tt = 1 + 2 sin'' S>, (4) 

& being the longitude of the perihelion counted from the equatorial plane. 
For y = o, the series corresponding to (1), is a Balmer series of sharp lines. 
The y^ term gives doublets, or triplets, etc., according to the value of 
ni-|-W2-f-?i3 in the constant term; moreover, each of the components of these 
doublets, etc., consists in general of several sub-components. Those corresponding 
to Ji2 = o or 713 = are sharp, ideally monochromatic [these correspond to orbits 
contained in the equatorial plane or to any circular orbits] ; all others have a 



158 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

small but finite breadth, owing to 1 < a < 3. A few concrete examples are quoted, 
together -with the distribution of the components and sub-components. If, say- 
in the case of doublets, the frequency interval is to be such as that observed for 
the doublet Ha, formula (1), with (2), gives for the distance of the centres 
2a = 3.10-i2cm. 

In the next place, nuclei of any axially symmetric form are discussed and 
shown to lead to essentially similar results. Finally, the most general case 
of an arbitrarily shaped nucleus is investigated, when besides & also the 
longitude of the node is shown to be a source of finite breadth of some of 
the sub-components; moreover, formula (1) is in all such cases replaced by 
a somewhat more complicated one. 

The full paper will shortly be published in the Philosopliical Magazine. 



3. The Beterminat'wn of the Viscosities of Liquids at Hiqli Pressures. 
By Dr. T. E. Stanton, F.B.S. 

The method consists essentially of a system of two horizontal (the upper one 
of oapillarvi dimensions) and two vertical tubes forming a closed circuit of 
liquid under pressure, the lower half of the circuit containing mercury and the 
upper half the liquid imder test. The end of the system rests on a horizontal 
knife edge, and the other is carried by a spiral spring. On the mercury being 
displaced by a given amount, flow will take place round the circuit owing to 
the difference of head, and it is evident that if the spring be so designed that 
its rate of extensions is equal to the rate of change of head of the mercury, flow 
of the liquid under test will take place through the capillary tube under a 
constant pre.ssure difference and at a velocity which can be calculated from 
the rate of extension of the spring. In this way all the data required for the 
determination of the absolute viscosity of the fluid are determined. 



4. Wireless Telegraphy during the First Three Years of the War. 
"By Major T. Vincent Smith, M.C. 

This paper deals with wireless in what was the Military Wing of the Boyal 
Flying Corps during the first three years of the war. and brings the history 
of this work up to tlie time of the amalgamation of the 'Eoyal Naval Air Service 
and Royal Flying Corps into the Royal Air Force. 

It shows the state of knowledge at the beginning of the war, and the 
gradual progress made in the building up of an immense organisation. 

It gives in detail the experiences of the early days, the difficulties which 
arose, and how they were met. 

Improvements in apparatus, methods, etc., and their effect upon operations 
are shown, and the technical means by which the enemy was beaten are 
discussed. 

The important w-ork of the E-oyal Flying Corps in co-operation with Artillery, 
Infantry, and Cavalry would have been practically impossible without wire- 
less. These things are discussed from their inception, and their progress followed 
from birth to maturity. 

The introduction of thermionic values for transmission and reception, inter- 
aeroplane telephony, and directional wireless are touched upon, though the war] 
ended before their influence had time seriously to affect the final operations. 

The story is a collection of details, each one small in itself, but the com- 
bined whole shows how the many difficulties, inseparable from an ever-increasing] 
demand, were overcome in a manner which earned the respect of the enemy. 



5. The Limitations of Relativity. 
By W. J. JoiiNRTON and Sir Joseph L.\rmor. 

The following propositions are believed to be valid, on the basis of a con- 
cise symbolic calculus, subject, of course, to critical verification. 

(1) If a field of physical activity possesses the two characteristic properties 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 159 

(i) that the quantities wliich define it are propagated through the aether with 
a single constant velocity, and (ii) that translatory uniform convection as a whole 
through the iether produces no modification in the field, then it is necessarily 
restricted to the special type of the electrodynamic field as formulated by 
Maxwell. 

(2) A field of gravitation is included as the limiting form of such a type 
when the velocity of propagation becomes very great. As like source is now 
to attract like, the energy of the field must be kinetic and not elastic. The 
question of interaction between a field of gravitation and electric fields or rays 
of light is, of course, a separate and fundamental one, independent of theories 
of relativity, and is now being put to refined test by astronomical observation. 

(3) If time were linked with space after the maimer of a fourth dimen- 
sion, relativity in electrodynamic fields would be secured as above, but the 
sources of the field could not be permanent particles or electrons. If physi- 
cal science is to evolve on the basis of relations of permanent matter and its 
motions, time must be maintained distinct from space, and the effect of con- 
vection must continue to be thrown on to the material observing system in the 
form of slight modification of its structure. 



6. How could a Rotating Body such as the Sun become a Magnet? 

By Sir Joseph Larmor. 

The obvious solution by convection of an electric charge, or of electric polar- 
isation is excluded ; because electric fields in and near the body would be 
involved, which would be too enormous. Direct magnetisation is also ruled out 
by the high temperature, notwithstanding the high density. But several feasible 
possibilities seem to be open. 

(1) In the case of the sun, surface phenomena jjoint to the existence of a 
residual internal circulation mainly in meridian planes. Such internal motion 
induces an electric field acting on the moving matter : and if any conducting 
path around the solar axis happens to be open, an electric current will flow round 
it, which may in turn increase the inducing magnetic field. In this way it 
is possible for the internal cyclic motion to act after the manner of the cycle 
of a self -exciting dynamo, and maintain a permanent magnetic field from insigni- 
ficant beginnings, at the expense of some of the energy of the internal circula- 
tion. Again, if a sunspot is regarded as a superficial source or sink of radial 
llow of strongly ionised material, with the familiar vortical features, its strong 
magnetic field would, on these lines, be a natural accompaniment : and if it 
were an inflow at one level compensated by outflow at another level, the flatness 
and vertical restriction of its magnetic field would be intelligible. 

(2) Theories have been advanced which depend on a hypothesis that the 
force of gravitation or centrifugal force can excite electric polarisation, which, 
by its rotation, produces a magnetic field. But, in order to obtain sensible 
magnetic effect, there would be a very intense internal electric field such as no 
kind of matter could sustain. That, however, is actually got rid of by a 
masking distribution of electric charge, which would accumiilate on the surface, 
and in part in the interior where the polarisation is not uniform. The circum- 
stance that the two compensating fields are each enormous is not an objection; 
for it is recognised, and is illustrated by radioactive phenomena, that molecular 
electric fieids are, in fact, enormous. But though, the electric masking would 
be complete, the two distributions would not compensate each other as regards 
the magnetic effects of rotational convection : and there would be an outstanding 
magnetic field comparable with that of either distribution taken separately. 
Only rotation would count in this way ; as the effect of the actual translation, 
along with the solar system, is masked by relativity. 

(3) A crystal possesses permanent intrinsic electric polarisation, because its 
polar molecules are orientated : and if this natural orientation is pronounced, 
the polarisation must be nearly complete, so that if the crystal were of the 
size of the earth it would produce an enormous electric field. But, great or 
small, tliis field will become annulled by masking electric charge as above. The 
explanation of pyi-o-electric phenomena by Lord Kelvin was that change of 
temperature alters the polarisation, while the masking charge has not had 



]60 TRANSACTIONS OV SECTION A. 

opportunity to adapt itself : and piezoelectric phenomena might have been 
anticipated on the same lines. Thus, as there is not complete compensation 
magnetically, an electrically neutralised crystalline body moving with high speed 
of rotation through the jether would be expected to produce a magnetic field : 
and a planet whose materials have crystallised out in some rough relation to 
the direction of gravity, or of its rotation, would possess a magnetic field. But 
relativity forbids that a crystalline body translated without rotation at astrono- 
mical speeds should exhibit any magnetic field relative to the moving system. 

The very extraordinary feature of the earth's magnetic field is its great 
and rapid changes, comparable with its whole amount. Yet the almost absolute 
fixity of length of the astronomical day shows extreme stability of the earth 
as regards its material structure. This consideration would seem to exclude entirely 
theories of terrestrial magnetism of the type of (2) and (3). But the type (1), 
which appears to be reasonable for the case of the sun, would account for 
magnetic change, s^udden or gradual, on the earth merely by change of internal 
conducting channels : though, on the other hand, it would require fluidity and 
residual circulation in deepseated regions. In any case, in a celestial body 
residual circulation would be extremely permanent, as the large size would make 
effects of ordinary viscosity nearly negligible. 



During the meeting, Models of Crystals, devised by Miss Nina 
HosALi, were shown, as to which the following statement was issued: — 

The object of these models is 

(1) To illustrate the forms possible to crystals: 

(2) To show as clearly as possible the different kinds of symmetry possessed 
by these forms ; and 

(3) To show how the forms are referred t-o crystallographic axes. 

Each model illustrates one of the thirty-two classes of symmetry, and 
represents several crystal forms correctly orientated with regard to the crystallo- 
graphic axes, the latter being shown by black threads. A model consists in 
the first place of a glass envelope whose shape is that of some simple crystal 
form, and within this envelope two or three other forms are represented by 
means of coloured silk threads stretched over frameworks of thin copper wire. 
By this means it is easy to make the forms intersect if necessary, and they 
are readily distinguished from one another by the use of differently coloured 
threads. 

The symmetry elements of the class represented by any model are shown 
as follows : 

(a) The traces of the Planes of Symmetnj on the glass envelope are shown 
by steel wires. 

(6) Axes of Symmetry are shown bj' ivJiite threads. (If an axis of symmetry 
and a crystallographic axis are coincident, the white and black threads repre- 
senting them are twisted together.) The degree of symmetry possessed by an 
axis is indicated by small numbers attached to the thread near its ends. 

(c) When simultaneous rotation about an axis and reflection across a 
perpendicular plane occur to produce Alternating Symmetry, the traces of the 
plane on the glass envelope are shown by red and vjJiite twisted threads, and 
the axis is shown by a white thread, its degree of symmetiy being indicated 
by small numbers fixed to it and printed in red. 

(d) When the symmetry elements are such that the forms are Centro- 
Symmetrical (i.e. when the faces occur in parallel j)airs), a couple of white beads 
are placed at the centre of the model. 

The set of twenty-four models here exhibited represents twenty-one out 
of the thirty-two classes and over seventy different forms. In many cases 
different varieties of the forms may be pjoduced by rotating or inverting the 
models, or by reflecting them in a mirror, and, when these modifications are 
taken account of, the number of forms shown is brought up to about 140. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION B. : PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 161 



SECTION B: CHEMISTEY. 



President of the Section: Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 
The President delivered the following Address : — 

In again taking up the work of this Section, after an interval of three years, a 
discontinuity without parallel in the annals of the Association, it is natural that 
our thoughts should turn to the past, and in so doing we are reminded of the 
gaps in the ranks of those who were accustomed to contribute to the work of 
our Section. In 1916 we met under a shadow caused by the death of Sir W. 
Ramsay, whose genius has added in so many ways to our science. And to-day 
we have to record the loss of one who in his long life contributed in a variety 
of Avays to the advancement of chemistry, and to whom we owe an addition 
to the number of elementary substances in the discovery of thallium, one of 
the early fruits of the use of the spectroscope. The chemistry of the rare 
earths has been especially illumined by the researches of Sir William Crookes. 
With physicists we would join in a tribute to the memory of Lord Eayleigh, 
amongst whose experimental researches is one of special interest to chemists — 
namely, the revelation of the existence of argon, of which discovery Sir J. J. 
Thomson has recently written that it was not made ' by a happy accident, or by 
the application of new and more powerful methods than those at the disposal of 
his predecessors, but by that of the oldest of chemical methods — the use of the 
balance.' 

In this connection it is but right that, despite the feelings engendered by 
the war, I should refer to the passing of two great chemists — Baeyer and Fischer. 
The former died some two years ago, and the latter within the past. few months. 
Each of them has advanced by his experimental researches the progress of 
organic chemistry, and has brought illumination into many of the obscure 
departments of this branch of science. The field of investigation latterly culti- 
vated by Fischer has revived an interest in the ' vital ' side of organic chemistry 
as distinguished from the study of the chemistry of the carbon compounds. 
Moreover, there are many British chemists, amongst them some of the most 
distinguished, who, as students, received guidance and inspiration from the 
teaching of Baeyer or of Fischer, and with them w© gratefully acknowledge our 
indebtedness. 

Fifty years ago Mendeleeff communicated to the Russian Chemical Society 
a memoir which has exercised a profound influence on chemical philosophy, and 
continues to serve as a guide in the interpretation of research and speculations 
on the nature of the elements. Without entering on the somewhat vexed ques- 
tion as to w^hom should be assigned the credit of the discovery of the Periodic 
Law, I trust I shall not be considered unmindful of the claims of Newlands, 
by adopting the traditional history, and, as is usual, associate this discovery 
with the name of Mendeleeff, and consequently we may look on this year as the 
Jubilee of the Periodic Law. Although there is already abundant special litera- 
ture dealing with this subject, and the periodic system has been assimilated into 
the teaching of the science and is dealt with in the text-books of chemistry, in 
some of which it forms the basis of the system employed in the exposition of the 



162 TRAiJSACTIONS OF SECTION B. 

facts and theories of inorganic chemistry, still it appeared to me that I might 
utilise this as an opportunity of passing in brief review some of the features of 
the rise and development of the ' Periodic Law.' 

The memoir, made known to the non-Russian reader by the abstract in 
German, shows the principle of periodicity — viz., the recurrence of similar pro- 
perties at regular intervals with increase in the magnitude of atomic weights, 
the possibility of utilising the atomic weights as a basis of the classification of 
the elements, the necessity for the revision of the values thus assigned to the 
atomic weights of certain elements, and finally that the .scheme demanded for 
its completeness the existence of many new elements. 

The later writings of Mendeleeff contain the mode of tabulating the elements 
in the form usually adopted in chemical text-books, portraying the principle of 
periodicity and showing the grouping of the elements into natural families. 
But undoubtedly the clearest demonstration of the association between the 
atomic weights and the physical properties of the elements is that exhibited 
by the curve of atomic w~eights and atomic volumes, which is an outcome of the 
independent studies of these relationships by Lothar Lleyer, and, as is well 
known, shows the members of the natural families of elements occupying corre- 
sponding positions on the curve. This curve, with its undulations, corresponding 
to the series of the elements, has contributed to impress on the mind of the 
student the relationship between the properties of the elements and their atomic 
weights, and may have exercised an influence in drawing attention to these 
relationships which the attempts of the earlier workers in this field were not 
successful in doing. 

Mendeleeff's Table of the Elements was just beginning to figure in the 
teaching of chemistry in my undergraduate days, and, together with the specu- 
lations underlying it, aroused considerable interest and proved an incentive and 
inspiration for experimental inquiry. Foremost in this counti-y amongst those 
who by their writings have contributed to spread a knowledge of IMendeleeff's 
speculations was my fellow-student, Carnelley. His experimental investigations 
added materially to our knowledge and definition of the physical properties of 
elements and compounds, which further emphasised the periodicity in the rela- 
tion of the atomic weights to the properties of the elements, and have provided 
data from which curves, resembling in contour the atomic volume curve, have 
been set up. 

A valuable guide in fixing the atomic weights of the elements has been the 
specific heat which, as the discovery of Dulong and Petit showed a hundred 
years ago, varies in the case of solid elementary bodies inversely with their 
atomic weights: or. as is more usually expressed, the solid elements have the 
same atomic heat. The investigation of the exceptions to this empirical rule 
brought out the fact that the specific heat is influenced by temperature, and the 
study of the influence of low temperatures led Sir James Dewar to the discovery 
that at about 50° Absolute the atomic heats of the elements are a periodic func- 
tion of the atomic weights. Further, the graphic representation of this relation 
gives a curve very similar in its course to that of the atomic volume curve. So 
that the specific heat is another of the physical properties to fit into the periodic 
scheme. 

The necessity for a revision of the atomic weights of certain elements, as 
pointed out by Mendeleeff, has induced several workers to direct their energies 
to the solution of the problems indicated, so that in our present-day tables many 
of the anomalies of position and sequence which existed in the earlier schemes 
have disappeared. Tellurium has still resisted all attempts to bring it into 
order, with an atomic weight less than that of iodine, which its association with 
sulphur and selenium demands. The interesting attempts to decompound tel- 
lurium have so far remained unfruitful. 

But undoubtedly the most fascinating feature of the periodic system is that 
' it allows the discovery of many new elements to be foreseen.' This and the 
manner in which Mendeleeff, in full conviction of the truth of the ' Periodic 
Law,' boldly assigned properties to those elements required to fill the blank 
spaces_ in the table of elements, and the verification within twenty years in 
three instances of these prophetic specifications have contributed to the recogni- 
tion and firm establishment of the 'Periodic Law ' as an article of belief in 



PKESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 163 

chemical philosophy, and lo make it Uie mainspring and inspiration of the 
greater part of modern inorganic research. 

The discovery ot argon, the announcement of which formed a notable feature 
in the proceedings of the Association at the Oxford meeting in 1894, and the 
recognition in. it of an element with an atomic weight of 40, raised doubts in 
the minds of some as to the validity of the scheme of the elements based upon 
the Periodic Law. It was indeed a time of testing the faith. The suggestion 
that argon would prove to be a modified form of nitrogen was brushed aside 
by the incontrovertible establishment of it as an element, endowed only with 
specific physical properties and distinguished from all known elements by its 
lack of any of those activities which characterise the remaining elements. But 
argon was not destined to enjoy a splendid isolation for long. The researches 
of Sir W. Ramsay soon brought helium to earth, and he and his colleagues 
provided a number of companions for argon. So, in a very short period, was 
recognised the existence of a group of gaseous elements forming a natural family, 
whose molecules are monatomic, the members of which are distinguishable by 
their spectra and atomic weights, but are all in agreement in their unreadiness 
to take part in any chemical change. This inertness or nonvalence provided a 
simple means of reconciliation with the periodic scheme of the elements, as all 
that was required was simply to add to the eight groups of the table of elements 
a zero group containing helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, and with 
niton, the emanation from radium, as a recent addition. If we are to accept 
Mendeleeff's suggestion, the zero group should contain a member lighter than 
hydrogen, in Series I., and in a zero series a still lighter representative of the 
elements of the zero group, which he has postulated as the ' ether ' of the 
physicist. 

Thus the discovery of argon has formed a starting point in the development 
and a justification of the natural system of the elements, but it still remains, to 
make the tabulation complete, that provision should be made for the accommoda- 
tion of the rare earths. The paper published by Werner in 1905, under the 
title ' A Contribution to the Development of the Periodic Sysoem,' shows how 
this can be satisfactorily accomplished. 

The elements of the argon group form a valuable extension to the periodic 
system, and the knowledge acquired in the investigation of these substances has 
proved serviceable in the solution of problems in the realms of science and of 
industry. The knowledge of the properties and behaviour of helium was 
destined soon to play a part in the solution of the riddle of the radio-active 
elements, whilst it is specially noteworthy that argon, the ' idle one,' should 
have been pressed into industrial service. 

This fact suggests the thought that idleness has its uses, and at the present 
time how satisfactory would it be were we able to find useful application for a 
quality which appears to be plentifully and widely distributed in this countiy. 

The history of helium is still more astonishing, for not until thirty years 
after its existence had been surmised from spectroscopic observations of the 
sun was this element found to have a terrestrial existence, and now, as one of 
the achievements of science during the war, we may look on its production in 
bulk as a commercial proposition. Moreover, we are told ' that the advances 
made in the production of helium warrant the opinion that, had the war con- 
tinued after November 11, 1918, supplies of helium at the rate of 2,000,000 cubic 
feet per month would have been produced within the Empire and the United 
States, and helium-filled aircraft would have been in service.' ' 

Some of the speculations that the periodic system of the elements has given 
rise to have been the subjects of communications to this Section. 

At the Aberdeen meeting Carnelley, whom I have already mentioned as an 
ardent worker in this field, gave an account of a scheme based on the conception 
that the elements are composite, having relations similar to those exhibited by 
the paraffin hydrocarbons and the isologous series of radicals derived from them. 
He regarded the elements, other than hydrogen, as made up of two simple 
elements, A and B. A he identified with carbon, with the atomic weight of 12, 
<ind B was assumed to have a negative atomic weight of 2. 

1 Nature, July 17, 1919. 



164 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION B. 

In the following year, at Birmingham, Sir W. Crookes devoted his address 
to this Section to an exposition of his ideas of the ' Genesis of the Elements,' 
a subject to which he on many subsequent occasions returned, and amplified in 
the light of recent discovery. The process of evolution of the elements from a 
primal ' protyle ' is depicted as taking place in cycle after cycle, in each cycle 
the ' unknown formative cause' scattering along its journey clusters of particles 
corresponding to the atoms of the ' elements,' forming in this way a series such 
as that beginning with hydrogen and ending with chlorine ; a repetition of the 
movement under somewhat altered conditions giving rise to a series of similarly 
related elements, and thus homology, which is shown by the members of the 
natural families, is provided for. 

The investigations of Sir J. J. Thomson on the discharge of electricity 
through gases have established the divisibility of the atoms, and in his ' Cor- 
puscular Theory of Matter ' he has given us conceptions of how atoms may he 
constituted to provide a series so related that they reflect, if not reproduce, 
many of the chemical characters of the elements and their periodic relation to 
atomic weights. 

With the discovery of radium and its remarkable properties we have been 
brought in contact with an element undreamt of in our philosophy. The inter- 
pretation of the results of the investigation of this element has called for 
drastic changes in our conception of an element. The pursuit of the researches 
of the radio-active elements, guided by the theory of the spontaneously disin- 
tegrating atom propounded by Rutherford and Soddy, has served to reveal facts 
which lend a special emphasis to many passages in the address of Sir W. Crookes 
to which I have already referred. 

For instance, the passage in which he said : ' Should it not sometimes strike 
us, chemists of the present day, that after all we are in a position unpleasantly 
akin to that of our forerunners, the alchemists of the Middle Ages ? The necro- 
mancers of a tune long past did not, indeed, draw so sharp a line as do we 
between bodies simple and compound; yet their life-task was devoted to the 
formation of new combinations, and to the attempt to transmute bodies which 
we commonly consider as simple and ultimate — ^that is, the metals. In the 
department of synthesis they achieved very considerable successes ; in the trans- 
mutation of metals their failure is a matter of history.' 

Or again, when he propounded the question, ' Is there, then, in the first 
place, any direct evidence of the transmutation of any supposed " element" of 
our existing list into another, or of its resolution into anything simpler ? '—a 
question to which he, Sir William Crookes, was at that time forced to reply in 
the negative, whereas to-day many instances might be cited in support of an 
affirmative answer to this question. Radio-activity has supplied a method of 
analysis— radio-active analysis— surpassing in delicacy any of the previously 
known methods for the examination of material substance; the application of 
these methods has not only added to the list of elements but also new classes of 
elements. First, elements indistinguishable and inseparable by chemical means, 
yet differing slightly but definitely in their atomic weights. The existence of 
these ' isotopes,' as Soddy styles them (a name giving prominence to the fact 
that such elements occupy the same place in the table of the elements), demon- 
etrates that absolute uniformity in the mass of every ultimate atom of the 
same chemical element is not an essential, but that ' our atomic weights merely 
represent a mean value around which the actual atomic weights of the atoms 
vary within certain narrow limits.' - 

Whether the possibility of separating isotopes, recently suggested by Dr. 
Lindemann and Dr. Chapman, will be found capable of experimental realisa- 
tion, must be left to the future to decide; in fact, in this matter we must 
adopt the attitude, prevalent in other than scientific circles, of 'wait and 
see.' 

The investigations in the field of radio-activity have further brought to light 
that identity in atomic weight may be associated with difference in chemical 
properties, revealing the existence of a further class of elements for which 
Dr. Stewart suggests the name ' isobares.' Further, Dr. Stewart considers that 

" Crookes. Address to Section B. 1886. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. l65 

isobaric elements are to be found not alone amongst the radio-active, but some 
of the normal elements exhibit properties which may be explained on the assump- 
tion that they are isobarice. Thus the compounds formed from iron are 
regarded as indicating the existence of three irons, aJl having the same 
atomic weight. One of these, termed ferricum, is tervalent; one, ferrosum, 
is divalent; whilst the third, ferron, is inert and takes no part in chemical 
changes. The three are under certain conditions mutually interconvertible. 
This last condition does not apply in the case of the radio-active isobares. 

The elements are to be regai-ded as divisible into three classes : (1) Isotopic 
elements, each set of which have different atomic weights but identical chemical 
properties; (2) Isobaric elements which have identical atomic weights but 
different chemical properties ; (3) Normal elements which differ from each other 
both in atomic weights and chemical properties. 

The discovery of X-rays may be acclaimed as having added a new sense to 
aid us in our investigation of material objects, and to their innumerable services 
may be reckoned the results which have followed from the investigations of 
the X-ray spectra of the elements by the late Lieut. Moseley, whose death in 
Gallipoli in 1915 is one of the many tragedies of the war specially deplored in 
the scientific world. From the analysis of the X-ray spectra, Moseley has 
shown that for each element a value can be deduced, which is styled the 
atomic number and which represents the space in the atomic table the element 
should occupy. The researches of Eutherford and Andrade on Lead and 
Radium B have proved that ' isotopes ' have the same atomic number. What- 
ever may be the ultimate explanation of the meaning of the atomic numbers, 
their experimental determination has already proved valuable in the solution 
of some of the anomalies of the Periodic Table. In a.ddition to the case of 
isotopes, just referred to, the number of elements between hydrogen and uranium 
is fixed by finding 92 as the atomic number for uranium, and further, Moseley.'s 
work has revealed that the atomic numbers are in agreement with the order of 
the chemical sequence, rather than the order of the atomic weights, which is of 
special interest and value in tlie cases of tellurium and iodine, and of potassium 
and argon, the decision in each case proving a welcome support to the position 
in the table assigned to these elements on chemical considerations. 

Again, Moseley's atomic numbers remind us of the arrangement of the ele- 
ments adopted by Newlands in his communication to the Chemical Society of 
1866, in which he set forth the ' Law of Octaves,' the precursor of the Periodic 
Law. 

In concluding this brief sketch, cognisance should be taken of the specula- 
tions of physicists as to the structure of the atom. Already several models of 
the atom are in the field which leave the uncuttable Daltonian atom far out of 
view, still in a measure they help to an understanding of some of those regulari- 
ties exhibited by the elements, and set forth in the natural system. Valency 
and its vagaries, which we are accustomed to describe by phrases, such as 
' variable valency,' ' selective valency,' and the like, still call for a full 
explanation. 

I purpose now to direct attention to matters of another nature, which 
appear to me of interest to chemists, and to that extent have a hearing on 
the welfare of chemistry in this country. 

Among the numerous revelations and surprises of the past five years has 
been the realisation on the part of the public and the Government of the 
importance of the chemical industries to the national well-being. The apathy 
and indifference of pre-war times were replaced by an apparently lively interes't 
in things chemical, and there was what in the religious world would be styled 
a revival. 

Politicians, the Press in all its varied forms, daily, weekly, monthly, and 
quarterly, took up the subject of our industrial insufficiencies and emphasised 
m various ways the importance of research in connection with our industries. 
Again, the coal-tar colour industry furnished, as it had done again and again, 
some thirtv. to forty years ago, the text from which research and its importance 
was preached. This time the reiteration had the effect that the ' aniline 
phantasm,' as I have seen it described, was recognised as a ' key industry,' 
important to the vitality of the manufacture of textiles; with the result that 
the Government, discarding its fiscal policy, was induced to subsidise the 
1919. Q 



166 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION B. 

enterprise for the manufacture of dyes aud other coal-tar products. The nego- 
tiations preceding the formation of the ' British Dyes Co., Ltd.,' have been 
remarkable as revealing that in the eyes of some, at any rate, special knowledge 
is a ' dangerous thing,' and, in fact, was deemed sufficient to exclude its 
possessors from a seat on the directorate. This is all the more remarkable as 
the history of similar enterprises in Germany shows the 'personnel of the 
directorates to be made up of university -trained men and, in not a few instances, 
of professors. So that in Germany academic distinction and theoretic learning 
are not considered as excluding the possession of commercial acumen and those 
other aualities needed in a isuccessful man of business. 

In the early stages of the war the demand for explosives was met by the 
expansion of already existing factories, the increase in staff of which calied 
for many additional men with chemical training, a call which became unpre- 
cedented and insistent when the national factories were founded, so that men 
and women with a chemical training found an opportunity of putting their 
knowledge at the service of their country. And in not a few instances those 
who, for financial reasons, had at the close of their college career taken up a 
less congenial employment were able to return to the practice of chemistry, for 
which in their student days they had specially fitted themselves. 

In the foreword of the publication ' Eei^orts on Costs and Efficiencies for 
H.M. Factories,' issued by the Ministry of Munitions, we ai'e told ' when it was 
decided to commence the erection of new and national factories, and an attempt 
was made to collect from existing factories the necessary technical data and 
assistance, did it become evident that, due to the extraordinary demands of the 
war, there was — practically throughout the entire country — a regrettable lack 
of available accurate technical data, and an even greater lack of trained technical 
men — more particularly chemical engineers.' 

To anyone acquainted with the conditions existing in this country in pre- 
war days, the lack of ' trained technical men ' is no matter of surprise. In 
fact, one cannot fail to be astonished at the phenomenal development of chemical 
manufacture which has taken place under the directing influence of Lord 
Moulton, in response to the call from Army to Navy. That men were found 
capable of taking a part in these varied undertakings, cannot, at any rate, be 
credited to the encouragement which the teaching of chemistry or the students 
of the science had received from those directing industries which employ or 
should employ the services of chemists. It is no uncommon experience to find 
the chemist employed simply in the analytical testing of raw materials and 
manufactured products, and even in the working of processes under their 
control the potentiality of the chemist is not utilised to the full, as is evident 
from the following, which is a quotation from the Preface to the brochure, 
issued by the Ministry of Munitions, to which I have already referred : ' Since 
the beginning the policy of the Department with regard to our national fac- 
tories has been to aim at maximum efliciency in respect of cost and usage of 
materials. 

' For this purpose the greatest efforts have been made to place before all 
those who are in any way responsible for control full details concerning the 
working and costs of the factories. This was rather an innovation in the field 
of chemical manufactui'e, as until comparatively recently, either intentionally 
or through negligence, it was customary at many chemical plants to keep the 
chemists in complete ignorance not only, of the cost at their plants but also 
even of the efficiencies. 

' It is amazing that manufacturers can expect improyements in chemical 
processes when their chemists are kept in ignorance of such vital facts. 

' It has happened very often that as soon as detailed figures were seen by 
chemists at a plant, important alterations and improvements have at once been 
suggested, the need for which would otherwise never have been noticed.' 

The condition of service indicated in the passage quoted, together with the 
low scale of remuneration which obtained hitherto in chemical industries, help 
to explain the scarcity of the kind of scientific labour referred to in the quota- 
tion I have made from the ' Foreword.' 

But are we not told and invited to believe that all this is changed, that the 
records of the magnificent achievements of British chemists in the war have so 
educated the people and, may we say, the Government also, that the prac- 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 167 

titioners in chemistry Avill no longer find it essential that in describing their 
vocation they should be required to add, unless for special reasons, such pre- 
fixes as 'analytical,' 'research,' 'scientific,' or ' engineering! ' to the word 
chemist, secure in the feeling that by describing themselves as ' chemists ' their 
standing, training, and profession will be correctly understood. 

Still a feeling akin to despondency, if nothing worse, is pardonable, when 
realising the fundamental importance of chemistry to our industries, and the 
thousand and one ways chemical research has ministered to the amenities of 
our every-day life, there should exist not alone in the mind of the general 
public, but of the educated also, such a lack of information as has been revealed 
during the past few years — to wit, the myth woven into the history of the 
production of glycerine, the confusion in the minds of legislators between 
phosphates and phosgene. More serious, however, is the fact that the method 
of investigation employed by the chemist is so little appreciated or understood 
as to lead_ one to imagine that the discoveries and achievements are the results 
of a species of legerdemain. The production of new colours, a succession of 
happy thoughts, and that ' by an accident the secret of synthetic indigo was 
unlocked.' This last is a quotation from a review entitled 'The Value of 
Scientific Research,' published some three years ago, and is typical of much 
that passes muster in appraising the value of chemical research. That the 
unravelling of the constitution of indigo which occupied Baeyer and his pupils 
some thirteen years, the account of these investigations covers some 180 pages 
of Baeyer's collected works, should be summarised In this way appeared to me to 
call for a protest. My protest was made and I attempted to put the matter 
in the correct light, showing the synthesis of indisro to be, indeed, a brilliant 
example of the value of theory and of a practical illustration of the importance 
of the^ chemist's conception of the Architecture of Molecules, as exemplified by 
Kekule's theory of the constitution of benzene. The protestation evoked a 
reply from a correspondent, signing himself D.fc, Ph.D., who sought to justify 
the description of the revelation of the secret of svnthetic indigo by reference 
to an accident which occurred in the investigation of the processes for the manu- 
facture of phthalic acid and which certainly greatly facilitated the production of 
this substance, an intermediate in the manufacture of artificial indigo. So, if 
the initiated emphasise the unessential, why should we blame the layman and be 
surprised that well-ordered and planned "design should appear to be but the 
workinsfs of chance, for every such achievement is a witness to the conquest 
of well-founded theoretical speculation ? 

But I do not wish to conclude on a despondent note, nor is it right that I 
should do so, in view of the many activities operating for the promotion of 
scientific research, and of such evidence as that supplied by the magnificent 
endowment of the Chemical Department of the University of 'Cambridge, all of 
which are evidences of what we may reasonablv hope to be a happy augury for 
t'lc future of chemistry and chemists in this countrv. 



The following Papers were then read : — 
1. Chemistry and the War. By Sir Willi.am J. Pope, F.R.S. 

2. Chemical Warfare. Bij Brig^adier-Gen. H. Hartley 

(See p. 393.) 

3. High Explosives. By Lieut. -Col. C. D. Crozier.^ 
* See Journ. Royal Artillery, vol. 46, No. 9. 



168 TKANSACTIONS OF SECTION B. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 
The following Papers were read : — 

1. Metallurgy during the War. By Professor C. H. Desch, D.Sc. 



2. Glass Manufacture at the end of the War. By Dr. M. W. Tea vers. 



3. The Recovery of Nitre and Pitch from Smolce Candles. By Major 

E. E. Thomas. 



4. Geochemistry and the War. By Professor P. G. H. Bos well. 



5. Equilibrium, in the System NaNO,—NH^Cl—NaCl—NH^NO,. 
By Dr. T. M. Lowry, F.R.S., and Dr. E. P. Perman. 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 
The following Papers were read : — 

1. hid.ustrial Bacteriology. By Dr. C. A. Thaysen.^ 



2. The Mechanism of the ' n-Butyl Alcohol and Acetone ' Fermentation 

Process. 
By Joseph Eeilly, M.A., D.Sc, and Wilfred J. Hickinbottom. 

Among the more recent applications of bacteriology to technical processes 
is the conversion of carbohydrates into a mixture of w-butyl alcohol and acetone 
(A. Fernbach and E. Strange, E. P. 21073, 1913). Certain bacteria are known, 
as, for example, granulohacter hutyliciim, bacillus amylobacter , and the butylic 
bacillus of Fitz, ti/rothrix tenuis, which, under certain conditions, convert carbo- 
hydrates mainly into n-butyl alcohol and acetone, producing, in addition, carbon 
dioxide and hydrogen, together with small quantities of acids and other 
alcohols (chiefly ethyl). From 100 grams of maize may be produced V grams 
of acetone, 16 grams of ti -butyl alcohol, 2 grams of volatile fatty acids, 19 litres 
of carbon dioxide, and 16 litres of hydrogen at 20°. 

In a normal fermentation, which usually lasts about 24-30 hours, the acidity 
of the masb gradually increases from a very small value until 10 c.c. of the 
mash liquor requires from 3.5 to 4.5 c.c. of 0.1 A'^-sodium hydroxide solution 
for neutralisation, after eliminating carbon dioxide. Usually 13 to 17 hours 
are required before the acidity reaches its maximum value, when the formation 
of acetone and 7!-butyl alcohol commences. The actual value for the maximum 
acidity and the interval before the «-butyl alcohol and acetone are formed, 
depends to some extent on the experimental conditions, the source of carbo- 
hydrate, and the percentage of inoculant. During the pro.duction of acetone 
and n-butyl alcohol in the mash, the acidity falls gradually to a constant 
value of about 1.5-2.5 c.c. of 0.1 A^-sodium hydroxide per 10 c.c. of maeh. 
It was considered that, in view of these variations, a study of the acid-forma- 
tion in the fermenting mash might give an insight into the fermentation pro- 
cess. 

The acids present in the mash are principally acetio and butyric acide 
with a small quantity of a non-volatile acid. It is found that the ratio of these 
acids to each other depends on the age of the fermentation. Shortly after 
inoculating, the acids are present in the proportions of approximately 4 or 5 
molecules of acetic acid to one of butyric acid, but as the acidity increases, the 
ratio of acetic acid to butyric falls, until at the period of maximum acidity 
there are about 1.1 to 1.4 molecular proportions of butyric acid to one of 

' To be published in Jovrn. Inst, of Brewing. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION B. 169 

acetic acid. During tlie production of tlae acetone and alcohol the ratio of 
acetic to butyric acid increases gradually, so that, when the fermentation is 
completed, the volatile acids in the mash are 4 or 5 parts of acetic and one part 
of butyric acid. 

The fluctuations in the relative amounts of the two acide present in the 
mash would indicate that the acids are intimately connected with the produc- 
tion of acetone and ?i-butyl alcohol, especially as the formation of the latter 
substances may be suj)pressed almost completely by conducting a fermentation 
in presence of calcium carbonate. Under these conditions the main products 
formed are acetic and butyric acids. These acids are obtained in the ratio 
of t«n moiecules of acetic to nine molecules of butyric. Using these piroportions, 
and assum.ing that 7i-butyl alcohol and acetone are formed from the acids with- 
out any appreciable side reactions, 7i-butyl alcohol and acetone should be pro- 
duced in the ratio of 2-3 parts by weight of the former to one of the latter. 
Such a result is in accordance with the actual yields obtained. It seems likely, 
therefore, that the ?i-butyl alcohol is produced from the butyric acid. In 
support of such a view, several facts are adduced ; the decrease of the amount 
of butyric acid in the mash is coincident with the formation of 7i-butyl alcohol ; 
the hypothesis is in agreement with experimental data given by Buchner and 
Meisenheimer (Bar., 1908, 41, 1410) ; the reduction of butyric acid to butyr- 
aldehyde has been observed to be brought about by certain extracts ; the addi- 
tion of butyric and propionic acids results in the formation of n-butyl and 
n-propyl alcohols respectively; n-butyric acid has been observed in most fermen- 
tations in which n-butyl alcohol is obtained. 

It is also probable that the acetic acid is an intermediate substance in the 
formation of the acetone, since the decrease in the amount of this acid in 
the mash during the fermentation is much slower than that of butyric acid. 
The amomit of acetone produced is only half that of the alcohol. Also on 
adding acetic acid to the fermenting mash it is found that the added acid is 
converted principally into acetone. The fatty acid is best added periodically 
some hours after the maximum acidity of the mash has been reached, in such 
a manner as to maintain a figure for the acidity of the mash equal to the 
maximum acidity obtained in a normal fermentation. 

There is produced also in the fermentation a small amount of ethyl alcohol. 
It is not yet determined whether this is obtained in a side reaction, or whether 
it is due to the presence of some impurity. 

The two volatile fatty acids in the mash appear to be attacked, each in a 
different manner, the butyric acid undergoing a reducing action, while the 
acetic acid is condensed to acetone. To account for this difference it ijs sug- 
gested that the formation of dipropyl ketone by condensation from the butyric 
acid may be prevented owing to the increased steric hindrance imposed by the 
presence of large groups. 



3. Intramolecular Rearrangement of the Alkylarylamines . 
By Joseph Eeilly, M.A., D.Sc, and Wilfred J. Hickinbottom. 

The intramolecular change brought about by heating the hydrochlorides of 
the alkylaniiines under pressure is well known (Hofmann, Ber., 1872, S, 720). It 
is now shown that not only the hydrochloride but also certain addition compounds 
of the secondary and tertiary amines with metallic salts are capable of under- 
going this change on heating. Compounds of the type B.RCl^ (where B 
represents one molecule of a monovalent base, and R one atom of a divalent 
metal), produced by the addition of chlorides of zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, to the 
secondary amines, readily yield alkyl nuclear substituted amines, on heating 
undei- pressure. Unless the assumption is made that these double compounds 
readily split off hydrogen chloride, it is difficult to reconcile these facts with 
the view that methyl chloride is an intermediate product in the formation of 
|j-toluidine from methylaniline double salts. 

In the alkylarylamines each group occupies a definite space and has a cer- 
tain definite vibration path. If a change of conditions occurs each group will 
tend to occupy a position in which the vibration is least restricted. This may 
occur simply on heating, or by combination or reaction with another compound. 



170 TRANSACTIONS^OF SECTION B. 

In the case of heating alone only a slight effect is apparent, but in presence 
of a substance which can cause an alteration in the arrangement of the mole- 
cule some profound change occurs. The extent of the rearrangement and 
consequently the ease with which the change occurs, will depend on several 
factors, among which the steric effect of constituent groups and the free valency 
have an important influence. 

It might be expected that, in the series of alkylanilines, the larger groups 
would show a tendency to be removed before the smaller ones. Comparative 
experiments with monoalkylanilines indicate that the total amount of change 
including intramolecular rearrangement, brought about on heating in sealed 
tubes, does not differ greatly whether the alkyl group is butyl or methyl. It 
is suggested that the other influences, such as the increasing steric hindrance 
imposed by the larger alkyl groups, may modify the reaction. 



4. Distillation of Aqueous Solutions of Related Organic Substances. 
By Joseph Eeilly, M.A., D.Sc, and Wilfred J. Hickinbottom. 

When dilute solutions of organic fatty acids are distilled, it is well known 
that certain regularities are observed (compare Duclaux, Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 
1895, 9, 265, 575; Naumann and Miiller, Ber., 1901, 35, 224; Stein, J. pr. Chem., 
1913, bS, 83). Various forms of distillation constants have been advanced by 
these authors to express such regularities. These constants may be derived 
from Nernst's law of distribution. This law may be used as a starting-point 
for the discussion of the theory of distillation of dilute solutions (Reiliy and 
Hickinbottom, Sci. Proc. Eoy. Dub. Soc, 1919, 15, 513). For large changes 
in concentration Nernst's law does not hold exactly, and a method of steam 
distillation is recommended in which only small changes in concentration occur. 
By plotting the constants for the normal fatty acids (formic to caprylic acid) 
against the number of ca.rbon atoms present in the acid, an approximately 
straight line results, showing an interdependence between molecular constitu- 
tion and rate of steam distillation. Acids containing a branched carbon chain 
(as isovaleric) have greater constants than normal acids of the same molecular 
weight. The experimental evidence at present available shows that for isomeric 
substances (as for example normal and iso butyric acids), the distillation con- 
stants are distinct enough to differentiate between the substances. 

The lower saturated monohydric alcohols, phenols, and other substances 
have been distilled in a current of steam under definite conditions, and results 
have been obtained showing a relation between molecular complexity and the 
distillation constants. 

In cases where the constitution of a substance is uncertain, and when it is 
volatile in steam, a comparison of its distillation constants with those of allied 
substances may assist in deciding its molecular constitution. 

Within certain limits the distillation constants for formic and acetic acids 
and the lower satm-ated aliphatic alcohols are subject to variations depending 
on the concentration. The addition of certain non-volatile substances, such 
as acids or salts, also causes an alteration in the distillation constants. As the 
homologous series of saturated fatty acids and alcohols are ascended, the distilla- 
tion constants increase with the molecular weights, the reverse of what might 
be expected from a knowledge of the vapour tension of the pure substances. 
It is considered likely that the tendency for the acids or alcohols to form mole- 
cular complexes may account for this "behaviour. 

As well as using the method of steam distillation for analysis of fermenta- 
tion products, and various technical preparations containing the volatile fatty 
acids, a method has been worked out to detect the presence of butter and of 
fats of the coconut-oil type in margarine and other products. By determining 
the distillation constants of the water-soluble volatile acids under definite con- 
ditions, constants for the fate are obtained which differ considerably in the 
case of butter fats compared with other fats which have been examined 
(coconut oil, palm-kernel oil, babassu fat). 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION B. 171 

5. Addition Compounds of Aromatic. Amines and their "Nitro -derivatives 
with Metallic Salts. By Joseph Eeilly, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.G.Sc.I. 

Certain p-nitroso derivatives obtained during a study of the bntylarylamines 
were characterised by the formation of addition products with various metallic 
salts (Eeilly and Hickinbottom, Trans. Chem. Soc, 1918, 113, 105, 928). 
p-Nitrosodibutylaniline yielded double salts with the ch'lorides of zinc, cadmium, 
copper (cupric), mercury (mercuric), iron (ferric), manganese (ous), tin (stannic), 
and with the nitrates of nickel, cobalt, and copper. 5-nitroso-7i-butyl-o-toluidine 
also gave a double salt with cupric chloride. 

It has been observed that secondai'y and tertiary amines, such as mono- and 
di-butylanilines, are able to combine with metallic salts. 

Derivatives of methylaniline and butylaniline with cobaltous chloride, zinc 
chloride, and cadmium chloride were prepared and compared. 

Although the derivatives of the alkylanilines with metallic salts must be 
considered as formed by the calling into play of the residual valency of the 
nitrogen, the double salts with 7>-nitrosoalkylanilines may either be considered as 
nitrogen or as oxvgen addition substances. Pickard and Kenyon (Trans. 
Chem. Soc, 1907, 91, 896) showed that nitrosobenzene also combine additively 
with metallic salts. The colour of the p-nitrosodimethylaniline zinci-chloride 
differed also from that of salts which are considered to be true nitrogen addi- 
tion compounds. They suggested that these compounds of p-nitroso-alkylani- 
lines were due to the residual valency of the oxygen atom. 

The comparative ease with which the different mono-substituted anilines yield 
addition compounds has been studied. It is found that aminophenols form 
a double complex more readily than nitroanilines. Also the stability of the 
addition compounds of the alkylarylamines is less than that of the corresponding 
metallic salt derivatives of the primary arylamines. In general, by altering the 
basicity of the amino group, or by causing an alteration in the disposal of the 
valencies of the nitrogen atom, the power to yield additive products is altered. 

Taking into consideration the behaviour of nitroso-hydroxy compounds, and 
the ability of nitrosobenzene to yield addition compounds, it is possible in 
p-nitrosoa^kylarylamines that not only the amino group but also the nitroso group 
may have an influence on the formation of a complex with a metallic salt. 

In the afternoon a sectional excursion took place to H.M. Naval 
Cordite Factory, Holton Heath, hy kind permission of Capt. 
Desborough. 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Discussion of Report on Fuel Economy. 
(For Report see p. 97.) 



The following Papers were then read : — 

2. An Automatic Filter for measuring the sw^peyided Dust in the Air. 

By Dr. J. S. Owens. 



3. The Molecular Phase Hypothesis : a Theory of Chemical Reactivity. 
By Professor E. 0. C. B.^ly, C.B.E., F.R.S. 



4. Latent Polarities in the Molecule and Mechanism of Reaction. By 
Professor A. Lapworth, F.R.S. 



5. The Conjugation of Negative and Positive Valencies. By Professor 

R. EOEINSON. 



172 * TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 
President of the Section: J. W. Evans, D.Sc, LL.B., F.E.S. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

The President delivered the following Address : — 

I PROPOSE in this address to consider the methods by which the progress 
of geological research may be most effectively promoted, and to point out some 
directions in which I think it possible important advances may be made in 
the early future. 

One of the most striking features of our science is the need in which it 
stands of a large and widely distributed body of workers, and the opportunities 
it affords to every one of them of making important contributions to scientific 
knowledge. 

Every locality has its geological history stretching away into the ' dark 
backward and abysm of time,' and this history has left its records in the 
rocks of the earth's crust : an imperfect reeord, it is true, for much of it 
has long since been destroyed, but enough remains to reward long years of 
patient labour in deciphering it. 

Everywhere someone is needed who will devote his spare time to the 
examination of the quarries and cliffs, where the materials that build up 
the solid earth are exposed to view, and who will record the changes that 
occur in them from time to time] for a quarry that is in work, or a cliff that 
is being undermined by the sea, constantly presents new faces, affording new 
information, which must be recorded if important links in the chain of evidence 
are not to be lost. It is equally important that some one should always be 
on the look-out for new exposures, road or railway cuttings, for instance, or 
excavations for culverts or foundations, which in too many instances are 
overgrown or covered up without receiving adequate attention. It is, again, 
only the man on the spot who can obtain even an approximately complete 
collection of the fossils of each stratum and thus enable us to obtain as full 
a knowledge as is possible of the life that existed in the far-off days in which 
it was laid down. In his absence, many of the rarer forms which are of 
unique importance in tracing out the long story of the development of plants 
and animals, and even man himself, never reach the hands of the specialist 
who is capable of interjjreting them. It was an amateur geologist, a country 
solicitor, who saved from the road-mender's hammer the Piltdown skull, that 
in its main features appears to represent an early human type, from which 
the present races of man are in all probability descended. Another amateur, 
who was engaged in the brick-making industry near Peterborough, has pro- 
vided our museums with their finest collections of Jurassic reptiles. A third, 
a hard-worked medical man, was the first to reveal the oldest relics of life 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 173 

that haxl at that time been recognised in the British Isles; and many moi'e 
examples could be instanced of the services to geological science by those 
whose principal life task lay in other directions. 

Such workers are unfortunately all too few — fewer, I fancy, now than 
they were before the pursuit of sport, and especially of golf, had taken such 
a hold upon the middle classes and occupied so considerable a portion of their 
leisure hours and thoughts. One might hope that the extended hours now 
assured to the working classes for recreation would lead to a general increase 
of interest in science among them, if it were not that the students of that 
admirable organisation, the Workers' Educational Association, seem almost 
invariably to prefer economic or political subjects to the study of Nature, a 
choice in defence of which they could no doubt advance most cogent arguments. 
In a large county in which I am interested the number of those in every 
condition of life who are able and willing to take part in geological research 
might be told almost on the fingers of one hand, and so far as I am aware 
there has not been a single recruit in recent years from the ranks of the 
younger men or women. 

It seems strange that there are so few of our fellow-countrymen or country- 
women who feel a call to scientific research, especially in a subject which, 
like geology, makes a strong appeal to the imagination, telling us of the 
strange vicissitudes through which our world and its inhabitants passed before 
they assumed the guise and characters with which we are familiar. How few- 
are there who realise that the prolific vegetation to which we owe our wealth 
of coal was succeeded after the lapse of incalculable years by far-stretching 
deserts, and these, after continuing for a period still longer in duration, 
were submerged beneath wide inland semi-tropical seas, nnder whose waters 
were accumulated the sediments of sand and mud and calcareous debris out 
of which the fertile valleys of Central England have been carved ; or tliat 
the conditions under which we now live were only reached through the portals 
of bleak, desolate ages of excessive cold, the reasons for which we are still 
at a loss to understand. 

Even if the appeal to the imagination were not a sufficient incentive to 
the cultivation of geology, one would have thought its economic importance 
would have been effective. Its intimate bearing on the problems of agricul- 
ture, engineering, water-supply, and hygiene is too obvious to need emphasis 
here, and it is scarcely more necessary to point out that all our fundamental 
manufacturing activities, without exception, are dependent on adequate supplies 
of materials of mineral origin, so that we need not be surprised that one of 
the earliest administrative acts of the Imperial Conference was the con- 
stitution of an Imperial Mineral Resources Bureau to secure that the whole 
mineral resources of the Elmpire should be made available for the successful 
development of its industries. 

It might be suggested that the prevailing indifference to the attraction of 
geological research was due to a conviction that after eighty years of work 
by the Geological Survey, as well as by University teachers and amateurs, 
there was little left to be done, and that all the information that could be 
desired was to be found in the Survey publications. Such a belief can 
hardly be very widespread, for, as a matter of fact, comparatively few of the 
general public realise the value of the work of the Geological Survey, and still 
fewer make use of its publications. Municipal libraries, other than those of 
our largest provincial centres, are rarely provided with the official maps and 
memoirs relating to the surrounding areas, and in the absence of any demand 
the local booksellers do not stock them. This cannot be attributed to the 
cost, for, though most of the older maps are hand-coloured and therefore 
expensive, the later maps — at least those on the smaller scales* — are remark- 
ably cheap, and the memoirs are also issued at low prices. 

The true explanation appears to be that a geological map conveys very 
little information to the average man of fair education who has received 
no geological instruction. This is certainly not the fault of the Survey maps, 
which compare very favourablj^ with those of other countries, and have been 

* 1 inch to the mile, 1 : 63,360 ; -j inch to the mile, 1 : 253,440 : and 1 inch to 
25 miles, 1 : 1,584,000. 



174 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

greatly improved in recent years. In particular, the introduction of a longi- 
tudinal section on each map and the substitution of the vertical section drawn 
to scale for the old colour index must greatly assist those into whose hands 
it comes in obtaining a correct view of the succession of the strata and the 
structure of the country. Some of the maps are, it is true, so crowded with 
information— topographical and geological— that it is frequently difficult, even 
for the trained geologist, to read them without a lens. This is largely duo 
to the fact that they are printed over the ordinary topographical maps_ in 
which there is a great amount of detail that is not required in geological 
maps. In India the Trigonometrical Survey are always ready to supply, as 
a basis for special maps, copies of their own maps printed off plates from 
which a portion of the topographical features have been erased. 

The best remedy, however, would be to extend the publication of the maps 
on a scale of 6 inches to a mile (1 : 10,560). For many years all geological 
survey work has been, in the first place, carried out on maps of this scale, 
but they have not been published except in coal-mining areas. There the 
geological boundaries are printed, but the colouring is added by hand, which 
makes the maps comparatively expensive. In other localities manuscript 
copies of the geological line.s and colouring on the Ordnance Survey maps can be 
obtained at the cost of production, which is necessarily considerable. 

There is, I believe, a wide sphere of usefulness for cheap colour-printed 
6-inch geological maps, especially in the case of agricultural and building land, 
for which the 6-inch Ordnance maps are already in demand. They afford ample 
room for geological information, and, accompanied by longitudinal sections on 
the same scale without vertical exaggeration, their significance would be more 
readily apprehended than that of maps on a smaller scale. It may be noted 
that this is the favourite scale employed by those engaged in independent 
geological research for their field work, and, when the area is not too great, 
for the publication of their results. 

It would be of gTeat advantage if there were a uniform usage by which the 
position in the stratigraphical series of rock outcrops were indicated by colour 
and their lithological character by stippling (in black or white or colour) 
following the ordinarily accepted conventions. This course has been pursued 
by Professor Watts in the geological map prepared by him to illustrate his 
'Geography of Shropshire.' This increases the practical value of the map 
for many purposes, but is only possible when it is not overburdened with 
topogi-aphical detail. 

Some explanation, apart from the maps themselves, is however needed if 
they are to be rendered, as they should be, intelligible to the general public. 
The official memoirs which deal with the same areas as the maps do not afford 
a solution of the difficulty. Excellent as they are from the technical stand- 
point and full of valuable' information, they convey little to the man who has 
not already a considerable acquaintance with the subject. What is needed is 
a short explanatory pamphlet for each map, presuming no previous geological 
knowledge, describing briefly and in simple popular language the meaning of 
the boundary lines and symbols employed, and the nature and compoeition of 
the different sedimentary or igneous rocks disclosed at the surface or known to 
exist below it in the area comprised in the map. A brief account of the fossils 
and minerals visible without the aid of a microscope should also be included. 
The probable mode of formation of the rocks and their relation to one another 
and the subsequent changes they have undergone should be discussed, and at 
the same time their influence on the agriculture value of the land and its 
suitability for building sites, as well as on the distribution and level of under- 
ground water, should be pointed out. Some account too should be given of the 
economic mineral products and their applications. 

These pamphlets should be illustrated by simple geological sections, views 
of local quarries and cliffs showing the relntive positions of the different rocks, 
figures of the commoner fossils at each horizon, and, where they would be 
useful, drawings of the forms assumed by the minerals. Each pamphlet would 
be complete in itself. This would involve a considerable amount of repetition, 
but it must be remembered that different pamphlets would have as a rule 
different readers. An alternative plan would be to follow the example of the 
United States Geological Survey and reprint the same brief resume of geological 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 175 

principles in every case with sucli additions as are required to explain tlie 
meaning of individual maps. There can, however, I think, be no doubt that 
an explanation written expressly for each map can be made at once more easy 
to understand and more interesting to those without special geological knowledge. 

That something further is required to render the information contained in 
the Geological Survey Maps generally available to the public is illustrated by a 
correspondence that took place some years ago in one of our leading provincial 
papers with reference to the achievement of a manipulator of the hazel 
twig in discovering water in the Triassic rocks of the south-west of Derbyshire. 
No one seemed to realise that with the help of the Geological Survey Map 
published forty years before and the contoured Ordnance Survey Map more 
recently issued, it was possible for anyone who possessed a little geological 
knowledge and common intelligence to predict within narrow limits the depths 
at which it would be possible to find water at any point within the area under 
consideration. 

When measures such as I have suggested have been adopted for rendering 
the publications of the Geological Survey easily comprehensible to the general 
public, it should be the policy of the Government to obtain for them the widest 
circulation, so that the information they contain should be generally known, 
a consummation not only desirable for its own sake as tending to increase the 
general interest in geology, but because it would be an important factor in 
developing the industries of the country. 

During the war publications containing desirable information were circulated 
widely and gratuitously by the authorities to all public bodies concerned, and 
there seems no reason why the information laboriously gathered by the Geological 
Survey in the national interests and paid for out of the public funds should not 
now receive the same treatment. All Municipalities, District Councils, public 
libraries, colleges and schools, both secondary and elementary, should receive 
free copies of the Geological Survey publications dealing with the area where 
they are situated or with those immediately adjoining it. 

When a new publication is issued the same measures should be taken to 
make it known locally as a private firm would employ ; copies should be sent 
to the local press, which should be assisted to give an interestirig and intelli- 
gible account of its contents, with a selection from the illustrations. There 
should also be a standing notice in the ' Publishers' Circular ' of the Survey 
publications, so that local booksellers may know where to apply for them. 
I am told that at the present they are sometimes completely ignorant on the 
subject. 

Every facility should, of course, be afforded to the public to make use of 
the Survey publications. They should not only be on sale at the post offices in 
the areas to which they relate, but it should also be possible to borrow folding 
mounted copies of the maps as well as bound copies of the explanations and 
memoirs, on making a deposit equal to their value. When they were no longer 
required, the amount of the deposit, less a small charge for use, would be 
repaid on their return to the same or any other post office and the production 
of the receipt for cancellation. It would thus be possible, when traversing any 
part of the country, to consult in succession all the Geological Survey publica- 
tions of the districts passed through. This system would also enable the 
permanent residents to refer to the more expensive hand-coloured maps, includ- 
ing the 6-inch manuscript maps, at a comparatively small cost. 

The preparation and printing of the explanations of the Survey Maps, and 
the increase in the numbers printed of other publications, would obviously 
involve additional expenditure. This would be to some extent set off by 
increased sales ; but even if there were a net loss on the balance, it would be 
worth while if it enabled the fullest advantage to be taken of the expenditure 
incurred in any event by the Survey in investigating the mineral resources of 
the country. 

The Survey publications should be illustrated in every museum and school 
in the districts with which they deal by small collections showing the characters 
of the local rocks, and of the minerals and fossils that occur in them, and care 
should be taken to see that these collections are maintained in good order and 
properly labelled. 



176 TRAKSACTIONS OP SECTION C. 

It would be a good plan for the Survey to appoint a local geologist, an 
amateur or member of the staff of a university or college, in every area of 
twenty or thirty square miles ' to act as their representative and as a centre 
of local geological interest. He would be expected to give his assistance to other 
local workers who etood in need of it. He would receive little official remunera- 
tion, but inquirers in the neighbourhood would be referred to him, and where 
commercial interests were involved he would, subject to the sanction of the 
Central Office, be entitled to charge substantial fees for his advice. He would 
report to the Survey any event of geological importance in the area of which 
he was in charge — whether it was the discovery of a new fossiliferous locality, 
the opening of a new quarry, 2 the sinking of a well, or the commencement of 
boring operations. Many of these matters would be adequately dealt with by 
local workers, but in other cases it might be desirable for the Survey to send 
down one of their officers to make a detailed investigation. 

One of the most important duties of the Survey, or its local representative, 
would be to see that the records of well-sinkings and borings are properly kept, 
and that where cores are obtained the depth from which each was raised is 
accurately recorded. At the present time the officers of the Survey make every 
effort to see that this is done, but they have no legal power to compel those 
engaged in such operations to give the particulars required. Equally important 
is a faithful record of the geological information obtained in prospecting or 
mining operations. This is especially necessary where a mine is abandoned.' 
If care is not then taken to see that all the information available is accurately 
recorded, it may never be possible later to remedy the failure to do so. 

Probably these objects would be much facilitated if engineers in charge of 
boring or mining operations had sufficient knowledge of geology and interest in 
its advancement to make them anxious to see that no opportunity was lost of 
observing and recording geological data. This would be in most cases ensured 
if every mining student were required to carry out geological research as part of 
his professional training. It is now recognised that no education in science can 
be considered to he up to University standard if it is limited to a passive recep- 
tion of facts and theories without any attempt to extend, in however humble 
a way, the boundaries of knowledge. In the case of geology such research will 
naturally in most cases take the form of observations in the field. The important 
point is that the work must be original, on new lines, or in greater detail than 
before, and not a mere confirmation of published results. It is only by the 
consciousness that he is accomplishing something which has not been done before 
that the student can experience the keen pleasure of the conquest of the unknown 
and acquire the love of research for its own sake. 

At present it is disheartening to realise how few of those who have received 
scientific instruction understand the obligations under which they lie of them- 
selves contributing to the growth of knowledge. If they have once had the 
privilege of achieving individual creative work they will henceforward desire 
to take advantage of every opportunity of continuing it. 

There is one respect in which geological workers suffer a heavy pecuniary 
handicap — the cost of railway fares. This affects both the staff and students of 
colleges, as well as local workers who are extending their radius of work — an 
inevitable necessity in the investigation of many problems. It also seriously 
interferes with the activity of local Natural History Societies and Field Clubs, 
the Geological Societies and Associations of the great provincial towns, and, 

' I am afraid that in many parts of the country there are so few amateur 
geologists that this area would have to be increased, at any rate at first. 

2 It is very desirable that arrangements should be made for the co-operation 
of the Geological Survey or their local representatives with the Inspectors of 
Quarries appointed by the Home Office, and that the annual official list of 
quarries should describe the rocks which are worked, not only by their ordinary 
economic designations, but also by their recognised geological descriptions. 

3 Those engaged in mining are already required to furnivsh mining plans to 
the Mining Record Office, but there is no obligation to give any geological 
information that may have been obtained. This office was formerly attached 
to the Geological Survey, but was transferred some years ago to the Home Office. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 177 

above all, that focus of amateur geological activity — the Geologists' Association 
of London. It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of these agencies in the 
promotion of geological education. Both professional and amateur geologists 
are deeply indebted to the excursions which are in most cases directed by 
specially qualified workers, with whom it is a labour of love. At the same time 
one of their most valuable results is the creation of interest in scientific work 
in the localities that are visited. Now that the railways are, if report speaks 
truly, to be nationalised, or at any rate controlled by the State, the claims 
of scientific work carried out without reward in the national interest to special 
consideration will surely not be ignored. All questions as to the persons to 
whom such travelling facilities should be extended and the conditions that 
should be imposed may safely be left to the decision of the Geological Survey, 
■which has always had the most friendly and sympathetic relations with private 
workers and aft'orded them every facility and assistance, which their compara- 
tively limited staff and heavy duties permitted. 

It is impossible to speak in too generous terms of the Geological Survey * and 
its succession of distinguished chiefs (the last of whom, I am glad to say, is 
with us to-day), or of the work it has accomplished, in spite of somewhat 
inadequate financial support from the powers that be, who have taken every 
precaution that the Honours graduates who join its ranks should do so for the 
pure love of science and not for the sake of worldly advantage. With increased 
staff and less straitened finances the Survey would be in a position, not only to 
discharge the additional duties my suggestions would impose on ttieni, but to 
extend still further the sphere of their usefulness. There is, for instance, at 
the present time a very urgent need for the provision of further facilities for 
the analysis of rocks and minerals to assist and complete the researches both of 
the official surveyors and of private persons engaged in research. The work is 
of a very special character, and the number of those who have given sufficient 
att«ntion to it and understand its difficulties and pitfalls is very limited. The 
chemical staff at our Universities are chiefly concerned with organic chemistry, 
and private analysts devote themselves mainly to the examination of economic 
products. The effect of a hasty excursion of workers of either of these cate- 
gories into the analysis of such complex silicates as augite or biotite or any 
of our ordinary igneous rocks is apt to be disastrous, only exceeded in this 
respect by the results obtained when, as not infrequently happens, a student is 
given a similar task by way of practice. A certain amount of good work is 
undoubtedly done in College laboratories, but it is vei'y little in comparison with 
what is needed. ° 

At present the analytical work of the Survey is organised on a very modest 
scale in comparison with the personnd and equipment of the laboratory of the 
United States Geological Survey, though the quality of the work has been as 
a rule in recent years quite as high. There are two analytical chemists attached 
to the Geological Survey, and some of the other members of the staff are capable 
of doing good analytical work. The demand, however, for analyses for economic 
purposes is so great that it is impossible to carry out all the analyses that would 
be desirable in connection with the purely scientific work of the Survey itself. 
There is consequently no possibility of their being able to assist private investi- 
gators. 

Strictly speaking, the individual minerals of a rock should be separately 
analysed and their relative amounts determined, but this is at present a counsel 
of perfection that we cannot hope to attain ; and when the difficulty of obtaining 
pure material, especially in the case of fine-grained rocks, and the zoned character 
of practically all complex rock-forming minerals are considered, it is seen that 
intrinsically it is not quite so important as it would seern to be at first sight. 
The bulk analysis, intelligently interpreted in connection with the actual 

* Since 1905 the Irish Survey, a small but enthusiastic band led by one of 
the most broad-minded of modern geologists, has been separated from that of 
the remainder of the country. 

' I should like to refer in this connection to the excellent analytical work of 
Dr. H. F. Harwood, of the Chemical Department of the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology. 



178 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

mineral composition of the rock as revealed 'by the microscope, is, in fact, at 
present the most practical method of determining the composition of the minerals. 
I need scarcely say that volatile constituents still retained by the rock should 
be separately determined, and the amount reported as water should not include 
any other substance given off at the same time. 

In the absence of facilities for obtaining rock analyses, petrological work in 
this country is at present seriously handicapped. A striking illustration of the 
inadequate provision for analyses is revealed in the fact that for the whole of the 
early Permian granitic intrusions in the south-west of England, covering nearly 
2,000 square miles, and including numerous different types and varieties, there 
are only four analyses in existence, and of these two are out of date and imper- 
fect. This is all the more remarkable in view of the fact that these rocks are 
closely connected with the pneumatolytic action that has given us almost all the 
economic minerals of the south-west of England, comprising ores of tin, 
tungsten, copper, lead, and uranium, as well as kaolin. If the Survey, by 
increasing its staff of analysts, were in a position, not merely to multiply the 
number of analyses illustrating its own work, but to help others engaged in 
research, they would only be proceeding on lines which have long since been 
followed in some of our Dominions. 

Another direction in which the work of the Survey could with advantage be 
extended is in the execution of deep borings ' on carefully -thought-out schemes 
by which a maximum of information could be obtained. Both in Holland and 
Germany bbrings have been carried out to discover the nature of the older 
rocks beneath the Secondary and Tertiary strata, and Prof. Watts, in his 
Presidential Address to the Geological Society in 1912 (Proc. Geol. Soc. 
pp. Ixxx.-xc), dwelt on the importance of exploring systematically the region 
beneath the wide spread of the younger rod^s that cover such a great extent 
of the east and south of England. Prof. Boulton, my predecessor in this 
Chair, has endorsed this appeal, but nothing has been done or is apparently 
likely to be done in this direction. It seems extraordinary that no co-ordinated 
effort should have been made to ascertain the character and potentiality of 
this almost unknown land that lies close beneath our feet and is the continiiation 
of the older rocks of the west and north to which we owe so much of our 
mineral wealth. It is true that borings have been put down by private enter- 
prise, but. being directed only by the hope of private gain and by rival interests, 
they have been carried out on no settled plan, and the results and sometimes the 
very existence of the borings have been kept .secret. The natural consequences 
of this procedure have been the maximum of expense and the minimum of 
useful information. 

Unfortunately in recent years percussion or rope boring, which breaks up the 
rock into fine powder, has more and more, on account of its cheapness, replaced 
the use of a circular rotating drill which yields a substantial cylindrical core 
that affords far more information as to the nature of the rocks and the geological 
.structure of the district. If private boring is still to be carried on, the adoption 
of the latter procedure should be insisted on, even if the difference of cost has 
to be defrayed by the Government. It is quite true that a considerable amount 
of useful information can be collected by means of a careful microscopic examina- 
tion of the minute fragments which alone are available for study, so that the 
nature of the rocks traversed can be recognised ; but the texture of the rock is 
destroyed, as well as any evidence which might have been available of its 
larger structures and stratigraphical relations and almost all traces of fossils. 
It is, too, impossible to tell with certainty the exact depth at which any par- 
ticular material was originally located, for fragments broken off from the sides 
of the bore may easily find their way to the bottom. 

A good illustration, and one of manj'' that might be cited, of the misdirected 

° I have not space to deal here with the shallow borings in soft strata which 
have been so successfully conducted on the Flanders front during the war by 
Captain W. B. R. King, of the Geological Survey. Similar borings have been 
already carried out by the Survey on a limited scale, but in the light of the 
experience that has now been gained we may look for a widely extended use of 
the method both by private workers and by the Purvey officers. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 170 

energy that is sometimes expended in prospecting operations, was afforded a 
few years ago by a company tlxat put down a boring for oil through more tlian 
a thousand feet of granite without being aware of the nature of the rock that 
■was being traversed. In this case a percussion drill was employed, but a few 
minutes' examination of the material should have enabled the engineer in charge, 
supposing he had even an elementary knowledge of geology, to save hundreds 
of pounds of needless expenditure. The sum total of the funds which have 
been uselessly expended in this country alone in hopeless explorations for minerals, 
in complete disregard of the most obvious geological evidence, would have been 
sufficient to defray many times over the cost of a complete scientific underground 
survey. 

If research is to be carried out economically and effectively, it must be 
organised systematically and directed primarily with the aim of advancing know- 
ledge. If this aim be well and faithfully kept in view, material benefits will 
accrue which would never have been thought to be sufficiently probable to warrant 
the expenditure of money on prospecting. 

It is, however, not only in the areas occupied by Secondary or Tertiary rocks 
that systematic boring is urgently needed. There are many other localities where 
important information as to the structure of the rocks could probably be obtained 
in this manner. Opinion is very much divided as to the relation of the Devonian 
to the older rocks in South Devon and Corn-wall,' but there is little doubt that 
a series of judiciously placed borings would solve the problem without difficulty. 
In North Devon and West Somerset, the question as to whether the Foreland 
Grits are a repetition by faulting of the Hangman Grits could also be settled 
at once by borings in the Foreland Grits and in the Lynton Beds. 

In the North of England, again, there are many points where the strata 
exposed at the surface are low down in the Carboniferous, and it would be com- 
paratively easy to ascertain the nature of the earlier rocks beneath them, with 
regard to which we are much in need of information.* 

It would be easy to cite other cases where information of considerable 
geological value could be obtained by boring at comparatively small expense, and 
would in all probability in the majority of cases lead ultimately to results of 
economic importance. 

It is obviously only right that any commercial advantages resulting from 
investigations carried out at the public cost should accrue to the State, and, if 
this principle were a'dopted, expenditure by the Government or geological re- 
search on the lines I have suggested would be sooner or later recouped by the 
mineral wealth rendered available to the community. 

It is not, however, on terra firma alone that such investigations may be 
usefully carried out. The floors of the shallow seas that separate these islands 
from one another and from the continent of Europe are still almost unknown 
from the geological standpoint, although their inve.'itigation would present no 
serious difficulties. Joly ' has described an electrically driven apparatus which, 
when lowered so as to rest on a hard sea floor, will cut out and detach a cylindri- 
cal core of rock, and retain it till raised to the surface. Subsequently 

' I have already referred to the economic importance of this area. The 
desirability of ascertaining its true geological structure is too obvious to need 
emphasis here. 

' The recent borings for mineral oil in the Carboniferous rocks of Derbyshire 
were put down largely by means of public funds, and such success as they have 
attamed has been due to the fact that thev were directed by expert geologists ; 
but there can be little doubt that, if they had been carried out as part of a 
carefully-thought-out scheme of underground exploration wherever it was needed 
to elucidate the structure of the country, economies would have been effected 
and the sum total of our knowledge even from the economic standpoint would 
have been far greater. It is a pity that these borings have been carried out 
by means of the percussion process. It is, however, usually employed in borings 
for oil — in America almost exclusively — and in war-time its greater speed was 
no doubt an important factor in the decision to resort to it. 

' ' On the Geological Investigation of Submarine Rock.«,' ,9rf. Pror. Tfny. Dull 
Soc, vol. viii., pp. 509-524, 189. 



180 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

he invented a still more ingenious devicej^" in which the force of the sea- 
water entering an empty vessel is substituted for electrical power, but unfortu- 
nately neither the one or the other has actually been tried or even constructed. 

Meantime, however, vertical sections up to 80 cm. (2 ft. 7i in.) of the niud 
of the deep seas have actually been obtained in iron tubes attached to sounding 
a.pparatiis employed in the course of the voyage of the Gaussberg. These reveal 
a succession of deposits of which the lower usually indicate colder water condi- 
tions than the upper, and have been referred for that reason to the last Glacial 
Period. 11 

In many places rock fragments are dredged up by fislimg boats. These 
should of course be used with caution in drawing conclusions as to the distribu- 
tion of rocks in situ on the sea bottom, as such fragments may iiave been 
transported when embedded in ice sheets or in ice bergs or other forms of floating 
ice, or entangled in the roots of floating trees; but where the rock-fragments 
can be shown to have a definite distribution, as in those described by Grenville 
Cole and Thomas Crook from the Atlantic to the west of Ireland, '^ and by 
R. H. Worth from the western portion of the English Channel,'' they may be 
regarded as affording tnistworthy information as to the geology of the area. 

There seems every reason to believe that advances in submarine geology 
will not be of only scientific interest, but will bring material benefits with them. 
Even at present the working of coal seams and metalliferous veins has been 
extended outwards beyond low-water mark, and, if evidence should be forth- 
coming that valuable deposits underlie the shallower waters of the North Sea 
at any point, there is no reason to doubt that mining engineers would find means 
of exploiting them. It seems quite possible that off the s:hO)res of Northumber- 
land and Durham there are, in addition to extensions of the neighbouring coal- 
field, Permian rocks containing deposits of common salt, sulphate of calcium 
(gypsum and anhydrite), and, above all, potash salts comparable to those at 
Stassfurt, which have proved such a source of wealth to Germany ._ 

No less important than the work of the Geological Survey is that of our 
great national museums. I have already alluded to the need for local collections 
to illustnate the geology of the areas in which they are situated. Themuseums 
of our larger cities and our universities will naturally contain collections of a 
more general character, but it is to our national museums that we must chiefly 
look far the provision of specimens to which those engaged in research can 
refer for comparison, and it is imperative that they should be maintained in 
the highest state of efliciency, if the best results are to be obtained from scientific 
inve.stigations in this country. The ability and industry of the staff of the 
Mineral and Geological Departments of the Natural History Museum are 
everywhere recognised, as well as their readiness to assist all those who go to 
them for information, but in point of numbers they are undeniably insufficient 
to perform their primary task of examining, descrihing, an-anging, and cata- 
loguing their ever-increasing collections so as to enable scientific workers to 
refer to them under the most favourable conditions.'* Even if the staff were 
doubled, its time would be fully occupied in carrying out these duties, quite 
apart from any special researches to which its members would naturally wish to 
devote themselves. The additional expense incurred by the urgently needed 
increase of the museum establishment would be more than repaid to the country 
in the increased facilities afforded for research. 

1" ' On the Investigation of the Deep Sea Deposits,' Sci. Proc. Hoy. Duhi. 
Hoc, vol. xiv. pp. 256-267, 1914. 

11 E. Philippi; 'Die Grund-proben der deutschen Sudpolar Expedition,' 
1901-3, vol. ii., pp. 416-7 and 591-598. 

12 ' On Rock-specimens Dredged off the Coast of Ireland and their Bearing 
on Submarine Geology,' Mem. Geol. Surv., Ireland, pp. 1-35, Dublin, 1910. 

" ' The Dredgings of the Marine Biological Association ' (1895-1906) as a 
contribution to the knowledge of the Geology of the English Channel. — Journ. 
Marint Biol. Assoc, vol. viii., pp. 118-188. 1908 

" Even the number of skilled mechanics is quite insufficient, though their 
work is urgently needed. In the Geological Department provision is only made 
for two, and at present but one is actually at work. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 181 

There is room, too, for a consideraBle extension in the scope of the activity 
and usefuhiess of our museums ir. other directions, and more especially in the 
provision of typic-al lithological collections illustrating the geology of different 
parts of the British Empire and of foreign countries. 

So far as the United Kingdom is concerned, this requirement has been admi- 
rably fulfilled in the museums attached to the Survey Headquarters in London, 
Edinburgh, and Dublin, and there is a smaller collection of the same nature, 
excellent in its way, at the Natural History Museum. But to obtain a broad 
outlook it is essential that the attention of geological workers should not be 
confined to one country, however diversified its rocks may be, and it is impossible 
to assimilate effectively publications dealing! with the geology of other parts of 
the world without being able to refer to collections of the rocks, minerals, and 
fossils described. 

The rocks, for instance, of the Dominion of South Africa are of the greatest 
scientific and economic interest, and many important communications have been 
published with regard to them. They present at the same time many features 
which distinguish them from European types, but I am not aware of any 
museum in this country where they are adequately illustrated. 

Such collections should include not only rock specimens in the ordinary 
sense of the term, but also examples of metalliferous veins and other mineral 
deposits which present important distinctive features. 

In the Imperial Institute there are at the present time collections from most 
of the different constituent parts of the British Empire, which fulfil to a certain 
extent these requirements, and they have been employed by myself and others 
in demonsti'ations to the C4eologists' Association in illustration of the geology 
of Peninsular India and. different parts of Africa ; but they are very incomplete, 
having been collected with the view of exhibiting, not so much the character of 
the rocks and mode of occurrence of the minerals, as the economic resom-ces of 
the British Empire. 

This is, of course, a function of the very greatest importance, but collections 
of minerals of intrinsic economic significance gathered together to assist in the 
development of the I'esources of the Empire should be organised on a different 
plan. They should be arranged, not according to the areas in which they occur, 
but with reference to the products obtained from them. The object of such 
collections is to enable those who are in want of materials for commercial 
pui-poses to ascertain where they can be obtained, and of what quality and at 
what price. For this purpose different samples of the same or similar ores or 
other products should be placed together irrespective of their origin, and 
each specimen should be accompanied by an assay or analysis, and such informa- 
tion with regard to its source and mode of occurrence as will enable the 
inquirer to form an opinion as to whether it will be likely to satisfy his require- 
mentij. 

The lithological and pah'eontological collections which I am now advocating 
should, on the other hand, be an-anged so that each group of specimens illus- 
trates an area possessing distinctive geological features. Little has, hitherto, 
yet been done in this direction. Tlie Mineral Department of the Natural 
History Museum possesses a large and extensive collection of foreign and 
colonial lithological specimens arranged according to localities, which is too 
little known, but it is naturally very unequal and incomplete, some countries 
being comparatively well represented and others scarcely at all. The Geological 
Department of the Museimi is well provided with pah-eontological si>ecimens, 
but these are arranged according to their biological affinities, and they might 
well be supplemented by a series of typical collections illustrating the fauna 
and flora of the more distinctive horizons in different areas. This is all the more 
important, as the mode of preservation may be very different in different places. 
It is probable that the geological surveys of British Dominions and Depen- 
dencies and of foreign countries would in many cases be able to supjily such 
collections of rocks, mineiMl deposits, and fossils as I have suggested. Where 
this is not possible, the only practicable means of obtaining really typical 
collections is to despatch a re^Dresentative of the Museum, preferably one of its 
own officers, to make one himself. The provision of such facilities for the 
study of the geology of other lands is especially desirable in London in view 
1919. E 



182 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION C. 

of the number of students of mining and economic geology who receive their 
training in this country and ultimately go out into the world to find themselves 
face to face with problems in which a true understanding of the local geology 
is absolutely essential. 

I shall not discuss here the important subjects of the indexing of 
geological literature and the preparation of abstracts of current publications. 
The former is already being efficiently dealt with by the Geological Society, 
and the latter will, I trust, be provided for in some way in the immediate 
future. 



I now proceed to indicate some lines along which it seems to me probable 
that there are opportunities for progress in geological research. 

In the investigation of the sedimentary rocks attention has been usually 
directed mainly to the larger and more obvious features, and these have sufficed 
to afford considerable insight into the conditions which prevailed when they 
were laid down. The detailed study of the minor structures or texture of 
these rocks by lens and microscope has, on the other hand, been comparatively 
neglected, though it is capable of affording us valuable information that could 
be obtained in no other way. There are, however, I need hardly say, important 
exceptions, the classical researches of Sorby extending over more than half 
a century, the investigations of Hutchings on the argillaceous rocks, and much 
useful work in recent years on the mineral constituent* and microzoa of the 
sedimentary rocks generally. But, although individual sediments have been 
carefully studied, few, if any, attempts have been made to carry out a detailed 
examination of the successive beds of a stratigraphical succession comparable 
to the systematic zoning by means of fossils which has yielded such valuable 
results. 

Not only ought the texture and composition of the individual laminae to be 
patiently studied to obtain information as to the exact manner of their deposition, 
but attention should be more especially directed to the character of the trans- 
ition by which one layer gives place to another, so as to determine, if possible, 
the cases where there has been a gradual passage without a break, and those 
in which there has been a pause in the deposition of greater or less duration, 
or even a removal of material, although nothing in the nature of an uncon- 
formity, however slight, can be detected. Even in apparently uniform deposits, 
such as chalk and clay, variations in texture and composition may be brought 
out by special treatment and reveal interesting details of the conditions under 
which they were deposited. 

It is of special importance to recognise and examine in detail the occurrence 
of rhythmic repetitions of a similar succession of sedimentary materials and 
characters. A single cycle in such a succession may be only a twentieth of an 
inch in thickness, as in the case of ferruginous banding in the Lower Hangman 
Grits at Smith's Combe in the Quantocks, or may include thirty or forty feet 
of strata, as in the Caithness Flags. Rhythms have been described from the 
pre-Cambrian of Finland, the Ordovician of North America, 15 the Permian 
of Stassfurt,"' the Cretaceous of Arkansas,'' and the Quaternary of Scandinavia 
and Palestine, and many more, no doubt, occur in the stratigraphical succession 
of different countries. It would probably be found that a similar repetition 
occurs in fine terrigenous deposits off the coast of tropical countries where there 
is a well-defined alternation of wet and dry seasons. In some places minor 
cycles may be superimposed on larger, as in the ca.se of the Skerry Belts 
described by Bernard Smith '" in the Upper Keuper of East Nottinghamshire. 
The general question of the significance of such rhythms of stratification must, 
liowever, be reserved for another occasion. 

It is more difficult to arrive at the true interpretation of the phenomena 

'^ Joseph Barrell ; Bull. Geol. Soc- Am., vol. xxviii., pp. 789-90, 1917. 
1° G. Ochsenius ; Zeitsch. fiir practische Oeologie. vol. 13, p. 168, 1905. 
" G. K. Gilbert; Journ. of Geology, vol. iii., pn. 121-127. 
>» Geol. Mag., 1910. pp. 303-305. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 188 

presented by the endogeiietic rocks " which have come into existence by the 
action of the forces of earth's interior, for the conditions of temperature and 
pressure under which they were formed, whether they are igneous rocks in 
the narrower sense, or mineral veins, or metamorphic in origin, were widely 
different from those with which we are familiar. Under such circumstances the 
ultimate physical principles are the same, but the so-called constants have to 
be determined afresh, and a new chemistry must be worked out. It is necessary, 
therefore, as far as possible, to reproduce the conditions that prevailed — a 
task which has been courageously undertaken and to a considerable extent 
accomplished by the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute at 
Washington. 

By artificial means temperatures and pressures have been already produced 
far higher than those that were in all probability concerned in the evolution of 
any of the rocks that have been revealed to us at the surface by earth-move- 
ments and denudation, for it is unlikely that in any case they were formed at a 
greater depth than five or six miles, corresponding to a uniform (or, as it is 
sometimes termed, hydrostatic) pressure of 2,000 or 2,400 atmospheres, or at 
a greater temperature than 1,500° C. Indeed, it is probable that the vast 
majority of igneou.s and metamorphic rocks, as well as mineral .veins, came into 
existence at considerably less depths, and at more moderate temperatures. It 
is true that most of the rock-forming minerals crystallise from their own melts 
at temperatures between 1,100° C. and 1,550° C, but they separate out from 
the complex magmas from vvhich our igneous rocks were formed at lower 
temperatures, rarely much exceeding 1,200° C and frequently considerably 
less.-" 

It has been found possible at the Geophysical Laboratory to maintain a 
temperature of 1,000° C. or more under a imiform pressure of 2,000 atmospheres 
for so long a time as may be desired, and, what is equally important, the tem- 
perature and pressure attained can be detennined with satisfactory accuracy, 
the temperature within 2° C, and the pressure within 5 atmospheres. 

It has been ascertained that such uniform pressure as would ordinarily 
be present at the depths mentioned does not directly affect the physical proper- 
ties of minerals to anything like the same extent as the difference between the 
temperature prevailing at the earth's surface and even the lowest temperature at 
which igneous rocks can have been formed. It has, however, a most important 
indirect action in maintaining the concentration in the magma of a considerable 
proportion of water and other volatile constituents -^ which have a far-reaching 
influence in lowering the temperature at which the rock-forming minerals 
crystallise out, in other words, the temperature at which the rock consolidates, 
and in diminishing the molecular and molar viscosity of the magma, thus facili- 
tating the growth of larger crystals and the formation of a rock of coarser 
grain. They must also be of profound significance in determining the minerals 
that separate out, the order of their formation, and the processes of differentia- 
tion in magmas. 

It is, therefore, obvious that any conclusions derived from the early experi- 
ments which were carried out with dry melts at normal pressures must be 
received with very considerable caution. Nor does much advance appear to 
have been made, even at the Geophysical Laboratory, in experiments with melts 
containing large amounts of volatile fluxes, and yet, if we are to reproduce even 
approximately natural conditions, it is absolutely necessary to work with magmas 
rontaining a proportion of these constituents, and especially water, equal in 
weight to at least one-third or one-half of the silica present. This will obviously 
present considerable difficulties, but there is no reason to doubt that it will 
be found possible to surmount them. 

'« T. Crook; Min. Mag., vol. xvii., p. 87, 1914. 

-" It is probable that the temperatures recorded in some lavas higher than 
the melting point of copper, which is well over 1.200° C, are due to chemical 
reactions, such as the oxidation of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ferrous oxide, 
and perhaps sulphur. See Dav and Shepherd, BiiJl. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxiv.. 
pp. 599-601, 191.3. 

^' John Johnston, Joiirn. Franl-lhi Iih?t., Jan. 1917, pp. 1419. 

B 2 



184 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

A much more formidable obstacle in realising the conditions under which 
rocks are formed is the small scale on which our operations can be carried on. 
There are important problems connected with the differentiation of magmas, 
whetlier in a completely fluid or partly crystallised state, rmder the action of 
gravitation, for the solution of which it would seem for this reason impossible 
to reproduce the conditions under which Nature works. Instead of a reservoir 
many hundreds of feet in depth, we must content ourselves in our laboratory 
experiments with a vertical range of only a few inches. There are, however, 
other phenomena that require investigation and that involve a great difference 
of level in their operation, but do not take place at such elevated temperatures. 
Such are some of the processes of ore deposition or transference, especially 
secondary enrichment. Here, with the friendly assistance of mining engineers, 
but at the cost of considerable expenditure, it might even be possible to experi- 
ment with cohmms several thousand feet in vertical height. 

In any attempt to reproduce the processes of metaniorphism other than those 
of a purely thermal or pnemnatolytic character, or to imitate the conditions 
that give rise to primary foliation, we must consider the effects of non-uniform 
or directed pressure involving stresses that operate in definite directions 
and result in deformation of the material on which they ac-t. Unlike uniform 
pressure which usually raises the crystallisation point, directed pressure may 
lower it considerably and thus give rise to local fusion and subsequent recrystal- 
lisation of the rock.-' At the same tim.e it profoundly modifies the structure, 
resulting in folds and fractures of every degree of magnitude. One of the most 
pressing problems of geology at the present moment is to determine the effects 
of directed pressure in its operation at different temperatures, and in the 
presence of different amounts of imiform pressure, a factor which has probably 
an important influence on the result, which must also depend on the proportion 
and nature of the volatile constituents which are present, as well as on the time 
during which the stresses are in operation. There seems no reason why valuable 
information should not be obtained on all those points by properly conducted 
experiments. 

The time element in the constructive or transfoiming operations of Nature 
cannot, of course, be adequately reproduced within the short space of individual 
human activity, or, it may be, that of our race ; but I am inclined to think that, 
even in the case of metamorphic action, the importance of extremely prolonged 
action has been exaggerated. 

In attempting to imitate the natural processes involved in the formation and 
alteration of rocks and mineral veins, we require some means of ascertaining 
when we have approximately reproduced the conditions which actually pre- 
vailed. It is not sufficient to bring about artificially the formation of a mineral 
occurring in the rocks or mineral deposits imder investigation, for the same 
mineral can be reproduced in many waji^s. It is, however, probable that a mineral 
produced nnder different conditions is never identical in all its characters. 
Its habit, or the extent to which its possible faces are developed (a function 
of the surface tension), the characters of the fares which are present, its 
twinning, its internal structure, inclusions and impurities, all vary in different 
occurrences, and the more closely these can be reproduced, the greater the 
assurance we obtain that an artificial mineral has been formed under the same 
conditions as the natural product. 

For this purpose it is above all necessary that there should be in the first 
place a systematic comparative study of these characters and of the association 
in which they are found. The results thus obtained should be of the greatest 
value in indicating the directions along w-hich experimental work would be most 
probably successful. They should, of course, be supplemented by laboratory 

" See J. Johnston and L. H. Adams, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. xxxiv., 
p. 563 (1912) ; Am. J. ScL, vol. xxxv., p. 206 (1913) ; A. Harker, Proc. Geol. ,'^oc., 
vol. Ixxiv., pp. 75-77 (1919). It is interesting to note that similar principles 
ap'ply to the pseudo-fluidity induced in clay by directed pressure. See 
P. M. Crosthwaite, Proc. Inst. C.E., December 19, 1916, p. 149; Journ. and 
Trans. Soc. Eng., vol. x., pp. 82-86, 92-94, 1918; Alfred S. E. Ackermann, ih. 
pp. 37-80, 102-107. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 185 

studies of the relations of such subsidiary crystallographic characters to the 
environment in the case of crystals which can be formed under normal con- 
ditions of temperature and pressure, and therefore under the immediate observa- 
tion of the experimenter. Some work has, in fact, already been done on the 
effects on these characters of the presence of other substances in the same 
solution. 

In the .study of the secondary alterations of metalliferous depo.sits, especially 
those which consist of the enrichment of mineral veins by the action of circulat- 
ing solutions, either of atmospheric or intratelluric origin, the study of peeudo- 
morphs gives, of course, valuable a.ssistance in determining the nature of the 
chemical and pliysical changes that have taken place. 

A successful solution of the problem of the exact conditions under which 
deposits of economic importance are found would be of incalculable value in 
facilitating their discovery and exploitation, and would be the means of saving 
a vast amomit of unnecessary labour and expense. 



The problem of the structure and nature of the earth's interior, inaccessible 
to us even by boring, would seem at fir.st sight to be well nigh insoluble, except 
as far as we can deduce from the dips and relations of the rocks at the surface 
their downward extension to considerable depths. We can, however, gain 
important information about the physical condition of the deeper portions from 
the reaction of the earth to the external forces to whicli it is subjected, and still 
more from a study of the 'preliminary' earthquake tremors that traverse it, 
the time occupied in their passage, and the difference in intensity of those that 
follow different paths. These methods are, however, not applicable to the 
earth's crust. Its physical characters appear to be distinct from those of the 
interior, but very iittle is as j^et definitely known about them, except of course 
in the neighbourhood of the svu'face, and for this reason they are usually 
ignored in calculating the paths of tremors traversing the earth. It seems to 
be separated from the deeper portions of the earth by a surface of discontinuity 
at which earthquake vibrations travelling upwards towai'ds the surface may be 
reflected. Calculations based on the total time taken by these reflected waves 
to reach the surface after a second passage through the earth's interior appear 
to indicate that this surface of discontinuity, whatever its nature may be. is at 
a depth of about twenty miles, though there can be little doubt that this 
depth varies considerably from point to point. 

The main earthquake vibrations appear to follow the curvature of the 
earth, and to be confined to its crust, instead of traversing the interior, as is the 
case with the preliminary tremors. In these vibrations a period of about seven- 
teen or eighteen seconds is usually predominant, and is believed to be due to the 
natural period of vibration of the earth's crust. Wiechert =- assumes that there 
is a node halfway down and a free movement above and below, so that the full 
wave length would be twice the thickness of the earth's crust. Assuming a 
velocity of propagation of Sg km. per second, he calculates the depth of the 
crust to be approximately 30 km. There seems, however, to be no warrant for 
supposing that the lower surface of the crust is capable of free vibration. The 
fact that, not only waves of compression, but waves of distortion can traverse it 
shows that it must possess very high rigidity so far as forces of brief duration 
are concerned. The lower surface should therefore be regarded as a node, and 
only the upper as capable of free movement, so that the whole would correspond 
to a quarter of a wave length. On the other hand, the velocity of 3;^- km. per 
second, which is that of the propagation of waves round the earth's crust, in all 
probability a complex process, is not the same as the true velocity of vibrations 
passing upwards and downward through the earth's crust. Those with a period 
of about 18 seconds appear to consist partly of horizontal vibrations and partly 
of vertical; the foi-mer would seem to correspond to waves of distortion, and the 
latter to waves of compression. The velocity of the former would probably be 
about 4 km. and the latter 7 km. per second, corresponding to the thicknesses of 

" Gottingen NachHcht.en, 1907, pp. 468-9. 



186 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

18 km. and 31^ km. (■eleven and twenty miles). There is some evidence in the 
case of a distant earthquake of a period approximating to 30 km. per second, 
which would correspond, -with waves of distortion, to a thickness of 30 km. 
(nineteen miles). However in the present state of our knowledge of these 
vibrations such calculations are only of speculative interest. 

There must be numerous surfaces of discontinuity in the earth's crust in 
addition to that forming its lower limit. Such would be the boundaries 
between great tracts of granite or granitoid gneiss and the basic rocks that 
in all probability everywhere underlie them ; the surface dividing gneisses and 
crystalline schists from unmetamorphosed sediments overlying them unconform- 
ably ; that between hard Palfeozoic rocks and softer strata of later age ; and 
the surfaces of massive limestones or sills. Wiechert observed at Gottingen, at 
the time of the Indian earthquake of April 4, 1,905, small horizontal vibrations, 
superimposed on the others, with a period of only 1^ seconds. He believed 
that these were due to horizontal distortional vibrations of the local sand- 
stone formation with a node at its basal surface. He formd the velocity of 
similar vibrations at the surface to be 250 m. per second, and thence calculated 
the depth of the sandstone stratum to be 90 m.-'' No doubt similar correlations 
of terrestrial vibrations and the structure oi the earth's crust may be made in 
other cases. 

It deserves consideration, however, as to how far it may be possible to 
add to our knowledge of the earth's crust by experimental work with a view 
of the determination of surfaces of discontinuity by their action in reflecting 
vibrations from artificial explosions, a procedure similar to that by means of 
which the presence of vessels at distance can b© detected by the reflection of 
submarine sound waves. The ordinary seismographs are not suited for this 
purpose; the scale of their record, both of amplitude and of time, is too small 
for the minute and rapid vibrations which would be expected to reach an 
instrument situated several miles from an explosion, or to distinguish between 
direct vibrations and those that may arrive a second or two later after reflexion 
at a surface of discontinuity. As the cylinder on which the record is made 
would be only in motion while the experiment was in progress, there would be 
no difficulty in arranging for a much more rapid movement. At the same time 
it would be desirable to dispense with any arrangement for damping the swing 
of the pendulum, which would be imnecessaiy with small and rapid vibrations, 
and would tend to suppress them. It is possible that it might be better 
to employ a seismograph which records, like that devised by Galitzin shortly 
before his death, variations of pressure expressing terrestrial acceleration, instead 
of one which rec'ords directly the movements of the ground. It would, however, 
probably be found desirable to substitute for the piezo-electric record of pressure 
employed by Galitzin a record founded on the effect of pressure in varying the 
resistance in an electric circuit. This is, in fact, the principle of the micro- 
phone and most modern telephone receivers, but quantitatively they are very 
unreliable. This would not matter so much for the present purpose, where the 
time of transmission is the most important feature in the evidence, but satis- 
factory results even in this respect appear to be given by Brown's liquid micro- 
phone, from which the record could be taken, if desired, by means of the 
reflection of a mirror, attached to the needle of the galvanometer. 

Evidence of the structure of the earth's crust is also afforded by observa- 
tions on the direction and magnitude of gravitation which have been carried 
out in considerable detail in India and the United States? — especially in the 
neighbourhood of great mountain ranges. At the present time the" problem 
of correlating the variations observed with the underground structure is onlv in 
an embryonic stage. It is probable that our greatest hope of advancing researches 
with this object is by detailed work in areas which present no marked oro- 
graphical features, and where the geological structure is already fairly well 
ascertained. 

The same remarks apply to the results obtained by magnetic surveys. Apart 
from the marked effect of masses of magnetite in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the surface, local magnetic irregularities appear to be mainly determined bv 

-' G/ittinf/en Nachrichten. 1907. pp. ?G7-8. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION C. 1S7 

the presence of basic igneous rocks,-* but there seems to be considerable room 
for research as to the rehition between these phenomena and the form and com- 
position of an igneous intrusion. 

In this review of some of the possibilities of geological research I cannot 
claim to have done more than touch the fringe of the subject. In every 
direction there is room for the development of fresh lines of investigation, 
as well as for renewed activity along paths already trodden. Whether my 
particular suggestions pi'ove fruitful or not, they will have served their purpose 
if they have stimulated anyone to look for new fields of work. 



Postcnpt. — Since this Address was written, I have learned that Professor 
K«ndall has from time to time made valuable suggestions with regard to the 
association of the Survey with local workers, more especially the geological staff 
and students of our colleges. 



The following Papers were then read : — 

2. The Tertiary Beds of Bourriemouth and the Hampshire Basin. 
By Dr. William T. Ord, F.G.S. 

The physical history of these Eocene beds is briefly as follows : — The gradual 
uprising of the bed of the Cretaceous sea was in this district accompanied by 
a planing off of the highest zones to some distance down the Belemnitella zone. 
This left an eroded surface on which the earliest Tertiary beds (Woolwich and 
Reading) were deposited. Flint pebbles, once rolled in chalk-enclosed coves, 
form a basement bed. As the new chalk land-surface developed, a west-to-east 
drainage system rapidly formed, which during the next period — London Clay — 
took the form of a vast river, rivalling the Ganges or Amazon. It entered the 
sea near Sheppey, in Thanet, where tropical vegetable flora and estuarine fauna 
have left abundant remains. Here the fluviatile beds — of sand and clay, with a 
few pebble bands — are almost unfossiliferous. This is true locally for each 
division of the Tertiaries, following the usual rule of fluviatile deposits, the nearer 
the mouth the more organic remains, the nearer the source the fewer. Since 
Bournemouth occupies a place far from Sheppey, fossils are few or wanting. 
The exception are leaves and fruits which have been deposited in clay bottoms 
of backwaters and lagoons, and hence occur in lenticular patches in the cliff 
face. 

In the succeeding beds — the Bagshots — abundant vegetable remains occur. 
During this period the sea continually encroached from the east, rmtil at the close 
of the Bagshot period it is believed to have reached a point near the East-cliff 
Lift. The shingle-beds of the Bracklesham (Boscombe Sands) covering the 
Bagshots were a beach deposit. The succeeding Bracklesham deposits, locally 
known as Hengistbury Head beds, are followed by the Barton sands and clays: 
these are increasingly marine, and their organic remains show a marked fall of 
temperature from the sub-tropical climate of Bagshot ase. The succeeding 
strata. Headon beds and 01ia;ocene, concluded by the Bembridge Limestone, occur 
in the Isle of Wight and the Headons, also in the opposite coast. These were 
denuded off the Bournemouth area in Miocene times, except for an important 
outlier in Purbeck known as Creech Barrow. All these Eocene strata were 
deposited over a far greater area than they now occupy, and their remains have 
been preserved in the Thames Valley and Hampshire Basin throush the pro- 
tection afforded bv the results of the preat earth movements of Miocene and 
Pliocene times. The Chiltern Hills and North Downs protected the Tertiaries of 
the Thames Valley, and the South Downs and the Brixton anticline of the 

-" A. Hubert Cox : Abstracts of the Proceedings of the. Geological Society of 
Lour/ on, 1918, pp. 71-74. 



188 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

Isle of Wight with the Purbeck Hills protected the Tertiaries of the Bournemouth 
area, forming as they do the boundaries of the Hampshire Basin. But for this 
fact that the Bournemouth, Bcagshot and Bracklesham beds lie in the syncline 
of the Hampshire Basin, this area would have been stripped bare to the chalk, 
as have other unprotected parts of the south coast. The characteristic beauty 
and scenery of Bournemouth has thus happily been preserved for us, with the 
pines, gorse and heather which floiu-ish on such soil. In conclusion, mention 
should be made of several local peculiarities of the Tertiary beds. First, that 
they all rapidly thin out westward. Secondly, the pipe-clay deposits of the 
Lower Bagshots" derived from decomposition of granite to the west and brought 
down by the Solent River. Thirdly, the complete absence of lime, and conse- 
quently of molluscan remains, from the Woolwich and Reading beds to the 
base of the Bartons. This is due to prolonged percolation of surface water 
through the sand. No traces of the prolific shell-life of Selsey are found in the 
Bracklesham beds of this district. 



2. The Liiholoqical Su£cessi>on in the Avonian of the Avon Section, 
Clifton. B-ij S. H. Reynolds, Sc.B., F.G.S. 

Several previous workers have dealt with the lithology of the Avon section, 
and. in particular, Mr. E'. B. Wethered and the late Dr. A. Vaughan. The 
results of the present paper are based in part on field work, in part on the 
study of over 200 rock slices which have been cut with the aid of grants from 
the University of Bristol Colston Society. 

The chief rock-types occurring are the following, the horizons being alluded 
to under the designation adopted in Vaughan's original paper.' 

Calcareous Bochs. 

Algal limestones are abundant (a) in Km, (Ij) at the top of C2, (c) in 
the lower part of .Si, (d) in the pisolitic beds of the lower part of S2, (e) in 
the ' Concretionary Beds ' of the upper part of S, : this is the most important 
development. 

AlitcJieldeania and Solenopora are the most persistent forms ranging from 
the base of K to the top of S2. Siiongiostroma is the prevalent form in the 
calcite-mudstones which are so abundant in C2 and S. 

FoRAMiNiFERAL LIMESTONES : Foraminifera first begin to be fairly common 
in Z2. They occur in great abundance in the upper part of S2 and the 
lower part of Di. 

Coral Limestones : Zaphrentid corals play an appreciable part as limestone 
builders in Zj, whiie bands full of Lithostrotion innrtini are most characteristic' 
of S. Corals attain their greatest importance in D. 

Crinoidal Limestones : Crinoids are abundant in Ki and K2, and are the 
greatest limestone builders throughout the whole of the Z beds. 

Br-achiopod Limestones are met with throughout nearly the whole section. 
Spirifcr, Orthotetes and Chonrfcs being the most abundant Tournaisian genera, 
Scminula, Prodnctiis and Chonetes the commonest Visean. 

Ostracods are very plentiful wherever the rocks are shaly or of the calcite- 
mudstone type, viz. : throughout K. at the top of Ca. and in the lower part 
of Si. 

Oolites occur at the following levels : [n] in the upper part of Ci, (h) in 
the middle of S2, (c) throughout D. 

Siliceous Rocks. 

Crrits are met with only in the D beds. Chert bands occur (a) near the 
middle of Z,, {h) in S„ below the oolite, (c) in S, between the oolite and the 
' Concretionary Beds.' 

' Q.J.G.S., vol. l>;i. (1905). 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. " 189 

Argillaceous Rocks. 

Thick shales are met with (o) throughout Ki, (h) in upper Cj and lower 
Si, (c) in upper Di and upper D2 

Chanyes which liavc afjcctcd certain of the Rocks. 

Pe.ne contemporaneous brcrriation (dessication breccias) are characteristic of 
all the shallow water (lagoon-phase, Dixon) rocks of C2 and S. 

Dolomifizafion proves to be considerably more widespread in the Avon 
rocks tlian had been previously supposed. The matrix of the Petit. Granit 
of Zi, Z2 and y is almost everywhere dolomitized. The almost complete dolo- 
mitization of C, and the upper part of C2 has long been familiar. There has 
been considerable dolomitization in the calcite-mudstones of Si and lower S2. 
All the chief dolomites are to be classed as contemporaneous according to the 
classification of ^Ir. L. M. Parsons. = 



3. Interim Report of lite Coininiltee to Investigate the Geologn of 

Coal Seams. 



i. Interim Report of the Committee on the Old Red Sandstone 
Rocks of Kiltorca,n, Ireland. 



5. Interim Report of the Committee to Investigate the Flora of Lower 
Carboniferous times, as exemplified at a newly-discovered locality 
at Gullcine, Haddingtonshire. 



6. Litcriiii Report of the Committee to E.vcavate Critical Sections in 
the Palceozoic Rocks of England and Wales. 



7. Interim Report of the Committee to- Excavate Critical Sections in 
Old Red Sandstone Rocks at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. — SeeEeports, 
p. 110. 



8. Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the Preparation of a 
List of Characteristic Fossils. 



9. Interim Report of the Committee on the Collection, Preservation., 
and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geological Interest. 
—See Reports, p. 111. 



In the afternoon a Sectional Excursion to Bournemouth Cliffs took place. 



Geol. Mag. Dec. vi., vol. v. (1918), p. 246. 



190 TRAN8ACTI0NS OP SECTION C. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPT EMU MM 10. 
The following Papers were read : 

1. The Meso<zoic Rochs of the Bou-riieiiiuuth District. 
By Sir Aubrey Steahan, K.B.E., F.E.S. 

Th ' Isle ' of Purbeck includes a part of the healthy tract underlain by the 
Tertiary beds of the Hampshire Basin, a central ridge formed by the chalk 
which rises abruptly from beneath those beds, and, in its southern part, a 
hilly region underlain by Wealden, Purbeck, Portland, and Kimmeridge strata, 
and terminated by bold cliffs. Each formation gives rise to characteristic features 
in the landscape, the Portland Stone esi>ecially farming a dominant escarpment 
and vertical sea-cliffs. 

The emergence of the chalk and underlying formations from beneath the 
Tertiary beds is due to an extremely sharp fold, accompanied by overthrusting. 
The age of the movement is proved in the Isle of Wight to have been post- 
Oligocene, inasmuch as the Oligocene strata are there involved in it. On the 
other hand, it was accomplished, and the uplifted strata were exposed to pro- 
longed denudation, in pre-Pliocene times. The sagging of the strata which 
led to the formation of the Hampshire and London basins and the arching-up 
of the intervening Wealden anticline are attributable to the same period and 
to the same earth-movement. 

So energetic a movement, coming into activity at so late a geological age, had 
a profound influence upon the physical geography of the South-East of England. 
The principal rivers, the Thames and Frome, each followed a syncline eastwards. 
On either side they received tributaries which rose upon the anticlines. The 
anticlines, however, have suffered severe denudation, and no longer maintain 
their dominance of elevation, but the rivers have kept their courses, and now 
cross in narrow defiles the chalk ridges which formed the foundations of the 
once continuous chalk arch. Admirable examples of such defiles are shown at 
Corfe Castle. 

The curve of the strata in the Isle of Purbeck may be compared to the 
figure 2. The lower limb of the 2 represents the horizontal beds of the Hampshire 
basin, the middle limb shows the strata in a vertical or inverted position, while 
the upper limb illustrates the gentle curve by which they regain a more normal 
position. The strain, however, was too great to be relieved by folding alone, 
and overthrusting on a considerable scale came into play. The cliff-section 
of Ballard Down shows curving strata which belonged to the lower limb of the 
2 resting upon the edges of vertical strata which belonged to the middle limb, 
a sharply-defined slide-plane (the Isle of Purbeck Fault) separating the two. 
Westwards from Lulworth Cove innumerable subsidiary thrust-planes can be 
detected in the chalk, and less easily in the Wealden and Purbeck beds. Every- 
where along the line of the Isle of Purbeck Fault the chalk is greatly hardened, 
while the flints are broken, pulverised, and even drawn out into streaks of 
flint-powder. The Isle of Purbeck Fault dies out under Wevmouth Bay, but 
is replaced a mile or two to the north by the parallel and still more energetic 
Ridgeway overthrust. 

As regards the regions which it is proposed to visit, in the neighbourhood 
of Swanage the whole sequence from the base of upper chalk to the Portland 
Stone is open to examination, but time will not admit of more than a brief 
inspection of the Purbeck arrd Portland cliff-sections. The Upper Purbeck with 
Paludina limestones (or ' marble ' beds) and Unio beds form Peveril Point, and 
the Middle and Lower Purbeck beds are shown more or less cont'nuously in 
Durlston Bay, a band composed of shells of Ostrea disforta (the ' Cinder Bed ') 
forming an easilv recognised horizon. About 30 feet below the ' Cinder Bed ' 
lies the Mammal Bed, a thin, earthy layer which has yielded the remains of 
sereral genera of marsupials. Below this again are the Lower Purbeck lime- 
stones and marls, some with gvpsum, casts of crystals of rock-salt and insect 
remains, others yielding a brackish water estnarine fauna. A double fault, 
with a downthrow south of 100 feet, near the zig-zag path, throws the Cinder 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION C. 191 

Bed from tlie top of the cliff to below the beach. The junction with the Port- 
land Stone is not well shown in Durlston Bay. 

The cliffs near Kimmeridge give a continuous section from the lowest Purbeck 
(on the top of St. Alban's Head) to a low horizon in the Kimmeridge Clay, more 
than 1000 feet of strata in all. From the head westwards they show a descending 
section in gently inclined strata, and at rather more than 500 feet below the 
top of the Kimmeridge Clay the 'Kimmeridge coal,' or ' brownstone,' emerges 
from below the beach. This highly bituminous layer is about 2 feet 10 inches 
thick, and has been worked in the neighbourhood from time immemorial, firstly 
for the manufacture of ornaments or utensils, latterly as a fuel and as a source 
of oil. During the war it attracted much attention as a possible source of oil 
and other products. Alum was also once manufactured here. In Hobarrow Bay 
the main anticlinal axis is reached, and thence westwards the same strata are 
crossed in ascending order, until the beetling crag formed by the Portland Stone 
comes down to the beach and stops further progress. 

Lulworth Cove illustrates the effect of attacks by the surf upon nearly vertical 
strata, varying in their power of resistance. The Portland Stone has formed 
a natural break-water, which, however, has been breached in places. Stair 
Hole shows the first effects of a breach ; the waves have worn holes through the 
.stone, and are swilling the debris of the soft Upper Purbeck and Wealden strata 
through them. In Lulworth Cove the breakwater has been completely broken 
through, and a beautifully symmetrical natural harbour formed in the outcrops 
of the Purbeck, Wealden, and Gault formations. Everywhere the sea suffers 
a prolonged check on reaching the chalk. 

The east side of Lulworth Cove shows all the formations below the chalk 
except the Lower Greensand, but much attenuated as compared with Swanage. 
Here an imconformity below the Gault, which becomes most pronounced at 
White Nothe, a few miles westwards, becomes manifest for the first time. The 
absence of Lower Greensand may be due in part to overstep by the Gault, 
and some of the uppermost Wealden beds also may be absent for the same 
reason. The section at White Nothe shows the Gault resting on steeply up- 
turned Wealden, Purbeck, and Kimmeridge strata, and proves that there has 
been produced in pre-Gault times a set of flexures wholly independent of those 
of post-Oligocene age, though parallel to them. These earlier flexiu'es are 
ignored by the rivers. 

Mupe Bay, east of Lulworth Cove, affords a clear view of the passage of 
the Purbeck beds up into the Wealden, and of the abrupt but conformable junc- 
tion of the Lower Purbeck and Portland Stone. Half a mile east of Lulworth 
Cove a ledge of the cliff provides an luirivalled opportunity of examining the 
lower part of the Purbeck beds, including the junction with the Portland Stone, 
the thin layer of carbonaceous, gravelly soil known as the dirt-bed, numerous 
stumps and prostrate trunks of coniferous trees silicified and enclosed in cal- 
careous tufa, and the brecciated limestones associated with tufa, known as the 
' bix)ken beds.' Here the incoming of bands of tufa, among the sedimentary 
limestones, and the close association of such incoming with brecciation of the 
limestones, can be studied in detail. Westward from Lulworth Cove the cliffs 
illustrate the intense compression and supplementary overthrusting which all 
the formations have undergone in the neighboairhood of the Isle of Purbeck 
Fault. 



2. The Chinefi of Botirnpninulh. By Henry Bury, F.G.S. 

The country round Bournemouth consists of an almost level plateau, intersected 
by numerous valleys, and some of the latter, running down to the sea, are of a 
precipitous character, and are distinguished under the name of ' Chines.' They 
are usually described as having started as small gullies in the face of the cliff 
and having worked back inland ; but the evidence seems to be against this. 
Not only is there no sign of special activity at their heads, but each is found to 
consist nf an older valley with a U-shaped section, and a newer one. shorter and 
narrower, shaped like a V. The older valleys probably joined the Frome-Solent 
River about 1-2 miles from the present shore-line ; the newer ones owe their 



192 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

smaller size to reduction in water supply, and their steepness to the rapid retreat 
of the shore-line under marine action. They are in fact growing shorter, and 
not longer, and the final obliteration of some of them may have helped to give 
rise to the belief that the cliffs themselves are growing steeper. 



A Joint Discussion with Section H then took place on the Post-Tertiary 
Geology of the distiict, with special reference to flint implements, opened by the 
following Paper, which was illustrated by a collection of implements specially 
arranged by Mr. Scott : — 

3. The Posi-Tertiary Deposits of the Bournemouth Area. 
By Eeginald A. Smith. 

The temporary exhibition of palasoliths from the Bournemouth district 
suggests further inquiry into the age and character of the beds in which they 
are found. Gravel is widely distributed over the high ground between the 
Stour and the coast at about 100 ft. O.D., and the implements are often found 
at the base of deep deposits in an unrolled condition, and therefore presumably 
(/( situ. The current view is that the gravels were laid down by a great river 
flowing eastward between the present coast-line and a southern bank connecting 
the Needles with the Isle of Purbeck; but in view of similar discoveries on 
St. 'Catherine's Hill (between the Avon and Stour and close to their junction), 
it seems likely that the Bournemouth gravels were originally continuous with 
those of the New Forest, and that the implements were imbedded in them 
before the present valleys of the Stour and Avon were deeply cut. Several 
implements have been found in high and low gravel-beds in the New Forest, 
and coast finds are abundant from Poole Harbour to Southampton Water. A 
section from Bramble Hill .south-west to the coast is given in Proc. Geol. Assoc, 
xxvi. (1915), 4, suggesting that the iniplement-bearing beds are part of a 
plateau deposit rather than the terrace-gravel of a Solent river. 



In the afternoon a Sectional Excursion to Swanage took place. 



THUBSDAY, SEPTEMBEB 11. 
Joint Meeting vrith Section D. — See Section D, p. 211. 



In the afternoon a Sectional Excursion to Corfe took place. 



FBI DAY, SEPTEMBEB 12. 

The following Papers were read : — 

1. The Pre-Cambrian of Central Canada. 
By WiLLET G. Miller. 

Ten years ago, at the Winnipeg meeting of the British Association, the 
author presented a paper dealing with the age relations of the pre-Cambrian 
i-ocks of Canada. Since then much field work has been done in connection 
with these rocks, not only in the province of Ontario, but to the eastward in 
Quebec and, to a lesser extent, to the westward in Manitoba and i&askatchewan. 
There has been great mining activity in the pre-Cambrian areas of Ontario, 
which has afforded special facilities for study to the geological staff of the 
Ontario Bureau of Mines. From time to time papers and reports have been 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 



193 



published as our knowledge has incienscd, and the age classification, haa been 
revised.' The following classification is now employed by the Ontario Bureau^ : — ■ 



Pbe-Cambrian. 



Keweenawan 

Unconformity 



Animikean 



Under this heading are placed not only 
the roL-ks that have heretofore been 
called Aniniikie, but the so-called 
Huronian rocks of the ' classic ' Lake 
Huron area, and the Cobalt and 
Ramsay Lake series. Minor uncon- 
formities occur within the Animi- 
kean. 



Great unconformity 



(Algoman granite and gneiss) 
Igneous contact 



Laurentian of some authors, and the 
Lorrain gi-anite of Cobalt, and the 
Killarney granite of Lake Huron, 

etc. 



TiMISKAMIAN 



In this group are placed sedimentary 
rocks of various localities that here- 
tofore have been called Huronian, 
and the Sudbury series. 



Great unconforinity 



There is no evidence that this uncon- 
formity is of lesser magnitude than 
that beneath the Animikean. 



(Laurentian granite and gneiss) 
Igneous contact 

'Orenville 
{Sedimentary) 
Keewatin 
(Igneous) 



Loganian 



The Grenville limestones, with more or 
less greywacke qaiartzite and iron 
formation or jaspilyte at the base, 
"were deposited on the Keewatin 
lavas. 



It will be noted that the historic name ' Huronian ' has been discarded. 
Much confusion has ai-isen through the employment of this name, especially with 
the prefixes Upper, Middle and Lower, in different senses. The term ' Lower 
Huronian,' for example, has been applied indiscriminately to certain rocks 
that lie below one of the greatest known unconformities — that between the 
Timisknmian and Animikean in the table — as well as to some of those above 
it. When making use of the term ' Huronian,' in order to secure clearness, 
it has been necessary to say in what sense it is employed, whether in that of 
the United States Geological Survey or in that of various wi-iters on the subject. 

Logan first studied the rocks, to which he afterwards gave the name 
' Huronian,' on the shores of Lake Timiskaming. There are two series of 
conglomerates and other fragmental rocks here, separated by a great uncon- 
formity, which was discovered only when the geology of the Cobalt area was 
worked out. The lower series belongs to the Timiskamian of the table and 
the other to the Animikean. 

The age relations of another historic series, the Grenville, have also been 
determined only during recent years. Most authors had suggested that the 
Grenville belonged to the so-called Huronian group of sediments, but it has 



' Ont. Bur. Mines, vol. xix., part 2; ihld., vol. xxii., part 2. 
2 Journal of Geology, vol. xxiii., No. 7. 



194 TKANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

proved to be the oldest sedimentary series. The Keewatin rocks, essentially 
schists and greenstone?, represent, for the most part, submarine lava flows. 
On the surface of these flows were deposited the Grenville sediments. While 
the major part of the Grenville is later than the major part of the Keewatin, 
a minor part of one group is contemporaneous with a minor part of the other. 
It is remarkable that among the oldest series of Australia, India, Africa and 
other countries are rocks that resemble very closely the Keewatin of Canada, 
with its associated iron formation or jaspilyte. 

Among most of the workers on the pre-Cambrian of North America there 
i.s now g€neral agreement as to the age relations of the rocks, but different 
classifications and nomenclatures are employed. Most authors make a dual sub- 
division of the pre-Cambrian which seems to the author to be purely arbitrary 
and based on a misconception. There is no proof that the unconformity at 
the base of the Timiskamian is of less magnitude than that at the base of the 
Animikean, or vice verm. 



2. The Correlation of the Devonian Rocks of North Devon with iliuse 
of other localities. By Dr. John W. Evans, F.R.S. 

The Dartmouth Slates of South Devon and Cornwall, which corres.pond, it 
would seem, to the Schistes d'Oignies of the Ardennes, are not seen in North 
Devon, but may be concealed by later rocks and be represented in South Wale.'* 
and the Welsh' Border by the Red Marls of the Lower Old Red Sandstone. It 
is possible that the Foreland Grits are a local Tacies of the upper portion of 
the Dartmouth Slates, just as the arenaceous Cosheston Group is a local develop- 
ment of the upper part of the Red Marls. Both the Foreland Grits and the 
Cosheston Group appear to have yielded the typical Old Red Sandstone plant 
Psilophyton. 

[Note. — The author is not inclined to accept the view that the Foreland Grit.s 
are identical with the Hangmans Grits, which are repeated by faulting.] 

The usual correlation of the Lynton Beds with the Meadfoots of South 
Devon seems well founded. The lower beds with Pteraspis may be compared 
with the Schistes de Saint Hubert of the Ardennes, with Spirifer ■primcevius 
and Pternsjiic (/»»efl.??.?, and the Schistes a Ptera.'ipis diinensis in the Pas de 
Calais. The Senni Beds, which overlie the Red Marls on the north of the '^outh 
Wales Coalfield, and contain Pteraspis and Cephalaspis, may be of the same 
age. The two strata as mentioned have not, lup to the present, yielded any 
marine forms. 

The Hangmans Grits represent a great thickness of arenaceous beds of the 
Old Red Sandstone type overlying the Lynton Beds Little is known of the 
lower portion, but the upper beds include lacustrine or fluviatile beds, with 
plant remains which are probably referable to the Middle Devonian plant P.<^ilu- 
phyion. These are succeeded by marine beds with several fossiliferous horizons, 
some of which have yielded Strhujocephalus. The upper part at least of the 
Hangmans Grits must therefore be considered to be of Givetian age — that is to 
say, Upper-Middle Devonian, instead of Upper-Lower Devonian, according to the 
usiual correlation. This view is supported by the discovery (after the reading of 
the paper) in the plant-bearing beds of a fish-plate referred by Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward to Cocrosteus, a genus which is usually of Middle Old Red Sandstone and 
Middle Devonian age, though it has been found in the Upper Old Red Sandstone. 
The Staddon Grits of South Devon, on the other hand, which are usually con- 
sidered to be the equivalent of the Hangmans Grits, cannot extend upwards much 
beyond the base of the Eifelian or Lower-Middle Devonian, as they are succeeded 
by calcareous slates with Calceola sandalina. The succession in the Middle 
Devonian of North Devon may be paralleled in the Boulonnais, where micaceous 
sandstones with plant remains are overlaid by marine beds with Strhxaocephahi.-' 
Imrt'mi. 

The Hangmans Grits are succeeded by the Combe Martin Beds, grits with 
occasional ferruginous crinoidal limestones, and these bv the Ilfracombe Beds, 
shales and limestones with crinoids and coral.'!. Except for an alleged occur- 
rence of Stringocephalus which cannot now be verified , no distinctive forms 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION C. 195 

in fossils have been found either in the Combe Martin or Lower Ilfracombe 
Beds, and they may be either Upper-Middle Devonian (Givetian) or Lower- 
Upper Devonian (Frasnian). Unfortunately no goniatites have been found in 
the Devonian of North Devon, so that exact con-elation is difficult. In higher 
portions of the Ilfracombe Beds Spirifer verneuili and Rhynchondla (Wilsonia) 
cuboides are found, which are sufficient to establish the Upper Devonian (pre- 
sumably Frasnian) age of the rocks. The highest Ilfracombe Beds are less 
calcai'eous, and there seems no reason to doubt that they pass upwards con- 
formably with the Merte iSlates, the Upper Devonian age of which is com- 
pletely established by the occurrence of Spirifer veriieuiU (var. hamlingi), and 
they may well represent the Schistes de Matagne, which form the highest beds 
of the Frasnian in the Ardennes. Rocks of the same age appear to be met with 
in the Boulonnais and in the boring in Tottenham Court Road in London. The 
Morte Slates become more arenaceous at the summit, and are probably suc- 
ceeded conformably by the Pickwell Down Sandstones. The junction is usually 
faulted, but this is apt to be the case in strongly folded areas where succes- 
sive beds differ considerably in physical characters, and the resistance they 
offer to the forces to which the rocks have been subjected. The Pickwell Down 
Sandstones have yielded the typical Upper Old Red Sandstone fish Holopty- 
rhius and Bothriolepis, and may be compared to the beds with the same forms 
reached by a boring at Southall, west of London, and to the Psammites de 
Condroz. They must be referred to the terrestrial or Old Red Sandstone type 
of the Famennian. The Baggy and Marwood Beds that overlie the Pickwell 
Down Sandstone and the lower portion of, the succeeding Pilton Beds represent 
a marine facies of the Upper Famennian, as well as the Calcaire d'Etrceungt, 
which forms a passage to the Carboniferous in the Ardennes. The Upper 
Devonian of the Turnford boring in the Lea Valley, north-east of London, and 
the marine beds of the Upper Old Red Sandstone of South Wales and the 
Coomhola Grits in South Ireland are probably at about the same horizon as the 
Baggy and Marwood Beds and the base of the Piltons. The Upper Pilton 
Beds have now been shown to be of Carboniferous and not Devonian age, and 
to extend upwards and include the basement beds of the Zaphrentis zone. 

It will be seen that North Devon is characterised by a repeated alternation 
of the terrestrial or Old Red Sandstone facies formed of materials laid down 
by rivers or in lakes or transported by the action of the wind and the marine 
facies of the Devonian. This alternation is even more remarkable here than 
that in the Eastern Baltic, with which all students of geology are familiar. 
There were three periods when the marine recession resulted in the deposition 
of the former, the first commencing in some areas towards the close of Silurian 
times. Each recurrence of the terrestrial facies is characterised by a com- 
pletely different fauna and flora. There were also three periods of marine 
transgression, one about midway in the Lower Devonian, the second in the 
Givetian and Frasnian, and the third commencing near the close of the Famen- 
nian and reaching its maximum in the Carboniferous. In South Devon and 
Cornwall the conditions as a whole were more marine than in North Devon, and 
it was only during the deposition of the Dartmouth Slates in North Cornwall 
that entirely terrestrial (in this case fresh-water) conditions prevailed. In 
South Wales, on the other hand. Continental conditions were more prevalent 
than in North Devon, but a far more important difference between the north 
and south of the Bristol Channel lies in the complete omission, due either to 
non-deposition or erosion, of any representative of North Devon strata from at 
least low down in the Lynton Beds to the summit of the Morte Slates. 

The variation of conditions of deposition which are so strongly marked in 
North Devon can be traced in most of the occurrences of Devonian rocks in 
other parts of the world, though they are nowhere else so striking and unam- 
biguous. It is the deepening and transgression of the sea in Givetian and 
Frasn-an times that is tlie most widely extended and most strongly marked of 
nil these changes. 

The Devonian period is not a natural division of the history of marine sedi- 
mentation characterised by a gradual deepening and subsequently a gradual 
shallowing of the ocean waters, but was determined solely by the interval 
between the last marine beds of the Silurian and the earliest marine beds of 



196 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION C. 

the Carboniferous Limestone on the Welsh Border, where these strata were 
first studied in the early days of stratigraphical research. It was here that 
the limits of the Old Red Sandstone were originally fixed, and as a consequence 
also those of the contemporaneous rocks of marine origin elsewhere deposited 
which were a little later grouped together to form the Devonian. 



Types of Faults in the Coal Measures (Yorkshire and Cumberland). 
By Professor P. P. Kendall and Dr. A. Gilligan. 



4. The Erosion of Bowrnemoidh Bay and the Age 'Oj its Cliffs. 
By Dr. William T. Ord, F.G.S. 

The fii'st step in the erosion of Bournemouth Bay was the breaking through 
by the sea of the range of chalk hills which were formerly continuous from the 
Needles to Ballard Down. There is evidence that the gap occurred at a point 
due south of Bournemouth pier. It is thought that the Swanage Eiver would 
here have flowed through the hills to join the (Solent Eiver (which then crossed, 
what is now the bay, from Poole Harbour to the Solent), following the examples 
of the Corfe streams, and the Yar in the Isle of Wight, each of which cuts north 
through the chalk. The break through must have taken a long period, though 
once accomplished the friable Tertiary beds were rapidly washed out of the bay. 
Dui'ing Miocene times the Hampshire* Basin was formed by upheaval of the two 
southernmost chalk anticlines, as were the North and South Downs and Chiltern 
Hills. The sea was then far to the south, and busy eroding the Purbeck and 
Portland barrier, which still shows in fragments along the Dorset coast. The 
Frome-Solent River flowed across what is now Bournemouth Bay, through the 
Solent, to enter the sea at Spithead. Its tributaries were the Bourne. Stour, and 
Avon, and others from the New Forest. During the Pliocene subsidence the sea 
advanced to the southern flanks of the chalk anticline between Pui'beck and the 
Island. Then occurred the Raised Beach Period, when the land was stationary 
at 30 ft. above O.D. for a time sufficient to form the beaches, remains of which 
are found at Portland, Torquay, Cornwall, and the Bristol Channel. It was 
probably at this time that the sea first gained access to Bournemouth Bay 
through the gap cut by the Swanage River. Rapid erosion occurred on both 
sides, but chiefly eastward towards the Needles. Admiralty charts show a 
shallow bank which indicates the base of the destroyed chalk ridge. The sea 
destroyed the old drainage system, and received the Rivers Frome, Bourne, Avon, 
and Stour directly. As it advanced it formed a low line of cliffs around the 
bay some distance south of the present cliffs. This period closed by a re- 
elevation of the land, when the sea receded to the south, leaving Bournemouth 
Bay once more dry ; this probably continued during the Glacial Period which 
immediately followed. There is nothing to show what changes occurred during 
the Glacial Period, but we know that, towards the end, vast floods from melting 
ice washed flint gravel from the high ground northward and deposited it in 
sheets (containing palaeolithic implements) as the Plateau Gravels that cover our 
cliffs to-day. The Neolithic Period was ushered in, according to Mr. Clement 
Reid, by a re-elevation of some 80 feet. Since then a gradual subsidence has set 
in, and the sea has again invaded Bournemouth Bay. Then grew the forests which 
have gradually become submerged. Remains of these, far to the south of the 
present pier, were observed by Sir Charles Lyell in 1825, and forty years pre- 
viously by Mr. Fisher. A century ago Sir John Evans records that a stretch of 
.swampy ground separated the foot of the cliffs from the sea. It seems then that 
only within the last century has the sea reached the foot of the old line of cliffs, 
which were formed in pre-Glacial times. As the talus which protected them 
was washed away and the new and old cliffs became one, erosion would be more 
rapid, and the cliff face more perpendicular. There is plenty of evidence to 
confirm this in recent measurements by the Borough Engineer, which give 
accurately the present rate of erosioii of the cliffs at various points. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 197 

The Discovery of Diamonds in the Gold Coast, British West Africa. 
By A. E. KiTsoN, C.B.E., F.G.S. {Director, Geological Survey, 

Gold Coast).'- 

The site of the discovery of diamonds, -which I made early this year, is at 
Abomoso, in the district of Akim Abuakwa, about sixty-five miles to the north- 
west of Accra, the capital of the Gold Coast. The rocks of the district consist 
of a t?iick series of phyllites, altered mudstones, sandstones, grits, and con- 
glomerate, with interbedded altere-d dolerites and tuffs. They have a general 
strike of about N.E.-S.W., and are moderately folded. On their north-western 
and south-eastern sides, and in their south-westward extension, they are 
intruded in many places and greatly metamorphosed by granites and pegmatites, 
and to a less extent by diorite. 

The diamonds occur in detrital gravels resting on the top and side of a 
low ridge, and in the beds of shallow streams. These gravels consist very 
largely of quartz, pi'incipally of opaque, semi-opaque, and transparent varieties. 
The associated minerals are chiefly sisolite, white and brown micas, zircon, 
pyrite, magnetite, ilmenite and gold, with rarer fragments of rutile, black tour- 
maline, red garnet, chalcedony, bi'own corundum, kyanite, and sphene. In 
general character this gravel has unquestionably the appearance of having been 
derived from granitoid rocks. 

iSmall diamonds have been found also in the beds of four streams up to 
fourteen miles to the north-west, and in two streams to five miles to the north- 
east of this place. In addition, one diamond has been found in the quartz 
pebble gravels of the upper terrace of the Birrim River. 

At the site of the original discovery the bulk of the gravel is distinctly 
angular in character, but has associated bands of rounded quartz sand, and a 
few water-worn pebbles of quartz. 

The diamantiferous gravels of the streams to the north-west consist largely 
of quartz, felspar, mica, and fragments of pegmatite, but have a good deal 
more chert and chalcedony than those near Abomoso, though still in small 
proportions. 

The pebbly gravels of the high terrace? of the Birrim River, and of the 
beds of the streams to the north-east, which are mainly rounded pebbles of 
quartz, altered sediments, and volcanic rocks, give concentrates consisting 
largely of chloritic minerals, ilmenite, magnetite, and quartz. 

Some 620 diamonds have been found merely by panning during operations 
to test the character, extent, and distribution of the diamantiferoas material. 
All the stones are small, the average being about thirty-two to the metric carat 
(3.174 grs. Troy). The largest, a clear, colourless, octahedron, weighs a little 
over one-sixth of a carat. Many of the diamonds are beautiful crystals, colour- 
less and transparent, the commonest forms being the octahedron and the rhombic 
dodecahedron, though there are numbers of tetrahedral forms as well. Cleavage 
plates of octahedra occur in fair numbers. jSeveral of these show that the 
parent crystals were much larger than the largest stone hitherto found here. 
Some of the crystals show curved faces ; many others are chipped ; and there 
are numerous fragments. Many of the stones are clear and colourless; others 
are of pale yellow, blue, green, grey, and brown tints, principally the last. 

The largest stone is valued at about £1. The largest grade of colourless 
stones, weighing about eleven to the carat, are valued at 80s. to 100«. per 
carat ; the medium grade, about twenty-two to the carat, at 60'?. to 70>s\ per 
carat; and the smallest grade, about sixty-four to the carat, at 2.5«. to 40.?. per 
carat. The coloured stones of the same groups may be taken at about 40s., 30s., 
and 15^'. per carat respectively. 

In the Abomo Su area the bed-rock in some ^ilaces proved to be phyllite.s or 
sandstones; in others, a decomposed altered ba.sic tuff or lava, full of chloritic 
minerals. A good deal of this material was panned, but no diamonds were 
found in it, though the overlying detrital material in every case yielded 
diamonds. 

' See Report published by Government of the Gold Coast. 
1919. s 



198 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION C. 

The general character of the diamantiferous gravel, and the concentrates 
therefrom, occurring at the site of the first discovery, suggests a derivation 
from a granite-pegmatite area, but the angular quartz and the ragged gold are 
undoubtedly of local origin. Since veins of quartz occur plentifully in the 
underlying rocks, this angular material has most probably been derived there- 
from. The diamond found at a depth of about eight feet in the Birrim terrace 
gravels, and those found in the streams to the north-west and the north-east, 
show clearly that some at least of the stones, though detrital, are not of local 
derivation. 

The matrix of the diamonds has not yet been determined. The stones may 
have been derived from volcanic pipes of kimberlite, as in South Africa, or of 
dolerite, as in New South Wales, intruded into or through the Birrim series in 
Birrimian (pre-Cambrian ?) or post-Birrimian times ; or from conglomerates 
of those times ; or they may have been formed by the action of pegmatite dykes 
or granite intrusions on carbonaceous rocks of the Birrim series. Whatever 
may be the origin of the stones, the evidence so far obtained suggests that they 
have not been derived directly from pipes, but that they are detrital. 



In the afternoon a Sectional Excursion to Barton and Hordle Cliff took 
place. 



SATVIWAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 
Sectional Excursion to Lulworth. 



SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 
Sectional Excursion to Kimmeridge. 



TRANSACTIONS OV SECTION D. 199 



Section D. —ZOOLOGY. 
Pbesident of the Section: F. A. Dixey. M.A. M.D. F.R.S. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 



The President delivered the following Address : — 

One of the results of the great war now happily at an end has been its effect 
upon science. On the one hand it has checked the progress of scientific investi- 
gation ; it has done much to destroy international co-operation and sympathy ; 
it has removed from our ranks, temporarily or permanently, many admirable 
workers. On the other hand it has acted as a great stimulus in many depart- 
ments of scientific inquiry, and it has given the general public an interest in many 
scientific questions which have hitherto met with little recognition or encourage- 
ment from the people at large. It was perhaps inevitable, but at the same time, 
as I venture to think, rather to be deplored, that that interest has tended to 
concentrate itself upon applied more than upon abstract science ; that it has been 
concerned chiefly with the employment of natural knowledge in devising and 
perfecting new methods of destruction. Terrible as is the power which the 
present-day engines of warfare have attained, it may be reasonable to hope that 
some compensation for the mischief and suffering which they have caused may 
eventually be found in peaceful directions; that the submarine, the air-craft, 
and even the high explosive may cease to be a terror to civilisation, and in spite 
of their past history may after all become agents in the advancement of the 
general welfare : 

Hoc paces habuere bonae, Tontique secundi, 

will, let us hope, be a legitimate reflection in later times. But for the true 
scientific worker, I think I may safely assert, the primary object of his studies 
is the attainment of knowledge for its own sake : applications of such knowledge 
may be trusted to follow ; some beneficial, some perhaps the reverse. Still, 
whether they do or do not so follow is less a concern of the scientific man than 
whether his labours have resulted in a fresh advance into the realms of the 
unknown. I confess to some sympathy with the feeling which is said to be 
expressed in the regular toast of a certain scientific gathering : — ' Pure mathe- 
matics, and may they never be of any use to anybody.' 

For genuine enthusiasm in the cause of science for its own sake, I think 
that we zoologists may claim a good record. We are by no means unmindful 
of the great benefits to humanity which have taken their rise more or less 
directly from zoological science. I need do no more than mention the services 
to medicine, great at the present and destined to be greater still in the future, 
that are being rendered by the protozoologist and the entomologist. We may 
look forward also to results of the highest practical importance from the investi- 
gations into the laws of heredity in which we are engaged with the co-operation 
of our allies the botanists. But what we are entitled to protest against is the 
temper of mind which values science only for the material benefits that may be 
got from it ; and what above all we should like to see is a greater respect on 
the part of the public for science purely as science, a higher appreciation of the 

S 2 



200 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION D. 

labours of scientific men, and a greater readiness, in matters where science touches 
on the common affairs of life, to be guided by the accumulated knowledge and 
experience of those who have made such matters the subject of constant and 
devoted study. If the war leads to any repair of the general deficiency in these 
respects, it will to that extent have conferred a benefit on the community. 

Regarding, as I do, my present position in this Section as a great honour and 
privilege, especially in view of this being the first meeting of the British 
Association to be held after the war, I hope I may be allowed a few preliminary 
remarks of a somewhat autobiographical character. As far iback as I can 
remember, zoology has been a passion vrith me. I was brought up in a non- 
zoological environment, and for the first few years of my life my only knowledge 
of the subject was gained from an odd volume of Chambers's ' Information for the 
People.' But on being asked by a visitor what I intended to do with myself 
when I grew up, I can distinctly remember answering, with the confident assur- 
ance of seven or eight, ' Zoology suits me best ' — pronouncing the word, which 
I had only seen and never heard, as zoology. By the time I went to school, my 
opportunities had increased, but I soon found myself engaged in the classical 
and mathematical routine from which in those days there was little chance of 
escape. In due course I went to the University with a classical scholarship, 
which necessitated for the time an even more rigid exclusion of scientific aspira- 
tions than before. I mention this because I wish to pay a tribute of gratitude 
to the College authorities of that day, to whose wise policy I owe it that I was 
eventually able to fulfil in some measure my desire for natural, and especially 
biological, knowledge. After two years of more or less successful application to 
the literary studies of the University, I petitioned to be allowed to read for the 
final school in natural science. The petition was granted ; my scholarship was 
not taken away, and was even prolonged to the end of my fifth year. This I 
think was an enlightened measure, remarkable for the time, more than forty 
years ago, when it was adopted. I only hope that we have not in this respect 
fallen back from the standard of our predecessors. The avidity with which I 
took up the study of elementary chemistry and physics, and the enthusiasm 
with which I started on comparative anatomy under the auspices of George 
Rolleston are among the most pleasant recollections of my youth. But from the 
force of circumstances, though always at heart a zoologist, I have never been 
in a position to give myself unreservedly to that department of biology ; and 
even now, in what I must call my old age, I fear I cannot regard myself as 
much more than a zoological amateur. My working hours are largely taken 
up with serving tables. 

What moral do I draw from this brief recital ? Not by any means that I 
should have been allowed to escape a grounding in the elements of a literary 
education, though I think it quite possible that the past, and even the present 
methods of school instruction are not ideally the best. My experience has led 
me to conclude that much of the time spent over the minutiae of Greek and 
Latin grammar might, in the case of the average boy, be better employed. 
But I do not agree that a moderate knowledge of the classics, well taught by a 
sensible master, is useless from any reasonable point of view. To those of my 
hearers who appreciate Kipling, I would call to mind the vividly truthful 
sketch of school life called 'Regulus.' Let them reflect how the wonderful 
workmanship of the inspired and inspiring Ode of Horace, round which the 
sketch is written, must have sunk into the mind of the apparently careless and 
exasperating ' Beetle,' the ' egregious Beetle ' as King calls him, to bear such 
marvellous "fruit in after years. Beetle, as we all know, is no professional 
scholar, no classical pedant, but a man of the world who has not forgotten 
his Horace, and upon whose extraordinary literary skill those early school-tasks 
must have had, whether consciously or not, a dominating influence. How else 
could he have written 'Regulus'? 'You see,' says King, 'that some_ of _ it 
sticks.' So it does, if it is only given a fair chance; and in the skirmish 
between King the classical and Hartopp the science master, both right up to a 
point and both wrong beyond it, I give on the whole the palm to King. To 
revert to my own case. I do not regi-et a word of either the Latin or the Greek 
that I was' obliged to read, nor even the inkling of the niceties of scholarship 
to which I got, I hope, a fair introduction. But I do think that I might have 
been allowed to start on scientific work at an earlier period, and that a good 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 201 

deal of the time spent, say, on Greek and Latin prose and verse writing, might 
in my case have been Vvfell spared for other objects. 

To generalise what I have been saying. Start teaching your boy or girl on 
a good wide basis. Nothing is better for this than the old school subjects of 
classics, history and mathematics, with the addition of natural science. In 
course of time a bent will declare itself. Encourage this, even at the expense of 
other studies desirable in themselves. But do not allow any one subject, however 
congenial, to usurp the place of a grounding in those matters which are proper 
to a general education. The time for specialising will come ; and when it has 
arrived do all you can to remove obstacles, pecuniary and other. Do not hamper 
your historian with chemistry or your zoologist with the differential calculus. If 
they have a taste for these things by way of diversion or recreation, well and 
good. But let their action be voluntary. 

This, however, is not a fitting occasion for propounding my views on the 
question of education, and it is time to turn to the immediate object of my 
address. And here I think I cannot do better than to bring before your notice 
certain facts which have a bearing on the subject of insect mimicry; a subject 
which for many years past has engaged much of my attention. The facts on 
all hands are allowed to be remarkable. As to their interpretation there is much 
diversity of opinion; and indeed, until complete data are forthcoming, this 
could hardly be otherwise. 

The Geographical Factor in Mimicry. 

In the first place let us glance at a certain assemblage of butterflies that 
inhabits New Guinea with some of the adjacent islands. These butterflies, 
though belonging to different subfamilies, present a resemblance to each other 
which is too strong to be accidental. Three of them belong to the Pierines, the 
group which includes the common white butterflies of this country ; the fourth is 
a Nymphaline, not widely removed from our well-known tortoiseshells, red 
admiral and peacock. The resemblance on the upper surface tetween two of the 
three Pierines is not especially noteworthy, inasmuch as they present in common 
the ordinary Pierine appearance of a white or nearly white ground colour with 
a dark border somewhat broadened at the apex. But this, an everyday feature 
in the Pierines, is almost unknown in the very large subfamily to which our 
present Nymphaline belongs. (Still, though sufficiently remarkable to arrest 
the attention of anyone familiar with these groups, the Pierine-like aspect of the 
upper siirface of this Nymphaline, which is known as Mynes doryca, would 
not by itself have seemed to call for any special explanation. The resemblance 
would pass as merely an interesting coincidence. But the under surface of the 
three Pierines, known respectively as Hujjhinn ahnormis, Delias ornytion and 
Delias irma, presents a striking combination of colour very unusual in their own 
group ; and this peculiar character of the under surface is shared by the 
Nymphaline Mynes doryca. The ' long arm of coincidence ' could scarcely reach 
as far as this. Whatever might be said about the likeness seen from above, 
that the wings beneath should show virtually the same unusual pattern in the 
Mynes as in the Pierines seems to call for some explanation other than an 
appeal to chance or accident. Moreover, with regard to the Pierines themselves, 
the two members of the genus Delias are of course fairly closely related; but 
the Hvphina belongs to an entirely distinct genus, separated from Delias by 
many important structural differences. The two species of Delias perhaps 
depart less widely in aspect from their nearest congeners than does either the 
Hupfiino or the Mynes. The under surface of the Hvphina is unexampled in 
its genus, but the upper surface is quite ordinary. The Mynes, as we have 
seen, stands alone among its nearest relatives not only in the character of its 
under surface, but also in the Pierine-like character of its wings above. 

We will now turn to another assemblage, which presents us with the same 
problem from a somewhat different point of view. In south-eastern Asia, with 
certain of the adjacent islands, is found a genus of large butterflies, called by 
Wallace Priove.ris from the saw-like front margin of the forewing in the male. 
More than fifty years ago it was remarked by Wallace that the species of Prioneris 



202 TRAIJSACTIONS OF SECTION D. 

in several cases seem to mimic those of the genus Delias, and that ' in all cases 
the pairs "which resemble each other inhabit the same district, and very often are 
known to come from the same locality.' The parallelism is even stronger than 
was stated by Wallace, for there is not a single known member of the genus 
Prioneris which does not resemble a species of Delias, so that Prioneris cannot 
really be said to have an aspect of its own. Prioneris clemanthe and Delias 
agostina form a pair inhabiting the Himalayas, Burma and Further India. In 
the same region occur Prioneris thestylis and Delias belladonna, the striking 
similarity of which species, especially on the underside and in the female, drew 
the special attention of Mr. Wallace. A still more remarkable instance is that 
of Prioneris sita of southern India and Ceylon, the likeness of which to the 
common Indian Delias eucharis is spoken of by Wallace as ' perfect ' ; while 
Fruhstorfer, a hostile witness, testifies to the fact that the Prioneris always flies 
in company with the Delias, and rests just like the latter with closed wings on 
the red flowers of the Lantana. Prioneris hypsipyle of Sumatra and P. autothishe 
of Java are like Delias egialea and D. crithoe of the same two islands. Here 
again Fruhstorfer says of Prioneris autothishe, that it visits the flowers of the 
Cinchona, 'always in company with the similarly coloured Delias crithoe.' 
Wallace remarked on the close similarity between Prioneris Cornelia of Borneo 
and Delias singhapura of the Malay Peninsula ; in this case, it will be noted, the 
localities though not far distant from each other, are not identical. But a 
Delias form which was unknown at the date of Wallace's paper has since been 
found in Borneo, and this latter butterfly, known as D. indistincta, is even more 
exactly copied by P. Cornelia than is the Delias which first drew Wallace's 
attention. Prioneris vollenhovii of Borneo is a kind of compromise between 
Delias indistincta and, on the underside, D. jxinde?nia of the same island; and 
it may be added that another Bornean Pierine, Huphina pactolica, is a good copy 
of Delias indistincta, therefore resembling also the Bornean Prioneris cornelia 
and P. vollenhovii. 

The memoir, published in 1867, in which Wallace remarked on the parallelism 
between Prioneris and Delias, contains a noteworthy prediction by the same 
author. Speaking of Pieris (now called Huphina) laeta of Timor he says that 
it ' departs so much from the style of colouring of its allies and approaches so 
nearly to that of Thyca [Delias] belisama of Java, that I should almost look 
foran ally of the last species to be discovered in Timor to serve as its pattern.' 
Thirty-four years after the expression of this anticipation, Mr. Doherty dis- 
covered in Timor an ally of Delias belisama which at once suggests itself as the 
model from which the peculiar and brilliant colouring of Hvphina laeta has 
been derived. Fruhstorfer, who is by no means friendly to the theory of 
mimicry, says of this Delias, which was named splendida by Lord Rothschild, 
that beneath it is ' deceptively like Huphina laeta.' But here comes in a curious 
point. The black forewing with its yellow apex and the orange-yellow hindwing 
with its scarlet black-bordered costal streak are present on the underside of 
both the Delias and the Huphina; but the latter butterfly possesses in addition 
to these features a row of scarlet marginal spots on the hindvring which are 
not to be found on the Delias. In spite of this discrepancy, the likeness is 
sufficiently striking. But from the same island of Timor, Doherty sent home 
another Delias which besides resembling D. splendida, possesses a row of 
scarlet patches in the corresponding situation to those of H. laeta. In this 
latter Delias, however, named dohertyi by Lord Rothschild after its discoverer, 
the brilliant scarlet costal streak is completely absent. The Huphina, there- 
fore, is more like either species of Delias than they are like each other, forming, 
as it were, a link between them. So that, adopting Professor Poulton's 
terminology, we may say that, if this is a case of mimicry, one form may possess 
at the same time the aposemes belonging to two distinct models. I will not now 
stop to discuss the bearing of this case on current theories, but will only remark 
that, granting mimicry, the whole assemblage, D. splendida, H. laeta, D. 
dohertyi. may be expected to gain advantage from the blending action of the 
intermediate H. laeta. This I think would happen whether laeta is a ' Batesian ' 
or ' Miillerian ' mimic, but the gain to the association in the latter case is 
certainly the more obvious. 

This state of things would be sufficiently curious if it stood by itself. But it 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 203 

docs not stand by itself. In tombok, Sumbawa and Flores there occurs another 
member of the peculiar group of Hupliina to which H. lacta belongs. This 
butterfly, known as H. tcmena. resembles H. laeta in many respects; possessing 
on the underside of the hindwing a scarlet costal streak and a row of scarlet 
marginal spots like those of that insect. The forewing, however, differs from 
that of H. laeta in having its ground-colour not uniformly black, but divided 
between a dark shading to the veins, a dark submarginal band, and series of 
pale streaks and patches in the interspaces between the veins. The question 
at once suggests itself : Is there a relation between H. temena and one or more 
species of Delias corresponding to that between H. laeta and D. splendida and 
dohertyil The answer to this question is in the aflSrmative. Delias oraia, 
together with Delias sumhawana, both species inhabiting the same three islands 
as H. temena, form with it an assemblage quite comparable with the former 
triad from Timor. Further, the points in which H. temena differs from H. laeta 
have their counterpart in the distinctions between D. oraia and D. splendida 
on the one hand, and D. sumhawana and D. dohertyi on the other. These points 
are chiefly, in the temena assemblage, the less definitely black-bordered costal 
streak, the more strongly-marked black bordering to the submarginal scarlet 
spots, and the diversely-coloured as compared with the uniformly black forewing 
of the Timor insects. 

Again, in the island of Bali, Huphina tamar would seem to combine certain 
features of two species of Delias in a similar manner to the cases of laeta and 
temena just considered. The underside as a whole is reminiscent of D. periboea, 
a member, like D. dohertyi and D. sumhawana, of the eucharis or hyparete group 
of the genus ; while the red costal streak suggests the influence of a representative 
in Bali of the lelisama group, like D. splendida and D. oraia in the other islands. 

Finally, in the island of Sumba we have another member of this remarkable 
group of Huphinas. Huphina julia, the butterfly referred to, so closely 
resembles Delias fasciata of the same island, that even the sceptical Fruhstorfer 
is constrained to speak of it as a ' faithful copy ' of that insect. But here once 
more it is noticeable that one of the most conspicuous features of the Huphina 
is absent from the Delias. This time it is not, as in the case of D. splendida, 
the submarginal row of scarlet spots on the underside of the hindwing, but it 
is the scarlet costal streak that is wanting. Huphina julia was discovered by 
Mr. Doherty in the year 1887, and described in 1891. It is interesting, in the 
light of what is now known of the butterfly fauna of the Lesser Sunda islands, 
to read what Doherty has to say about the mimicry question in relation to the 
Delias and Huphina forms that have just been mentioned. Speaking of H. julia, 
he says, ' If it stood alone, I should certainly suppose it to be a mimic of some 
form of Delias hyparete yet undiscovered in the island. Biit both H. laeta and 
H. temena require to be accounted for in the same way, and while it is possible 
that some Timorese Delias may resemble H. laeta, I feel sure that H. temena 
can have no such original. It must then be assumed that this group is less 
pressed by its enemies in the Timorian Islands, and has therefore been able 
to acquire more brilliant colours than its allies.' So far Doherty. 

Whatever may be the value of this last hypothesis, we have just seen that 
the supposed facts on which it rests are non-existent, for (1) the 'form of 
Delias Hyparete as yet undiscovered ' has actually turned up in the person of 
D. fasciata; (2) it is not only possible, but actually the case that ' some Timorese 
Delias may resemble H. laeta ' ; (3) Mr. Doherty ' feels sure that H. temena 
nan have no such original,' but Delias oraia and Delias sumhawana have just 
the same rc'lation to Hvphina temena as I). spJendida and D. dohertyi to H. laeta. 
In view of these facts it may be not rash to suppose that the apparent absence 
of a model for the red costal streak of H. julia may hereafter be accounted for. 

Of the three instances of possible mimetic nssnciation -which have now been 
mentioned, I think that only one — viz., the first, has previously been treated in 
deta'l. The numbers of cases more or less similar tn these three might be very 
largely extended, but for our present purpose it will be sufficient to confine our 
attention to those already given. It is probable that to some minds the facts 
adduced are simply curious coincidences, needing no explanation : but it can 
hardly be wron^r to suppose that to most students of Nature the observe<l 
phenomena do mil for some attempt at interpretation ; and on a review of the 



204 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION D. 

evidence it seems clear that tHe geographical element must enter largely into 
any explanation that may be offered. On the whole, it is certainly the case 
that the forms which are supposed to be related by mimicry do inhabit the 
same localities; the continental Prioneris, for example, is like the continental 
Delias, and the island Prioneris recalls the island, not the continental, Delias. 
Moreover, we find the differences between the Delias of Timor, of Sumbaw-a and 
Sumba, reflected in the associated Huphinas of the same islands. If it be 
granted that the geographical element is a factor, it is natural to inquire how 
it works. 

It is no doubt true that external geographical conditions are occasionally 
capable of producing, whether directly or indirectly, a community of aspect in 
the animals or plants exposed to their influence. The prevalence of a sandy 
coloration in the mammals and birds of a desert, and of whiteness in the 
inhabitants of the arctic snow-fields, the spiny character so often assumed by 
the plants of arid regions, and the general dwarfing of the vegetation that grows 
close to the sea, may be given in illustration. At first sight these phenomena 
may seem to be of the nature of direct effects of the environment; quite 
pofsibly some of them are so, but I think that few observers would deny that 
they are at least largely adaptive, being used for pui-poses of aggression or 
defence. Still, even if we allow the direct effect of the environment, as perhaps 
we may do especially in the case of the plants, can we frame any hypothesis 
of the action of geographical conditions which shall lead directly to the assump- 
tion of a common pattern in the case of the three or four butterflies from New 
Guinea ? I confess that I am quite unable to do so. If the climate, or the soil, 
or any other geographical condition in New Guinea is capable of directly 
inducing so remarkable a combination of colour as we see in these Pierines and > 
Nymphaline, why does it not affect other organisms in a similar way? Why do 
not other Pierines, for instance, closely related to ornytion and abnormis, share 
in the same coloration? And considering the characteristic aspect of the under- 
side, which is supposed to be called into being by some unexplained condition 
peculiar to New Guinea, we maj' well ask. Why should its most conspicuous 
features belong in the one case to the forewing and in the other to the hind- 
wing, and vire i^ersa. the general effect being the same? 

Fruhstorfer, we may note, does not feel these difficulties. 'Many Pierids,' 
he says, 'present typical examples of that resemblance to other butterflies which 
has been named Mimicry. The origin of this resemblance, however, is now 
explained by the supposition that the mimics were modified by the same (as 
yet unknown) influences under which the colouring of the models, mostly Danaids, 
developed.' I think it will be generally agreed that this reference to 'unknown 
influences ' is no explanation at all. 

It is necessary tn take into account the fact that the resemblances of which 
we are speaking are independent of structural differences, being, in fact, merely 
superficial. This is a point which is capable of much wider demonstration than 
I am giving it to-day. But even from the instances now before us I think there 
cannot be much diffictilty in coming to the conclusion that the resemblances are 
an appeal to vision. They are meant to be seen, though by whom and for what 
purpose may be open to question. Speculations as to recognition and sexual 
attraction may, I think, in these cases be put out of court; but there remains 
the theory of warning colours assumed in reference to the attacks of vertebrate 
enemies. From the fact that the most striking and most conspicuous of these 
common aposemes or danger-signals belong to the imder surface — that is to say, 
the part chiefly exposed to view during rest — it may be inferred that the enemies 
to be guarded against are mainly those that attack butterflies not on the wing, 
but when settled in repose. Both birds and monkeys are known to feed on 
butterflies, and there is a good deal of evidence as to their preference for one 
kind of food over another. I will not stop to give details, but anyone who 
wishes to studv the evidence may be referred especially to the Memoirs of 
Dr. G. A. K. Marshall, Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton. and Captain G. D. H. 
Carpenter. 

If the warning-colour interpretation of these resemblances be the true one, 
we see at once why they are so largely independent of structure and affinity. 
Being meant to catch the eye, they ride rough-shod, so to speak, over incon- 



British Association Report, Bournevioiith, 1919.] 



[Plate III. 




llhislraiwg ' The Geographical Factor in Mimicry' 

[Between pages 204 and 206. 



EXPLANATION OF 


PLATE. 


Fig. 


1. Delias ornytion Oodm. 4' Salv. 




New Guinea 


2. Mynes doryca Biitl. 




., 


3. Huphina abnoimis Wallace . 




)» 


4. Delias splendida Roths . 




Timor 


5. Huphina laeta Ileiv. 




,. 


6. Delias dohertyi Roths. . 


( 


Lombok, 


7. Delias oraia Bohrt. 


. 


Sumbawa, 
Flores 


8. Huphina temena Hew. . 


. 


»• 


9. Delias sumbawana Roths. 




») 


10. Delias fasciata Roths. . 




Sumba 


11. Huphina julia Bohrt. 


• 


»> 


12. Delias eucharis Brxiry . 


; 


India, 
Ceylon 


13. Prioneris sita Feld. 


' 


S. India, 
Ceylon 


14. Delias belladonna Fabr. 




N. India 


15. Prioneris thestylis Boubl. 




»» 


16. Delias indistincta Frnhst. 




Borneo 


17. Prioneris Cornelia Vollenh. 


• 


«t 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 205 

spicuous features, such as venation; nor do they respect more than the nature 
of things obliges them to do, the ties of blood-relationship. Then, again, it is 
obvious why they occur in the same and not widely different localities ; in some 
instances, as we have seen, their bearers actually flying in company and fre- 
quenting the same flowers ; for the common aspect, supposing it to be in any 
sense protective, wxjuld only take effect when the sharers in it were exposed to 
the attacks of the same body of enemies ; that is to say, when they inhabited the 
same locality. And this would be equally true, whether the warning colours 
are shared between distasteful forms, or whether they are deceptively adopted 
by forms rmprotected by inedibility ; — whether, in Professor Poulton's terms, 
they are synaposematic or pseudaposematic. I do not enlarge upon this part of 
the question, or upon the theories which arii know^l under the names of Bates 
and Miiller respectively, because these theories have been fully dealt with else- 
where, and I think I may assume that they are familiar to the greater part of 
my he-arers. But that mistaken ideas as to what is really meant by protection 
and mimicry still prevail in some quarters is evident from certain remarks of 
Fruhstorfer in dealing with the genus Prioneris which we have just been dis- 
cussing. 'Wallace,' he says, 'regards the "rarer" Prioneris as a mimetic 
form of the " commoner " Delias. But I cannot accept his view, since mimicry 
among the in all respects harmless Pierids appears no sort of protection, and 
properly speaking the smooth-margined Delias should rather copy the armed 
Prioneris if there is assumed to be mimici-y at a,ll.' If anyone has no better 
knowledge than this of what is meant by the theory of mimicry, it is not won- 
derful that he should consider the subject unworthy of serious attention. 

The warning-colour theory, then, gives a rational explanation both of the 
superficial character of the resemblances and of the geographical factor in their 
occurrence. But it obviously involves the reality of natural selection; and it 
is here that some are disposed to part company with the upholders of the 
theory. I have already referred to the fact that much positive evidence now 
exists both that butterflies are eaten and that preferences on the part of their 
enemies exist between one kind and another. I -will only remark in passing 
that the objector on this score sometimes adopts an attitude which is scarcely 
reasonable, arid which perhaps on that very account is somewhat hard to 
combat. The kind of objector that I mean begins by saying that the destruction 
of butterflies by hirds and other enemies is not sufficient to give play for the 
operation of selection. You beg his pardon, and produce evidence of consider- 
able butterfly destruction. To which he replies, '0, they are eaten, are they? 
I thought you said they were protected.' This is a good dilemma, but the 
dilemma is notoriousiy an unconvincing form of argument. If a reply be called 
for it may he given like this : ' Butterflies are either preyed upon or they are 
not. If they are, an opening is given for selection ; if they are not, it shows 
the existence of some form of protection.' The essence of the matter is that 
both the likes and dislikes of insectivorous animals, and the means of protection 
enjoyed by their prey, are not absolute hut relative. A bird that will reject 
an insect under some circumstances will capture it under some others ; it will, 
for instance, avoid insect 'A' if it can get insect ' B,' but will feed on 'A' 
if nothing else is to be had ; and it is probable that hardly any insect is entirely 
proof against the attack of every kind of enemy. The relative nature of pro- 
tection is readily admitted when the question is not one of mimicry or of warning 
colours, but of protective resemblance to inanimate objects. All degrees of 
disguise, from the rudimentary to the almost perfect, are employed ; the lower 
degrees are allowed to be of some service, and on the other hand a disguise that 
is almost completely deceptive may at times be penetrated. This consideration 
applies also to the objection that the first beginnings of mimetic assimilation 
can have no selective value. If the rough resemblance to an inanimate object 
affords some amount of protection, though that amount may be relatively 
small, why should not the same apply to the first suggestion on the part of a 
mimic of an approach to the aposeme or warning colour of its model ? The 
position that neither kind of assimilation is of service is intelligible, though not 
common ; but there is no reason why benefit should be aflfirmed in the one case 
and denied in the other. There are further considerations which tend to deprive 
this latter criticism of force ; the fact, for instance, that a resemblance to one 



206 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION D. 

form may serve as a stepping-stone for a likeness to another ; or, again, the 
existence of clusters, as they may be called, of forms varying Ln affinity, but 
embodying a transition by easy stages from one extreme to another. In a case 
of this sort the objection that may be felt as to two terms in the series arbi- 
trarily or accidentally picked out is seen to be groundless when the whole 
assemblage is taken together. 

Much attention has lately been given to the fact that of individual variations 
some are transmissible by heredity and some are not ; under the latter heading 
would generally fall somatic modifications directly induced upon the individual 
by conditions of environment. Whether any other kind of variation belongs 
to the same category need not for the present purpose come into discussion. 
But with regard to the undoubtedly transmissible variations, or mutations if 
we like to call them so, there is, I think, a fairly general consensus of opinion 
that they need not necessarily be large in amount. A complete gradation in 
fact appears to exist between a departure from type so slight as to be scarcely 
noticeable and one so striking as to rank as a sport or a monstrosity. And we 
know now that where the Mendelian relation exists between two forms, no 
amount of interbreeding will abolish either type; intermediates, if formed, are 
not permanent, and if one type is to prevail over the other it must be by means 
of selection, either natural or artiiicial. 

In view of all these considerations I venture to think that there is no reason 
to dispute the influence of natural selection in the production of these remarkable 
resemblances. Other interpretations may no doubt be given, but they involve 
the ignoring of some one or more of the facts. It may fairly be claimed that 
the theories of Wallace, Bates and Miiller, depending as they do on a basis of 
both observation and experiment, come nearer to accounting for the facts than 
any other explanation as yet offered. It will of course always be possible to 
deny that any explanation is attainable, or to assert that we ought to be satisfied 
with the facts as we find them without attempting to unravel their causes. But 
such an attitude of mind is not scientific, and if carried into other matters 
would tend to deprive the study of Nature of what to most of us is its princiual 
charm. It is quite true that before the validity of any generalisation is 
accepted as finally and absolutely established, every opportunity should be taken 
of deductive verification. This has been fully recognised by the supporters of 
the theory of mimicry, and much has been done to test in this manner the 
various conclusions on which the theory rests. The verification is not complete, 
and pei'haps never will be, but every successive step increases the probability of 
its truth ; and probability, as Bishop Butler taught, is the guide of life. 
Meantime it is, one may say, the positive duty of everyone who has the oppor- 
tunity, to fill up, so far as is in his power, the gaps that still exist in the chain 
of evidence. Here is an especially promising field for naturalists resident in 
tropical regions. 

Before concluding this address, there are two points on which I should like 
to lay some special emphasis. One is the undesirability — I had almost said 
folly — of undervaluing any source of information, or any particular department 
of study, which does not come within the personal purview of the critic or 
commentator. 'I hold,' says Quiller-Couch, 'there is no surer sign of intel- 
lectual ill-breeding than to speak, even to feel, slightingly of any knowledge 
oneself does not happen to possess.' This is a temptation to which many of us 
are liable ; and falls, I fear, are frequent. It was a matter of sincere regret 
to me to find one of my most valued scientific friends speaking publicly of the 
Odes of Horace as a subject comparatively devoid of interest. I can only 
confess my utter inability to sympathise with my friend's point of view. If he 
had merely said, ' excellent as those works may be, I have other things to do 
than to attend to them,' I could approve; but that is a different matter. The 
failing that I speak of is unfortunately by no means unknown among scientific 
men, and is perhaps rather specially prevalent when such subjects as those of 
my present address are in question. I can recall a very eminent man of science, 
no longer living, speaking with scarcely veiled scorn of those who occupied 
themselves with ' butterflies in cases.' This was in a Presidential Address to 
a Section of this Association. If so little respect is paid by a leader of science 
to work done in another part of the field, it is perhaps not to be wondered at 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 207 

that one of His ^Majesty's Judges should speak of the formation of a great 
collection of butterflies — a most valuable asset for bionomic research — as the 
' gratification of an infantile taste.' This or that collector may be an unscientific 
person, but it would be easy to show that the study of insects in general, and 
of butterflies in particular, is one of the most eflficient of the instruments in our 
hands for arriving at a soiutiou of fundamental problems in biology. 

My second and final point is this. I have not hesitated to attirm my con- 
viction of the importance in evolution of the Darwinian doctrine of natural 
selection. This necessarily carries with it a belief in the existence and general 
prevalence of adaptation. I am willing to admit that at times too much 
exuberance may have been shown in the pursuit of what Aubrey Moore called 
' the new teleology.' ' Men of science,' it has been said, ' like young colts in a 
fresh pasture, are apt to be exhilarated on being turned into a new field of 
inquiry ; to go off at a hand-gallop, in total disregard of hedges and ditches, 
to lose sight of the real limitation of their inquiries, and to forget the extreme 
imperfection of what is really known.' This is not the utterance of some cold 
outside critic, but of a great exponent of scientific method — no other than Huxley 
himself. It may be true of some of the wilder speculations of Huxley's date. 
I am by no means sure that there is not trutli in it as applied to some of the 
developments of a later time. But however wide of the mark our suggested 
explanations and hypotheses may be, the net result of all our inquiries, after 
the gradual pruning away of excrescences and superfluities, will be a real 
advance into the realms of the unknown. We may feel perfectly assured thai 
the objections so far brought against our own interpretations are null and void, 
but we may yet have to give way in the light of further knowledge. ' Let us 
not smile too soon at the pranks of Puck among the critics ; it is more prudent 
to move apart and feel gently whether that sleek nose with fair large ears, may 
not have been slipped upon our own shoulders. '^ 



The following Papers were then read : — 

1. Some Further Experiments in the Artificial Production of a Double 
Hydrocoele in the Larvce of Echinus miliaris. Bij Professor E. W. 
MacBeide, F.R.S. 

In January 1918 I read a paper before the Royal Society in which I described 
a method of producing a second hydrocoele [i.e., a rudiment of the water- 
vascular system) in the larvae of the common shore-urchin, Echinus miliaris. 
During the last year I have repeated my experiments and obtained a complete 
confirmation of my previous results, with the addition of some further inter- 
esting details of which I propose to give now a short account. 

The method which I outlined in my paper of 1.918 was as follows : — The 
ripe urchins were obtained from Plymouth, and they were opened immediately 
on their arrival in London, and the eggs shaken out into clean sea- water which 
had been purified by being shaken up with charcoal and subsequently passed 
through a Berkfeld filter. After development had gone on for three days 
and the eggs had become transformed into four-armed plutei, these larvfe were 
traneferred to water the salinity of which had been eiihanced by the addition 
to it of 2 grams of NaCl per litre. In this hypertonic water they remained 
for seven days, and they were then retransferred to ordinary sea-water. At 
the age of about twenty-one days the extra hydrocoele which was situated on 
the right side of the larva began to develop. The experiment was only carried 
on till the larvae were a month old, by which time metamorphosis had not 
been accomplished. The largest proportion of larvte with two hydrocoeles 
which was obtained in any culture was 5 per cent. 

These experiments, which were carried out during the summer of 1917, were 
the culmination of a series which were begun in 1914 and carried on during 
the summers of 1915 and 1916. The reason that the larvsc, after being exposed 
to the hypertonic water for a week, were retransferred to normal sea-water 
was that I experienced great difficulty in getting the diatom Nitzschia, which 

* Dowden. 



208 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION D. 

served as food for the larvae, to grow in the hypertonic sea-water. 1 natuially 
supposed that, had I been able to accomplish this, I should have obtained a 
much larger proportion of larvae with a double hydrocoele. In 1919, accordingly, 
I instituted experiments with a view of attaining this end. I succeeded in 
obtaining a strain of Nitischia which grew luxuriantly in hypertonic water; 
and three large cultures were instituted in bell-jars of 30-litres capacity, 
each fitted with a Browne plunger. In one of these there was normal sea-water, 
in which larvae were placed which had never been exposed to hypertonic water ; 
in another there was hypertonic sea-water containing larvae which had been 
in this medium since they were three days old ; and in the third there was 
normal sea-water in which were larva; which had been exposed to hypertonic 
water for eleven days — viz., from the time when they were three days old until 
they were fourteen days old. The result of these experiments was as follows : — 
In the jar containing larvae which had never been in hypertonic sea-water no 
specimens with two hydrocceles were found; in the jar filled with hypertonic 
sea-water one specimen with two hydrocceles was found ; whilst in the jar 
containing larvae which had been in hypertonic water for eleven days 4 per cent, 
of the larvfe were provided with two hydrocceles. In all three jars the larvae 
were exceedingly vigorous, and many of them completed their metamorphosis. 
Unfortunately, owing to the premature removal of the larvae with two hydrocceles 
to a srraller vessel in which they did not flourish, none of them completed the 
metamorphosis, but this is not impossible, as I possess one larva obtained from 
a pre-war culture which actually accomplished this feat. 

The conclusion to be deduced from these experiments is that retransferring 
the larvae to normal sea-water after they have been exposed to hypertonic 
sea-water is an essential part of the process of producing a double hydrocoele. 
I hope next spring to be able to determine the length of exposure to the action 
of hypertonic sea-water which gives the optimum result. The question as to 
what is the reason of this necessity is not easy to answer. Of course, when 
Loeb used hypertonic sea-water to stimulate the development of unfertilised 
eggs, he fomid that there was a certain optimum time of exposure to this 
medium, but in this case too long exposure checked development and gave rise 
to only abnormal and sickly larvie. But the larvae of Echinus miliaris flourished 
exceedingly in hypertonic sea- water; and Loeb's explanation is therefore not 
available. I can only tentatively suggest the following : — The exposure to 
hypertonic water acts on a hidden rudiment in the larvte and starts the right 
hydrocoele developing. But I have already shown, in my Eoyal Society paper, 
that the organs developing on one side of the larva tend to inhibit the develop- 
ment of similar organs on the other side. So, when the proper hydrocoele on the 
left side begins developing and gets a long start over its right antirnere, it may 
check and eventually entirely suppress the development of this. The retrans- 
ference to normal sea-water may possibly hold up temporarily the exuberance 
of development of the left side and allow the right side to hold its own. 

If this supposition be well fomided, Echinoderm development would afford 
a striking instance of that ' struggle between the parts ' on which Roux has 
always insisted as an important feature of development. 

In conclusion, I should like to say a word about the water used in these 
experiments. In performing the experiments, the results of which were given 
in my paper read to the Royal Society, I used sea- water collected at Lowestoft 
and sold by the Great Eastern Railway for bathing purposes. The distribution 
of this water ceased early in 1918. I tried artificial sea-water made with 
Tiedmann's sea-salt, but found that, although NitzscJiia flourished in it, it 
was instantly fatal to both adult urchins and larvte. I then had artificial 
sea-water made by the formula given by Dr. Allen (Journ. of M.B.A., vol. 19), 
and found that it answered admirably, for the larvae flourished in it and 
completed their metamorphosis in it. The fertilisation of the eggs, however, 
was effected in sea-water sent from Plymouth. 



2. (a) Leptospira icterohfemon-hagias from the Kidney of local Rats. 
(6) Spirochceta (? v. sp.) from Guinea-pig . By Dr. A. 0. Coles. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION D. 



209 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

The following Papers and Reports were read : — 

1. Iridomermyx humilis : A Contribution to the Life History of the 
Argentine Ant. By Dr. M. C. Grabham (communicated hy Dr. 
F. G. Penrose). 

The author described the insidious introduction of this ant into ^Madeira, 
its spread, and the complete suppression of competing species. It is established 
in destructive colonies up to 2,500 feet above sea-level. Coffee cultivation is 
ruined, and every sort of fruit tree — Citrus especially — which will support coccus 
or aphis is almost entirely destroyed. Sugar-cane and bananas still exist, though 
badly attacked ; sweet potatoes (Batatus) have disappeared in many districts, 
a teeming population being thus deprived of a most important food. Every 
house is invaded and every kind of food carried off, and there is no winter 
weather to check the ant. Poultry, young birds, and bees are defenceless. 

The author pointed out the methods and ingenuity of the ant in food-search- 
ing ; how the ant transplants its pupaj into favourable conditions, and makes 
bridges to reach flies caught on sticky fly-paper. 

The females are mostly impregnated within the formicary, and immediately 
afterwards shed their wings. Experiments show that the sense of smell is 
predominant. Reference was made to harmony in working and to the singular 
absence of fighting when separate communities meet. The ant's enemies are 
few; spiders devour them and Pholcus fhalangmdes is a formidable enemy. 

One hope is in the eventual exhaustion and decreased fertility of the ant. 
Methods of control — singular effect of chalk powder ; banding trees with rags 
soaked in corrosive sublimate is efficient. 

By surrounding a lemon tree with a circle of powdered potassium cyanide 
every ant in passing to or from the tree was killed, and it was found that 
40,500 ants had been tending the scale-insects on this one tree. 

The progress of the ant in Madeira justifies American opinion that this pest 
ie an agent of destruction as formidable as the Colorado beetle or the cotton- 
boll weevil. Our colonies should be warned as to the importance of this pest. 



2. Sex Inheritance in Lice. By Dr. E. Hindle.* 

Pairs of body-lice were isolated and their offspring raised through five 
generations, but of sixty families obtained, twenty-four were mixed — i.e., com- 
prised both males and females — nineteen were female, thirteen male, and four 
crosses were sterile. The three sorts of families occurred simultaneously, 
although the lice were fed on the same individual and reared imder the same 
conditions, and no explanation of their appearance could be discovered. The 
proportion of females to males in the total number of adults raised to maturity 
agreed almost exact/ly with that occurring in Nature (60 per cent, females, 
40 per cent, males). 

From the three types of families, four kinds of crosses are possible, and the 
results of a number of these are as follows : — 

1. 9 from a female family x S from a male family; 11 families; 2 female. 
5 male. 3 mixed (18 ?? : 8<J^), 1 sterile. 

2. $ from a female familv x <? from a mixed family ; 7 families ; 3 female, 
2 mixed (15?? : 2^<?(?) ), 2 sterile. 

3. 9 from a mixed family x <? from a male family; 11 families; 3 female, 
7 mixed (33 $? : 61 c?c?), 1 sterile. 

4. ? from a mixed family x c? from a mixed family ; 3 families all mixed 
(10?? : 19 <?(?). 

Different types of families were obtained by crossing the same female with 
two successive males, and also by crossing the same male with two females, 
these results suggesting the existence of two kinds of males and two kinds 
of females. 

» See Journ. of Genetics, vol. 8, No. 4, Sept. 25, 1919. 



210 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION D. 

3. Phagocytosis and Protozoa. By E. S. Goodrich, F.B.S.* 



The Food of Larval and, Post-larval Fishes. 
By Dr. Marie V. Lebour.^ 



Further Observations on the Building Habits of the Polychcete Worm, 
Pectinaria Koreni, Mgr. By Arnold T. Watson, F.L.S. 

The Abstract of a Note by the Author on the Habits and Buildina; Organ of 
Pectinaria (Lagis) Koreni, Mgr. has appeared in the Report of the Proceedings 
of Section D. at the meeting of the Association in Birmingham, 1913. 

Since then he has made fvirther observations and experiments, as the result 
of which he has found that the suction therein mentioned, by means of which 
sand below the surface is removed by the worm for the purpose of forming 
working space, rapid burrowing and other purposes (the eand always travelling 
between the wall of the tube and the dorsal side of the worm) is not the result 
of ordinary peristaltic action, but is due to two currents through the tube (at 
opposite sides of the worm) which differ considerably in character, though both 
are the effect of waves produced by the worm's body. 

The current produced by the dorsal body-wall of the animal, thouarh it is 
eufficient to draw into the tube the sand sweot to its mouth bv the fflistenins 
head-bristles, is insufficient to expel it through the small end of the tube ; and 
for this purpose it is reinforced bv a much more powerful current, for production 
of which the ventral body-wall is specially adapted. This wall is exceedingly 
thin and mobile, while the dorsal is very thick, and consequently slower in 
action. The direction of the waves can be reversed and the worm is evidently 
mainly dependent upon the ventral one for supply, of water for respiration. In 
production of the currents as described above the worm is assisted by the 
alternate extension and retraction of its body. 

Owing to the head nf the worm being always buried under the sand, and to 
the great number of tentacles which surround the mouth, it is impossible to see 
the building operations of the adult, but by observation of the post-larval stage 
(when the tentacles are few, and before the worm has dug itself into the sand) 
the author has been successful in seeing a portion of a sand-tube actually built 
and attached to the membranous tube, which at the time of its later metamor- 
phosis is secreted by the larva. This membranous and characteristic tube is 
apparently secreted rapidly once for all by the whole surface of the body. It 
appears to consist of plates of areolated chitin. It is evidently indispensable to 
the future life of the worm, as apparently, it cannot be replaced, and in its 
absence iiiot only is it impossible to commence building the permanent tube for 
want of something to which to attach the sand, but the violent unrestrained action 
of the ventral body-wall when drawing water through the tube for purpose of 
respiration occasionally causes splitting up the middle of the back of the young 
worm. 

In the early post-larval stage there are two buccal tentacles only ; by. these 
the minute particles ( yTrrrTr to i^jLj inch in size) are collected and passed to the 
mouth which opens at their base; here, what is required for food is swallowed, 
but such sand-grains as seem suitable for building purposes are rolled over for 
a short time in the moutb, and then deposited by it on the edge of the tube at 
the point selected ; the young worm then advances slightly in its tube and, for 
four or five seconds, applies to that sand-grain the organ which, in the author's 
previous note, is called the ' building organ,' but which it is now evident 
merely supplies the cement from the cement-gland beneath. 

In the adult worm there are numerous tentacles which collect the sand-grains, 
and in their midst a mobile membranous horse-shoe-shaped organ (not previously 
recorded by any naturalist), which no doubt (as in Sahellaria) guides the sand 

^ For an account of leucocytes of invertebrates described in this paper, see 
Quart. Jovrn. Micr. Sci., Vol. 64, Pt. 1, p. 19; Oct. 1919. 

- See Journ. Marine Biological Assoc, Vol. 11, No. 4, May, 1918; Vol. 12, 
No. 1, July, 1919; remainder to be published in same journal. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION D. 211 

to the mouth beneath. By the mouth the selected grains are placed in position, 
and then fina-lly fixed by the cementing organ, described as a ' building organ ' 
in the author's previous note. The nuchal organs of the worm were shown in 
position external to the tentacles on either side of the head. 

Attention was called to a pair of long lateral glands, which are a striking 
feature in the post-larval stage. Possibly, these may represent the large white 
glands of the adult, the function of which has been questioned. Lack of material 
prevented sections being made to test the point. 



6. Report of Committee on Zoological Station at Naples. 



7. Report of Comrmtt&e appointed' to summon meetings for the con- 
sideration of matters affecting the interests of Zoology or Zoologists. 



8. Report on Zoological Bibliogtraphy and Publication. 
See Ee ports, p. 122. 



9. Report on Inherita,nce in Sdkworms. 



10. Report of Committee -on Marine Jjihoratory , Plijniunth. 



11. Afternoon Lecture on Lice and their Relation to Disease.^ 
By Professor G. H. P. Nuttall, F.R.S. 



THUBSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 
Joint Meeting with Section G, at which the following Papers were read: 

1. The Geographical Distribution of Freshwater Fishes, with special 

reference to the past History of Continents. Bij C. Tate Eegax, 
F.R.S. 

2. Paleontology and the Evolution Theory. By D. M. S. Watson. 



Afternoon Lecture on Grain Pests and the Storage of Wheat." 
By Professor A. Dendy, F.R.S. 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 
Joint Meeting with Section K. — See p. 339. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 
Sectional Excursion to Lulworth Cove. 



' For an account of the work referred to in this lecture see papers wliicli 
have recently appeared and will shortly appear in Parasitology. 

- For an account of the work referred to in this lecture see Jieports on 
Grain Pests ( War) Committee of the Royal Society of London. 



212 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION E. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
President of the Section : Professor L. W. Lyde, M.A. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 
The President delivered the following Address : — 

The Intenmtional Rivers of Europe. 

This subject was chosen before the publication of the Treaty of Peace, and 
was dictated by a wish to combine my geographical creed with the political 
conditions of an ' Americanised ' Europe. The Treaty embodies so many of 
the principles which I wished to emphasise, that my treatment should perhaps 
now be rather historical tlian political. 

My geographical faith is in Outlook; the jargon of to-day is about Leagues 
of Nations. This is the day of nations and nationalities, and geographers 
must rejoice in the fact, because civilisation depends on a blend of varied 
influences— each an individual element, a genius loci— and the triumph of 
nationality must curb that tendency to a drab cosmopolitanism which would 
crush out all such variety. But these varied influences cannot blend into a 
pro"Tessive civilisation unless they have all possible facilities for friendly 
meeting; for instance, International Rivers should not be, like International 
Finance, anti-national, but really inter-national, ' between nations,' common to 
all nations, and encouraging the friendly meeting of divei-se political elements 
and ideas. Liberty always makes for differentiation— in nations as m indi- 
viduals; and if our international intercourse becomes really 'free' the desired 
variety is guaranteed. 

Tills is why I w-ould like to press the truth that Outlook is, or ought to 
be, the motto of geography. It is so for many of us, and it ought to be for 
all Bat the word covers both a process and an objective. The Outlook is 
essentially over Big Mother Eai'th; the process is visualisation— the picturing 
of forma and forces, places and peoples, beyond the horizon, all possible horizons 
being included in the one great unit of the globe. But the geographical inter- 
action of the Man and the Place cannot toe dissociated— least of all m Political 
CTeography— from the historical interdependence of group and group. Both 
alike are concerned with progress. We want to know, therefore, the whole 
simple truth— what the particular features and phenomena mean _ as world 
features and world phenomena, not what special meaning can be read into them, 
or extracted from them, by some local and interested political unit. Geography 
is, first of all, the visualisation of the world and the relations of the various 
parts of that world. . , i j i + 

Now, the one predominant feature of the earths surface is not land, but. 
water. Nearly all international problems to-day have to do, explicitly or 
implicitly, with the ocean, i.e. with access to cheap water transport on the 
medium which covers three-quarters of the whole surface of the earth. Even 
the problem of Alsace-Lorraine, itself perhaps purely a land probleni, conceals-— 
especially from the Swiss point of view— a problem of access to the sea; anrf 
the problems of Poland, of Italy, of Jugoslavia, are obviously sea-problems or 
sea-problems very slightly disguised. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 213 

It is a truism that the ocean attracts rivers and their trade and their riverine 
population. Industry, commerce, even culture, have been starved and stunted 
in various parts of the world hy lack of easy access to the sea. Even your 
League of Nations idea has more than once approximated to a substantial fact — 
round the Mediterannean and round the Baltic, facilitated by inter-national or 
inter-racial rivers. The Hanseatic League was essentially based on the relation 
of a number of more or less inavigable rivers to an inland sea, and that 
was why it came to include such distant ' inland ' members as Breslau and 
Cracow. 

Accessibility is now more than ever before a supreme factor in all cultural 
and economic development, and rivers are still the chief natural intermediaries 
between land and sea. The first real international attempt to solve the problem 
of international rivers followed the victory of >Sea Power over the France of 
Napoleon the Great ; the second has followed the victory of Sea Power over 
this would-be ' Napoleon ' of Prussia. 

Now, I submit that to many of us the mere Avord river by itself suggests, 
at once and primarily, a physical unity — no doubt, with some variety of relief 
and climate — and that on this physical unity we are prepared to sanction some 
social and economic and even political unity. But directly you add the qualify- 
ing international, the suggestion changes; the adjective raises a picture not of 
local features, but of regional relations. 

In recent years I have pleaded for the use of rivers as political boundaries — ■ 
on the ground that they clearly separate land.s without at all separating peoples 
except in time of war; we want to preserve the valuable variety of political and 
cultured units, but to draw the various units together. Our object is unity, not 
imiformity. The proposal has been objected to — even by some who are not at 
heart hostile to the idea of fostering all possible aids to the easy, honourable, 
friendly intercourse of peoples — on the ground that rivers shift their courses. 
They do, and trouble has come of this in the past, political trouble as well 
as economic. The Missouri was a fertile source of inter-State squabbles. But 
no normal person would choose, a mud-carrier, like the Missouri, ' Muddy Water,' 
as a political boundary, unless there was a marked difference of racial type or 
nationality running approximately along the line of the river. In fact, I would 
suggest that the troubles along the Upper Missouri were really due to the fact 
that the river was nowhere an inter-State boundary, and therefore each State 
claimed the right to monopolise it in the particular section. If it had been an 
inter-State boundary from the first, such a claim would have been obviously 
absurd. And it was the iniquity of the claim to monopoly that forced the United 
States, as similar conditions forced the Australian Commonwealth, to take over 
the control of the inter-State riyers. 

The principles behind the control are significant. Thus, the Murrumbidgee 
is entirely within New South Wales, as the Goulburn is entirely within Victoria ; 
but the Murray is an inter-State river — in a double sense, acting as the boundary 
between New South Wales and Victoria, and emptying through South Australia. 
New South Wales has entire use of the Murrumbidgee, and Victoria of the 
Goulburn, but the whole volume of the Murray up to normal low-water level is 
left to South Australia. In Europe navigation is usually far more important 
than irrigation. Why should not Europe exercise similar control over the 
navigable rivers of Europe? 

For, geographically, great navigable rivers are essentially a continental 
feature, i.e. really a world feature, for all major continental features must be 
included in a survey of world features, even if they are minor world features; 
and the world can recognise no right of a political unit to regional monopoly 
of the commercial advantages of such a fea,tur© to the disadvantage of other 
political units-— least of all, others in the same region. As with the irrigation 
when a river is obviously and entirely within an area where identity of culture 
and sentiment proclaims a natural or national unit, there that unit has a claim — 
even if it should prove impolitic to press it — to some monopoly of the facilities 
afforded by that river. But when the river runs through or between two or 
more such natural or national units, i.e. is really international, one of the units 
has no claim to any monopoly against the other or others. 

It was reasonable that expanding Prussia should get to the mouth of the 
Elbe, and it was certain that Ilolsteiu had been both a fief of the Holy Roman 

1919. 



214 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 

EmpLre and in the Gei'inan Confederation of 1815, and that succession in 
Holstein could not go in the female line. It was equally certain that Schlesvvig 
had never been in either the Holy Roman Empire or the German Confederation, 
and that succession in Schleswig could go in the female line. The reasonable 
sequel in 1864 would have been for Prussia to purchase Holstein from Denmark, 
and share the facilities of the international river. 

One would not expect such a view to be taken by a Prussian, but that was 
the actual principle laid down by France nearly one hundred years earlier. The 
famous Decree of November 16, 1792, asserted that ' No nation can, without 
injustice, claim the right to occupy exclusively a river-channel, and to prevent 
the riparian States from enjoying the same advantages, Such an attitude is a 
relic of feudal slavery, or at any rate an odious monopoly imposed by force.' 
This was not mere talk. It was followed, in 1793, by the complete freeing of 
the Scheldt and the Meuse to all riparians — France herself being a riparian in 
each case, for the Scheldt was naturally navigable up to Valenciennes. Some- 
what similar rights were extended, in 1795, to all riparians on the Rhine — 
France herself, of course, being again a riparian; and in 1797 the freedom was 
extended, so far as France was concerned, to the ships of foreign nations, though 
Holland was able to make the privilege valueless. 

The original Decree had not pressed the precise question of interna tionality. 
But, if the general principle holds — that a great navigable river cannot be 
monop)olised by a single political unit against riparians, even if they are its 
subjects and of alien ' race ' — still more must it hold when the river in question 
is fully international, flowing through or between two or more States. Of course, 
Rhine, Danube, and Vistula do both. 

As a matter of fact, in Europe this principle has been generally accepted for 
th© last century except by Holland. Prussia and Saxony agreed about the 
Elbe in 1815, and the agreement was extended to Austria, Hanover, and Den- 
mark in 1821. Prussia, Hanover, and Bremen made a similar agreement about 
the Weser in 1823 ; and Spain and Portugal made similar agreements about the 
Tagus and the Douro in 1829 and 1835. Holland, however, has a tarnished 
record. 

One has not an atom of sympathy with the arrogant Gennan demand that 
' small nations must not be allowed to interfere with the development of great 
nations, least of all with that of the greatest of nations,' and that Holland — 
simply on the ground of her small size — should be robbed of her three estuaries 
m the interest of Germany. But neither has one an atom of sympathy with the 
Dutch habit of taking advantage of that small size to behave in a mean and 
unreasonable way on the assumption that no Power except Germany would 
use lore© against such a little people. I would like to illustrate the position by 
an analysis of the problem on a canal, for one must include straits and canals 
with rivers. Their inclusion may involve some difficulty, but in the most serious 
case the difficulty is already largely solved. I refer to the Panama Canal during 
the second year of the war, when British shipping was exactly half as large 
again as U.S.A. shipping, amounting to very nearly 42 per cent, of the whole 
traffic The total result of the war, however, has been a loss of over 5,200,000 
tons of British shipping, involving a reduction of 13.5 per cent, in our carrying- 
power at sea, while the U.S.A. tonnage has increased by nearly 6,730,000 tons, 
i.e. an increase of 382.1 per cent, in the U.S.A. seagoing tonnage (June, 1919). 

The case which I propose to analyse is that of the Terneuzen Canal, and I 
wish to press it with aU possible emphasis because it shows a typical case of 
quite natural — and, therefore, almost pardonable — human selfishness, and because 
its supporters are guilty of an extraordinary blindness to their own mercantile 
adi-antage. 

Ghent is the second port in Belgium, and the first industrial town in Flanders. 
In the days before the separation of the two countries it was connected with 
Terneuzen, i.e. ' open-sea ' nr.vigation on the Scheldt, by a canal twenty miles 
long, of which rather more than half was in ' Belgian ' and rather less than 
half in ' Dutch ' territory, the actual sea-connexion being — unfortunately — in 
the Dutch territory. 

At the time of the Franco-Prussian War the Belgians decided to enlarge the 
canal, but had to waste eight years in obtaining the consent of the Dutch to the 
undertaking. Even then the consent was given only on the condition that the 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 215 

Belgians should pay fur all work done by the Dutch, give an annual grant of 
some £13,000 for the upkeep of the new works, and grant Terneuzen reduc- 
tion of rates on Belgian railways ! Some twenty -five years later it became 
necessary again to enlarge the canal ; this was begun in 1895 on condition that 
Belgium again paid all the cost, that the Dutch had the right to close the 
locks 'whenever they deemed it useful to safeguard Dutch interests,' and that 
various other coricessions were granted, cr/. about the Antwerp-Rozendaal rail- 
way ; and the complete agreement was signed in 1902. The total cost was 
£1,600,000, a large proportion being spent on the canal jiart at Terncuzin; but 
the control is entirely in the hands of the Dutch, with the resvdt that the 
Belgian part of the canal is both broader and deeper than tlie Dutch part, and 
the larger Belgian boats even now cannot reach Terneuzen ! That is to say, after 
all the cost, the concessions, the delay, etc., the trade of Ghent is still 
hampered, and may be cut off at any moment. Of course, the stupidity of the 
Dutch in thus crippling their own trade is unpardonable ; but what about 
Belgium? Even then her boats have only reached the Scheldt — a river of little 
■use to Holland, but vital to Belgium. 

I wish to press this case, because the two little countries have managed 
to live together in peace in spite of the serious ' international servitude ' of 
Belgimn to Holland, and because practically everythiiig that Holland has done 
lias been quite legal. 

If Belgium has to pay almost the entire cost, she ought to have almost 
the entire control. The profit on the traffic is so great that Terneuzen has 
relatively heavier tonnage than any other Dutch port. A considerable part of 
the cost has been due to the canal having formed part of the Dutch border 
system, and under international control the total costs would have been met 
out of the profits. 

Further, I press the point that, though refusals to grant facilities have 
been very rare, they have occurred, e.g. in 1906-7; and preposterous delays 
have been almost regular, e.g. a delay from November 11 till the following 
September 17 in granting permission to dredge a bank. Under international 
control all necessary precautions and facilities would have been supplied 
instantly— on their merits. Of course, I am far from wishing Dutch sovereignty 
to be displaced in favour of Belgian. I want international control in order 
to displace 'international servitude.' If what Holland has done has been 
legal, it is high time that it was made illegal. 

_ It has been typical, too. that, when the Dutch have granted any facilities, 
it has been done by a .specific treaty, i.e. done as a matter of policy, not of 
justice. It was from this point of view that they agreed to the Lek 'and the 
Waal being recognised as the proper mouths of the Rhine. This emphasis on 
policy rather than on justice has not, however, been confined to Holland, though 
she alone still adheres to it. In Europe, in America, in Africa, and even in 
Asia, there have been, first, attempts to enforce a so-called political right of 
sovereignty against neighbours, e.q. on the ]\Iississippi by Spain, on the St 
Lawrence by us, on the Amazon by Brazil, on the Zamhesi by Portugal, and 
then special conventions somewhat on the lines of a Treaty of Commerce. 'Such 
treaties grant commercial facilities and power of navigation is such a facility; 
but if the navigation is on a great continental feature, such as an international 
nver, surely the particular facility should be admitted luithoitt any special 
treaty. • ^ 

_ Ihis claim has been specifically put forward on several occasions. For 
instance, by the Treaty of Paris (1763) we had the privilege granted to us of 

mayigation on the Mississippi to the sea,' and ' to the sea ' meant ' nut on to the 
sea. When the river passed under the control of the United States, the con- 
ditions were altered. Spain had granted no such facility to them, and she 
caimed the pohtical right to block the estuary against them, while Jefferson 
claimed that they had a natural right to use the whole river, i.e. had such a 

right in equity, in reason, in humanity.' The same question arose on the St. 
J.awrence. where we claimed the political right to block the lower river against 
the Uiiited States in 1824. The case is specially important because Adams at 
once admitted the political right, i.e. the riparian 'sovereignty,' but claimed— as 
Jeflerson had done— a natural right to use the river itself,' a right which he 

T 2 



216 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION 

liased on necessity and on the supnort of the political Powers of Europe as 
formulated in many conventions and agreements and commercial treaties. 

There had been so many of these that it had become possible to areneralise 
ns to a common principle — really the princinle of I'ustice ; and so the Treaty of 
Paris in 1814 and the Congress of Vienna had adopted the principle, and had 
passed oieneral rules in sympathy with it. rules which have been applied to 
many rivers and even to canals — e.g. in the old Kinsidom of Poland. In the 
particular case of the St. Lawrence, the water rieht would not cover any right 
of portaee ; but, of course, the intevnatioupl boundary comes to this river from 
NeAv York State below the last of the rapids. 

Tn 1851 Brazil claimed the political right to block the rnouth of the Amazon, 
but this was universally condemned as a gross misuse of the riotht of rioarian 
sovereignty, for the mouth of the Amazon is even more truly than the DoUart 
an arm of the sea — so truly that it separates two distinct faunas ; and. as the 
Plat* was declared free in 1852, Brazil could not in decency exercise her dubious 
'nVht.' Tt was not formpllv triven nn. howevev. till 1867; and it lies implicitly 
behind the recent so-called ' concessions ' to Bolivia. 

Portuguese law raised a similar difficulty in 1883 on the Zambesi. Of course, 
Portugal wa,'; our oldest ally, and our relations were very friendly; but. though 
she neither controlled nor traded with the interior, she claimed the political 
right to block the estuary against us, and we admitte-d the polificnl ric;ht so far 
as to consent to l^<^" imposing duties — which, in theory, might have been 
prohibitive of all trade. 

The Zambesi is specially interesting l;ecause it was concerned with one of 
the first of those land-corridor= about which there has been so much discussion 
lately — the ' Caprivi finger.' Everyone except our lawyer politicians knew the 
real object, the oertain meaning, and the probable result, of our conceding that 
strip to Germany — thoush most of u,s pictured Oerman troops marching east- 
ward along it to cut the ' Cape-to-Cairo ' route in Rhodesia, rather than 
Rbodesians ridin<r westward into Ovnmbnlnnd. But theoretically the Germans 
made a demand for access to navig;able water on an international river, and we 
recognised this as a reasonable demand, and granted it. Here, again, we stand 
historically in a position of great moral strength. Further, if we accept inter- 
national land-corridors and international air-corridors, we must accept also 
international water-corridors, such as a navicjable river or a narrow strait. 

I do not want, however to press an African example, partly because I do 
want to repudiate entirely the application of the Berlin Conference to any 
rivers outside Africa. For in 1884 Africa was essentially a virgin continent, 
and its inhabitants were completely ignored — in theory by all the deliberators. 
and in practice also by the nation which had engineered the Conference. For 
one of Germany's essential objects was to converge on the Congo, and squeeze 
out Belgian interests ; and eventually, to do that, she did not hesitate to employ 
the most unscrupulous propagandists in this country on 'Congo atrocities.' It 
was, therefore, part of her scheme to press — what was accepted by the Con- 
ference — that the Congo should be open to all flags for all commercial pui-poses, 
and that 7)o riparian rights should be recognised. It was equally to her interest 
that the International 'Committee of Administration agreed upon .should never 
be set up, and it never has been; and, of course, in 1911 she used the trouble 
which she had provoked in Morocco, to acquire 100,000 square miles of the 
French Congo, so that she became a territorial Power in the West as well as in 
the East. 

The whole question has two aspects — (1) the freedom of the actual navigation, 
and (2) the administration of the river. The former is largely a matter of 
equity, and so did not appeal to the Dutch or Portuguese lawyers; the latter 
is largely a matter of law, and has been much complicated by legal subtleties. 
But the two are closely connected, for the European rivers with which we are 
specially concerned all have a lower course over the plain and an upper course 
involved in the folds and blocks of Central Europe. They are, therefore, 
important in the one case merely as carriers by water, and — all things considered, 
.lud in spite of superstitions to the contrary — are probably dearer as well as less 
flexible than the carriers by rail that cross them from west to east ; thus the 
quantity of foodstuffs that reached Berlin — or New Orleans — ^by water in 1913 
was quite insignificant. In the other case, however, they are of supreme 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 217 

importance, for their valleys focus tlie whole conimti-cial movement, 
e.g. of Switzerland, both by rail and by water. This puts the people of the 
upper river-basin commercially at the mercy of the holders of the lower ; at 
least a third of the Swiss imports before the war were from Germany, and a 
fifth of the exports went to Germany — much, in each case, done under what the 
Swiss felt as ' compulsion.' 

In this particular case the people of the Rhine delta were also — politically — at 
the mercy of the Germans. I'or the natural outlets of the Rhine basin, such as 
Rotterdam and Antwerp, had taken on naturally the international character of 
all great ports, while the river-towns behind them, such as Cologne and Frank- 
fort, were nurseries of intense national feeling, most carefully and criminally 
fostered by the Government with the declared object of presently imposing 
that ' nationality ' upon the ' internationalised ' port. One way of entirely 
undermining a position offering such opportunities to the unscrupulous is inter- 
national control, with its impartial improvement of the waterway on its own 
merits. Thus, in 1913 nothing like 1 per cent, of the navigation on the Rhine 
was British, while over 65 per cent, was Dutch ; but the deepening of the Rhine 
up to Basel to admit sea-going vessels, e.g. from London or Newcastle, would 
instantly free the Swiss from their slavish dependence on e.g. Westphalian coal. 

It is the political aspect, however, rather than the economic that I want 
to press for the moment. The economic aspect is useful only because it can 
be presented more easily in a statistical form, while the historic — though 
equally, if not more, illuminating — cannot be applied to recent events. We 
can see now that Peter the Great did not provide ' a gate by which (his) people 
could get out to the Bailie,' only one by which foreigners got into Russia; 
but we cannot have similar knowledge of the political value to Bohemia of 
the economicaUy invaluable Elbe-Moldau. We cam note, however, that it is 
essentially a way out, for the quantity of down-stream traffic [e.g. lignite, sugar, 
grain) is five times that of the up-stream traffic [e.g. iron, cotton, oils). 

The agreements already mentioned, with regard to Elbe and Weser, Tagus 
and Douro, show that freedom of navigation has been granted as a reasonable 
courtesy for many years by nearly all civilised Powers, though even to this day 
Holland has persistently blocked progress by her stupid commercial policy and 
her unique position at the mouths of Rhine and Maas and Scheldt ; and the 
essential principles are illustrated by the irrigation laws of Australia and the 
United States, where everyone now admits that the individual State cannot 
have any local standing, any riparian claims, as against the Commonwealth. 
All States, whatever their size or wealth or population, must be equal, though 
the natural advantages are with the upper riparians for irrigation as with the 
lower riparians for navigation. 

The serious administrative difficulties are two — concerned respectively with 
the riparian sovereignty and with the different geographical conditions of different 
rivers or different parts of the same river ; e.g. you can easily decrease the pace 
of the Rhine above Mannheim, but not without increasing the susceptibility to 
frost. 

Historically, riparian sovereignty^ in the case of Rhine and Danube, is only 
a relic of feudal robbery. When they first became part of the civilised world 
under Rome, there was no such thing as riparian sovereignty. They were 
public property, which had to be kept in order and improved ; and for this 
purpose the Romans exacted dues, which were spent wholly and solely on the 
upkeep of the waterway. The Franks continued the same custom on the 
Rhine ; but the feudal system brought in a horde of petty princelings — as 
impecunious as German princelings have normally been — who completely upset 
the old regime, converted public into private property, and exacted every kind 
of tax and toll. Unfortunately, because Rhine and Danube had been frontiers 
for Rome, they had been associated with a strictly military control, and the 
legacy of this favoured the feudal princelings — as it also helped to poison the 
whole political development along both rivers, for they got only the worst side 
of Roman civilisation. Now we must go back to the primitive conditions. If 
an international river is a world feature, then its world relation is the first 
consideration. In that case, riparians must tolerate representatives of the whole 
world, or of such parts of the world as are most concerned with the particular 
river, on the executive for the administration <if th(> river. In most cases, 



218 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 

moreover, riparian sovereignty must be limited, even in the interests of the 
riparians themselves, for the presence of non-riparians on the executive may be, 
and has been on the Danube, of the greatest value in minimising friction amongst 
the riparians. In this respect France has played a most honourable part, 
generally supported by Britain, especially on the Danube, where, e.g., Austria 
tried to exclude Bavaria from the deliberations about the river, and to dominate 
and intimidate the representatives of the lower riparians. Indeed, it was only 
the day before yesterday that we had the gratification of reading the German 
decision to ' exclude French and British representatives from the Danube Com- 
mission on the ground that they had hindered the ships of the more important 
nations from obtaining 'priority of treatment.' What greater compliment could 
have been paid to us? 

The fact only emphasises the vital point referred to above, that different 
parts of the same river have different conditions and may need different 
treatment, i.e., that even riparians have not all naturally equal use of the 
river, and that the strongest or the most favourably situated can grossly 
misuse their opportunities. The Dutch showed this on the Rhine in 1816, and 
the Austrians on the Danube in 1856. Obviously, such differences are, in 
themselves, potential causes of serious trouble; riparians have not necessarily 
and naturally real equality even when the executive consists of only one 
representative from each riparian State. The greater opportunities of expan- 
sion, political and economic, on the lower river may favour the growth of a 
stronger Power; and the State with the largest share of the river or the 
best position on it has already advanta.ge over the others. iFor instance, the 
Dutch on the Maas and the Russians on the Danube have indulged in ' voluntary 
negligence ' ; it was in this way that Russia blocked the mouth of the Danube, 
and that Holland made it impossible for the Belgians to continue their com- 
mercial navigation on the Meuse down through Holland to the sea, though, 
since the discovery of coal in Limburg, the Belgians have — stupidly — turned 
the tables on Holland to some extent. A low riparian may no more monopolise 
or ruin navigation on the lower course of a river than a high riparian may 
poison or exhaust its upper waters. The river is a unit, and its unity is essential 
to the fulfilling of its duties in the evolution of world commerce; and, therefore, 
it needs a unity of administration. This is best secured by a commission of 
riparians and non-riparians, and such conditions facilitate the use of a river 
as a political boundary. 

Nearly all the important details involved in the internationalising of navig- 
able^ rivers have been illustrated already in the history of Rhine and Danube, 
and in both cases France has been an admiraWe guide to Europe. On the Rhine, 
as I have mentioned, she abolished in 1795 most of the restrictions which had 
made the river practically useless even to riparians; and that she was not 
thinking only of her own interests was proved by her attempt — defeated by 
Holland— to extend the freedom of the river to 'all nations in 1797. Again 
in the Convention of Paris (1804) France enforced unity of administration — 
sharing this with Germany on the ground that the river was of special concern 
to herself and Germany, as she has shared the administration of the Niger with 
us in recent years on the same ground. 

The Rhine thus received a simple, just, uniform administration, which is 
a model for us now. All tolls were abolished except two — one on the boat 
and the other on the cargo — ^^vhich were to be only large enough to meet the 
upkeep of the waterway, and were to be used for no other purposes. These 
tolls could be paid in each political area with the coin of that area, but a 
fixed ratio was maintained between the various coinages. 

Of course, in 1815 France was ousted from the bank of the river : and in 
the reorganisation elaborated by the Congress of Vienna Von Humboldt, the 
Prussian representative, adroitly introduced into the regulations for the Central 
Commission of Riparian Representatives words which were afterwards made 
to mean exactly the opposite of the freedom enforced by France, and exactly 
the opposite of what our British diplomats at the time thought and said that 
they meant ! Not only so ; but during the sixteen long years while France 
remained more or less submerged, Holland was allowed to make the whole 
.scheme ridiculous by the claim that ' to the sea ' did not mean ' out into the 
sea,' and that a tidal estuary was ' sea.' The Regulations of Mainz gave each 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 219 

riparian State full sovereignty over its own part of the river, and limited the 
right of pilotage to the subjects of riparian States ; and in 1868 the Regulations 
of Mannheim f^irther whittled down the old liberal principles of France — to 
the disadvantage of non-riparians, although they were admitted to rights of 
navigation. The Revised Rhine Navigation Treaty of that year was still in 
force in 1913, administered by the six riparian States — Holland, Prussia, Hesse, 
Baden, Bavaria, and Germany (as owning Alsace). Even since 1871 Prussia, 
as the strongest Power, has hampered the development of non-Prussian ports, 
using even the most childish tricks with pontoon bridges, choice of wharves, 
accessibilitv to rail, etc., against other German States. 

Since 1871, too, the Rhine has illustrated another important point — namely, 
that the traffic on an inland waterway depends largely, perhaps vitallv, on 
the extent to which railways are wiping or forced to co-operate ; and this 
has a present importance even from a purely international point of view. 
One of the results of the Franco-Prussian war was that Prussia bought up a 
number of private railways in the Rhine valley, and eventually used the profits 
of the transaction to make a secret fund for aggressive purposes. Now, if 
properly administered as an international waterway, the Rhine will be perfectly 
free except for trifling dues on boat or cargo for the expenses of upkeep ; and 
it will compete so favourably with the Prussian railways that their rates will 
have to be reduced to a minimum. This will cut hard at such differential 
treatment as has handicapped British trade in the last twenty years, and it 
will leave no surplus with which the unscrupulous can juggle. 

Of course, the Rhine is essentially linked with the INIeuse and the Scheldt — 
politically, economically, historically ; and the Powers have long been too 
lenient or too timid with Holland, possibly because her purely IcgnJ position 
appeals to lawyer politicians. The Dutch base their claims to' monopolise the 
estuary of the Scheldt on the Treaty of Munster (1648), but have greatly 
strengthened their legal position in recent years. The mnrriaa;e of the Dutch 
queen to a German princelet was followed immediately by the intrigue that 
ended in Belgium definitely granting to Holland special rights on the 
Scheldt in time of war, and Germany strongly supported Holland in getting 
these rights extended between 1905 and 1908. But the Scheldt is merely an 
international river ; it is navigable into France, and it was only by France 
waiving her claims in 1839, and proposing a dual control by Belgium and 
Holland — like that of the Rhine by France and Germany at the beginning of 
last century, and that of the Niger by France and ourselves now— that Holland 
ever obtained the power which she has abused. When Napoleon annexed 
Antwerp, he declared the Scheldt free; and the Rhine Regulations, when 
extended to the Scheldt, were interpreted as meaning ' free for all flags out 
into the sea.' Even so, the Dutch raised every possible difficulty, and naviga- 
tion had no fair chance until the railw.iy from Cologne to Antwerp broughtin 
the only kind of influence which the Dutch seem to understand. 

We have, therefore, full knowledge of all the essential conditions necessary 
to ensure the proper administration of international rivers, and shall have no 
kir.r) of excuse if we are caught napping or misled by plausible and ' interested ' 
tricksters. Amongst their last tricks is ' the great diflficulty of policinsr such 
a river, where a German boat may he stopped' by a French official.' That is 
not more terrible than a Rumanian boat being stopped by an Austrian official ; 
and the experience on the Danube shows that there is "really no difficulty at 
all — for the simple^ reason that offenders are always dealt with, naturally "and 
reasonably, by officials of their own nation, just as the various European Powers 
have the risrht of jurisdiction over their own subjects in the Belsinn Conso. 
In Article 25 the effete and pharisaical Berlin Act of 1884-5 provided that its 
regulations for the Congo 'shall remain in force in time of war.' To-day we 
are less ambitious, and desire only to further safe, easy, honourable, intercourse, 
in time of peace, between nations that are unequal in size and population, wealth 
and power, situation and relation to navigation facilities. We have seen that 
one small nation may ill-treat another srnal! nation from stupiditv almost as 
easily and a.s grossly as a large nation may ill-treat a small nation from tvranny. 
Under the circumstances it seems necessary to remove from both the .'•tupid and 
the tyrannical the opportunities for misusing such facilities; and the obvious 
way of doing this is to make international rivers international in use and in 



220 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 

government. Commerce is already a prime factor in the evolution of Hiiman 
Brotherhood. Progress towards that ideal may be gauged as well by the price 
of a banana or a piece of chocolate as by the number of sermons preached on 
the subject; the sea, is already free, made so mainly by British perseverance 
in clearing it of pirates ; it only remains to make navigable rivers equally fi^ee, 
and the opposition comes mainly from those who have talked most loudly about 
'the freedom of the seas.' But 'the freedom of the seas' does not mean that 
war is to be removed only from that element on which land power is weak, while 
the land power may still block access to th^e free sea by the natural avenue— 
the navigable river. 



The following Papers were then read : — 

1. Three Years ivitli tlio SiafJ and T>rn Moiiihs' Excavation in Meso- 
potamia. By E. Campbell Thompson, M.A., F.S.A., late 
Captain, Special Service Officer with Intelligence, G.H.Q. Staff, 
Mesopotamia. 

The object of the present paper is, first, to describe briefly the result of 
excavations, particularly at Abu Shahrain, and the examination of certain 
other ancient mounds in Lower Mesopotamia undertaken in the spring of 
1918. After three years' service with H.Q. Staff during the war in Meso- 
potamia, Mr. (then Captain) R. Campbell Thompson was ordered by the War 
Office, at the instance of the Trustees of the British Museum (who proposed 
to carry on the ^Museum traditions of excavations in Babylonia as soon as the 
conditions of war would allow), to conduct these explorations. The present 
description of these diggings is a resume, of a paper read before the Society 
of Antiquaries last January (quoted in the Times of January 31), and the 
author's thanks are due to them for their courtesy in allowing him to repeat 
the main points of the discoveries described in his paper before their publication 
of the complete account. 

The district in which these explorations were made is the area to the S.W., 
S., and iS.E. of Nasiriyah, which lies about 100 miles W.N.W. of Basrah. This 
area, which may be described as Southern Babylonia, contains the ancient 
mounds of Ur of the Chaldees (Mnqayyar), Eridu (Abu Shahrain), and several 
smaller mounds, including Tell-el-Lahm, Tell Tuwaiyil, ]\Iurajib, Abu Rasain, 
Tell Jabarah, Tell Judaidah, and another unnamed. Test trenches were dug in 
Ur (Mnqayyar), but the greater part of the digging, lasting nearly a month, 
was carried on at Abu Shahrain. 

Abu Shahrain lies twenty miles distant from Nasiriyah to the iS.W., out 
in the desert, and at this time outside the ' protected area,' but fortunately 
the local Shaikh Hamud of the Dh.nfir was friendly, and on the ninth of April 
Captain Thompson started for tlie mound, with his Irish orderly, Pte. Thomas 
HietiinR (one of the old ' Contemptibles '), fiftv Arabs, and the Shaikh. All 
food, of course, had to be transported thither on camel-back from the nearest 
station ten miles away ; there were wells within two miles of the mound 
containing enough water for the expedition, which camped just below the 
ancient mound. 

This mou7id, Abu Shahrain (the ancient Eridu), has always been held to 
be one of the most interesting remains in Mesopotamia on account of the 
tradition of its high antiquity. It rises abruptly out of the flat, saline desert, 
the top of its slopes being about forty feet above the plain, and the perimeter 
about 1,100 yards. The ancient zigiirrat, or temple-tower, crowns the N.W. 
portion, and rises another forty feet or more. The mound had been partly 
excavated by J. E. Taylor in the middle of last century, but the limitations 
of archaeological science in those days prevented him from making the most 
of his discoveries. 

The results of the present excavations are of the greatest importance for the 
pre-histoi-y of Mesopotamia. Hitherto the two peoples known to have occupied 
nncient Babylonia about the third millennium B.C. were the Semites (Akkadians) 
in the north, and the Sumerians in the south. But a quantity of fragments 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 221 

of huff pottery, painted with black geometric designs, was found in these 
explorations at Abu Shahrain, and— although in far less quantity and sometimes 
only in coarse traces — even on the surface of five of the other mounds men- 
tionefl, which is exactly of the same kind as those found in the two lowest 
strata of Susa (the cajiital of Elam) and Mussian by the Dr. Morgan expedition. 
This Susian pottery, as is well known, bears a striking resemblance to pottery 
fragments found by the Pumpelly expedition to Anau about 300 miles E. of 
the Caspian. It is entirely distinct from either Sumerian or Semitic remains, 
and consequently we must now recognise the presence of a third people settled 
in veiy early times in this area in S. Babylonia, of the same stock as the peoples 
of Anau and Elam. 

The stone implements of Abu Shahrain are numerous, and the expedition 
found quantities of flint, obsidian and crystal flakes, and about 400 chipped 
axe-heads similar in shape to those from Susa. Particularly noticeable even 
on the surface were the baked clay sickles, quite practicable for their work, 
and a large quantity of day ' nails ' always bent round at the point, similar 
to some found at Susa and Mussian. The large quantity of fresh-water mussels 
found in the strata, in contrast to the very few sea-shells, proves that the 
Persian Gulf was further from the mound than the great Euphrates lagoons. 

From all indications it seems almost certain that these prehistoric Anau- 
Elamitic folk could not write. They must have been succeeded by the Sumerians, 
three kings of whom— Ur-Engur (c. 2400 B.C.). Bur-Sin (c. 2350 B.C.), and 
Nur-Adad (c. 2175 B.C.) — left inscribed bricks telling of their restoration of 
the zigurrat. 

The more modern portion of the paper deals vei-y briefly (with lantern 
slides) with the campaign, irrigation, towns, and mode of life of the inhabitants. 



2. Snrveyif in Mesopotamia during the War. 
By Lieut. -Colonel G. A. Beazley, D.S.0.,R.E. 

Mesopotamia was unsurveyed before the Expeditionary Force landed in the 
country, the only maps available were the Indian Degree Sheets on the ^-inch 
scale compiled from reports and travellers' sketches. Sir William Willrocks' 
skeleton irrigation maps were of great use, and were nsed to tie down both the 
ground- and air-photo surveys when triangulation was not available. 

The Survey of India undertook the whole of the survey work and mapping 
carried out in Mesopotamia. 

A survey party under Col. F. W. Pirrie. C.M.G.. CLE. (who was also Deputy 
Director of Surveys), was organised, consisting of about seven oflScers, twenty-six 
surveyors, and .300 men, to deal with all the survey operations exclusive of air- 
photography and map compilation. 

The survey personnel was organised briefly as follows : — 

1. A detachment operating from Nasiriyah as its centre under Capt. W. E. 
Perry, M.C., R.E., who was responsible for all w-ork in the Euphrates Valley, 
and whose detachment, after the fall of Baghdad, wa« strengthened, and carried 
the work up as far north as Hit and Falujah on the Euphrates, and up to the 
right bank of the Tigris. 

2. A Rmall section under Lieut. -Col. H. H. Turne'-, E.E., on the Tigris front as 
far as Kut. 

3. The remainder of the partv under Col. Pirrie filling in the blanks in rear 
of the fighting fronts, from the Persian hills to the east to the Arabian desert on 
the west. 

Lieut.-Col. 0. A. Beazley. D.S.O.. E.E., succeeded Col. Turner (who was 
invalided) in October 1916. and was attached to O.H.Q. His detachment was 
responsible for all survey work on the Tifrris front till some time after the fall 
of Baghdad. In ^Tav 1017 bis small party was considerably strengthened, and 
its operations embraced ail the country from Samarrah and Tekrit on the west 
to the borders of Persia .~>n the east and a r.ortion of Persia itself. 

4. Lieut.-Col. C. P. Gunter. O.B.E., R.E., was in charge of Map Compilation 
G.H.Q.. and was responsible for all mans on various .scales based pinncipallv on 
a-r-photography. and subsequently for all maps required by the force on various 
scales compiled from all cources of survey. 



222 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 

The small detacliment under Col. Beazley was also responsible for (a) pro- 
viding map compilation -with fixed points to tie down the air-photographs; 
(6) providing batteries that required them with artillery _ boards ; (c) fixing 
objects and targets in enemy territory and the sites of batteries. 

The latitude and longitude of Fao at the mouth of the Shatt-el-Arab had been 
previously accurately determined bv the Survey of India. The longitudes of 
Baghdad and Kermanshah were determined bv wireless from Fao, the latitude 
of these places being known. On these co-ordinates the whole of the triangu- 
lation carried out was hnsed. 

No geodetic triangulation was attempted : the destructive proclivities of the 
Arab and the flat nature and unsettled state of the country put all scientific 
survey out of the question. All that could be attained was a general map of 
as large an area as possible on the ^-inch scale, larger scales Taeing used wherever 
required by the military authorities. Triangulation was for the most part con- 
fined to the more important rivers, the deserts and swamps elsewhere making 
more than a few extensions impossible: strong escorts were required, and 
transport on a liberal scale for water and rations had to be provided whenever 
the rivers were left. 

The flat nature of the countrv made triangulation very diflicult, involving a 
verv larffe number of short-sided triangles ; mounds were only occasionallv met 
■with. Mirage also greatly hampered the work ; in the hot weather distant 
obiects frequently disappeared at 10 a.m. and did not reappear till about 
4.30 P.M. Under the=6 circumstances it was impossible at times for the trian|gu- 
lation to keep pace with rapidly moving columns, and recourse had to be made to 
measuring distances by means of cyclometers fitted to bicycle wheels. As soon 
as the triangulation was pushed up behind the moving columns the scattered 
bits of survey based on (a) triangulation, (b) measuring wheels, were linked up 
and adjusted, more complete surveys of the areas covered being subsequently 
rarried out. _ _ • 

An interesting experiment was tried by map compilation at Baghdad, which 
was quite successful, i.e. a 12-inch survey of the city based on air-photographs 
tied down to fixed points. The map was completed in about a fortnight. To 
have carried the same operation out bv ground survey would have taken several 
weeks. When photographing from the air the neighbourhood of Samarrah in 
connection with a large-scale survey required by the military authorities, the 
outline in detail of a very large ancient city was revealed ; the traces of walls, 
fnundatinns. public o-ardens. etc., which were not visible to anvone on the ground 
showed up quite plainly on the photographs, and re^^ealed the fact that surveys 
of areas for archEelogical research can in future be greatly assisted by air- 
photography. 

A rapid means of topographical sketching from an aeroplane was evolved by 
Col. Boazley to take the place of air-photogranhy over unmapped areas when 
time does not permit the latter process. By this method a map of the a-round 
over which operations are contemplated can be very rapidly prepared and issued 
to the troons beforehand. Col. Eeazley's aeroplane was shot down and he 
was captured by the T'urks, stopping the work. Further experiments are now 
being carried out. The method is applicable to unsurveyed areas in arid 
oountrio.s when it is not desirable to incur the expense of air-photographic 
surveying. 

3. Thr Geographical Position and Site of Bnurncvwuth. 
By C. B. Pawcett. 

Bournemouth is a new town and of a new type. As a town of any size it is 
Darely forty years old. The O.S. map of 1811 showed the site as open heath land 
crossed by an unfenced road from Christchurch to Poole. There was one house, 
with a lodge, at Boscombe, and decoy ponds for wild fowl occupied the present 
site of the lower Public Gardens. 

The town is built on a low wedge-shaped plateau between the Stour Valley and 
Bournemouth Bay. This is formed of unconsolidated materials, mainly tertiary 
sands and gravel. The Bay. is in the axial valley of the Hampshire Basin, and 
the minor surface features are a result of this position and the physical history of 
that region. The depression of the basin let in the sea to produce the cliffs, 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 223 

and lowered the base level of the email streams which have since cut out the 
chines. It also produced the sand beach. 

The position of the town on the South Coast 100 miles from London is a prime 
factor in its development. It was beyond the reach of the cheap tripper, but 
within easy reach for the long-date visitor, and has become primarily a resort of 
the latter type of seaside visitor. It first appeared in the Census report in 1871, 
but not in 1881, and it became a borough in 1890 and a county borough in 1900, 
so that its growth has been very rapid. The striking feature in its population is 
the very high proportion of females to maJes : this has ranged from 1762 to 1556 
to 1000. 

Bournemouth arose after the construction of the earlier railways. The oldest 
line in the neighbourhood, the Southampton and Dorchester, was opened in 1847 ; 
it entirely ignores this town. Afterwards, as the town grew and gave rise to 
traffic, the lines were gradually extended to it. It is an interesting example of 
roads following the growth of the settlement — not preceding or causing the 
settlement. 

• For fresh water the town depends on deep wells. The site lacks surface 
supplies, and hence was unsuitable for dwellings before it was possible to distri- 
bute water from a distance— a fact which prevented earlier growth here. 

It has no local industry, other than the retail occupations required to supply 
local needs. The most important sections of the population are : — 

1. Persons who have retired from active life by reason of age or ill-health. 

2. Persons here on long visits for reasons of health. 

These account for the great excess of females, partly because the sons of such 
families are more generally out in the world than the daughters, and partly 
because they employ a large number of domestic servants. And while the direct 
government of the town is mainly, in the hands of the local trading class it is 
dominated by the classes just mentioned. They are the spending section, and 
the town is organised for their comfort and convenience. Such towns are a 
direct result of those economic changes which have produced a new class in 
modern society, the class of wealthy, but non-localised people — shareholders who 
have no function in the industry from which they draw incomes and people living 
on pensions or savings. This class has made such towns as Bournemouth and 
determines its character. 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 
The following Papers were read : — 

1. The Fuliire of Turkey. By H. Charles Woods. 

History has proved that the Near East has been the scene of, and the cause 
of, war after war, and from the moment of the entry of Turkey on the side 
ut the Central Po-.vers the problems connected with her future have been among 
the most important questions to come up for settlement by the Peace Conference. 

For the purposes of that settlement Turkey means not only the areas which 
formed an actual part of the Ottoman Dominions at the time of the outbreak 
of the war but also the ^gean Islands, especially those occupied by Italy after 
the Turco-Italian campaign, the Island of Cyprus, and last, but not least, the 
districts of Erivan, Kars, and Batum, annexed by Kussia after the war of 
1877-1878. 

Two principal conditions must be fulfilled in these areas. Firstly, safe- 
guards must be established against a continued or a renewed danger of Pan- 
German control in territories the domination over which formed a prominent 
part of the ' Drang nach Osten.' And, secondly, the misgovernment and oppres- 
sion carried on or permitted by the Turkish Government must cease. 

These being the areas under discussion and the conditions to be realised, it 
will be found that there are certain already existing arrangements possessed 
of an influence upon the future. Among these arrangements, the effect of which 
was given in the paper, are the Treaty of Lausanne, the decision of the London 
Ambassadorial Conference in regard to the /Egean Islands, the then secret Treaty 



224 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 

made with Italy in 1916, the agieeaient maue ocLweea Great Bntain, France, 
ana iiubsia in lae spring ci Ibio, anu, lastly, ine itiruis oi the armistice aiia 
tiie clause ot the Jjeague ul iNaiiuns uovenaiic wnitn abrogates aii uongatioua 
between members inconsistent witn its terms. 

Xiie great question is whether i urkey, is to disappear as a Grea,t Power or 
whether ner hte is to be extenaecl, moie or less m its present lorm, tnougii unuer 
eincient control. The adoption oi the nrst auernative presents great lu.acuiiits, 
and it therelore eeeins necessary to seek, a solution m the seconu. Loupiea, now- 
^.^r, witn the maintenance of tne iurKisn nag, tliere must be aflequate control at 
Uonstantinopie and the tuUest autonomy tor tne various nationalities oi ^-^siatic 
Turkey. A unineU mandate lor tne wnoie ±!.mpire, especially were it an American 
or liribish mandate, would prove moie workable than control carried out by a 
number ol ditterent mandatories. 

The natures oi the dinereni btates, or autonomous areas and their possible 
frontiers, present great dithculties, owing to tne mixed population ana to the 
rival claims which exist. vvliatever, tli&refore, may be the subdivisions of the 
Ottoman Empire agreed to by the i'eace Uoniereiice, as the populations ot all 
Liie new btates must remain mixed, steps should be taken to establisn absolute 
equality before the law for minorities and majorities, for Christians and for 
iVioslems. 

in conclusion, two vastly important questions must come up for settlement 
in connection with the future ot Turkey. The first concerns the regularisation, 
and, if po.ssible, the unification, of the several systems of jurisprudence existing 
in the Ottoman Empire — systems necessarily to be inherited by any newly-createa 
States, unless measures be taken to put an end to or to modify them. And 
the second is bound up with the financial position of the country — lier pre-war 
public debt and other liabilities — a position which must receive the most careful 
consideration if precautions are to be taken to prevent these burdens from being 
unfairly distributed in the future. 



2. Some GeogrwpJiical Aspects of Nationality and Internationalism. 
By Marion I. Newbigin, D.Sc. 

In one of its aspects the war was a conflict between the older ideals asso- 
ciated with the National State and the newer conception of Internationalism, 
based upon the development of modern industry. Isroadly speaking, it may 
be said that the former so far has conquered in the western section of the 
Continent, with its great diversity of surface, and the latter in the wide uniform 
plains of the east. Eor while Belgium has been restored and France re-estab- 
lished in her old boundaries, the aims of the party still dominant in Russia are 
definitely anti-national. Thus while the internationalists aimed at substituting 
for the old-established National States of the west a greater unit with a purely 
economic basis, their success has been limited to a region where neither 
nationality nor modern industry has attained full development. Similarly, 
whereas the internationalists claim that just as the National State rose from 
local groups or separate city States, as the result of an improvement in com- 
munications, so the greater unit of the future is the inevitable consequence of 
modern means of transport ; in point of fact, their doctrines so far have only 
prospered in an area where these are poorly developed. The paper examines 
the factors which have determined the rise of National States and endeavours 
to show that these are a response to largely unalterable physical conditions, 
and are therefore destined, in one form or another, to persist as against the 
conception of the industrialised International State. 



3. EtJinic versus Economic Frontiers of Poland. 
By Miss M. A. ■Czaplick.\.i 

The war has made familiar such expressions ae, ' Geographical,' ' Historical,' 
' Ethnic' and ' Economic ' frontiers. The ' Geographical ' frontiers are the only 
ones upon the definition of which everyone agrees, i.e., frontiers marked by 

' To be published in Scottish Geographical Magazine. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION K. 225 

water, mountains or any other bouiulary—makaig geograjiliiral feature. Favour- 
able geographical frontiers are merely important for strategic iuir])ii«5es. 

The definition of ' Historical ' frontiers is the most debatable since several 
countries may claim to have held a certain frontier at various times. A con- 
sideration must be made here as to whether a frontier is gained by a country 
through conquest, an economic colonisation against the wish of the inhabitants, 
or else by arrangement with the local inhabitants. Finally, the stability of a 
historical frontier and the conditions accompanying it are not to be disregarded. 

' Historical ' frontiers are of special imnortance in the case where there is a 
question not of altering the frontier, but of establishing it anew, if the country 
in question did not possess political independence at the time preceding the 
making of the frontier. This is the case with Poland. Before trying to define 
what frontiers she ought to have, if they are to be based on racial grounds, and 
what if the minimum economic necessities are considei-ed which would provide 
her with material independence, it is necessary to recall to memory Poland's last 
frontier. Such was her frontier of 1772 before the period of the partitions, which 
frontier with small variations she enjoyed for some four or more centuries. The 
historical frontier of 1772 included some 760,000 sq. km., and the territories thus 
united in Polish hands, if non-Polish ethnically, were acquired by dynastic and 
other arrangements. At various times Poland extended over a larger area, e-.g-, 
when she included the lower Dnieper, the original home of the Cossacks, but those 
were acquisitions based on conquest and she did not possess them in 1772. 

The last hundred and fifty years have made great changes in the political 
orientation of some of the inhabitants of the Polish lands of 1772. The Poles 
did not become Germanised or Russified, but in that part of the Polish State 
coming under the Russian rcfrime, which was composed of several other nationali- 
ties besides the Poles, Ruseificatory measures stimulated a national revival, and 
brought even a quite new national awakening to the Ukrainians, Lithuanians, 
Letts and Esths. Thus the fact that on the territory of the Poland of 1772 there 
live to-day some 53 millions of peonle, of whom 38 per cent, are Poles, makes 
much greater difference now thnn it would have in 1772. In short the ethnic 
principle demands that some 369.000 sq. km. of old Poland be ceded to the 
newly constituted national States. The remaining 391,000 sq. km. forms what 
people call ethnic Poland, i.e., where the Poles form an absolute majority. The 
historical claims are stronger in that case, for naturally these lands form the 
cradle of the Polish race. If the Peace Conference had wanted to make definite 
Section 8 of the Treatv and had followed the ethnic principle this would have 
been the limit of Poland tn-dav. P'ld she would have formed a more truly national 
State than any other in Eastern Europe. 

The economic principle often does not coincide witli the national one, a 
difficulty which has arisen in all n^wlv-formed countries. In the r^ase of Poland 
it does rouThly coincide, and to the two districts the only ones which are some- 
times considered ethnically debatable — Gdansk (Danzig) and Eastern Galicia — 
the economic and historical claims of Poland are particularly strong. 



4. The Dodecanese. By O. H. T. Rishbeth. 

The name to most signifies little more than ' a few barren rocks,' yet the 
historical associations, economic standing, and apparent political value of these 
islands call for consideration. The name (' Twelve Islands') has been variously 
interpreted as to its content, but in questions of frontiers it is clear that all 
those islands lying off the soutli-west coast of Asia Minor, and which are not yet 
Greek, are meant. They stretch from close below iSamos on the north to Rhodes 
on the south-east, towards the Cyclades westwards, and towards Crete south- 
westwards, and from the south-eastern part of the- 'Grecian Archipelago.' They 
appear to be mainly a fragmentary fringe, of the south-west Asia Minor coast, 
though others (Karpathos, Karos, Astypalaia) seem links of westward-stretching 
former mountain chains, of .which they are the unsubmerged summits. They 
are mainly small barren crags with deeply bitten and often precipitous coasts, 
hilly or mountainous, devoid for the most part of streams, natural vegeta- 
tion, and girt by dangerous seas. Rhodes and Kos are larger and are excep- 
tional in many of the above respects, and they have fair stretches of level 



226 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 

ground. Geologically the islands are related to south-west Asia Minor and 
Crete, and volcanic formations and agencies prevail in the more northerly isles. 
The climate is on the whole temperate, but the rainfall for the most part is 
scanty, and the islands are exposed to -winds often violent and treacherous. 
Conditions of human existence, with some exceptions — notably Rhodes and 
Kos — are hard : there is little arable ground, often little water, and ceaseless 
toil is necessary to maintain cultivation. Methods are backward, and Rhodes, 
mainly owing to Turkish occupation, is largely undeveloped. Most of the islands 
produce some fruit, vegetables, grapes, olives, a little corn, and live-stock. 
Some are able to export a little ; others are not self-sufficing even in these 
respects, and all depend largely on the import of grain and other commodities. 
There are no industries of importance ; the mineral resources have not been 
tested, and, with the exception of sponge-fishing — which is interesting in itself, 
the sole means of livelihood to some of the islands, and productive of considerable 
wealth — marine pursuits are unimportant. The people — ^nearly all Greeks — are 
simple, hard-working, enterprising, and hardy, patient agriculturalists, cunning 
mariners, daring and skilful fishermen. They are becoming more sophisticated 
with the growth of better communications and Western ideas. Their historical 
social institutions are highly interesting and show them to possess a strong 
sense and capacity for self-government, not inferior to — though little better 
than — that of ancient democratic States. They are devoted to education and 
religion (Greek Orthodox Church). The nature of their towns and sites of 
settlement is also instructive. The chief motives controlling the choice of these 
are evident and are climatic and economic, but far more those of security, 
especially security from pirates. The development or shifting of the site from 
seashore to lofty crag and vice versa reflects accurately the phases of historical 
evolution in the .^Egean as well as modern commercial influences. Rhodes has 
an historical interest of its own. The modern towns are mostly solidly built, 
prosperous, and well kept, occupying striking sites on harbours often naturally 
fine. The standards of education, comfort, and personal refinement are fairly 
high, especially in the richer sponge-fishing communities. Rhodes is more 
backward. The population was about 120,000, all of whom, except some 16,000, 
were Greeks, but during the last ten years emigration has gone on apace. The 
islands have had a chequered history, iDut under Turkish rule (1522-1912) enjoyed 
a large degree of autonomy and throve upon it. The Turks became oppressive 
in proportion as the islands grew wealthy. The Italians occupied the islands 
in 1912, and subsequently retained them as a guarantee for the Turkish evacua- 
tion of Tripoli, and the outbreak of the European War found them in the 
hands of Italy, to whom they were later pledged in the 'Secret Treaty' of 
1915. The Greek claim to the islands is based on racial and linguistic, historical, 
religious, and sentimental grounds. But the possession of these islands, while 
not without economic profit {e.g. Rhodes, Kos, in agriculture and minerals; 
Syme, Kalymnos, etc., for sponge-fishing) is valuable mainly for the facilities 
they offer — with their fine natural harbours — for the exploitation of the south- 
west Asia Minor (Adalian) coast, and for the control they afford of the .^gean 
communications with Syria and Egypt. 

5. Tlie Geography of Imperial Defence. 
By Vaughan Cornish, D.Sc, F.R.G.S. 

International security is founded on the fact that no Government commands 
nearly half the population and resources of the world, so that none can engage 
the rest with a prospect of success. Consequently, the one purpose common 
to the foreign policy of each Government is the prevention of dangerous pre- 
ponderance by any other. At present there are about fifty Sovereign States, 
of which seven administer about two-thirds of the world and its population. 
Of the remaining third the Chinese constitute one-half, so that the minor 
States, about forty in niunber, have only one-quarter the population of the 
seven Great Powers. Consequently, strategic geography to-day is concerned 
chiefly wdth the territorial relations of the Great Powers, and with certain 
strategic positions between their territories which are in the occupation of 
lesser States. The British nation is unique in its geographical condition, for 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION E. 227 

it alone oucupies racial homes ou each ocean. Consequently, before the national 
army can be concentrated, parts ot it must be conveyed great distances by sea, 
which can only be acnieveu m security it a supreme navy be inaintainea. Ail 
oLi'er nations can concentrate their armies by railway, and therefore to none 
ol tnem is a supreme navy essential, as it is to the British. A second peculiarity 
of the British Empire is the inclusion of the vast Indian population, tor 
each British subject tnere are in the world only three foreigners, a fact which 
by, itself goes far to provide a humanitarian justification of that supreme navy 
on which the continuance of the Empire depends. 

The geographical position of the Empire may appropriately be described 
by reference to the ocean instead of the continents, since the communications 
are maritime. The United Kingdom and the chief entrance to Canada are 
on the Atlantic Ocean; South Atrica, India, and Australia are ranged round 
the Indian Ocean, with Mew Zealand in the adjacent part of the Pacihc. 
Thus the maintenance of naval communication extending halfway round the 
world suffices, without the necessity for crossing the other half or the circuit, 
which is comprised in the Pacific Ocean. The naval commmiications are, there- 
fore, relatively siiort, and they are improved by an unrivalled selection of 
intermediate narbours at natural junctions of maritime routes. The coastal 
communications of Great Britain and the Colonial communications of the 
Empire ara flanked by the territories of the French Kepublic much more 
closely and extensively than by those of any other Great Power, in addition 
to possessing good naval communications, the territories of a maritime State 
should be dithcult of approach from the continental interiors. Tiiis condition 
is fulfilled in the British Isles and Australasia by their insularity, in India 
by a great, mountain barrier, in Egypt by deserts, and in South Africa by 
remoteness and the barrier of tropical forest. In Canada alone, which has 
restricted maritime access and a very open frontier, is there a marked dis- 
cordance between geographical conditions and strategic requirements. The 
neighbourhood of the British Empire and the American Republic is, however, 
not confined to the common frontier, but is also to an important extent upon the 
sea. This results from the dependence of the American Republic upon mari- 
time commxmications for the maintenance of the Monroe policy, upon the out- 
post of Panama, which is required for the maintenance of coastal communica- 
tion, and upon the sea for almost all foreign commerce except that with 
Canada itself. 

Australasia and India being nearer to Japan than to Great Britain the 
strategic position is locally advantageous to the Japanese, but this is offset by 
the great maritime superiority of the geographical position occupied by the 
British Empire as a whole and the United Kingdom in particuiar. It should 
also be noted that the security of maritime communication in general is an 
important common interest of both States. 

Egypt not only provides the shortest naval connection between Great Britain 
and India but the only route for the railway connection between our African 
and Asiatic possessions. It is also at the junction of the air routes from 
Great Britain to South Africa on the one hand and to India and Australasia ou 
the other. Owing to the disruption of the Turkish Empire no one Government 
now has power to provide protected communication from the Bosporus to the 
Egyptian frontier, or to Mesopotamia, which is one of the approaches to 
India both uia Persia and the Persian Gulf. 

Formerly the foreign policy of Russia and Germany so conflicted in refer- 
ence to Constantinople that an entente was impossible. Now that this position 
IS beyond the attainment of either, the advantages of alliance should be obvious 
to both those nations. If possessing a common frontier, so that their com- 
plementary reeources could be pooled without possibility of interference, they 
would have all in the way of men and material requisite for a prolonged war 
on the largest scale. At one end of then- combined territory railways reach 
wie borderland of India, the most vulnerable portion of the British Empire. 
The other end faces the most vital part of the Empire, Great Britain— the 
chief recruiting base of white troops, the chief factory and shipyard. Germany 
has excellent harbours within three hundred miles of Great Britain, and 
adjoins the Low Countries, which provide in the harbours of the Rhine and 
^che!dt the best base from which to invade the citadel of our Empire. In 



228 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION E. 

order to prevent the pooling of resources by Russia and Germany it is im- 
portant that the reconstituted States of Eastern Europe should form a complete 
intercept. Hence the importance of securing the continuity of Rumania and 
Poland by the restoration of Eastern Galicia to the latter State. The recon- 
stituted Sbates ojf Eastern Europe -will fiorm a continuous territory with 
population and resources equal to those of a Great Power. We shall have 
naval access to Jugo-Slavia by Adriatic ports, and to Rumania by the newly- 
opened Black Sea. Holsteiu' and Southern Schleswig being retained ^by 
Germany, that State will have opportunities for military control of the Kiel 
Canal in the event of war, thus jeopardising our naval communications with 
Poland. 

Such are the outstanding facts in the defensive geography of the British 
Empire as now constituted ; but if, as has been proposed, the Government of 
Great Britain and Ireland be separate instead of united as at present, a vital 
change in the conditions would result. The real vulnerability of Great Britain 
is not to invasion but starvation by blockade. The area fer cajiita is less 
than half that of France, which country has only just enough land to feed 
its people. No system of farming at present generally practised will make 
Great Britain independent of foreign food. This conies across the North 
Atlantic and Bay of Biscay, since Western Europe has little to spare. Even 
if there were through railway communication by a Channel tunnel, supplies by 
this route would be dependent on the grace of foreign Powers. Thus if Ireland 
be governed separately from Great Britain the subsistence of the population 
of the latter would be dependent on the controllers of the Western Island, 
which flanks the routes from the ocean, and is at present the naval outpost 
of the United Kingdom. The passages past the Irish coasts are also the 
routes by which reinforcements and munitions must De sent to the dominions 
and territories beyond the ocean from Great Britain, the main recruiting and 
munition base of the Empire. Thus if Ireland and Great Britain were 
politically separated neither Great Britain mor the outlying dominions and 
territories would be strategically secure. 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Discussion on Geographical Aspects of Evolution, opened by the 

following Paper: — ■ 

Some Geographicali Aspects of Devolution in England. 
By 0. B. Fawcett.i 

The prominence of ' Devolution ' during this time of reconstruction may be 
ascribed"to three principal cause«s, namefy : — 

1. The strength and urgency of the Irish demand for some form of home rule, 
and the existence and growing strength of similar demands in Scotland and 
Wales. . 4^m 

2. The congestion of busine-ss in Parliament and the fact that the present 
Parliament is obviously unable to cope with all the tasks which fall to it. 

3. The increasing realisation that our counties and county boroughs are too 
small, in area and in the authority of their councils, to deal adequately with 
many problems of local government. 

The realisation of these facts has led to many references, in the Press and 
from i>ublic platforms, to a ' federal solution.' This is usually understood as 
involving the erection of four national Pariiaments — in England, Scotland, 
Ireland, and Wales — to deal with the internal affairs of each country. 

The fatal weakness of this solution, as it is thus stated, is that one of the 
four partners possesses more than three times as much population and wealth as 
the other three together. The German Empire was the one prominent example 
of a federal State in which one partner was dominant — and Prussia was less 

^ See C. B. Fawcett, Provinces of EnqJand (London : Williams & Norgate, 
1919). 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 229 

dominant in that Empire than England would be in a federal Britain. In most 
ledoral States no one member is dominant; this is the case in Canada and 
Australia as well ae 'in the United States and Switzerland. Exptricuce suggests 
that it is better that no single member of a federal State should be able to out- 
vote all the rest. These considerations lead to the suggestion that in a federal 
Britain England should enter as a number of provinces rather than as one unit. 
This would require a division of the country into suitable provinces, a division 
which must be based primarily on its geography. Each province should be 
comparable in population with Wales and Scotland. 

There are iu England a number of distinctive regions of this order of magni- 
tude of which we may mention East Anglia, the Devon Peninsula, Yorkshire, and 
the North Country.. The last two of these are more populous than Wales, and 
the others have each more than a, million inhabitants. 

A division of England into such provinces should be based largely on a study 
of the present distribution of the population. The existing distribution into 
counties is, for the most part, based on divisions which grew up long before the 
Industrial Revolution, and the resulting great increase and shift of the population 
which has taken place in the last 150 years. Hence the new provinces cannot bo 
based directly on the counties. The principles on which such a division could 
be made may be set out as fodlow : — 

1. Provincial boundaries should be so drawn as to minimise interference with 
the everyday movements and activities of the people. 

2. Each province should have a definite capital, which should be the real 
focus of its regional life. 

3. The least province should contain a population sufficiently numerous to 
justify self-government. 

4. No one province should be able to dominate the federation. 

5. Provincial boundaries should be drawn near watei-sheds rather than across 
valleys, and very rarely along streams. 

6. The grouping of areas must pay, regard to local patriotism and tradition. 
(Of these Nos. 5 and 6 may be regarded as corollaries of Nos. 1 and 2.) 
There should be no effort to secure uniformity, of area or of population, among 

the provinces. Any such attempts would inevitably produce very unsatisfactory 
and unstable groupings of population, and boundaries which would handicap 
rather than facilit<ate effective organisation of public services in the provinces. 

Several of our larger i^rovincial cities have already become well-developed 
regional capitals, centres of the economic and .social life and thought of populous 
regions. Among these we may place Newcastle-on-Tyne, Leeds, Sheffield, 
Nottingham, Manchester, Birmingham, and Bristol. Each of these is also an 
important node in our road and railway systems, a university town, and the 
seat of an important press. Hence each could well serve as a capital for one of 
the provinces. 



The following Papers were then read :^ 

2. The Site of Westminster. By H. Eodwell Jones. 

The original importance of the site of Westminster seems to have lain in 
the fact that it formed a sandy eminence rising slightly above the saltings of 
the Thames flood-plain at a bend iu the river where the stream was probably 
fordahle and where there was an easy passage for boats. There can be little 
doubt that the Roman surface, which now lies some nine feet below high water, 
lay originally at much the same height relatively to the level of the Thames 
as the actual surface does to-day. Whether this change of conditions be due 
to a gradual sinking of the Lower Thames Basin or to a gradual increase in 
the rise of tide as a result of embanking it is difficult to decide. Probably both 
influences have been at work. 

Thorney Island, on which the Abbey was built, is often spoken of as part 
of a delta formed by the Tyburn. Geographically speaking, this is an unfor- 
tunate description. It is not the habit of the "Thames tributaries to form 
deltas. In almost every case the tributary stream enters the main river on 
the outer curve of a meander. Westminster Hats lie opposite to tho outfall of 
the Effra, those of Fiilhiun to the confluence of the Wandle; the formation of 
1919. IT 



230 TRANSACTTONS OF SECTION R. 

the meander being due ^^robably to the inflowing tributary in the first iustance. 
The natural confluence of the Tyburn would seem to have been at the West- 
minster bend, in the neighbourhood of "Whitehall. Once the stream had left 
the gravel-capped plateau, vs'hose brink lies along Piccadilly and debouched into 
the floodplain to the north of Buckingham Palace, its course may easily have 
been diverted again and again by accident or intention. It may at one time 
have joined the Wustbourne, or its waters may have been turned into one or 
other of the numerous tidal creeks that drained the flats at low water. 

It does not seem possible to determine whether Thorney was a natural or 
an artificial island, though the collection and plotting of excavation records in 
suflicient number may eventually help us to s-ome conclusion. 

The course of the Tyburn in its upper and middle reaches, on the other hand, 
may be easily traced, and can best be seen on the contoured map sketched from 
the bench marks and ground levels given on the Ordnance Survey maps of 5 feet 
to the mile. A street map, however, that gives minor lanes and alleys will 
show the line the stream traced clearly enough to the observant eye, and its 
valley is still fairly obvious to anyone who has the patience to track it out. 

From the geographical point of view the main interest in the site of West- 
minster focuses round the work of tidal river and tributary stream in controlling 
movement and settlement. 

3. Some of iJie Conditions Governing ilic Selection of an Aerial Route. 

By Colonel Towler, R.E. 

The purpose of this short .paper is to describe some of the peculiarities of 
aircraft and their effect on the conditions aimed at in selecting an aerial route. 

An abstract of the requirements is as follows. The various items being con- 
sidered individually, that route giving the best average fulfilment would be the 
one selected. 

1. The first requirement is safety. 

Oversea flights in a land machine should, if possible, be not longer than half 
the distance a machine can glide, without her engine, from the height at which 
it is customary to fly. 

A suitable number of possible landing places available so that in the event of 
engine failure a machine will, at any time, be within gliding distance of at least 
one. Good and frequent meteorological information obtainable when required 
so that risk of accident through sudden formation of fog and mist may be small. 

2. The second requirement is speed. 

The distance from the starting point to the destination should be the shortest 
possible in order to economise in time and fuel. 

In the event of a forced landing the telegraph and railway should be near so 
as to be available to forward news immediately of the position and requirements 
of the aeroplane. Another machine can then be sent to complete the journey 
with the passengers or merchandise, or again the necessary spare parts for the 
repair of the machine which has landed cam be sent by air or rail. 

The requirements as to communication may in many instances be fulfilled by 
the wireless telegraph or telephone installation carried in the machine. 

3. The third requirement is that the route shall have a number of distinctive 
landmarks to help; the pilot in his navigation by recognitioiH of position. 



4. The Static Poioer of Melting Ice. By A. Trevor Battye, M.A. 



5. Crete. By A. Trevor Battye, M.A. 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 
The following Papers were read : — 
1. Colonisation in Africa. By Sir Alfred Sharp, K.C.M.G. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION E. 281 

2. Peraui. By Lieut. -Colonel G. S. F. Napieb. 

Why the independence and prosperity of Persia ai'e impoi-tant to England 
on strategic, commercial, and political grounds : — First British Mission to Persia. 
Early Persian diplomatic relations with European Powers. Napoleon's intrigue 
in Persia. Russian and Turkish encroachments on Persia in nineteenth century. 
Russian intrigues. Gennany's policy to prevent any understanding between Russia 
and England. King Edward the Peacemaker. Anglo-French Entente. Anglo- 
Russian Convention of 1907. Spheres of interest in Persia. The new Anglo- 
Persian agreement. Order and security in the provinces and cheap and efficient 
transport the crying needs of Persia. Robber bands. E.xtinction of the powerful 
robber combine under Reza Khan Juzdani and Jafar Kuli in the Isfahan area 
and of the Jangalis under Kuchik Khan on the shores of the Caspian. Shortage 
of transport animals in Persia owing to the war and to famine. Active resump- 
tion of export and import trade delayed by present heavy cost of transport. Pro- 
vision in new agreement to co-operate in railway construction and other forms 
of transport. Importance of motor transport to develop the country and act as 
pioneers to the railways. Advantage of unlimited cheap petrol from the Anglo- 
Persian and Baku oilfields. Existing roads available for motor traiisport. Rail- 
ways to the frontier on east and west and new Bushire-Borasjun line. Tehran, 
Roads therefrom. The Lynch road from Tehran through Kum and Kashan on 
to Isfahan. The Isfahan-Shiraz road. The road from Baghdad. 



3. Some New Experim-ents in Atmospheric EJectricity, and their 

Possible Connection with Terrestrial Magnetism. 

By E. A. Eeeves. 

The experiments described in this paper resulted from investigations made 
in the subject of Terrestrial Magnetism, and appear to show that there is^ a 
more or less permanent static electric field in the lower atmosphere, with its 
lines of force connected with the rotation axis of the earth. The question of 
the ixissibility of a connection between this supposed field and the magnetism 
of the earth is raised. With a special apparatus it is shown that a strip of 
paper or other light material, when electrically charged and covered with a 
glass shade, coated with shellac varnish, will, if placed on a stand and set up 
on high open ground away from obstructions, come to rest within a degree or 
two of the true north and south points. In exceptional circumstances the line 
indicated is approximately at right angles to this line, that is, true east and 
west ; but still the connection is with the rotation axis of the earth, and not 
with the magnetic meridian. Observations have been made in various parts 
for years past, and the results of some of these will be shown at the meeting. 
The apparatus and method of using it are described, and the state of the 
atmosphere, localities, and othei' conditions under which the observations are 
likely to give the most satisfactory results are given in detail. When the 
indicator does not come to rest it continues to oscillate on either side of the 
true north and south points, and the mean of these is very nearly the line 
of the rotation or geographical axis. 

The principal object the author has in bringing the results of these observa- 
tions to notice, now for the first time, is that they may induce others to take 
i)p interest in the subject and continue experiments in other parts of the 
world. 8n far his own experiments have only been earned out in Ponth-Fast 
Fncfland. but one or two friends have olitained much the same results in other 
parts of the country, and abroad. 



4. Air Photography. By Colonel Winterbotham, B.E. 



5. Aeroplane Photo Surveys in the East. 
By Captain H. Hamshaw Thomas. 



V 2 



232 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F, 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
Peesident of the Section: Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., C.B. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 
The President delivered the following Address : 

At last, after an interval of three years, the British Association resumes its 
meeting- and takes np the business which the Council decide.(l to suspend during 
the period of the war. 

The meeting at Newcastle in 1916 found the world plunged in warfare of 
a most destructive character, and left us unable to determine either the extent 
of the destruction or the i^robable period of its continuance. Few would 
have then believed it possible that the following year would find the situation 
unchanged and the outlook at least as black as in 1916. Much less would it 
have been believed that in the summer of 191S we should be in even greater 
anxiety as to the final outcome, and that not till the early winter of that 
year should ws be relieved of the niglitmare of horrors under which we 
suffei'ed in the five years which have elapsed since Augujst 1914. 

It is said that at a very early stage Lord Kitchener foretold a war of five 
years, and on his interlocutor protesting and expressing his belief that such 
a thing was impossible, reduced his estimate by one year, ' provided Russia 
held out so long.' The collapse of Tsardom coming when it did may be 
taken as fully justifying Lord Kitchener's estimate, for not till three months 
of the fifth year had run out were we greeted with the joyful news of the 
Armistice. Many months had to elapse before the Armistice was ended by 
a treaty of peace with our chief opponent. Even then we found ourselves 
engaged in more or less active w-arlike operations in various parts of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa. To-day we are still unable to review in any but a preliminary 
fashion the economic or other results of the war as a whole. We shall have 
to wait till long after our meeting at Bournemouth before a complete survey 
is possible. 

Meanwhile, let us, in passing, take note of the fact that the cessation of 
hostilities did not carry with it the cessation of expenditure. The figures 
given each week in the Economist show the daily disbursements of the kingdom 
to have amounted to 6^ million pounds for the twenty-one weelcs from 
November 16 to April 12. I append a table giving them for the tw-elve weeks 
prio'r to the date of the Armistice and for the twelve weeks following it, 
omitting the week in which it fell. It will be seen that whereas from 
August 24 to November 9 our expenditure amounted to 585^- million pounds, 
from November 23 to February 8 we expended 564 million pounds, a reduction 
of only 21^ million, or about a quarter of a million a day. This means 
that the debt with which the war burdened us continued to augment long 
after the cause of it had ceased to operate. The Chancellor of the Exchequer's 
statement in August that the expenditure even then exceeded four million 
pounds a day against pre-war expenditure of £541,000 shows that we are 
still vastly exceeding our income. Even if we take into account the interest 
on the war debt, which amounts to about one million pounds a day, it is 
clear that the various obligations undertaken by the Government during the 
war continue to impose on us a huge expenditure which is largely in excess 
of our revenue. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 233 

We have been led to believe that the expenditure of the last five years 
had gone, in part at least, into channels which would leave us with profit- 
able and realisable investments. Some time will be required to demonstrate 
this, and we may still hope that the sal© of the national factories will bring 
some relief to the burden of debt. It may be admitted that the process 
of ' cleaning up ' is necessarily costly and slow, but it would be satisfactory 
to be able to record that the 'assets,' whether fixed or floating, had been of 
sufficient value to pay for their realisation, whereas w© are being fed on the 
unsubstantial hope, that at some future date vast sums will flow into the 
Exchequer as the ' surplus stores ' remaining on hand in November 1918 are 
turned into cash, an.d the various factories sold or put to .some useful purpose. 

A cause of yet greater apprehension is to be found in the fact that new 
claims are made on the national purse and are accepted with the same apparent 
light-heartedness and disregard of consequences which mark so many previous 
acts of those responsible for our expenditure both during the war and before it. 

We must recognise that we could not ask the multitudes of women who 
came forward to meet the call for munitions of war of various kinds, and for 
even more direct and active service at home and abroad, to abandon their 
activities and return to the conditions which satisfied them prior to the war. 
A like observation applies to the men who accepted the call of the nation and 
gave up their accustomed work to serve th«ir country at the Front or at 
some employment at home quite different from that to which they had been 
used. Some compensation for these sudden changes was no doubt inevitable. 
The disorganisation of the whole industrial machine made it difficult, if not 
impossible, to turn these different classes adrift into a world in the chaotic 
condition into which the war had thrown it. But it does not follow that this 
compensation should have been given in a way actually to encourage unemploy- 
ment. Tales, more or less authentic, pass from mouth to mouth indicative of 
the results of the ill-considered plans adopted to meet the difficulties which 
were no doubt most serious. The Irish farm labourer, offered a job at 30s., 
who replied, 'Sure, I'm not likely to work for your honour for 1.?. a week; 
I'm getting 29s. for doing nothing,' is one of these. The girl typist, paid the 
quite inadequate wage of 15s., who gave up her work and at once received 
unemployment pay at 25s., is another. Let us hope that the story of the 
navvy found smoking under a hedge, and, reproached for his idleness, who 
rejoined that ' he was engaged in working overtime at Cippenham,' is a fable, 
but it is of sort in which an unkind world may detect an element of truth. 
Whether true or not, these observations are of little importance in themselves 
except as indications of a general tendency to extravagant expenditure which 
must be checked before the course of our economic existence can return to 
normal lines. It should be the purpose of all patriotic citizens to accomplish 
tliat return at the first possible moment. To enable us to do this we must 
consider what has happened to the world economically since August 1914. 

The first and perhaps most striking change to be noticed is that in these 
five years an immense quantity of wealth has been destroyed. I have had 
the sad advantage of paying a visit to the countries where the destruction 
can be seen. From the Belgian coast to Verdun, over a stretch of country from 
ten to as much as twenty miles or more in breadth and not less than -WO miles 
in length, I passed through a land where the effects of modern warfare were 
painfully' visible. It is impossible to convey to those who have not seen it 
the extent and completeness of the destruction. For miles every sign of 
cultivation has disappeared. The trees with which in places the country was 
covered are represented by dead, unsightly stumps. We were told that 
these were useless even as firewood. They are so full of morsels of steel that 
it is impossible to cut them down or saw them up. They must stand till they 
rot. We passed through the pitiable remains of what the ruined walls and 
defaced gardens showed to have once been a village. But even more 
frequently we saw heaps of broken stimes and bricks which, but for a board 
with a name on it at the side of the road, might have been taken for 
merely a more stoney and dishevelled piece of country. The epithet lust 
used "is more appropriate than one who has not been an eye-witness could 
suppose. The immense quantities of barbed wire which are being gradually 



234 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

gathered up look like the fantastically ugly coarse tresses of some gigantic 
maenad. 

Even more pitiable were the towns which bore still some semblance of 
life, just as a wounded creature inspires more compassion than one from 
which life has departed. Arras, for example, of whose beauty some traces 
remain in the picturesque great square and the adjoining Petite Place, with 
its lovely Town Hall, evokes a more poignant sorrow than Albert, or even 
Ypres, where the gaunt ruins of the Cloth Hall and Cathedral bear hideous 
testimony to the destruction worked by modem war. In all that part of the 
country the poor quality of the building materials have made the ruins most 
unsightly. As the traveller goes further east he comes into a region where a fine 
building-stone produces better houses and less unsightly ruins. But even there a 
shell makes a very hideous wound, and the remains, such as they are, have none 
of the dignity which Time bestows on human structures which have fallen 
into decay under his more kindly hand. 

It forms no part of my subject to deal with the aesthetic side of the 
question, but I cannot refrain from expressing the horror with which I saw 
the ruins of Reims Cathedral. What has been said of the effect of shell- 
fire is infinitely true of the appearance of this wonderful monument of human 
art and human piety. Would it were possible to let it stand just as it is, 
taking means to guard it from the weather and from further damage, but not 
attempting to restore it t-o its pristine glory. The beautiful remains would 
be a perpetual monument to the shame of those who brought this irreparable 
injury to one of the most splendid examples of architectural art. 

There must be many hundred thousand acres of cultivated land, with the 
apparatus required for its cultivation, which has been reduced to the condi- 
tion I have endeavoured to picture. It is difficult to see how it can ever be 
brought again into use at any early date. The mere clearing away of tlie 
wire entanglements to which I have referred must be a costly operation. 
Great quantities of shell abandoned by the Germans in their hasty retreat 
still cumbered the ground they had occupied. These must be cai-efully 
removed — not a very simple operation, and one which must be carried out 
imder skilled direction. 

We saw numbers of ungainly tanks, the result of British ingenuity, left 
where their valiant occupants had been compelled to quit them. At one place 
we counted six of these in the space of a few acres. The removal of one of 
them was being effected by a valid tank, which was hauling a derelict to some 
place to be repaired or, more likely, to be broken up. I dwell on all this to try 
to bring home to you what must be done before what was once a smiling, 
prosperous countryside can be brought back to the state in which we saw 
the land lying outside the battle area on either hand. 

Can anyone dcubt the huge destruction of wealth which has occurred ? But 
it is really worse than it appears, for the very process of destruction was even 
more costly than the damage done. Millions of tons of steel in the form of 
guns and their projectiles — millions of lives had gone to produce this untoward 
result. For fifty months all the energies of the most active and energetic 
people on the globe had been turned from beneficial enterprise to such work 
as that which produced the result I have sought to portray to you. 

When all these things are considered it is not surprising to find our estimate 
of the cost of the war readies a total the mind cannot gi'asp. When you begin 
to speak of pounds by thousands of millions the difference between twenty-five 
and forty is hardly noticeable. But be the sum larger or smaller, the all- 
important fact to be borne in mind is that the wealth which it represents has 
passed out of being. 

So much confusion exists on this subject that it is worth while dwelling 
on it for a moment. Some contend that there has been a mere change of 
wealth from one ownership to another. Into whose possession, may we ask, 
has passed the wealth which used to exist in the towns and villages and 
cultivated land of the battle area? It is true that the steel which went to 
effect this destruction has been paid for, but from what source has that payment 
come? Lret us think what might have happened but for the war. The steel 
might have made rails and been laid on a railway to bring the produce of 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 235 

Central Africa to lands ready to pay for it and desiring to consume it for 
useful purposes. For all time there would have arisen in the process an income 
which would have gone to support in comfort those receiving it, and its surplus, 
after this had been effected, would have served to add yet more miles of railway 
and to bring yet more tons of useful produce. All this energy has been dis- 
sipated in the manner indicated, and all that remains is the obligation of the 
' State ' for all time to pay interest on a debt which has been created. 

There is, as it seems to me, but one way to escape from the situation we 
have created. No measure of confiscation, however disguised, will remove the 
burden under which we lie. It may be decided to alter the incidence of the 
burden from one set of shoulders to another. Any proposal of the kind must 
have very careful and earnest consideration. If two men are journeying 
together, one carrying a heavy pack and the other none, it may well be that 
by dividing it they will i-each the end of their journey sooner than by one 
carrying it all. But do not let us imagine that there is less to carry because it 
is borne by two instead of one. 

It is sometimes said that all taxation is in the nature of confiscation. Is 
this really a valid contention ? In the ordinary way, taxes are levied for services 
rendered or to be rendered. It is indeed true that the tax is frequently not in 
proportion to these services. There is good reason to hold the opinion that at 
one time, if not now, the wage-eamer paid by means of indirect imposts, which 
then were his only contribution to the revenue, an amount out of proportion to 
his income. It cannot be doubted that, what with tax and super tax and, in 
a certain measure, excess profits tax, the possessor of a large income pays much 
in excess of his percentage share towards the revenue. In each of these cases 
the excess payments smack of confiscation. 

If a really sound and equitable scheme of taxation could be devised each 
taxable unit would contribute to the common fund raised for the purpose of the 
Government an amount which would be arrived at after due allowance was 
made for his services to the community and his ability to pay. A bachelor, 
with no claim on him but to support himself without State aid, who had done 
nothing to provide for a citizen to take his place in the fulness of time, might 
be called upon to pay more than a man under obligjation to maintain a family 
and supply by his children tlie means of carrying on the torch of progress. 

All kinds of refinements suggest themselves whieh show how diflScult it is 
to give effect to the dictum that the amount of the tax should be regulated by 
the 'ability to pay.' It might, for example, be suggested that, since the thrifty 
man is better able to pay than the thriftless, some exemption should be granted 
to the latter. A graduated income tax presents the hope of a isolution of the 
problem. Professor Edgeworth in the Economic Journal of June 1919 deals 
very elaborately with this question. He mentions the scheme proposed by 
Professor Castle in 1901, and says : " Distinction may be claimed for it on the 
following among other grounds : It is elementary, ' intelligible to the most 
untaught capacity,' a great merit in a principle of currency, according to Mill, 
and doubtless some merit in a principle of graduation." It may perhaps be 
questioned whether the pages which follow this quotation are so easily ' in- 
telligible to the most untaught capacity ' as INIill and the learned professor 
suppose. We may also doubt whether a careful man would fully appreciate 
the introduction into the equation of a modulus representing that particular 
ground for exemption which would cause him to pay relatively more tax than 
his less thrifty fellow. 

One of the chief objections of graduation seems to be the danger of gradually 
increasing the steepness of the scale till the higher incomes would be taxed 
out of existence and the revenue they produced disappear. This would no 
dooibt bring its own remedy. The State needs a certain anmial revenue to 
provide the service.? demanded by the community. If the result of taking much 
the greater part of incomes over a certain amount ends by extinguishing these 
the State will cease to derive the revenue on which it coimts. It must then 
either reduce the tax on them till a point is reached at which they will continue 
to exist, or it must increase the tax on all or some of the other incomes. Unless 
It means to rush headlong into bankruptcy, it must find the point of equilibrium 
at which its scheme of graduated taxation continues to produce the revenue 



236 . TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

required, not in any one year, but in ail future years. Such a scheme, conld it 
be discovered, would meet entirely that ven' important dosideratiini of a tax, 
namely, that it should be based on ability ia pay. 

Two other points mnst be kept in view. A tax must be equitable in its 
incidence and reasonably continuous in its imposition. Given these three condi- 
tions the economic burden of the impost will quickly fall on the right shoulders. 
We may dismiss the argument which asks for a levy on capital and defends 
it against the accusation of being confiscatory on the ground that it is no more 
confiscatory than any other means of raising money by the State. No juggling 
Vv'ith the balance sheets of the nations of the world will get rid of the fact that 
many thousands of millions of wealth slowly accumulated in the generations 
which lived before August 1914 have- been dis.sipated. 

If we confine ourselves to the more manageable figures which relate to 
oan- own acti\nty we find that our public debt has risen from 710A million 
pounds, at which it stood in 1914, to the colossal sum at which it stands to-day. 
The history of the debt in the hundred years preceding 1914 had been one of 
almost continuous reduction. From just over 900 million pounds in 1816 it fell to 
628 million pounds in 1899. There Avere periods when the fall was arrested. 
In 1905 it had risen to 798 million pounds — a figure comparable to that of thirty- 
five years earlier. The Boer War was chiefly, but not entirely, responsible for 
this increase. In 1914 it stood considerably above the lowest point which it 
ever touched, but in the preceding eleven years every year but one showed 
a marked reduction. 

In the last five years all this has been changed. From Augiust, 1914, to 
March, 1915, 450 million pounds were added. The next year added moi'e than 
1,000 million pounds. By INIarch, 1917, it stood at 3.906 million poimds, and 
now it has nearly doubled and is more than ten times what it was at the out- 
break of the war. 

It is true we have something to set against this vast sum. We have acted as 
the financial agents of our allies. The siuris we have found for them amount to 
close on 2,000 million pounds. On the other hand, we have ourselves contracted 
debts abroad to the extent of well on to 1,500 million pounds. On balance, there- 
fore, we have interest to receive on about 400 to 500 million pounds. But 
to enable the inhabitants of this country to find money for our Govern- 
ment we have sold fully as large an amount of our holding.s in foreign securities. 
On balance it may be contended that we are little worse off. I fear in clo.ser 
examination this view will not be found good. 

Let us admit that onr allies will find no difficulty in paying the 100 million 
pounds a year or there.ibouts due for the interest on their debt to us. We must 
recognise that this will make a serious draft on their resources. Very different 
were the securities held by individuals in this country with which they 
parted to take up each successive issue of Government Bonds at the urgent 
insistence of successive Chancellors of the Exchequer. The securities 
sold were usually first-class industrial or public-utility issues. They might be 
the obligations of a Government in the wisdom and stability of which confidence 
could be placed ; or the bonds of some great and progressive city, the money 
having been used to bring water to the inhabitants ; or shares in some ctom- 
mercial undertaking to further the development of the country. In the great 
majority of cases we may assume that they had been invested so as to produce, 
•lirestly or indirectly, a revenue to meet the interest. What have we got now? 
A charge on a heavily burdened country of which, it may be, many thousand 
acres have passed into the condition I attempted to describe a little while ago. 
I fear if an accountant from the planet to which Mr. Gladstone told us years 
ago we had banished political ecxDuomy were to pay us a visit he would regard 
with no favourable eye the balance sheet which placed at their full value 
debts of the sort we are considering. 

Put at the highest not many of our millions of pounds will find their own 
interest. All the balance must come out of the product of the other and reail 
industries of the debtor country, and to this branch of the subject we must 
now turn. 

At the present moment it is of more vital importance than ever that we 
should come to a clear and unprejudiced understanding on this subject. To 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 237 

judge by appeaiaiiws, the vaguest and most unsatisfactory opinions exist as 
to the capacity of the community to meet the various claims which are pre- 
ferred for a share of the wealth from which alone these claims can be satisfied. 
Many people seem to think that no demand is too exorbitant. We are asked 
to provide houses by the hundred thousand undeterred by the consideration 
that they will cost two, three, or even four fold the amount at which they 
could have been built before the war. They are, moieover, to afford accommoda- 
tion of a much better character than was thought sufficient a very short time 
ago. Houses built as recently as twenty years ago are no longer good enough 
for the social reformers of to-day. It is forgotten that something like 80,0CK) 
houses are needed each year to accommodate the growth of the population. 
There are to-day something over eight million inhabited houses in Great 
Britain. Not more than half of these are more than fifty years old. During the 
war housebuilding had almost ceased, but before 1914 the building of houses had 
been checked by two causes. The various Acts of Parliament dealing with 
matters affecting the building of houses had so enhanced their cost that there 
was the greatest uncertainty whether houses could be built to return a reason- 
able interest on their cost. 

But the second cause was of as great, or possibly even greater, significance. 
The trade imions connected with the building trades had gradually succeeded 
in imposing conditions which had added enormously to the cost of building. 
It would not be difficult to show why this had been possible, but it would 
take me too far to follow this line of thought. The fact will not be denied 
by anyone conversant with the circumstances. The result of all this is a serious 
, shortage of houses, and this it is proposed to make up by grants from the 
public purse. If this were the only demand of the kind we might face it 
with more equanimity than is in fact the case. But when we look elsewhere 
we see other claims comparable in their effects on the public purse but differing 
in kind. 

The railway enterprise in this country may serve as typical of what is 
meant. Prior to the war the railways were carrying on their duties in a manner 
which enabled the country to get thi'ough its business in a profitable and, on 
the whole, fairly satisfactory way. They earned sufficient revenue to pay a 
fair return to the shareholders. It is true the prospect was not reassuring. 
The railway management was meeting the usual contradictory claims preferred 
against almost evei-y industi-y. It was asserted that they were rendering 
services which were not nearly as great as were demanded by their customers, 
and they were charging for them rates which were regarded as quite out of 
proportion to the value of the services. On the other hand, they were paying 
wages which the recipients thought entirely inadequate for much longer hours 
of service than their workmen were disposed to give. Negotiations between 
the parties had obtained certain concessions as to hours of work, and also as 
to rates of pay ; but these were not accepted as sufficient, and Parliament was 
called upon to intervene, with the result that statutory hours were imposed. 

The vei-y essential difference between hours of work or rates of pay resulting 
from convention between the partic:; interested and the same imposed by statute 
is often overloioked. The convention can be varied to meet the vai-ying circum- 
stances. The statute provides a hard and fast rule, from which it is impossible 
to depart without incurring penalties. An example of this may be found 
in the Cleveland Ironstone Mines, which, by a series of strange accidents, come 
under the Coal Mine Regulation Acts, and are thus subject to all the condi- 
tions imposed by statnt? on coal mining. Employers and workmen are agreed 
in desiring to modify the provisions of the Acts as to hours of work on Satur- 
days. Their joint application to the proper Department for permission to 
do this has been refused for reasons which that Department (quite properly) 
regards as unanswerable. The officials decline to exercise a dispensing power 
and require that the provisions of the Act be rigidly followed. 

When the railway companies pointed out the serious effect which these 
statutory obligations imposed on them hnd en their revenue-earning capacity 
and sought power to increase the rates their customers were up in arms. The 
very men who, in Parliament and elsewhere, were applauding the decision 
to give relief to the railway servants resolutely refused to pay the extra 
cost thus incurred. With difficulty was Parliament induced to give the 



238 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

companies leave to add to their charges something towards meeting this cost. 
The compani'es found still greater difficulty in obtaining a settlement with 
their customers as to the amount which should be so added. The question was 
still awaiting a final settlement at the outbreak of war. 

But the case of the railways seems irrefragable. They point out that their 
earnings are barely sufficient to meet the claims on them and leave a suitable 
return to their shareholders. And when answer is made that these critics and 
customers are indifferent as to this, they point out that, unless they can do 
it, they will be unable to meet the demands of the districts which they serve. 
No railway serving a prosperous and growing district can continue to render 
the services required unless it is able to raise capital to be expended on the pro- 
vision of those additional facilities for which the expansion of the district 
calls. But to attract capital the railway must be able to show a revenue of 
which the surplus, after meeting all expenses, will serve to pay adequate 
interest. Even before the war, the never-ceasing demands of the workmen, and 
the ever-increasing obligations placed on the companies by Parliament as to 
the facilities to be given, were rendering it more and more difficult to find 
the necessary capital. It cannot be said that the return to the shareholders 
of all classes was inordinate. The 1,300 million pounds of railway stock earned 
a surplus of 50 million pounds in 1913 — not quite 4 per cent. It is evident, there- 
fore, that one or other of the following things must happen. Either the railway 
development must cease, and with it, to a large extent, the development of the 
country, or the revenue must be increased per unit of traffic, or the expenses 
must be diminished either by reduction of the actual charges or by improve- 
ments in the methods of operating. 

We may dismiss the first of these possibilities, for we must decline to 
believe that the country will cease to develop. It would be with gi'eat reluct- 
ance that we should accept an increase of the charge per unit of traffic. We 
would rather hope that by adopting better operating methods we should reduce 
costs and so reduce charges. It is to this side of the question that we must 
address ourselves. In doing so we may pass from the special case of railways 
to the general case of the national industries. 

There has been a persistent demand by labour throughout the countiy for 
better pay, and an equally persistent demand for more leisure. To these 
demands no objection can be taken. On the contrary, rightly understood, 
they must meet with approval by all who desire to see the country, as a 
whole, happy and prosperous. But we must consider how they can be satisfied. 
This is a question to which recently a great deal of attention has been given. 
In its satisfactory solution lies all our hope for the future. 

To begin with, the only source from which satisfaction can be is the 
sum-total of the product of the industry of the country, and indeed of the 
world, in the period under consideration. It must be noted that in many 
cases the product may not be realised within that period, as, for ex- 
ample, when a manufacturer holds large stocks of goods which he has 
not yet marketed, but on which much the greater part of the cost has been 
paid. It must also be noted that a very considerable part of the industry 
of the country does not add to the total product which is the subject of division, 
but is in fact a charge on that product. The whole burden is borne by those 
engaged in providing commodities or services necessary for the members. We 
touch at this point a very difficult problem, the proper solution of which may 
possibly show us how all our economic troubles may be ended. I can do no 
more than state it as briefly as may be. 

There can be no question that a very great part of human activities is spent, 
and the resulting product used, in providing things which cannot be called 
necessaries of existence. The simplest food, clothing, and shelter may be said 
to coyer all that comes under this head. But life that gives us nothing but 
the indispensable minimum of these essentials would be so dull and monotonous 
as to be hardly worth the exertion needed to procure them. We must have more 
than these if we are to get enjoyment as well as mere life. How much more can 
we claim — perhaps we might say, extort — from our environment? And how 
shall this extra tribute be shared among us? 

If we made a complete analysis of the result of the product of industry 
we should be astonished to find how large is the amount which remains after the 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 239 

essential demands have been satisfied. Take a survey of some town you know 
and ask yourself what the multitude of public-houses and picture-palaces 
indicate but a spending of money on non-essentials. Or look nearer home, 
and consider whether the things you could quite easily spare do not bulk very 
large. If we sought to classify our expenditure we might come to some 
such division as this : 

On essential needs. 

On things making for the irreproachable amenities of life. 

On luxuries which add to and aid our reasonable enjoyment. 

On those which subserve mere pleasures. 

On extravagant expenditure for which no justification can be offered. 

It is difficult to draw any clear line between the heads of this very rough 
division. Each class passes imperceptibly into the next. Fortunately for our 
present purpose we do not require to do this. It is enough that we should 
admit that not all acti\aties are well directed, and that we consume a great 
many things we could do without. No class is exempt from this blame, if blame 
it be. Each is disposed to look askance at what is called the extravagance 
of some other. When people talk of waste, they often mean expenditure on 
things for which they themselves do not care. But the question is how can we 
check this extravagance and provide more fully for the more essential needs of 
the whole people ? 

If rich men did not drive motor cars or drink costly wines, would the people 
who produce these luxuries be better off? Or if, instead of making these things, 
they made articles needed for the mass of the people, could these buy the 
result if they had no more means than they now possess ? Do we not come back 
at the end to the proposition that men can only have more if they have more 
to offer in exchange? The great mass of mankind labours to gain 'daily bread.' 
If more is produced, more of these necessities will be eatisfied. 

It may be contended that men have obtained more or less completely what 
they wanted most urgently. They wanted shorter hours. In many trades they 
have got them, and might have had them in more had they gone about it in the 
right way. They were not sufficiently desirous of having better houses, and 
they failed to procure what their wellwishers desired for them. It remains to 
be seen whether the movement in this direction, to which reference has already 
been made, will produce the results which we all desire to see — though some of 
us would like to see them obtained under more satisfactory economic conditions 
than are at present proposed. 

A relatively small part of the population do unquestionably get a very large 
share of the total income produced by the whole community. Can we do any- 
thing by which this share may be reduced without bringing about greater evils 
than those we seek to overcome ? The history of the sumptuary laws do not en- 
courage much hope that attempts to prevent expenditure in particular directions 
will have much success. My own studies had brought me, many years ago, to 
the conclusion that in every industry examined there is no way of giving to those 
engaged shares greatly differing from what has been afforded in the past. The 
margins on which manufacture in general is conducted are too small, to make 
it possitle to give the larger contributors to the ultimate result any considerable 
addition to what they have been accustomed to receive. This impression was 
confirmed by the elaborate general survey of the industry of the kingdom 
carried out by the Cen.sus of Production of 1907. 

No doubt labour (which is much the most important item of cost) has 
obtained a gradually increasing payment, though not necessarily any larger pro- 
portionate share. A steady improvement in the methods in which the labour of 
men is applied has resulted in enabling a larger product to be obtained. Each 
new implement, each fresh application of energy of various kinds, as, for 
example, steam and electricity, has meant that the individual man produced 
more in his day's work, and he got, in fact, a larger return for what he did. 
But at the same time, the capital engaged was increased, and con.sequently the 
proportion of the product to be allotted to rewarding capital also increased. 
It is neither possible nor desirable to attempt to alter this state of things. 

The whole question has been treated in a very masterly way by Professor 
Bowley in a book published some months ago entitled ' "The Division of the 



240 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION P. 

Product of Industry,' a title I had myself adopted for a lecture I gave at 
the National Economy Exhibition in July 1916. Mr. Herbert G. Williams's 
pamplilet entitled ' The Nation's Income ' also deals with the same subject 
with much care and skill. In it he makes a critical examination of Sir Leo 
Chiozza Money's book entitled ' Eiches and Poverty.' 

The coBclusion reached in these publications is practically the same. It may 
be stated in the cautious words with which Mr. Bowley ends his book : — 

" This ana-lysis has failed in part of its purpose if it has not shown that the 
problem of securing the wages, which people rather optijnistically believe to be 
immediately and permanently possible, is to a great extent independent of the 
question of national and individual ownership imless it is seriously believed 
that production would increase greatly if the State were sole employer. The 
wealth of the countiy, however divided, was insufficient before the war for a 
general high standard ; there is nothing as yet to show that it will be greater 
in the future. Hence the most important task — more important immediately than 
the im.provement of the division of the product — incumbent on employers and 
workmen alike, is to increase the national product, and that without sacrificing 
leisure and the amenities of life." 

These statesmanlike words need to be borne in mind by all who are engaged 
in dealing with the difficult problems of to-day. 

I shall have failed in my purpose if I have left my hearers under the impres- 
sion that I am wedded to or pleading for any particular division of the wealth 
of the country. We hear much talk about abstractions called "capital" and 
"labour." The terms are convenient enough if we do not let ourselves be deluded 
with the idea that they mean more than the sum of those who own the capital or 
supply the labour. Labour itself is a somewhat ambiguous term. Till compara- 
tively recently the members of the ' labouring classes ' so called thought it was 
synonymous with the man who laboured with his hands, and ' the horny-handed 
son of toil ' was contrasted with 'the pampered minion of luxury.' The Labour 
Party itself has been fain to enlarge its definition so as to include all those 
wlio 'labour by hand or brain.' If we could be brought to see that there is no 
liard-and-fast division of men and women into the one or other of these classes, 
but that nearly all of us belong to both, a good deal of our present trouble 
would disappear. Not one of us, if independent of capital, the most poverty- 
stricken member of the conmiunity relies? as implicitly on it as the richest among 
us. To talk_ of the ' abolition of capital ' is to use a form of words which is abso- 
lutely meaningless. What most people who use them really mean is one or other 
of two things, sometimes both at the same time — either "that the capital is in 
tihe wrong hands and that it should not be held in the way or to the amount 
which is at present the case, or that the division of the joint product of capital 
and industry is defective, and should be altered. 

It will be seen that these are two quite different questions, and call for con- 
sideration on quite different lines. If great aggregations of wealth are deemed 
undesirable the community may take means to limit the amount held by any 
one man. But where the line shcadd be drawn is a very difficult problem. 
It would be easy to show that human progress has depended on the thrift of our 
ancestors,, and to prove that, in like manner, our future progress depends on 
a continuance of tliis policy of not spending on the enjoyment of the hour all 
the product of our industry. Implicitly this assumption is made by every one 
who criticises the condition of our various industries in this country and com- 
pares them unfavourably with those of other lands They are, in fact, saying 
that our railways or mines or steel works have been starved. Yet, -with almost 
the same breath, they complain that the men engaged have been insufficiently 
remunerated for their labour. I see great difficulty in saying no man's fortune 
shall exceed some given sum, and even in saying no man shall bequeath to his 
sur\'ivors m.ore than some very moderate amount. In either case I should fear 
endangering that building up of capital which, however it may be divide<l, is 
essential to our national progress. 

When we come to the division of the joint product of industry and capital 
other considerations become apparent. The question at once arise.s" whether any 
other division would have been possible in the past, or could be accomplished 
in the future, without great changes in the way in which the product arises. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 241 

iReferene« has already been made to my own examination of tliis matter, which 
leaves me in no doubt that any considerable inci'ease of the part of labour 
would have left the share of capital so small as to have stifled enterprise. 

This does not mean that large fortunes may not have been made by those 
whose skill and imlnstry and enter-prise enabled them to seize the advantages 
presented to them. If an illustration may be drawn from the history of my own 
firm, I may say that over and over again have we embarked on undertakings 
which we Iiad iu the end to abandon as improiitable. Those who were, in fact, 
our co-adventurers, the men whom we employed, ran no risk. They were paid 
the sums to which they were entitled as the result of bargaining in an open 
mai'ket. The wages paid were those ruling in the district. Such machinery or 
other supplies as were needeVl were bought as cheaply as was possible. We took 
all the risk, and bore all the loss which often resiilted. Wc had no qualms 
about taking the profit when any ensued. The capit.al which by incessant 
industry and application has been thus accumulated has served tto provide 
employment for the sons and grandsons and remoter descendants of those who 
first worked for my father and his brothers seventy-five years ago this very year. 

Those who cry out against capital overlook the fact that in modern industries 
no man can be set to work except by means of a capital sum first found for the 
purpose. In the industries I know best something over £200 is needed to put 
a man to work. The population of this country increases at the rate of alxiut 
1 per cent, per annum. This means that for every 1,000 men to whom employ- 
ment is being given about ten youths are ready to be set to work each ,year, and 
something over £2,000 must be fomnd year by year to give them employment. 
It is not an unreasonable boast for a captain of industry to say that in this 
respect he has performed his duty to the community. 

One further point must be made. Men see sonie great enterprise (and the 
railways will serve very well as an example), and look upon it as a capitalist 
organisation. But when the circumstances are examined it is found that it 
consists of a multitude of small holdings, and comparatively few of lirge amount. 
In the North-Eastern Eailway something like 60,000 shareholders hold the 
83 million pounds of capital of various denominations — say, on the average, some 
£1,600 each. Consider the widespread distress which would be caused if the 
income from the .«)im were to cease. 

I have made a similar calculation for a large colliery undertaking in which 
I am interested, with the following result. The capital in shares and debentures 
is about £1,300,000. There are just over 1,800 shareholders. We employ 
5,500 men. Each shareholder therefore provides employment for about three men 
and holds on the average £725. Before long we shall reCjuire further capital. 
We see our way to enlarge our operations and so to provide employment near 
to their homes for the 50 to 60 youths who, each year, grow to manhood and 
need productive employment if they are not to become burdens on the com- 
. munity. We hope our 1,800 shareholders will have laid by enough to provide 
the £12,000 a year which is necessary for this purpose. We are assuming they 
or someone will provide it, for we are using our resources (reserves and depre- 
ciation funds) in this way, and shortly it will be incumbent on us to fund this 
obligation and add it to our capital. 

Let us be very cautious how we interfere lest we produce evils infinitely 
greater than those which it is sought to remove. What, for example, will those 
50 to 60 .young men say, if we reply to their applications to be given work with 
us, that all our resources have been used in paying additional wages, and we 
have accordingly been obliged to let our plant deteriorate instead of adding 
to it and that, far from offering additional employment, we fear we may have 
to dismiss men to whom we at present give work ? 

We are thus brought to the last subject which I desire to consider with you— 
the widespread tendency towards what is somewhat vaguely called Nationalisa- 
tion. It may be questioned whether any large number of people have very clear 
ideas what is meant by the term. 

Let us assume for the present purpose that it signifies that the State shall 
become the owner of any enterprise which is nationalised — as it owns the busi- 
ness—the Post Office, the Telegraphs and the Telephones. Let us ask what 
advantage will be gained by the assumption of ownership. A centralised 



242 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

management even of so simfile a business as that of collecting and distributing 
letters and parcels has not been an unqualified success. Where the business 
is more complicated, as in the other examples, the success has been even less 
conspicuous. What reason have we to hope then in such intricate matters as 
the Railv^ays or the Mines better results wrill follow ? 

The incentive of individual gain will have disappeared and with it the readi- 
ness to accept such risks as those to which reference has already been made. 
We may easily find that the developments needed to find employment for our 
young people is not forthcoming, for without such risks being taken no growth 
of employment will take place. Unless I am much mistaken a great temptation 
will be put before politicians to make concessions to the huge army of voters 
who will be in the direct employment of the Govermnent. 

The experience of these five years has failed to t-each the lesson that you 
cannot touch one branch of labour without affecting all others. An advance of 
wages given to one section will inevitably be demanded by all others. The 
result will be prejudicial to the whole community. As regards each individual 
trade it may be of little moment what we call the wages, the wage earner has 
in the past obtained a certain (very large) percentage of the whole value of 
the product ; whether it is called one hundred or two hundred is of little moment 
unless indeed he can succeed in obtaining for himself higher rates of wage than 
those prevailing in other industries. But as regards international trade the 
position may be very different, and we may find ourselves shut out of foreign 
markets because our wages are made artificially high, just as we should be 
excluded if, for example, the shipowners could compel lis to pay inordinate 
freights on some indispensable raw material like cotton. 

A cure will speedily come, but it may come after great suffering has been 
inflicted on the whole community. Parliament can easily impose on the em- 
ployer, whether a private individual or the State, the payment of a certain 
wage if a man is employed, but one thing it cannot do and that is compel the 
employment of the man at a wage which the price of the article he produces 
will not suffice to pay. The man will remain unemployed. That is the drastic 
remedy which economic law imposes. We may escape it by making up from 
some other source the deficiency if we insist on having the article and refuse to 
pay the cost. But this remedy is only applicable to some small part of our totai 
product. When we come to such industries as those now talked of it is 
impossible. We must make the industry self-contained. 

The hope that by transferring its ownership to the State from the individual 
will enable us to pay more is foredoomed to disappointment. There is indeed 
one — and only, one — ^way in which higher wages can be obtained. That is by a 
greater product per unit of capita] and per unit of wage. If ?n article now 
produced at a combined capital and labour cost of, say, 100 can by improved 
methods be produced at, say, 80 and still sold for 100, and if capital is still 
satisfied with its former share, then the whole of the extra 20 will come to 
labour. Long experience teaches me that it is in this way that wages have 
advanced in the past and that in this way alone can they be further increased 
in the future. 

But it may be said that those most concerned are not striving alone, or even 
chiefly, for higher wages, but desire to participate in the management and to 
bear their part in deciding the questions of policy which up to now have been 
in the hands of the employers. To this no fundamental objection can be raised. 
The more completely the men engaged in any enterprise understand it the better 
it will probably be for the whole. But large questions of policy require know- 
ledge and appreciation of circumstances which can with diflRculty be acquired by 
persons whose life is necessarily passed in quite other surroundings. That the 
fullest information should be given to the persons in question cannot be denied. 
The claim to deal with matters of management lying quite beyond their com- 
petence cannot be conceded. The final impulse comes from one mind which cannot 
divest itself of its responsibility nor exercise it under such conditions as those 
suggested would impose. 

In the brief compass of an hour I have sought to describe the difficult 
situation in which we are placed and to enumerate some of the intricate economic 
and social problems which call for solution. It is impossible to view the future 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 243 

without apprehension. A universal unrest pervades the world. This had indeed 
already become apparent before 1914. The war has exacerbated the symptoms 
which were already sufficiently menacing. Remedies by legislation had been 
applied here and elsewhere without success. In the nineteenth century the 
political emancipation of the inhabitants of this country was gradually effected. 
By the end of it freedom had been practically won. The great changes which 
occurred in the political condition of the country as it was before 1832 and as it 
became by the end of the century had been brought about with relatively little 
trouble. It is not surprising that this should have led to the conclusion that 
economic changes could be effected with equal ease. Perhaps the confusion which 
we continually observe between a ' law ' impose<:l by the will of a legislature and 
a ' law of Nature,' so caUed, is responsible for this confusion. Parliament, we are 
told, can do anything except ' make it rain or hold up.' It may perhaps even 
effect this by enacting that under certain circumstances it shall be ' deemed ' 
to rain or hold up, as the case may be. But the most ardent believer in the 
power of legislation to bring about important changes will not be prepared to 
deny that, whatever the legislators may say, he who goes out in the rain will get 
wet. 

Having gained political freedom comparatively easily people seem to have 
thought economic freedom would be got with equal facility. We have had 
numerous instances of this on which it is unnecessary to dwell. Concessions have 
been made by whicTi, apparently, life was made much easier for certain people. 
But the fund out of which these concessions were to come has not been increased. 
Many of them, though not so intended, had the effect of positively lessening that 
total. In a perfect world it ought not to have had this effect, but, human nature 
being as it is, it was easy to foresee the result. It could have been foretold that 
a minimum wage established by law would sooner or later reduce the output of 
the man paid by piece. It had that effect on the coal miners at a vei-y early 
date after its enactment. 

The demand for higher wages without corresponding increased output was 
causing anxiety before the outbreak of war. The inordinate expenditure which 
the war brought with it seemed to justify the contention of the workmen that 
the claims they had put forward would easily have been met in the past and 
must be conceded when things became normal again. It was forgotten that 
all thought of economic production had ceased. We were living, not on the 
earnings of the year, but on credit raised on our expectations of the future. 
In the past this course was also pursued, but (as has already been pointed out) 
in very different circumstances, for the capital thua created was calculated to 
yield an adequate return to the persons interested. 

It is to be feared that the limitations imposed are not appreciated by those 
who will be most affected. The Legislature reduces hours from eight to seven in 
the coal mines. The miner claims that his earnings shall not suffer. Circum- 
stances make it difficult for him to get as much coal in seven hours as in eight 
even if he were willing. It is hard to see how we can escape the conclusion that 
the coal will cost more. The coal owner alleges that he is unable to pay the 
higher cost except by obtaining a higher price. 

None of the remedies proposed touches the difficulty. We must obtain a 
larger product if we are to have more to divide. Restrictions in output, whether 
produced by the act of the Legislature, the will of the worker or (let us add) 
the hindrance of a tariff, will fail to effect this. None of the short cuts now 
proposed will lead us to our goal. Can w'e convince those most deeply interested 
of the truth of this? The task is not an easy one, for promises without end 
are made tp accomplish what is desired without pursuing the patient and laborious 
course which alone can lead to a happy solution. For my part I rely on the 
common sense of my fellow countrymen. The speedy abolition of all" artificial 
prices by which we shall get to know the real cost of what we buy will be a 
great help. We may hope that on this will follow an earnest desire "on the part 
of all to do their best for the commonweal — convinced that on this intelligent 
altruism we are best serving our own ends. A better division of industrv would 
ensue. The net result would be a happy and contented nation, in which the 
efforts of each would be more guided by the common welfare than by the selfish 
desire for the advantage of the" individual. 



244 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 



Perhaps employers and employed alike will come to gee how greatly a strike 
ov lock-out militates against the true interests of both. Perhaps the employed 
will learn that the party in the State to which they belong suffers much more 
than a,ny other by these occurrences. Is it too sangiaine to hope that, as Pro- 
fessor Cannan says, we may drop ' the notion that trade is a kind of war, whereas 
it ought to be regarded as co-operation between friends, none the less friendly 
because they bargain and even haggle.' ^ 

None of these things can be accomplished by Acts of Parliament. Statutory 
prices and statutory hours offer no solution — rather increase the evil than lessen 
it. There is no Royal Road by which we can travel to a solution. We must by 
patience and mutual forbearance seek to alter the present hostile attitude. We 
may frankly accept Professor Cannan's opinion ' that the economic organisation 
of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries will not endure for ever, but will 
be gradually replaced by something else more suitable for its own day and 
genei'ation. ' " 

Let all parties in the State lend themselves to this change, in which again, to 
quote Professor Cannan : ' Free associations of free men able to go out and 
come in as each pleased, would voluntarily give service for service, irrespective 
of domicile and nationality.' This is a change which we may agree with him 
in thinking more ' desirable than any restoration of the feudal system basing 
economic organisation on the territory of the lord, even if the personal lord of 
the Middle Ages is replaced by a Parliament elected by universal suffrage and 
proportional representation.' ^ 



Public Expenditpre. 
Twelve Weeks before the Annislice. 



Feiiud 
Elided- 


- 


Supply 
Servici's 


Iiitore.st on 
War Debt 


■J\.tal 
Expenditure 




£ 


£ 


£ 


August 24 . 


40,375,000 


708,061 


41,473,661 


31 






51,!)39,848 


3,059,437 


55,109,201 


September 7 






44,130,000 


813,337 


45,098,309 


14 






50,317,042 


845,986 


51,526,856 


21 






40,070,000 


828,506 


42,119,686 


28 




42,402,700 


2,974,400 


46,780,500 


October 5 




38,190,000 


20,804,188 


61,410,931 


12 






36,105,554 


2,904,670 


39,729,851 


19 






49,319,000 


2,136.672 


51,755,672 


2G 






44,355,000 


887,398 


45,542,398 


November 2 






47,575,320 


1,218,924 


49,104,416 


9 






54,5G9,871 


920,003 


55,800,254 




539,949,341 


38,108,182 


585,517,795 



Coal NatitMinlisatioii. 



25. 



2 Ibid. 



2 Ihitl. 



PKESIDENTIAL ADDRKSS. 



245 



Txoelve Weeks After the Armistice- 



Period 
Ended— 


Supply 
Services 


Interest on 
War Debt 


Total 
Expenditure 


November 23 . 

30. 
De c.n or 7 . 

14. 

21 . 

31. 
January 4 . 

11 . 

18. 

25. 

February 1 . 

8. 




£ 
30,250,000 
39,413,243 
42,100,000 
42,459,404 
51,571,000 
60,256,704 
22,600,000 
26,141,098 
38,000,000 
31,847,000 
49,914,702 
41,625,296 


£ 

16,303,458 

819,929 

49,114,929 

6,322,606 

1,340,988 

2,705,130 

834,265 

1,098,690 

689,592 

573,109 

788,404 

1,097,589 


£ 
46,553,458 
40,428,336 
91,920,829 
49,224,649 
53,003,201 
64,517,390 
24,874,084 
28,294,788 
38,960,389 
32,420,109 
51,153,272 
42,733,265 


i 








564,083,770 



The following Papers were then read : 

1. The 'National Alliance of Employers and Employed. 
By the Eight Hon. F. Huth Jackson. 

In the autumn of 1916 a group of three employers and four trade unionists 
met to discuss the probable effect which war conditions would have on our 
industrial system. These seven men, realising the gravity of the problems 
which already were confronting the country, and visualising the still greater 
pioblems which the future had in store, took what was then the somewhat adven- 
turous step of initiating a movement whose whole foundation was ujiity of 
effort on the part of employers and trade unions on a basis of franluiess, com- 
radeship, and good-will. 

To that small and unpretentious gathering is to be traced, not only the 
National Alliance of Employers and Employed, which was the immediate result, 
■but the whole of the great movement towards co-operative effort which now 
promises to remould our industrial life and which recently led to the calling 
by the Govenmient of the National Industrial Conference, and the setting up 
of the National Joint Industrial Council. 

From the commencement we have realised that in industrial development 
there could be no middle course. The old enemies, Capital and Labour, had 
either to plunge into more bitter and more widespread strife or to discover 
a common ground on which they could get together and for themselves work 
out the lines of harmonious progress. In the face of innumerable difficulties, 
and in spite of misunderstandings and misrepresentations, the National Alliance 
has discovered that common ground, and to-day, in thirty of the most important 
industrial districts in the country, Joint Area Committees (on which, as on 
the central body, employers and trade unionists are represented in equal num- 
bers) are working in harmony and understanding, not only for the peaceful 
1919. X 



246 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

reorganisation of industry as such, but for the development of higher social 
conditions and the raising of the standards of life. 

This is just where the work of the National Alliance differs in extent from 
that of Whitley Committees, and even from that of the organisation to be 
set up in connection with the National Joint Industrial Council. We take 
the view that, essential though it may he, it is not sufficient for employers and 
employed in any one particular industry to co-operate merely for the improve- 
ment of the commercial and the working conditions in that industry. The 
wider problem is not solved merely by settling hours of labour, rates of pay, 
amounts of output, &c., and leaving such questions as the provision of healthy 
home surroundings, educational opportunities, recreational facilities, &c., to 
take care of themselves. The machinery of the National Alliance is designed 
not only to bring the employers and employed of a given industry together for 
the settlement of their own especial problems, but also to link up the employers 
and employed of all industries in a particular area in a joint endeavour to 
improve the general conditions in that area. 

The work which the National Alliance has taken in hand is a great and 
difficult one, but on its accomplishment depends the future of our country. 
The evil centuries of hatred and struggle between the forces of Capital and 
Labour have built high and wide their barriers of antagonism and dark mis- 
trust. They cannot be .swept away in a day, but the experience of the National 
Alliance has shown that on each side there is an increasing number of earnest, 
thoughtful, far-seeing men who are realising the errors of the past and who 
are willing to join in a great national fellowship for the security of the future. 



2. Price-fixing, with special reference to Aiistralian experience. 
By the Hon. Sir Chaeles G. Wade.^ 

The demand for fixing prices has arisen from two causes : — ■ 

1. The continuous rise in wages has led to a corresponding addition to the 
cost of production and the cost of living. This increase in turn has led to 
demands for still higher wages ; and so a vicious circle is established until at 
last the workers have demanded that whilst the right to further increases of 
wages shall not be curtailed a limit shall be placed upon the consequent 
cost of living. 

2. The dislocation, during the war, of manufacture and the means of trans- 
port, and the commandeering of m-aterial, created a scarcity in certain commodi- 
ties. The scarcity led to an increase in prices, and some commodities became 
the subject of a monopoly. 

Some people claimed that this rise in prices was but temporary, that the 
law of supply and demand would eventually adjust the trouble automatioally ; 
but where a commodity is ' cornered ' this is no answer, and some drastic measure 
of control is essential. Hence the claim for compulsory fixing of prices ; at 
all event.^ whilst the war lasted. 

This policy met with some success during the war, but must not be taken 
as a guide for peace conditions. 

During the war producers were less restive ; all classes were animated by 
patriotic feelings ; workers made greater efforts, the consumer submitted to 
hardships and high prices without much protest. Further, although maximum 
prices were fixed yet it is generally believed that they were fixed so l-.igh as 
to dissuade the profiteer from offering opposition. 

What would be the result in peace time where private gain is allowed to 
operate ? 

1. If the price fixed for any one commodity ceases to be profitable, the 
efforts of the producers will be directed into another channel whicli yields 
more. gain. Thus a real st^arcity may be created. 

1 See Sir C. G. Wade, ' Price Fixing by Law,' in Fortniahthi Review, 
November, 1919. & ^ > a j 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION b. '-ril7 

2. P\irther, if any one trade is controlled in re=;pect of prices the same rule 
must be applied to every link in the chain of production. Otherwise an excessive 
price of any one factor may unduly raise the cost of the whole. 

3. Again, investment of capital may be discouraged or capital sunk in 
existing operations may be withdrawn and placed on deposit. Thus a scarcity 
of commodities will be created. 

The flow of capital cannot bo controlled or the avenues of production be 
maintained on unprofitable lines under conditions of private enterprise. 

Logically, the only effective policy is for the State to control the channels 
of production and to give orders which must' be obeyed by producers. The 
State will own material and direct the channel and volume of production. 
This involves eventually the State control of all production, for if prices are 
fixed in Government-controlled establishments alone trade will be diverted 
to establishments that are privately owned. 

In the next place, if the S'tate is to avoid a glut in production and a loss 
to the taxpayer an estimate must be provided of all requirements ; but whilst 
the total estimate may be stated, the individual, from a variety of causes, may 
exceed the maximum production expected from him. This would seem to 
involve a further control of each individual's output, and if applied to one 
trade must be applied to all in any way dependent upon it. 

Thus we are forced into State Socialism and control of the means of pro- 
duction and distribution. 

Nationalisation is impracticable. Is such a huge Civil Service possible? 
Can production be regulated on sound business lines ? Can the management be 
freed from political pressure? Will it not lead to inefficiency of labour, reduced 
output, higher cost to the people, or losses to be made good by taxation ? 

The war experience in Great Britain in the direction of State control canjiot 
be taken as a safe precedent. Experience is against Governmental compulsory 
price-fixing. An attempt was made during the French Revolution, but the 
result was to divert production to more profitable channels, to create a real 
scarcity, and cause privation to the people. In a few years a loud demand was 
heard to abandon the policy of fixing prices. 

In New South Wales an effort was made in recent years to limit prices in 
respect of butter and wheat and hay. But the experience was the same as 
during the French Revolution A real scarcity was created, and the Govern- 
ment was compelled to make good the shortage by purchases from overseas at 
a price which was greatly in excess of the maximum previously fixed for the 
article. 

The true remedy lies in — 

1. Public investigation of the costs of and profits from operations which 
are suspected of profiteering, by means of a tribunal of investigation with com- 
pulsory powers of extracting information and giving full publicity to the 
inquiry. Trusts and profiteers abhor the daylight. The public would learn who 
are the offenders and the fear of exposure would compel all producers to bring 
their pric?A to a figure which can be .absolutely justified. 

2. If the tribunal reports the prices of a commodity are excessive, this 
shall by statute be deemed to^ be prima facie evidence of an offence, involving- a 
heavy fine The defendant would be entitled to acquittal provided he can 
show (1) that such figures were not in fact unreasonable, bearing in mind the 
claims of workers, employers, and the general public; and (2) that thev were 
not in fact detrimental to the public. 

In this way competition may continue on normal lines. Any attempt to 
corner commodities would be countered first of all by public investicration ; 
secondly, by public reprobation ; and, thirdly, by heavy penalties if the first two 
methods failed. The dangers of trade beincj diverted would not arise The 
experiments of State Socialism need not be risked 



X 2 



248 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 
The following Papers were read : — 
1. Industrial Councils and their Possibilities. By T. B. JohnstoIn, J. P. 



2. Transport Policy. By W. M. Acwokth.' 



3. The Value of Full and Accurate Statistics as shown under Emergency 
Conditions in the Transportation Service in France. By 
Lieut. -Col. Sir J. George Behaerell, D.S.O. 

Statistics have played a most important part in all our war activities. The 
intensive production, coupled with the highest efficiency, necessitated by war 
conditions, enforced the preparation of full and exact information. 

Output of material, capacity of works, rate of manufacture, and progress 
of the various processes had tc be carefully studied, _ so that all_ material 
came forward in balf.nced and adequate quantities. This was especially true 
of transportation operations in France. The requirements of the various com- 
ponents of track, rolling stock, workshop equipment, and personnel for all 
sections of the work had to be forecast and provided a considerable time 
ahead. 

War conditions precluded the application of the ordinary financial test of 
the success of operations, but the shortage of men and material compelled 
economy and efficiency. 

Transportation in France covered a variety of services : — 
The equipment and operation of ports. 
The provision and operation of craft for inland water transportation, and 

the construction and maintenance of necessary work on canals. 
The construction and operation of standard gauge, metre gauge, and 

60-centimetre railways. 
The construction and maintenance of roads and nmrs. 
The -working of quarries. 

With operations so diver.se. and scattered over such a wide and varying 
field, complete supervision by the Director-General of Transportation was only 
possible by making the fullest use of the science of statistics. 

The exceptional circumstances which prevailed rendered it imperative that 
statistics should be prepared quickly and given a wide and judicious circulation. 
In spite of the difficulties of communication over the wide area involved, it 
was possible to produce, not later than Tuesday evening, preliminary figures 
for the week ended midnight on the previous Friday, giving the result of th^ 
working of all services, i.e. four days for collection and compilation in respect 
to services extending from the ports at the base to light railways along the 
front. The circulation of statistics is most important; a considerable pro- 
portion of the success cau be attributed to the interest and spirit of emulation 
which they created. 

Under the new Transportation organisntion the Director-General determined 
the kind of transportation to be provided. The General Rta.ff communicated 
the plan of campaign, and the Director-General of Transportation decided — 
having regard to the available resources of men and material, and the traffic 
to be moved — whether new broad-gauge lines and railheads should be con- 
structed, what use should be made of canals and whether distribution by 
60-centimetre lines or lorries should be adopted. There was no hard-and-fast 
rule. 

Statistics for each branch of the Service will be considered in some detail. 
The following indicates the units of efficiency employed. Figures illustrating 
the improvements effected will be quoted. 

1 See National Beview, October, 1919. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 249 

Docks. 

Regulation of traflic to avoid congestion of quays, achieved by preparation 
of programme shoiwing : — 

Tonnage of various traffics to be dealt with. 

Proportion of each traffic allocated to each port. 

Circulation of weekly statistics showing how allocation had been worked to. 

Working of Ports. 

Tonnage discharged per hour in port. 
Tonnage handled per man per hour. 
Ship days lost. 

Broad Gauge Railways. 

Construction. 

Progress diagrams. 

Percentage of earthwork and track completed. 
Number of men employed. 

Comparison with rate of progress essential to completion of work in specified 
time. 

Operation 
Record of rolling stock available. 

Traffic working : — 

Kilometres per locomotive in steam per day. 

Hours per locomotive in steam per day. 

Number of loaded wagons per train. 

Average haul. 

Loaded wagon kilometres per effective persomiel employed. 

Fuel consumption. 

Wagon user : — 

Wagons standing under load at depots. 
Detention at railhead : — ■ 

Time before unloading. 

Time occupied in unloading. 

Time from completion of discharge to return of train. 

Repairs. 

Output of shops in relation t6 personnel employed. 

Reduction in percentage of locomotives and wagons out of traffic. 

Light Railways. 

Construction and Operation. 

Length of line. 

Men per mile of track maintained. 

Tons conveyed. 

Ton-miles worked. 

Power units in service per route mile. 

Wagon units in service per route mile. 

Ton-miles per power unit in service per day. 

Tons per wagon unit in service per day. 

Tons per loaded wagon unit trip. 

Average length of loaded wagon trip. 

Number of loaded wagon miles per route mile per day. 

Loaded wagon miles per effective personnel per day. 

Loaded wagon miles per power nnit in service per day. 

Loaded wagon mile« per wagon unit in service per day. 

Consumption of fuel. 



250 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION P. 

Repairs. 

Output of shops in relation to personnel employed. 

Reduction in percentage of locomotives and wagons out of traffic. 

Inland Waterways. 

Traffic handled. 
Tou-miles worked. 

Roads. 

Total mileage maintained by British Army. 
Area of new roads and cours constructed. 
Area of existing roads and cours reconstructed. 
Area of roads and rours re-surfaced. 
Material used and number of men employed. 
Plant : percentage under repair. 
Woi'king of quarries : — 

Total output. 

Output of stone per man. 
Working of lorries conveying road stone, etc. : Ton-miles per lony per day. 

Personnel Employed. 
Percentage skilled, unskilled, and non-effective. 



Joint Discussion with Section L on Business in relation to Education. 

See Section L, p. 355. 



THIJERDAY, SFA'T EMBER 11. 

Joint Meelinij wiUi. Section 1 and Siihseclion nf Vsycliology. 
See Section T, ]). 3()S. 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 
The following Reports and Papers were read : — 
]. lleport of Comviillee on Beplacenient of Men hy Women in Industry. 



2. Inter-imperial Conmunications. By Sir Charles Bright. 

The war has produced a shortage of communicating links with much tele- 
graphic congestion and resultant delays that need to be considered with a view 
to remedy. 

Moreover, the increased tendency and need of communicating with other 
branches of the Empire calls for special and early action in political and trade 
interests. 

The All-Red Cable Route requires to be rendered a complete reality as soon 
as maybe, including a new absolutely British Atlantic Cable and a duplication 
of the Imperial Pacific line, with satisfactory independent land line connection 
between the two. 

It is conceivable that national and imperial interests can only be adequately 
provided by the State controlling at least one complete cable to all points oi 
the British Empire, supplemented by an All-British Wireless Chain. The whole 
.sliould be run at a single and distinctly low imperial tariff, common to all and 
independent of distance. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION P. 251 

It is considerwl by the author that iiiterimi*erial comriiunication should be 
mainly regarded from the standpoint of 

1. Its political value; 

2. For defence purposes ; and 

3. As a means fur developing inter-iin[)erial trade and so helping to increase 
produittion. 

We require to note American cable and wireless enterprise in thie direction. 

The recently established Telegraph Communications J?oard, first urged by the 
author seventeen years ago. is intended for generally controlling and developing 
inter-iniperial telegraphic and aerial communication in national and public in- 
terests. By this scheme all of the several (lovernnient Departments concerned 
(strategic at^ well as civil) are rejaresented by delegates who meet periodically 
to discuss and settle all matters germane to the subject. This should do much 
towards improving the previously existing arrangements by which the Post 
Office alone represented the Ciovernment. 

Besides increased cable and wireless fat-ilities being necessary and the war 
devastations made good, it is highly desirable that improved methods of mes- 
sage condensation be introduced so as to get the best results from existing 
facilities. 

The field open to inter-imperial air communication is considerable; air 
organisation and air routes are among the important questions of the day, while 
the rationing of all aerial mail communications should be insisted upon.' 



3. The S])cri(il Tn.ralion of Biishiess I'rofih hi rclnilon In Hip PrrxenI 
Position of National Finance. By Dr. J. C. Stamp, C.B.E} 

On the present facts, permanent revenue on the existing basis will fail to 
meet the permanent expenditure by a large margin, variou.sly, estimated at from 
50 to 150 million pounds, and probably )iot actually, far from the latter figure. 
Three alternative ways of meeting thi.s deficit are presented : — (1) A substantial 
increase of income and supertax rates ; (2) a levy on capital ; (3) the taxation of 
business profits. The increase in income tax would entail either such rates 
on the higher incomes as might seriously hinder the accumulation of capital, or 
such a considerable addition to the burden upon working-class incomes as would 
make the proposition a serious one from a political point of view. The second 
contains such elements of difficulty as to make it probable that it would fail to 
commend itself as fair and just to more than a very small proportion of the 
payers — a serious outlook for any impost. Those economists -who support it do 
so distinctly upon the basis of a commutation of future high rates of income 
tax, but the proposal receives its main impetus from those M'ho for themselves 
give no guarantee either of non-repetition, or of a relaxation of future taxation, 
but rather indicate that they propo.=e to be free to impose high taxation for 
new social objects. Moreover, there is a failure to do justice as between people 
whose fortunes have changed, and injustices may arise through expedients to 
make the tax workable in practice, which so far has been an aspect but super- 
ficially dealt with. The levy would fall aiike upon well-gotten gains saved up 
as the result of pure thrift and the gains of profiteering. It would do nothing 
towards taking special toll of profiteering elements in future trading. Just as 
graduated taxation reaches the differences of ability to pay according to the 
(iwnnnt of individual income, so something is wanted to search out those classes 
of gain which serve no functional purpose in that they are a rental surplus the 
taxation of which has no evil effects upon supply. The plea that the stiffer 
taxation of higher incomes automatically achieves this is so often invalid as tx) 
be of little worth as a main principle. These gains must be ' tapped ' higher 
up the stream of distribution. The basis of the old Excess Profits Dutv was 
special ability of businesses measured by their success compared with their o\im 
past history before the war. This endowment of the successful would be unsuit- 
able for permanent application. But the method tried in the United States 
and Canada, suitably modified, has features of permanent value. It submits 

* See Economic Journal, December, 1919. 



252 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

businesses to a reasonable and fair general comparison. Graduated gently from 
the lower excess above a ' normal ' rate of interest on capital, it reaches a high 
rate upon very high rates of earnings on capital. Thus it does not discourage 
trade nor lead specially to evasion. Its practical difficulties are no greater than 
those attaching to the rival alternatives. Its basis of principle, though new, is 
clear : certain economic units through a fortunate set of circumstances get a 
special ' pull ' which yields supernormal profit, that has a high capacity for 
bearing taxation without ill-effects. It is an impersonal faculty, which has 
hitherto not been realised as a basis for taxation, in an attempt to reach more 
directly the differential non-functional elements in profit and income. 



^. The Gold Standard. By E. G. Hawteey. 

The monetary standard regulates the value of the monetary unit, or the 
unit for the measurement of debts. The function of the standard is to maintain 
the stability of the system of debts based on the unit, that is to say. to ensure 
that the unit represents approximately the same command over wealth throughout 
the currency of the debt. As the relative values of different kinds of wealth 
vary, an ideal standard is not theoretically possible. The gold standard is a 
rough and ready solution of the problem by fixing the price of one commodity. 
Debts are made payable in gold, or alternatively a paper currency is so regulated 
that the monetary unit is in fact equivalent to a prescribed quantity of gold. 

In 1914 the gold standard "was established neai'ly everywhere, except in 
China. Gold and credit were interchangeable. But this system has been 
destroyed by the war. Excessive creations of paper money and credit have 
depreciated the monetary units, have driven gold out of circulation, and have 
put an end to the interchangeability of credit and gold. During the war there 
has been no world market for gold ; now that the market is reviving in America, 
whither the superfluous gold displaced from circulation in Europe has flowed, 
the value of gold in commodities is found to have fallen heavily. The existence 
of large stocks of gold in use as currency, which may be released and flood 
the market, is a source of instability in the value of gold. In considering the 
future monetary standard, we have to deal both with the depreciation of 
existing monetary units in comparison with gold, and witb the loss of value 
of gold itself. 

To restore a depreciated unit to its nominal gold value requires a measure 
of deflation. Deflation, which is a reversal of the process of inflation, must 
mean a decrease in the aggregate of money incomes. This is effected by a 
contraction of credit, and especially by a high rate of interest on short-period 
borrowings. A high rate of interest deters traders from holding stocks of 
commodities or securities. It hastens sales and retards purchases, and brings 
about a fall of prices and a contraction in the volume of credit. The fear of 
the consequent depression of trade makes the business community hostile to 
any drastic measure of deflation, and unemployment and falling wages are 
likely to create further difficulties. 

Other methods of re-establishing a gold standard are. firsf, the immediate 
re-introduction of the old gold unit and the reduction of the current value of 
the depreciated paper below its face va'lue, or, secondly, the reduction of the gold 
value of the monetary unit below its former nominal value. The first gives rise 
to serious difficulties owing to the sudden increase in the buixlen of debts. Both 
methods are open to the imputation that public faith is not kept. 

If the use of goW as money is restored either by deflation or by a manipulation 
of the currency, the result may be a revival of the former demand for gold, 
which would intensify all the difficulties. In particular it would cause grave 
embarrassment by increasing the burden of national debts. If the embarrassments 
of any country become so severe that its credit system breaks down, the natural 
conseonence will be a rc'lapse into depreciation, and there may follow a complete 
loss of confidence in the paper currency and a disretrard of the lesra! tender laws. 
The resultintr demand for metallic cvirrency would raise the world value of gold 
in commodities, and threaten the geld standard elsewhere. 

To gain the advantages of an imvarying gold currency unit, the den-and for 
gold as currency must be kept as steady as possible. Tf the demand is not to 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 253 

increase, there must be a great economy in the use of gold as compared with 
what prevaile<l before the war. This can be managed by means of the gold 
exchange standard. But there must be .some method for preventing the economy 
of gold, which this system makes possible, from further diminishing the currency 
demand for gold. 

International co-operation is required, and this should be directed to 
stabilising the general level of prices as measured by index numbers, and to 
regulating the actual amount of note issue in each country. Provided the 
financia'lly strong countries are included the international co-operation need not 
be universal. It can be started as soon as the Anglo-American exchange can 
be brought to par. ■> 

5. Royal Commission on the Income Tax. Summary of Evidence 
suhnuttecl on belialf of the British Association by Sir Edward 
Brabbook, G.B. (Acting Chairman), and J. E. Allen, Hon. Sec. 
of Commiittees on ' Income Tax Reform ' and ' The Effects of the 
War on Credit, Currency and Finance.' 

The Committee on War Finance, in its Reports for 1916 and 1917, referred 
to Income Tax, and suggested certain improvements directed towards making 
it fairer and more productive. But the Committee thought that the question 
■was too large to be dealt with merely as one among several, and accordingly 
appointed a special Sub-Committee : 

' To consider and report upon possible amendments to the law relating to 
income tax.' 

The Sub-Committee prepared and circulated a Questionnaire and obtained 
opinions in reply from Accoimtants, Surveyors of Taxes, and others. 

The Sub-Committee drew up, in 1918, an Interim Report, a copy of which 
was sent to the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Secretary to the Treasury. 
The Committee has not arrived at a final Report, and therefore has not pre- 
sented one to the Credit, Currency, and Finance Committee. 

We are authorised to submit the following points as those on which there 
is a considerable amount of practical agreement in the Sub-Committee : 

1. That the Income Tax is the fairest, cheapest, and most productive of all 
possible taxes. ^ 

2. That the tax requires to be adjusted to the much-increased demand for 
Revenue. 

3. That it is indefinitely elastic and can be made to produce as much Revenue 
as the citizens as a body think iustifiatile. 

4. That if skilfully adjusted to the ' ability ' of each tax-payer it imposes 
little real burden. 

5. That a heavy Income Tax has a tendency to lower prices of commodities 
in general, just as an inflation of the currency increases them. 

6. That a graduated Incom.e Tax, unlike most (if not all) other taxes, makes 
for greater equality of spending power. 

7. That the symmetry and equity of the tax are marred by ' steps and 
jumps ' at arbitrary point.'? in the scale of graduation. 

8. That the tax should be intercepted at the time when the tax-payer receives 
his income. 

9. That the existing machinery of the tax should be preserved as far as 
possible, and that the most useful and inexpensive machine in the tax-collecting 
plant — 'collection at (or through) the source,' should be preserved and extended. 

10. We are inclined to suggest that the tax on salaries, wages, and other 
periodical payments should be deducted by the person making the payments, at 
the time of payment. 

11. That the employer or paymaster should he made the agent of the Inland 
Revenue in collecting the tax, and that he should be given some small remunera- 
tion for his trouble. 

* We assume, of course, the existence of a constitutional Government; a 
despotic Government might use the Income Tax as an instrument of oppression. 



254 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 

12. That tax should be deducted at the lowest ' earned ' rate from all wages 
and small salaries, and that in the case of regular payments such as wages or 
.salaries the tax-payer's abatement and allo-wances should be taken into account 
at the time of deduction. 

13. That in the case of ' unearned ' income, deductions should not be made 
at the liightst rate as at present, because only a small fraction of tax-payers 
are finally liable to pay this rate. 

14. That in all arrangements and re-arrangements in coiniection with Income 
Tax the convenience of the tax-payer should be consulted before that of the 
tax-collector. 

15. That the forms connected with assessment and collection should be stated 
in simple language, and that the tax-payer should be treated as a reasonable 
citizen who is willing to do his duty to the State when he knows what it is. 

16. That no concession which makes a tax fairer should be refused by a 
Finance Minister on the ground that ' he cannot afford it.' 

17. That all changes which make a tax system fairer make it more productive 
of Revenue. 

18. We have considered various scales of graduation, but in the absence of 
knowledge as to the resulting produce we are not prepared to make a recom- 
mendation. 

19. We think that any abatement which may be granted should be granted 
on all incomes whatever their amount. 

20. The Committee was not unanimous on the question of ' earned ' and 
'unearned' incomes, but was inclined to dislike this kind of 'differentiation.' 
In particular we could not see why the income from a man's own savings should 
be treated as 'unearned.' 



The following Paper was taken as read in the unavoidable absence of the 
author : — 

6. Unemployment in Eastern Canada. By G. E. Jackson. 

1. Ignorance of Canadian labour problems has in the past caused much avoid- 
able distress. Seasonal changes in climate disturb industry in Canada far more 
than in Engiland ; and Canadian business, organised with a view to progressive 
expansion, ad more labour and capital enter the country, may be dislocated 
when expansion ceases suddenly. 

2. Lines of development have been decided partly by the tariff, but are not 
consciously moulded otherwise. The tariff has stimulated city growth. Immi- 
grant farmers have also congregated in the cities, which before the war were 
considered disproportionately large. 

3. Municipalities liaviO attempted the relief of distress on no fixed principle, 
and in proportion as they give adequate relief attract from other cities their 
least desirabk jioor. Each is therefore tempted to .shirk the recurring problem 
by passing on to cities in the neighbourliood its penniless unemployed non- 
residents. In times of stagnant trade the lot of recent immigrante is especially 
hard. 

4. It was found that the proportion of unemployment among manufacturing 
operatives in Ontario, during the first half of 1914, was little less than 11%, 
and that the first effect of the war was a further decline in employment. 

5. Decisive figures for mines and transportation agencies were not then 
secured ; but the Federal Government now publishes a weekly statistical report 
on changes in the labour market, of considerable value. 

6. Only recently has the State attempted organisation of the labour market. 
Till 1,916 the foreign-born labourer was alternately helped and victimised by 
private employment agencies. Employment v.-is often found for skilled artisans 
by their trade unions. 

7. Since 1916 the Provincial Governments have instituted public employment 
agencies. Siibsidies are paid by the Dominior Govenxment, which co-oixlinatee 
exchanges by means of clearing houses. 

8. Organised labour has refrained in Eastern Canada from encouraging revo- 
lutionary social changes. At one time suspicious of attempts by Provincial 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION F. 255 

Governments to maintain employment exchanges, now it endorses their accom- 
plishment. It has for years condemned the private employment agencies, and 
is calling for their suppression. 

'9. Consistently believing that rhuch unemployment in Canada resiilts from 
disproportionate city growth, organised labour has also called for the State 
encouragement of land settlement, with financial aid and training. Recent 
federal (legislation is in accord with these demands. 

10. Although trade unions refuse to tolerate the coming of Asiatic labour, 
there is scant evidence of hostility to European immigration, on the ground that 
it causes unemploym.cnt. Nor is the view prevalent that it threatens the 
.standard of life of Canadian workers. Circumstances have altered so as largely 
to invalidate the premises on which Walker built his famous argument. 

11. Meanwhile, attention is directed in detail to methods of selecting and 
assimilating immigrants. Tliis is no longer a domestic, but has become an 
Imperial problem, in which, however, Canada finds her freedom of action limited 
by tlie ipraclical need of conforming to certain changes in American policy. 

12. The breathing space afforded by the war has enabled the Dominion 
to strengthen its immigration service. Nevertheless, the great burden of un- 
employment will fall on immigrants for many years to come. 



256 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION G, 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 
President of the Section. — Professor J. E. Petavel, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

'i'he President delivered the following Address : — 

During the last five years every resource of the Empire, moral, intellectual, 
and material, has been concentrated on une great task, now successfully achieved ; 
and the present pexiod marks the end of a gigantic military struggle and the 
beginning of a new social era. 

I. — Engineering and Science during the War. 

To summarise adequately the part played by engineering in the war would 
constitutes a task far beyond the power of the w^riter or the scope of the present 
address. Now, as in the past, the fate of nations in war or peace is primarily 
determined by moral, intellectual, and physical attributes ; but, under modern 
conditions, these forces can find efficient application, only through the agency 
of science and engineering. 

A large army depends for its subsistence and equipment on the combined 
effort of every branch of human activity ; and every productive industry, when 
organised on a large scale, is in turn dependent upon the engineer. 

Before the end of the war this country had become transfomied into one 
vast factory, every department of which required the services of trained engi- 
neers. Every member of this section has contributed his own share to the task, 
and our programme includes papers giving detailed accounts of several branches 
of the work. 

It is fitting, therefore, that I should restrict myself to a mere outline of 
some of the more outstanding facts : — 

The urgent necessity for an. output of munitions vastly in excess of any 
previous production made centralisation and standardisation ess^ential, and 
involved a complete revolution in workshop practice. The Ministry of Munition? 
was responsible for the formation of the required organisations, and guided 
the transformation of industrial conditions, and, when the dilution of .skilled 
labour became inevitable, the technical engineer designed the machinery and 
devised the methods which made efficient work possible. 

Credit is due to the Unionfi for the concessions made ; greater credit to the 
women for their enthusiastic response to the call and the steady output they 
maintained. 

Munitions. — The Ministry of Munitions was created in Tilay 1915, its early 
efforts being concentrated on the production of guns and shells. A year later 
the Ministry was in a position to meet the ever-increasing demands of the Army, 
and by 1918 a large reserve of munitions had been established, the expenditui-e 
being limited only by difficulties of transport at the Front. The maximum 
expenditure of ammunition was reached one day in October of that year, when 
900,000 shells, weighing 40.000 tons, were fired. The total number of guns 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 257 

manufactured during the war was 20,000, and over 200,000 machine guns had 
been delivered by November 1918. 

The Ministry of Munitions took charge also of the production of aircraft, 
which were liltimately turned out at the rate of 4,000 per month ; later the 
provision of motor transport was in addition placed under its control. Finally, 
our production of ' poison gas,' for which this Ministry was responsible, rose 
during the last few months of the war to several thousand tons a month, sufficient 
to make the Germans rue the day on vi^hich they had introduced this weapon 
into warfare. 

Among the inv^sntions which have had an influence on military operations I 
will mention only three as typical of three distinct classes : 

1 anks were first used in 1916. and the results produced were greatly enhanced 
by the surprise created, and consequent moral effect, but the idea of an armoured 
chariot is as old as organised warfare. The problem of constructing a vehicle 
which could travel across the trackless and shell-pitted district which extended 
between the two armies remained to be solved. In the light of the experience 
gainedi with various types of tractors ft was, however, clearly not insoluble, and 
credit is due to the man who had the courage to hazard a novel and important 
experiment. The resulting tank was the product of careful design and experi- 
ment, and the oiitcome of the co-operation of several engineers with special 
knowledge. Sound-ranging introduced the complex methods and delicate instru- 
ments of physical research into the trenches, and, against all precedents, proved 
them to be reliable and practical under the most adverse conditions. The 
Stokes g(un, on the other hand, superseded all other trench mortars by simplicity 
of design of manufacture and convenience in handling ; 20,000 of these guns were 
used during the war. 

Transport. — On "August 4, 1914, the Government assumed control of the 
railway systems in this country, but the working and management was left in the 
hands of the railway officials, and to them is due the smooth working of the lines 
during a long period of exceptional difficulty. British engineers, civil or military, 
liave been responsible for the transport through France, and during the last two 
years of the war large numbers of engines were sent across the Channel and 
miles of track v/as taken up in England and relaid in France. Road transport 
was organised on an unprecedented scale, and 100,000 new vehicles were de- 
livered. A network of narrow-gauge railways was can-led right up to the 
trenches, and numerous new roads, railway lines, and bridges construct-ed. Rail- 
way constniction formed an important factor in connection with the advances 
in Mesopotamia and Palestine; in the latter case the entire water supply had 
for a long period to be drawn from the Egyptian base through a specially laid 
pipe-line. 

In France and elsewhere the armies were primarily dependent upon sea 
transport for their food and equipment. This service, organised by the Navy, 
culminated in the unique effort which brought American troops at the rate of 
300,000 per month, and thus overbore the balance which for four years had 
been oscillating between defeat and victory. 

Among the notMble new departures the cross Channel train ferry and the 
portable steel bridges, principally of the Inglis type, should be specially 
mentioned. 

Navy. — At the outbreak of war the Nav>- was ill-prepared with regard to anti- 
submarine defence and mining. The influence of the submarine on naval warfare 
had been under-e.stimated, and mines were regarded as a somewhat discreditable 
means of destruction; but dining 1915 the depth-charge and the Paravane were 
developed bv the naval experimental department at Portsmouth, and later 
thousands of these were brought into use. In principle the depth charge consists 
of a canister containing a large charge of explosive and a pistol actuated by an 
hydrostatic valve. The merit of the invention resides in the simplicity, safety, 
and reliability of the mechanism. In designing the Paravane the iDodv was 
borrowed from a torpedo, and wings, rudder, and elevator from an aeroplane. 
The secret of the device lies in the stabilising mechanism, which enables it to 
keep its position when the ship is running at high speeds. The Paravane enabled 
most ships to pass unscathed through a mine-field, and in a slightly modified 
form it served to seek out and destroy submarines under the water. 

Sound location proved to be one of the most valuable inventions developed 



258 TRANSACTIOXS OF SECTION G. 

by the Board of Invention an'l Research. By its means tlie position 
of a submarine explosion off the coast of Belgium could be found within a few 
hundred yar<ls by observers on the Ensilisb. toast ; passing ships or submarines 
could also be identified and located. Sounfl ]ocator.= were also uised on board 
anti-submarine craft, but at the time of the aimistice were for this purpose 
being superseded by other methods. 

Mine construction, laying and sweeping formed the object of many successive 
improvements. Mines of special construction, which cannot be swept by ordinary 
means and which explode without actual contact, were used in large numbers in 
1918, and were particularly effective against submarines. Various new types 
of oscillating mines were also dtvelopecT. 

Many of the newer fighting units of the Navy were designed for speeds far 
in excess of anything that had been pi-eviously contemplated; the attainment 
of the required horse-power was rendered possible by improvements in boiler 
construction, by the development of oil-firing, and by the invention of the geared 
turbine. At the nresent time the horse-power of some of the fastest destroyers 
equals that of any pre-war Dreadnought. 

Numbers of strange craft were designed for special purposes. The monitor 
was used a? a floating fortress, and ships without funnels or masts formed 
cruising aerodromes. The torpe^do net was known to be ineffective as well as 
inconvenient, but some years elapsed before ships were rendered immune to 
torpedo attacks by a wide outer sheaf of resilient construction. Some protection 
was first given to mine-sweepers by fitting the vessels with a false prow ; the 
newer mine-rweepers were rendered nearly imsinkable by the provision of 
numerous bulkheads. The submarine was developed with regard to size, range, 
and speed. The latest and perhaps the strangest craft was the submarine fitted 
with a heavy calibre gun which could be fired when all but the muzzle was 
submerged. 

Aircraft. — The rapid progress and expansion of aeronautical science and 
construction is perhaps the most remarkable achievement of engineering during 
the war. 

In 1909 Bleribt flew the Channel. In 1910 Codv won the British Michelin 
OuD by a flight of 185 miles. The Uoyal Flying Corps was formed in 1912, 
and it was decided that the equipment should consist of seventy-two aeroplanes 
and two airships. The number of aeroplanes available in 1914 was under 200 ; 
the number ultimately required proved to be more than 3.000 per month. The 
aeroplanes which were sent out with the Expeditionarv' Force in 1914 had a 
maximum speed of some 80 miles per hour, a rate of climb at gi'ound level of 
300 or 400 ft. per minute ; thev were equipped with engines of 60 to 100 horse- 
power. In 1918 the fa^t jnachine had a maximum speed of 140 miles per hour, a 
rate of climb at sround level of 2.000 ft. per minute ; single-seaters were fitted 
with engines of 200 to 300 horse-power, and the largest machines were equipped 
with a power plant developing over 1,300 horse-power. The maximum heigh'; 
attainable had increased from 5,000 to 25.000 ft. 

The Atlantic flight has given the measure of the success aehievwl in the 
design of long-range bombing machine^s. Two types were evolved : the fast 
dav bomber, capable of carrying a useful load of about 3.000 lb. at a spee<l of 
130 miles an hour, and the night bomber with a larsrer load and slower speed. 
The largest aeroplane manufactured in numbers was the Handley Parrp V/1.500. 
with a weight of 11 tons and a |xiwer plant of 1.300 horse-power. Three davs 
befoi-e the armistice tv.'o of these machines stood fully equinped waiting for the 
order to start for Berlin. The largest bombs in use weighed over a ton, and 
during the war 8.000 tons of exnlosives were dropped on the enemy. The 
experience which they had gained in the construction of the high-powered engines 
required for airship work nroved to be a valuable asset for the Germans. Initially 
also their rate of production, both of aeroplanes and engines, was far superior 
to ours, and, faced with the menace of otherwise being for a period deprived of 
machine's, we were bound to continue the use of certain standardi.=ed types 
longer than was desirable. 

The lahonr difiicultv was ovprcome by the intT-oduction of a large proportion 
of female labour, which proved to be very suitable for aeroplane manufacture, 
and especially for wine: construction. The bulk production of aero-engines pre- 
sented grave difficulties. Evei-y part had to be made to close limits so as to 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 259 

be interchangeable, and ifc was necessary to maintain the highest quality with 
the minimum amount of skilled labour. For a period the supply of magnetos 
was both inadequate and unsatisfactory. The Germans had acquired practically 
a monopoly in this direction, and it became essential for us to build up a new 
industry on the results of careful research and experiment. The fact that under 
these circumstances a total of eight million horse-power was produced during the 
last twelve months of the war represents one of the greatest achievements of 
engineering organisation. 

Synchronised gun firing through the propeller was first brought into use by 
the enemy, and the success of the Fokker was due, not to superior design, but 
to this characteristic armament and to the relatively high engine power. On the 
other hand, throughout the war the only stable machines were British. For 
observation work, night flying, and flight in fog and cloud the advantages of 
a stable machine are obvious. On the other hand, in.^tability, inasmuch as it 
favours rapid and unexpected manoauvres, was for a time regarded as an advan- 
tage in aerial fighting, but later experience proved that a well-designed aeroplane 
could be made stable and yet remain quick and light on the controls. 

Seaworthiness, no less than air-worthiness, is requiretl of the seaplane, and 
this implies a machine of considerable size and weight. Most of the best sea- 
planes in use in 1918 had a total weight of four or five tons each, a speed of nearly 
100 miles, and engines of about 700 horse-power. 

The machines used by the special aeroplane ships were principally small fast 
scouts, but one type was of sufficient size to carry an 18 in. torpedo. In 1918 
seventy aeroplanes were carried by the fleet as part of the regular equipment. 

Airships proved to be of great importance in connection with naval work. 
The smaller non-rigids were used for patrol duty along the coast and convoy 
service, and by their- means a submarine could be detected and attacked while 
still at a considerable distance below the surface. The success achieved w^as 
extensive, and ships convoyed by airslrips were practically immune from sub- 
marine attack. The larger non-rigids served as scouts in naval operations. 

The SSZ had a speed of 50 miles and a gross lift of about 2 tons ; the North 
Sea type a lift of 11 tons and a speed of 60 miles. 

Compared with the achievements in other directions the record of British 
work in connection with the development of rigid airships is not entirely satis- 
factory. In this fi.eld, where consistent policy and firmness of purpose were 
essential, the Admiralty vacillated strangely. The May-fly, constructed at 
Barrow in 1910, was admittedly an experiment, and although an accident ended 
her career after the first few mooring tests, she had already served her purpose 
in providing the experience and data necessary for a more perfect construction. 
Nothing further was done, however, until after the war had started. 

In Germany, on the other hand, painstaking plodding had built up success 
on the ruins of a dozen failures. 

Improvements in the rate of climb of aeroplanes and the invention of the 
incendiary bullet brought an end to the effectiveness of the Zeppelin as a bomber, 
but as a scout in long range naval operations its influence remained considerable. 
and the recent successful journey of R34 indicates the possibilities of the rigid 
airship in times of peace. The useful load increases rapidly with size, and a 
ship 15 per cent, larger than E34 in linear dimensions could have carried 
100 people to America. 

What is popularly known as an invention, or an idea of revolutionary im- 
portance emanating from one person, has played relatively little part in the 
recent development of aeronautics. Success has been due to systematic investi- 
gation and to the combined effort of many scientific workers, trained designers, 
and practical constructors. With some exceptions the same holds true in the 
case of engine construction. Inventions there have been, 8,000 are duly recorded 
in the files of the Air Inventions Committee, but equipment and armament and 
accessories appear to have offered most scope for brilliant new departures. 

Several inventions notably influenced the course of the war. The successful 
manufacture of incendiary bullets put an end to the Zeppelin raids, tracer bullets 
increased the accuracy of aim, and synchronising gear made it possible to fire 
through the propeller at the rate of nearly 1,000 ixjundg per minute. A satisfac- 
tory self -sealing petrol tank was manufactured after many unsuccessful attempts, 
and greatly dinn'nished tlie risk- of fire. j\f n( h ingeiuiity was displayed in con- 



260 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION G. 

nection v;ith tomb sighting and navigational instruments. Wireless telephone 
and directional wireless were introduced. A reliable turn indicator and im- 
proved compass made accurate navigation through clouds possible. Armoured 
aeroplanes were constructed ; special machines were also designed for carrying 
37 mm. quick-firing guns for use at the Front and ag-ainst submaa'ines ; these 
guns fired a I5 lb. high explosive shell. 

The increased efficiency of the anti-aircraft artillery and the high rate of 
climb of the defending machines put a check on daylight aeroplane raids, while 
at night and in mist both searchlights and guns could be trained on the enemy 
even if invisible by means of sound directors. A screen of kite-balloons sup- 
porting nets formed part of th? night defences of London, and justified its 
existence by the moral effect produced on the enemy pilots. 

The use of airships near the fighting zone or within reach of enemy aeroplanes 
was impossible owing to the inflammable nature of the gas they contained, and 
in spite of all precautions the loss in kite-balloons was serious. The proposal to 
replace the hydrogen by helium came from a member of the Board of Invention 
and Research, and in 1915 experiments were started with a view to the ultimate 
production of several million cubic feet per month. The boldness of the idea 
is best emphasised by the fact that at that time it took weeks to obtain the few 
cubic inches of gas required for the preliminary permeability tests. Progress 
w-as accelerated when i^merica came into the war, and at the time of the 
armistice a supply of 350,000 cubic feet per week was ensured. 

The above outline of engineering activities during the war is both incomplete 
and imperfect. It may, however, sei've to emphasise and illustrate the two 
features vrhich characterised the period and made victory possible. 

The first is : Large production, obtained by organisation, standardisation, 
and co-operation. 

The second is : Rapid progi'ess resulting from the stimulus to research and 
invention and the immediate application of the result,- obtained. 

The required organisation did not arise as a natural development of the pre- 
war industrial activity : it was called into being by dire necessity and applied 
with grim determination. Before the war the British nation ■was anti-militarist, 
non-scientific, and strongly individualistic. To achieve victory the nation 
accepted universal conscription, and submitted to the mixture of Socialism and 
tyranny which necessity dictated. Under extreme pressure, scientific knowledge, 
technical skill, industrial ability, military and naval experience welded into a 
homogeneous and efficient organisation. 

It is easy to disparage the effort or to point to defects, large or small, which 
tarnish the record, but the fact remains that, whereas in 1914 we were inferior to 
the enemy in every military asset except moral courage, in 1918 victory came as 
the result of masteiy in practically all the thousand factors on which modern 
warfare depends. 

The organisation involved the direct control of food, every essential raw 
material, shipping, and transport; further, under the cloak of various euphem- 
isms, it involved the indirect control of all available capital and labour. The 
capitalist was granted the privilege of receiving and paying the interest on the 
money required. High wages and the Military Conscription Act ensured an 
axlequate supply of labour in the factories. And these things came to pass, not 
by tyrannical order of an all-powerful Government, but by the force of a great 
idea working within the nation. 



//. — Industrial and Economic Recoimti iicfion. 

The peace declaration is the opening of a new act in the world's greatest 
drama, and the events of the next few years will decide the fate of many 
generations. The future is always the logical sequence of the past ; it is the 
present which gives direction to the forces which are acting in virtue of the 
ideals which are operative. The world is emerging from a furnace, and the 
rigid constitution of civilisation, for a moment plastic, will harden in the 
mould we form. It is, therefore, the duty of each one of us to attempt to 
understand the transfoiimation which is going on, and influence it in the right 
direction. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 261 

The principal feature of the day is the insistent craving for better and 
easier conditions of life ; in popular language this is quite inaccurately expressed 
by a demand for higher wages and less work. The two aims are far from 
identical ; in fact, a little consideration will show that in some respects they 
are contradictory. 

The total remuneration received by a nation is measured by its production, 
and this law cannot be alterated or affected by legislation or revolution. On 
the other hand, the share received by a class or an individual is capable of 
adjustment within certain limits. Thus any class may increase its remuneration 
either by increasing the total production or by decreasing the remuneration 
received by the other classes. The capitalist who corners wheat, and the miner 
who corners coal, are examples of the latter method. No such limitations exist, 
however, with regard to the face value of the wages paid ; by Act of Parliament 
all wages might be increased arbitrarily twentyfold, but as a result the cost 
of living would rise in a similar ratio. 

Incalculable harm has been done by ignorance and wilful misrepresentation. 
During a generation the working classes have been told, and have firmly believed, 
that they receive but a tithe of the value of their work, and that the bulk goes 
to swell the fortune of the capitalistic class. The actual facts so far as engineer- 
ing is concerned will be found in the address of my predecessor in this chair. 
On an average in pre-war days the share of the capitalist was one-ninth that 
of the workman. The actual position with regard to coal is now known to all. 
For each ton raised 19s. Sg^. goes for labour and a total of 2s. is paid as 
royalties, owners' profits, and owners' compensation. It is obvious that the 
13s. rise in the miner's wages cannot be paid out of profits and royalties 
amounting to a total of 2s., but the miner, who has been brought up to believe 
in the fabulous profits of the wicked duke, is quite ready to strike against the 
owners, the Government, and the laws of arithmetic. 

These facts, though clearly established, are not easily credited by the working 
man ; he may have received a penny for what he considers is the manufacture 
of an article and sees it selling for a shilling in a shop. He forgets that the 
. price must include, not only his wage, but that of the men in the mine, the 
smelting works, and the rolling mill, who provided the material in the shape 
required, the wages of the men who built the factory in which he works and 
made the machine he uses, the wages of transport workers, packers, shop assis- 
tants, advertising agents, printer, paperm.akers, etc., and that, finally, some 
minute fraction of a farthing might with justice be allotted to the engineer 
who designed the machine or invented the process. The general position, though 
similar, cannot, unfortunately, be followed so closely ; the limitations, however, 
are clear. The income of the United Kingdom per head of the population was 
before the war about 50?. If, therefore, the State were run on completely com- 
munistic lines, and if under these conditions there were no reduction either in 
the working hours or the output our wages would average a sovereign a week 
each, and we could buy our goods at pre-war prices. i 

The above considerations indicate that a real improvement in material welfare 
is necessarily associated with increased production. The needs of mankind are 
many, its desires are unlimited, and for this reason general over-production need 
never arise. Many circumstances may, however, lead to uneven balance', and 
unfortunately, when this occurs, the "producers of the commodity which is in 
excess are penalised, and those responsible for a deficiency are rewarded. The 
instability is fostered and increased by speculation, and, although it forms the 
most powerful check on national prosperity, no serious effort has yet been made 
to apply a remedy. 

I am inclined to think that two of the most important problems of our time 
relate to economic balance and increased production. The solution in the former 
case is dependent on the statesman, the economist, and the business man, in the 
latter on the combined efforts of various branches of applied science, and more 
especially on engineering. 

At oije time production was directly dependent on muscular effort ; it is now 
mainly influenced by equipment, organisation, and skill. Increased production 

1 This statement is optimistic in so far as it does not take account of war 
losses. 

1919. V 



262 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION G. 

does not necessarily imply harder work or longer hours ; it can be secured by 
improvements in method and machinery, but only with the willing co-operation 
of all concerned. 

Before the v, ar the Americans were far ahead of us in standardisation and 
specialised machinery. The American clock and the Ford car are two well-known 
examples. During the war we adopted and developed these methods. As a 
result, although the cost of all materials increased considerably, although the 
wages more than doubled and the profits were more than adequate, the cost was 
in (many cases reduced. Thus the eighteen pounder shell fell from 22«. to 12s., 
the Lewis gun from 1651. to 621. The importance of standardisation has been 
fully realised by the manufacturei'S of this country, and as a result we may 
hope to see a general reduction in cost. 

The economic value of an individual depends exclusively on the nature, 
quality, and quantity of his output, and his remuneration should correspond to 
his economic value. The rule is simple, its application would solve most of the 
problems which vex tha present generation, but no schem.e has yet been evolved 
to make its application possible. 

There can be no doubt that in this respect our present system is a complete 
failure. It has been built up casually in the course of the industrial warfare 
of the last twenty years, and each side, regardless of consequences, has entrenched 
itself in any position won. The result is a system nearly perfect from the 
point of view of offence and defence, well arranged for mutual destruction, but, 
like the trenches in France, unsuitable for use in time of peace. 

The minimum wage is beneficial in so far as it prevents sweating, but in two 
other respects its consequences are most unfortunate. Under the operation of 
this rule the man whose value is a fraction below the minimum is unemployed and 
economically unemployable. Farther, the minimum wage becomes the standard 
wage, and the better men are inadequately paid. Both causes lead to decreased 
production. The weaker or less skilful men drift into enforced idleness, and 
became a charge to the community under the heading of charity, poor-law, or 
some newly invented euphemism. The better men, finding extra effort uncom- 
pensated, drop to an ever-decreasing minimum. Small output is in most cases 
the result of inadequate incentive rather than active restriction. Promotion by 
seniority is an example of a similar cause, producing similar effects in other 
classes of the community. 

Among the professional and business classes the remuneration is proportional 
to the skill and to the effort; a barrister, an engineer, or a merchant has neither 
minimum wage nor fixed maximum output, and, the vagaries of chance excepted, 
generally speaking gets what he is worth. At the two extremes stand riches 
and starvation, and the economic world can offer no stronger motive forces than 
the allurements of the one, the fear of the other. There is no absolute reason 
why the working man .should not be offered the same incentives to hard work 
and progress, but up to the present most efforts have tended in the opposite 
direction. Any form of payment by result is viewed with indifference or distrust 
by the Unions, and past experience with piece work explains that attitude. 
There has been a disposition for employers to make large individual earnings an 
excuse for cutting rates. Errors in rate fixing may easily arise, and in certain 
cases special investigation might be necessary, but the advantages of high indi- 
vidual production are so great to both employer and employed that in all cases 
of doubt the higher rate should be maintained. In this connection the method 
of time-study first developed by Taylor in America and the various systems of 
payment by results which have been successfully applied deserve careful 
consideration. 

Another important but difficult subject is the distinction drawn between 
skilled and unskilled labour. The experience gained during the war has proved 
that many operations scheduled as skilled work could be effectively performed 
by w^omon who had only received a few weeks' special instruction. The oft- 
repeated demand for equal opportunity for all becomes a senseless parrot cry if 
it does not imply that an individual has the right to undertake better remunerated 
work if qualified to do so. It is a misconception which leads the skilled worker 
to believe that such a concession would reduce his earnings. Just as it is clear 
that if labourers and skilled men were grouped together at a uniform wage, that 
wage would necessarily be lower than the present minimum for skilled work, 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 263 

so also the separation of tasks which require but a nominal period of training 
would increase the rate of remuneration available for the really skilled man. 

I have drawn attention to some of the difficulties which must be solved if 
the country is to emerge from the present crisis prosperous or even solvent. 
There is little doubt that an elucidation is possible, but it can only be evolved 
by the honest and intelligent collaboration of all parties concerned, a task 
rendered difficult or impossible by mutual distrust and class hatred. Class 
differences there are, and always will he ; they exist as the result of breeding, 
education, and environment, but they do not extend to the fundamental 
characteristics of humanity. Many dukes and m.any miners arc lazy ; most 
capitalists and most trade unionists are greedy; all men, with a few exceptions, 
are selfish. The war has shown that lazy, greedy, and selfish men will die 
or even work for their country in a great exigency, but there is a limit to and 
a reaction after any profound emotional stimulus, and the present unrest and 
dissatisfaction are but normal symptoms. A satisfactory e^^^onomic system can 
only be based on natural human impulses, and of these the most fundamental 
is self-preservation, or, more generally, self-interest. Increased production is 
at the pre.'ient moment the most pressing national nee<l, but it will become 
effective only when for every man increased production becomes the talisman 
by which /n's paper wages can be turned to gold. 



The following- Keport was then received : — 
Report on Complex Stress Distribution. — See Reports, p. 465. 



In the afternoon a Sectional Visit was paid to the Tramways Genterating 
Station. 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 
The following Papers were read : — 

1. Account oj the British Tanks used in the War. 
By Sir Eustace Tennyson D'Eyncourt, K.C.B.^ 

The paper began with a brief account of the earlier history of tanks and 
inventions leading up to the idea of the use of taiiks. 

It then showed how, owing to the fact that the war had become one of 
position, it became necessary to devise some means of breaking through the 
enemy lines, and the idea of machines which could cross trenches and destroy 
machine-gun positions and other defences presented itself very strongly to 
many who were thinking of the tactics to be devised -with this in view. 

The use of armoured cars by the Royal Naval Air Service led some officers 
of that Service to bring the matter before the First Lord of the Admiralty, 
Mr. Churchill, who took up the idea and established a Landship Committee at 
the Admiralty to investigate the question of building landships. 

The Committee carried out many experiments, some Avith tractors of agricul- 
tural type obtained from the United States and other devices which finally 
led to the War Office laying down certain requirements; which had to be 
embodied in the design of a machine-gun destroyer. 

The design was worked out concurrently with other experiments, and finally 
'Mother Tank' was built fo fulfil the War Office requirements, and went 
through its trials early in 1915. 

After this further tanks were ordered, and the paper described the various 
types and the considerations which led up to their adoption, giving the technical 
details. ,....., .... . .■ - 

^Mentfon was made of the actions in which the different tanks were used, 

1 See Enr/ineering , Sept. 12, 1919. p. 334. 

Y 2 



264 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION G, 

and reference was made to the anti-tank devices used by the enemy. Reference 
was also made to the tanks made by the French, and also to the few that were 
made by the. Germans as a reply. 

There was a section referring to the tactics of tanks and general considera- 
tions from a tactical and strategical point of view. 

The paper concluded with a reference- to the fact that the British engmeers 
were able to introduce a new engine of war in advance of anything which the 
enemy had been able to devise, and that in this advance British engineers 
kept ahead to the end of the war, the importance of maintaining this position 
being emphasised. 

2. Portable Military Bridges. By Professor C. E. Inglis.^ 



3 Development of Geared Turbines for the Propulsion of Ships. 

By E. J. Walker.^ 

Although the successful application of the steam turbine to marine propulsion 
dates back to the year 1897, when Sir Charles Parsons demonstrated in that 
now historical vessel, the Turbinia, the great advantages of the turbine system 
when applied to the propulsion of ships, it is only within the last few years 
that mechanical gearing has been largely adopted in association with steam 
turbines. 

The author dealt with the application of the steam turbine when directly 
connected to the propeller shaft both in war and mercantile vessels of high 
and moderate speeds. 

The chief governing factors in marine steam turbine design are those of 
economy, weight, and first cost, and it was found in actual practice that the 
problem of applying the turbine direct to the propeller was satisfactorily solved 
to fvlfil these conditions for vessels of about 18-knots speed and upwards. 

Up to the year 1909 the steam turbine had not been applied to vessels of 
slow and intermediate speeds, with the exception, in a few instances, of the 
combination of reciprocating engines with a low-pressure turbine. 

In view of the success obtained by Dr. De Laval, of Stockholm, with helical 
gearing in connection with his turbine for land purposes for powers up to about 
60O b.h.p., Sir Charles Parsons decided to test turbines mechanically geared 
to the screw shaft in a typical cargo vessel, and in 1901 experiments were 
carried out, the results of which fully demonstrated the suitability of mechanical 
gearing for the propulsion of ships. 

Several forms of gearing have been proposed, such as electrical, hydraulic, 
and mechanical. Electrical and hydraulic transmission gears have been fitted 
in a few ships, but the greater majority have been fitted with mechanical 
gearing. 

Although gearing was primarily introduced to widen the field of operation 
of the turbine by its adoption for vessels of low speed, it was quickly recog- 
nised that increased efficiency in fast vessels could be obtained by means of 
reduction gearing. 

The author referred to the progress that has been made in the application 
of mechanical gearing for both war and merchant ships, and the advantages 
that have accrued by its adoption. Vessels have been put into commis- 
sion with installations of geared turbines of 100,000 horse-power each, 
the horse-power actually transmitted through a single gear being 25,000, and 
the power through a single pinion reaching 15,500 shaft-horse-power. 

At the present time the total number of vessels with geared turbines for 
war and commercial vessels built and under construction is 818, corresponding 
to a total shaft-horse-power of sixteen millions. 

The increased efficiency that has been effected since the earlier days of the 
ffieam turbine; the measures taken to produce quiet running gears; the advance 

- See Engineering, Sept. 26, 1919, p. 408. 
3 gee Engineering, Sept. 19, 1919, p. 386. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION G. 265 

made in the design of gears; the introduction of double reduction gears; main- 
tenance of efficiency and economy under long continued service as the result 
of actual experience; and the application of geared turbines for land purposes 
were all dealt with by the author. 

In tlie afternoon a Sectional Visit was paid to Christchurch R.E. Training 
Uamp, when a demonstration of bridge-construction was given. 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 
The following Papers were read : — 

1. Airships. By Wing-Commander T. E. Cave-Browne-Cave, C.B.E.^ 

The paper is intended to set out the present difficulties in development 
and the lines along which future research is required. 

The principal diiiicuxty experienced with tJie use of airships in ti-opical 
climates is the deterioration of the strength and gastightness of the fabric 
under the action of light. The gastightness of the bags of a rigid ship is 
obtained by goldbeater's skin, the supply of which is very limited, and a 
sut>stitute of equal gastightness and low weight is badly wanted. 

AA\ important function of the outer cover of a rigid ship is to reflect as 
much as possible of the light and heat which falls upon it. This is necessary 
in order to reduce the superheating of the gas to a temperature above that 
of the surrounding air, thereby causing a false lift, which decreases as soon 
as the intensity of radiant fieat is reduced. 

The reinforcement of non-rigid envelopes is discussed. It is suggested that 
fabric, which is usually of equal strength in both warp and weft directions, 
shou.d be reinforced by circumterentiai bands of string tape, wh.ch will supply 
the excess of tiie circumferential tension over the longitudinal tension. 

Attention is drawn to the relative unimportance of permeability to hydro- 
gen as compared with ability to resist the passage of air into the gas space, 
as air wh.ch has leaked in can only be eliminated by the discharge of large 
quantities of gas. 

The importance of being able to take weight into the ship during flight to 
compensate for superheating or for petrol consumed is discussed. 

ii,xperiments nave been made in using hydrogen as supplementary fuel. 
It is found that tne use of hydrogen alone causes excessive detonation, but by 
suitably proportioning the mixtures of hydrogen and petrol, satisfactory 
running can be oDtained, and very considerable economy of fuel achieved. 

Attention is drawn to the much greater relative importance of fuel economy 
than engine weignt, which obtains in an airship by reason of the much greater 
duration of flight. The need of accessibility and ease of repair during flight 
are discussed, and also various minor aspects in which the ideal airship 
engine differs from that of the aeroplane. 

The desirability of having a propeller of variable pitch and one capable 
of sufficient variation to produce reverse thrust is discussed. 

Attention is urawn to the necessity of obtaining some method of deter- 
mining the height of an airship by means other than barometric pressure, so 
that the reading of the barometer at a point on the ground below the airship 
can be taken for meteorological purposes. 

Attention is drawn to the improved ratio of weight carried to fuel expended, 
which results from increased size. It is shown that the limitation to the 
size of a rigid airship is set by the diameter of cross-section, which is pos- 
sible in view of the lateral pressure of the gasbags when unequally inflated 
In the case of a non-rigid ship without effective tran.<;verse bulkheads, the 

1 See Engineering, Sept. 12, 1919, p. 356. 



266