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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 



REPORT 



OF THE 



NINETY-THIRD MEETING 

(NINETY-FIFTH YEAR) 




SOUTHAMPTON— 1925 

AUGUST 26-SEPTEMBER 2 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, IV. J 

1926 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Officers and Council, 1925-26 v 

Local Officers, Southampton, 1925 vii 

Sections and Sectional Officers, Southampton, 1925) vii 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1925) x 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1924-25). . xiv 

British Association Exhibitions xviii 

General Meetings, Public Lectures, etc., at Southampton ........ xix 

General Treasurer's Account (1924-25) xxi 

Research Committees (1925-26) xxvi 

Caird Fund xxxi 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Southampton Meeting) xxxi 

The Presidential Address : By Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 1 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

A. — The New Ideas in Meteorology. By Dr. G. C. Simpson, F.R.S. . . 15 

B.— The Chemistry of Solids. By Prof. C. H. Desch, F.R.S 30 

C— Cultural Aspects in Geology. By Prof. W. A. Parks 55 

D, — Organic Evolution : Facts and Theories. By C. Tate Regan, 

F.R.S 75 

E.— The Science and Art of Map-making. By A. R. Hinks, C.B.E., 

F.R.S 87 

F. — The Meaning of Wages. By Miss Lynda Grier 101 

G. Fifty Years' Evolution in Naval Architecture, etc. By Sir A. 

Denny 114 

H.— Practical Engineering in Ancient Rome. By Dr. T. AsnBY 134 

I.— Physiological Basis of Athletic Records. By Prof. A. V. Hill, 

F.R.S 15 6 

J.— Some Issues in the Theory of " G." By Prof. C. Spearman, 

F.R.S 1™ 

a2 



j v CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



K. — The Phseophycese and their Problems. By Prof. J. Lloyd 

Williams 182 

L.— The Warp and Woof in Education. By W. W. Vaughan, M.V.O. 197 

M. — The Mineral Elements in Animal Nutrition. By Dr. J. B. Orr. . 204 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 216 

Sectional Transactions 297 

References to Publication of Communications to the Sections .... 388 

Aeronautical Problems of the Past and of the Future: Evening 

Discourse. By R. V. Southwell, F.R.S 395 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 418 

List of Papers, 1925, on Zoology, Botany, and Prehistoric 

Archeology of the British Isles. By T. Sheppard 421 

Appendix to Sectional Transactions 483 

Index 485 



gritislj |Usariatt0u for !I u ^bbanmneni 

nf Stitnct. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1925-26. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 

Professor Horace Lamb, Sc.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT FOR THE OXFORD MEETING. 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR THE SOUTHAMPTON MEETING. 



H.R.H. Princess Beatrice (Governor 

and Captain-General of the Isle of 

Wight). 
The Lord -Lieutenant of the County 

of Hants (Major-Gen. the Rt. Hon. 

J. E. B. Seeley, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., 

T.D., M.P.). 
His Worship the Mayor of Southamp- 
ton (Alderman T. McDonnell). 
The Lord Bishop of Winchester (the 

Rt. Rev. F. T. Woods, D.D.). 
The Lord Bishop of Portsmouth (the 

Rt. Rev. W. T. Cotter). 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Swaythling. 
Lord Apsley, D.S.O., M.C., M.P. 
Col. E. K. Perkins,C.B.E.,V.D.,M.P.,D.L. 
Brig. -Gen. the Rt. Hon. Lord Montagu 

of Beaulieu, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., F.Z.S., 

V.D., D.L. 



Sir George A. Cooper, Bart., V.D., 

D.L. 
Lieut. -Col. Wilfrid W. Ashley, M.P., 

D.L. 
Sir Wyndham Portal, Bart., F.S.A., 

D.L. 
The President of the University 

College of Southampton (C. G. 

Montefiore, M.A., D.D.). 
The Principal of the University 

College of Southampton (Kenneth 

H. Vickers, M.A.). 
The Dibector-General of the Ord- 
nance Survey (Col. E. M. Jack, 

C.M.G., D.S.O.). 
Col. Sir C. F. Close, K.B.E., C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT FOR THE OXFORD MEETING.* 



The Lord-Lieutenant of the County 

of Oxford (His Grace the Duke of 

Marlborough, K.G.). 
The Chancellor of the University of 

Oxford (Rt. Hon. Viscount Cave, 

G.C.M.G., P.C., D.C.L.). 
The Lord Bishop of Oxford (the 

Rt. Rev. T. B. Strong, G.B.E., 

D.D.). 
The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity (Joseph Wells, M.A., Warden 

of Wadham College). 
The Rt. Worshipful the Mayor of Oxford. 
The Rt. Hon. Viscount Valentia, 

K.C.V.O. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Saye and Sele, J.P. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Christ 

Church (Very Rev. H. J. White, D.D.). 

* Appointed by the General Cornmitt 
additions made by the Council, November, 



Sir Arthur Evans, D.Litt., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Charles Sherrington, O.M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Herbert Warren, K.C.V.O., D.C.L. 

(President of Magdalen College). 
Sir W. Buchanan Riddell, Bart., M.A. 

(Principal of Hertford College). 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
The Principal of University College, 

Reading (W. M. Childs, M.A.). 
G. C. Bourne, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Alderman G. Claridge Druce, D.Sc. 
J. F. Mason, M.P. 
Mrs. G. Herbert Morrell. 
T. H. Rose, J.P. 
Vernon James Watney, M.A., F.S.A. 

ee at the Southampton Meeting, with 
1925. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
E. H. Griffiths, Sc.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



Professor J. L. Myees, O.B.E., M.A., 
D.Sc, F.S.A., F.B.A. 



F. E. Smith, C.B.E., F.R.S. 



SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. Howaeth, O.B.E., M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE OXFORD MEETING. 

Dr. F. A. Dixey, F.R.S. ; Brig.-Gen. H. Hartley ; 
A. C. Cameeon. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE OXFORD MEETING. 
B. Rowland Jones. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. W. H. AsHWOETH, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. W. Aston, F.R.S. 

Ernest Barker. 

Sir W. H. Beveeidge, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Loed Bledisloe, K.B.E. 

Prof. A. L. Bowley. 

Prof. E. G. Cokee, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Dalby. F.R.S. 

Dr. H. H. Dale. F.R.S. 

Prof. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. 

E. N. Fallaize. 

Sir J. S. Flett, K.B.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. Fleuee. 



Sir R. A. Geegory. 

Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S. 

Sir T. H. Holland, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, C.B.E., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S. 
Prof. T. P. Nunn. 
Prof. A. W. Porter, F.R.S. 
Prof. A. 0. Rankin e. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Prof. A. Smithells, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
A. G. Tansley, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present 
General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past Assistant General Secretaries, and 
the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the Annual Meetings immediately 
past and ensuing. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 



Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Sir Arthur Evans, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.. 
F.S.A. 



Hon. Sir Charles A. Parsons, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Balfour, O.M., Sir Aethue Schustee, F.R.S. 

F.R.S. 
Sir E. Ray Lankestee, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir J. J. Thompson, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir E. Shaepey Schafer, F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S. 



Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 

Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, G.B.E., 

Pres.R.S. 
Prof. Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. 
Major-Gen. Sir D. Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Sir E. Shaepey Schafee, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Gaeson. 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Professor H. H. Tuener, F.R.S. 



Professor A. Bowley. 



HON. AUDITORS. 

I Professor A. W. Kirkaldy. 



Vll 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE SOUTHAMPTON MEETING. 

CHAIRMAN OF GENERAL AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES. 

His Worship the Mayor of Southampton 

(Alderman T. McDonnell). 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 

R. C. Anderson, M.A., F.S.A. | W. Rae Sherriffs, M.A., D.Sc. 
F. Woolley, F.S.A.A. 

LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 
J. Reynolds Hole. 



SECTIONS & SECTIONAL OFFICERS, 1925. 

A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — Dr. G. C. Simpson, F.R.S. 

Vice-President. — Prof. A. 0. Rankine. 

Recorder. — Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 

Secretaries.— M. A. Giblett ; W. M. H. Greaves ; Prof. E. H. Neville. 

Local Secretary.— Prof. H. Stansfield. 

B.— CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Prof. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir Robert Robertson, K.B.E., F.R.S. ; Prof. J. F. Thorpe, 

C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Dr. N. V. Sidgwick, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Dr. H. McCombie. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. C. G. Egerton. 
Local Secretary. — F. J. Smith. 

C— GEOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. W. A. Parks. 
Vice-Presidents.— G. W. Chlenutt ; Mrs. E. Reid ; Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. : 

Osborne White. 
Recorder.— Prof. W. T. Gordon. 
Secretary. — I. S. Double. 
Local Secretary.— H. J. Beeston. 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 

President.— C. Tate Regan, F.R.S. 
Vice-President.— Dr. J. W. Heslop Harrison. 
Recorder. — F. Balfour Browne. 
Secretary.— Prof. W. J. Dakin. 
Local Secretary.— Mrs. 0. H. T. Rishbeth. 



v jij OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1925. 

E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— A. R. Hinks, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Col. Sir Charles Close, K.B.E., C.M.G., F.R.S. ; Dr. G. G. 

Chisholm ; Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. ; Col.-Commdt. E. M. Jack, C.M.G., 

D.S.O. ; Col. D. Mills. 
Recorder. — Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown. 
Secretaries. — W. H. Barker ; F. Debenham. 
Local Secretary. — Miss F. Miller. 

F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Miss Lynda Grier. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. L. Bowley ; F. C. Carter ; Harry Parsons. 

Recorder. — R. B. Forrester. 

Secretary. — K. G. Fenelon. 

Local Secretary. — A. Scholfield. 

G.— ENGINEERING. 

President. — Sir Archibald Denny, Bart. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. G. W. 0. Howe ; F. E. Wentworth Sheilds ; A. W. 

Szlumper ; Sir J. I. Thornycroet, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. F. C. Lea. 
Secretaries. — Prof. G. Cook ; J. S. Wilson. 
Local Secretary. — Prof. J. Eustice. ' 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. T. Ashby. 

Vice-Presidents. — E. N. Fallaize ; Prof. A. Loir ; E. T. Nicolle ; Dr. F. C. 

Shrubsall. 
Recorder. — Prof. H. J. Fleure. 

Secretaries. — L. H. Dudley Buxton ; Miss R. M. Fleming. 
Local Secretary. — F. J. Burnett. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 
President.— Prof. A. V. Hill, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Dr. H. H. Dale, C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Prof. J. C. Drummond ; Prof. 

C. Lovatt Evans ; Dr. R. A. Lyster ; Prof. R. A. Peters. 
Recorder. — Dr. J. H. Burn. 
Secretary. — B. A. McSwiney. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. G. S. Farquharson. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. C. Spearman, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Prof. F. Aveling ; Dr. W. Brown ; Prof. A. A. Cock ; Prof. T. H. 

Pear. 
Recorder. — Dr. Ll. Wynn Jones. 

Secretaries. — R. J. Bartlett ; Dr. Shepherd Dawson. 
Local Secretary. — Miss E. M. Ricks. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS. 1925. j x 

K.— BOTANY. 

President. — Prof. J. Lloyd Williams, University College, Aberystwyth. 

V ice-Presidents.— Prof. V. H. Blackman, F.R.S. ; Prof . F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ; Sir 

Hugh Murray, CLE. (Sub-section of Forestry) ; Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ; 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — F. T. Brooks. 
Secretaries. — Dr. A. W. Borthwick (Sub-section of Forestry) ; Dr. W. Robinson ; 

Prof. J. McLean Thompson. 
Local Secretary. — Miss F. M. Loader. 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Dr. W. W. Vaughan. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir Robert Blair ; Mr. Ernest Barker ; Miss E. R. Conway ; 
Mrs. J. A. Green ; Sir Richard Gregory ; F. Hemmings ; Dr. M. W. Keatinge. 
Recorder. — C. E. Browne. 

Secretaries. — Dr. Lilian J. Clarke ; A. E. Heath. 
Local Secretary. — Miss M. J. Steel. 



M.— AGRICULTURE . 
President. — Dr. J. B. Orr. 
Vice-Presidents. — Sir Robert Greig ; Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Rt. Hon. 

the Earl of Northbrook ; Sir John Russell, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — C. G. T. Morison. 

Secretaries. — T. S. Dymond ; Dr. G. Scott Robertson. 
Local Secretary. — Principal L. G. Troup. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27.. 

1832, June 19.. 

1833, June 25 .. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10., 

1836, Aug. 22.. 

1837, Sept. 11.. 

1838, Aug. 10 .. 

1839, Aug. 26 ., 

1840, Sept. 17., 

1841, July 20 ., 

1842, June 23., 

1843, Aug. 17., 

1844, Sept. 26 ., 

1845, June 19. 

1846, Sept. 10., 

1847, June 23 . 

1848, Aug. 9 . 

1849, Sept. 12 . 

1860, July 21 . 

1861, July 2.... 

1862, Sept. 1 . 

1853, Sept. 3 . 

1854, Sept. 20 . 

1855, Sept. 12 . 

1856, Aug. 6 . 
1867, Aug. 26 . 

1858, Sept. 22 . 

1859, Sept. 14. 

1860, June 27 . 



Where held 



Presidents 



Old Life 
Members 



1861, Sept. 4 i Manchester 

1862, Oct. 1 i Cambridge 



1863, Aug. 26 . 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .., 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 .., 
1868,Aug. 19.. 
1869, Aug. 18... 
1870,Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 . 

1873, Sept. 17 . 

1874, Aug. 19.. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15.. 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20.. 

1880, Aug. 25 .. 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 .. 

1884, Aug. 27 .. 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 .. 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 
189S,Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 . 

1899, Sept. 13. 



York Viscount Miltou, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Oxford The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

Cambridge The Rev. A: Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Edinburgh Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 

Dublin The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 

Bristol The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S.... 

Liverpool The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

Newcastle-on-Tyne... The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 

Birmingham The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 

Glasgow The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

Plymouth The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

Manchester The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

Cork The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

York The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 

Cambridge Sir John F. W.Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 

Southampton Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., F.R.S. 

Oxford Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 

Swansea TheMarquis of Northampton.Pres.R.S. 

Birmingham The Rev. T. R.Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Edinburgh Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

Ipswich G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Belfast Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

Hull William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Liverpool The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

Glasgow The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Cheltenham Prof. O. G. B.Daubenv, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dublin The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Leeds Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

Aberdeen H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

Oxford The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S , 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.. F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ., 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. ., 

I A. O. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

York I Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ., 

Southampton : Dr. 0. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Southport J Prof. A. Oayley, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Montreal ' Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Aberdeen ! Sir Lyon Playfair, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Birmingham Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Manchester Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Bath Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Newcastle-ou-Tyne I Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S. 

Leeds | Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S 

Cardiff Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Edinburgh Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Nottingham Prof. J. S. Burdon Sauderson, F.R.S 

Oxford The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 

Ipswich Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Liverpool Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. 

Toronto Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Bristol Sir W. Orookes, F.R.S. I 

Dover Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 



Newcastle-on-Tyne... 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea ; 



169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 

184 

144 

272 

178 

203 

235 

225 

314 

428 

266 

277 

259 

189 

280 

201 

327 

214 

330 

120 

281 

296 



36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 
8 
19 
20 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

[Continued on p. xii. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XI 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

















Amouii' 




Sums paid 






Old 
Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


receivec 

for 
Tickets 




on account 
of Grants 


Ytar 




Members 


Members 








— 


for Scientific 
Purposes 












— 


— 


— 


363 


— 


1831 







— . 


— 


— 


— 





— 




— 


1832 







_ 


— 


— 


_ 


900 


_ 




— 


1833 




— _ 








— 


— 


1298 


— 




£20 


1834 













— 


— 


. — 


— 




167 


1835 













— 


— 


1350 


— 




435 


1836 













— 


— 


1840 


— 




922 12 6 


1837 







— 





1100* 


— 


2400 


— 




932 2 2 


1838 







— 





— 


34 


1438 


— 




1595 11 


1839 







— 





— 


40 


1353 


— 




1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 





60» 


— 


891 







1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33j 


331» 


28 


1315 


_ 




1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 


— 


160 


— 


— 


— 




1565 10 2 


1843 




46 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 




981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


36 


1079 


— 




831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


_ 




685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


— 




208 5 4 


1847 




64 


25 


376 


197 


16 


819 


£707 





275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 





159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 





345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 





391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 





304 6 7 


1852 




66 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 





205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


624 


10 


1802 


1882 





380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


643 


26 


2133 


2311 





480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1116 


1098 





734 13 9 


1856 




166 


120 


900 


669 


26 


2022 


2015 





507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


609 


13 


1698 


1931 





618 18 2 


1853 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 





684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 





766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 





1111 5 10 


1861 




160 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 





1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 





1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 





1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 





1691 7 10 


1865 




218 


106 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 





1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 





1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45J 


2004 


2042 





1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 





1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 





1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 





1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 





1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 





1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 





1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 





960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


26 


2774 


3023 





1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 





1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 





725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 





1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 





731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 





476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 





1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 





1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26 & 60 H.J 


1777 


1855 





1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 





1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2463 


2532 





995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 





1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 





1511 6 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 





1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 





789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 





1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 





864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 





907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 





583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 





977 15 6 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 





1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 





1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 





1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 





1430 14 2 


1899 



X Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 

[Continued on p. xiii. 



Xll 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


Old Life 
Members 


1900, Sept. 5 

1901, Sept. 11 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept. 9 

1904, Aug. 17 

1905, Aug. 16 

1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 

1908, Sept. 2 

1909, Aug. 25 

1910, Aug. 31 

1911, Aug. 30 

1912, Sept. 4 

1913, Sept. 10 

1914, July-Sept... 

1915, Sept. 7 

1916, Sept. 5 
1917 

1918 

1919, Sept. 9 

1920, Aug. 24 

1921, Sept. 7 

1922, Sept. 6 

1923, Sept. 12 

1924, Aug. 6 .. .. 

1925, Aug. 26 




Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, SecR.S. . . . 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., P.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonnev, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof.E. A. Schafer, F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S j 

Hon. Sir 0. Parsons, K.O.B., F.R.S... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir T. E. Thorpe, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir C. S. Sherrington, G.B.E , 

Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S. 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 


267 


Glasgow 


310 


Belfast 


243 


Southport 


250 


Cambridge 


419 


South Africa 


115 


York 


322 


Leicester 


276 


Dublin 


294 


Winnipeg 

Portsmouth 


117 
293 

284 
288 


Birmingham 


376 


Manchester 

Newcastle-on Tyue... 

(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 


172 
242 
164 


Bournemouth 


235 


Cardiff 


288 


Edinburgh 


336 


Hull 




Liverpool 

Toronto 


228 

326 
119 


Southampton .. 


280 



Sew Life 
Members 



13 
37 
21 
21 
32 
40 
10 
19 
24 
13 
26 
21 
14 
40 
13 
19 
12 



47 



11 

9 



13 



12 

7 
8 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Xlll 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 





Old 

Annual 


New 

Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

for 

Tickets 

£1801 


Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 


Year 




Members 


Members 








for Scientific 
Purposes 

£1072 10 


1900 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 




374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2016 


920 9 11 


1901 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


815 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 




937' 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 




339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 




465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 1157 18 8 


1908 




29U 3 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 1014 9 9 


1909 




379 


57 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 




349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 




368 


95 


1292 


359 


88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 




480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


264* 


2756 


978 17 1 


1913 




139 


41 60' 1 


539" 


— 


21 


504 4 a 


4873 


1861 18 4" 


1914 




287 


116 


628' 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 


1569 2 8 


1915 




250 


76 


251* 


73 


— 


826 


821 


985 18 10 


1916 




— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


677 17 2 


1917 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


326 13 3 


1918 




254 


102 


688* 


153 


3 


1482 


1736 


410 


1919 






Annual Members 




1 




Old 
Annua] 






Transfer- 
able 

Tickets 


Students' 






















Regular 
Members 


Meeting 
and 


Meeting 


Tickets 
















Report 


only 


















136 


192 


571 


42 


120 


20 


1380 


1272 10 1251 13 0" 


1920 




133 


410 


1394 


121 


343 


22 


2768 


2599 15 518 1 10 


1921 




90 


294 


757 


89 


235 s 


24 


1730 


1689 5 772 7 


1922 












Compli- 




















mentary. 










123 


38U 


1434 


163 


550 


308' 


3296 


2735 15 777 18 6» 


1923 


37 


520 


1866 


41 


89 


139 


2818 


3165 19 ,0 1197 5 9 


1924 




97 


264 


878 


62 


11!) 


74 


1782 


1630 6 1231 


1925 



1 Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

2 Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

3 Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association Francaise at Le Havre. 

• Including Students' Tickets, 10s. 

• Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 

" Including grants from the (Mrd Fund in this and subsequent years. 
' Including Foreign Guests, Exhibitioners, and others. 

■ The Bournemouth Fund for Research, initiated by Sir 0. Parsons, enabled grants on accouut of 
scientific purposes to be maintained. 

• Including grants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years. 

10 Subscriptions paid in Canada were $5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some 
gain on exchange. 



XIV 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1924-25. 



I. In March 1925 the Council learned, with deep satisfaction, that 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., F.R.S., would permit himself to be 
nominated as President of the Association for the year 1926-27 (Oxford 
Meeting). The Council, under Rule I, 3, summoned a special meeting 
of the General Committee to receive the nomination on March 6, when 
the Committee unanimously resolved, by acclamation, to invite His Royal 
Highness to this office, which he was graciously pleased to accept. 

II. The Council have had to deplore the loss by death of Sir Archibald 
Geikie (President, 1892) ; of Mr. William Whitaker (who gave freely of 
his services to the Association for many years as a member of the Council, 
with the Corresponding Societies Committee, and as an office-bearer in 
the geological section) ; of Dr. Willett G. Miller, of Toronto (to whose 
helf> the success of the recent visit to Canada was largely due, .and who 
had been appointed to preside over the geological section at Southampton) ; 
and of Sir Edward Thorpe (President, 1921). The Association has also 
lost during the past year an unusual number of other former office-bearers 
and warm supporters, including Lord Abercromby, Sir W. Acworth, Mr. 
W. W. Rouse Ball, Sir W. F. Barrett, Sir W. M. Bayliss, Sir G. T. Beilby, 
Mr. J. Bolton, Rev. A. L. Cortie, S.J., Mr. W. Dale, Prof. A. Dendy, Prof. 
C. D. Liveing. 

III. The congratulations of the Council were offered to Sir Ernest 
Rutherford, ex-President, on his receiving the high honour of the Order 
of Merit. 

IV. Representatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follows : — 

National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics 

(as from January 1, 1925) .... Professor H. H. Turner. 

American Association for the Advancement of 

Science, Washington Meeting .... Professor E. W. Brown, Pro- 
fessor J. P. McMurrich. 
Leeds University, coming-of-age, and jubilee of 

Yorkshire College Sir H. Rew, Professor H. H. 

Turner. 
Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions, 

inquiry into technical education . . . Sir R. Blair, Mr. C. E. Browne. 

Committee on the preceding .... Sir R. Blair, Professor A. 

Smithells. 
North Staffordshire Field Club, Jubilee Meeting . Professor P. G. H. Boswell. 
International Conference on use of Esperanto in 

Science, Paris Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 

Congress of Spanish and Portuguese societies for 

the Advancement of Science, Coimbra . . Sefior la Rica. 

Research vessel Discovery, official luncheon, 

Portsmouth Mr. C. Tate Regan. 

Association frangaise pour l'Avancement des 

Sciences, Grenoble Dr. J. G. Garson. 

The Council have appointed Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell to be a governor 
of the Marine Biological Association, Plymouth, in the room of the late 
Sir William Herdman. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1924-25. XV 

V. Following upon the Toronto Meeting, the Council have to thank 
the Royal Institution for an invitation which resulted in a most enjoyable 
and valuable meeting between members of the Institution and of the 
Association on December 17, 1924. An exhibition was arranged of 
photographs taken and specimens collected by members of the Associa- 
tion in Canada ; short lectures were given by Sir John Russell and Prof. 
W. W. Watts on special aspects of the Toronto Meeting and the trans- 
continental excursion which took place after it, and a portion of the 
Ontario Government cinema film made during the visit was shown, and 
was explained by Sir Thomas Holland. 

VI. Resolutions referred by the General Committee at the Toronto 
Meeting to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, were 
dealt with as follows : — 

(a) The Council submitted to H.M. Government and to the Universities 
Bureau the proposal that in any scheme for applying funds from the Boxer 
Indemnity to the provision of further facilities for higher education and 
research in China, account should be taken of the urgent need for education 
and research in geographical, economic, and social conditions. This 
proposal was supplemented by a reasoned statement, to which H.M. 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs promised that full consideration 
should be given. (Resolutions of Sections E, F, H, and L.) 

(b) Following upon discussion with representatives of the National 
Research Council (U.S.A.) on the subject of an international abstracting 
service for biological sciences, resolutions expressing general approval, in 
principle, of establishing such a service were received from Sections 
C, D, H, I, J, K, and M. The Council, on learning that a committee of the 
Royal Society was considering this matter, placed at that committee's 
disposal the information in possession of the Association. 

Other resolutions, referred to the Council by organising sectional 
committees during the year, were dealt with as follows : — 

(c) The Council commended to the consideration of the Ontario 
Government the support of the researches undertaken by the depart- 
ment of zoology in the University of Toronto on freshwater fisheries in 
Ontario. (Organising Committee of Section D.) 

(d) The Council, after inquiry, found that no action could usefully be 
taken with a view to preventing the closing of the Marine Biological 
Station at Little Abaco, Bahamas. (Organising Committee of Section D.) 

(e) The Council referred to Section D, and to the Committee on 
Zoological Bibliography and Publication, a protest against the curtail- 
ment of distribution of scientific publications by Government departments, 
etc., with especial reference to zoological publications. 

(/) The Council forwarded to the Board of Education a request 
received from the Committee on Geography Teaching, through the 
Organising Committee of Section E, that the Board should prepare and 
issue suggestions on the teaching of geography, etc. 

(g) The Council forwarded to the Department of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research a proposal that the five reports on Colloid Chemistry, 
published on behalf of the Association by the Department through 
H.M. Stationery Office, should be re-edited and re-issued in a single 
volume. 



XVI REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 19J4-25. 

(h) The Council received from the Organising Committees of Sections 
A and B a resolution expressing the hope that the Council would see its 
way to include German men of science in the list of foreign guests for the 
Southampton Meeting. The Council, after full consideration, found it 
inexpedient to take action on this resolution. 

VII. The Council welcomed a proposal that a fund should be collected 
by voluntary contribution from members who attended the Toronto 
Meeting from Great Britain, etc., for the purpose of making a presentation 
to the University of Toronto in commemoration of the meeting. The 
fund so collected amounted to £196. It was decided, after consultation 
with Sir Robert Falconer, President of the University, to propose to 
the University that the income from the fund should be applied to the 
presentation of two bronze medals each year, to selected students in 
pure and applied science respectively, and that any available balance 
should be expended upon presents of books to the students. 

VIII. The Council circulated an appeal to agricultural and kindred 
societies and institutions in Great Britain to exchange their publications 
more freely with similar institutions in North America. 

IX. The Council received from some of the Corresponding Societies 
information as to demands made upon them for the payment of income 
tax upon revenue from invested funds, which had previously been 
exempted from taxation, coupled with requests that the Association should 
take action to avert these demands. The Association itself, when claiming 
the refund of taxation as usual in 1924, was informed that, while its claim 
was then allowed, future exemption might be reconsidered. The Council 
instituted a wide inquiry of corresponding and other societies, which 
revealed that such demands were being made unsystematically, and that 
the payment of tax would in many instances cripple the resources and work 
of the societies. The Council received co-operation and support from 
many quarters, and especially from the Society of Antiquaries, which 
instituted an inquiry of societies in union with itself. After full considera- 
tion by a committee of the Council and the officers of the Association and 
the Society, a deputation representative of both bodies and a number of 
other institutions waited upon the Financial Secretary to the Treasury, 
who sympathetically received a statement of the present and former 
positions of the societies with reference to taxation, and specific proposals 
for their exemption in future. Discussion followed between a committee 
of the deputation and the Chairman and other officers of the Inland 
Revenue, with regard to a possible definition of societies which should 
be exempted. H.M. Treasury, however, subsequently proposed that an 
agreed test case should be carried to the Courts, the costs, independently 
of the decision, to fall upon the public funds ; and the Council, for their 
part, agreed to this course. 

X. The Council, when appointing sectional recorders and secretaries 
for the Southampton Meeting, brought into operation a standing order 
that members of the Association should not, in general, hold either of 
these offices for a period exceeding five years (excluding, however, the 
year of an overseas meeting). 

XL The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His accounts have been audited and are presented 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1924-25. 



XVII 



to the General Committee. The Council made the following grants to 

research committees from the Caird Fund : — 

Seismology Committee ..... £100 

Tables of Constants Committee .... 5 

Naples Table Committee 100 

Plymouth Marine Laboratory Committee . . 25 

Zoological Record Committee .... 50 

Bronze Implements Committee .... 100 

Solar Physics Observatory in Australia . . 50 

The grant of £250 from the Caird Gift for research in radio-activity 
for the year ending March 24, 1926, has been divided between Mr. P. M. S. 
Blackett, Dr. J. Chadwick and Dr. J. S. Russell. 

XII. The Corresponding Societies Committee has been nominated as 
follows : the President of the Association {Chairman ex-qfficio), Mr. T. 
Sheppard (V ice-Chairman), the General Treasurer, the General Secretaries, 
Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, Prof. P. F. Kendall, Mr. Mark 
L. Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney, Prof. W. W. Watts. 

XIII. The retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are : Prof. A. 
Fowler, Sir J. S. Keltie, Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, Mr. J. Barcroft, Prof. A. C. 
Seward. 

The Council have received with much regret the resignation of Prof. 
A. C. Seward, who has been unavoidably prevented by other duties from 
attendance at Council meetings. 

The Council nominate the following new members : — 

Professor A. L. Bowley, Dr. H. H. Dale, 

Professor A. O. Rankine, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : — 



Professor J. H. Ashworth. 
Dr. F. W. Aston. 
Dr. E. Barker. 
Sir W. H. Beveridge. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe. 
Professor A. L. Bowley. 
Professor E. G. Coker. 
Professor W. Dalby. 
Dr. H. H. Dale. 
Professor C. H. Desch. 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize. 



Professor H. J. Fleure. 
Sir Daniel Hall. 
Mr. C. T. Heycock. 
Sir T. H. Holland. 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 
Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Professor A. W. Porter. 
Professor A. O. Rankine. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Professor A. Smithells. 
Mr. A. G. Tansley. 



Sir J. S. Flett. 

XIV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as 
follows :— 

General Treasurer, Dr. E. H. Griffiths. 

General Secretaries, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. F. E. Smith. 

XV. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : — 

Dr. Cyril Fox. Professor J. Y. Simpson. 

Dr. F. A. Potts. Dr. A. E. Trueman. 

Professor D. M. S. Watson. 

XVI. The Council recommend the following changes in the Rules, viz. : — 

(1) To add new Rule, Chap. VII, no. 6— 

No gift, bonus, dividend, or division in money shall be made out of the funds of the 
Association, to or between any of its members. 



xviii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1924-25. 

(2) To add new Kule, Chap. VIII, no. 4— 

The Council, in consultation with the Local Executive Committee of the Association 
for the Annual Meeting, shall provide evening or other lectures during the meeting, 
to which the public, other than members of the Association, shall be admitted free, 
and shall appoint lecturers for this purpose, having regard to the scientific and 
educational needs and interests of the place of meeting and its neighbourhood. 

(3) To amend Rule II, 1 (i, a) as italicised— 

1, The General Committee shall be constituted of the following persons, being 
members of the Association : — 
(i) Permanent members — 

(a) Past and present members of the Council, past and present presidents of 
the Sections, and Eecorders of Sections on retirement. 

(4) To amend Rule II, 2 (i) as italicised — 

(i) Claims for admission to Permanent Membership (of the General Committee) 
must be lodged . . . one month before the Annual Meeting, either by claimants themselves 
or by Eecorders on behalf of Sectional Organising Committees desiring to make recommend- 
ations for admission. 

(5) To amend Rule IX, 6— 

The Sectional Committee shall nominate . . . not more than six of its own members 
to be members of an Organising Committee. . . . 
to read — 

The Sectional Committee shall nominate . . . not more than six members of the 
Association to be members of an Organising Committee. . . . 

XVII. The Council at their meeting on June 5, 1925, were informed by 
the General Treasurer that he had the opportunity of acquiring a number 
of Vanity Fair cartoons of former presidents of the Association, and he 
invited and received subscriptions from the members present towards the 
cost of purchasing and framing these cartoons, to be hung in the Council 
room. 

Subsequently Miss A. Airy, grand-daughter of the late Sir G. B. Airy, 
presented to the Association a fine set of lithograph portraits made in 
connection with the Ipswich Meeting in 1851 (when Airy was President), 
a number of which are being framed. The thanks of the Council for this 
kind gift were conveyed to Miss Airy. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION EXHIBITIONS. 

For the Southampton Meeting, British Association Exhibitions 
(referred to in § IX. of the Report of the Council, 1922-23) were awarded 
to seventeen students nominated by the same number of universities and 
colleges. Their travelling expenses (railway fares) were met by the 
Association, which also issued complimentary students' tickets of mem- 
bership to them ; they were entertained in Southampton by the Local 
Executive Committee. Eight of the universities or colleges allowed 
expenses for twenty-seven additional exhibitioners, while five selected 
students from Liverpool received grants for the same purpose out of a 
fund formed from the surplus of the moneys collected for the local fund 
in connection with the Liverpool Meeting, 1923. The exhibitioners were 
enabled to meet the President and General Officers. One of their num- 
ber (Mr. K. K. Law, University College, Nottingham) was elected 
secretary for the purpose of communication by the exhibitioners as a 
body with the general officers. 



GENERAL MEETINGS, PUBLIC LECTURES, &c. XIX 

GENERAL MEETINGS, ETC., 
IN SOUTHAMPTON. 

Inaugural General Meeting. 

The Inaugural General Meeting took place in the Central Hall on 
Wednesday, August 26, at 8.30 p.m., when Major-General Sir David 
Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S., resigned the office of President of the Association 
to Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S., who delivered an address (for which 
see p. 1). 

Evening Discourse. 

Mr. R. V. Southwell : ' Aeronautical Problems of the Past and of the 
Future.' 8 p.m... August 28, Central Hall. (See p. 395.) 

Citizens' Lectures. 

Major A. G. Church : ' Science and the East African Commission.' 7.30 p.m., 
August 27, Central Hall. 

Prof. E. V. Appleton : ' The Role of the Atmosphere in Wireless Tele- 
graphy.' 8 p.m., August 29, Avenue Hall. 

Capt. P. P. Eckersley : ' Some Technical Problems of Broadcasting.' 
8 p.m., August 31, Central Hall. 

Mr. C. J. P. Cave : ' The Highway of the Air.' 8 p.m., September 1, 
Central Hall. 

Mr. Cave also gave a lecture in Salisbury on August 31, at the invitation 
of the Education Committee in that city. 

Lectures to Young People. 

Dr. F. A. Dixey, F.R.S. : ' Mimicry in Relation to Geographical Dis- 
tribution.' 3 p.m., August 29, Central Hall. 

Prof. W. J. Dakin : ' Whaling in the Southern Ocean.' 3 p.m., Septem- 
ber 1, Central Hall. 

Mr. W. H. Barker : ' The Development of Southampton in Relation to 
World Commerce.' 3 p.m., August 31, Central Hall. 

Concluding General Meeting. 

The Concluding General Meeting was held in the Central Hall on 
Wednesday, September 2, at 12 noon, when the following Resolutions 
were adopted with acclamation : — 

1. That the cordial thanks of the British Association be offered to the Mayor, 
Corporation, and citizens of Southampton for their generous hospitality on the occasion 
of the Association's visit, and especially to the authorities of King Edward VI. 
Grammar School, the Central Hall, and other places of meeting ; to the Southern 
Railway Company, the Docks Board, the Cunard Steamship Company, and the White 
Star Line for their reception of visiting members ; to the municipal departments and 
industrial organisations for opportunities of studying public services and commercial 
activities of the district, and to the tramway committee for their kind provision of 
transport. 

a2 



XX GENERAL MEETINGS, PUBLIC LECTURES, &c. 

2. That the cordial thanks of the British Association be accorded to Mr. F. Woolley 
and Dr. W. Rae Sherriffs for their untiring work on behalf of the Association as Local 
Secretaries, to the Local Honorary Treasurer, Mr. Reynolds Hole, and to the Local 
Sectional Secretaries and members of the office staffs in Southampton for their able 
assistance. 

3. That the thanks of the British Association be offered to the Air Ministry for the 
arrangement of a Meteorological Office in the Reception Room and for their generous 
reception of visiting members at the Royal Air Force Base, Calshot. 

4. That the thanks of the British Association be offered to the Director-General 
and staff of the Ordnance Survey for his permission to inspect the offices of the Survey, 
and to the officers and staff of the Survey for the courtesy shown to a continuous 
succession of visitors. 

5. That the cordial thanks of the British Association be offered to all those who 
have contributed by their courteous hospitality to the comfort of visiting members, 
and, by their personal interest in the proceedings of the meeting, to the realisation of 
the great objects of the Association ; and more especially to Lord and Lady Swaythling 
for throwing open their beautiful home and its treasures for the instruction and delight 
of their guests. 

6. That the thanks of the British Association be offered to the authorities of the 
University College for placing its premises at the disposal of the Association for 
sectional meetings. The Association trusts that the University College may prosper 
and be enabled to contribute in even fuller measure to the advancement of learning 
and the spread of education. 



XXI 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

July 1, 1924, to June 30, 1925. 



Notes on items indicated in following pages : — ■ 

1 The amount under the heading of ' Sundry Creditors ' includes the sum of 
£196 15s. 10d., representing subscriptions from Members toward a presentation to 
the University of Toronto, in acknowledgment of the hospitality received there 
in 1924. 

2 As a proportion of the membership subscriptions for the Meeting in 1924 were 
paid in Canadian currency ($5 for annual membership and so on), the exchange 
results in the appearance of broken sums (shillings and pence) in the subscription 
accounts. 

3 Owing to the earlier printing of programmes necessitated by the meeting overseas 
in 1924, the receipts from advertisements which would normally have appeared in 
the accounts for the present year had been collected and accounted during the year 
1923-4. 

4 The apparent (not actual) reduction in dividends is due to the fact that a summer 
half-year's dividend from War Stock was formerly received in June. This stock has 
been transferred to Conversion Loan, the half-yearly dividend on which is paid in 
July, and is therefore not included in these accounts. 



XX11 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Corresponding 
Figures 

1924. 

£ a. 

10,575 15 



a. 



59 10 
10,000 



510 

450 



,890 



36,463 



LIABILITIES. 

To Capital Accounts — 

General Fund, as per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation in Value 

Investments) 



9.5S2 16 3 



731 9 4 



5S2 9 4 







Of 



in Value of 



Caird Fund — 
As per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation 
Investments) 

Caird Fund — , . 

Revenue Account, Balance as at July 1, 1924 
Less Excess of Expenditure over Income 
for the year .... 

Caird Gift, Radio -Activity Investigation — ■ 
Balance as at July 1, 1924 . 

Add Dividends on Treasury Bonds 
Income Tax recovered . 



Less Grants paid 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift for Enquiry into Prime 
Movers, 1931— 

£50 Consols now accumulated to £126 17s. 6a., 
as per contra ...... 

, Sir Charles Parson's Gift .... 

„ John Perry Guest Fund — ■ 

For cases of emergency connected with 
Guests of the Association 

,. Life Compositions — 

As at July 1, 1924 

Add Received during year . 

,, Legacy — T. W. Backhouse .... 

,, Sundry Creditors ....-• 

„ Income and Expenditure Account — 

Balance as at July 1, 1924 . £3,814 11 2 
Less Excess of Expendi- 
ture over Income for 
year ... 596 15 



Balance Sheet, 



s. d. 



731 9 
75 15 



582 9 

12 19 

4 10 


4 
7 



599 18 
350 


11 




£ 8. d. 
10,575 15 2 

9,582 16 3 



655 14 2 



249 18 11 



62 11 
10,000 



510 
198 12 2 



287 10 10 1 



75 



708 12 
450 



- 3,217 15 10 



3,505 6 S 



£35,865 15 



I have examined the foregoing Account with the Books and Vouchers and ceitify the same 

APP H kU #IR L K. B L°D^ EY )+**" 
July 24, 1925. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



XXI 11 



June 30, 1925. 



Corresponding 
Figures 

1924. 
& s. d, 



10,575 15 2 



9,582 16 3 

731 9 4 
582 9 4 



59 10 

10,000 

75 

510 

450 



3,896 7 2 



36,463 7 3 



S. d. 



£7,502 19s. 7d. Value at date, £7,045 6s. Id. 
Caird Fund Revenue Account — ■ 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Caird Gift- 
Cash at Bank ...... 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift — 

£121 10 6 Self-Accumulating Consolidated 
Stock as per last Balance Sheet 
Add Accumulations to June 
5 7 30, 1925 



59 10 
3 1 



£126 17 6 
Sir Charles Parson's Gift — 

£10.300 4$ per cent. Conversion Loan 
£10,068 5s. 0d. Value at date, £9,682 
John Perry Guest Fund — 

£96 National War Savings Certificates at cost 
Cash at Bank ..... 

Life Compositions — 

£871 13s. lOrf. Local Loans at cost . 
Cash at Bank ..... 



Legacy — T. W. Backhouse — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Revenue Account — 

£2,098 Is. Hd. Consolidated 2| per cent. 

Stock at cost 1,200 

£1,949 8s. 9rf. Conversion 31 per cent. Stock 1,500 



74 8 
12 






570 
138 12 




•> 



Sundry Debtors 
Cash on Deposit 
Cash at Bank . 
Cash in Hand . 



58 



£1,700 








540 


9 


9 


1 


13 


6 



Less as shown above — 
Caird Fund Revenue 

Account . .£655 14 2 

Caird Gift . . 249 18 11 

John Perry Guest 

Fund . 12 

Life Compositions . 138 12 2 
Legacy — T. W. 

Backhouse. . 450 



£2,242 3 3 



1,494 17 3 

- 747 6 



ASSETS. 

By Investments on Capital Accounts —General 
Fund — 

£4,651 10s. 5d. Consolidated 2i per cent, at 

cost ....... 3,942 3 

£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stock at cost. . 3,522 2 

£879 14s. 9d. £43 Great Indian Peninsula 

Railway ' B ' Annuity at cost . . . 827 15 

£52 12s. Id. War Stock (Post Office Issue) at 

cost . 54 5 

£834 16s. Gd. 4| per cent. Conversion Loan at 

cost 835 12 4 

£1,400 War Stock 5 percent. 1929/47 at cost 1,393 16 11 

£7,735 10s. lOd. Value at date, £7,605 2s. lid. 
„ Caird Fund — 

£2,027 0s. lOd. India 31 per cent. Stock at cost 2,400 13 3 

£2,100 London Midland and Scottish Railway 
Consolidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 
at cost 2,190 4 3 

£2,500 Canada 3} per cent. 1930/50 Regis- 
tered Stock at cost ..... 2,397 1 6 

£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per 

cent. Preference Stock at cost . . . 2,594 17 3 



10,575 15 2 



9,582 16 3 

655 14 2 
249 18 11 



62 11 



10,000 







708 12 
450 



3,505 6 8 



£35,865 15 



to bo correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers and the Investments. 



W. 



B. KEEN, 
Chartered Accountant. 



XXIV 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Income and 

for the Year Ended 



Corresponding 

Period 

1924. 



£ 

14 

68 

1 

225 

113 
27 

177 



1,130 

75 

1,851 



d. 
8 

10 

7 


10 
9 



EXPENDITURE. 



50 



497 5 9 
S55 12 2 



5,087 10 



To Heat, Lighting and Power 
,, Stationery . 
„ Rent . 
,, Postages 

,, Travelling Expenses 
„ Exhibitioners 
„ General Expenses . 
,, Installation of Lift 
,, Decorations and Improvements 



£ 


s. 


d. 


20 


3 


1 


45 


7 


9 


1 








170 


1 


8 


78 


11 


2 


60 


() 





245 


10 


4 


914 


IB 


3 


261 


8 






Salaries, Wages, &c. ..... 

Pension Contribution . . " 

Printing, Binding, &e. ..... 

Sir Robert Hadfield's Gift — 

Grants to Universities .... 
Grants made in aid of Expenses, &c, re Toronto 
Meeting out of moneys received from Do- 
minion Government of Canada, as per contra 
Grants to Research Committees — 

Old Red Sandstone of Bristol Committee 

Medullary Centres Committee 

Triplet Children Committee 

Growth in Children Committee . 

Anti-Sera Committee 

Corresponding Societies Committee 

Index Kewensis Committee 

Ii.dians of the Canadian Rockies Committee 

Marine Algae at Port Erin Committee . 

Parthenogenesis Committee . 

Cost of Cycling Committee 

Overseas Training Committee 

Old Red Sandstone of Kiltorcan, Ireland 
Committee ..... 

Anthropological Teaching Committee . 

Colloid Chemistry Committee 

Palaeozoic Rocks Committee 

Zoological Bibliography Committee 

,, Balance being Excess of Income over Expendi 
ture for the year .... 



1,802 18 3 

1,202 10 

75 

1,675 12 5 



10 








20 








25 








20 








20 








40 








100 








e 100 








25 








5 








30 





u 


10 








1, 

15 








5 








5 








20 








1 















S. (?. 



4,750 8 
50 



8,421 13 4 



451 



£13,678 14 



s. d, 



350 
44 7 



394 7 



EXPENDITURE. 

To Grants Paid — 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Committee 
Solar Physics Observatory, Australia, Com 
mittee ...... 

Bronze Age Implements Committee . 
Seismological Investigation Committee 
Zoological Station at Naples Committee 
Tables of Constants Committee . 
Zoological Record Committee 

„ Balance being Excess of Income over Expendi 
ture for the year ..... 



& 


s. 


d. 


25 








50 








100 








100 








100 








5 








50 








E- 







Gaird 



s. d. 



430 



£430 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Expenditure Account 

June 30, 1925. 



XXV 



Corresponding 

Period 

1924. 

£ s. a. 

276 10 

1,6S0 

649 10 

217 10 

281 

10 

6 i a 

34 14 10 

138 S 2 

659 12 10 

98 3 4 

3 5 3 

50 



9S2 17 2 



INCOME. 



By Annual Members (Including £64, 1925/2G) 
Annual Temporary (Including £155, 1925/26) 
Annual with Report (Including £115 lOs. 
1925-26) . . . . 

Transferable Tickets . . . . 

Students' Tickets (Including £5, 1925/26) 
Life Members' Additional Subscriptions . 
Donations ...... 

Interest on Deposits . 

Advertisements . . . . . 

Sale of Publications . 

Income Tax recovered .... 

Unexpended Balance of Grants returned. 
Sir Robert Hadfield'a Gift 

Dominion Government of Canada for expenses 
re Toronto Meeting .... 

Dividends — 

Consols ..... 

India 3 per cent. 

Great Indian Peninsula ' B ' Annuity 

4 $ per cent. Conversion Loan . 

Ditto Sir Charles Parson's Gift . 

Treasury Bonds 

Local Loans .... 

War Stock 



£168 


14 


8 


108 








25 


13 


3 


40 


10 


6 


500 








73 


12 


6 


9 


8 


9 


56 


17 


6 



£ s. d. 

207 4 09 

1,956 19 8« 

870 3 112 

56 4 a 

50 18 8« 

50 3 

51 7 11 



613 15 

40 6 

90 12 

50 



£1 III 
95 
25 
16 
209 
60 
16 
57 



5 


11 

8 
11J 

3 
10 





By Balance being 
Income for year 



Excess of Expenditure over 



,421 13 4 



622 13 0* 
596 15 4 



£13,678 14 



Fund. 

£ s. d. 



301 3 10 
93 3 2 



394 



INCOME. 

By dividends — ■ 

India 3 £ per cent. .... 
Canada 3 J per cent. .... 
London Midland and Scottish Railway Con 

solidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 
Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent 
Preference Stock .... 



Income Tax recovered ..... 
Balance being Excess of Expenditure over 
Income for year ...... 



£ s. d. 

81 11 10 

67 16 2 

65 2 

77 10 



d. 



292 
62 4 10 

75 15 2 

£430 



XXVI 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENEEAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

SOUTHAMPTON, 1925. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Seismological Investigations. — Prof. H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, 
Sir F. W. Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. H. Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Prof. 
A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, Prof. H. C. Plummer, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Father Rowland, Prof. R. A. Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier 
Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, Mr. F. J. W. Whipple. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Tides. — Prof. H. Lamb (Chairman), Dr. A. T. Doodson (Secretary), Dr. G. R. 
Goldsbrough, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. J. Proudman, Prof. G. I. Taylor, Prof. 
D'Arcy W. Thompson, Commander H. D. Warburg. 

Annual Tables of Constants and Numerical Data, chemical, physical, and technological. 
— Sir E. Rutherford (Chairman), Prof. A. W. Porter (Secretary), Mr. Alfred 
Egerton. £5. 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Prof. J. W. Nicholson (Chairman), Dr. J. R. 
Airey (Secretary), Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Dr. A. T. Doodson, Prof. L. N. G. Filon, 
Mr. R. A. Fisher, Prof. E. W. Hobson, and Profs. Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, 
and H. M. Macdonald. 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — Sir Napier Shaw (Chairman), Mr. C. J. P. 
Cave (Secretary), Prof. S. Chapman, Mr. J. S. Dines, Mr. L. H. G. Dines, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. G. M. Dobson, Commr. L. G. Garbett, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, 
Col. E. Gold, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Dr. H. Knox-Shaw, Sir J. Larmor, Mr. R. G. K. 
Lempfert, Prof. F. A. Lindemann, Dr. W. Makower, Mr. J. Patterson, Sir J. E. 
Petavel, Sir A. Schuster, Dr. G. C. Simpson, Sir G. T. Walker, Mr. F. J. W. 
Whipple, Prof. H. H. Turner. £38. 

To investigate local variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field. — Col. H. G. Lyons 
(Chairman), Capt. H. Shaw (Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. C. Chree, Col. 
Sir G. P. Lenox-Conyngham, Dr. J. W. Evans, Mr. E. Lancaster-Jones ; the 
Director-General, Ordnance Survey ; the Director, Geological Survey of Great 
Britain. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

Colloid Chemistry and its Industrial Applications. — Prof. F. G. Donnan (Chairman), 
Dr. W. Clayton (Secretary), Mr. E. Hatschek, Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis, Prof. J. W. 
McBain. £5. 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. — Prof. I. M. 
Heilbron (Chairman), Prof. E. C. C. Baly (Secretary), Prof. A. W. Stewart. 

The Chemistry of Vitamins.— Sir F. G. Hopkins (Chairman), Prof. J. C. Drummond 
(Secretary), Prof. G. Barger, Prof. A. Harden, Sir J. C. Irvine, Prof. J. W. 
McBain, Prof. Lash Miller, Dr. S. Zilva. £5. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXV 11 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Mr. W. B. Wright (Chairman), 
Prof. T. Johnson (Secretary), Dr. W. A. Bell, Dr. J. W. Evans, Prof. W. H. Lang, 
Sir A. Smith Woodward. £8. (The Committee was authorised to devote also 
to the purposes of its research any proceeds from the sale of specimens.) 

To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — Prof. 
W. W. Watts (Chairman), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, 
Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. V. C. Illing, Prof. O. T. Jones, Prof. J. E. Marr, 
Principal T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman. £15. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geo- 
logical Interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood (Chairman), Prof. S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), 
Mr. G. Bingley, Messrs. C. V. Crook and A. S. Reid, Prof. W. W. Watts, Mr. R. 
Welch. 

To investigate the Flora of Lower Carboniferous times as exemplified at a newly 
discovered locality at Gullane, Haddingtonshire. — Prof. W. W. Watts (Chairman), 
Prof. W. T. Gordon (Secretary), Sir J. S. Flett, Prof. E. J. Garwood, Dr. J. Home, 
and Dr. B. N. Peach. 

To investigate the Stratigraphical Sequence and Palaeontology of the Old Red Sand- 
stone of the Bristol district. — Dr. H. Bolton (Chairman), Dr. F. S. Wallis 
(Secretary), Miss Edith Bolton, Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. D. E. I. Innes, Prof. C. Lloyd 
Morgan, Prof. S. H. Reynolds, Mr. H. W. Turner. £6. 

To investigate the Quaternary Peats of the British Isles. — Prof. P. F. Kendall (Chair- 
man), Mr. L. H. Tonks (Secretary), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Miss Chandler, Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, Dr. E. Greenly, Prof. J. W. Gregory, Prof. G. Hickling, Mr. J. de W. 
Hinch, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, Mrs. Reid, Mr. T. Sheppard, Mr. J. W. Stather, 
Mr. A. W. Stelfox, Mr. C. B. Travis, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Mr. W. B. Wright. £38. 

Comparison of the Rocks of Pre-Cambrian and presumably Pre-Cambrian Inliers of 
England and Wales and the Dublin Area with the Rocks of the Mona Complex 
of Anglesey, with a view to possible correlation. — Dr. Gertrude Elles (Chairman), 
Dr. Edward Greenly (Secretary), Mr. T. C. Nicholas, Prof. S. H. Reynolds, 
Dr. C. E. Tilley. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary Rocks of the London Area. To tabulate 
and preserve records of new excavations in that area. — Prof. W. T. Gordon (Chair- 
man), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge (Secretary), Miss M. C. Crosfield, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Prof. G. Hickling. £10. 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

To aid competent Investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Prof. J. H. Ash worth (Secretary), Dr. G. P. Bidder, Prof. F. 0. Bower, Sir W. B. 
Hardy, Sir S. F. Harmer, Prof. S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray Lankester, Prof. 
W. C. Mcintosh. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Prof. E. B. Poulton (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. T. Caiman, Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, Mr. W. L. Sclater. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory, Plymouth. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
W. J. Dakin, Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, Prof. S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray Lankester. 
£20. 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, for 
the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir S. Harmer 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman (Secretary), Prof. F. W. Gamble, Prof. E. S. 
Goodrich, Prof. D. M. S. Watson. £35. 



xxviii RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

Pre-natal influence of Anti-sera on the Eye-lens of Rabbits.— Prof. W. J. Da,kin(Chair- 
man), Mr. J. T. Cunningham (Secretary), Prof. D. M. S. Watson. 

On the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the Parents on the Sex-Ratio of the Offspring. 

Prof. W. J. Dakin (Chairman), Mrs. Bisbee (Secretary), Prof. Carr-Saunders, 

Miss E. C. Herdman. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To consider the advisability of making a provisional Population Map of the British 
Isles, and to make recommendations as to the method of construction and 
reproduction. — Mr. H. 0. Beckit (Chairman), Mr. F. Debenham (Secretary), 
Mr. J. Bartholomew, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, 
Mr. 0. H- T. Rishbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby. 

SECTIONS E, L.— GEOGRAPHY, EDUCATION. 

To formulate suggestions for a syllabus for the teaching of Geography both to Matricu- 
lation Standard and in Advanced Courses ; to report upon the present position 
of the geographical training of teachers, and to make recommendations thereon ; 
and to report, as occasion arises, to Council through the Organising Committee 
of Section E, upon the practical working of Regulations issued by the Board of 
Education affecting the position of Geography in Training Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. — Prof. T. P. Nunn (Chairman), Mr. W. H. Barker (Secretary), Mr. L. 
Brooks, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, Sir H. J. Mackinder, Prof. 
J. L. Myres, and Prof. J. F. Unstead (from Section E) ; Mr. D. Berridge, Mr. C. E. 
Browne, Sir R. Gregory, Mr. E. B.. Thomas, Miss 0. Wright (from Section L). 
(Unexpended balance). 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

To report on certain of the more complex Stress Distributions in Engineering Materials. 
—Prof. E. G. Coker (Chairman), Prof. L. N. G. Filon and Prof. A. Robertson 
(Secretaries), Prof. T. B. Abell, Prof. A. Barr, Prof. Gilbert Cook, Prof. W. E. 
Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, Sir H. Fowler, Mr. A. R. Fulton, Dr. A. A. Griffith, 
Mr. J. J. Guest, Dr. B. P. Haigh, Profs. Sir J. B. Henderson, C. E. Inglis, F. C. 
Lea, A. E. H. Love, and W. Mason, Sir J. E. Petavel, Dr. F. Rogers, Dr. W. A. 
Scoble, Mr. R. V. Southwell, Dr. T. E. Stanton, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, Prof. 
G. I. Taylor, Mr. A. T. Wall, Mr. J. S. Wilson. £17. 

Earth Pressures. — Mr. Wentworth Sheilds (Chairman), Dr. J. S. Owens (Secretary) , 
Prof. G. Cook, Mr. P. M. Crosthwaite, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. F. C. Lea, 
Mr. J. S. Wilson. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chair- 
man), Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Secretary), Mr. Leslie Armstrong, Mr'. H. Balfour, 
Prof. T. H. Bryce, Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Prof. Sir W. Ridgeway. £80. 

To conduct Archaeological Investigations in Malta. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), 
Sir A. Keith (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. H. Balfour. 

To oonduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. — 
Sir C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Prof. 
Sir W. Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir Arthur Evans, Sir W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 

To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. —Prof. Sir W. Ridgeway (Chairman), Mr. 
S. Casson (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. M. 
Thompson. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXIX 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments. — Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. C. Fox, Mr. G. Marshall, Prof. J. L. 
Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthro- 
pological Interest. — Mr. E. Torday (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, Prof. J. L. Myres. 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of Copper used by the Sumerians. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. C. H. Desch, Sir Flinders Petrie. £15. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Dr. D. G. Hogarth 
(Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. 
Evans. Prof. Sir W. Ridgeway, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To investigate the Culture of the Peasant Population of Modern Egypt. — Prof. J. L. 
Myres (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Capt. Hilton Simpson, Prof. H. J. Rose. 

The Investigation of a hill fort site at Llanmelin, near Caerwent. — Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner (Chairman), Dr. Cyril Fox (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Prof. H. J. Rose, Dr. R. Mortimer Wheeler. £5. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. — 
Sir A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Prof. 
W. J. Sollas. 

To conduct anthropological investigations in some Oxfordshire villages. — Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. F. G. Parsons. £10. 

To report on the present state of knowledge of the relation of early Palaeolithic 
Implements to Glacial Deposits. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. M. Burkitt, Prof. 
P. F. Kendall, Mr. G. Lamplugh, Prof. J. E. Marr. £20. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the explor- 
ation of Caves in the Derbyshire district.— Sir W. Boyd Dawkins (Chairman), 
Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. M. Burkitt, Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize, Dr. Favell, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Dr. R. R. Marett, 
Mr. L. S. Palmer, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 

To investigate processes of Growth in Children, with a view to discovering Differences 
due to Race and Sex, and further to study Racial Differences in Women. — Sir 
A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. H. J. Fleure (Secretary), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, 
Dr. A. Low, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. £20. 

To report on proposals for an Anthropological and Archaeological Bibliography, with 
power to co-operate with other bodies. — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. W. H. Barker, Mr. G. S. Crawford, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Dr. D. Randall-Maclver, 
Mr. T. Sheppard. 

To report on the progress of Anthropological Teaching in the present century. — 
Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To investigate certain Physical Characters and the Family Histories of Triplet Children. 
—Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Chairman), Mr. R. A. Fisher (Secretary), Miss R. M. Fleming, 
Dr. A. Low. £20. 

To report on the possibility of Physiological Tests of Races, such as the Blood Agglu- 
tination.— Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), 
Dr. Davidson Black, Dr. H. H. Dale, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Prof. G. H. F. Nuttall. 



XXX RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

To conduct explorations on early Neolithic Sites in Holderness. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake 
(Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. M. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. 
Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson. Mr. L. S. Palmer. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The Cost of Cycling with varied rate and work.— Prof. J. S. Macdonald (Chairman), 
Dr. F. A. Duffield (Secretary). £10. 

The Investigation of the Medullary Centres.— Prof. C. Lovatt Evans (Chairman), 
Dr. J. M. Duncan Scott (Secretary), Dr. H. H. Dale. £18 (and unexpended 
balance). 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

Vocational Tests. — Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Mr. F. M. Earle, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof. C. Spearman, Mr. F. Watts, Dr. 
LI. Wynn- Jones. £14. 

The Character of a first-year University Course in Experimental Psychology. — Dr. J. 
Drever (Chairman), Dr. May Collins (Secretary), Mr. F. C. Bartlett, Mr. R. J. 
Bartlett, Prof. C. Burt, Dr. Shepherd Dawson, Prof. A. E. Heath, Dr. LI. Wynn- 
Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

Index Kewensis. — Sir D. Prain (Chairman), Dr. A. W. Hill (Secretary), Prof. J. B. 
Farmer, Dr. A. B. Rendle, Prof. W. Wright Smith. £70. 

To consider the advisability of instituting a diploma in biology for students in training 
colleges. — Prof. F. 0. Bower (Chairman), Prof. S. Mangham (Secretary), Miss 
A. Moodie, Mr. J. L. Sager, Miss E. H. Stevenson, Dr. Ethel N. Miles Thomas, 
Prof. J. Lloyd Williams. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To inquire into the Practicability of an International Auxiliary Language. — Dr. H. 
Foreter Morley (Chairman), Dr. E. H. Tripp (Secretary), Mr. E. Bullough, Prof. 
F. G. Donnan, Prof. J. J. Findlay, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir W. B. Hardy, 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Sir E. Cooper Perry, Mr. Nowell Smith, Mr. A. E. 
Twentyman. 

To consider the educational training of boys and girls in Secondary Schools for over- 
seas life. — Rev. H. B. Gray (Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne (Secretary), Major 
A. G. Church, Mr. T. S. Dymond, Dr. J. Vargas Eyre, Sir R. A. Gregory, Miss 
E. H. McLean, Mr. G. W. Olive, Sir J. Russell. £7. 

The bearing on school work of recent views on formal training. — Prof. F. A. Cavenagh 
(Chairman), Prof. A. E. Heath (Secretary), Prof. R. L. Archer, Miss E. R. Conway, 
Prof. M. W. Keatinge, Mr. H. P. Sparling, Major E. R. Thomas, Prof. G. Thomson. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee.— The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard (Vice-chairman), the General Secretaries, the General 
Treasurer, Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, Prof. P. F. Kendall Mr 
Mark L. Sykes, Dr. C. Tiemey, Prof. W. W. Watts ; with authority to co-opt 
representatives of Scientific Societies in the locality of the Annual Meeting. £40 
Caird Fund grant, subject to confirmation by Council, for preparation of biblio- 
graphy and report. 



XXXI 



THE CAIRD FUND. 



An unconditional gift of £10,000 for research was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of Dundee. 

The Council, in its report to the General Committee at the Birmingham Meeting, 
made certain recommendations as to the administration of this Fund. These 
recommendations were adopted, with the Report, by the General Committee at its 
meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The allocations made from the Fund by the Council to September 1922 will be 
found stated in the Report for 1922, p. xxxi. Subsequent grants from the fund are 
incorporated in the lists of Research Committees. 

In J921-24 the Council authorised expenditure from accumulated income of the 
fund upon grants to Research Committees approved by the General Committee by way 
of supplementing sums available from the general funds of the Association, and in 
addition to grants ordinarily made by, or applied for from, the Council. 



Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of £1,000 to the 
Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. In 1920 the Council decided 
to devote the principal and interest of this gift at the rate of £250 per annum for five 
years to purposes of the research intended. The grants for the years ending March 24, 
1922 and 1923, were made to Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. The grant for the year ending 
March 24, 1924, was made to Prof. F. Soddy, F.R.S. The grant for the year ending 
March 24, 1925, was divided between Messrs. C. T. R. Wilson (£100), J. Chadwick 
(£75), and A. S. Russell (£75). The grant for the year ending March 24, 1926, was 
divided between Mr. P. M. S. Blackett (£100), Dr. J. Chadwick (£100), and Dr. A. S. 
Russell (£50). 



RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 



The following Resolutions and Recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at Southampton for consideration, 
and, if desirable, for action (except where specified as approved for 
immediate action) : — 

From Sections C, D, E. 

That the Council be requested to endeavour to obtain the inclusion of the category 
' scientific parties ' in the present regulations of the railway companies governing 
the issue of cheap return period tickets for pleasure parties, camping parties, &c. 

From Section E. 

To request the Council to approach the Board of Education with a view to the 
amendment of a clause in its Circular 826 (1913), p. 31, permitting in certain events 
the curtailment or discontinuance of instruction in geography. 

From Section G. 

That invitations to attend the Oxford Meeting should be issued to eminent scientists 
irrespective of nationality. 

From Section H. 

That the Association approach the Egyptian Government through the proper 
channels with a view to calling attention to Miss W. S. Blackmail's valuable investiga- 
tion of the culture of the peasant population of modern Egypt, and if possible to secure 
financial support from that Government. 



XXxii RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Resolutions relating to the Report of the East African 

Commission. 

(Approved for immediate action.) 

From Section E. 

The committee of Section E welcome and endorse the general recommendations 
with regard to the scientific services contained in the report of the East African 
Commission and trust that H.M. Government will take immediate action to give effect 
to them. Further they are of the opinion that a complete topographical survey of 
the five East African Territories is urgently required for all scientific and economic 
development. 

From Section H. • 

To ask the Council of the British Association to express to H.M. Government its 
hearty concurrence in the recommendations contained in the report of the East 
African Commission in regard to scientific study of the local conditions and adminis- 
trative problems of the East African territories, and to urge the Government to give 
full and early effect to those recommendations. 

From Section M. 

The committee of Section M desire to ask the Council to memorialise the Colonial 
Office with a view to securing the adoption of the recommendations contained in the 
report of the East African Commission relating to the Amani research station. 



A resolution from Section L dealing with the treatment of the history of science 
at the Oxford Meeting was not approved, but it was resolved to recommend the Council 
to call the attention of Organising Committees to the desirability of including papers 
on the history of science. 



Resolutions from the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies. 

1. To request the Council to represent to the Ministry of Agriculture and to the 
Board of Education the facilities offered by local scientific societies on matters bearing 
upon local geography, natural history, and historical antiquities, which should be 
made supplementary to the treatment of these subjects in the curriculum of schools, 
and to inquire in what way this information may be more generally and effectively 
utilised. 

2. To call the attention of the County Council of Devon and of the local district 
councils to recent spoliation of ancient monuments on Dartmoor by roadmenders, 
and to ask for effective protection of these monuments. (Approved for immediate 
action.) 

3. To recommend that the British Association should take steps, through the 
Corresponding Societies Committee, to secure the establishment and facilitate the 
extension of regional researches, especially in the districts which it visits. 

4. To ask the Council of the Association and the Corresponding Societies to inquire 
into the threatened extermination of many of the rarer British species of plants and 
animals and to take steps to ensure their protection. 

5. That all Corresponding Societies be recommended to present one copy of all 
papers published to such bodies as prepare annually or otherwise bibliographies of 
particular subjects, for example, to the Geological Society in the case of geological 
literature. (Approved for immediate action.) 




THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

BY 

PROFESSOR HORACE LAMB, Sc.D., LL.D, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



When one is confronted as on this occasion with the British Association in 
plenary session it is permissible, I hope, to indulge in a few reflections on 
the nature and purpose of science in general. The theme is no new one and 
has never been discussed so frequently as in our time, but the very range 
of our activities entitles us to consider it from our own point of view. The 
subjects treated at these meetings range, according to the titles of our 
Sections, from the most abstract points of mathematical philosophy to 
the processes of agriculture. Between these limits we have the newest 
speculations of Astronomy and Physics, the whole field of the biological 
sciences, the problems of engineering, not to speak of other matters equally 
diverse. These subjects, again, have become so subdivided and specialised 
that workers in adjacent fields have often a difficulty in appreciating each 
other's ideas, or even understanding each other's language. What then is 
the real purpose of science in the comprehensive sense, what is the common 
inspiration, the common ambition behind such enthusiastic and sustained 
effort in so many directions ? The question may seem idle, for a sort of 
official answer has often been given. It was deemed sufficient to point to 
the material gains, the enlarged powers, which have come to us through 
science, and have so transformed the external part of our lives. The general 
aim was summed up in an almost consecrated formula : ' to subdue the 
forces of Nature to the service of man.' And since it was impossible to 
foresee what abstract research might or might not provide a clue to some- 
thing useful, the more speculative branches of science were not only to be 
tolerated, but to be encouraged within limits, as ancillary to the supreme 
end. And, it must be said, the cultivators of these more abstruse sciences 
have themselves been willing sometimes to accept this position. The 
apologists of Pure Mathematics, for instance, have been wont to appeal 
to the case of the conic sections, which from the time of Apollonius 
onwards had been an entirely detached study, but was destined 
after some 2000 years to guide Kepler and Newton in formulating the 
laws of the planetary motions, and so ultimately to find its justification in 
1925 B 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

the Nautical Almanac. I will not stop to examine this illustration, which 
I personally think rather strained. We may recognise that practical 
utility has been a conscious though not the sole aim in much scientific 
work, and sometimes perhaps its main justification ; but we can hardly 
admit that any such formula as I have quoted worthily conveys what 
has been the real inspiration of discovery through the ages. If we may 
go back to Apollonius and the conic sections, we cannot suppose that he 
was thinking of posterity at all ; he was engaged in a study which he no 
doubt held to be legitimate and respectable in itself. Or, to take a very 
recent instance, when Faraday and Maxwell were feeling their way to- 
wards an electric theory of light, they could hardly have dreamed of wire- 
less telegraphy, though as we now know this was no remote development. 
The primary aim of science as we understand it is to explore the facts of 
Nature, to ascertain their mutual relations, and to arrange them as far as 
possible into a consistent and intelligible scheme. It is this endeavour 
which is the true inspiration of scientific work, as success in it is the 
appropriate reward. The material effects come later if at all, and often by 
a very indirect path. We may, I think, claim for this constructive task 
something of an assthetic character. The provinces of art and science are 
often held to be alien and even antagonistic, but in the higher processes of 
scientific thought it is often possible to trace an affinity. The mathe- 
matician at all events is at no loss for illustrations of this artistic faculty. 
A well-ordered piece of algebraical analysis has sometimes been compared 
to a musical composition. This may seem fantastic to those whose only 
impression is that of a mass of curious symbols, but these bear no more 
resemblance to the ideas which lie behind them than the equally weird 
notation of a symphony bears to the sounds which it connotes or the 
emotions which these evoke. And it is no misplaced analogy which has led 
enthusiasts to speak of the poetical charm of Lagrange's work, of the 
massive architecture of Gauss's memoirs, of the classic perfection of Max- 
well's expositions. The devotees of other sciences will be at no loss for 
similar illustrations. Is it not the case, for instance, that the widespread 
interest excited by the latest achievements of physical science is due 
not to the hope of future profit, though this will doubtless come, but to 
the intrinsic beauty as well as the novelty of the visions which they 
unfold ? 

It is possible, I trust, to insist on these aspects of the scientific tempera- 
ment without wishing to draw a sharp and even mischievous antithesis 
. between pure and applied science. Not to speak of the enormous importance 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 3 

in our present civilisation of the material advantages which have 
come in the train of discovery, it would be disloyal to science itself to affect 
to depreciate them. For the most severely utilitarian result comes often as 
the result of a long and patient process of study and experiment, conducted 
on strictly scientific methods. We must recognise also the debts which pure 
science in its turn owes to industry, the impulse derived from the suggestion 
of new problems, and not least the extended scale on which experiment 
becomes possible. And a reference may appropriately be made here to the 
National Physical Laboratory, initiated mainly in the higher interests of 
industry, which by the mere pressure of the matters submitted to it is 
becoming a great institute of theoretical as well as applied science, informed 
throughout by the true spirit of research. 

But perhaps the most momentous consequences of the increased 
scientific activities of our time have been on the intellectual side. How 
profound these have been in one direction we have recently been reminded 
by the centenary of Huxley. Authority and science were at one time 
in conflict over matters entirely within the province of the latter. The 
weapons were keen, and the strife bitter. We may rejoice that these 
antagonisms are now almost obsolete ; one side has become more tolerant, 
the other less aggressive, and there is a disposition on both sides to respect 
each other's territories. The change is even reflected in the sermons 
delivered before the Association. The quarters where we may look for 
suspicion and dislike are now different ; they are political rather than 
ecclesiastical. The habit of sober and accurate analysis which scientific 
pursuits tend to promote is not always favourable to social and economic 
theories which rest mainly on an emotional if very natural basis. Some of 
us, for instance, may remember Huxley's merciless dissection of the 
theory of the social contract. There is hence to be traced, I think, a certain 
dumb hostility which, without venturing on open attack, looks coldly on 
scientific work except so far as it is directed to purposes of obvious and 
immediate practical utility. 

There is a more open kind of criticism to which we are exposed, which 
we cannot altogether ignore, though it again rests on a misconception of the 
true function of science. It is to be met with in quarters where we might 
fairly look for countenance and sympathy, and is expressed sometimes 
with great force, and even eloquence. The burden is one of disappointment 
and disillusion ; we even hear of the ' bankruptcy of science.' It seems to 
be suggested that science has at one time or other held out promises which 
it has been impotent to fulfil, that vague but alluring hopes which it has 

b2 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

inspired have proved delusive. It may be admitted that extravagant 
and impossible claims have sometimes been made on behalf of science, but 
never, I think, by the real leaders, who have always been most modest in 
their claims and guarded in their forecasts. It is true again that in the 
enthusiasm which attended the first sensational developments of modern 
industry hopes were conceived of a new era, where prosperity would ever 
increase, poverty would be at least mitigated and refined, national anti- 
pathies would be reconciled. When these dreams did not swiftly come true 
there was the inevitable reaction, the idols were cast down, and science 
in general has rather unreasonably come in for its share of depreciation. 
The attitude which I have been trying to describe is put very forcibly in a 
quotation from President Wilson which I saw not long ago, though its 
date is not very recent : 

' Science has bred in us a spirit of experiment and a contempt for the 
past. It made us credulous of quick improvement, hopeful of discovering 
panaceas, confident of success in every new thing. . . I should fear nothing 
better than utter destruction from a revolution conceived and led in the 
scientific spirit. Science has not changed the laws of social growth or 
betterment. Science has not changed the nature of society, has not made 
history a whit easier to understand, human nature a whit easier to reform. 
It has won for us a great liberty in the physical world, a liberty from super- 
stitious fear and from disease, a freedom to use nature as a familiar servant ; 
but it has not freed us from ourselves.' 

The tone is one of bitter disillusion, but we may ask why should 
science, as we understand it, be held responsible for the failure of hopes 
which it can never have authorised ? Its province as I have tried to define 
it is vast, but has its limits. It can have no pretensions to improve human 
nature ; it may alter the environment, multiply the resources, widen the 
intellectual prospect, but it cannot fairly be asked to bear the responsi- 
bility for the use which is made of these gifts. That must be determined by 
other and, let us admit it, higher considerations. Medical science, for 
instance, has given us longer and healthier lives ; it is not responsible for 
the use which we make of those lives. It may give increased vitality to the 
wicked as well as the just, but we would not, on that account, close our 
hospitals or condemn our doctors. 

In spite of the criticisms I have referred to we may still hold up 
our heads, let us hope without arrogance, but with the confidence that 
our efforts have their place, not a mean one, in human activities, and that 
they tend, if often in unimagined ways, to increase the intellectual and the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 5 

material and even the aesthetic possessions of the world. And in that 
assurance, we may rejoice that science has never been so widely and so 
enthusiastically cultivated as at the present time, with so complete 
sincerity, or (we may claim) with more brilliant success, or even with less 
of international jealousy. 

Passing from these reflections which are, I hope, not altogether in- 
opportune, it is expected that the President for the time being should deal 
with some subject in which he has himself been interested. For a mathe- 
matician this obligation is a specially difficult one, if he is not to overstrain 
the patience of his audience. I propose to speak briefly, and mainly from 
the mathematical and physical standpoint, about some branches of Geo- 
physics, and in particular those relating to the constitution of the earth. 
It is a subject which in the past has often engaged the attention of the 
Association ; I need only recall the names of Kelvin and George Darwin, 
and the controversies with which they are associated. Historically, it is of 
special interest to the mathematician and the physicist, for it was in his 
researches on the figure of the earth that Laplace initiated the theory 
of its potential, with its characteristic equation, and so prepared the way for 
Poisson, Green, Cauchy, and a host of followers, who developed the theory 
of electricity and ultimately that of light. To go further back, it was in this 
connection that Newton found an important verification of his law of 
gravity. Quite recently, the whole subject has been reviewed in a valuable 
treatise by Dr. Jeffreys, who arrives at conclusions which are at all events 
definite, and maintained with great ability. 

I do not propose to deal with the fascinating speculations as to the past 
history of the earth and its reputed child, the moon, which will be more or 
less familiar. I must confine myself to a rapid survey of the information 
as to its present constitution which can be gathered from observations 
made in our own time, and capable of repetition at will. This, though less 
exciting, is at all events a region in which imagination is more subject to 
control. 

The accurate investigation of the figure of the earth is intimately 
connected with the variation of gravity over its surface. In view of the 
local irregularities, some convention was necessary as to what is meant by 
the shape of the earth as a whole. The usual definition is that it is a level 
surface as regards the resultant of true gravity and centrifugal force : often 
that particular level surface of which the sea forms a part. I need not 
dwell on the immense amount of theoretical and practical labour which has 
been devoted in various countries to the determination of the geometrical 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

surface which most nearly satisfies this requirement. Of more recent 
interest are the irregularities in the intensity of gravity, which have been 
found to exist over wide areas, by the highly trained Survey of India, by 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the United States, and by various 
observers on the continent of Europe. Briefly, the general result is this, 
that in mountainous regions the observed value of gravity is abnormally 
low, whilst on oceanic islands, and so far as can be ascertained on the sea, 
it is abnormally large, when all allowance has been made for altitude and the 
normal variation with latitude. The fact that this has been found to be the 
case in so many different places, shows that we have here to deal with no 
casual phenomenon. The accepted explanation, originated by Archdeacon 
Pratt, of Calcutta, in 1859, and since developed especially by Hayford and 
Bowie, of the U.S. Survey, is that if we imagine a level surface to be drawn 
at a depth of about 100 kilometres, the stratum of matter above this, 
though varying in density from point to point, is approximately uniform, 
in the sense that equal areas of the surface in question bear equal weights. 
The altitude of the mountains is held to be compensated by the inferior 
density of the underlying matter, whilst the oceanic hollows are made up 
for by increased density beneath. Leaving aside the technical evidence on 
which this hypothesis is based, there are one or two points to be noticed. 
In the first place it suggests, as is highly plausible on other grounds, that 
the matter in the interior of the earth, below the stratum referred to, is in 
a state of purely hydrostatic stress, i.e. of pressure uniform in all directions. 
So far as this stratum is concerned, it might be floating on an internal 
globe of liquid, although no assertion is really made, or is necessary, to 
this effect. But in the stratum itself, shearing forces must be present, and 
it is necessary to consider whether the actual material is strong enough to 
withstand the weight of continents and mountains, and the lack of lateral 
support due to the oceanic depressions. The researches of Professor Love 
and others show that this question can fairly be answered in the affirmative. 
The accurate determination of the acceleration of gravity at any place 
is, of course, a matter of great delicacy. Not to mention other points, 
in the pendulum method the yielding of the support due to the reaction of 
the pendulum as it swings to and fro affects the time of oscillation. It 
may be recalled that so far back as 1818 Kater, in his absolute determina- 
tion of the length of the seconds pendulum in London, was on his guard 
against this effect, and devised a test to make sure that it was in his case 
negligible. In a portable apparatus, such as is used for comparative 
determinations, it is difficult to give sufficient rigidity to the support, and 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 7 

a correction has, in some way, to be applied. Recently, Dr. Victor Meinesz, 
of the Dutch Survey, who has carried out an extensive gravity survey in 
Holland, has sought to minimise this effect by the use of pairs of pendulums 
swinging in opposite phases, and so reacting on the support in opposite 
senses. This has opened out a prospect of accurate gravity determinations 
at sea. The use of a pendulum method on a surface vessel is hardly 
possible, but a submarine when sufficiently immersed offers comparative 
tranquillity, and it is hoped that the small residual horizontal motions may 
be capable of elimination, and the diminished vertical oscillation allowed 
for. The methods previously employed at sea which could claim any 
accuracy are those of Hecker. In one method, the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere is found in absolute measure from the boiling point of water and 
compared with the gravitational measure afforded by the barometer. In 
a more recent method, also devised by Hecker, and followed with some 
modifications by Duffield, the idea is to carry about a standard atmosphere, 
i.e. a mass of air at constant volume and prescribed temperature, whose 
pressure is measured gravitationally by the barometer. Both methods are 
highly ingenious, but cannot compete as regards accuracy with the 
pendulum method if this should be found practicable. 

It is a matter of regret that the observational side of Geophysics has, 
of late, been so little cultivated in this country. In India with its wide 
opportunities, geodetic and gravitational work has long been carried on 
with high efficiency, and has furnished essential material for the general- 
isations I have referred to. But in the Home country, although we have an 
admirable topographical survey — whose headquarters by the way are here 
in Southampton — nothing so far as I know has been done towards a gravity 
survey since the time of Kater, more than a century ago. Proposals for 
the estabbshment of a formal Geodetic Institute, such as existed in some 
other countries before the war, which should embrace this as well as other 
subjects, have been urged, but have had to be abandoned owing to the. 
exigencies of the time. It is therefore some satisfaction to record that 
a modest beginning has been made at Cambridge by the institution of a 
Readership in Geodesy, and that when the requisite pendulum outfit is 
complete, it is hoped that a gravity survey of these islands may be initiated. 
The physical features are hardly so rugged that sensational results such as 
were found in India are to be expected, but it is desirable that the work, 
which will involve comparatively little labour and expense after the 
initial steps, should be carried out. The example of Holland shows that in 
a country which has no outstanding features at all a survey may reveal 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

peculiarities which are at all events of considerable interest. I may add 
that it is contemplated that the Cambridge apparatus should also be 
designed to eliminate the disturbing element I have mentioned, and that 
it should be available for determinations at sea. It is perhaps not too 
much to hope that with the co-operation of the Navy, the gravity chart of 
the world, which is so far almost a blank as regards the ocean, may in 
this way be gradually filled in. 

The distribution of the intensity of gravity over the surface of the earth 
gives by itself no positive information as to the distribution of density 
throughout the interior, though the contrary view has sometimes been held. 
For example, a spherical globe with a uniform intensity of gravitation over 
its surface would not necessarily be homogeneous, or even composed of 
spherical strata each of uniform density, however plausible this might be 
on other grounds. Consequently, there is room for hypothesis. There are 
certain tests which any hypothesis has to satisfy. It must account for the 
observed distribution of gravity, and having regard to the phenomena of 
precession, it must give the proper relation between the earth's moments 
of inertia about a polar and an equatorial axis. It may be added that it 
should be fairly consistent with the ascertained velocities of seismic waves 
at different depths, and the degree of elasticity which it is allowable to 
assign to the material. The somewhat artificial laws of density adopted 
by Laplace and Roche, respectively, mainly on grounds of mathematical 
convenience, have lost much of their credit. A more natural law, suggested 
indeed by Thomson and Tait in 1867 in their book on Natural Philosophy, 
has since been proposed in a more definite form by Wiechert. On this view 
the earth is made up of a central core of about four-fifths the external 
radius, of high density, about that of iron, surrounded by an envelope of 
about the densit)'' of the surface rocks. This is, of course, only to be taken 
as a rough picture, but it satisfies the requirements I have mentioned, and 
is apparently not incompatible with the seismic data. 

In all speculations on the present subject, considerations as to the 
thermal history of the earth and the present distribution of temperature 
in the interior play an essential part. The apparent inconsistency between 
the requirements of physics and geology was long a matter of controversy, 
and has given rise to keen debate at these meetings. Lord Kelvin's historic 
attempts to limit the age of the earth by consideration of the observed 
temperature gradient as we go downwards from the surface lost their 
basis when it was discovered that the rate of generation of heat in the 
processes of radioactive change was amply sufficient to account for the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 9 

present gradient, and would even be far more than sufficient unless the 
amount of radioactive material concerned were strictly limited. Assuming 
an average distribution of such material similar to what is found near the 
surface, a stratum of some 16 kilometres in thickness would provide all 
that is wanted. Radioactive speculation has gone further. A comparison 
of the amounts of uranium, and of the end-products associated with it, 
has led to estimates of the time that has elapsed since the final consolidation 
of the earth's crust. The conclusion is, that it must lie definitely between 
10 9 and 10 10 years. The figure is necessarily vague owing to the rough 
value of some of the data, but even the lower of these limits is one which 
geologists and biologists are, I believe, willing to accept, as giving ample 
scope for the drama of evolution. We may say that physics has at length 
amply atoned for the grudging allowance of time which it was once dis- 
posed to accord for the processes of geological and biological change. The 
radioactive arguments on which these estimates are based are apparently 
irrefutable ; but from the physical point of view, there are reasons why 
one would welcome an extension even of the upper limit of 10 10 years, 
if this could possibly be stretched. For if this barrier be immovable, we 
are led to conclusions as to the present internal temperature of the earth 
which are not cmite easy to reconcile with the evidence as to rigidity to be 
referred to in a moment. In the space of time I have mentioned, enormous 
as it is, the great mass of the earth could hardly have cooled very much 
from the temperature when it was in a state of fusion. The central portion, 
whatever its nature, and however high its thermal conductivity, is enclosed 
by a thick envelope of feebly conducting material, just as a steam boiler, 
for instance, may be jacketed with a layer of asbestos. To take a calculable 
hypothesis, we may assume with Wiechert that we have a central core 
of three-fourths the earth's radius, with an outer shell of rock. We may 
give the core any degree of conductivity we like ; for mathematical sim- 
plicity we may even regard it as infinite. Then, if the outer layer consists 
of material having some such conductivity as the surface rocks, the internal 
temperature would take to fall to one-half its original value a period of at 
least ten times the limit I have named. It is obvious that the details of 
the assumption may be greatly varied without affecting the general 
conclusion of a very high internal temperature. 

The question as to the degree of rigidity of the earth has so often been 
dealt with, that a brief recapitulation 'will suffice. It was about the year 
1862 that Kelvin first pointed out that if the earth as a whole were only 
as rigid as a globe of glass or even steel, it would yield so much to the 



10 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

deforming action of the solar and lunar tidal forces as seriously to affect 
the amplitudes of the oceanic tides, which are a differential effect. Un- 
fortunately, the tides are so much complicated by the irregular distri- 
bution of land and sea that a comparison of the theoretical amounts 
which they would have on the hypothesis of absolute rigidity with the 
actual values is hopeless. The fortnightly tidal component, due to the 
changing declination of the moon, is probably an exception, but the difficulty 
here is to extract this relatively minute component from the observations, 
and the material is consequently imperfect. The problem was attacked in 
a different way by Gr. and H. Darwin in 1881. The horizontal component 
of the lunar and solar disturbing forces must deflect the apparent vertical, 
and it was sought to measure this effect by a pendulum. The quantities 
to be determined are so excessively minute, and the other disturbing 
forces so difficult to eliminate, that the method was only carried out 
successfully by Hecker in 1907, and subsequently by Orloff in Russia. 
The results on the whole were to the effect that the observed deflections 
were about three-fifths of what they ought to be if the earth were perfectly 
unyielding, and were so far in accordance with estimates previously made 
by Darwin and others, from the somewhat imperfect statistics of the 
fortnightly tide. There was, however, a discrepancy between the results 
deduced from the deflections in the meridian and at right angles to it, 
which gave rise to much perplexity. The question was finally set at rest 
by Michelson in 1916. He conceived the idea of measuring the tides 
produced in two canals (really two pipes half filled with water) of about 
500 feet long, extending one N. and S., the other E. and W. These tides 
are, of course, of a microscopic character, their range is of the order of one- 
hundredth of a millimetre, and they could only be detected by the refined 
optical methods which Michelson himself has devised. The observations, 
when plotted on a magnified scale, exhibit all the usual features of a tide- 
gauge record, the alternation of spring and neap tides, the diurnal and semi- 
diurnal lunar tides, and so on. The theoretical tides in the canals can, of 
course, be calculated with great ease, and the comparison led to the result 
that the ratio which the observed tides bore to the theoretical was about 
•69, being practically the same in both cases. The whole enterprise was as 
remarkable for the courage of its inception as for the skill with which it 
was carried out, and was worthy of the genius which has accomplished so 
many marvels of celestial and terrestrial measurement. The perplexing 
discrepancy in the results obtained by Hecker at Potsdam is no doubt to 
be explained by the attraction of the tidal waters in the not very remote 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 11 

North Sea, and by the deformation due to the alternating load which they 
impose -on the bottom. In Chicago, near the centre of the American 
continent, these influences were absent. 

The question may be asked, What is the precise degree of rigidity which 
is indicated by these observations, or by others which have been referred 
to ? Various answers have been given, based on observations of the tides, 
of the lunar deflection of the vertical, and of the period of the earth's 
Eulerian mutation, on which I have not touched. The estimates have varied 
greatly, but they are all high, some of them extremely high. That they 
should differ among themselves is not surprising. The material is certainly 
not uniform, either in its elastic properties or the conditions to which it is 
subject, so that we can only speak of the rigidity of the earth as a whole 
in some conventional sense. Larmor and Love have shown that all the 
information that can be gathered, whether from the tides or from the 
Eulerian mutation, can be condensed into two numerical constants. This 
leaves a large degree of indeterminateness as to the actual distribution of 
elasticity within the earth. It is at all events certain that in regard to 
tidal forces the great bulk of the material must be highly rigid. 

In leaving this topic, it may be recalled that it was in this same connec- 
tion that Kelvin was led to initiate the method of Harmonic Analysis as 
applied to the tides, as well as to accomplish much brilliant mathematical 
work, whose importance is by no means limited to the present subject. 
The whole theory of the tides and cognate cosmical questions afterwards 
became the special province of George Darwin, but after his death, work 
on the tides was almost at a standstill, until it was resumed by Professor 
Proudman and his associate Dr. Doodson in the recently established Tidal 
Institute at Liverpool. They have already arrived at results of great 
theoretic as well as practical interest, some of which I understand are to be 
brought before the Association at this meeting. 

Within the last twenty years or so light has come on the elastic properties 
of the earth from a new and unexpected quarter, viz. from a study of the 
propagation of earthquake shocks. It is pleasant to recall that this has 
been largely due to efforts especially fostered, so far as its means allowed, 
by this Association. To John Milne, more than to anyone else, is due the 
inception of a system of widely scattered seismological stations. The 
instruments which he devised have been improved upon by others, notably 
by Galitzin, but it is mainly to his initiative that we are indebted for 
such insight as has been gained into the elastic character of the materials 
of the earth, down, at least, to a depth of half the radius. It may be 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

remarked that the theory of elastic waves, which is here involved, was 
initiated and developed in quite a different connection, in the persistent but 
vain attempts to construct a mechanical representation of the luminiferous 
ether which exercised the mathematical physicists of a generation or two 
ago. It has here at length found its natural application. One of the first 
problems of seismologists has been to construct, from observation, tables 
which should give the time an elastic wave of either of the two cardinal 
types — viz. of longitudinal and transverse vibration — takes to travel from 
any one point of the earth's surface to any other. It has been shown by 
Herglotz and Bateman that if these data were accurately known it shoidd 
be possible, though naturally by a very indirect process, to deduce the 
velocities of propagation of the two types throughout the interior. Such 
tables have been propounded, and are in current use for the purpose of 
fixing the locality of a distant earthquake when this is not otherwise 
known. They are however admittedly imperfect, owing to the difficulty 
of allowing for the depth of the focus, which is not always near the surface, 
and is sometimes deep-seated. This uncertainty affects, of course, the 
observational material on which the tables are based. Some partial 
corrections have been made by Professor Turner, who almost alone in this 
country, amidst many distractions, keeps the study of seismology alive, 
but the construction of accurate tables remains the most urgent problem 
in the subject. Taking however the material, such as it is, the late Pro- 
fessor Knott, a few years ago, undertook the laborious task of carrying out 
the inverse process of deducing the internal velocities of the two types of 
waves referred to. Although it is possible that his conclusions may have to 
be revised in the light of improved data, and, it may be, improved methods 
of calculation, they appear to afford a fairly accurate estimate of the wave 
velocities from the surface down to a depth of more than half the earth's 
radius. Near the surface the two types have velocities of about 7'2 and 
4 km. per second, respectively. These velocities increase almost uniformly 
as we descend, until a depth of one-third the radius is reached, after which, 
so far as they can be traced, they have constant values of 127 and 6-8 km. 
per second, which, by the way, considerably exceed the corresponding veloci- 
ties in iron under ordinary conditions. The innermost core of the earth, 
i.e. a region extending from the centre to about one-fourth of the radius, 
remains somewhat mysterious. It can certainly propagate condensational 
waves, but the secondary waves are hard to identify beyond a distance of 
120° of arc from the source of disturbance. Knott himself inferred that 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 13 

the material of the central core is unable to withstand shearing stress, 
just as if it were fluid, but this must at present remain, I think, uncertain. 

It should be remarked that the wave-velocities by themselves do not 
furnish any information as to the elasticities or the density of the material, 
since they involve only the ratios of these quantities. The relation between 
the two velocities is however significant, and it is satisfactory to note that 
it has much the same value as in ordinary metals or glass. 

It is to be regretted that at present so little is being done in the way of 
interpretation of seismic records. Material support in the way of more and 
better equipped stations is certainly needed, but what is wanted above all 
is the co-ordination of such evidence as exists, the construction of more 
accurate tables, and the comparative study of graphical records. These 
latter present many features which are at present hard to interpret, and a 
systematic comparison of records of the same earthquake obtained at 
different stations, especially if these are equipped with standardised 
instruments, should lead to results of great theoretical interest. The task 
will be a difficult one, but until it is accomplished we are in the position 
of a scholar who can guess a few words in an ancient text, possibly the most 
significant, but to whom the rest is obscure. 

Even on this rapid review of the subject it should be clear that there is 
an apparent inconsistency between the results of two lines of argument. 
On the one hand, the thermal evidence points to the existence of a high 
temperature at a depth which is no great fraction of the earth's radius, 
so high indeed as to suggest a plastic condition which would readily yield 
to shearing stress. On the other hand, the tidal arguments, as well as the 
free propagation of waves of transversal vibration at great depths, indicate 
with certainty something like perfect elasticity in the mathematical 
sense. The material with which we are concerned is under conditions far 
removed from any of which we have experience; the pressures, for instance, 
are enormous ; and it is possibly in this direction that the solution of the 
difficulty is to be sought. We have some experience of substances which 
are plastic under long-continued stress, but which behave as rigid bodies as 
regards vibrations of short period, although this combination of properties 
is, I think, only met with at moderate temperatures. It is conceivable 
that we have here a true analogy, and that the material in question, 
under its special conditions, though plastic under steady application of 
force, as for instance centrifugal force, may be practically rigid as regards 
oscillatory forces, even when their period is so long as a day or a fortnight. 
But beyond that we can hardly, with confidence, go at present. 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

I have chosen the preceding subject for this address, partly because it 
has not recently been reviewed at these meetings, and also for the opportu- 
nity it has given of urging one or two special points. It is evidently far 
from exhausted — the loose ends have indeed been manifest — but this should 
render it more interesting. It furnishes also an instance, not so familiar 
as some, of the way in which speculations which appear remote from 
common interests may ultimately have an important influence on the pro- 
gress of science. It is true that the secular investigations into the form of 
the earth's surface have an importance in relation to Geodesy, but certainly 
no one at the time of Laplace's work on this matter would have guessed 
that he was unwittingly laying the foundation of the whole mathematical 
theory of electricity. The history of science is indeed full of examples where 
one branch of science has profited by another in unexpected ways. I would 
take leave just to mention two, which happen to have specially interested 
me. It is, I think, not generally understood what an important part the 
theory of elasticity played in Eayleigh's classical determinations of the 
relative weights of the gases, where it supplied an important and indeed 
essential correction. Again, the mathematical theory of Hydrodynamics, 
in spite of some notable successes, has often been classed as a piece of 
Pure Mathematics dealing with an ideal and impossible fluid, elegant 
indeed, but helpless to account for such an everyday matter as the turbulent 
flow of water through a pipe. Recently, however, at the hands of Prandtl, 
it has yielded the best available scheme of the forces on an aeroplane, and 
is even being appealed to to explain the still perplexing problem of the 
screw-propeller. 

To promote this interaction between different branches of science is one 
of the most important functions of our Association, and differentiates it 
from the various sectional congresses which have from time to time been 
arranged. We may hope that this meeting, equally with former ones, may 
contribute to this desirable end. 

Let me close with a local reference. The last fifty years have seen the 
institution of local universities and university colleges in many parts of 
this country and of the Empire at large. Through these agencies the 
delights of literature, the discipline of science, have been brought within 
the reach of thousands whose horizons have been enlarged and their whole 
outlook on life transformed. They have become centres, too, from which 
valuable original work in scholarship, history, and science, has radiated. 
The University College of Southampton is now contemplating an increased 
activity and a fuller development. In this ambition it has, I am sure, the 
best wishes of us all. 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 



THE NEW IDEAS IN METEOROLOGY. 

ADDRESS BY 

G. C. SIMPSON, C.B.E., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OP THE SECTION. 



Before taking up the main thread of my address I should like to refer 
in a few words to the loss which mathematics and physics sustained on 
February 3rd last in the death of Oliver Heaviside. It was given to few 
men to know Heaviside personally, and to still fewer to know him inti- 
mately, yet his death was mourned throughout the world. This is not 
the place for me to give any account of his great contributions to the 
science of electricity, for they are familiar to every member of Section A. 
I would, however, like to refer to one aspect of Heaviside's work. 
Heaviside commenced his electrical work on the commercial side, but he 
retired and devoted himself to science for its own sake. Realising 
throughout .the immense commercial value of his work, he took out no 
patents and asked for no remuneration, but gave to humanity discoveries 
the money value of which cannot be estimated, so vast is it. In honouring 
Heaviside we honour one who brought great honour to British science. 

The first quarter of the twentieth century will always be remarkable 
for the great advances made in science. In our own particular branch 
the advance has probably been the most startling and has appealed very 
strongly to the popular imagination. In mathematics we have had a 
little-known and even less-understood branch of pure mathematics applied 
to physical problems with results which have revolutionised our whole 
conception of the universe in which we live. In astronomy we have had 
described to us an evolution of the heavenly bodies as real and as domin- 
ating as the evolution which the previous century revealed in the animal 
kingdom. In physics the progress made has been phenomenal. At the 
beginning of the century, it is true, we had been introduced to the electron, 
to Rontgen rays and to radio-activity ; Planck was also writing on the 
laws of radiation ; but no one realised the powerful tools which these 
phenomena were going to put into the hands of physicists. These tools 
have, however, been used, and not least by our own countrymen, to dig 
deep into Nature's secrets, even into the atom itself, so that now. we. are 
able to visualise the component parts of an atom, which itself is a structure 
far removed from our powers of perception. 

These advances have been ,the subject of a series of Presidential 
addresses before this section and have, given rise to. many interesting .and 
fruitful discussions at our meetings ; they are almost common knowledge. 

Meteorology, although a child of applied mathematics and physics, 
has hardly been touched .by the .epoch-making discoveries in the house of 
its parents. . The .quantum .has. found, no place in. our. theories of the 



] 6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

mechanism of the atmosphere ; a knowledge of the structure of the atom 
has not helped us to understand the physics of the air as we deal with it 
in meteorology ; the relationship between mass and charge, the in- 
variability of the velocity of light, four-dimensional space and all the 
other new conceptions which have been responsible for the advance of 
physics, have been of no help to meteorologists in their especial branch of 
science. 

The whole attention of physicists has been so dominated by these new 
ideas, and the vistas of unexplored country which they have opened out 
are so vast, that it is no wonder that physicists have had no interest in 
a domain in which their new tools could not be employed. The conse- 
quence has been that meteorology has had little help from physicists and 
mathematicians as such, and has had to depend, in this country at least, 
on the relatively small band of meteorologists in Government employ. 
Let me say, however, that we are grateful for the help which we have 
received from physicists, especially from those who were brought into 
contact with meteorology during the war. In spite of the fact that 
meteorology has not been able to make use of the recent discoveries in 
pure physics, there has been in the last twenty-five years as fundamental 
a revolution in our ideas of the atmosphere as has taken place in our 
ideas of electricity and matter. Unless I am very much mistaken, these 
fundamental changes in our conception of the atmosphere, both as a 
whole and in its parts, are little known outside the small band of pro- 
fessional meteorologists. I therefore welcome this opportunity of bringing 
them before the members of Section A. 

I have chosen as the title of this address ' The New Ideas in Meteor- 
ology.' It is questionable, however, whether the word 'new' is a suitable 
adjective to use, for the ideas which I am about to describe deal with 
principles and processes which are by no means new, and the ideas them- 
selves can be traced back to the last century. Nevertheless it is only in 
the last few years, in some cases only since the war, that their significance 
has been realised even by meteorologists. 

I shall divide my address into four parts, each dealing with one of the 
new ideas, namely : 

(1) The thermal stratification of the atmosphere ; 

(2) The mechanism of the atmospheric heat engine ; 

(3) The significance of surfaces of discontinuity in the atmosphere ; 

(4) The origin and structure of cyclones. 

The Thermal Stratification oi the Atmosphere. 

The fact that the temperature of the air decreases as we ascend in the 
atmosphere has been known from time immemorial, but our real knowledge 
of the temperature of the free air dates only from 1S98, when Teisserenc 
de Bort introduced his ballons-sondes, which carried self-recording instru- 
ments to heights in the atmosphere up to that time never attained and 
from which no information was then available. 

The initial success of Teisserenc de Bort in his epoch-making discovery 
of the stratosphere attracted great attention to his investigations. His 
methods were introduced into other countries and an intense investigation 
of the upper atmosphere, with an International Commission to guide and 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 17 

encourage it, was inaugurated. Iu this country Mr. \V. PI. Dines did 
Trojan service in the cause, and his observations and deductions are out- 
standing in the mass of data accumulated in many parts of the world. 
Naturally the conditions over Europe and North America were investi- 
gated in the greatest detail, but every opportunity has been taken by 
meteorologists to obtain upper-air data from all parts of the world. In 
addition to the regular observations undertaken in most countries having 
an organised meteorological service, expeditions have gone out specially 
to investigate the upper atmosphere over the oceans and over tropical 
Africa, and nearly all recent polar expeditions have included this investiga- 
tion amongst their scientific activities. 

There are, of course, large tracts of the earth's surface above which 
no observations have yet been made, but some, if only a few, observations 
have been made in all meteorologically important areas, including both 
polar regions. It is on the results of these observations that we base our 
conception of the thermal structure of the atmosphere, and meteorologists 
have attempted from them to generalise the conditions in all parts of t he world . 

The most important generalisation of this kind has been made by 
Sir Napier Shaw and published in the form of diagrams in his book, 
' The Air and its Ways.' I shall use these diagrams as the basis of the 
following discussion. 

Probably everyone here is familiar with the main results of these investi- 
gations. The atmosphere, which itself is an extremely thin film of air, is 
composed of two shells surrounding the earth. In the lower of these shells, 
called the troposphere, the temperature decreases as one rises in the 
atmosphere, and the air is warmer over the equator than over the poles 
at corresponding heights. In the upper shell, called the stratosphere, 
the temperature conditions are entirely different. There is little or no 
change in temperature with height and the horizontal change of temperature 
is reversed, the temperature at the same height in the stratosphere 
decreasing as one passes from the poles to the equator. At the earth's 
surface the mean annual temperature near the equator is 27° C, and at 
the poles — 23° C, i.e. the equator is 50° C. warmer than the poles. At 
twenty kilometres above the surface the temperature over the equator 
is — 80° C. and over the poles — 30° C. That is, the temperature difference 
between the equator and the poles is the same in amount at the surface 
and at a height of twenty kilometres, but in the former case it is the 
equator which is the warmer, while in the latter it is the polar regions — a 
truly remarkable reversal. 

The surface of separation between the two shells, called by Sir Napier 
Shaw the ' tropopause,' is extremely sharp. There is no region of 
transition. The stratosphere sits on the troposphere like a layer of oil 
on a layer of water. The boundary is, however, not horizontal, and, 
therefore, not exactly concentric with the earth's surface, being higher 
at the equator than at the pole. In other words, the lower atmospheric 
shell, the troposphere, is thicker at the equator than at the poles. At 
the equator it is nearly twenty kilometres thick, while at the poles it 
thins down to a layer less than six kilometres thick in the summer and 
less than four in the winter. 

I have already said that in the troposphere the temperature decreases 
as one ascends. The magnitude of this decrease varies from place to 
1925 C 



18 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

T>lace and from lime to time, but one remarkable result has come out of 
the investigation, and that is that the average decrease is practically the 
same in all parts of the world. Near the ground the conditions are com- 
plicated ; here the rate of decrease is largely affected by such factors as 
the kind of surface, whether land or water, the time of day and the 
time of year. If we omit for this reason the two lower kilometres of the 
atmosphere, we are able to state that the rate of decrease of temperature 
with height, to which I shall refer as the ' lapse rate,' is the same in all 
parts of the world, from the equator to the poles. The lapse rate is not 
the same at all heights, but increases regularly as one ascends. Between 
two and four kilometres above sea-level the rate of decrease is 5 - 6° C. for 
each kilometre of ascent ; the rate is greater at greater heights, until 
towards the top of the troposphere, say between six and eight kilometres, 
the rate is 7-1° C. per kilometre. 

The importance, of these results lies in the bearing they have on the 
possibility of vertical motion in the atmosphere. Whether air will rise 
or fall as the result of differences of temperature depends not only on an 
initial difference of temperature but also on the lapse rate in the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. When dry air rises its temperature falls on 
account of adiabatic expansion 10° C. for each kilometre of ascent. From 
the observed values of the lapse rate given above it will be seen that if a 
mass of air is as much as 10° C. warmer than its surroundings it cannot 
rise much more than two kilometres before it has no buoyancy left. The 
question of ascending and descending air is, however, very complicated 
on account of the condensation of the water vapour carried with it. The 
vertical motion of the atmosphere cannot be determined simply from 
consideration of the lapse rate of temperature in the atmosphere. We 
have also to take into account the pressure and vapour content of the 
moving air. This can best be done by considerations of entropy. 

Sir Napier Shaw has prepared diagrams showing the entropy through- 
out the normal atmosphere. These show surfaces of constant entropy 
which are nearly horizontal, but they slope upwards from the equator to 
the poles, especially in the lower layers (Fig. I). 1 If these surfaces could be. 
made visible, we should see a series of layers lying one above the other 
like the. strata in a geological specimen of stratified rock. 

The advantage of this method of representing the thermal structure 
of the atmosphere lies in the fact that entropy in the atmosphere bears a 
close analogy to density in an incompressible fluid. Just as a fluid in 
equilibrium sets itself with the layers of equal density horizontal, so the 
atmosphere is in equilibrium if the isentropic layers are horizontal. Also 
when a portion of fluid is displaced it will return to its appropriate density 
layer, so a mass of air displaced will also return to its appropriate entropy 
layer. 

Any mass of air retains its initial entropy no matter what its position 
in the atmosphere, unless heat is added to it or extracted. In the former 
case the entropy is increased while in the latter it is decreased. Adding 
heat to air is, therefore, analogous to changing the density of an incom- 
pressible fluid. It must, however, be remembered that increasing entropy 
is equivalent to decreasing density, so that for equilibrium the numerical 
value of the entropy layers must increase upwards. 

1 Facing p. 24. 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 19 

Applying these considerations to Sir Napier Shaw's entropy diagram, 
we see that, because the entropy everywhere increases upwards, the 
atmosphere has a thermal structure which gives it the characteristics of 
a fluid in which the density decreases upwards. Such an arrangement of 
density is very stable in the vertical direction, and it would only be 
possible for air to rise if it received sufficient heat to increase its entropy 
to that of the layer to which it is moving. If no heat is added, the air 
cannot be in equilibrium in any layer but that from which it starts. Thus, 
in all movements of the air in which heat is neither added nor extracted, 
for example by condensation or radiation, it must travel along an isentropic 
surface. Even if condensation takes place the amount of heat added is 
usually so small that the air can only move to a neighbouring isentropic 
surface slightly higher in the atmosphere. These isentropic surfaces act 
like physical restraints to the air, tending to prevent its moving in any 
but an almost horizontal direction. The effect is almost exactly as though 
the atmosphere were definitely stratified in nearly horizontal planes, so 
that all motion of the air must take place along the strata in which it 
started. 

This is what I mean by the thermal stratification of the atmosphere, 
and it is a new idea in meteorology, for it rules out ascending and descending 
currents as a direct consequence of the normal temperature distribution 
in the atmosphere. That ascending currents do occur and play a large 
part in atmospheric processes is, however, a matter of both observation 
and inference. We can actually see them taking place whenever we 
observe well -developed cumulus clouds, and we infer them from the large 
amounts of precipitation which we measure, for appreciable precipitation 
can only be accounted for on the assumption that air is rising in the 
atmosphere and cooling by adiabatic expansion. These ascending currents 
are possible in the stratified atmosphere only if the air taking part in them 
receives sufficient heat on its ascent to raise its entropy at least to that of 
the surrounding atmosphere at each level. Heat is supplied by condensa- 
tion of water vapour, but normally air does not hold sufficient water 
vapour even when saturated to supply the requisite heat, and so cannot 
pierce the normal stratification. It sometimes happens, however, that 
the stratification is less pronounced than at other times. The greater 
the lapse rate, the less the stratification, and by increasing the lapse rate 
sufficiently the stratification can be reduced to such an extent that there 
is sufficient water vapour to supply the heat required. When this occurs 
the atmosphere becomes unstable to saturated air and ascending currents 
take place, generally with considerable violence. 

Such conditions give rise to thunder-storms, which occur, as is well 
known, only when the lapse rate has been abnormally increased, generally 
by the heating of the surface layers faster than the layers higher in the 
atmosphere. Also in equatorial regions over the ocean, where the air is 
very hot and also very humid, there may be sufficient water vapour in 
the air for it to rise through the normal stratification. This is the origin 
of the squalls and heavy rain in the Doldrums. From this it will be seen 
that the ascent of air through its environment is not a normal phenomenon, 
but does occasionally occur in special circumstances. 

TLe descent of air is an entirely different matter, for there is no process 
which extracts heat from a descending current equivalent to the process 

c2 



20 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of condensation which supplies heat to an ascending current. Yet air 
cannot descend through the stratification without the necessary heat being 
extracted. On the other hand, we do know that air descends, for the air 
which goes up in the ascending currents, or rather, an equivalent amount, 
must come down somewhere. The solution of the problem is that air 
practically never descends through its environment, but comes down by 
the gradual subsidence of a whole column. This is generally brought 
about by the air at the bottom of the column spreading under the sur- 
rounding air and so lowering the air above in a way to be described in 
greater detail later. 

If now we consider the undisturbed atmosphere in different parts of 
the world, we find that each has its own stratification, which is mainly 
determined by the local radiation. At the equator the stratification is 
not so close as at the poles, and equivalent strata are higher in the atmo- 
sphere the further we move from the equator. If a large mass of air is 
transported as a whole without gain or loss of heat, no change in entropy 
occurs, and therefore it retains its original stratification. It is therefore 
clear that if masses of polar and tropical air are brought together the 
strata will not fit. The process is something like removing two geological 
specimens from different parts of a stratified rock and then placing them 
side by side. We can recognise the surface where the two masses meet 
by the discontinuity in the strata ; in geology such a surface of discon- 
tinuity is called a fault. We shall consider later the consequence of 
bringing together masses of air of different origin in this way, and it will 
be shown that they interact like separate fluids, but throughout the 
resulting motion they retain their stratification, although this stratification 
becomes modified and distorted. 

This idea of the stratification of the atmosphere which has caused us 
to recognise that ascending and descending currents are relatively rare 
occurrences raises new problems as to how the solar energy is converted 
into the kinetic energy of winds. This leads me to the second subject of 
this address. 

The Mechanism of the Atmospheric Heat Engine. 

Brunt has calculated from considerations of wind and atmospheric 
friction that 25 X 1011 kilowatts of energy are required to maintain the 
motion of the atmosphere. It is generally agreed that this energy is 
derived from the solar radiation which falls on the earth, the atmosphere 
itself acting as a gigantic heat engine to convert the solar energy into the 
kinetic energy of the winds. How the atmospheric heat engine works is 
the problem which we are now to discuss. 

Until quite recently this problem seemed to present no difficulty. 
All atmospheric motion was referred in one form or another to the ascent 
of warm air through cold air and the descent of cold air through warm 
air. The so-called general circulation of the atmosphere was considered 
to be the direct consequence of the ascent of warm air at the equator and 
the descent of cold air at the poles, there being a permanent circulation 
from the equator to the poles in the upper atmosphere, with a return flow 
in the surface or middle layers. Similarly, cyclones were considered to 
form in regions where the air is warmer than the surrounding air, with a 
consequent upward motion of the warm air through its colder environment. 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 21 

The anticyclone, on the other hand, was considered to be a region of cold 
descending air. Thus cyclone and anticyclone were regions of ascent of 
warm and descent of cold air respectively. 

But I have already shown that the thermal stratification of the atmo- 
sphere, except in the Doldrums and occasionally in other regions, is 
prohibitive of such ascending and descending currents. Further, 
observations have shown that there is no direct flow of^air from the 
equator to the poles in the upper atmosphere, and measurements of 
temperature in cyclones and anticyclones have shown that the former are 
not warm and the latter are not cold. 

Although the old ideas were wrong in detail, they were, of course, 
right in principle, for the potential energy inherent in masses of air at 
different temperatures must be the origin of the kinetic energy of the 
winds, the difference in temperature between the equator and the poles 
being responsible for the general circulation of the atmosphere, and the 
difference in temperature between neighbouring masses of air for the 
energy of cyclones and anticyclones. The only question is, how does the 
transfer from potential to kinetic energy take place ? 

The solution of the problem was given by Margules in a series of 
papers, commencing in 1903, in which he investigated the energy developed 
in storms. Unfortunately, these papers were very obscure, and, as few 
meteorologists had then realised the insufficiency of the old theories, they 
received little attention outside Vienna. 

Margules' papers were difficult because he dealt with the problem in a 
general way and treated the actual case of a compressible atmosphere, 
the density of each part of which varies with temperature and pressure. 
The physical principles involved are, however, extremely simple and are 
similar to those met with in problems dealing with the equilibrium of 
fluids of different densities. Suppose that we have a vessel in the form 
of a tank with a vertical division in the middle separating it into two parts, 
and let one of these parts be filled with oil and the other with water, both 
to the same depth (Fig. 2). If the partition is now withdrawn, the water 
settles down and flows under the oil, while the oil rises and flows into a 
horizontal layer over the water. A simple diagram of the position of the 
centre of gravity of the whole mass of liquid before and after the change 
shows that the centre of gravity has fallen. This change in the position 
of the centre of gravity has released the energy which set the liquid in 
motion. In this experiment the oil has been lifted, but it did not rise 
through the water, it was pushed up along the surface of discontinuity, 
which continued sharply marked during the whole period of change. In 
his complete investigation Margules showed that if two bodies of air 
having different temperatures are brought side by side, they react towards 
one another like the oil and water in the experiment just described, and 
he showed that the energy released by the lowering of the centre of gravity 
of the mass of the air as a whole is sufficient to account for the most 
violent storms met with in the atmosphere. 

This work leads to an entirely new idea as to the method in which solar 
energy is converted into the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion. 
Instead of warm air rising vertically like the warm gases in a chimney, 
drawing air in at the bottom and delivering it at the top, we see two 
bodies of air, one warm and the other cold, brought side by side, then the 



22 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

cold mass slowly subsiding and pushing its way as a wedge of cold air 
under the warm air, which is partly raised and partly drawn in above to 
replace the cold subsiding air. In the process the centre of gravity of the 
whole moving mass is gradually lowered, so providing the energy for the 
motion which we recognise as winds. 

The essential difference between the new and the old idea is that the 
two masses of air whose difference of temperature is the cause of the 
motion never mix. We start with the two bodies of air side by side, with 
a surface of sharp discontinuity between them. In each body there is a 
different stratification of isentropic surfaces. In the warm body of air 
the corresponding isentropic layers are all lower than in the cold body of 
air. As the cold mass subsides its isentropic layers are lowered, while 
as the warm air is raised its isentropic layers are raised with it ; but the 
surface of discontinuity between them, which I have previously likened 
to a geological fault, is a sliding surface, and no air crosses it. The sliding 
motion does not cease until either the corresponding isentropic layers on 
the two sides have joined up across the surface, which then ceases to be a 
surface of discontinuity, or until all the warm air has been raised above 
the cold air and the surface of discontinuity becomes a horizontal plane. 
The two masses are then in equilibrium without any mixing having taken 
place. 

Surfaces of Discontinuity. 

The process which I have just described would take place very rapidly 
on a stationary earth, and in a short time the surface of discontinuity 
would disappear in the manner described or appear as a horizontal surface 
with all the cold air underneath and all the warm air above. But in the 
atmosphere we find inclined surfaces of discontinuity persisting for days 
together, and others which are apparently permanent. This arises from 
the effect of the rotation of the earth, which we have so far neglected, 
but which introduces new forces when air is in motion. 

A mathematical investigation of the conditions governing the air 
motion at surfaces of discontinuity has shown that, on a rotating earth, 
the tendency of cold air to pass under warm air can be completely counter- 
balanced by forces due to the earth's rotation if the air on the two sides 
of the surface has suitable relative velocities. 

We owe the mathematical investigation of this problem chiefly to 
Helmholtz, Margules, V. Bjerknes, and Exner. When the actual atmo- 
spheric problem is considered the mathematics becomes complicated, but 
the physical processes involved are not difficult to understand. In view 
of the importance now attached by meteorologists to surfaces of dis- 
continuity in the atmosphere, I should like to discuss the physics of the 
problem in a general way, so as to give a simple picture of the conditions 
necessary to maintain equilibrium at a surface of discontinuity. This 
can most easily be done by considering the analogous problem of the 
stability of two masses of liquid of different densities maintained side 
by side. 

We have previously considered a tank holding oil and water. Let us 
now consider that the tank is indefinitely long and the partition between 
the oil and water placed lengthways. The water and oil each presses on 
the partition, but the pressure due to the water is obviously the greater. 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 23 

If now the oil is made to flow along the length of the tank a new force is 
called into play, due to the earth's rotation. This force is horizontal and 
in the northern hemisphere tends to drive the moving oil to the right of 
its motion. If the partition is on the right of the motion, the oil cannot 
move in that direction and the partition takes the additional pressure due 
to the deflecting force of the earth's rotation. Before the motion started, 
the difference of pressure on the two sides of the partition obviously 
increased from the top to the bottom. It is possible to conceive the 
motion of the oil increasing with the depth at such a rate that the. deflecting 
force of the earth's rotation would just balance the difference of pressure 
at each depth due to the difference in density. If this could be arranged, 
the pressure on each side of the partition at each point would be equal 
and the partition could be withdrawn without disturbing the equilibrium. 
We should then have the oil and water existing side by side in equilibrium 
without any tendency of the water to flow under the oil. 

In practice, however, the oil could not be caused to flow in the required 
artificial manner without introducing forces which themselves would 
destroy the equilibrium. The mathematical investigation shows, however, 
that the deflecting force of the earth's rotation, combined with gravity, 
leads to a system of forces which produces the same effect, except that the 
surface dividing the oil and water does not remain vertical but slopes at a 
definite angle. If the oil moves with the same velocity throughout, the 
surface of discontinuity remains plane and the angle of its slope depends 
only on the difference in density between the oil and the water, the velocity 
of motion, and the latitude in which the experiment takes place. When 
equilibrium has been reached in this way the sloping boundary between 
the od and water is stable to small disturbances, and deformations only 
produce waves which travel along the boundary with a definite velocity. 
The mathematical investigation of the similar problem as applied to 
discontinuities in the atmosphere has shown that the result is the same. 
Two bodies of air at different temperatures will remain in equilibrium 
side by side if suitable motion parallel to the boundary is given to the air 
on each side. The angle which the surface of discontinuity makes with 
the horizontal depends on three factors, namely, the latitude and the 
difference in temperature and relative motion of the warm and cold 
currents. Given steady motion, these three factors adjust themselves in 
a perfectly definite way, with the cold air lying as a rule in the acute angle 
which the boundary makes with the horizon. 

V. Bjerknes considers that there are three great permanent surfaces 
of discontinuity of this kind in the atmosphere, and that the slope of the 
surface in each is in accordance with the discontinuities of the wind and 
density observed on the two sides. 

Taking these in turn, the first is the great surface of discontinuity 
between the troposphere and the stratosphere. In this case the strato- 
sphere is relatively the warm body of air and the troposphere is relatively 
the cold body of air. The air in the troposphere has an easterly drift 
relatively to the air in the stratosphere, and therefore, according to the 
formulae, the surface of discontinuity should slope downwards towards the 
poles. Now we know from observation that the stratosphere is lower 
over the poles than over the equator, and Bjerknes considers that the 
observed values of the changes in wind and temperature on passing from 



24 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the troposphere into the stratosphere are sufficient to account for the 
observed slope. This is an important result, for if it is true it would 
appear that the slope of the stratosphere from equator to pole is due to 
the dynamics of the atmosphere rather than to differences in radiation. 
On the other hand, the interdependence of the various factors in the 
stability of the atmosphere is so complicated that it may not be possible 
ever to assign the relationship of cause and effect to any of them. 

The second surface of discontinuity discussed by Bjerknes is between 
the trade winds and the anti-trade winds above them. That there is a 
difference of temperature between the relatively cold trade winds blowing 
towards the equator and the anti-trade winds blowing away from the 
equator goes without saying. Also the trades have a wind component 
towards the west and the anti-trades a component towards the east; that 
is, there is relative motion parallel to the boundary. With these condi- 
tions the surface of discontinuity should slope downwards from high to 
low latitudes ; that is, the depth of the trade winds should decrease as they 
approach the equator. From the few observations we have this would 
appear to be the case, and the theory appears to receive support in this 
case also. 

Bjerknes' third surface of discontinuity, which has received the name 
of the ' polar front,' is a very important one in modern meteorological 
theory. On the whole there is very little air motion in polar regions, and 
the cap of air over each pole is losing heat by radiation and so tending to 
subside and flow away from the pole. As the air from the polar cap flows 
radially outwards it is deflected to the west on account of the earth's 
rotation. On the other hand, in middle latitudes, from near latitude 30 
to the polar circle, the air is moving in an almost unbroken stream from 
west to east. Relative to the air in the polar cap this air is very warm. 
We therefore have a cold cap of westerly-moving air embedded in a 
warmer mass of air moving towards the east, and between the two there 
must be a pronounced surface of discontinuity. In such conditions the 
surface should slope upwards toward the pole. V. Bjerknes considers 
that there are such surfaces of discontinuity associated with each pole 
and that they are very stable. These ' polar fronts ' play a large part, as 
we shall see later, in Bjerknes' theory of the formation of cyclones. 

It will be realised from what has already been said that these three 
great surfaces of discontinuity are not mathematical abstractions. They 
have a very real physical existence characterised by great stability, which 
amounts, in the case of the stratosphere at least, almost to rigidity. Across 
them, when undisturbed, air does not pass, and when temporarily destroyed 
they reform as soon as the disturbing conditions have passed. 

But these are not the only surfaces of discontinuity which play a very 
real part in the physics of the atmosphere. While the three surfaces just 
described are of a more or less permanent nature, we now recognise a 
constant succession of temporary surfaces of discontinuity which form and 
pass away in our own latitudes. Their presence is revealed in many ways. 
On the synoptic charts lines can be drawn which divide regions in which 
the conditions at the surface as regards temperature, humidity, and wind 
velocities are entirely different (Fig. 3). These lines are simply the 
intersection at the earth's surface of the surface of discontinuity between 
two bodies of air. 




?£ - £ S 2 oo vj 



Pro. 1. 
Sir Napier Shaw's Entropy Diagram 



[To la 







t/r ///// 


WATER 

m 0% 


Wit 


c& • 












W//f 


Wl^'llllli 

IIILII I 


M 


ilk 


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Fig. 2. 



WEDNESDAY, 21 st FEBRUARY, 1923, O700 G.M.T. 




Fig. 3. 



100 Kim. 200 



500 




dura Bern Rigi Sa'ntis Zugspitre Inn "".»' 

Fig. 4 Topography of the warm front surface- 



Pig. 4. 



Friday 3~ December, 1920, 0700 GMT 




Fig. 5. CHART SHOWING A DEPRESSION WITH 

WELL MARKED WARM AND COLD 
SECTORS. 



Fto. 5. 



2 MAR 26 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 25 

By means of pilot balloons, cloud heights, and other observations, it is 
possible to follow these surfaces of discontinuities for great distances from 
the place where they meet the ground, rising at a definite slope all the way. 

I have already described how the warm air is pushed up over the cold 
air along these surfaces of discontinuity. As a result of the upward motion 
condensation takes place in the warm air and cloud forms, the cloud layer 
marking out the boundary between the two bodies of air. It now seems 
very probable that all clouds which appear in sheet simply mark surfaces 
of discontinuity separating bodies of air of different origin. This would 
account for the fact that there is nearly always an inversion of temperature 
over a sheet of cloud. 

A great deal of work has recently been done in investigating these 
surfaces of discontinuity, especially by J. Bjerknes, Bergeron, and Stuve. 
By means of the mountain observatories in Switzerland J. Bjerknes has 
been able to follow the temperature and wind changes in a surface of 
discontinuity sloping upwards from ground-level in France to the summit of 
the Sonnblick, 3,000 metres higher, 600 kilometres away (Fig. 4). Stuve 
has investigated a great number of surfaces of discontinuity by means of the 
daily observations of the upper air made at Lindenberg. He finds that the 
slope of the surfaces varies greatly, but the order of magnitude is a rise of 
1 in 100, so that a surface extending in these latitudes from ground-level 
to the stratosphere would be of the order of a thousand kilometres wide. 

Helmholtz first proved that waves can be formed in surfaces of dis- 
continuity in the atmosphere. Recently Goldie has shown that such waves 
can be recognised at the earth's surface in the squalls and lulls which 
accompany winds, and he has been able to determine the height of the 
surfaces from considerations of changes of pressure and wind at sea-level. 

The ideas which I have described above receive their chief application 
in our knowledge of the cause and structure of the cyclonic storms of 
middle latitudes. The literature on this subject has now become very great, 
and I can do little more here than sketch out as briefly as possible the 
main lines along which progress is being made. The subject is still full of 
difficulty and many problems await solution, but great progress has been 
made and our new ideas are very different from the old. 

The Origin and Structure of Cyclones. 

The old idea of a cyclone was tersely expressed by Sir Oliver Lodge, in 
a letter to The Times last year, as follows : ' A cylindrical vortex with its 
axis nearly vertical, rolling along at a rate conjecturally dependent partly 
on the tilt, and with an axial uprush of air to fill up a central depression, 
which depression, nevertheless, was maintained and might be intensified 
by the whirl, the energy being derived from the condensation of vapour.' 
If this were the true mechanism of a cyclone we should expect to find 
considerable symmetry around the axis. The air would move in a continu- 
ous stream circulating around the centre but always approaching it ; 
in other words, the stream lines would be continuous spirals. There would 
also be little difference of temperature in the different parts of the cyclone, 
for the same air current would pass successively through all parts. In 
reality the conditions are entirely different. When stream lines are drawn 
by the aid of the wind arrows on synoptic charts it is impossible to connect 



26 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

them so that they circulate all round the depression ; we find, on the contrary, 
that they are discontinuous, the stream lines in certain parts meeting 
the stream lines in other parts almost at right angles. Also we find large 
discontinuities in the temperature, each set of stream lines having its own 
temperature. Also we find that the areas of rainfall are not confined to the 
central regions, but are broad bands radiating from the centre like spokes 
ill a wheel, showing that the ascending air is not taking place mainly in the 
central region. 

As the result of recent work we now recognise a structure in a cyclone 
which was unknown a few years ago. We owe this new knowledge largely 
to the work of J. Bjerknes and his assistants in the Bergen Geophysical 
Institute. 

If we examine a synoptic chart on which a newly formed rapidly moving 
cyclone is delineated, we can mark out in the southern half of the cyclone 
a region in which the air is definitely warmer than the air in the remainder 
of the field (Fig. 5). This air is moving as a south-west wind. If we draw 
the stream lines in this region we find a broad stream of air which comes to 
a sudden end on the chart at a line which starts at the centre and is curved 
in a south-easterly direction. This line is called by Bjerknes the ' warm 
front.' This line obviously marks out where a surface of discontinuity, 
similar to those already described, cuts the surface. Beyond it, at the 
surface, the wind is easterly or north-easterly, and the air is much colder 
than the air in the south-westerly stream. We are here dealing with a 
warm current meeting the flank of a cold current and mounting up over it. 
This supposition is supported by the fact that the rainfall occurs on the far 
side of the line at which the south-westerly current leaves the ground. 
The rainfall is also general and steady, which one would expect if a current 
of air is rising slowly up an inclined plane. Usually a large part of the 
southern half of a cyclone is occupied by the warm south-westerly current 
and the line of discontinuity which I have just described is in the south- 
east quadrant. In the south-west quadrant the flank of the warm current 
is in its turn attacked by cold air flowing from the north or north-west, 
and where the two meet we have another line of discontinuity called the 
' cold front.' The cold current cannot flow over the warm current, but 
tends to push its way under. The surface of discontinuity at the cold 
front is very steep and is very unstable. In consequence, we have here 
violent squalls with heavy local showers which are in marked contrast to 
the steady rain at the ' warm front.' 

When we come to trace the origin of the air which meets at the cold 
and warm fronts, we find that the warm current can generally be traced 
back to southerly regions and often to the tropical high-pressure belts ; on 
the other hand, the cold air can equally well be traced back to polar 
regions. Hence it has become usual to describe the air masses which meet 
in cyclones and are separated by the great surfaces of discontinuity at the 
cold and warm fronts as polar and equatorial air. The polar and 
equatorial air have each their own characteristics which they retain foi 
a very long time. These characteristics are interesting and important. 

On its long journey from polar regions the polar air starts cold but 
stable ; as it comes south over the Atlantic Ocean the lower layers become 
warmed up, because they are always passing over warmer and warmer 
surfaces. Thus the temperature lapse rate increases and the air becomes 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 27 

less and less stable, until actual instability occurs, and we get ascending 
currents whicb produce squalls and local showers even before the cold 
air meets the warm air at the cold front. Polar air is generally very clear 
and visibility is good in it ; this is due partly to the air having started 
from polar regions where there is little dust, and partly to the fact that 
the air is getting warmer all the time and, therefore, the relative humidity 
is constantly decreasing. On the other hand, the equatorial air comes 
often from dusty tropical regions, contains much moisture, and its relative 
humidity is always increasing. All these factors tend to reduce the 
visibility and give one a sense of damp, oppressive conditions. 

We are being forced more and more to recognise in cyclonic depressions 
the meeting-place of polar and equatorial air. These masses of air, 
retaining the characteristic thermal structure of the regions from which 
they start, are brought side by side Uke the oil and water of the analogy 
which I have already used. Each body of air is stable to vertical currents 
within itself, but where the two masses meet readjustment is necessary ; 
the surfaces of discontinuity tend to set themselves at the angle necessary 
for stability under the existing condition of velocity and temperature. 
This involves the bodily raising of the warm air over the cold air and a 
general sinking and spreading out of the cold air. The energy for the 
process is derived from the conversion of potential energy into kinetic 
energy, as the centre of gravity of the air as a whole is slowly lowered 
during the readjustment of the air masses. The energy derived from the 
condensation of water vapour is a very insignificant part of the energy 
developed in a cyclonic depression. 

So much is now generally accepted by meteorologists, but we are still 
far from clear as to the forces which bring the equatorial and polar air 
into the close juxtaposition necessary to produce a cyclonic depression. 
There are, at present, two main theories, the first due to Bjerknes and 
called the polar-front theory, and the other due to Exner and called the 
barrier theory. Both theories make use of the polar cap of cold air 
circulating on the whole from east to west and surrounded by the strong 
westerly currents of middle latitudes. Both recognise something of the 
nature of a polar front ; that is, of a marked surface of discontinuity 
separating the polar air from the warm air of the westerlies to the south 
of it. From this point, however, the theories diverge. Bjerknes con- 
siders that cyclonic depressions are definitely phenomena of the polar 
front itself. The polar front he considers has sufficient stability against 
north and south motion to be capable of having gigantic waves set up 
in it. Each cyclone commences as a wave on the polar front ; these 
waves travel from west to east, become too large for stability, and break 
just like the breakers on a shelving beach. A cyclone is, according to 
this theory, a breaker on the polar front. This idea has been worked out 
in great detail as a descriptive theory and a few individual cases have 
been discussed ; but it still lacks the necessary mathematical analysis to 
show that the forces brought into play when the polar front is deformed 
are of the right order of magnitude to account for the violent motion 
associated with cyclonic storms. 

Exner makes no use of the stability of the polar front. He considers 
that the cold air moving westwards in polar regions is deflected south- 
wards by the land masses of Greenland, tSpitzbergen, Franz Josef Land, 



28 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and Novaya Zemlya. These deflected currents move southwards into 
the region of the warm westerlies as tongues of cold air set at right angles 
to the prevailing westerly winds. These tongues of cold air act like barriers 
in a stream ; the warm air is forced to rise over them, with a consequent 
increase of pressure on the windward side and a decrease on the lee side. 
Around the region of low pressure thus formed the air circulates ; the 
tongue is deformed, the tip being bent eastwards and a cyclonic depression 
is produced. 

There is probably a portion of the truth contained in each of these 
theories, but they both fail because they make cyclones phenomena of 
the lower atmosphere, while we have good reason to believe that the air 
in the stratosphere plays a large part in the formation of cyclones. The 
reasons for this belief are many, but two will suffice. The pressure 
changes associated with cyclones are absolutely as great at the base of 
the stratosphere as they are at the earth's surface, thus indicating that as 
large masses of air move within the stratosphere as move below it. And 
secondly, Goldie has shown that the stratosphere over polar air, even in 
middle latitudes, has the same height and temperature as the stratosphere 
in polar regions, while the stratosphere over equatorial air in the same 
way retains the characteristics of the stratosphere in the low latitudes 
from which the air started. 

This has led to the idea that the movements in the atmosphere which 
transport polar and equatorial air to their meeting-place in middle 
latittides are not confined to the troposphere, but that the air moves as 
a whole, troposphere and stratosphere travelling together. 

It must be admitted that we are still far from a complete understanding 
of the mechanism of cyclonic -depression ; on the other hand, we do now 
know some features which are common to all depressions, and we have a 
much clearer idea of the source of the energy and the conditions necessary 
to their production. We have to imagine that in polar and tropical regions 
the air is relatively stagnant, and so has an opportunity to reach the state 
of thermal equilibrium appropriate to those regions. As already stated, 
the atmosphere is only a thin film, and we picture large areas or slabs of 
this film breaking away from their proper locality and moving into middle 
latitudes. Apparently the detached films move as a whole, at least to a 
considerable distance within the stratosphere. When two such portions 
of the atmospheric film come into juxtaposition they are not in equilibrium 
relative to one another and readjustment must take place. The surface 
of contact remains more or less intact, but the cold air tends to sink and 
undercut the warm air, while the warm air slides up the surface of dis- 
continuity. The whole motion takes place on the revolving surface of the 
earth, and the forces called into play by this revolution result in the air 
movement taking place in what appears to be a great vortex. The energy 
of the winds is derived mainly from the readjustment of the centre of 
gravity of the air mass considered as a whole, although the latent heat of 
condensation provides some additional energy by supplying heat to the 
warmer air as it ascends the slope of the surface of discontinuity. It will 
be admitted, I think, that this is a radically new idea regarding the 
mechanism of a cyclone. 

I might add a word here about tropical cyclones. All that I have said 
so far refers to the cyclonic depressions of middle latitudes. As to whether 



A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 29 

the mechanism of tropical cyclones is the same or whether we have here 
something more of the nature of the process described by Sir Oliver Lodge, 
meteorologists are not yet agreed. We need more observations, especially 
of the conditions in the upper air over tropical cyclones, before this question 
can be decided. At present we must leave it an open question. 

These new ideas have had a far-reaching effect on the practical applica- 
tions of meteorology, especially in the domain of weather forecasting. 
The old method of weather forecasting was mainly empirical and based 
on the work of Abercrombie. Abercrombie had sketched the distribution 
of weather about centres of high and low pressures, and forecasting was 
based on the determination of the movement of these pressure distribu- 
tions when they appeared on the weather chart, the assumption being 
made that as the pressure system passed over a place the normal sequence 
of weather would be experienced. 

Now the forecaster has much more knowledge of what I may call the 
anatomy of a depression. The pressure distribution is, of course, still the 
main factor, but the forecaster searches his chart for indications of the 
surfaces of discontinuity, and examines the characteristics of the air 
masses to see whether they are of polar or equatorial origin. In this way 
he is able to determine the structure of the cyclone and whether it is 
developing or dying. Having determined where the surfaces of dis- 
continuity are situated, he is able to say where rain may be expected, and 
he knows what weather changes will accompany the passage of each surface 
of discontinuity as it moves over the surface of the land. He is aided in 
this by observations taken in the upper atmosphere by means of pilot 
balloons and aeroplanes fitted out with meteorological instruments. 

This has all resulted in greater confidence in the forecasts made, a 
confidence which is frequently justified by remarkably accurate forecasts. 
Unfortunately, however, the processes which take place in the atmosphere 
are extremely complicated, and perfect forecasts are still far from being 
attained. The progress made, however, is very encouraging, and, what is 
still more important, the paths along which further investigation must be 
made are clearly defined. Many more observations of the upper air are 
necessary, many more theoretical investigations have to be made in the 
quiet of the study, and there is room for many more experiments in the 
laboratory. 

The problems awaiting solution are many and difficult and call for 
the highest skill in physics and mathematics. Why is it that these problems 
are entirely neglected in our great schools of physics and mathematics ? 
The official meteorologist is struggling to the best of his ability, but the 
number of meteorologists allowed to the Meteorological Office is governed 
by the practical application of the work. The official meteorologist has 
a full day's work with his official duties and finds little opportunity to 
embark on theoretical investigations. We need the help of the universities, 
and the problems we offer, although difficult, are fascinating. Shall 
I appeal in vain for the study of meteorology to be taken up at our 
universities and colleges, where there are so many men and women with 
the knowledge and ability required for the work ? 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS. 

ADDRESS BY 

Professor CECIL H. DESCH, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In entering on the task of delivering an address from this chair, my 
predecessors have often selected a special topic for consideration, but 
have prefaced their remarks by a glance at the general position of chemistry 
at the time. This precedent I propose to follow, in the belief that it is 
well for us to give attention now and then to the relations of chemistry to 
the great body of science as a whole. Two tendencies are clearly visible, 
and are profoundly affecting our methods of study and instruction, and 
also the direction of research. On the one hand, chemistry, like every 
other science, is being split up into a number of distinct specialisms, and 
workers are tempted or even compelled to confine themselves to a narrow 
field ; on the other, the boundaries between the several sciences are 
becoming less definite, through the development of border sciences, 
which themselves become new specialisms. In so far as it is possible to 
arrange the abstract sciences in a linear series, chemistry may be said 
to depend upon physics, as the biological sciences in their turn depend 
upon chemistry, the theoretical part of each being built up on the 
established laws of the preceding science as a basis. Physics has gone 
far to provide the required basis for chemistry, and each new advance in 
physics suggests new ideas in chemistry. Chemistry in its turn is pro- 
viding a basis for biology, although more slowly than had been hoped. 
Great as have been the triumphs of organic synthesis and of investigations 
of the colloidal state, the chemical study of living organisms is still looking 
to chemistry for more help than it has yet received. It is in this field that 
we may hope for the greatest advances in the near future, as the importance 
of a sound chemical foundation for biological science is more clearly 
recognised. 

Whether we look at the serious publications dealing expressly with 
the progress of science or at the mass of popular articles in newspapers 
and periodicals, we see that the centre of interest at the present day lies 
in the new discoveries and hypotheses of physics. Leaving aside the 
practical applications of physical science, such as the improvement of 
wireless communication, which absorb the greater part of the popular 
interest, there is no question but that the structure of the atom, the 
theories of relativity and of quanta, the existence of the ether, and the 
results of the examination of crystals by means of X-rays, interest the 
educated public more deeply than any questions in chemical or, probably, 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 31 

in biological science, whilst some of them are even found useful by 
journalists in search of sensation. On the other hand, there is little 
public curiosity in regard to the advance of chemical science. A few of 
its applications, and those mainly concerned with warfare, attract 
attention from time to time, although the progress of agricultural chemistry, 
the most important of all from a national point of view, is shamefully 
neglected, in spite of the admirable work which is being done at Roth- 
amsted and elsewhere. The public interest in chemistry does not extend 
far beyond poison gases and dyes. The progress of pure chemistry and 
the development of chemical theory are only followed by a small body of 
specialists, engaged in teaching or research, and of students whom our 
present system of scholarships and degrees forces more and more to 
become specialists, even at a very early stage of their studies. Perhaps 
this state of things is responsible for a certain attitude concerning the 
future of chemistry which may be traced, in implication rather than 
expression, in the work of some chemists at the present day. It appears 
to be thought that chemistry is fated to become a branch of physics, 
and thus to lose its own peculiar discipline, leaving its long-established 
methods to chemists engaged in operations of a routine character, whilst 
new knowledge is being acquired by the application of physical methods 
of experiment, and interpreted by the methods of mathematical physics. 
The knowledge of the internal structure of the atom, and consequently 
of the manner in which atoms may unite chemically with one another, 
has advanced with such extraordinary rapidity that it has seemed that 
chemical facts must henceforth be regarded in an entirely new light. If 
we accept the view, for which such strong evidence has been produced, 
that protons and electrons are the units of which all atoms are composed, 
the forces between them being purely electrical, and that the whole 
system of the chemical elements may be built up in a perfectly regular 
and systematic fashion from these units, whilst the structure of each atom 
enables us to predict how it will enter into combination with other atoms, 
then it would seem that chemistry should in course of time become a 
purely deductive science, the properties of compounds being deduced from 
the number and arrangement of their component atoms, due note being 
taken of the changes of energy during their formation, such changes of 
energy being themselves accounted for by the exchange of electrons. 
Such a conception of chemistry recalls the views which were held some 
fifty years ago as to the mechanical structure of the universe. Kirchoff 
spoke of the aim of natural science as being 'the reduction of all the 
phenomena of nature to mechanics,' and Helmholtz declared that ' the 
object of the natural sciences is to find the motions upon which all other 
changes are based, and their corresponding motive forces — to resolve 
themselves, therefore, into mechanics.' Writers of the time made it 
clear that the biological sciences were included in this generalisation. So 
simplified a view has lost ground in the course of the last half-century, 
and although the theoretical possibility of such a conception of science 
would probably find many defenders, it has been generally admitted that 
the unity of science is not best shown by attempts to reduce all its 
phenomena to those of a single kind. The acceptance of the modern 
view as to the structure of the atom has brought about something like a 
return to the position of the mechanical physicists of the nineteenth 



32 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

century. Mr. Bertrand Russell, following such ideas to their logical 
conclusion, says that 

' physical science is approaching the stage when it will be complete, 
and therefore uninteresting. Given the laws governing the motions 
of electrons and protons, the rest is merely geography — -a collection of 
particular facts telling their distribution throughout some portion of 
the world's history. The total number of facts of geography required to 
determine the world's history is probably finite : theoretically, they 
could all be written down in a big book to be kept at Somerset House, 
with a calculating machine attached, which, by turning a handle, 
would enable the inquirer to find out the facts at other times than 
those recorded. It is difficult to imagine anything less interesting, or 
mere different from the passionate delights of incomplete discovery.' 

If such a state of things were to come about, experiment in chemistry 
would be unnecessary, since all facts could be deduced from certain 
general principles and from fundamental physical constants which would 
by then have been determined with great accuracy. Of course, no person 
believes that such conditions will ever be attained, and the passage 
quoted above is only a picturesque statement of the position that all 
science may, in the last degree, be considered as mechanics. Chemists, 
however, know that this is not how their science has advanced or is likely 
to advance. Chemistry is an experimental science, which progresses by 
the application of a definite discipline, obtaining conclusions by induction 
from the observed facts, and making use of deduction from a small number 
of well-tried hypotheses where required. Granting the theoretical 
possibility that atomic theory might become so perfect that the facts of 
the chemical structure of molecules might be deduced from a com- 
paratively limited mass of data, it would nevertheless remain true that 
the labour of such deduction would be beyond human powers, except in 
relatively simple cases. We can scarcely imagine the properties and 
synthesis of indigo being deduced from the internal structure of the 
atoms of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen, although it is possibly 
true that the one is implicit in the other. Human intelligence is not 
equal to the task, nor does it seem likely to be so in the future. Chemistry 
must continue to go its own way, whilst making every use of the new 
physical conceptions as an aid in generalisation and as a means of 
co-ordinating facts. There need be no fear that it will cease to have a 
separate existence. 

Chemical science has been responsible for the introduction of a number 
of hypotheses which have survived to the present day, and it may be 
worth while to look at them for a moment, although they are familiar to 
all and attention has been directed to them by recent writers. The 
doctrine of atoms, as we all know, was not a chemical invention, but there 
is a vast difference between its use among Greek philosophers as a means 
of satisfying their desire to find a consistent explanation of the universe 
and its scientific application in the hands of Dalton as a means of explana- 
tion of the quantitative facts of chemical combination. There has been 
some discussion as to Dalton's personal attitude on this question, but 
there can be no doubt that those who did most to establish the doctrine 
attached no metaphysical importance to it, but used it frankly as an 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 33 

hypothesis to explain known facts and, above all, to predict new facts. 
For instance, Kekule said in 1867 : 

' The question whether atoms exist or not has but little significance 
from a chemical point of view ; its discussion belongs rather to philo- 
sophy. In chemistry we have only to decide whether the assumption 
of atoms is an hypothesis adapted to the explanation of chemical 
phenomena . . . and to advance our knowledge of the mechanism of 
chemical phenomena ' 

and it is probable that throughout the nineteenth century it was a matter 
of comparative indifference to most scientific chemists whether atoms had 
a real existence. All that was important was that matter behaved as 
though it had an atomic structure, and that no fallacies or errors were 
introduced by making such an assumption. The value of the atom to 
them was quite independent of any possible demonstration of its real 
existence. Gradually, as the conception of atoms and molecules was 
found to fit a larger and larger field of facts, confidence grew, and atoms 
came to be regarded as real, in the only sense in which the scientific experi- 
menter can understand reality. Molecules, built up of atoms according 
to well-established laws, shared in this confidence, which was thoroughly 
justified by the remarkable concordance of the determinations of Avo- 
gadro's number, the number of molecules in the gramme molecule of 
a substance, as arrived at by a number of totally independent methods. 
The discovery of radio-activity, whilst enlarging the conception of the 
atom, has made it possible to isolate the effects of single atoms travelling 
at a high velocity, so that the impact of a single a-ray on a fluorescent 
screen produces a visible effect, and the counting of these rays, which 
are known to be charged helium atoms, corresponds perfectly with the 
original hypothesis. When the minuteness of the atom was realised, 
chemists cannot have dreamed that a day would come when the effect 
of so extraordinarily minute a particle could be perceived by the eye and 
even exhibited on a screen to an audience. No more extraordinary 
confirmation of the soundness of the theoretical views of the chemists 
of the early nineteenth century could have been received. 

It is strange to remember that little more than twenty years ago it 
was proposed by Franz Wald, and the idea was adopted by some chemists, 
that the atomic conception might be dispensed with in chemistry, and 
that the science might advance by making use of thermodynamic al 
conceptions alone. It is certain "that such a proposal could not have 
been made by an organic chemist, to whom reasoning on structural lines 
is habitual. It has been said that the establishment of the structural 
formula of an organic compound of some complexity, such as an alkaloid 
or a triphenylmethane dye, by successive, carefully chosen steps of 
analysis and synthesis, is the best illustration of the principles of scientific 
reasoning, and there is much truth in the contention. Chemists, there- 
fore, were not inclined to follow so illusory a path, and the proposal has 
met with no acceptance. The later development of chemistry has been 
entirely in the opposite direction, that of leaning with greater and greater 
confidence on the atomic and molecular foundations of the science. 

Next came the development of structural theory, with reference to 
organic compounds, associated with the names of Kekule, Couper, Crum 

1925 B 



34 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Brown and Butlerow. Again the assumed arrangements of atoms in 
compounds were adopted in order to express the reactions of the 
substances, without reference to the real existence of the chains of atoms 
represented in the new formulse. In 1867 Crum Brown wrote : " While 
there can be no doubt that physical research points to a molecular constitu- 
tion of matter, it is perfectly indifferent to a chemist whether his symbols 
represent atoms or units ; and graphical formulae would be as useful as 
they are now, were it conclusively proved that matter is continuous/ 
Within the last few years the study of the films of fatty acids and similar 
substances on the surface of water by Langmuir, Hardy and Adam has 
shown that the properties of such films can only be accounted for by 
assuming the reality of those chains of atoms which served so well the 
purposes of the chemist, but seemed physically improbable. The examina- 
tion of solid fatty acids by means of X-rays leads to exactly the same 
conclusion. The greatest triumph of structural theory, the hexagon 
formula for benzene, need only be mentioned in passing, since it is only 
a month or two since the celebration of the discovery of benzene by 
Faraday, when the wonderful chemistry of the aromatic compounds was 
eloquently described by Sir Wm. Pope and Prof. Armstrong. Next came 
the generalisation known as the periodic system of the elements, due 
mainly to Mendeleeff and to Lothar Meyer, and finally the hypothesis 
of the tetrahedral arrangement of the atoms around a carbon atom, 
devised by van t'Hoff and Le Bel to account for optical isomerism. Modern 
JC-ray methods show that the structure of crystals of the corresponding 
substances is fully accounted for by assuming that the benzene hexagon 
and the tetrahedral linking of carbon are actually present, and the inter- 
pretation of crystals has been made possible and unambiguous by the 
existence of so great a mass of fully established chemical data. 

The point which I wish to make is that these hypotheses, of the 
chemical atom, of the molecule, of the chains and linkings represented in 
the graphic formulse of organic compounds, of the hexagonal ring in 
aromatic substances, and of the tetrahedral carbon atom, were introduced 
without reference to any metaphysical conception of the nature of matter, 
and were independent of any dogma concerning reality ; they were 
intended as working hypotheses, connecting and co-ordinating facts which 
had been discovered by the classical methods of chemical experimentation. 
That they have been confirmed by entirely independent physical means, 
so that they have become established as the truest representation we can 
have of nature, shows how sound was their foundation, and encourages 
us to suppose that the same methods which have served so well in the 
past may again be trusted to lead to new discoveries in the future. The 
remaining example which I have mentioned, the periodic law, was regarded 
by many chemists as a convenient means of arranging the facts of inorganic 
chemistry, but was expressly stated to be only empirical, since a theoretical 
basis was inconceivable. The work of Moseley, the discovery of the 
radioactive elements, and the conception of isotopes, have shown the 
periodic classification to be the most fundamental thing in the chemistry 
of the elements, and the atomic number has been found to have greater 
theoretical significance than the atomic weight. Reference to isotopes 
reminds us that this discovery also was made by chemical means, although 
its investigation appears almost to have passed out of the hands of the 
chemist into those of the physicist, since the introduction of the positive 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 35 

ray method of analysis. It was the chemical work of Soddy, Russell, 
Fleck and Fajans, establishing the fact that two or more elements, differing 
in atomic weight but identical in chemical properties, could occupy the 
same position in the periodic classification, which opened up this new and 
extraordinarily important and interesting field of research. 

Two physical doctrines, originating outside of chemistry, have had and 
are having a profound influence in the science — the ionic hypothesis and 
Bohr's hypothesis as to the internal structure of the atom. The former has 
had its opponents among chemists, although it has been generally accepted. 
One can understand the uneasy feeling of the chemist habituated to dealing 
with real things, when presented with formulae which are only strictly 
valid for infinitely dilute solutions, and are apt to break down when the 
solution reaches the concentrations at which he is accustomed to work in 
the laboratory. The modern work on the hydration of ions has made it 
more possible to reconcile the theory with the facts, but at the expense of 
additional complications. Invaluable as the conception is to the physical 
chemist, therefore, I venture to think that it should be used sparingly in 
the elementary teaching of chemical reactions. I have in view more 
particularly the teaching of analytical chemistry. A text-book of that 
subject, written entirely in the language of ions, is apt to lead the student 
to believe that the truth of the statements he is reading is bound up with 
that of the hypothesis, and to obscure the fact that the analytical reactions 
were firmly established by experiment without reference to any hypo- 
thesis, whilst they are carried out in solutions so concentrated that a 
strict application of the formulae is practically impossible. This view may 
be somewhat heretical, but I submit it for the serious consideration of 
teachers, particularly of those who have to train professional analysts, 
in whom skill and accuracy are all-important. 

The development of the theory of atomic structure, due mainly to 
Bohr, has necessarily affected modern views of chemistry. The theory 
was devised to explain the phenomena of radiation, and later proved to 
accommodate itself in a wonderful manner to those of chemical union, 
making use for the purpose of Werner's doctrine of co-ordination, another 
successful chemical theory which I have passed over in the foregoing 
sketch. In its new form it promises to do much to reduce to order the facts 
of inorganic chemistry, still so far behind the organic part of the science 
in the perfection of its logic. The static atom of Langmuir, now abandoned, 
played an important part in bridging over the gap between the planetary 
arrangement, chiefly suited to the explanation of spectra, and the present 
highly developed system. Whilst recognising the immense value of the new 
ideas, may I once more venture to utter a word of warning ? The modern 
student, in these days of higher certificates and honours degrees, tends to 
specialise in his scientific studies at a very early stage, and, if introduced in 
detail to the new conceptions while still engaged in learning the elementary 
facts of chemistry, is likely to suppose that the facts depend on the theory, 
instead of the opposite being true. In place of describing the facts deter- 
mined by analysis, a student in such a position will first give an account 
of the electronic arrangement of the atoms in question, and then proceed 
to deduce the formation of a compound, the existence of which had been 
proved a century or so ago. The danger may seem to be exaggerated, 
but it is nevertheless real. I would submit that the facts should be known 
to the student before he applies to them this interpretation, which may 

d2 



3a SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

prove so fascinating as to distract his attention from the experimental 

basis of the science. 

When we look at the enormous mass of chemical research which is 
published each year, filling a greater and greater space on our book- 
shelves, we may ask ourselves whether any progress comparable with that 
which I have been describing is perceptible. It will probably be admitted 
that the work is proceeding, for the most part, along well-worn paths, 
although sometimes with most striking results. The work on the structure 
of carbohydrates under Irvine on the organic side, and that of McBain 
and his collaborators on soaps in physical chemistry, may be mentioned 
as examples of the highest class of productive investigation now in pro- 
gress. On the theoretical side, chemistry would seem to have been marking 
time, contenting itself with waiting for discoveries in physics, which might 
then be applied. Quite recently, however, we have seen new explanations 
of the reactions of organic compounds, based on the ideas of polarity and 
of residual affinity. As we are to have a full discussion of this subject 
before the close of the meeting, in which we shall have the advantage of 
hearing the originators of the several hypotheses intended to co-ordinate 
the facts of organic reactivity describe their reasoning in their own language, 
I need not do more than welcome this new sign of activity in chemical 
thought. The doctrines have still to be submitted to the supreme test. 
The main service of the older hypotheses of atoms, of structure, &c, 
to which I have referred was not the co-ordination of existing knowledge, 
valuable as that was, but the prediction of new facts. All of them have 
passed that test triumphantly. New facts have been predicted, and the 
concordance of observation with prediction has been extraordinary. 
Confidence in an hypothesis grows with every successful prediction, until 
the mass of evidence in its favour proves overwhelming. Will history 
repeat itself in this respect ? It is to be hoped that it will do so. The 
interpretation of the reactions of the elements by means of the Bohr 
electronic groupings has been greatly assisted by the fact that those re- 
actions were already known, and it has been possible to develop the hypo- 
thesis by successive adaptations as more facts were considered, but the 
supreme test, that of predicting some entirely new range of phenomena, 
has still to be applied, and chemists will look eagerly for its success in due 
course. The same thing may be said of the theories of organic reactivity. 
Are they capable of opening up a new field of phenomena which would 
otherwise have 'remained unknown ? To this question also we shall await 
an answer. 

An unfortunate consequence of excessive and premature specialisation 
in the study of chemistry is the ignorance of many advanced students 
concerning the work of the great chemists of the past. When attention is 
mainly concentrated on the latest developments of some restricted branch 
of the science, the sense of historical perspective is lost, and too much 
weight is given to what may be only a perfection of detail. Faraday and 
his contemporaries are far too little known to our young graduates in 
chemistry. Some teachers of the subject adopt the admirable plan of 
giving an historical and biographical colouring to their teaching, so en- 
suring that their students understand something of the debt which the 
science of to-day owes to its great leaders of the past. The interest now 
being taken in the history of science generally, and the appearance of 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 37 

useful little manuals of the history of chemistry in particular, are hopeful 
signs. Our universities still lack a synthetic view of science as a whole, 
and there is little appearance of the general adoption of a philosophy of 
science which would bring about unity, but, if I may venture to express an 
opinion on such a controversial point, it is that scientific study and research, 
with its inevitable increasing subdivision, will become less satisfactory as 
a mental discipline unless connected by a broad synthetic survey of science 
as a whole. The older metaphysics having proved a broken reed, men of 
science here and there are building up a working philosophy of their own, 
and it is permissible to hope that investigators and philosophers together 
may, in due course, succeed in the construction of a synthesis in which the 
several sciences will be placed in due relation to one another, so that the 
minute field in which each investigator has of necessity to work will appear 
to him, not as a completely isolated region, but as a part of a great whole, 
the general outlines of which will be comprehended by every scientific 
worker. 

I trust that these criticisms will not be thought impertinent in one 
whose work lies in a specialised branch of applied chemistry, that of the 
common metals and their alloys, and I may now pass to the proper 
subject of this address, the chemistry of the solid state. It is remarkable 
how little we know with any certainty about the chemical properties of 
solids, although the idea of a solid is so fundamental. At the present 
time we always begin the study of chemistry with the gases on account 
of the simplicity of their mathematical treatment, but it must be 
remembered that this simplicity is the result of long study and of many 
discoveries. To the unscientific mind the solid is simpler, because more 
tangible. When men have tried to understand gases, they have expressed 
themselves in terms of solids. The atom, however attenuated it may 
have become in recent years, was in the first instance essentially a solid 
sphere, and the elasticity of gases has been explained in terms of the 
collision of elastic solid particles in motion. Newton described the atoms 
as ' solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles . . . incomparably 
harder than any jDorous body compounded of them, even so very hard as 
never to wear or break in pieces,' and this conception has been found 
useful in the course of the history of atomic and molecular theories, more 
so than the alternative view, associated with the name of Boscovich, which 
regarded the atoms as mathematical points or centres of force, a highly 
abstract idea, and one having no analogy in common experience. Our 
conception of liquids has been based in the same way on the idea of moving 
particles, themselves thought of in terms of the solid state. And yet, of 
solids themselves, whilst our knowledge of their physical and mechanical 
properties is very extensive, our chemical information is of the most 
meagre kind. It was an old doctrine that chemical reactions could only 
proceed in the gaseous or liquid states, so that chemical action on a solid 
was always preceded by the tearing off of atoms from the surface under 
the influence of electrical forces. That view can no longer be maintained. 
Chemical reactions can occur within or at the surface of a solid, but the 
experimental difficulties are sometimes such as to make the exact 
investigation of the subject a difficult matter. 

In the modern conception of a solid, the atoms are characterised by a 
regular arrangement in space, that arrangement being repeated so as to 



38 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

build up a crystalline lattice. Crystals and aggregates of crystals are 
thus the only true solids, glasses being regarded as under-cooled liquids 
of high viscosity. Since the early beginnings of the geometry of crystals 
due to Haiiy, the study of their geometrical form has reached a remarkable 
state of perfection, all the possible lattices have been determined, and there 
is perfect agreement among crystallographers as to the classification of 
forms and the optical properties of different types of crystals. The 
-X-ray method developed by Laue and by W. H. and W. L. Bragg has 
carried the matter an important stage further, by making it possible to 
determine, not only the class of a crystal, but the exact lattice possible 
to crystals belonging to that class. The connection between the chemical 
properties and the crystalline structure still remains indeterminate, 
although it must be very intimate. I shall revert to this point later. 

There are many reasons why the chemical study of solids should 
receive greater attention. In metallurgy, although metals and alloys 
may, and most frequently do, pass through a molten stage in the course 
of their manufacture, they may undergo many important changes of 
structure and constitution at temperatures far below that at which the 
last liquid portions have completely solidified, and these changes may be 
so far-reaching as to convert an alloy into one seemingly of an entirely 
different class, although the gross chemical composition has not altered. 
The petrologist, especially when dealing with igneous and metamorphic 
rocks, has to consider reactions which proceed in the midst of solids of high 
rigidity. Several industries, such as that of cement, are based on reactions 
of the same kind as those with which the petrologist has to deal. Sintering 
is not always due to the presence of small quantities of molten material 
between the solid particles, and it is now certain that union of solid masses 
under pressure may occur without actual melting. This was shown by 
Spring forty years ago, but for long, although frequently quoted, his 
results received little consideration. The most striking application of the 
principle is seen in the metallurgy of tungsten. This metal was formerly 
described as very hard and brittle, and it is not possible, by casting it and 
then annealing, to bring it to a ductile form. The method now adopted 
is to prepare it in the form of a pure powder, and then to bring it to a 
compact state by compressing, heating, and hammering while very hot, 
and finally drawing. As this process is continued, and as an originally 
thick rod becomes extended into a slender wire, the brittleness progressively 
disappears, and at last the tungsten is obtained in those beautiful filaments, 
drawn to extreme fineness, with which we are familiar in our electric light 
bulbs and wireless valves. Even several of the common metals, when 
their powders are compressed under suitable conditions at temperatures 
far below their melting points, are capable of forming compact masses 
with a mechanical strength of the same order as that of the cast metal. 
The conditions of these reactions, which have been studied by Sauerwald, 
suggest interesting questions for consideration. A somewhat similar, 
but perhaps more difficult, problem is that of the adhesion of an 
electrolytically deposited metal to its support, which is sometimes so 
perfect as to approach the breaking strength of one of the metals although 
interpenetration of crystals is not to be seen under the microscope. . 

There is another aspect of the chemistry of solids which will make an 
appeal to some who are not chemists, but amateur students of Nature. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 39 

The great beauty of natural crystals has attracted the attention of poets 
and artists as well as men of scien< e. Much of this beauty depends on 
the varying habit of one and the same crystal species. Even with such a 
common mineral as quartz, it is possible on entering a mineral collection 
to point to some of the crystals exposed, and to name their locality, when 
once the form has become familiar. The same is true of other minerals. 
Why should there be this variation, when the chemical composition of the 
distinct varieties may be identical, so far as analysis is able to give 
information ? Again, the crystalline system will not account for the 
differences in the building up of individuals to form aggregates. Rock 
salt and cuprite crystallise in cubes, and the space lattice has a very 
similar form in the two minerals, but when the salt forms multiple growths, 
the cubes arrange themselves in characteristic stepped pyramids, whilst 
the red oxide of copper may form the most beautiful hair-like threads, a 
tissue of scarlet silk, as Ruskin calls it. Neither mineral ever assumes 
a form which is characteristic of the other, the simple cube being once 
departed from. Why should this be ? It is known that the presence of 
traces of foreign matter may cause differences of habit, the most famous 
instance being that of the crystallisation of common salt in octahedra 
instead of cubes when a small quantity of urea is added to the solution, 
but the explanation of these facts is still imperfect. 

An important paper on this subject was published in the Annates des 
Mines as far back as 1818, by F. S. Beudant, who examined a large number 
of minerals and salts with the object of discovering the causes of variations 
of habit, concluding that the most important factor was the presence of 
foreign substances. This paper probably contains a larger mass of data 
than any later publication on the subject. Among recent workers, 
Gaubert has made an interesting study of the influence of impurities, 
especially of colouring matters, on habit. It was a problem which 
fascinated Ruskin, whose intimate knowledge of the forms of minerals, 
and keen desire to understand the reasons for their varying beauty, 
combined with a penetrating insight into natural phenomena, might have 
led him to discoveries of importance had he received greater help from his 
scientific friends. As it was, his chief contribution to the subject was his 
series of studies on agates and other banded formations, in which he 
anticipated some of the conclusions lately reached by Liesegang by entirely 
different methods, showing that the bands were produced by segregation 
from a gelatinous mass, and not, as had been supposed, and maintained 
until a few years ago, by the successive infiltration of fresh quantities of 
solution into a cavity. 

According to Curie, the appearance of a given face on a growing crystal 
depends on the ratio of its surface energy to that of other possible faces, 
but it has been found that such differences of surface energy as occur are 
much too small to account for the effect. The work of Johnsen and of 
Gross has shown that the appearance of a face on a crystal placed in a 
supersaturated solution is really determined by the velocity of growth in 
a direction normal to that face, those faces being produced which have a 
minimum velocity of growth. The presence of impurities undoubtedly 
has an influence on the velocity, although the effect of very small quantities 
of impurity has been little studied. Some light is thrown on the subject 
by a study of the growth of a crystal when solvent is completely excluded, 



40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the substance used being sublimed in a vacuum. This has been undertaken 
by Volmer, who finds that cadmium, zinc and mercury crystals grow in 
this way in a high vacuum. When small nuclei are present, those grow 
which have the face with the smallest velocity of growth perpendicular 
to the stream of impinging molecules. The differences between different 
faces are large, so that under these conditions either flat tables or long 
prisms are usually formed, according to the direction of the original 
nucleus. The crystal grows by the addition of thin laminae, probably 
only one molecule thick, which spread over the surface. This is likely 
to be the process when the crystal is growing in a solution or in a molten 
mass, as well as in the vapour ; and, in fact, when cadmium or tin is being 
deposited electrolytically at a cathode, or when lead iodide is being formed 
from a solution of a lead salt and an iodide, the growth of the crystal may 
be watched under the microscope, when a thin film begins to form at some 
point on a face, and extends over the face, maintaining a uniform thickness 
throughout. Marcellin had previously observed the same thing in 
j>-toluidine, the layers not being more than two molecules thick, and 
probably only one. Marcellin also found that mica might be cleaved by 
Wood's method of pressure against fused selenium, until the laminae 
had a thickness of one molecule. Moreover, there are indications that 
when molecules strike the surface of such a fresh crystal they first attach 
themselves irregularly in what is now called an adsorbed layer, before the 
film takes up regular orientation. It is realised that in the presence of 
a foreign substance either molecules or ions may attach themselves to 
such a surface by their residual affinity, and this will necessarily affect the 
addition of further layers of the original substance. In other words, the 
velocity of crystallisation in a direction normal to that face will be changed. 
As the residual affinity of different faces of a crystal must, from the ordinary 
conception of an atomic space lattice, be different, the habit of the crystal, 
that is the relative development of different faces, will be altered by the 
presence of a foreign substance. There is, in fact, evidence that dyes are 
not equally adsorbed by different faces of the same crystal, so that the 
state of things just imagined must exist. It is on these lines that an 
explanation of differences of habit must be sought. 

This possible effect of very minute quantities of impurities reminds us 
that we know exceedingly little of the properties of pure solids. Gases 
and liquids, which we commonly assume to be easily obtained in a pure 
state, have been shown, especially by Baker, to alter greatly in properties 
when deprived of their last traces of moisture, and this is true to some 
extent even of solids, Baker having found that specimens of sulphur and 
iodine had their melting points raised by 5.5° and 2° respectively when 
submitted to intensive drying for nine years. Another illustration may 
be taken from the effect of dissolved gases on metals. Most metals as 
cast contain very considerable quantities of gases, either in true solution 
or trapped during freezing by the growth of neighbouring crystals, and 
these gases are not removed completely in the later operations of forging 
or rolling. The effect of gases on the physical properties of the metal has 
been little studied, but that it may be great is shown by the instance of 
soft iron used for transformer cores. Either commercially pure iron or 
the alloy of iron with silicon which is commonly used for this purpose is 
enormously improved in its magnetic properties by melting in a high 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 41 

vacuum and extracting the dissolved, gases as completely as possible 
The hysteresis loss is reduced to a quarter or less of its original value by 
this treatment. Pure iron so freed from gases is almost as soft as copper. 
The magnetic properties seem to be more profoundly altered than any 
others, but there is evidently a wide field here for investigation. 

Impurities other than gases may exert an influence out of all proportion 
to their quantity if concentrated in the boundaries between the crystal 
grains. When the added element is insoluble, or practically so, in the 
metal, the effect is obvious, as in the famous instance of gold to which 
0.01 per cent, of bismuth has been added, the soft and ductile gold becoming 
excessively brittle, as shown by Roberts- Austen as a lecture experiment. 
Even when the two metals are miscible in the solid state it is quite possible 
that there may be a concentration of the impurity at the boundaries, if 
the addition be one which lowers the surface tension of the metal, it 
having been shown that surface tension plays an important part in the 
determination of those boundaries. Traces of oxide or sulphide are 
naturally rejected in freezing, and Tammann has found that when cadmium 
is dissolved in a solution of ammonium nitrate without the evolution of 
gas, a fine network of insoluble matter is left, representing the outlines 
of the crystal grains. Even if we imagine a metal so carefully purified 
that all these possibilities have been eliminated, it still does not follow 
that the mass is chemically homogeneous. There must be some change 
in the condition of the space lattice as the boundary is approached, and 
whether we suppose that this disturbance is limited to a layer a few atoms 
thick, or assume, as Brillouin and Rosenhain have done, that there exists 
an amorphous intercrystalline layer of appreciable thickness, one must 
conclude that there will be some chemical difference at the boundaries, 
and this is confirmed by the effect of etching reagents, which commonly 
indicate a difference in the rate of etching between the mass of a crysta' 
grain and its boundary. Chemical reagents differ widely in this respect. 
Some brasses are readily brought into a state of brittleness, in which the 
crystal grains break away from one another under shock or alternating 
stresses, and it is usually possible to bring about the separation by contact 
with a suitable chemical reagent. It appears likely that failure in practice 
most often begins under the influence of chemical corrosion. The remark- 
able feature of this kind of failure is that it is only caused by a few 
chemical reagents, and that others will attack the metal generally without 
any selective action on the boundaries of the grains. Two reagents have 
in a striking degree this property of attacking the boundaries first — 
ammonia and the salts of mercury. The latter act with extraordinary 
rapidity, so that specimens of brass may be found which will disintegrate 
completely into a mass of loose grains, like sand, within a few seconds 
after immersion in a solution of mercurous nitrate. On the other hand, 
nitric acid or ferric chloride will attack the same brass uniformly, as if the 
condition of inter- crystalline brittleness were totally absent. 

When a face of a crystal is brought into contact with an etching reagent, 
such as water for rock salt, hydrofluoric acid for quartz, or cupric 
ammonium chloride for iron, the surface is not dissolved away evenly, 
leaving it smooth, but characteristic etching pits are produced, the sides 
of the pits being evidently crystal faces. This shows that chemical 
action proceeds more readily along certain planes of a crystal than along 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

others, a fact which we should expect from the general properties of the 
space lattice. It is not explained, however, why these etching pits should 
appear at first separate from one another, the intervening portions of the 
surface being unattached. Minute particles of some impurity, causing 
local electrolytic differences, suggest themselves as a possible cause, but 
it is unlikely that they would be so evenly scattered in, for instance, a 
quartz crystal as to produce the regular distribution which is often 
observed. Minute inequalities of level, which may be of a periodic 
character, are more probable, and this suggestion is strengthened by the 
observation that a polished face of rock salt dissolves evenly in water, 
whilst a natural cleavage face shows etching pits. 

Lastly, another cause of want of homogeneity in solids is the presence 
of portions which have been deformed beyond their elastic limit. Such 
deformation alters the electrolytic potential of a metal, so that a couple 
is set up between the deformed and undeformed portions, even bringing 
about action in otherwise remarkably inactive iron of high purity used by 
Lambert in his experiments on corrosion. A true theory of corrosion will 
have to account for the formation of etching figures in apparently homo- 
geneous substances. 

It is now possible, when pursuing the study of solids, to eliminate one of 
the disturbing factors, the intercrystalline boundary, by making experi- 
ments with specimens composed of a single crystal. There are several 
ways of preparing single metallic crystals of such a size as to allow of the 
determination of their physical and mechanical properties. Carpenter 
and Elam have strained sheets of pure aluminium in tension, producing 
a small permanent elongation, and this sheet, after suitable annealing, 
shows such a remarkable increase of size of its crystal grains that frequently 
one occupies the whole specimen. Czochralski's method is to dip a silica 
point into slightly undercooled molten metal, and then to raise it by clock- 
work at a rate which just keeps pace with the growth of the crystal, thus 
obtaining a thin cylindrical specimen. Davey has prepared large single 
crystals of copper by allowing the molten metal contained in a tube to 
freeze slowly from one end, whilst tungsten filaments of great length have 
been prepared by suitable thermal treatment during and after drawing. 
All these specimens have been studied, their great ductility being a 
characteristic feature. Even so brittle a metal as zinc has an extraordinary 
ductility in single crystals. The mechanism of deformation has been 
examined in detail by means of X-rays, aluminium having been studied by 
Taylor and Elam, zinc and tin by Polanyi and his colleagues, and tungsten 
by Goucher. There is now a large body of evidence as to the directions of 
slip in a crystal during deformation, and this knowledge is essential to any 
understanding of the nature of cohesion, with which the chemical properties 
are no doubt closely connected. 

We may now turn to the subject of chemical reactions which take place 
in the interior of a solid, either originating at the surface or from nuclei 
which make a spontaneous appearance in the course of cooling below the 
melting point. A chemical change which has begun at some point in or at 
the surface of a homogeneous crystalline mass cannot advance unless the 
atoms are able in some way to change their places. Gross movements, 
represented in gases and liquids by convection currents, are out of the 
question, but the slower process of diffusion, by which atoms or molecules 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 43 

can make their way through the solid, must be possible. Only by assuming 
the reality of diffusion in solids can one explain the changes brought about 
in metallic alloys by heating and cooling, or the structure of minerals in 
igneous rocks. No very refined observations are necessary to establish the 
fact of diffusion, although quantitative measurements in this field are 
difficult. A large steel forging which has cooled slowly shows, when etched, 
triangular markings which recall the Widmanstatten figures seen in 
meteorites and are, in fact, of similar origin. From a solid solution in which 
carbon is unformly distributed throughout the crystals of iron, almost 
pure iron has separated in these characteristic bands, leaving the carbon 
concentrated in the remaining material which fills the meshes. For such 
a structure to be produced, some of the atoms of iron or carbon, or both, 
must have travelled through the crystalline steel over distances of the 
order of a millimetre in the course of some hours. Experiment shows that 
diffusion in solids, whilst naturally a slow process in comparison with diffu- 
sion in liquids, proceeds at quite measurable rates, the distribution of the 
invading atoms at different distances from their place of entrance following 
the familiar law, so that a coefficient of diffusion may be calculated from 
analytical results or from microscopical observations. The classical example 
of such measurements, and for many years the only one, is the study of the 
diffusion of gold in solid lead, undertaken by Roberts-Austen in 1896. 
It was then shown, and the figures have since been confirmed by a very 
accurate series of determinations by Van Orstrand and Dewey, that gold 
diffuses into solid lead at 200° at a rate which is i/420 of that at which it 
diffuses into liquid lead at 550°. This is not the best pair of metals which 
could have been chosen, as lead and gold form compounds with one another, 
so that something more than mere physical diffusion is involved, but the 
choice was an obvious one, on account of the delicacy of the analytical 
methods of determining the distribution of gold in successive layers. Even 
at 100° the diffusion has a measurable value. A much simpler example 
is that of silver and gold, two metals which resemble one another closely 
in chemical character and in atomic volume, so that diffusion causes less 
change of properties than in any pair of less closely similar metals. The 
experimental results prove, as might have been anticipated, that diffusion 
is a much slower process when there is so little difference in chemical 
character. The value of the coefficient of diffusion varies with the condition 
of the experiment, a solid solution which contains much of the diffusing 
element offering a far greater resistance to diffusion than does the pure 
solvent metal. The same is true of other pairs of metals, and of the 
diffusion of carbon into iron, a process of the highest technical importance. 
When the two kinds of atoms are closely alike, the tendency to diffuse must 
be small, but it is certainly not zero. By making use of an ingenious device, 
Hevesy has been able to determine the coefficient of self-diffusion of 
liquid and solid lead. Two isotopes should not differ appreciably in their 
rates of diffusion, so that when the radioactive isotope thorium B is allowed 
to diffuse in ordinary lead the experiment is equivalent to selecting a 
certain number of lead atoms and attaching labels to them by which they 
may be identified in the course of their journey. In this way he found that 
the diffusion in liquid lead near to the melting point was of the order of 
that of salt in water, but that in the solid state it was very small. Further 
experiments, using a thin foil, proved that at 2° below the melting point 



44 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the rate was 1/10000 of that in molten lead. The same method has been 
used to determine the rate of diffusion of radioactive elements through 
gold, silver, and platinum. 

The matter is, however, by no means simple. On the one hand, 
inter-diffusion at the junction of two metals proceeds in both directions, 
although sometimes at very unequal rates. Dr. J. W. Jenkin, working 
in my laboratory, has been able to show that at 1000° copper diffuses 
into solid nickel about twenty times as fast as nickel into copper, the 
observed diffusion curve being the sum of two curves of similar type. A 
further complication arises from the fact that ordinary laboratory 
specimens of metal consist of an aggregate of crystalline individuals, the 
axes of which are directed at random, so that the whole mass is con- 
sidered for ordinary purposes as though it were isotropic. It is unlikely 
that foreign atoms can travel with equal ease in all directions in a crystal, 
and the observed diffusion will be an average value. Now that single 
crystals of many metals are available it is natural that experiments on 
diffusion in solids should have been made with them, and the results are 
rather surprising. Geiss and van Liempt found that neither molybdenum 
nor iron diffused into wires consisting of single crystals of tungsten, even 
when the temperature was near to the melting point of the more fusible 
metal, whilst mixed powders of the two metals became completely 
homogeneous on being heated for a few hours at the same temperature. 
In a similar way, Hevesy has found that his radioactive isotopes do not 
diffuse appreciably through a sheet consisting of a single crystal of lead. 
An explanation has been offered, based on the assumed existence of a layer 
of amorphous material between the crystalline grains. It is supposed 
that diffusion throiigh the mass of the crystal does not occur, and in favour 
of this view Hevesy notes the fact that in different specimens of lead, 
varying in the size of their crystal grains, diffusion was much slower in 
that which had the largest grains, and therefore the smallest propor- 
tion of intercrystalline substance. On the other hand, microscopical 
observation of such pairs of diffusing metals as copper and nickel prove 
that the advance of the diffusing metal, as shown by the change of colour, 
proceeds through the whole mass, and not merely along the boundaries. 
Indeed, it is hard to see how any mass of metal could become homogeneous 
if diffusion were confined to inter-granular boundaries, as it is certain 
that the position of those boundaries may remain unchanged throughout 
the whole of the experiment. Hevesy finds that polonium, which is not 
isotopic with lead, diffuses through lead foil or through a single crystal of 
lead at the same rate, and suggests, as he has done regarding diffusion in 
solids in general, that the process is one of loosening of the space lattice, 
the invading atoms travelling through the progressively loosened patches. 
It remains to be seen whether the X-rays afford any support for this view. 
On the other hand, it may be suggested that much will depend on the 
particular crystal face selected for an experiment, as it is certain that if 
true diffusion through a crystal be possible — and I fail to see how such an 
assumption can be dispensed with — it must be much easier in the direction 
of certain crystalline planes than across them. This point calls for a 
systematic examination. 

When a liquid mixture of two substances which are miscible in the 
solid as well as in the molten condition, such as an alloy of copper and 



B.— CHEMISTRY. t.j 

nickel or a fused mass of albite and anorthite, begins to solidify, the 
composition of the crystals has to adjust itself continuously in order to 
maintain equilibrium with the changing liquid phase, as was shown by 
Roozeboom in his classical work on solid solutions. Such an adjustment 
is only possible by means of diffusion, and when cooling is sufficiently 
slow, the adjustment does in fact keep pace with the change in the liquid, 
but with more rapid cooling the interior of each crystal differs in com- 
position from its outer layers, there being a concentration gradient from 
the centre to the boundary. This condition produces the ' cored ' crystals 
which are familiar to every metallurgist, and the ' zoned ' crystals of the 
mineralogist. In most alloys this want of homogeneity disappears after 
a sufficiently long period of heating at some temperature below that of 
which the first drops of liquid are formed, but alloys of bismuth and 
antimony fail to become uniform even after weeks of annealing, whilst 
the felspars and similar minerals have never been persuaded to lose their 
zoned structure by any methods known in the laboratory. 

Bruni has shown and Vegard has confirmed the observation by the 
X-ray method, that true interdiffusion occurs between potassium and 
sodium chlorides when mixed and heated in the solid state. Electrolytic 
transport is observed in the solid halides of silver and in mixtures of silver 
and copper sulphides, but the modern view of the structure of such sub- 
stances represents them as built up of ions rather than of neutral atoms, 
and this must be taken into account in any interpretation of the facts. 
The apparent absence of diffusion in minerals which have once solidified, 
even when given geological periods of time, is a serious difficulty in the 
way of any general theory of diffusion. Such examples of the passage of 
alkali metals through quartz and other silicious minerals under the 
influence of a difference of electric potential are probably not instances 
of true diffusion at all, but merely of the passage of traces of impurities 
through a mass which is not completely impervious. We have always 
to bear in mind that crystals, whether of natural origin or prepared in 
the laboratory, are rarely perfect, and may contain cavities and capillary 
passages through which matter may pass without disturbing the crystalline 
lattice. This idea of the imperfection of crystals has found an interesting 
application in the work of A. A. Griffith on the rupture of solids and of such 
semi-solid substances as glass and fused silica. The tensile strength of 
metals and of these substances is far smaller than would be expected from 
calculations of the theoretical cohesion of the materials. Griffith supposes 
that actual solids and glasses contain innumerable fine cracks, which 
reduce the strength. By special means he has been able to prepare rods 
of glass and silica in an unstable state, in which their strength and 
elasticity are enormously greater than in their normal condition. It has 
even been suggested that means may be found for bringing our ordinary 
metals and structural materials into a similar condition, which would 
enable them to withstand loads several times greater than those which 
are normally possible, although the prospect of a sudden return to the 
stable condition with its accompanying weakness may alarm the engineer. 

However, the use of materials in an unstable condition is already 
familiar to metallurgists. Hardened steel is an instance. At high tem- 
peratures the structure of most of our steels is homogeneous, the carbon 
being in solid solution in the iron, which is then in the y-condition. As 



46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the temperature falls, the iron changes into a modification which is stable 
at lower temperatures and loses its power of holding the carbon or carbide 
molecules (for the X-rays have so far failed to determine how the carbon 
atoms are grouped in the space lattice) in solution, so that separation 
occurs, and a-iron and cementite, Fe 3 C, crystallise from the mass, two 
solid phases now being present in place of one. The scale of the separation 
may vary greatly according to the time occupied by the process. No 
separation can occur without diffusion, and the transport of atoms or 
molecules through the solid mass takes an appreciable time, which is 
greater the lower the temperature, so that it is much less perfect when 
the steel is cooled rapidly than when ample time for diffusion is permitted. 
Consequently, the size of the molecular aggregates of cementite may vary 
from that of ultramicroscopic particles, so small and offering so large a 
surface to the action of chemical reagents that the mass is stained black 
or brown by acids, in which case the mixture is known as troostite, to 
the comparatively coarse, although still microscopic scale of the well- 
known laminated pearlite, in which the thin alternate sheets of ferrite and 
cementite, like the fine sheets in mother-of-pearl, can produce colours by 
the diffraction of light, whence the pearly appearance noticed by Sorby 
in the first exact scientific study of the microscopic structure of a metal. 

Now let the cooling be so rapid that a distinct separation into two 
phases, even on an ultramicroscopic scale, does not occur. The rearrange- 
ment of the iron atoms in their space lattice, in this instance from the face- 
centred cubic arrangement of the y-iron into the body-centred cubic 
arrangement of a-iron, still takes place, but the crystallisation of cementite 
as a separate phase is prevented. The result is that a new structure is 
obtained, known as martensite, in which the iron is, at least for the greater 
part, in the a-forrn, as is proved by its X-ray examination and by its 
magnetic properties, but in which the carbide is held, either in unstable 
solid solution in a-iron, in which it is normally insoluble, or as sheets of 
molecules parallel with the octahedral planes of the iron. Both views 
have their supporters, but I must profess a leaning towards the second. 
Whichever be correct, it is certain that this unstable condition is associated 
with great hardness and lack of plasticity, and it is necessarily present 
in fully hardened steels. Still more rapid cooling may suppress both the 
change in the lattice and the separation into phases, the solid solution 
which is stable at high temperatures being preserved during cooling, so 
that a part of the iron is still in the y-condition, and holds carbon atoms 
in a homogeneous fashion within its structure. As such a cooled solid 
solution is not hard, the steel is actually rendered less hard and brittle 
when the quenching is so severe than if it had been cooled somewhat less 
rapidly. The transformation of the iron, however, occurs with such ease 
that it is only when the proportion of carbon is rather large, or when 
some other metal is present, that this condition can be observed. 

It is the addition of foreign metals which has brought about the most 
remarkable changes in the properties of steels, out of which there has 
grown a new and important industry — that of the alloy steels. The 
presence of foreign elements in the original solid solution has a powerful 
influence on the rate of change in the system. As a general rule, the change 
from one lattice to another and the passage of a constituent, such as 
carbide, out of or into solution are greatly retarded by the presence of 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 



-17 



alloying elements, a striking example being that of Hadfield's manganese 
steel, containing about 12 per cent, of the added metal, the effect of which 
is to delay the change to such an extent that with fairly rapid cooling the 
solid solution is perfectly preserved so that the steel is relatively soft, its 
chief peculiarity lying in the fact that any deformation brings about a 
partial change, producing the hard martensitic structure wherever there 
is flow. This is the reason for the extraordinary resistance of the alloy 
to abrasion, and for other properties which, being mechanical, lie outside 
the scope of the present discussion. 

Only a comparatively small number of metals will produce useful alloy 
steels. Those metals include, first, the immediate neighbours of iron, 
namely, cobalt and nickel, which resemble it so closely in most of their 
properties, and next the A members of the groups VI and VII of the 
periodic classification, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and manganese. 
The next horizontal neighbour of nickel is copper, but it has only a very 
limited value as a constituent of steel, and its related elements are appar- 
ently of no use for this purpose. Uranium, the heaviest metal of the 
chromium group, does not alloy readily with iron, and the claims which 
have been made for its beneficial influence have not been confirmed. A 
small group of non-metals, all near neighbours of carbon, can enter into 
the composition of steels, namely boron, silicon, nitrogen and phosphorus, 
all of which have their uses in this connection. Between the two groups 
lies the metal vanadium, which is very valuable when added in small 
quantities to steels. It would be of interest to study the two homologues 
of manganese, the metals having the atomic numbers 43 and 75, the 
discovery of which has been claimed quite recently, from this point of 
view if they should ever be found in sufficient abundance. The com- 
panions of the ferrous metals in group VIII, the platinum metals, do not 
appear to form alloy steels of any importance. An alloying element, 



Li 

Na 



B 


C 


N 







F 








Al 


Si 




P 


V 




CI 












Ti 


C 


r 


Ma 


Fe 


Co 


Ni 






Zr 




Nb 


Mo 




Ru 


Rh 


Pd 




Hf 




Ta 


W 




Os 


Ir 


Pt 






Th 




Po 


u 











Cu 

Ag 
Au 



Zn 

Cd 
Hg 



to be of value, must be able to enter into solid solution in y- or a -iron or 
both, or to form a carbide which can do so. By varying the composition 
of alloy steels, and by subjecting them to different thermal treatments, 
a wide range of properties may be obtained, and the number of possible 
components being so large, it is clear that a very extensive field is offered 
for investigation. As a rule, only those alloys which lie within certain 
limits of composition have practical value, but dogmatism on this point 
is undesirable, and new and unexpected properties may be discovered 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

in a series of alloys when carefully investigated — witness the remarkable 
discovery of Permalloy, containing 78.5 per cent, of nickel, the remainder 
being iron, the extraordinarily high magnetic permeability of which 
in low fields was quite unforeseen and has proved of the utmost value to 
the manufacturer of cables. The rule given above as to the position of 
useful alloying elements in the periodic classification holds good, however, 
and the claims so frequently made for the virtues of some of the rare 
elements as additions to steel almost invariably prove to be baseless. 
Other metals than those mentioned may be of some use in the process of 
manufacture by serving to remove oxygen or. some other undesirable 
impurity, but this is not alloying, the substance used as a ' scavenger ' 
disappearing from the metal in the process and being removed in the slag. 
Of metallic alloys other than steel, the number of possible combina- 
tions is so large that only a minute fraction has been investigated. So 
far there is no rule by which we can mark out, in the neighbourhood of 
each metal in the periodic classification, a region within which useful 
alloying constituents may be found, but it is probable that further work 
will indicate such a possibility. The modification in the properties of a 
metal brought about by aiding depends largely on the formation of solid 
solutions, and when these vary in concentration with change of temperature, 
that is, when one or other constituent partly separates from solution on 
lowering, or sometimes on raising, the temperature, there is a possibility 
of changing the properties of the alloy by suitable thermal treatment. 
To a large extent this possibility has been neglected in respect of non- 
ferrous alloys, but experience with the light alloys of aluminium has 
shown how important such effects may be. Duralumin, which is composed 
of aluminium alloyed with copper and magnesium, was first found to 
vary in mechanical properties when its thermal treatment was altered, 
and its behaviour, which is shared by some other alloys of aluminium, 
has been explained on the basis of observations made chiefly at the 
National Physical Laboratory and at the U.S. Bureau of Standards. It 
appears that certain of the constituents of these alloys, especially 
magnesium silicide, Mg. 2 Si, and the compound CuAl. 2 , are more soluble 
in the solid metal at high temperatures than at low, and that their state 
of aggregation in the cold alloy depends on the rate of cooling. When 
first separated from solution, these compounds are dispersed in a condition 
of ultramicroscopic fineness, but when sufficient time is allowed, diffusion 
enables them to form larger and larger particles, there being a certain 
degree of dispersion which is associated with the best mechanical properties. 
In light alloys, as in steel, the degree of dispersion of one of the solid 
phases throughout another plays a great part in determining the properties 
of the composite mass. In this respect alloys resemble colloidal systems, 
and analogies may be found between the two, but nothing is gained by 
representing metallography as a branch of the chemistry of colloids, and 
certainly nothing by the restatement of familiar metallographic facts in 
terms of the formidable nomenclature with which that important branch 
of chemistry has been saddled by some of its enthusiastic advocates. 
Metallographic structure is essentially a matter of the distribution of solid 
phases in a system, and the scale of subdivision of one of the phases, 
although of immense practical importance, is not a factor which alters 
the fundamental character of the relation between components and phases. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 49 

The theoretical part of metallography by means of which we interpret 
the thermal and microscopical observations of the laboratory is based on 
the doctrine of phases of Willard Gibbs. The purely thermo-dynamical 
treatment is, however, too abstract, and it is the simple temperature- 
concentration diagram which is invariably used to represent equilibria in 
alloys, igneous rocks, or such artificial mixtures as cements. Only rarely 
is it necessary to appeal to the formal statement of the phase rule, most 
of the systems being simple enough for the number of possible phases at a 
given temperature to be obvious on inspection, whilst the vapour phase 
may usually be neglected. Systems of three components are represented 
by a three-dimensional model on a triangular base or by sections through 
the model, or by projections on to its base. For four components, the 
tetrahedral model is used, mainly in the form of sections, whilst for systems 
of greater complexity several devices have been proposed, but the study 
of alloys and mineral mixtures has scarcely progressed so far as to have made 
any serious demand for them. In time to come, both the metallurgist 
and the petrologist will need a means of representing such complex 
examples, but that stage will be reached by gradual steps. Allotropy of the 
dynamic kind represents difficulties, but it is not yet certain that the 
rather abstruse treatment adopted by Smits is necessary to its study, 
although evidence is accumulating that two allotropic forms may co- 
exist over a range of temperature within a solid, equilibrium only being 
attained with great difficulty. The metallurgist and the chemist interested 
in cements or other silicate mixtures has continually to bear in mind that 
he is dealing with systems which are not easily brought into equilibrium, 
and that for many practical purposes they are deliberately used in an 
unstable condition, persisting on account of the great resistance to move- 
ment within a solid, to which I have already referred. The equilibrium 
diagram serves as a guide, even to metastable systems, if the diagram be 
used to indicate the phases which may be expected to appear when under- 
cooling occurs, and due use is made of the knowledge of undercooling 
which we owe to Miers and to Tammann. This is a most interesting branch 
of metallography, the theory of which is in course of development. Bowen, 
of the Geophysical Laboratory at Washington, has proposed another 
manner of studying the order of crystallisation in the liquid and solid 
states in mixtures of high viscosity, such as igneous rock magmas, and it 
is on the wonderful experimental work of that institution that the modern 
study of silicates on lines similar to those which have served so well in 
metallography is based. Bowen's reaction principle has to be reconciled 
with the theory of undercooling worked out for salts by Miers and for 
glassy materials by Tammann, and applied with success to steels by 
Hallimond. Metastable or labile conditions may persist indefinitely when 
the viscosity of the system is great enough, hardened steels and prehistoric 
bronzes having undergone no perceptible change in structure in the course 
of centuries, although Barus and others have shown that a secular change 
in the electrical resistance may be detected in steels, indicating a very small 
amount of reversion to the stable condition. 

Chemical reactions in the midst of a solid may be prevented from 

reaching equilibrium by the formation of a layer of the solid product 

between two reacting substances. When a layer of this kind has been 

formed, further reaction is only possible by diffusion of atoms through it> 

1925 k 



50 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and it will evidently depend on the closeness of packing of the molecules 
in that layer whether diffusion is easy or difficult. As a rule, it is probably 
more difficult than in the original solid, and we therefore find on micro- 
scopical examination that crystals of the two reacting substances, whether 
pure metals, solid solutions, or intermetallic compounds, are separated by a 
zone consisting of the product of reaction, which may be very persistent, 
although its breadth gradually diminishes on annealing. This effect is 
well seen, for instance, in alloys of copper with antimony. 

An interesting class of reactions is that which includes the de- 
composition of a crystalline solid, one of the products escaping in the form 
of a gas whilst the other remains solid. From the nature of the curves 
connecting decomposition and time Hiittig and others have concluded 
that the escaping molecules must be able to traverse the crystal freely 
without serious dislocation, but this view is not confirmed by examination 
by means of X-rays or in any other independent manner. On the other 
hand, Hinshelwood has examined a number of such reactions in detail, 
giving special attention to the physical condition of the crystals before 
and after decomposition, and his experiments are not only of a higher 
order of accuracy but they include a study of the physical conditions of 
the reaction. The decomposition of the permanganates by heat has been 
found to be a convenient one for this purpose, since it proceeds at a moderate 
temperature, and the reaction is undoubtedly monomolecular. The initial 
rate of decomposition of silver and potassium permanganates is greatest 
when the solid is finely powdered, but when crystals of appreciable size 
are used the decomposition proceeds at an accelerated rate, as the crystals 
become disintegrated. The results prove that the reaction is confined to 
the surface, and that it can only proceed inwards as the texture is loosened, 
so that diffusion does not play a part in the process, at least when the 
temperature is such that the decomposition is nearly complete in an hour 
or two. When solid solutions of potassium permanganate in potassium 
perchlorate are used, the latter salt being stable under the conditions of 
the experiment, the rate of decomposition is lessened, the observed effect 
corresponding closely with that which is calculated from the heat of forma- 
tion of the solid solution, a quantity which has been directly determined. 
Some similar decompositions are more complex owing to the catalytic 
effect of one or other of the products of reaction. The hindering effect of a 
solid coating, already referred to in connection with reactions in the 
interior of metallic alloys, is seen in the decomposition of ammonium 
dichromate by heat, large crystals becoming coated with an adherent 
layer of chromium oxide, which retards further decomposition. 

Very recently Kurnakoff has studied the gradual change in the state 
of oxidation and hydration of vivianite, an hydrated ferrous phosphate. 
When first produced, these crystals are colourless, but they become 
blue as oxygen is absorbed, a part of the iron passing into the ferric state. 
Moreover, the degree of hydration may vary as water is taken up from 
without. During these changes it is stated that the structure of the 
mineral remains unaltered and the crystals remain homogeneous, the 
optical properties varying continuously, but it does not appear from the 
abstract that any .X-ray examination has been made. Such behaviour 
recalls that of the zeolites, the structure of which is probably loose. It is 
unlikely that any closely packed crystal could behave in this way. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 51 

A new field of investigation has been opened np by Tammann in his 
attempts to determine the arrangement of the atoms in solid solutions by 
purely chemical means, by studying the action of chemical reagents on 
the solid. It is a familiar fact that the ' parting ' of silver and gold in 
assaying, which consists in dissolving out the silver from the alloy by 
means of nitric or sulphuric acid, is only possible when the silver forms 
more than 60 per cent, of the alloy. When gold is present in excess of 
this proportion, only a little silver is removed from the surface, and the 
action then comes to a standstill, the acid being unable to penetrate to 
the interior. Assuming the alloy to be completely crystalline, the atoms 
of silver and gold will occupy the points of the space lattice, and as the 
two metals have face-centred lattices of only slightly differing dimensions, 
the amount of distortion will be small. There are, however, different 
ways of arranging the two kinds of atoms. They may be distributed at 
random, or they may be so regularly arranged as to form two inter- 
penetrating cubic lattices. The two forms of distribution may be dis- 
tinguished by means of the X-rays, but Tammann has also drawn 
conclusions on the point from the action of various reagents on the alloys. 
He finds that each reagent which attacks silver ceases to act on the alloys 
when the proportion of gold atoms in solution exceeds a certain limit, 
which is not the same for different reagents, but which he states to be 
always capable of being expressed as 1/8, 2/8, 3/8, &c, of the total number 
of atoms. The limits so found are not consistent with the distribution 
according to the laws of probability, but they may be accounted for by a 
regular distribution on the assumption that a certain number of inactive 
atoms is necessary to protect each atom of silver. The varying action of 
different reagents depends on the number of silver atoms which react 
with each molecule of the reagent. Thus, nitric acid attacks single atoms 
of silver, solutions of sulphides need two silver atoms, whilst osmium 
tetrachloride requires four. On the basis of these results, an ingenious 
theory of the action of reagents on solid solutions has been constructed, 
and although the accuracy of the experimentally determined limits is not 
high, and there are several exceptions to the rules, an interesting case has 
been made out. Similar limits are found in the precipitating action of 
alloys on salts of less electropositive metals, and in the electrolytic potential 
of alloys. 

Considerations of this kind point to the possibility of a new form of 
isomerism among solids, due to the differing arrangements of the same 
atoms on a space lattice. It is claimed that such instances have been 
found. Alloys prepared by the simultaneous electrolytic decomposition 
of two metals have different chemical properties and different potentials 
from the alloys of the same composition prepared by fusion, the former 
indicating a random distribution of the two species of atoms in the lattice, 
and the latter an ordered one. Annealing of the first causes the structure 
to pass over into the stable, regular arrangement. Other properties may 
also be used as a test. Crystals of sodium chloride containing a small 
quantity (0-064 mol.) of silver chloride, when prepared from solution, 
readily become purple in light, whilst crystals of the same composition 
prepared by fusion are permanent for months. It is, however, quite 
possible that the former are not closely packed, and most of the facts cited 
by Tammann are capable of other explanations, but the hypothesis is 

e2 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

highly suggestive in regard to the study of solid solutions by chemical 
means. In all such work it is important to remember that the size of 
the crystals, the possibility of the material having been cold worked 
previously to testing, and other physical and mechanical factors must 
be taken into account. The properties of single crystals in this connection 
are unknown, and the preparation of single crystals of solid solutions is 
much more difficult than that of pure metals, so that further work will 
be required before any definite opinion can be given as to the validity of 
Tammann's conclusions. 

As a consequence of the early studies of crystals by means of X-rays, 
some metallurgists were at first disposed to accept the conclusion that the 
chemical molecule ceased to exist in the solid state. This generalisation, 
which was instinctively felt by chemists to be improbable, was premature. 
Crystals of elements are clearly so constructed that all atoms are similarly 
related to one another, and there is then no group intermediate between 
the atom and the whole crystal, whilst crystalline salts are best regarded 
as built up of ions, every chlorine atom in rock salt being equally related 
to six sodium atoms and so forth, but these conditions do not exhaust 
the possibilities. Organic compounds undoubtedly retain the chemical 
molecule, or some simple multiple of it, in the solid state, and the same 
is true of the very interesting class of compounds which metals form 
with one another. These are of a non-polar character, and hence have 
long puzzled chemists on account of their utter disregard of valency. 
Such a compound as NaHg 2 melts at 360°, or more than 260° above its 
less fusible component, and is largely undissociated in the molten con- 
dition. It evidently represents a very stable union of the sodium and 
mercury atoms, and it has many analogues. The intermetallic compounds 
have several features of interest. Their space lattice arrangement has 
been studied in a number of instances, but the correlation of their chemical 
properties with their atomic and crystalline structure still remains to be 
undertaken. 

If our knowledge of the chemical properties of the interior of a crystal 
be very incomplete, what are we to say of its surface ? Of this we know 
still less. Even in a crystal of a pure metal there must be some difference 
in the structure at the immediate surface, on account of the unsymmetrical 
forces between the atoms in the outermost layer and its neighbours. For 
so far as the radius of sensible atomic forces extends, therefore, there must 
be a condition different from that which prevails at a depth below the 
surface. One consequence is that the surface has residual affinity, which 
shows itself in the ease with which foreign atoms or ions will attach them- 
selves to it. That the forces acting are chemical is shown by the great 
effect on the extent of adsorption of the chemical character of the solid 
and of the adsorbed substance. Films, often one atom thick, attach 
themselves to the solid, and are only removed with the greatest difficulty. 
Their presence makes the investigation of the properties of a surface 
difficult, as the surface actually examined may be in reality quite different 
from that which is assumed to be present. In photochemical experiments 
-with mercury it is usual to prepare a completely fresh surface of the liquid 
metal by causing it to flow continuously in a fountain, but this device 
cannot be applied to solids. Only rarely can experiments be made with 
perfectly defined solid surfaces. Films of metal prepared by sublimation 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 58 

or sputtering in a vacuum are probably the most under control, but other 
surfaces are commonly covered by invisible films. Little trust is to be 
put in determinations of the angle of contact of liquids with solids, a 
property of great theoretical and practical importance, since the solid 
surface actually examined is covered with a film of foreign atoms. 
Schumacher has recently shown that mercury wets glass and silica more 
and more readily as care is taken to remove films from them, and the 
property of not being wetted by mercury is probably not one of glass 
and silica, but of those substances coated with a film of gas. Metals 
most readily take up atoms of oxygen or other elements, forming persistent 
films, which play an important part in the phenomena of resistance to 
corrosion. Purely physical theories of passivity are not satisfactory, and 
it seems to be impossible to explain that property without assuming the 
presence on the surface of an invisible film, which is probably responsible 
for, among other things, the high resistance of certain chromium steels 
and other alloys to corrosion. 

There is one way of preparing a fresh surface of a crystalline solid 
for examination, and that is by cleavage. A freshly cleaved plate of a 
mineral may be supposed to be clean at the moment of its formation, 
although it will rapidly take up foreign atoms from the surrounding gas. 
It was known as far back as 1846 that a fresh cleavage of mica had different 
properties from one which had been exposed to the air for a time, and 
this was attributed by P. Reiss to the absorption of moisture. Tammann 
has made the interesting observation that a fresh surface of mica is more 
soluble in water than an older one. Washing with water immediately 
after cleaving extracts a quantity of alkali salts which is much above 
the normal solubility of mica, and later washings extract only the normal 
quantity. It is suggested that the separation of the flakes of mica exposes 
the alkaline part of the molecules, which would be more readily attacked 
by water than the silicious part. Assuming that molecules are arranged 
perpendicularly to the cleavage planes, we may think of the act of cleaving 
as exposing the soluble ends, as if the molecules of mica were an array of 
hermit crabs with their soft unprotected ends exposed to attack. It will 
be interesting to see whether the X-ray examination of mica confirms tlm 
arrangement. Again, however, a word of warning as to the effect of 
possible impurities must be uttered. Natural minerals are not pure, and 
any uncombined alkaline salts present might well segregate along cleavage 
planes in the process of crystallisation, and so give rise to the effect noticed 
above, but the figures recorded by Tammann are striking and suggestive. 

In this hurried review of a large field it may seem that I have presented 
rather our ignorance than our knowledge, my intention having been to 
show how much remains to be done before we can understand the chemical 
relations of solids as we do those of liquids and gases. One department 
of research is, however, more advanced than might have been supposed 
from my brief references to it. That is the study of the internal changes 
in metallic alloys as revealed by the microscope and by thermal and 
electrical methods. Metallography has made wonderful progress since 
the days of Sorby, and it would repay students of physical chemistry to 
give some attention to its main results, even though they may not intend 
to make a special study of the subject. Nowhere are the benefits of the 
doctrine of phases of Willard Gibbs to be more clearly traced, whilst the 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

recognition of every change of phase by microscopical examination, making 
use of a technique which has been brought to a high state of perfection, 
gives concrete reality to the study by direct verification of its conclusions. 
To understand more thoroughly the mechanism of these changes in alloys 
and to extend its application to salts, minerals and rocks, we need a fuller 
knowledge of the relation between crystal structure and chemical 
behaviour. Research on the mechanical side is discovering the direction 
of planes of slip in the atomic space lattice under stress, and it remains 
to determine the corresponding planes of greatest and least chemical 
activity towards a given reagent. Next follows the still unsolved query 
as to the nature of the intercrystalline boundary, and the solution of 
these two problems will make it possible to define exactly the chemical 
character of a given aggregate of crystals. The results will be of extreme 
interest for the study of metallurgy, of mineralogy, and of petrology, 
besides filling a serious gap in chemistry, serious because of the extent to 
which solids compose the world around us, and of the part which they 
play in our daily life. 



SUCTION C— GEOLOGY. 



CULTURAL ASPECTS IN GEOLOGY. 

ADDRESS BY 

Professor W. A. PARKS. Ph.D., F.R.S.C., 

PRESIDENT OP THE SECTION. 



Introduction. 

In using the word ' cultural ' in the title of this address I have been 
unfortunate, perhaps, in the choice of a term. Face to face with the 
necessity of a definition, I find myself somewhat at a loss, and must 
beg the privilege of using the expression with my own conception of its 
application. 

Culture is closely allied to education, but the two terms are not synony- 
mous : a highly educated man is not necessarily cultured, and the lack 
of culture may be conspicuous if the education is narrow in its scope. In 
my definition of culture, therefore, I would include, in the first place, a 
wide foundation and a breadth of view. Culture differs from education, 
also, in that it refers more to the emotional and spiritual and less to the 
practical and material. Music and the fine arts are essentially cultural ; 
philosophy and literature, for the most part, fall within the meaning of 
the term. Culture is all that tends to uplift the spirit, to induce con- 
templation, to direct the thoughts to the mysteries of time and of life, 
to awaken an appreciation of beauty, and to inspire the soul. 

The study of the material science is so largely a marshalling of facts, 
often with a utilitarian end in view, that the cultural aspect is somewhat 
obscured. Nevertheless, culture in its highest form appears in the grand 
generalisations and deductions of the scientist. Whether he deals with the 
microcosm or with the macrocosm he touches the infinite, and culture is 
within his grasp. Whether he seizes it or allows it to pass him by depends 
more on his own mental attitude than on the nature of his subject. 

The science of geology is wide in scope and general in application ; 
it deals with matter and with life, with time and with space ; it touches 
the philosophical and borders on the romantic ; majesty and beauty are 
its essentials, and imagination is necessary for its pursuit. The cultural 
value of such a science is not to be despised. Whether the geologist him- 
self attains culture or remains immersed in his sea of mere facts depends 
on his own attitude. In any event the gems of his collection will pass before 
other eyes better able to appreciate their value and to rejoice in their 
magnificence. 

It is my purpose, in this address, to direct your attention to well-known 
features of our science. I shall attempt to introduce no new facts, and I beg 
that you will consider my remarks merely as an attempt to lay emphasis 
on a selected few of the many great lessons of geology. 



56 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

While observation and experiment constitute the only firm foundation 
for the geological edifice, so many facts have been pigeon-holed that, 
perhaps, the time has come to empty the holes and take stock. I believe 
that the result would be below our expectation in so far as grand general- 
isations are concerned. Perhaps the time has come when a modified return 
to ' armchair ' philosophy would be excusable. I shall venture a little 
indulgence in this respect, and must plead the nature of my subject as the 



o 
excuse. 



The History and Scope of Geology. 

The earliest geology, doubtless, was purely economic. Primitive man 
learned the nature of flints and the localities of their occurrence ; he 
acquired a knowledge of land forms and experienced the effects of the 
forces of Nature. His object was utilitarian and his geology unconscious. 
With the Egyptians began definite geological observation and philosophical 
deduction, and ' theories of the earth ' engaged the attention of the Greek 
philosophers. Contemporaneously the exploitation of metallic ores must 
liave added continually to the stores of economic knowledge, a phase of the 
subject more particularly cultivated under the commercialism of Eome. 

Passing through the slough of the Middle Ages, we have, even in the 
fantastic conceptions of the cosmogonists, a glimmer of cultural geology, 
and in the revived interest in fossils we see the dawn of modern inquiry 
into the organic history of the earth. 

The science of geology as now understood dates from about 1800. The 
name was suggested by De Luc (1788), but De Saussure (1789) was the 
first to use the term without apology. It is interesting to note that Werner 
makes ' geognosy ' the general term, and restricts ' geology ' to theoretical 
discussions as to the origin and history of the earth. 

It would appear, therefore, that the science of geology was dual, if 
not multiple, at its inception. It embraced at least two aspects which have 
remained somewhat divergent, yet intimately related, to the present day 
■ — historical and philosophical geology on the one hand and economic 
geology on the other. Cultural geology, as I have attempted to define it, 
is not confined to either branch, but is inherent in both and may be revealed 
by an approach in the proper frame of mind. 

Geology is the most comprehensive of sciences : literally it embraces all 
subjects that have to do with the earth. In the narrower sense, it does not 
include all the other material sciences, but it requires them all for the 
solution of its problems. 

The line of separation between chemistry and physics has practically 
disappeared. Botany and zoology are so closely related, that a single term 
' biology' has been coined to. include them both. These two groups of 
sciences have a connexion so intimate, that such expressions as ' bio- 
chemistry ' and ' biophysics ' have arisen. The unity of the sciences is 
established ; geology is the application of this unity to the problems of 
the earth. The term ' palaeontology ' stands in evidence, and the intro- 
duction of ' geophysics ' and ' geochemistry ' indicates the application 
of the fundamental sciences in the study of the structure and history of 
the globe. 

There is, however, one aspect of geology in which it is the leader and 
not the follower of the so-called fundamental sciences. Geology is history 



C— GEOLOGY. 57 

as well as applied science ; herein lies its great contribution to the other 
snces — the introduction of the time concept, the law of progressive 
development, and the great fundamental of eternal change. This influence 
is to be observed on all sides. Where is now the text-book of botany 
without Sigillaria, or of zoology without trilobites ? The chemico-physicist 
is casting his thoughts back to a universe of hydrogen, and tracing through 
time the aggregation of protons and electrons into elements, and of ele- 
ments into compounds. He has become conversant with time terms, and 
writes of the relative radioactivity of Precambrian granite and Miocene 
basalt. 

The general tenor of text-books of geology, also, is undergoing a change. 
Eocks and formations are no longer considered as mere structures with 
their time significance in the background ; they are recognised as pages 
of history, as chronicles of events. We speak less of a succession of 
strata and more of a sequence of occurrences in time. Modern text-books 
are replete with diastrophisms and migrations, with disturbances and 
destructions, with rejuvenations and reconstructions. Historical geology 
is becoming more and more in accord with its name. I interpret this 
to mean that the cultural side of the subject is receiving a fuller recognition. 

The Duty of Man and the Law of Tendency to the Complex. 

To account for the existence of the human race and to determine the 
purpose, if there be a purpose, for its existence is probably the greatest 
and most fundamental problem with which humanity is confronted. An 
answer to this question would form the basis of an infallible system of 
philosophy and would be a sure guide to our conduct individually and 
collectively. An answer is not yet forthcoming, but it is interesting (and 
cultural) to inquire if the science of geology can throw any light on a 
problem so stupendous. 

In the first place, it is to be noted that the earth is very old ; its age is 
to be reckoned, not in millions, but in hundreds of millions, even in billions, 
of years. In the second place, living creatures have inhabited the globe, 
not from the beginning, but from the earliest period of which we have a 
definite record. Does not the inconceivably long duration of the earth 
itself and of life constitute a guarantee of a similar extension into the 
future ? This assumption may not be in accord with rigid logic, but it 
falls within the scope of high probability. Further, geological history 
shows conclusively that some force or tendency has acted on the life 
principle to the production of higher and higher forms culminating in 
man. It does not matter for the present how or why the successively 
higher forms appeared ; it is enough to know that they did appear and 
that life has not only endured for hundreds of millions of years but that 
it has shown a trend in the same general direction throughout all time. 
Is there any reason to assume that this long-enduring gradient should 
change its direction ? I confidently believe that geological history teaches 
us that the earth, and life, and the upward tendency of life will all three 
reach out into the illimitable future. 

The tendency towards the more complex (higher) seems to be a feature, 
not only of the organic, but also of the inorganic world. We postulate 
the existence, an eternity ago, of a universe of hydrogen. We believe 
that hydrogen gave rise to other elements more and more complex, and 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that the elements entered into compounds more and more complicated. 
It has been beautifully stated that we are now in an eternity which will 
end in the attainment of maximum complexity, to be followed by another 
eternity in which the reverse process will maintain, and thus throughout 
the grand eternity of all time. 

The tendency to the complex must be accepted as a fundamental 
fact ; when it began we know not and when it will end is beyond con- 
jecture ; that it is a valid generalisation from observed fact cannot be 
doubted. I am forced to the conclusion that whatever tends to facilitate 
the working of this tendency is in accord with a cosmical fundamental, 
and is consequently right. 

In the lower orders of life the tendency to the complex has acted 
throughout all the ages without the conscious volition of the individual. 
With the advent of the higher nervous complex that we call ' reason ' a 
new factor entered the field, a factor so important that many geologists 
now favour the establishment of a separate era, the Psychozoic, for the 
age of man. Undoubtedly the rise of mentality in the Pleistocene must 
be regarded as a geological event of profound importance. From the 
evolutionary point of view it may mark an event of comparable significance, 
in that it may be interpreted as a great saltation of the mental attributes 
without a corresponding physical development. The general tendency 
to the complex is not interrupted, but its manifestation is less material 
and more spiritual. It is a reasonable assumption that future evolution 
will be mental rather than physical, and that the long-continued upward 
gradient of complexity will not turn in its course. 

I venture to state that the greatest lesson in geology is the tendency 
to the complex ; if there be a purpose behind all things, the working-out 
of that purpose is herein revealed. It follows, therefore, that man can 
best fit into the scheme of things by facilitating the operation of a principle 
which has endured through all time, and which is to be regarded in the 
light of a revelation. The duty of man, if these premises be correct, is 
to so direct his efforts that his mental capacity may be strengthened and 
that a slightly better equipment may be transmitted to his offspring. 

The trend in the direction of greater complexity is a generalisation 
from observed fact. That it is a law in the sense of being a necessary 
accompaniment of life is not established. An amoeba of to-day is probably 
no more complex than an amoeba of the Cambrian. Life can continue 
throughout countless generations without greater complexity developing ; 
complexity may or may not be superimposed on any particular line of 
development. For the sake of convenience, however, I propose to speak 
of the principle as the law of tendency to the complex, and to emphasise it 
as the most important principle underlying the geological aspect of the 
doctrine of evolution. 

I would emphasise, also, the fact that all races of creatures and all 
individuals of a race do not evolve to higher forms. Similarly, it is not to 
be expected that all men are destined to give rise to higher types under 
the action of a beneficent, all-pervading principle. 

The development of mentality in the human race has introduced new 
factors ; perhaps it would be better to say it has strongly accentuated 
certain old factors. By reason of his superior mental equipment, man has 
acquired a degree of dominance never attained by any earlier race. Surely, 



C— GEOLOGY. 59 

his reason should temper his power, and he should realise the enormous 
responsibility that has fallen into his hands. 

Among the lower races the struggle for existence goes on, and the 
weaker is dispossessed by the stronger ; the individual, however, profits 
but little from the activities of his fellows (with exceptions). With man 
the case is entirely different ; the community, the nation, the race, all 
benefit, perforce, through the exertions of a few individuals. In doing 
honour to the great investigators and discoverers, let us not forget that 
they have not only conferred on us great material advantages, but they 
have helped us onward on the great road of increasing complexity. 

Evolution. 

The literature of this subject has so expanded, and nicety of definition 
has received so much attention, that one is almost afraid to use the word 
' evolution '. Perhaps it would be better to follow Joseph, and say ' the 
modification of species through descent ', and leave to biologists and 
psychologists the hair-splitting as to the meaning of evolution, emergence, 
development, &c. To the geologist the fact of organic descent is of prime 
importance, and in the geological evidence lies the chief foundation of 
evolution, define it as you may. 

This doctrine has passed beyond the realm of the scientist and has 
profoundly affected human thought in general ; it may be regarded, there- 
fore, as well within the scope of this address. I have no intention of writing 
an essay on the subject, but I wish to take advantage of the opportunity 
to emphasise certain aspects that have appealed to me as fundamental. 
I would remind you, also, that the geological aspect of evolution is admir- 
ably presented in the Presidential Address of Dr. F. A. Bather, read at the 
Cardiff meeting in 1920. 

Geological investigation has established, beyond all doubt, the basic 
facts that life has changed during the course of the ages, that this change 
has been uniform in direction over the whole globe, and that the general 
tendency has been towards greater complexity both in physical structure 
and in mental equipment. It has been established, further, that in certain 
instances, sequences are found indicating the gradual passage of one 
species into another. This observation is not necessarily a proof of 
descent, but it is a strong argument in its favour. 

Life appeared on the globe in Precambrian time ; of its inception we 
shall probably never be able to obtain direct evidence. In course of time, 
however, recognisable protoplasmic units appeared — unicellular creatures 
neither plant nor animal. The second great event in life history occurred 
somewhat later in the Precambrian — the separation of the parent stem 
into ancestral plants and ancestral animals. Here I would like to 
emphasise the fact that the difference between plants and animals lies, 
not only in the different nature of the metabolism, but in the possession 
by the latter of a sensibility or mental equipment so vastly superior, that 
we are accustomed to think of it as absent in the vegetable world. In 
order to simplify our inquiry, let us confine the question to the animal 
stem, and let us imagine the primitive creature to be a generalised proto- 
zoan, as sooner or later it was. Within the Precambrian occurred a third 
great organic event of tremendous significance — the Protozoa gave rise 
to the Metazoa. Having accomplished this feat, the ancestral Protozoa 



00 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

continued to reproduce their own kind. Despite differentiation, the making 
of genera and species, of offshoots that lived and offshoots that failed, 
the Protozoa during more than 500,000,000 years have never given rise 
to anything but unicellular offspring. The conclusion is obvious, that in 
the Precambrian occurred a marvellous event due to certain conditions 
which have never since been duplicated. 

Similarly the primitive coelenterate, presumably a sponge, gave rise 
to ancestral Cnidaria still within the Precambrian. Never since has the 
sponge given parentage to anything but the sponge, but the phylum has 
continued to exist and to differentiate within seemingly fixed bounds. 
Before the close of the Precambrian all the phyla of Invertebrata arose 
successively in this manner. Possibly we may include the vertebrates, 
although they have not yet been found so far back in time. These are well- 
known principles, trivial perhaps to an audience such as this, but re- 
iterated here because I think that they are not always given their true 
value. 

I would emphasise — the origin of phyla as great events in geological 
history, the crowding of these events into the Precambrian, the continua- 
tion of ancestral stocks, and their failure ever again to give rise to new 
phyla. It would appear, further, that higher phyla have not developed 
through highly specialised genera of lower phyla. For the invertebrates 
this is evident in the appearance of all the phyla in the Precambrian ; for 
the vertebrates, in the first place nothing is known with certainty, and in 
the second place the various phyla appeared long before high specialisation 
was attained by the ancestral stock. Amphibia arose from primitive 
Devonian ganoids, not from highly specialised teleosts ; reptiles were 
derived from early Permian stegocephalians, not from highly specialised 
Anura or Urodela. The eutherian mammals appeared with startling 
suddenness in the Basal Eocene, and before the close of the period had 
developed into all the great classes. 

Evolution, in the phyletic sense, is not a gradual process, not uniform- 
itarian, but marked by great events in time. Specialisation and consequent 
fixation of characters are adverse to phyletic differentiation. 

It is apparent that phyla can arise only through genera and species. 
How far the phyletic principles may apply in the lower taxonomic ranks 
is an interesting question, the consideration of which would unduly extend 
this address. I would venture to state, however, that close adaptation 
(high specialisation) is likewise inimical to the production of new genera 
and species. Further, I believe that close adaptation is the main cause of 
extinction. 

Let us assume the existence of an organism perfectly adapted to its 
environment. Is it not a safe conclusion that any change in environment 
must result in the death of such organism % That there is now or that 
there ever has been a perfectly adapted animal is extremely doubtful, 
but all animals must be more or less adapted or they could not exist. It 
may be stated that the margin between perfect and necessary adaptation is 
the zone in which organic evolution is possible ; further, that the nearer 
an animal approaches perfect adaptation, the more liable it is to extinction 
on the advent of changed conditions. This conclusion is in accord with the 
generally recognised fact that in many instances highly specialised animals 
have suffered sudden extinction ; it is also in accord with the general 



C— GEOLOGY. (il 

observation that the geological record is one of extinction and replacement 
in so far as species and even higher taxonomic divisions arc concerned. 

The great weight of geological evidence points to the supplanting of 
one species by another, not to the transformation of species into tin be 
successors. A single transformation sequence may be regarded as sufficient 
to establish the principle, but an adequate explanation must be given of 
the failure of vertical seriations in the great majority of cases. This 
explanation is not yet forthcoming, and its lack stands as the chief item 
in the contra account of the balance sheet of evolution. 

Le Conte explained this generally observed replacement as due to 
the abruptness of the change in environment. The hereditary tendencies 
maintained to the breaking point and suddenly gave way. The result 
was a great mortality and the survival of only a few individuals showing 
transitional stages. Unfortunately for this explanation, the advent of a 
new species is generally unheralded by even a few individuals showing 
the connexion with an earlier species. 

Migration is the generally accepted explanation of the abruptness of 
faunal changes, but this is a mere statement of the evident, and throws 
no light on the evolution of the immigrant species. 

Let us assume a species to be in possession of a given area either of 
land or of water. This area of similar conditions, in most cases, can have 
no exact boundaries. It seems safe to infer that the individuals towards 
the centre of the region are more closely adapted than those on the margin, 
although no apparent anatomical differences exist. It would follow that 
on the advent of changed conditions the individuals approaching close 
adaptation, i.e. those towards the centre of the region, would all succumb, 
but that those with a wider latitude of adaptation inhabiting the borders 
of the area would in part survive. 

The fate of the survivors would depend on the nature of the change, 
which might be for better or for worse. Favourable changes, from the 
point of view of the animal, could be only those which lessen the necessity 
for adaptation, which bring it nearer to complete adaptation, but which 
render it less able to resist further changes of an unfavourable kind. For 
example, a species lives in an area with a constant temperature of 60° 
at the centre, but varying from 50° to 60° at the margin. If the tempera- 
ture falls to 55° throughout, all the animals at the centre will die, but those 
at the borders will survive and will find themselves in better circum- 
stances than before the change. Minor evolution only can result. 

It is to the unfavourable changes, therefore, that we must look for 
an explanation of the more deeply seated organic evolution ; by unfavour- 
able meaning adverse to the present condition of the animal in that it is 
forced to further adaptation. A change of this kind is not of necessity 
adverse to life ; it may even be stimulating. The animals towards the 
margins of a colony, by reason of their less perfect adaptation, may in a 
few instances survive an unfavourable change. The first impulse of these 
survivors will be to escape by flight, and thereby diminish the fatal 
suddenness of the change and thus achieve adaptation. 

The new species would arise rather suddenly with but few individuals 
of the transition stages. Arrived at a favourable habitat, migration 
would cease, multiplication would ensue, and closer and closer adaptation 
would be achieved. Eventually an approximation to perfect adaptation 



62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

would render the new species liable to extinction on the recurrence of 
unfavourable conditions. 

This explanation of the common failure of vertical seriations emphasises 
migration as a factor in evolution and leads to the conclusion that tran- 
sitional stages are few in number, scattered over wide geographical 
extents, and disposed in stratigraphically oblique lines. Barrell's 
' diastems,' to be referred to later, support this explanation of abrupt 
changes in the faunas. 

The line of division between animals and plants is not clearly defined, 
but in a general way the distinction is clear enough for our purposes. The 
evolution of plants is shown chiefly in an increasing complexity of structure, 
but that of animals is dual — increasing complexity of structure and more 
and more acute sensitive discrimination and response. The evolution of 
the nervous system is only one expression of the increasing complexity of 
structure, but it runs more or less parallel to an increasing ' sensibility '. 
I have no intention of entering the discussion as to the relation of mind 
and matter, but wish merely to point out that there has been an evolution 
of sensibility as well as an evolution of the physical organism, using the 
term ' evolution ' without the precise definition that is demanded by 
psychologists. 

Various terms such as ' instinct,' : intelligence,' ' mentality ' have been 
applied to certain stages of mental development. As parts of an evolu- 
tionary series it is evident that these terms cannot be defined rigidly. 
Nevertheless, if a comparison with the physical development is justified, 
we should expect to find that the successively higher stages of mental 
capacity appeared with some degree of abruptness. 

To my mind the most striking difference between the physical and 
mental development lies in the cumulative nature of the latter, a feature 
which is in accord with Joseph's contention that the term ' development ' 
is justified only with regard to the mental series. In man, for instance, 
higher reasoning has not replaced intelligence, nor has intelligence replaced 
instinct, nor has instinct replaced mere nervous reaction and response. 
Doubtless certain nervous attributes have been lost in the higher animals, 
for vestigial sensibilities can be found as well as vestigial organs. 

The evolution of sensibility is not necessarily parallel to that of the 
physical structure of organisms. Insects are nervously endowed in excess 
of their structure, and the mentality of man is out of all proportion to his 
physical equipment. Can it be inferred that mental development is the 
indicated road for further progress ? Does the evolutionary series of 
sensibility begin with a protoplasmic response to stimulus and end with 
omnipotence, and does man occupy a position an eternity from the starting 
post and another eternity from the goal ? 

In the preceding remarks I have expressed no opinion as to how or 
why evolution has been carried on ; personally I incline strongly to the 
vitalistic creed and the Bergson philosophy. My purpose has been to 
emphasise certain conclusions from geological observation that appeal to 
me as fundamental and which may be summarised as follows : 

1. The law of tendency to the complex. This is a mere statement of 
observed fact. 

2. The tendency to the complex is not a force acting on all organised 
matter. It comes into play only under especial conditions. 



C— GEOLOGY. 68 

3. Approximation to complete adaptation to a given environment is 
a condition fatal to organisms under adverse circumstances. 

4. Individuals of a species are not necessarily equally adapted. 

5. Eeplacements rather than transformations is the rule in the 
successive strata of a given locality. 

6. Migration is an important factor in evolution. 

7. Fixation of characters is adverse to evolution. 

8. 'Missing links' are of necessity few in number, widely scattered, 
and disposed obliquely with respect to the strata. 

9. The development of sensibility is only sub-parallel to that of physical 
structure. 

10. The origin of a new race is to be found only in the primitive stock 
of an older race. 

Time and Space — The Age of the Earth. 

The mysteries of time and of space have long been subjects of profound 
contemplation and scientific inquiry ; they are intimately connected with 
the destiny of man and bring him into touch with the infinite. High is 
the cultural value of the mere contemplation of infinity, and of supreme 
importance is any light that may be thrown on a problem long regarded 
as beyond human comprehension. In recent years the theory of relativity 
has opened to the mathematically trained mind a possible avenue to a 
solution, but to most geologists this avenue is a closed road. 

The most majestic of all sciences, . astronomy, has given us, if not a 
solution, at least a better conception of space, and has provided a standard 
of measurement, light years, in terms of which the vast distances of space 
are brought somewhat nearer to our comprehension. Similarly, geology 
has given us a better conception of the vast lapses of time and, together 
with physics, has discovered in the radioactive minerals a standard of 
measurement which may eventually prove to be as exact for time as light 
years are for space. 

It is well to remember, however, that years do not constitute the only 
standard by which time may be measured, and that, whatever the standard, 
the significance of an occurrence lies in its relationship to preceding and 
succeeding events rather than in the actual number of units of time that 
have intervened between then and now. The geologist gradually acquires 
this point of view, but a degree of maturity in geological thought seems 
to be required before time resolves itself into a succession of events. 

The determination of the actual age of the earth has long engaged the 
attention of philosophers and scientists, and various widely divergent 
estimates have been made by approaching the subject from different 
points of view. On the one hand, the earth is a member of the solar system ; 
the determination of its age is intimately connected with the history of 
that system and falls naturally within the realm of the astronomer and 
the physicist. On the other hand, we have an avenue of approach in the 
succession of events inscribed by the hand of time on the earth's crust ; 
such investigations fall naturally within the field of the geologist. 

Kelvin, Tait, King, and other great physicists but a few years ago 
allowed the geologist a maximum of 40,000,000 years for the age of the 
earth. Recent studies on radioactive minerals have induced the same 
Bchool to raise the figure to 1,710,000,000 years, a volte face that emphasises 



64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES: 

the danger incurred by ' the dictatorial hierarchy of exact scientists ' in 
raising a mathematical structure on an insecure foundation. 

The chief methods of determining the age of the earth, other than those 
based on radioactivity, are : the rate of decline of solar energy, the 
gradient of earth temperature, the quantity of salt in the seas, the rate 
of organic differentiation, and the rate of denudation of lands and of 
accumulation in the seas in relation to the known thickness of strata made 
throughout the geological ages. 

The determination of age by means of radioactivity depends on the 
fact that uranium and thorium break down into lead and helium, and 
that the rate of this disintegration is known. The time required for half 
a given amount of these elements to break down is known as the half- 
value period. This period, according to Gleditsch, can be calculated to 
within 2 per cent. ; for radium it is 1660 years and for uranium 
6 X 10 9 years. An atom of uranium breaks down into one atom of lead 
and eight atoms of helium ; if the content in these elements can be 
measured and compared with the quantity of unaltered uranium in an 
equal volume of the mineral, it is evident that the age of the mineral can 
be deduced. 

The different methods of estimating the earth's age have given results 
so divergent that it may be of interest to enumerate some of the outstanding 
computations as summarised by Barrel] in 1917. 

To this list may be added the general statement, that on the basis of 
the gravitational infall of its own mass, Thomson calculated that the sun 
could not have illuminated the earth for more than 500,000,000 years, and 
probably for not more than 100,000,000 years. His latest estimate (1897), 
based on the assumption that the temperature gradient of the earth is the 
result of simple cooling, is 20,000,000 to 40,000,000 years. Clarence King 
in 1893, on the basis of the temperature gradient, calculated that the earth 
could not be more than 24,000,000 years old. Methods based on the supply 
of salt to the sea from the decay of primary rocks are very uncertain, 
and have led to widely divergent estimates as follows : Joly, 150,000,000 ; 
F. W. Clarke, 90,000,000 ; Holmes, 340,000,000 ; and Becker, 50,000,000 
to 70,000,000. 

Lyell long ago demanded 240,000,000 years for organic differentiation, 
and Darwin thought 200,000,000 too short for the purpose. On strati- 
graphic evidence, Barrell considered 250,000,000 a reasonable estimate for 
the duration of geological time since the Precambrian. 

The history of the subject shows that high figures were originally 
proposed by geologists and that, later, they tried to lower their estimates 
under the influence of the shorter time allowed by the physicists. More 
recently, the greater figures endorsed by the physicists permit the geologist 
ample time for his processes ; both lines of inquiry are now pointing to the 
same result — higher and higher estimates of the immense antiquity of the 
globe. 

Sedimentation and the Earth's Age. 

Intimately connected with the estimation of time are the rates of erosion 
of old rocks and of deposition of new. Herein lies the most dependable 
geological means of determining the duration of the periods ; nevertheless, 
there are serious difficulties to overcome, among which may be mentioned : 



C— GEOLOGY. 



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66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

variations in the rate of decay under different conditions, variation in the 
rate of deposition and the occurrence of unrecorded intervals either evident 
or obscure. 

The rate of erosion has received much attention, but as this factor is 
obviously dependent on the shape and condition of the land surface, its 
average for all time is difficult to estimate. Barrell considers that denudation 
by solution lowers the land surface one foot in 30,000 years, and that 
mechanical degradation accomplishes this result in 13,800 years. The two 
forces acting together require 9,000 years to effect one foot of erosion. 

Barrell's estimate of 250,000,000 years since the beginning of the Palse- 
ozoic has been mentioned already ; this estimate has been arrived at by 
a study of details of deposition under the hypothesis of rhythms in 
geological time. According to this author, time is to be measured by 
rhythms or pulsations, the greater rhythms having shorter rhythms im- 
posed upon them. The longer are to be measured in terms of the smaller, 
and the smaller in terms of years. A single rhythm is an erosion cycle and 
small partial rhythms are superimposed on it. 

Present erosion and sedimentation owing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene 
uplift is unduly high, with the result that estimates of time based on the 
present rate of erosion are much too short. Barrell would further increase 
the time by restricting the area of deposition to the zone immediately 
below the local base level, and making the accumulation dependent on 
upward oscillations of the base level or downward oscillations of the 
bottom. The control of sedimentation by base level is summed up in 
three principles as follows : 

1. The rate of sedimentation is determined by the rate of the 
discontinuous depression of the surface of deposition. 

2. Subsidence of the sedimentary floor is not initiated by the load 
of sediment, but its further sinking may be facilitated thereby. 

3. The deposition of beds is not always a continuous process, but 
is often broken. The process of sedimentation is scour and fill with a 
balance in favour of the fill ; in consequence, apparently continuous beds 
are broken by minor gaps to which the name ' diastem ' is given. These 
gaps tend to increase the estimate of time, and they probably represent 
unrecorded intervals as long as the total indicated by the apparent 
unconformities. In view of all the factors, Barrell concludes that the 
geological ages may be ten to fifteen times as long as methods based 
on uniformitarian principles indicate. 

In connexion with the rate of sedimentation and its bearing on the age 
of the earth, it is apparent that the intimate structure of the stratified 
rocks must be looked to for data bearing on the problem. To this end the 
character and mode of formation of these rocks are now receiving an in- 
creasing degree of attention. A better understanding of sedimentation is 
being obtained by direct observation on the formation of modern sedi- 
ments, determination of the precipitating value of algae and bacteria, 
studies on coral reefs, deep-sea investigations, studies on colloidal solutions, 
investigations of chemical deposits, and a better appreciation of the value 
of f acies and vegetal terrestrial deposits. Direct investigation of the rocks 
themselves is leading to an increased use of the petrographic microscope 
and of analytical methods. Secondary features of stratified rocks are 
receiving greater attention, horizontal transitional stages are better under- 



C— GEOLOGY. 67 

stood, and the relationship of strata to sea invasions has led to a fuller 
appreciation of the value of palaeogeography. Grabau states that ' in 
the future the study of lithogenesis must go hand in hand with the study 
of palaeogeography. Neither science can progress without the other, and 
each is dependent on the other to a degree too little realised.' 

So deeply are American geologists interested in the problems of sedi- 
mentation and the time factor involved, that a Committee has been 
appointed by the United States National Research Council to compile 
data bearing on the subject. A report of this Committee was presented 
on April 26, 1924. 

The Origin of the Earth and the Nature of its Interior. 

The question of the earth's origin is evidently closely related to the 
problem of its age. Although geologists are inclined to disclaim this aspect 
of the subject, I feel that it cannot be disregarded under the title of this 
address. 

Theories of the earth were indulged in by the Greek philosophers, 
and reached a climax in the fantastic conceptions of the cosmogonists 
during the eighteenth century. The announcement of the nebular hypo- 
thesis of Kant and Laplace was an epoch-making event, and the theory 
has been generally accepted as ' the grandest conception of the human 
intellect.' Its influence on all cosmical philosophy has been tremendous ; 
in fact, it lay at the base of all geogeny until it was questioned by 
Chamberlin and Moulton in bringing forward their planetesimal hypothesis. 
This explanation of the origin of the earth, as due to the aggregation of 
cold discrete particles, has received much credence in America, but it has 
had a less favourable reception in Europe. 

Under the influence of the theory of Kant, Laplace, and Herschel, 
many attempts were made to explain the nature of the earth's interior 
during the early years of the nineteenth century (Fourier, 1820; Poisson, 
1835 ; Ampere, 1833). Somewhat later, in 1871, Helmholtz published his 
classic exposition of the nature of the earth under the Laplacian hypothesis. 

In 1893 Clarence King decided that the temperature of the earth's 
interior was originally not more than 2000° C, and that its age is about 
24,000,000 years. His determination of temperature gradients is referred 
to in another part of this paper. 

In more recent years a great advance has been made in the spectroscopic 
study of the sun and stars ; it has been established beyond question that 
the earth, the sun, and the fixed stars are materially identical — that they 
are composed of the same chemical elements. 

The interior of the earth is beyond direct observation ; the deepest 
mines and bore-holes scarcely penetrate the outermost skin. Certain 
fundamental facts, however, may be taken as established. The interior 
is hot, rigid, and heavy (sp. gr. 5 - 6 as compared with 2 - 7 for the known 
exterior) ; the accessible exterior is composed of elements common to the 
universe. Beyond this all is vague and speculative. 

It is worthy of particular emphasis, however, that while the earth as 
a whole acts as an almost perfectly rigid body, the external envelope 
with which we are familiar is by no means rigid. Adjustments have 
taken place throughout all geological time, and I need not quote evidence 
that they are still taking place. The acquisition of perfect rigidity by 

p2 



68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the globe is to be regarded as a tremendous calamity. This condition 
attained, the universal deluge is within sight geologically speaking, and 
the end of the present order of things must inevitably ensue. Earth- 
quakes, therefore, are not to be regarded as unmixed calamities ; they are 
evidence that the fatal total rigidity has not yet been attained. 

It might be asked if there is any evidence in geological history of an 
approach to a condition of total rigidity or of a tendency in this direction. 
There can be little doubt that Precambrian events were on a scale seldom, 
if ever, attained in later time. Cambrian and Ordovician transgressions 
of the sea were also on a grand scale, but later movements, on the whole, 
seem to have been smaller and more local in their expression, although 
there were notable exceptions as the Tethys sea in Europe, the great inva- 
sion of the Coloradoan geosyncline in Upper Cretaceous time in North 
America, the tremendous volcanic activity of the Miocene, and the grand 
epoch of mountain-building in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. 

Professor Eliot Blackwelder touched this question in his Presidential 
Address to the Geological Section of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in December 1921. He concludes that there is 
no evidence of a trend towards rigidity ; he sees only great pulsations 
with intermediate periods of rest. ' The Middle Tertiary revolution was 
one of the most widespread and intense of which we have any record. 
There have been many fluctuations but no general trend. . . . The 
volcanic activity of the last two geological periods is equal in intensity 
and widespread distribution to anything known to us in earlier periods.' 

Barrell's observations lead to a similar conclusion ; in fact, he considers 
that the rate of sedimentation is increasing rather than diminishing, and 
gives the following general figures, the length of geological time being 
based on the minimum results obtained from uranium minerals. 

Rate op Sedimentation in Geological Time, after Barrell. 



Geological interval 


Time in years 


Maximum thick- 
ness of strata, 
feet 


Time, in years, 
for one foot 


Pleistocene 

Tertiary 

Mesozoic 

Neopalaeozoic 

Eopalaeozoic 


1,500,000 

55,000,000 

135,000,000 

200,000,000 

160,000,000 


4,000 
63,000 
84,000 
78,000 
43,000 


375 

875 

1,600 

2,600 

3,700 



The last column is particularly significant from the present point of 
view ; it indicates that sedimentation was progressively slower as we pass 
backward in geological time. This observation does not mean that the 
rate of erosion of lands was slower, but that the products of erosion were 
spread over greater areas. Barrell concludes that despite the tremendous 
activity at certain times in the Precambrian, the total unrest was no 
greater than in later time, as the upheavals were separated by corre- 
spondingly long intervals of rest and erosion. The Palaeozoic, also, with 
its widespread epieric seas, indicates long intervals between the periods of 
upheaval. Passing into later time, the increasing localism of deposits is 
an indication of more sustained activity — of shorter but less profound 



C— GEOLOGY. 69 

pulsations. ' The later revolutions have been less profound than the 
great convulsions of the Archaean, but diastrophism may make up for this 
by becoming more recurrent, tending to stimulate in post-Palseozoic eras 
the mean rate of erosion and sedimentation.' 

The general conclusions seem to be that the earth is not showing a 
trend towards rigidity, but that earth movements and vulcanism are 
becoming less profound in scope and less widespread geographically, the 
average of activity being maintained by more frequent recurrence. 

Earth Movements and the Nicety of Adjustment. 

The causes of earth crumpling and the dynamic laws which govern 
the phenomena are subjects well within my theme, but their consideration 
would lead us to undue length. Earth movements, of necessity, are 
bound up with theoretical considerations of the earth's interior. Whether 
earth crumpling is due to loss of terrestrial heat and consequent contraction 
of the nucleus, or whether the modern concept of isostasy offers a better 
explanation, there must be a downward limit to terrestrial disturbances. 
This limit has been placed at 113" 7 kilometres and termed the ' depth of 
compensation '. 

According to the principles of isostasy great blocks of the upper crust 
float higher or lower above the depth of compensation according to the 
specific gravity of the mass involved. This is a grand conception and 
offers much food for thought. If isostasy is the true explanation of moun- 
tains and oceanic depths, it follows that the calculated gravity should be 
uniform over the earth's surface if all parts of that surface are in isostatic 
equilibrium. Observations do not entirely support the conclusion, as 
many anomalies have been observed. The subject is attractive and the 
literature extensive. In reviewing the results of 325 gravity determina- 
tions in the United States, Dr. David White explains the observed 
anomalies as due to local causes beneath the gravity stations. ' Hence 
the equilibrium of the crust beneath the gravity stations is very much 
nearer complete than is indicated by the anomalies as uncorrected for 
local abnormal densities relatively close to the instrument.' (Presidential 
Address, Geological Society of America, 1923.) 

It is obvious that a consideration of this subject would lead to a dis- 
cussion of land forms and their influence on human activities — definition 
of nationality, physiographic control, distribution of faunas, and countless 
other effects, all of which extend beyond the realm of technical geology 
and form part of a general education if they are not ' cultural ' in the 
narrower sense. 

There is, however, one great lesson to be derived from the study of 
earth movements that bears on the general scheme of things and is worthy 
of especial mention — the marvellous continuity of conditions. 

The diameter of the earth is about 8000 miles and the maximum of 
relief of the lithosphere about eleven miles, approximately 0"14 per cent. 
Oceanic waters have filled the depressions and continental masses have 
risen above the water-level— a condition that has maintained throughout 
all time in the opinion of most geologists. The present area of the land 
is 27"7 per cent, of the whole terrestrial surface, and the average height 
above sea-level of the continental masses is only 2120 feet according to 
de Lapparent. It is apparent that the actual volume of that part of the 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

lithosphere which projects above sea-level is extremely small when 
compared with the volume of the whole globe. 

It is well known that the power of erosion is sufficiently great to have 
reduced this relatively small mass to sea-level time and time again through- 
out the long course of the geological ages. Nevertheless, it is confidently 
believed that this result has never been entirely achieved. Bejuvenation 
has kept pace with erosion throughout the hundreds of millions of years 
that the earth has endured. In my opinion this marvellous nicety of 
adjustment between two great sets of opposing forces is one of the major 
lessons of geology. Is it a mere coincidence or is it evidence of design ? 

Climate. 

That the earth has experienced great changes in climate is a deduction 
from geological observation that is universally admitted. Many are the 
possible causes of change and voluminous is the literature of the subject. 
Cosmical controls such as changes in the sun's radiant energy and in the 
earth's planetary motions have been adduced ; appeal has been made 
to variations in the composition of the atmosphere and to changes in the 
distribution of land and sea with all the consequent effects on atmospheric 
and oceanic circulation ; terrestrial heat, radioactivity, and vulcanism 
are thought to have played a part ; and a theory has been brought forward 
that in earlier times solar control was a negligible factor. 

Whatever the causes, climate has been extremely variable in past 
time ; the polar regions have been temperate — almost tropical — and 
ice sheets have extended over sub-equatorial regions. It is significant, 
also, that a given climatic condition in a given locality is not necessarily 
of long duration. Great changes are known to have occurred within the 
time of man, and the warm interglacial periods of the Pleistocene alter- 
nated with glacial conditions within comparatively short bounds. 

Climatic change must be regarded as an ever-present factor. It is 
highly probable that variation in climate will greatly affect the activities 
of the human race within a measurable number of years, and it is not 
impossible that the sites of our present centres of civilisation will be buried 
under glaciers and that a new civilisation will occupy, under a genial 
climate, the present inhospitable regions around the poles. 

Despite the changes in any given locality, the continued existence of 
life is sufficient evidence that the whole globe has not experienced, from 
the earliest geological time, any very great universal change in climate. 
Griiner has proved to the satisfaction of most geologists the existence of 
algae in the Keewatin of Minnesota. The great masses of limestone with 
disseminated graphite of the Grenville are at least suggestive of life, and 
Moore has brought forward convincing evidence of algae in the Animikie 
of Belcher Islands in Hudson Bay. Both the Archseozoic and the Pro- 
terozoic, therefore, were warm enough to permit organisms to exist despite 
the intervening event of an ice age in the Huronian. 

Wonderful have been the changes in climate and far-reaching their 
effects, but truly marvellous bas been the continuity of a range of tempera- 
ture permitting the existence of life from the very dawn of earth history 
to the present moment. Nothing short of a cosmical catastrophe can alter 
a condition that has maintained for nearly two billions of years. Surely 
if culture is the cultivation of the spirit, the contemplation of geological 



C— GEOLOGY. 71 

climate should lift the mind above the mere material into the realm of the 
philosophical and the spiritual. 

If the continuity of the observed range of temperature is due to a 
single factor — solar energy — the endurance of that energy is a marvellous 
thing. If the observed climatic continuity is a composite result due to 
various sources of energy, it is still more marvellous. Both geologists 
and physicists incline to the latter point of view, but as yet they have 
been unable to fathom the mysteries of the sources of energy. ' Geologic 
time brings to light, consequently, the evidence of unknown sources of 
energy, cosmic forces which must constitute a fundamental factor in any 
satisfactory hypothesis of stellar evolution ' (Barrell). 

Historical Geology. 

History is the essential of geology, and its cultural value is not less 
because the record is written in enduring stone rather than on fading 
parchment. Further, there is a geological background to most human 
pictures and our activities are largely controlled by the geological setting. 
While I would not regard the study of all geological phenomena as par- 
ticularly cultural, I would so consider those in which the historical element 
is emphasised. I can, perhaps, better express my meaning by citing one 
or two examples. 

To the engineer, Niagara Falls is a great natural source of energy ; 
the volume of water and the fall thereof can be measured and the 
potentialities in horse-power can be calculated. Every citizen of 
Toronto knows that he lights his home, cooks his food, and operates his 
factory by reason of the existence of Niagara Falls. How many know that 
this result is achieved because some hundreds of millions of years ago a 
layer of hard dolomite was deposited over soft shale in the old Silurian 
sea ? 

The history of aboriginal man has been deciphered chiefly by means 
of the flint instruments found in Western Europe. The successive 
invasions of near-man and of man were doubtless influenced by the 
occurrence of flints in this region. Is it not cultural to reflect that the 
clear Upper Cretaceous sea with its Foraminifera to make chalk, and its 
sponges to supply silica for flints, had so profound an influence on the 
development of the human race ? 

The Study of Geology. 

It might be well to inquire into the effect that the study of geology 
produces in the minds of its devotees. Doubtless, this effect so greatly 
depends on the attitude of the student that an individual may well 
hesitate to speak for the group. I have endeavoured to show, however, 
that geology contains much of the inspirational and contemplative — 
features that go far to relieve its vast array of facts. 

The subject has become so comprehensive and so complex that no 
one man can be conversant with all its phases ; in consequence, it is 
sometimes stated that there are no longer any geologists, but only 
specialists in various branches. I feel that the adoption of this point of 
view would be most unfortunate, as the general geologist alone is able to 
co-ordinate the work of the specialists, to harmonise their findings, and to 
deduce the great lessons of the science. In his hands, to a very large 
extent, lies the cultural aspect of the subject. 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Whatever satisfaction is to be derived from the acquisition of know- 
ledge, there is always a discouraging factor in the realisation of our 
limitations. Owing to the complex nature of the subject and the vast, 
number of facts involved, the study of geology is peculiarly effective in 
this respect, and cannot but tend to a humble attitude of mind. Another 
potent influence to this end is the realisation of the mistakes that have 
been made, even in the basic principles of the science. From the fantastic 
theories of the cosmogonists arose eventually the doctrine of catastrophism ; 
this conception yielded to uniformitarianism, and to uniformitarianism 
was added the doctrine of evolution. Le Conte described Darwin as a 
uniformitarian evolutionist. To-day uniformitarianism is being questioned 
seriously from both the inorganic and the organic points of view. We 
are swinging back to a conception of a milder catastrophism variously 
expressed as rhythm, diastrophism, &c. 

The necessity of drawing conclusions from doubtful or insufficient 
evidence is an ever-present antidote for dogmatism. Many of our con- 
clusions are merely inferences subject to revision in the light of further 
evidence. The experienced geologist has become cautious, he knows he 
is only feeling his way, and he is accustomed to temper his statements 
with a saving clause to cover his discomfiture should his conclusions be 
proved erroneous at a later time. 

To humbleness and caution I would add a conviction of theism as a 
result of the study of geology. I fear to venture on dangerous ground, 
but I must be allowed the opinion that materialism offers no adequate 
explanation of the wonders of geology. With revealed religion I am not 
here concerned, but I believe that the inconceivably long gradient that 
has led ever upward to the mentality of man has not been traced without 
design, and I see no reason why that gradient should terminate. I look, 
rather, to its upward continuation to even greater heights beyond. 

Literature. 

The science of geology is founded on observations in all parts of the 
earth, and its broad principles are everywhere applicable. In detail, 
however, the science is necessarily local ; hence the enormous quantity 
of literature that has accumulated. This literature is very largely economic 
and technical ; it finds its way chiefly into the hands of professional 
geologists and mining engineers, and it is scarcely intelligible to the 
ordinary man of culture. 

Numerous text-books of geology are available, but they are addressed 
to the student of geology rather than to the general reader. It is not by 
means of text-books, however, that an appreciation of the great lessons of 
geology is to be cultivated, but rather by non-technical treatises dealing 
only with the broad aspects of the subject. 

The influence of geology on general literature is less than might have 
been expected. This lack is in part due to the brief period of modern 
scientific geology, and in part to the ancient separation of culture and 
science — a distinction that is rapidly losing recognition. 

Poetry descriptive of land forms and of the wonders of Nature is to be 
found in abundance, but an appreciation of the great principles of geology 
is not shown by the major poets to any great extent. In this respect, 
Tennyson is probably deserving of first position, but I fear of getting 



C— GEOLOGY. 73 

beyond my depth in an attempt to pursue this subject. I beg, however, 
to quote a few verses to show that the principles of geology may be gilded 
by the touch of poetic inspiration. 

Tennyson : 

' Astronomy and Geology — terrible muses.' (Parnassus.) 
' All things are taken from us and become 

Portions and parcels of the dreadful past.' (The Lotus Eater.) 
' The solid earth whereon we tread 

In tracts of fluent heat began, 

And grew to seeming-random forms 

The seeming prey of cyclic storms, 

Till at the last arose the man.' 

Sir Samuel Garth : 

' And floods of chyle in silver currents run ; 
How the dim speck of entity began 

To extend its recent form, and stretch to man.' (Dispensary.) 
Pope : 

' Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, 
A hero perish or a sparrow fall ; 
Atoms or systems into ruin hurled, 
And now a bubble burst and 'now a world.' 

Of the minor poets, the Reverend Mr. Wilks has been called England's 
geological poet : that title in America would undoubtedly go to Bret 
Harte. His ' Geological Madrigal ', a parody of Shenstone's ' Pastoral 
Ballad ', is well known, and the ' Society upon the Stanislaus ' is a biting 
satire on pseudo-scientific discovery. 

The doctrine of evolution, strange to say, has inspired more doggerel 
verse than true poetry, and the same is strikingly true of the great Mesozoic 
reptiles. Other aspects of geology have received like treatment, not always 
without point, as the following lines indicate : 

Isostasy. 1 
What is it rules the upper crust ? 

Isostasy, Isostasy. 
What actuates the overthrust ? 

Isostasy, Isostasy. 
What gives the shore lines wanderlust ? 
What humbles highlands to the dust ? 
What makes the strongest stratum bust ? 

Isostasy, Isostasy. 

Conservatives in vain have cussed 

Isostasy, Isostasy ; 
The strongest power on earth is just 

Isostasy, Isostasy. 
So let us down our deep disgust, 
If we'd seem up to date we must 
Roll up our eyes and take on trust 

Isostasy, Isostasy. 

1 Sung at the annual dinner of the Geological Society of America, Washington, 1923. 



74 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Conclusion. 

In selecting the topic of this address, I was influenced by my experience 
with students who often fail to grasp the elusive side of the subject that I 
have called ' cultural.' I fear, however, that to you my remarks may have 
seemed trivial, in that no new facts have been presented nor has any new 
theory been advanced. I hope, nevertheless, that the point of view will 
meet with your approval, and that the emphasis laid on culture as 
pertaining to the science of geology may not be amiss. 

The beautiful, the philosophical, and the spiritual can be found in any 
of the sciences, in none more than in geology. The pen of Addison or of 
Macaulay in the hands of an experienced geologist would give an effective 
picture. The portraiture is too difficult for the feeble brush ; the scientist 
is unable to do justice to his own subject. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



ORGANIC EVOLUTION. 

ADDRESS BY 

C. TATE REGAN, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A systematic zoologist, whose work is the classification of animals, 
should so define his groups that another worker may be able to use his 
system to place an animal successively in its right class, order, family, 
genus and species, and so arrive at its correct name. The name is the 
key to all that has been recorded about the structure, variation, habits 
and life-history of that particular form ; but it should be something more, 
it should be an indication of its relationships ; for it may often happen 
that very little is known about a species, but much about its nearest 
alUes. It is, therefore, of practical importance that classification should 
be natural, an expression of relationships ; to make it so the systematist 
has to attempt to estimate the meaning of resemblances and differences, 
to what extent they may be due to the nearness or remoteness of a common 
ancestor, to what extent to other circumstances. 

Every good systematist must feel some satisfaction when he has written 
a diagnosis that is diagnostic, or has made a key that will work ; but this 
satisfaction is small in comparison with that which he feels when he has 
reason to think he has settled the position of some doubtful form, or has 
discovered the origin of a group and the lines of evolution within it, or 
has found the relation between structure and habits or environment. The 
main interest of systematic work lies in the fact that it is a study of the 
results of evolution, and that from such a study one may hope to get some 
light on the meaning of evolution. 

For any profitable discussion of the origin of species it is essential 
to know what we mean when we use the word ' species.' In nature we 
find that a number of similar individuals, with similar habits, live in a 
certain area ; such an aggregation of individuals may be termed a com- 
munity. It is unfortunate that this word has sometimes been used for 
dissimilar and unrelated organisms that occur together — for example, the 
animals found on a muddy bottom in the North Sea, or the plants of a 
range of chalk hills ; but I am satisfied that the word ' association ' is more 
appropriate to these, and that ' community ' is the right name for a number 
of similar individuals that live together and breed together. All this is 
preliminary to my definition of a species. A species is a community, 
or a number of related communities, whose distinctive morphological 
characters are, in the opinion of a competent systematist, sufficiently 
definite to entitle it, or them, to a specific name. Groups of higher or • 
lower rank than species can be defined in a similar way. Thus, a sub- 
species is a community, or a number of related communities, whose dis- 
tinctive morphological characters are not, in the systematist's opinion, 
sufficiently definite to merit a specific name, but are sufficient to demand 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

a sub-specific name. Similarly a genus is a species, or a number of related 
species, whose distinctive morphological characters entitle it, or them, to 
generic rank. 

There are, of course, many species so distinct from all others and so 
uniform throughout their range that everyone is agreed about them ; but 
frequently the Umits and contents of a species, as of a genus, are a matter of 
opinion. No systematist has, or should have, any rule as to the amount of 
difference required for the recognition of a species or a sub-species ; he 
is guided by convenience. In practice it often happens that geographical 
forms, representing each other in different areas, are given only sub- 
specific rank, even when they are well defined, and that closely related 
forms, not easily distinguished, are given specific rank when they inhabit 
the same area but keep apart. 

I have seen a species defined as a stable complex of genes — or words 
to that effect — and Bateson, without exactly defining a species, has 
insisted that those systematists who distinguish between good and bad 
species are right, and that the distinction between the two is not simply 
a question of degree or a matter of opinion. There is some truth in this ; 
in the absence of exact knowledge seasonal or sexual differences have been 
regarded as specific, and hybrids, as well as varieties that differ from the 
normal in some well-marked character, have been given specific names : 
these are certainly bad species. There is truth also in Bateson's contention 
that species are qualitatively different from varieties, if we restrict this 
word to the kind of varieties he has specially studied and do not use it for 
communities that differ from each other in morphological characters. 

According to Bateson the principal qualities of species are morpho- 
logical discontinuity amd interspecific sterility ; but to the implication 
that these have been suddenly acquired I would reply that in nature there 
is every gradation from communities that are morphologically indistin- 
guishable to others that are so different that everyone is agreed that they 
are well-marked species ; and it is not surprising that when morpho- 
logical differentiation has proceeded to this extent it should generally, 
but not always, be accompanied by mutual infertility. That morpho- 
logical discontinuity in a continuous environment which appears to Bate- 
son to support the theory of the discontinuous origin of specific characters 
is seen to be the final term of a habitudinal discontinuity that began with 
the formation of communities that were at first morphologically identical. 
Bateson's argument that the Natural Selection Theory, or any theory of 
gradual transformation, demands that the ancestral form from which 
two species have diverged should persist as an intermediate is seen 
to be quite fallacious if we get a firm grip of the idea of the division of a 
species into communities, followed by the evolution of each community 
as a separate entity. 

A great deal of work has been done, especially on our more important 
food-fishes, in making biometrical analyses and investigating the life- 
histories of the different communities. The pioneer research was that 
of Heincke on the herring ; he showed that in the North Sea there were 
several co mm unities, each with its own slight morphological peculiarities, 
its own area, and its own time and place for breeding. Heincke grouped 
these communities into two main classes — herrings of the open sea that 
spawned in summer or autumn in rather deep water of high salinity, 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 77 

and coastal herrings that spawned in winter or spring near the coasts, 
often in brackish bays or in estuaries. The herrings of the Baltic are 
coastal herrings, but those of Iceland and of Norway form a third class — 
herrings of the open sea that spawn in the spring. It seems to me highly 
probable that in the North Sea the coastal communities have been derived 
from those of the open sea, that they have changed their habits but kept 
to their original spawning season, whereas the others may have postponed 
their spawning, waiting for the influx of the oceanic water. 

Diincker has shown that the plaice of the Baltic differs from that 
of the North Sea in having an average of one vertebra less, five rays less 
in both dorsal and anal fins, and one ray more in the pectoral fins. The 
Kattegat plaice agrees with that of the North Sea in the number of 
vertebrae and of dorsal and anal rays, and with the Baltic plaice in the 
number of pectoral rays ; but it differs from both in its deeper form. There 
is no doubt that the plaice of the Baltic, the Kattegat and the North 
Sea form separate communities ; there is nothing to prevent a Kattegat 
plaice from going either into the Baltic or into the North Sea if it wants 
to ; but it seem3 not to want to— it has its own feeding places and breed- 
ing places and prefers to keep to them. 

I have studied with particular attention the fishes known as char, 
or salmonoid fishes of the genus Salvelinus. Char are very like trout 
in appearance, but have orange or scarlet spots instead of black ones ; 
they inhabit the Arctic Ocean and in the autumn run up the rivers to 
breed in fresh water, often forming permanent freshwater colonies in 
lakes. There are many such colonies in the lakes of Scandinavia, of 
Switzerland, and of Scotland, Ireland, and the Lake District of England ; 
the formation of these colonies must date back to glacial times, when these 
Arctic fishes occurred on our coasts and entered our rivers to breed. 
These lacustrine communities show considerable diversity in habits, and 
also in structure ; for example, the char of Lough Melvin in Ireland are 
quite unlike those of Loch Killin in Inverness in form, in coloration, in 
the shape of the mouth, and in the size of the scales ; these differences are 
sufficient to entitle them to be regarded as different species, and I have 
so regarded them ; but now I doubt whether it is not better to look upon 
all these lacustrine char, however well characterised, as belonging to the 
same species as the migratory char of the Arctic Ocean, for once you begin 
giving specific names to lacustrine forms of char you never know where to 
stop. But if we were to exterminate the char in our islands and on the 
Continent, except in a dozen selected lakes, we should have left a dozen 
well-marked forms which it would be convenient to recognise as species. 
A somewhat similar problem arises in the classification of man ; it is con- 
venient to place all the living races in one species. But if there were only 
Englishmen and Hottentots we should probably regard them as specifically 
distinct. 

In our British char, habitudinal segregation — the formation of com- 
munities in lakes — has been followed by a geographical isolation which 
commenced at the end of the glacial period, when the migratory char 
retreated northwards. The char of each lake have evolved separately, 
and one can see clearly how many of the differences between them are 
related to the conditions of life; for example, the large eyes of the Loch 
Rannoch char, which lives in a very deep lake, and the blunt snout and 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

rounded subterminal mouth of several kinds which always feed at the 
bottom. I confess that I do not understand why the scales are much 
smaller and more numerous in the char of some lakes than in those of 
others, but I suspect that these differences in scaling are the expression 
of physiological differences and are the result of differences in the environ- 
ment or in the activities of the fish. 

The genus Salmo comprises about ten species from the North Atlantic 
and the North Pacific, and I have shown that the salmon and trout of 
the Atlantic form one natural group and those of the Pacific another. 
Our own salmon and trout are two closely related species ; both of them 
range in the sea from Iceland and northern Norway to the Bay of Biscay, 
both enter rivers to breed, and in both the young fish, known as parr, 
remain in fresh water until they are about two years old and six inches 
long, and then go to the sea. From Mr. F. G. Richmond, a well-known 
pisciculturist, I have the information that although at certain seasons the 
parr of both salmon and trout may eat the same kind of food — for example, 
both take flies at the surface — yet on the whole their food and feeding 
habits appear to be different. Salmon parr seek their food, such as insect 
larvae, small molluscs and crustaceans, on the bottom, whereas young 
trout tend to keep in mid-water and to subsist more on water-borne food ; 
thus the salmon parr may be hunting for food in a stretch of shallow 
rapid water, while the young trout wait for it in the quieter water just 
below. When they are about six inches long the parr of both species 
become silvery and are termed smolts ; the trout smolts go to the sea in 
a leisurely manner, hanging about the estuaries, and the older fish frequent 
the coastal waters ; but the salmon smolts make straight for the open 
sea and there grow much faster than the trout, attaining a weight of 
several pounds in a year. 

I have gone into these details because I think it is important to estab- 
lish that two closely related species in the same area have different habits, 
and to a large extent avoid competing with each other. 

The morphological differences between salmon and trout are slight. 
The salmon, more active and a stronger swimmer, is more regularly fusi- 
form in shape and has a more slender tail and a more spreading and more 
deeply emarginate caudal fin, differences of the same kind but not of the 
same extent as between a perch and a mackerel. The rows of scales between 
the adipose fin and the lateral line are usually fewer (10 to 13) in the salmon 
than in the trout (12 to 16) ; but this may be directly related to the fact 
that the tail is more slender. On an average the salmon has one ray more 
in the dorsal fin than the trout, and I am tempted to regard this as a step 
towards that increased number and concentration of the dorsal rays 
which is so characteristic of swift-swimming pelagic fishes. The last 
difference between the two species — the smaller mouth of the salmon — 
may be related to the food and feeding habits of the parr. In structure as 
in habits the salmon is more specialised than the trout, and may have 
evolved from it. The salmon is found on the Atlantic coast of North 
America, where there are no trout ; but I think this is because its habit 
of going farther out to sea has given it a greater opportunity of extending 
its range. There can be little doubt that the differentiation of these species 
has been not geographical but habitudinal, comparable to the differentia- 
tion of the coastal and open-sea herrings. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 79 

In every river and lake that it enters the trout forms freshwater 
colonies, and on the other side of the Atlantic the salmon does so fairlv 
readily, although not nearly so generally as the trout does on this side. 
In Europe, trout being present, the salmon forms freshwater colonies 
only in exceptional circumstances. Thus Lake Wenern in Sweden, now 
cut off from the sea by inaccessible falls, has a stock of salmon ; there can 
be no doubt that in former times salmon entered the lake and bred in its 
tributaries, and that some of the smolts, when they reached the lake on 
their seaward migration, considered this very large lake a sufficiently good 
substitute for the sea to stay there, and so founded a lacustrine race. 

Freshwater colonies of trout are found in the Atlas Mountains and in 
the countries north of the Mediterranean eastwards to the Adriatic, 
proving that in glacial times the range of sea-trout extended southward 
to the Mediterranean. The rivers of Dalmatia and Albania are inhabited 
not only by trout but by fish of another species, known as Salmo obtusi- 
rostris. This little fish, which never grows larger than fifteen inches long, 
has all the structural characters that distinguish salmon from trout, and, 
indeed, looks very like an overgrown salmon parr ; but when compared with 
salmon of the same size it is seen to differ in having a considerably smaller 
mouth, weaker teeth, and more numerous gill-rakers (15 to 18 instead of 
11 to 14 on the lower part of the first arch). In fishes generally the 
number and length of the gill-rakers — projections from the gill-arches 
that prevent food from entering the gill-chamber with the respiratory 
current — are related to the nature of the food ; thus, in exclusively pis- 
civorous fishes, such as the pike, they are represented by a few short 
knobs, and in feeders on minute plankton organisms they are very numer- 
ous, long, slender, and close-set. It has been recorded that Salmo obtusi- 
rostris subsists mainly on the larvae of Ephemeridse, which are very abun- 
dant in the rivers it inhabits, and there can be no doubt that the small 
size of the mouth, the feeble dentition, and the increased number of gill- 
rakers are related to this diet. 

The presence of this fish in the rivers of the east side of the Adriatic 
seems to me to point to the probability that in glacial times salmon, as 
well as trout, occurred in the Mediterranean, and that in these rivers 
some of the salmon parr, tempted by the abundance of parr food, pre- 
ferred to continue the parr life instead of going to the sea as smolts, thus 
forming a freshwater colony in quite a different way from the salmon 
of Lake Wenern. The question may be asked — if these fishes are derived 
from salmon and live in the same way as salmon parr, how can their 
differences from salmon be adaptive ? The reply to this is that the size of 
the mouth in the salmon parr must have some relation to the fact that 
it is going to become a salmon, feeding on fishes in the sea, and that, as 
S. obtusirostris grows to twice the length of a salmon parr, we should expect 
the number of gill-rakers to be increased, for it is not number but the size 
of the interspaces that is important in relation to food. 

The work of Dr. Johannes Schmidt on the Viviparous Blenny (Zoarces 
viviparus) is of great interest. He had found that in the European eel 
the average number of vertebrae was 115, and that from whatever part of 
its area samples were taken, whether from Iceland, Denmark, the Azores, 
or the Adriatic, the range of variation and the mean were exactly the same. 
This he considered as a confirmation of his view that all the eels from these 



80 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

widely separated localities formed one community and came together 
in one breeding-place. To test the soundness of this conclusion he in- 
vestigated Zoarces, a fish of about the same shape and with about the same 
number of vertebrae as the eel. but viviparous, and not migrating for breed- 
ing. He found that samples of Zoarces from various parts of the Kattegat 
and Baltic differed slightly, but generally had an average of about 118 
vertebrae, but that in the shallow Danish fiords the number was less, and 
decreased progressively the farther the distance from the sea. Conditions 
of temperature, salinity, &c, are very different in the different fiords, 



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103 4 5 6 7 8 9 110 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 
NUMBER OF VERTEBR/Z. 



8 19 120 21 22 



Graphic representation of number of vertebrae in samples of Zoarces viviparus from 
(1) Kattegat, 5 miles north of Manager Fiord (average 117-4); (2) Mouth of 
Mariager Fiord (average 115 - 4) ; (3) Manager Fiord, 7 miles from the mouth (average 
111); (4) 15 miles from the mouth (average 110-2) ; (5) 16 and 20 miles from mouth 
(two similar samples, average of each 109-3). The wide range and irregularity of the 
curves for the intermediate populations are noteworthy. 

and I am inclined to think that the critical character common to all of them 
is that they give the Zoarces an opportunity of leading a quiet life amidst 
a plentiful supply of food ; hence the fiord Zoarces can be distinguished at 
a glance from those outside by their shorter and deeper form. In the 
Mariager Fiord, a narrow inlet about twenty miles long, the average number 
of vertebrae decreases from 115 at the mouth to 111 about seven miles 
inland and 110 about fifteen miles inland ; two samples from the extreme 
end^of the fiord and from a point four miles from the end both showed 
exactly the same average, 109.3. In the Roskilde Fiord, a very large 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 8 1 

sheet of water connected with the sea by a long, narrow neck, there is a 
Zoarces population with an average of 108 vertebrae, but in the neck 
the number gradually increases towards the sea. 

There can be no doubt that the fiords were originally populated from 
the outside, and it seems likely that the decreased number of vertebrae 
in the fiords is related to the lesser activity of the fiord fish. Evolution 
has proceeded to such an extent that the Zoarces of the Roskilde Fiord 
differs from that of the Kattegat more than does the European eel from 
the American, and these are generally regarded as good species. But the 
repetition of the same phenomenon in different fiords and the continuous 
gradation from one form to another make it impossible to recognise species 
here. 

Zoarces are very stationary, but possibly the young are more migratory 
than the adults. But if we suppose that these fishes move on an average 
a mile a year, or even less, and mate with the nearest fish of the opposite 
sex, we can understand how the tendency to form a pure fiord race is 
hampered by continuous interchange, and how the influence of the outside 
form gradually diminishes until in the innermost waters it is not felt at all 
and isolation is accomplished. In each fiord a series of intermediates, 
hybrids if we like so to term them, connect two well- differentiated com- 
munities, one in the sea, the other in the inner waters of the fiord. 

These detailed examples are sufficient to illustrate my view that some 
form of isolation, either physical or produced by localisation or by habi- 
tudinal segregation, is a condition of the evolution of a new species. 
The effects of physical isolation, due to the formation of a barrier, are 
well seen in comparing the fishes of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of 
Central America, most of which can be paired, one species being found on 
the Atlantic side and its nearest ally on the Pacific side. The effects of 
habitudinal segregation are, as it seems to me, seen in the Cichlid fishes 
of Lake Tanganyika, where there are ninety species that appear to have 
evolved in the lake from two ancestral forms ; the differences between 
these species in the form and size of the mouth and in the dentition are 
an indication that their diversity is related to specialisation for different 
kinds of food. 

The whole of my work leads to the conclusion that the first step in 
the origin of a new species is not a change of structure, but the formation 
of a community either with new habits or in a new or a restricted environ- 
ment. For some species we know fairly certainly what has happened, 
and where, when, and why ; shall we ever know how ? Experimental 
attempts to repeat the operations of nature might perhaps give us a clue, 
but I do not expect one from experiments of the kind that is so fashionable 
nowadays. 

For example, if Salmo salar and Salmo obtusirostris could be bred 
together, it would not matter much whether the hybrids were sterile or 
fertile ; and if they were fertile, it would not interest me to know that the 
variation in their offspring could be squared with the factorial hypo- 
thesis by the ingenious assumption that there were several factors for 
both larger mouth and smaller mouth and for fewer gill-rakers and more 
gill-rakers. Even if the number of gill-rakers in either species could be 
increased or decreased by thyroid extract, I should still be unconvinced 
that we had got much nearer to the root of the matter. 

1925 « 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Now let us leave for a time the origin of species and consider the 
origin and evolution of a sub-class, the Neopterygian Fishes, the group 
that includes the great majority of living fishes and of which the most 
primitive living representatives are Lepidosteus and Amia. The earliest 
Neopterygians were the Semionotidse, which began in the Upper Permian, 
and the only known fishes that can have given rise to them are the Palseo- 
niscids, which flourished from Devonian to Permian times and had fins 
essentially similar in structure to those of a sturgeon. The transforma- 
tion of a Palseoniscid into a Semionotid can be interpreted as the trans- 
formation of a strong-swimming fish that captured other fishes into a slow- 
swimming fish that fed at the bottom on small molluscs and crustaceans. 
The reduction of the upturned end of the tail was related to a lesser 
speed in swimming ; the decrease in number and spacing out of the rays 
of the dorsal and anal fins, until they were equal in number to their skeletal 
supports and each acquired a definite articulation with its own basal bone, 
made these fins less suitable for cleaving the water in swift motion, but 
better fitted to perform the delicate movements required of the fins of a 
fish that swims about slowly. The change from a wide mouth, with 
strong, sharply pointed teeth, set well apart, to a small mouth, with small, 
blunt teeth, set close together, was related to the change in food. In 
connection with the small size of the mouth the suspensorium became 
directed forwards and the praeoperculum acquired a long lower limb, 
and below this lower limb appeared a new bone, the inter operculum, 
which looks like an anterior outgrowth of the suboperculum that segmented 
off in order to preserve freedom of movement. The lower jaw of the 
Semionotidse was short and broad, probably used for crushing shells ; 
in relation to this, another new bone, the symplectic, was developed to 
articulate with its hinder end external to the quadrate articulation. 

The characters diagnostic of the sub-class Neopterygii, the abbreviate 
heterocercal or homocercal caudal fin, the dorsal and anal rays equal in 
number to and directly articulated with their skeletal supports, the presence 
of an interoperculum and of a symplectic, were all adaptive when first 
acquired and were related to a change in food and in feeding habits. 

The Semionotidse gave rise to a number of distinct famiUes, two of 
which are of special interest. The Eugnathidse were active, predacious 
fishes, resembling the Paige oniscidse in the size of the mouth, the denti- 
tion, and the form of the fins. But although the dorsal rays have in- 
creased in number and become concentrated, the dorsal fin is quite unUke 
that of the Palseoniscidse, for the skeletal supports have increased in 
number with the rays ; similarly the forked caudal fin differs in that its 
upper lobe is formed by the outgrowth of fin-rays and does not include the 
upturned end of the tail. The resemblances between the Palseoniscidae 
and the Eugnathidse are adaptive ; the differences are not adaptive, but 
historical, due to the Semionotid ancestry of the Eugnathidse. 

The Jurassic Pholidophoridse, also derived from the Semionotidse, 
were extremely like herrings in shape, in the form and position of the fins, 
and in the rather small and feebly toothed mouth ; doubtless they were 
plankton -feeders. In correlation with the small size of the teeth the jaws 
were slightly built and the symplectic articulation with the lower jaw was 
lost ; the presence of this bone became a historical character. Towards 
the end of the Jurassic the Pholidophoridse gave rise to a group of larger 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 83 

and more active fishes, essentially similar in structure to the modern 
Tarpon, which chases and devours the schools of small fry of other fishes. 
In relation to these more active habits the lobes of the caudal fin became 
longer and more divergent and the rays of the upper lobe, which in the 
Pholidophoridae were supported by the centra and haemal spines of the 
upturned end of the vertebral column, acquired a firmer support by the 
enlargement and welding together of the neural spines of some of these 
vertebra?, which replaced functionally and caused the disappearance of 
the upturned centra. This structure, thus and for this purpose first 
acquired by the Tarpon-like fishes, persists in all the multitude of modern 
fishes derived from them, whatever their habits, whatever the size and 
shape of their caudal fin. And in comparing the herrings with the Pholi- 
dophoridse we see that the difference in caudal structure is due to the 
Tarpon ancestry of the herrings. 

At the present day the perch-like fishes are dominant in the coastal 
waters of tropical and subtropical seas. One might have thought that 
when the anterior rays of the dorsal fin had become strong, sharp spines, 
weapons of attack and defence, further modifications would be unlikely ; 
but in different offshoots of the perch tribe many extraordinary modifica- 
tions of the spinous dorsal fin occur. In the flat-fishes, where undulating 
movements of the whole dorsal fin are required, the spines have been 
reconverted into jointed, flexible rays ; in the angler-fishes the spinous 
rays have become flexible and the first has moved on to the snout and 
has been modified into a line and bait. In the sucker-fishes the spinous 
dorsal fin has been transformed into a transversely laminated suctorial 
disc placed on the upper surface of the head ; when this disc is applied 
to the skin of a shark or of some other marine animal, the laminae, or 
modified fin-rays, are erected and a series of vacuum chambers is formed 
between them. I put forward this example of the sucker-fishes (Echeneis) 
as one that can be interpreted only on the assumption that a change of 
habits preceded a change of structure. In swift-swimming pelagic fishes 
the spines of the dorsal fin are either short or slender and can be depressed 
within a groove so as not to impede rapid motion through the water ; 
the pilot-fish is a fish of this type that has the habit of associating with 
sharks. Some similar fish might have found that a spinous dorsal fin with 
this structure could be used for adhesion if the margins of the groove 
were pressed against the skin of the shark and the spines were slightly 
erected ; the habit of trying to adhere once established, the evolution of 
the suctorial disc would follow. 

Throughout, the evolution of fishes illustrates the same principles. 
Changes of structure have been intimately related to, and may even be 
said to have been determined by, changes of habits, and especially changes 
of food and of feeding habits. Evolution has been adaptive, but modifica- 
tions of structure that were originally adaptive persist when they are 
so no longer ; they become historical and the basis for further adaptive 
modifications. I am satisfied that these principles, which I have illustrated 
by examples from the group I have specially studied, have a general 
application. 

Darwin's theory of evolution was that it had been accomplished mainly 
by natural selection, aided by the inherited effects of use and disuse. 
Whether that theory be permanent or not, it was put forward by a man 

Q -J 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

pre-eminent for his wide knowledge and his great reasoning powers, who 
knew the facts that had to be explained and gave us a theory that ex- 
plained them. The ' Origin of Species ' still remains the one hook essential 
for the student of evolution. 

Darwin has been criticised, because, we are told, he did not know that 
there were two sorts of variations— mutations, which are inherited, and 
fluctuations, which vary about a mean and are not inherited. But when 
you point out to a mutationist that the heredity of many fluctuating 
variations has been proved — parents above the mean, for example, giving 
offspring above the mean — he tells you that that shows that the variation 
is not really fluctuating, but only apparently so, and that a large number 
of ' factors ' must be involved. This is in effect a complete withdrawal, 
for it amounts to an admission that Darwin was right if he considered 
that these types of variation differed only in size and frequency. 

But there are other critics who admit that at any rate some fluctuations 
are inherited, but who say that the effect produced on a population by 
selection is limited ; elimination of certain types will change the average, 
but will produce nothing new. This criticism has also, as it seems to me, 
been disproved experimentally ; for example, by De Vries, who from two 
plants of clover in which a few leaves were f our-lobed produced by selec- 
tion a variety in which the number of lobes of the leaves varied from three 
to seven, fluctuating about a mean of five. Incidentally this experiment 
shows the relation between mutations and fluctuations. 

The criticism that many specific characters are non-adaptive merely 
amounts to this, that we do not know the meaning of many specific 
characters. And we are not likely to for a long time, for a prolonged study 
would be necessary to understand fully the meaning of the differences 
between any two species, to determine which characters were adaptive, 
which historical, which due to the environment, and which the expression 
of metabolic differences. 

But if these criticisms of the natural selection theory can be met 
it does not follow that it is a complete theory. It may be a sufficient 
explanation of certain types of evolution, and one cannot wonder that those 
who have studied mimicry in insects are firmly convinced of its truth ; 
but the evolution of the Dodo, and of the blind fishes of subterranean 
waters, put rather a strain on the theory and almost demand the recogni- 
tion of the inheritance of the effects of use and disuse. 

And if this be admitted, if the adaptive responses of an organism to 
changed habits and changed conditions make it possible for subsequent 
generations to respond with greater effect, then the part played by natural 
selection in evolution of this kind would be subsidiary, the selection of 
those individuals who responded earlier or better than their fellows. 
How well this idea fits in with that fundamental generalisation, the law of 
recapitulation, which states that ontogeny tends to repeat phylogeny, 
and that the more remote the ancestor the earlier it will be represented 
in the developmental history ! This generalisation, based on embryological 
data, has since received strong support from palseontological evidence. 

No doubt all of you are aware that a flat-fish when first hatched is 
symmetrical and swims vertically, but that at an early age one eye migrates 
round the top of the head to the other side, and the little fish sinks to the 
bottom and henceforth lives with the eyed side uppermost. But perhaps 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 85 

all of you do not know that it has been shown that almost as soon as the 
fish is hatched the cartilaginous supraorbital bar above the eye that is 
going to migrate begins to be absorbed, and is eventually represented only 
by short processes of the otic and ethmoid cartilages, with a wide gap 
between them ; through this gap the eye migrates, with the result that 
when ossification begins the main part of one frontal bone is on the wrong 
side of its eye. The flat-fishes are an offshoot of the perch group, and 
it is known that some of these have a habit of resting on one side ; if such 
a fish found it profitable to lie in wait for its prey in this position, it would 
naturally try to make some use of the eye of the under-side, pressing it 
upwards against the edge of the frontal bone. And in the flat-fishes the 
migration of the eye into and across the territory of the frontal bone, 
prepared for by the absorption of the cartilaginous precursor of the frontal 
bone before the eye shows any sign of migration, may well be interpreted 
as the final stage of a process thus initiated. 

You will have seen, then, that I am inclined to accept Darwin's theory 
as a whole, including both natural selection and the inherited effects of 
use and disuse, at any rate until some better explanation of the facts is 
forthcoming. But still there are difficulties and to illustrate them I must 
give one more example from the fishes. 

The most primitive spiny-rayed fishes are the Berycoids, which 
flourished in Cretaceous times ; in some of these the vertebrae number 
24, 10 praecaudal and 14 caudal. In many families of Percoids, not at 
all closely related to each other, we find this number of vertebrae is a 
constant family character ; for example, all the genera and species of Sea- 
breams (Sparidae), Bed Mullets (Mullidse), Chaetodonts (Chsetodontidse), 
Gray Mullets (Mugilidse), and Barracudas (Sphyrsenidse) have 24 (10 + 14) 
vertebrae. The conclusion is inevitable that this is a primitive Percoid 
character derived from a Berycoid ancestor. Yet we have clear evidence 
that whenever the circumstances demanded it this number could be 
decreased or increased. There is no variation and therefore no material 
for selection ; also the number of vertebrae is settled at a very early stage, 
and no fish can increase or diminish that number in its lifetime. Psettodes, 
the most primitive living flat-fish, has 24 (10 + 14) vertebrae ; it is simply 
an asymmetrical perch. It has a large mouth and strong, sharp teeth, 
and its principal movements are probably short dashes after fishes that 
come near enough to be caught. But in other flat-fishes the number of 
vertebrae is greater ; in the sole, which feeds on small invertebrates that 
it finds in the sand, and swims along with undulating movements of the 
whole body, the number is about fifty, and in the Tongue-Soles (Cyno- 
glossus) there may be as many as seventy vertebrae. 

We are almost compelled to believe that muscular movements, the 
efforts of a fish to swim in a certain way, may lead to an alteration in the 
number of muscle segments of its descendants ; the number of vertebrae 
is, of course, determined by the number of muscle segments. This is an 
extension of the Lamarckian theory, and some of you may regard it as a 
teleological speculation unworthy of serious consideration ; some may even 
think that, as my suggested explanation is incredible, we have here another 
example of the truth of the mutation theory, which in effect states that it 
is only by accident that a structure has a function. 

Many biologists have adopted Weismann's germ-plasm hypothesis so 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

whole-heartedly that they seem to regard it as a final disproof of Lamarck's 
theory. But when we consider that in progressive evolution, as in the 
development of the individual, increasing complexity of structure and 
localisation of functions is accompanied by co-ordination of the activities 
of all the parts, that differentiation and integration go together and the 
organism remains a unit, the so-called 'inheritance of acquired characters' 
seems no more unlikely in the most advanced Metazoa than in the simplest 
unicellular organisms ; and in some of these it has been proved. 

When I read Huxley's essays as an undergraduate I was greatly 
impressed with his remark that ' Suffer fools gladly ' was very good 
advice. If a man does not agree with you, try to find out why he thinks 
as he does ; you may discover the weakness of your own position. We 
should not adopt theories as creeds and denounce other theories as heresies. 
We are more likely to make progress towards the solution of the problem 
of evolution if we keep open minds and take broad views. 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



THE SCIENCE AND ART OF 
MAP-MAKING. 

ADDRESS BY 

A. R. HINKS, C.B.E., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



As Geographers we count ourselves happy that we are met this year in 
the beautiful town of Southampton — an ancient borough well fitted by its 
pride of place in the maritime history of England, by its splendid 
geographical setting, its scientific renown as the seat of the Ordnance 
Survey, its remarkable modern development of natural advantages, and 
its traditional hospitality, to receive us with that blend of serious intention 
and discreet gaiety which the cities of England know so well how to offer 
to the British Association. As your President in this Section I count 
myself especially fortunate : for it is no small advantage to me that I find 
myself addressing you in a place where it is natural to speak in the language 
of the cartographer, surveyor, and geodesist. Our science of geography 
uses several strange tongues and jargons that have something the appear- 
ance of English : but I have little practice in them. I have never, with 
our great poet-geographer, 

wandered in my dreams 

On banks of consequential streams 

Until my weary head was fain 

To rest upon a peneplain. 

I know next to nothing of those mysterious adjectival objects, 
' Woollens,' that figure so largely in the geographical education of the 
modern young. Still less am I able to compete with our senior General 
Secretary or with the late Director-General of the Ordnance Survey in 
arguing that ever-attractive question : What is included in the scope of 
Geography ? I am ready to agree with the former that ' Geography 
. . . essays to discover what happens where, and to explain why any- 
thing which happens, happens just when it does ; and under what 
combination of circumstances it does happen, just then' ; or with the latter 
that there is no accepted definition of Geography, but it is a popularisation 
of geodesy, surveying, cartography, geology, climatology, and ethnology. 
At the risk of getting into as much trouble with the Secretary of the 
Royal Geographical Society as he did over it, I will go nearly so far with 
him, provided that I am not called upon to discuss the grounds of my 
beliefs. Rather than do that, in this town where the language of 
cartography must be in every mouth, would I ask leave to discuss the 
Science and Art of Map-making — the Science which has made so notable 
an advance, and the Art which has suffered in some respects so lamentable 
a decline since the heroic days of Saxton and Hondius and Norden, of 
Mercator and Blaeu. 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

But before I embark upon my main adventure, there is a pious duty 
to perform. Southampton reckoned among its citizens for many years 
a man whose name will live for ever in the abstruse literature of geodesy ; 
yet I doubt very much whether, if one had enquired a few months ago of 
the Mayor and Corporation, who was the most distinguished citizen of 
Southampton in the nineteenth century, they would have replied with 
one voice, ' Colonel Clarke.' The name of Alexander Ross Clarke must 
not be forgotten by the town which his genius adorned ; and I am happy 
to think that steps have been taken at last to mark the house where he 
lived, for no man ever better deserved remembrance. He came back 
from service in Canada to the Ordnance Survey in 1854. By 1858 he had 
published, under the direction of Sir Henry James, the monumental 
volume describing the triangulation of the United Kingdom, and with it 
his first determination of the Figure of the Earth. In 1866, under the 
same direction, was published his Comparison of the Standards of Length, 
and as an appendix his second Figure, tucked inconspicuously away with 
not a word about it on the title-page. I sometimes wonder if the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, who have made Clarke's Figure of 
1866 the standard for the North American Continent, would know at 
once where to find the original memoir. The years passed by, and 
Lieut.-Colonel Clarke remained still a subordinate of the Chief who held his 
post for life. In 1880 he published his treatise on Geodesy — the first and 
last book of its kind in our language, now become very scarce and 
irreplaceable. It included his famous Third Figure (if it was not the 
fourth). Next year Clarke suddenly resigned his position on the Ordnance 
Survey and his interest in Geodesy. He lived until 1914 ; but in those 
thirty-three years of retirement he could not be induced even to publish 
a second edition of his treatise, and to any enquirer he replied courteously, 
but firmly, that he had given up the subject. It was a great scientific 
tragedy, and the fault not of any man but of a system. 

I shall regret as long as I live that the British Delegation at Madrid 
last autumn did not make a concerted fight for Clarke's Figure of 1880 
as the Standard Figure of the Earth. I will not dwell on the sad story. 
The last act in the Clarke tragedy is too painfully fresh in my memory. 
But a grave mistake was made that day when it was decided by the 
narrowest of majorities that a brand new figure of the Earth, derived from 
a restricted part of it, by a process which is the subject of controversy, 
should be imposed upon a generally reluctant world as the collective 
wisdom of a plenary International Conference. 

Let us turn to more agreeable and less controversial topics. The 
progress of invention has placed in the hands of surveyors a number of 
beautiful new methods, and some we have not yet scientifically explored. 
Would you measure a base ? So far from painfully seeking a dead-level 
plain and clearing it of every petty obstruction, you will gaily take the 
suspended invar tapes across country, and by preference run them up a 
hill at each end to get a better view for the base extension. Would you 
equip a party for primary triangulation ? Look thankfully at Ramsden's 
36-inch theodolite reposing in the museum of the Ordnance Survey ; look 
doubtfully at the fashionable 10-inch ; and before you take it any more 
into the field, examine whether the instrument of the future, is not a 5-inch 
constructed on the new principles of Mr. Henry Wild, with circles etched 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 89 

on glass, and parallel plate micrometer that reads opposite points of the 
circle from the eye-end and takes the mean for you. When you lay out the 
triangulation, consider well the recent opinion of the U.S. C.G.S., that it is 
better to be content with small triangles easily accessible, with automatic 
electric beacons tended by a party in a car, than to make enormous efforts 
at rays longer than Nature easily allows. And bear in mind a remark 
which our lamented friend Colonel Edmund Grove-Hills made to me 
not long before his death. I was saying how necessary it was to complete 
as soon as possible the late Sir David Gill's great arc of meridian in Africa ; 
and to my horror Hills referred contemptuously to the meridian arc as an 
' obsolete method.' He did not pursue the idea ; but I think we can see 
what was in his mind, and that he was right. The old-fashioned arc 
stuck to the meridian or the parallel with a sublime disregard of the 
topographer's convenience. It had infrequent bases measured with pomp 
and ceremony. It had occasional astronomical latitudes and azimuths 
observed with an almost painful degree of internal precision by heavy 
instruments and prolonged sojourn on uncomfortable heights. 

We can see now how mistaken it all was. The purpose of these 
astronomical observations was to compare the geodetic with the 
astronomical latitudes, as a contribution to the Figure of the Earth. But 
what use to aim at single tenths of seconds in the latter, when on the 
average they were divergent by several seconds owing to local deviations 
of the vertical ? Our real need is for a latitude at every triangulation 
point, and those points thick upon the ground. ' Obsolete ' was Hills' 
word for the meridian arc ; and I think we shall not find it too strong, 
when we look at a graphical plot of the contribution to our problem which 
Gill's arc in South Africa can make. It amounts to very little, because, 
as I made bold to show at the Madrid Conference, the results are incon- 
sistent with any correction to the semi-axis and the flattening. Or look 
in the same way at that beautiful enterprise of General Bourgeois and the 
Academy of Sciences, in remeasuring the famous ' Arc de Perou.' We 
have only to plot the results to see at once that they tell us nothing, 
except that the irregular local deviations of gravity have overwhelmed any 
indication that the Figure of the Earth requires correction. 

It seems that we shall be driven back to the old network stretching far 
and wide across the country like the triangulation of Great Britain ; and 
that raises problems which can hardly be discussed here. But let me not 
for one moment be taken as disparaging the practical value of Gill's great 
achievement. It has proved invaluable as a framework on which to hang 
boundary surveys. It stretches a long skeleton from Port Elizabeth to 
near Tanganyika — ready to be clothed with topographical maps ; and still 
lying in stark nakedness, for there is something in self-government that is 
antipathetic to map-making. Our Crown Colonies are getting pretty 
well provided with maps, thanks in great measure to the work of that 
Colonial Survey Committee which was so active early in the century, and 
which we hope was not a casualty in the war. But our self-governing 
Dominions have not always much to boast of. Let me mention a bad 
example. When the Union of South Africa wanted to make a small relief 
map of Natal to be shown at Wembley last year, they sent round to the 
Geographical Society for material, and were staggered to find that we 
could not supply it, for the good reason that Natal has never been mapped. 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

They had discovered it to their cost in 1899, they found it out again in 
1924 ; and it seems only too likely that if an emergency arises in 1949, 
it will be discovered once more, for nothing has been done. 

This is a well-worn subject, and geographers are getting tired of asking 
whether there is yet a single topographical sheet to be bought in Australia. 
I believe that the answer is still, No : though there are some thirty sheets 
for official use produced by the Department of Defence as an earnest 
of the thousands that are wanted to cover the Continent. Canada has now 
a first-rate geodetic survey and the beginning of a good topographical 
map ; but it is a big country that began survey very late, and its settle- 
ment is marching faster than its maps. Thanks to the labours of Mr. 
Wallace, we do know at last, what Lord Southesk never did, where he went 
on his journey of 1859 in the Rockies, but there is still no published map 
good enough to show the route upon. 

May I turn aside for a moment to propound a question this suggests, 
to which I have never yet found any adequate reply : What is the extent 
of the permanent harm that is done to a country by cutting it up into 
squares ; into ranges and townships, as the Canadians say ? In the flat 
prairie the effect is simple. It makes people drive about >/ 2 times as far, on 
the average, as they need. But in broken country with a real and significant 
and compelling topography, the damage is obviously far graver ; and I 
think that to assess the damage would make a very interesting thesis for 
some research degree in a Canadian university. 

And there is a pleasant problem ahead wherever the regular topo- 
graphical survey based on triangulation carried from afar invades the 
system of squares laid out astronomically. For geodetic and astronomical 
points will never fit. In local deviation of gravity a second of arc is 
relatively nothing. But its equivalent of 100 ft. is mighty noticeable in 
the position of a boundary pillar, and it may very well be that the know- 
ledge of trouble to come is a real though unavowed ingredient in the dis- 
taste for regular survey which marks some governments. Nevertheless, 
there is much to be said for astronomical as against geodetic positions in 
a large unsettled and especially a thickly forested country. You can find 
where you ought to be on the map by an isolated fix, as a sailor does ; 
and that is not always possible otherwise. 

And this brings us back to new methods of survey. It is a commonplace 
of books that the surveyor in the field can always find latitude or azimuth, 
but is in difficulty with his longitude. That is no longer true. The rapid 
establishment of powerful time signals has made it possible to get longi- 
tude as exactly as latitude, and this must have a profound effect on further 
survey, exalting the astronomical at the expense of the trigonometrical ; 
facilitating marvellously the rapid reconnaisance survey ; putting off 
the drastic remedy of triangulation ; but heaping up trouble in the future. 
On the other hand, the method of wireless longitudes will tend to the 
solution of two great problems, one of respectable position and one a little 
parvenu. Is the equator a circle ? No one has yet certainly challenged it, 
though Clarke and others have done their best with inadequate means. Are 
the continents floating, or rather sliding about slowly on a sima-slide ? We 
are generally agreed that Wegener has not proved his case, because he had 
a naif trust in astronomical longitudes palpably weak. Yet the question has 
been deemed worthy of a serious and costly enterprise, warmly advocated 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 91 

by General Ferrie, and gradually assuming, I think we may say, without 
offence to that great enthusiast, a much more acceptable shape than the 
rather hard and unadaptable outline that was a little criticised by British 
geodesists and astronomers two years ago. 

The need of a strong central authority is as evident in Wireless Time 
Signalling as it is in the organisation of Broadcast. Happily for geo- 
graphers, the astronomers have organised themselves well since the War 
into a Union with thirty-two Commissions. The Union spends half its 
whole income on the sustenance of the Bureau International de l'Heure, 
over which one of the Commissions exercises a general control. The 
prodigality of the Union, stated thus, is impressive. In cold fact, its 
contributions, fixed unfortunately in French francs, do not go very far 
to pay the cost of the service, which can be carried on only because the 
Director of the Paris Observatory has not hesitated to place the instru- 
mental resources and the magnificent house-room of his Observatory at 
the disposal of the Bureau ; while the keen interest of General Ferrie has 
secured the benevolent and beneficent co-operation of the French radio- 
telegraphic services, military and civil. Geographers owe a great debt of 
gratitude to the French in this matter. But we hope that the British 
Government- will not rest content with the modest part which Great 
Britain has played up to the present in this great development. The pro- 
gramme of the B.I.H. has shown up to now clear signs of spasmodic and 
rather lop-sided growth, while it did not provide for the principal needs of 
the surveyor in the field in Africa. A recent rather drastic revision made at 
Cambridge last month has cut off the superfluities and greatly improved 
the system ; but it leaves a very evident place for Great Britain to fill. 
We have — or shall have soon — an ' Imperial Wireless Chain ' stretched 
out from the new station at Rugby to the furthest Dominions ; and we 
shall miss a great dramatic opportunity if from the opening of this service 
we do not insist that time signals from Greenwich shall be sent from Rugby 
and retransmitted in each link of the chain, that all Britain's Dominions 
beyond the seas, her ships on the ocean, and her travellers wherever they 
may be, shall be able to take Greenwich Mean Time direct from the source. 
Let it not be thought that this would be overlapping the International 
Service. Our ideal should be an hourly service of accurate time all over 
the world, though that will not be realised at once ; but we in Great Britain 
could make a notable contribution to it by a well-chosen pair of signals 
straddled between the signals of the B.I.H. The technique of time trans- 
mission has been so greatly improved in these last years that there is no 
serious difficulty about it ; and of the Imperial services for which the Rugby 
station is built, there can be none, I think, more really, if modestly, useful 
than the propagation of Greenwich Mean Time throughout the Empire. 

The Science of Cartography is based upon the sciences of precise 
Survey, and I make no apology for having dwelt for some time on the 
methods of securing the foundations. But when these are well and truly 
laid, it is time to press forward the visible building — the maps — and a 
problem we share with the larger world is that of building with speed and 
economy, not regarding too closely the interests vested in the old methods, 
but prepared if it seems wise to reinforce the ancient crafts with new. 
Two new powers have been added to the cartographer in these last years : 
flight to give him range of vision, and the stereoscopic plotter to give his 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

photographic vision a new sense. For I do not exaggerate when I use those 
words— a new sense — to describe the power which the stereoscopic measure- 
ment of pairs of photographs has given the surveyor of topographical 
detail. Colonel Laussedat in France, Mr. Deville in Canada, were pioneers 
in the simple measurement of photographs, searching for pairs of recognis- 
able points, and deriving their distances and heights by a tedious compu- 
tation or construction. The brilliant idea that at least part of this could be 
done automatically was due to Captain Vivian Thompson, an assistant 
instructor in the Survey School at Chatham ; and I well remember seeing 
his process in embryo when I was first introduced to the pleasant delights 
of survey by my god-father in that art, Sir Charles Close. But Thompson's 
machine was lamentably poor in construction ; and those who used it 
seem to have loved it little. 

The credit of extending and perfecting the beautiful but marvellously 
simple geometry belongs to an Austrian, Lieut, von Orel ; and of translating 
the geometry into sweetly-working mechanism to the German firm of 
Zeiss. No more beautiful piece of optical machinery has ever been made, I 
willingly believe, than the Stereoautograph of von Orel and Zeiss. But they 
made a sad mistake in marketing it, granting exclusive rights over a terri- 
tory to an individual, and demanding from him not only 'a heavy price 
for the outfit, but a large and perpetual royalty on his gross receipts as a 
stereoautographer. So strange a method of selling a scientific instrument 
was never known before. Imagine the plight of the stereoscopic surveyor 
in Tibet confronted with an injunction obtained by the Concessionnaire 
for Nepal if he dared photograph the South Peak of Mount Everest. 

Happily there is more than one mechanical and optical solution of the 
problem, and at least four different machines are now in the field abroad, 
while a fifth is under construction in this country to the order of the Air 
Survey Committee. We are thus fortunately saved from the reproach that 
nothing has been done in this our country to develop a method first 
devised by an Englishman. But we may feel that our instrument-makers 
and our surveyors have been a little unenterprising ; and there is nothing 
I would like to see more than a real effort, with adequate means, to try out 
stereographic surveying on geographical scales. 

We know well enough that the stereoautograph can deal marvellously 
with a small piece of country on a large scale ; but what has never yet 
been shown is that it can deal with a large piece of country on a small 
scale. It will contour for you an inaccessible cliff at 1-metre intervals on 
the scale 1/5000 ; but can it or a rival be made to tackle 100-metre intervals 
on the scale 1/250,000 ? That is a question which has never yet been 
answered, and I believe that it is our duty to answer it. Along the northern 
frontiers of India in the ranges of the Himalaya are at least 10,000 perma- 
nently snow-clad peaks. I have heard from the lips of an Indian Survey 
officer the deplorable remark that a certain rather rough method was 
' good enough for the mountains.' No true geographer would admit that 
anything short of the very best is good enough for the grandest mountain 
region in the whole world ; yet it is easy enough to see that the surveyor 
had a certain justification. So long as the inch-to-the-mile map is in- 
complete in the plains, we can hardly expect it in the mountains. Yet a 
really accurate map on the scale, say,l/250,000, cannot be deemed superfluous 
for defence ; and even the poor geographer or traveller is entitled to ask 



£.— GEOGRAPHY. «.).•} 

ior it. How is it to be obtained l . Will stereoscopic survey do anything 
for us ? 

I feel certain that the answer is Yes ; but much less certain thai/the 
photographs should, at least in the first instance, be taken from the air, 
which seems to be contemplated by the advanced school, and taken for 
granted by the newspapers. Air photography made a brilliant success 
in the War, when the cost was not too severely scrutinised. It did its 
best work in France, but demanded a pretty close plane table survey of 
well-marked points, to give it a rigid skeleton. In the East it also did 
well, but perhaps on the ground that any sort of patchwork mosaic was 
a good deal better than nothing at all. In peace we have to approach 
the problem with the fear of the Treasury in our hearts, and with more 
respect for that sort of precision which lets one go on in an orderly way 
for ever, without leaving accumulations of errors ' to be absorbed in the 
desert,' as they say in the Sudan. 

Now, photographs taken with axis vertical cover a surprisingly small 
ground, even from extreme heights. With a lens of 6 in. focal length, 
about the minimum, you must go to 25,000 ft. to get a result on the scale 
1/50,000, and then you can photograph only about three miles square on 
each plate. Flying at ninety miles an hour you must take plates every 
few seconds to avoid getting too much stereoscopic relief. It looks as if 
vertical photographs combined stereoscopically will fail in mountainous 
country. 

I turn to obliques. The photographs taken in the air are taken from 
unknown points, and the first thing to do is to determine the position of 
the camera at the instant of exposure. This requires at least three 
recognisable fixed points on each plate ; and the first adjective is as essential 
as the second. The geometry of the method is none too strong, anyhow, 
and we could not expect to find the resulting place of the aeroplane with 
anything like the accuracy of a ground station. This leads me to think 
that stereographic survey from ground stations will be found to play an 
indispensable part in the future survey of mountainous country. 

Suppose, for example, that political difficulties did not exist, and that 
we were able to survey the country south of Mount Everest. I think I 
would rather start out with a series of camera stations along the Singalela 
ridge, and fix all the visible crests stereographically with horizontal axes 
and vertical plates. A large part of the ground would be dead ground ; 
but quite a good deal could be put in. Would this not solve the question 
of providing a fixed framework for the obliques from the air, perhaps 
combining each with a plate from a ground station, rather than in pairs 
of obliques ? It will at any rate be worth the trial ; and therefore I am 
anxious that we should not fail to exploit the relatively easy and in- 
expensive ground stations, while we are perfecting the vastly more difficult 
process of the oblique air photograph. And that is the reason why I 
would urge a start with the best of existing apparatus : though which that 
is I am not at present prepared to say, for there are several models in the 
field, including a new one by the ingenious Mr. Wild, already mentioned. 

I suppose there never was a time when it was more difficult than now 
to forecast the future in surveying. We have seen already that Geodesy 
is in a state of flux ; we are not even allowed to believe that the pole or 
the continents stand fast in their right places. The methods that were 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

canonical in field astronomy a few years ago are being rapidly displaced 
by new. The prismatic astrolabe is threatening to oust the theodolite ; 
and Mr. Reeves has retaliated by inventing a small attachment to the 
theodolite that does the work of the astrolabe to perfection, and makes 
a separate instrument unnecessary. Sound-ranging and flash- spotting 
may yet be turned to the arts of peace, and there is something suspiciously 
like the latter in the method proposed for connecting Egypt with Crete 
or Alaska with Siberia. Sound-ranging in air is perhaps not so likely to 
be useful to geographers as sound-ranging in water. But there is a post- 
War invention whose future is brilliant. Who would have dreamed in 
the Challenger that her modern counterpart, the Royal Research ship 
Discovery, would be equipped with deep-sounding gear on the method of 
echoes, that takes soundings in no time, or very nearly. It has become 
suddenly vastly more simple to measure the depth of the sea than the 
height of the land. There is much more sea than land, and a disiJro- 
portionate part of it is very deep. Yet now for the first time we can 
begin to think of ocean contours drawn less by imagination and more by 
soundings in the new sense of the word. 

If there was twenty years ago one branch of cartography that seemed 
stereotyped and unlikely to develop, it was surely the subject of map 
projections — a subject with a large and rather unprofitable literature ; 
a science in which pure mathematics disported itself to the little advantage 
of maps ; a science with a misleading title, since scarcely more than one 
of the useful projections is really a projection at all, the rest being only 
constructions ; a science in which guiding principles were hard to find. 

The most practically useful has always seemed to me the dictum of 
Sir Charles Close, that map-makers should draw the line at the root of 
minus one. The true geometrical projections had come down to us from 
antiquity, excepting that elegant small group of which the best known is 
the projection of Sir Henry James, which I think has been employed 
precisely once, by Sir Henry James himself. Mercator had constructed 
empirically in the sixteenth century the famous and much-abused projec- 
tion that Edmund Wright first put upon a strict mathematical foundation, 
though it could not be done neatly until Napier of Merchiston invented 
logarithms a few years later. Lambert had provided a whole galaxy of 
projections more than amply sufficient for the most adventurous atlas 
constructor, who nevertheless fought shy of them ; and in the middle of 
last century the Coast and Geodetic Survey popularised the useful and 
unambitious Polyconic, whose sad fate it is to be completely misrepresented 
in books that give figures — for they insist on showing as a world map what 
was especially designed for single sheets. The projections in common use 
were all, except Mercator, of little mathematical interest ; and when 
exhibited, as they were, as isolated pieces of geometry, it was tedious, 
and hardly attempted, to compare their respective merits. 

But in recent years the subject has taken on a new aspect. Tissot, 
and Jordan, and especially A. E. Young, have developed the expressions 
in infinite series — a process which sounds terrifying to those whose 
intelligences automatically shut up when they scent mathematics, but 
which is really an enormous simplification, because it reveals at once how 
much alike all these projections are in the first few terms, and precisely 
by how much they begin to diverge from one another when the sheet is 



E.— GEOGRAPH Y . 95 

extended. Moreover, this way of dealing with the subject allows the 
conscientious cartographer to distribute the errors judiciously by a process 
of cooking the projection, producing a flavour much appreciated by the 
connoisseur, though a taste not yet acquired by the common mapmaker. 
But these refinements must not be looked at askance, as over-elaboration 
tending to preciosity. They have real practical advantages in the com- 
puting office, and strange though it may seem, the most interesting 
theoretically were inspired by the practical needs of the Allied Armies in 
the field. They have changed the whole aspect of the subject ; and I 
speak feelingly as the guilty author of a text-book only thirteen years old, 
on a subject more than two thousand, which must at the first opportunity 
be entirely re-written. 

This branch of our venerable science is therefore very much alive. 
It has even produced of late two new families — the retro-azimuthal 
projections which are the offspring of the- Survey of Egypt, and the doubly- 
zenithal whose father is Sir Charles Close. The former guides the Muslim 
in his prostration towards Mecca ; the latter serves wireless direction- 
finding and other devices of the twentieth century. Could a student 
desire a subject of wider scope in which to exercise his powers ? 

The thought of the very charming modification of the Polyconic 
projection devised by M. Charles Lallemand for the International Map on 
the scale of one in a million, leads us naturally to consider the outcome of 
that ambitious programme which was launched at the London Conference 
of 1909. The second conference of 1913, at Paris, established a Central 
Bureau for the map in the offices of the Ordnance Survey, and we have 
already had the advantage in this section of hearing from its Secretary a 
valuable statement of the situation. I sometimes wonder if Major MacLeod, 
in that august position, looks back with a fond regret or with a righteous 
indignation upon the quite irregular enterprise in which he and I were 
partners during the early days of the War. In the beginning of August 
1914 two officers of the Survey of India, on sick leave in London, and 
officially forbidden to work, spent their enforced leisure at the house of 
the Royal Geographical Society preparing a skeleton map of the Western 
Front on the scale of 1/500,000. A proposal to reduce it to 1/1,000,000 led, 
quite naturally, to a little scheme for rapidly compiling a few sheets of 
the International Map covering Central Europe, of which Colonel Hedley 
admitted that six might be useful. By the end of the War our volunteer 
staff had compiled nearly one hundred sheets, and the War Office and 
Ordnance Survey had published them. We learned our job from Major 
MacLeod in those hectic months before he was passed fit and went away 
to win distinction in France and on the Rhine. The map to which he 
contributed about five sheets to every one that his colleagues could make 
was a rapid improvisation, keeping as near as might be to the scheme of 
the International Map. It was rough compilation, and not too accurate, 
but it spread across Europe and the Near East in a slow continuous 
expansion, and I do not think that more than half a dozen of the sheets 
have as yet been superseded by the legitimate offspring of the Convention. 
For this there are the best, or worst, of reasons. Difficult as it was to 
secure enthusiastic co-operation before 1914 in producing sheets whose 
marginal lines were necessarily drawn on a hard geometrical convention 
regardless of frontiers, it is trebly difficult now. 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

But I think it is fair to enquire if the original scheme was sound. The 
history of international scientific enterprises is not uniformly encouraging. 
The International Chart of the Heavens was projected in 1887, and begun 
about 1891, under rigid rules to secure uniformity. It was even proposed 
that all the plates should be developed by a uniform formula. About 
twenty years later it was found necessary to publish a guide to the 
published catalogues, because no two observatories had used the same 
system, and it was impossible without a guide to find the way about in 
them. This was an extreme example. But there is an old proverb that 
if you want a thing well done you must do it yourself, and with suitable 
modification this seems to me to apply especially to mapmaking. It is 
difficult enough for a single office to produce at intervals sheets that will 
absolutely match their neighbours. To expect uniformity from twenty 
or thirty reproduction offices is to expect altogether too much. One 
might indeed overlook slight differences in layer tints if one could only 
get the maps ; but that is just the difficulty. Some countries are keen 
to meet their obligations, and some are not. India has produced a fine 
block of sheets ; the North American Continent — I will not particularise — 
has produced three. And I think we should find if we took a census that 
the majority of the Powers represented at Paris in 1913 have produced 
none, and show few signs of doing so. 

With some trepidation I suggest, therefore, that the scheme for an 
International Map was bound to fail, because it required that each of 
many different countries should do its share, after a preliminary wrangle 
with its neighbours as to what that share was. Successful international 
co-operations have never worked that way. What has been the guiding 
principle of the successful enterprises ? Surely that the reputed cost 
should be contributed by the nations in rough proportion to their 
populations, and that the work should be done by one. The Bureau 
International des Poids et Mesures, the old International Geodetic 
Association's Institute, the modern Bureau International de l'Heure, all 
these work or worked on that plan, with great success. The contributing 
nations get a great deal for a very small payment, and the nation which 
has the energy to take on the responsibility, and gets the credit, naturally 
contributes from its own resources, directly or indirectly, a large and 
essential part of the total cost. 

The International Map is a bigger thing altogether, but I believe that 
the same principle applies to it, that it will never become really successful 
until some one establishment undertakes the whole production, on com- 
pilations supplied if you like by each country, and perhaps on some scale 
of payment for each sheet produced. Such organisation would solve a 
real present difficulty, that when the maps are produced it is difficult to 
buy them. No dealer in London, for example, finds that it pays to stock 
the scattered sheets that are produced in ones or twos in different capitals ; 
and I do not suppose that in any country it is easier. 

Moreover, the world was not ripe for a general map on the scale of 
1/1,000,000: a smaller scale will do at present for Africa and Asia ; and 
it is far more important to get a general map out quick, though the scale 
be smaller, than to aim at a uniform scale disproportionate to the available 
detail. The Survey of India has set us an admirable example in its map 
of India and Adjacent Countries, with a liberal interpretation of what 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 97 

adjacent means. We followed their example in a humble way at theR.G.S. 
when, during the War, we compiled a good part of Africa on 1/2,000,000, 
and began a 1/4,000,000 of Asia. When we were demobilised these 
projects were taken over by the G.S.G.S., and have made great progress. 
The map of Asia, in particular, does the greatest credit to the office which 
is plugging away at it. Is it beyond hope, that even in these hard times 
that section of the General Staff might be given means to produce a map 
of the ' British Empire and Adjacent Countries ' — again without too much 
regard to the niceties of language ? 

Such a map of the world is indeed an almost necessary outcome of 
the P.C.G.N.'s work on names for British official use, for if unity of style 
could be achieved by miracle in an international map, there is no hope 
whatever for unity of spelling, or even of nomenclature. A sheet bears 
inevitably in its methods of transliteration the mark of its origin. We 
are all agreed that names in countries using the Roman alphabet should 
be spelled as in that country ; the difficulty comes in transliteration from 
the non-Roman, and in descriptive names. The International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau at Monaco seems to me to have entered on a hopeless 
quest when it tries to obtain international agreement for the names of 
international waters. The French must surely always call Pas de Calais 
and La Manche what we call the Straits of Dover and the English Channel. 
The Germans will doubtless continue to speak of the Ost See, even though 
the bishop's wife protested to Elizabeth in Riigen that ' the Baltic exactly 
describes it.' Much can be done, no doubt, to eliminate superfluous 
variants and modern corruptions ; but I do believe that the names for 
' British Official Use ' must always have a certain British flavour, however 
much we try to be scrupulous or even pedantic. 

You will agree with me, I trust, that the science of mapmaking is 
healthily active and growing. Let us turn now to the art, which is two- 
fold : the art of the convention by which the outline and the relief are 
reduced to the compilation, and the personal art of drawing the detail, 
the lettering, the divided margins, the ornaments, so that the finished map 
shall be clear, harmonious, and beautiful. 

During the last thirty years we have seen the convention profoundly 
modified by the rapid improvement of colour lithography. Colour has, 
it is true, been used on engraved maps from the very first, and in my 
opinion the most agreeably coloured atlas ever published was the Rome 
edition of Ptolemy of I486. But this was hand colouring, and no two 
copies are alike. In the years that followed the colour became more 
elaborate, but it was largely in the ornament, and the essential outline of 
the map was in black, from the single engraved plate. The great extension 
of possibilities came with the quite modern use of colour to distinguish 
the outlines of different classes : blue for rivers, brown for contours, red 
for roads, and so on. And the enormous resulting improvement was 
conspicuously in the representation of relief. Layer colouring in par- 
ticular, first employed on a large scale by the celebrated firm of Bar- 
tholomew, has given our maps all the advantages of a relief model without 
the inconveniences. It is a method in which the British have always 
excelled ; and the supreme example of skill in layer colour-printing is 
the ' Gamme ' or colour scale attached to the report of the Paris Con- 
ference of the 1/Million Map in 1913 : a scale which we may be proud to 
1925 H 



98 SECTIONAL ADDKESSES. 

think was printed in England, and I believe at the War Office. There 
are infinite possibilities in the combination of layer colouring with contours, 
hachure, vertical and oblique hill shading ; many of them have already been 
realised by the Ordnance Survey, particularly in their special maps of 
holiday districts, and in a map of South Devon which I regretfully 
remember in proof only, because it was found too expensive for issue. For 
we must note that a modern map passes through the press eight or ten 
or twelve times, and the cost of the machine work, apart from all the 
plates, is multiplied in the same ratio. The wonder is not that maps 
are expensive, but that in the circumstances they are so cheap. I showed 
one day a particularly good example to Sir Coote Hedley, who said ' Yes, 
it has fifteen printings ; I never think myself that more than eleven are 
justified!' Yet most of us who like to think that we are still in the prime 
of life can remember when the Ordnance Survey maps were in black only. 
But it was black : the beautiful intense black from the engraved steel- 
faced plate that is never approached by any product of surface printing, 
to which we are for the present restricted. We should wish to believe, 
however, that the progress of invention may some day give us back that 
richness of tone that distinguishes the old engraved maps. 

And while I speak of invention, may I suggest to the ingenious the 
need of a machine for writing names on maps a good deal better than the 
dreadful typed names that economy too often demands ? Typed names 
never have been a success. We have a horrid example of them as early 
as 1511, in the Venice edition of Ptolemy ; and equally horrid examples 
may be seen to-day on the latest large-scale sheets of the Ordnance Survey. 
Something could no doubt be done by cutting special founts of type 
suited to photographic reduction, and it is curious that no one has ever 
thought it worth while to do so. But something much more is required. 
We want a machine that will reproduce any letter of a dozen founts, 
letter by letter exactly in the right place, with that degree of flexibility 
that allows the skilled draughtsman to avoid the detail without noticeably 
spacing out the letters ; to follow the curves of a river or a mountain 
chain, get the spot heights exactly placed about the spot, and the town 
signs adjusted to the names within a hundredth of an inch. Until that 
can be done map reproduction will remain several centuries behind printing 
in speed, and the best map-work will remain terribly expensive. Mr. Reeves 
and I have often talked over the problem without getting any way towards 
a solution. I commend it to more ingenious and mechanical minds. 

If a solution is ever found, the skilled draughtsman need not fear that 
his job will be gone. On the contrary, relieved from the painful monotony 
of spending a day in drawing twenty or thirty names, he will have oppor- 
tunity to devote himself to the larger questions of artistic map draughts- 
manship. I remarked at the outset that this art has suffered a lamentable 
decline. May I devote my last few minutes to a brief examination of the 
matter, which is worth more attention than it has ever received, at any 
rate for two centuries ? 

A few months ago Dr. Lewis Evans presented to the University of 
Oxford his famous collection of early scientific instruments — astrolabes, 
dials, nocturnals, and other beautiful things — now most fittingly housed 
at the Old Ashmolean Building in the enthusiastic curatorship of Mr. 
Gunther, of Magdalen. At the opening ceremony the Earl of Crawford and 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 99 

Balcarres deplored our loss of artistry in craftsmanship and demanded that 
we make some effort to retrieve the position. Let us take up his challenge. 
Can we hope to see an artistic theodolite ? The decay in beauty in con- 
struction set in very long ago, with the application of optical power. 
Hevelius, who stood out against telescopic aid in measurement, was per- 
haps the last man to have a beautiful sector. Flamsteed, who had to pro- 
vide his own instruments for the Royal Observatory, and cannot therefore 
be excused on the ground that he had to take what was given him, built 
instruments frankly utilitarian and ugly. It was a sudden and deplorable 
lapse, that cannot be accounted for by any general decay in taste, for the 
building and furnishing of the period were unsurpassed. Yet all through 
the eighteenth century scientific instruments lacked even the first grace 
of good proportions. Their makers had a touching but ill-founded faith 
in the strength and rigidity of materials, and we had to wait until well 
on in the nineteenth century before instruments fulfilled the prime duty 
of behaving like steady bodies rather than tuning-forks. I think that the 
most we can hope for is that the modern scientific instrument shall not be 
unnecessarily ugly ; and we may reasonably congratulate ourselves that 
British instruments, like British battleships, locomotives, bicycles, cars, 
and other machinery, have achieved a certain distinction of style above 
their neighbours, which is of good augury for the future. 

But there is much to be said for a real effort at improvement in the 
style of our maps, by study rather than by imitation of the past. There is 
already a small school of map draughtsmen conscious of the need, but, 
if I may say so, too self-conscious for success, relying on the deliberately 
mediaeval or archaic, with disastrous results. They have produced for 
town-planners and guide-book writers some pretty drawings, with pleasing 
invention of symbols, but with explanatory legends of dismal pleasantry 
or doggerel verse. We shall not return to a better style of map-drawing 
by writing ' Here shall ye play ye ancient game of Golfe ' on a label, or 
by adorning the northern margin with the words ' This is ye toppe.' 
But, eschewing sham archaism, we might with great profit follow the best 
practice of our predecessors in the following matters :— 

They gave the map a border or frame, and left nothing drifting about 
outside it. 

They kept the title distinct from particulars of authorship, or origin, 
or scale. 

They did not mix their styles of lettering, and they never made the 
hair-lines too fine. 

The first two are simple, but I think none the less important ; the third 
raises a large question. The conventional signs sheet of the International 
Map is a useful pattern now widely followed. We could adopt the first 
principle without doing any violence to the convention, and design a frame 
to include all the explanatory matter, with a little rearrangement. But 
the rule of this map is that names of physical features — it would be more 
accurate to say of land forms — are written in block letters, so-called 
Egyptian, while other names are in various styles of Roman and Italic. 
This mixture of styles I believe was a bad mistake — bad for the appear- 
ance of the map, though doubtless serving a useful purpose. Whether it is 
possible to provide enough variety within the bounds of Roman — prefer- 
ably the Italian Roman — and Italic remains to be seen. But I feel confident 

h 2 



100 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that that is the direction in which we must go if we seek to improve the 
artistic appearance of our maps, which we surely must do after Lord 
Crawford's challenge. For after last century's neglect and deterioration 
there has been in this a very marked revival of knowledge and interest 
in lettering. There has even been published an admirable Blue Book to 
show how other Blue Books ought to be printed, and still are not. The 
fundamental reform is to cast out all ' modern style ' type and all block 
capitals. I think we shall find that what is right in printing is equally 
right in map drawing and lettering. True, it is much easier to change a 
printer's type than a draughtsman's style ; and nothing can be done until 
we have a collection made of good examples, and from those a new conven- 
tional signs sheet. This I hope to see. 

The question will then be raised, is it worth while to make the change ? 
Would one person in twenty notice the difference % Probably not at first, 
for I will confess to you that when, some long time ago, I had a hand in 
changing the type of a certain journal, not one single person remarked it. 
But, nevertheless, they probably felt after a time that somehow or other 
that journal was a good deal improved in appearance ; and I believe that 
the improvement would be much greater in maps. Therefore in this home 
of map-making, that must print twice as many sheets as any other town 
in the world, I plead for reversion in lettering to something like the old 
style of the great masters. We have already been shown this morning that 
the Director-General and his staff are keenly alive to the scientific side 
of their work, and we have only to look at any recent folded map they 
publish to see that they do not disdain the artistic side — at any rate 
the artistic outside. That is a good omen and encourages us to hope. With 
that hope I conclude these reflections on the Science and Art of Map-making. 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



THE MEANING OF WAGES. 

ADDRESS BY 

Miss LYNDA GRIER, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



There is a growing demand for the formulation of a theory of wages, 
a theory which shall be easy of comprehension and useful both in support 
of things desired and in refutation of things detested. Our friends across 
the Atlantic have set a price upon it ; they are offering 5,000 dollars for the 
best original thesis on the subject, and have engaged the services of 
distinguished men to decide which of the theses submitted on an economic 
theory has an economic value. Meanwhile laws are passed in this and other 
countries determining and bearing on wage rates, and international wage 
settlements are under discussion. 

It cannot be denied that the formulation of a theory of wages would give 
satisfaction to economists as well as to others who desire to use such a 
theory in practical affairs. Early economists essayed the task, but to no 
lasting purpose. The Iron Law of wages, the Wage Fund theory, with other 
theories of more or less note, have been placed on the scrap-heap of venerable 
antiquities, whence they are raked from time to time by those who delight 
in recognising that it is almost as rare, perhaps almost as difficult, to 
evolve an economic theory which contains no truth as to evolve one which 
contains the whole truth. Modern economists for the most part content 
themselves by explaining how wages are determined under given conditions 
and commit themselves to no theory. While they give explanations 
only, other people will, if reverently minded, exalt these explanations 
into theories, or, if of bolder make, produce theories of their own and pour 
scorn upon the timidity of academic theorists. 

It is as little within my intention as it is within my power to put for- 
ward a theory of wages. My business is one of analysis, not of construction, 
of restatement, not of creation. My purpose is twofold : first, to discuss 
certain aspects of wages, and then to review from those aspects certain 
payments made to or on behalf of employees. 

Let us then consider three aspects of wages, each important in its way. 
First, there is the distributive or competitive aspect, from which wages 
are regarded as a factor determining where labour shall go, who shall 
command it, in what manner labour of certain types and given efficiency 
shall be employed. Competition between employers seeking the best 
workers is expressed in the wage they offer, and competition between 
workers seeking the best employer is expressed in the wage they accept. 
This competition tends to bring the wages of workers of equal efficiency 
to equality and to ensure that the wages of workers of unequal efficiency 
shall be unequal. 



102 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Taken alone, this idea of wages treats of the supply of labour as being 
fixed independently of the wage, and of the wage as powerful only in 
directing the available supply. It is therefore a short-period consideration, 
dealing with market price rather than normal value ; as in all short- 
period considerations, stress is laid on the quantitative side, on the notion 
of value falling with an increase in the supply of labour and rising with a 
limitation of supply. 

Secondly, there is the idea of wage payment which treats of work and 
wages as completely interdependent, since the product of each worker 
constitutes his payment. The product of each worker, represented by his 
wage, makes an effective demand for the produce of other workers. His 
addition to wealth is his claim upon it. Numbers are important only if 
with alteration in numbers there are consequent alterations in productive 
power per head, or if the proportions between the different types of labour 
required be ill-adjusted. 

Finally, we may take the aspect of wage payments which is concerned 
with their effect on work and on the supply of workers, the wage being 
regarded as something that maintains the worker. 

These three aspects of wages are not antagonistic. It is clear from the 
outset that there is no contradiction between the first two, between that 
from which they are regarded as a distributive force and that from which 
they are regarded as the actual product of the wage-earner. The idea that 
the worker produces so much wealth and that his work is paid in proportion 
to the wealth he produces is, indeed, associated with the idea that the 
demand for and supply of such labour as he has to offer determines its 
value. Wages so determined are known as ' fair ' or ' normal ' : fair in 
that they are equal to those of other workers of similar capacity, normal 
in that they are the wages that tend to be paid under conditions of free 
competition. 

Each worker on this reckoning tends to get what his work is worth. 
It may be worth little. This admission does not apply only to bad workers. 
It certainly does apply to them, whether the badness of their work be due 
to bad character, bad health, or bad mental equipment. But the question 
is not one only of efficiency but of the type of ability and of the number of 
other workers possessed of that particular type. Men and women may work 
hard and in their own line efficiently, but there may be so many others 
working hard and in the same line efficiently that the force of competition 
may give them a wage low compared with that given for work to which 
no more effort is devoted but for which the demand is greater in relation 
to the supply. 

Work which is not entirely unskilled may be ill-paid if the numbers 
competent to do it are great. This is, perhaps, especially the case with 
women's work. No one can compare the work done in clothing factories 
in the machinery rooms in which women are employed with some of the 
work done in the cutting-rooms by men without admitting that the 
difference in the wage overestimates the difference in skill. Professor 
Edgeworth, in discussing from this Chair three years ago the low wages of 
women workers, gave as a powerful cause of such wages the overcrowding 
of women into certain occupations. 

Moreover, dull jobs,- monotonous jobs, and unpleasant jobs largely 
tend to be done by workers receiving low wages. For the most part people 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 103 

receive more pay for amusing jobs, varied jobs, and, up to a point, pleasant 
jobs, because there are, in proportion to the demand, fewer people able 
to do these. Those engaged on them belong to fairly high grades, qualities 
being required which, whether owing to heredity or educational advantages, 
are comparatively rare. Where the powers are equal it is true enough that 
any charm belonging to the work will lower the wages. I remember a 
discussion, initiated by a group of business men on the startling differences 
between their own incomes and those of professional workers of at least 
equal ability and more expensive training, being brought to a close by a 
member of the group saying that he supposed members of the professional 
classes were paid in self-satisfaction. It is probably true that men and 
women depress the rates in certain professions simply through their liking 
for the work. Few would object to rates being lowered in this fashjon. 
Those who earn them accept pleasure in their work in lieu of money. 

But for the most part earnings are low in occupations that offer no 
special attractions and are filled by workers who, thanks to heredity, or 
sex, or environment, have little chance of entering others. The able man 
or woman has not only the fun of being clever, but the advantage of high 
earnings through belonging to a grade in which the numbers are relatively 
small. 

Work for which the ' normal ' or { fair ' wage is low may be of great 
importance. The fact that a man's work is worth little may mean not 
that those who use his services could readily dispense with such services, 
but merely that they could readily dispense with him because of the 
numbers ready to fill his place. The thing done or service rendered by an 
ill-paid worker may be more essential than the services or products of 
many better-paid workers, but the relative wage rates in different grades 
are affected by relative quantities and every grade contains some workers 
doing essential and some doing non-essential work. 

Workers are not, and are aware that they are not, entirely responsible 
for being of a particular type, for belonging to a grade in which numbers 
are great, for having entered an occupation for the products of which 
demand is small or has fallen. Their parents are responsible for their 
existence and largely for their early environment ; their teachers and the 
State are largely responsible for their education or lack of education. 
Human beings do not come into the world in response to economic demand. 
Human life precedes economic activity and special talents do not appear 
in exact and speedy response to the call for them. Hence the normal 
wage is frequently low for reasons outside the control of the worker. 

It is, perhaps, unfortunate that wages which reflect the value of the 
work done should be known as fair wages. It has already been stated 
that they are known as fair because they are, if mobility is perfect and 
competition free, equal to those of other workers of equal capacity and 
doing work offering equal attractions. It is the equality that has led to 
the epithet ' fair.' But it is a not very convincing fairness to the man 
receiving a low wage whose work is worth little through no fault of his 
own. For when the demand price sufficient to absorb all the workers in 
a given grade is small or, in more technical language, when the marginal 
net productivity of such workers is low, when the workers in that grade 
are neither bad nor careless, other members of the community gain by 
cheap goods as the workers lose in low pay. It is often thought, and it is 



104 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

sometimes true, that it is not the consumer who gains by the low price of 
labour, but the employer or some intermediary between the worker and 
the consumer. But whether this be the case or not, the worker sees no 
essential fairness in the fact that his low wages leave others with a pur- 
chasing power greater than they would otherwise possess. It is true, of 
course, that when he consumes the commodities that he helps to cheapen 
he gains with other consumers by their plenty, but, since the consumers 
of a commodity outnumber and are to some extent other than its 
producers, the gain to the worker is less than the gain to others. 

Plenty is generally an advantage to the community. We rejoice if 
land is plentiful in proportion to the population and rents are low. We 
should like capital to be plentiful and cheap, competing for employment 
at a low rate of interest. We are aware also that the owner of a limited 
supply of a commodity that becomes plentiful loses wealth as the con- 
sumer gains it. It is one of the anomalies of economic measurement that 
when a country becomes richer through an increased supply of certain 
goods, wealth as represented by those goods may be calculated as being 
less than before, because of the lowering of this exchange value. Plentiful 
crops, the discovery of mineral resources, enrich the world, but the value 
per bushel and per ton is decreased by the very plenty which increases 
general wealth. The owner of anything other than labour may be com- 
pensated, or more than compensated, by the greater amount he possesses. 
Not so the worker. Each worker is lord only of his own labour. His 
energy and his possible working hours are limited , and, given that he is 
using his energy through as many working hours as is compatible with 
efficiency, it is not in his power to balance the low value of each unit of 
energy by multiplying it. 

Recognition of this leads to limitation of output. There are, roughly, 
two ways in which men may increase their own wealth : by increasing or 
by decreasing production ; by adding to general wealth so greatly that 
they command more of it, or by making rare that portion of it which 
they control. Adult workers who have their youth and their training 
behind them have little power of doing the first, and fall back on the 
second. Through limiting output, erecting barriers against new-comers 
into their trades, they may successfully maintain or raise their own 
wages. From this point of view the objection of men to opening to women 
any new branch of industry is perfectly logical. If women be found 
capable of doing work formerly reserved for men, and are allowed to do 
it without let or hindrance, they will tend to have a depressing effect on 
the wage. Not because of their sex, but because of their number. Their 
exclusion from many trades makes their entry to any single trade 
formidable ; they are jealously excluded from one type of work because 
they are jealously excluded from others; thus they come to be considered 
natural blacklegs. 

The erection of barriers swells the numbers of those without and 
lowers their wages further. It may be said in parenthesis that, from 
this point of view, all rates of pay for women are abnormal, below the 
' fair ' rate. Excluded from any one occupation, they lower wage rates 
in other occupations of the same grade, and if by such exclusion they are 
forced into the occupations of a grade below that to which they would 
otherwise belong they again lower the wage. If this line of thought be 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 105 

pursued further, it may be concluded that the normal wage of each 
occupation is constantly interfered with by monopolistic action, whether 
on the part of employers or employed, in other occupations. 

But it is not profitable to pursue this subject further without dis- 
cussing the third aspect of wages, and considering not merely the wage 
that a man is worth but the wage that he needs. The section of modern 
economic literature devoted to the dependence of labour on wages on the 
one hand, and to the dependence of wages on the needs of labour on the 
other, is growing in volume and importance. Wages, in addition to 
directing labour and being a return of goods and services to labour in 
exchange for the goods and services it supplies, are expected to maintain 
the worker. The owner of labour alone among owners of any agent of 
production is supposed to live on the product of the thing he owns. The 
economic fact that to a great extent he does so has been exalted, like 
many other economic facts, into a moral obligation. And when the 
normal wage is low without any discernible fault on the part of those 
who earn it, the moral obligation is shifted and it is said that the wage 
ought to be large enough for the worker to live on. No one suggests that 
landlords ought to live on their rents. We know that some of the larger 
landlords do and that some of the smaller ones do not, and we are aware, 
as was suggested earlier, that if improvements in methods of production 
or transport facilities lower the prices of agricultural produce and land- 
lords' rents it will be more difficult than before for landlords to live on 
their rents. From the economic view we should care not at all. There 
would be plenty in the land, and though we might be sorry for individual 
landlords who had formerly subsisted on their rents, there are many 
who are capable of saying that it will be good for landowners to have to 
do a little honest work. So it is with capital. Certain owners of capital 
live on their dividends, a fact that many resent. But the bulk of 
capitalists, those with small savings, do not depend on interest. Their 
dividends do not make their income, but are an addition to it. 

But, it being assumed that the worker lives on his wage, with what 
truth we shall discuss later, we concern ourselves greatly with the question 
of how far wages do or can be made to respond to needs. Our concern 
may take the form of a demand, like that put forward by Mr. Clifford Allen 
in his Presidential Address to the Conference of the Independent Labour 
Party last April, for ' a universal living wage, dictated by the needs of a 
civilised existence and not dependent on the varying fortunes of each 
industry.' Or a problem may be presented as in the opening words of the 
report of the International Labour Office on Family Allowances : ' In 
the determination of wages two somewhat conflicting principles may be 
detected — "equal pay for equal work" or "to each according to his 
needs." Or we may find the assumption, as expressed in Miss Rathbone's 
book on the ' Disinherited Family,' that needs are an active factor in the 
determination of wages. Bachelors, she tells us, are enabled by the 
uniform wage system x ' at one moment to fight the battle of higher wages 
from behind the petticoats of their hypothetical wives and children, and 
the next to claim the wages thus won as their exclusive property.' And, 
in speaking of the jealousy of women felt by the male worker, she 

1 The Disinherited Family, Eleanor Rathbone, p. 56. 



106 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

writes that this jealousy is 2 ' due partly to his well-grounded fear that her 
lesser family responsibilities will enable her to undersell him.' And finally 
we have the attempts of legislators in setting up Trade Boards and other 
machinery for dealing with wages, crowned by the Widows' and Orphans' 
and Old-Age Pensions Bill, which deliberately attempts to make payments 
in respect of work cover the bulk of the cost of contributions for the 
maintenance of the worker during old age, of his widow after his death, and 
of his fatherless children until such age as they be thought competent to 
maintain themselves. 

We are challenged daily, by proposals for minimum wage rates, cost of 
living standards, family allowances, contributory insurance schemes, to 
consider the connection between the normal wage and a wage adjusted 
to the needs of the worker. The question is a complicated one. Marshall 
writes 3 : ' Wages tend to equal the net product of labour ; its marginal 
productivity rules the demand side for it ; and on the other side, wages 
tend to retain a close though indirect and intricate relation with the cost 
of rearing, training, and sustaining the energy of efficient labour. The 
various elements of the problem mutually determine (in the sense of 
governing) one another ; and incidentally this secures that supply price 
and demand price tend to equality.' 

It is far easier to see the connection between the wage and ' training 
and sustaining ' the worker's energy than between the wage and the cost 
of rearing the worker. If labour be not adequately sustained during the 
period for which the worker is engaged the product will suffer. Diminution 
in the number of workers available, or in efficiency, or both, follow swiftly 
on lack of sustenance. Further, the wage must bear some relation to 
the cost of training, since so long as there are occupations which demand 
no training, or less training than others, those needing most will lack 
recruits if the earnings they offer are not relatively high. 

The cost of rearing the worker raises different questions. It is clear 
that the individual worker does not pay for his own childhood ; no bill 
of the cost is presented to him when he begins to work. It is equally 
clear that the childhood of most wage-earners is paid for from wages ; 
part, and a considerable part, of the wage of many workers is devoted to 
the maintenance of their children. It may be said crudely, therefore, 
that unless wages cover the cost of rearing workers there will be no 
workers. It cannot, however, be asserted that because a worker pays 
certain expenses from his wages those expenses are the cause of his wage, 
or of any part of it. 

There is a tendency to assume that, while the efficient sustenance of 
labour during working days and hours is a prime cost of industry to be 
covered by the wage, sustenance in non-working days and hours, in 
sickness, during unemployment, in old age, and the maintenance of wife 
and children not only during but after a man's working life, is a kind of 
supplementary cost for which provision should be made in respect of work 
done. This presupposes a vast amount of calculation both on the side 
of the employer and the employee. 

First let us take the employee, as being the party to any wage contract 
most likely to reckon such costs. Here, roughly, we find workers divided 

2 The Disinherited Family, Eleanor Rathbone, p. 48. 
s Principles of Economics, Marshall, Book VI, ch. ii. § 3. 



P.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 107 

into the calculating and non-calculating classes, those who expect security 
and those who do not : an expectation which probably makes a far 
sharper class distinction than that made by riches and poverty. ' Calcu- 
lating the future ' is an expensive and harassing occupation, generally 
indulged in on an extensive scale only by the comparatively well-to-do, 
including those whose high productivity and, again comparatively, rare 
gifts have secured high earnings. The supposed security of those who 
draw their incomes entirely from rents and interest, rudely as that security 
has been shaken from time to time, has been accepted as an ideal by many 
able to afford it through high earnings of hand and brain. Arrangements 
for contributory insurance schemes have long been common in the pro- 
fessions. Civil Servants are accustomed to compulsory schemes. Com- 
pulsory schemes have been accepted by section after section of the teaching 
profession. They are under discussion for the clergy. The Local Govern- 
ment and Other Officers Superannuation Act of 1922 covered members 
of the medical profession working under local authorities, and a scheme 
which would apply to all doctors on the panel is being mooted by some 
of the doctors concerned. Contributory insurance schemes for the pro- 
vision of pensions have, with the exception of some of the less exalted 
branches of the Civil Service, in the past been made compulsory among 
those classes who before their introduction attempted to make similar 
provision voluntarily. 

The same classes have perhaps more than others calculated the number 
of children whom their earnings would maintain. The fertility statistics 
of the last census show that the professional classes, who are very largely 
the calculating classes, have a lower fertility rate than any other occupied 
section of the community : .90 being the average number of children under 
sixteen for married men in the professional classes as compared with 1.27 
among all married men. 

These classes who calculate the future are but a small section of 
the community. For most earners the exigencies of present maintenance 
exclude considerations of future maintenance. With dependants the case 
is somewhat different ; more and more every class of the community tends 
to consider the possibility of making good provision for its children, and 
more and more do the parents of every class recognise that they can 
provide for their own needs by limiting the size of their families. The 
importance of both considerations is enhanced by the raising of the school- 
leaving age. The first consideration reacts on the health and efficiency 
of the children and stimulates the activity of the parents, while both tend 
to lessen the number of children. 

The effect on earnings of calculations made by the worker, either for 
his own future and that of his dependants or for the present needs of his 
dependants, is not easy to trace. A stimulus to activity which in effect 
raises the wage-earner to a higher grade, increasing his productivity and 
general wealth, makes him worth a higher wage. A limitation of numbers 
is slow in its action on supply, and, since it cannot be assumed that each 
grade or occupation is entirely self -recruiting, no positive result can be 
ascribed to it, except in so far as it is thought that a general increase or 
decrease of population is likely to cause a general rise or fall in wages — 
a question round which controversy has raged for the last and is likely 
to rage for the next century. It may be assumed that a limitation of 



108 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

numbers in the lowest grades would have a beneficial effect on wages, 
but it appears that even this form of calculation works less strongly in such 
grades than it does in higher ones. 

Before further considering the effect of calculations made by the 
workers on wages, it will be well to turn to the question of how far such 
calculations affect the employer, purely from the business point of view. 
The employer is concerned to pay such a wage as will, within the limits of 
his vision, keep his firm effectively staffed. His range of vision will extend 
over sickness as well as health, even over some unemployment as well as 
employment, according to the need of his particular firm for employees 
who know their job and the firm. But, apart from philanthropy, it will 
not extend forwards to the period in which men cease to work for him, 
any more than it will extend backwards to the period in which they have 
not begun to work, save in so far as a higher wage is needed to induce 
parents to pay for the education or training appropriate to the particular 
work. Nor, again apart from philanthropy, will it extend to the sustenance 
of children, save in so far as it appears that lack of sustenance for the 
children leaves the workers without sustenance to an extent which reacts 
on their efficiency. This is likely to happen only amongst the most ill- 
paid workers, ill-paid because of the number of others ready to replace 
them ; therefore such a reaction on wages is not likely to be very powerful. 
The children of the worker may, of course, be the future recruits of the 
firm to which their father belongs, but there is no certainty about this. 
In some cases, as in the mining industry, where families are relatively 
large but where male labour only is needed, some of the children will 
necessarily be of the wrong sex. For, as Cobbett ruefully remarked, ' where 
there be men and boys there will also be women and girls.' 

The upshot of this analysis of the effect of calculations relating to old 
age and dependants is that for the most part where they have been made 
voluntarily they have been the effect rather than the cause of high earnings, 
and that, apart from the more immediate needs of labour, normal wages 
are not adjusted to cover them. Employers have not reckoned the whole 
of the worker's life or maintenance of his dependants as an overhead 
charge. They do not pay adult male employees at a high rate because 
they have families dependent on them or because they must make pro- 
vision for the future, but because their productivity is relatively high and 
because they are strong and experienced workers. They do not gravely 
reckon the average family of an average worker, they reckon what the man's 
work is worth. 

Nor do the needs of the worker provide him directly with additional 
bargaining power. It has generally been recognised in foreign trade that 
needs are a weakness and not a strength in bargaining. It is the same with 
the worker. As far as fighting strength goes, bachelors who are without 
dependants can fight more effectively than men with families. And the 
mere acquisition of a new set of needs, unless it stimulates activities and 
so is part of a higher standard of life, adds to misery and not to wages. 
To a certain extent it is notorious that dependants do stimulate activity, 
married workers being generally steadier and more regular than un- 
married ones. Their higher productivity raises their earnings. But it is 
to be feared that bargaining power is in no way enhanced by the number 



E.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 100 

of dependants, and everyone present will call tu mind eases of men who 
dare run no risk of losing their job because of their wives and children. 

In view of this, we may think it fortunate that the workers who get 
low wages so often have few needs. Young untrained workers whose 
productivity is low have no dependants. They have often, in fact, just 
ceased from being dependants themselves and become contributors to 
the family wage. If women are crowded into a somewhat small number of 
occupations with low rates of pay, it is some comfort to remember that they 
have comparatively few dependants to suffer from those low rates. 

If we agree that the normal wage in some cases rises above a,nd in many 
falls below the wage required by the worker for his maintenance in the 
future as well as the present, and for the maintenance of his wife and family 
in both the present and future, what should be our attitude towards the 
many persons and bodies who are concerned with raising the wage rate, 
with charging provision for unemployment and the future on to wages, 
and with readjusting wage rates ? It is clear that we cannot expect the 
approximation of normal wages to wages adequate for such maintenance 
to be the main preoccupation of social reformers or statesmen. But for a 
short time we may make it ours. Measures concerned with wages may be 
put into three categories roughly coinciding with the three aspects of 
wages with which we began. First, there are those which are concerned 
with the mobility of labour, with seeing that labour is as swiftly as possible 
directed where it is most needed, by the dissemination of knowledge, by 
facilities for movement such as are offered by the Employment Exchanges, 
by vocational selection, by the efforts of Trade Unions to ensure that in 
every instance the rate received shall be at least the normal rate. Secondly, 
there are those which attempt to increase the productivity of the worker 
and raise him from one grade to another ; such as measures of educational 
reform, improved social conditions, even, when wages are very low, 
minimum wage rates which by improving the health of the worker increase 
his productive capacity. Thirdly, there are measures which attempt 
something further and try either to add to the normal wage rate or to 
' stretch ' the rate so that it will pay for things that it did not previously 
pay for. I do not propose to discuss the first two categories. Their value 
is obvious. 

But we are being forced increasingly to discuss the third category. 
It includes schemes for fixing such minimum wage rates as do not increase 
productivity : cost of living standards when they attempt something 
other than the maintenance of the normal wage ; schemes for subsidising 
certain sections of wage-earners, such as Sir Alfred Mond's scheme for 
subsidising wages in industries afflicted with unemployment from the 
funds of the Unemployment Insurance Scheme, and systems of Family 
Allowances ; and schemes for stretching normal wages to cover certain 
costs, such as compulsory insurance schemes. 

Where these schemes ensure a given rate of wages their advocates 
desire that it should be secured without unemployment ensuing. They 
do not wish either to raise the wages of the individual at the expense of 
his earnings or to raise his earnings at the expense of the unemployment 
of other workers. Where, as in compulsory and contributory insurance 
schemes, a charge is levied on employer and employed, it is presumably 
not desired that unemployment benefit should be provided by measures 



110 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES . 

which, by making labour costs high, increase unemployment, or that 
hypothetical widows and fatherless children should be provided for by 
schemes which, by reducing wages, stint actual wives and the children of 
those whose fathers are living. 

Minimum wage rates may be maintained without unemployment 
following when, as has already been suggested, through their reaction on 
efficiency they increase the value of the work done, and also where the 
demand for the labour employed is inelastic. Trade Boards have proved 
this. And it may further be argued that, when normal wages are too low 
to provide adequate maintenance for all workers belonging to a given 
grade, it is better to enforce a wage adequate for the maintenance of a 
certain number, and, having so produced a certain amount of unemploy- 
ment and defined the problem, take steps to deal with the unemployment. 
It may be better to have eighty or even fifty per cent, of workers of a 
given grade adequately paid and the remaining twenty or fifty per cent, 
unemployed, than to have a hundred per cent, inadequately paid. 

But when the question is one not of the minimum needed for efficient 
sustenance but of the relative rates in different occupations, according 
to the degree of skill required and the customary rates for work of a given 
kind, the problem becomes different, as in the case of cost of living 
standards. There is nothing sacred about relative wage rates ; they are 
exceedingly arbitrary as between different occupations and between 
different types of skill in the same occupation. Wage rates normal in 
the past are not normal in the present and will not be normal in the 
future. They are subject to infinite variations in accordance with the 
changes in demand (including changes in the scale of the market), changes 
in the structure of industry, and the progress of invention. The alterations 
in industry which took place during and immediately after the war must 
have been as bewildering for the unskilled labourer in this country, who 
found himself better off in 1922 than in 1914, as for the skilled labourer 
who found himself worse off. 4 It was not unnatural that in the case of 
the second bewilderment should be accompanied by resentment and 
succeeded by efforts to restore the former balance. But the balance is 
mobile and cannot be stereotyped. It is a pointed commentary on this 
fact that the Cave Committee reporting on the Trade Board Acts in 1922 
advised that the Boards should in future confine their activities to the 
settlement of wages when such wages are unduly low and no other 
adequate machinery exists for their effective regulation. The report 
further deprecated the attempt to fix a national minimum wage for all 
trades, on the ground that it raised 5 ' highly controversial questions, not 
only as to the principle upon which a general minimum wage should be 
based, but also as to the relationship of men's and women's wages, the 
provision to be made for dependants, and the possibility of distinguishing 
between district and district.' This report and consequent legislation 
marked the abandonment of one attempt to legislate on relative wage 
rates. But if one attempt was abandoned, others remain. The minimum 
wage rate in the coal-mining industry is being hotly discussed, and, apart 
from legislative enactments, cost of living standards as a basis not for 

4 Manchester Guardian Commercial, Oct. 1922. 

6 Report to the Minister of Labour of the Committee appointed to inquire into the 
working and effects of the Trade Board Acts, 1922. 



P.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. ] 1 1 

wages but for fluctuations iu nominal wages are commonly enforced by 
Trade Union action. In so far as such standards are adjusted to meet 
changes in the general price-level due to fluctuations in the quantity of 
currency they tend to restore and maintain the normal rates of real 
wages; but when they are adjusted to meet changes in the general price- 
level due to an increase or decrease in the production of wealth, or to 
maintain for as many workers as before in a given occupation the standard 
of living formerly enjoyed by its members when the conditions of or demands 
for their work have changed, the position is different. If, for instance, the 
price-level falls because there is greater production in the country, there 
is no reason why the worker should not share in that increased wealth 
by retaining at least his former nominal wage, and so be enabled to raise 
his standard of living. It is also to be feared that the better-paid workers 
at least should share in the lessened wealth which is represented by a 
higher price-level when prices rise because wealth is scarce. Finally, 
with changing conditions the relative numbers of workers required for 
work of different types will vary, and if the relative wage rates may not 
vary labour will not be discouraged from entering occupations where it is 
not needed or encouraged sufficiently to enter those in which the demand 
for it has increased. This may lead to an increase in unemployment, 
acting in the same way as mistaken investments of capital in attracting 
labour to and locking it up in industries in which it cannot be absorbed 
at rates equivalent to those paid for similar labour elsewhere. 

This is well-trodden ground, from which we may pass to the disputed 
fields of subsidies, allowances, and contributory insurance schemes. For 
a wage which is ' above the normal ' is in effect a subsidy given to the 
worker in respect of a particular type of work. In a sense, nomenclature 
matters little. We tend to call anything a wage which is given by an 
employer to a worker, and to call anything a subsidy which is given to a 
worker or an industry or anyone or anything else by the State, and to 
dub as taxes revenue collected by the State. For practical purposes this 
is the most convenient definition. But when we come to analyse payments 
above or below normal wages, we find that we are generally tracing their 
incidence and dealing with transferences of wealth rather than with costs. 
Sir Alfred Mond's scheme is frankly a subsidy. It is better, he suggests, 
to use available funds for paying the employed rather than the unemployed. 
For the sake of production, for the sake of preserving skill, and for the 
sake of ' restoring normality,' we are urged temporarily to subsidise 
employment wherever employers are prepared to add to the numbers of 
workers engaged. The source of the proposed subsidy will be discussed 
in another connection. 

Nor is there in effect much disguise about the ' tax and subsidy ' 
nature of the family allowance system. Bachelors are to be taxed, or 
to tax themselves, for the sake of men who have families. It is recognised 
that it is on the whole unwise to put the administration of the ' tax and 
subsidy ' in the hands of the employer, lest he should mistake a tax and 
subsidy scheme for a new wage system under which it would be greatly to 
his advantage to employ bachelors instead of married men. Once it is 
frankly admitted that large families neither force nor enable employers 
to pay high wages, we can if we wish settle down to a discussion of the 
ethical and economic advantages of family endowment. And we can 



1 1 2 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES . 

contrast the advantages of making provision for families within each 
industry separately or through a more general scheme of taxation. If 
the bachelors are more willing to pay the tax when they see their comrades 
and their comrades' children benefiting, the first method has at least one 
great advantage. On the other hand there are advantages in extending 
the area of the tax to bachelors not engaged in industries providing 
subsidies, and even to some who are not bachelors. There is much to be 
said from the point of view of the revenue in favour of taxing those who 
are without dependants far more fiercely than they are taxed at present, 
but the policy of earmarking taxation is always a somewhat doubtful 
one, as earmarked contributions may be less or more than is needed to 
cover the cost of the object for which they are earmarked. 

From the suggestion to tax certain wage-earners for the benefit of 
other wage-earners we may pass to the practice of taxing wage-earners 
for their own benefit, as embodied in unemployment and health insurance 
schemes, in the various pension schemes already adopted in the Civil 
Service, and as proposed in the Pensions Bill. It may be said that here 
we are not dealing with taxation but - merely with deferred pay ; that 
the contributions, covering as they do the workers' own risks, are a 
forcible method of saving, but cannot fairly be called taxation. This is 
perfectly true when the saving would or could be made voluntarily. 
Indeed, when compulsory savings replace voluntary savings the worker 
may gain in earnings, since the compulsory scheme may contain a contribu- 
tion from the Exchequer and large-scale insurance is cheaper than small- 
scale insurance. But when wage-earners are too poor to save, enforced 
saving leaves them for the time being poorer than before, and Mr. Neville 
Chamberlain's hope that the Pensions Bill 6 'would encourage people to 
try to add to the benefits and thus achieve complete independence for 
themselves ' is likely to be frustrated by the reduction in their means. 
We are agreed that the benefits of these schemes must be secured. We 
are, I believe, agreed that they must be augmented. But the provision of 
future benefits by taxes on present wages may not be the best method of 
giving such benefits when wages are low. The wage may be too small 
to be deferred. Nor does the fact that employers pay a larger proportion 
when the wage is exceedingly low help those who are on the verge of 
unemployment and may by this arrangement be pushed over it. 

It is to be feared that if normal wages be not adequate to cover calcula- 
tions for the future, contributory schemes, however advantageous, may 
make things more difficult than before for workers belonging to a grade in 
which numbers are great in proportion to demand. It cannot be assumed 
that the demand for such labour is inelastic. In many instances it is, as 
when labour paid at a low rate is employed in co-operation with better- 
paid labour and in industries in which its cost is but a small proportion 
of total cost. But frequently the demand is elastic, as in agriculture, 
where we are constantly told that labour cannot profitably be employed 
even at minimum wage rates which seem to many of us less than moderate. 

Contributory insurance schemes have occupied much attention lately, 
probably more than they deserve. The contributions demanded by each 
individual scheme are no great matter ; even taken together they do not 
amount to a vast charge per worker. But, small as they are, they are 

6 The Times, May 19, 1925. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 113 

of interest as being attempts to stretch the normal wage to meet the 
needs of maintenance when, in terms of that wage, the worker is not 
always worth a rate which will enable him to meet all the demands made 
upon him for his own immediate support and that of his family. 

The normal wage is defiantly rigid. It is also brutally erratic. It 
will not be stretched to meet any but the most immediate needs of workers 
in low grades ; it is capable in times of depression of falling below even 
that low standard. In the process of asserting itself it drives men ruth- 
lessly from occupations for the products of which demand has fallen. 
The secret of its mastery lies in the fact that it offers the one price at 
which all labour of any given grade can be absorbed in the occupations 
to which it is admitted. Whatever be the rights of the coal dispute, it 
is true that a point may come at which any industry or any single firm 
in an industry may be unable to pay a living wage to all those occupied 
in it. The normal wage commonly offered in other occupations for the 
same grade of labour will only be given in such an industry when enough 
men have left it to make the rate even throughout the grade. In the mean- 
time labour may suffer greatly, and the productive power of all industry 
may suffer, since nothing is so destructive to a man's capacity or more 
likely to force him into a lower scale of labour than a prolonged spell 
of unemployment. 

There are those who hope that in time the normal wage may in all 
ranks of labour be at least adequate to maintain workers and their families 
through all uncertainties and vicissitudes. They believe that the progress 
of invention will immensely increase productivity ; that improved 
business methods on the one side and rising standards of work on the 
other will make each worker more productive ; that ultimately education 
will raise all workers to the ranks of those whose work is worth much. 
But until that Utopia arrives it is well to recognise that, except by making 
wages abnormal, we cannot at present expect them in all cases to do what 
is required of them. The normal wage may be subsidised, either by addi- 
tions to it by the State with all the attendant difficulties, or by Trade 
Union action, effective where demand is inelastic, in making the consumer 
pay a tax in the form of a higher price for the products of labour. 
Monopolistic action limiting entries to a trade or limiting output, beyond 
the point at which such a limitation is important for the health of the 
worker, may raise the wage payments above what is normal, but at the 
expense of making them abnormally low elsewhere in the first case and 
making the country poorer in the second. 

It is blindness to pretend that the normal wage must necessarily 
provide for all needs, or that the worker is necessarily to blame if it does 
not. Those more fortunately placed among the workers, as well as 
among other classes of the community, often gain by the cheapness of 
the goods made by workers whose work is worth little because their 
numbers are great. But the community as a whole does not gain because 
the workers receiving low wages are part of the community. 

It is roughly true that the normal wage distributes labour well through 
distributing wealth ill. Redistribution of wealth is therefore necessary. 
Redistribution in the name of wages tends to interfere with the distribution 
of labour ; for this reason it may be well to leave wages to mean normal 
wages and to redistribute wealth by other methods. 

1925 I 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



FIFTY YEARS' EVOLUTION IN NAVAL 

ARCHITECTURE AND MARINE 

ENGINEERING. 

ADDRESS BY 

Sir ARCHIBALD DENNY, Bart., F.R.S.E., LL.D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



This Section of the British Association covers the whole vast field of 
Engineering, but I propose to limit my survey to accord with the title I 
have chosen. No one could within the limits of such an address cover the 
whole field, nor, indeed, could an engineer of any section cover all the 
ground in that one, for within every branch of engineering specialisation 
has rapidly developed. I can do no more then than note the milestones on 
the fifty-year road and the landmarks, and must deny myself the pleasure 
and resist the temptation of straying down side-roads, pausing only on 
the main-road to admire the changing landscape. 

Let us start with Marine Engineering, where the evolution has been 
positive and fairly well defined. After Watt's invention of the separate 
condenser, many years elapsed before the next considerable step — the 
introduction of the compound steam-engine. This was natural, as steam 
pressures were too low to make compounding profitable. The first record 
I can find of compounding was John Elder's ' Brandon ' in 1854, and pro- 
gress thereafter was not very rapid; but when I began my apprenticeship, 
in 1876, the old box boiler had been replaced by the now highly appreciated 
Scotch circular return-tube boiler, supplying steam to two-cylinder 
compound engines at about 60-lb. pressure. It was not then found profit- 
able to carry more than about 25 in. of vacuum. Auxiliary machinery 
was almost non-existent ; the circulating, air, bilge, sanitary and feed 
pumps were worked off the main engine, with a crank and fly-wheel 
stand-by feed-pump, and perhaps a similar pump for sanitary and bilge 
purposes, and when a double bottom was fitted (which was not always) a 
similar pump for ballast tanks. That was the equipment of a good-class 
engine-room in those days. On deck the steering gear was usually 
fitted near the bridge and connected to the quadrant or tiller by chains 
and rods laid in the gutter-waterways, with numerous turns and kinks, 
whilst a combined windlass and capstan on the forecastle head, and winches 
of the simplest type at the hatches, completed the deck machinery. There 
might, in addition, be a clattering steam ash-hoist fitted in one of the 
stokehold ventilators. 

As to types of marine engines — in the Navy, for protection reasons, 
horizontal machinery was not uncommon, while in the mercantile marine, 
for screw ships, the vertical type was practically universal. In paddle- 
steamers for river and coast service, of which there were many, the beauti- 
ful oscillating engine, which had the advantage of taking up little room 
lengthwise, was still built ; but the diagonal engine was more common, 
either with single cylinder and haystack boiler or compound two-cylinder. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 115 

Returning to sea-going vessels, the Propontis, a vessel built in 1864, 
was re-engined at Fairfield with triple-expansion three-crank engines 
designed by the late Dr. Kirk in 1874, with boilers working at 150-lb. 
pressure ; but the boilers, Rowan's water-tube, proved unsatisfactory, and 
in 1876 new Scotch boilers of 90-lb. pressure were fitted. The first really 
successful triple-expansion three-crank job, the Aberdeen, was built in 
1880 by Robert Napier & Sons, and fitted with engines and 125-lb. 
pressure boilers designed by Dr. Kirk. The re-engining of the Propontis? 
however, marked the opening of a new era, which only developed slowly 
at first, due in some measure to the then rules for the thickness of the 
boiler shells and furnaces. In 1883 the late Mr. Walter Brock designed 
and fitted two-crank four-cylinder tandem triple-expansion engines to the 
sister ships Arawa and Tainui, for the London-New Zealand service. 
They had high and intermediate on the top with two low-pressure cylinders 
of equal diameter below, the working pressure being 160 lb. The Board 
of Trade Surveyors were naturally cautious in the use of mild steel in 
boilers, then a comparatively new material, but they had been gaining 
confidence in it and had also made interesting experiments on two kinds 
of furnace flues, to ascertain their resistance to collapsing under hydraulic 
pressure. The two kinds were Fox's corrugated furnaces, and plain ones 
with widely spaced flanged rings, called at that time coxcomb furnaces. 
Under these circumstances and after full discussion the 160-lb. pressure 
desired by Mr. Brock was made possible by agreement as to shell thickness 
between the Board's Surveyors and the Engineer ; Fox's steel corrugated 
furnaces were used. These vessels showed excellent economy and proved 
thoroughly reliable. Thereafter quadruple-expansion engines using 
pressures of 180 lb., 200 lb., or even higher, became common, with improved 
economy in fuel, but the lower limit of pressure at the condenser was still 
little altered. 

The next great step was the introduction of the Parsons turbine. My 
first connection with the Parsons turbine was in 1890, when a small one 
driving an electric dynamo was fitted on board of the Duchess of Hamilton, 
on the Clyde. It was a tiny plant, the turbine driving the dynamo 
direct at 10,000 revolutions, and was not very economical, but as it was 
only rarely used, t on evening cruises, that did not matter much. It was, 
however, a forerunner of that great invention, permitting the economical 
use of the low end of the pressure curve which could not be efficiently 
used in the reciprocating engine, thus improving the economy of the steam- 
engine, apart altogether from the other advantages of freedom from vibra- 
tion troubles and the increased speed of ship which could be obtained 
through its light weight per I.H.P. 

None can forget the tremendous interest created by the appearance 
of the 34i-knot 100-ft. Turbinia, at Spithead Review in 1897. I felt 
that here was the engine we had been looking for to use in fast cross- 
Channel work, and it was a great gratification when Sir Charles Parsons 
and Captain John Williamson arranged with my firm that we should join 
in a venture to build and run a Clyde river-steamer fitted with turbines ; 

1 Messrs. Norniand.of Havre, now inform me that in 1871 Benjamin Normand fitted 
;i triple-expansion engine in a passenger steamer on the Seine, and that before 1880 he 
had so fitted twelve vessels successfully. They also state that M. Normand fitted his 
first compound engine at the same time as John Elder's ' Brandon.' — 18/9/25. 

I 2 



116 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the King Edward, put on service in the spring of 1901, was the result — 
the first commercial turbine. Before that, however, in 1898, the Parsons 
Marine Steam Turbine Company received an order from the Admiralty 
to build the Viper, whose hull was built by Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie ; 
and Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth, on their own account, built the Cobra, 
engined by Parsons. Both of these were torpedo-boat destroyers, and the 
Cobra was purchased by the Admiralty. Most unfortunately, at an early 
date after delivery, through no fault of the turbines, they were both 
wrecked, so that little service experience was available. Both of these 
vessels had four shafts ; the Viper had eight propellers, two on each shaft, 
while the Cobra had twelve, three on each shaft. 

The King Edward is so well known that I need only remind you that 
originally she had three shafts with five propellers, two on each side 
shaft, but later, single propellers were fitted to the side shafts. She is still 
running with the original boiler after twenty-four years' service, four of 
which were spent in war service in the stormy English Channel carrying 
troops from England to France. The engines also are the originals, except 
that higher-powered ' go-astern ' turbines have been fitted. 

There was no method of indicating the turbines at that date, and, 
while Sir Charles was able, from theoretical calculations, to give a close 
estimate of the S.H.P., it was very desirable to get it accurately on trial. 
To measure the torsion of the shaft was the natural way, and we made the 
attempt in the 'Queen Alexandra, which was put in service in 1902, by means 
of a telephone and contacts on the shafts a considerable distance apart. 
This had been tested on a works shaft at about 200 revolutions with 
success, but at the higher revolutions on the Queen it was not at first very 
successful. Thereafter, an induction method, with permanent magnets and 
coils, designed by Mr. Chas. Johnson, was used for some time with success, 
but when tried in T.B.D.s, with their light and narrow hulls, the very slight 
change of form which sometimes occurred in a sea-way was sufficient to 
upset the arrangement, which depended for its success on a very small 
clearance between the electric coils fixed to the hull and the sharp 
permanent magnets fixed on the shaft. The Hopkinson-Thring instrument, 
using only a short length of shaft, with mirror and light arrangement, was 
much employed ; and, using likewise a short length of shaft, Edgecombe 
constructed an averaging electrical meter, which had the great advantage 
of requiring only one reading even on a reciprocating-engine shaft. There 
are now several types of meters available which can be used with con- 
fidence ; some such instrument is essential with a turbine, and very 
desirable with a reciprocating engine, whether steam or internal-combus- 
tion. On this subject of indicating engines on trial, several have not only 
had the torque indicated, and hence the shaft horse-power obtained, 
which does away with any question of main-engine friction, but instruments 
have also been devised for giving the real thrust ; from these two readings 
the efficiency of the propeller is obtained which it is so desirable to know. 

Following the King Edward and Queen Alexandra, the Queen for 
the Dover-Calais service and the Brighton for the Newhaven-Dieppe 
service were the first cross-Channel turbine steamers put in service in 
1903. They also were most successful, and the turbine as a commercial 
engine was fairly launched, a great tribute to the genius of Sir Charles 
Parsons and his courage in overcoming the many initial difficulties. The 



G.— ENGINEERING. 117 

decision, taken early in 1905, to fit turbines in the large Cunarders 
Lusitania and Mauretania, built by Messrs. John Brown and Messrs. Swan 
& Hunter respectively, was a very bold and momentous one fully justified 
by the success of these vessels ; it was a tremendous step to take from the 
smaller vessels already built and tried to these leviathans crossing the 
stormy Atlantic. In 1905 the Admiralty also decided on the general 
introduction of turbines in all classes of warships. 

The earlier turbines were all fitted as direct drives and hence to vessels 
of fairly high speed, when the revolutions were not too low to spoil the 
efficiency of the turbine nor so high as to spoil the efficiency of the propeller. 
But from the first itwas felt that some meansof gearing down the propellers 
was absolutely necessary ; Sir Charles Parsons' conversion of the 
Vespasian in 1909 from reciprocating to geared turbine gave the answer 
required and marked another new era. This was quickly followed by the 
partial gearing of the Badger and Beaver T.B.D.s for the Royal Navy, 
and the complete gearing of the Normannia and Hantonia for the 
South- Western Railway Company's Southampton-Havre services, so well 
known in this district, built under the advice and to the design of Sir 
John Biles by the Fairfield Company. These were early examples of 
many single-reduction gears, but for the slower cargo-vessels still greater 
reduction of propeller revolutions was required and double-reduction 
gears were introduced, thus enabling the advantages and economy of the 
turbine to be available to owners of all kinds of vessels. Other forms of 
gearing have been used — Fottinger hydraulic in Germany and electric 
dynamo to motor reduction principally in America, though some have been 
fitted to vessels built in this country by Messrs. Cammed Laird for the 
United Fruit Co. 

As we are to have a paper from Mr. Stanley S. Cook, a colleague of 
Sir Charles Parsons, dealing with the turbine and its auxiliary machinery, 
I need say no more, but I would like to emphasise one point of ad- 
vantage of the turbine over the reciprocating engine. In the latter, 
racing of the engines at sea is a trouble which is practically absent in 
turbines. 

In 1897 Dr. Diesel began developing his internal-combustion engine, 
depending for the ignition of the charge of heavy oil not on electric sparks, 
hot tubes, or bulbs, but on the heat generated by compressing the air 
charge. It took some considerable time to get over the initial mechanical 
difficulties, and to decide the necessary scantlings and quality of the 
material to be used in the cylinders and other parts, and there were some 
regrettable accidents due to explosion of cylinders. 

I would draw attention to the immense developments which 
have taken place in this direction. Initially the greatest progress was 
made with this type of engine on the Continent. My information is 
that the first successful ocean-going motor-ship was the Vulcanus, built 
in 1911 by Werkspoor of Amsterdam for the Anglo-Saxon Petroleum 
Oil Co., while the first completed in this country was the Jutlandia, 
built in 1912 by Barclay, Curie & Co. 

While this country may have been slow at first in taking up the Diesel, 
she cannot now be blamed for lack of interest and initiative, and while 
many of the builders of this type are licensees of foreign patentees, certain 
types — such, for example, as the Doxford and the Cammed Laird-Fullagar 



118 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

— are purely English. Another purely English one (which, being a com- 
bination of steam and oil, is exceptionally interesting) is the Still engine, 
of which that on the Dolius, built by Messrs. Scott of Greenock for 
Messrs. Alfred Holt & Co. of Liverpool, has been successful. The first 
double-acting four-stroke cycle marine engine in this country was developed 
at the North-Eastem Marine. 

While the turbine developed from the fast passenger-vessels direct 
driven, to the slow cargo-boat with gearing, the Diesel started in the slow 
cargo-vessel and is developing towards the faster liner, of which the 
Aorangi of the Union Steamship Co. of New Zealand, built this year by 
the Fairfield Co., is, at the time I am writing, the most notable example. 

The question naturally arises — what will be the final outcome ? I 
find that, taking Lloyd's Register alone, in 1919 there were 750,000 tons 
gross of motor-ships, while five years later there were 2,000,000 tons gross, 
84 of the vessels being of 6,000 tons gross or over, and it has been asserted 
by responsible people that the disappearance of the steam-engine for over- 
seas trade is now largely a matter of time ; but on the other hand we have 
an equally authoritative statement that the Diesel engine ' will not have a 
dog's chance against the future steam-engine for ship propulsion.' It is 
never safe to prophesy unless you know, and therefore I shall not attempt 
to do so ; but the. battle between the turbine and the Diesel is set, and 
nothing but benefit can arise to science and trade as the outcome. On the 
one hand we have the geared turbine with much higher steam-pressures — 
500 lb. per square inch soon will be, I presume, commonplace, and 
1250 lb. has been used on land. On the other hand we shall have the 
two-stroke double-acting Diesel climbing up in power per cylinder and com- 
paring more nearly with the unit power of the steam reciprocating engine. 

One frequently hears of an internal-combustion turbine, and recently 
there have been statements made which would almost make us believe it 
had arrived. While I admit to being sceptical, of one thing I am sure — 
that there can be no halt in invention and advance in thermal efficiency. 

We are sometimes found fault with by our cHents the shipowners, 
who claim that they have no sooner settled down and adopted our latest 
improvement than we render their new ships obsolescent by some new 
invention. I once asked an American why they constantly changed the 
pattern of their boots ; I said I was surprised that their bootmakers did 
not ' stick to their lasts ' until they were worn out. ' Ah, yes ! ' he said ; 
' but what about the last-maker ? He must make new lasts to live, and so 
he alters the pattern.' We do not change the fashion of ships and their 
machinery primarily with such an object in view, but in the pursuit of 
economy in cost of working and fuel-saving. 

The foregoing is the briefest of brief outhnes of the changes in the 
main engines of ships, but the development in auxiliary machinery has 
been of tremendous importance and extent. 

In the early days of my experience, marine engineers were much 
troubled by boilers strained in getting up steam or by collapsed furnaces 
due to deposits of lime, salt, or other matter mixed with oil, even at the 
lower pressures. At the higher pressures this collapsing of furnaces became 
so serious that one found a special department attached to many ship 
and engine repairing firms for the express purpose of setting up buckled 
furnaces. Perhaps no one in those early days was more assiduous in 



G.— ENGINEERING. 119 

idling for cures for those troubles than t/he late Mr. James Weir. 
Beginning with his hydrokineter for circulating the water during the 
raising of steam, thus getting rid of strained boilers, he also tackled one 
of the chief causes of boiler corrosion, by his feed-heater and air and gas 
extraction. But this brought new trouble, for the fly-wheel pump could 
not pump the solid airless water ; this brought in his well-known straight- 
line pump. The careful filtering of the feed-water to eliminate oil and dirt 
and the use of evaporators for the supply of fresh water for ' make-up ' 
were also notable advances. These and other improvements brought 
freedom from many troubles in the use of high pressures. But these 
developments added many extra pieces of auxiliary machinery to the 
charge of the chief, and there are now separate centrifugals for condenser 
circulating water, perhaps separate air-pumps, and in turbines separate 
air-ejectors on the condenser. 

In condensers there are now several designs which lead to more com- 
pact and economical conditions. Still we have trouble with leaky tubes, 
an undesirable thing when water-tube boilers are used, especially small- 
tube boilers. The composition of the metal tubes was frequently blamed 
for these perforations, but a new theory is that it is due to a kind of water- 
hammer action arising from eddies and whirlpools generated in the circu- 
lating water forced to enter and leave small blunt-ended tubes. One 
remembers the researches made by Dr. Silberrad in 1908-13 on excessive 
damage to propellers in which he showed that this damage was mechanical 
in nature and properly termed erosion, and how his conclusions were sub- 
sequently confirmed by the investigations of Sir Charles Parsons in 1918-1 9 , 
who proved that the mechanism of this erosion was due to a similar 
water-hammer action so severe as actually to cut away the metal. 

In no direction has advance been greater than in the use of electricity 
on board ship. My own experience was, I think, typical of that of other 
early workers in electricity. Swan and Edison invented the carbon- 
filament lamp about 1880, thus making domestic and ship lighting a pos- 
sibility. I remember while at Greenwich College seeing at the Crystal 
Palace, about 1881, an exhibition of Edison lamps, supplied with current 
by a dynamo with electro-magnets almost as tall as myself, and with a 
stray field so strong that it ruined all watches within yards of them. 

In 1884 the Arawa and Tainui were fitted with incandescent 
electric lighting with stand-by oil lamps, as was, indeed, always done for 
some years thereafter, because of liability to failure of the electric plant. 
In 1884 the switches were made with wooden bodies, with no quick- 
break arrangements ; sectional switchboards and fuseboards were un- 
known ; soldered joints on trunk wires insulated with rubber tape were 
made, and the wire available was little better than the modern bell-wire. 
But the interesting thing was that the two dynamos were alternating- 
current, ribbon-armature, 150-light Ferranti dynamos. This was fortunate, 
because, as the wiring was poor and the skin of the ship was used as the 
return, had the current been ' direct ' there would have been great danger 
from electrolysis and consequent fires. The total power used was about 
30 horse. 

What developments there have been since then ! Instead of the feeble 
20 kilowatts, hundreds of kilowatts are now in use on a vessel of the same 
size, and the current is used not only for lighting, but for ventilating, local 
heating, cooking, and for driving small machinery of all kinds, including 



120 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

frequently many of the important engine-room auxiliaries ; in fact, in 
some vessels practically all the auxiliaries are driven by electric motors. 
There is considerable controversy as to whether these main dynamos 
should be driven by Diesels or steam-engines, and, in the case of steam, 
whether it should not at some stage be drawn from the main engines 
before going to the auxiliary, or passed to the main engine after going 
through the auxiliary, or that the exhaust of the auxiliary be used for 
heating the feed-water, or a combination of these arrangements. It will 
be interesting to watch the development of that controversy, as on its 
proper solution further economy in fuel consumption will result. Probably 
no one solution will suffice and in Diesel motor-ships we may find the 
auxiliaries driven by steam— e.g. when they are oil tankers requiring the 
steam to heat the cargo oil — while in steam-driven turbine steamers we 
may find the auxiliaries driven by electricity generated by Diesel-driven 
dynamos. 

There are many other pieces of auxiliary machinery connected, for 
example, with refrigeration, lubrication-oil pumps, fuel-oil pumps and 
heaters, pumps for hot and cold water for baths and other sanitary pur- 
poses. When there are automatic self-closing water-tight doors there are 
generally duplicate pumps for supplying high-pressure water to work 
them. It will thus be seen how extensive is now the auxiliary machinery 
in the engine-room. The fuel consumed in developing the power of these 
auxiliaries is now such an important proportion of the total fuel con- 
sumed that their design and installation is becoming, to a certain extent, 
a separate branch of engineering. To show the importance of a thorough 
study of this auxiliary-power question on board ship, I have been informed 
that in a large intermediate passenger-ship the consumption of fuel for 
auxiliaries is reported as exceeding 10 per cent, of the total consumption 
and that 15 per cent, or more is not uncommon in some other vessels. 
The percentage will naturally rise with increased economy of the main 
engines unless the auxiliaries in their turn are made more economical. 

In types of boilers the development has gone from the old box form 
with saf etv valve opening inwards to prevent them collapsing when cooling, 
to the well-known and most extensively used Scotch marine circular 
boiler with return tubes. But always there were inventors working at the 
water-tube boiler, and several were constructed which proved successful. 
The Haystack was an early example, and those of Yarrow, of Thorny- 
croft, and of Babcock & Wilcox may be named as types. In my own 
experience Yarrow and Babcock have each been used in fast cross-Channel 
steamers with absolute success, and, apart from the great user of water-tube 
boilers, the Royal Navy, water-tube boilers are being used increasingly 
in oversea merchant-ships. And we know that for land stations they are 
in great demand, fitted with mechanical coal-stokers or with pulverised 
coal or oil firing, in units of such enormous size and with steam pressure 
so higl that steam drums have been built and used 34 ft. long, 4 ft. 
internal diameter, and 4 in. thick. Shall we see such boilers on board 
merchant-ships ? I have no doubt we shall, though I would not care to 
express any opinion as to the ultimate highest steam-pressure which will 
be used, but 500 lb. is in sight. 

Superheating of steam was early recognised as a very desirable thing, 
but it took many years to produce a reliable superheater, and then there 
were lubrication and other difficulties in reciprocating engines which had 



G.— ENGINEERING. 121 

to be surmounted. In the case of turbines certain of these difficulties were 
non-existent, and turbines are peculiarly suited to the use of superheated 
steam. 

Another economical advance is pre-heating of air, which is now being 
pushed much further than ever, but with which the name of Howden will 
always be associated. Stage feed-water heating is also being very fully 
carried out, which you will hear of in detail from Mr. Stanley Cook. 

Fuel-oil firing of boilers has been very largely adopted in steamships, 
with a marked gain in speed and, when oil is marketed at certain figures, 
with economy of cost as compared with coal, not only on account of its 
relatively smaller weight consumption, but on account of the reduced 
crew required and the more regular speed obtained, hence shorter time at 
sea. But in considering the relative advantages of steam- and motor- 
driveu ships one must remember that an oil-fired steamship, in the event 
of oil soaring in price, may be converted to coal-burning, while in a 
motor-ship the owner has not that option. 

As to powers developed by the main engines in any one steamship, 
from the 2-3000 I.H.P. in good-class passenger-ships of 1875 to the 
75,000 I H.P. we now find in the most powerful merchant-ships, or of over 
140,000 in naval vessels, is a stupendous step. 

As a matter of interest — in the course of my inquiries the first twin- 
screw vessel I can trace was a 60-ft. craft built for the Khedive of Egypt 
by Bennie of London in 1854 ; Dudgeon built the Far East in 1863 ; 
the Admiralty fitted twin screws in the Penelope in 1867, and the 
Notting Hill appears to have been the first North Atlantic twin-screw 
steamer, built in 1881 ; but vessels so fitted were not usual till the middle 
'eighties. Although multiple screws had been fitted — e.g. in the Livadia — 
four and three shafts seem to have come into more general use with the 
turbine. The combination of twin screws driven by reciprocating engines 
with one or two other screws driven by turbines taking the exhaust 
from the reciprocating engines, was a step between direct-drive turbine 
and the introduction of turbines with gearing, when twin screws were 
generally reverted to. 

I have to confess that this fifty years' survey of marine engine-room 
and boiler-room development is so brief that it cannot do justice to the 
subject nor to those who have been responsible for the advance made 
during that period, but I think the salient features have been touched 
on in sufficient detail to show you what the engineers of this country have 
done for marine engineering. 

Turning now to the ship herself and to naval architecture — after 
serving three years as an apprentice in the yard, and spending another 
three years at the Boyal Naval College, Greenwich, as a private student, 
through the kindness of Lloyd's Kegister I was received at the Liverpool 
office as an ' observer ' (to use an American term), or, as my late brother, 
^ llliam Denny, said, ' as a volunteer surveyor to study the morbid ana- 
tomy of shipbuilding.' The severe North Atlantic storms were the most 
trying to ships, and at Liverpool one had the opportunity of seeing the 
greatest number of damaged hulls. It was a most valuable experience, 
as at that time the transatlantic steamers were developing rapidly in size, 
and many of them were sorely tried and damaged in their superstructures. 

I crossed to the States to see ships' behaviour in heavy weather in 
December of 1882 in the Parisian, of the Allan Line, and returned in 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the same month by the Alaska. The latter was the ' crack ship ' at 
that time, and was 500 ft. long, the former was 440 ft. long, and they 
were considered enormous ships. The City of Rome was 560 ft., 
but was not so fast as the Alaska. They were all single-screw ships. 
A 400-footer in the early 'eighties was considered to be a very large ship ; 
indeed, I think I am correct in saying that such a ship was not provided 
for in the scantling tables of the Classification Societies, and required 
special consideration. 

My Liverpool experience convinced me that midship erections such 
as long bridges must have the decks plated so as to resist the stresses 
which would inevitably go up there, so when I took charge at Leven 
Shipyard in 1883 I carried out that idea. But in 1887 in a 400-ft. 
ship of high speed I found myself short of weight, so to avoid plating 
the bridge deck I cut it in two purposely and fitted an expansion 
joint. Whether this was the first time it had been done I do not know, 
hut in that ship it was successful. In the early years of this century I 
saw such expansion joints in large Atlantic liners, but as the result of 
experience and further consideration it is now held that that expedient 
is not the proper solution of the problem and that nothing but plating 
the decks and ample strengthening of long superstructures is in order. But 
I shall not go into such details, as we are to have a paper on the subject 
by Mr. Foster King. 

Dimensions : Mr. King read a paper at Philadelphia, U.S.A., in 1912, 
in which he divided ships into three groups : 

(A) Atlantic passenger-ships (the longest ships). 

(B) Passenger-ships on all other routes. 
(D) Cargo-ships. 

He obtained from the owners and registry books particulars of thousands of 
ships, and plotted them on diagrams on a base of years and with lengths of 
ships as ordinates. From these diagrams he concluded that the growth of 
' the largest ships in the world ' might be fairly represented by straight 
lines in each group ; that Group A ships grew at the rate of 66 ft. in ten 
years, and Group B 50 ft. in ten years. He observed, however, that after 
1897, special vessels in A— viz. the fast Atlantic ferry — grew much more 
rapidly, at the rate of 150 ft. in ten years. For cargo- vessels D the rate of 
growth was about 30 ft. in ten years. 

Taking Mr. King's A line, in 1875 the longest ship was about 475 ft., 
while, owing to the above-mentioned offshoot of the Atlantic ferry-boats, 
in 1912 it was round 900 ft. The Majestic, the present longest ship, is 
915.5 ft. 

Reading from the B line, in 1875 the longest ship was round about 425 ft. 
In 1912 it should have been 610 ft., but was actually 570, and he remarks in 
explanation that ' one of the usual pauses was occurring.' The Oronsay, 
on the Australian trade, is the present longest B-line boat at 633.6 ft. 
The Empress of Canada, on the Pacific, is 627 ft. long. 

As to cargo-ships — general traders — in 1875 a 3000 dead-weight 
carrier was a large ship ; the more usual size was 2000-2500 tons. Now, 
7000 to 8000 is the ordinary size, 10,000 is not uncommon, and many 
exceed that latter dead- weight. 

In dealing with the growth in breadth of ships, Mr. King remarks that 
about 1875 the fashion in passenger-ships was about ten beams to length, 



G.— ENGINEERING. 123 

but that after 1880 proportionate breadth became rapidly greater. An 
analysis of data available to me confirms this view, and that it is not now- 
uncommon to find a proportion of eight beams to length, or even seven 
and a half. 

As to proportionate depth to length, that is difficult to trace, as number 
of decks, type of superstructure, and style of ship has varied so much ; 
but I think I can trace a proportionate diminution in main-hull depth 
to length from about 1875 till 1895, but the proportionate depth seems to 
be rising since then. 

The draught increased along with the increase in length, and the ports 
were constantly improved in depth, while new dry docks and floating 
docks kept pace. Perhaps no better example can be given than the port 
of Southampton, with its ' longest in the world ' floating dock, of which 
we shall be hearing during these meetings. 

Increase in draught is usually the most economical way of increasing 
carrying capacity or speed, hence the desire of naval architects for ample 
depth in ports and canals. Lloyd's original freeboard tables stated 
freeboard in terms of depth with a correction for any departure in length 
from the standard either way, but freeboard might have been equally 
well stated on a length basis with a correction for depth varying from the 
standard. When a curve of draught for the same proportion of depth to 
length is drawn with length as a base, it is seen at once that draught is 
proportionately less for the longer ship, and, as Lloyd's original tables were 
based on the current practice of the day, it is to be presumed that prac- 
tical sea experience is responsible for this. Mr. Foster King's 1912 analysis 
of practice, as might be expected, shows the same thing. In the early 
'eighties, however, experience was limited to about 400 ft. in length, and 
subsequent experience has shown that these and the longer steamers 
might safely be loaded deeper than the original rules contemplated. 

I have mentioned that at a certain time there appeared to be a reduc- 
tion in relative depth to length, but this may have had no effect on draught, 
due to the allowances for erections above the freeboard deck. Since 1915 
the regulations for water-tight subdivision have come into play, and, as 
the easiest way to gain long compartments, within the regulations, is to 
increase the freeboard ratio, vessels relatively deeper in proportion to 
length are being built. 

I need not point out that the depth of water in the Suez Canal had a 
commanding effect on draught ; the Canal authorities, however, have 
constantly been deepening the Canal since its opening to traffic, and I 
noticed the other day that Messrs. Alfred Holt found that the port of 
Colombo and not the Canal was now the limiting factor in their largest 
ships. 

The above is a brief sketch of the change in size and in proportions. 
Let us now turn to consider the change in the provisions for the comfort 
and convenience of the passenger. 

In the earlier days of steamships the first-class were in a poop, and 
the accommodation was very much in the style of the old sailing-ship — a 
row of cabins at each side with the dining-tables in the centre. There 
was no separate lounge, writing-room, or smoking-room ; when meals were 
over the dining-tables were cleared and the room became a writing- room 
or lounge. Smoking was not allowed there, but a piano was sometimes 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES . 

installed. There was an open-ended bridge and a forecastle, where the 
officers and men were accommodated. Gradually, in later vessels the 
poop joined the bridge, and then the bridge joined the forecastle, and the 
vessels became awning-deckers or spar-deckers. A medium-sized passenger 
steamer on which I made a short trip when she was delivered in the autumn 
of 1874 was a spar-decker and her passenger accommodation was arranged 
as above. The captain's cabin was in the companion-house aft, the officers 
and engineers in a deckhouse just abaft the engine-room skylight, and the 
ship's offices were in a bridge only 44 ft. long ; she was otherwise a flush- 
decker ; the crew were below the spar-deck forward. Then in later ships 
forecastles again appeared, and midship houses developed into bridge- 
houses ; then poops were fitted, to go once more through the same 
programme. Thus, as size increased, deck after deck has been added, 
until in the largest vessels the old names of bridge, upper, main, lower 
and orlop no longer suffice, nor are they truly descriptive, and the decks 
are lettered A, B, C, D, etc. 

In 1876, as an apprentice joiner I made the old-fashioned settees 
for the dining-saloons, with their swing backs, which gave way to revolving- 
chairs bolted.to the deck, which again have been displaced by comfortable 
armchairs, either entirely free, so that they can be pulled in and out to 
suit the build of the passenger, or at most loosely attached by a chain. 
The simple saloon framing designed by the foreman joiner has given 
place to the beautifully designed and fitted public rooms, in the design of 
which the best architects and artists have been willing to show their skill. 

I think one of the earliest ships so fitted was the P. & 0. Clyde, whose 
saloons were designed in 1880 by Mr. (now Sir) John Burnet, B..A. The 
old wooden ' two in a height ' bunks in staterooms, with galvanised-iron 
cross-strips to support the hair mattress, have given way to brass bedsteads 
with luxurious spring mattresses of ample length and width as ' at home,' 
instead of the regulation 2 ft. by 6 ft. The old candle-lamps, swinging in 
gimbles at the mirror or fixed in the bulkheads, one for each two cabins, 
which at best made darkness visible, have been replaced by powerful 
electric lights, one or more to each stateroom, with probably a reading- 
lamp at the head of each bed. Artificial ventilation, either with fans 
in each stateroom or with trunk ventilation fed by powerful main fans 
supplying air warmed or cooled as desired, is now fitted. Hot and cold 
water laid on to each stateroom has taken the place of the old goglets and 
receivers. 

The third-class, or emigrants, of the 'eighties were packed two at 
least in a height and in blocks of dozens, having in many cases to crawl 
in over the end of their bunks. Now they have two, three, or four berthed 
staterooms with many comforts which were absent from the first-class 
of an earlier date. The restriction put upon the entry of emigrants to the 
States has led our wide-awake shipowners to new developments — the one- 
class ship, and latterly to the tourist class, where ' gentlefolk ' for little 
more than third-class fare may cross the Atlantic in much greater comfort 
and even luxury, and at speeds which in the 'eighties were not available 
to first-class passengers. 

The navigating bridge of a modern high-class steamer is an inspiring 
sight, with Gyro compass probably fitted with an automatic quartermaster, 
' tell-tales ' from the engine-room giving the revolutions of the engine and 



G.— ENGINEERING . ] 2 .") 

the direction of turning, similar ' tell-tales ' to the rudder head showing 
the angle of the tiller ; the steering gear, now fitted aft, is controlled by a 
' telemotor,' first incited by A. B. Brown of Edinburgh ; wireless rooms, 
wireless direction-finder, and it may be underwater microphones for 
finding the position from underwater land bells ; probably an outfit of 
telephones communicating from the bridge to the various chiefs of depart- 
ments ; automatic indicators showing the water in all holds and ballast 
tanks, and means for closing all water-tight doors below deck in event of 
fog or collision. 

Returning for a moment to the cargo-steamer — I have already dealt 
with the growth in size, but there are many other changes in these ships. 
The equipment has much improved both in the engine-room and on deck, 
and cargo appliances are quite different. Sails having practically dis- 
appeared, we find the place of masts taken by Samson posts and gantries ; 
indeed, very many modern vessels, built for special trades, look more 
like a building berth in a shipyard than a sea-going steamer. But an 
important change is in the question of fullness of block. For a considerable 
time the shipowner seemed to think in terms of £'s per ton dead-weight. 
This inevitably led to fuller and fuller blocks, until .83 was not uncommon ; 
result — a low speed and a great uncertainty as to date of arrival at a port 
if any bad weather was encountered. Of course, block must be coupled 
with length, for the longer ship may have a fuller block, but round 
400 ft. a block of .76 is now much more fashionable, with the result that, 
while the dead-weight lifted at one time on the same length of vessel is 
less, yet the higher speed and the greater regularity of time on the voyage, 
due to the ability to keep up a reasonable speed in bad weather, makes 
the finer vessel a more economic proposition. 

I have said nothing about sailing-ships, because their evolution has been, 
so to say, backwards ; they are rarely built now. And yet I could unfold 
a tale of past achievement, for Messrs. MacMillan of Dumbarton built 
many fine sailing-vessels, and I would remind you that Dumbarton was the 
birthplace of one of the most famous tea clippers, the Cutty Sark. Her 
builders, Scott & Linton, failed before she was completed, and my firm had 
the honour of finishing and rigging her. 

A most interesting and important type of special trader is the bulk 
oil carrier or oil-tanker, which has developed quite a special technique in 
design, construction, and fastenings. Originally oil was carried in cases, 
but, starting with quite small bulk-oil carriers, we now find oil-tankers 
among the mammoth dead-weight carriers of to-day. Bulk grain, coal, 
and especially ore carriers, involve also quite special considerations in 
stability, and strength to resist concentrated loads in the last mentioned, 
of which type the highest development is to be seen on the Great Lakes of 
North America. The construction of sailing-ships having practically 
ceased, interest in propulsion by wind force was revived recently by the 
appearance of a ship fitted with Flettner rotary cylindrical sails, if one 
may use such a term. Mr. Flettner is the inventor of a most ingenious 
rudder, where, by using a small auxiliary rudder attached to the after- 
edge of the main rudder, a large ship can easily be guided by a man- 
handled steering gear without the use of steam. Neither of these 
inventions, however, is as yet in general use. 

Other vessels of special design are yachts; train-ferries; ice-bivak 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

shallow -draught vessels fitted with side wheels, stern wheels, tunnel 
screws, vane wheels, or even air screws; meat-carriers, and cable-laying 
steamers. 

Nor have I touched on the design and development of vessels to 
navigate in the air or under the sea. In the opinion of many the former 
are bound to take the place of certain types of ordinary sea-going vessels ; 
the latter, I think, will always be confined to warfare. There is then no 
lack of opportunity for the skill of the naval architect and the marine 
engineer in the further development of ' specialities,' many of which 
have had their inception during the last fifty years. 

For the present there is not, I bebeve, much designing of the monster 
North Atlantic ferry-boat, which by Mr. King's paper should by now have 
attained a length of over 1000 ft. ; vessels of 5-600 ft. are the most 
frequently built now, with plenty of passenger accommodation, a fair 
proportion of paying dead-weight, and a speed which is moderate for their 
length. 

I have hardly referred at all to the tremendous changes which have taken 
place in the Royal Navy; that in itself would take more time than I have at 
my disposal. In main engines, however, the lines of development have been 
much the same as in the mercantile marine, while in the vessels themselves 
their purpose is so different that no comparisons can be drawn. But their 
design has not been without its influence on the merchant-ship in many 
details, and there are several directions in which the work at the Admiralty 
has has a commanding influence on naval architecture in this country. 
The important paper we are having from the two chief technical officers 
at Whitehall will show what I mean. 

Education. — Until the founding of the John Elder Chair of Naval 
Architecture and Marine Engineering at Glasgow University, the technical 
education available to apprentices in private works was provided practi- 
cally entirely by evening classes under the South Kensington Science and 
Art Department. . Many of those men who for at least a generation were 
responsible for the great strides made in the technical efficiency of the 
twin industries received their professional education at these classes. 
These classes are still doing good work. For generations the Royal 
Dockyards have taken care of the technical instruction of their appren- 
tices, and schools for their instruction were, and are, at work in every 
Dockyard, and of these you will hear ; I can only stop to note the founda- 
tion of the Royal School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 
at South Kensington. The best students from each Dockyard were sent 
there for the first time in 1864, to receive a training in higher science and 
mathematics of a severity unmatched in any college, and the first year 
there were eight marine engineers and eight naval architects. The latter 
group I knew best — John, Gowings, Elgar, White, Ragge, Fitze, Deadman, 
Bone. Early in this year Mr. Deadman, the last survivor of that brilliant 
eight, passed away. Some of the others died young, but, of those who 
survived, who can forget the brilliant work done by John at Lloyd's 
Registry, by Elgar at Glasgow University as the first Professor of Naval 
Architecture in the John Elder Chair, or by Sir William White, whether 
at the Admiralty as D.N.C. or at Armstrong's in Newcastle as designer ? 
From 1879 to 1882 I had the honour of being one of his students at the 



G.— ENGINEERING* 127 

Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and no students ever listened to a more 
inspiring Professor. 

On the marine engineering side at South Kensington, that first group 
included men who also did splendid work for their country — Bedbrook 
and Littlejohns, who occupied high positions in the Naval engineering 
service, and Pratten, who is, I am glad to say, still living, after many years 
of splendid work done in the service of Messrs. Harland & Wolff at 
Belfast. 

Many of those who started in the Naval service ultimately took up 
positions with the Board of Trade, the Registry Societies, and in private 
firms, while certain private students were permitted by the Admiralty to 
attend at Kensington and Greenwich. Of these I mention two — Professor 
F. P. Purvis and Sir Eustace Tennyson-d'Eyncourt, the latter recently 
retired from the position of D.N.C., and the former, after some years as 
chief of the scientific department at a private yard in this country, became 
Professor at Tokio, from which position he has just retired. The education 
in the Admiralty has has a commanding effect on the private shipyard 
and marine-engine work, and it is interesting to note that almost all the 
Professors of Naval Architecture at Glasgow University, Liverpool 
University, and Armstrong College at Newcastle have been Admiralty- 
trained men — Dr. Elgar, Professor Jenkins, and Sir John Biles at Glas- 
gow, Sir Westcott Abell, now chief at Lloyd's Registry, and his brother, 
Professor T. B. Abell, at Liverpool, and Dr. Welch at Newcastle, while 
at the Royal Naval College the Professors in the technical subjects 
naturally were Navy men. 

Without proper technical education an efficient corps of designers 
and of research workers could not be maintained, and you will learn how 
considerable and important has been the research work guided by the 
Admiralty. Nor need I remind you of the research which has been carried 
out by our technical institutions, by Lloyd's Registry, and by many 
private firms and individuals. 

Research was given a great impetus by the necessities of the Ministry 
of Munitions and other Government Departments during the War, and a 
notable advance was made when the Department of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research was established, with a parliamentary vote of its own, 
and in addition with a fund of a million. After many methods of assisting 
research had been considered, the Department specialised in aiding the 
establishment of research associations connected with specific industries, 
and by these bodies much useful work has been done. The Department 
took over the responsibility for the National Physical Laboratory at 
Teddington, and we are greatly indebted to the Laboratory, and especially 
to the William Froude Tank established there by the generosity of Sir 
Alfred Yarrow. There is no research association of shipbuilders and marine 
engineers, but they contribute to a fund for research in the William 
Froude Tank and use it and the other departments of the Laboratory for 
private experiments ; they are thus closely linked up with research. 

In research, to no two men are we more indebted than to Dr. Wm. 
Froude and his son, Mr. R. E. Froude, for the experimental work done 
by them on ships' resistance and screw propellers. The British Association 
in 1868 appointed a committee to consider stability, propulsion, and sea- 
going qualities of ships, and of that committee Dr. Froude was a member, 



128 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the others being Merrifield, Galton, and Rankine. The committee recom- 
mended experiments on actual ships, but Dr. Froude dissented and ga,ve 
it as his opinion that model experiments were of value and were much 
cheaper to carry out, describing some he had made in 1867. In 1868-9, on 
the suggestion of Sir Edward Reed, then Chief Constructor, the Admiralty 
agreed to bear the cost of the construction and the working costs of the 
tank at Chelston Cross, Torquay. This tank started work in 1871, Dr. Froude 
acting as chief, and he gave his services gratuitously as long as he lived. 
On his death Mr. R. E. Froude took over charge, continuing and expanding 
his father's work. The results were freely communicated by him, with 
the full consent and encouragement of the Admiralty, to the Institution 
of Naval Architects in a series of valuable papers. The Torquay tank was 
ultimately dismantled and transferred to Haslar, where the good work 
is continuing. 

From the Froude tanks great benefits have flowed. I shall leave 
Mr. Mumford to show in detail the effect of these establishments on the 
design of ships and their propellers. Probably no one is more qualified to do 
so, with nearly fifty years' experience in experimental tank work. He 
joined the staff at Torquay in 1878, after having been trained as a naval 
architect in Devonport Dockyard, and took charge of the Dumbarton 
tank in 1882, when the first private one was built at the suggestion of 
the late William Denny, than whom perhaps no private naval architect 
had so much influence on the profession in such a short life ; he died in 
1887, at the age of thirty-nine. I shall confine myself to giving one 
example of the benefit of the tank. 

In 1888 the Prince Henriette was built at Dumbarton for the 
Ostend-Dover service of the Belgian Government. The ship's lines 
were developed in the tank and the paddle-wheels were fixed in size and 
position from trial runs with model wheels in the tank. She was 300 ft. 
■ by 38 ft. by 8 ft. 6 in. draught, and the speed on Government official 
trial was 21.09 knots. The previous fastest paddle-boat, built in 1885 
at the same yard, was of the same length — 300 ft. by 35 ft. beam, and 
draught 7 ft. 8 in. ; its speed was 15.01 knots. Thus within three years, 
and largely by the aid of the tank, six knots higher speed was attained 
on the same length. The original tank trials were made with the same 
beam as the older vessel, viz. 35 ft., but only 19-| knots was predicted. 
It was then suggested by the tank staff to try 38 ft. beam, thus fining 
the lines, when an extra knot for the same power resulted. Of course, 
every effort was made, both in the hull and in the machinery, to economise 
weight and provide the highest possible power. In the compound two- 
cylinder diagonal machinery, designed by the late Mr. Walter Brock, cast- 
steel entablatures, wrought-steel guides, and single eccentric valve gear 
were used ; the boilers were Navy type, straight- through tubular, working 
under forced draught in a closed stokehold. Still, without the tank experi- 
ments neither the naval architect nor the engineer would have had the 
confidence to proceed or to undertake the onerous Government guarantees 
demanded. 

But before tank trials were available there was a notable influence at 
work which was constantly inspiring the desire for higher and higher 
speeds in merchant-ships. I refer to the construction and development 
of high-speed launches, torpedo-boats and destroyers, with which the names 



G.— ENGINEERING. 120 

Thornycroft and Yarrow are so honourably connected. The exceed- 
ingly high speeds attained taught naval architects much till then unknown. 
As a later development, the construction during the War of the coastal 
motor-boats was most instructive and was a notable contribution towards 
the final victory. 

There are now, besides the Government tank at Haslar, the following 
Froude tanks in this country in the order of age — Denny (Dumbarton), 
Brown (Clydebank), William Froude (Teddington), Vickers (St. Albans), 
and Parsons' have also a smaller open-air tank at Newcastle : that is six ; 
and there are in Italy, Germany, France, Sweden, Russia, Austria, Japan, 
and the United States other eleven, a total of seventeen, and it may be 
claimed that tanks have had more far-reaching effect on design than any 
other means of research. 

And yet, when one considers the research carried out on ferrous and 
non-ferrous metals, that claim may be disputed. Time fails me to do more 
than indicate to you the history of mild steel. Great Britain was the birth- 
place of the steel industry and Sheffield was its cradle. Bessemer cupola 
and Siemens-Martin open-hearth steels were British inventions, and at 
one time this country held premier place in tons of steel produced per 
annum. It was on the Bessemer converter that America built up her vast 
steel industry, but in shipbuilding and marine engineering Siemens- 
Martin open-hearth steel was the key to success. While steel had been used 
in shipbuilding at an earlier date, our present material came into daily use 
in merchant-ship building in the late 'seventies of last century, and I can 
remember the interest taken in the Buenos Ayrean, the first steel Atlantic 
ship, built in 1879. Grave doubts were expressed as to the wisdom of 
Messrs. Allan in ordering that steamer, and when she developed certain 
infantde troubles and was dry-docked for the first time a crowd of talent 
examined her from stem to stern. At last one lynx-eyed surveyor found 
a crack in a bottom plate, but there was great relief when the superintend- 
ing engineer removed the crack with the point of his knife : it was a hair 
from a paint-brush ! 

With the considerable reduction in scantlings allowed by the Classifi- 
cation Societies mild steel rapidly displaced iron in ship construction. 
But still we were warned that it was unreliable if worked at a blue heat, 
and some failures were recorded. Further improvement in manufacturing 
methods, however, finally gave us a material of great reliability and easily 
worked. The limits of 28-32 tensile strength and 20 per cent, extension 
in an 8-inch specimen have been standard now for many years, though 
steels of greater carbon content and higher tensile strength have been 
used ; and as Young's modulus is practically the same for all ordinary 
carbon steels, these higher tensile steels could be used in conjunction with 
milder steels without disadvantage. But there is now another mild carbon 
steel on the market which has a higher elastic limit, the use of which is 
just beginning ; it is claimed that it will ensure further advantageous 
developments in reduction of weight of hull. 

Sir Robert Hadfield's invention of high- manganese steel gave a fresh 
impetus to research in ferrous alloys. Among other facts, he found that 
while 2 per cent, to 3 per cent, of manganese rendered carbon steel so brittle 
as to be useless, when a 13 per cent, alloy was made and properly heat- 
treated a material resulted of extreme toughness and great resistance to 

1925 K 



130 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

abrasion. All will remember Mushet's old self-tempering steel, but now 
we have alloys of nickel, chromium, vanadium, tungsten, and other metals, 
each with its own special use, either in construction of ships and their 
machinery or in the machine-shop for tool-steel, thus still further advancing 
the science and art of shipbuilding and marine engineering. 

The alloy which appeals most to the domestic circle is Firth's stainless 
steel, which has largely abolished knife-boards and knife-cleaning machines. 
In engineering, this and other similar alloys are now coming into use, where 
their non-rusting qualities are of particular value ; further, they are now 
under test with a view to their employment for important sea structures 
in connection with piers, docks, and harbours. 

Other powerful factors in the development of the merchant marine 
were the Board of Trade, the Classification Societies, and the technical 
institutions and societies. 

The Board of Trade is charged by statute with the duty of seeing that 
ships are safe and sufficient for navigation. The individual surveyor is 
legally responsible, and it is he who must certify safety and sufficiency ; 
but, for co-ordination purposes, there is a Consultative Branch at White- 
hall which issues ' Suggestions and Instructions ' to the surveyors as to 
how they should carry out their duties. These ' buff books ' have in practice 
largely the same effect as the rules and regulations of the Classification 
Societies. 

Practically every maritime nation has a Eegistry or Classification body 
or bodies of its own, but in this country that type of organisation has been 
earlier and more fully developed than in other countries. Lloyd's Registry 
has a world-wide name and has had a profound influence on design not 
only in this country but all over the world. 

When iron superseded wood as the constructional material for ships, 
it required boldness of conception to pass from the very ponderable 
thickness of the wooden-skin planking to what must have appeared 
the paper thickness of the iron-skin plating, and from the practically 
solid wood framing to the spidery and wider-spaced iron framing. This 
was not the work of any one man ; many naval architects were experi- 
menting and making gradual advances. The history of the change is 
difficult to follow, and I shall leave the task to Mr. Foster King ; but 
I have always understood that the late Mr. Weymouth, at one time a 
Surveyor to Lloyd's and ultimately Secretary to the Registry, after 
collecting from the various builders information as to the scantlings in 
use, conceived the system of numerals, and got out the first draft of the 
scantling rules, which system was in use for many years. 

It was inevitable that the only Registry should be criticised and dubbed 
arbitrary and that shipowners and builders should think it desirable to 
establish another, and this was done by the Liverpool Registry, known as 
the ' Red Book.' This led to competition in scantlings, no doubt in the 
endeavour to simplify and hence cheapen the structure, but the Registries 
were accused of ' sailing too near the wind ' in weight of scantling. 

Plimsoll's agitation and the Act which made it obligatory for the ship- 
owner to place a mark on the sides of his ships showing the maximum 
draught to which he proposed to load them greatly affected mercantile 
owners, and schemes for fixing a load-line were evolved, for it should be 
noted that no scheme was included in the Act. The Board of Trade had 



G.— ENGINEERING. 131 

their ideas of what the criterion should be, while Lloyd's Registry published 
rules in the early 'eighties, but there were no legal rules. In 1884 the 
Government appointed a Committee, the parent of many others, on which 
were representatives of the Board of Trade, Lloyd's and the Liverpool 
Registries, and others, with Sir Edward Reed as Chairman Sir Di«by 
Murray, Mr. Benjamin Martell, Mr. West, and Mr. Wm. Denny were v°ery 
active members. The Board of Trade proposed height of platform as the 
criterion, while Lloyd's pinned their faith to surplus buoyancy ; the latter 
was ultimately adopted, though, curiously enough, the former is now 
recognised as the more important factor. 

On the eve of the publication of the report it was announced that 
Lloyd's had absorbed the ' Red Book,' and so the standard of strength 
which the Committee had decided to combine with draught of water 
was recommended to be Lloyd 1885 rules. When the Government accepted 
the report and passed the Load Line Act in 1890, the Board of Trade 
was made responsible for its application, Lloyd's was named as an 
assigning body, and any other similar body approved by the Board might 
be similarly appointed, and the Board was to consult such assigning bodies 
before making any modification in the rules which experience might 
suggest. Certain shipowners and shipbuilders, having an objection to a 
practical monopoly in the fixing of scantlings and freeboards?, founded in 
1891 the British Corporation Registry, with head office in Glasgow which 
was recognised by the Board under the Act, but only on condition that 
rules for scantlings and a registry book were produced, and finallv that the 
controlling committee was so constituted as to ensure the influence not 
only of shipowners, but also of shipbuilders, marine engineers, and under- 
writers. That Registry has had a profound influence for good, and the 
question of strength was fully assured, as a standard for that was laid 
down. The virility of the younger society, with its modern ideas and its 
constant endeavour to simplify the construction while maintaining the 
strength of its vessels, reacted on the older societv with all its accumulated 
experience, and these two, in consultation with the Board of Trade, have 
done much useful work in standardising, while not fossilising, practice 
through research. 

And this leads me to speak of Standardisation in Shipbuilding and 
Engineering, which Mr. Le Maistre, Secretary of the British Engineering 
btandards Association, will deal with at greater length. You are all 
aware of the attempts to standardise the design of ships and their machinery 
during the War. In my opinion, that was not the wisest proceeding ; in 
any case, I do not believe that standard designs such as were carried' out 
at that time are suited for peace times. But, if we are to maintain our 
national supremacy, I am a firm bebever in standardising details in shins 
and machinery. The first work of the B.E.S.A., when it was established in 
1901, was the standardising of ships' sectional material. Order was thus 
brought out of chaos, the number of standards, sections of all kinds and 
sizes, was fixed at 175, and the steelmakers reported that a saving of at 
least 5s. per ton was the result, A revision in 1918 reduced the standard 
sections to 115. A recent piece of work of the B.E.S.A. is the standardising 
ol the tail-shafts of ordinary cargo- vessels, which standards may also be 
applicable to many passenger-ships. The taper of the shaft to take the 
propeller boss is also fixed. It can easily be seen what a saving this would 

k2 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

mean in the case of damage at a distant out-port, where, were these 
standards adopted, only a few spares need be kept, or even the spare of 
one steamer could be used for another with the same diameter shaft, and 
thus in the case of damage the present long delays in an out-port waiting 
for replace parts would be avoided. 

The influence of the Institution of Naval Architects on the progress of 
design cannot be exaggerated. Founded in 1860, there has been a constant 
stream of valuable papers read and discussed at the annual meetings ; 
naval architects and marine engineers were glad of the opportunity of pre- 
senting the results of their experience to their fellows and of profiting by 
the discussion of their ideas. The Institution is a forum where ability and 
efficiency are highly valued and honoured. One of the earliest benefits 
conferred by the Institution on the profession was that, through the influ- 
ence of its members as a body, Government was induced to establish the 
School at South Kensington from which, as I have shown, such benefits 
have flowed. And there are all over the country — at Liverpool, Newcastle. 
Southampton, Glasgow, and other centres — similar institutions, contri- 
buting to the advance of the science by their meetings and published 
transactions. 

I have done what I could to ensure chronological accuracy in preparing 
this address, but, from the difficulties I encountered in my inquiries, I 
am conscious that there may be certain errors. It is sketchy, I admit, 
as the change and progress during the last fifty years has been so colossal 
that one cannot within the limits of such an address do more than glance 
at the phases of the evolution. 

But there is one other aspect on which I think I should say a few words, 
and that is on the management of the works and the personnel. Plan the 
designer never so well, unless the works management and the artisans be 
efficient and work cordially together, the designer plans in vain ! 

Fifty years ago, when transport was primitive, the staffs and artisans 
remained largely in the place of their birth, education, and apprenticeship. 
Tradition thus grew up in each works, which were generally moderate in 
size and freqiiently situated in small towns, so that everybody knew 
everybody ; there was a clannish feeling and a spirit of emulation between 
works and works, the staffs and artisans were as pleased with a technical 
success as the master, and considered that they shared the credit, as 
indeed they did. Son succeeded father in all gradesin the works, and, so 
far as discipline and willing service were concerned, the manager, if he had 
any anxiety at all, could yet make his calculations as to cost and time of 
delivery with a fair certainty of ' coming out.' Trade Unions there were, 
but controlled by men with different aims from the present. The same held 
good in the local football team, the men were really from the locality. 
And just as professionalism has destroyed that spirit in football, so pro- 
fessional agitators and politicians have largely destroyed the old spirit 
of ' the works.' The employer is blamed for not knowing his own men, 
but every precaution seems to be taken to prevent the employer from 
doing so ; the individual workman is not permitted to talk things over 
with the individual employer. 

We older men had our own difficulties and troubles in the earlier stages 
of the evolution, but our sons and descendants have imposed on them the 
necessity of acquiring a greater mass of detailed and accurate knowledge, 



G.— ENGINEERING. 133 

combined with immensely greater social difficulties. I would like to quote 
a few sentences from the preface of ' The World Unbalanced,' by Gustave 
le Bon : — 

' In this domain (social life) progressive evolution remains feeble. 
The feelings of ambition, jealousy, ferocity and hatred, which animated 
our first ancestors, remain unchanged. . . . We cannot understand events 
unless we take account of the profound differences winch separate mystic 
and emotional impulses from rational considerations. They explain why 
individuals of superior intelligence have at all times accepted the most 
infantile beliefs. . . . Even in our day Communistic chimeras have had the 
power to ruin a gigantic empire and threaten other countries.' 

He points out virtually that civilisation in scientific and constitutional 
directions has quite outstripped moral civilisation, which has made little 
or no real progress : that at bottom our ancestral savage instincts are the 
real power, certainly in emergencies like the late war, and he says : — 

' We do not know what influence reason will one day exercise on the 
march of history. If its only influence is to provide these emotional and 
mystical impulses, which still threaten the world, with more and more 
power of destruction, our civilisation is doomed to share the fall of the great 
Asiatic empires, whose power did not save them from destruction and 
whose last traces are now covered with sand.' 

But he ends on a more cheerful note. He says : — 

' The Future is indeed within us and is woven by ourselves. "Not being 
fixed, like the Past, it can be transformed by our own efforts.' 

And may I also quote from an address given to Members of Parliament 
by Lieut. -Colonel (now Sir James) Lithgow. He closed his remarks on the 
causes of the present serious depression in our industry, and begged that 
the House might assist in the cure, with the following remarks : — 

' Protected industries are living on the unprotected, but raise their 
costs in doing so. . . . 

' The standard of living possible in this country depends on its power 
1 i 1 export at competitive costs. . . . 

' We shipbuilders and marine engineers cannot save ourselves from 
within our industry. . . . 

' Unless the whole public conscience is awakened to the broader and 
cumulative handicaps under which we, in common with all British export- 
in u' industries, are working to-day, there can be no hope of restoring the 
shipbuilding industry to its old position of supremacy.' 

May such intelligence and wisdom be granted to the present generation 
that it may be even more successful in evolving a satisfactory social 
system than the past generations have undoubtedly been successful in 
evolving highly developed means of transport, so that the benefits of the 
valuable work done in the past may not be lost to future generations. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



PRACTICAL ENGINEERING IN 

ANCIENT ROME. 

ADDRESS BY 

THOMAS ASHBY, D.Litt., F.S.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The subject of the present paper might better have been stated as 
' Practical Engineering in Ancient Italy.' For it is not my intention, on 
the one hand, to confine myself to the city of Rome itself, or even to its 
immediate environs ; nor, on the other hand, shall I attempt to overstep 
the limits of time at my disposal nor the bounds of my own personal 
experience, and attempt to give you a general survey of the manifesta- 
tions of the Roman genius throughout the Roman world in its triumph 
over obstacles of a material nature. And, when I use the word genius, it 
is certainly more than a coincidence that the Italian terms for the 
engineering branch of the Italian Army — our Royal Engineers — or for the 
body of civil engineers are respectively ' genio militare ' and ' genio 
civile.' In fact, I remember many years ago how an eminent soldier and 
archaeologist, General Borgatti, to whom we owe the restoration of the 
Mausoleum of Hadrian — Castel S. Angelo — to its pristine form, was 
billed to lecture on what he had accomplished, and Maggiore nel Genio — 
his then rank — was translated, for the benefit of the British tourist, as 
' Genius Major,' instead of ' Major, R.E.' But this is by the way. 

Nor have I time to dwell as much as I might wish upon the importance 
of all these wonderful works in the development of the Roman sway over 
the ancient world. Whatever be our views on Roman Art — and, personally, 
I am one of its admirers — we shall not deny to the Romans achievements 
of supreme importance in the material sphere, for which both their con- 
temporaries and posterity must be everlastingly grateful to them. 

What appealed most of all to those who saw Rome in her prime were 
the aqueducts, the roads, and the drainage system. 

In regard to the last, Rome is described as a city suspended above a 
network of navigable sewers ; and Agrippa, when he was aedile, in 33 B.C., 
is said to have traversed them in a boat and emerged at the Tiber. Pliny 
the younger, more than a century later, expressed his admiration of the 
way in which, after 700 years, they offered a firm resistance to the rush 
of storm-water which passed through them, to the fall of buildings above 
them, and to earthquakes ; and he calls them opus omnium dictu maximum ; 
and nearly 400 years later, Cassiodorus, in the reign of Theodoric, wrote 
of Rome : ' What city can rival thy lofty buildings, when even thy 
lowest depths are beyond compare ? ' And even so, the system was not 
as perfect as it might have been. 

Livy tells us that, as originally constructed, the drains ran under land 
which belonged to 'the State, but that in the rebuilding of Rome, after 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 135 

its sack and destruction by the Gauls in 390 B.C., houses were built pell- 
mell, without the lines of the streets being properly drawn, so that the 
old drains passed under private buildings, and the city had all the 
appearances of hasty construction. 

All this grew out of very small beginnings. The Palatine, the nucleus 
of the City of Rome upon the Seven Hills, had great natural advantages of 
position ; it was an almost flat-topped hill, with two distinct summits and 
a slight depression between them, protected by lofty cliffs, far more 
formidable than they seem at present, and almost entirely surrounded by 
two marshy valleys traversed by winding streams. Its neighbourhood to 
the Tiber enabled it to command the crossing, which, no doubt, existed 
in some form long before the foundation of Rome, probably just below 
the island, where the Pons Sublicius stood later. This crossing was of 
great importance, for it was the only permanent one over the whole lower 
course of the river. 

Even in the palmiest days of Rome there were no bridges over the 
Tiber below the city, and those that there are now are all quite modern ; 
while if we look upstream we find that above the city the only bridge for 
forty miles was that by which the Via Flaminia recrossed the river into 
Umbria just below Otricoli — and of that the last traces were obliterated 
by a flood some twenty years ago, which led to a complete change of 
course of the river. The traffic between the two banks was probably 
carried on by ferries, as at present. 

Tradition ascribes the building of the Cloaca Maxima to a powerful 
race of foreign kings, the Tarquins, from the city of Tarquinii in Southern 
Etruria. A noticeable feature in Etruscan cities was the attention paid 
to drainage. Not only are rock-cut sewers a feature of Etruscan sites, but 
the system of tunnels for draining the territory to the north of Veii is 
one of the most remarkable in existence and well deserves study. The 
Tarquins are said to have ruled over Rome in the sixth century B.C., and 
this chronological statement is supported in a remarkable way by the 
discovery of tombs, the latest of which are dated down into the sixth 
century B.C., proving that the valley of the Forum was used as a burial- 
place until that time. It is not certain whether this cemetery belonged 
to the Palatine or the Septimontium ; but in any case burials must have 
ceased to take place here after the valley of the Forum was drained and 
had become the common market-place of the Latin-Sabine settlements on 
the Palatine and the Quirinal. 1 The valley of the Circus Maximus must 
have been drained at the same time, for tradition ascribes the beginnings 
of the circus and the assignment of definite places to the Senate and the 
knights (where they could erect wooden platforms twelve feet high from 
which to view the games) to the Tarquins. It is, indeed, only reasonable 
to suppose that, after the separate communities had been knit into one, 
these two valleys no longer served as the defences of one hill only, but 
became sites of supreme importance for the development of the life of 
the whole ; and the first wall which enclosed the enlarged city, Rome of 
the Seven Hills, is ascribed by tradition to Servius Tullius, the immediate 
predecessor of Tarquinius Priscus, and from its remains may with fair 
certainty be assigned to the sixth century b.c We may suppose, if we 
will, that the Aventine was at first left out of the enceinte, and the wail 

1 Hiilsen, Roman Forum, 4, 216. 



136 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

carried along the south side of the Palatine. This gives a far better 
defensive line, avoids the inclusion (which does not seem reasonable) of 
the place reserved for games and festivals within the area which had to 
be protected by a wall, and explains the non-inclusion of the Aventine 
within the pomoerium until the time of Claudius. 

Of the Cloaca Maxima little or nothing remains that belongs to the 
original structure ; and indeed in the time of Plautus it was called canalis, 2 
and may have still been open at any rate for part of its course : for the 
whole this seems an almost impossibly insanitary supposition. 

We have, too, a number of branch drains which must have eventually 
led into it from the slopes of the Capitol — though conditions have been 
so altered that some of them now give into the open. I think they may 
be claimed as dating from the sixth or fifth century B.C., and as being 
thus by over a century the earliest Roman arches in existence. 

But in this connection I would like to remind you that here we are 
dealing with a soft volcanic stone — the kind of tufa known as cappellaccio. 
When Appius Claudius built the Via Appia in 312 B.C., and his engineers 
had to build an embankment wall to carry the road along a hillside, we 
may see that, where they had to deal with the hard local limestone, they 
did not waste labour either in making a curved arch for the culvert, 
contenting themselves with inclining the sides gradually and then putting 
a lintel over, or in making the courses of the embankment wall horizontal. 

A century ago both these peculiarities were taken to betoken a high 
antiquity, and some of our own countrymen, more especially Gell and 
Dodwell, searched out all the remains of Cyclopean construction they 
could find in Central and Southern Italy, and carefully drew and noted 
them. But the same adaptation of means to ends may be seen in modern 
railway embankments in Switzerland, and, as Choisy rightly remarked, 
is rather a geological fact than anything else. 

The course of the Cloaca Maxima, as shown on the map, 3 resembles, 
as Lanciani remarks, rather that of an Alpine torrent than of a carefully 
constructed drain ; and its origin, from the canalisation of a stream 
meandering at the bottom of a flat valley, as the Tiber does at present, 
is sufficiently clear : though some of its windings are due to the erection 
of buildings under the Empire, e.g. the temple of Minerva in the Forum 
of Nerva. The mouth of the Cloaca, with its three concentric arches of 
volcanic tufa, which may be assigned to 100 B.C. or a little before, 4 was 
much more picturesque before the construction of the modern embank- 
ment. 

It is now a mere dummy, as the Cloaca itself, which still performs its 
functions, has been conducted into the new main sewer (the Collettore, as 
it is called) which runs just inside the embankment. 

There is therefore no possibility of a repetition of the flooding of the 
Forum, as described by Horace — 

Vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis 
Litore Etrusco violenter undis 
he deiectum momimenta regis 

Templaque Vestae. (Od. I. ii. 13.) — 

2 Cure. 476. 

3 Lanciani, Ruins and Excavations, p. 29, fig. 14. 

1 Tenney, Frank, Roman Buildings of the Reintblic, 102 n. 9, 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 137 

and as I saw it myself in the winter of 1902, when for a fortnight it lay- 
under a somewhat unsavoury mixture of river water and sewage. This 
did not happen even in the great flood of 1915, when the whole of the 
plain between the low hills near Ponte Galera — where the mouth of the 
Tiber was in days long ago — and the present mouth was flooded, and the 
old coastline, followed by the railway to Pisa, was once more lapped by 
the waves. 

The Cloaca Maxima is a drain of considerable size, having an average 
measurement of 14 ft. high by 11 ft. wide — we are told that a haycart 
could be driven through it — while the other two principal sewers of ancient 
Rome are rather smaller. One of them started near the ' nymphaeum ' 
of the gardens of Sallust, an interesting ruin which still exists in the 
centre of the modern Piazza Sallustio, ran in more or less a straight line 
down the Via S. Nicolo da Tolentino and the Via del Tritone to Monte 
Citorio ; there it turned at right angles, and ran due south under the 
Pantheon to the Tiber. 

A little to the east of the Teatro Argentina it was joined by a branch 
from the western slopes of the Quirinal, and either to the main stream 
or to its tributary belonged the name Petronia Amnis, its source being the 
Cati Fons. The other is the Cloaca of the Circus Maximus, which we have 
already mentioned ; it drained the valley between the Esquiline and the 
Caelian hills, and the marsh later occupied by Nero's lake and then by 
the Colosseum, and found its way into the Tiber only about fifty yards 
below the Cloaca Maxima. 

Both these drains were built, like the Cloaca Maxima, of large 
rectangular blocks of stone, with a vaulted roof of the same material ; 
and some of the minor drains were built in the same way, while others 
were covered with a flat block of stone, or with two slabs inclined to form 
a gable. This last shape, with the gable formed of large flat tiles, was that 
adopted in the brick-faced concrete sewers of imperial times, which vary 
in width from 2 to 4 ft. and in height from 6 to 9 ft. 

Notwithstanding their splendid construction, which still bids defiance 
to the lapse of time, Lanciani is undoubtedly right in maintaining that 
the Roman Cloacae have been overpraised. The modern sanitary engineer 
cannot approve of their use for carrying off sewage and rain-water together. 
Such contrivances as traps and sj^phons being unknown, the openings 
for the reception of the latter served to let out the effluvia from the former. 
Still more dangerous was the direct admission of sewage into the Tiber, 
which must have been odoriferous in the extreme when the water was 
low ; while in times of flood the drains were dammed back, as was the 
case even in 1902. 

No, Roman ideas of sanitation, though advanced for their day, were 
not always perfect ; their latrines were only regularly flushed when it 
rained, and their invariable juxtaposition with the kitchen in Pompeian 
houses shocks our modern ideas of hygiene, though it might not have 
troubled our great-great-grandfathers so much as ourselves. Was there 
not a hot controversy in the sixteenth century as to whether the Tiber 
water was not better suited to the pontifical digestion than the Aqua 
Virgo, the modern Acqua di Trevi, perhaps the purest as it is certainly 
the most palatable drinking-water in the world ; and did not Clement VII 
and Paul III, two of the splendour-loving Popes of the Renaissance, Like 



138 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Tiber water with them on all their journeys (the former had it sent as 
far as Marseilles), which shows that they must have been proof against 
typhoid ? 5 

In the time of the Republic the drainage system was under the general 
control of the censors, who let out contracts for the necessary constructions 
or repairs in this as in other classes of public works. They also had charge 
of the river banks and channel, and in 54 b.c. they erected a series of 
boundary stones (cippi) along both banks to prevent encroachment by 
private persons. Under Augustus in 8 B.C. the consuls of the year erected 
another series of terminal stones, and Augustus himself a third in 7-6 B.C. 

Tiberius, after a great inundation of the Tiber in the second year of 
his reign (a.d. 15), instituted for the first time a special board of five 
curatores riparum et alvei Tiberis, who probably looked after the sewers 
as well ; though until the time of Trajan the charge of the sewerage does 
not actually appear in the formal title of the curator — for from the time of 
Vespasian onwards only one is mentioned, who was either the president of 
the board or a single official who had taken its place. The last inscriptions 
we have belong to the time of Diocletian. In the series of cippi which we 
owe to Augustus himself in 7-6 b.c. we find upon each stone, for the first 
time, the distances to the next one given, from the front, the back, the 
right or the left, as the case may be. We thus see that the boundary 
followed a zigzag line along the bank. The cippi have been found along 
both banks from the Pons Mulvius (the modern Ponte Molle) of the Via 
Flaminia, two miles above the city, down to a point opposite S. Paolo ; 
but recently two of those of the curatores of the time of Tiberius were 
found at Ostia, on the ancient right bank of the river, which has completely 
changed its course owing to the great flood of 1557, so that we must 
assume that their authority extended right down to the mouth of the river 
— how far up we cannot say. 

But besides the erection of boundary stones, a good deal was done in 
tne way of actual regulation of the river bank. There was no continuous 
embankment wall, as at present, but walls seem to have been built at the 
points where they were most needed. The modern engineers attempted 
to impose a uniform width of 100 metres on a river, the volume of which is 
liable to variations so great as that which the Tiber undergoes. This 
has led to the formation of sandbanks in places where the new bed, often 
double the width of the old, is too large for the ordinary state of the river ; 
while the attempt to force the river into a less tortuous course above the 
island, and the widening of the right branch of it from 48 to 75 metres led 
to the silting up of the left-hand branch, except in times of flood. As a 
result, the river was driven against the right-hand embankment, the 
foundations of which were not protected by aprons, and consequently 
a length of 125 yards of the wall collapsed into the river in the flood of 
December 1900. Measures have now been taken to diminish the amount 
of water passing through the right-hand channel and to keep the left- 
hand channel open, and have met with a certain measure of success. 

The Romans, at one point at any rate, at the Pons Aelius built by the 
Emperor Hadrian (the modern Ponte S. Angelo), were wise enough to 
provide three different widths of channel for different seasons of the year, 
in correspondence with which the bridge was provided with extra flood 

6 Modio, II Tevere, p. 8 v. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. ] 30 

arches. The bridge was brought to light in its entirety in 1892, and it was 
found that, as originally constructed, it had three arches for low water, 
corresponding with a channel 66| metres wide. Two more slightly smaller 
arches were available when the river was moderately full, with a channel 
97| metres wide. For great floods three smaller arches came into use, 
giving a total width of 135 metres to the stream. 6 It was these three 
smaller arches and the bridge-heads characteristically sloping up on each 
side that were brought to light in 1892 ; and it is much to be regretted 
that it was impossible to preserve this remarkably perfect specimen of a 
Roman bridge. 

The same may be said of the Pons Aemilius, though as it stood it was 
largely a work of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, having last been 
rebuilt after the flood of 1557 (after the flood of 1598, in which it lost three 
out of its six arches, no attempt was made to repair it); it might more 
fittingly have been restored instead of being reduced to a single arch left 
in midstream to tell the tale. 

Similarly, the Pons Cestius, which crosses the right-hand branch at 
the island, an ancient though much-restored structure of one large arch 
and two smaller flood arches, has been transformed into a modern bridge 
of three large arches in connection with the widening of the channel 
already mentioned. The Pons Fabricius, on the other hand, has been left 
untouched. It was built of solid stone in 62 B.C. by Lucius Fabricius, 
then curator viarum, and partly restored by the consuls of 21 b.c. (the 
inscription recording these repairs seems to relate only to the left-hand 
arch). With the exception of the brick fillings above the arches it is almost 
intact. It has two large arches with a flood arch in the pier between them, 
which would otherwise have been needlessly massive. There are also two 
small side arches, now concealed by the embankment walls. 

From the consideration of the bridges of the city of Rome we naturally 
pass to that of the roads ; and here, as in the case of the drainage system, 
we find that the nucleus of that great network of roads which spread all 
over the Roman world dates almost from the beginning of her history. 

It may be well to study briefly some of the main engineering works 
upon a few of the most important of these roads. I have already spoken 
at Toronto of the course of the main lines of the roads that traverse Italy, 
and of their historical significance — how from small beginnings, con- 
temporary with the first extensions of the sway of Rome over her 
immediate neighbours, these lines of communication were gradually 
extended as her power spread through Italy. The road was pushed into 
the heart of the conquered territory, where some strong fortress like 
Alba Fucens or Venusia (Horace's birthplace) was established, and 
garrisoned by a Latin colony. The colonists at the same time cultivated 
the territory around the town, receiving allotments of it as their own, and 
were thus at once soldiers and farmers. From these beginnings grew the 
wonderful network of roads which extended beyond Italy over the whole 
Roman Empire, and form a most important part of the heritage which 
that great empire left to posterity. 

I must, naturally, avoid repeating the paper that I read last year ; 
but I will call attention once more to some of the more interesting features 
upon two or three of the main roads. 

6 Lanciani, Ruins and Excavations, p. 13, fig. (i. 



1 40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Via Appia, the queen of roads, as Statius calls it, was built as far 
as Capua in 312 B.C., and later on prolonged to Venusia (291 B.C.), 
Tarentum, and Brundusium (244 B.C.). It runs in a practically straight 
line from Eome to the Alban Hills. There it finds its first serious obstacle 
in the small extinct volcanic crater below Aricia, where Horace spent the 
night hospitio modico, not in the high-lying town, but at the post station 
below ; and on the steep ascent from this post station it has, on the lower 
side of it, a massive embankment wall, about 200 yards in length. This, 
there is little doubt, is the Pons Ariciniis, of which Juvenal speaks as being 
infested by beggars — like many another steep hill. The road soon reaches 
its summit level at Genzano, and descends once more in a straight line 
along the south-eastern slopes of the Alban Hills, passing at one point of 
its course over a smaller embankment, almost unknown to archaeologists, 
and then, still perfectly straight, through the Pomptine Marshes. 

In Horace's day there were nineteen miles of canal, which were traversed 
by night, whether to gain time or because the road was out of repair is 
uncertain. A milestone of about 250 B.C., found in the middle of this 
stretch, shows that the canal was not in use from the first. Horace's 
description is too well known to be repeated here. In any case, Nerva 
and Trajan repaired this stretch, called from its length the Decennovium, 
and the ancient bridges on it are probably all their work. 

Thence we arrive at Terracina. Above the town is the mountain, 
crowned by a temple of Jupiter Anxur, behind which the old road ran, 
keeping high above the sea, and descending again several miles further on. 
Trajan is in all probability the author of the cutting at the foot of the 
isolated dolomitic mass of rock at the lowest extremity of the promontory, 
by which the road was enabled to pass round on the level. The height 
of the cutting is marked in splendid Roman numerals in swallow-tail 
tablets at frequent intervals. 

After the two roads have rejoined, there is a flat stretch for some 
miles, with a number of ancient culverts and bridges, still used by the 
modern road ; and then beyond Fondi the road enters the picturesque 
gorge of S. Andrea, where it is supported by massive embankment walls, 
well seen from the modern road, which has here abandoned the ancient 
line. 

On the descent, in the modern village of Itri, we see the ' Cyclopean ' 
wall to which I have already called attention, and shortly afterwards 
reach the Bay of Gaeta and Formiae, where Cicero had his villa. From 
this point onwards the road proceeded on the level, first along the coast 
as far as Sinuessa (Mondragone), and then across the Campanian plain as 
far as the Volturnus. Just before the fine bridge over this river, which 
lies in sight of the modern railway bridge, it joined up with the Via Latina 
Labicana (which the modern railway follows more or less), and crossed to 
Casilinum, the modern Capua. Shortly after the ancient Capua the road 
enters the mountains once more, and after passing through the famous 
defile of the Caudine Forks, we find three finely preserved ancient bridges, 
of which the modern road still makes use. They are probably assignable 
to the period of Trajan. 

We soon reach Beneventum, beyond which the course of the ancient 
Via Appia is so doubtful that there is no question of there being any 
remains of great interest. And we shall, therefore, do well to follow 



H.— ANTHROPOID h,V. ]|] 

instead the Via Traiana, which Trajan built as an alternative route to 
Brindisi, following an older mule-track of which Strabo speaks. It must 
have been completed in 109 B.C. and it reached the coast at Barium, the 
modern Bari, which, we may remember, lay on Horace's route — though 
he did not follow the Via Appia far beyond Beneventum, nor yet the later 
Via Traiana, but took a third route. 

The road passes through some difficult country with frequent ups and 
downs, and there are a number of bridges in concrete faced with fine 
brickwork, stonework being used sparingly, and then only at the base 
of the piers. These bridges are all 24 Roman feet wide, which is above 
the usual standard width (14 feet) of the Via Appia and other Roman 
highroads — though even they widened out somewhat at the bridges. 
From the summit, about 3,000 feet above sea-level, there is a long winding 
descent, the Buccola di Troia, to the city of Troia, the ancient Aecae, with 
its fine cathedral. Here we enter the regno, arida Dauni and the plain of 
Apulia. The road crossed two rivers, the Cervaro and the Carapelle, both 
of which have changed their course, and so left their bridges high and 
dry in the fields. They are, from the great width of the valleys and the 
character of the streams, which are wide and shallow — in fact, almost 
dry except in times of flood, when they carry a great quantity of water — 
structures of great length. The first is about 280 metres in length, about 
half of which is accounted for by the bridge proper, a structure with at 
least fourteen arches, the principal one having a span of about fifteen 
metres. The second is much longer, beginning with a causeway 200 or 
300 metres long ; then follows the bridge proper, some 200 metres long, 
with about ten arches ; and then follows a causeway about 250 metres 
long, with supporting buttresses on each side. 

We have mentioned the Via Latina as joining the Via Appia at the 
bridge over the Volturnus. Its straightness of line shows that it, like 
the Via Appia, was constructed as a military highway (the earlier tracks 
which these two roads have obliterated may one day be found by air- 
photography), and it may date from a slightly earlier period. It led in 
the first place to the depression between the inner and outer ring of the 
Alban volcano below Tusculum, and it passed through the rim of the 
larger crater by the Pass of Algidus, through a narrow cutting which is 
still clearly to be seen. After its descent from this pass it followed the 
valley of the Sacco, and there are no remarkable works of engineering 
along it until we come to a branch road between it and the Via Appia from 
Teanum to Minturnae by way of Suessa, the modern Sessa Aurunca. 
Here we find a remarkable bridge, now known as the Ponte Ronaco, with 
more than twenty arches, which are in two tiers in the centre. The 
pavement on the top is still preserved. The construction is in brick-faced 
concrete. 

We may turn now to the Via Flaminia, 7 the "great north road," of 
ancient Rome, built by Gaius Flaminius during his censorship in 220 B.C., 
to provide rapid means of communication between the capital and the 
citizen settlers with whom the newly conquered ager Gallicus in the Po 
valley was to be peopled, and to keep in touch with Ariminum both as a 
defence against Gallic inroads and as a starting-point for future conquests. 
Its great importance is shown by the fact that even under the late 
' See the article by Mr. R. A. L. Fell and myself in Journal of Roman Studies, xi. 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Republic (65 B.C.) it had a special curator (whereas the upkeep of the roads 
was normally part of the censor's duties, and the curatores of particular 
roads, of whom we have many inscriptions, seem to date only from 
Claudius). In 27 B.C.Augustus himself took charge of its restoration. It was, 
from this time on, evidently well kept up and much frequented. Vespasian 
built the tunnel in the Furlo Pass ; Trajan and Hadrian as well as other 
emperors undertook other repairs ; and as a result we find that at about 
this time some travellers from Gades (Cadiz) in the south of Spain to 
the baths of Vicarello (perhaps the ancient Aquae Apollinares), on the 
north side of the Lake of Bracciano, preferred to come b)' land, and further 
preferred the Via Aemilia and the Via Flaminia to the difficult Riviera 
coast route and the unhealthy Tuscan shore, or to the Apennine crossing 
between Bologna and Florence. These travellers have left a record of 
their journey in the shape of four silver cups found at these baths, with 
the itinerary from Cadiz to Rome and the names and distances of the 
post-stations inscribed upon them. 

The Via Flaminia, unlike the two roads of which we have spoken, is 
not able to maintain its straightness of line for very long after leaving the 
Tiber valley. It comes into some heavy country among the hills on the 
right bank, and is in some places constrained to wind about very con- 
siderably, so as to follow the watershed between deep ravines. It was 
not possible, as on the Via Cassia, which, though it runs only a few miles 
further west, traverses quite different (volcanic) country, to meet the 
difficulties by the use of deep cuttings — on the Cassia there is one as much 
as sixty feet deep in the descent to the crater of Baccano. But the first 
really serious obstacle by which it is confronted is the valley of the river 
Treia, which is subject to violent floods, one of which, only four years ago, 
carried away the modern bridge just below Civita Castellana. The valley 
is about 1,300 yards wide, and the drop in level to the bottom is about 
250 feet on the south, while the ascent on the north is some 150 feet. 
The difficulties were considerable, but have been very well dealt with : 
and the causeways and bridge by which the Roman engineers took the 
road across the valley form a splendid monument of their skill. 

On the south side of the valley the road runs along the slope, being 
supported on the outer side by an embankment wall, the blocks of which 
have for the most part been removed. The road-bed is 0"90 m. thick, 
including the selce pavement blocks, and consists of large lumps of stone 
and earth. The width of the embankment is 8"20 m. and of the road 
itself 5'20 m. Shortly after the second turn the embankment is traversed 
by a culvert. The river has changed its course since Roman times, and 
has therefore carried away the greater part of the bridge, which must 
have been of considerable size. All that remains on the left bank is a 
pier with part of one arch, which I should be inclined to consider as 
a mediaeval restoration. After crossing a modern road we come to the 
Muro del Peccato, an inclined causeway nearly 600 feet in length, sup- 
ported by walls of opus quadratum of tufa on each side. There are nineteen 
courses at the highest point, each - 59 m. in height (thus giving a total 
height of 1L20 m.), composed of alternating headers (0'55 m. wide) and 
stretchers (1*90 m. wide). 

The courses are inclined in order to follow the upward slope, and the 
joints are not always vertical. A little mortar is used, but is not universal. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 143 

The width at the top is 10.50 m., and the space between the two walls is 
filled with pieces of tufa and earth. At one point there was an arched 
conduit through the embankment. 

At the upper end there is a sudden break, due no doubt to some con- 
vulsion of nature : the name of the embankment wall (Muro del Peccato, 
'the wall of sin') probably refers to the fact that the builder was supposed 
to have sold his soul to the devil, or to some particular iniquity which was 
punished by the destruction of the roadway, Where the causeway 
should have reached the rock, we see, at a higher level, the cutting of a 
narrower Etruscan road descending from the east, which was cut across 
when the Via Flaminia was constructed. 

The latter then turned west and ran along a ledge of rock, on the north 
side of which is a group of rock-cut tombs with arched niches for bodies, 
the largest of which has its roof supported by two pillars of natural rock. 
The road then bears north-west, and here a mediaeval castle was built on 
the brow of the cliff to guard the passage. To the north of it is a group 
of quarries, in one of which is a rock-cut dwelling in two storeys. 

Despite the fact that it is visible from the main line to Florence (if one 
knows where to look), I must confess that my knowledge of the Muro del 
Peccato was derived from Pasqui's notes. 

After crossing the plateau to the north, the Via Flaminia descends to 
the valley of the Tiber, which is followed by the railway to Florence : and 
here we may see its parapets still preserved beside a modern road which 
has recently been constructed along its line. A few miles further on, 
below Otricoli, it crossed the Tiber, as we have already seen, and entered 
Umbria, traversing a hilly district as far as Narni, perched on a lofty cliff 
above the river. Ascending through the town, it reached the famous 
Bridge of Augustus, one of the wonders of Italy even in the sixth century 
after Christ, as Procopius tells us. Of the four arches by which it crossed 
the stream only one is now preserved. 

Two smaller bridges a little to the north, remarkably well preserved 
but less known, may be compared with the three bridges of the Via Appia 
a little before reaching Benevento. One of them, the Ponte Cardaro, 
formed the subject of one of Richard Wilson's pictures, once in the Orrock 
collection, now in America. 

Many other ancient bridges are preserved along the course of the road, 
but none can vie with what we have seen ; and the only other important 
work of which we shall speak is the tunnel by which the passage of the 
road through the Furlo Pass is facilitated. The inscription recording its 
construction by Vespasian may still be seen above the entrance. 

But such fine bridges were not confined to main roads ; to take only one 
example, the city of Asculum, the modern Ascoli Piceno, besides its town 
walls and one of its gates, preserves two remarkable and little-known 
Roman bridges, the Ponte Cecco and the Ponte Cappuccini, which served 
the needs of purely local traffic. Their preservation is extraordinarily 
good, and so is the solidity, and at the same time the grace, of their 
construction. 

The aqueducts of ancient Rome are among its most celebrated 
monuments ; but, conspicuous as are their remains within the city and 
in its immediate neighbourhood, less is known of them at a greater distance 
than might have been expected. I have myself been engaged in the 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

study of them for over twenty-five years, and hope shortly to be able to 
complete the work with which I have been occupied for so long. 

For the present purpose I shall confine my attention almost entirely 
to the four aqueducts which drew their supplies from the upper valley 
of the Anio, the Anio Vetus (272-269 B.C.), Marcia (144-140 B.C.), Claudia, 
and Anio Novus (both built by Caligula and Claudius, a.d. 38-52) — two 
of them, as their name implies, taking their water from the river itself ; 
while the other two made use of excellent and very abundant springs 
which are for the most part conveyed to Rome by the modern Acqua 
Marcia, though a few of them still gush forth freely in pools which have 
a beautiful bluish tint (one of the springs was, indeed, known to the 
Romans as Caeruleus). These springs, indeed, as has been ascertained 
by the engineers of the modern aqueduct, come from holes in the roof of 
the original Roman headings. They rise under the rocks at the edge of 
the floor of the Anio valley, only a little way above the river-level, and 
come probably from huge reservoirs in the interior of the massif of Monte 
Autore, being supplied by percolation from a great basin about 1,500 
metres above sea-level, which is snow-clad for the greater part of the 
year. As the Roman headings lie some seven or eight metres below the 
present level of the valley, which has been much raised by floods, it 
seems useless to try to identify, as previous authors have done, the 
individual springs of which the Romans made use. 

We have seen that the Anio Vetus goes back to the early part of the 
third century B.C., and the Marcia to the middle of the second century B.C., 
but comparatively little of the original construction of either is left to us. 
Both were restored by Augustus— >wos aquarum omnium refecit, says the 
inscription on the arch by which the Marcia, Tepula, and Iulia crossed the 
Via Tiburtina (later part of the Porta Tiburtina and now the Porta S. 
Lorenzo) ; to him belong all the cippi of the aqueducts which were in 
existence in his day, and no one found it necessary to renew them ; and 
he brought into use new springs for the Aqua Marcia which doubled its 
volume. 

It is curious that the next restoration works of which we have 
epigraphic evidence, which were carried out by Vespasian in a.d. 71, 
belong, not' to the two older aqueducts, but to the Aqua Claudia, which 
had at that date been interrupted for nine years, so that Claudius' 
original work had lasted for ten years only ; and even this was not enough, 
for Titus had to restore it again ten years later, in a.d. 81, and speaks of 
it in what would appear exaggerated language as having collapsed owing 
to its age {a sola vetustate dilapsae) along the whole of its course. By 
this time, however, the Aqua Marcia had already fallen into disrepair, and 
was patched up in a.d. 79 by Titus. We have no direct evidence (except 
from the study of the remains themselves, which shows that a good deal 
of work was done by the emperors of the second century, especially 
Hadrian) of other restorations until we come to the time of Caracalla, 
who restored the Aqua Marcia in 212-213, and still further increased its 
volume by adding a new spring ; 8 but we shall see that they were very 
extensive, and that they continued even after this date. 

It is more difficult to know how to explain their necessity. The 

8 The history of all these repairs is derived from the inscriptions on the Porta 
S. Lorenzo and Porta Maggiore (C.I.L. vi. 124.4-1240, 1256-1258). 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 15 

possible reasons are three. Claudius may quite well have been cheated 
by his freedmen ; secondly, it was certainly risky to place two or three 
channels upon arches that were only built to carry one ; and thirdly, the 
channels seem frequently to have been flooded by the Anio, if we are to 
judge by the foul deposit which is frequently found in the channels of 
the Aqua Marcia and the Aqua Claudia, instead of the crystalline deposit 
which is proper to them. 

It will be convenient to follow the course of all the four aqueducts 
together, observing their principal remains as they, occur. Before doing 
so I should mention two things by which my task has been greatly 
facilitated. One was the careful scientific levelling of all the remains of 
these four aqueducts that could be found, which was carried out in 1915 
by the late Professor Vincenzo Reina and his assistants, Ingegneri 
Corbellini and Ducci. 9 This, among other advantages, rendered it far 
easier to assign the ruins correctly (where the course of two or more 
aqueducts was almost identical) than it had hitherto been. The second 
was the visit which I paid to the remains of the aqueducts in the spring 
of the present year in company with Dr. Esther van Deman (whose 
researches on the chronology of the various types of construction employed 
in the aqueducts and their frequent restorations are of the greatest import- 
ance and have been drawn upon in what follows) and Mr. G. R. Swain, 
Photographer of the Near East Expedition of the University of Michigan, 
to whom I am indebted for a most valuable series of fine photographs. Nor 
can any student of the Roman aqueducts forget Professor Lanciani's pioneer 
work in 1880 : and my own researches were begun under his guidance. 

The Anio Novus originally drew its water from the river four miles 
above the springs of the Aqua Claudia, at the forty-second mile of the 
Via Sublacensis ; but as the water was apt to become turbid, Trajan 
carried out a project of Nerva, according to which the three lakes used by 
Nero for the adornment of his villa above Subiaco were used as filtering 
tanks. This increased its length considerably, the new intake being some 
six or seven miles further up. Considerable remains of the dam still 
exist on the way up to the far-famed monasteries ; but the centre of it 
collapsed in a flood in 1305 — as the story goes, partly owing to the malice or 
imprudence of some of the monks who began to tamper with it. Otherwise 
there are no remains of any particular interest until we reach the gorge of 
S. Cosimato, some fifteen miles further down. It lies a couple of miles 
above Vicovaro, where the road from the valley of the Digentia and Horace's 
Sabine farm joins the main road down the Anio valley, the ancient Via 
Valeria. 

Here the Anio Novus is on the left bank of the Anio and the Aqua 
Marcia and Aqua Claudia are on the right bank, as they have been all the 
way from their respective beginnings. At the beginning of the gorge 
the Claudia is vertically above the Marcia, and there is a shaft by which 
water could be run from it into the lower channel in case of need. 

All through the gorge the two channels may be followed one above 
the other, cut in the rock, which is here somewhat rotten, so that it has 
more than once been necessary to make a new channel further in and 
abandon the outer one. 

9 See Livellazione degli aniichi acquedotti Romani in Memorie delta societd italiana 
delle scienze delta dei XL, serie 3. vol. xx. (1917). 

1925 L 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The gorge has, alas, lost much of its picturesque character owing to 
the construction of a large reservoir for the channel which supplies the 
electric-power works at Castel Madama, some three miles further down. 
At the lower end of it the Aqua Claudia divides into two branches, the 
slits for the sluices being still clearly visible at the point of junction. The 
original line kept along the left bank until it reached Vicovaro, where it 
crossed the Anio by a bridge which was repaired by Hadrian, and is still 
in use as a road-bridge ; but at a later period, probably that of Hadrian 
also, a branch was constructed. The channel first descended by a slope 
of 1 in 4'6, or 217 - 4 per 1,000, and then crossed the Anio by a bridge, of 
which scanty remains are preserved. The Marcia crossed the river a little 
further down, by a bridge of which hardly anything remains, and that 
little belongs to the Imperial period. 

The intake of the Anio Vetus was situated, not above or in the gorge 
of S. Cosirnato, as was hitherto believed, but 35-50 metres above the 
bridge at Vicovaro, where we saw and levelled in 1915 the crown of the 
concrete arch of the channel. In 1925 nothing was to be seen ; but there 
are remains of the channel, built in volcanic tufa, and belonging quite 
possibly to the original construction, on both banks of a small tributary 
on the left of the Anio not very far down. 

From Vicovaro onwards, then, all the four aqueducts remain on the 
left bank of the Anio. The deep valleys of some of its tributary streams 
create considerable difficulties for the aqueducts, and great bridges were 
required to cross them. Such is the aqueduct, nearly 200 metres long, 
by which the Aqua Claudia crosses the valley of the Fosso Maiuro. 

It was originally built partly in concrete faced with opus reticulatum 
and partly in ashlar masonry, resting on concrete foundations. The whole 
of the central portion of the bridge was strengthened at a later period. 
The brick facing of the reinforcing walls is fine work of the period of 
Septimius Severus. It is split by the roots of trees in several places, and, 
like other remains of the aqueducts, requires attention if it is not to 
collapse. The Anio Novus ran rather higher up, and avoided the 
difficulties into which the Aqua Claudia rather unnecessarily came, so that 
its channel is almost entirely underground, while the Marcia has a smaller 
bridge, of the time of Hadrian, lower down. Another example, also 
belonging to the Aqua Claudia, is the bridge over the next lateral valley, 
the Fosso della Noce ; the greater part of it is of homogeneous con- 
struction, attributable to Septimius Severus, and is therefore a restoration. 
The central portion has collapsed, while on the further bank are traces 
of constructions and reinforcements of earlier periods. 

Two miles further down, the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus leave 
the river valley, and reappear in a small valley leading southward to the 
Valle d' Empiglione, which is traversed by the road from Tivoli to Ciciliano 
and Genazzano. In this valley we find only one channel (where we 
should expect to find two), of rough concrete, belonging to the original 
construction, and measuring 120 metre wide and 2'60 or 2"70 metres 
in height — characteristic dimensions of the channel of the Anio Novus 
when running alone. It runs along the side of the valley, so that only 
one external wall is exposed, and this has later facing. The same 
difficulty presents itself when we reach the main Valle d' Empiglione, 
for whereas previous observers have supposed that the two aqueducts 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 147 

which are here visible can be assigned respectively to the Aqua Claudia 
and the Anio Novus, the line going south belonging to the construction 
of the tunnel under the Mons Aeflanus by Paquedius Festus in a.d. 88, 
mentioned in an inscription, 10 careful investigation shows that they 
branch off from one another at the north edge of the valley, and that the 
south branch falls slightly more rapidly than the other. 

The south branch is undoubtedly still attributable to Paquedius 
Festus, and the western to the main aqueduct ; but the problem of the 
existence of one specus only (which confronts us again at Ponte degli 
Arci, though not after we have passed Tivoli) remains at present 
insoluble. 

The level of the bottom of the specus, at the beginning of the existing 
arches going southward (the northern extremity of the aqueduct near 
the road has disappeared), is 248\57, and at the end of the bridge it has 
fallen to 218 - 17, or 40 cm. in 349 m., which represents a fall of 1 in 872 - 5, 
or 145 per 1,000. On the western branch the levels are 24991 at the 
beginning of the bridge, and 249"83 at the end, or 8 cm. in 156 m., i.e. 1 in 
1,950, or - 51 per 1,000. Both of these falls are below the average fall in 
the long stretch of arches between Capannelle (where the aqueducts emerge 
from their long underground course) and Rome, which varies from 3-22 
to 0-96 per 1,000. The general average is 2 per 1,000, but there is much 
variation. 11 

The brickwork of the western branch, which is singularly well preserved, 
and shows no traces either of any earlier construction (except for a few 
loose opus reticulatum cubes of the original period) or of later restoration, 
is of the type which must be attributed to a period considerably later 
than Septimius Severus. 

The bridge across the main valley, on the other hand, has a con- 
siderable amount of the original opus quadratum preserved, concrete 
faced with opus reticulatum with stone quoins being used at the south 
end, as it probably was at the north. The whole of the central part is 
encased in reinforcements of concrete in which three different periods may 
be traced. At the extreme south end nothing is visible but post-Severan 
brickwork. 

• In the next valley to the south is the only instance known to me of 
the existence of an alternative channel on an aqueduct bridge. Both 
specus appear to have been maintained to the last and there is no sign of 
either having been put out of use. 

The original structure was the straight (western) channel, in ashlar 
masonry of volcanic tufa, quarried on the spot, with the bridge-heads in 
concrete faced with opus reticulatum, which was perhaps the material of 
the channel. The whole structure was then encased in concrete, and the 
channel also restored. The brickwork is good. 

The alternative specus, on the other hand, is faced with greatly inferior 
brickwork, of a later period. 

The channels are of the usual width, 1 - 14 and P17 m., respectively, 
but of exceptional height, the main specus being 2*94 high, and the branch 
no less than 3 - 34 m. at the point of departure. There is no trace of 
deposit now in either channel, and it may be that the alternative channel 

10 O.I.L. xiv. 3530, rivom aquae Claudiae sub monte Aefiano consummavit. 

11 Livellazione, 75 sqq. 

L2 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

was provided in order to allow of cleaning before the beginning of the 
long tunnel, in which it would naturally have been exceptionally difficult. 
The tunnel must be about 1\ kilometres long, and the fall is 5'90 m. to 
the tank where the branch rejoins the main aqueduct, or 1 in 381, or 
2-62 per 1,000. 

We must now return to the main line, which has a fine bridge, the 
so-called Ponte degli Arci, over a tributary of the Anio. The original 
bridge was a massive structure in opus quadratum, most of which has 
disappeared, though the impressions of the blocks are visible on the pier 
of the great brick arch on the south-west bank, and some of the masonry 
itself in the base of the last pier on the north-east bank. The brickwork 
with which the concrete of the greater part of the bridge is faced is, once 
more, Severan in character. When the aqueducts emerge on the hillside 
above Tivoli we find the four specus distinct from one another once more. 

There is a very interesting point where from a reservoir of the Anio 
Novus a branch channel runs off, falling sharply (about 1 in 10), and sup- 
plying when required, by means of vertical shafts, the channels of the 
three lower aqueducts. 

After passing the point of junction of the tunnel built by Paquedius 
Festus, the next feature of interest is the fine bridge known as the Ponte 
S. Antonio, which served to carry the Anio Novus across a deep and 
narrow valley. We may note here a right-angled turn, which often occurs, 
to break the speed of the water immediately before reaching the bridge. 
The channel is surprisingly narrow, being only 80 centimetres wide and 
about 3-12 metres high. The bridge was originally a massive structure 
in ashlar masonry of volcanic tufa, and the fine central arch, 32-30 metres 
in height and 10'40 in span, is still visible on the west side. The width was 
originally only 2-60 metres and the total length is about 120 metres. 
The channel was probably in concrete faced with opus reticulatum, at any 
rate at the ends of the bridge, where it is still visible. The whole structure 
was enclosed, in post-Severan times, with brick-faced concrete, with 
smaller arched openings. In the centre there were four of these, one 
above the other, flanked by huge buttresses. Reinforcements of concrete 
faced with pieces of aqueduct deposit from the channel were added still 
later. • 

In the next valley, that of the Mola di S. Gregorio, there is a long 
bridge of the Anio Vetus, which, however, is a construction of the time 
of Hadrian, itself restored later — the change of period occurs in the arch 
over the stream. The original channel ran underground up the north 
bank of the valley until it could pass under the stream, and then returned 
on the south bank, where its channel may still be seen. It is, after all, 
unlikely that in 270 B.C. the Romans would have constructed an aqueduct 
above-ground which could so easily have been cut by an enemy, and 
Augustus followed the older line in his reconstruction. The bridge has a 
rapid descent of 2-92 in 25-30 metres, or 1 in 8-66, or 116-5 per 1,000, 
at the end (the only case known to me at the end of a bridge) into the 
newer channel, which is some six metres higher tnan the older channel, 
with which it seems to have no communication. It continues to run for 
some way along the valley before it turns at right angles to tunnel through 
the ridge separating it from the next one, that of Ponte Lupo, with which 
we shall presently deal. One of the bricks in the cornice of this descent 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 149 

bore a fragment of a stamp of about a.d. 120 12 . The bridge had a total 
length of about 165 metres (with a fall of 106 in the main portion of 
136 metres, or 1 in 129, or 7 - 75 per 1,000), and a maximum height of 
2450 ; it has two tiers of arches for the most part, though the last seven 
on the left bank originally had only one. 

A little further up the valley is the Ponte S. Pietro, belonging to the 
Aqua Marcia. The original arch over the stream in opus quadratum of 
porous travertine, with a span of 15*50 metres, and the lateral arches, 
which were probably of similar material, are completely hidden by the 
later reconstructions. The bridge was first reinforced with concrete faced 
with opus reticulatum and brick ; then the whole structure was masked 
by very fine brickwork with buttresses, of the time of Septimius Severus, 
smaller brick arches taking the place of the larger ones ; that over the 
stream remained of necessity fairly wide, having a span of 1P20 metres ; 
but those of the lateral openings were quite narrow. A peculiarity is the 
disproportionate height of the portion of the bridge above the brick 
arches, due to the diminution in the height of the openings produced by 
these changes ; and in order to avoid a monotonous effect, pilasters were 
introduced. The whole south-east end of the bridge was reconstructed 
at a still later date, perhaps under Diocletian ; a straight vertical joint 
and a change in the character of the facing show the break. 

Higher up the same valley are the much-ruined Ponti delle Forme 
Rotte (broken aqueducts), which were the highest in the whole course of 
the aqueducts ; the top of that of the Anio Novus was at least 42 metres 
above the bed of the stream, while that of the Aqua Claudia (which is 
upstream of it) is a good deal lower, the difference between the level of 
the bottom of the two channels being no less than 1093 metres, which is 
a good deal more than usual. Both bridges have been reconstructed, 
that of the Anio Novus in the time of Hadrian 13 and that of the Claudia 
by Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, 14 as the brick stamps show, and there is 
no trace of any later work in them. They have collapsed completely, 
owing to the giving way of the cliffs on the right bank of the stream, on 
which no remains exist. 

We now arrive at the valley of the Acqua Nera, which is crossed by the 
Ponte Lupo, the best-known and the largest of the aqueduct bridges in 
this district. 

It has hitherto been believed — and Mr. Newton and I still held that 
view when the drawings were made — that it carried all the four aqueducts. 
Accurate levelling has shown that this is not the case, and that the Anio 
Novus and Claudia both pass under the floor of the valley considerably 
higher up. This, indeed, gives them a much better line than the devious 
course which they would have taken supposing they had passed over 
Ponte Lupo. 

The upper channel is, therefore, that of the Aqua Marcia ; the fall from 
Ponte S. Pietro is 186 - 79-182'27, or 452 metres in about a kilometre, 
or perhaps more ; for the specus, as usual, runs along the side of both 
valleys for some way both before and after the tunnel through the ridge. 
But there is a problem in regard to the Anio Vetus. At the last shaft of 

12 C.I.L. xv. 1345-8. 

13 C.I.L.xv. 1019, a. 7. 

14 C.l.L. xv. 223a, 10G5, 2309. 



150 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the earlier channel in the Valle della Mola di S. Gregorio the intrados is 
168-86 metres above sea-level, while at the last shaft of the newer channel, 
after the bridge which Hadrian built, the intrados is about 172 metres 
above sea-level ; 15 the floor of the specus would be about 2'80 metres lower 
in each case. The level of the water of the Fosso dell' Acqua Nera is 155-19, 
and the bottom of the specus at the Ponte Taulella is 155-61. The distance 
between the last two points in a straight line would be not much over 
two kilometres ; but along the line of the aqueduct it should be 21,120 
Roman feet, or more than 7 kilometres according to the cippi. 16 

It is thus quite impossible that the Anio Vetus should not have been 
above-ground at the Acqua Nera, unless it was carried under it by a 
syphon. There is, about 17 metres below Ponte Lupo, on the right bank 
of the stream, a massive concrete buttress, faced with opus reticulatum, 
probably belonging to the time of Augustus, and containing a shaft, 
which, though blocked up, certainly seems as if it went down at least as 
far as the level of the stream, and might very well reach down to a channel 
passing under it. 

There is no inherent impossibility in the use of a syphon under these 
circumstances. That the Romans were familiar with the principle is well 
known, 17 and another example has recently been discovered near Avezzano, 
where it is cut in the limestone rock. 

The question why syphons were not made use of to take the aqueducts 
in a straight line (like the modern Aqua Marcia) across the Campagna 
from Tivoli to Rome (in which they would have come to intermediate 
levels considerably lower than that which they reach at Porta Maggiore), 
in order to avoid the long detour which we are now following, has been well 
answered by M. Germain de Montauzan in his book on the four Roman 
aqueducts of Lyon, 18 in which no less than ten syphons have been observed. 
The Romans did not trust their concrete and cement for making syphons, 
though they might have done so. They were unable to make a large metal 
pipe that would stand pressure ; and at Lyon the contents of a channel 
0'58 by 1*75 metre are transferred to nine or ten lead pipes with a bore of 
- 20 when the syphon is reached. We have only to calculate the enormous 
quantities of lead that would have been required to take the water from 
four channels, the largest of which measured nearly 120 metre wide and 
3 metres high, and to remember that small-bore pipes would have been 
choked almost at once by the heavy calcareous deposit, to realise how im- 
possible it would have been to adopt this method here. On the other hand, 
all the building material required was quite easy to obtain on the spot or not 
far off. But there is no objection to its use in a rock-cut channel for a short 

15 Livellazione, p. 74. 

16 I saw No. 733a, some 150 metres downstream from Ponte Lupo; while No. 645 
is still in situ some 500 m. before Ponte Taulella, and No. 626 was seen lying by the 
path a little beyond it though not in situ, the intervals being 240 feet. The windings 
of the Anio Vetus must have been very considerable at this point tunnelling being 
avoided as far as possible. 

See Bull. Comunale, 1899, 38 ; Eph. Epigr. ix. 968 for Nos. 626, 645 ; No. 733 is 
unpublished. It must be remembered that the numbering ran from Rome to the 
source. 

17 For examples see Lanciani, / Comentari di Frontino in 31 em. Lincei Ser. III., 
vol. iv. 554 sqq. 

18 C4ermain de Montauzan, Les Aqueducs Antiques de Lyon, Paris, 1909, 176 sqq. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 151 

distance ; and if we do not accept this view, we have to find a place for 
the specus of the Anio Vetus in the lower part of Ponte Lupo ; and a 
careful study of its construction and of the dating assigned to its various 
parts by Miss van Deman has shown me that this is by no means easy, 
though from the levels it is admissible. 19 

The Ponte Lupo itself is the product of a number of periods of con- 
struction. The first part in point of date is undoubtedly the opus quad- 
ratum in the centre of the bridge. Whether it is part of the original con- 
struction is doubtful ; it might seem too conspicuous a bridge to have 
been erected in 154 B.C., when the fear of invasion was by no means a 
thing of the past. 

In any case, we may assign to Agrippa, working under Augustus, the 
reconstruction of the upper part of the aqueduct in opus reticulatum, 
with the large arches with small stone voussoirs which carry the channel ; 
and to Augustus at a later period some further strengthening in opus 
reticulatum. 

To Titus belong probably the arches of tiles on the east side and the 
opus reticulatum with brick bands at the south-west end ; to Hadrian some 
extra buttresses of concrete, again faced with opus reticulatum. One of the 
Severi, perhaps Alexander Severus, filled in the great arches of opus 
quadratum with two-storied arches. But the greatest transformation of 
the bridge occurred later still, perhaps under Diocletian. To him we may 
attribute all the thickening of the lower part of the bridge and the great 
brick buttresses at the lower level on the east side, including the semi- 
circular buttresses at the stream right back as far as the opus quadratum 
piers, and the great brick-faced wall on the west side on the south bank 
of the stream. Finally, to a still later period (fifth or sixth century after 
Christ) must be assigned the masking of the buttresses on the east bank. 

Such is in brief the history of the bridge as far as it can be read from its 
remains. 

We now pass to the Ponte Taulella of the Anio Vetus, which has already 
been mentioned, situated in a deep ravine much overgrown with vegetation. 
There is no trace of Republican work, and the first bridge of which we have 
any trace had a single arch of brick with a wide base of opus quadratum. 
It has twice been reinforced with concrete faced with opus reticulatum and 
brick bands — perhaps, therefore, in the Flavian and Hadrianic periods, 
and there is no trace of anything later. 

Ridges and valleys follow alternately in quick succession, and remains 
of the aqueducts continue to be seen, though decreasing in size and 
grandeur as the ravines become smaller and we approach the open country. 
We cross the Via Praenestina, and on a hill-top find, still in situ, a cippus 
of the Aqua Marcia with the inscription fairly well preserved — Mar(cia) 
Imp(erator) Caesar [Di]vi f(ilius) Augustus ex s(enatus) c(onsulto) clix 
p(edes) CCXL (the 509th cippus from Rome). 

Below, in the valley, are two bridges belonging to the Anio Novus and 
Claudia, known as the Ponti Diruti. They run side by side, with only 
about O50 m. difference in the level of the bottom of the channels, and so 
close together that they were connected by arches still traceable at the 
springing. They show, like the rest, traces of strengthening and reinforce- 
ment. In the upper bridge traces of the original construction in opus 

19 Livellazione cii. 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

quadratum and opus reticulatum may be seen with Severan (and later) 
restrictions ; but the lower one has been entirely rebuilt in post-Severan 
brick-faced concrete. 

Raffaelle Fabretti, one of the pioneers of the investigation of the 
aqueducts, whose work Be Aquis et Aquaeductibus Urbis Romae was 
first published in 1680, marks these as the last remains of the aqueducts 
visible towards Rome ; and, indeed, it was believed until a few years ago 
that they ran underground from this point to the well-known line of 
arches which begin at Capannelle. Even Professor Lanciani had written 
of all the four that there were no traces from Cavamonte to Roma Vecchia 
and Capannelle respectively. 20 But the casual discovery of a part of the 
channel of the Aqua Claudia on the farm road leading to the Casale della 
Pallavicina directed his attention to the possibility of discovering the 
course of the aqueducts in this district ; and he further suggested that 
the large amounts of calcareous deposits thrown out at the shafts (putei) 
which occur at frequent intervals in the subterranean course of the 
aqueducts were bound to reveal their course still further towards Rome, 
where they traverse the lower slopes of the Alban Hills. This proved 
to be the case ; and it has thus been possible to follow them from point to 
point in their gradual descent towards the plain, until they emerge between 
the Via Latina and the Via Appia, the Claudia and Anio Novus near the 
racing stables of Capannelle (Villa Bertone), and the Marcia near the 
farmhouse of Roma Vecchia ; while the Anio Vetus was cut by the 
Naples railway where it passes under the Marrana Mariana and the Acqua 
Felice. In all this stretch, however, there were no complicated problems 
of engineering to be solved ; and we may therefore turn to the con- 
sideration of the remains of the aqueducts after their emergence. The 
arches of the Claudia and Anio Novus gradually increase in height from 
Capannelle to Roma Vecchia, until beyond it they reach their greatest 
elevation in this section, estimated by Lanciani at 27 - 41 metres. In this 
stretch they are extremely well preserved and have not required restoration 
to any considerable extent. The lower stone channel of the Claudia is 
surmounted by the concrete specus of the Anio Novus, faced with brick 
and opus reticulatum — an obvious afterthought, the detrimental effects of 
which we have already seen. 

Shortly afterwards comes a right-angled turn, intended to diminish 
the rapidity of the flow of water ; and here the aqueduct was strengthened 
with brickwork, some of which fell a few years ago ; I found stamps of 
the first quarter of the second century a.d. in it. 21 Here the Aqua Marcia 
(upon the arches of which ran the Aqua Tepula and the Aqua Iulia, both 
from the Alban Hills) passed under the loftier arches of the Aqua Claudia. 
Some 300 metres further on they recrossed, and in the space between 
the two lines of aqueduct the Goths encamped when they besieged Rome 
in a.d. 5S9. 22 A mediaeval tower, the Tor Fiscale, has been planted on 
the top, and within the tower may be seen the crossing and the channels 
of all the five aqueducts. 

Further on, as we come nearer to the city, considerable reinforcements 
have become necessary. In many places the original stonework of the 

20 Op. cit. 262, 292, 349, 356. 

21 C.I.L. xv. 314, 697, 1241. 

22 Procopius, Bell. Goth. ii. ; cf. Lanciani, op. cit. 360. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 153 

piers has been removed for building material, and Lanciani quotes the 
records of the sale of e.g. two or four peperino pillars by the Hospital of 
Sancta Sanctorum at the Lateran, to whom the ground belonged. But, as 
he also points out, sometimes the brickwork was removed and the stone- 
work left ; or, again, the brick facing is sometimes hammered away from 
the concrete. 

As we approach the city, the line of arches was incorporated by 
Aurelian in his city wall. Just before the aqueduct turned to the right 
to cross the Via Praenestina and the Via Labicana by the splendid double 
arch which Aurelian used as the Porta Major (still known as Porta 
Maggiore), a branch diverged from it across the Caelian Hill — the Arcus 
Caelemontani, as they are called in the inscription in which Septimius 
Severus and Caracalla recorded their repair of them, 23 or Arcus Neroniani, 
the name under which Frontinus speaks of them. He tells us that Nero 
conveyed the Aqua Claudia by them to the Temple of Claudius, where 
was their distributing tank ; the Caelian, Palatine, Aventine, and the 
region across the Tiber were supplied by this aqueduct. 24 No doubt 
there was a great ornamental fountain at the Temple of Claudius, from 
which the water fell into the Stagnum Neronis. The arches leading across 
the Caelian are of very fine Neronian brickwork, and so are those leading 
from the Caelian to the Palatine, though they have been largely restored 
by Septimius Severus and Caracalla. 25 Lanciani thinks that there were 
two more tiers of arches above the two now existing 26 ; but I cannot believe 
that the aqueduct would have carried more, and I therefore believe 
that the syphon of which he speaks was originally constructed by Nero, 
and that it ran over the arches. It was restored by Domitian ; a pipe 
bearing his name, about eight inches in diameter, was found in 1742. 27 

Just beyond the Porta Maggiore the Aqua Marcia, with the Tepula and 
Iulia above it, entered the city ; and the three channels may be seen in 
section where they pass through the Aurelian wall. The Anio Vetus has 
been found just inside the gate, and the Aqua Alexandrina very likely 
entered the city here also. 

The question as to the amount of water carried by the aqueducts 
depends upon the value given to the quinaria, the official unit of measure, 
explained by Frontinus, who, as curator aquarum under Trajan, wrote a 
treatise upon the aqueducts. The most probable value has recently been 
determined 28 as 0'48 litre per second or 415 cubic metres in twenty-four 
hours ; and we thus get the following table : — 





Quinariae 


Litres 


Cubic metres 




(Frontinus). 


per second. 


per diem. 


Anio Novus 


4,738 


2,274 


196, 627 


Claudia 


4,607 


2,211 


191,190 


Marcia 


4,690 


2,251 


194,365 


Anio Vetus 


4,398 


2,111 


182,517 29 



33 C.I. L. vi.1259. 

24 Frontin. i. 20 ; ii. 76, 87. 

26 Lanciani, op. cit. 372, attributes them to the Severi entirely. 

26 Ruins and Excavations, 186, fig. 69. 

27 Lanciani, Comentari, 424. 

28 Claudio di Fenizio, in Giornale del Oenio Civile, liv. (July 1916). 

2t Livellazione, 77 : Lanciani's estimates, Ruins and Excavations 58, are a good 
deal higher ; but cf. Comentari, 573 sqq. 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

There were no large clearing or settling tanks within the city, only 
comparatively small reservoirs (castella) from which distribution was made 
by lead pipes ; and this is the case with the modern aqueducts also, so 
abundant is the supply. 

From the study of the aqueducts we should pass naturally to that of the 
buildings which they supplied. The great imperial thermae, such as those 
of Caracalla, were naturally among the most important of these ; and in 
this case, as in others, the water supply of the city as a whole was increased 
in order to have enough water for the special aqueduct, a branch of the 
Marcia (to which he added a spring called the Fons Antoninianus, after 
his own name) by which they were supplied. 

But this might lead us on into a general survey of Roman architecture, 
which would be far too vast a subject. It may perhaps be opportune to 
ask, in conclusion, who were the practical men who carried out these great 
works ? 

The question who were the persons responsible for the development 
of Roman engineering has been asked and answered by Rivoira in his 
Architettura Romana, soon to appear in an English translation, the proofs 
of which I have been allowed to see. He points out that the architects 
of the great Roman state buildings of the Imperial period were forbidden 
to inscribe their names upon them, but rightly maintains that they must 
not be assumed to have been Greeks, in that prejudice and passion for 
things Greek against which he raises a very necessary protest. This pre- 
judice leads those who are swayed by it to ' look at the architect solely 
in his character of artist and exponent of aesthetics, forgetting the technical 
and engineering sides of his activity.' Rivoira emphasises the fact, as 
does Montauzan, 30 that we learn from Vitruvius what class of men 
these state architects were — military engineers, who were at the same 
time civil architects. They were, it would seem, all Roman citizens, and 
for the most part Italians, not Greeks, as their names imply ; and it is 
to them that we owe the planning of such a garrison town as Aosta, and 
the development of Roman vaulted buildings, the ancestors of the great 
vaulted architecture of the Byzantine, Lombard, and Romanesque periods. 

The Roman engineers had at their disposal comparatively simple and 
primitive instruments— the best work on the subject I know is M. Germain 
de Montauzan's Essai, for it is written by a practical man. 

The groma, their chief land-surveying instrument, has recently been 
reconstructed from fragments found at Pompeii by Sig. Matteo della 
Corte, 31 and there is a reproduction of it made by Col. Sir H. G. Lyons 
in the Science Museum at South Kensington. It can only be employed for 
measuring horizontal angles ; for measuring vertical angles they had to 
proceed by slow degrees, sighting through a dioptra, which measured 
angles of both kinds, being combined with a water-level, or using a chorobate, 
a somewhat cumbrous form of water-level, much like a dumpy level of the 
present day, and preferred by Vitruvius for levelling aqueducts, probably 
because it involved no sighting ; for we must remember that they had not 
the assistance of the knowledge of the optical properties of glass. 

Their systems of calculation, too, which involved the use of the abacus, 
must have been complicated, slow, and inconvenient. 

30 Essai sur la science el Vart de V Ing enieur (Paris, 1909), 114 sqq. 

31 Monumenti dei Lincei xxviii. (1922), 5 sqq. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 155 

But having at their disposal comparatively little theoretical knowledge 
of mechanics, they yet succeeded in achieving marvellous results, largely 
from their practical ability. They must have solved such problems as the 
transportation of an obelisk by the multipUcity of simple elements of 
traction employed and by the ingenuity displayed in their arrangement. 

And when it is a question of sea transport, we cannot but admire the 
courage of those who succeeded in bringing such huge masses of stone 
through the Mediterranean from Egypt to Italy without the aid of steam — 
an even greater enterprise than dragging them along the land without 
the appliances that we now have at command. 

Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford has of late eloquently maintained the view that 
anthropology is concerned with the whole of man's past as it bears on his 
present and his future. If this be so, and personally I entirely agree with 
him, I think I may claim that the study of practical engineering among the 
Romans shows us that in this, as in other spheres, they added very 
considerably to the sum of human achievement, and thus contributed in 
no small measure to make the condition of the human race what it is. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF 
ATHLETIC RECORDS. 

ADDRESS BY 

Professor A. V. HILL, O.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In the study of the physiology of muscular exercise there is a vast store 
of accurate information, hitherto almost unexploited , in the records of 
athletic sports and racing. The greatest efforts and the most intense care 
have been expended in making what are really experiments upon these 
subjects, and the results obtained represent what may justly be described 
as a collection of natural constants of muscular effort in the human race. 
It is the purpose of this address to discuss certain aspects of the data 
available in connection with various forms of racing, and to see how far 
physiological principles at present known underlie them. 

Sources of Information. 

The most complete set of records available, for a great variety of sports, 
is to be found in ' The World's Almanac and Book of Facts,' published 
by the New York World. Much of the information here presented was 
obtained from the 1925 edition of that work ; similar but less extensive 
data can be found in our own Whitaker's Almanack. In addition, various 
books on horse-racing, on swimming, and on rowing have been searched 
for suitable material. The study of such data is not new. In most cases, 
however, it has been carried out not from the physiological but purely 
from the statistical standpoint ; insufficient knowledge of the under- 
lying physiological principles was available to make it profitable to ask 
for the why and wherefore. Recent developments, however, of the scien- 
tific study of muscular effort in man have indicated certain broad lines 
on which some at any rate of the relations so established can be explained. 
I will not deal further with the statistical analysis of the facts, beyond 
referring to an extremely interesting and suggestive collection of them 
given in a paper by A. E. Kennelly, entitled ' An Approximate Law of 
Fatigue in the Speed of Racing Animals,' published in the Proceedings 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. xlii., p. 275, 190(3. 
Some, indeed, of my data are taken directly from that paper. 

Fatigue as the Determining Factor. 

An important and interesting problem for any young athlete is presented 
by the question ' how fast can I run some given distance ? ' The maximum 
speed at which a given distance can be covered is known to vary largely 
with the distance. What are the factors determining the variation of 
speed with distance ? How far, knowing a man's best times at two 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 157 

distances, can one interpolate between them for an intermediate distance, 
or extrapolate for a distance greater or less ? Obviously the answer to 
such questions depends upon the factor which in general terms we designate 
fatigue. Fatigue, however, is a very indefinite and inexact expression ; 
it is necessary to define it quantitatively before we can employ it in a quan- 
titative discussion such as this. There are many varieties of fatigue, but 
of these only a few concern us now. There is that which results in a short 
time from extremely violent effort : this type is fairly well understood ; 
there is the fatigue, which may be called exhaustion, which overcomes the 
body when an effort of more moderate intensity is continued for a long time. 
Both of these may be defined as muscular. Then there is the kind 
which we may describe as due to wear-and-tear of the body as a whole, 
to blisters, soreness, stiffness, nervous exhaustion, metabolic changes and 
disturbances, sleeplessness, and similar factors, which may affect an 
individual long before his muscular system has given out. Of these three 
forms of fatigue the first one only is as yet susceptible of exact measure- 
ment and description. The second type may quite possibly come within 
the range of experiment at no distant date. The third type is still so 
indefinite and complex that one cannot hope at present to define it accur- 
ately and to measure it. Undoubtedly, however, all these types of what 
we call ' fatigue ' influence — indeed, determine — the results which are 
to be presented. 

Presentation of Data. 

The data will be exposed throughout this discussion in graphical form, 
and in every case but one (fig. 5) the quantities plotted are the speed 
as ordinate and the time, or some function of the time, as abscissa. The 
reason for taking the time occupied in a race as one of our variables is 
simple ; the problem before us, physiologically speaking, is, clearly, how 
long can a given effort be maintained ? The length of time is given by the 
abscissa as the independent variable ; the magnitude of the effort, or some 
function of it, as represented by the speed (that is, by the average speed 
over the race considered), is given as ordinate. It will be shown below, as 
Kennelly indicated in his paper, that the ideal way to run a race, possibly 
not from the point of view of winning it, but certainly from that of breaking 
the record for the distance, is to run it at constant speed. In those 
performances which have attained to the dignity of a world's record 
it is unlikely that this criterion has been to any very large degree neglected. 
Apart, therefore, from the fact that there is no speed of which we have 
any record except the average speed, we are probably not far wrong in 
using the average speed as a fairly exact measure, or at any rate as a 
function of the effort involved. 

In one case only (fig. 6) the time occupied in the race has been given 
on a logarithmic scale : no great virtue attaches to the logarithm, but 
if 75 yards and 100 miles are to be shown on the same diagram in a read- 
able form it is necessary somehow to condense the abscissae at the longer 
times. As a matter of fact, from the standpoint of an athlete, one second 
in ten has the same importance as ten seconds in a hundred, as a hundred 
seconds in a thousand ; in this sense, therefore, a logarithmic scale of 
time most truly represents the duration of an effort. Such a scale, how- 
ever, has not been used for any ulterior reason, but only, as in fig. 6, to get 
all the available data on to one diagram. 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Running and Swimming : Shorter Times. 

In fig. 1 all the important world's records are presented, average speed 
against time, for men and women running and for men and women swim- 
ming. The crosses representing men rowing in an 8-oar boat will be dis- 
cussed later. It is obvious in all four cases that we are dealing with the 
same phenomena, a very high speed maintainable for short times, a speed 
rapidly decreasing as the time is increased and attaining practically 
a constant value after about 12 minutes. There are no reliable records, 
in the case of swimming, for times of less than about 50 seconds, so that the 
curves cannot be continued back as far as those for running. There can, 
however, be no doubt that the curves for running and swimming are essen- 
tially similar to one another and must depend upon the same factors. 
In running, starting inertia is the cause of the initial upward trend of the 
curves : a maximum average velocity is attained in the case of men for 
about 200 yards, of women for about 100 yards ; after that a rapid 
decrease sets in, ending only when the time has become 10 or 15 minutes, 
the distance two to three miles. The phenomena shown in fig. 1 are 
susceptible of a fairly exact discussion. 

Oxygen Intake, Oxygen Requirement, and Oxygen Debt. 

In recent papers my colleagues and I have tried to emphasise the 
importance of a clear distinction between the oxygen intake and the 
oxygen requirement of any given type and speed of muscular effort. 
When exercise commences, the oxygen intake rises from a low value 
characteristic of rest to a high value characteristic of the effort undertaken. 
This rise occupies a period of about two minutes ; it is nearly complete 
in 90 seconds. The oxygen used by the body is a measure of the amount 
of energy expended : one litre of oxygen consumed means about five 
calories of energy liberated, enough to warm 5 litres of water one degree 
centigrade — expressed in mechanical energy, enough to raise about one ton 
seven feet into the air. It has been established, however, that the oxygen 
need not necessarily be used during the exertion itself. The muscles have 
a mechanism, depending upon the formation of lactic acid in them, by 
which a large amount of the oxidation may be put off to a time after the 
exercise has ended. The recovery process, so called, is a sign of this 
delayed oxidation : it is just as important to the muscle as recharging to 
an electrical accumulator. The degree, however, to which the body is able 
to run into debt for oxygen, to carry on not on present but on future 
supplies, is limited. When an oxygen debt of about 15 litres has been 
incurred the body becomes incapable of further effort : it is completely 
fatigued. In anything but the shortest races our record-breaking athlete 
should finish with something near a maximum oxygen debt, otherwise 
he has not employed all his available power, he has not done himself 
full justice. The maximum effort, therefore, which he can exert over a 
given interval depends upon the amount of energy available for him, 
upon (a) his maximum oxygen intake (that is, his income) and (b) his 
maximum oxygen debt (that is, the degree to which he is able to overdraw 
his account). These maxima are fairly well established for the case of 
athletic men of average size — about 4 litres per minute for the one, about 
15 litres for the other. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



159 




160 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

It is possible for a man to make an effort far in excess of any contem- 
porary supply of oxygen. This effort will require oxygen afterwards, 
and the total oxygen needed per minute to maintain the exercise can be 
measured. It is what we call the ' oxygen requirement ' characteristic 
of the effort involved. Now experiments have shown (see fig. 2) that the 




SPEED 40 



Fig. 2. — Observations of oxygen requirement of K.F. running and standing- 
running at various speeds. Horizontally, speed : running, metres per minute ; stand- 
ing-running, steps per minute. Vertically, oxygen requirement per minute, litres. 

oxygen requirement varies very largely with the speed : it increases far 
more rapidly than the speed, more like the second or third power of the 
opeed, so that high speeds and intense efforts are very wasteful. These 
facts enable us approximately to deduce the general form of fig. 1. 

Imagine an athlete with a maximum oxygen intake of 4 litres per 
minute, 1 capable of running until his maximum oxygen debt has been 
incurred of 15 litres. If he runs for 15 minutes the total oxygen avail- 
able during the exercise and in arrears is 15 X 4+15=75 litres : an effort can 
be made requiring 5 litres of oxygen per minute. Imagine, however, that 
he exhausts himself not in 15 but in 5 minutes : the total oxygen available 
during or in arrears is 5x4+15=35 litres. He may exert himself more 
violently, therefore, with an effort equivalent now to 7 litres per minute. 
Imagine next that he runs himself to exhaustion in 2 minutes : 4x2+15, 
i.e. 23 litres of oxygen are available, 11 '5 per minute ; a correspondingly 
greater effort can be made. By such calculations it is possible from fig. 1 to 
deduce a relation between oxygen requirement and speed. Taking the case 
of a man swimming, the result is shown in fig. 3 on the assumption of 



1 Assumed, for the sake of simplicity in calculation, to commence as soon as the 
race begins. For a more accurate calculation the gradual rise of the oxygen intake 
at the beginning of exercise can be taken into account. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



161 



a maximum oxygen debt of 15 litres, a maximum oxygen intake of 35 litres 
per minute, and the supposition that at the end of the race the performer 
is completely exhausted. A similar calculated curve is given for the case 
of running, on the hypothesis of a maximum oxygen debt of 15 litres and 

20 



IS 



(0 



S 




SPEED 



7-f 



7 8 

SPEED, RuHN//VQ : YfiRfis. Pe^ sec. 



Fig. 3. — Oxygen requirement, running and swimming, of record-breaking athletes, 
calculated from curves of fig. 1, on the assumption that at the end of a race the per- 
former is completely exhausted, having attained his maximum oxygen debt. Maximum 
oxygen debt assumed=15 litres for both. Maximum oxygen intake assumed : for 
running=4 litres per minute; swimming=3.5 litres per minute. Method of cal- 
culation described in the text. 

a maximum oxygen intake of 4 litres per minute. These curves are 
similar in character to those shown in fig. 2 for the cases of running 
and standing-running, which have been investigated in the laboratory. 
There can be little doubt that the factors here described are the chief 
agents in determining the form of the curves given in fig. 1. 



Limits of the Argument. 

It is obvious that we must not pursue the argument too far. A man 
cannot exhaust himself completely in a 100 or a 200 yards race : even 300 
yards is not sufficient to cause an extreme degree of exhaustion, though a 
quarter-mile, in the case of a first-class sprinter, is enough, or almost 
enough, to produce complete inability to make any immediate further 
effort. We have found an oxygen debt of 10 litres even after a quarter- 
mile in 55 seconds. It is obvious, therefore, that we cannot pursue our 
argument below times of about 50 seconds, that the maximum speed is 
limited by quite other factors than the amount of energy available. It 
is not possible in any way to release energy explosively for very short 
intervals of effort : other factors determine the maximum speed, factors 



1925 



M 



162 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

mechanical and nervous. Neither can the argument be applied to very- 
long races, where — as we shall see below — other types of exhaustion 
set in. 

Comparison of Men and Women ; Swimming and Running. 

There are certain characteristics of these curves which are of interest. 
In the first place those for men and women are almost precisely similar. 
For a given time of swimming the maximum speed for a woman appears 
throughout the curves, to be almost exactly 84 to 85 per cent, of that for 
a man. The curve relating oxygen requirement to speed, in the case of 
swimming, is not known from experiment, nor are the maximum oxygen 
debts and the maximum oxygen intakes known for women with any 
certainty. It would be very interesting to determine them, were volun- 
teers forthcoming. If we assume what is roughly true, that the energy 
expenditure rises approximately as the square of the speed, we may con- 
clude that a woman swimming is able to exert, per kilogram of body 
weight, about 72 per cent, of the power expended by a man. Women are 
well adapted to swimming : their skill in swimming is presumably just as 
great as that of men ; the difference in the maximum speed for any given 
time can be a matter only of the amount of power available. 

In running, the same type of comparison may be made, though here not 
over the same range of times. For anything but the shortest races the 
maximum speed of a woman is almost precisely 79 per cent, of that of a 
man running for the same time. For very short times, 5 to 10 seconds, 
the ratio is greater, namely 84 per cent. Here again there would seem 
little reason to attribute the difference of speed, at any rate for the longer 
races, to anything but a difference in the maximum amount of power 
expendible over the period in question. Assuming again, as an approxi- 
mate means of calculation, that the energy used per minute varies as the 
square of the speed, we see that a woman running is able to liberate in a 
given time only about 62 per cent, of the energy expendible by a man of 
the same weight. It is probable that this ratio between men and women, 
as determined by swimming and by running respectively, is really the 
same in either case, and that the apparent difference depends upon an 
inexactness in the simple laws we have assumed for the variation of 
energy expended with speed. It would seem fair to take the mean of 
these two values, 67 per cent. — that is, about two-thirds — as the ratio of 
the amount of energy expendible by a woman in a given time as com- 
pared with that by a man of the same weight. It would be of great 
interest — and quite simple — to test this deduction by direct experiment 
on women athletes. 

Men and Women Jumping. 

A further interesting comparison between men and women may be 
found in the records of high jumps and long jumps. The world's record 
long jump for a man is 255 ft., for a woman 16-9 ft. The high jump 
records are respectively 661 ft. and 5 ft. At first sight, when compared 
with running, these records for women seem extraordinarily poor : the 
high jump is only 75-5 per cent., the long jump only 66 per cent., of 
that for men. Such a conclusion, however, rests upon a misunderstanding, 
almost like that which makes many people believe that if a man could 






I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 163 

jump as well as a flea he could easily clear the top of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
It is a matter only of elementary mechanics to show, on the assumption 
that a woman can project herself vertically with a velocity proportional 
to that with which she can project herself horizontally, the constant of 
the proportion being the same as for the case of a man, that both the high 
jump and the long jump in the two sexes should be in the ratio not of the 
velocities bat of the squares of the velocities. The maximum range and the 
maximum height of a projectile vary as the square of the velocity of 
projection. Thus it is right to compare, for men and women, not the height 
of the high jump or the distance of the long jump, but the square roots 
of these quantities, if we wish to study their relative performance in 
jumping as compared with running. This being so, we find that the high 
jump of a woman, as measured by its square root, is 87 per cent of that 
of a man 2 ; the long jump, measured in a similar way, is 815 per cent. 
These compare closely with their relative performances for very short 
times of running, where a woman, as shown above, can run 84 per cent, 
as fast as a man. It is amusing to find simple mechanics explaining such 
apparent differences between the sexes. 

The Characteristic Oxygen-Requirement-Speed Curve. 

The curves given in fig. 2 define the economy with which movements 
are carried out. By such means can be shown the amount of energy 
required, in terms of oxygen used, in order, say, to run or swim for a minute 
at any given speed. The curves will vary largely from one individual to 
another. Some men move more efficiently than others at all speeds : 
A may be more efficient at one speed than B is, but less efficient at another. 
For most kinds of muscular exercise the characteristic curve of fig. 2 is 
ascertainable by experiment. In some cases, as in swimming, experi- 
mental difficulties might be considerable, at any rate at higher speeds. 
It is obvious, however, that such a curve must exist for any person 
performing any kind of continuous muscular exercise. In it we have 
a characteristic of that given individual for that particular form of work. 

Skill. 

Some people are much more skilled than others. To a large degree, 
of course, the skill and grace associated with athletic prowess is natural 
and inborn ; to a large degree, however, it can be produced by training 
and breeding. All the movements required in the violent forms of mus- 
cular exertion here discussed are rapid ones, far too rapid to be directly 
and continuously subject to the conscious intelligence : they are largely, 
indeed mainly, reflex, set going by the will but maintained by the interplay 
of proprioceptive nervous system and motor apparatus. The nature of 
muscular skill cannot be discussed here ; possibly, however, above all 
other factors it is the foundation of athletic prowess. Such skill has a 
physiological basis as it has a psychological aspect. It is a. fit subject 
for discussion alike by physiologists, psychologists, students of physical 

2 It would really be fairer to compare the heights jumped, less the initial heights 
of the centres of gravity, say 3-1 feet and 2-8 feet respectively. This gives 
2-2/3-51 = -63 ^as the ratio of the heights, of which the square root is -79, a close 
agreement with the long jump. 

M 2 



164 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



training, athletes, masters and workmen. The further study of skill is 
likely to be most fruitful in many branches of human endeavour. Here 
I would only remark that the forms of the characteristic curves of fig. 2 
depend upon the skill of the subject in ordering his movements, just as 
the ' miles per gallon ' of a motor-car depends upon the skill of those 
who designed and adjusted its timing gear and its magneto. Given 
incorrect adjustment due to lack of skill, given imperfect timing of the 
several parts of the mechanism, given unnecessary movement and vibra- 
tion, the whole system will be inefficient. Fundamentally the teaching 
of athletics for anything but the shortest distances consists in training 
the performer to lower the level of his characteristic curve, to carry out 
the same movements at a" given speed for a smaller expenditure of energy. 

Bicycling and Horse-running. 

Not all forms of muscular exertion are so violent, involve so great an 
expenditure of energy, when carried out at the highest speed, as running 
and swimming. In fig. 4 are two examples of this fact, horse-running 



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Yiq. 4. — Records for horse running and man bicycling ; dotted curve for com- 
parison, man running, taken from fig. 1. Horizontally, time in seconds ; vertically, 
average speed yards per second. Note. — The horse and the man bicycling are shown 
on half the scale of the man running. The records for bicycling are the unpaced 
professional records against time. The records for horses were made in America. 

and bicycling. For horse-running a long succession of records on American 
horses are plotted on the topmost curve : below are the records of men 
bicycling, the unpaced professional records, made not in a race but against 
time. Most bicycle races are useless for our purpose : the competitors 
proceed in groups, trying one to ride behind the other to avoid wind resis- 
tance, and the speed may be absurdly low. Paced records are of little 
value because the efficiency of the wind-screen provided by the pacing 
apparatus is not standardised. These professional records, however, made 
unpaced, simply with the intention of breaking the record, are probably 
reliable, and they form a reasonably smooth curve. Plotted on the same 
diagram for comparison is a curve to represent a man running, a replica 
of that of fig. 1. The first two curves are on twice the scale of the third, 
since a running horse and a bicycling man can go about twice the speed 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 165 

of a running man. It is obvious at once that neither of these two curves 
falls anything like so rapidly as does that of a running man ; fatigue does 
not so soon set in : the amount of energy expended at the highest speed 
must be much less than in a running man. This conclusion, indeed, is 
obvious to anyone who has tried to ride a bicycle fast. It is impossible 
to exhaust oneself rapidly on a bicycle : the movements are too slow, they 
involve too little of the musculature of the body ; it would require some 
minutes to produce by bicycling a state of exhaustion easily attainable 
within a minute by running. The curve for horse-running is almost 
parallel to that for bicycling ; presumably, therefore, the movements 
of a horse are so arranged that the extreme violence of effort possible in 
a human ' sprinter ' is unattainable : possibly the movements are too 
infrequent, or the qualities of the horse's muscles are so different, that the 
kind of fatigue rapidly attainable in man is not possible in the horse ; 
possibly the horse will not ' run himself out ' so completely as a man. 

Bicycle Ergometers. 

The curves of fig. 4 are of interest in connection with the numberless 
experiments which have been made with bicycle ergometers. Nearly 
all the laboratory observations on man, in connection with muscular 
exercise, have been made with that implement. It has been obvious to 
my colleagues and myself during the last few years that the types of 
exercise chiefly adopted by us, running and standing-running, are more 
exhausting and require a far greater expenditure of energy than those 
employing the bicycle ergometer. In rowing and in pedalling a bicycle 
it may not be possible to attain respiratory quotients of 2 or more 
during or shortly after exercise. After running, or standing running, 
however, very high values are attained, due to the fact that these latter 
forms of exercise, at the highest speeds, are so very much more energetic 
than the slower movements of rowing or bicycling. It is speed and 
frequency of movement which determine the degree of exhaustion pro- 
duced by it. To exert a powerful force in a moderate rhythm is not 
anything like so tiring as to exert a much smaller force in a frequent 
rhythm : hence the reason for ' gearing up,' as in the bicycle and in the 
long oars of a rowing-boat. 

Horse-racing. 

The fact that running is not so exhausting to a horse as to a man is 
well shown by the records of fig. 5. There the small circles represent 
the best English records of horse-racing between the years 1721 and 1832. 
Speed in metres per second is given against kilometres distance. The 
larger circles represent the best of some more recent English records, 
from 1880 to 1905. D, 0, and L represent respectively the Derby, the 
Oaks, and the St. Leger. It will be seen how little the speed falls off for 
the longer races : six or seven kilometres are run at the same speed as 
one or two. There is, indeed, a visible tendency for the curve to rise 
towards the left, as in fig. 4 ; there is, however, no obvious further fall 
of the curve towards the right after about two kilometres. Such a state 
ment would seem preposterous to a human runner if applied to himself. 
Either the horse cannot exhaust himself so rapidly as a man, or he cannot 



166 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



be induced by his rider to go as hard as he ought. A man may be able 
to force himself to a greater degree of exhaustion than his rider can force 
a horse. An amusing incidental point brought out by fig. 5 is the fact that 



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Fig. 5. — Records for horse-races. Small circles=old English records, 1721-1832. 
Large circles=later English records, 1880-1905. D=Derby, 0=0aks, L=St. Leger. 
Average speed, metres per second, against distance in kilometres. 

the small circles and the large ones are intermingled. The horses of 150 
years ago could run just as fast as their modern successors — a fair comment 
on the doctrine that the improvement of the breed of horses is the chief 
and a sufficient reason for encouraging the continuance of horse-racing — 
even in time of war. 



The Logarithmic Graph. 

Let us pass now to a consideration of the last diagram, fig. 6. There 
average speed in a race is plotted against the logarithm of the time occupied 
in it, the logarithm being employed, as stated above, for the purpose of 
including all records from 75 yards to 100 miles in the same picture. That 
people think, to some degree, in logarithms, although unconsciously, is 
shown by the fact that the records which men have thought it worth while 
to make are distributed approximately uniformly over the picture from 
left to right. Fig. 6 presents the data of athletics perhaps more clearly 
than any other. The initial rise of the curve for men running, which is 
due to starting inertia, is very obvious. The rapid fall beyond 220 yards 
is clearly seen. It is obvious that the 100 and the 220 yards (| mile) records 
are better than those lying in their neighbourhood, that the quarter-mile 
record is extremely good, the 500 yards record very bad, by comparison 
with its neighbours. This diagram should enable any enterprising and 
scientific athlete to select the records most easy to break : let him try 
those for 120 yards, for 500 yards, for three-quarter-mile, for three miles, 
but not for 220 yards, quarter-mile, one mile, and six miles. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



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1 68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Long-distance Records. 

In fig. 1 we saw that the speed fell to what seemed to be practically 
a constant level towards the right of the diagram : this fall represents the 
initial factor in fatigue. On the logarithmic scale, however, where the 
longer times are compressed together, the curve continues to fall through- 
out its length. This later fall is due to factors quite different from those 
discussed above. Consideration merely of oxygen intake and oxygen debt 
will not suffice to explain the continued fall of the curve. Actually the 
curve beyond 10 miles seems to some degree doubtful. Apparently 
the same extent of effort has not been lavished on the longer records : 
the greatest athletes have confined themselves to distances not greater 
than 10 miles. The curve A drawn through all the points has a suspicious 
downward bend in it, which suggests that if Alfred Shrubb or Nurmi had 
tried to break the longer records they would have done so very effectively. 
Possibly the true curve lies more like the continuation C : possibly it 
may be intermediate as shown at B. It would seem doubtful, indeed, 
whether the running curve and the walking curve are really to meet 
at about 150 miles. The most probable continuation of the running curve 
would seem to be somewhere between the lines B and C. 

The continued fall in the curve, as the effort is prolonged, is probably 
due to the second and third types of fatigue which we discussed above, 
either to the exhaustion of the material of the muscle, or to the incidental 
disturbances which may make a man stop before his muscular system 
has reached its limit. A man of average size running in a race must expend 
about 300 gms. of glycogen per hour; perhaps a half of this may be replaced 
by its equivalent of fat. After a very few hours, therefore, the whole 
glycogen supply of his body will be exhausted. The body, however, 
does not readily use fat alone as a source of energy : disturbances may 
arise in the metabolism ; it will be necessary to feed a man with carbo- 
hydrate as the effort continues. Such feeding will be followed by digestion ; 
disturbances of digestion may occur — other reactions may ensue. For 
very long distances the case is far more complex than for the shorter 
ones, and although, no doubt, the physiological principles can be 
ascertained, we do not know enough about them yet to be able further to 
analyse the curves. 

Women's Running Records. 

The women's curve, as far as it goes, is very similar to the men's. 
Some records again are better than others. An enterprising woman 
athlete who wants to break a record should avoid the 300 metres ; she 
would be well advised to try the 500 metres. It would be very interesting 
to have an intermediate point between 100 and 220 yards. 

Bicycling and Walking. 

As before, the curve for men bicycling, which is drawn on twice the 
scale vertically of the running curves, is far less steep than they are. The 
conclusion from this was emphasised above. The walking curve is inter- 
esting—it is approximately straight. Physiologically speaking, there is 
not much interest in the shortest walking races, since here walking is 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 169 

artificial and extremely laborious ; running at a considerably higher speed 
is much more easy. For longer distances, however, say from 10 miles 
onwards, we have probably in walking the most reliable data available 
for long-continued muscular effort. If we wish to study the exhaustion 
produced by exercise of long duration, walking-men may well provide the 
best subjects for our experiments. 

Skating. 

There remains the top curve of all, that for men skating. The initial 
rise of the curve, due to starting inertia, is very obvious. The fall of 
the curve beyond the maximum is nowhere near so rapid as for the case 
of running. Clearly in skating a man is not able to exert himself with 
the degree of ardour that is possible in the more primitive exercise of 
running. Skill and restraint are necessary, as they are in bicycling : 
there are limits to the output. Moreover, the effort can be continued 
for a long time, at comparatively high speeds. It is interesting to note 
that a man can skate 100 miles at almost the same speed as another man 
can run one mile. The curve falls uniformly throughout as does the walking 
curve. Clearly the phenomena of gradual exhaustion could be well 
investigated in the case of skating. Here again it is obvious which records 
the aspiring athlete should attempt to break. 

Rowing. 

There are only a few records available, and those lying between rather 
narrow limits, for the case of rowing. Taking the case of an eight-oar 
boat, I have been able to obtain very few reliable data. Kennelly gives 
records of crews rowing, for times from 305 to 1,210 seconds. Yandell 
Henderson, in the American Journal of Physiology, vol. lxxii., p. 264, 
1925, gives five observations made upon the Yale crew of 1924. In addi- 
tion there are records for the Henley course : these, however, are usually 
contaminated by the speed of the water. The most reliable of the data 
have been plotted in fig. 1 on the same scale as the running, on five times 
the scale of the swimming. The observed points, shown by crosses, are 
somewhat scattered. As far as they go, a mean curve through them 
would lie practically along the curve for women swimming, but of course 
on five times the scale. The interesting part of the curve to the left is 
lacking ; it is obviously impossible to make observations on an eight-oar 
boat for periods of 20 seconds, starting inertia is too great and no result 
of any value could be obtained. It would, however, be of interest to obtain 
data as far back as possible; certainly the records of crews rowing in still 
water for a minute and above should be ascertainable, and they would help 
to fit rowing into the scheme outlined by the other types of muscular effort. 

Work and Stroke Frequency in Rowing. 

In rowing the movements are slow : in an eight-oar boat, from 30 
to 40 strokes per minute. According to observations by Lupton and 
myself the maximum efficiency of human muscular movement is obtained 
at speeds of about one maximal movement per second. In rowing, 
experience and tradition alike suggest that such a speed is about the 



170 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

optimum. In an eight-oar boat the recovery takes almost as long as the 
stroke, both occupying about one second. It is of interest how practical 
experience has gradually evolved a speed of movement which is almost 
exactly what a physiologist might have predicted as the most efficient. 
At a stroke of about 32 per minute the mechanical efficiency is apparently 
near its maximum. An enormous amount of work has to be done in pro- 
pelling a boat at speeds like 10 to 12 miles per hour. According to Hender- 
son, each member of the crew of an eight-oar boat must exert about 0.6 
of a horse-power. Clearly if this enormous amount of external work 
is to be done it must be accomplished by working under efficient conditions : 
those conditions necessitate a stroke of a particular frequency ; only 
when the race is very short is it permissible, in order to obtain a greater 
output, to work less efficiently by adopting a more rapid stroke. The 
stroke may rise to 40 per minute for a short distance : in such an effort 
the oxygen debt is accumulating rapidly and exhaustion will soon set in. 
The amount of work, moreover, will not be proportionately greater, 
probably only slightly greater, than at the lower frequency. The con- 
ditions which determine the speed of movement, the ' viscous-elastic ' 
properties of muscle, are what ultimately decide the length of the oars 
and the speed of movement in a racing-boat. It is interesting to find — 
as, of course, was really obvious — how closely athletics is mixed with 
physiology. 

Wastefulness of High Speeds. 

This last discussion leads us to the question of what determines the 
great wastefulness of the higher speeds. Why, returning to fig. 2, does 
a speed of 280 steps per minute require 24 litres of oxygen per minute, 
while a speed of 240 steps per minute requires only 8 litres of oxygen ? 
The answer depends upon the variation of external work with speed of 
muscular movement. In a series of recent papers it has been shown 
that in a maximal muscular movement the external work decreases in 
a linear manner as the speed of shortening increases. At sufficiently 
high speeds of shortening no external work at all can be performed. 
In most of these athletic exercises, apart from the case of rowing, a large 
proportion of the mechanical work is used in overcoming the viscous 
resistance of the muscles themselves. At high speeds of running only a 
small fraction of the mechanical energy of the muscles is available to 
propel the body, once the initial inertia has been overcome. The speed 
of shortening is so rapid that little external work can be done. The work 
is absorbed by internal friction, or by those molecular changes which, 
when the muscle is shortening rapidly, cause its tension to fall off. When 
working against an external resistance, as in rowing, there is an optimum 
speed. If an effort is to be long continued it must be made at a speed 
not far from the optimum. When, however, the whole of the resistance 
to movement is internal, as in running, there is no optimum speed : the 
expense of the movement increases continually as the speed goes up ; 
the faster we move, the greater relatively the price : our footsteps are 
dogged by the viscous- elastic properties of muscle, which prevent us from 
moving too fast, which save us from breaking ourselves while we are 
attempting to break a record. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 171 

Uniform Speed is the Optimum. 

The amount of energy required per minute to run or to swim, or, indeed, 
to propel oneself in any way, increases more rapidly than the speed — in 
the cases which have been investigated, approximately as the square of 
the speed. This mathematical relation is not exact : the facts can only 
really be described by a curve such as that of fig. 2, but it simplifies the 
argument. From the form of the curve of fig. 2, or from the variation 
of energy output as the square of the speed, we can immediately deduce 
that the most efficient way in which to run a race is that of a uniform 
speed throughout. Imagine that a man runs a mile race in 4 minutes 
30 seconds at a uniform speed of 6.52 yards per second : his energy expen- 
diture is proportional to 4| times 6.52 squared ; that is, 191.3 expressed 
in some arbitrary units. Imagine now that he runs it at two speeds, 6 and 
7 yards per second, 780 yards at the lower, 980 at the upper speed : the 
total time is the same ; the energy expended, however, is slightly greater, 
192.3 instead of 191.3. This small variation of speed in the race has pro- 
duced no serious increase in the energy expenditure. Let us imagine, 
however, that one portion of the race, 665 yards, is run at 5 yards per 
second, while another portion, 1,096 yards, is run at 8 yards per second. 
The total time occupied in the race is still 4 minutes 30 seconds. The 
energy expended, however, is greater, namely, 201.5 units. Even this, 
however, is not a very large increase ; by running about half the time 
at 8 yards and half the time at 5 yards per second, the energy expended 
has been increased only about 5 per cent, as compared with that required 
for running at a uniform speed of 6.5 yards per second throughout. 
Although, therefore, theoretically speaking, the optimum fashion in which 
to run a race is that of uniform velocity throughout, comparatively large 
variations on either side of this velocity do not appreciably increase the 
amount of energy expended. 

Possible Advantages of a Fast Start. 

There may, indeed, be advantages in starting rather faster than the 
average speed which it is intended to maintain. The sooner the 
respiration and circulation are driven up to their maximum values, the 
greater will be the amount of oxygen taken in by the body, the greater 
the amount expendible during the race. It is a common practice in mile 
races to start very fast and to settle down later to the uniform speed : this 
may have a physiological basis in the quickening up of circulation and 
respiration achieved thereby. 

The Simple Mechanics of High-Jumping. 

One final point may be worthy of mention — this time connected with 
high-jumping and long-jumping. Recently I made a series of observations, 
with a stop-watch reading to 0.02 seconds, of the times occupied by a 
number of high-jumpers from the moment they left the ground to the 
moment they reached the ground again. With men jumping about 
five feet the time averaged about 0.80 second. Calculating from the 
formula 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

where t is half the total time of flight, the distance through which the 
centre of gravity of the body was raised must have been about 2.5 feet. 
The men competing must have had an original height of their centre 
of gravity of about 2.7 feet. Thus, in the high-jump, their centres of 
gravity went about 5.2 feet high into the air. They cleared a height 
of five feet : they just managed to wriggle their centres over the bar. 
Now, paradoxical as it may seem, it is possible for an object to pass over 
a bar while its centre of gravity passes beneath ; every particle in the 
object may go over the bar and yet the whole time its centre of gravity 
may be below. A rope running over a pulley and falling the other side 
is an obvious example. It is conceivable that by suitable contortions the 
more accomplished high-jumpers may clear the bar without getting their 
centres of gravity above or appreciably above it. Let us calculate, how- 
ever, on the assumption that the centre of gravity of a jumper just clears 
the bar. The world's record high- jump is 6.61 feet, the centre of gravity 
of the performer being presumably about 3 feet high at rest. He raises 
it therefore 3.61 feet into the air, from which we may calculate that the 
whole time occupied in the jump is about 0.96 second. Seeing the amazing 
complexity of and the skill involved in the rapid movements and 
adjustments involved in a record high-jump, it is striking that all those 
events can occur within a time of less than one second. All the character- 
istics of the proprioceptive system must be evoked in their highest degree 
in carrying out such a skilled, rapid, and yet violent movement. 

Long-Jumping. 

It is well known to athletes that success in long-jumping consists in 
learning to jump high. It is not, of course, the case that a record long- 
jumper performs at the same moment a record high-jump. He must, 
however, cover a very considerable height. The world's record long-jump 
is 25.48 feet. With the check provided by the vertical impulse in the last 
step we cannot well imagine the horizontal velocity to be greater, at this 
moment, than that of 100 yards completed in 10 seconds ; that is, than 
30 feet per second. Let us assume this value : then the performer re- 

25 48 
mains in the air for — - — : that is, 0.85 second : hence we mav calculate 
30 J 

that the vertical distance covered is about 2.9 feet. Assuming the centre 
of gravity of the subject to have been originally 3 feet high, this means 
that it must have reached a height 5.9 feet in the air, enough, in a high- 
jump, to enable its owner to clear 5.9 feet. It is interesting to find that the 
simple laws of mechanics emphasise so strongly the precepts of the athletic 
trainer. Not only must one jump high if one wishes to break a long- jump 
record, but one must bring one's centre of gravity nearly six feet high into 
the air ; for one must project oneself vertically, so that one may remain 
for 0.85 second above the ground. 

Conclusion. 

The practice of athletics is both a science and an art, and, just as art 
and science are the most potent ties tending to draw men together in a 
world of industrial competition, so sport and athletics, by urging men 
to friendly rivalry, may help to avert the bitterness resulting from less 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 173 

peaceful struggles. If, therefore, physiology can aid in the development 
of athletics as a science and an art, I think it will deserve well of man- 
kind. As in all these things, however, the reward will be reciprocal. 
Obviously in the data of athletic records we have a store of information 
available for physiological study. Apart from its usefulness, however, 
I would urge that the study is amusing. Most people are interested, 
at any rate in England and America, in some type of sport. If they can be 
made to find it more interesting, as I have found it, by a scientific con- 
templation of the things which every sportsman knows, then that extra 
interest is its own defence. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



SOME ISSUES IN THE THEORY OF "G" 

(INCLUDING THE LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS). 

ADDRESS BY 

Professor C. SPEARMAN, Ph.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



I. Theory of 'g.' 

The following communication treats of certain points in a theory which 
has become known as that of Two Factors or of g. At the present 
time this theory has undergone very elaborate development. The 
mental testing from which it originated lay at first as a foreign intruder 
in the midst of general psychology. Its opponents — and these were not 
few — regarded it as an excrescence that should be forthwith cast out ; 
and even its best friends wondered how the general psychology was ever 
going to assimilate it. But, seemingly, neither of these solutions is 
happening to any great extent. The mental testing has waxed larger 
and established itself more firmly than ever without much assimilation 
with the current general doctrines ; indeed, it seems more likely, cuckoo- 
wise, to eject them from the psychological nest. In particular, the theory 
of g, which arose from the mental tests, has now managed to spread 
itself over the whole of the cognitive side of psychology, and not impossibly 
it will soon extend its scope over into the supplementary or orectic side. 

For the present I do not propose to try your patience by depicting 
the whole elaborate theory of g even in outline. Such an attempt is 
reserved for a work that will appear shortly. But a very few words may 
be allowed here to indicate its essential foundation as unwaveringly 
preserved from the very beginning. This consists in the theorem, that 
the measure of every different ability of any person can be resolved into two 
factors, of which the one is always the same, but the other always independent. 
Suppose, for instance, that any person undergoes a mental test and 
obtains seventeen marks for it. The theory asserts that this can actually be 
divided into two parts, say eleven and six, such that (on reduction 
to comparable units) the eleven re-occurs for this person in every other 
test however widely different, whereas the six is each time replaced 
by some other number independently. 

The establishment of this doctrine falls into three distinct phases. 
The first is to ascertain what are the conditions under which the measures 
of any ability admit of such division into two factors. We may note 
that this phase has often been erroneously called an assumption or 
hypothesis. It is really nothing of the kind, but simply a mathematical 
demonstration. Given the said conditions, then the divisibility into such 
two factors must necessarily occur, just as, given that a triangle has all 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 175 

its angles equal, then it must needs also have all its sides equal. The 
second phase is to find out where, if at all, the conditions are actually 
fulfilled. Again, no assumption or hypothesis of any kind is involved ; 
the matter is nothing more than observation of fact. 

But then comes the third and last phase, that of supplying the factors 
with some plausible interpretation. Here the most cautious procedure 
and one that goes not an inch beyond what has really been proven, is simply 
to denote these factors by the non-committal letters g and s respectively. 
Any interpretation going beyond this can only, in our present state of 
knowledge, have a provisional value ; it can serve to inspire further 
investigation^ by which it will assuredly suffer much modification itself. 
With this reservation, then, the hypothesis at present seeming most 
helpful and suggestive is that the g measures something of the nature 
of an ' energy ' derived from the whole cortex or wider area of the brain. 
Correspondingly, the s's measure the respective efficiencies of the different 
parts of the brain in which this energy can be concentrated ; they are, 
so to speak, its ' engines.' Whenever the mind turns from one operation 
to another, the energy is switched off from one engine to another, much 
as the power supply of a factory can be directed, at one moment to 
turning a wheel, at the next to heating a furnace, and then to blowing 
a whistle. 

II. Recent Confirmation. 

So much to serve as a general description of the doctrine. I will now 
bring to your notice some recent work whereby its foundations have 
received additional strengthening, both on the side of mathematics and on 
that of actual observation. 

To take the former first, the earlier researches had only shown what 
conditions are necessary for the divisibility into the two factors. Later 
investigation has proved that these conditions are also sufficient. In 
other words, we now know, not only that under the said conditions the 
divisibility into two factors may possibly occur, but even that it inevitably 
must do so. I stress this point because some of the recent writing on the 
subject appears to make the contrary and mistaken statement that, even 
when the conditions are satisfied, still the divisibility either may or may 
not ensue. 

As to the precise nature of these conditions, they are based upon what 
are called the co-efficients of correlation. Such co-efficients, as is now 
generally understood, consist in numbers that indicate just how closely any 
two abilities or other characters tend to vary in proportion to one another. 
They are usually symbolised by the letter r. Thus, r 12 would denote the 
degree that any ability 1 tended to vary from individual to individual 
proportionately to some other ability 2. Now, the conditions for the 
divisibility into the two factors reduce themselves to the simple equation : 

Tli ■ ^31 '"is • r 2i =1 U. 

Here the value on the left is called the tetrad-difference. When such 
tetrad-differences remain equal to zero throughout any set of abilities, 
whichever of them may be taken as 1 , 2, 3, and 4, respectively, then, and 
then only, each of these abilities can be divided up into two factors 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES . 

such as we have described. Should anyone ask ivhy this particular 
equation should have the virtue of necessitating such a divisibility, I can 
only answer that it is but one out of all the miracles of mathematics. 
I never cease to be astonished at it myself. For further elucidation, 
reference must be made to the mathematical proof. 1 

So far we remain in comparatively smooth waters. The chief 
difficulty arises when we turn to what are known as the errors of sampling. 
Suppose you wanted to know whether a field of potatoes was bearing 
a good crop. You walk about, pulling up a plant here and there. This 
gives you some approximate knowledge, but not an exact one. For all 
you can tell, you may have been exceptionally lucky or unlucky in your 
selection. The degree of discrepancy between the average size of the 
potatoes actually pulled and that of the whole field is your error of 
sampling. Now, just the same befalls any co-efficient of correlation 
between two abilities. You want to know how closely these two go 
together with people of some general class. You pick out, say, 100 of 
these people. But just in this 100 the correspondence between the two 
abilities may happen to be rather higher or lower than on an average 
throughout the entire class. Your co-efficient of correlation will have an 
error of sampling. And our preceding tetrad-difference, being made up 
of correlational coefficients, will have one also. 

Now, the latest advance in the theory of g consists in showing the 
general magnitude of the tetrad-differences that will arise from the 
sampling errors alone, even when the true magnitude is always zero. 
This value of the tetrad-differences to be expected merely from sampling 
was published last year {Brit. J. Psychol.). 

But, having got this theoretical value, there remains the momentous 
step of comparing it with the median value which is actually observed. 
The theory of g stands or falls according as these two values are or are 
not found to agree. 

This step so fraught with fate has now been taken. To avoid all 
danger of personal bias, no work of my own was chosen for this crucial 
decision, but that of an investigator who, more than all others, had shown 
himself unsympathetic with the doctrine of g. Here is his table of 
correlations as published by himself : 

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

1. Completion . . 98 94 79 62 91 71 54 78 88 55 42 33 25 

2. Hard Opposites 98 84 80 64 81 79 70 73 74 52 43 26 25 

3. Memory words 94 84 62 55 82 49 56 73 71 53 40 28 21 

4. Easy Opposites. . 79 80 62 57 52 68 53 42 56 45 29 38 48 

5. A Test . . .. 62 64 55 57 55 54 73 39 51 39 59 25 22 

6. Memory pass. . . 91 81 82 52 55 53 57 59 66 54 31 28 19 

7. Adding . . .. 71 79 49 68 54 53 45 39 47 51 57 17 25 

8. Geomet. forms . . 54 70 56 53 73 57 45 35 49 34 56 25 25 

9. Learn, pairs ..78 73 73 42 39 59 39 35 69 36 29 26 09 

10. Recog. forms . . 88 74 71 56 51 66 47 49 69 44 37 34 28 

11. Scroll .. .. 55 52 53 45 39 54 51 34 36 44 31 19 27 

12. Compl. words . . 42 43 40 29 59 31 57 56 29 37 31 21 07 

13. Estimat. length 33 26 28 38 25 28 17 25 26 34 19 21 24 

14. Drawing length 25 25 21 48 22 19 25 25 09 28 27 07 24 

To work out all the tetrad-differences was no light undertaking, since 
they run to the number of 3,003. The calculation of these was entrusted 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc, 1923. 



J.- PSYCHOLOGY. 



177 



to the competent hands of Mr. Raper. When all was reported ready we 
met, I carrying the ' probable error ' of the tetrad-differences — that is, 
the median value that should by theory be expected to arise from sampling 
alone, he bringing the average value of the 3,003 tetrad-differences actually 
derived from the above table. My number was .061. His was .074 ; 
this, in order to get from the average to the median, had to be multiplied 
by the well-known constant .0845, whereby it came finally to .062 ! 

It may be of interest to survey the entire frequency distribution of the 
values concerned. 

Simpson's Tetrad-Differences (37 subjects). 

The dotted curve shows the relative frequencies that should be expected 
from the sampling errors alone. About half shoidd lie between a and b ; 
extremely few beyond c or d. The continuous rectangles show the relative 
frequencies that actually occurred. 



a 



d 



F=F 



^r rlT 



br^rr-r^ 



•030 -020 -010 - + -010 -020 

Fig. A. 



•030 



A better agreement of a theoretical frequency curve with one of actual 
observations does not, I venture to say, exist throughout psychology, 
or perhaps even throughout statistics. 

The preceding result may be instructively compared with another one. 
The doctrine of Two Factors, as is only proper, has had to make its way 
in the face of strong resistance. But the latter has curiously adopted 
two contrary lines of defence. The one is to question whether the mathe- 
matical criterion would really be satisfied by actual observation ; and this 
doubt, I hope, has been met by the facts just cited. But the other opposi- 
tion has instead asserted that any ordinary table of positive correlations 
would naturally satisfy it, so that such satisfaction must be devoid of 
peculiar significance. And recently this second line of opposition has 
acquired much greater vitality, in that a table of correlations has now 
been brought forward as an actual example ; it is not derived from mental 
but from physical traits, and yet, it is said, exhibits a quite similar 
character. Here is the table : 



192o 



N 



7t 


! SECTIONAL A 


DDRE 


SSES. 














1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1. 


Area of ossification 




88 


60 


62 


43 


31 


25 


26 


2. 


Ratio of ossification 


. 88 




52 


58 


41 


21 


24 


29 


3. 


Height 


. 60 


52 




69 


44 


51 


45 


11 


4. 


Weight 


. 62 


58 


69 




65 


39 


40 


83 


5. 


Chest girth 


. 43 


41 


44 


65 




59 


36 


69 


(i. 


Lung capacity . . 


. 31 


21 


51 


39 


59 




46 


26 


7. 


Strength of grip 


. 25 


24 


45 


40 


36 


46 




14 


8. 


Nutrition 


. 26 


29 


11 


83 


69 


26 


14 





Let us, then, look at the median tetrad- difference derived from this 
table and compare it with the probable error to be expected from sampling 
alone ; the respective values are .089 and .011. That is to say, the 
actually observed value is no less than eight times greater than what theory 
demands. Here again we can examine the whole frequency distribution. 

Tetrad-Differences of A . Gates (115 subjects) . 

The explanation of the figure is the same as in the preceding case of 
Simpson. 



a 



d 

i 



beyond 



■055 



•033 



•Oil - + Oil 

Fig. B. 



■033 



•055 



beyond 



Between the curve showing the values to be expected from the errors 
of sampling and the rectangles showing those actually observed there is 
this time no agreement whatever. 

III. Law of Diminishing Returns. 

So much for the strengthening of the doctrine. I will now proceed to 
describe a rather curious matter that has arisen in the course of its 
elaboration. 

Since the very beginning it has been known that the two factors, 
g and s, the energy and the engines, may have widely different relative 
importance, according to the particular mental operation involved. With 
some operations the superiority of one person over another is prepon- 
derantly decided by their respective amounts of the energy. With other 
operations, on the contrary, the dominant factor is the engine. 

Subsequent research, moreover, has been gradually outlining the cases 
which incline in the one or the other direction. Thus the energy is in general 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



179 



more important for operations that are composite, the engines for those 
that are monotonous. This is natural enough. The composite operation 
really involves several different engines ; the superiority that an individual 
may happen to have in any one of them will tend to be neutralised in the 
average of them all ; but a superiority in the energy will make itself felt 
in each, and thus obtain cumulative influence. Again, the energy is less 
and the engine more influential whenever the operation depends much 
upon the efficiency of some sensory or motor apparatus. This, too, is 
natural enough ; for such apparatus obviously constitutes a part and 
parcel of the engine. Yet again the energy has been found to lose in 
importance as compared with the engine in proportion as the operation 
tends less to create new mental content and more to reproduce old. On 
this profoundly significant matter I need not dilate here, as it seems 
likely to be treated by Dr. McCrae later on. 

The point which I do wish to bring forward in this place is that the 
relative influence of the energy and the engines changes largely with the 
class of person at issue. The most drastic instance of this is supplied 
by a comparison between normal children and those who are mentally 
defective. The work of Abelson may be quoted, where the same tests 
were applied by the same experimenter to both classes. The correlations 
obtained for the two respectively are as follows : 










Normal Children. (78 Casm 


•) 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


1. 


Opposites 


. . 


75 


78 


71 


62 


64 


72 


78 


57 


40 


46 


33 


2. 


Observation 


.. 75 




72 


58 


60 


58 


67 


56 


58 


56 


52 


29 


3. 


Absurdities 


.. 78 


72 




53 


41 


44 


79 


68 


41 


46 


34 


29 


4. 


Memory sentences 


.. 71 


58 


53 




54 


61 


54 


37 


54 


55 


19 


43 


5. 


Crossing o's 


.. 62 


60 


41 


54 




73 


48 


54 


38 


36 


52 


35 


6. 


Geometrical figs. . . 


.. 64 


58 


44 


61 


73 




45 


48 


30 


42 


48 


35 


7. 


Discrim. length . . 


.. 72 


67 


79 


54 


48 


45 




56 


49 


30 


31 


06 


8. 


Crossing patterns. . 


.. 78 


56 


68 


37 


54 


48 


56 




30 


21 


27 


18 


9. 


Memory form 


.. 57 


58 


41 


54 


38 


30 


49 


30 




24 


31 


29 


10. 


Tapping 


.. 40 


56 


46 


55 


36 


42 


30 


21 


24 




29 


18 


11. 


Strength of grip 


.. 46 


52 


34 


19 


52 


48 


31 


27 


31 


29 




28 


12. 


Interpret, pictures 


.. 33 


29 


29 


43 


35 


35 


06 


18 


29 


18 


28 










Mean=. 


466. 






















Defective 


Children. 


(22 Cases.) 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


1. 


Absurdities 


. . 


1.0 


1.0 


98 


97 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


98 


94 


94 


79 


2. 


Opposites 


.. 1.0 




97 


95 


87 


91 


85 


76 


85 


87 


70 


72 


3. 


Crossing patterns. . 


.. 1.0 


97 




91 


80 


88 


68 


92 


74 


78 


76 


67 


4. 


Crossing o's 


.. 98 


95 


91 




85 


77 


84 


67 


76 


81 


73 


55 


5. 


Memory sentences 


.. 97 


87 


80 


85 




73 


90 


68 


88 


65 


78 


68 


6. 


Observation 


.. 1.0 


91 


88 


77 


73 




76 


83 


71 


86 


59 


65 


7. 


Memory form 


.. 1.0 


85 


68 


84 


90 


76 




65 


67 


70 


77 


75 


8. 


Interpret, pictures 


.. 1.0 


76 


92 


67 


68 


83 


65 




74 


80 


80 


59 


9. 


Geometrical figs. . . 


.. 98 


85 


74 


76 


88 


71 


67 


74 




65 


60 


62 


10. 


Discrim. length . . 


.. 94 


87 


78 


81 


65 


86 


70 


80 


65 




51 


45 


11. 


Tapping 


.. 94 


70 


76 


73 


78 


59 


77 


80 


60 


51 




61 


12. 


Strength of grip . . 


.. 79 


72 


67 


55 


68 


65 


75 


59 


62 


45 


61 










Mean=. 


782. 



















All round, obviously, the correlations are much smaller in the case 
of the normal children. This indicates that with these the influence of 
the energy has gone down and that of the engines has correspondingly 
gone up. 

n 2 



180 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Compare next young children with those that are older. Here I may 
quote from the admirable work of Prof. Burt. Applying his test of 
reasoning to numerous children of different ages, he obtained the following 
correlations with the estimates of the teachers : 



Ages 


. . 10-11 


11-12 


12-13 


13-14 


Correlations 


78 


81 


64 


59 



No less marked is this tendency on comparing children with adults. 
As examples may be taken the correlations obtained by Otis and Carothers 
respectively for what appear to have been similar tests in each case. 

Test Correlations with g 

Otis, grades IV-VIII. Carothers, students. 
Analogies . . . . . . .84 .71 

Completion .88 .53 

Directions .86 .45 

Digits, memory . . . . .41 .22 

Now these changes obviously follow a general rule. The correlations 
always become smaller — showing the influence of g to grow less — in just the 
classes of person which on the whole possess this g more abundantly. 
The rule is then that, the more energy available already, the less 
advantage accrues from further increments of it. And this is a well-known 
property of engines in general. Suppose that a ship at moderate expenditure 
of coal goes 15 knots an hour. By additional coal the rate can readily be 
increased another 5 knots. By doubling the addition of coal, however, 
the additional knots will certainly not be anything like doubled. This 
relation is observed not only in engines, but also widely elsewhere. In the 
science of economics, for instance, it comes to expression in the well-known 
law of diminishing returns. A moderate amount of capital spent on a given 
piece of land will produce a certain return ; but on adding further doses of 
capital the returns will not go increasing proportionately. 

In our psychological case of different classes of persons there enter no 
doubt various complications which render the theoretical interpretation 
more dubious. Above all, there is the fact that the classes better endowed 
with g have usually undergone more or less selection. For instance, the 
university students of Carothers had been cleared of the weaklings who 
could not matriculate. And this in itself would tend to lower all correlations 
due to g. However, such facts would seem capable of accounting for only 
part of the phenomenon, not for the whole. There remains enough over 
to suggest a genuine law of diminishing returns for mental as for material 
processes. 

IV. Corollary of Independence. 

The next and final point to be raised here is a corollary of what has been 
said. Since a great many abilities depend almost entirely upon the 
efficiency of the engines involved and this efficiency varies independently 
from individual to individual, we may conclude that these abilities them- 
selves vary almost independently from individual to individual. 

This theorem has, indeed, been called into question. Some authorities 
have asserted the existence of a general ' sensory level ' of ability, so that 
the persons who are successful at one kind of sensory performance will 
tend to be so at others also. Other writers have adopted a similar position 
as regards what they call ' practical ' ability ; persons are taken to be 
either endowed or not endowed with this all round. But no such position 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 181 

would appear to be supported by the available definite evidence. Dr. 
McCrae, for instance, has recently examined the correlations between 
different tests that have been entitled those of Performance. These, even 
among persons of comparatively low status, proved to be, in fact, almost 
independent of each other. Still more striking has been the result of a 
very valuable investigation by Mr. Philpott. He undertook to test the 
discrimination of length, a power which obviously possesses great import- 
ance in many spheres of industry. But he wisely tested this discrimination 
in two different ways. First, he showed pairs of lines and made the subjects 
judge which was the longer. And then he gave them single fines and made 
them, in each case, draw another line of as nearly as possible the same 
length. As result, these two performances, that seemingly are but mani- 
festations of one and the same power, turned out to be almost entirely 
independent. Those who were best at judging between the two lines already 
drawn did not, to any appreciable extent, excel at making a second line 
equal to a given one. Quite similar results were obtained for the dis- 
crimination of angles, as also for perceiving whether a line is straight 
or not. 

Accepting, then, the conclusion that an immense number of abilities 
vary from one individual to another almost independently of each other, 
what is the practical result ? Let us try to get a notion how such abilities 
of any person must be distributed in respect of excellence. By all experience, 
and also by statistical theoryinto which we cannot enter here, the great bulk 
of his abilities will tend to be mediocre ; that is to say, they will be near 
the general average of his class. A fair number will be distinctly above 
this average, and a fair number below. A small number will be much 
above ; and so also below. The whole frequency distribution will, in 
fact, have a bell-like shape similar to that which was shown by the curves 
of the tetrad-differences to be expected from sampling errors. At the 
extreme ends of the distribution will lie a very small number of performances 
for which the person is, on the one side a genius, and on the other an 
idiot. Every normal man, woman, and child is, then, a genius at some- 
thing as well as an idiot at something 

It remains to discover what — at any rate in respect of the genius. 
This must be a most difficult matter, owing to the very fact that it occurs 
in only a minute proportion out of all possible abilities. It certainly cannot 
be detected by any of the testing procedures at present in current usage. 
But these procedures are capable, I believe, of vast improvement. 

The preceding considerations have often appealed to me on looking 
at a procession of the Unemployed, and hearing someone whisper that 
they are mostly the Unemployable. That they are so actually I cannot 
help concurring. But need they be so necessarily ? Remember that every 
one of these, too, is a genius at something — if we could only discover what. 
I cherish no illusion, indeed, that among them may be marching some 
' mute inglorious Milton, some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.' 
For these are walks in life that appear to involve a large amount of g. 
But I am quite confident that every one of them could do something that 
would make him a treasure in some great industrial concern. And I see 
no reason why some should not have even become famous, in such occupa- 
tions, for example, as those of dancers, jockeys, or players of popular 
games. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



THE PH^OPHYCE,E AND THEIR 
PROBLEMS. 

ADDRESS BY 

Professor J. LLOYD WILLIAMS, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



When the Botanical Section of the British Association did me the honour 
of inviting me to preside at its meeting, several members of the Committee 
seem to have regarded it as a foregone conclusion that the subject of this 
address would be the Phaeophyceae. But for this unconscious com- 
pulsion on their part, one would probably have selected some other subject ; 
for the greater one's interest may be in any department of a science the 
more keenly one realises the difficulties of its problems, and the more 
conscious one is of his own ignorance and helplessness regarding them. 
There are, however, several good reasons for selecting the Phaeophyceae 
for discussion at the present time. The study of many life processes 
ought to prove easier and more fruitful when carried on in the simpler 
Algae than in the more complex higher plants ; for not only does one 
come nearer to the problems of life and its past history in the Algal world, 
but one is able also to concentrate attention on fewer factors at a time, 
and thus obtain results with far greater expedition and certainty. 

The Phaeophyceae present a remarkably wide range of plant forms. 
In regard to external form and tissue structure, the higher members of 
the class are the most highly differentiated among the Thallophyta, while 
in size they far exceed any members of the Green or Bed Algae. The 
mode of sexual reproduction ranges from isogamy to pronounced oogamy ; 
and, although fertilisation is invariably external, the difference in the 
reproductive schemes and life histories of such representatives as the 
Cutleriacese, the Dictyotacese, the Laminariaceae, and the Fucaceae are 
so great that it is at first difficult to believe in their descent from a common 
stock. And yet the uniformity of structure of the motile reproductive 
cells, with their characteristic lateral cilia, together with the similarity of 
the colouring matter, and the products of assimilation throughout the 
group, are such that there is general agreement as to their close relation- 
ship in the distant past. 

Some recent discoveries in the Phseophyceae have added to the interest 
already felt in the group. While previous researches in the Cutleriaceae, 
Dictyotaceae, and Fucaceae had given us the key to the cytological 
relations of their sporophytes and gametophytes, the position of the 
Laminarians was still a paradoxical one, for here we had plants of very 
advanced somatic structure, possessing sieve-tubes comparable with those 
of the Flowering Plants, and yet presenting the most elementary mode of 
reproduction — an asexual one, by means of zoospores. The successful 



K.— BOTANY. 183 

investigations of Sauvageau, followed by those of Kylin and others, nave 
now solved the puzzle ; and as a result the systematists have moved the 
Laminarians from among the Phseosporse to compete for the premier 
position with the Fucoids. At the same time Dr. Margery Knight's 
studies at the other end of the series of Brown Seaweeds — the Ectocar- 
pacese — already promises to be most fruitful in valuable information about 
the cytology and ecology of these, the simplest of the Phseosporse. 

There is, however, still another reason for discussing this group of 
Algse. Dr. Church, by his insistence on the marine origin of the Land 
Flora, and by bis very detailed exposition of the successive steps in the 
supposed transmigration ; and still more by the importance he assigns to 
the Brown Seaweeds in the ' elaboration of specialisations,' which (quoting 
Church's own expressions) ' subsequently adapted and improved (often 
beyond knowledge) in the new environment of subaerial vegetation,' has 
roused renewed interest in the group. One hardly knows which to admire 
most — the wealth and precision of knowledge possessed by the author, 
or the daring flights of imagination and scientific speculation indulged in 
by him. Personally, I confess to a lack of courage to follow the theorist 
in his adventures. I marvel at the advocate's complete mastery of his 
brief, and admire the ingenuity of the arguments he advances to support 
his case : yet, when I try to follow his lead I feel an insecurity akin to 
that of a man walking on quicksands. The story is interesting, often 
romantic ; and one wishes it were true, if only to satisfy the questionings 
of one's mind ; but though the general idea may be sound, the detailed 
elaboration of it bristles with difficulties, especially to minds that, like 
my own, have the misfortune to be both slow and sceptical. But here 
we at once lay ourselves open to the author's pungent criticism : ' If this 
is not the story of the rise of plant-life in the world, the field is still open 
to anyone who can concoct a more convincing narrative ; but in such a 
case it has to be a better one, and must give a more intelligible reason for 
the same natural phenomena.' A shrewd thrust, which it is not easy to 
parry. 

When we turn from the field of hypothesis and speculation to the dis- 
cussion of facts and phenomena, the contents of these memoirs must 
excite everyone's admiration. The wealth of knowledge of plants (and 
animals) displayed by the writer, his extensive and detailed acquaintance 
with the literature of botany and the allied sciences, the keen insight 
shown by him into the interplay of organisms and their various environ- 
mental factors, his passion for exactitude and measurement (though it 
often makes his phraseology highly technical), and his pregnant and highly 
condensed style (which, paradoxically, does not always save him from 
repetition and loose arrangement) — all these things quicken our interest 
in the numerous problems that are dealt with. The memoirs are treasure- 
houses of knowledge collected from far and near. Their pages are 
reservoirs of learning that continually overflow into footnotes — always 
informative, but often pithy and even pungent. 

In his ' Somatic Organisation of the Phseophycese,' 1 Church is exceed- 
ingly severe in his condemnation of morphologists who confine their 
attention to reproductive structures, and who neglect the study of the 
soma. ' Given a moss-capsule,' says he, ' the timber-tree follows as 
1 Church, A. H., Bot. Mems., 10, 1920. 



184 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

a minor detail, so long as it produces asexual tetrads.' He himself deals 
with all these somatic considerations with great thoroughness, as may 
be seen from the following selection from the numerous sectional headings 
of the memoir : ' Evolution of growing-points ' ; ' Systems of Ramifica- 
tion ' ; ' Symmetry ' ; ' Phyllotaxis ' ; ' Space form and the Theory of 
Members ' ; ' Evolution of the Leaf-member ' ; ' Pneumatocysts and 
Pneumatophores ' ; ' Evolution of Gametophores ' ; ' Theory of Tissue 
Differentiation ' ; ' Mechanism of Tissue Differentiation ' ; ' Mucilage- 
hairs and Ducts,' &c. All these are treated philosophically, and the 
relation of various structures to the factors of the environment expounded 
with a thorough mastery of detail. 

In the course of the work a classification is given of Plant-forms, 
arranged in order of increasing complexity and efficiency. Though in 
matters of detail the author could improve the classification in respect 
of clearness and consistency, it is sufficiently interesting to justify our 
indicating, in mere outline, the principal forms dealt with. 

The series begins with: 1. Ectocarpoid Forms, consisting in Ectocarpus 
and Pylaiella of much branched, uniseriate filaments. The outstanding 
advantage of this form is that every cell unit is fully exposed to the 
external medium ; the inevitable disadvantage of the form is its weakness 
to withstand heavy seas : this also prevents its attaining a great size. 

Sphacelaria is so different from the above that one would have pre- 
ferred its being placed under a different heading. It is remarkable for 
its big apical cell, and the multiseptation of its products, with very little 
or no intercalary growth. This gives greatly increased strength, but the 
plants remain small. In the higher members the central cells in the 
older axes receive less light, and are not in contact with the external 
mediums. 

Cladostephus, by further outgrowths from the primary cortex, develops 
a ' mantle ' or secondary cortex which greatly increases its mechanical 
strength. One would have preferred to include this under the ' Corticated 
Forms ' rather than among the ' Ectocarpoid Types.' 

2. The Cable Type with axial strands of large cells or filaments, often 
strengthened by interwoven hyphal outgrowths ; the whole invested with 
tufts of branches radially arranged in a palisade-like manner and embedded 
in a matrix of mucilage. These ' ultimate ramuli ' carry on the work of 
photosynthesis and also bear the reproductive organs. Mesogloia is an 
example of this type, while Chordaria shows considerable advance in 
condensation and efficiency. 

3. The Multiseptate Cable Type. — Apart from a few small plants, 
Chorda is the only example given of the type. It interests the author 
greatly as he sees in it a transition from the ' Cable Type ' to the ' Paren- 
chymatous Type.' The only reason for connecting Chorda with Mesogloia 
or Chordaria is the fact that the whole surface, except the basal part, is 
covered with paraphyses and sporangia. It may, however, be pointed out 
that in its parenchymatous structure, its possession of well-developed 
trumpet-hyphaj, in the structure of its reproductive cells, and in the nature 
of its alternation of generation, Chorda is a true Laminarian ; and, as will 
be shown later, it is far nearer Laminaria itself than Saccorhiza is. For this 
reason it is difficult to. see why a separate division should be made to receive 
this plant-form. The author's remarks about the efficiency of the form are 



K.— BOTANY. 185 

instructive. He points out that ' it occupies the least area of the sub- 
stratum,' that this allows ' indefinite gregarious association '■ ; and that it 
extends ' longitudinally to the limit of mechanical cohesion and hapteron- 
system ' — ' Individuals may thus attain in quiet waters a range of 40 ft., 
while the filamentous soma gives little more range than 1 ft.' 

4. The Corticated Type. — In this are included Stilophora, Spermatochnus, 
Arthrocladia, &c, together with the well-known Desmarestia. The latter 
has an axis consisting simply of branching, uniseriate filaments with 
' trichorhallic ' growth, but completely obscured by a massive develop- 
ment of pseud oparenchyma, due to the growth of descending ramuli. 
This bulky tissue may show some amount of differentiation, and the 
success of the strengthening device enables the plants to reach a length of 
4 to 6 ft. In summer the plants bear tufts of delicate branches which are 
shed again before winter — a seasonal adaptation resembling that obtaining 
in our deciduous trees. 

5. The Parenchymatous Type including laminate forms like Punctaria 
as well as tubular types like Asperococeus ; and derivable from a Chorda- 
like type by suppression of external ramalia, localisation of sori, and 
immersion of reproductive structures in the parenchymatous thallus. 
The author maintains that ' there can be no doubt, so far, that sorus- 
location is always to be taken as the indication of a preceding condition 
of diffused production of similar ramalia-systems.' 

6. Improved Parenchymatous Types. — These, culminating in the 
FucacecB and the Laminariacece, and presenting a surprising variety of 
forms, with a high degree of differentiation of members, and an elaboration 
of tissue-systems far in advance of anything known in any other group of 
the Thallophyta, are far too well known to need description. The author's 
treatment of the factors concerned in the evolution of the various forms 
and their morphological significance is exhaustive and interesting. He 
adds equally instructive accounts of various reduced forms, parasites and 
endophytes. 

Among the structures about which further information is much needed 
are the characteristic Laminarian ' Trumpet-hyphse.' Wille 2 published a 
drawing of these structures in Laminaria Cloustoni and he showed the 
perforated sieveplate, but not the thickenings of the walls — like many 
others, he regarded them as artifacts. Oliver 3 demonstrated the presence, 
nature and origin of the callus often found in them, and incidentally 
described the walls as being ' striated.' These markings, however, do not 
appear in the drawings. Miss Sykes (Mrs. Thoday), 4 employing the methods 
of Gardiner and Hill, proved that the crosswalls in these structures were 
true sieveplates traversed by slime-strings enclosed in callus rods. Owing 
to the swelling method employed, the thickenings could not be seen. 
Later she expressed the opinion that they were artifacts. Previous to this, 
Rosenthal 5 had figured the ' spiral thickenings ' in Laminaria, and finding 
them also in Chorda (of which Reinke 6 published drawings in the following 
year), he made the pertinent suggestion that this fact should weigh in 

2 Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Qes., 1885. 
8 Ann. of Bot. i., 1887. 

* Ibid, xxii, 1908. 

* Flora, 1890. 

* Atlas deulsrh. Meeresalgen, 1891. 



186 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

discussing the relation of Chorda to the Laniinariacese. Killian (1911), 
describing the development of the tissues in young plants of Laminaria, 
seems to hold the view that the thickenings are artifacts. 

In a forthcoming paper an account will be given of some work of my own 
on these structures. Only the more important conclusions will be mentioned 
here. There can be no doubt whatever that the thickenings are normal 
structures, as they can be seen equally well in sections of fresh material 
mounted in sea-water, and in well-fixed material. In optical section, 
the outer limit of the wall of the hypha is perfectly even, while the inner 
is sharply ridged or serrated. In surface view, parallel lines or nearly 
parallel lines are seen running from the serrations across the tube. These 
suggested to Rosenthal the idea of spiral markings ; really, however, they 
are reticulate. In badly-fixed material there may be crumplings of the 
walls, due to a longitudinal contraction of the medulla, or delicate trans- 
verse or oblique striations, which are, however, outside the walls, and are 
due to the contraction of the outer mucilaginous layer being less than 
that of the inner wall. In most cases the bulbous dilations on either side 
of the sieveplates are unequal in size ; and where this is the case they 
have a definite orientation, the bigger bulb being on the upper (distal) 
side. It is interesting to note that the reticulate thickenings are not 
continued into the larger bulbous expansion. It frequently happens, as in 
the higher plants, that fixed material shows the presence of much coagulated 
substance, which in most cases is located in the upper part of the segments, 
against the lower surface of the sieve-plates. It had already been found by 
several investigators that the substance of the cross-plates is very different 
from that of the wall. The application by the writer of the same and other 
tests shows clearly that the thickening layer is also different from the rest 
of the wall, and that its reactions resemble in many respects those of the 
very resistant cross-walls. The true trumpet-hyph&s pursue a vertical 
course among the web of ordinary hypha?, many of which show 
similar ' trumpet ' ends, which, as Church points out, ' are not so much 
dilated, as expressing the full-sized transverse septum of the elongated 
units.' There can be no doubt that many writers have confused the two 
kinds and thus arrived at wrong conclusions ; but the presence of the 
thickenings will always enable us to distinguish the true trumpet-hyphse 
from the others. They occur in all typical Laminariaceae. Oliver gives 
a list of eight genera in which they are found ; to these I have been able to 
add five. They occur even in the insignificant Adenocystis. The one striking 
exception is Saccorhiza. This and other considerations raise the question 
whether this curious plant should be included among the Laminariacese. 
Oliver points out that in Macrocystis the trumpet-hyphse never show 
connections with the true sieve-tubes. Several writers, relying on sections 
of alcohol material, where the tissues are compressed and distorted, have 
complained of the difficulty of tracing the courses of the trumpet-hyphse. 
It is not difficult, however, to tease out the tubes. Thus, from the inner 
surface of a hollow stem of Macrocystis, the writer obtained masses of 
woolly threads, consisting entirely of beautifully regular trumpet-hyphae. 
The facts suggest several interesting problems : — 

1. What is the function of the tissue ? Is it storage, conduction 
of food material, or merely a strengthening of the whole plant ? 

2. If it subserves either or both of the two first-named functions, how 



K.— BOTANY. 187 

do the elaborated substances enter or leave the tubes, seeing that the 
whole system is self-contained ? 

3. Why are the tubes furnished with resistant internal thickenings ? 
Is it because their osmotic pressure is too low to resist the lateral pressure 
from the other medullary tissues ? If so, it is interesting to observe the 
evolution in this group of a device for strengthening the cellulose walls 
of (according to the majority of writers) proteid-conducting elements, 
subsequently elaborated in the higher plants for the strengthening of 
lignified water-conducting cells. 

4. Are the dilatations of any use to the plant, and is there any meaning 
in the frequent inequality of the two bulbs and their orientation ? The 
possibility occurred to the writer that their peculiar form enabled the plant 
to utilise the tidal pressures to aid the translocation of substances within 
them. To test this, experiments were carried out on two different lines, 
but they had to be discontinued, partly because of the lack of time, but 
also because of the difficulty and expense of constructing a culture arrange- 
ment capable of standing alternating pressures of 20 ft. or more. The 
fact that some Laminarias grow round the edges of floating stages where 
there is no alternation of tidal pressure seems to make the hypothesis 
untenable ; still, it would be interesting to test it. 

There are numerous other details of cell structure in the Phseophycese 
that would repay investigation. Among them may be cited the 
strengthening bands of certain true sieve-tubes ; the fine striations across 
large cortical cell-walls (well shown, together with crossed pit-slits, in 
Chorda) 7 and in the long cells in the medulla of the stipe of Saccorhiza ; 
the complicated stratification of the very thick distal wall in 
the young antheridium of Dictyota with layers of different chemical 
composition, together with the sharply marked change in the nature of 
the vertical wall about midway between its base and apex, and numerous 
other interesting details. In the same genus, Heil 8 describes a swelling 
arrangement in the basal cell of the tetrasporangia that aids in the libera- 
tion of the spores. There is, as yet, no general agreement as to the supposed 
fusion of hyphse in the medulla of Laniinariacese 9 . Some cytological 
work of my own on the multinucleate cells of the meristematic region shows 
some interesting features. 

The great majority of Pha3ophyceae are characterised by having long, 
delicate hyaline hairs which, in the higher forms, arise in clusters in 
so-called ' cryptostomata.' It is a striking sight to see a miniature forest 
of Chorda in deep, clear water ; each tall, thin plant surrounded by a 
widely-extending halo of pellucid hairs. In spite of all that has been 
written about these structures, their function remains conjectural. The 
following are some of the suggestions that have been made concerning 
their use : — 

(1) That they respire, and absorb nutritive substances. 

(2) That they serve as shock-absorbers and prevent injury to the plant 
from friction. 

(3) That they protect against intense illumination. 

• Pringsheim, E G., Arch. Protisknk 47, 1924. 

» Ber. d. Bot. Ges., 42, 1924. 

» Killian, Zeilschrift fiir Bot., 1911. 



188 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

(4) That they protect against epiphytes. This is hardly true, for 
Chorda often bears luxuriant ectocarpoid vegetation. 

(5) Church describes them (but with some hesitation) as mucilage 
organs, and calls them ' mucilage hairs.' 

(6) Though perhaps not a primary function, I feel certain that in 
muddy waters the hairs effectively prevent sand and silt from settling on 
the thallus. In collecting Dictyota on oyster-banks in the Menai Straits, 
I have often observed passing steamers sending waves that churned up 
the mud, which afterwards seemed to cover the Dictyota plants. A slight 
movement of the water shook off the dirt, which was then perceived to 
have been caught and suspended in the web of hairs. 

Let us return for a moment to Church's Memoirs, and consider his 
reasons for regarding this group as being so important. ' The Phaeo- 
phycese,' says he, ' illustrate in a manner beyond all other types of the 
plant-kingdom the beginnings of plant anatomy and vegetable morphology.' 
Now there is a widespread impression that Church regards the higher plants 
as having descended from the brown seaweeds. This is an error, for he 
says : ' It is from types parallel and conformable with these that all the 
higher flora of the land has been at some time derived ' ; and further : 
' The inexplicable fact remains that they ' (the first land-plants) ' appear 
to have been a green, starch-forming series of parenchymatous organism, 
a type at the present time wholly unrepresented in normal sea-water.' 
In spite of the positiveness of many of his pronouncements on evolutionary 
questions, it is not always easy to decide how far we can accept them at 
their face value. Sometimes we wonder whether certain terms are used 
metaphorically, and not literally ; and whether certain types are quoted 
because they are analogous rather than related. And yet statements like 
' Land Flora has been undoubtedly produced from the highest plant 
organisms attained in the sea ' seem explicit enough. So also is the 
following : ' The whole of the fundamental framework of the organisation 
of the land plant, the anatomy of its tissues, the morphological differentia- 
tion of members . . . are the expression of response to the conditions of 
marine environment.' The difficulty here is that so many evolutionists 
hold that new forms do not originate from the culminating members of a 
series, but from lower ones, because the latter are, presumably, more 
plastic. It is not for me to argue the question, but simply to present the 
problems involved. When we are told that ' forms of plant life have 
passed on to the dominion of the land, becoming adapted in turn to the 
novel conditions of subaerial existence,' are we to suppose that the species 
literally became ' adapted,' or that they gave rise to new forms which 
succeeded better in the new environment ? I quote the following without 
comment : — 

' The idea that all these factors, largely the commonplaces of the 
Land Flora, should have been evolved in the sea, to run to waste, and 
that they required to be again invented under entirely different condi- 
tions in the evolution of larger land plants from such depauperated 
relics as a fresh-water Alga (Coleochcete) or retrograde Bryophyte 
(Riccia) shows so remarkable a lack of insight into the more fundamental 
principles on which life has been evolved, that the rise and per- 
sistence of such views may well remain a historical curiosity of the 
science.' 



K.— BOTANY. 189 

The author traces all ' the fundamentals of the construction ' of plants 
(and animals) to their ' preceding phase of marine benthon.' Does this 
imply that the more rigorous conditions of the Land Habit — generally- 
believed to be more potent in the evolution of new forms — is incapable 
of ' inventing ' a new structure ? 

In most cases the author explains the various stages in evolution in 
terms of physics and chemistry ; and it is interesting to note that he 
believes that every adaptation is the response of the organism to environ- 
mental factors. Then what exactly does he mean when he says that ' no 
feature of somatic organisation was ever designed from the beginning to 
meet the special circumstances in which it may be now functional ' ? — 
I suppose we must regard the words ' designed from the beginning ' as 
a metaphorical expression, for the very next expression is : ' Teleological 
interpretations carry their own condemnation.' But there are several 
other such examples, and they are rather puzzling. 

The above are a few of the many questions that occur to one in studying 
these interesting and original ideas — questions asked in no captious spirit, 
but in a real desire to obtain a little more light on the story of life in the 
plant — a story that, of late, has become to many of us more and more 
bewildering. 

A great deal of work has been carried out of late on the various bodies 
found in the Phaeophycean cell, but so great is the disagreement between 
the investigators as to the origin, composition, and, in the case of some,- 
even the functions of these, that we feel the need for additional research. 
Since the careful researches of Hansteen, the bodies which he called 
' Fucosan,' but which were called by Crato, Church, and others, ' physodes,' 
have attracted attention. One of the most remarkable facts relating to 
them is their power of self-movement. This is described as ' amoeboid,' 
but in Dictyota it is often more slug-like. It is curious to watch one 
moving along a protoplasmic strand, the back humped up, but the anterior 
and thinner end turning from side to side as if feeling its way. That 
they give a bright red colour with a solution of vanillin in HC1 is well- 
known, but some of the writers do not seem to be aware that the reaction 
is not given in young cells, and that the colour is particularly pronounced 
in old reproductive cells especially old antheridia. Kylin and Mangenot 
have again investigated these bodies, but their results are at variance. The 
same may be said as to the accounts that have been given by Mangenot 
and others of the origin and functions of mitochondria and other cell 
constituents, as well as of the studies of Kylin, Meves, and Mangenot of 
the constitution of Fucus antherozoids. These, then, are additional 
problems requiring further investigation. 

Within recent years the most striking advance in Algological study 
has been made in our knowledge of the reproductive processes in the 
Phseophycea?. Until a few years ago the only member of the group whose 
mode of reproduction was well known was Fucus. Opinions were divided 
regarding gametic fusions, many of the reported zygotes being described 
by the sceptics as double spores that had not separated in the gametangium, 
a plausible explanation, for the phenomenon is frequent even as high as in 
the eggs of the Fucacese. Very little was known even about the repro- 
ductive structures in the Pheeosporales, and many of the failures of Algo- 
logists to trace the reproductive processes were ascribed to parthenogenesis 



190 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

or apogamy, .or even to pathological conditions. A closer study of 
the living plants, and particularly the many discoveries of Sauvageau, 
together with careful cytological researches, and the consequent 
demonstration, in most of the groups examined, of meiosis, has greatly 
clarified our ideas regarding reproduction in the Brown Seaweeds, and 
made necessary a re-classification of some of the genera. 

In her interesting paper on Pylaiella, Dr. Knight 10 shows that the 
plants are either diploid or haploid, the former being the more numerous. 
Diploid plants may bear both unilocular and multilocular sporangia. 
The former undergo meiosis and consequently produce haploid spores 
which, as would be expected, germinate into haploid plants. The latter 
bear multilocular sporangia with haploid spores which fuse in pairs, and 
consequently are true gametes, and from the zygotes diploid plants again 
result. Returning to the plurilocular sporangia born on the diploid 
plants, the spores not having undergone reduction do not fuse, and 
consequently grow up into diploid plants, and in this manner there may 
be several successive generations of diploid plants. There is a further 
irregularity upon which fresh light would be welcome : in some cases the 
diploid number continues to the fourth or fifth segmentation of the 
sporange, and then, without any sign of synapsis, the number changes to 
the half. If the author (following Kuckuck) is correct in regarding 
Pylaiella as primitive, it is interesting to compare the fluctuating character 
of the cytological rhythm here with its firm stabilisation in Dictyota. 
There, out of many thousands of sexual plants examined, I have never 
seen a single one that bore tetra-sporangia 11 ; nor have I seen more than 
one example where both oogonia and antheridia occurred together. 

There have been material additions to our knowledge of the repro- 
ductive organs of the Phseosporales, but there are gaps still to be filled, 
and it is unfortunate that some supposed discoveries are received with 
doubt by some other investigators, who suggest that the reproductive 
structures observed belong to other plants growing epiphytically upon 
the ones described. 

Sauvageau's account of the parasitic Ectocarpus Padince with its mega- 
and meio-sporangia, and its useless ' antheridia ' is particularly intriguing. 
His description of reproduction in Dictyosiphon introduces us to a new 
type of alternation of generations, and it has already induced Taylor 12 to 
institute a new sub-order to receive it. It is interesting to note, however, 
that work done on plants growing on the Welsh coast give materially 
different results. There is no need to dwell upon Cutleria, for its interest- 
ing story is familiar to us. Clearly, one of the urgent problems in this 
field is the working out of the full life-histories and the satisfactory solution 
of the cytology of typical members of all the important genera of the 
Phseosporales. 

Let us now turn our attention to the Cyclosporales. Of the Dictyotacese, 
Haliseris (the three forms) and Taonia (tetrasporic plants) have been 
investigated by the writer ; Georgevitch 13 has examined the asexual 

10 Trans. Boy. Soc. Edin., 1923. 

11 It is true that a supposed case has heen reported. In all probability, however, 
this was due to oospores segmenting on the thallus — a frequent occurrence. 

12 Bot. Gaz., 74, 1922. 

1S Comp. Bend. Acad. Sci., 167, 1918. 



K.— BOTANY. 191 

generation of Padina, and Mr. Carter, one of my assistants, has a paper 
on the same subject awaiting publication. All the results are confirmatory 
of the existence of meiosis in the tetraspore mother cell in the Dictyotacese. 
Furthermore, most of us know that Hoyt, for Dictyota, and Wolfe, for 
Padina, cultivated, in the sea, plantlets from tetraspores, and from fertilised 
eggs started on oyster shells ; and in this way they obtained confirmation 
of the existence of alternation. But there are certain facts that make it ex- 
tremely difficult to understand how the succession of plants is maintained. 
Both Taonia and Padina are, on our coasts, almost solely tetrasporic. I 
have not collected a gamete-bearing plant of either for years ! From fairly 
deep water in Cardigan Bay, big, tangled clumps of thread-like/, intricata 
of Dictyota can be dragged : it is invariably asexual. In dredging for 
Cutleria in the estuary of the Yealm, quantities of very broad Dictyota 
often came up : it never bore reproductive organs of any sort. In the 
three first cases the problem is, what becomes of the myriad tetraspores 
that are shed ; and, in the absence of sexual plants, where do the 
abundant tetraspore plants come from ? Have the plants any contrivance 
for perennation ? If so, the tetraspores must have lost their function. 
If not, there must be some cytological changes as yet undiscovered. 

In the writer's Dictyota work it was proved that the supposed par- 
thenogenesis reported by earlier observers consisted only of a few apparent 
segmentations. A cytological examination showed that the nuclear 
figures were very irregularly multipolar ; and as a result the chromosomes 
were irregularly distributed, ultimately forming nests of nuclei. This made 
it evident why under these conditions normal segmentation could not go 
on. Wolfe has shown by cultural methods that ' unfertilised eggs divide 
freely, producing a cell-body of varying size, but which invariably fails 
to mature.' It would be interesting to find out in this case also how the 
nuclei behave. It is instructive to note that, in the Cutleriacese, both 
parthenogenesis and apogamy can occur. In the Dictyotacese the 
capacity for producing plants from unfertilised ova has been lost, except 
for a few initial divisions. In experiments on unfertilised oospheres of 
Fucus, a few showed projections suggestive of incipient rhizoids, but the 
nuclei never showed signs of dividing, and the oospheres never even 
acquired proper walls. This takes no account of experiments, such 
as Overton's, in artificial parthenogenesis. 

The great importance attaching to Sauvageau's discovery of the 
gametophytes of Saccorhiza has already been mentioned. The young 
sporophytes of Laminaria, Chorda and Alaria had already been identified, 
but the gametophytes from which they arose were called protonemata, 
while the very small-celled male gametophytes in the cultures were 
regarded as intruding Algae. There was a growing suspicion as to their 
true nature, but the proof obtained by Sauvageau was a very unexpected 
one, exhibiting a curious peculiarity of Saccorhiza. Many of the 
sporangia do not liberate their spores : the wall swells greatly and the 
spores germinate into the two kinds of gametophytes while still enclosed. 
I have been able to verify this for myself. One wonders whether this 
curious behaviour obtains in the sea ; and, if it does, whether it is of 
advantage to the plant. Yendo's 14 account of Phyllitis shows some 
distinctive features. While filamentous gametophytes are formed in the 

14 Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 33, 1919. 



192 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

usual manner, the antheridia, instead of producing single antherozoids, 
contain a large number of very small, motile sperms. The oogonium is an 
outgrowth of an intercalary cell, which becomes separated by a wall and 
is finally detached. Ikari, 15 in his account of Laminaria religiosa, describes 
the antheridia as forming a continuous row, with a common opening in 
the terminal part of the row. This may, perhaps, help to explain the case 
of Phyllitis. 

Two characteristics of the spore germination in all the Laminarias 
investigated are : — 

1. The formation of a tube through which the contents of the spore 
migrate into the new bulbous enlargement. 

2. The division of the spore nucleus, and (except in rare cases) the 
degeneration of one of the daughter nuclei. 

One wonders whether these constantly recurring features have any 
significance in the life-history. One writer suggests that the nuclear 
division establishes sexuality. But what exactly does that mean ? 

There is no time to enumerate the additional genera whose gameto- 
phytes have been identified by different observers, but in all cases the 
difference in size between the two generations is startling. To see 
fertilisation actually taking place is more a matter of chance than any- 
thing else ; and, so far as is known, the writer is the only one who has been 
lucky enough to witness fertilisation, and to secure preparations showing 
the two gametic nuclei within the newly-fertilised oospheres. 

Some writers have discounted the accounts of the gametophytes on the 
ground that the latter had only been obtained in cultures. The objection 
is no longer valid, for Ikari 16 claims, in the case of Laminaria religiosa, to 
have seen the same structures in the natural habitat, and the writer has 
discovered young Chorda sporophytes connected with gametophytes in the 
sea at Aberystwyth. 

The question of the systematic position of Chorda and Saccorhiza has 
already been touched upon. Both the histology and the mode of repro- 
duction justify the growing tendency to ^laceChorda with the Laminariacese. 
The difference in the initiation of the sporophyte — the fact that the 
ovum does not emerge, that it is still enclosed in the inner wall, and that 
the mouth of the oogonium remains open 17 — seems to indicate that it is not 
so closely related to the other genera as they are to each other. Other 
characters deserve consideration — its peculiar form, the fact that the 
whole surface is covered with sporangia, and, in spite of its energetic 
growth, its annual character. Saccorhiza is, in its internal structure, so 
different from all the other Laminariacese that it should be placed in a 
family by itself. The whole plant is unique. It is true that the mode 
of reproduction closely resembles that of the Laminarias ; in other respects 
it is widely different. The large basal bulb ; the provisions for maintaining 
the rigidity of the flat stipe (the twist at the base, the curious furbelows 18 
and the strong, fibre-like cells); the sporangia covering bulb (and spines), 
stipe, and parts of the lamina ; the disappearance of the huge lamina and 
stipe at the close of the summer, and the continuance of spore production 

15 Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 35, 1921. 

16 loc. cit. 

17 Williams, Ann. Bot., 35, 1921. 

18 Barber, Ann. Bot., 3, 1890. 



K.— BOTANY. 193 

through the winter by the persistent bulb, are all characteristics peculiar 
to itself. 

In the Fucaceae there have been no striking discoveries, but there are 
many problems awaiting solution. A considerable amount of attention 
has been paid to the study of Sargassum and of the Sargasso Sea, but 
the accounts of both are conflicting. One writer states very definitely 
that there are no mitoses in the oogonium of Sargassum. This is now 
contradicted, and we are told that the usual eight nuclei are formed, 
although only one oosphere results. A statement that requires confirma- 
tion is that in one of the Sargassums 19 two of the eight nuclei remain 
functional in the formation of the one egg, and that there is no uni- 
nucleate stage in the oosphere. If so, then the resulting embryo must 
originate from a double ovum ! There comes from New South Wales 20 
an account of a parasitic Fucoid — Notheia anomala — where antheridia 
have not been found. The author conjectures that reproduction is by 
means of parthenogenetic eggs. If this is so it is important that we 
should know whether the chromosomes undergo reduction. 

Members of the Fucacese have proved useful in the investigation of 
physiological problems. It appears to the writer that much might be 
learnt from them about the intimate details of the physiological processes 
concerned in fertilisation. The unique fertilisation phenomena in 
Halidrys have already been described, but as no figures have ever been 
published lantern illustrations are now shown. Many questions suggest 
themselves. What is the nature of the stimulus imparted to the 
cytoplasm of the ovum by the cilia of the gyrating antherozoids ? What 
are the physical processes concerned in the consequent swelling of the 
oosphere ? How is sperm-entry effected ? What are the sudden chemical 
and physical changes that cause the protrusions, the emission of toxic 
substance, and the sudden formation of the investing wall ? 21 These 
and numerous other interesting questions demand for their solution a 
botanist who is also an expert physicist and chemist. 

The much-discussed theory of ' alternation of generations ' is now 
being re-examined in the light of the new Phseophycean facts. The 
divergent types represented in the group are very interesting. Here we 
have Pylaiella with a fluctuating alternation, where the diploid phase 
may be several times repeated, and with a similarity of form in the two 
generations ; Cutleria, with dissimilar forms, and an alternation that is 
not strict ; Dictyota with ' homologous ' forms and a strict alternation ; 
Laminaria with the generations as dissimilar in size and structure as any 
in the Vascular Cryptogams ; and lastly, the Fucacece, variously described 
as presenting alternation with extreme reduction of the gametophyte 
and (for the first time) retention within the sporophyte ; or as merely a 
' nuclear alternation of generations ' ; or, as having no alternation at all 
— the plant being a gametophyte, and thus comparable to an animal. 

The majority of botanists have accepted Strasburger's view that 
Fucus is a sporophyte, and that the so-called oogonia and antheridia, up 

19 Tahara, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 37, 1923. 

20 Williams, May M., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 8. Wales, 48, 1923. 

21 The whole of the life-history and cytology of Halidrys, including meiosis, gamete 
formation, fertilisation, germination, and general ecology has been worked out, and 
the results will be published at an early date. 

1925 o 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to the four-nucleate phase (the completion of meiosis), are really macro- 
and micro-sporangia respectively ; and that the gametophyte stages are 
limited to the few succeeding nuclear divisions, resulting in the formation 
of oospheres and sperms. Church, however, combats this view most 
vigorously. 22 According to him : ' to talk of alternation of generations 
is mere academic futility. There is only one soma, or one generation, so 
there is nothing to alternate. To attempt to construct an idea of two 
generations to bolster up an academic conception of "gametophyte" and 
" sporophyte " borrowed from land flora is nonsense.' 

Elsewhere Church advances cogent arguments in support of his view ; 
and his comparison of the efficiency of the reproductive arrangements in 
Fucoids with those in animals is interesting and persuasive. When he 
asks us to concentrate our attention on Meiosis as the most important 
fact in the racial history, we shall most probably all agree with him. 
When, however, he bids botanists ' scrap ' the ' alternation of generations ' 
superstition, many will demur. Some of his opponents point out that in 
vigorous cultures of Laminaria the spore may give rise to an egg after 
only one nuclear division — the one in the embryospore. This brings it 
very close to what they claim happens in Fucus. Another point, though 
small, and perhaps of no great significance, is interesting. In its supposed 
sporangial condition the Fucus ' oogonium ' is unilocular, like other 
Phaeophycean sporangia, but in its gametangial condition it is multi- 
locular. 23 Another consideration that weighs with the opposing school 
is that throughout the greater part of the group ' alternation ' is an 
acknowledged fact, and that in the ascending series it shows a consistent 
progression towards greater strictness, with increasing reduction of the 
gametophyte phase. The theory has been so useful in unifying the 
phenomena presented by the different groups of the Brown Seaweeds that 
many Algologists will be reluctant to relinquish it without stronger reasons 
being adduced. 

Svedelius, 24 in a discussion of the biological importance of alternation 
of generations, maintains that the case of Laminaria invalidates the theory 
of Bower and Wettstein that the gametophyte generation is an adaptation 
to a land habitat, for the same phenomenon obtains in the marine series 
Dictyota — Laminaria — Fucus. After pointing out the importance of the 
reducing division in the sorting of chromosomes, and the consequent 
increase of variability, and in the initiation of new types, he suggests that 
the establishment of a diploid sporophyte would be advantageous to the 
race ; for by postponing the reduction divisions the plant is given the 
chance to effect many reduction divisions, and so many more fundamental 
combinations of chromosomes. Through this the genesis of higher types 
is made possible. It may be pointed out that as far as the evolutionary 
principles above mentioned are concerned, it is perfectly immaterial 
whether we follow Church in calling Fucus a gametophyte, or agree with 
other botanists in regarding it as a sporophyte. 

In spite of their great interest, problems relating to the Physiology 
and Ecology of the Phseophyceee can only be touched upon — the space at 
our disposal does not allow of more. 

22 Jour. Bot., 1924-25. 

23 Farmer and Williams, Phil. Trans., 190 B, 1898. 

24 Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gea., 39, and Svensk. Bot. Tidske, 1918-19. 






K.— BOTANY. 195 

From the Puget Sound Biological Station come a number of welcome 
investigations, by Gail, Shelford, and others, into such questions as the 
amount and nature of light penetration at different depths of the sea, 
the efficiency of light of different wave-length in photosynthesis at various 
depths, and the effect of the roughening of the surface in diminishing 
the light. It is interesting to get the zoning of the seaweeds correlated with 
exact data of light absorption as well as with percentages of exposure to 
the air. I believe that light affects marine plants in another way and one 
that is also fully deserving of investigation. The statements made by the 
writer regarding the periodicity of the sexual cells in Diclyota and its 
dependence on the local incidence of the spring tides have now been 
amply corroborated, and from widely separated localities. Hoyt 25 does 
not accept the explanation that it is dependent upon the variation in 
the amount of light ; but no one has • as yet offered an alternative 
solution to the problem. Since then I have been able to study the 
question further, and my conviction that this is the correct solution 
is stronger than ever. (Incidentally, cannot some clever physicist find 
out for us why light is able in this particular case to produce such remark- 
able results, when it does not affect the tetraspores in the same plant, 
nor any of the three kinds of reproductive cells in Padina ?) Now there 
are other ways in which these local differences in the time of spring tides 
may affect the plants. Compare two localities— one where low-water of 
springtides always occurs about 6.0 in the morning and evening, while in the 
other the times are at midnight and noon. In the case of summer-fruiting 
plants one would expect fruiting to be earlier under the former conditions ; 
but in the case of winter-fruiting plants the results would be quite different. 
Take, again, the case of plants of half- tide level in a locality where low- 
water of spring tides occurs between 12.0 and 2.0. They are always 
emergent during the periods of intensest illumination. What will be the 
effect on the plants ? The probability is that not only early or late 
fruiting, but also vigour of development, local distribution, especially 
of the smaller plants, and even the amount of epiphytic growth, will be 
affected. It would be interesting to collect data to test these hypotheses — 
they make the problem more complicated but also more interesting. 

Every marine algologist must have been puzzled by the distribution 
of some of the larger Brown Seaweeds. The rocky coasts inside Cardigan 
Bay have no Himanthalia, Alaria, or Saccorhiza, and yet the surf on the 
Aberystwyth rocks is heavy enough. On the rocky promontories of Pem- 
broke and South Carnarvonshire to the north and to the south of 
the bay the plants are quite common. The explanation generally 
given is that the plants demand pure water. Gail and Powers, both 
at Puget Sound, publish papers proving the importance of the H-ion 
concentration to the growth of marine plants, even of hardy ones 
like the Fuci. Gail makes the interesting statement that in the presence 
of much Ulva the P H of the water is too high for Fucus. There may 
be another factor in operation. We know that certain substances essential 
to the welfare of the seaweeds — iodine, for instance —exist in the sea in 
very minute proportions, so that in order to obtain a sufficient supply 
the plants have to come in contact with an exceedingly great amount of 
continually moving water. Our young botanists would perform a great 
25 Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ, 195, 1907. 

02 



196 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

service to science by solving these and similar problems. Perhaps this 
would also assist us in finding a satisfactory culture method. At present 
none of the Phseophycese, except a few of the simplest and hardiest forms, 
can be cultivated from spore to spore. This makes the investigation of the 
life-histories of these plants doubly difficult. 

It is difficult to understand why so little ecological work has been done 
on the Brown Algse of our shores. Since the publication of Miss Baker's 
interesting papers on the Zoning of the Brown Seaweeds and the Fuci of 
the Salt-Marsh very little has been done. Miss Knight, by following the 
development of marked Pylaiella plants, obtained fascinating results, show- 
ing how the plants assumed successive appearances so different from each 
other that they had previously received names as being distinct ' forms.' 
Her account of the seasonal change of host-plants, and the relation between 
the host and the kind of sporangia produced is hardly less interesting. 
Work of a similar kind by other investigators would be very welcome. 

Our knowledge of the fruiting periods of the Phseophycese is scrappy 
and inaccurate. Some writers speak of Laminarias as if they all had 
a definite summer and winter season, not knowing that species of the 
same genus have different fruiting periods and that there is not one of the 
twelve months of the year without some Laminarian or other being in full 
sporing activity. A mere calendar, however, would hardly suffice. One 
should distinguish between cases where all the sporangia or gametangia in 
a sorus or conceptacle are of the same age and where they are of different 
ages ; that is, the arrangements for the continuous supply of reproductive 
cells should be noted. 

Some plants, Dictyota for example, are exceedingly responsive to 
environmental changes. It would be very interesting to trace the connection 
between such plastic organisms and the factors affecting them. Fucus 
vesiculosus is an example of a very polymorphic species. Only a few of 
the many forms have been described, and we do not know to what extent 
the ' forms ' are really distinct. 

These are only a few out of the many interesting ecological problems 
that await investigation. One task, however, is very urgent. When we 
consider the great amount of fruitful work done by English algologists 
of a past generation in identifying, describing, and classifying marine 
Algse, it is very remarkable, not to say deplorable, that there has been no 
English Borgesen to compile a survey of the marine Algae of our shores. 
Even should a young algologist feel a desire to undertake such a task, 
there is at present no up-to-date English manual which he can use in 
identifying his plants. It is a great testimony to the excellence of Harvey's 
four volumes that they are still useful in spite of the progress that has been 
made since their publication. But it is time we had a new Phycologia ; 
in particular we need a new and well-illustrated ' Handbook of the 
Phseophycese.' 



SECTION L.— EDUCATION. 



THE WARP AND THE WOOF IN 
EDUCATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

W. W. VAUGHAN, M.V.O., M.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



My working life has been spent in the Public Schools. They share with 
all other forms of education and classes of school the honour of being 
virulently attacked and affectionately defended ; but attack and defence, 
even when victorious, do not carry us far into the problem of education, 
and so, under the somewhat vague title I chose in the far-away spring 
days for the address I had to give in the waning summer, I propose to 
raise some important but not burning questions that have troubled my 
own mind in my daily duties and in the public work which has brought 
me during the last ten years into close and admiring contact with almost 
every kind of education. They will not be solved to-day or to-morrow, 
but they will never be solved until all men and women of good will, with 
the humility that comes of experience and without the prejudice that so 
often accompanies it, take counsel together. 

Without claiming any deep knowledge of the mystery of weaving, it 
may be assumed that we all know the difference between the warp and 
the woof. In the factory the loom stands as the essential machine for 
the creation of the stuff that is to clothe or adorn. In life the school 
stands for the fashioning of the fabric of character. The lengthwise 
threads of the warp must be crossed by the threads of the weft, or woof, 
before feeble isolation can become compact and serviceable texture. 

But I have no wish to follow up the metaphor too elaborately. Sup- 
posing that the warp represents in education the influences that shape the 
child's destiny as imagined by the State or the parent, now enlarging, 
now cramping in their effect, the cross-threads are those the teacher 
with skilful or clumsy hand, as the case may be, shoots, with the help of 
the shuttle, across the warp. I know well that the weaver's fingers of the 
original hand-looms have been supplanted by many cunning devices, and 
that the simple and primitive division of the warp threads is now super- 
seded by countless heddles, or heald shafts, which allow of innumerable 
variations of pattern. 

So has it been with the educational loom. The simplicity of the 
three R's has been superseded by complicated programmes of work that 
have grown up haphazard to meet momentary needs and to fulfil sudden 
hopes, and there is hardly more difference between the mat on which the 
half-civilised man knelt to pray and the varied and extensive products of 
modern cloth and ribbon looms than there is between the programme of 
an elementary school a hundred years ago and what children of the same 
class may learn to-day. And yet, as I have said, chance, or caprice, or 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

sentiment has had more to do with its development than any clear idea 
in men's minds as to what should be meant by education. At one time 
we have talked of educational ladders, at another of broad highways ; 
but such blessed and consoling phrases, though possibly politically fruitful, 
have been certainly educationally barren. The ladders have too often 
only enabled the pupils to climb to narrow but overcrowded platforms, 
and, though on the broad highways progress has been pleasant enough, the 
travellers along them have at last been brought face to face with the precipice 
of unemployment, or have been led from the toil that wrings the sweat 
from the brow in factory or field to the toil that curbs man's back on the 
office-stool or by the counter-side. 

It is possible that the warp — to give it its due precedence — has been 
too complicated, it is certain that it has been too uniform. This has come 
about, as have many other evil things, from quite respectable causes, 
e.g. from the necessity of stimulating backward districts, the desire to 
restrain wayward enthusiasts, the importance of getting value for money 
expended by the State, but the results have been unfortunate. Those who 
have been enthusiastic for education, including many who are here to-day, 
have not dared to raise discordant voices for fear of providing ammunition 
for others who, on the plausible plea of public economy, employ all the 
dilatory tactics that the stingy mind can devise to save the rates and 
the taxes. 

Here, in a meeting of friends of education, a healthy scepticism may 
be indulged. Take two or three of the questions that might help us to 
clearer minds as to our purposes. 

Is the assumption that the State should develop to the full all the 
intellectual abilities of all its citizens sound ? Even if this were possible, 
is it desirable ? We do not endeavour to develop to the full all the 
physical powers. We know that so we might increase the number of 
' strong men,' or even throw the discus further. Man is so wonderfully 
made and has so many possibilities of development in mind or body that 
a wise regard for balance must ever curb the enthusiastic trainer. I have 
heard it seriously argued that the Schools of England should be passed 
through a sieve to discover which boys have an aptitude for, say, the 120 
yards hurdle race ; that these should be trained and allowed to run no other 
distance, until by dreary reiteration that muscular development might 
be made perfect and England might win at the next Olympic Games, 
and so by some similar concentration of physical effort we might recover 
from France the Lawn Tennis Championship, from America our Golf 
renown, and perhaps even the ashes from the Colony where they now lie 
heaped. The absurdity of this is seen here at all events ; but is it not 
also absurd to encourage enormous numbers of boys and girls to a 
one-sided or even to a many-sided intellectual development, when neither 
the State nor they themselves are to get any return in happiness or 
usefulness ? Perhaps I shall get into trouble for using these words. 
Alone they may be barren of inspiration, but me thinks that in that 
mystical union that unromantic words may enjoy in the mind of men 
they gather creative power, and those who build the loom of life may well 
do worse than make sure that the warp admits of happy and serviceable 
citizenship being woven on it. And there is great need to think of these 
two at once, for at times when standing in the great weaving-shed of life 



L.— EDUCATION. 199 

it has seemed in the past as if the service and the joy were being woven 
not on the same but on different looms. And even now, when the 
workers have been granted or have, exacted more tolerable conditions, 
there is still something patchy about their service and their happiness. 
Seven hours of joyless work they claim, or its equivalent in still more 
joyless dole ; in the resultant eight hours of leisure little real joy is 
harvested and excitement rather than happiness is aimed at. It is easy 
to see how this has come about. 

It may be that within the limits of this Association the cause is to be 
found. It was to the discoveries of science that the industrial revolution was 
due. You all know how what was a blessing capable of mitigating human 
toil became for a time a power that relentlessly heaped more and more and 
more toil on human backs, and enrolled in the workers' army even the 
tenderest children. And then the reaction came, and with the vote the 
power, and now the worker's idea has changed. Work and pleasure are 
becoming isolated in water-tight compartments. More and more does work 
tend to get squeezed of all idea of pleasure. Less and less do we expect 
our fellow-men to find reasonable satisfaction in the performance of the 
bread-winning duties. Discontent is a necessary ingredient of life, but 
it ceases to be divine when it invades every corner of our active life, 
ousting from work all its redeeming qualities except the sense of comrade- 
ship, and the presence of that is often only tolerated because of its useful- 
ness against the common foe. The master craftsman of old had a happier 
and nobler conception of life than this. We do not wish to revive the 
methods of the middle ages. Could we not detain for the redemption of the 
new methods the old possibility of pleasure in work before it is gone for ever ? 

We need, however, a reasoned not a sentimental faith to have the right 
to delay the departure of a reluctant guest. So we must not be satisfied 
with augurial winks but must expose at some risk our deepest con- 
victions, even though they clash with our earliest hopes or our political 
predilections. 

Two convictions have grown upon me after intimate experience of 
thousands of boys between thirteen and nineteen. The first is that as a 
general rule the judgment passed upon them at thirteen holds good so far as 
intellectual development is concerned until they are eighteen, and, indeed, 
much later too, and that just as the supreme work of the world requires 
some creative power that lies dormant and is almost fairy-like in its 
elusiveness, so much of the work of the world requires little intellectual 
distinction and but a small dose of fancy. Fancy and distinction play 
their part, however, but it is a part that is independent of the warp and 
possibly of the woof of education. A plan might mar it. 

It follows from these that the purely school education is even now 
continued too long for some. At present the air is full of projects for 
extending the school life of all beyond the age of fourteen. This should be 
done for many pupils, but not for all, if full-time education is meant. 
Some pupils — and I am not thinking so much of the recalcitrant as of the 
willing learners — seem unable to open the gates of their minds to any 
impressions or knowledge that may wish to enter through the form room. 
We teachers fumble with all the keys of knowledge that we possess, and 
yet we cannot unlock the entrance. We even call in the doctors with their 
wisdom and the faddists with their ' Open Sesame's,' and we are still 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

treated as trespassers and locked out. These same children show them- 
selves by no means witless when faced with the problems of life. In a trade, 
with its direct bearing on livelihood, or under the quickening influence of 
immediate reward, or in the friction of the workshop, they become even 
bright. I would not let a child off one hour of school life merely for the 
sake of an industry. Industries were, after all, made for men, not men 
for industries. But I should give generous remission after fourteen 
to those who showed no special aptitude for book-learning or any other 
form of direct education, on condition that they were kept within the spell 
of corporate life and in touch with teachers capable of undermining the 
outworks of suspicious pride and of sounding reverently the abysmal deeps 
of personality. For these great purposes music, literature and art, dramatic, 
pictorial, and manual, must be called on to give generous help. 

Again, we should beware of the morbid fear of genius being wasted. I 
doubt if genius has ever been wasted. It defies alike the neglect of states- 
men, the over-carefulness of teachers, even the cramping circumstances of 
daily life. Ability, an even more robust plant, gets now a very good chance 
of being recognised, True, the owner's want of character, his or her parents' 
want of means or of will, often involve sterility after recognition. The 
State can step in to make good in some measure the want of means ; it 
is we, the teachers, who are challenged to fortify the character. Further, 
ability when handicapped neither by poverty nor by innate feebleness 
may not always develop in quite the way that we, with our ideas of 
success, would think best for it. I am not sure that a man may not 
do society a richer service as a Trade Union leader, after graduating 
as an artisan, or even as a lover of knowledge in a W.E.A. class, whilst 
still doing manual labour, than he would have done had he been enrolled 
betimes in the black-coated brigade. Some risk of waste must be run 
unless we are to go over and over again the heaps of rejected human 
material. Let the warp be generously planned, but do not let it be so intri- 
cate in its aims, or so relentless in its working, so unerring, so infallible, 
as to make us at any time confident that it cannot be improved and that 
those who escape it are failures. 

Again, may I plead that all who are occupied with schools as teachers, 
or administrators, or, and especially, as theorists, will recognise more 
fully than they have done 'how truly educated are many who have escaped, 
as may be thought prematurely, from the definite influences of school ? 
The agricultural labourer, with his knowledge of and often tender sym- 
pathy with animal life, his watchings of the seasons, his weather lore, his 
skill, his beautiful skill, in building or thatching the rick, his power to 
drive a straight line with the plough, his ability by wise, almost ruthless, 
severity to fortify the quickset hedge, is a better-educated man, even 
though he left the school-room at thirteen, than many a clerk who 
suffered complete immersion in a secondary school course, and, satisfied 
with the benefits of his baptism, has since then only become a little more 
skilled in figures and filing. 

I have mentioned the agricultural labourer, but the shipwright and 
the sailor too, to think only of the dwellers in this Hampshire where we 
meet, can, I think, consider the educating value of their work as some 
compensation for their too short school-days. These would come out well 
if we applied to them only the test that I shall stoutly condemn as the sole 



L.— EDUCATION. 201 

test of the teacher's work — the test of how do they employ their leisure ? 
Surely the thought-free idleness cat cottage door, the friendly banter in the 
village tap-room, or the arguments at the workmen's club are not so vapid, 
so unrefreshing, as the ' Revues ' and many of the half-decent dramas 
and books with which ' the more educated ' kill their leisure time. 

Another cause for the undue complication of the warp and its machinery 
is the desire to give by education a bias in the direction of some particular 
vocation. We should be all at one in condemning such attempts before the 
child is thirteen, but after that age some other metaphor is needed and the 
work should be left to the less rigid woof. The very word ' bias ' suggests a 
dead- weight, an insidious approach, a crafty twist of hand. It is surely voca- 
tional inspiration that is needed rather than vocational bias, and the in- 
spiration must come from the teacher — from the woof, not the warp — and 
such inspiration will never be given as long as teachers proclaim themselves 
to be mainly occupied in teaching the young how to make a good and happy 
use of their leisure. This is a pose we have assumed of late years. We have 
been patted on the back for it on prize days ; we have boasted of it in 
those secret conferences when teachers modestly make known their 
virtues to a misunderstanding public. Oh, if only we could teach the 
secret of getting happiness from work ! Leisure will always look after 
itself. A man who enjoys his work will enjoy his leisure. It may seem a 
desperate task to attempt to make some of the work of the world even 
tolerable, much less pleasant as a pastime. How can the service of a 
machine, the repetition work of a factory, the doing of such menial tasks 
as washing or scavenging, ever be anything but wearisome ? Well, I 
have seen much happiness harvested in a laundry. Repetition work has 
been made tolerable under wise and blessed welfare work. We need to teach 
more convincingly how to break the spell of gold, how to measure happi- 
ness not by ' the purple of great place,' but by some other standard, how 
to sail past seductive prosperity not with hands tied nor with ears stopped 
up with wax, as Ulysses coasted the dangerous shore, but unfettered, 
and even attentive to choose a glimpse of truth, a love of beauty, in prefer- 
ence to worldly or material success. This, after all, is the power that Plato 
would have education produce. 

We seem almost to have lost the will to keep by education the pores 
of the soul and the mind ever open to the impressions of experience, to 
the stirrings of emotion, to the slow and enduring influence of the reason. 
We have too often pinned our faith on the production of dexterity, of 
mental facility, of almost thoughtless accuracy, and we have our reward 
in our educational looms being ill-adapted to the production of content- 
ment and beauty and the power or the will to reason. 

If it is on the warp that depends the plan of education, if it is in the 
warp that extent of opportunities, the aspirations of the community or 
the parent, find expression, sometimes thoughtless, sometimes mistaken 
expression, it is on the woof that the pattern depends, the texture, the 
durability, the possibilities, the charm of the fabric or the human 
character. And the woof is the teacher's opportunity. If he is wise he 
will recognise that each individual has not the same aptitudes ; if he is 
wiser still he will refrain from labelling one set of aptitudes as good, another 
as bad. The weaver can see how much yarn he has to work with ; by 
fingering it its quality is known to him, but this knowledge is not possessed 



202 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

by the teacher. The supply of ability and will-power that is available for 
his purposes varies from day to day, from year to year. In one case it 
is scanty when the child is thirteen, to be abundant at sixteen ; in another 
case the glorious promise of thirteen fades away as years go by. In many 
fancy plays strange tricks, and now and then the imagination is chased 
away from the mental precincts by an over-retentive memory. The 
teacher has no sensitive weaver's fingers, no miller's golden thumb, by 
which he can infallibly test his judgment, and yet the shuttle must fly back 
and fore, because if the teacher rests the threads will soon be tangled ; 
and even when he works there are other workers too, some deliberately, 
with Penelope-like perversity, unravelling by night the labour of the day, 
others bringing confusion into the pattern by adding threads of strange 
colours and uncertain strength. Because teachers feel this they often 
occupy the whole of a child's leisure and endeavour to monopolise its 
mental activities. Before abusing them for doing this, ought not the citizens 
to see to it more zealously that the city is a place for children to live in, 
that there are fewer polluting sights, fewer discordant noises in it ? The 
school where the child spends six hours may be made beautiful ; what of 
the streets where twelve hours of wakefulness are spent ? And if from 
day to day the woof may be interfered with, marred by outside influences, 
after the holidays the teacher may fail to recognise his work at all. 

It was only the other day I heard one of the wisest and most experi- 
enced social workers advocate a longer day in school, not that the child 
might be taught more, but that he might spend a greater proportion of 
his life away from the contagion of the streets and the discomforts of the 
crowded home. What a comment on our streets and homes ! What a 
condemnation of our false ideals ! What a challenge to all teachers to 
revise their ideas of citizenship ! 

But I must not end on a note of exclamation or even on one of 
interrogation. 

What is really wanted in England now is a series of experiments — 
experiments not made, as so often, in a limited field, but experiments made 
on a geographical basis. Grants are made by the Board of Education 
to individual schools for ingenious experiments in the teaching of special 
subjects. Let the State have more courage and make not a bigger but a 
freer grant to some city, say, of 50,000 inhabitants, which will experiment 
on the whole field of education, or to some county district which will do the 
like. Up to now the experiments made have been no guide as to the best 
way of designing the loom of education. They have been made, too, on the 
voluntary system for those who believed in co-education or in some Dalton 
plan, and little has been learnt, for success or failure in isolated cases may 
be due to a variety of causes. In my 50,000 city I should allow anyone who 
wished to contract out of the experiment by paying fees for the full course 
of their children's education, otherwise no citizen of the future should 
escape the experiment. Assuming that 40 per cent, of the child population 
were ripe for what we call secondary education, schools should be provided 
for them, 5 per cent, might contract out, 5 per cent, need special treat- 
ment ; of the remaining 50 per cent, half should go on with their education 
until at least fifteen and should leave the elementary school when the 
secondary children do. On the whole I should be inclined to leave the 
balance in the elementary school where they would be known and be sure 



L.— EDUCATION. 203 

of the sympathy of the teachers, and gain something from the familiar sur- 
roundings and their undoubted but mysterious influence,. At fourteen 
they might be allowed to go to work on condition that they were enrolled 
in a continuation school and that all employers were organised to make 
the earlier stages of industrial life more educational, by the provision 
of welfare supervision for leisure hours, by enlarging and encouraging 
the already considerable number of wise trainers among the workmen, 
and by eliminating from the early years in the factory as much as possible 
of the merely fetch-and-carry work. But these are details. This is only 
one possible experiment. What I ask you to consider is the desirability of 
such geographical experiments in setting up the warp of education. To 
the teachers themselves I do not fear to entrust the task of designing an 
infinite variety of patterns for the woof. 

There are great difficulties of finance, of local jealousies, of statutory 
and administrative red tape, and some of even less respectable origin, in 
the way of such an experiment, but there are always difficulties. I under- 
stand that many, many years ago a certain stable was the despair of all 
the sanitary authorities, but it was cleansed by a brave man — an amateur 
scavenger who harnessed a river to his purpose. Our stable is not in such 
an offensive state, but it does need cleansing, and we need the faith to 
depend more on the enthusiastic and less on the Pactolean properties of 
the river of public opinion to enable us to do our work. Depend upon it 
that, when its cleansing work is accomplished, this river, joined by all 
available streams, those from the snow-clad mountain-tops where solitary 
thought is possible and high ideals are cradled, those from the table- 
lands where teachers trained and untrained must still humbly work side 
by side with parents and all the friends of childhood, and those from 
the upland valleys where employers, whether of the single servant or of 
an army of factory workers, will be enthusiastically conscious that they 
too are teachers with the teacher's opportunity to curse or bless — this 
river, gathering its strength from all these sources, will in its journey to 
the lowlands of life have the power — the smokeless power — as have so 
many harnessed Alpine streams, to lighten the burdens and to enlighten the 
lives of the dwellers in the plain. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



THE MINERAL ELEMENTS IN ANIMAL 

NUTRITION. 



ADDRESS BY 

J. B. ORR, D.Sc., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Since the times of Lavoisier, research in nutrition has been directed chiefly 
to the chemistry and metabolism of organic compounds, i.e. proteins, 
fats, carbohydrates and allied substances, and in tables of rations the 
food requirements of animals have been expressed in terms of these or 
their equivalents. During the past half-century, however, an increasing 
number of workers have become interested in the role played by inorganic 
salts in nutrition. The information being yielded by the researches of 
these workers is throwing new light on many fundamental problems of 
biology, and some of it appears to be of potential economic value in animal 
husbandry. In this address an attempt is made to review some of the 
recently acquired knowledge, and to show its bearing on present-day 
practical problems of animal nutrition. 

From 10 to 25 per cent, of living matter consists of organic compounds 
of which the colloidal material of the protoplasm is formed. The remaining 
75 to 90 per cent, consists of water and inorganic salts. In the recent 
literature of animal husbandry, the elements of these salts have been 
somewhat loosely termed ' the mineral elements ' to distinguish them from 
the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen of the organic compounds. 

About eight or nine of these elements, e.g. calcium, phosphorus, 
potassium, &c, are always present in living matter in substantial amounts 
and are known to be essential constituents. In addition to these, iodine, 
manganese, fluorine, copper, zinc and some others are found in traces. 
The presence of these was at one time thought to be accidental. It is 
now believed, however, that most, if not all, are essential constituents of 
the tissues in which they are found, and that they perform important 
functions in metabolism. 

In living matter these mineral elements are present, partly in chemical 
combination with, and forming an integral part of, organic compounds, 
and partly free or potentially free, either in solution as salts or ions in the 
water of the protoplasm, or in a temporary loose union with the colloids. 

The fundamental nature of the functions of the so-called mineral or 
inorganic salts in life processes is at once apparent when we consider 
the part played by them in the origin of tbe cycle of energy exchanges 
which occur in the ' organic world.' All forms of life depend ultimately 
upon the transformation of the energy of the sunlight into chemical energy. 
The power of carrying out this fundamental process,which can be regarded 
as the real origin of life, is possessed by inorganic salts in colloidal solution. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 205 

Photosynthesis with the production of formaldehyde, which contains the 
trapped energy of the sunlight, arises from the action of sunlight and 
inorganic salts on water and carbon dioxide. According to Moore, 
chlorophyll itself is a product of photosynthesis, and its chief function is 
probably not the primary one of deoxidising the carbon dioxide and thus 
charging the carbon with energy, but of changing the formaldehyde into 
higher carbon compounds. Hence the beginning of life-processes lies 
in the action of radiant energy on inorganic salts. The carbon atom is 
harnessed as the most suitable vehicle for conveying the chemical energy 
formed. The giant molecules and colloidal aggregates with their complex 
carbon-containing compounds, which have been regarded as the funda- 
mental organic substances, are really secondary developments to secure 
that degree of stability and complexity required for the evolution of 
higher forms of life. Thus the true basis of protoplasm is the saline 
solution which forms from 75 to 90 per cent, of its bulk and which still 
resembles the sea water from which it originated. 

The brilliant researches of Ringer, Hardy, Moore, Loeb, Hober and 
others have shown that these inorganic elements play a vitally important 
part in all physiological processes, and that the hidden mysteries of cell 
life which are slowly being unravelled are intimately connected with their 
activities. The fundamental facts revealed by these workers are perhaps 
the most important results obtained in research in biology in modern 
times. They throw new light on the nature of the vital processes, which 
are shown to be phenomena capable of explanation in terms of the com- 
paratively simple laws which obtain in ' inorganic ' systems. It is 
impossible here, however, to do more than refer briefly to the nature of 
the functions of the inorganic salts and ions. 

As has been already indicated, these functions are intimately connected 
with colloidal activities. The visible phenomena of life are the resultants 
of an enormous number of chemical and physical changes in the colloids 
of protoplasm and of exchanges between masses of protoplasm separated 
by membranes or interfaces. But these changes in the physical state of 
colloids are determined by the association and dissociation of colloids and 
inorganic ions. These ions also affect the permeability of membranes 
and the tensions at interfaces. Hence, in a real sense, protoplasmic activity 
is regulated by the action of the mineral elements in solution in the proto- 
plasm or attached to its colloids. Thus, in the contraction of muscle, 
though the ultimate source of energy is the oxidation of organic com- 
pounds, the initiation of the process, the mechanism by which it is carried 
through and the factors by which it is controlled, depend on the action of 
the ions and salts present which involve changes in osmotic pressure and 
other physical forces. 

The foregoing considerations suggest that definite degrees of con- 
centration of the various inorganic ions in the cell fluids are necessary 
for the maintenance of normal protoplasmic activity. This has been 
fully demonstrated by work done to determine the effect of changes in 
the normal concentration of the different ions. The results of experiments 
with unicellular organisms and with isolated organs such as the perfused 
heart, have shown that slight alterations either in the absolute or relative 
concentrations of any of the inorganic ions may accelerate, retard, or 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

even reverse processes being carried out by means of the colloidal 
mechanism. 

In the animal body these changes in the concentration of the inorganic 
ions can be correlated with changes in the functions of the organs. Thus, all 
the organs regulated by the central nervous system depend for the integrity 
of their functions upon the maintenance of definite ratios of calcium, 
potassium and sodium in the fluids within the nerve tissues. Changes in 
the relative proportions of these are accompanied by alteration in the 
excitability of nerve and in the irritability of muscle. The classical 
experiments of Ringer on the perfused heart show that minute changes 
in the concentrations of calcium or potassium in the perfusing fluids have 
a profound effect on the activity of the heart. These examples are 
merely illustrations of the general law that any disturbance of the normal 
physiological balance of the salt solution of the body is accompanied by a 
correlated impairment of function. 

There is both experimental and clinical evidence to show that changes 
in the physiological balance are involved in many pathological conditions 
in which the symptoms can be associated with excess or deficiency of 
specific ions. Some of these pathological conditions, such as rickets, 
can be produced experimentally in animals fed on ill-balanced diets, and 
the symptoms can be relieved by adjusting the diet so that the essential 
mineral elements are absorbed from the intestine in the right amounts and 
proportions. 

The body is remarkably efficient in maintaining this balance, in spite 
of the fact that there is a continuous loss in the excreta, and the mineral 
matter of the food is liable to be very different in composition from that 
found in the blood. Within limits, the elements present in excess tend to 
be excreted and those deficient to be conserved. The bones act as a 
reservoir, especially for calcium and phosphorus, the two required in 
largest amounts. Reserves can be deposited in the bones when the supply 
is ample, and mobilised in times of need. It is probable that this function 
of the bones, viz. regulating the supply of mineral elements to the body 
fluids, is as important as the more obvious one of providing a rigid framework. 
It is probably more fundamental, for, when the available mineral matter 
is insufficient to maintain both the physiological balance in the blood 
and the rigidity of the skeleton, it is rigidity which is sacrificed. There 
is little doubt that in most diseases affecting the bones, the skeletal symp- 
toms are only secondary manifestations of the influence of some factor, 
often a dietary one, which upsets the balance of mineral elements in 
the blood. 

We have seen that the presence in the body fluids of mineral elements 
in definite amounts and proportions is a necessary condition of health, 
and that the body possesses means of regulating this physiological balance. 
We must now consider what occurs when there are in the diet deficiencies 
or excesses of mineral elements greater than can be dealt with by the 
regulating mechanisms of the body. 

Let us note first the widespread and drastic results of more or less 
complete privation of all mineral elements. Forster studied the effects 
of feeding a diet from which the mineral salts had been removed as com- 
pletely as possible. He found that on this diet animals died sooner than 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 207 

in complete starvation. Signs of disturbance of the digestive organs 
appeared early. They were soon accompanied by increased excitability 
and weakness of the neuro-muscnlar system. The central nervous system 
was also affected, as was shown by the occurrence of convulsions and 
periods of drowsiness. A remarkable feature of these experiments was 
the profound disturbance caused by relatively small losses of inorganic 
salts from the system. The total mineral matter of the body at the begin- 
ning of the feeding with the salt-free diet was estimated at 1,500 grams. 
Phosphoric acid and sodium chloride were lost in greatest amounts, and of 
these only about thirty grams and seven grams respectively were lost 
before death occurred. A well-nourished body could lose a far larger 
proportion of its total protein, fat or carbohydrate without showing any 
marked disturbance of its functions. 

A number of workers have studied the results of prolonged feeding 
of a diet containing a marked excess of acid radicles, and have found 
that, under such conditions, the body tends to be depleted of bases, and 
when a certain stage of depletion has been reached, there appear signs of 
disturbance of the functions of the digestive and nervous systems and 
loss of weight. The regulating mechanisms of the body, however, are 
able to deal with a considerable excess of acid in the food, and opinion is 
divided as to the extent to which, in actual practice, excessive acidity of 
the diet is a factor in causing malnutrition. It is probable that, if evil 
effects do occur, they will be most marked during the period of active 
growth, because an excess of bases is required for tissue construction. 

Deficiencies of single elements, or of groups of elements, in the diet, 
are followed by more or less characteristic symptoms, which, however, are 
modified by the presence or absence of other factors. It is interesting 
to note that, in many cases, the pathological symptoms due to deficiency 
of individual elements, such, for example, as the hyper- excitability which 
occurs in calcium deficiency, can be explained by the influence of the 
ion concerned on the colloids of the tissues or on the -permeability of 
membranes. 

Under experimental conditions it is possible by feeding diets with 
marked deficiencies or excesses of some of the mineral elements to produce 
conditions of malnutrition which are so definite and marked that they 
are as easily recognised as definite diseases ; indeed similar conditions 
occurring in practice are regarded as definite diseases. Thus, primary 
anaemia, simple goitre and rickets are produced by deficiency of iron, 
iodine and either calcium or phosphorus respectively. An interesting 
case of a disease due to an excess of a mineral element is reported by 
McCollum, who regards an inflammatory condition of the eyes, resembling 
xerophthalmia, which he calls ' salt ophthalmia,' as due to excess of 
chlorine in the food. 

In addition to these diseases due to excesses or deficiencies of mineral 
elements in the diet, in which the symptoms form a definite and easily 
recognised picture, and the cause is admitted, there are conditions of 
malnutrition due to the lack of balance of the mineral elements in the diet, 
where the signs are much less obvious. In young animals there may be 
retarded growth without any definite pathological symptoms. The only 
reason for supposing that such animals are not in a perfect state of health 
is that their rate of growth is not optimal, as is shown by the fact that 



208 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

improvement follows the adjustment of the mineral balance in the food. 
Thus, Kellner obtained an increased rate of growth in calves by the addition 
of a calcium salt to a diet on which the animals grew at an average rate 
and showed no signs of obvious ill-health. In some work, not yet reported, 
we have found that the addition of traces of iodine to the diet of stall-fed 
calves in winter increased the rate of growth as compared with that of 
control animals whose condition would be regarded as normal. Further, 
it has been shown recently that the supply of minerals in the food of 
the mother may have a profound influence on the vitality of the young 
at birth and for some time after, even where there may be no obvious 
effect on the mother. Thus Hart, Steenbock and Humphrey have noted 
that deficiency of calcium in the diet of cows may lead to the birth of 
dead or weakly calves, and Ennis Smith has shown that deficiency of 
iodine in the food of pigs may lead to the birth of dead young, although 
there is not, in either case, any obvious pathological condition apparent 
in the mothers. 

Some attention has recently been devoted to the question of an in- 
creased susceptibility to certain infectious diseases in cases of malnutrition 
due to deficiencies of minerals. We have noted in feeding experiments 
that the mortality from intercurrent infections is much higher in the groups 
fed on diets which, for experimental reasons, are ill-balanced or deficient 
in mineral matter. Meigs has noted a similar increased incidence of 
diseases in cows on diets deficient in calcium. In clinical medicine the 
administration of inorganic salts of calcium, iodine and manganese has 
been advocated in the treatment of certain bacterial infections. It is 
very probable that such treatment is efficacious where these salts are 
deficient in the body and that its efficacy is due to the making good of that 
deficiency. It has been suggested that deficiency of calcium may be a 
causative factor in producing a lowered resistance to tuberculosis. If 
this is correct it is of great economic importance on account of the inci- 
dence of tuberculosis in dairy cows. It is known that, at the height of 
lactation, there is usually a loss of calcium from the body. This is greater 
the higher the yield of milk, and tuberculosis seems to be more liable 
to occur in heavy-milking cows. 

Though these results of disordered mineral metabolism can be pro- 
duced under experimental conditions, it does not necessarily follow that 
they occur to any considerable extent under practical conditions. There 
is, however, strong circumstantial evidence that deficiency of one or more 
mineral elements is a common cause of malnutrition in farm stock. Indeed, 
in some cases, it has been possible to identify the deficiency ; in these 
cases marked beneficial results follow the addition to the ration of the 
elements present in insufficient amount. This evidence, which has been 
accumulating during the past few years, now warrants the attention 
of the practical expert. 

It may be of interest to consider some reasons which can be adduced 
for believing that the danger of deficiencies of minerals in the food of 
farm animals has been increasing in recent years. During the past half- 
century the types of animals after which breeders have been striving 
are those whose young have a very rapid rate of growth, or whose females 
have a great capacity for producing the constructive materials required 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 209 

for growth. A remarkable degree of success has attended these efforts 
of the breeders. Some breeds of pigs will increase in weight from 2 lb. 
to 2 cwt. in six months. There are dairy cows which can secrete in their 
milk as much as 10-12 lb. of solid matter per day. There are hens that 
lay 200 to 300 eggs in a year. Now, the faster the rate of growth, the 
greater must be both the absolute amount of mineral matter required 
in a given time and the proportion of mineral matter per unit of energy 
in the food. The following table shows that the percentage of mineral 
matter in the milk of different species and also the amounts relative to 
the energy values, are in proportion to the rates -of growth. 

TABLE I. 

Milk of species contains 





Number of days in which weight 


of 


Ash 


Ash per 1,000 




new-born animal is 


doubled. 




/o 


calories. 




Days. 






Grams. 


Grams. 


Man . . 


180 






•25 


3-7 


Cow . . 


47 






•72 


10-5 


Pig •• 


14 






103 


10-9 


Rabbit 


6 






2-50 


15 



Hence, in modern types of animals the mineral requirements have in- 
creased pari passu with .increased capacity for growth, and the danger of 
malnutrition through an absolute deficiency of any of the mineral elements, 
or a lack of balance of these constituents of the food, is correspondingly 
increased. As a matter of fact it is found that malnutrition due to dis- 
ordered mineral metabolism occurs most readily in those animals that are 
growing fastest. In experiments with both dogs and pigs it has been 
found that symptoms of rickets tend to appear earliest in those that are 
growing most rapidly. 

Concurrently with the evolution of these faster growing types, with their 
greater need for each of the essential mineral elements in their food, and 
for a more perfect balance of these elements, there has been an increasing 
use of concentrates to support rapid growth. These concentrates, which 
consist chiefly of commercial by-products of cereal grains and tropical 
seeds and nuts, are markedly deficient in some of those mineral elements 
which are required for growth, or for the production of growth material. 
The following table compares the mineral matter of some of these 
artificial feeding stuffs with that of milk and good mixed pasture, the 
only two foodstuffs of which the mineral content corresponds 
approximately with the requirements of herbivora. 





TABLE 


II. 














1,000 Caloric Portions contain 






Protein. 




Ca. 


P. 


Na. 


K. 


CI. 




Gms. 




Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Cultivated pasture . . 


65-3 




2-65 


1-18 


•69 


9-58 


3-52 


Cow's milk 


51-6 




1-73 


1-52 


•58 


2-66 


1-39 


Potatoes 


214 




•19 


•65 


•29 


4-61 


•32 


Maize 


28-6 




•02 


•76 


•08 


1-13 


•0003 


Wheat 


350 




•13 


1-18 


•11 


1-32 


•15 



It is seen from the table that foodstuffs, such as tubers and cereals, 
are deficient especially in calcium, chlorine, and sodium. Most concen- 
trates resemble cereals in their mineral composition. 

1925 P 



210 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

A third factor with an adverse effect on mineral metabolism is the 
increasing tendency to feed large numbers of animals together. This 
necessitates for practical purposes the adoption of fixed standard rations, 
which may be fed with little or no change for months on end, or even 
through the whole life cycle of the animal. Unless such rations are almost 
perfectly constituted with regard to their mineral content, there must be 
a cumulative effect of any deficiency or lack of balance which would not 
occur in the case of either single animals or small groups, fed in a more 
haphazard fashion. As a matter of fact, in practice, the cottager's pig, 
with a varying diet consisting largely of scraps, differing in kind from 
day to day, seems less liable to disease and more successful in bearing and 
rearing large fitters than pigs fed in large numbers under what might 
almost be termed factory conditions. 

Tfie reasons adduced above seem valid enough to justify the fear that, 
under modern conditions of intensive production in animal husbandry, 
there is a danger of malnutrition and disease arising on account of defects 
in the inorganic portion of the ration. Acting on this belief, attempts 
have recently been made to increase the rate of growth and improve the 
condition of animals by the addition of various mineral salts thought to 
be present in their rations in insufficient amounts. In many cases marked 
beneficial effects have been noted. Thus in pig-feeding, the cereal grains 
and most other foodstuffs commonly used in making up rations are 
deficient in calcium, sodium, chlorine and, in some cases, iron and iodine, 
and it has been found that growth, health, and reproductive capacity 
all tend to be improved by the addition to the food of salt mixtures con- 
taining these elements. The high requirement of the rapidly growing pig 
for minerals is now so generally recognised that it need not be further 
discussed here. Most manufacturers of pig-meals now adjust the mineral 
content of their meals by the addition of the minerals thought to be 
deficient. 

In poultry it has been found, in experiments carried out at Ohio and 
at stations in Scotland and Northern Ireland, that even though the birds 
have access to green food and lime or oyster-shell, egg-production can be 
increased by the addition to the cereal rations usually fed to poultry of a 
mixture of those salts which are present in the ration in smaller proportions 
than in egg. The increased egg-production is due to a lengthening of the 
laying period. Apparently the mineral additions prevent the depletion 
of the skeleton and other tissues which would otherwise terminate egg- 
production. 

Of all farm animals the stall-fed heavy-milking cow is the one most 
likely to suffer from depletion of minerals from the tissues and consequent 
malnutrition, on account of the fact that she loses from her body such 
relatively large quantities of mineral matter in the milk. In short tests, 
running for a few days or weeks, the adjustment of the mineral matter 
of the ration is not usually followed by increased milk production, because 
the cow will continue to give milk even though the body is being depleted 
of minerals. But the influence of adjusting the ration is seen towards the 
end of a long lactation or in a subsequent lactation. In recent tests at 
Beltsville and Ohio and at Aberdeen, which have been carried over 
one or more complete lactation periods, it has been found that the 






M.— AGRICULTURE. 211 

adjustment of the ration by the addition of salts present in too small 
amounts has resulted in a rather greater yield of milk and in an increase 
in breeding capacity and decrease in disease. The number of such pro- 
longed feeding experiments with dairy cows is, however, not sufficient 
to enable conclusions with regard to the value of the mineral additions 
to be drawn with the same degree of certainty as in the case of pigs or 
poultry. 

In recent experiments with hand-fed sheep, it has been found that the 
adjustment of a ration of turnips, straw and cereal grains, by the addition 
of calcium and chlorine, which are deficient, increases the rate of growth 
and improves the quality of the fleece. A striking example of the im- 
portance of mineral salts in the diet of sheep comes from Michigan, 
where, owing to high mortality, the sheep industry suffered seriously. 
The feeding of mineral salts found in deposits near the Great Lakes was 
followed by the disappearance of the trouble. 

Some interesting cases of deficiencies of one or more minerals in natural 
pastures have been discovered. In an investigation being carried on 
partly at the Rowett Institute and partly at the Nutrition Institute at 
Cambridge, it has been found that there are marked differences in the 
mineral content of uncultivated pastures grown in different localities, 
and that there appears to be a correlation between the mineral content 
of the pasture and its feeding value, as determined by the number of stock 
it can carry, and the health and breeding capacity of the stock. An 
interesting fact brought out is that, where the sheep have a choice of 
pastures, they actually eat the herbage the mineral composition of which 
most closely approximates to that of good cultivated pasture. As we saw 
above, good pasture contains the various elements in proportions somewhat 
similar to those which are found in milk and might therefore be presumed 
to be suitable for growth and the maintenance of health, as indeed is 
found to be the case in practice. 

In various countries where the modern type of rapidly growing animal 
has been put to graze on uncultivated pastures, malnutrition, as shown 
by stunted growth, low milk yield, or increased liability to disease, has 
appeared. Thus, in South Africa Sir Arnold Theiler and his associates 
have shown that deficiency of phosphorus in the pastures is the cause of pica 
(depraved appetite), which is prevalent in cattle in certain districts there 
and which leads to the ingestion of the organism which causes lamziekte, 
and that the condition can be prevented by feeding bone-meal, or any 
foodstuff rich in phosphorus. Not only does this adjustment of the mineral 
intake prevent the disease, but the general condition of the animals is 
improved. 

The two elements most frequently deficient in pasture are probably 
calcium and phosphorus. Malnutrition due to deficiency of these has been 
noted in various districts in AustraUa, New Zealand and India, and in the 
Falkland Islands. Other minerals may, however, also be deficient. 
Thus, in the North Island, New Zealand, Aston has found that deficiency of 
iron is the cause of malnutrition in animals which are grazed continuously 
on certain areas. The condition is avoided if the animals are transferred 
for a time to an area where the pasture is richer in iron. The symptoms 
of the disease can be relieved by feeding iron salts. It is probable that a 
similar condition occurs in parts of the Cheviots where soil conditions are 

p2 



21 2 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

similar and the sheep show symptoms which resemble those described 
by Aston. 

The effects of deficiency of iodine already referred to are interesting 
in this connection. In Montana there was a very high mortality among 
young pigs, the annual loss being estimated at a million pigs. It was 
found that the cause of death was deficiency of iodine in the food of the sows. 
The vegetation of the district is poor in iodine, but the high mortality can 
be completely prevented by administering very small doses of potassium 
iodine to the sows. 

These examples of malnutrition in stock, associated with deficiency of 
one or more mineral elements in the food, are sufficient to show that the 
dietary conditions which produce such forms of malnutrition are fairly 
widespread. They also show that there is a possibility of remedying the 
defects if the nature of the deficiencies be known. 

The best method of securing a sufficient supply of all the essential 
mineral elements is,'of course, to feed foodstuffs containing ample amounts. 
Unfortunately, with the exception of milk and good mixed pasture, such 
are not available. Modern intensive methods of feeding depend on the use 
of ' concentrates ' which are in almost all cases poor in one or more in- 
organic constituents. Animal products containing bone, such as fish-meal 
and meat-meal, are rich in some of the constituents deficient in concen- 
trates, and the incorporation of these products in the ration helps to adjust 
its mineral content. The well-known beneficial results of including these 
in the diet depend largely on this adjustment. Successful attempts have 
also been made to supply deficient minerals by the addition to the food of 
inorganic salts. Calcium phosphate, chiefly in the form of bone-meal, 
chalk, sodium chloride, iron and iodine have all been used, sometimes in 
combination as mineral mixtures, and in a great many cases a remarkable 
degree of success has attended their use. 

In order to be able to make such adjustments, it is necessary to know 
the amounts of each of the minerals which should be present in the ration 
to meet the requirements of the animal. But this depends on the extent 
to which they are absorbed from the alimentary canal. There might 
be an abundance in the food, but owing to factors which affect absorption 
adversely, only a small proportion of what is present in the food may pass 
through the wall of the intestine into the metabolic field. For example, in 
the case of calcium, which is probably the element which involves most 
difficulty in this respect, the amount absorbed, as calculated from the in- 
take in the food minus the output in the faeces, may vary from nil to 
over 80 per cent, of the amount ingested. 

It is thus obvious that the factors which affect the absorption and 
utilisation of minerals are as important as the absolute amounts of minerals 
present in the food. Unfortunately these factors are imperfectly under- 
stood. Reference may be made to two on which a great deal of work is 
being done at present, viz. the ' balance ' of the ration, and ultra-violet 
irradiation. 

Excess or deficiency of one mineral element may interfere not only 
with the absorption but also with the utilisation of another. Thus, for 
example, excess of magnesium interferes with the assimilation of calcium, 
the ratio of sodium to potassium affects the assimilation of both calcium 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 213 

and phosphorus, either too much or too little oil in the diet decreases the 
amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. So the ratios of the differ- 
ent minerals to each other and to the organic constituents of the food are 
almost as important as their absolute amounts. 

Recent work on the ultra-violet irradiation of animals is of great impor- 
tance in this connection. The beneficial effects of sunlight have been 
recognised for many generations. Within the past few years it has been 
shown that the beneficial effect of sunlight in nutritional diseases such as 
rickets can be obtained from artificially produced ultra-violet rays. 

At the Rowett Institute we have found that when animals are sub- 
jected to the influence of these rays the amounts of calcium and phos- 
phorus absorbed from the intestine tend to be increased, or at least the 
amount excreted in the faeces is decreased, even though at the same time 
the amount excreted in the urine may be increased. This result, which has 
an important bearing on mineral metabolism, has also been obtained by 
other workers. It is of interest to note that the influence of irradiation 
on the absorption of minerals from the intestine appears to be greatest 
when the diet is badly balanced. 

The mode of operation of these rays in unknown. It has been suggested 
that they liberate reserves of some unknown substance which has an 
influence on the absorption of minerals. It is just as probable, however, 
that they affect the association and dissociation of ions and colloids in the 
body fluids, and so alter the balance of the free ions. Since the per- 
meability of cell-membranes is controlled by the balance of these ions, 
it seems possible to suggest an explanation, in terms of physical changes 
in known elements, of their influence on the absorption and retention 
of calcium and phosphorus. 

Ultra-violet irradiation is probably of very great practical importance 
in milk production. It has been shown by balance experiments that there 
is difficulty in preventing a loss of calcium from the body of the cow at 
the height of lactation, at least when the cow is fed indoors, and there is 
reason to believe that this loss of calcium is a predisposing cause of some 
of the diseases prevalent among high-milking cows. If has been found 
that irradiation at the height of lactation can decrease the loss of calcium 
in goats, or even convert a negative balance into a positive. The practical 
value of irradiation will, however, not be demonstrated until experiments 
have been carried out with large groups of stall-fed cows in winter, to 
determine whether the irradiation will favourably affect milk yield, breed- 
ing capacity and health. 

From what has been said regarding factors which affect the assimilation 
of minerals, it will be readily understood that, before the mineral content 
of a ration can be adjusted by the addition of inorganic salts, to ensure 
that all the minerals will be absorbed from the intestine in the proper 
amounts and proportions, it is necessary to consider all the existing 
dietary factors. In the first place the requirements of the animal to be fed 
must be estimated ; the amounts already present in the ration must be 
determined, and then the influence of any proposed addition on the final 
balance of the ration must be considered. Even when all this has been done, 
it is impossible, in the present state of our knowledge, to do more than make 
an empirical adjustment by adding inorganic salts containing elements 
thought to be deficient in the ration. In a few cases we can predict, with 



214 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

some degree of certainty, that beneficial results will follow such adjust- 
ments, but in most cases the attempt must be regarded as an experiment, 
the results of which may or may not justify the continued use of the salt 
mixture tried. 

It is obvious that the use of a stereotyped salt mixture with different 
rations, and for animals of different ages, and even of different species, 
is not warranted. In feeding experiments errors arise from the assumption 
that the addition of such mixtures obviates any necessity for further 
consideration of the mineral requirements of the animal, or of the influence 
which may be exercised by inorganic salts present in foodstuffs, the value 
of which is being tested. Under practical conditions, the use of such fixed 
mineral mixtures proves beneficial in many cases because they are rich 
in those inorganic constituents which are most frequently deficient in 
concentrates, but in cases where the ration is already rich in some of the 
minerals present in the mixture, the resulting excess may be harmful. 
No mineral mixture is a panacea. 

Our knowledge of this subject is, therefore, still so scanty that it forms 
a very uncertain guide to the stock-farmer. It is sufficient, however, to 
warrant his testing, under practical conditions, some of the results which 
have been obtained under experimental conditions. The results of such 
tests, if positive, would secure the early application in practice of informa- 
tion which we already possess, and, whether positive or negative, would be a 
valuable guide to further efforts to increase that part, of our knowledge 
which is of immediate practical value. 

In conclusion it may be of use to recapitulate briefly the points of 
practical interest brought out in this rather discursive address and then 
to indicate the direction in which research in this subject is proceeding. 

An attempt has been made to establish the following three propositions : 

(1) The mineral elements play such an important part in the physio- 
logical processes of the animal body that serious pathological conditions 
develop when the supply in the food does not meet the requirements of 
the animals. 

(2) Under modern intensive methods in animal husbandry these 
pathological conditions due to deficiency or lack of balance of the mineral 
matter of the food are liable to occur to such an extent that they may be 
the cause of considerable loss in the industry. 

(3) This loss can, to some extent, be reduced by the application of 
the knowledge we already possess. 

In the cursory survey of mineral metabolism undertaken here, one is 
struck by the fact that the view of this subject which has been attained 
by research has served to reveal the existence of unexplored regions of 
biology rather than to define the ground immediately in front of us. The 
academic research worker scaling new heights can see his way almost as 
well as those of us who are slowly following after, trying to exploit the 
territory already won. We, who are interested chiefly in obtaining a sure 
ground for the progress of the science of animal husbandry, can by prac-' 
tical experimentation, help to map out the road to that position where 
we will have the knowledge necessary to adjust rations, so that the mineral 
requirements of animals will be adequately met, and some of the loss 
caused by malnutrition eliminated. The time has come when a larger 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 215 

amount of this practical experimental work, which consists chiefly of 
feeding tests, should be carried out by the stock-farmer. He has not only 
the necessary large groups of animals to work with, but also a knowledge 
of practical conditions which is not possessed by the laboratory research 
worker. This work is indeed, to some extent, already being carried out 
on farms, but there must be an increasing amount of co-operation between 
research worker and farmer in carrying out such feeding tests. 

Though this practical experimental work is important because it may 
yield results of immediate economic value, yet with regard to the future 
it is not more important than academic research. Valuable results 
are likely to be yielded by further investigations being carried out on the 
interactions of colloids and inorganic ions, on the influence of the electrical 
charge and chemical characteristics of the ion on these reactions, on the 
effects of radiant energy on the processes associated with mineral meta- 
bolism, and on the relationship of these to both normal and pathological 
processes in the body. In this region, which we have only begun to explore, 
there seems to lie the key to the solution of many obscure problems, both 
of the normal metabolism of health and the abnormal metabobsm of 
disease. Fortunately for agricultural science and, indeed, for all the sciences 
which deal with life in any of its forms, this field of investigation will 
never lack workers. The subjects of investigation are the basic phenomena 
of life, and these will always attract that intense interest which stimulates 
to further and still further efforts to get closer to those ultimate truths 
which indeed may never be reached but the pursuit of which yields 
information of inestimable value to mankind. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



Seismological Investigations. — Thirtieth Report of Committee 
(Professor H. H. Turner, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, Secretary ; 
Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir E. T. Glazebrook, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, Professor 
H. Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Professors A. E. H. Love, H. M. Mac- 
Donald, Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, Professor H. C. Plummer, 
Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor K. A. Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, and Sir G-. T. Walker). [Drawn up by the Chairman 
except where otherwise mentioned.] 

General. 

Eaely in 1925 news was received from Japan of the death of Mrs. Milne at Hakodate 
on January 30. She accompanied her husband on his return to England in 1895, 
and was most hospitable to seismologists both during his lifetime and after his death in 
1913, allowing the work to be continued at Shide until her departure for Japan after 
the War, which led to the sale of the house. Among those who attended her 
funeral were Count Otani, his brother and sister, Baron Kujo and the British Consul. 

After Milne's death in 1913 the work at Shide was efficiently carried on for some 
years, under the general superintendence of Professor Turner and Mr. J. J. Shaw, by 
Mr. J. H. Burgess, of Carisbrooke, who had been gradually drawn into it by Milne. 
But the War compelled him to seek a career elsewhere. News was received of his death 
in November last. 

The Board of Visitors of the University Observatory, Oxford, at their meeting in 
May last, passed a resolution in favour of a small extension of the Observatory build- 
ings which should include a basement for seismographs and a computing room and 
library for seismological work. The matter is under consideration by a Committee of 
Council. 

The salary of Mr. J. S. Hughes has again been provided, half by Dr. Crombie and 
half by the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research. As a result, the current 
reductions have gone ahead rapidly (see below under ' Bulletins and Tables'). 

On several recent occasions of a considerable shock a friendly telegram was received 
from Fordham University, New York, which enabled us to identify the epicentre more 
readily. There have been three shocks in the States themselves, one on March Id. 2h. 
which shook New York ; one on June 28d. lh. in Montana (epicentre 44° N. 108° W.), 
and one on June 29d. 14h. which did considerable damage at Santa Barbara, California. 
The Montana shock was much severer than the last named, but was in a region not 
thickly inhabited, so that little damage was reported. The Santa Barbara shock, as 
also one in Japan on May 23d. 2h., though not large, were unfortunately so placed as 
to do the maximum of damage. 

We may record here, with great appreciation, the publication of an exhaustive 
History of British Earthquakes (Camb. Univ. Press), by Dr. C. Davison, a member of 
our Committee. In this connection it may be remarked that there were sensible shocks 
near Birmingham (1924, Oct. 23), and in Cornwall (1925, Feb. 1). 

Another member of the Committee, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, has produced a compre- 
hensive study of The Earth : its Origin, History, and Physical Constitution (Camb. Univ. 
Press), in which chapter XII is specially devoted to seismology. 

International. 

The meeting of the International Union for Geodesy and Geophysics at Madrid in 
October last was an unqualified success. It was opened by the King of Spain in person, 
and His Majesty received the Presidents of Sections in private audience. Further, 
the whole assembly, of many and distant nations, was graciously entertained by the 
King and Queen at an evening reception at their palace. This royal welcome was 
extended by the citizens of Madrid and other cities in numerous ways, providing 
most agreeable memories for all who were fortunate enough to experience this 
Spanish hospitality. But the work was not allowed to suffer. All the Sections 
completed extensive programmes, that of Geodesy being by far the most strenuous 
and requiring an extra week. 






ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 217 

The President (Professor Turner) and Secretary (Professor Rothe) of the Seis- 
mological Section were re-elected (as was the case in most of the other Sections) ; and the 
subvention for seismology was increased, so that the printing of the summary can now 
be paid forout of International funds, though the computing is still otherwise provided. 

At the moment of completing this report, the sad news has been received from 
Madrid of the death of Sefior Cubillo, who played a leading part in the hospitable 
reception in Spain. 

Instrumental . 

(From Notes supplied by Mr. J. J. Shaw.) 

As no results have been obtained from the seismograph taken to Christmas Island 
by the Eclipse observers in 1922, the return of the instrument has been requested, 
and promised by the General Manager of the Christmas Island Phosphate Company, 
Limited. 

During the year Mr. J. J. Shaw has supplied seismographs to Bidston Observatory 
(Birkenhead), Atherton Collieries (Lanes.), Adelaide (S. Australia), and a second 
component to Wellington (New Zealand), and to the Wembley Exhibition (R.S. 
exhibit). 

The Bidston Observatory is of special interest, both geologically and historically. 
Bidston Hill on which it stands is an outcrop of Kuyper Sandstone, altitude 180 feet, 
two miles from the sea, and the seismograph room is excavated in this rock. The 
stability of the foundation was recognised as early as 1896, when our Committee, 
then newly formed, resolved to place a Darwin Bifilar Pendulum in this vault. The 
Committee installed the first component in 1897 and the second in 1899. A Milne 
Seismograph was added in 1900, and in 1914 the Director (Mr. W. E. Plummer) 
secured the first constructed Milne-Shaw to replace the Milne. This instrument in 
turn has been replaced by a Milne-Shaw of modern pattern (greater scale), the former 
instrument being taken in exchange. It will be mounted at Oxford as a second 
component, but at present is on loan to the R.S. exhibit at Wembley. 

Taking advantage of the stability of the Bidston situation, and by way of experi- 
ment, the new Milne-Shaw has been given the high sensitivity of 66 mm. amplitude 
for one second of arc tilt. An excellent series of seismograms obtained with this 
instrument points to a distinct improvement, and a similar arrangement was made at 
Dyce, Aberdeen, but on July 6 the amplitude shown at Dyce was only one-third of 
that at Bidston, where the foundation is gravel. Interpretation of this discrepancy 
is reserved until further records have been obtained. 

At Bidston, the effect of the tidal load of the sea (about two miles distant) is now 
much more marked, the traces opening and closing across the sheet ; apparently the 
sandstone yields about 0".3 (of arc) between low and high water. 

The two components installed at the bottom of the Astley Colliery, 2,500 feet 
below the surface, have been purchased by the Lancashire and Cheshire Coal Research 
Association, with the object of determining whether any premonitory movements can 
be detected before the more important ruptures which occur from time to time. A 
number of records have been taken, including seismograms, but so far have not been 
discussed. 

Some experiments were made at West Bromwich to test the effect of high pendulum 
periods upon seismograms. Two machines were set to record the same component 
with the following constants — 

A. Magnification 250. Damping 20 • 1. Pendulum period 25.2 sec. Tilt sensi- 

tivity 192 mm. amp. for 1 sec. of arc. 

B. Magnification and damping the same. Period 9.3 sec. Tilting sensitivity, 

27 mm. for 1 sec. of arc. 

A was roughly seven times more sensitive to tilting than B ; but much the same as 
regards magnification for rapid horizontal movement. 

The preliminary waves, the secondary waves, and the maximum phases were all 
increased in amplitude from 4 to 7 times on A as might have been expected, but the 
remarkable feature was, that the amplitude of the microseisms remained precisely 
the same from both machines. 

At first sight this would seem to indicate that microseisms are purely horizontal 
movements ; but, if so, it is not readily explained why they are recorded by a vertical 
component seismograph. The experiment also shows that a higher pendulum period 
is helpful in extricating earthquake waves from the mass of microseisms which often 
mask their appearance. 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Bulletins and Tables. 

The ' International Seismologieal Summaries ' for October to December 1919, all 
1920, and January to March 1921, have been printed and distributed. April to June 
1921 is passed for press ; July to September 1921 is ready for printing, and much 
preparation has been done for subsequent months. The arrears produced by the War 
are thus being steadily caught up at the rate of printing three months' observation in 
two months, a satisfactory result, largely due to the work of Mr. J. S. Hughes and Miss 
E. F. Bellamy. An index list has been formed of the epicentres and times printed in 
the summaries and their predecessors from 1913 to 1920, arranged chiefly in order of 
longitude ; and this has already made possible an analysis of this material for study 
of the four-year period (see below under Periodicity). 

Bound volumes of the summary were exhibited at Wembley last year and this 
year. Miss Bellamy also prepared two large maps, one showing the distribution of 
observing stations, the other the distribution of epicentres, for exhibition at Wembley, 
as mentioned in the last report. 

Depth of Focus. 

To the lists of cases of abnormal focus given in the last two reports may now be 
added — 

Group I (High Focus). 

d h m s ° ° Depth [P] 

1921 March 6 7 24 50 26-5N 109-0 W --020 ? 

Group III. (Deep Focus). 
The letter R following the figures for depth means that the depth is merely repeated 

from a former determination for the same epicentre and not deduced from the actual 

observations. 

d. h. m. s. c ° s. 

1920 Jan. 20 1 42 5 8-0 S 127-5 E +-030 R —12 

1920 Feb. 22 17 35 40 46-7 N 145-8 E +-050 — 

1920 Feb. 26 1 26 50 N 1100 E +050 —53 

1920 Mar. 3 10 43 25 80S 127-5 E +030 R — 

1920 Mar. 15 12 5 30 200 S 176-5 E +030 —21 

1920 Mar. 22 20 1 43 170 S 177-5 W +040 —11 

1920 April 6 19 2 25 50 S 155-0 E +-050 +13 

1920 May 6 9 40 30 440 N 131-0 E +070 R —56 

1920 May 10 18 49 40 5-5 S 1300 E +060 —26 

1920 May 27 5 49 12 50 N 1100 E +050 R -143 

1920 July 2 18 41 5 7-0 S 1530 E +-070 —63 

1920 July 20 12 18 30 33-8 N 140-5 E +010 —10 

1920 Aug. 3 3 2 15 6-5 N 1280 E +040 —18 

1920 Aug. 15 8 16 33 130 S 166-8 E +030 —21 

1920 Nov. 24 11 51 14-3 S 64-2 W +010 —16 

1920 Dec. 18 10 3 40 0-5 N 126-5 E +-020 —31 

1921 Mar. 4 12 50 58 290 N 1390 E +-060 -52 
1921 Mar. 23 22 44 501 . - „ „ nftl , , n «n I— 63 
1921 Mar. 24 1 26 OJ 55S 1300 E +-° 60 \-6 
1921 Mar. 30 15 2 10 7-6 S 128-3 E +040 —16 
1921 April 25 17 33 43 22-0 S 1800 +-040 —22 
1921 May 20 43 10 35-0 N 690 E +-030 —11 
1921 July 15 18 6 12 2-1 N 127-8 E +030 -38 
1921 Sept. 20 20 21 15 1-5 S 109-3 E +-050 — 
1921 Oct. 10 2 6 30 5-0 S 1350 E +-060 -24 
1921 Nov. 15 20 36 30 36-5 N 70-5 E +-030 —27 
1921 Dec. 18 15 29 24 2-5 S 71-0 W +-080 -71 

Microseisms and the Indian Monsoon. 

(By Sir G. T. Waijueb, F.R.S.) 

A letter to Nature (October 18, 1924, p. 576) by Dr. S. K. Banerji draws atten- 
tion to microseisms which were recorded by the Milne-Shaw seismograph at the Bombay 
Observatory. Some twelve years ago it was ascertained that the Calcutta seismograph 
(of Ewing-Omori pattern) recorded microseisms when a storm in the Bay reached 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 219 

a sufficiently northern position. Such traces were not found^at Bombay and the greater 
sensitiveness at Calcutta was attributed to the less stable condition of the earth's 
surface in that neighbourhood ; a mercury trough there is so unsteady as to be useless 
for giving a vertical line until the mercury is amalgamated ; and the occurrence of 
'Barisal guns' 1 suggests abnormal geological conditions. On the ground of economy, 
the officers in charge of meteorological work at Calcutta have always had serious 
teaching responsibility in the Calcutta University, and my appeals to them to compare 
the period of the ground oscillations indicated by the mercury trough under the 
transit instrument with that of the microseisms have not borne fruit. 

The oncoming of the monsoon is in some years a gradual development, but in 
characteristic seasons the ' burst ' is associated with gales and rough weather at sea ; 
so that there is, I think, little doubt that the installation of the Milne-Shaw at Bombay 
promises not only to throw light upon the tremors produced by waves on shore, but 
also to afford indications of considerable value some days before the breaking of the 
monsoon. 

The Earth's Thermal State. 
(By Dr. Haeold Jeffreys, F.R.S.) 

Since it was discovered that rocks contain a considerable amount of radioactive 
material, which is continually generating heat, the Kelvin theory of the cooling of the 
earth has had to undergo much revision to allow for it. The amount is such that a 
layer of granite, something like 30 km. thick, would produce as much heat as is shown 
to be leaking out of the earth by the observed increase of temperature downwards. 
If there is more radioactive material than this, the interior of the earth must be under- 
going continuous heating. 

Cosmogony indicates that a cooling earth is more likely than a heating one, for 
it is very difficult to avoid the conclusion that the earth was formerly fluid. An 
additional argument, of much weight, was given by Dr. Arthur Holmes in a series of 
important papers in the Geological Magazine for 1915-16. Supposing the temperature 
now to be everywhere steady, and accordingly the depth of the granitic layer to be just 
enough for its radioactivity to account for the observed outflow of heat, he found the 
temperature at the base of the layer and at all greater depths to be about 300° C, 
which is hopelessly inconsistent with the phenomena of vulcanism. No reasonable 
modification of the hypothesis was found capable of reconciling the facts, and the 
hypothesis of a rising temperature made matters worse. 

Holmes therefore adopted the hypothesis that radioactivity falls off with depth so 
rapidly that it is insignificant throughout most of the crust ; there is independent 
evidence, both geological and chemical, for believing that this is true. With reasonable 
assumptions as to the earth's state just after solidification, the present rate of outflow 
of heat then gave an equation to determine (practically) the total amount of radio- 
active material in the crust, and hence the cooling at all depths. The results obtained 
have undergone some modification since that time, partly by the present writer and 
partly by L. H. Adams, whose discussion is the most complete yet published, but the 
alterations have not been great. They imply a thickness of the granitic layer of 
the crust of 13 to 20 km., according to the precise assumptions made. Without 
further special assumptions, this theory leads readily to an estimate of the thermal 
contraction of the interior agreeing roughly with that needed to account for the folding 
in known mountain ranges, and to one of the horizontal extent of isostatic anomalies 
of uniform sign which also agrees reasonably with observation. 

An alternative view has been propounded in several recent papers by Professor 
J. Joly, who postidates that great radioactivity extends to a much greater depth than 
is above indicated. The difficulty, that this would imply a rate of increase of tempera- 
ture downwards much greater than is observed, is met by supposing that the radio- 
activity produces fusion, and that the formation of a fluid layer is recurrent, leading 
to a periodic variation of temperature. The present rate of outflow of heat is then to 
be regarded as much less than the average. Such a periodicity would explain the 
existence of tension phenomena in the crust, which have not been satisfactorily 
explained on the former theory, though they are not inconsistent with it. But there 
seems to be a fundamental objection to the postulate of periodicity. The problem is 
one of heat conduction under the influence of a steady supply of heat, with free radia- 
tion from the surface. It is inherent in the nature of heat conduction in solids that in 

1 This is the name given to subterranean sounds as of distant artillery heard in 
Lower Bengal — also in Holland and in Australia. 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 

such circumstances the temperature distribution tends asymptotically to a steady 
state. It seems very improbable that fusion would alter this result. The heat supplied 
would be used up in producing the change of state instead of in raising the tempera- 
ture, and the ultimate steady state would involve a fused layer in adiabatic equilibrium. 
Below this layer the flow of heat would depend entirely on the local temperature 
gradients, and there seems to be no mechanism capable of again reducing the tempera- 
ture when it has once been raised. 

Seismology may provide an independent determination of the thickness of the 
granitic layer, and perhaps also of the basaltic layer below it. The long waves from 
subterranean explosions would afford a possible means of investigation. Those of 
earthquakes would probably be much more difficult and less satisfactory on account 
of the very complicated character of this phase in most earthquakes. 

Periodicity. 

The work on the twenty-first minute periodicity is still proceeding, but attention 
has meanwhile been paid to several other periodicities. It has been shown that the 
disastrous Chinese earthquakes (thousands of people killed) confirm the 284 year period 
deduced from the general list by always occurring near the maximum. Again it has 
been shown that the so-called " annual " period in earthquake activity is not annual 
at all, but that the maximum travels steaddy through the year, traversing it com- 
pletely in 850 years (Geog. Sup. to M.N., I. p. 204). Further, a periodicity of nearly 
four years was discussed (Geog. Sup. to M.N., I. p. 105), the value 3-983 years being 
deduced from the longest series (China and Japan). 

Now if these different periodicities turn out to be related, the relationships will 
strengthen the evidence for the existence of each of them. Thus 850 years is just three 
times 284 years. Again the difference of 3.983 years from four exact years is -017 
year, which accumulates to one year in about 240 years. To make this latter figure 
284 years would only change the figures 3.983 into 3.986, which is a quite possible 
alteration. It seemed therefore desirable to investigate this last period further by 
testing the series of earthquakes recorded in the International Summary and its 
predecessors, which have recently been collected in the Index Catalogue. 

The former paper dealt with the earthquakes in different localities separately — 
taking all the Italian earthquakes by themselves, for instance, and deducing the 
maximum for them alone. An attempt was indeed made to connect the separate 
maxima, but the result was not very conclusive, owing to the large intervals between 
the localities for which any considerable series of records is available. In the new 
investigation each ten degrees of longitude was studied separately, and it was found 
that — 

(a) The maximum slowly travels round the earth from west to east, completing 
the circuit in 48 years. At any one time there are thus 12 maxima and 12 minima 
of the four-year cycle present. 

(6) The rate of travel is not uniform, but has inequalities which seem to follow 
geographical features. In particular there are three longitudes, 110° E., 230° E., and 
350° E., at which there is a rather abrupt change in the average travel. 

This trifid division of the earth is pretty obvious in other ways when once attention 
is drawn to it. For instance, the simple numbers of earthquakes recorded in the 
summary and its predecessors during the years 1913-1920, collecting them in 36 zones 
each of 10° of longitude, and commencing with 350° — 0° E., are as follows : — 
14 25 114 121 38 15 3 8 22 16 39 31 
40 175 100 182 92 67 38 78 19 15 3 9 
27 22 17 38 47 55 60 2 9 13 21 16 
Sum 81 222 231 341 177 137 101 88 50 44 63 56 

It is clear that there is a considerable inequality in 120° of longitude. Analysing 
the results harmonically, we get 

24 cos (Z— 135°) +22 cos 2 (I— 110°) +38 cos 3 (I— 128°) 
the co-efficient of the third harmonic being much greater than those of the first and 
second. 

Apparently different localities on the earth are not related by any serious latitude 
term ; places in the same longitude are all affected together. A latitude term was 
suggested in the early stages of the work, and actually applied ; but on further revision 
was found to be doing more harm than good and was removed. The investigation will 
be published in the Geophysical Supplement to the Monthly Notices, R.A.S. 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 221 



Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Report of Committee 
(Professor J. W. Nicholson, Chairman ; Dr. J. K. Airey, 
Secretary; Dr. D. Wrinch-Nicholson, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, 
Professors L. N. Gr. Filon and E. W. Hobson, Mr. G. Kennedy, and 
Professors A. Lodge, A. E. H. Love, H. M. Macdonald, and 
A. G. Webster). 

During the past year, tables of Bessel and other functions, approved by the 
Association, have been completed and prepared for publication. The tables are : — 

Bessel functions of half-odd integral order, positive and negative, to twelve places 
of decimals for values of the argument from x=l to £=20. 

Bessel functions Jj (x) and J_j (x) to six places of decimals from *=O00 to 20-00 
by intervals of 0-02. 

Lommel- Weber functions Hj (x) and €l_\ (x) for the same range of argument. 
The work required in the construction of these tables has been considerably facilitated 
by the use of a Burkhardt Arithmometer kindly lent to the Secretary. 

In the 1893 and 1915 Reports of the Mathematical Tables Committee, the recom- 
mendation was made that a volume of tables of the more important transcendental 
functions, to six places of decimals, might be published under the auspices of the 
Association. 

The tables which have appeared in the Reports include : — 

Sines and Cosines — angles in radians. 

Logarithmic Gamma function, &c. 

Zonal Harmonics. 

Riccati- Bessel functions. 

Bessel-Clifford, Neumann and Lommel- Weber functions of zero and unit orders. 

Ber, Bei and other related functions. 

Bessel functions with imaginary argument of zero and unit orders. 

Zeros of Bessel functions of high order. 

Bessel and other functions of equal order and argument, &c. 

The following tables have been computed and are submitted to the Association 
with a view to publication in next year's Report. 

Fresnel's Integrals : S(x) and C(x) from a;=0-0 to 20-0 by intervals of 0-1 to six 
places. 

Lommel- Weber functions : Tables of the first forty roots of Q a (x), fii(x), i2j(a;), 
and €l_$(x). 

Neumann functions : first forty roots, p of G (x) and r of G x (x) with values of 
Gj(p) and G (v). 

Confluent Hypergeometric function * : M(a.y.z) for values of a, y and x, in 

particular for y= \. 

Bessel Functions of Half-odd Integral Order. 

The functions Jifx) = A/ — • sin x and J -i (*)= \I — • cos * were com P uted to 
Y nx Y izx 

seventeen places of decimals for x = 1 to a; =20. Tables of the sines and cosines 
of angles from 1 to 100 radians to fifteen places of decimals are given in the 1923 
Report in continuation of Dr. Doodson's table in the 1916 Report ; the calculations, 
however, were carried to twenty places of decimals. 

Functions of higher and lower orders were found (i) from the recurrence formula : 

Jv-n(z) = J v(*) - Jv-ifc) and 
x 



* H. A. Webb. The practical importance of the confluent hypergeometric 
function. Phil. Mag., vol. 36, July 1918. 



222 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

(ii) from the continued fraction 

J y-ifo) _ 2v _ 1 1 

_ Jyfr) x 2(v+l) _ 2(v+2) _ ' ' ' ' 
a; a; 

The ratio of two Bessel functions whose orders differ hy unity served as a check 
on the calculations derived from the recurrence formula. When x= 14, for example, 
the ratio of J^(x) and Jsi(a;) is 

1-6793 8041 45216 : 

From (i) Js9_(x)= + 0-1499 8890 40384 : 
and Jai(a:)= + 0-0893 1204 79085 : 
Dividing J_2 9(2;) by the above ratio. 
J:vi(a;)= + 0-0893 1204 79085 : 



succeeding ratios are : 










1-8694 


8979 


649: 


3-6667 


67 


2-0506 


3821 


112: 


3-8196 


50 


2-2253 


7835 


892 


3-9717 


5: 


2-3953 


3130 


42 


4-1231 


7 


2-5615 


8707 


57 


4-2739 : 




2-7249 


1181 


7: 


4-424 




2-8858 


6335 


0: 


4-57 : 




3-0448 


5964 




4-72 : 




3-2022 


2140: 




4-8: 




3-3581 


997 




5-0 




3-5129 


945 




5-1: 





The calculations were, of course, carried out in the reverse direction. The last 

(x). Th< 

2 sin mx , 



entry in the above table is the ratio of Jjs(a;) and Jj:i(a;). The relation 



Jv(*)J_v+i( a; )+ J v-i( a; ) J -v( a; ) 



■kx 



was employed at intervals to check the results in each table. 

A table of Fresnel's Integrals S(a;) and C(x) to twelve places of decimals was con- 
structed from the values of J. 2 „ +1 (x) for the first twenty integer values of x by the 

method employed by Lommel for this range of the argument, viz. : 
C(x)=J i (x) + J|(ij + J%(x)+J^(x) + . . . . 
S(x) = 3*(x) + Jj(s) + 3^.(x) + J^_(x) + . . . . 

A number of errors have been discovered in the values of these integrals as 
published in collections of mathematical tables. 







x -■ 


= 1 








2v 


Jv(l) 


2v 




Jv(l) 




— 1 


+0-4310 9886 


8018 


+ 13 


+0- 


571 


0409 


+ 1 


+0-6713 9670 


7142 


+ 15 


+0- 


38 


2197 


+ 3 


+0-2402 9783 


9123 


+ 17 


+0- 


2 


2552 


+ 5 


+0- 494 9681 


0228 


+ 19 


+0- 




1190 


+ 7 


+0- 71 8621 


2019 


+21 


+0- 




57 


+ 9 


+Q- 8 0667 


3904 


+ 23 


+0- 




2 


+ 11 


+0- 7385 


3119 











ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



223 







x = 


= 2 






2v 


Jv(2) 




2v 


Jv(2) 


— 5 


+0-8282 2063 


2444 


+ 13 


+0- 


4 6719 5209 


- 3 


—0-3956 2328 


1359 


+ 15 


+ 0- 


6329 8186 


— 1 


-0-2347 8571 


0406 


+ 17 


+0- 


754 1189 


+ 1 


+ 0-5130 1613 


6562 


+ 19 


+0- 


80 1916 


+ 3 


+0-4912 9377 


8687 


+21 


+0- 


7 7015 


+ 5 


+ 0-2239 2453 


1469 


+ 23 


+0- 


6744 


+ 7 


+0- 685 1754 


9985 


+25 


+0- 


543 


+ 9 


+0- 158 8689 


3479 


+ 27 


+ 0- 


40 


+ 11 


+0- 29 7347 


0671 


+ 29 


+ 0- 


3 







x = 


= 3 






2v 


Jv(3) 




2v 




Jv(3) 


-7 


-0-7020 7597 


4177 


+ 15 


+ 0- 


11 3991 4073 


— 5 


+0-3690 4073 


0074 


+ 17 


+0- 


2 0706 6745 


- 3 


+0-0870 0809 


D721 


+ 19 


+0- 


3346 4147 


- 1 


—0-4560 4882 


0795 


+21 


+0- 


487 2855 


+ 1 


+0-0650 0818 


2877 


+23 


+0- 


64 5837 


+ 3 


+0-4777 1821 


5087 


+25 


+ 0- 


7 8560 


+ 5 


+0-4127 1003 


2210 


+27 


+ 0- 


8831 


+ 7 


+0-2101 3183 


8596 


+ 29 


+0- 


923 


+ 9 


+ 0- 775 9759 


1180 


+31 


+0- 


90 


+ 11 


+0-226 6093 


4945 


+33 


+0- 


8 


+ 13 


+ 0- 54 9250 


3620 


+ 35 


+0- 


1 









x = 


= 4 








2v 


Jv(4) 


2v 


Jv(4) 


- 9 


+0-6251 


4661 


8950 


+ 17 


+ 0- 


19 7434 


6274 


- 7 


-0-3489 


0209 


7875 


+ 19 


+ 0- 


4 3365 


5437 


— 5 


-0-0145 


6794 


7669 


+21 


+0- 


8551 


7053 


- 3 


+ 0-3671 


1203 


2461 


+23 


+ 0- 


1530 


9091 


- 1 


-0-2607 


6607 


6677 


+ 25 


+ 0- 


251 


0221 


+ 1 


-0-3019 


2051 


3292 


+ 27 


+0- 


37 


9788 


+ 3 


+0-1852 


8594 


8354 


+29 


+0- 


5 


3349 


+ 5 


+0-4408 


8497 


4557 


+31 


+0- 




6995 


+ 7 


+0-3658 


2026 


9842 


+33 


+0- 




860 


+ 9 


+0-1993 


0049 


7667 


+ 35 


+o- 




100 


+ 11 


+0- 826 


0584 


9908 


+37 


+0- 




• 11 


+ 13 


+0- 278 


6558 


9580 


+ 39 


+ 0- 




1 


+ 15 


+0- 79 


5731 


6228 











224 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

x = 5 



2v 


Jv(5) 


2v 




Jv(5) 


1 


—11 


-0-.5717 


4941 


8290 


+ 17 


+0- 


102 4343 


2064 


- 9 


+0-3329 


4527 


0161 


+ 19 


+0- 


28 8689 


0725 


— 7 


-0-0275 


5206 


7999 


+ 21 


+ 0- 


7 2675 


2690 


- 5 


-0-2943 


7237 


4962 


+ 23 


+0- 


1 6547 


0572 


- 3 


+0-3219 


2444 


2961 


+25 


+ 0- 


3441 


1942 


- 1 


+ 0-1012 


1770 


9185 


+ 27 


+0- 


658 


9140 


+ 1 


-0-3421 


6798 


4798 


+ 29 


+0- 


116 


9412 


+ 3 


-0-1696 


5130 


6145 


+ 31 


+ 0- 


19 


3449 


+ 5 


+ 0-2403 


7720 


1111 


+ 33 


+0- 


2 


9972 


+ 7 


+0-4100 


2850 


7256 


+35 


+0- 




4368 


+ 9 


+0-3336 


6270 


9047 


+ 37 


+0- 




601 


+ 11 


+0-1905 


6436 


9029 


+ 39 


+0- 




78 


+ 13 


+ 0- 855 


7890 


2816 


+41 


+0- 




10 


+ 15 


+0- 319 


4077 


8293 


+43 


+o- 




1 



2v 


Jv(6) 


2v 


Jv(6) 


-15 


-0-8323 


5823 


0066 


+ 17 


+0- 


351 9869 


2456 


—13 


+0-5317 


8661 


8789 


+ 19 


+ 0- 


123 2375 


8179 


-11 


-0-3198 


4611 


0644 


+ 21 


+ 0- 


38 2654 


1777 


- 9 


+0-0545 


9791 


7391 


+ 23 


+0- 


10 6913 


8039 


— 7 


+0-2379 


4923 


4557 


+ 25 


+ 0- 


2 7182 


0707 


- 5 


-0-3322 


0535 


7708 


+ 27 


+0- 


6344 


8242 


- 3 


+0-0388 


8856 


3533 


+ 29 


+0- 


1369 


6380 


— 1 


+0-3127 


6107 


5941 


+ 31 


+0- 


275 


0928 


+ 1 


-0-0910 


1540 


9523 


+ 33 


+ 0- 


51 


6748 


+ 3 


-0-3279 


3031 


0862 


+ 35 


+ 0- 


9 


1187 


+ 5 


-0-0729 


4974 


5908 


+ 37 


+ 0- 


1 


5175 


+ 7 


+0-2671 


3885 


5939 


+ 39 


+ 0- 




2389 


+ 9 


+ 0-3846 


1174 


4503 


+ 41 


+0- 




357 


+ 11 


+0-3097 


7876 


0816 


+ 43 


+ 0- 




51 


+ 13 


+0-1833 


1598 


3659 


+45 


+0- 




7 


+ 15 


+ 0- 874 


0587 


0446 


+47 


+ 0- 




1 









x = 


= 7 








2v 


Jv(7) 


2v 


Jv(7) 


-17 


+0-7634 


0121 


2731 


+ 19 


+0- 


378 5136 


5325 


-15 


-0-5003 


6133 


2244 


+ 21 


+0- 


142 0491 


5635 


-13 


+0-3088 


0164 


2077 


+ 23 


+0- 


47 6338 


1582 


—11 


—0-0731 


2743 


1613 


+ 25 


+o- 


14 4619 


5276 


- 9 


-0-1938 


8710 


6684 


+ 27 


+ 0- 


4 0160 


1547 


— 7 


+0-3224 


1085 


4493 


+ 29 


+0- 


1 0283 


9262 


- 5 


-0-1285 


2374 


7809 


+ 31 


+0- 


2444 


6824 


- 3 


-0-2306 


0817 


7487 


+ 33 


+0- 


542 


5246 


- 1 


+0-2273 


5582 


3875 


+ 35 


+ 0- 


112 


9333 


+ 1 


+0-1981 


2877 


4076 


+ 37 


+0- 


22 


1421 


+ 3 


-0-1990 


5171 


3292 


+ 39 


+Q- 


4 


1037 


+ 5 


—0-2834 


3665 


1202 


+ 41 


+0- 




7212 


+ 7 


-O-0034 


0303 


7566 


+43 


+0- 




1205 


+ 9 


+0-2800 


3361 


3636 


+45 


+0- 




192 


+ 11 


+0-3634 


4625 


5098 


+47 


+0- 




29 


+ 13 


+0-2910 


9621 


5803 


+49 


+0- 




4 


+ 15 


+0-1771 


6100 


2823 


+51 


+0- 




1 


+ 17 


+ 0- 885 


3450 


4531 











ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



225 









x - 


= 8 










2v 


Jv(8) 


2v 


Jv(8) 


-19 


-0-7095 


8681 


4292 


+ 19 


+0- 


892 


1334 


8387 


—17 


+0-4747 


6855 


4185 


+ 21 


+ 0- 


400 


4485 


1004 


-15 


—0-2992 


9636 


3352 


+ 23 


+0- 


159 


0438 


5498 


-13 


+0-0864 


1212 


7100 


.+25 


+0- 


56 


8025 


7304 


-11 


+0-1588 


7665 


6815 


+ 27 


+ 0- 


18 


4641 


8576 


- 9 


-0-3048 


6753 


0220 


+ 29 


+0- 


5 


5140 


5390 


— 7 


+0-1840 


9931 


4683 


+ 31 


+0- 


1 


5242 


5964 


— 5 


+0-1437 


8062 


9873 


+ 33 


+0- 




3924 


5221 


- 3 


-0-2739 


6220 


8353 


+35 


+0- 




946 


0572 


— 1 


-0-0410 


4480 


1740 


+ 37 


+o- 




214 


4782 


+ 1 


+0-2790 


9280 


8571 


+ 39 


+0- 




45 


9046 


+ 3 


+0-0759 


3140 


2812 


+41 


+o- 




9 


3068 


+ 5 


-0-2506 


1853 


2517 


+ 43 


+0- 




1 


7927 


+ 7 


—0-2325 


6798 


6635 


+45 


+0- 






3289 


+ 9 


+0-0471 


2154 


5086 


+47 


+0- 






576 


+ 11 


+0-2855 


7972 


3857 


+49 


+0- 






97 


+ 13 


+0-3455 


5057 


5217 


+ 51 


+0- 






16 


+ 15 


+ 0-2759 


3996 


0870 


+53 


+0- 






2 


+ 17 


+0-1718 


3685 


1415 



















*« 


= 9 










2v 


Jv(9) 


2v 


Jv(9) 


-21 


+0-6661 


4067 


7745 


+ 19 


+0- 


1671 


6217 


8244 


—19 


-0-4533 


7404 


9129 


+ 21 


+0- 


895 


9047 


5069 


—17 


+0-2909 


8231 


4860 


+ 23 


+0- 


418 


8226 


3584 


-15 


-0-0962 


5921 


2274 


+ 25 


+o- 


174 


4197 


6313 


-13 


-0-1305 


5029 


4404 


+27 


+0- 


65 


6767 


0619 


-11 


+0-2848 


3185 


9746 


+ 29 


+ 0- 


22 


6103 


5543 


- 9 


-0-2175 


7753 


4175 


+ 31 


+0- 


7 


1788 


8354 


— 7 


-0-0672 


5432 


5571 


+33 


+0- 


2 


1169 


1010 


- 5 


+0-2698 


8645 


4064 


+ 35 


+0- 




5831 


2017 


- 3 


-0-0826 


8259 


3353 


+ 37 


+0- 




1507 


7944 


- 1 


-0-2423 


2558 


9613 


+ 39 


+0- 




367 


5088 


+ 1 


+0-1096 


0765 


8865 


+41 


+0- 




84 


7436 


+ 3 


+0-2545 


0421 


8375 


+43 


+ 0- 




18 


5455 


+ 5 


—0-0247 


7291 


9407 


+ 45 


+0- 




3 


8626 


+ 7 


-0-2682 


6695 


1379 


+47 


+0- 






7676 


+ 9 


-0-1838 


7915 


3888 


+49 


+0- 






1459 


+ 11 


+0-0843 


8779 


7491 


+ 51 


+0- 






266 


+ 13 


+ 0-2870 


1979 


5266 


+ 53 


+0- 






46 


+ 15 


+ 0-3301 


9635 


1227 


+ 55 


+0- 






8 


+ 17 


+ 0-2633 


0745 


6778 


+57 


+0- 






1 



1925 



Q 



226 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 









x = 


10 










2v 


Jv (10) 


2v 


Jv (10) 


—23 


-0-6301 


4458 


1157 


+21 


+0- 1630 


0736 


6390 


-21 


+ 0-4351 


2346 


8587 


+23 


+0- 


897 


5896 


3150 


-19 


-0-2836 


1470 


2876 


+25 


+0- 


434 


3824 


8856 


-17 


+0-1037 


4446 


6877 


+ 27 


+0- 


188 


3665 


8989 


-15 


+0-1072 


4910 


9185 


+29 


+0- 


74 


2073 


0414 


-13 


—0-2646 


1813 


0654 


+ 31 


+0- 


26 


8345 


9212 


-11 


+0-2367 


5446 


0666 


+33 


+0- 


8 


9799 


3143 


- 9 


+0-0041 


8822 


3922 


+35 


+0- 


2 


7991 


8159 


— 7 


-0-2405 


2386 


2196 


+ 37 


+0- 




8172 


0413 


— 5 


+0-1641 


7847 


9615 


+ 39 


+0- 




2244 


7370 


— 3 


+0-1584 


3462 


2388 


+41 


+0- 




582 


4329 


— 1 


-0-2117 


0886 


6331 


+43 


+0- 




143 


2377 


+ 1 


-0-1372 


6373 


5755 


+45 


+0- 




33 


4891 


+ 3 


+0-1979 


8249 


2756 


+47 


+0- 




7 


4635 


+ 5 


+0-1966 


5848 


3582 


+49 


+0- 




1 


5893 


+ 7 


-0-0996 


5325 


0965 


+51 


+ 0- 






3241 


+ 9 


—0-2664 


1575 


9257 


+53 


+0- 






634 


+ 11 


-0-1401 


2093 


2367 


+55 


+0- 






119 


+ 13 


+0-1122 


8273 


3654 


+ 57 


+0- 






22 


+ 15 


+0-2860 


8848 


6117 


+59 


+0- 






4 


+ 17 


+0-3168 


4999 


5521 


+61 


+ 0- 






1 


+ 19 


+0-2525 


5650 


6269 



















x = 


11 










2v 


Jv(ll) 


2v 




Jv 


(11) 




—27 


-0-9436 


6649 


2860 


+ 19 


+0- 


3051 


1671 


5612 


-25 


+0-5997 


0590 


2928 


+ 21 


+ 0- 


2432 


5383 


6484 


-23 


-0-4193 


0146 


8341 


+23 


+0- 


1592 


7697 


2222 


—21 


+0-2770 


1534 


9058 


+ 25 


+ 0- 


897 


7983 


2706 


-19 


—0-1095 


4601 


6224 


+27 


+0- 


447 


6810 


2111 


-17 


—0-0877 


9950 


2853 


+29 


+0- 


201 


0550 


8838 


—15 


+0-2452 


3615 


6997 


+31 


+ 0- 


82 


3733 


0281 


-13 


-0;2466 


1343 


8506 


+33 


+0- 


31 


0878 


5589 


—11 


+0-0462 


1608 


8511 


+35 


+0- 


10 


8902 


6486 


- 9 


+0-2003 


9734 


9996 


+ 37 


+0» 


3 


5629 


8686 


— 7 


-0-2101 


7755 


6689 


+ 39 


+0- 


1 


0943 


2730 


- 5 


-0-0666 


4799 


5739 


+41 


+ 0- 




3169 


0086 


— 3 


+0-2404 


7210 


0207 


+43 


+0- 




868 


4861 


— 1 


+0-0010 


6469 


5683 


+45 


+ 0- 




225 


9827 


+ 1 


-0-2405 


6889 


0723 


+47 


+ 0- 




55 


9886 


+ 3 


-0-0229 


3459 


4839 


+49 


+0- 




13 


2415 


+ 5 


+0-2343 


1400 


1222 


+51 


+ 0- 




2 


9962 


+ 7 


+0-1294 


4095 


9031 


+53 


+0- 






6500 


+ 9 


—0-1519 


4248 


1838 


+55 


+0- 






1354 


+ 11 


-0-2537 


5753 


5080 


+57 


+ 0- 






271 


+ 13 


-0-1018 


1505 


3242 


+ 59 


+0- 






52 


+ 15 


+0-1334 


3065 


3976 


+61 


+0- 






10 


+ 17 


+0-2837 


6594 


5028 


+ 63 


+ 0- 






2 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



227 









x = 


12 










2v 


Jv (12) 


2v 


Jv (12) 


-29 


+0-8850 


5905 


0694 


+ 21 


+0 


2946 


9968 


4098 


-27 


—0-5735 


3867 


5790 


+ 23 


+0 


2350 


9491 


2327 


-25 


+0-4054 


0296 


9832 


+ 25 


+0 


1558 


9889 


7863 


-23 


-0-2710 


5084 


4695 


+ 27 


+0 


896 


9445 


8220 


-21 


+0-1141 


1114 


9166 


+ 29 


+0 


459 


1363 


3132 


—19 


+0-0713 


5633 


3655 


+ 31 


+0 


212 


6348 


8516 


—17 


—0-2270 


9201 


0786 


+ 33 


+ 


90 


1704 


5535 


-15 


+0-2503 


5734 


8292 


+ 35 


+0 


35 


3338 


6706 


-13 


—0-0858 


5467 


4579 


+ 37 


+0 


12 


8866 


5689 


—11 


—0-1573 


4811 


7498 


+ 39 


+0 


4 


3999 


9170 


— 9 


+0-2300 


9044 


8952 


+41 


+0 


1 


4133 


1612 


— 7 


-00152 


1971 


9216 


+43 


+0 




4288 


3837 


— 5 


—0-2212 


1227 


9409 


+45 


+0 




1233 


5471 


- 3 


+0-1073 


9150 


2303 


+47 


+0 




337 


4178 


- 1 


+0-1943 


6440 


3834 


+49 


+0 




88 


0060 


+ 1 


-0-1235 


8853 


5956 


+ 51 


+ 




21 


9401 


+ 3 


-0-2046 


6344 


8497 


+53 


+0 




5 


2395 


+ 5 


+0-0724 


2267 


3832 


+ 55 


+0 




1 


2009 


+ 7 


+0-2348 


3956 


2593 


+ 57 


+0 






2646 


+ 9 


+0-0645 


6707 


1014 


+ 59 


+0 






562 


+ 11 


-0-1864 


1425 


9332 


+ 61 


+0 






115 


+ 13 


—0-2354 


4680 


8736 


+ 63 


+0 






23 


+ 15 


-0-0686 


5311 


6798 


+ 65 


+0 






4 


+ 17 


+0-1496 


3041 


2738 


+ 67 


+0 






1 


+ 19 


+ 0-2806 


2953 


4844 



















x = 


13 










2v 


Jv (13) 


2v 


Jv (13) 


-31 


—0-8355 


0462 


0144 


+21 


+0- 


2770 


3024 


6380 


—29 


+0-5507 


3569 


3645 


+ 23 


+0- 


2853 


7188 


0348 


-27 


-0-3930 


5961 


9526 


+ 25 


+0- 


2278 


5846 


5005 


—25 


+0-2656 


1890 


0755 


+ 27 


+ 0- 


1528 


1747 


5431 


-23 


-0-1177 


4595 


8849 


+ 29 


+0- 


895 


3167 


6275 


—21 


-0-0572 


9912 


7407 


+ 31 


+0- 


469 


0703 


3182 


—19 


+0-2103 


0608 


7737 


+33 


+0- 


223 


2355 


6698 


-17 


—0-2500 


7130 


8516 


+35 


+0- 


97 


6045 


6898 


—15 


+0-1167 


1023 


8784 


+37 


+0- 


39 


5459 


6488 


-13 


+0-1154 


0564 


8381 


+39 


+0- 


14 


9493 


3106 


—11 


-0-2321 


1588 


7165 


+ 41 


+o- 


5 


3020 


2831 


— 9 


+0-0810 


0010 


2297 


+43 


+0- 


1 


7724 


5054 


- 7 


+0-1760 


3889 


3267 


+45 


+0- 




5606 


9271 


— 5 


—0-1757 


9027 


5595 


+47 


+0- 




1684 


0883 


- 3 


-0-1084 


2724 


8807 


+49 


+0- 




481 


6999 


— 1 


+0-2008 


1194 


8396 


+51 


+0- 




131 


5499 


+ 1 


+0-0929 


8017 


5854 


+ 53 


+0- 




34 


3805 


+ 3 


-0-1936 


5962 


7177 


+55 


+0- 




8 


6167 


+ 5 


—0-1376 


7085 


9048 


+57 


+0- 




2 


0749 


+ 7 


+0-1407 


0929 


6774 


+59 


+0- 






4808 


+ 9 


+ 0-2134 


3740 


3465 


+61 


+0- 






1074 


+ 11 


+ 0-0070 


5505 


9471 


+63 


+0- 






232 


+ 13 


-0-2074 


6773 


7759 


+ 65 


+0- 






48 


+ 15 


-0t2145 


2279 


7230 


+ 67 


+0- 






10 


+ 17 


-0-0400 


5856 


6737 


+ 69 


+0- 






2 


+ 19 


+0-1621 


3851 


7650 













Q2 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 

x = 14 



2v 


Jv (14) 


2v 


Jv (14) 


—33 


+0-7929 


8611 


2288 


+ 21 


+0- 


1718 


4952 


6383 


—31 


—0-5306 


3684 


3931 


+23 


+o- 


2731 


8645 


8796 


—29 


+0-3819 


9547 


0703 


+ 25 


+0- 


2769 


5679 


8781 


—27 


-0-2606 


3948 


8239 


+27 


+0- 


2213 


7925 


3314 


—25 


+ 0-1206 


6639 


9472 


+ 29 


+0- 


1499 


8890 


4038 


—23 


+0-0451 


6377 


4895 


+ 31 


+0- 


893 


1204 


7909 


—21 


—0-1948 


6402 


9658 


+ 33 


+0- 


477 


7348 


7759 


—19 


+0-2471 


3226 


9591 


+35 


+0- 


232 


9688 


7524 


—17 


—0-1405 


2976 


4787 


+ 37 


+0- 


104 


6873 


1050 


—15 


—0-0764 


8898 


3778 


+ 39 


+0- 


43 


7407 


3108 


—13 


+ 0-2224 


8224 


7407 


+ 41 


+0- 


17 


0615 


8323 


—11 


—0-1301 


0167 


4528 


+43 


+o- 


6 


2613 


3408 


— 9 


—0-1202 


5950 


3134 


+45 


+0- 


2 


1696 


5716 


— 7 


+0-2074 


1135 


5115 


+47 


+o- 




7125 


6393 


— 5 


+0-0165 


5382 


5577 


+49 


+0- 




2225 


2176 


— 3 


—0-2133 


2343 


5678 


+ 51 


+o- 




662 


6222 


— 1 


+0-0291 


5833 


9211 


+53 


+0- 




188 


6203 


+ 1 


+0-2112 


4069 


7163 


+55 


+o- 




51 


4405 


+ 3 


—0-0140 


6971 


7985 


+57 


+o- 




13 


4673 


+ 5 


—0-2142 


5563 


6731 


+59 


+0- 




3 


3908 


+ 7 


—0-0624 


5015 


2276 


+ 61 


+0- 






8224 


+ 9 


+0-1830 


3056 


0593 


+ 63 


+0- 






1924 


+ 11 


+0-1801 


1265 


5514 


+ 65 


+0- 






435 


+ 13 


—0-0415 


1347 


4118 


+67 


+0- 






95 


+ 15 


—0-2186 


6088 


1481 


+ 69 


+0- 






20 


+ 17 


—0-1927 


6604 


1755 


+ 71 


+0- 






4 


+ 19 


—0-0154 


1216 


9221 


+ 73 


+0- 






1 









x - 


= 15 








2v 


Jv (15) 


2v 


Jv (15) 


-35 


—0-7560 


4914 


4202 


+ 21 


+0-0058 


6203 


2399 


-33 


+0-5127 


4919 


0254 


+ 23 


+0- 1794 


1189 


0119 


-31 


-0-3719 


9907 


4358 


+ 25 


+0- 2692 


3619 


9116 


-29 


+ 0-2560 


4889 


6751 


+ 27 


+0- 2693 


1510 


8408 


-27 


—0-1230 


2879 


2695 


+ 29 


+0-2155 


3099 


6018 


-25 


-0-0345 


9706 


9901 


+ 31 


+0- 1473 


7815 


0561 


-23 


+0-1806 


9057 


5862 


+ 33 


+0- 890 


5051 


5141 


—21 


-0-2424 


6181 


3088 


+ 35 


+0- 485 


3298 


2749 


-19 


+0-1587 


5596 


2461 


+ 37 


+0- 241 


9311 


1274 


—17 


+0-0413 


7092 


7304 


+39 


+0- 111 


4335 


8393 


-15 


-0-2056 


4301 


3406 


+41 


+0- 47 


7962 


0547 


-13 


+0-1642 


7208 


6102 


+43 


+0- 19 


2093 


7769 


—11 


+0-0632 


7387 


2118 


+45 


+0- 7 


2706 


7725 


- 9 


—0-2106 


7292 


5655 


+47 


+0- 2 


6026 


5405 


— 7 


+ 00631 


2988 


3275 


+49 


+0- 


8843 


0545 


- 5 


+0-1812 


1231 


3460 


+ 51 


+0- 


2860 


7709 


- 3 


-0-1235 


3398 


7762 


+53 


+0- 


883 


5664 


— 1 


—0-1565 


0551 


5907 


+ 55 


+0- 


261 


1638 


+ 1 


+0-1339 


6768 


8822 


+57 


+0- 


74 


0343 


+ 3 


+0-1654 


3669 


5162 


+ 59 


+0- 


20 


1666 


+ 5 


-0-1008 


8034 


9790 


+ 61 


+0- 


5 


2877 


+ 7 


-0-1990 


6347 


8425 


+ 63 


+0- 


1 


3366 


+ 9 


+0-0079 


8405 


9858 


+ 65 


+0- 




3262 


+ 11 


+0-2038 


5391 


4340 


+ 67 


+0- 




770 


+ 13 


+0-1415 


0881 


0658 


+69 


+0- 




176 


+ 15 


-0-0812 


1294 


5103 


+ 71 


+0- 




39 


+ 17 


-0-2227 


2175 


5761 


+ 73 


+0- 




8 


+ 19 


-0-1712 


0504 


4760 


+ 75 


+ 0- 




2 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



229 









* = 


= 16 










2v 


Jv (16) 


2v 


Jv (16) 


-37 


+0-7236 


1819 


5240 


+ 23 


+0- 


0242 


6931 


2615 


-35 


-0-4966 


9642 


9240 


+ 25 


+0- 


1853 


0352 


6223 


-33 


+0-3629 


0524 


3723 


+27 


+0- 


2652 


6744 


7109 


-31 


-0-2517 


9563 


5939 


+ 29 


+0- 


2623 


3529 


0773 


-29 


+0-1249 


4880 


0908 


+ 31 


+0- 


2102 


1526 


7417 


-27 


+0-0253 


2593 


4293 


+ 33 


+0- 


1449 


5678 


9847 


-25 


-0-1676 


8631 


5027 


+35 


+0- 


887 


5811 


1643 


-23 


+0-2366 


8393 


2937 


+ 37 


+0- 


492 


0157 


9372 


-21 


-0-1725 


4683 


8570 


+ 39 


+0- 


250 


2054 


0655 


-19 


-0-0102 


1620 


7314 


+ 41 


+0- 


117 


8598 


8475 


-17 


+0-1846 


7858 


4755 


+ 43 


+0- 


51 


8105 


4813 


—15 


-0-1860 


0478 


8989 


+45 


+0- 


21 


3809 


6335 


-13 


-0-0102 


9909 


5078 


+47 


+0- 


8 


3234 


1128 


-11 


+ 0-1943 


7280 


3740 


+ 49 


+0- 


3 


0690 


5730 


- 9 


-01233 


3220 


7493 


+ 51 


+ 0- 


1 


0755 


7669 


- 7 


—0-1249 


9843 


7025 


+ 53 


+0- 




3593 


4340 


- 5 


+0-1780 


1902 


3691 


+ 55 


+0- 




1147 


4831 


- 3 


+0-0693 


6749 


2122 


+57 


+o- 




351 


0391 


— 1 


-01910 


2542 


8464 


+ 59 


+o- 




103 


0938 


+ 1 


-0-0574 


2840 


2843 


+ 61 


+0- 




29 


1194 


+ 3 


+0-1874 


3615 


3286 


+ 63 


+0- 




7 


9237 


+ 5 


+0-0925 


7268 


1584 


+ 65 


+o- 




2 


0804 


+ 7 


-0-1585 


0719 


0291 


+ 67 


+0- 






5277 


+ 9 


-0-1619 


1957 


7336 


+ 69 


+0- 






1295 


+ 11 


+0-0674 


2742 


8040 


+ 71 


+0- 






308 


+ 13 


+0-2082 


7593 


4114 


+ 73 


+0- 






71 


+ 15 


+0-1017 


9676 


8428 


+ 75 


+0- 






16 


+ 17 


-0-1128 


4146 


3713 


+ 77 


+0- 






3 


+ 19 


-0-2216 


9082 


3623 


+ 79 


+ 0- 






1 


+21 


-0-1504 


1638 


9339 













230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 









x = 


17 










2v 


Jv (17) 


2v 




Jv 


(17) 




-39 


—0-6948 


8043 


3632 


+23 


-0- 


1307 


0403 


6776 


—37 


+0-4821 


8579 


1678 


+25 


+0- 


0402 


4103 


3843 


-35 


-0-3545 


8276 


0020 


+27 


+0- 


1898 


8202 


7722 


-33 


+0-2478 


3753 


7776 


+ 29 


+0- 


2613 


3630 


4303 


-31 


-0-1265 


1363 


6838 


+ 31 


+0- 


2559 


2696 


1972 


-29 


—0-0171 


3620 


0012 


+ 33 


+0- 


2053 


5403 


8116 


—27 


+0-1557 


4597 


8035 


+35 


+o- 


1427 


0146 


4959 


-25 


—0-2302 


2505 


9220 


+ 37 


+0- 


884 


4309 


5624 


—23 


+0-1828 


2028 


5524 


+ 39 


+0- 


497 


9233 


1398 


-21 


-0-0171 


2003 


2960 


+41 


+o- 


257 


8637 


0525 


-19 


—0-1616 


7200 


9515 


+43 


+ 0- 


123 


9832 


6927 


-17 


+0-1978 


1227 


8888 


+45 


+ 0- 


55 


7410 


3466 


-15 


-0-0361 


4026 


9373 


+ 47 


+ 0- 


23 


5665 


2837 


—13 


-0-1659 


2380 


5912 


+49 


+0- 


9 


4134 


8495 


—11 


+ 0-1630 


2317 


9776 


+51 


+0- 


3 


5664 


5767 


- 9 


+ 0-0604 


3821 


8998 


+ 53 


+0- 


1 


2858 


8806 


- 7 


—0-1950 


1988 


3952 


+55 


+o- 




4424 


8745 


- 5 


+0-0198 


6408 


6159 


+57 


+0- 




1456 


8899 


- 3 


+0-1891 


7750 


5670 


+ 59 


+o- 




459 


9917 


- 1 


-0-0532 


4835 


1865 


+ 61 


+o- 




139 


5518 


+ 1 


-0-1860 


4524 


9678 


+ 63 


+0- 




40 


7531 


+ 3 


+0-0423 


0451 


3649 


+65 


+0- 




11 


4744 


+ 5 


+0-1935 


1075 


2086 


+ 67 


+0- 




3 


1195 


+ 7 


+0-0146 


1041 


3435 


+ 69 


+0- 






8200 


+ 9 


—0-1874 


9469 


9495 


+ 71 


+0- 






2087 


+ 11 


-0-1138 


7231 


3168 


+ 73 


+0- 






515 


+ 13 


+0-1138 


1261 


4504 


+ 75 


+0- 






123 


+ 15 


+0-2009 


0548 


8965 


+ 77 


+0- 






29 


+ 17 


+0-0634 


5693 


4583 


+ 79 


+0- 






6 


+ 19 


—0-1374 


4855 


4382 


+81 


+0- 






1 


+ 21 


-0-2170 


7590 


7128 













ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



231 



a; =18 



2v 


Jv (18) 


2v 


Jv (18) 


-41 


+0-6692 


0984 


6779 


+ 23 


-0- 2099 


8455 


0586 


-39 


-0-4689 


8570 


9391 


+ 25 


-0- 1122 


0755 


1575 


-37 


+0-3469 


2585 


6902 


+ 27 


+0-0541 


4072 


8955 


-35 


-0-2441 


3966 


3130 


+ 29 


+0- 1934 


1864 


5007 


-33 


+0-1277 


9015 


4739 


+ 31 


+0- 2574 


7819 


9112 


-31 


+0-0098 


5771 


2775 


+ 33 


+0-2500 


1603 


1241 


-29 


-0-1447 


6732 


6740 


+ 35 


+0-2008 


8452 


4830 


-27 


+0-2233 


7853 


5862 


+ 37 


+0- 1405 


9276 


7040 


-25 


-0-1903 


0047 


7053 


+ 39 


+0- 881 


1171 


8530 


-23 


+0-0409 


2768 


2267 


+41 


+0- 603 


1595 


6441 


-21 


+0-1380 


0399 


4156 


+43 


+ 0- 264 


9684 


8919 


-19 


-0-2019 


3234 


2116 


+45 


+0- 129 


8207 


1532 


-17 


+0-0751 


4681 


1411 


+47 


+0- 59 


5832 


9912 


-15 


+ 0-1309 


6035 


3561 


+49 


+0- 25 


7578 


9904 


-13 


-0-1842 


8043 


9379 


+51 


+0- 10 


5354 


2605 


-11 


+0-0021 


3107 


4879 


+53 


+0- 4 


0924 


7477 


- 9 


+0-1829 


7811 


5842 


+55 


+0- 1 


5146 


3856 


— 7 


-0-0936 


2013 


2800 


+57 


+0- 


5355 


8749 


— 6 


-0-1465 


7028 


6420 


+ 59 


+0- 


1813 


8849 


- 3 


+0-1343 


3410 


1249 


+ 61 


+0- 


589 


6366 


- 1 


+0-1241 


8126 


9545 


+ 63 


+0- 


184 


3280 


+ 1 


-0-1412 


3306 


0669 


+ 65 


+0- 


55 


5115 


+ 3 


-0-1320 


2755 


0693 


+ 67 


+0- 


16 


1302 


+ 5 


+0-1192 


2846 


8886 


+ 69 


+0- 


4 


5288 


+ 7 


+0-1651 


4656 


9828 


+ 71 


+o- 


1 


2302 


+ 9 


—0-0550 


0480 


2842 


+ 73 


+0- 




3237 


+ 11 


-0-1926 


4897 


1249 


+75 


+ 0- 




826 


+ 13 


-0-0627 


2512 


4032 


+77 


+0- 




205 


+ 15 


+0-1473 


4749 


2781 


+ 79 


+0- 




49 


+ 17 


+0-1855 


1470 


1350 


+ 81 


+0- 




12 


+ 19 


+0-0278 


6083 


6271 


+83 


+0- 




3 


+21 


-0-1561 


0604 


0841 


+ 85 


+0- 




1 



232 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 









X - 


= 19 










2v 


Jv (19) 


2v 


Jv (19) 


—43 


—0-6461 


1625 


7566 


+23 


-0- 


1698 


0520 


9926 


—41 


+0-4569 


1035 


0001 


+ 25 


— 0- 


2012 


2769 


0312 


—39 


-0-3398 


4818 


1910 


+ 27 


— 0- 


0949 


6806 


6800 


-37 


+0-2406 


7276 


0234 


+ 29 


+0- 


0662 


7306 


9070 


-35 


—0-1288 


3035 


1178 


+31 


+0- 


1961 


2169 


8538 


-33 


-0-0033 


5369 


2274 


+ 33 


+0- 


2537 


1496 


5387 


-31 


+0-1346 


5518 


5128 


+ 35 


+0- 


2445 


4113 


6081 


-29 


-0-2163 


4687 


2935 


+ 37 


+0- 


1967 


5554 


8447 


-27 


+0-1955 


5846 


3036 


+ 39 


+0- 


1386 


1440 


5632 


-25 


—0-0615 


5199 


5590 


+41 


+0- 


877 


6875 


7849 


-23 


—0-1145 


6899 


5155 


+ 43 


+0- 


507 


8133 


4990 


-21 


+0-2002 


4077 


9198 


+45 


+o- 


271 


5742 


1339 


-19 


—0-1067 


4976 


0801 


+47 


+0- 


135 


3887 


3445 


-17 


-0-0934 


9101 


8397 


+49 


+0- 


63 


3347 


6129 


-15 


+0-1903 


9961 


9367 


+51 


+o- 


27 


9482 


8152 


-13 


-0-0568 


2447 


0577 


+ 53 


+0- 


11 


6843 


1016 


-11 


-0-1515 


1971 


8446 


+ 55 


+0- 


4 


6447 


9418 


- 9 


+0-1445 


4641 


2835 


+ 57 


+0- 


1 


7611 


4667 


— 7 


+0-0830 


5036 


4998 


+ 59 


+0- 




6386 


4585 


- 5 


-0-1751 


4391 


5729 


+61 


+0- 




2220 


1675 


- 3 


—0-0369 


5986 


0859 


+ 63 


+0- 




741 


4478 


— 1 


+0-1809 


7968 


3233 


+ 65 


+0- 




238 


3173 


+ 1 


+ 0-0274 


3461 


4373 


+ 67 


+0- 




73 


8483 


+ 3 


—0-1795 


3575 


6161 


+ 69 


+ 0- 




22 


0951 


+ 5 


—0-0557 


8236 


5346 


+ 71 


+0- 




6 


3919 


+ 7 


+ 0-1648 


5618 


6333 


+ 73 


+0- 




1 


7901 


+ 9 


+0-1165 


1885 


5047 


+ 75 


+0- 






4859 


+ 11 


-0-1096 


6304 


4468 


+ 77 


+0- 






1280 


+ 13 


—0-1800 


0798 


6055 


+ 79 


+0- 






327 


+ 15 


-0-0135 


0031 


4411 


+ 81 


+0- 






81 


+ 17 


+0-1693 


4984 


3099 


+ 83 


+0- 






20 


+ 19 


+0-1650 


2385 


8237 


+85 


+0- 






5 


+21 


-0-0043 


2598 


4862 


+87 


+0- 






1 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



233 









x = 


20 










2v 


Jv (20) 


2v 


Jv (20) 


-45 


+0-6252 


1019 


6622 


+ 23 


-0- 


0328 


7496 


8026 


-43 


-0-4458 


0866 


1243 


+25 


-0- 


1794 


1820 


5515 


-41 


+0-3332 


7842 


5050 


+27 


-0- 


1913 


9778 


8867 


-39 


-0-2374 


1211 


0109 


+ 29 


-0- 


0789 


6880 


9456 


-37 


+0-1296 


7518 


9663 


+ 31 


+0- 


0768 


9301 


5156 


-35 


-0-0024 


8699 


0768 


+ 33 


+0- 


1981 


5298 


2948 


-33 


-0-1253 


2295 


5820 


+ 35 


+o- 


2500 


5940 


6708 


-31 


+0-2092 


6986 


7870 


+ 37 


+o- 


2394 


5097 


8791 


-29 


-0-1990 


4533 


9379 


+ 39 


+o- 


1929 


2490 


4056 


-27 


+0-0793 


4587 


4230 


+ 41 


+o- 


1367 


5258 


4117 


-25 


+0-0919 


2840 


9169 


+43 


+ 0^ 


874 


1789 


3384 


-23 


—0-1942 


5638 


5691 


+45 


+0- 


511 


9588 


6660 


-21 


+01314 


6643 


4375 


+47 


+0- 


277 


7285 


1599 


-19 


+0-0562 


1662 


9597 


+49 


+0- 


140 


7031 


4599 


-17 


-0-1848 


7223 


2492 


+ 51 


+o- 


66 


9941 


9169 


-15 


+0-1009 


2476 


8022 


+53 


+0- 


30 


1320 


4281 


-13 


+0-1091 


7865 


6476 


+ 55 


hO- 


12 


8557 


2176 


-11 


-0-1718 


9089 


4731 


+ 57 


+0- 


5 


2211 


9202 


- 9 


-0-0146 


3866 


4374 


+ 59 


+o- 


2 


0246 


7550 


- 7 


+0-1784 


7829 


3700 


+ 61 


+o- 




7516 


0071 


- 5 


—0-0478 


2873 


8421 


+ 63 


+ 0- 




2677 


0667 


— 3 


—0-1665 


2110 


9094 


+ 65 


+o- 




916 


7530 


- 1 


+0-0728 


0690 


4785 


+ 67 


+0- 




302 


3804 


+ 1 


+0-1628 


8076 


3855 


+ 69 


+0- 




96 


2214 


+ 3 


-0-0646 


6286 


6592 


+ 71 


+o- 




29 


5834 


+ 5 


-0-1725 


8019 


3844 


+ 73 


+0- 




8 


7997 


+ 7 


+0-0215 


1781 


8131 


+ 75 


+ 0- 




2 


5355 


+ 9 


+0-1801 


1143 


0190 


+ 77 


+0- 






7085 


+ 11 


+0-0595 


3232 


5454 


+79 


+0- 






1922 


+ 13 


-01473 


6865 


1190 


+ 81 


+0- 






507 


+ 15 


-0-1553 


2194 


8728 


+ 83 


+0- 






130 


+ 17 


+0-0308 


7718 


9644 


+ 85 


+0- 






32 


+ 19 


+0-1815 


6755 


9925 


+ 87 


+0- 






8 


+21 


+0-1416 


1199 


2285 


+ 89 


+0- 






2 



234 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Bessel Functions. Jj(x) and J_i(a;). 

From the tables of Bin 8 and cos 0, 6 in radians, given in the 1916 and 1924 

Reports of the Committee, values of A/ — sin x and \f _ . cos x were calculated 

v nx v tcx 

to nine places of decimals from 2=0-00 to a;=l-50 by intervals of 0-02 and from 

1-5 to 20-0 by 0-1 ; intermediate values were found by interpolation to fifths. 

The results were afterwards employed in completing tables of Fresnel's Integrals. 

S(a;) = \ /* J^i&and C(x) = \ j x J_i(x).dx 
2 .' o 2 J o 

over the range a;=0-0 to #=20*0 to nine places of decimals. 



X 


Jj(x) 


J_i(s) 


X 


Ji(s) 


J-i(s) 


0-00 


+0-000000 


+ oo 


0-90 


+0-658812 : 


+0-522801 : 


0-02 


+ 0-112830 


: +5-640767 : 


0-92 


+0-661823 


+0-503953 


0-04 


+0-159534 


: +3-986231 : 


0-94 


+0-664584 


+0-485369 


0-06 


+0-195324 


+3-251488: 


0-96 


+0-667098 : 


+0-467039 


0-08 


+0-225435 


+2-811925: 


0-98 


+0.-669368 : 


+0-448952 


0-10 


+0-251893 


+2-510527 : 


1-00 


+ 0-671396: 


+0-431099 


0-12 


+0-275732 


: +2-286730 : 


1-02 


+0-673185 : 


+0-413471 : 


0-14 


+0-297567 


+2-111572: 


1-04 


+0-674736 : 


+0-396062 


0-16 


+0-317794 


+ 1-969233: 


1-06 


+0-676053 


+0-378863 


0-18 


+0-336688 


: +1-850248 


1-08 


+0-677136 


+0-361869 : 


0-20 


+0-354450 


: +1-748560 : 


M0 


+0-677988 : 


+0-345074 : 


0-22 


+0-371229 


: +1-660095 


1-12 


+0-678613 


+0-328474 


0-24 


+0-387140 


+ 1-581994 


1-14 


+0-679010 : 


+0-312063 


0-26 


+0-402274 


: +1-512188 


1-16 


+0-679183 : 


+0-295837 : 


0-28 


+0-416705 


: +1-449137 


1-18 


+0-679134 : 


+0-279794 


0-30 


+0-430493 


+ 1-391668: 


1-20 


+0-678865 


+0-263929 


0-32 


+0-443688 


+ 1-338872 


1-22 


+0-678378 


+0-248239 




0-34 


+0-456330 


+ 1-290028 : 


1-24 


+0-677674 : 


+0-232723 




0-36 


+0-468457 


+ 1-244562: 


1-26 


+0-676757 : 


+0-217378 




0-38 


+0-480097 


+1-202007 : 


1-28 


+0-675628 


+0-202202 


0-40 


+0-491277 


+ 1-161979: 


1-30 


+0-674289 : 


+0-187193 : 


0-42 


+0-502019 


+ 1-124161 


1-32 


+0-672743 


+0-172350 


0-44 


+0-512344 


+ 1-088286 


1-34 


+0-670991 


+0-157672 


0-46 


+0-522268 


+ 1-054131 


1-36 


+0-669036 


+0-143157 


0-48 


+0-531806 


+ 1-021505 


1-38 


+0-666879 : 


+0-128805 


0-50 


+0-540974 


+0-990246 


1-40 


+0-664524 


+0-114615 


0-52 


+0.549781 


+0-960213 


1-42 


+0-661971 : 


+0-100586 : 


0-54 


+0-558240 


+0-931286 


1-44 


+0-659224 : 


+0-086719 


0-56 


+0-566360 


+0-903358 : 


1-46 


+0-656285 


+0-073013 


0-58 


+0-574150 


+0-876340 


1-48 


+0-653155 : 


+0-059467 : 


0-60 


+0-581618 : 


+0-850149 


1-50 


+0-649838 


+0-046083 


0-62 


+0-588771 


+0-824715 


1-52 


+0-646335 


+0-032859 : 


0-64 


+0-595616 


+0-799975 


1-54 


+0-642649 


+0-019797 : 


0-66 


+0-602159 


+0-775873 : 


1-56 


+0-638781 : 


+0-006897 


0-68 


+0-608406 


+0-752361 : 


1-58 


+0-634736 


—0-005842 


0-70 


+0-614361 


+0-729395 


1-60 


+0-630514 


-0-018418 : 


0-72 


+0-620030 


+0-706935 


1-62 


+0-626118: 


-0-030832 


0-74 


+0-625417 


+0-684946 


1-64 


+0-621552 


-0-043082 : 


0-76 


+0-630526 


+0-663396 : 


1-66 


+0-616816 : 


-0-055168 : 


0-78 


+0-635361 


+0-642258 


1-68 


+0-611914: 


-0-067090 


0-80 


+0-639926 


+0-621505 : 


1-70 


+0-606849 


-0-078846 




0-82 


+0-644224 


+0-601116 


1-72 


+0-601622 


—0-090436 




0-84 


+0-648259 


+0-581068 : 


1-74 


+0-596236 : 


-0-101859 




0-86 


+0-652033 


+0-561345 


1-76 


+0-590695 


-0-113114 




0-88 


+0-655550 


+0-541927 : 


1-78 


+0-585000 : 


-0-124201 





ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 
Besad Functions. Jj(x) and J_i(«) — oont. 



23i 



X 


Ji(x) 


3-iW 


X 


Jj(*) 


J-|(*) 


1-80 


+0-679155 


-0-135119 


2-98 


+0-074364 


-0-456180 : 


1-82 


+ 0-573161 : 


-0-145866 


3-00 


+0-065008 


-0-456049 


1-84 


+0-567023 


-0-156442 


3-02 


+ 0-055689: 


-0-455741 


1-86 


+0-560741 : 


-0-166846 : 


3-04 


+0-046410 : 


—0-455258 : 


1-88 


+0-554320 : 


-0-177077 : 


3-06 


+0-037175 


-0-454603 


1-90 


+0-547762 : 


-0-187135 


3-08 


+ 0-027984 : 


—0-453775 


1-92 


+0-541070 


-0-197018 


3-10 


+0-018843 


—0-452776 


1-94 


+0-534246 : 


-0-206725 


3-12 


+0-009753 


-0-451608 


1-96 


+0-527294 : 


—0-216256 


3-14 


+0-000717 


-0-450271 : 


1-98 


+0-520216 : 


-0-225610 


3-16 


—0-008261 : 


—0-448769 


200 


+0-513016 


-0-234785 : 


3-18 


-0-017180 : 


-0-447101 : 


2-02 


+0-505696 


-0-243782 : 


3-20 


-0-026036 : 


—0-445270 : 


2-04 


+0-498259 


—Q-252599 : 


3-22 


-0-034827 : 


-0-443277 : 


2-06 


+0-490708 


—0-261236 


3-24 


-0-043550 : 


-0-441124 : 


2-08 


+0-483046 : 


—0-269691 : 


3-26 


-0-052203 


-0-438813 


2-10 


+0-475276 : 


—0-277964 : 


3-28 


-0-060782 


-0-436345 


212 


+0-467402 : 


-0-286055 


3-30 


-0-069285 


-0-433722 


214 


+0-459426 


—0-293962 


3-32 


-0-077710 


-0-430945 : 


2-16 


+0-451351 


-0-301684 : 


3-34 


-0-086054 


-0-428018 


2-18 


+0-443180 : 


—0-309222 


3-36 


-0-094314 


-0-424941 


2-20 


+0-434917 : 


—0-316574 : 


3-38 


-0-102489 : 


-0-421716 : 


2-22 


+0-426565 


-0-323741 


3-40 


-0-110576 


-0-418347 


2-24 


+0-418126 


-0-330720 : 


3-42 


-0-1 18572 


-0-414833 : 


2-26 


+0-409604 


-0-337513 


3-44 


-0-126475 


—0-411178 : 


2-28 


+0-401001 : 


—0-344117 : 


3-46 


-0-134283 


—0-407384 : 


2-30 


+0-392322 : 


-0-350534 


3-48 


-0-141993 


-0-403453 


2-32 


+0-383570 


-0-356762 


3-50 


-0-149604 


-0-399387 


2-34 


+0-374746 : 


-0-362801 : 


3-52 


-0-157113 


-0-395187 : 


2-36 


+0-365856 


—0-368651 


3-54 


-0-164518 


-0-390867 : 


2-38 


+0-356901 


-0-374311 : 


3-56 


-0-171817 


-0-386399 : 


2-40 


+0-347885 : 


—0-379781 : 


3-58 


-0-179008 


-0-381816 


2-42 


+0-338812 


-0-385062 


3-60 


-0-186089 


-0-377106 : 


2-44 


+0-329684 


-0-390151 : 


3-62 


-O-193058 


-0-372277 


2-46 


+0-320504 : 


-0-395051 


3-64 


-0-199913 


-0-367328 : 


2-48 


+0-311277 


-0-399760 


3-66 


-0-206652 


-0-362263 


2-50 


+0-302005 


-0-404278 : 


3-68 


-0-213274 


-0-357083 : 


2-62 


+0-292691 


-0-408606 


3-70 


-0-219776 


-0-351792 : 


2-54 


+0-283339 


-0-412743 


3-72 


-0-226157 


-0-346391 : 


2-56 


+0-273951 : 


-0-416689 : 


3-74 


-0-232415 


—0-340884 : 


2-58 


+0-264532 


-0-420446 


3-76 


-0-238549 


-0-335273 


2-60 


+0-255084 


-0-424011 : 


3-78 


-0-244557 


-0-329560 


2-62 


+0-245610 : 


-0-427387 : 


3-80 


-0-250437 


—0-323748 


2-64 


+0-236114: 


-0-430573 : 


3-82 


-0-256188 


-0-317839 : 


2-66 


+0-226600 


-0-433570 : 


3-84 


—0-261809 


-0-311837 


2-68 


+0-217069 


-0-436378 


3-86 


-0-267298 


-0-305744 


2-70 


+0-207526 


—0-438996 : 


3-88 


-0-272653 


—0-299562 


2-72 


+0-197973 


-0-441427 : 


3-90 


—0-277874 


-0-293294 : 


2-74 


+0-188414 


-0-443670 


3-92 


-0-282959 


-0-286944 


2-76 


+0-178852 


-0445725 : 


3-94 


-0-287908 


-0-280513 


2-78 


+0-169290 


-0-447594 : 


3-96 


-0-292718 


-0-274004 : 


2-80 


+0-159731 : 


—0-449277 : 


3-98 


-0-297389 


-0-267421 : 


2-82 


+ 0-150179 


-0-450775 


4-00 


-0-301920 


-0-260766 


2-84 


+0-140636 : 


-0-452087 : 


4-02 


-0-306310 


: -0-254041 : 


2-86 


+0-131106: 


—0-453217 


404 


-0-310558 


—0-247250 : 


2-88 


+0-121592 


-0-454163 


406 


-0-314662 


: -0-240396 


2-90 


+0-112096 : 


-0-454927 


4-08 


-0-318623 


: -0-233481 


2-92 


+0-102623 


-0-455509 : 


410 


-0-322439 


: -0-226507 : 


2-94 


+0-093174 


-0-455912 


4-12 


-0-326110 


: -0-219479 : 


2-96 


+0-083763 : 


-0-456135 : 


1 414 


-0-329635 


: -0-212399 



236 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 
Bessel Functions, Jj(a;) and J_i(») — cont. 



ETC. 



X 


J 4 (z) 


J-i(*) 


X 


Ji(*) 


J-i(*) 


4-16 


—0-333014 


-0-205269 


5-34 


-0-279479 : 


+0-202752 


4-18 


-0-336245 


-0-198092 : 


5-36 


—0-274854 : 


+0-207911 : 


4-20 


-0-339328 : 


-0-190872 


5-38 


-0-270138 : 


+0-212969 : 


4-22 


-0-342264 


-0-183611 


5-40 


-0-265332 : 


+0-217925 


4-24 


-0-345051 


-0-176312 : 


5-42 


—0-260439 : 


+0-222775 : 


4-26 


—0-347689 


—0-168978 : 


5-44 


—0-255461 


+0-227520 


4-28 


—0-350177 : 


-0.161612 : 


5-46 


—0-250400 


+0-232157 


4-30 


-0-352517 


-0-154217 


5-48 


—0-245258 : 


+0-236685 


4-32 


-0-354706 : 


— 0- 146795 : 


5-50 


-0-240038 : 


+0-241103 


4-34 


-0-356746 : 


—0-139350 


5-52 


—0-234742 


+0-245409 : 


4-36 


-0-358636 : 


—0-131884 : 


5-54 


—0-229372 


+ 0-249603 


4-38 


-0-360377 


—0-124400: 


5-56 


-0-223930 : 


+0-253683 


4-40 


—0-361967 


-0-116902 


5-58 


—0-218420 


+0-257647 : 


4-42 


-0-363407 : 


-0-109391 : 


5-60 


—0-212843 


+0-261496 


4-44 


-0-364698 : 


-0-101872 


5-62 


-0-207201 


+ 0-265227 


4-46 


-0-365840 


—0-094346 


5-64 


—0-201497 


+0-268839 : 


4-48 


-0-366832 


-0-086816 


5-66 


—0195733 : 


+0-272333 


4-50 


-0-367675 


-0-079286 


5-68 


—0-189913 


+0-275706 : 


4-52 


—0-368369 : 


—0071757 : 


5-70 


-0-184037 : 


+0-278958 : 


4-54 


—0-368915 : 


—0-064234 : 


5-72 


-0-178109 : 


+ 0-282089 


4-56 


-0-369313 : 


-0-056719 


5-74 


-0-172132 


+0-285096 




4-58 


-0-369564 : 


-0-049214 


5-76 


—0-166107 


+0-287980 




4-60 


-0-369668 : 


-0-041722 : 


5-78 


—0-160037 


+0-290740 




4-62 


-0-369626 : 


-0-034247 


5-80 


-0-153924 : 


+0-293375 




4-64 


-0-369438 : 


—0-026790 


5-82 


-0147772 


+0-295885 




4-66 


-0-369106 


—0-019355 


5-84 


-0^141582 


+0-298269 




4-68 


—0-368629 


-0-011943 : 


5-86 


-0-135357 


+0-300527 




4-70 


—0-368008 : 


-0004559 : 


5-88 


-O-129099 : 


+0-302658 


4-72 


—0-367245 : 


+0-002795 


5-90 


-0122812 : 


+0-304661 : 


4-74 


-0-366341 


+0-010117: 


5-92 


-0-116498 


+0-306538 


4-76 


—0-365295 : 


+0-017405 


5-94 


—0-110158 


+0-308286 


4-78 


-0-364110 


+0-024655 : 


5-96 


—0-103796 : 


+0-309906 


4-80 


—0-362786 


+0-031865 : 


5-98 


—0-097414 : 


+0-311398 


4-82 


-0-361324 


+0-039033 : 


6-00 


-0-091015 : 


+0-312761 


4-84 


-0-359726 


+ 0-046156 


6-02 


-O-084601 : 


+0-313996 


4-86 


—0-357992 


+0-053230 : 


6-04 


-0-078,175 : 


+0-315102 


4-88 


—0-356124 


+0-060255 : 


6-06 


-0-071739 : 


+0-316079 : 


4-90 


-0-354122 : 


+0-067228 


6-08 


—0-065296 


+0-316928 : 


4-92 


-0-351989 : 


+0-074145 : 


6-10 


-0-058848 : 


+0-317649 


4-94 


-0-349726 : 


+0-081005 : 


6-12 


—0-052398 


+0-318241 


4-96 


-0-347334 


+0-087805 : 


6-14 


-0-045948 : 


+0-318705 


4-98 


-0-344814 


+0-094544 


6-16 


—0-039501 


+0-319041 


5-00 


—0-342168 


+0-101217 : 


6-18 


—0-033059 : 


+0-319249 


5-02 


-0-339397 


+0-107825 


6-20 


-0-026625 


+0-319330 


5-04 


-O-336503 : 


+0-114363 : 


6-22 


—0-020201 


+0-319284 


506 


-0-333488 


+0-120830 : 


6-24 


-0-013789 : 


+0-319111 : 


5-08 


—0-330352 : 


+0-127224 : 


6-26 


-0-007393 


+0-318813 


5-10 


-0-327099 


+0-133543 


6-28 


-0-001014 


+0-318389 


5-12 


—0-323728 : 


+0-139784 


6-30 


+0-005345 


+0-317840 


5-14 


—0-320243 : 


+0-145945 : 


6-32 


+0-011681 : 


+0-317166 : 


5-16 


—0-316645 : 


+0-152025 


6-34 


+0-017994 


+0-316369 


6-18 


-0-312936 


+0-158021 : 


6-36 


+0-024279 


+0-315449 


5-20 


-0-309117 


+0-163932 


6-38 


+0-030534 : 


+0-314406 : 


5<22 


-0-305190 


+0-169755 


6-40 


+0-036758 : 


+0-313242 


5-24 


-0-301158 


+0-175488 : 


6-42 


+0-042948 : 


+0-311957 : 


5-26 


-0-297022 


+0-181131 


6-44 


+0-049102 : 


+0-310552 : 


6-28 


-0-292784 


+0-186680 


6-46 


+0-055217 : 


+0-309029 


5-30 


-0-288446 : 


+0-192134 : 


6-48 


+0-061292 


+0-307387 : 


5-32 


-0-284011 


+0-197492 : 


6-50 


+0-067323 


+0-305629 





ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



237 





Bessel Functions. 


3\(x) and J_i(»0 — cont. 




X 


J*(«) 


J-i(z) 


X 


J*(«) 


J-i(z) 


6-52 


+0-073309 


+ 0-303754 


: i 7-70 


+0-284135 


: +0044101 


6-54 


+0-079247 : 


+0-301765 


: 7-72 


+ 0-284591 


+0-038360 


6-56 


+0-085136 : 


+0-299662 


7-74 


+0-284932 


: +0-032618 : 


6-58 


+0-090974 


+0-297446 


: 7-76 


+0-285160 


+0-026879 


6-60 


+0-096757 : 


+0-295119 


: |: 7-78 


+0-285273 


+0-021143 : 


6-62 


+0-102485 


+0-292682 


: 7-80 


+0-285272 


: +0-015414 : 


6-64 


+0-108154 : 


+0-290136 


: jl 7-82 


+0-285158 


+ 0-009694 


6-66 


+0113764 


+0-287483 


7-84 


+0-284931 


+ 0-003984 


6-68 


+0119311 : 


+0-284723 


1 7-86 


+0-284591 


-0-001713 


6-70 


+0124795 


+0-281858 


7-88 


+0-284138 


: —0-007394 : 


6-72 


+0-130212 : 


+0-278890 


: 7-90 


+0-283574 


-0013059 


6-74 


+0-135562 : 


+0-275820 


: 7-92 


+0-282898 


: -0018703 : 


6-76 


+0-140842 : 


+0-272650 


7-94 


+0-282111 


: —0-024327 


6-78 


+0-146051 


+0-269380 


: ! ! 7-96 


+0-281215 


-0-029926 


6-80 


+0-151186 


+0-266013 


: |i 7-98 


+0-280208 


: -0-035499 : 


6-82 


+0-156246 : 


+0-262551 


|, 8-00 


+0-279093 


—0-041045 


6-84 


+0-161229 : 


+0-258994 


: ! 8-02 


+0-277869 


-0-046560 


6-86 


+0-166134 


+0-255345 


il 8-04 


+0-276537 


: —0-052043 


6-88 


+0-170958 : 


+0-251605 


8-06 


+0-275099 


: -0-057491 : 


tf-90 


+0-175701 


+0-247776 


'1 8-08 


+0-273555 


: —0-062903 : 


6-92 


+0-180359 : 


+0-243859 


: | 8-10 


+0-271906 


: —0-068277 


6-94 


+0-184933 : 


+0-239857 


: 8-12 


+0-270153 


: —0-073610 : 


6-96 


+0-189420 : 


+0-235771 


: 1 8-14 


+0-268297 


-0-078901 : 


6-98 


+0-193819: 


+0-231604 


8-16 


+0-266338 


: —0-084148 


7-00 


+0-198129 


+0-227356 


8-18 


+0-264279 


-0-089348 


7-02 


+0-202347 


+0-223029 


: 8-20 


+0-262119 


-0-094500 


7-04 


+0-206473 


+0-218627 


8-22 


+0-259860 


-0-099601 : 


7-06 


+0-210505 


+0-214150 


: ! 8-24 


+0-257503 


—0-104651 : 


7-08 


+0-214442 : 


+0-209601 


8-26 


+0-255049 


: -0-109647 


7-10 


+0-218283 


+0-204981 


8-28 


+0-252500 


-0-114587 


7-12 


+0-222026 


+0-200293 


8-30 


+0-249856 


: -0-119469 : 


7-14 


+0-225670 : 


+0-195538 


i 8-32 


+0-247119 


: —0-124293 


7-16 


+0-229215 


+0-190719 


8-34 


+0-244291 


—0-129055 


7-18 


+0-232659 


+0-185837 


: II 8-36 


+0-241372 


-0-133754 : 


7-20 


+0-236000 : 


+0-180895 


• 8'38 


+0-238364 


-0-138389 : 


7-22 


+0-239238 : 


+0-175895 


: 8-40 


+0-235268 


—0-142958 : 


7-24 


+0-242373 


+0-170839 


\\ 8-42 


+0-232086 


-0-147459 : 


7-26 


+0-245402 : 


+0-165729 


8-44 


+0-228819 


-0-151891 


7-28 


+0-248326 


+0-160567 


'! 8-46 


+ 0-225468 


-0-156251 : 


7-30 


+0-251142: 


+0-155356 


ij 8-48 


+0-222036 


—0-160539 : 


7-32 


+0-253852 


+0-150097 


8-50 


+ 0-218523 


—0-164754 


7-34 


+0-256453 


+0-144792 


8-52 . 


+0-214932 


—0-168892 : 


7-36 


+0-258944 : 


+0-139445 


8-54 


+ 0-211264 


—0-172954 : 


7-38 


+0-261326 : 


+0-134056 


8-56 


+0-207520 


—0-176937 : 


7-40 


+0-263598 : 


+0-128629 


8-58 


+0-203702 


-0-180841 


7-42 


+0-265759 : 


+0-123166 


8-60 


+0-199812 


—0-184663 : 


7-44 


+0-267808 : 


+0-117668 


8-62 


+0-195851 : 


-0-188404 


7-46 


+0-269746 


+0-112138 


8-64 


+0-191822 


-0-192060 


7-48 


+0-271571 


+0-106578 


8-66 


+0-187725 : 


—0-195631 : 


7-50 


+0-273283 


+0-100991 


8-68 


+0-183564 


—0-199117 


7-52 


+0-274881 : 


+0-095378 : 


8-70 


+ 0-179338 : 


—0-202515 


7-54 


+0-276366 : 


+0-089742 : 


8-72 


+ 0-175051 : 


—0-205824 : 


7-56 


+0-277738 


+0-084086 : 


i! 8-74 


+0-170704 : 


-0-209044 : 


7-58 


+0-278995 : 


+0-078411 : 


8-76 


+0-166300 


-0-212174 


7-60 


+0-280138 : 


+0-072720 : 


8-78 


+0-161838 : 


-0-215212 


7-62 


+0-281167 


+0-067015 : 


8-80 


+0-157323 : 


-0-218157 


7-64 


+0-282081 


+0-061298 : 


8-82 


+0-152755 : 


-0-221008 : 


7-66 


+0-282880 : 


+0-055572 : 


1 8-84 


+0-148137 


-0-223766 


7-68 


+0-283565 : 


+0-049839 


8-86 


+0-143470 : 


-0-226427 : 



238 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Bessel Functions. Ji(x) and J_i(*) — cont. 



X 


Ji(*) 


J-i(z) 


X 


Ji(*) 


J-i(*) 


8-88 


+0-138757 


-0-228993 : 


10-06 


-0-149264 : 


-0-202490 : 


8-90 


+0-133999 


-0-231462 


10-08 


—0-153132 


—0-199267 


8-92 


+0-129198 


-0-233833 


10-10 


-0-156931 


—0-195970 : 


8-94 


+ 0-124356 : 


-0-236105 : 


10-12 


-0-160659 : 


—0-192602 


8-96 


+0-119476 


-0-238278 


1014 


-0-164317 


-0-189164 


8-98 


+0-114559 : 


-0-240352 


10-16 


-0-167901 : 


-0-185657 


9-00 


+0-109607 : 


-0-242325 


10-18 


-0-171412: 


—0-182082 : 


9-02 


+0-104623 : 


—0-244198 


10-20 


—0-174848 


—0-178443 


9-04 


+0-099608 : 


-0-245969 


10-22 


—0-178207 


-0-174739 : 




9-06 


+0-094565 


-0-247638 


10-24 


—0-181488 : 


-0-170973 : 




9-08 


+0-089495 


-0-249204 


10-26 


—0-184691 


-0-167146 : 




910 


+0-084400 


—0-250668 


10-28 


—0-187814 


-0-163260 : 




9-12 


+ 0-079283 


—0-252029 


10-30 


-0-190855 : 


-0-159317 


9-14 


+0-074146 


-0-253287 


: 10-32 


—0-193815 : 


-0-155317 : 


9-16 


+0-068990 


—0-254441 


10-34 


-0-196692 : 


-0-151264 


9-18 


+0-063818 : 


—0-255491 


10-36 


-0-199485 : 


—0-147158 


9-20 


+0-058632 : 


—0-256437 


10-38 


-0-202193 : 


-0-143001 


9-22 


+0-053434 


—0-257279 


10-40 


—0-204815 : 


-0-138795 


9-24 


+0-048226 


-0-258016 


: 10-42 


—0-207351 


-0-134542 


9-26 


+0-043009 : 


—0-258649 


: 10-44 


-0-209799 


—0-130243 : 


9-28 


+0-037787 : 


-0-259178 


10-46 


-0-212158 : 


-0-125901 


9-30 


+0-032562 


-0-259602 


: 10-48 


—0-214429 


—0-121517 


9-32 


+0-027334 : 


-0-259922 


: 10-50 


-0-216609 ■ 


-0-117092 : 


9-34 


+0-022107 


-0-260138 


10-52 


—0-218700 


-0-112630 


9-36 


+ 0-016882 


-0-260250 


10-54 


-0-220699 


-0-108131 


9-38 


+0-011661 : 


-O-260257 


: 10-56 


—0-222606 


-0-103597 : 


9-40 


+0-006447 : 


-0-260161 


: 10-58 


-0-224421 


-0-099031 : 


9-42 


+0-001242 


-0-259962 


10-60 


—0-226143 


-0-094434 


9-44 


—0-003953 


—0-259659 


10-62 


-0-227771 


—0-089808 


9-46 


—0009135 


-0-259254 


10-64 


-0-229306 


—0-085155 


9-48 


-0014303 


—0-258746 


10-66 


-0-230746 


: —0-080476 




9-50 


—0-019454 


—0-258136 


10-68 


—0-232092 


-0-075774 




9-52 


-0-024587 


-0-257424 


10-70 


-0-233343 


-0-071051 




9-54 


—0-029699 


-0-256612 


10-72 


-0-234498 


-0-066308 




9-56 


—0-034788 : 


—0-255698 


: 10-74 


-0-235557 


: -0-061548 




9-58 


-0-039853 : 


—0-254685 


: 10-76 


—0-236521 


—0-056772 




9-60 


—0-044892 


—0-253573 


10-78 


—0-237389 


-0-051982 




9-62 


-0-049902 


—0-252362 


10-80 


—0-238160 


-0-047181 


9-64 


—0-054882 


—0-251052 


: 10-82 


-0-238835 


—0-042369 : 


9-66 


-0-059830 


—0-249646 


10-84 


-0-239413 


: —0-037550 


9-68 


-0-064743 : 


-0-248142 


: 10-86 


-0-239895 


—0-032724 




9-70 


—0-069621 


—0-246543 


: 10-88 


-0-240280 


: -0-027894 




9-72 


—0-074461 


-O-244850 


10-90 


-O-240569 


: -0-023062 




9-74 


—0-079261 : 


-0-243062 


10-92 


—0-240761 


: -0-018230 


9-76 


-0-084020 


-0-241180 


: 10-94 


—0-240857 


: -0013399 : 


9-78 


—0-088735 : 


-0-239207 


10-96 


■ -0-240857 


: -0-008572 


9-80 


-0-093406 : 


—0-237142 


: ' 10-98 


-0-240761 


-0-003750 


9-82 


-0-098030 


-0-234987 


11-00 


-0-240569 


+0-001064 : 


9-84 


-0-102605 : 


-0-232743 


1102 


-0-240281 


+0-005870 


9-86 


—0107131 


-0-230410 


: 11-04 


-0-239898 


+0-010664 : 


9-88 


-0-111604 


—0-227990 


: 11-06 


—0-239420 


+0-015446 


9-90 


—0116024 


-0-225485 


11-08 


—0-238847 


: +0020213 


9-92 


-0-120388 : 


-0-222894 


: 11-10 


—0-238180 


: +0-024963 


9-94 


-0-124696 : 


-0-220220 


: 1112 


-0-237420 


+0-029694 : 


9-96 


—0-128946 


-0-217464 


11-14 


—0-236566 


+0-034406 


9-98 


-0-133135 : 


—0-214626 


: 11-16 


-0-235619 


+0-039095 


10-00 


-0137263 : 


-0-211709 


11-18 


-0-234580 


+0-043760 


1002 


-0-141329 


-0-208713 


11-20 


-0-233449 


: +0-048399 


10-04 


-0145329 : 


—0-205639 


: 11-22 


-0-232227 


: +0-053011 





ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



239 



Bessel Functions. Jj(») and J_j(a:) — cont. 



X 


Jj{«) 


J-i(z) 


X 


Ji(*) 


3jk(x) 


11-24 


-0-230915 


+0-057593 


12-42 


-0-033020 : 


+0-223980 : 


11-26 


-0-229513 


+0-062144 : 


12-44 


—0-028511 : 


+0-224415 : 


11-28 


-0-228022 


+0-066662 : 


12-46 


-0-023998 : 


+0-224760 


11-30 


—0-226442 : 


+0-071146: 


12-48 


-0-019483 


+0-225014 : 


11-32 


-0-224775 


+0-075594 


12-50 


-0-014967 : 


+0-225179 


11-34 


-0-223022 


+0-080003 : 


12-52 


-0-010452 : 


+0-225253 


11-36 


-0-221182 


+0-084373 


12-54 


-0-005941 


+0-225237 : 


11-38 


-0-219258 


+ 0-088701 : 


12-56 


-0-001434 : 


+0-225131 -. 


11-40 


—0-217249 


+0-092987 


12-58 


+0-003066 


+0-224936 


11-42 


-0-215157 


+0-097228 


12-60 


+0-007557 : 


+0-224651 : 


11-44 


—0-212983 


+0-101422 : 


12-62 


+0-012039 : 


+0-224277 : 


11-46 


-0-210728 


+0-105569 : 


12-64 


+0-016509 


+0-223814 : 


11-48 


-0-208393 


+0-109667 


12-66 


+0-020965 : 


+0-223263 


11-50 


—0-205979 


+0-113713 : 


12-68 


+0-025406 


+0-222623 : 


11-52 


—0-203487 


+0-117708 


12-70 


+0-029829 : 


+0-221896 


11-54 


-0-200918 


+0-121648 


12-72 


+0-034234 : 


+0-221081 


11-56 


-0-198273 


+0-125533 


12-74 


+ 0-038618 : 


+0-220179 


11-58 


-0-195554 


+0-129361 : 


12-76 


+0-042980 


+0-219190 : 


11-60 


—0192761 


: +0-133131 : 


12-78 


+0-047318 


+0-218116 : 


11-62 


—0-189897 


+0-136842 


12-80 


+0-051630 : 


+0-216957 


11-64 


-0-186961 


: +0-140491 : 


12-82 


+0-055915 


+0-215712 : 


11-66 


-0-183956 


: +0-144078 : 


12-84 


+0-060171 


+0-214384 


11-68 


-0-180883 


+ 0-147602 


12-86 


+0-064396 


+0-212972 


11-70 


-0177743 


+0-151060 : 


12-88 


+ 0-068589 


+0-211477 


11-72 


-0-174537 


: +0-154453 


12-90 


+0-072748 


+0-209900 


11-74 


—0-171267 


: +0-157778 


12-92 


+0-076872 


+0-208242 


11-76 


-0-167935 


+0-161034 : 


12-94 


+0-080958 


+0-206503 


11-78 


—0-164541 


+0-164221 : 


12-96 


+0-085006 


+0-204684 : 


11-80 


-0-161087 


: +0-167337 


12-98 


+0-089014 


+0-202787 : 


11-82 


—0-157575 


+0-170381 


1300 


+0-092980 


+0-200812 


11-84 


-0-154006 


+0173351 : 


1302 


+0-096903 


+0-198759 : 


11-86 


-0-150381 


: +0-176248 


i 1304 


+0-100781 


+0-196631 


11-88 


-0-146703 


+ 0-179069 


' 1306 


+0-104613 


+ 0-194427 


11-90 


-0-142972 


+0-181814 : 


13-08 


+0-108397 


+0-192149 


11-92 


—0139190 


+0-184482 


1 13-10 


+0-112133 


+0-189797 : 


11-94 


-0135360 


+0-187072 


1312 


+0-115818 


+0-187374 


11-96 


-0-131481 


: +0-189583 


1314 


+ 0-119451 


+0-184879 : 


11-98 


-0127557 


+0-192014 


1316 


+0-123031 


+0-182315 


12-00 


—0-123588 


: +0-194364 : 


1318 


+0-126556 


+0-179681 : 


1202 


-0-119577 


+0-196633 : 


13-20 


+ 0-130025 


: +0-176980 : 


1204 


-0-115525 


+0-198820 


13-22 


+0-133438 


+0-174213 


1206 


-0111433 


+0-200924 


13-24 


+0-136792 


+0-171380 


12-08 


-0-107303 


: +0-202944 


13-26 


+0-140086 


+0-168483 


12-10 


-0-103138 


+0-204880 


I 13-28 


+0-143319 


: +0-165523 


1212 


-0-098938 


: +0-206730 : 


13-30 


+0-146490 


: +0-162501 


12-14 


—0-094706 


: +0-208496 


13-32 


+0-149599 


+0-159419 


1216 


-0-090443 


+0-210175 


13-34 


+0-152642 


: +0-156278 : 


12-18 


-0-086151 


+0-211768 


13-36 


+0-155620 


: +0-153079 : 


12-20 


-0081831 


: +0-213273 : 


13-38 


+0-158532 


: +0-149824 : 


12-22 


-0-077486 


: +0-214691 : 


13-40 


+0-161376 


: +0-146515 


12-24 


-0-073118 


+0-216021 : 


j 13-42 


+0-164151 


: +0-143151 : 


12-26 


-0-068727 


+0-217263 


13-44 


+0-166857 


: +0-139736 


12-2S 


-0-064315 


: +0-218416 


13-46 


+0-169492 


: +0-136269 : 


12-30 


-0059886 


+0-219480 


j 13-48 


+0-172056 


+0-132754 


12-32 


-0055439 


: +0-220454 : 


jl 13-50 


+0-174547 


+0-129191 


12-34 


-0-050978 


: +0-221339 : 


! 13-52 


+0-176965 


+0-125581 : 


12-36 


-0-046504 


+0-222134 : 


' 13-54 


+0-179308 


: +0-121927 


12-38 


-0042018 


: | +0-222840 


13-56 


+0-181577 


+0-118229 : 


12-40 


-0-037523 


: +0-223455 : 


13-58 


+0-183769 


: +0-114490 



240 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





Bessel Functions. J$(x) and J_i(x) — cont. 






X 


Ji(*) 


J-l(z) 


X 


Ji(*) 


J-i(*) 


13-60 


+0-185885 : 


+0-110710: 


14-78 


+0-166115 


: —0-124413 : 


13-62 


+0-187924 : 


+ 0-106892 : 


14-80 


+0-163483 


: —0-127624 


13-64 


+0-189885 


+0-103037 


14-82 


+0-160790 


—0-130780 


13-66 


+0-191767 


+0-099146 : 


14-84 


+0-158036 


-0-133879 


13-68 


+0-193570 


+0-095222 


14-86 


+0-155222 


: -0-136920 : 


13-70 


+ 0-195293 


+ 0-091265 


14-88 


+0-152350 


: -0139903 


13-72 


+0-196935 : 


+0-087277 : 


14-90 


+0-149422 


-0-142826 


13-74 


+0-198496 : 


+0-083261 


14-92 


+0-146437 


: —0-145688 


13-76 


+0-199976 : 


+ 0-079217 


14-94 


+0-143398 


: —0-148488 


13-78 


+0-201374 : 


+0-075147 : 


14-96 


+0-140306 


: -0-151225 


13-80 


+0-202690 


+0-071053 : 


14-98 


+ 0-137162 


: —0-153897 




13-82 


+0-203923 


+0-066937 : 


1500 


+ 0-133967 


: —0-156505 




13-84 


+0-205072 : 


+0-062800 : 


15-02 


+0-130724 


—0159047 




13-86 


+0-206138 : 


+0-058644 


1504 


+0-127432 


-0161522 




13-88 


+0-207120 : 


+0-054470 : 


15-06 


+0-124094 


—0163929 




13-90 


+0-208018 -. 


+0-050281 : 


15-08 


+0-120710 


: -0-166268 


13-92 


+0-208832 : 


+0-046078 


1510 


+ 0-117283 


—0-168537 


13-94 


+0-209561 : 


+0-041862 : 


15-12 


+ 0-113814 


: —0-170736 


13-96 


+0-210206 


+0-037636 


15-14 


+ 0-110304 


—0-172863 : 


13-98 


+0-210766 


+0-033401 


15-16 


+0-106754 


—0-174919 : 


14-00 


+0-211240: 


+0-029158 : 


15-18 


+0-103167 


—0-176903 


1402 


+0-211630 : 


+0-024910 


15-20 


+0-099543 


-0-178813 


14-04 


+ 0-211935 


+0-020658 


15-22 


+0-095884 


-0-180649 


14-06 


+0-212155 


+0-016404 


15-24 


+0-092191 


: -O-182410 : 


14-08 


+0-212289 : 


+0-012149 


15-26 


+0-088467 


-0-184097 


14-10 


+0-212339 : 


+0-007895 : 


15-28 


+ 0-084712 


—0-185708 


14-12 


+0-212304 : 


+0-003645 


15-30 


+0-080928 


-0-187242 : 


14-14 


+0-212184 : 


-0-000601 


15-32 


+0-077117 


—0-188700 


14-16 


+0-211980 


-0-004841 


15-34 


+0-073280 


-0-190080 : 


14-18 


+0-211691 : 


-0-009073 


15-36 


+0-069419 


-0191383 : 


14-20 


+0-211318 : 


-0-013295 : 


15-38 


+0-065535 


-0-192608 


14-22 


+0-210862 


—0017506 : 


15-40 


+0-061630 


-0-193754 


14-24 


+0-210322 


—0-021704 : 


15-42 


+0-057705 


—0-194821 




14-26 


+0-209698 : 


—0-025888 : 


15-44 


+0-053763 


—0-195809 




14-28 


+0-208992 : 


—0-030055 : 


15-46 


+0-049804 


—0-196718 




14-30 


+0-208204 


— O l 034205 : 


15-48 


+0-045830 


—0-197547 


14-32 


+0-207333 : 


—0-038335 : 


15-50 


+0-041843 


: —0-198296 


14-34 


+0-206381 


-0-042444 : 


15-52 


+0-037845 


—0-198965 


14-36 


+0-205348 


-0-046531 


15-54 


+0-033836 


: —0-199553 : 


14-38 


+0-204234 


-O-050593 


15-56 


+0-029819 


-0-200061 : 


14-40 


+0-203040 


-0-054629 : 


15-58 


+0-025796 


—0-200489 


14-42 


+0-201767 


-O-058638 : 


15-60 


+0-021767 


-0-200836 


14-44 


+0-200415 


—0-062618 : 


15-62 


+0-017735 


-0-201102 : 


14-46 


+0-198985 


-0-066567 : 


15-64 


+0-013701 


—0-201288 


14-48 


+0-197477 : 


—0-070485 


15-66 


+0-009667 


-0-201393 


14-50 


+0-195893 


-0-074369 


15-68 


+0-005634 


—0-201417 : 


14-52 


+0-194232 : 


—0-078218 


15-70 


+0-001603 


—0-201361 : 


14-54 


+0-192497 


—0-082030 


15-72 


—0-002422 


—0-201225 


14-56 


+0-190687 


—0-085804 : 


15-74 


-0-006442 


—0-201008 : 


14-58 


+0-188803 


—0-089539 


15-76 


—0-010454 


—0-200712 


14-60 


+0-186846 : 


—0093233 


15-78 


—0-014456 


—0-200336 


14-62 


+0-184818 


—0-096885 


15-80 


-0-018448 


-0-199880 


14-64 


+0-182718 : 


—0-100493 


15-82 


—0-022428 


—0-199345 


14-66 


+0-180549 


—0-104056 


15-84 


—0026393 


—0-198731 


14-68 


+0-178310: 


-0-107572 : 


15-86 


—0030343 : 


-0-198038 : 


14-70 


+0-176003 : 


-0-111041 : 


15-88 


—0-034276 


—0-197267 : 


14-72 


+0-173629 : 


-0-114461 


15-90 


-0-038190 : 


-0-196419 


14-74 


+0-171189: 


—0-117830: 


15-92 


—0-042084 : 


-0-195493 


14-76 


+0-168684 : 


-0-121148 ; 


15-94 | 


—0045956 : 


-0-194490 : 





ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 

Bessel Functions. Jj(^) and J_j(«)— cont. 



241 



X 


Ji(*) 


J-i(z) 


X 


J*(*) 


J-i(*) 




15-96 


-0-049806 


-0193411 


17-14 


—0-190871 


-0-026656 : 


15-98 


-0-053630 


-0192256 


17-16 


-0 


191254 : 


—0-022820 : 


16-00 


-0-057428 : 


-0-191025 : 


17-18 


-0 


191561 


—0-018980 


16-02 


-0061199 


—0-189720 


17-20 


-0 


191790: 


-0-015136 : 


16-04 


-0-064940 : 


-0-188341 


17-22 


—0 


191943 : 


-0-011291 




16-06 


-0-068651 


-0-186888 


17-24 


-0 


192019 : 


—0-007446 




16-08 


-0-072330 


-0-185362 : 


17-26 


-0 


192018 : 


-0-003602 




16-10 


—0-075975 


-0-183764 : 


17-28 


-0 


191941 


+0-000238 


16-12 


-0-079585 : 


-0-182095 


17-30 


-0 


191787 


+ 0-004074 


16-14 


-0-083 160 


-0-180355 : 


17-32 


-0 


191556 : 


+0-007904 : 


16-16 


—0-086696 : 


-0-178545 : 


17-34 


-0 


191249 : 


+0-011727 


16-18 


-0-090194 


-0-176667 


17-36 


-0 


190867 


+0-015540 : 


16-20 


—0-093651 


-0-174720 


17-38 


-0 


190408 


+ 0-019343 


16-22 


-0-097066 : 


-0-172705 : 


17-40 


-0 


189874 


+ 0023134 


10-24 


-0-100439 


-0-170624 : 


17-42 


-0 


189264 : 


+ 0-026911 


16-26 


—0-103767 : 


-0-168478 


17-44 


-0 


188580 : 


+0-030673 


16-28 


-0-107050 


—0-166267 


17-46 


-0 


187821 : 


+0-034418 : 


16-30 


—0-110286 


—0-163992 


17-48 


-0 


186988 : 


+0-038146 


16-32 


-01 13474 


-0161654 : 


17-50 


—0 


186082 


+0-041854 


16-34 


—0116613 


—0-159255 : 


17-52 


-0 


185102 


+ 0-045541 


16-36 


—0-119701 


—0-156795 : 


17-54 


-0 


184049 


+0-049205 : 


16-38 


—0-122738 


-0-154276 


17-56 


-0 


182924 


+ 0-052846 : 


16-40 


-0-125722 


-0-151698 


17-58 


-0 


181727 


+ 0-056462 


16-42 


-0-128652 


-0-149062 : 


17-60 


-0 


180459 


+ 0-060051 


16-44 


—0131527 : 


-0- 146370 : 


17-62 


-0 


179120 : 


+0063611 : 


16vl6 


-0-134346 : 


-0-143623 : 


17-64 


-0 


177711 : 


+ 0-067143 


16-48 


-0-137109 


—0-140822 : 


17-66 


-0 


176233 : 


+0-070643 : 


16-50 


-0139813 


—0-137969 


17-68 


-0 


174686 : 


+0074112 


16-52 


-0-142458 


-0-135063 : 


17-70 


-0 


173071 : 


+0-077546 




16-54 


-0-145042 : 


-0-132107 : 


17-72 


-0 


171389 


+ 0-0S0946 




16-56 


-0-147566 : 


-0-129102 


17-74 


-0 


169640 : 


+ 0084310 




16-58 


-0-150028 


-0-126049 


17-76 


-0 


167826 


+ 0-087636 




16-60 


-0-152427 


-0-122949 : 


17-78 


-0 


165946 


+0-090924 




16-62 


-0-154762 


-0-119804: 


17-80 


-0 


164002 : 


+0-094172 


16-64 


— 0- 157032 : 


-0-116615: 


17-82 


-0 


161995: 


+ 0-097378 


16-66 


—0-159238 


-0-113383: 


17-84 


-0 


159926 


+ 0-100542 


16-68 


-0-161376 : 


-0-110110 


17-86 


-0 


157794 : 


+0-103662 


16-70 


-0-163448 : 


-0-106796 : 


17-88 


-0 


155603 


+0-106737 




16-72 


-0-165452 : 


-0-103444 : 


17-90 


-0 


153351 : 


+0-109766 




16-74 


—0-167388 


-0-100055 : 


17-92 


-0 


151041 : 


+ 0-112748 




16-76 


-0-169254 : 


—0-096630 


17-94 


-0 


148673 : 


+0-115682 


16-78 


-0-171051 


-0-093170 : 


17-96 


-0 


146248 : 


+0-118566 


16-80 


—0-172777 : 


—0-089677 : 


17-98 


-0 


143768 


+ 0121399 




16-82 


-0-174432 : 


-0-086153 


18-00 


-0 


141233 


+0124181 




16-84 


—0-176016 


-0-082598 


18-02 


-0 


138644 : 


+0-126910 




16-86 


—0-177527 


-0-079014 : 


18-04 


-0 


136003 


+ 0-129586 


16-88 


-0-178965 : 


-0075404 


18-06 


-0 


133310 : 


+0-132206 : 


16-90 


-0180331 


—0-071767 : 


18-08 


-0 


130567 : 


+ 0-134771 : 


16-92 


-0-181623 


-0-068106 


18-10 


-0 


127775 : 


+0-137280 


16-94 


—0-182840: 


-0-064422 : 


18-12 


-0 


124935 : 


+ 0-139730: 


16-96 


-0-183983 : 


—0-060717 


18-14 


-0 


122049 


+ 0-142123 


16-98 


—0-185052 


-0-056992 


18-16 


-0 


119116: 


+0-144455 : 


17 00 


-0-186045 : 


-0-053248 : 


18-18 


-0 


116140 


+0-146728 


1702 


—0-186963 


-0-049488 


18-20 


-0 


113120 


+0-148939 : 


17-04 


-0-187805 


-0-045712 


18-22 


-0 


110058: 


+0-151089 


17-06 


-0-188571 


-0-041922 : 


18-24 


-0 


106956 


+0-153175 : 


17-08 


-0-189260 : 


-0-038120 : 


18-26 


-0 


103814 : 


+0-155199 


17-10 


-0-189874 


-0-034308 


18-28 


-0 


100635 


+ 0-157158 


1712 


-0-190411 


-0-030486 


18-30 


-0 


097418 ; 


+0-159052 





1925 



R 



242 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





Bessel Functions. Ji(x) and J_j(a:) — cont. 






X 


Ji(z) 


J-i(*) 


X 


J*(*) 


J_i(s) 


18-32 


-0-094167 


+0-160880 : 


19-18 


+0-059112: 


+0-172329 : 


18-34 


—0-090881 


+0-162643 


19-20 


+0-062514 : 


+0-171024 


18-36 


-0-087562 : 


+0-164338 : 


19-22 


+0-065888 


+0-169651 


18-38 


—0-084212 : 


+0-165966 : 


19-24 


+0-069232 


+0-168212 


18-40 


-0-080832 : 


+0-167526 


19-26 


+0-072544 


+0-166707 : 


18-42 


—0-077424 


+0-169017 : 


19-28 


+ 0-075824 : 


+0-165137 : 


18-44 


—0-073988 : 


+0-170439 : 


19-30 


+0-079070 : 


+ 0-163503 


18-46 


-0-070526 : 


+0-171792 


19-32 


+ 0-082282 


+0-161805 : 


18-48 


—0-067040 : 


+0-173074 


19-34 


+0-085457 : 


+0-160044 : 


18-50 


—0-063531 : 


+0-174286 


19-36 


+0-088595 


+ 0-158222 


18-52 


—0-060001 


+0-175427 


19-38 


+0-091694 


+0-156337 : 


18-54 


-0-056450 : 


+0-176496 : 


19-40 


+0-094753 : 


+0-154393 


18-56 


-0-052881 


+0-177494 : 


19-42 


+0-097772 


+0-152388 




18-58 


—0-049294 


+0-178420 : 


19-44 


+0-100748 


+0-150325 




18-60 


—0-045691 : 


+0-179274 


19-46 


+0-103681 


+ 0-148204 




18-62 


—0-042074 : 


+ 0-180055 


19-48 


+0-106569 : 


+0-146026 




18-64 


-0-038444 : 


+0-180763 : 


19-50 


+ 0-109412 


+0-143792 


18-66 


-0-034803 


+0-181399 


19-52 


+0-112208 : 


+0-141502 : 


18-68 


—0031151 : 


+ 0-181961 


19-54 


+0-114957 


+ 0-139159 


18-70 


-0-027492 


+0-182450 


19-56 


+ 0-117656: 


+ 0-136762: 


18-72 


—0-023825 


+0-182865 : 


19-58 


+ 0-120307 


+0-134313 : 


18-74 


-0-020152 


+ 0-183207 : 


19-60 


+0-122906 


+ 0-131813 


18-76 


—0-016475 : 


+0-183476 


19-62 


+0-125453 : 


+ 0-129263 


18-78 


-0-012796 


+0-183671 


19-64 


+ 0-127948 : 


+0-126663 : 


18-80 


-0-009115: 


+0-183792 : 


19-66 


+0-130389 : 


+0-124016 : 


18-82 


—0-005435 


+0-183840 


19-68 


+ 0-132776 


+0-121322 


18-84 


—0-001756 : 


+0-183814: 


19-70 


+0-135107 


+0-118582 : 


18-86 


+0-001919 


+0-183715 : 


19-72 


+ 0-137382 


+ 0-115798 


18-88 


+0-005589 : 


+0-183543 


19-74 


+0-139599 : 


+ 0-112970 


18-90 


+ 0-009254 


+0-183297 : 


19-76 


+ 0-141759 


+0-110100 


18-92 


+0-012911 


+ 0-182979 


19-78 


+0-143859 : 


+0-107188 




18-94 


+ 0-016559 


+0-182587 : 


19-80 


+0-145901 


+0-104237 




18-96 


+0-020196 : 


+0-182124 


19-82 


+ 0-147881 : 


+ 0-101247 




18-98 


+0 023822 : 


+ 0-181587 : 


19-84 


+0-149801 : 


+0-098220 




19-00 


+0-027434 : 


+ 0-180979 : 


19-86 


+0-151659 


+ 0-095157 


19-02 


+0031032 


+ 0-180300 


19-88 


+0-153454 : 


+0-092058 




1904 


+ 0-034613 : 


+0-179549 


19-90 


+0-155187 


+ 0-088926 




19-06 


+ 0-038177 : 


+0-178727 


19-92 


+0-156855 : 


+0-085762 




19-08 


+0-041722 


+ 0-177834 .- 


19-94 


+0-158459 : 


+ 0-082567 


19-10 


+ 0-045246 : 


+0-176872 


19-96 


+ 0-159999 


+0-079341 : 


19-12 


+0-048749 


+ 0-175839 : 


19-98 


+0-161473 


+0-076088 


19-14 


+0-052228 : 


fO-174738 


20-00 


+ 0-162881 


+0-072807 


19-16 


+ 0-055683 : 


+0-173568 









ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 243 

Lommel- Weber Functions Oj(x) and Q_i(«). 

The Lommel-Weber function fl v (x) is defined by the integral / sin (x sin 9 
— vcp)^9. 

The function Ej (x)= — tvQj(x) was employed by H. F. Weber * in his paper on 
' The Theory of Fresnel's Interference-phenomena.' 

For small values of the argument Qj(x) and Q_i(x) were calculated from the 
ascending series, viz. ; 

Q i (*) = X i (a ! )-nj(a!) 

and Q_j(z) = Xi(af) + ITj(a;). 

where \Kx) - 2 I 2 *- <** + (2xf - ] 

where XiW-^j - 077 + 3.5 .7. 9. 11 | 

ATr , , 2 f (2xf . (2xf (2xf } 

andniW= rt i 1 -37i- + 3-5-7T9-3.5.7.9.11.13 + -''-( 

For large values, the two functions were computed from the relations 

X i (x)=C(x)J i (x)-S(x).J_ i (x) 
and Ui(x) = C(a;)J_i(z) + S(x) . J 4 (a:). 

An independent calculation was made from the asymptotic expansions, 
m(x) = - J_i(x) + \ . )b 4 (*) + A 4 (z)[ 

"-*(*)= J*(*) + 1 |B i (.r)-Aj(a:)|- 

* v ' a; I (2a) 2 (2*)* ■ (2xf T j 

andAj(x)= 1 .(i- 1 ^- 5 + 1 - 3 - 5 - 7 - 9 1 



a;(2x (2*)* (2x) 5 j 

Asymptotic series begin by converging, but eventually become divergent. If the 
remaining terms after the smallest be omitted, the sum of the terms already found 
represents the value of the function with an error less than the last included term, 
and it is generally supposed that the degree of approximation cannot be carried beyond 
this point. In the case of asymptotic series where the signs of the coefficients are- 
alternately positive and negative, a much closer degree of accuracy can be secured by 
breaking up the divergent part of the asymptotic expansion into more tractable series, 
whose summation can be effected by Euler's method. By this method, a ' converging 

factor ' can be found which usually takes the form J + — + -§- + • • • • 

The product of the least term and the ' converging factor ' is equivalent to the 
divergent part of the series. Even for small values of x, three or four places of decimals 
can be added to the value of the function obtained by confining the calculation to the 
convergent terms. 

For the asymptotic series, when x=2n-\-a, 

^1.3/ 1.3.5.7 _ 1 . 3 . 5 .1 . 9A1 

{2xf (2xf~ (2xf +•••■• 

* Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich. Band 24, 1879. 

r2 



244 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

the ' converging factor ' is 



When x is an even integer 2n, this becomes 



+ 



11 , 311 



1069 24451 



4397 



2 4(2x)2 2(2z) 3 8(2z) 4 4(2x) 5 16(2a:) 6 4(2*)' " ' ' 
When x is an odd integer 2n — 1, 

142323 



w 



9 , 11 



49 



281 , 42007 

+ . 



2 2x 4(2z) 2 2(2s) 8 8(2*)* 2(2z) 5 16(2z) 6 4(2*)' 
For the asymptotic series, when x = 2ra + a, 



(A) 



(B) 



1.3.5 . 1.3.5.7.9 

+ 



2x (2x) 



(2xf 



the ' converging factor ' is 

or when a: = 2n + 1, a; an odd integer, the series 

when x = 2m, a; an even integer, the series 



(A) 
(B) 



The functions k\(x) and Bj(*) are closely related to the Confluent Hyper- 
geometric function M (\.\.x) 

T X 3 T 3.5 T 3.5.7 T 
The asymptotic expansion is 

f? a / i 1 fi' 3.3.5 3.5.7. 



2* 1 2* (2*) 



(2*)* 



A table of M (1 . \ . x) has been constructed from these series, the latter with a 
' converging factor ' for large values of the argument. 



* 


tti(x) 


Cl_i(x) 


X 


Qi(*) 


flL*(*) 


0-00 


-0-636620 


+ 0-636620 


0-34 


-0-474735 : 


+0-759541 : 


0-02 


-0-628064 


+0-645039 : 


0-36 


—0-464261 


+0-765336 


0-04 


—0-619375 


+0-653321 : 


0-38 


-0-453698 : 


+0-770960 : 


0-06 


-0-610554 : 


+0-661463 


0-40 


-0-443051 


+ 0-776413 


0-08 


—0-601605 : 


+ 0-669462 


0-42 


-0-432321 : 


+ 0-781692 : 


0-10 


—0-592530 : 


+ 0-677316 


0-44 


-0-421513 


+ 0-786797 


0-12 


—0-583331 : 


+0-685.023 


0-46 


-0-410628 


+0-791726 


0-14 


-0-574011 : 


+0-692581 : 


0-48 


—0-399670 : 


+0-796478 


0-16 


—0-564573 


+0-699988 : 


0-50 


-0-388643 


+0-801052 


018 


-0-555019 


+0-707242 : 


0-52 


-0-377548 : 


+0-805446 : 


0-20 


-0-545351 


+0-714341 : 


0-54 


-0-366390 : 


+0-809660 


0-22 


—0-535573 


+ 0-721284 


0-56 


—0-355171 : 


+0-813692 : 


0-24 


—0-525687 


+0-728067 


0-58 


—0-343895 : 


+0-817542 : 


0-26 


-0-515695: 


+ 0-734690 


0-60 


-0-332565 


+0-821209 : 


0-28 


—0-505602 


+0-741150: 


0-62 


—0-321183 : 


+0-824692 


0-30 


-0-495409 


+ 0-747447 


0-64 


-0-309753 : 


+0-827989 : 


0-32 


-0-485119 


+0-753578 


0-66 


-0-298279 : 


+0-831101 : 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 
Lommel-Weber Functions. Cli(x) and Q_\(x) — cont. 



245 



X 


Qi(x) 


Q-i(*) 


X 


Qi(x) 


0_i(a;) 


0-68 


—0-286763 : 


+0-834027 : 


1-86 


+0-351472 


+0-684430 


0-70 


—0-275209 


+0-836766 ' 


1-88 


+0-359781 : 


+0-677081 




0-72 


-0-263620 


+0-839317 


1-90 


+0-367955 


+0-669609 




0-74 


-0-251998 : 


+0-841680 


1-92 


+0-375990 : 


+0-662016 




0-76 


—0-240349 


+0-843854 : 


1-94 


+0-383887 


+0-654306 


0-78 


—0-228674 


+0-845840 : 


1-96 


+0-391641 : 


+0-646479 : 


0-80 


—0-216976 : 


+0-847637 


1-98 


+0-398253 


+0-638540 : 


0-82 


—0-205260 : 


+0-849244 


2-00 


+ 0-406719 


+0-630491 


0-84 


—0- 193529 


+0-850661 : 


2-02 


+0-414038 : 


+ 0-622334 


0-86 


-0-181785 


+0-851889 


204 


+ 0-421209 : 


+0-614072 


0-88 


-0-170032 


+0-852926 : 


206 


+ 0-428230 


+0-605707 : 


0-90 


-0-158273 : 


+ 0-853774 


2-08 


+ 0-435099 


+0-597243 : 


0-92 


—0-146512 


+ 0-854431 : 


210 


+0-441814 : 


+ 0-588683 


0-94 


-0-134751 : 


+0-854899 : 


212 


+ 0-448375 


+0-580028 : 


0-96 


—0-122995 


+0-855177 : 


214 


+0-454779 


+0-571283 


0-98 


—0-111246 


+0-855266 


2-16 


+0-461026 


• +0-562449 


100 


—0-099507 : 


+ 0-855165 : 


2-18 


+ 0-467113: 


+0-553529 : 


1-02 


—0-087783 


+0-854875 : 


2-20 


+ 0-473040: 


+0-544528 


1-04 


-0-076075 


+0-854397 


2-22 


+ 0-478806 


+0-535446 


106 


—0-064387 : 


+0-853730 : 


2-24 


+ 0-484409 


+0-526288 


1-08 


-0052724 


+0-852876 : 


2-26 


+0-489848 


+0-517056 


110 


-0-041086 : 


+ 0-851835 


2-28 


+0-495122 : 


+0-507753 


1-12 


-0-029479 : 


+ 0-850607 


2-30 


+0-500230 : 


+0-498382 : 


114 


—0-017905 


+0-849193 : 


2-32 


+0-505171 : 


+0-488947 


116 


-0-006367 : 


+0-847594 


2-34 


+0-509945 


+0-479449 




1-18 


+0005131 


+ 0-845811 


2-36 


+0-514549 : 


+ 0-469893 




1-20 


+ 0-016587 


+0-843843 : 


2-38 


+0-518985 


+0-460281 




1-22 


+0-027997 


+ 0-841694 


2-40 


+0-523249 : 


+0-450617 


1-24 


+0-039358 : 


+ 0-839362 


2-42 


+0-527343 : 


+0-440902 




1-26 


+0-050667 : 


+0-836850 


2-44 


+0-531266 


+0-431141 




1-28 


+0-061922 


+0-834157 : 


2-46 


+ 0-535016: 


+0-421337 




1-30 


+ 0-073118 


+ 0-831287 


2-48 


+0-538594 


+0-411492 




1-32 


+ 0-084253 : 


+0-828238 : 


2-50 


+0-541998 : 


+0-401610 


1-34 


+0095324 : 


+0-825013 : 


2-52 


+0-545229 


+0-391693 : 


1-36 


+0-106328 : 


+0-821614 


2-54 


+0 ; 548286 


+0-381746 


1-38 


+0-117262 : 


+ 0-818040: 


2-56 


+0-551169 


+0-371770 


1-40 


+ 0128123 


+0-814294 : 


2-58 


+0-553877 : 


+0-361769 


1-42 


+0-138908 


+0-810378 


2-60 


+ 0-556411 


+0-351746 : 


1-44 


+0-149614 : 


+0-806291 : 


2-62 


+0-558770 


+0-341705 


1-46 


+0-160239 


+0-802037 : 


2-64 


+0-560954 


+ 0-331648 


1-48 


+ 0-170779 


+ 0-797616 : 


2-66 


+0-562963 : 


+0-321578 : 


1-50 


+ 0-181232 


+ 0-793031 


2-68 


+0-564798 


+0-311499 : 


1-52 


+0191595 


+0-788282 : 


2-70 


+0-566457 : 


+ 0-301414 


1-54 


+0-201865 


+ 0-783372 


2-72 


+0-567943 


+0-291325 


1-56 


+0-212039 : 


+0-778302 : 


2-74 


+ 0-569253 : 


+0-281236 


1-58 


+0-222116 


+0-773075 


2-76 


+0-570390 : 


+0-271150 


1-60 


+0-232091 : 


+0-767691 


2-78 


+0-571353 : 


+0-261070 


1-62 


+0-241963 : 


+ 0-762153: 


2-80 


+0-572143 


+0-250998 




1-64 


+ 0-251730 


+0-756463 : 


2-82 


+0-572759 : 


+ 0-240939 




1-66 


+ 0-261388 


+ 0-750623 : 


2-84 


+0-573203 : 


+0-230895 




1-68 


+ 0-270934 : 


+0-744635 


2-86 


+ 0-573475 : 


+0-220869 




1-70 


+0-280368 • 


+0-738501 


2-88 


+0-573576 


+0-210865 


1-72 


+0-289686 


+0-732222 : 


2-90 


+ 0-573506 


+0-200884 


1-74 


+0-298885 : 


+ 0-725802 : 


2-92 


+0-573266 


+0-190930: 


1-76 


+0-307964 : 


+0-719243 


2-94 


+0-572857 


+0-181007 


1-78 


+0-316920 : 


+ 0-712545 : 


2-96 


+0-572279 


+0171117 


1-80 


+ 0-325751 : 


+0-705713 : 


2-98 


+0-571533 : 


+0-161262: 


1-82 


+0-334455 


+0-698748 : 


3 00 


+0-570621 : 


+0-151446 : 


1-84 


+0-343029 : 


+0-691653 : 


302 


+ 0-569543 : 


+0-141673 





216 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





Lommel-Weber Functions. 


£l$(x) and Cl_i(x) — cont. 




X 


Qj(z) 


n_i(x) 


X 


£ll(*) 


Q_i(z) 


3-04 


+ 0-568301 


+0-131943 : 


4-22 


+0-264430 


—0-276967 


3-06 


+ 0-566894 


: +0-122262 


4-24 


+ 0-256738 : 


—0-280015 


3-08 


+ 0-565325 


: +0-112630: 


4-26 


+0-249016 


—0-282912 




310 


+ 0-563595 


+0-103052 : 


4-28 


+0-241265 


—0-285658 




312 


+ 0-561704 


: +0-093530 


4-30 


+ 0-233488 : 


—0-288253 




3-14 


+ 0-559655 


: +0-084066 : 


4-32 


+ 0-225689 


—0-290696 




316 


+0-557448 


.+0-074664 : 


4-34 


+0-217869 : 


—0-292987 




3-18 


+ 0-555085 


+0-065326 


4-36 


+0-210032 : 


—0-295127 


3-20 


+0-552567 


+0-056055 


4-38 


+ 0-202181 : 


—0-297115 


3-22 


+0-549895 


+0-046853 


4-40 


+ 0-194319 


—0-298951 


3-24 


+0-547071 


: +0037723 


4-42 


+ 0-186447 : 


—0-300635 


3-26 


+0-544098 


+0-028668 


4-44 


+0-178570 


—0-302168 


3-28 


+ 0-540975 


: +0-019690 


4-46 


+0-170689 : 


—0-303549 : 


3-30 


+0-537705 


+0-010791 : 


4-48 


+ 0-162809 


-0-304779 : 


3-32 


+0«534290 


: +0-001975 : 


4-50 


+ 0-154930: 


—0-305859 


3-34 


+0-530731 


: —0-006756 


4-52 


+ 0-147057 : 


—0-306788 


3-36 


+0-527030 


—0-015400 : 


4-54 


+0-139192 : 


-0-307567 


3-38 


+0-523189 


: -0-023955 : 


4-56 


+0131338 


—0-308196 : 


3-40 


+0-519210 


—0-032418 : 


4-58 


+ 0-123497 


—0-308677 


3-42 


+ 0-515094 


—0-040787 : 


4-60 


+0-115672 : 


—0-309008 : 


3-44 


+0-510844 


-0-049060 : 


4-62 


+ 0-107867 


—0-309192 : 


3-46 


+0-506461 


-0-057234 


4-64 


+0-100083 


—0-309229 


3-48 


+ 0-501948 


—0-065307 : 


4-66 


+0-092323 


—0-309119 


3-50 


+0-497306 


—0-073277 : 


4-68 


+ 0-084590: 


—0-308863 




3-52 


+0-492538 


-0-081142 : 


4-70 


+0-076887 : 


—0-308462 




3-54 


+0-487645 


—0-088900 


4-72 


+0-069216 : 


—0-307917 




3-56 


+ 0-482631 


—0-096548 : 


4-74 


+ 0-061581 


—0-307229 


3-58 


+ 0-477496 


-0-104085 : 


4-76 


+ 0-053982: 


—0-306398 




3-60 


+0-472244 


—0111509: 


4-78 


+0-046424 


—0-305426 




3-62 


+0-466876 


—0-118818: 


4-80 


+ 0-038908 


—0-304314 




3-64 


+ 0-461395 


-0-126010 : 


4-82 


+ 0-031437: 


-0-303062 




3-66 


+ 0-455804 


-0-133083 : 


4-84 


+0-024014 : 


—0-301673 


3-68 


+0-450103 


—0-140036 


4-86 


+ 0-016641 : 


—0-300146 : 


3-70 


+0-444297 


-0-146866 


4-88 


+0-009321 


—0-298484 


3-72 


+0-438387 


—0-153572 


4-90 


+0-002055 : 


—0-296687 




3-74 


+0-432375 : 


—0-160152 : 


4-92 


-0-005152 : 


—0-294757 




3-76 


+0-426265 


-0-166606 


4-94 


-0-012300 : 


—0-292695 




3-78 


+0-420058 


-0-172930 : 


4-96 


—0-019387 


—0-290503 




3-80 


+0-413758 


-0-179124: 


4-98 


—0-026409 


—0-288182 


3-82 


+0-407366 


—0-185187 


5-00 


-0-033364 


—0-285733 : 


3-84 


+ 0-400885 


-0191116 


5-02 


—0040250 : 


-0-283159 


3-86 


+0-394318 


-0-196910 : 


5-04 


—0-047066 


-0-280459 : 


3-88 


+ 0-387668 


-0-202569 : 


5-06 


—0053808 


—0-277637 : 


3-90 


+ 0-380937 


—0-208091 


5-08 


—0-060474 


—0-274694 


3-92 


+ 0-374127 


-0-213474 : 


510 


—0067063 


—0-271631 


3-94 


+0-367242 


—0-218718 : 


5-12 


—0-073572 : 


-0-268450 : 


3-96 


+0-360283 : 


-0-223822 


5-14 


—0-080000 


-0-265153 : 


3-98 


+0-353255 


—0-228784 


5-16 


—0-086343 : 


—0-261742 


4-00 


+0-346159 


—0-233603 : 


5-18 


-0092601 : 


—0-258218 : 




4-02 


+0-338998 


—0-238279 


5-20 


—0-098772 


—0-254583 




4-04 


+0-331775 


—0-242810 


5-22 


—0-104853 


—0-250840 : 




406 


+ 0-324492 : 


—0-247196 


5-24 


—0-110842: 


—0-246990 


4-08 


+0-317153 : 


—0-251436 


5-26 


—0-116739 


—0-243034 : 


410 


+ 0-309760: 


—0-255528 : 


5-28 


-0-122540 


—0-238976 : 


4-12 


+0-302316 : 


—0-259474 


5-30 


—0-128244 : 


-0-234817 


4-14 


+0-294824 : 


—0-263271 


5-32 


—0-133850 : 


—0-230559 


416 


+0-287287 


—0-266919 : 


5-|34 


—0139356 : 


—0-226203 : 


4-18 


+0-279707 


—0-270418 : 


5-36 


—0-144760 : 


—0-221754 


4-20 


+0-272087 


—0-273768 


5-38 


—0-150061 : 


—0-217211 


1 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



247 





Lommel-Weber F mictions. 


«*(*) 


and Q_j(x) — cont. 


X 


£!*(*) 


0-i(*) 


X 


Qi(x) 


0.|(s) 


5-40 


—0-155257 : 


-0-212578 


6-58 


—0-246363 : 


+ 0-135200 


5-42 


—0-160347 


-0-207856 : 


6-60 


-0-244196 : 


+0-140862 : 


5.44 


-0-165328 : 


-0-203048 : 


6-62 


-0-241918 : 


+0-146469 : 


5-46 


-0-170201 


—0-198157 


6-64 


-0-239530 : 


+0152019 : 


5-48 


-0-174963 


-0193183 : 


6-66 


-0-237034 


+0-157510 


5-50 


-0-179613 


-0-188131 


6-68 


—0-234430: 


+ 0-162939 


5-52 


—0-184149 : 


-0-183001 


6-70 


—0-231721 : 


+0-168304 : 


5-54 


—0-188572 


—0-177796 


6-72 


-0-228907 : 


+0-173605 


5-56 


-0-192878 : 


—0-172518 : 


6-74 


-0-225991 


+0-178838 : 


5-58 


-0-197068 : 


—0-167171 


6-76 


-0-222973 


+0-184002 : 


5-60 


-0-201140: 


-0-161755 : 


6-78 


-0-219855 


+0-189096 


5-62 


—0-205093 : 


-0-156275 


6-80 


-0-216639 


+0194116: 


5-64 


-0-208927 


—0-150731 


6-82 


-0-213326 : 


+ 0-199062 


5-66 


-0-212639 


-0-145126 : 


6-84 


-0-209918 : 


+0-203932 


5-68 


—0-216230 


-0-139464 


6-86 


-0-206417 : 


+ 0-208723 : 


5-70 


-0-219697 : 


—0-133745 : 


6-88 


-0-202824 : 


+0-213435 : 


5-72 


-0-223042 


-01 27973 : 


6-90 


-0199141 : 


+0-218066 


5-74 


-0-226262 : 


—0122151 


6-92 


-0-195370 : 


+0-222614 


5-76 


—0-229358 


—0-116280 : 


6-94 


—0-191513 


+0-227077 


5-78 


-0-232327 : 


—0110363 : 


6-96 


-0-187570 : 


+0-231454 


5-80 


-0-235171 


—0104403 : 


6-98 


-0-183545 : 


+0-235743 : 


5-82 


-0-237888 


—0-098402 


7-00 


-0-179439 : 


+0-239944 


5-84 


-0-240477 : 


-0-092363 


7-02 


-0-175255 


+0-244054 


5-86 


-0-242939 


—0-086287 : 


7-04 


-0-170992 : 


+0-248072 : 


5-88 


—0-245272 


-0-080179 


7-06 . 


—0166655 : 


+0-251997 


5-90 


—0-247477 


-0-074039 : 


7-08 


-0-162244 : 


+0-255827 : 


5-92 


-0-249553 


—0-067871 : 


710 


-0-157763 


+0-259562 : 


5-94 


-0-251499 : 


-0-061678 


712 


-0-153212 


+0-263200 


5-96 


-0-253316 : 


-0055461 


7-14 


-0-148593 : 


+ 0-266739 : 


5-98 


-0-255004 


—0-049223 : 


716 


-0-143910 


+0-270179 : 


6-00 


—0-256562 


-0-042968 


7-18 


-0139163 : 


+0-273519 


6-02 


-0-257989 : 


—0-036697 


7-20 


-0 1 34355 : 


+0-276757 


6-04 


—0-259287 : 


-0-030412 : 


7-22 


-0-129489 


+0-279892 : 


6-06 


—0-260455 : 


—0-024117 : 


7-24 


-0-124565 : 


+0-282924 : 


6-08 


-0-261494 


-0-017814 : 


7-26 


—0-119587 


+0-285852 


6-10 


—0-262402 


-0-011506 


7-28 


-0-1 14556 : 


+ 0-288674 


6-12 


-0-263181 


—0-005194 


7-30 


—0-109475 


+0-291389: 


6-14 


-0-263830 : 


+0-001118 


7-32 


-0-104345 : 


+0-293998: 


6-16 


-0-264350 : 


+0-007428 : 


7-34 


-0-099170 : 


+0-296499 : 


6-18 


-0-264742 


+0-013734 


7-36 


—0-093951 


+0-298891 : 


6-20 


-0-265005 


+ 0020033 


7-38 


—0-088690 


+ 0-301175 


6-22 


-0-265139 : 


+0-026322 : 


7-40 


-0-083389 : 


+0-303348 


6-24 


-0-265146 : 


+0-032600 


7-42 


—0-078052 


+0-305411 


6-26 


-0-265026 : 


+0-038863 : 


7-44 


-0072679 : 


+0-307363 


6-28 


-0-264779 : 


+0-045110 


7-46 


-0-067274 


+0-309203 


6-30 


-0-264406 : 


+0-051337 : 


7-48 


-0-061838 : 


+0-310931 : 


6-32 


-0-263908 


+0-057543 : 


7-50 


-0-056374 : 


+0-312547 : 


6-34 


—0-263284 : 


+0-063725 : 


7-52 


—0-050884 : 


+ 0-314050: 


6-36 


—0-262536 : 


+0-069881 : 


7-54 


-0-045371 


+0-315440 : 


6-38 


—0-261665 : 


+0-076008 : 


7-56 


—0-039836 


+0-316717 


6-40 


-0-260672 


+0-082104 : 


7-58 


-0034282 


+0-31 7S80 


6-42 


-0-259556 : 


+0-088167 : 


7-60 


-0-028711 


+0-318929 : 


6-44 


—0-258320 : 


+0094195 


7-62 


—0023125 : 


+0-3198IU : 


6-46 


-0-256964 


+0-100184 


7^64 


-0017527 : 


+0-320686 


6-48 


-0-255488 : 


+0-106133 : 


7-66 


-0011919: 


+0-321393 


6-50 


-0-253895 : 


+0-112040 


7-68 


— 006303 : 


+0-321985 : 


6-52 


—0-252185 


+0-117902 : 


7-70 


-0-000682 


+0-322464 : 


6-54 


-0-250359 


+0-123718 


7-72 


+0-004942 : 


+0-322829 


6-56 


-0-248418 


+0-129484 : 


7-74 


+0-010568 : 


+0-323079 : 



248 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





Lommel-Weber Functions. Oi(a;) and £}_j(z) — cont. 


X 


Gi(s) 


G-l(aO 


X 


Qj(*) 


O-i(tf) 


7-76 


+0016192 : 


+0-323216 


8-94 


+0-273316 : 


+0-157745 


7-78 


+0-021813 : 


+0-323239 


8-96 


+ 0-275404 : 


+0-152795 : 


7-80 


+ 0-027429 


+0-323149 


8-98 


+0-277392 : 


+0-147809 : 


7-82 


+0-033036 


+0-322946 


9-00 


+0-279281 


+0-142789 


7-84 


+0-038633 : 


+0-322630 


9-02 


+0-281068 : 


+0-137736: 


7-86 


+0-044218 


+ 0-322202 


9-04 


+0-282755 : 


+0-132653 : 


7-88 


+0-049788 : 


+0-321662 


9-06 


+ 0-284340: 


+ 0-127542 


7-90 


+0-055341 : 


+0-321010 


9-08 


+ 0-285824 


+0-122404 


7-92 


+0-060876 


+0-320247 


910 


+0-287205 


+0-117242: 


7-94 


+0-066389 : 


+0-319374 


9-12 


+ 0-288483 


+0-112058 


7-96 


+0-071879 : 


+0-318391 


9-14 


+0-289658 : 


+ 0-106854 


7-98 


+0-077344 : 


+0-317299 


9-16 


+0-290730 : 


+0-101631 : 


8-00 


+0-082781 : 


+0-316098 


9-18 


+ 0-291699 


+ 0-096393 : 


8-02 


+0-088189 


+0-314789 


9-20 


+0-292563 : 


+0-091141 : 


8-04 


+0-093565 


+0-313373 


9-22 


+ 0-293324 : 


+0-085877 : 


8-06 


+0-098907 


+ 0-311851 


9-24 


+0-293981 : 


+0-080604 


8-08 


+0-104213 


+0-310223 


9-26 


+0-294534 : 


+ 0-075322 : 


8-10 


+0-109481 : 


+0-308490 


9-28 


+ 0-294983 


+0-070035 : 


8-12 


+ 0-114710 


+0-306654 


9-30 


+ 0-295328 


+0-064745 


8-14 


+ 0-119896: 


+0-304715 


9-32 


+ 0-295568 : 


+0-059453 


8-16 


+ 0-125039 


+0-302674 


9-34 


+ 0-295705: 


+0<054161 : 


8-18 


+0130136 


+0-300532 


9-36 


+0-295739 


+0-048872 : 


8-20 


+0135185 


+0-298291 


9-38 


+0-295668 : 


+0-043588 : 


8-22 


+0-140184 : 


+ 0-295950 


9-40 


+0-295494 : 


+0-038311 


8-24 


+0-145132 : 


+ 0-293513 


9-42 


+0-295217 : 


+0-033042 : 


8-26 


+0-150027 


+0-290978 


9-44 


+ 0-294838 


+0-027784 : 


8-28 


+ 0-154866 


+ 0-288349 


9-46 


+0-294356 


+0-022539 : 


8-30 


+0-159648 : 


+0-285625 


: 9-48 


+0-293771 : 


+ 0-017309 


8-32 


+0-164372 


+0-282809 


: 9-50 


+0-293085 : 


+0-012095 : 


8-34 


+ 0-169035 


+0-279901 


: 9-52 


+0-292298 


+0-006901 


8-36 


+ 0173635 : 


+0-276904 


9-54 


+ 0-291410 


+0-001727 : 


8-38 


+ 0-178172 


+0-273817 


9-56 


+0-290422 


—0-003423 : 


8-40 


+0-182643 


+0-270643 


: 9-58 


+0-289334 


—0-008550 


8-42 


+0-187046 : 


+ 0-267383 


: 9-60 


+0-288147 


-0013649 : 


8-44 


+0-191381 


+0-264039 


9-62 


+0-286861 : 


—0-018720 : 


8-46 


+0-195645 : 


+0-260611 


: 9-64 


+ 0-285478 : 


-0-023761 


8-48 


+0-199837 : 


+0-257102 


: 9-66 


+ 0-283998 : 


-0-028769 


8-50 


+ 0-203956 : 


+0-253513 


9-68 


+0-282422 


—0-033742 : 


8-52 


+ 0-208000 


+0-249846 


9-70 


+0-280750 


-0-038680 


8-54 


+0-211967 


+ 0-246102 


9-72 


+0-278983 : 


-0043579 : 


8-56 


+0-215856 


+0-242282 


: 9-74 


+0-277123 : 


-0-048439 


8-58 


+0-219666 


+0-238389 


: 9-76 


+0-275170 


—0-053257 


8-60 


+ 0-223395 : 


+0-234425 


9-78 


+0-273125 


—0058031 : 


8-62 


+ 0-227042 : 


+0-230390 


9-80 


+0-270988 : 


—0-062761 


8-64 


+0-230606 : 


+0-226286 


: 9-82 


+0-268762 : 


-0-067443 : 


8-66 


+0-234086 


+0-222116 


9-84 


+0-266447 : 


—0-072077 


8-68 


+0-237480 


+ 0-217880 


: 9-86 


+0-264044 : 


—0-076660 


8-70 


+0-240787 


+0-213582 


9-88 


+0-261554 : 


-0081191 : 


8-72 


+0-244006 


+ 0-209222 


: 9-90 


+0-258979 


—0-085669 


8-74 


+0-247135 : 


+ 0-204803 


9-92 


+0-256319 


-0-090091 


8-76 


+0-250175 : 


+ 0-200325 


: 9-94 


+0-253575 : 


-0-094456 


8-78 


+0-253123 : 


+ 0-195792 


: 9-96 


+ 0-250750 


—0-098762 : 


8-80 


+0-255980 


+0-191205 


: 9-98 


+0-247843 : 


—0-103008 : 


8-82 


+0-258743 


+ 0-186566 


: 10-00 


+ 0-244857 : 


-0-107193 : 


8-84 


+ 0-261412 


+0-181877 


10-02 


+ 0-241793 


-0111315 


8-86 


+ 0-263986 


+ 0-177139 


: 1004 


+ 0-238652 


—0-115371 : 


8-88 


+0-266464 : 


+ 0-172355 


. 10-06 


+0-235435 


—0-119362 : 


8-90 


+0-268846 


+ 0-167527 


10-08 


+0-232144 


-01 23285 : 


8-92 


+0-271130: 


+ 0-162656 


: 10-10 


+0-228780 : 


-0-127140 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



249 





Lommel- Weber Functions. 


Oi(x) 


and Q_$(z) — cont. 




X 


£ll(x) 


0_}(z) 


X 


Ql(z) 


Q_i(x) 


1012 


+ 0-225345 : 


-0-130924 


11-30 


—0-041920 


-0-199642 : 


10-14 


+0-221840 : 


— 0- 134636 : 


11-32 


-0-046420 : 


—0-198020 




10-10 


+0-218207 : 


—0-138276 


11-34 


-0-050883 


—0-196311 




10-18 


+ 0-214627 


—0141841 : 


11-36 


-0-055305 : 


—0-194510 




10-20 


+0-210921 : 


-0-145331 : 


11-38 


—0-059686 : 


-0-192636 




10-22 


+ 0-207152 : 


-0-14S744 : 


11-40 


—0-064024 


-0-190672 


10-24 


+0-203321 : 


—0-152080 


11-42 


-0-068317 


-0-188624 : 


10-26 


+0-199429 : 


-0- 155336 : 


11-44 


-0-072564 


-0-186494 : 


10-28 


+0-195478 : 


-0-158513 


11-46 


-0-076762 : 


-0-184283 


10-30 


+0-191470: 


—0-161608 : 


11-48 


-0-080912 


—0-181991 : 


10-32 


+0-187407 


—0-164621 : 


11-50 


—0085010 


-0-179621 


10-34 


+ 0-183289 : 


-0-167551 : 


11-52 


-0-089055 : 


-0-177172 


10-36 


+0-179119: 


-0- 170397 : 


11-54 


-0-093047 


-0-174646 


10-38 


+0-174899 


-0-173158 


11-56 


—0-096983 


-0 r 172044 : 


10-40 


+0-170630 


—0175833 


11-58 


-0-100862 


-0-169368 


10-42 


+ 0-166314. 


-0-178420 : 


11-60 


-0-104682 : 


—0-166618 




10-44 


+ 0-161953 


-0-180921 


11-62 


-0-108443 


-0-163796 




10-46 


+ 0-157548 


-0-183332 : 


11-64 


-01 12143 


—0-160903 




10-48 


+0-153101 : 


—0-185654 : 


11-66 


—0-115780 


-0-157941 


10-50 


+0-148615 : 


—0-187887 


11-68 


-0119353: 


-0-154910 


10-52 


+0-144091 


-0-190028 : 


11-70 


—0-122862 


—0151812 


10-54 


+0-139530 : 


-0-192079 


11-72 


-0-126304 


—0-148648 


10-56 


+ 0-134935 : 


-0-194037 


11-74 


—0-129678 


-0-145420 


10-58 


+ 0-130308 : 


—0-195903 


11-76 


-0-132984 


-0142129 


10-60 


+0-125650 : 


-0-197675 : 


11-78 


-0-136219 : 


—0-138776 




10-62 


+0-120964 


-0-199354 : 


11 -SO 


-0-139384 


-0-135364 




10-64 


+0-116250 


-0-200939 : 


11-82 


—0-142476 : 


-0-131893 




10-66 


+ 0-111511 : 


—0-202430 


11-84 


-0-145495 : 


—0-128365 




10-68 


+ 0-106750 


—0-203825 : 


11-86 


-0-148440 : 


—0-124782 


10-70 


+0-101967 


—0-205126 


11-88 


-0-151309 : 


—0-121144 




10-72 


+0-097165 


-0-206331 


11-90 


-0-154103 


—0-117454 




10-74 


+ 0-092345 : 


—0-207440 


11-92 


-0-156818 : 


-0-113713 




10-76 


+0-087510 : 


—0-208453 


11-94 


-0-159456 


-0-109923 


10-78 


+ 0-082662 


-0-209369 : 


11-96 


-0-162014 : 


-0-106085 


10-80 


+0-077802 


-0-210190 


11-98 


-0-164493 


—0-102201 


10-82 


+0-072932 


-0-210913 : 


12-00 


—0-166890 : 


—0-098272 : 


10-84 


+0-068054 : 


-0-211540: 


12-02 


-0-169206 : 


-0094301 : 


10-86 


+0-063171 


—0-212070 : 


12 04 


-0-171440 


-0-090289 


10-88 


+0-058283 : 


-0-212504 : 


1206 


-0-173590 : 


—0-086236 : 


10-90 


+0-053394 


—0-212841 


12-08 


—0-175657 


-0-082147 


10-92 


+0-048504 : 


—0-213081 : 


12-10 


-0-177639 : 


-0-078021 


10-94 


+0-043616 : 


—0-213225 


12-12 


—0-179536 : 


-0-073860 : 


10-96 


+0-038732 : 


—0-213272 : 


1214 


-0-181348 


-0-069667 : 


10-98 


+0-033854 


-0-213223 : 


1216 


—0-183073 


—0-065444 


1100 


+0-028983 


-0-213079 


12-18 


-0-184711 : 


-0061190: 


11-02 


+0-024121 : 


-0-212838 


12-20 


-0-186262 : 


—0056910 


1104 


+0-019271 


-0-212502 


12-22 


—0-187726 


-0-052604 


1106 


+0-014433 : 


—0-212071 


12-24 


—0-189101 


—0-048273 




1108 


+0-009611 : 


—0-211545 


12-26 


—0-190388 


-0-043921 




11-10 


+0-004806 


-0-210924 : 


12-28 


-0-191586 


—0-039548 




11-12 


+0-000019 : 


—0-210210 


12-30 


-0-192694 : 


-0-035157 


11-14 


-0-004747 


—0-209402 : 


12-32 


-0-193714 


-0-030749 


11-10 


-0-009490 : 


-0-208501 : 


12-34 


-0194643 : 


—0-026326 


11-18 


-0-014210 


—0-207508 : 


12-36 


-0-195483 


-0-021889 : 


11-20 


-0-018904 


—0-206423 : 


12-38 


-0-196233 


-0017441 : 


11-22 


—0023569 : 


-0-205247 


12-40 


-0-196892 


-0-012984 


11-24 


—0-028206 


-0-203980 


12-42 


-0-197461 : 


-0-008518 




11-26 


-0-032811 


-0-202623 


12-44 


-0-197940 


—0-004047 




11-28 


-0-037382 : 


-0-201177 


, 12-46 


-0-198328 : 


+ 0-000428 





250 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





Lotnmel- Weber Functions. 


Qj(a;) and fi_j(x) — 


sont. 




X 


Q|(z) 


0_i(*) 


X 


Qi(3) 


G_i(*) 


12-48 


— 0- 198626 : 


+0-004906 : 


13-66 


-0-075097 


+0-214142 : 


12-50 


—0-198834 


+0-009385 


13-68 


—0-071208 


: +0-215914 


12-52 


-0198951 : 


+0013862 : 


13-70 


-0-067287 


: +0-217606 


12-54 


-0-198979 


+0-018337 : 


13-72 


—0-063336 


+0-219217 


12-56 


—0-198916 


+0-022807 : 


13-74 


—0-059355 


+ 0-220747 




12-58 


-0-198763 : 


+0-027271 


13-76 


—0-055347 


+0-222196 




12-60 


—0-198521 : 


+0-031726 


13-78 


—0-051312 


: +0-223563 




12-62 


—0-198190 


+0-036171 : 


13-80 


—0-047254 


: +0-224848 




12-64 


-0-197769 : 


+0-040604 : 


13-82 


—0043173 


: +0-226050 




12-66 


—0-197260 : 


+0-045024 : 


13-84 


—0-039071 


: +0-227169 




12-68 


-0-196663 


+ 0-049429 


13-86 


—0-034950 


: +0-228205 


12-70 


—0-195977 : 


+0-053816 : 


13-88 


—0-030812 


+0-229156 : 


12-72 


—0-195204 


+0-058185 : 


13-90 


—0-026658 


+0-230024 : 


12-74 


-0-194344 


+0-062533 : 


13-92 


—0-022489 


: +0-230808 


12-76 


-0-193397 : 


+ 0-066860 


13-94 


—0-018308 


: +0-231507 


12-78 


-0-192364 : 


+0-071162 


13-96 


—0-014117 


+0-232121 : 


12-80 


-0-191246 : 


+ 0-075439 


13-98 


—0-009916 


+0-232651 


12-82 


—0190043 


+0-079688 : 


1400 


—0-005708 


+0-233096 


12-84 


—0-188755 : 


+0-083909 


1402 


—0-001494 


+0-233456 


12-86 


—0-187384 : 


+0-088099 


14-04 


+0-002724 


+0-233731 


12-88 


—0-185930 : 


+0-092256 : 


14-06 


+0-006944 


+0-233921 


12-90 


—0-184394 : 


+0-096381 


14-08 


+ 0-011164 


+ 0-234026 


12-92 


—0-182777 


+0-100469 : 


1410 


+0-015384 


+0-234046 




12-94 


-0-181078 : 


+0-104521 : 


14-12 


+0-019601 


+0-233981 




12-96 


-0-179300 : 


+0-108534 : 


1414 


+0-023813 


: +0-233832 




12-98 


—0-177443 


+ 0-112508 


14-16 


+0-028019 


: +0-233599 


1300 


-0-175508 


+0-116439 : 


14-18 


+0-032218 


+0-233281 


13-02 


-0-173495 


+0-120328 


14-20 


+0-036407 


+ 0-232879 


1304 


-0-171406 : 


+ 0124172 


14-22 


+0-040585 


+0-232393 : 


1306 


—0-169242 


+ 0-127969 : 


14-24 


+0-044749 


+ 0-231824 : 


13-08 


-0-167003 : 


+0-131720 


14-26 


+0-048900 


+0-231172 


1310 


-0-164692 


+0-135421 : 


14-28 


+ 0-053034 


+0-230437 


1312 


-0-162307 : 


+0-139072 : 


14-30 


+0057151 


+0-229620 


1314 


-0-159852 : 


+0-142671 : 


14-32 


+0-061248 


+0-228720 : 


1316 


-0-157327 


+ 0-146218 


14-34 


+0-065325 


+0-227740 


13-18 


—0-154732 : 


+ 0-149709 : 


14-36 


+0-069378 


+0-226678 


13-20 


-0152070 


+0-153145 : 


14-38 


+0-073408 


+0-225535 : 


13-22 


—0-149341 


+ 0-156524 : 


14-40 


+0-077412 


+0-224313 : 


13-24 


—0-146546 : 


+0-159845 


14-42 


+0-081388 


+0-223012 


13-26 


-0-143688 


+0-163106 


14-44 


+0-085336 


+ 0-221632 


13-28 


—0-140766 : 


+ 0-166306 : 


14-46 


+0-089253 


+0-220173 : 


13-30 


-0-137783 


+0-169444 : 


14-48 


+0-093138 


+ 0-218638 


13-32 


-0134739 


+ 0-172520 


14-50 


+0-096990 


+0-217025 : 


13-34 


—0-131636 


+0-175530 : 


14-52 


+0-100807 


+0-215337 : 


13-36 


—0-128475 : 


+0-178476 


14-54 


+0-104587 : 


+0-213574 


13-38 


-0-125258 : 


+0.-181355 


14-56 


+0-108330 


+0-211736 


13-40 


—0-121986 


+ 0-184166: 


14-58 


+0-112033 ■ 


+0-209824 : 




13-42 


—0-118660 


+0-186909 : 


14-60 


+0-115695 : 


+0-207840 




13-44 


—0-115282 


+ 0-189583 


14-62 


+0-119316 


+0-205784 : 




13-46 


—0-111853 


+0-192186 


14-64 


+0-122892 


+0-203657 : 




13-48 


—0-108375 


+ 0-194717 


14-66 


+0126424 


+0-201460 : 




13-50 


—0-104848 : 


+ 0-197176 


14-68 


+ 0-129909 : 


+ 0-199194: 




13-52 


—0-101276 


+0-199562 


14-70 


+ 0-133347 


+0-196860 : 




13-54 


—0-097658 : 


+0-201873 : 


14-72 


+0-136736 


+ 0-194459 : 




13-56 


-0-093998 


+ 0-204110 


14-74 


+ 0-140074 : 


+0-191992 


13-58 


-0-090295 


+0-206271 


14-76 


+0-143361 : 


+0-189460 


13-60 


—0-086552 


+0-208355 : 


14-78 


+0-146595 : 


+0-186864 


13-62 


-0-082770 : 


+0-210362 : 


14-80 


+0-149775 : 


+0-184205 


13-64 


—0078951 : 


+ 0-212292 


14-82 


+0-152900 : 


+ 0-181484 : 


1 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 
Lommel-Weber Functions. Cl^(x) and Q_j(x) — cont. 



251 



X 


Qj(as) 


£U(z) 


X 


Qi(x) 


Q_t(aO 


14-84 


+0-155969 


+0-178703 : 


16-02 


+ 0-210145 


-0041997 


14-86 


+0-158980 


+0-175863 : 


16-04 


+0-208739 : 


—0045761 : 


14-88 


+0161932 


: +0-172965 


16-06 


+0-207261 


-0-049495 : 


14-90 


+0-164825 


+ 0-170010 


16-08 


+ 0-205709 


—0053197 


14-92 


+0-167657 


+0-166999 


16-10 


+0-204085 : 


—0-056865 




14-94 


+ 0-170426 


: +0-163933 : 


16-12 


+0-202390 : 


—0-060498 




14-96 


+0173133 


: +0-160815 


16-14 


+0-200625 


-0-064095 




14-98 


+0-175776 


: +0-157644 : 


16-16 


+0-198789 : 


—0-067655 


1500 


+ 0-178354 


+0-154424 


16-18 


+0-196885 


—0071175 


15-02 


+ 0-180866 


: +0-151154 


16-20 


+0-194912: 


—0074655 


1504 


+ 0-183311 


: +0-147836 


16-22 


+0-192872 : 


-0078093 


1506 


+0-185689 


+ 0-144472 


16-24 


+0-190766 


-0-081488 


15-08 


+ 0-187998 


+0-141062 : 


16-26 


+0-188594 : 


-0-084839 


15-10 


+ 0-190237 


: +0-137609 : 


16-28 


+0-186358 


—0-088144 


1512 


+0-192407 


+0-134114: 


16-30 


+0-184058 


-0091402 




1514 


+0-194505 


: +0-130578 : 


16-32 


+0-181695 


-0-094612 




15-16 


+0-196532 


+0-127003 


16-34 


+0179271 


—0-097773 




1518 


+0-198486 


+0-123390 


16-36 


+0-176786 


—0-100884 




15-20 


+0-200367 


+0-119740 : 


16-38 


+0-174241 : 


-0103943 


15-22 


+0-202174 


+ 0-116056 


16-40 


+0-171638: 


-0-106949 : 


15-24 


+0-203907 


+0112338 


16-42 


+0-168978 


-0-109901 : 


15-26 


+0-205564 


: +0-108588 


16-44 


+0-166261 : 


-0112799 


15-28 


+ 0-207146 


: +0-104808 


16-46 


+0-163490 


—0115640 


15-30 


+ 0-208652 


: +0-100999 


16-48 


+0-160664 


—0-118424 


15-32 


+0-210081 


+0-097162 : 


16-50 


+0-157785 : 


-0-121150 


15-34 


+ 0-211433 


: +0-093300 : 


16-52 


+0-154855 : 


—0-123816 : 


15-36 


+ 0-212707 


: +0-089414 


16-54 


+0-151875 


—0-126423 


15-38 


+ 0-213904 


+0-085505 


16-56 


+0-148845 : 


—0-128968 : 


15-40 


+0-215021 


+0-081575 


16-58 


+0-145768 


—0131452 


15-42 


+ 0-216060 


: +0-077625 : 


16-60 


+0-142644 


—0133872 : 


15-44 


+0-217020 


+0-073658 : 


16-62 


+0-139475 


-0136229 


15-46 


+ 0-217901 


. +0-069674: 


16-64 


+0-136261 : 


-0138521 


15-48 


+0-218702 


+ 0-065676 


16-66 


+0-133005 : 


-0-140748 


15-50 


+ 0-219423 


+0-061664 : 


16-68 


+ 0-129708 


—0-142908 


15-52 


+0-220064 


+0-057641 : 


16-70 


+0126371 


-0-145001 


15-54 


+0-220624 


+0-053609 


16-72 


+ 0-122995 


-0-147026 : 


15-56 


+0-221105 


+0-049567 : 


16-74 


+0119581 : 


-0-148983 : 


15-58 


+ 0-221505 


+ 0-045519 : 


16-76 


+0-116132: 


-0-150871 


15-60 


+0-221824 


+0-041466 : 


16-78 


+0-112649 


—0-152688 : 


15-62 


+0-222063 


+0-037410 : 


16-80 


+0-109132 : 


—0-154436 


15-64 


+0-222221 


+0-033352 


16-82 


+0-105584 


—0-156112 


15-66 


+0-222299 


+0-029293 : 


16-84 


+0-102006 


—0157716 : 


15-68 


+0-222296 


+0-025236 


16-86 


+0-098399 


—0-159248 : 


15-70 


+ 0-222213 


+0-021182 


16-88 


+0094764 : 


—0-160708 


15-72 


+ 0-222049 : 


+0017132 


16-90 


+0-091 104 : 


-0-162094 : 


15-74 


+ 0-221805 : 


+0-013088 : 


16-92 


+0-087420 


—0-163407 


15-76 


+0-221482 


+ 0-009053 


16-94 


+0-083713 


-0-164645 : 




15-78 


+0-221079 


+0-005026 : 


16-96 


+0-079984 


-0-165809 : 




15-80 


+0-220596 


+0-001010 : 


16-98 


+0-076236 


—0-166898 : 




15-82 


+0-220034 : 


—0-002992 : 


17-00 


+0-072469 


-0-167912 : 




15-84 


+0-219393 : 


—0-006981 : 


1702 


+0-068685 : 


—0-168850 : 




15-86 


+0-218674 : 


—0-010955 


17-04 


+0-064887 


-0169713 


15-88 


+0-217877 


—0014911 : 


1706 


+ 0-061074 


-0170499 : 


15-90 


+0-217002 


—0-018849 


17-08 


+0-057249 : 


—0171210 


15-92 


+0-216049 : 


-0-022766 : 


1710 


+0053414 


—0-171843 : 


15-94 


+0-215020 


-0-026662 


1712 


+0-049569 


—0-172401 


15-96 


+0-213914 : 


—0-030534 : 


17-14 


+0-045716 : 


—0-172881 


15-98 


+0-212733 


-0-034382 


17-16 


+0-041858 


-0-173285 


1600 


+0-211476: 


-0038203 : 


17-18 


+0-037995 


-0-173611 : 





252 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





Lommel- Weber Functions. 


Qi(x) 


and Q_i(x) — com 


l* 


X 


a k (x) 


Q-i(*) 


X 


Cii(x) 


Q_i(*) 


17-20 


+ 0-034129 


—0-173861 : 


18-38 


-0-148219 : 


-0-067398 


17-22 


+ 0030261 


-0-174034 : 


18-40 


-0-149799 


—0-064035 : 


17-24 


+0-026393 : 


—0-174130: 


18-42 


—0-151310 


-0-060645 


17-26 


+0-022527 : 


-0-174149 : 


18-44 


-0152751 : 


-0-057226 : 


17-28 


+0-018664 


-0-174092 


18-46 


—0-154123 : 


-0053782 : 


17-30 


+0-014805 : 


-0-173958 


18-48 


-0-155425 : 


-0-050314 


17-32 


+0-010953 : 


-0173747 


18-50 


—0-156656 : 


-0-046822 : 


17-34 


+0-007108 : 


-0-173460 : 


18-52 


-0-157817 


-0-043309 : 


17-36 


+0-003273 


-0-173097 


18-54 


-0-158906 


-0-039776 


17-38 


—0-000552 


-0-172658 : 


18-56 


-0159923 : 


-0-036224 


17-40 


-0-004365 


-0-172144 


18-58 


-0-160868 : 


-0-032654 : 


17-42 


—0-008164 


-0-171554 : 


18-60 


—0161741 : 


—0-029069 : 


17-44 


-0-011948 


-0-170889 : 


18-62 


-0-162542 


-0-025469 : 


17-46 


-0015715 : 


—0-170150 : 


18-64 


-0-163269 : 


-0-021857 


17-48 


—0-019465 


-0-169337 


18-66 


-0-163924 


-0-018233 


17-50 


—0-023194 : 


—0-168450 


18-68 


—0-164505 : 


-0-014598 : 


17-52 


—0-026903 : 


-0-167489 : 


! 18-70 


-0-165013 : 


-0-010956 


17-54 


—0-030589 : 


—0-166456 


| 18-72 


-0-165448 


-0-007306 


17-56 


—0-034252 


-0-165350 


1 18-74 


—0-165809 


-0-003650 : 


17-58 


-0-037889 : 


-0-164172 : 


18-76 


—0-166096 : 


+0-000009 


17-60 


—0-041499 : 


—0-162924 


| 18-78 


-0-166310 


+0-003671 : 


17-62 


-0-045082 


-0-161604 : 


18-80 


-0-166450 : 


+0-007335 


17-64 


-0-048635 


-0-160214 : 


18-82 


—0-166517 


+0-010998 : 


17-66 


-0-052157 


—0-158755 : 


18-84 


-0-166510 


+0-014660 


17-68 


-0-055646 : 


-0-157228 


18-86 


-0-166429 : 


+0-018318 : 


17-70 


—0-059102 : 


—0-155632 


18-88 


—0-166276 


+0-021972 : 


17-72 


—0062524 


-0-153969 


18-90 


-0-166049 


+0-025620 : 


17-74 


—0-065909 


-0-152239 


18-92 


—0-165749 


+0-029260 : 


17-76 


-0-069256 : 


—0-150443 : 


18-94 


-0-165376 : 


+0-032892 


17-78 


—0-072565 


-0-148582 : 


18-96 


-0-164931 


+0-036512 : 


17-80 


-0-075834 


—0-146658 


18-98 


-0-164413 : 


+0-040121 : 


17-82 


-0-079061 


-0-144669 : 


19-00 


-0-163824 


+0-043717 : 


17-84 


-0-082246 


-0-142619 


1902 


-0-163163 


+0-047298 


17-86 


—0-085387 


-0-140506 : 


19-04 


-0-162430 


+ 0-050863 


17-88 


-0-088483 


-0-138333 : 


19-06 


—0-161626 : 


+0-054410 : 


17-90 


-0-091533 


—0-136100 : 


19-08 


—0-160752 : 


+0-057938 : 


17-92 


-0094536 


-0-133809 


19-10 


-0-159808 


+0-061446 : 


17-94 


—0-097490 


-0-131459 : 


1912 


—0-158794 


+ 0-064932: 


17-96 


-0-100395 


-0-129053 : 


1914 


—0-157710 : 


+0-068395 : 


17-98 


-0-103249 


-0-126591 : 


19-16 


-0-156558 : 


+0-071834 : 


18-00 


-0-106051 : 


—0-124075 


19-18 


-0-155338 : 


+0-075247 


18-02 


-0-108801 


-0121504 : 


19-20 


—0-154051 


+0-078633 


18-04 


-0-111497 


-0-118882 


19-22 


—0-152696 


+0-081990 


18-06 


—0-114138 : 


-0116207 : 


19-24 


-0-151275 


+0-085317 : 


18-08 


-0-116724 


—0-113483 


19-26 


—0-149788 


+0-088613 : 


18-10 


—0-119252 : 


-0-110709 


19-28 


-0-148236 


+0-091877 : 


18-12 


-0-121723 : 


—0-107887 : 


19-30 


-0-146620 


+0-095108 


18-14 


-0-124136 


-0-105019 


19-32 


—0-144940 


+0-098303 


18-16 


-0-126489 


-0-102104 : 


19-34 


-0143197 


+0101462 


18-18 


-0-128781 : 


—0-099146 


19-36 


-0-141392 


+0-104584 


18-20 


—0-131013 


-0-096144 : 


19-38 


—0-139525 : 


+0-107667 


18-22 


-0-133183 


-0-093101 


19-40 


-0-137598 : 


+0-110710: 


18-24 


-0-135289 : 


-0-090016 : 


19-42 


—0-135612 


+ 0-113713 


18-26 


-0137333 


-0-086893 


19-44 


—0-133566 


+0-116673 


18-28 


-0139312 


—0-083731 


19-46 


—0-131462 : 


+0-119590 


18-30 


—0-141226 


-0-080532 : 


19-48 


-0-129302 


+0-122462 : 


18-32 


-0-143074 : 


-0-077299 


19-50 


—0-127085 : 


+0-125289 


18-34 


-0-144856 : 


-0-074031 


19-52 


-0-124813 : 


+0-128070 


18-36 


-0-146571 : 


-0-070730 


19-54 


-0-122487 : 


+0-130803 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL^ TABLES. 



25 ?, 





Lommel- Weber Functions. 


flj(*) 


and Q_i(x) — cont. 




X 


Qi(*) 


0-*(«) 


X 


Qj(x) 


a_i(*) 


19-56 


-0-120108 


+0-133487 


19-80 


-0-087789 


+ 0-161545 


19-58 


—0-117676 


+0-136121 : 


19-82 


—0-084816 : 


+0-163510 


19-60 


-0115193 


+0-138705 


19-84 


—0-081806 


+ 0165414 : 


19-62 


—0-112660 


+0141237 


19-86 


—0-078759 : 


+0-167257 


19-64 


-0-110078 


+0-143716 


19-88 


-0-075678 


+0-169037 : 


19-66 


-0-107448 


+ 0-146141 : 


19-90 


-0-072562 : 


+0-170754 : 


19-68 


-0-104771 


+0-148512 : 


19-92 


-0-069415 


+0-172408 


19-70 


—0102049 


+ 0-150828 


19-94 


—0-066236 


+0173997 


19-72 


—0099281 


+0-153087 : 


19-96 


-0-063027 : 


+0-175521 


19-74 


—0-096470 


+0-155289 : 


19-98 ' 


-0-059790 : 


+0-176980 


19-76 


-0-093617 


+6-157433 : 


20-00 ! 


-0-056526 : 


+0-178372 : 


19-78 


-0-090723 


+0-159519 

1 


i 


i 





Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere.— Report of Committee 
(Sir Napier Shaw, Chairman ; Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Secretary ; Prof. 
S. Chapman, Mr. J. S. Dines, Mr. L. H. G. Dines, Mr. W. H. Dines, 
Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Col. E. Gold, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Sir J. Larmor, 
Mr. R. G. K. Lempfert, Prof. F. A. Lindemann, Dr. W. Makower, 
Mr. J. Patterson, Sir J. E. Petavel, Sir A. Schuster, Dr. G. C. 
Simpson, Mr. F. J. W. Whipple, and Prof. H. H. Turner). 

The Committee met in the Royal Meteorological Society's house on April 3, 1925. 
Progress was reported with regard to the suggestions put forward by the Committee 
in 1921, in anticipation of the meeting of the International Union for Geodesy and 
Geophysics at Rome. The appeal for investigation of the air over the sea has met 
with satisfactory response from H.M. Navy, through the good offices of Commander 
L. G. Garbett, Superintendent of Naval Meteorological Services in the Meteorological 
Office. The instructions drawn up by the late M. Leon Teisserenc de Bort for soundings 
with balloons at sea have been translated and reprinted at the expense of the Meteoro- 
logical Section of the U.G.G.I. Further effort is required to elicit the co-operation 
of yacht owners, and for the investigation of the upper air of deserts. 

With reference to the results of pilot-balloon ascents, it was noted that some 
questions relative to the transition in the direction and velocity of wind with height 
could not be answered by observations at fixed intervals, and the suggestion of the 
reintroduction of a self-recording instrument was put forward. 

The Committee have had under consideration the scheme of indicator-diagrams, 
proposed by the Chairman for the International Commission on Upper Air, based on 
entropy and temperature as co-ordinates, and therefore called tephigrams, for the 
representation of the results of soundings of the upper air in respect of pressure, 
temperature, and humidity, and they would be glad to have the opportunity of 
considering further examples of the application of the method. 

A report on radiation in relation to meteorology was included in the Minutes of 
Proceedings of the Meteorological Section of the U.G.G.I. in Madrid. An effort should 
be made to develop the regular and, if possible, automatic registration of solar and 
terrestrial radiation in this country. A recording instrument costing about 501., 
designed by M. Gorczynski, of Warsaw, and made by Richard Freres, of Paris, was 
recommended at Madrid. An initial difficulty about the supply of the instrument in 
this country has been surmounted. 

The Callendar recorder of the total vertical component of radiation from sun and 
sky is in use at South Kensington and at Rothamsted. A similar instrument has also 
been installed at Cambridge. An Angstrom instrument is used for observation at 
Kew Observatory and at Eskdalemuir ; Mr. W. H. Dines makes observations of 
radiation from sky and earth with an instrument of his own design. A model of 
Mr. Dines's instrument was exhibited at the British Empire Exhibition, together with 
three recent instruments of Professor Callendar's design ; but none of these have as 
yet been placed upon the market. 



254. REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

The Committee have remarked that the presentation of the results of observations 
of radiation are seldom put in such a form as to be applicable to meteorological prob- 
lems ; they are of opinion that the definite balance sheet of receipt and loss at the 
earth's surface and in the atmosphere might be attempted. In the meantime, they 
have learned that observations already exist at Oxford of the coefficient of reflexion of 
the infra-red fight from the surface of sea-water, and they hope that the information 
may be published. 

The investigation of atmospheric impurity by the Owens dust-counter has been 
taken up in many countries. In the United States the investigation has been extended 
to the upper air. The results are included in the report of the Meteorological Section 
of the U.G.G.I. 

Finally, the Committee are of opinion that many of the geophysical questions of 
vital importance to meteorology are quite suitable for investigation in the laboratories 
which form an ordinary part of the establishment of British Universities, and they 
desire that an effort should be made to enlist the co-operation of the universities in 
the study of these subjects. They are assured, for example, that the determination of 
the amount of hydrogen in the atmosphere, as desired by the Committee in 1921, 
could be carried to one part in a million parts of air by the cyrogenic apparatus of the 
Clarendon Laboratory at Oxford. 

They are further encouraged to look for assistance from existing laboratories by 
learning that frequent observations of the amount of ozone in the upper atmosphere 
are made at the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, under Dr. Dobson's superintendence, 
by the spectroscopic measurement of the absorption in the ultra-violet region. The 
absorption appears to be in direct relation with the pressure of the atmosphere at the 
level of about 10 kilometres. 

The Committee accordingly ask for reappointment with the addition of the names 
of Dr. G. M. B. Dobson, Commander L. G. Garbett, and Dr. H. Knox Shaw. 

They ask also for a grant of 551. for the purchase of a self-recording radiometer to 
be placed in accordance with arrangements made by the Committee. 



The Stratigraphical Sequence and Palaeontology of the Old 
Red Sandstone of the Bristol District. — Report of Committee 
(Dr. H. Bolton, Chairman ; Dr. F. S. Wallis, Secretary ; Miss 
Edith Bolton, Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. D. E. I. Innes, Prof. C. Lloyd 
Morgan, Prof. S. H. Reynolds, and Mr. H. W. Turner). 

Introduction. — -This year the Old Red Sandstone occurring in the area enclosed by 
the horse-shoe shaped ridge of Carboniferous rocks extending from Penpole Point 
through Westbury to Durdham Down has been examined in great detail. Much of 
this area is covered by Dolomitic Conglomerate, and evidence is accumulating to prove 
that the structure is not a simple denuded anticline, but that extensive faults are 
responsible for outliers of Avonian rocks, within the district. 

Vertical sections have been prepared from the exposures at St. Monica's, Durdham 
Down : the railway sections north of the Durdham tunnel, the large cutting on the 
new road between Shirehampton and Sea Mills, and its continuation on the railway in 
the Horseshoe Bend. 

All the beds are very lenticular, and no correlation has been possible between 
these exposures. The junction with the Carboniferous is well seen at St. Monica's, 
and this exposure has been described in Proc. B.N.8., 4.S.,Vol. VI., Part 2, pp. 179-182. 

Lithology. — Lithologically every gradation between the following types can be 
traced — coarse and fine-grained sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, quartzite, 
calcareous conglomerate, sandy shales and sandstones with small scattered pebbles 
of vein-quartz and lenticles or pellets of a fine-grained sandy micaceous shale. Current 
bedding is common in the more massive sandstone beds. 

In many of the sandy shales contraction during desiccation has resulted in the 
rock being traversed by a series of cracks. The major cracks are approximately at 
right angles to the bedding planes, whilst a minor set, ranged at right angles to the 
first series, divides the rock into a number of roughly cubical pieces, some 1-2 cms. in 
length. The resultant rock may be termed a ' brecciated shale.' In some instances 
these cracks have been filled with calcite and the margins of the cubical pieces have 
also, to some extent, been impregnated with the same mineral ; on a weathered surface 
this rock has a concretionary appearance. Both these types are very distinctive in 
the field and occur at various levels. 



ON OLD RED SANDSTONE. 255 

The pebbles in the calcareous conglomerate consist of quartzite, vein-quartz, and 
jasper. The majority of the pebbles are rounded and every grade from 12 cms. 
diameter downwards has been noted. A few of the pebbles have a pronounced 
dreikanter aspect. There is no definite arrangement of the pebbles in the band, and 
the deposit is not stratified. 

Petrology. — In thin section, the quartz grains are mainly of two types, though 
every intermediate form occurs. The larger (0-80 mm.) are well rounded, with 
abundant inclusions, and show strain polarisation. The smaller (0 - 08 mm.) are 
angular to sub-angular, with fewer inclusions. Grains of vein-quartz, with inclusions 
and showing strain polarisation are common. The inclusions are generally arranged 
irregularly (sometimes linearly) and consist of rounded and indeterminate bodies. 
Amongst the recognisable inclusions may be mentioned apatite and chlorite (kindly 
identified by Prof. P. G. H. Boswell), which latter occurs in curved green pipes. Small 
cavities and negative crystals have both been recognised in the quartz grains. 

Very little felspar is present in these rocks, but orthoclase, microcline, and acidic 
plagioclase have been determined. 

Rounded grains of a quartz-schist and a fine-grained chert are of frequent occur- 
rence. No organic remains have been recognised in the chert. Haematite occurs as 
a general stain throughout the rock and also as individual grains. Green and white 
mica and chloritised biotite all occur as twisted laths amongst the more resistant 
quartz grains. 

In the coarser grades granular quartz, and in the finer grades calcite (more or less 
dolomitised) form the chief cementing materials. Scattered grains of calcite and 
dolomite are both fairly common in all varieties. 

Re- crystallised calcite plates form the matrix of the calcareous conglomerate ; 
no traces of organic remains have been found in this matrix. 

Mineralogy. — The usual methods of separating the ' heavy minerals ' by means 
of bromoform were used, though a modified form of glass separating funnel has been 
employed. The chief characteristics of the minerals obtained are here briefly noted 
in order of their relative abundance. 

Apatite is very abundant at all horizons. The grains are large (Ol mm.) and 
generally well-rounded, though prismatic forms occur. They are often full of inclu- 
sions giving the mineral a cloudy effect. Sometimes these inclusions are congregated 
in the centre of the grain, which then exhibits a cloudy core. 

Leucoxene (O08 mm.) is abundant, and shows the characteristic pitted surface in 
reflected light. 

Zircon occurs both as rounded (0-06 mm.) and prismatic grains ; some of the 
latter show well-marked pyramidal terminations with sharp crystal edges. Traces 
of longitudinal cleavage can often be observed, whilst other grains exhibit a system 
of curving cracks. Most of the zircons are colourless, though a few purple- coloured 
grains (generally non-ovoid in shape) have been found. Inclusions are abundant, 
some being needle-shaped, others rounded, and others were determined as negative 
crystals. Tourmaline generally occurs as prismatic grains (0-09 mm.), though a 
few rounded forms have been observed. All the grains of this mineral are intensely 
pleochroic, yellowish-brown to a dark greenish-brown, pinkish-brown to black, and 
colourless to green being the chief types noted. Blue tourmaline, only slightly 
pleochroic, occurs sparingly. 

Rutile occurs in two forms ; either yellow prismatic grains (0-1 mm.), pleochroic 
in various shades of yellow, or rounded pleochroic foxy-red grains showing well-marked 
cleavage lines crossing at 60°. 

Garnet is only found at a few horizons. Most of the grains are rounded (Ol mm.), 
pale pink in colour, and do not show strain polarisation. Some of the grains show 
marked re-entrant angles and cleavages crossing at 70°. 

Green mica, muscovite, pyrites, ilmenite, and magnetite have also been noted. 

Palceontology. — Four definite fossiliferous horizons have been determined, and the 
same type of sediment characterises each level. The rock is a coarse quartzose 
sandstone with rounded pebbles of quartz, vein-quartz, jasper and pellets of a fine- 
grained sandy micaceous shale. The fossiliferous bed at St. Monica's, Durdham 
Down, is 4 feet thick, and occurs at a vertical distance of 27 feet below the base of 
the Carboniferous. In the railway section north of the Durdham Down tunnel the 
fossiliferous levels are 9, 2 and 6 feet thick, and occur at distances of 102, 115 and 
152 feet respectively below the Carboniferous. Remains of three species — Holoptychius 
nobilissimus, Ag., Olyptopomus kinnairdi, Huxley, and Bothriolepis cf. f/ydrophila, Ag., 
have been found, and notes on these have been published in the ' St. Monica's ' paper 
(ibid.). 



256 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Lower Carboniferous Zonal Nomenclature. — Report of 
Committee (Professor P. F. Kendall, Chairman ; Mr. R. G. 
S. Hudson, Secretary ; Mr. W. S. Bisat, Mr. R. G. Carruthers, 
Mr. E. B. L. Dixon, Professor E. J. Garwood, Miss E. Goodyear, 
Mr. S. E. Hollingworth, Mr. J. W. Jackson, Dr. G. W. Lee, Miss 
H. M. Muir-Wood, Mr. D. Parkinson, Mr. J. Pringle, Professor 
S. H. Reynolds, Principal T. F. Sibly, Dr. Bernard Smith, Dr. 
Stanley Smith, Mr. L. Smyth, Mr. L. H. Tonks, Mr. F. M. Trotter, 
Mr. W. B. Wright) appointed to attempt to obtain agreement regarding 
the significance to be attached to Zonal Terms used in connexion with 
the Lower Carboniferous. {Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The work of the above Committee has been chiefly concerned with the upper beds 
of the Lower Carboniferous, and more especially with the definition and limitation 
of the Dibunophyllum zone. There is general agreement among the members of the 
Committee as to the need for a definite upper limit to the Dibunophyllum zone and 
also for a time-division of the Lower Carboniferous for those beds above the Visean, 1 
and it is chiefly with these aspects that this report deals. 

The Upper Limit of the Zone D. 

The zonal divisions of the Lower Carboniferous were based on the f aunal succession 
of the beds exposed in the Avon Gorge and were originally denned by the dominance 
of some particular genus or species. They are now regarded as characterised by 
coral-brachiopod faunal assemblages, which are usually referred to by an index letter 
such as Z, C, S, or D. In addition to the index letter, the zone is often distinguished 
by an index fossil. In practically all cases this index fossil is not limited to that 
particular zone, but is found below and often above. It should, however, attain its 
maximum development at that horizon. The definition of the zone is based on the 
occurrence of a number of fossil forms, generally corals and brachiopods, which 
attain their maximum at that particular horizon. The horizontal distribution of 
these forms often leads to the absence of one or two of them in some particular area — 
in some cases the form chosen as an index fossil is absent— but in general the sum of 
the forms which have their maximum development at that level will determine its 
zonal horizon. 

The upper zone D was originally defined as co- extensive with the occurrence of 
Dibunophyllum. No definite upper limit was suggested for this zone, as the limestone 
containing the coral-brachiopod fauna is replaced at Bristol by a sandstone facies 
containing practically no fossils. The persistence elsewhere, and more particularly 
in the North of England, of the coral-brachiopod fauna to higher zones than in the 
S.W. Province has led the upward extension of the zone D far beyond the original 
zone of Vaughan and has been the cause of much confusion. It is therefore proposed 
that the zone D should be limited and defined by a faunal assemblage, as are most 
of the lower zones, and not by the occurrence of Dibunophyllum, and that this faunal 
assemblage should be approximately that contained in those beds originally defined 
as D in the S.W. Province. 2 

This limitation of the zone D is facilitated by the fact that where, as in the North 
of England, the beds above D contain a normal limestone fauna, that fauna is charac- 
terised by the maximum development of genera and species either unknown or rare 
in the D zone below. This fauna has been described from various districts in the 
North of England. 3 It contains as one of its distinguishing elements the maximum 

1 Sub-report I., E. E. L. D. 

2 Vaughan, A., ' The Paleeontological Sequence in the Carboniferous Limestone 
of the Bristol Area,' Q.J.G.S., vol. lxi., 1905, pp. 197-199, and later papers. 

3 Garwood, E. J., and Goodyear, E., ' The Lower Carboniferous Succession in 
the Settle District,' Q.J.G.S., vol. lxxx., 1924, pp. 184-273. 

3 Edmunds, C, ' The Carboniferous Limestone Series of West Cumberland,' 
Geol. Mag., 1922, pp. 74-83 and 117-131. 

3 Hudson, R. G. S., ' Faunal Horizons in the Lower Carboniferous of N.W. York- 
shire,' Geol. Mag., 1925, pp. 181-186. 



ON LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ZONAL NOMENCLATURE. 257 

development of Orionastrea phillipsi. This coral has been noted from various widely 
distributed Lower Carboniferous areas, it has been used as a local index, and is one 
whose contemporaneity of development can be readily tested, the more so as its 
occurrence is not dependent on any peculiarity of lithological conditions. It is 
therefore proposed that this zonal fauna which occurs immediately above the zone D 
shall be denoted by the zonal index O. It should be noted that it is not intended 
that the zone should be co-extensive with the development of Orionastrea phillipsi. 
For instance, it is probable that the rare occurrence of O. phillipsi in the upper beds of 
the Lower Carboniferous of the Avon Gorge is an early manifestation of this form, 
and occurs in P., along with the maximum development of 0. ensifer. The applica- 
tion of this suggested zonal scheme to areas the faunal succession of which has been 
already described is shown in Table I. 

The Subdivision of the Zone D. 

The zone D was originally divided into D x and D 2 , and these sub-zones possess 
characteristic faunal assemblages that have been identified in most areas where a 
normal coral- brachiopod fauna is developed. This subdivision has been departed 
from in later papers by various authors who have either recognised higher horizons, 
which they have referred to by such zonal indices as Dy or else expressed the phasal 
character of the fauna by such symbols as P or D 2 and D. 2 . a , which latter have been 
variously used as denoting higher horizons or phasal faunas. Dy has not received 
general acceptance, and the limitation of the zone D as proposed above excludes 
the horizons previously denoted by Dy from the zone D. The Committee therefore 
recommends that it should be abandoned as a zonal index. The question of phasal 
faunas and their indices is discussed later. There remains the advisability of the use 
of D 3 . D 3 was originally proposed by Sibly 4 for a faunal assemblage which occurs in 
Derbyshire above a normal D 2 fauna and which he divided off as the zone of 
Cyathaxonia rushiana. This fauna differs from the normal coral- brachiopod fauna 
in that it contains numerous Zaphrentids and allied genera and a specialised brachiopod 
fauna, and generally approaches to a shale fauna. Such a faunal assemblage has 
been termed a Zaphrentid-phase by Vaughan and Dixon. D 3 and D 2 . 3 were later 
used by other authors as Zaphrentid-phasal indices of high horizon, a use which the 
Committee recommend should be discontinued. On the other hand, the use of D 3 
for the upper subdivision of the zone D has much to recommend it. In most cases 
where the fauna of the D zone above D 1 has been investigated and where it is of the 
same phase throughout, it has been divided into faunally distinct upper and lower 
series. This distinction of the two faunal assemblages was noted by Vaughan 
and I. Thomas. Vaughan divided the upper D fauna of Anglesey into D 2a and D 3b , while 
I. Thomas preferred to indicate the same faunas as D 2 and D 3 . 5 A similar division 
of the upper D beds is found in the Settle district and has been separated as the 
Lower Lonsdaleia beds and the Lamellibranch bed (P. pugilis band). 6 The same 
faunal sequence occurs in the Dale Country ' and in the Whitehaven district. 8 It 
thus seems that where the coral-brachiopod fauna is continued throughout D the 
upper part contains two distinct faunal assemblages which may be referred to as 
upper and lower D 2 , or — and this seems to the Committee more acceptable — D 2 
and D 3 . It seems probable, too, that D 3 would then connote a faunal assemblage 
of the same horizon as that for which Sibly coined the term D 3 , for it is probable 
that the zone of Cyathaxonia rushiana is the Zaphrentid-phasal equivalent of D 3 as 
defined above and which would thus retain its original horizon. D 3 is therefore 
defined as the upper division of the D zone with a faunal assemblage as described by 
the various authors mentioned above. If there is need of an index form, Lonsdaleia 
duplicata duplicata is the most suitable, as this form, although occasionally found 
much earlier, attains its maximum at this horizon. 

4 Sibly, T. F., ' Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of the Midland 
Area,' QJ.G.S., vol. lxiv., 1908, pp. 34-82. 

6 Greenly, E., 'The Geology of Anglesey,' vol. ii., Mem. Geol. Surv., London, 
1919, pp. 608-612. 

6 Garwood, E. J., and Goodyear, E., op. supra cit., pp. 201-295. 

7 Hudson, R. G. S., op. supra cit., pp. 182-183. 

8 Edmunds, C, op. supra cit., p. 83. 

1925 s 



258 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Orionastrea phillipsi zone ... ... O Orionastrea phillipsi 

f D 3 Lonsdaleia duplicata duplicata 

r, ., , „ -p. Do Lonsdaleia floriformis floriformis 

Dibunophyllum zone D , n mh ^ n ^Ji' hmirt '' _ nH , 



] T>i Dibunophyllum bourtonense and Cyatho- 



phyllum murchisoni 

Major Divisions of the Lower Carboniferous. 

The general equivalence of the Belgian Lower Carboniferous with that of the 
S.W. Province has led to the adoption of Tournaisian and Vis6an as time-names for 
the major divisions of the British Lower Carboniferous. The upper limit of the 
Visean is discussed later, but it approximates to that chosen above as the upper limit 
of the zone D. The Lower Carboniferous of the Bristol district can therefore be 
included in Visean and Tournaisian, but that of the North of England and the Midland 
Province contains a series of beds with a coral-brachiopod fauna higher in horizon 
than the Visean of Belgium. The greater part of the Yoredale series and the neigh- 
bouring successions of Cumberland and Durham are of this age. The extension of 
Visean to include these beds is not advisable, as they may be equivalent to part 
of the Namurian, the next stage in the Belgian succession. The Committee therefore 
recommends the creation of a separate stage approximately equivalent in time-value 
to Visean and Tournaisian, to include these higher beds. The Committee bases its 
recommendations on the following reasons : — 

(1) The occurrence in the North of England of a series of beds containing a lime- 
stone fauna higher in horizon than the Visean as developed at Vise. 

(2) The progressive distinction between the limestone fauna of the Yoredalian 
and Visean. 

(3) The general widespread lithological change which occurs approximately at 
the end of the Visean (s. str.) in various parts of England. 

This higher subdivision of the Lower Carboniferous has already been suggested, 
and the name ' Yoredalian ' was proposed for it by Johns, 7 and this was tentatively 
adopted by Vaughan. 8 Phillips 9 in 1836 divided on lithological grounds the Lower 
Carboniferous of North Yorkshire into a lower series, which he called the Great Scar 
Limestone, and an upper series which he called the Yoredale series. The approxima- 
tion of the Yoredale series to the proposed upper major division of the Lower 
Carboniferous was the reason for the adoption of the name Yoredalian by Johns and 
Vaughan. This term is eminently suitable for the following reasons : The first 
separation of those higher beds from the rest of the Lower Carboniferous was by 
Phillips, who called them the Yoredale series ; the fauna of the Yoredale series is 
mainly a coral-brachiopod fauna, and thus the faunal assemblage defining the Yore- 
dalian is of the same phase as that defining Visean and Tournaisian ; the series is a 
• complete one conformable with the Visean ; and finally, beds containing assemblages 
both of Zaphrentid-phase and Goniatite-phase occur in the Yoredales and should 
eventually allow of correlation with the other phasal successions of the Lower 
Carboniferous. The term Yoredalian is therefore adopted and the type succession 
is taken as the Yoredale series of North- West Yorkshire.* 

The Upper Limit of the Visean and the Base of the Yoredalian. 

The upper beds, V 2 , of the Belgian Survey, of the Visean at Vise are not suitable 
for direct comparison with the North-West Province succession, because the fauna is a 
knoll fauna of the same type as the brachiopod beds of Derbyshire and the Knolls of 
Craven. At Anhee, however, in the syncline of Namur, the same horizon is repre- 
sented by a coral-brachiopod fauna which compares very well with the fauna of 

' Johns, C, 'On the Classification of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks,' Geol. Mag., 
1910, pp. 562-564. 

8 Vaughan, A., ' Correlation of Dinantian and Avonian,' Q.J.G.S., vol. lxxi., 
1915, pp. 1-52. 

9 Phillips, J., ' Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire.' Part II. London, 
1836. 

* It should be noted that the term Yoredalian does not. imply Yoredale conditions 
of sedimentation ; that is, a lithological succession of shale, sandstone, and limestone 
alternation. 



ON LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ZONAL NOMENCLATURE. 259 

the D 3 sub-zone (as defined above). Above the Visean in both areas is the Namurian, 
the lower half of which is the Assise de Chokier (H la , zone or 0. diadema) with 
0. spirale ? at its base. At Vise, as elsewhere in the Liege district, H u rests possibly 
unconformably on the Visean, while at Anh6e the succession is apparently an 
unbroken one. Delepine 10 considers the lower part of H u equivalent to the Yoredales 
and conformable with the limestone below, but does not discuss the advisability of 
its inclusion in the Visean. If this present limitation of the Visean, as in Belgium, 
is transferred to the English succession, the top of D 3 becomes the top of the Visean 
and therefore the base of the Yoredalian. 

It has not, however, been possible to obtain agreement among members of the 
Committee as to the exact horizon of the base of the Yoredalian. There are three 
proposals : — 

(1) The base of the Yoredalian should be placed at the top of the Dibunophyllum 
zone. No definition of the Visean is then needed. 

(2) The base of the Yoredalian should be placed at the top of D 2 and D, should 
be included in the Yoredalian. The division then corresponds to the division by 
Phillips between the Yoredale series and the Great Scar series, and moreover the base 
of the Yoredalian then corresponds to the base of the zone 0. crenistria (the zone P 
as defined by Bisat) and in many areas corresponds with the oncoming of the Culm 
facies. 

(3) The base of the Yoredalian should be at the base of D 2 . The division is then 
marked by the Girvanella band, first recognised by Garwood and since mapped over 
the greater part of the North of England. 

The Committee recommends that for the time being the base of the Yoredalian 
should be taken as the top of D 3 . The application of this zonal scheme to the success- 
ion in various areas in England is shown in Tables I and II. 



The Subdivision and Upper Limit of Yoredalian. 

The establishment of Yoredalian is the result of work on the higher beds of the 
Lower Carboniferous of the North of England and depends on the persistence of the 
standard limestone fauna in these beds. The subdivision and definition of an upper 
limit of Yoredalian depends, therefore, on the faunal grouping of this upper series. 
Pending further work now in progress, no attempt has been made to show this sub- 
division of the Yoredalian beyond the definition of the zone at its base. The beds, 
such as the Undersett and the Main Limestone, have a coral-brachiopod fauna which 
is a continuation of that of the Lower Yoredalian and should be included in the 
Yoredalian. The further extension of Yoredalian to include such beds as that of the 
Fell Top Limestone characterised by Aulina rotiformis or the separation of these 
beds as a further division of the Carboniferous is left for further consideration. 

Phasal Faunas. 

The Lower Carboniferous is often of such a facies that the coral-brachiopod fauna 
(standard limestone fauna) is replaced by a faunal phase characterised either by 
goniatites and lamellibranchs (Culm fauna) or by a Zaphrentid or reef phase. The 
standard limestone fauna may be replaced by Culm phase or the reef phase only in 
certain beds, as at Loughshinny and in the Midland Province, or it may be completely 
replaced, as in the Lower Bolland shales at Pendle. The zonal scheme outlined 
above is readily applicable only where there is a coral-brachiopod faunal succession. 

The occurrence of the Culm phase necessitates, for the time being, two parallel 
and contemporaneous sets of zones, the one set based on the standard limestone 
fauna and the other, as outlined by Bisat, 11 on the goniatites. It remains to be seen 
how the limits between the goniatite zones compare with those between the standard 
limestone zones. 

10 Delepine, G., ' Les formations superieures du Calcaire carbonifere de Vise,' 
Ann. de la Soc. set. de Brvxelles, 1921, p. 114. 

11 Bisat, W. S.. ' The Carboniferous Goniatites of the North of England and their 
Zones.' Proc. Y.G.S., vol. xx., pt. I. 1924. 

6 2 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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ON LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ZONAL NOMENCLATURE. 



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262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Zaphrentid-Cyathaxonia phase and Culm phase. 

If it is felt that there is a need (which is doubtful) of a symbol to indicate the 
occurrence of a Zaphrentid phase or a goniatite-lamellibranch fauna at any particular 
horizon, it is suggested that the scheme proposed by Sibly 12 be adopted. Indices 
such as D 2 and Sj should be indicative of horizon, and faunal phase should be indi- 
cated by the addition of small letters, e.g. D 2x . a Zaphrentid phase of D 2 age, D 3p , 
a goniatite phase of D 3 age, or Hy, a coral-brachiopod fauna of H age. In general, 
however, and certainly for the goniatite phase, the phasal character should be indicated 
by the index fossil. There is no agreement among members of the Committee 
as to the use of the index letter P. Originally defined by Vaughan as the zone of 
Posidonomya, and including beds now recognised as D 2 (pars), D 3 and O ?, it was 
later commonly used for beds rich in goniatites and lamellibranchs ; that is, it denoted 
a Culm faunal phase. As the Committee has agreed that such phases should be 
indicated by the small letter p used after the zonal index, there is no need for P as a 
phasal index. In 1924 Bisat re-defined P as the zone of ' G. crenistria and probably 
that of any members of the genus Goniatites (s. str.),' and some members of the Com- 
mittee are in favour of retaining P as the index letter of that zone, while others favour 
its total abandonment and the use of an index such as G for the zone of G. crenistria. 1 * 

Table II. is a provisional one (pending further work now in progress) showing 
the general relations between the various areas of the Midland and Craven Provinces, 
and also their approximate correlation to the Yoredalian. The correlation has 
been made mainly by the occurrence of the knoll and standard limestone brachiopod 
faunas and by the occurrence of G. crenistria. No attempt has been made to show the 
relation of the higher goniatite zones to the Yoredalian. It is probable that the 
Yoredalian may be, in part, equivalent to part of the Lancastrian (Bisat). 

12 'The Carboniferous Limestone of the Cardiff District.' Proc. Geol. Ass. vol. xxxi., 
1920, p. 81. 

13 Sub-report II., W. S. B. and others. 



ON LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ZONAL NOMENCLATURE. 263 

Sub-Report I. 
(E.E.L.D.) 

I do not think it desirable to tie our hands by adhesion to the use of the term 
Visean. The sequence at Vise is abnormal and unlike that found anywhere else in 
Belgium or in Great Britain. 

It would probably be generally agreed that were it not that the term Visean is 
already in the field, the best horizon at which to separate the Yoredalian would be the 
base of D 2 . This should be done, though the use of Visean for the beds below then 
becomes impossible, as the Visean includes D.> if it includes anything. It is agreed, too, 
that Continental names should be used in the exact sense in which they are used 
abroad. The use of Tournaisian would already appear to be inadvisable, as the Belgian 
Tournaisian does not include our Cleistopora Zone (K). Consequently, British terms 
should be used for all the Lower Carboniferous, as for the Upper (e.g. Yorkian instead 
of Kidston's Westphalian). 

Although the separation of a Yoredalian is useful, the Avonian should be divided 
primarily into two, not three, series, the upper to include the Yoredalian and the beds 
below down to the base of C 2 . The Yoredalian is not sufficiently marked off, palaeon- 
tologically, lithologically, or stratigraphically, from the beds below to warrant its 
separation as a major division. This is shown by the uncertainty as to the best 
horizon for its base. To the horizons mentioned might well be added the base of 
the Great or Main Limestone, adopted by Vaughan and mapped practically wherever 
the Yoredales are known. 

The Avonian would then consist of an upper series, comprising the Yoredalian 
above and an equivalent of the Visean, less D 2 , below, and a lower series (=Tour- 
naisian+K). 

The Yoredalian, as I conceive it, cannot overlap the Lancastrian. The base of 
the Lancastrian is defined by Bisat at the entry of a new goniatite-fauna of Upper 
Carboniferous facies. The Yoredalian, therefore, as a time-division of the Lower 
Carboniferous automatically comes to an end at this level, in accordance with the 
generally-received rule that a younger flora or fauna determines a younger formation. 
This delimitation is supported by the evidence, found in places, of unconformity 
at the base of the Lancastrian. Whether the Yoredale facies of deposition (as 
against the Yoredale period) has persisted into Lancastrian time in Scotland remains 
to be proved. Should the proof be forthcoming, the demarcation must be reconsidered, 
as the deposits of Yoredale facies of Scotland also are separated in places from the beds 
above by an unconformity. 

Sub-Report II. 

(W.S. B., W.B.W., J.W.S., L.H.T., D. P.) 

The undersigned, having freely discussed among ourselves and with the Secretary, 
the matters dealt with in this Report, and having, in order to obtain general agreement, 
accepted much that appeared to us undesirable, have found it at length necessary to 
take exception to the character of the recommendations made. 

The Report deals almost exclusively with the coral-brachiopod faunal phase of 
the Carboniferous, and even after extensive modifications still clearly seeks to establish 
this phase as the standard by which the time-divisions of the period are to be defined, 
and to which the other phases, such as the Culm or Goniatite phase, are to be referred. 
This is apparent in the failure to obtain agreement in the use of the zone ' P ' in the 
significance originally attached to it by Vaughan, and recently more accurately 
delimited by one of us in terms of a clear-cut and well-defined fauna. The main reason 
given for its non-recognition by the Committee is that it has been inaccurately and 
wrongly used by a number of workers on the coral-brachiopod faunas. ' P ' is, however, 
essentially a Culm zone, and the workers on the Culm faunas naturally claim the right 
to use it, and even re-define it, if they think the procedure is sound. The use and re- 
definition of it is as justifiable as the use and re-definition of ' D ' recommended in 
the Report, to which we have agreed as a time-division of the coral-brachiopod phase. 
It appears to us to be more capable of accurate definition and to be traceable over a 
wider area than the zone ' D ' and its subdivisions, and much more so than the 
succeeding coral-brachiopod zone ' 0,' suggested by the Committee and accepted by 
us as a subdivision of that phase in the North-West Province. 

It is true that in the body of the Report the necessity for ' two parallel and con- 
temporaneous sets of zones, the one set based on the standard limestone fauna, and 



264 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE, ETC. 

the other on the goniatites,' is recognised, but the Report certainly does not make clear 
the necessity for the use of a separate series of symbols for time-divisions in the gonia- 
tite sequence. We feel that there is a subcurrent of opinion running throughout 
workers on the coral-brachiopod phase that the major divisions of that phase should be 
used as time-divisions in the division of the Culm. For instance, the suggestion is 
made that ' D 3P ' should indicate a goniatite phase of ' D 3 ' age. Such a term no 
doubt would be useful to workers on the Yoredale beds, but it has little significance 
when applied to the Culm. The division next above. ' D fl ,' namely ' O,' would obviously 
be hopeless as a time-division of the Culm, and even in the typical Yoredalian no real 
attempt has as yet been made to define its boundaries in faunal terms. 

The Culm phase which had been long dominant in Germany and parts of England 
(Devon and Craven) became far more widespread in the famous Posidonomya zone, 
now defined in terms of its goniatite succession and, following Vaughan and Mat-ley, 
designated shortly as ' P.' By this symbol it is now well known to geologists both in 
the Old and New Worlds. We greatly regret, therefore, that certain workers on the 
corals and brachiopods should deprecate the use of this term as a time-division. As 
far as they are concerned, restricted as their activities are to those narrow areas in 
which corals existed up to the end of the Lower Carboniferous, undoubtedly the 
term is unnecessary and need not be used, but to the ever-increasing number of 
workers on the great Culm phase, both in these islands and abroad, the symbol 
connotes a very definite faunal division, and we feel that any attempt to cast doubt 
on the propriety of its use is ill-advised. We feel therefore that the Committee 
ought to accept the definition of ' P ' in terms of the goniatite fauna given in the 
Proc. Y.O.S., vol. xx., pt. I., 1924, and recommend its use to workers. 

Having very strongly expressed our views to the effect that we considered all 
correlation to be outside the function of this Committee, we have finally agreed, on the 
advice of the Chairman, to the introduction of certain tables which might lead to 
clearness in following the Report. We think, however, that to lead readers to regard 
them as in any way backed by the authority of the Committee would be undesirable, 
since correlation can only be based upon an appeal to faunas, and the faunas are only 
very partially and inadequately stated in the tables. 

We have urged upon the Committee the desirability of defining the zones in terms 
of faunal lists included in the Report, and were prepared to supply such lists for the 
Culm phase. We understand, however, that there are difficulties in the way of this 
procedure in the case of the coral-brachiopod phase, the faunas being either too ill- 
defined or composed of undescribed forms. Such clear-cut definition would have 
aided greatly in the comparison of the two phases and in the interpretation of mixed 
phases. The absence of such definitions in the coral-brachiopod phase was largely the 
cause of the confusion which this Committee was set up to rectify, and if confusion is 
to be avoided in the future, in our opinion much greater precision in the definition of 
coral zones will be required. 



Parthenogenesis.— Report of Committee (Prof. A. Meek, Chairman ; 
Mr. A. D. Peacock, Secretary ; Dr. J. W. Heslop Harrison and 
Mr. K. Bagnall.) 

Further work on parthenogenesis in saw-flies and moths is reported as follows : 

The species Thrinax mixta,Kl.,andThrinax macula, Kl. — To throw fight on various 
aspects of sex and parthenogenesis, preliminary attempts have been made to cross 
these two species, but, so far, without success. The amount of macula material has 
been smaller than anticipated owing to heavy parasitisation, but the experiments 
do seem to indicate that hybridisation can be induced. 

Incidentally, further morphological and biological observations have been made. 
The former comprise detailed studies of the larva of mixta, the adult macula and the 
external and internal genitalia of mixta ; the latter relate to the burrowing habits of 
mixta, sex ratio in mixta, and parasitism by ichneumons. 

Papers on the above are in preparation. 

Continuous thelytokous parthenogenetic reproduction in Allantus (Emphytus) pallipes, 
Spin., and Pristiphora pallipes, Lep. — This is the fifth consecutive season for partheno- 
genetic strains of these species. Strains of the former have reproduced for nine 
successive generations, and of the latter for thirteen, without resort to sexual methods. 



ON PARTHENOGENESIS ANTISERA. 205 

No weakening of the strains is perceptible. The former has never yet yielded a male 
among some 1200 specimens reared. 

Sexuality of Pristiphora pallipes, Lep. — In all, about 900 specimens have been bred, 
all females except eight males and two sexual abnormalities. All the males, except 
one, and one abnormality, were produced under circumstances which make it 
impossible to state decisively whether they were experimental products or not. 
Studies in the sexuality of these rare males continue, and the evidence is strongly in 
favour of the view that the species has developed parthenogenesis to such a degree 
that the males have become superfluous and dispensable, despite the fact that micro- 
scopic investigation shows that the insects produce spermatozoa. A paper is in 
preparation. 

Morphological work on the genitalia of both sexes and of the second abnormality — 
a gynandromorph with external genitalia pertaining to both sexes— is well forward 
for publication. 

Numerous sex-change experiments by the following method have given negative 
results this season. The eggs laid and reared in an incubator at a temperature of 
30° C. have consistently yielded females up to now. (Cf. results cited in previous 
Report for year 1924 at Toronto.) 

Pteronidea (Nematus) ribesii, Scop. — A detailed study of a gynandromorph 
obtained in breeding experiments has been written up for publication in the July 
number of the British Journal of Experimental Biology. This specimen, externally, 
was predominantly female whilst, internally, it was genetically male. It produced 
spermatozoa, attempted to pair as a male, and was itself inseminated by a male. 
The paper also devotes special attention to sexuality in the saw-flies. 

The germ cells of the gynandromorph also afford material for cytological study, 
and this is being pursued pari passu with investigations into the cytological conditions 
of normal specimens from the late Professor L. Doncaster's and the Secretary's own 
material. 

Parthenogenesis in Lepidoptera. — The following papers have been completed : 

1. Animal Parthenogenesis in relation to Chromosomes and Species. American 
Naturalist, Vol. LIX., No. 662, May-June, 1925. This paper arose out of the Secretary's 
contribution to a symposium between Sections D and K at the Toronto meeting of 
the Association. 

2. In collaboration with Dr. J. W. H. Harrison. On Parthenogenesis originating 
in Lepidopterous Crosses. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne (in the press). 

In both these papers the results attending certain hybridisation experiments, by 
Dr. J.W.H. Harrison, with the two moths, Tephrosia bistortata, Goeze, and T. crepus- 
cularia, Bkh., are recounted and discussed from various aspects. The crossings have 
resulted in an Fl hybrid which, by parthenogenesis, yields F2 offspring which 
demonstrate segregation in wing colour and pattern and in sex. The first paper 
suggests how such parthenogenesis and segregation could give rise to new forms, and 
the second claims to present the first definite proofs of how hybridisation may originate 
parthenogenesis. Further work is in progress. 



Pre-natal Influence of Anti-sera on the Eye-lens of Rabbits. 

— Preliminary Report of Committee (Prof. W. J. Dakin, Chairman ; 
Mr. J. T. Cunningham, Secretary ; Prof. D. M. S. Watson). Drawn 
up by the Secretary. 

In September 1924 I had obtained four young albino rabbits — two males and two 
females — and also one doe which was white but not a perfect albino, having some sooty 
colour on the snout and ears. Although several trials were made.no copulation occurred 
between these rabbits until February 4, 1925, when one of the does, Albino No. 1, was 
found to be in heat and was successfully mated. This doe was not injected or made the 
subject of any experiment, but simply allowed to produce young as a control, to see 
if the young were normal with regard to the eyes and in other respects. It is usually 
stated in the practical breeders' books that the period of gestation in domesticated 
rabbits is thirty days, and it is stated by biologists that ovulation and fertilisation take 
place immediately after coition. This doe, however, had no young on the morning of 
March 6 when the period of thirty days from mating was completed. She had a nest 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

with young in it on March 9, but I was unable to decide from the reports of those who 
fed and tended the animals, exactly at what time between the morning of March 7 and 
that of March 9 the young were born. On March 10 one of the young was found dead 
with the legs eaten off in the outer compartment of the hutch. Subsequently I found 
there were three young surviving, all normal in every respect, completely albino, 
and with perfect eyes. 

The second albino doe was mated with one of the bucks on March 3. 

Injections of pulped lenses were made into hens as follows : 

February 10. — Two lenses from half -grown rabbit pounded up in mortar, made up 
to 10 c.c. with salt solution, 2.5 c.c. injected into each of four hens : into peritoneal 
cavity behind tip of sternum. 

February 17. — Second injection as before. 

February 24. — Third injection as before. 

March 3. — Fourth injection as before. 

March lO.r— One of the hens had died. Injected remaining three fifth time, and a 
new white hen first time. 

March 19. — Injected two new hens first time, one white hen second time, one 
black hen sixth time. Used four lenses from two very young rabbits. 

Albino $ No. 2 was injected with serum from blood of the injected hens as follows : 

Took the blood from one of the injected hens by the method described by Guyer 
and Smith. Anaesthetised the hen with ether, then plucked the feathers from the neck, 
washed the skin with spirit, cut through the skin, then through the gullet and trachea, 
and turned these back ; then with large scissors cut through the neck, and passed the 
latter quickly into a small cylindrical jar to collect the blood. 

Subsequently, in taking the blood from other hens, I omitted to cut through the 
gullet and trachea, merely turning these tubes back with the head when the latter was 
severed from the neck, and thus avoiding all risk of contaminating the blood collected 
with septic matter from the gullet or trachea. 

The blood was left in an ice-chest till next day, then centrifuged and the serum 
poured off. 

March 13. — 5 c.c. serum from injected hen injected into marginal vein of ear of 
pregnant female Albino No. 2. 

March 16. — 4 c.c. of serum from same blood injected. Rabbit showed distinct 
reaction, in quickened respiration and heart-beat, for about half an hour, when it had 
become nearly normal again. 

March 18. — 5 c.c. serum from blood of another hen injected. 

March 19. — About 5 c.c. serum from same blood injected. 

March 21. — The blood of another hen had been left twenty-four hours in the ice- 
chest without ice ; the clot was much contracted, and a quantity of clear serum 
separated. I injected 7 c.c. of this serum into ear of pregnant rabbit. 

March 23. — Centrifuged remainder of last lot of blood and injected 6 c.c. serum 
with some added salt solution into same rabbit. Had some difficulty in passing the 
blood. 

On March 24 the rabbit was not quite well, the ear into which the injection was 
made was somewhat swollen. She afterwards recovered. 

This rabbit, Albino No. 2, gave birth to a litter of young on the night of April 3-4. 
She was mated in the afternoon of Tuesday, March 3. Birth took place, therefore, 
31i days from mating, not thirty days, which is usually given as the period of gestation. 
The number of young was afterwards found to be six, and they were all carefully 
examined as soon as their eyes were open, which was on the eleventh day after birth. 
No abnormality could be detected in the eyes of any of them. 

Another experiment of the same kind was made with the third doe, which had 
colour on snout and ears. She was mated on April 9, and the same routine was followed 
as with Albino No. 2. There is no need to give details, as although the mating was 
complete, no young were produced. Either fertilisation failed or abortion occurred, 
but no signs of abortion or prematurely born young were ever discovered in the hutch 
in which she was kept. 

At the beginning of May I was obliged to abandon the experiments for a time on 
account of an attack of iritis. While I was absent, Doe No. 3 died. On June 15 I was 
able to resume the work, and began to prepare more hens to supply serum to be in- 
jected into Albino No. 1, which produced a Utter previously, as mentioned above, 
without being injected. This experiment is now proceeding, and others will follow. 

An account of the expenditure of the grant of £20 will be sent later, and it is 



ON ANTI-SERA— COST OF CYCLING, ETC. 



207 



requested that any unexpended balance may be retained to defray the cost of the 
continued experiments. 

It is proposed to publish a fuller account of the experiments with full details in 
some publication not yet decided upon. 

The experiments have been carried out in the Physiological Department of the 
London Hospital Medical College, by the kind permission of Prof. Roaf, the head of 
that Department. I desire to thank Prof. Roaf very cordially for his sympathetic 
interest in the work, and for giving me all possible facilities. 



Cost of Cycling at Varied Rate and Work.— Re-port of Committee 
(Professor J. S. Macdonald, Chairman ; Dr. F. A. Duffield, Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

In last year's Report on the ' cost of cycling with varied rate and work,' a graph was 
published of the data obtained fron two persons performing mechanical work upon a 
stationary bicycle against a measured and variable brake. The abscissa represented 
the metabolic expenditure and the ordinates the external work done at the various 
levels, i.e. 0, "5, LO, l - 5, and 2-0 kalories per minute. The experimental points lay 
practically on a straightline as long as the rate remained the same ; but as three different 
rates were employed three lines were obtained for each subject. The relative 
position of the lines and their different slope in the two cases was such as to justify 
the statement that whereas the cost of mere movement was greater for the heavier 
subject, the cost of work done was actually less, and thus the efficiency of the heavier 
subject was greater. 

At the end of the Report a third subject was referred to, though not by name ; 
Prebble, whose results, although his body weight was only 46*7 kgm., were intermediate 
between those of McHugh and Harrison. We have therefore still to deal with the 
exceptional character of these data, and hope to obtain a further set of experiments 
from this individual, since this peculiarity makes the results' specially interesting. 

During the present year work has been done on another person, Wilson, also of 
light weight (45*5 kgm. stripped). The results from this man are of lower total meta- 
bolic cost than those of McHugh and^Harrison. :For the purposes^of ^comparison these 
are given here in graph form. 

Chart I. 



2 2 

vi 18 

I" 

* '« 

« M 

k ' ° 

0. -8 

* 6 

<t -4 

•2 




















,V<o"j/ 


























& 




















' a s /r 


<^ 


































4/8/25 








S/& 


<t 




















j® 


ff 


















S 


f^ 


P 


















































► 


















q/ 































































4 5 6 

METABOLtSM IN 



The experiments on Wilson were performed in precisely the same way as those of 
the other two, except that each point on the graph is the mean of three determinations 
in Wilson's case taken at intervals of 18, 23, and 28 minutes after the commencement 
of the cycling ; whereas in the other two sets of experiments only one determination 
was made, and that at 18 minutes after the start. The labour in carrying out 
this research has consequently been increased ; but the adoption of this procedure 



268 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



provides additional criteria for judging the accuracy of these complicated measure- 
ments. The graph drawn from the experimental results of these three individuals, 
McHugh, Harrison, and Wilson, represents the metabolic expenditure at the quick 
rate of movement only, where the figures are well separated one from another. At 
the slower rates they fall so closely together as to render charting difficult. 

Considering these three sets of results only, it is evident that the cost of movement 
is greater with the increased body- weight of the subject, and that efficiency is less with 
the subject of smaller weight. 1 The cost of movement is shown by the distance along 
the abscissa from the zero to the point where it is cut by the particular line, the 
efficiency by the slope of the lines. 

To obtain further information on the factor related to movement experiments were 
performed on the cycle now fitted with a crank, the length of which could be varied 

Chart II. 



21 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 

(j 14 
J 13 

% 

<C II 
DC 

*I0 

k 

S 9 

k 8 
o 

* 7 
i*l 

" 6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
I 







































o / 














• 












HARRISON 










3/8/25 









































































































































MET A BO LI'S M 



/% 



KALS. 



1-5 
p.m. 



20 



at will. The lengths employed were 20-32, 17 - 78, and 15-24 cms., and the rate selected 
was 62-5 revolutions a minute. 

The plotted results of these experiments are such as to indicate that the efficiency 
as shown by the slope of the lines is not very greatly affected, if at all, but the cost of 
movement is considerably greater the greater the length of the crank and the greater 
therefore the degree of angular movement. 

The nature of this modification in the cost of movement is well shown in the 
results of those experiments in which with different lengths of crank no work was done 
on the brake. Further holes were bored in the crank so as to permit measurements 



! T. S. Macdonald, Proc. Roy. Soc., B. 89, 403, 1916. 



ON COST OF CYCLING, ETC.— VOCATIONAL TESTS. •_><;<) 

of the metabolism to be made with greater variations of the crank, i.e. with lengths of 
12-7 and 10-16 cms. in addition to those given above. The results of these are tabulated 
below. 



Length of crank 


Metabolism in Kals. p.m. 
average of three determinations 


1 20-32 

2 17-78 

3 15-24 

4 12-70 

5 10-16 


2-076 
1-869* 
1-745 
1-596 

1-422 



* Only one determination available. 

From these figures clearly the metabolic expenditure for mere movement varies 
directly with the length of the crank. On p. 268 is given a graphic representation of 
this, in which the abscissa is the metabolism in kalories per minute and the ordinates 
the length of the crank in cms. 



Vocational Tests. — Report of Committee (Dr. C. 8. Myers, Chairman ; 
Dr. G. H. Miles, Secretary ; Prof. C. Burt, Prof. T. H. Pear, 
Mr. F. Watts, Dr. Lx. Wynn Jones). 

The following is a brief account of the present position of Vocational Testing. 

Vocational Testing has developed in two main directions, and is the practical 
outcome of the fact that certain psychological tests, when applied by trained observers, 
are capable of bringing to light and evaluating individual mental differences. 

The information obtained from such tests is utilised when giving Vocational 
Guidance to those who need help in the choice of an occupation. 

It is also possible to study an occupation and devise psychological tests which, 
when applied to candidates, will give information as to their degree of suitability for 
that occupation. Such tests are being used to supplement the work of Vocational 
Selection. 

In America children are given information concerning the vocational possibilities 
in industrial, commercial and professional life, details of the careers are given, and they 
are helped in making their own choice. Advice in choosing a High School Curriculum 
is also given with the same object in view. A psychological examination is being 
increasingly used. 

On the Continent more attention is given to the exploration of the children's 
mental and physical abilities. For this purpose various tests, based on laboratory 
tests, have been designed, and the results obtained are used to supplement other 
information concerning the child. Many additional facts can be derived from these 
results, but unless the requirements in the various available occupations have been 
similarly estimated, this method has but little in favour of it, for the older methods 
of guidance have shown how much is dependent on the accuracy of the counsellor's 
knowledge concerning the various occupations. Numerous vocational bureaus have 
therefore made classifications of occupations from the point of view of estimated 
requirements. In some districts this classification is carried a step further by actual 
surveys, carried out by psychologists, of the mental requirements of the industries 
and occupations. This is undoubtedly an advance on the armchair analysis, though 
the latter is, of course, helpful as a preliminary step and gives a definite line for 
action. 

Closely allied to the work of guidance is that of vocational selection, and this is 
giving great help by defining more exactly the requirements of a number of occupa- 
tions and in rendering available numerous tests by which candidates can be selected 
for these occupations. In America many firms have standardised psychological 
tests for their new employees. In Germany, for instance, large firms such as Osram, 
A. E.G., Siemens, Krupps, and also the Post Office and the State Railways, have 
established psychological laboratories in which their new employees are tested before 
being allocated to various branches of the firm's activities. 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

In this country a number of large firms, with assistance from the National Institute 
of Industrial Psychology, have also instituted definite psychological tests for their 
employees. The exact information gained from such vocational tests will in time 
be a valuable supplement to the more general work of analysis which is being carried 
out for the purpose of vocational guidance. 

In the work of vocational guidance the problem is much wider than in the case of 
vocational selection. Children of various types and descriptions apply for advice, 
and the problems are as varied as the types. The field of enquiry is in part deter- 
mined by the type, e.g. Primary, Secondary, or University ; moreover, it is at present 
only imperfectly surveyed. There is a further difficulty, that the requirements 
of the vacancies available are vaguely defined, and closer acquaintance with the 
problems shows that they are frequently limited in number, so that it may well happen 
that in examining a group of children a number may be found who are fitted, say, 
for occupations requiring considerable manual dexterity and a fairly high level of 
intelligence, whereas economic conditions are such that only a limited field is open 
for such children. It is therefore necessary to discover rather the general trend of a 
child's abilities : and in the same way, after making an analysis of the requirements 
of the occupations available, it is important that these should be classified in groups 
which require allied abilities. It is as yet too early in this work, and it is doubtful 
if it will ever be possible (or desirable) to fit every square peg into the exactly corre- 
sponding square hole ; but from experience in this and in other countries, guidance 
based on the use of suitable tests, though admittedly imperfect, can reduce the number 
and extent of misfits very considerably, and the part thus played by psychology is 
growing in importance. 

In order to define the position of psychological tests, in schemes of vocational 
guidance and selection it is important to realise that the school records give only 
one side of a child's mental or physical activities. The records are obtained under 
conditions very different from those obtaining in the outside world, and their value 
must be estimated accordingly. In the same way a teacher's estimate of a child's 
ability is only valid within his sphere of observation ; similarly with the estimates 
of parents and guardians. The medical examination can give help mainly in deter- 
mining for what occupations a child is not fitted. In this sphere there is an enormous 
ground to be covered before valid positive information can be obtained. Psychology 
can help in forming a truer estimate of the value of the children's own wishes and 
inclinations in determining a choice of occupations, and it can survey more completely 
and exactly than any other method the child's mental and physical activities. Psycho- 
logical tests can be applied which will ascertain, for instance, his level of intelligence, 
measure his manual dexterity, and to a certain extent estimate his temperamental 
qualities. This information is, however, of little use unless the extent to which these 
qualities are required in every- day occupations has also been determined, and this 
implies a careful analysis of the requirements of the occupations and a classification 
of those requiring allied ability. When such information is available, reliable advice 
can be given. 

With the rapid development in this work that has taken place during the last 
few years, there has arisen a demand for persons who have received training in the 
methods of devising, applying and evaluating suitable tests, and a number of bureaus 
have organised training courses for those who wish to take up this work. 

In nearly every country of the world 1 the work of developing vocational tests is 
proceeding rapidly, and it is felt that in order that workers in this country may keep 
abreast of the developments here and abroad, full information should be available 
concerning : — 

i. Vocational tests that have proved of value in practical use. 
ii. Research work that has a direct bearing on the development of vocational 
tests. 

In order to do this satisfactorily it will be necessary to get in direct touch with all 
organisations carrying out this work and to obtain, wherever possible, copies of the 
tests, accurate descriptions, drawings and illustrations of apparatus used, etc. 

A request is therefore made for a grant of 20L to cover part of the expenses incurred 
in this work. 

1 For accounts and references see Industrial Fatigue Research Board Report, No. 16 ; 
Journal of the National Institute of Industrial Psychology, vol. i. Nos. 1-6, vol. ii. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 5 ; International Labour Review, vol. xi. No. 4. 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIEE. 271 



Educational Training for Overseas Life. — Report of Committee 
appointed to consider the Educational Training of Boys and Girls in 
Secondary Schools for Overseas Life (Rev. Dr. H. B. Gray, Chairman ; 
Mr. C. E. Browne, Secretary ; Major A. G. Church, Mr. T. S. 
Dymond, Dr. Vargas Eyre, Mr. G. H. Garrad, Sir Richard 
Gregory, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Miss McLean, Miss Rita Oldham, 
Mr. G. W. Olive, Sir John Russell, Rev. Canon H. Sewell, 
Mr. A. A. Somerville, Mrs. Gordon Wilson). 

In 1923 a committee was appointed by the Association to consider the educational 
training of boys and girls in secondary schools for life overseas. A report on the 
result of an inquiry conducted by this committee was presented at the meeting 
last year in Toronto. It reviewed the provision made in secondary schools of England 
and Wales for developing a boy's natural bias towards life on the land, or for giving 
girls some practical training in those modern operations which are associated with 
farm life ; and, further, it dealt with the present state of public opinion on the subject 
from the point of view of the parent, the headmaster, the local educational authority, 
overseas settlement societies and educational authorities in the Dominions them- 
selves. 

(Copies of this report can be had from the Secretary, British Association, Burling- 
ton House, W.l, price (id.) 

The committee summarised at the end of the report certain conclusions based 
on the information they had received. These conclusions are, for convenience, 
restated here : — 

1. A demand exists on the part of the Overseas Dominions for boys of the right 
type with an agricultural bias, if not with training, and coincides with the home 
country's need of finding healthy employment within the Empire for a large number 
of her sons. 

2. The public schools and other large secondary schools of Great Britain send into 
the world every year a considerable number of boys of the right type who love wide 
open spaces, and dislike intensely the over-crowded city life. 

3. There has been no serious attempt in the majority of schools to meet this 
demand. Schools hitherto have provided only three avenues — literary, mathematical, 
and scientific — in some places only two. While this is sufficient for many boys, it 
does not provide for the most practical type, so that numbers find no outlet for their 
natural ability in that spirit of enterprise and adventure which Dominion life offers. 
They lack necessary guidance and experience. 

4. The undoubted value of agriculture as an educational instrument has been 
overlooked in the past. Some British schools have made the experiment of addin<* 
this new method for educating boys of the latter type. A school farm or science farm 
has been set up in the working of which boys take an active part. This farm provides 
material for working in other subjects, such as mathematics and general science ; 
it encourages reading for a definite purpose, the observation of natural phenomena, 
the keeping of records, and adds considerably to the appreciation of geography. 
Thus the school farm, when properly used, is a valuable means of education and 
appeals to boys on whom the older classical and mathematical methods make no 
impression. 

5. Experience shows that the school curriculum exercises an important influence 
in deciding a boy's career. The school farm would, therefore, bring to the notice of 
boys the possibilities of a career on the land. It would give them sufficient experience 
of what agriculture means, and so enable them to decide whether they are fitted or 
not for such a life. 

6. The extension of the experiment to other schools is not prevented by lack of 
land in many cases ; 50 per cent, of the schools have access to suitable land, but only 
9 per cent, use it. 

7. Development of a school curriculum in this practical direction for a section 
of a school needs encouragement because — (a) it is educational in a very wide sense ; 
(f>) Empire considerations demand it ; (c) little is being done officially either by the 
Board of Education or by the majority of Local Education Authorities. 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

8. There is need of some organisation to encourage overseas life, to link up the 
secondary schools with those societies which are able to look after the interests of the 
prospective emigrant. 

9. Whatever agricultural training a boy may receive at school, it should be em- 
phasised that the training is not technical such as is given in an agricultural college, 
and that it can be in no sense a substitute for a definite apprenticeship on a farm, 
whether in Great Britain or in one of the Overseas Dominions. 

10. Manual training as an educational instrument does not appear to receive the 
recognition it should in the majority of schools. Comparatively few have facilities 
for metalwork, and in the majority even woodwork is optional, and taken during 
out-of-school time, or, at most, in the lower forms only. 

In the present report the committee are able to present in more detail the work 
which is being attempted in certain schools of this country to arouse interest in farm 
life and in agricultural studies generally. In some cases, through the courtesy of 
the headmasters, the committee are able to give the syllabus of work followed and the 
time-tables of the classes affected (Section 5). 

Since the last report, additional information has been received from the various 
Overseas Dominions and this has been also incorporated (Section 6). Further con- 
sideration of the problems involved show that there are many practical difficulties 
in the way of a general adoption of agricultural studies even where plenty of land is 
available. These difficulties are briefly dealt with in Section 3. 

For urban schools, and in the absence of available land for experimental purposes, 
geography has strong claims to be treated as a useful substitute, and in any case 
affords a valuable means of opening the minds of boys and girls alike to the possi- 
bilities of life abroad within the Empire (see Section 4). 

Much misunderstanding of the claim of agriculture to be considered a proper 
study for schools arises from a misconception of its aim, method and content. The 
reasons for the inclusion of agriculture in the curriculum, and the interpretation to be 
given to the term Agricultural Studies as applied to schools, are briefly stated in Section 
1 and 2 below, leaving for a future report a more definite statement and explanation 
of their content and method. 

I. AGRICULTURAL STUDIES— THEIR AIM AND PLACE IN THE SCHOOL 

CURRICULUM. 

(1) A sound education is the thing that matters most for the intending emigrant 
as it does for everyone else. But no education is sound that does not provide some 
handwork, especially for those types of boys who can learn little through any other way. 

Food being the first essential of life, there seems to be excellent reason why some- 
thing about foodstuffs, their production and comparative value, should be studied in all 
schools. 

Land cultivation and stock rearing provide material for study of considerable 
educational value. They give a widened outlook and enlarge the scope of general 
science teaching. Agricultural studies when they are directly connected with practical 
work on a farm introduce to some boys' minds the only feature in the school curri- 
culum that can make them feel their work to be real and creative. They direct a 
boy's attention to the possibilities of a useful calling in life ; they tend to create a 
better understanding and a broader sympathy between town and country dweller. 
They can have great value as a factor in moral development, and in other ways be of 
definite national value. 

It may also be said that the early association with farm life and work, afforded 
by such training, is of considerable practical value, especially to those boys who 
choose farming overseas as their future career. 

(2) By agricultural studies is not meant ' teaching to farm.' To attempt that would 
be a fatal error. What is meant is the use of the farm or garden as a laboratory and 
workshop in the study of physics, chemistry and biology. The farm, and garden, 
and stock may be as necessary to science teaching as are the ordinary laboratories 
and their apparatus. It should be emphasised that whatever agricultural work 
a boy may do at school it must not be considered in any sense a substitute for a definite 
apprenticeship on a farm whether in Great Britain or in one of the Overseas Dominions. 
It should have a vocational outlook, but must not take the form of vocational training. 
Its purpose is educational. This outlook gives vision and reality to study ; creates 
interest and captures reason, but the educational purpose is to make use of the material 
for intellectual development, for growth of real understanding. 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 273 

The opinion held in the Overseas Dominions on the subject of agricultural studies 
in schools is in complete accord with these views. The following abstract is made 
from a memorandum to the Superintendent of Education for British Columbia from 
the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education for British Columbia : — 

' The study of agriculture is regarded as a valuable and almost essential part 
of a good, liberal education. Its interests are healthful, and its influence positive and 
beneficial. It calls out personal initiative and helps to develop self-reliance and 
resourcefulness. It gives new interests and new meaning to other science studies by 
affording innumerable examples of science applied. It affords one of the best avenues 
through which to approach the great biological secrets and mysteries of plant and 
animal propagation, and the laws of heredity. It develops certain skills incidental 
to scientific experimentation and to approved practices in farming and gardening. 
In all these aspects it is essentially and primarily educational and suitable alike to 
girls and boys, regardless of the particular vocation which each may ultimately choose. 
On the other hand, it may be of great value in setting up new standards, and new 
conceptions of the true nature and meaning of agriculture in the mind of these young 
people as a result of which they may be drawn to choose farming as an occupation. 
When such an educational and scientific basis has been laid for the farmer of the future 
the quality of our rural citizenship will advance, and not till then.' 

Mr. Frank Tate, Director of Education for Victoria, Australia, states that certain 
secondary schools have a special agricultural course : — 

' In these schools the boys carry on many of the farm operations but only to a 
small extent. It is mainly for educational purposes and not as a sufficient training 
in the actual handiwork. Undoubtedly this work has greatly improved the boys' 
attitude to the general work of the school, it has been an influence for good in their 
character, and has materially affected for good their after-school life. The reacting 
effect of the agricultural side upon the ordinary traditional subjects is great and 
satisfactory. Certainly I have never seen more energy and interest than was displayed 
by those boys and girls when observed at work. 

' In my opinion the courses of training in agriculture and in domestic arts have 
proved to be educational to a high degree.* 

The same ideas and principles are emphasised by the Superintendent of Secondary 
Education of South Australia (page 24), by the Under-Secretary to Department 
of Public Instruction, Brisbane, Queensland (page 23), and by the Director of Educa- 
tion for Saskatchewan (page 18). 

II. PRACTICAL WORK ON THE LAND. 

Practical work on the land is as necessary to any course of agricultural studies 
as practical work in the laboratory is to chemistry. It is necessary to emphasise 
this point, as there are signs in some quarters that agriculture may be adopted as a 
subject for the First School Certificate Examination, thus treating it as an entirely 
indoor study. Agriculture without practical work out-of-doors loses most of its 
educational value as a subject in the school curriculum. It is the contact with things, 
the study of things, not words, that in this case counts for so much. The opportunity 
afforded by a school farm or garden for bringing most of the science work into close 
relationship with reality is extraordinarily useful. Such work gives purpose and 
life: — 

(1) To the study of botany through the types of plants used for food or that 
occur as weeds ; 

(2) To the study of insect life — useful and injurious organisms that play such 
an important part in the cropping of the land ; 

(3) To the study of elementary physics and chemistry. 

School gardens can supply much of the material required in the early stages, but the 
principle of giving to older boys, say from 15 years upwards, the opportunity of study- 
ing animal life, and land cultivation on the larger scale afforded by farm conditions, 
has many claims for serious consideration. The development of the curriculum in a 
practical direction for at least a section of a school needs encouragement because 

(a) It is educational in a very wide sense, 
(6) Empire considerations demand it. 

Overseas opinion on the subject of practical work is much better informed and more 
advanced than in England, with the consequence that in the Overseas Dominions a 
considerable body of experience has been accumulated, which has led the way to 

192.1 T 



274 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

a definite adoption of practical work on the land wherever possible, for the urban school 
equally with the rural school. 

The Director of Education for Ontario in his annual report for 1920 says : — 
' Experimental work is not only far more attractive, but also just as surely 
educational. The boy who examines by the use of a spade the surface soil and sub- 
soil with a view towards understanding the water relations will acquire educational 
experience no less fundamental than the boy who analyses a complex sentence for 
grammatical relationships. 

' The boy who grows beans on his plot, and, after harvesting the crop, by means of 
scale and measures calculates the weight per bushel of the seed, will have completed 
a lesson hardly less important educationally than if he had memorised the chief 
facts involved in a chapter or two of the Norman Conquest.' 

Under the heading of ' The Essential Characteristics of the British Columbia System 
of Agricultural Education ' (see page 17), the Director expresses the same opinion 
and points out the fundamental importance of practical work. 

III. DIFFICULTIES IN THE WAY OF A GENERAL ADOPTION OF 
AGRICULTURAL STUDIES IN SCHOOLS. 

(1) It will perhaps be wise to state here that the adoption of agriculture for school 
purposes does not mean the addition of a new subject to an already overcrowded 
curriculum. It must either take the place of another subject, or else be adopted 
merely as a method of teaching those larger science subjects which are already part 
of the school work. In larger schools there is no reason why it should not be taken 
up as a process of gradual development by a section of the school ; just as some boys 
specialise in pure science, so others will be led to develop a bent towards agricultural 
science in particular as the natural outcome of the agricultural bias given to science 
work in the earlier stages of training. 

(2) In common with all new educational developments, the difficulty of introduc- 
tion lies in the comparative fewness of masters who possess the requisite qualifications. 
The slowness of adoption in the case of agricultural studies is due to the considerable 
number of headmasters who do not really understand what science is, nor possess 
sufficient freedom and independence to break away from the shackles of the traditional 
curriculum. A change in the attitude of the headmasters is a gradual process that 
requires time, though sympathy will accomplish much. But a suitable staff is the crux 
of the whole matter ; acceleration or retardation is dependent upon the degree to 
which this kind of work is made real and valuable educationally. A suitable teacher 
must have knowledge of agricultural conditions, he must be an enthusiast and a man 
of vision who can stir up the imagination and enthusiasm of boys and girls under his 
charge. To increase the supply of such men, Cambridge and other schools of agri- 
culture should be approached, and a scheme devised to turn out a larger number of 
school-teachers trained and qualified for this particular work. 

(3) The existing conditions of public examinations are a great stumbling-block, 
but, if a good case is made out, the First School Certificate Examination might be so 
modified as to fall in with any reasonable suggestions made. Much might be urged 
in the interest of the type of boy under consideration. Usually his great stumbling- 
block is Latin or the more advanced mathematics required for the certificate. School- 
masters are often well aware that he could never pass the standard required, and 
yet he is not allowed to substitute a practical subject in which he would excel, simply 
because there is no machinery for measuring the quality of such work. Yet as far 
as the boy's future is concerned it would be of incalculable value to him to have 
every opportunity of developing his natural gift. 

(4) The maintenance of efficiency in these agricultural studies may seem a diffi- 
culty. Work of such a practical type is not easily tested by examination. A fixed 
syllabus on which such an examination would be based limits the value of the work 
possible, limits elasticity and exercises a cramping effect. If, however, the school 
has an elastic syllabus of its own, certificates might be awarded by the school on 
the results of an annual examination of high standard. In order to satisfy the Local 
Education Authorities and other grant-awarding bodies, there can be inspection at 
any time during the year by a County Organiser in agriculture and by an Inspector 
of the Board of Education or of the Local Education Authority. 

(5) The financial difficulty is a serious consideration, and with many it might be 
a serious problem. For instruction in agricultural science within the school the cost 
is not prohibitive, yet establishment and running of a farm means a large drain on 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 



275 



a school's resources. But putting on one side the initial outlay on buildings, stock, 
and machinery, it should at least be possible to make the sale of produce from the 
farm and gardens balance the cost of labour and expenditure on manures, feeding- 
stuffs, and seeds. 

(6) The holiday difficulty is also a serious one. 

The necessarily intermittent character of the boys' work on a farm or agricultural 
holding makes it impossible to keep the land in a proper state of cultivation, and 
certainly makes it difficult to be up to date in sowings and harvesting without extra 
assistance. To attempt to depend on boy labour alone entails too much routine 
work and prevents the proper use of the time for experimental and educational 
work. It follows that outside labour must be employed, the amount, of course, 
depending upon the size of the holding. 

IV. GEOGRAPHICAL TEACHING. 

Geography may be made to play a very important part in the educational training 
of boys and girls for overseas life ; it may lead to desire to emigrate, and in schools 
where practical work on the land is impossible may form a background for much 
science work. The lack of knowledge in the average parent of the conditions of life 
in the Overseas Dominions is partly responsible for the fact that comparatively few 
boys and girls from our secondary schools emigrate. This could be partially remedied 
if the geographical work at various stages dealt with topics concerning life overseas. 
A detailed study of the resources, occupations, produce, markets, social and economic 
condition of the British Empire would materially assist in awakening an interest in 
the subject, and not improbably lead to a desire to go abroad. ' 

V. AGRICULTURE IN SCHOOLS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 
The following particulars of agricultural studies pursued in certain secondary 
schools of England and Wales have been supplied through the courtesy of the head- 
masters. There are at least 25 such schools, including six ' public schools,' which have 
adopted a course in agriculture for some of their boys. In most cases there is no actual 
field work, or cultural operations by the boys, and few schools have the means for 
dealing with stock of any kind. (The numeral after the name indicates the number of 
boys in the school.) 

1. At Eton a course of study for a small number of bo}'s about 17-18 has recently 
been arranged which makes agriculture the chief subject. A laboratory and a plot 
of land have been set apart for this — field work is limited largely by lack of time. 

2. At Harrow there is an agricultural division which studies the theory of agriculture 
and does laboratory work on soils, crops, weeds, agricultural chemistry and drainage, 
but there is no organised field work. 

3. At Oundle (560) about 120 boys of the Fourth and Fifth Forms study biology 
with an agricultural bias. There is a farm of 50 acres attached to the school, worked 
by a staff of 22 men and boys. Cultural operations on the farm are not carried out by 
the boys of the school, but visits to the farm and gardens are made for observational 
purposes in connection with the science work. The stock on the farm consists of 
horses, pigs, and poultry, but the boys take no active part in the rearing or feeding. 

The following is a time-table for the Agricultural Form : — 



Period 


Monday 


Tuesday 


Wednesday 


Thursday 


Friday 


Saturday 


1. 


Scripture. 


Applied 
Biology. 


Agric. 
History. 


French. 


Biology. 


Agric. 


2. 


[ Maths. 


Agric. 
Physics. 


Applied 

Biology or 

farm. 


Applied 

Biology or 

farm. 


Maths. 


French. 


4. 


Surveying 
or Geology. 


Agric. 
Chemistry. 


Agric. 
Chemistry. 


Applied 

Biology or 

farm. 


Agric. 
Chemistry. 


Biology. 


5. 


French. 


— 


Freuch. 


— 


Surveying 
& Geology. 


— 


6. 


Maths. 


— 


Maths. 


~ 


Maths. 


— 














T 2 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Two periods in school and one period in preparation are given to biology. Average 
age of these boys 15J. In the Science Sixth Form physics and chemistry are studied 
with an agricultural bias. 

4. At Repton there is a Land Science Class which omits a second foreign language 
and devotes the time thus liberated to a course of science, underlying the practice of 
farming and land management. This course consists of lectures, laboratory work, and 
visits to neighbouring farms. 

5. At Sherborne agriculture is taken as an alternative to Latin by a small class, but 
outdoor work is confined to visiting neighbouring farms. 

6. At Leeds Boys' 1 Modern School (558) about five or six boys not up to certificate 
standard (15 to 16 years of age) are sent every term for three hours every Friday 
afternoon to the Shadwell Industrial School Farm, where they get an all-round train- 
ing in agriculture, and tend horses, cows and pigs. 

7. Of the smaller secondary schools mentioned in last year's report as including 
agriculture in their curriculum the majority do so either in the form of a rural science 
course or as a subject for the General School Certificate. In some cases, such as at 
Brewood (55), Paston (174), Shepton Mallet (90), Stamford (240), Hawarden (200), 
and Wem Grammar School, their experimental plots are used for the study of plants, 
manurial tests, etc. Usually any outdoor work is done in the Third or Fourth Form 
(14-15 years of age), and no outdoor work is done in the classes taking the certificate 
examination. In several cases neighbouring farms are visited, but only for obser- 
vational work. In one case it is stated that practical work in agriculture is deprecated 
by the Board of Education. 

• 8. At Hanley Castle (95-100) practically the whole school (excluding the lowest 
form) is agriculturally organised, so that, although only a small piece of land of three- 
quarters of an acre is available, all take part in land-cultural operations. The course 
includes the growth of farm crops under rotation, limited trials of various artificial 
manures, and varieties of crops, fruit culture, pruning, grafting, and budding. With 
1 J hours for outdoor work, 1 J hours for plant biology, and 2 J hours for rural science per 
week per form, the groundwork of the agricultural science syllabus of the Cambridge 
SohoolCertificate is fully covered — all candidates taking this subject in the examination. 
Nature study is taken up by the two lower forms 1 J hours per week, the syllabus being 
a study of the common animals and plants. In rural science practical work in the 
laboratories includes easy soil tests, examination, etc., of artificial manures, milk, 
common animal foods, and a groundwork of elementary physics and chemistry. Land- 
surveying classes are held each summer term ; the course includes the use of chain 
survey, plane table, prismatic compass, etc. 

The effect on the certificate examination, the Headmaster says, is this — that boys 
who become really good at agricultural science are unable to obtain any proficiency in 
French, arid consequently when they attempt the examination they are, much to their 
disappointment, already foredoomed. 

9. At Knaresborough Rural Secondary School for Boys (120) and girls (84) the 
curriculum is designed with a two-fold aim : — 

(1) To permit the general school certificate to be taken by the Upper Fifth. 

(2) To provide an education of a special rural character. 

French is an optional subject and is taken by practically all pupils. Boys and girls 
are taught together in the majority of subjects, but boys take woodwork, surveying, 
gardening, and additional physics, whilst the girls take housecraft. Nature study and 
botany are taken in the lower part of the school (Second and Third Forms), accom- 
panied by outdoor work for the following syllabus : — 

Proper and improper use of garden tools. Preparation of land for seeds. Contrast 
between well -cultivated and badly cultivated plots. Sowing of seeds, depth of sowing, 
time of sowing, thinning. Distance between plants, transplanting, cultivation of 
various crops in individual plots, observation on birds, insects seen in the plots, etc. 

No text-books are used, but observations and experiments are recorded and written 
by each pupil. Little cultural work on the plots is done in the upper forms ; mainly 
observational work and demonstrations form the practical part of the agricultural 
syllabus followed in Forms IV and V. Form IVa attends ajlecture and demonstration 
each week on bee-keeping and Form IVb a lecture on poultry -keeping. 

A more detailed description of the organisation of this school is given in the 
educational pamphlet No. 29, published by the Board of Education, 1915. 

10. At Friends' 1 School, Great Ayton (111 boys, 63 girls), the Third Form do two 
periods of nature study per week. The whole of the Lower IV are allotted three 






ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 277 

separate •lO-ininute periods per week for science introductory to agriculture, viz. 
geology and biology, and for gardening. Specialisation commences in Upper IV, the 
agricultural pupils being taught agriculture, botany, surveying, book-keeping, general 
science, and gardening, whilst the rest of the form are taking French and science. The 
agricultural pupils in Lower V (preparing for Oxford Junior) work with the form 
except for French, during which time they do agriculture, botany and gardening. Those 
in the Upper V (preparing for the school certificate) do agriculture, botany, book- 
keeping, and science, while the rest of the form do French and science. About two-fifths 
of the boys in these upper forms take the subject. The Delegates of the Oxford Local 
Examination agreed to offer a special school certificate for those taking agriculture 
identical with the ordinary certificate, except that the requirement that a candidate 
should have passed Grade II is waived ; in other words, these boys need not offer a 
foreign language. This arrangement is to be regarded as an experiment. The Secondary 
School Examinations Council has been approached, but recognition has not been 
obtained from the Board of Education, although the Secretary of the Delegates is 
prepared at any time to write on behalf of the holders of such a certificate to the 
authorities of any Agricultural College, stating the conditions on which the certificate 
is granted. 

Practical agriculture is studied on farms by each form for two hours weekly. Each 
form has one period per week for gardening. The agricultural boys of the Fifth 
Form have two periods for wood-work and metal-work ; those in the higher form take 
metal-work as a hobby in spare time. 

The boys take turns in attending to poultry and milk records. 

11. County School, Welshpool (105). This school adopts much the same curriculum 
as that at Great Ayton — the rural bias, an agricultural atmosphere being strongly 
developed. The lower forms take nature study, and then at about 14J to 15 years boys 
may choose agriculture instead of Latin ; otherwise they follow the same general 
curriculum. 

A very complete account of the work done at this school, with details of syllabus of 
agricultural and science work, is given in a pamphlet published by the Welsh Depart- 
ment of the Board of Education under the title of ' The Experiment in Rural Secondary 
Education at Welshpool County School for Boys,' 1920, price 2/6 net. In the prefatory 
note it is claimed ' the experiment proved that a strong bias towards the industries 
of the neighbourhood of the school and a thoroughly efficient course of general education 
are not only consistent with but helpful to each other.' 

The Headmaster writes : ' What we are trying here to do is to give every boy a 
chance of having his eyes opened to what is around him, and training him through his 
environment and cultivation of his powers of observation. It is remarkable how boys 
who have little literary bent respond to this rural work.' 

He also refers to the same trouble that the Headmaster of Great Ayton has found 
respecting the foreign language difficulty with some boys. In 1920 they were allowed 
to offer six subjects at the certificate examination when not offering a subject of 
Group II, i.e. a foreign language, but since the appearance of the Regulations of 
the Examinations Council such a pupil has no longer an option in this respect. The 
agricultural candidate has a much bigger range of science subjects than the ordinary 
pupil who takes — say : 

(1) English Language and Literature. (4) Mathematics. 

(2) History. (5) Geography. 

(3) Latin or French. (6) Chemistry. 

The agricultural pupil would take, in addition to the above, botany and agriculture. 

12. At Sexey's School, Blackford,Somerset, the boys take a general secondary school 
course in which are included physics, chemistry, and botany. The majority on reaching 
the Fifth Form are expected to take the school certificate examination, but a few may 
choose in the form below to join the Farm Vocational Course. These, about eight in 
number, work then to a special time-table, spending about eight hours in practical 
work on a farm of 20 acres and five hours on agricultural science in the laboratory. 

FARM VOCATIONAL COURSE. 

The work done in agricultural subjects is divided into a two years' course, these 
subjects being so arranged as to enable a pupil to take up the work at the commence- 
ment of any year. 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

While the pupils are taught practical work, great care is taken to prevent the course 
from losing its educational character. The pupils are given practice in the usual 
manual operations, but are not expected to take the place of workmen on the farm. 
It is to be understood that the same teaching staff is used for the farm course as for 
the ordinary school work. Details of the Agricultural Course : — 

(1) Agricultural Science : Soils, crops, rotations, manures and manuring, live 
stock, dairying, poultry-keeping, bee-keeping, laboratory work where possible. 

(2) Practical Work : Butter-making, cheese-making, milking, milk-testing, poultry 
management, bee-keeping, feeding and care of stock in general, field operations. 

(3) Horticulture : Common garden crops and their cultivation, orchard manage- 
ment, varieties of fruit, practical work in planting, pruning, spraying, etc. 

(4) Zoology : 

(a) Anatomy and physiology of farm animals, including dentition, simple 

first-aid, etc. 

(b) Economic zoology — insect pests of animals and crops. 

(5) Botany : 

(a) General botany, with special reference to plants of agricultural importance. 
(6) Special study of grasses. 

(c) Economic botany — fungoid diseases of plants. 

(6) Book-keeping and commercial correspondence. 

(7) Arithmetic, mensuration, and simple surveying. 

(8) English— literature and composition. 

(9) Drawing — art. 

(10) Woodwork (practical), including simple repairs as they become necessary 
on the farm. 

(11) Woodwork drawing and scale drawing. 

(12) General science, including elementary electricity and mechanics. 

13. At Bedales (180). — Outdoor manual work is considered from the educational 
point of view an essential part of school training for all pupils, as well as fitting some 
for a particular career. 

The greater part of two afternoons a week is given to such work throughout the 
school, and more is arranged for those who choose this line at the age of 15-16, when 
choice is allowed. 

In brief, the work consists of : (a) Workshop and out-of-door work — levelling, 
care of playing-fields, gardens, road-making, etc. ; (b) Farm work — haymaking, 
potato-digging, etc., according to season as required ; (c) General farm -work for those 
who wish it, including milking and dairy work. 

There is a farm of 80 acres attached to the school, with a regular farm staff working 
it. In addition there are gardens and orchard. Two or three senior boys are generally 
doing regular work on the farm. 

Syllabus. — The application of live science to the Junior School consists essentially 
of practical work in the form of nature study in the field and garden, with laboratory 
work and demonstration where possible. This enables the students to become 
famibar with the various forms of living matter in so far as the above work concen- 
trates on wild flowers and their localities, aquaria, growth and forms characterising 
plant and animal life. 

On passing into Block 4 instruction takes the dominant form of introducing 
the physical and chemical aspects of matter and the inculcating of ideas of organic 
as opposed to inorganic matter. The conclusion of the Block 4 course entails the 
application of these principles to biological life, taking a typical higher plant and a 
typical higher animal. 

The work of Bloc