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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

9 FEB 27 



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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 

REPORT 

OF THE 

NINETY-FOURTH MEETING 

(NINETY-SIXTH YEAR) 




OXFORD— 1926 

AUGUST 4-11 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, W.J 

1926 



in 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

•Officeks and Council, 1926-27 v 

Local Officers, Oxford, 1926 vii 

Sections and Sectional Officers, Oxford, 1926 vii 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1926) x 

Heport of the Council to the General Committee (1925-26) xiv 

British Association Exhibitions xviii 

General Meetings, Public Lectures, etc., at Oxford xviii 

External Lectures xxi 

General Treasurer's Account (1925-26) xxi 

Research Committees (1926-27) xxvi 

•Caird Fund xxxi 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Oxford Meeting) xxxi 

The Presidential Address: By H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, 

K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S 1 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

A.— The Analysis of Line Spectra. By Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S. ... 16 

B. The Scope of Organic Chemistry. By Prof. J. F. Thorpe, F.R.S. 46 

,C. Progress in the Study of the Lower Carboniferous (Avonian) 

Roclis of England and Wales. By Prof. S. H. Reynolds 65 

D. Biology and the Training of the Citizen. By Prof. J. Graham 

Kerr, F.R.S 102 

E. The Economic Development of Tropical Africa and its Effect 

on the Native Population. By the Hon. W. Ormsby-Gore, M.P. 113 

F.^Inheritance as an Economic Factor. By Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E. 128 

G.— Electricity Supply. By Sir John F. C. Snell, G.B.E 156 

H.— The Regional Balance of Racial Evolution. By Prof. H. J. 

Fleure 181 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

I. — Function and Design. By Prof. J. B. Leathes, F.R.S 208 

J. — Psychological Aspects of our Penal System. ByDr. James Dreatir 219 

K.— 1860— 1894— 1926. By Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S 231 

L. — ^Address to the Education Section. By Sir Thomas H. Hollaitd, 

K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., F.R.S 246 

M. — The Relation Between Cultivated Area and Population. By Sir 

Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S 255 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 267 

Sectional Transactions 337 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 432 

References to Publication's of Communications to the Sections... 444 

Discussion on Educational Training for Overseas Life 450 

Index 461 



§ritislj |.ssanati0n for t^t ^bbananteut 

OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1926-27. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT FOR THE LEEDS MEETING. 

Prof. Sir Aethur Keith, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR 

The LOED-LlEUTENANT OF THE CoUNTY 

OF Oxford (His Grace the Duke of 

Marlborough, K.G.). 
The Chancellor of the University 

OF Oxford (Rt. Hon. Viscount Cave, 

G.C.M.G., P.C, D.C.L.). 
The Lord Bishop of Oxford (Rt. Rev. 

T. B. Strong, G.B.E., D.D.). 
The Vice-Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity (Joseph Wells, D.C.L., Warden 

of Wadham College). 
The Rt. Worshipful the Mayor of 

Oxford (Rev. J. Carter, M.A.). 
The Chairman of the County Council 

OF Oxford (W.H.Ashhurst, C.B.E.). 
The Rt. Hon. Viscount Valentia, 

K.C.V.O. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Saye and Sele. 
The Dean of Christ Church (Very 

Rev. H. J. White, D.D.). 
Sir Arthur Evans, D.Litt., LL.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT 

The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of 
Leeds (Alderman Hugh Lupton). 

His Grace the Lord Archbishop of 
York (Most Rev. Cosmo G. Lang, 
P.C, G.C.V.O., D.D.). 

The Chancellor of Leeds University 
(His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, 
K.G., P.C, G.CM.G., G.C.V.O.). 

The Lord-Lieutenant of the County 
of the West Riding of Yorkshire 
(Rt. Hon. the Earl of Haeewood, 
G.C.V.O.). 

Viscount Lascelles, K.G., D.S.O. 

The Lord Bishop of Ripon (Rt. Rev. 
E. a. Burroughs, D.D.). 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Airedale. 

The Pro -Chancellor of Leeds Uni- 
versity (Col. C H. Tetley, D.S.O. , 
T.D., M.A.). 

The Vice-Chancellor of Leeds Uni- 
versity (J. B. Baillie, O.B.E., M.A., 
D.Phil., LL.D.). 



THE OXFORD MEETING. 
Prof. Sir Charles Sherrington, O.M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Herbert Warren, K.C.V.O., D.C.L. 

(President of Magdalen College). 
Sir W. Buchanan Riddell, Bart., M.A. 

{Principal of Hertford College). 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
The Vice-Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity OF Reading (W. M. Childs, 

M.A.). 
G. C Bourne, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Alderman G. Claridge Druce, D.Sc, 

LL.D. 
J. F. Mason. 

Mrs. G. Herbert Morrell. 
Vernon James Watney, M.A., F.S.A. 
J. Herbert Benyon. 
C E. Keyser, M.A., F.S.A. 

FOR THE LEEDS MEETING. 

The Chairman of the Leeds Education 
Committee (Alderman Leslie Owen). 

The Chairman of the West Riding 
Education Committee (Sir Percy- 
Jackson, LL.D.). 

The Hon. Sir Gervase Beckett, Bart., 
M.P. 

Col. Sir E. a. Brotheeton, Bart., LL.D. 

Sir Berkeley Moynihan, Bart., 
K.CM.G., C.B., F.R.C.S. 

Sir Charles Wilson, LL.D., M.P. 

Sir Edwin Airey. 

The Vicar of Leeds (Rev. W. Thompson 
Elliott, M.A.). 

The Bishop of Leeds (Rt. Rev. J. R. 
Cowgill). 

The President of the Free Church 
Council. 

The Chief Rabbi of Leeds (Rev. Dr. J. 
Abelson). 

Alderman G. Ratcliffe. 

Alderman Charles Lupton. 

Alderman J. Arnott. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
E. H. Griffiths, Sc.D.. D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.S.A. 
F.B.A. 



F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. HowARTH, O.B.E., M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE LEEDS MEETING. 

James Graham {Director of Education) ; Prof. A. Gilligan. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE LEEDS MEETING. 

J. Mitchell {City Treasurer). 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. J. H. AsHWORTH, F.R.S. 

Sir W. H. Beveridgb, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe, K.B.E. 

Prof. A. L. Bowley. 

Prof. E. G. CoKER, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Daley, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. H. Dale, Sec. R.S. 

Prof. C. H. Desoh, F.R.S. 

E. N. Fallaizk. 

Sir J. S. Flett, K.B.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. Fleure. 

Sir R. A. Gregory. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S. 



Prof. J. P. Hill, F.R.S. 

A. R. Hi>,KS, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir T. H. Holland, K.C.S.I., F.R.S. 

Col.SirH. G.Lyons, F.R.S. 

Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. P. NuNN. 

Prof. A. W. Porter, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. 0. Rankinb. 

Sir J. Russell. F.R.S. 

Prof. A. C. Seward; F.R.S. 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Prof. A. Smithells, C.M.G., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present 
General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past Assistant General Secretaries, and 
the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the Annual Meetings immediately 
past and ensuing. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 



Major P. 
F.R.S. 



A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., 



Hon, 



Sir Arthur Evans, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.S.A. 
Sir Charles A. Parsons, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Rt. Hon. the Earl of Balfour, 0.M.,F.R.S. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 

Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 

Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 



Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Ernest Rutherford. O.M.,Pres. R.S. 
Major-Gen. SirD. Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 



Prof. A. Bowley. 



HON. AUDITORS. 

I Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy. 



vu 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE OXFORD MEETING. 

CHAIRMAN OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The Vice-Chancellob of the University of Oxford 
(Joseph Wells, M.A., D.C.L., Warden of Wadham College). 

LOCAL HON, SECRETARIES. 
F. A. DiXEY, M.A., D.M., F.R.S. | Brig.-Gen. H. B. Hartley, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

A. C. Cameron, M.A. 

LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 

B. Rowland Jones. 

SECRETARY. 

Miss P. M. Middleton. 



SECTIONS & SECTIONAL OFFICERS, 1926, 

A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

President.— Proi. A. Fowler, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— PtoL G. H. Hardy, F.R.S. ; Prof. F. A. Lindemann, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S. ; Dr. C. C. Simpson, C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Prof. J. S. 

TOWNSEND, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 

Secretaries.— M. A. Giblett ; W. M. H. Greaves ; Prof. E. H. Neville. 
Local Secretary. — I. 0. Griffith. 

B.— CHEMISTRY. 
President.— Prof. J. F. Thorpe, C.B.K., F.R.S. 
Vice-President.'i.— Prof. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ; Dr. 

N. V. SiDGWiCK, F.R.S. 
Eecorder. — Dr. H. McCombie. 
Secretary. — Prof. C. S. Gibson. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. A. C. G. Egerton. 

C— GEOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 

Vice-Presidents.— Proi. Sir T. W. Edgeworth David, F.R.S. ; Dr. GEBTRtiDE Elles , 

Sir J. S. Fi.ETT, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. W. T. Gordon. 
Secretary. — I. S. Double. 
Local Secretaries. — Dr. K. S. Sandfoed ; C. J. Bayzand. 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. J. Graham Kerr, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— C. Tate Regan, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S. 

Recorder. — Prof. F. Balfour Browne. 

Secretary. — Prof. W. J. Dakin. 

Local Secretary. — G. R. De Beer. 



Viii OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1926. 

E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Hon. W. Obmsby-Gobe, M.P. 

Vice-Presidents. — H. 0. Beckit ; Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown ; A. R. Hinks, C.B.E., 
F.R.S. ; Dr. D. G. Hogakth, C.M.G. ; Sir John Russeli,, F.R.S. ; Lt.-Col. 

WiNTEEBOTHAM. 

Recorder. — W. H. Baeker. 
Secretary. — F. Debenham. 
Local Secretary. — J. N. L. Baker. 



F.— ECONOMICS. 

President. — Sir Josiah Stamp, K.B.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Edwin Cannan ; Misa L. Grier ; Prof. H. M. Hallsworth ; 

Prof. D. H. Macgregor ; Rev. P. H. Wicksteed. 
Recorder. — R. B. Forrester. 
Secretaries. — K. G. Fenelon ; A. Radford. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 

President. — Sir John Snell, G.B.E. 
Vice-President.— "Proi. C. F. Jenkin, C.B.E. 
Recorder. — -Prof. P. C. Lea. 
Secretaries. — -Prof. G. Cook ; J. S. Wilson. 
Local Secretari/. — Prof. C. F. Jenkin, C.B.E. 

H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. H. J. Fletjre. 

Vice-Presidents. — H. Balfour, F.R.S. ; M. L'Abbe Breuil ; G. A. Garpitt ; Prof. 

J. P. McMurrich; Dr. R. R. Marext ; Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S.; Prof. 

Arthur Thomson. 
Recorder. — E. N. Fallaize. 
Secretary. — Miss R. M. Fleming. 
Local Secretary. — L. H. Dudley Buxton. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. J. B. Leathes, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sit E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. S. Haldane, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. A. Peters ; Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., 6.B.E., F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Dr. M. H. MaoKeith. 
Secretary. — Dr. B. A. McSwiney. 
Local Secretary. — D. Denny-Beown. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY, 

President. — Dr. J. Drever, Universitj', Edinburgh. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. W. Brown ; Prof. W. McDougall, F.R.S. : Prof. C. Lloyd 

Morgan, F.R.S. ; Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. Spearman, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Dr. Ll. Wynn Jones. 
Secretaries. — R. J. Bartlett ; Dr. S. Dawson. 
Local Secretary. — H. Sturt. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 192C. ix 

K.— BOTANY. 

President.— Fioi. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Rt. Hon. liOED Clinton [Sub-Sec. Forestry) ; Sir F. W. Keeble, 

C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Sir David Peain, F.R.S. ; Miss E. R,. Saunders ; Dr. D. H. 

Scott, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Li.oyd Williams. 
Hecorder. — F. T. Brooks. 
■Secretaries. — Dr. W. Robinson ; Prof . J. McLean Thompson ; Prof. A. W. Borthwick 

(Sub-Sec. Forestry). 
Local Secretary. — W. H. Wilkins. 



L.— EDUCATION. 

Fresident.—S\x Thomas Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. W. W. Vaughan ; Rt. Hon. H. A. L. Fisher, F.R.S. ; Dr. 

M. W. Keatinge. 
Recorder. — D. Beeeidge (acting, vice C. E. Browne). 
Secretaries. — Dr. Lilian Clarke ; Prof. A. E. Heath. 
Local Secretary. — H. E. M. Icely. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 

President.— ^iv Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — W. H. Ashhurst ; His Grace the Dukt; of Marlboeouoh, K.G. 

J. F. Mason ; Dr. J. B. Ore ; Prof. J. A. S. Watson. 
Recorder. — C. G. T. Morison. 

■Secretaries. — T. S. Dymond ; Dr. G. Scott Robertson. 
Local Secretary. — G. D. Ameey. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



Where held 



Piesideots 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



1831, Sept. 27 .. 

1832, June 19... 

1833, June 25... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10... 

1836, Aug. 22... 

1837, Sept. 11... 

1838, Aug. 10... 

1839, Aug. 26... 
18»0, Sept. 17... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19... 
184S, Sept. 10... 

1847, June 23... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 
1819, Sept. 12 ... 

1860, July 21 ... 

1861, Julj2 

1862, Sept. 1 ... 

1853. Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856. Aug. 6 ... 

1867, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22.. 

1859, Sept. 14.. 

1860, June 27 .. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aui. 26 .. 

1864, S^pt. 13 .. 

1865, S»pt. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.., 
1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19.., 
1869, Aug. 18.. 
1870,Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14 .. 

1873, Sept. 17 .. 

1874, Aug. 19.. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15 .. 
1 1878, Aug. 14.. 

1879, Aug. 20 .. 
I 1880, Aug. 25 .. 
i 1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23 .. 

1883, Sept. 19 .. 

1884, Aug. 27.. 

1885, Sept. 9 ., 

1886, Sept. 1 .. 

1887, Aug. 31 ., 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 . 
18H0, Sept. 3 . 
1S91, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 . 
i 1893, Sept. 13. 
I 1894, Aug. 8 . 
I 1895, Sept. 11 . 

1893, Sept. 16. 
I 1897, Aug. 18 J 
' 1898, Sept 7 . 
i 1899, Sept. 13. 



York Viscount Milton, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Oxford I The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

Cambridge i The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Edinburgh ! Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 

Dublin The Rev. Provost Uoyd.LL.D., F.R.S. 

.1 Bristol The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S.... 

.[ Liverpool The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

. Newcastle-on-Tyne... The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 

. J Birmingham The Rey.W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 

.1 Glasgow The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

.'Plymouth The Rev. W. WheweU, F.R.S 

. Manchester The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

. Cork The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

. York TheRev.G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 

. I Cambridge Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 

.i Soutliampton 1 Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart.,P.R.S. 

. Oxford I Sir Robert H. Inglis. Bart., F.R.S. 

. Swansea i TheMarquisofNorthampton.Pres.R.S. 

. Birmingham The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

. Edinburgh Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S... 

Ipswich G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 



Belfast 

Hull , 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 



Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S, 

William Hopkins. F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll. F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.... 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev. Professor WiUis,M..A.,F.R.S. 

SirWiUiam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Lvell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S, 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The DukeofBuccleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S. . 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D.. F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson. LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpencer, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S.... 

Belfast I Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D., F.R.S. .. 

Bristol 1 Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Glasgow 1 Prof. T.Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. .. 

Plymouth I Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S. 

Diiblin I W. Spottiswoode, M.A.. F.R.S. . 

Sheffield i Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 

Swansea A. 0. Ramsay. LL.D.. F.R.S 

York Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Southampton Dr. 0. W. Siemens. F.R.S 

Southport Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., F.R.S | 

Montreal Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Aberdeen Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Birmingham Sir J. W. Daivson, O.M.G., F.R.S | 

Manchester Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Bath Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S I 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Prof. W. H. Flower. O.B., F.R.S ; 

Leeds Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S I 

Cardiff Dr. W. Huggins. F.R.S i 

Edinburgh Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S I 

Nottingham Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Oxford The Marquis of Salisburv,K.G..F.R.S.' 

Ipswich Sir Douglas Galton. K.C.B.. F.R.S. ... 

Liverpool Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Toronto Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Bristol Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Dover Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


160 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 i 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


16 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 ' 


144 


11 1 


272 


28 ; 


178 


17 


203 


60 
20 


235 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

l_Co7itmved onj). xii. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XI 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



1 








\ 




Amount 


Slims paid 






Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


1 
Foreigners 


Total 


received 

for 
Tickets 


on account 
of Grants 
or Scientific 
Purposes 


Tear 










1 




353 





1831 






















1832 













_ j 


900 





— 


1833 
















1298 





£20 


1834 





















167 


1835 
















1350 





436 


1836 








I 





, 


1840 





922 12 6 


1837 








1 


11 00* 





2400 


— 


932 2 2 


1838 












34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 













40 


1353 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 i 





60* 




891 


— 


1236 10 11 


1841 




76 


376 . 


33t 


3S1» 


28 


1315 


_ 


1449 17 8 


1843 




71 
46 


185 1 


160 





— 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




190 


9t 


260 





— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


36 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




66 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




197 
54 


40 


495 


203 


63 


1320 


— 


208 5 4 


1847 




25 


376 


197 


16 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


610 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


610 


292 


9 I 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1862 




66 


57 


367 


236 


6 : 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


768 


624 


10 1 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


643 


26 ' 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1856 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




166 


120 


900 


669 


26 


2022 


2016 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


609 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45: 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




329 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1866 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2633 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


1 11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


1 17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


629 


349 


13 


1404 


1426 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1263 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26 & 60 H.§ 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2463 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1611 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1776 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


162 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


60 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1 1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1 1898 




1 324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 1 1430 14 2 


1 1899 



* Including Ladies. § Fellows oftheAmericanAssooiation were ailmitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 

[ Continued on p. xiii. 



XI] 



ANNUAL MEETINGS, 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 


■ 


i 1900, Sept. 5 

1 1901, Sept. 11 

1 1902, Sept. 10 

1 1903, Sept. 9 

i 1904, Aug. 17 

' 1905, Aug. 15 

1 1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 

1908, Sept. 2 

1909, Aug. 25 

1910, Aug. 31 

1911, Aug. 30 

1912, Sept. 4 

1913, Sept. 10 

1914 July-Sept. .. 

1915, Sept. 7 

1916, Sept. 5 

1917 

1918 

1919, Sept. 9 

1920, Aug. 24 

1921, Sept. 7 

1922, Sept. 6 

1923, Sept. 12 

1924, Aug. 6 

1925, Aug. 26 

1926, Aug. 4 

i 1 
1 1 


Bradford 


Sir William Turner, D.O.L., P.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, SecJl.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., P.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., P.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., P.R.S. 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., P.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., P.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, P.R.S. 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, P.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, P.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Rimsay, K.O.B., P.R.S. 

Prof.E. A. Schafer, P.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, P.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, P.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, P.R.S 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S J 

Hon. Sir 0. Parsons, K.C.B., P.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir T. E. Thorpe, O.B., P.R.S 

Sir 0. S. Sherrington, G.B.E., 
Pres. R.S 

Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S. 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., P.R.S 

Prof . Horace Lamb, P.R.S 

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, E.G., 
P.R.S 


267 

310 
243 
250 
419 
115 
322 
276 
294 
117 
293 
284 
288 
376 
172 
243 
164 

235 

288 
336 

228 

326 
119 

280 

358 


13 

37 
21 
21 
32 
40 
10 
19 
24 
13 
2« 
21 
14 
40 
13 
19 
12 

47 

11 

9 

13 

12 
7 
8 

9 




Glasgow 




Belfast 




Southport 




Cambridge 




South Africa 




York 




Leicester 




Dublin 




Winnipeg 




Sheffield 




P 'rtsmoiith 




Dundee 




Birmingham 




Australia 




Manchester 

Newcastle-on-Tyne... 
(No Meeting) 




(No Meeting) 




Bournemouth 




Cardiff 




Edinburgh 




Hull 




Liverpool 




Toronto 




Southampton 

O.'ctord 









' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

" Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

=" Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Associatlon Fran(;aise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, 10*. 

' Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XllI 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 



Old 
Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 


Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 


1 
Year 


Members 


Members 








for Scientific 
Purposes 


1900 


297 


46 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


£1801 


£1072 10 


374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 


920 9 11 


1901 


314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 


319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 


449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 


»37' 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 


356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 


339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 


465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 


290' 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 


379 


67 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 


349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 


368 


95 


1292 


359 


88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 


480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


2643 


2756 


978 17 1 


1913 


139 


4160" 


539= 


— 


21 


6044-' 


4873 


1861 16 4" 


1914 


287 


116 


628* 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 


1569 2 8 


1915 


250 


76 


251* 


73 


— 


826 


821 


985 18 10 


1916 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




677 17 2 


1917 





— 


— 


— 


— 








326 13 3 


1918 


254 


102 


688* 


153 


3 


1482 


1736 


410 


1919 




Annual Members 






Old 




Transfer- 
able 


Students 












Annual 






Regular 
Members 


Meeting 

and 
Report 


Meeting 
only 


Tickets 


Tickets 












136 


192 


571 


42 


120 


20 


1380 


1272 10 


1251 13 0' 


1920 


133 


410 


1394 


121 


343 


22 


2768 


2599 15 


518 1 10 


1921 


90 


294 


757 


89 


235" 


24 


1730 


1699 5 


772 7 


1922 




Compli- 












mentary. 










123 


380 


1434 


163 


550 


308' 


3296 


2735 15 


777 18 6' 


1923 


37 


520 


1866 


41 


89 


139 


2818 


3165 IS'" 


1197 5 9 


1924 


97 


264 


878 


62 


119 


74 


1782 


1630 6 


1231 


1925 


101 


453 


2338 


169 


225 


69 


3722 


3542 


917 1 6 


1926 



" Including grants from the Oaird Fund in this and subsequent years. 

' Including Foreign Quests, Exhibitioners, and others. 

' The Bournemouth Fund for Kesearoh, initiated by Sir 0. Parsons, enabled grants on account of 
scientific purposes to be maintained. 

• Including gi-ants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 
to 1926. 

'° Subscriptions paid in Canada were |5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some 
gain on exchange. 



XIV 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1925-26. 

I. The Council presented an address of condolence to The King on 
the death of Queen Alexandra, and received His Majesty's gracious 
acknowledgment. 

II. The Council presented a resolution of welcome and con- 
gratulation to H.E.H. The Prince of Wales, President-elect, on his 
return from South Africa and South America, and received The Prince's 
gracious acknowledgment. 

III. The Council has had to deplore the loss by death of Sir 
Francis Darwin (President, 1908) ; of Mr. W. Bateson (President, 1914), 
who was to have presided over Section K (Botany) at the Oxford 
Meeting ; of Dr. W. Evans Hoyle, local secretary for the Cardiff Meeting 
in 1920 and a recent member of the Council; and, among other 
supporters and former ofBce-bearei's, Prof. A. R. Cushny, Prof. F. Y. 
Edgeworth, Mr. J. S. Gamble, Prof. A. Gray, Mr. W. P. Hiern, 
Prof. J. W. Langley, and the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing. 

IV. Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.E.S., has been unanimously nominated 
by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association for the 
year 1927-28 (Leeds Meeting). 

V. Eepresentatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follows : — 

Carnegie U. K. Trustees' Conference on 

Museums as a factor in Education. . Dr. H. Bolton. 

American Association for the Advancement 

of Science, Kansas City Meeting . . Prof. J. C. Fields and 

Prof. W. A. Parks. 
French Society of Chemical Industry, Paris, 

Oct. 1925 • Sir W. Pope. 

Sheffield University, Coming-of-Age, June 

30, 1926 Mr. F. B. Smith. 

Congress of Chemical Industry, Brussels, 

September, 1926 Sir W. Pope. 

VI. Eesolutions referred by the General Committee at the South- 
ampton Meeting to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for 
action, were dealt with as follows : — 

(«) The Council adopted by a majority a resolution that invitations 
to attend the Oxford Meeting should be issued to eminent scientists 
irrespective of nationality. 

The temporary suspension of honorary corresponding membership, 
appHed in 1919 in the case of certain foreign scientific men, has been 
removed. 

(6) The Council regrets that the railway authorities do not see 
their way to including scientific parties specifically in the regulations 
governing the issue of return period tickets. (Eesolutions of Sections 
0, D, E.) 

(c) The Council referred to the Board of Education a resolution 
inviting consideration of an amendment of a cbuse in Circular 826 
(1913), permitting in certain events the curtailment or discontinuance 
of instruction in geography. (Eesolution of Section E.) 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1925-26. XV 

{d) The Council recommended Miss W. S. Blackman to the Egyptian 
and other authorities for assistance in her investigation of the culture 
of the peasant population of modern Egypt. The Council regrets that 
its preUminary endeavours have been without result. (Resolution 
■of Section H.) 

(e) In regard to resolutions of Sections E, H, and M relating to the 
Eeport of the East African Commission (upon which the General 
Committee itself took action), the Council learned with satisfaction from 
H.M. Secretary of State for the Colonies that scientific research is 
receiving attention and financial support in the territories of East Africa, 
and that the Amani Institute is being revived. 

(/) The Council referred to the Ministry of Agriculture and the 
Board of Education a resolution dealing with the facilities offered by 
local scientific societies for supplementing the curriculum of schools in 
matters bearing upon local geography, natural history, and antiquities, 
and communicated their replies to the Corresponding Societies, recom- 
mending individual consultation with local education authorities by 
any societies which might find this desirable. (Resolution of the 
Conference of Delegates.) 

ig) The Council has been in correspondence with interested parties 
in relation to the spoliation of ancient monuments on Dartmoor for 
road-metal. (Resolution of the Conference of Delegates.) 

(/() The Council has received and approved a report on regional survey 
from the Corresponding Societies Committee, which has been communi- 
cated to the Societies. (Resolution of the Conference of Delegates.) 

(i) The Council referred to the British Correlating Committee for 
the Protection of Nature a resolution asking for inquiry into the 
threatened extermination of many rarer British plants and animals. The 
Committee asked that any information should be passed to it, and 
Corresponding Societies have been notified accordingly. (Resolution 
of the Conference of Delegates.) 

VII. The Council resolved that the list of papers bearing on zoology, 
botany, and prehistoric archaeology published in connection with the 
Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee should be discontinued 
after the present year, as it was not found to be of sufficiently wide 
use to justify the expenditure upon it. Mr. T. Sheppard received the 
thanks of the Council for his unsparing work in the preparation of the 
list. 

The Council proposes to omit from Rule XI., 3, reference to the pre- 
paration of a list of papers published by the Corresponding Societies. 

VIII. The Council reported last year upon the discussion, for which 
the Toronto Meeting afforded occasion, upon an international abstracting 
service for biological sciences. Having learned from the Royal Society 
during the present year that the American authorities had decided 
not to propose any formal co-operation with the Society, the Council 
conveyed to them its thanks for the opportunity which they had given 
the Association of discussing the matter. 

IX. In regard to the question of the distribution of Government 
scientific publications for review and of reprints to authors, which also 



xvi REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1925-26. 

had been previously before the Council, careful inquiry failed to reveal 
the necessity for formally bringing the matter to the notice of H.M. 
Treasury ; it appeared that any individual cases of difficulty would 
receive sympathetic consideration from the authorities concerned. 

X. In co-opei'ation with the British Science Guild, the Council 
summoned a conference of representatives of leading scientific Societies 
to consider the desirability and possibility of establishing a science news 
service, and a committee was appointed to deal further with this matter. 

XI. The Council has received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His accounts have been audited and are presented 
to the General Committee. The Council made the following grants to 
research committees from the Caird Fund : — 

£ £ 

Naples Table 100 Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 20 

Seismology ... ... 100 Zoological Eecord ... ... 35 

Tables of Constants ... 6 Bronze Implements 80 

Upper Atmosphere ... 38 Index Kewensis ... ... 70 

Colloid Chemistry ... 5 Kent's Cavern ... ... 10 

Quaternary Peats ... 38 Corresponding Societies 

Committee ... ... 40 

and a donation of £10 10s. to the Optical Convention, 1926. 

Having regard to the exceptional circumstances of the Oxford Meet- 
ing (namely the possibility of an unusually large attendance at a 
meeting in a non-industrial area, involving unusual expenditure upon 
entertainment, etc., in a locality where financial resources might be found 
to be restricted), the Council agreed with the Local Executive Committee 
that from any receipts for membership tickets in excess of £2,500 
(exclusive of life compositions and payments for the Eeport) the 
sum of 5s. in the pound should be earmarked as a guarantee fund to 
supplement the local fund if necessary. Further, the Local Executive 
Committee having decided that each subscriber of £5 and upwards to 
the local fund should be given a membership ticket, it was agreed that 
the sum of 15s. instead of one pound should be payable to the 
Association as the price of each such ticket. 

The General Treasurer, with the authority of the Council and the 
assistance of a Committee, has had under consideration the possibility 
of increasing the capital funds of the Association by means of an appeal. 

The remaining balance of accrued interest upon the Caird Gift for 
research in radio-activity has been granted, for the year 1926-27, as to 
£50 each to Mr. P. Blackett, Dr. J. Chadwick, and Dr. A. S. Eussell, 
any balance remaining from the income of the gift being brought into 
general funds and earmarked as available for a grant to any Committee 
of the Association appointed in the future to undertake research in radio- 
activity. The trust fund is thus finally disposed of. 

XII. At the instance of certain of the Corresponding Societies, upon 
which demands for the payment of income tax, previously remitted, 
have recently been made, a full inquiry was undertaken, and after 
consultation with the Society of Antiquaries and societies in union 
therewith, and with other leading societies, a joint deputation discussed 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1925-26. Xvii 

the question with the Financial Secretary to the Treasury, and a 
committee subsequently met representatives of the Board of Inland 
Revenue. It was proposed by the Board that a test case should be 
brought against two selected societies during the year 1926-27, H.M. 
Treasury bearing costs according to &n agreed scale irrespective of 
the decision, and to this course the Council, on the part of the 
Association, agreed. Discussion and arrangements are proceeding. 

XIII. The Corresponding Societies Committee has been nominated as 
follows: the President of the Association {Chairman ex-officio), Mr. T. 
Sheppard ( Wee- C'/ia /nwajf) , the General Treasurer, the General Secretaries, 
Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir R. A. Gregory, Sir D. Prain, Sir J. Russell, 
Mr. Marli Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney. 

XIV. The retiring Ordinary Meml:)ers of the Council are : Dr. F. W. 
Aston, Mr. E. Barker, Sir Daniel Hall, Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, and 
Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

The Council nominates the following new members: — Professor J. P. 
Hill, Sir John Russell, Professor A. C. Seward; leaving two vacancies 
to be filled by the General Committee without nomination by the 
Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : — 



Professor J. H. Ashworth. 
Sir W. H. Beveridge. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe. 
Professor A. L. Bowley. 
Professor E. G. Coker. 
Professor W. Dalby. 
Dr. H. H. Dale. 
Professor C. H. Desch. 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize. 
Sir J. S. Flett. 
Professor H. J. Fleure. 
Sir R. A. Gregory. 

XV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as 
follows : — 

General Treastircr, Dr. E. H. Griffiths. 

General Secretaries, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. F. E. Smith. 

XVI. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : — • 



Mr. C. T. Heycock. 
Professor J. P. HilL 
Sir T. H. Holland. 
Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Professor T. P. Nunn. 
Professor A. W. Porter. 
Professor A. O. Rankine. 
Sir J. Russell. 
Professor A. C. Seward. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Professor A. Smithells. 



Mrs. IS. L. Alcock. 

ilr. A. Leslie Armstrong;. 

Dr. A. Bramley. 

Dr. Winifred E. Brenchley. 

Dr. \V. T. Caiman. 

Miss C. Coignou. 

Dr. E. P. Farrow. 

Mr. G. A. Garfitt. 

Mr. W. Godden. 

Sir J. B. Henderson. 

XVII. Inquiry has been received as to the possibility of the Association 
favourably considering an invitation to meet in South Africa in or about 
1929. The Council had the advantage of discussing the matter with 
Prof. H. B. Fantham (Johannesburg), and promised to refer anj^ such 
proposal to the General Committee for its sympathetic consideration. 

b 



Dr. H. Henstock. 
Prof. G. Hickling, 
Mr. R. H. Kinvig. 
Mr. H. Knox-Shaw. 
INIiss M. A. Murray. 
Mr. G. Leslie Purser. 
Mr. W. P. Pycraft. 
Dr. J. H. Shaxby. 
Dr. T. A. Stephenson. 
Dr. H. Hamsbaw Thomas. 



XV] 11 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION EXHIBITIONS. 

For the Oxford Meeting, British Association Exhibitions (referred to 
in § IX. of the Report of the Council, 1922-23) were awarded to nineteen 
students nominated by the same number of universities and colleges. 
Their travelling expenses (railway fares) were met by the Association, 
which also issued complimentary students' tickets of membership to 
them ; they were entertained in Oxford by various colleges, &c., arrange- 
ments being made by the Local Executive Committee. Eight of the 
universities or colleges allowed expenses for twenty-six additional 
exhibitioners, while five selected students from Liverpool received grants 
for the same purpose out of a fund formed from the surplus of the moneys 
collected for the local fund in connection with the Liverpool Meeting, 1923. 
The exhibitioners were presented to the President, H.R.H. The Prince 
of Wales, in Magdalen College on August 5. Two of their number (Mr. 
H. G. Littler, Liverpool, and Mr. L. L. Barnes, King's College, London) 
were elected respectively president and secretary of the exhibitioners 
for the purpose of communication by them as a body with the general 
officers. 



GENERAL MEETINGS, ETC., 
IN OXFORD. 

The Inaugural General Meeting was held on Wednesday, August 4, 
1926, at 8.30 p.m. The proceedings took place in the Sheldonian Theatre, 
and were relayed to the Town Hall and to the hall of the Union Society. 
After the Vice-Chancellor of the University and the Rt. Worshipful the 
Mayor of Oxford had welcomed the Association, Prof. Horace Lamb, 
F.R.S., resigned the office of President of the Association to H.R.H. The 
Prince of Wales, K.G., F.R.S. The new President, after communicating 
to the meeting a gracious Message from his Majesty the King, and the 
terms of his reply, delivered an Address (for which see p. 1). The Rt. Hon. 
the Earl of Balfour, K.G., O.M., F.R.S. , ex-President, proposed a vote of 
thanks to the President, which was carried by acclamation. 

On the conclusion of the proceedings in the Sheldonian Theatre the 
President was escorted by the Mayor to the Town Hall. He was received 
there by Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S., ex-general secretary of thfe Associa- 
tion, who had occupied the chair, and by principal representatives of the 
city, and briefly addressed the audience which had heard the relayed 
proceedings. The chair at the meeting in the Union Society's hall was 
taken by Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 

On Thursday evening, August 5, receptions were given by the Vice- 
Chancellor in the Examination Schools, by the Rt. Worshipful the Mayor 
in the Town Hall, and by the Dean, Canons and Students of Christ Church 
in Christ Church, all of which were honoured by the presence of the 
President. 



GENERAL MEETINGS, PUBLIC LECTURES, &c. xix 

Evening Discourses. 

Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S. : ' Stars and Atoms.' 8 p.m., August 6, 
Union Society's Hall. 

Prof. H. Fairfield Osborn, For. Mem. E.S. : ' Discoveries in the Gobi 
Desert by tlie American Museum Expeditions.' 8 p.m., August 9, Town 
Hall. 

Citizens' Lectures. 

Prof. P. F. Kendall, F.R.S. : 'Coal' 8.30 p.m., August 5, Union 
Society's Hall. 

Capt. P. P. Eckersley : ' "Wireless.' 8.30 p.m., August 6, Town Hall. 

Sir Dugald Clerk, K.B.E., F.R.S. : ' The Rise of the Internal Combus- 
tion Engine.' 5.30 p.m., August 7, Union Society's Hall. 

Sir William Bragg, K.B.E., F.R.S. : ' Necessity is the Mother of 
Invention.' 8.30 p.m., August 9, Union Society's Hall. 

Prof. Julian Huxley : ' Animal Courtship.' 8.30 p.m., August 10, 
Union Society's Hall. 

Lectures to Young People. 

Prof. W. Garstang : ' The Songs of Birds.' 10.30 a.m., August 6, 
Electra Palace Cinema. 

Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford : ' A Day in the Life of a Cave Man.' 10.30 a.m., 
August 10, Oxford Super-Cinema. 

Concluding General Meeting. 

The concluding General Meeting was held in the Examination Schools 
on Wednesday, August 11, at 12 noon, Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., ex-Presi- 
dent, in the chair. The following letter from the President was read to the 
meeting : — 

St. James's Palace, London, S.W.I. 

As it has unfortunately not been possible for me to return to Oxford 
for the conclusion of our Meeting, I must ask the General Secretaries to 
convey to the Council my warmest congratulations on the success of what 
I hope will prove to have been one of the most successful of the British 
Association's annual gatherings. 

To that result, many people, both within and without the Association, 
have contributed. In the first class are our General Officers, whose admir- 
able preliminary arrangements ensured the smooth working of the Meeting 
as a whole and of its many separate units ; our Sectional Officers, on whom 
rested the responsibility of organising those units ; and, not least, the rank 
and file of our members, whose enthusiasm and devotion to the cause of 
Science has been a great inspiring force. 

Secondly, there are our hosts in the University and City of Oxford, 
who have thrown open their wonderful heritage to all of us, and shown us 
unwearying kindness; and our guests, who, by their very presence and 
by the added weight of learning which they have given to our proceedings, 
have emphasised the all-important fact that Science works not for one 
nation, or even one race, but for the common good of all living things. 

h2 



jjj, GENERAL MEETINGS, PUBLIC LECTURES, &c. 

All of these deserve our heartfelt thanks, and I consider it a high 
honour to be able, as President of the Association, to express them. 

Lord Balfour, at our inaugural session, suggested that the future 
harvest, of which this Meeting is the seed-time, might be a notable one. 
I do not know how far this prophecy is likely to be justified in the immediate 
future. But, from what I saw during my stay in Oxford, I do feel confident 
that there is alive in the army of scientific workers to-day a spirit of 
enthusiasm and energy which cannot fail to achieve great things. I strongly 
hope that at any rate the coming shadow of such achievement, if not the 
achievement itself, may be visible before the close of my Presidency a 
year hence. 

(Signed) Edward P., 
August 10, 1926. President. 

The following reply was adopted and ordered to be forwarded to the 
President : 

Oxford, 
August 11, 1926. 
To His Royal Highness 

The Prince of Wales, our President. 

Sir, 

At the Concluding General Meeting of the British Association, held 
in Oxford to-day, Your Royal Highness' gracious message as President 
has been read and received with acclamation. We desire most gratefully 
to express our deep sense of the personal sympathy with our aims and • 
endeavours, and the keen interest in our proceedings, which made your 
presence among us memorable. Especially do we appreciate the signifi- 
cance of the Address with which you inaugurated the meeting, and the 
high ideal of co-operation between research and administration which you 
have set before us all and before the wider public by whom your words 
were heard. 

We return to our work in the confidence that your year of office as 
President, so auspiciously begun, will be fruitful of benefit to the Associa- 
tion and to the advancement of science. 

I am, Sir, 

Your Royal Highness' obedient servant, 

(Signed) Oliver Lodge, 

Ex-President, Chairman. 

The following Resolution was then adopted with acclamation : 

At the conclusion of a memorable meeting, the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science thanks the University and City of Oxford 
for the unbounded hospitality with which the Association has been received, 
and for the generous opportunities afforded its members to prosecute their 
labours and enjoy their recreations in an environment previously endeared 
to many of them, and unsurpassed in its manifold interests for them all. 



XXI 



EXTERNAL LECTURES, 

Public lectures were given, in connection with the Oxford Meeting : — 
At Banbury, by Mr. H. J. E. Peake, on ' The Beginnings of Civilisation ' ; 
at Swindon, by Prof. H. E. Eoaf, on ' The Effect of Sun-light on Health ' ; 
at Abingdon, by Mr. C. P. Chatwin, on ' The Geology of the Neighbour- 
hood of Abingdon ' ; at Wantage, by Dr. T. F. Chipp, on ' The Work of 
Botanic Gardens ' ; and at Newbury, by Mr. C. J. P, Cave, on ' Climatic 
Conditions.' 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

July 1, 1925, to June 30, 1926. 

NOTE. 

Special arrangements in connection with the Oxford Meeting led to 
the payment of an unusually large number of membership subscriptions 
in advance. The total of the sums on account of these items amounts to 
£1,666 10s. ; last year under normal working the corresponding sum was 
£339 10s. This difference of £1,327 accounts for the £1,327 2s. 8d. 
stated as ' excess of income over expenditure.' 

Again, in order to meet, however inadequately, the applications for 
grants to Research Committees received at Southampton, the Council had 
to utilise the accumulations of income in the Caird Fund, and draw on that 
fund to the extent of £185 above the year's income. 

Thus, apart from the excess pre-payments above referred to and the 
utilisation of the Caird accumulation, the year's working shows a 
deficiency of £185. 

B. H. GRIFFITHS. 



XX 11 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Balance Sheet, 



Correspondin! 
Figures 

1925. 
£ s. d. 
10,575 15 2 



9,5S2 16 3 



555 14 2 



249 IS 11 

62 11 8 

10,000 

75 



708 12 2 
450 



3.505 6 S 



35,865 15 



LIABILITIES. 

To Capital Accounts — • 

General Fund, as per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation in Value of 
Investments) 

Caird Fund — 

As per contra ...... 

(Sub.icct to Depreciation in Value of 
Investments) 

Caird Fund — 

Revenue Account, Balance as at July 1, 1925 

Less Excess of Expenditure over Income 

for the year ..... 

Caird Gift, Radio -Activity Investiarations — 
Balance as at July 1, 1925 . . 

Add Income Tax recovered . 



Less Grants paid 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift for Enquiry into Prime 
Movers, 1931 — 

£50 Consols now accumulated to £132 12s. 9d., 
as per contra ...... 

, Sir Charles Parsons' Gift .... 

, John Perry Guest Fund — 

For cases of emergency connected with 
Guests of the Association 

, Life Compositions — - 

As at July 1, 1925 .... 
Add Received during year . 

, Legacy — T. W. Backhouse 

, Toronto University Presentation Fund 

Add Dividends .... 

, Income and Expenditure Account — 
Balance as at July 1, 1925 . 

Add Balance being Excess of Income over 
Expenditure for the year . 



£ s. d. £ s. a 
10,575 15 2 

9,582 16 3 



055 14 2 
185 9 4 



249 
2 


18 11 
5 


252 
200 


3 11 





708 12 
225 


2 



178 11 
4 7 


4 
6 



470 4 10 



52 3 H 

65 16 
10,000 

75 



933 12 2 
450 



182 18 10 



3,217 15 10 
1,327 2 8 



4,544 18 6 



£30,933 5 8 



I have examined the foregoing Account with tlie Books and Vouchers and certify the same 
Approved, 

ARTHUR L. BOWLEY.I ,„j;,,,„ 
A. W. KIRKALDY, } -luditors. 

JiiIU 9, 1920. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



June 30, 1926. 



xxin 



Corresponding 
Fiararos 

1925. 
£ s. d. 



10,575 15 2 



9,5S2 16 3 

655 14 2 

249 18 11 

62 11 8 

10,000 

75 

7 08 12 2 

450 



3,505 



35,865 15 



S. d. 



,942 
5' -2 



ASSETS. 

By Investments on Capital Accounts — General 
Fund — 

£4,651 lO.s. od. Consolidated 2J per cent, at 

cost . . . . • . .3 

£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stnclc at cost. . 3 

£879 14s. 9rf. £43 Great Indian Peninsula 

Railwav ' B ' Annuity at cost . . . 827 15 

£52 12s. Id. War Stock (Post Office Issue) at 

cost . . . . . . . 54 5 

£834 16s. 6d. 4i per cent. Conversion Loan at 

cost ....... 

£1,400 War Stock 5 per cent. 1929/47 at cost 

^7,605 2s. lid. Value at date, £7,880 18s. Sd. 

f 'aird Fimd — 

£2,627 Os. lOrf. India 3 i per cent. Stock at cost 2,400 13 3 

£2,100 London Midland and Scottish Railway 
Consolidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 
at cost 2,190 4 3 

£2,500 Canada 3i per cent. 1930/50 Regis- 
tered Stock at cost 2,397 1 6 

£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per 

cent. Preference Stock at cost . . . 2,594 17 3 



835 12 4 
.393 16 11 



£7,045 16s. Id. Value at date, £7,343 18s. Id. 

Caird Fund Revenue Account^ 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Caird Gift- 
Cash at Bank ...... 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift — 

£126 17 6 Self-Accumulatins Consolidated 
Stock as per last Balance Sheet 
Add Accumulations to June 
5 15 3 30, 1926 



62 11 8 
3 4 4 



£132 12 9 

Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

£10.300 4i per cent. Conversion Loan 
£9,682 Value at dat«, £9,888 

John Perry Guest Fund — 

£96 National Savings Certificates at cost 
Cash at Bank ..... 

Life Compositions — 

£1,403 6s. 7rf. Local Loans at cost . 
Cash at Bank ..... 

Legacy — T. W. Backhouse — 

Cash at Bank ..... 

Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
£175 5 per cent. War Stock at cost 
Cash at Bank 



74 8 
12 






915 
18 12 



2 



S. (/. 



10,575 15 2 



9,582 10 3 



470 



4 10 
3 11 



65 16 



10,000 



75 



933 
450 



12 2 





178 11 4 
4 7 6 



182 18 10 



Revenue Account — 

£2,098 Is. 9(i. Consolidated 2 J per cent. 

Stock at cost ..... 

£1,949 8s. 9rf. Conversion 3 J per cent. Stock 

at cost ....... 

Sundry IJcbtors and payments in advance 
Cash at Bank ...... 

Cash in Hand ...... 



1,200 



1,500 








153 


3 


6 


1,679 


11 


4 


12 


3 


8 



4,544 18 (5 



£36,933 5 8 



to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers and the Investments. 

W. B. KEEX, 

Chartered Accountant. 



XXIV 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Income and 

FOR THE Year Ended 



Corresponding 


Period 




1925. 




£ s. 


d. 


20 3 


1 


45 7 


9 


1 





176 1 


s 


78 11 





60 





245 10 


4 


914 16 


3 


261 8 





1,802 IS 


3 


1,202 10 





75 





1,675 12 


5 



4,756 S 

50 
8,421 13 4 



451 



14 



EXPENDITURE. 



To 



■er 



Heat, Lighting and Pow 

Stationery . 

Rent . 

Postages 

Travelling Expenses 

Exhibitioners 

General Expenses ._ 

Lift and Preparinu iVell, etc. 

Decorations and Iinprove^nents 



Salaries, Wages, etc. 
Pension Contribution 
Printing, Binding, etc. . 

Sir Robert Hadfield's Gift — 

Grants to Universities .... 

Grants made in aid of Expenses, etc., re Toronto 
Meeting out of moneys received from Dominion 
Government of Canada, as per contra 
Grants to Research Committees — 

Growth in Children Committee . 

Old Red Sandstone of Bristol Committee 

Sumerian Copper Committee 

Overseas Training Committee 

Triplets Committee .... 

Palaeozoic Rocks Committee 

Medullary Centres Committee . 

Palaeolithic Implements Committee . 

London Tertiary Rocks Committee 

Geography Teaching Committee . 

Oxfordshire Anthropological Investigations 
Committee .... 

Vocational Tests Committee 

Old Red Sandstone of Kiltorcan, Ireland 
Committee ..... 

Cost of Cycling Committee . '. 

, Balance being Excess of Income over Expendi 
ture for the year 



I 





£ 


s. 


d. 


£ s. 


25 


13 


.; 




. 


71 


5 


7 






1 












140 


12 


7 






121 


15 


5 






36 


12 


9 






187 


3 


4 






584 


2 


10 




. 1,184 


19 


2 




75 










. 1,466 


17 


5 










— 


3,310 19 



s. d. 





20 

































9 


15 













7 
















20 
















15 
















18 
















20 
















10 
















o 


16 


a 










10 
















14 
















8 
















10 








170 


11 


6 










- 








1,327 


2 


H 



£4,808 13 7 



s. d. 



43 'J 



430 



EXPENDITURE. 

To Grants Paid — 

Index Kewensis Committee 

Quaternary Peats Committee 

Corresponding Societies Committee 

Zoological Record Committee 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Committee 

Optical Convention . 

Seismology Committee 

Kent's Cavern Committee . 

Bronze Implements Committee . 

Colloid Chemistry Committee 

Naples Tables Committee . 

Upper Atmosphere Investigations Committee 



s. d. 



70 
38 
40 
35 
20 
10 

100 

10 

80 

5 

100 
38 








10 









Gaird 



s. d. 



546 10 



£546 10 






GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Expenditure Account 

June 30, 1926. 



XXV 



Corresponding 
















Period 




INCOME. 














1925. 


















£ s. 


d. 


By Annual Members (Including £95, 192G/27, and 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


207 4 


6 


£1, 1927/2S) 

„ Annual Temporary Members (Including £1,031, 








249 








1.956 19 


s 


1926/27) 








1,806 








870 2 


11 


„ Annual with Report (Including £430, 1920/27) 
„ Transferable Tickets (Including £67 10s., 








732 








.56 


4 


1926/27) 








148 


15 





50 18 


8 


„ Students' Tickets (Including £38 10s., 1926/27) 








92 


10 





50 3 





,, Donations ....... 








6 








51 7 


11 


,, Interest on Deposit ..... 








SI 


12 


4 


613 15 


7 


„ Sale of Publications ..... 
„ Advertisement Revenue .... 








581 
167 


13 




11 

3 


40 6 


3 


„ Income Tax recovered ..... 








157 


13 


10 


90 12 


6 


,, Unexpended Balance of Grants returned. 








24 


2 


10 


50 





„ Sir Robert Hadfield's Gift .... 














a, 421 13 


4 


,, Dominion Government of Canada for expenses 

re Toronto Meeting, as per contra . 
,, Dividends — 


















S.140 5 5 


Consols ...... 


£135 


















95 17 


India 3 per cent. .... 


86 


8 















25 15 11 


Great Indian Peninsula ' B ' Annuity. 


26 


9 















16 19 S 


4 J per cent. Conversion Loan . 


30 


1 


2 












209 10 11 


Ditto Sir Charles Parsons' Gift . 
3J per cent. Conversion Loan 


370 
54 


16 
11 



8 












69 1 3 


Treasury Bonds .... 


















16 7 10 


Local Loans ..... 


30 


7 


1 












57 15 


War Stock ..... 


58 


12 


G 








€22 13 







- 








792 


5 


5 












696 15 


4 


By Balance being Excess of Expenditure over Income 
for the year ...... 














I3,67S 14 















£4,808 


13 


7 



292 
62 



s. d. 




4 10 



75 15 2 



430 



INCOME. 

^ ^. ., , £ s. d. 

By dividends — 

India 3 i per cent. . . . . . 73 11 

Canada 3 } per cent. . . . . . 70 

London Midland and Scottish Railway Con- 
solidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock . 66 13 6 
Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent. 

Preference Stock . . . . . 79 7 6 



Income Tax recovered ..... 

Balance being Excess of Expenditure over 

Income for year. ..... 



s. d. 



289 12 
71 8 8 

185 9 4 



£546 10 



XXVI 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

OXFOED, 1926. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
ivith researches are indicated in heavy type. 

Seismological Investigations. — Prof. H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, 
Sir F. W. Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. H. Lamb, Sir J. 
Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, Mr.W. E. Plummer, Rev. J. P. Rowland, 
S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, 
Mr. F. J. W. Whipple. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Tides. — Prof. H. Lamb (Chairman), Dr. A. T. Doodson (Secretary), Dr. G. R. 
Goldsbrough, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. J. Proudman, Prof. G. I. Taylor, Prof. 
D'Arcy W. Thompson, Commander H. D. Warburg. 

Annual Tables of Constants and Numerical Data, chemical, physical, and technological. 

—Sir E. Rutherford (Chairman), Prof. A. W. Porter (Secretary), Mr. Alfred 

Egerton. £5. 
Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Prof. J. W. Nicholson (Chairman), Dr. J. R. 

Airey (Secretary), Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Dr. A. T. Doodson, Prof. L. N. G. Filon, 

Mr. R. A. Fisher, Prof. E. W. Hobson, and Profs. Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, 

and H. M. Macdonald. 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — Sir Napier Shaw (Chairman), Mr. C. J. P. 
Cave (Secretary), Prof. S. Chapman, Mr. J. S. Dines, Mr. L. H. G. Dines, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. G. M. Dobson, Commr. L. G. Garbett, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, 
Col. E. Gold, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Dr. H. Knox-Shaw, Sir J. Larmor, Mr. R. G. K. 
Lempfert, Prof. F. A. Lindemann, Dr. W. Makower, Mr. J. Patterson, Sir J. E. 
Petavel, Sir A. Schuster, Dr. G. C. Simpson, Sir G. T. Walker, Mr. F. J. W. 
Whipple, Prof. H. H. Turner. £70. 

To investigate local variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field. — Col. Sir H. G. Lyons 
(Chairman), Capt. H. Shaw (Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Hoys, Dr. C. Chree, Col. 
Sir G. P. Lenox-Conyngham, Dr. J. W. Evans, Mr. E. Lancaster-Jones ; the 
Director-General, Ordnance Survey ; the Director, Geological Survey of Great 
Britain. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

Colloid Chemistry and its Industrial Applications. — Prof. F. G. Donnan (Chairman), 
Dr. W. Clayton (Secretary), Mr. E. Hatschek, Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis, Prof. J. W. 
McBain. £5. 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. — Prof. I. M. 
Heilbron (Chairman), Prof. E. C. C. Baly (Secretary), Prof. A. W. Stewart. £10. 

The Chemistry of Vitamins. — Sir F. G. Hopkins (Chairman), Prof. J. C. Drummond 
(Secretary), Prof. G. Barger, Prof. A. Harden, Sir J. C. Irvine, Prof. J. W. McBain, 
Prof. Lash Miller, Dr. S. Zilva. £5. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Mr. W. B. Wright (Chairman), 
Prof. T. Johnson (Secretary), Dr. W. A. Bell, Dr. J. AV. Evans, Prof. W. H. Lang, 
Sir A. Smith Woodward. £10. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. xxvii 

To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales.— Prof. 
W. W. Watts {Chairman), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Prof. W. 8. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, 
Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Prof. V. C. lUing, Prof. 0. T. Jones, 
Prof. J. E. Marr, Dr. T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman. £20. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geo- 
logical Interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood [Chairman). Prof. 8. H. Reynolds (Secre- 
tary), Mr. G. Binglev, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. A. S. Reid, Prof. W. W. Watts, 
Mr. R. Welch. 

To investigate the Quaternary Peata of the British Isles. — Prof. P. F. Kendall (Chair- 
man), Mr. L. H. Tonks (Secretary), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Miss Chandler, Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, Dr. E. Greenly, Prof. J. W. Gregory, Prof. G. Hickling, Mr. J. de W. 
Hinch, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, Mrs. Reid, Dr. K. S. Sandford, Mr. T. Sheppard, 
Mr. J. W. Stather.'Mr. A. W. Stelfox, Mr. C. B. Travis, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Mr. 
W. B. Wright. £80. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary Rocks of the London Area. To 
tabulate and preserve records of new excavations in that area. — Prof. W. T. 
Gordon (Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge (Secretary), Miss M. C. Crosfield, Prof. 
H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling. £10. 

To obtain Photographic Records of the Geological Effects of the ' debacle ' which 
resulted from the recent bursting of a dam at Dolgarrog, North Wales. — 
Dr. E. Greenly (Chairman), Mr. E. Montag (Secretary), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, 
Prof. W. G. Fearnsides. £5. 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

To aid competent Investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Secretary), Dr. G. P. Bidder, Prof. F. O. Bower, Sir W. B. 
Hardy, Sir S. F. Harraer, Prof. S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray Lankester, Prof. W. C. 
Mcintosh. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Prof. E. B. Poulton (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. T. Caiman, Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, Mr. W. L. Sclater. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory, Plymouth. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
W. J. Dakin, Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, Prof. 8. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray Lankester. 
£35. 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, for 
the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir S. Harmer 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman (Secretary), Prof. E. S. Goodrich, Prof. D. M. S. 
Watson. £50. 

On the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the Parents on the Sex-Ratio of the Offspring. 
— Prof. W. J. Dakin (Chairman), Mrs. Bisbee (Secretary), Prof. Carr-Saunders, 
Miss E. C. Herdman. £10. 

To report on the Pre-Linnean Zoological Collections and Specimens still extant in 
Great Britain, with a view to their safe custody. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Dr. R. T. Gunther (Secretary). 

To draw up recommendations for the taking and presentation of Biological Measure- 
ments, and to bring such before persons or bodies concerned. — Prof. J. S. Huxley 
(Chairman), Dr. R. A. Fisher (Secretary). 

Investigations on Pigment in the Inseeta. — Prof. W. Garstang (Chairman), Dr. J. W. 
Heslop Harrison (Secretary), Prof. E. B. Poulton, Prof. A. D. Peacock. £15. 

Experimental investigation of the effects of Vasoligation, Cryptorchidism, Grafting, 
etc., on the Seminal Tubules and Interstitial Tis.sue of the Testes in Mammah. 
—Dr. F. A. E. Crew (Chairman), Mr. J. T. Cunningham (Secretary), Prof. J. 8. 
Huxley. £10- 



xxviii RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To consider the advisability of making a provisional Population Map of the British 
Isles, and to make recommendations as to the method of construction and 
reproduction. — Mr. H. O. Beckit {Chairman), Mr. F. Debenham (Secretary), 
Mr. J. Bartholomew, Dr. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. B. H. Kinvig, 
Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Mr. 0. H. T. Rishbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Lt.-Col. H. S. L. 
Winterbotham. £25. 

To inquire into the present state of Geographical Knowledge of Tropical Africa, and 
to make recommendations for furtherance and development. — Sir Charles Lucas 
(Chairman), Mr. A. G. Ogilvie (Secretary), Mr. W. H. Barker, Mr. J. McFarlane, 
Prof. P. M. Roxby. £5. 

SECTIONS E, L.— GEOGRAPHY, EDUCATION. 

To formulate suggestions for a syllabus for the teaching of Geography both to Matricu- 
lation Standard and in Advanced Courses ; to report upon the present position 
of the geographical training of teachers, and to make recommendations thereon ; 
and to report, as occasion arises, to Council through the Organising Committee 
of Section E, upon the practical working of Regulations issued by the Board of 
Education (including Scotland) affecting the position of Geography in Training 
Colleges and Secondary Schools. — Prof. T. P. Nunn (Chairman), Mr. W. H. 
Barker (Secretary), Mr. L. Brooks, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, 
Sir H. J. Mackinder, Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. Marion Newbigin, Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, 
Mr. A. Stevens, and Prof. J. F. Unstead (from Section E) ; Mr. D. Berridge, Mr. 
C. E. Browne, Sir R. Gregory, Mr. E. R. Thomas, Miss 0. Wright (from Section L). 
£5. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

To investigate certain aspects of Taxation in relation to the Distribution of Wealth.— 
Sir Josiah Stamp (Chairman), Mr. R. B. Forrester (Secretary), Prof. A. L. Bowley, 
Prof. E. Cannan, Prof. H. Clay, Mr. W. H. Coates, Miss L. Grier, Prof. H. M. 
Hallsworth, Prof. J. G. Smith. 

Earth Pressures. — Mr. Wentworth Sheilds (Chairman), Dr. J. S. Owens (Secretary), 
Prof. G. Cook, Mr. P. M. Crosthwaite, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. F. C. Lea, 
Mr. R. V. Southwell, Dr. R. E. Stradling, Dr. W. N. Thomas, Mr. E. G. Walker, 
Mr. J. S. Wilson. £10. 

Electrical Terms and Definitions. — Sir John Snell (Chairman), Prof. Baily and Prof. 
G. W. 0. Howe (Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Prof. Sir 
James Henderson, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Dr. F. E. Smith. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chair- 
man), Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Secretary), Mr. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, 
Prof. T. H. Bryce, Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt. £90. 

To conduct Arch»ological Investigations in Malta. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), 
Sir A. Keith (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. H. Balfour. 

To conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles.— 
Sir C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Sir Arthur Evans, Sir W. Boyd Dawkins, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. 
H. J. E. Peake. 

To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), Mr. S. 
Casson (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. M. Thompson. £40. 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments. — Mr, 
G. A. Garfitt (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. C. Fox, Mr. G. Marshall, Prof. J. L. 
Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Rev. Canon Quine. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthro- 
pological Interest.— Mr. E. Torday (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, Prof. J. L. Myres. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. xxix 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of Copper used by the Sumerians. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. C. H. Deseh, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir Flinders Petrie, 
Mr. C. Leonard WooUey. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Dr. D. G. Hogarth 
(Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. 
Evans, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To investigate the Culture of the Peasant Population of Modern Egypt. — Prof. J. L. 
Myres (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary). Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Capt. Hilton Simpson, Prof. H. J. Rose. £20. 

The Investigation of a hill fort site at Llanmelin, near Caerwent. — Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner (Chairman), Dr. Cyril Fox (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Prof. H. J. Flcure, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Prof. H. J. Rose, Dr. R. Mortimer Wheeler. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. — 
Sir A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. R. V. Favell, Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt, Prof. W. J. Sollas, Mr. Mark L. Sykes. 

To conduct Anthropological investigations in some Oxfordshire villages. — Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. F. G. Parsons. £10. 

To report on the present state of knowledge of the relation of early Palaeolithic 
Implements to Glacial Deposits. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. M. Burkitt, Prof. 
P. F. Kendall, Mr. G. Lamplugh, Prof. J. E. Marr. £30. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the explora- 
tion of Caves in the Derbyshire district. — Sir W. Boyd Dawkins (Chairman), 
Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. M. Burkitt, Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize, Dr. Favell, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Dr. R. R. Marett, 
Mr. L. S. Palmer, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. £25. 

To investigate processes of Growth in Children, with a view to discovering Differences 
due to Race and Sex, and further to study Racial Differences in Women.- — Sir 
A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. H. J. Fleure (Secretary), Mr. L. H. Dudlev Buxton, 
Dr. A. Low, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. £25. 

To report on proposals for an Anthropological and Archaeological Bibliography, with 
power to co-operate with other bodies. — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. W. H. Barker, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Dr. D. Randall-Maclver, 
Mr. T. Sheppard. 

To report on the progress of Anthropological Teachmg in the present century. — 
Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To investigate certain Physical Characters and the Family Histories of Triplet Children. 
—Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Chairman), Mr. R. A. Fisher (Secretary), Miss R. M. Fleming, 
Dr. A. Low. £20. 

To conduct explorations on early Neolithic Sites in Holderness. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake 
(Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. M. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. 
Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Mr. L. S. Palmer. 

To investigate the antiquity and cultural relations of the ancient Copper Workings 
in the Katanga and Northern Rhodesia.^Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E.N. 
Fallaize and Mr. G. A. Wainwright (Secretaries), Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, 
Dr. Randall-Maclver. 

To co-operate in Ethnological and Geographical exploration on the Sepik River, New 
Guinea. — Mr. H. Balfour (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To arrange for the publication of a new edition of ' Notes and Queries on Anthro- 
pology.' — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mrs. 
Robert Aitken, Mrs. H. Balfour, Capt. T. A. Joyce, Prof. J. L. Myres, Prof. 
C. G. Seligman. 



XXX RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The Cost of Cycling witli varied rate and work. — Prof. J. S. Maedonald (Chairman), 
Dr. F. A.'Duffield {Secretary). £10. 

The Investigation of the Medullary Centres. — Prof. C. Lovatt Evans (Chairman), 
Dr. J. M. Duncan Scott (Secretary), Dr. H. H. Dale. £20. 

Colour Vision, with particular reference to the classification of Colour-blindness. — 
Sir C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Prof. H. E. Roaf (Secretary), Dr. Mary 
Collins, Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green. 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

Vocational Tests. — Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Mr.F. M.Earle, Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H.Pear, Prof. C. Spearman, 
Mr. F. Watts. £14. 

The place of Psychology in the Medical Curriculum. — Dr. W. Brown (Chairman), 
Dr. R. D. Gillespie (Secretary), Dr. C. H. Bond, Prof. E. P. Cathcart, Dr. Devine, 
Dr. J. A. Hadfield, Dr. Bernard Hart, Dr. D. K. Henderson, Mr. J. R. Lord, 
Dr. C. S. Myers, Prof. T. H. Pear, Dr. Ross. 

The Character of a first-year University Course in Experimental Psychology. — Dr. J. 
Drever (Chairman),' Dr. Mary Collins (Secretary), Mr. F. C. Bartlett, Mr. R. J. 
Bartlett, Prof. C. Burt, Dr. Shepherd Dawson, Prof. A. E. Heath, Dr. LI. Wynn 
Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

To make investigations on the Marine Alg® attached to the salvaged German Warships 
at Scapa Flow. — Dr. A. B. Rendle (Chairman), Miss L. Lyle (Secretary), Mr. A. D. 
Cotton, Mr. A. Gepp. £45. 

Investigations on the effect of duration and nature of Illumination on Growth and 
Flowering in Arachis hypogcea and Voandzeia subterranea. — Prof. W. Neilsoii 
Jones (Chairman), Dr. E. M. Delf (Secretary), Prof. V. H. Blackman. £40. 

To consider the advisability of instituting a diploma in biology for students in training 
colleges. — Prof. F. O. Bower (Chairman), Prof. S. Mangham (Secretary), Miss 
A. Moodie, Mr. J. L. Sager, Miss E. H. Stevenson, Dr. Ethel N. Miles Thomas, 
Prof. J. Lloyd Williams. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To inquire into the Practicability of an International Auxiliary Language. — Dr. H. 
Forster Morley (Chairman), Dr. E. H. Tripp (Secretary), Mr. E. Bullough, Prof. 
F. G. Donnan, Prof. J. J. Findlay, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir W. B. Hardy, 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Sir E. Cooper Perry, Mr. Nowell Smith, Mr. A. E. 
Twentyman. 

To consider the educational training of boys and girls in Secondary Schools for over- 
seas life.- — Rev. H. B. Gray (Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne (Secretary), Major 
A. G. Church, Mr. H. W. Cousins, Dr. J. Vargas Eyre, Mr. G. H. Garrad, Sir R. A. 
Gregory, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Miss E. H. McLean, Miss Rita Oldham, Mr. G. W. 
Olive, Miss Gladys Pott, Sir J. Russell, Rev. Canon H. Sewell, Mr. A. A. Somer- 
ville, Mrs. Gordon Wilson. £10. 

The bearing on school work of recent views on formal training. — Prof. F. A. Cavenagh 
(Chairman), Prof. A. E. Heath (Secretary), Prof. R. L. Archer, Miss E. R. Conwaj', 
Prof. M. W. Keatinge, Mr. H. P. Sparling, Major E. R. Thomas, Prof. G. Thomson. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard (Vice-Chairynan), the General Secretaries, the General 
Treasurer, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir David Prain, Sir John 
Russell, Mr. Mark L. Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney ; with authority to co-opt representa- 
tives of Scientific Societies in the locality of the Annual Meeting. 



XXXI 



THE CAIRO FUND. 



An unconditional gift of £10,000 for research was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of Dundee. 

The Council, in its report to the General Committee at the Birmingham Meeting, 
made certain recommendations as to the administration of this Fund. These 
recommendations were adopted, with the Report, by the General Committee at its 
meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The allocations made from the Fund by the Council to September 1922 will be 
found stated in the Report for 1922, p. xxxi. Subsequent grants from the fund are 
incorporated in the lists of Research Committees. 

In 1921-25 the Council authorised expenditure from accumulated income of the 
fund upon grants to Research Committees apj)roved by the General Committee by way 
of supplementing sums available from the general funds of the Association, and in 
addition to grants ordinarily made by, or applied for from, the Council. 



Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of £1,000 to the 
Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. In 1920 the Council decided 
to devote the principal and interest of this gift at the rate of £250 per annum for five 
years to purposes of the research intended. The grants for the years ending March 24, 
1922 and 1923, were made to Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. The grant for the year ending 
March 24, 1924, was made to Prof. F. Soddy, F.R.S. The grant for the year ending 
March 24, 1925, was divided between Messrs. C. T. R. Wilson (£100), J. Chadwick 
(£75), and A. S. Russell (£75). The grant for the vear ending March 24, 1926, was 
divided between Mr. P. M. S. Blackett (£100), Dr. J. Chadwick (£100), and Dr. A. S. 
Russell (£50). For the year 1926-27 grants of £50 each were made to Messrs. Blackett. 
Chadwick and Russell, and balance remaining was brought into general funds and 
earmarked as available for a grant to any committee of the Association 
appointed in the future to undertake research in radio-activity. 



RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 



The following Resolutions and Recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at Oxford for consideration, and, if 
desirable, for action (except where specified as approved for action) : — 

' From Section A. 

That the administrative officers of the Association be instructed to standardise 
the title of Section A in the form ' Mathematical and Physical Sciences.' (Approved 
for action.) 

From Section A. 

That the Council be requested to inquire into the possibility of republishing the 
reports of the Mathematical Tables Committee in collected form. 

From Section D. 

That, in view of the prohibitive duty required by H.M. Customs for the introduction 
into this country of Dr. Cushman Murphy's cinematograph film, the Council of the 
British Association be requested to take up the matter with a view to some distinction 
being made between scientific and commercial films in the matter of Customs charges. 

From Section H. 

That the British Association deplores the detriment to scientific investigation 
which results from certain details of the present scheme for the imposition of duties 



XXxii RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

on imported cinematograph films, and aslts for such revision of the Customs regulations, 
as will facilitate the introduction into this country of films dealing with purely 
scientific subjects not intended for commercial uses. 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

That the Council be asked to represent to His Majesty's Government the serious 
detriment to scientific investigation and to the dissemination of scientific knowledge 
which results from the present restrictions on the importation into this country of 
cinematograph films recording scientific observations, intended for purposes of educa- 
tion and advanced study, and not for commercial purposes ; and to ask for their 
amendment. 

From Section K. 

That the Sub-section of Forestry and the Section of Botany desire to emphasise 
the disastrous effects which follow the reckless destruction of forests on hill slopes and 
in the mountainous regions in the Tropics. 

From Sections L and M. 

That, with a view to the promotion of imperial interests overseas and the unlimited 
opportunities for land settlement, the Council be requested to draw public attention 
to the demand of the Dominions for the supply of J^oung people of both sexes of good 
education, and to urge that adequate preparation for overseas life should be given in 
schools. 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

That steps be taken, with the co-operation of local societies, to make systematic 
records of temporarily open geological sections, well-borings and the like. 

From the General Committee. 

The General Committee desires to express the cordial thanks of the Association 
to the President and Secretary of the South African Association for their telegram of 
good wishes, and especially for their early intimation of the desire of the South 
African Association that the British Association should hold its Meeting in South 
Africa in the year 1929 ; and hereby instructs the Council to make the necessary 
inquiries as to the date of the proposed Meeting, the necessary period of absence 
from this country, the probable expenses of the journey to members, and the financial 
provision which it is proposed to make for the Meeting ; and in accordance with usual 
procedure to report to the next meeting of the General Committee. " 



A report of the Discussion on Educational Training for Overseas Life was ordered 
to be printed in extended forin, with provision for the cost of reporting. 




THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

BY 

H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES, E.G., D.C.L., F.R.S.. 

President of the Association. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, 

My first duty, as President of our great Association, must be to read to 
you the following message from His Majesty The King : — 

I am sensible of the distinction conferred upon my dear son, The 
Prince of Wales, in presiding at this year's meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science ; for I realise that no 
Member of my Family has occupied this position since my grandfather 
was President in 1859. I cannot do better than repeat the assurances 
then made by the Prince Consort on behalf of Queen Victoria, and 
express my deep appreciation of the all-important and ceaseless labours 
in the cause of Science of those eminent men who enjoy the Member- 
ship of your world-renowned Society. 

I propose on behalf of the Association to forward the following reply 
to this message : — 

The members of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science assembled at Oxford humbly beg to express to Your Majesty 
their loyal appreciation of the patronage extended to the Association 
by your Father and Yourself, and of Your Majesties' repeated expres- 
sions of personal interest in its work. 

The Advancement of Science is the constant object of the British 
Association ; to give a stronger impulse and more systematic direction 
to scientific inquiry, to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate 
science in different parts of the British Empire with one another and 
with foreign philosophers, to obtain a greater degree of national atten- 
tion to the objects of science, by removing those disadvantages which 
impede its progress, for the well-being of Your Majesty's realm and the 
general good of mankind. 

My second duty is to try and tell you — if this be possible — something 

which you do not know already. I must admit frankly that, for a long time, 

the prospect of attempting this has weighed on me heavily. For a man who, 

along with the great majority of his fellow-creatures, can lay claim to no 

intensive scientific training, it is no light responsibility to be called on to 
1926 B 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

address the annual gathering of the British Association. But, believe me, 
I do not intend to shirk that responsibility ; for it seems to me that only 
by discharging it as well as I possibly can, shall I be able to show you how 
highly I value the great honour you paid me, when you added my name to 
those of the distinguished men who have been your Presidents in past years. 

At first sight, it might appear a hopeless task for anyone who knows 
nothing of Science to talk to you, who know everything about Science. 
But those who work in the scientific field will be the first to admit that no 
task is really hopeless, and, when I approached this one, I began to think 
I might perhaps find a few topics in which I could interest you. For, after 
all, Science is only another name for Knowledge, and any man who goes 
about the world with his eyes open cannot fail to acquire knowledge of 
some sort, which, if he can express it, must appeal to any audience. 

To adapt one of our most familiar sayings, the onlooker can see a great 
deal of the game. And I, for instance, though I claim no insight into pure 
Science, can fairly claim an onlooker's experience of very many practical 
instances of Science as applied to the needs of our civilisation as we know it 
to-day. For some years past, in war and in peace, I have been privileged to 
have countless opportunities of examining, at close quarters, the concrete 
results of such applied science. In things military and naval, in factories, 
workshops, mines, railroads, in contact with the everyday problems of 
education, health, land-settlement, agriculture, transport or housing — in all 
such varied departments of human life, it has been borne in on me more 
and more that if civilisation is to go on, it can only progress along a road of 
which the foundations have been laid by scientific thought and research. 
More than that, I have come to realise that the future solution of practically 
all of the domestic and social difficulties with which we have to grapple 
nowadays will only be found by scientific methods. 

It is from this experience, and with the convictions it has brought, 
that I should like to-night to tell you something of my general impressions 
of the bearing of Scientific Kesearch on the daily life of the community ; 
and to show how that relationship can be developed by the mutual co- 
operation of scientific workers and the State. I cannot better embark on 
this attempt than by quoting to you the words of my distinguished pre- 
decessor, though without the hope that what follows will maintain the 
high standard which he set in his Presidential Address at the last meeting. 

Professor Lamb, on that occasion, expressed confidence that the efforts 
of scientific workers ' have their place, not a mean one, in human activities, 
and that they tend, if often in unimagined ways, to increase the intellectual 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 3 

and the material and even the sesthetic possessions of the world. And in 
that assurance (he continued) we may rejoice that Science has never been 
so widely and so enthusiastically cultivated as at the present time, with 
so complete sincerity, or (we may claim) with more brilliant success.' 
This claim, by no means exaggerated, invites reflection upon the intimate 
association of the results of scientific research with the daily lives and affairs 
of everyone of us. And it is a good thing to reflect upon this, even for those 
who have no sort of direct contact with scientific research, if only because 
the doing so may dispel an attitude towards Science, which personifies 
it somewhat as the ancients personified the powers of darkness, and invests 
it with some of their sinister attributes. Such an attitude of mind is 
fortunately less common than it used to be. Professor Lamb, in the address 
already qiioted, referred to a certain feeling of dumb hostility toward 
Science and its works, which still survives. No doubt it does ; but at 
least it has ceased to be vocal, as it was in the earlier days of the Associa- 
tion. It became loud (for example) at two of the meetings in this very place. 
The later of these two occasions was the Oxford Meeting in 1860, and the 
field of battle was the section of Botany and Zoology, in which the theories 
put forward in Darwin's Origin of Species were debated, in a manner which 
has passed into history, between Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford, on the one 
hand, and Huxley and Hooker on the other. 

The earlier occasion, however, more appropriately illustrates, by 
contrast, the modern realisation of our debt to Science. 

The second meeting of the Association, in 1832, took place in Oxford. 
The University was not, at that time, without distinguished cultivators of 
Science. The invitation to Oxford came from Charles Daubeny, who com- 
bined the professorships of chemistry, botany, and rural economy, and the 
president was William Buckland, then Canon of Christ Church and pro- 
fessor of mineralogy and geology. But a strong body of opinion resented the 
recognition of Science by the University when carried to the extent of 
conferring honorary degrees upon four of the distinguished visitors. The 
famous Keble, moved for once to anger, referred to those who were thus 
honoured as a ' hodge-podge of philosophers.' Their names were David 
Brewster, Kobert Brown, John Dalton, and Michael Faraday. Each of 
these men has left in the history of his own special branches of Science an 
outstanding memorial. Brewster's researches into optics were his greatest 
scientific achievement ; to our own gratitude he has an especial claim as 
the leader ainong the founders of our Association. Brown's services to 

botany were unsurpassed ; perhaps that of widest appeal is his very 

B 2 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

thorough investigation of the flora of the coastlands of Australia, made 
during the voyage on which he accompanied Flinders in 1810-14 ; an early 
example of what may be termed imperial research. Dalton's name is 
identified for ever with the atomic theory, and he placed meteorology on a 
scientific footing. Faraday's labours provide one of the most wonderful 
examples of scientific research leading to enormous industrial development. 
Upon his discovery of benzene and its structure the great chemical indus- 
tries of to-day are largely based, including, in particular, the dyeing 
industries. Still wider applications have followed upon his discovery of the 
Jaws of electrolysis and of the mechanical generation of electricity. It 
has been said, and with reason, that the two million workers in this country 
alone who are dependent upon electrical industries are living on the brain 
of Faraday ; but to his discoveries in the first instance many millions more 
owe the uses of electricity in lighting, traction, communication, and in- 
dustrial power. Oxford, then, was not dishonoured in the hodge-podge 
of philosophers whom she recognised in 1832. Nor will she recall with any 
disfavour the singularly doubtful compliment paid her on that occasion 
by another distinguished visitor, in whose mind the opposition must have 
rankled ; the University, he said, had prolonged her existence for a hundred 
years by the kind reception he and his fellows had received. The Associa- 
tion will scarcely make that claim to-day. But its visiting members will 
have ample opportunity to learn how, through her museums and labora- 
tories, Oxford, within the hundred years thus tolerantly allotted to her, 
has kept pace with the scientific development of the period. It need surely 
be no matter for regret if Science has worked for and is taking a place, 
not only in the university but in the schools, complementary with that 
occupied by the humanities. For complementary these two branches of 
learning must ultimately be. All the greatest exponents of scientific 
learning have been men of attainment also in letters. 

The services rendered to mankind by the labours of outstanding figures 
in Science, such as Faradaj^, or Kelvin, or Pasteur, or Lister, are matters 
of too common knowledge to need insisting upon in this place. What is 
perhaps less generally appreciated is the extent to which, through the 
efforts of very numerous workers, the results of scientific research have been 
brought to bear upon many of the most pressing domestic and industrial 
problems of the day, and that the co-operation between the laboratory 
and the State (which means the community) has been greatly strengthened 
of recent years. The British Association has always supported such co- 
operation. One of its principal aims, as stated by its founders and main- 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 5 

tained ever since, is ' to obtain more general attention for the objects of 
Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public kind which im- 
pede its progress.' In an article contributed by Brewster to the * Quarterly 
Review ' in 1830, he asserted frankly that ' the sciences of England ' were 
' in a wretched state of depression, and their decline is mainly owing to the 
ignorance and supineness of the Government ' as well as to various other 
causes which he detailed. The same theme (if less forcibly stated) recurs in 
some of the earlier addresses from the chair of the Association : the Prince 
Consort, for example, as President in 1859, thus indicates his view of the 
situation at that time — ' We may be justified in hoping,' he said, ' that by 
the gradual diffusion of Science, and its increasing recognition as a principal 
part of our national education, the public in general, no less than the legis- 
lature and the State, will more and more recognise the claims of Science 
to their attention ; so that it may no longer require the begging-box, but 
speak to the State, like a favoured child to its parent, sure of his parental 
solicitude for its welfare ; that the State will recognise in Science one of 
its elements of strength and prosperity, to foster which the clearest 
dictates of self-interest demand.' 

It may be fairly said that the position foreshadowed in those words is 
now, in a large measure, attained. The progress towards it was visible, 
if .''low, down to the end of the last century ; but the beginning of a new 
era was then marked by the establishment of the National Physical 
Laboratory. This was at first set up in Kew Observatory, a building which, 
as a laboratory for magnetic and meteorological observations, and for 
the standardising of instruments, owed its maintenance to the British 
Association for thirty years from 1841, when, as a royal observatory, the 
Government decided to dismantle it. The building proved incapable of 
extension to accommodate the whole of the work, and in 1900 Bushy 
House, Teddington, was placed at the disposal of the laboratory by the 
Crown. The laboratory, at its inception, was divided into departments 
dealing with physics, engineering and chemistry, and it possesses also 
the famous William Froude experimental ship tank. The investigations 
with which it has been so largely concerned — -the testing and standardisa- 
tion of machines, materials, and scientific instruments, researches into 
methods of mea.surement with the utmost accuracy, work on scale-models 
of ships, and the like — -while of the first importance to Government Depart- 
ments concerned with such applications of science, have also achieved 
many valuable results for industry in improving standard (jualities, in 
indicating scientific methods applicable throughout a variety of manu- 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

factures, and thus in bringing about an improvement in the quality of 

their output for the benefit of consumers — which is to say, ourselves. 

In historical sequence among the events which have strengthened 
interaction between Science and the State, there follows the establishment 
of the Development Commission in 1908. Until that date the only agency 
for agricultural research in Great Britain was the classical experimental 
station at Rotharasted, a private benefaction ; and the expenditure of 
the State on this prime factor in national economy was trifling. Since 
1908 the Rothamsted station has been expanded to cover the whole field 
of nutrition and disease in the plant, while other institutes have been 
founded to deal with other aspects of agriculture such as plant breeding, 
the nutrition and diseases of animals, agricultural machinery and the 
economics of the industry. Not only are these institutes providing know- 
ledge for our own farmers, but they form the training-ground for agri- 
cultural experts required by the Dominions, India, and the Crown Colonies, 
which need no longer look abroad for their advisers. At the plant- 
breeding institute at Cambridge, Sir Rowland Bifien has provided several 
new wheats, of which two are generally grown throughout the country ; 
the extra yield and value of these wheats must already have more than 
repaid the whole expenditure on agricultural research since the institute 
was founded. Among other examples of the value of research there may 
be mentioned the discovery of a variety of potato immune from the 
ineradicable wart disease, which a few years ago threatened the principal 
growing districts. The clearing up of the ccflifusion into which com- 
mercial stocks of fruit trees had fallen has ensured that growers may plant 
orchards upon uniform stocks suitable to the soil and climate. And 
among the most important inquiries are those into the production and 
cleansing of milk, which have resulted in an entire reform of rationing, 
increasing the yield of each cow by one to two hundred gallons a year, and 
in freeing milk from the risk of contamination with disease. 

Research into fisheries (which are administratively associated with 
agriculture) has become a matter of necessity in the light of evidence that 
even the vast resources of the sea have their limit, and can be injured if 
they are not exploited with due care and knowledge. Great Britain, 
acting in co-operation with the other nations who share with us the 
northern seas, has accomplished much in ascertaining the causes of the 
fluctuating herring supply, and has contributed notably to the study of 
the methods by which the stocks of plaice can be maintained. Research 
again is active in finding methods by which we can mitigate one of the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 7 

consequences of our dense population — the pollution of our rivers anrl 
estuaries, and a method has been found whereby great supplies of shell- 
fish that had been condemned are once more available as food. Some of 
my hearers will know, too, of the remarkable results obtained from the 
scientific study of the habits of the salmon. Though fishing has been 
described as ' a fool at one end of a string and a worm at the other,' the 
subject is not without its personal interest, I believe, to many learned 
men. 

Reverting to the historical sequence, it is appropriate to recall, with 
gratitude for its labours, the constitution of the Medical Research Com- 
mittee in 1913, under the Insurance Act of 1911 : this has since (in 1919) 
been transferred to a committee of the Privy Council under the name of 
the Medical Research Council, and its funds are directly voted by Parlia- 
ment instead of being drawn from the contributions made by or on behalf 
of insured persons. 

Research alone could provide the knowledge on which must be based 
all wise and effective legislation or administrative action in the interests 
of the nation's health. Yet until 1913 the State had played at best a 
subsidiary part in the organisation of such research and the provision of 
its material support. Under the new conditions the State is actively 
concerned with the promotion and co-ordination of medical research 
towards conquest of those infirmities with which ignorance has afflicted 
humanity. A few only may be mentioned, which have rightly appealed 
to wide public interest. Insulin, a gift to science and to humanity from 
young enterprise and enthusiasm in the Dominion of Canada, is not only 
saving lives that were threatened, and restoring almost to normal health 
and enjoyment many that were crijipled by weakness and restriction, but, 
as a tool of investigation, is shaping new knowledge that will influence all 
our ideas of the functions of the body, in health or disease. The dis- 
covery of the vitamins, those still mysterious and minute constituents of 
a natural diet, has brought understanding of various defects of health and 
of develoj)ment, created for us largely by the blindness of civilisation to 
dangers accompanying its progress, dangers which science can avert. 
Closely linked with the discovery has been the more recent development of 
knowledge concerning the need of sunlight for health, in man and his 
fellow animals as in plants. We know now that crippling deformity 
appears in the growing child unless he receives his proper share of the 
vitalising rays of the sun, either directly or through the presence in natural 
foods of vitamins which these rays have produced. Sunlight, or its 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

artificial equivalents, have some importance already in the treatment of 
disease ; but a realisation of its significance for health has a much greater 
importance in preventive hygiene. There can surely be no plainer duty, 
for a State charged with the health of an industrial civilisation, than to 
promote with all its resources the search for such knowledge as this, as 
well as to provide for its application when obtained. 

Among diseases which painfully affect the popular imagination, cancer 
has an evil pre-eminence, largely on account of its mysterious, and there- 
fore seemingly inevitable nature. For many years past a volume of 
investigation, supported by private benefactions and organised charity, 
has patiently accumulated knowledge of the beginnings of cancer and the 
conditions of its growth. Now, at length, there are signs of more rapid 
progress towards a penetration of its secret. Patience and caution are as 
necessary as ever ; a new and exacting technique is still in development ; 
but there is a new spirit of hope and enthusiasm. And it is reassuring 
to know that in this, as in other directions, the State is giving its direct 
support to investigation, and co-operating with the foundations due to 
private generosity. 

Looking backward a dozen years or so, one may say that Science was 
definitely, by that time, a working part of the machinery of the State, 
though, as we see now, uot a part working at full power. The Great War 
caused a broadening, so to speak, of the scientific horizon for men of 
science themselves in some measure, but for the layman in a measure far 
greater. We all were brought to recognise the applications of Science as 
adding, it may be, in certain respects to the distresses of warfare ; but also 
as immensely alleviating the sufierings caused by it, and as indicating 
many methods of strengthening the arts of defence — some of which methods 
are no less valuable in strengthening the arts of peace. The creation of 
the Government Department of Scientific and Industrial Research was 
an act which falls, historically, within the period of the war ; but as an 
outstanding incident in -the scientific advancement of national affairs, 
it certainly is not to be regarded as merely a war measure ; it was once 
described as a near relative of ' Dora,' but that was a mistake. Neverthe- 
less, by an odd freak of history, it needed the whole period of a century 
between one great war-time and the next — between the Napoleonic and 
the World Wars — to mature the conception of a State department of 
scientific research. Some idea of this kind was clearly present in the mind 
of Brewster, and certain of his contemporaries, concurrently with his idea 
of the foundation of our own Association in 1831 ; and later (in 1850) 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 9 

when he addressed the Association from the chair, lie claimed a strong 
advance in scientific and public opinion toward his views. Five years 
later a concrete proposal for the creation of a Board of Science, possessing 
' at once authority and knowledge,' was put forward by the Parliamentary 
Committee of this Association (a committee no longer existing) ; but our 
Council at the time considered that the proposal had ' yet to receive 
sanction from public opinion, and more especially from the opinion of 
men of science themselves.' It was not, in fact, entirely owing to lack of 
prevision on the side of successive Governments that the developments 
which have been outlined were so long delayed. There was an element 
of mutual distrust between Science and the State — now, it may happily 
be believed, almost if not quite wholly removed. A strong body of scientific 
opinion was avowedly afraid (as Sir George Airy phrased it) of ' organisa- 
tions of any kind dependent on the State.' It is to be hoped that modern 
developments have removed that fear. The progress of Science cannot be 
kept wholly within training-walls, and no one wants to try to keep it so. 
The waters of a river may be guided artificially to do the work of irriga- 
tion ; but not at their sources, nor yet where, at the last, they percolate 
the soil. The guidance of scientific research, in its inception, lies with the 
genius of the individual ; its results for the future may lie far beyond the 
realisation even of the scientific workers themselves. The Oxford Meeting 
of the Association in 1894 supplies a simple example of this. There was a 
discussion on flight, in the Section of Mathematics and Physics, opened by 
Hiram Maxim ; and no less a leader in science than Kelvin afterwards 
described Maxim's own flying machine as a child's perambulator with a 
sunshade magnified eight times. Yet it was not many years before research 
in aeronautics had become the care of the State as well as of the individual ; 
and the work carried out before 1914 under (what is now) the Aeronautical 
Research Committee led on to our wonderful development of aircraft 
during the war. 

A recent report of the Committee of the Privy Council for Scientific 
and Industrial Research shows that under the Department there are 
eleven research boards, some of which direct the work of committees to 
the number of three dozen in all. These boards co-ordinate and govern 
researches in chemistry, fabrics, engineering, and physics, radio, building, 
food-investigation, forest-products, and fuel ; and to these are to be added 
the board of the Geological Survey and the executive committee of the 
National Physical Laboratory. Under the general supervision of the 
Advisory Council there are upwards of twenty industrial research associa- 



10 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

tions, formed in alliance with the same number of the principal industries 
of the country, for the purposes of scientific investigations connected with 
those industries. No attempt can be made here to review the whole field 
of work of these various bodies ; but a few examples may be chosen for 
the purpose of pointing out what may be called their homely application. 
First, then, as to the building of the home. The Building Eesearch Board 
was created in 1920, and in 1925, at the request of the Ministry of Health, 
considerably extended its activities. Researches are concerned with the 
study of materials from the chemical and geological aspects, their strength, 
weathering, moisture condensation on wall coverings, acoustics, and various 
other problems ; these inquiries, together with the collection and supply 
of information both by publication and through an intelligence bureau, 
represent (as the report states) ' an attempt to create a real science of 
building, to explain and supplement the traditional knowledge possessed 
to-day in the industry.' It can scarcely be questioned that industrial 
Britain inherits a legacy of discomfort in the housing of its workers, with 
all which that implies, dating from a period when the building of the home 
lacked scientific as well as aesthetic guidance. We need that guidance no 
less to-day, when the saving of labour is one of the main objectives of the 
' ideal home ' and its fitments. 

Next, a further word as to our food supplies. The Food Investigation 
Board directs committees concerned with meat and fish preservation, 
fruit and vegetables, oils and fats, and canned foods. There is also a 
committee for engineering problems associated with the investigations ; 
conditions of storage have been investigated on ships between this country 
and Australia, and problems of heat-conductivity at the National Physical 
Laboratory, while chemical substances suitable for refrigerants have been 
studied at the Engineering School here in Oxford. At Cambridge a low- 
temperature research station has been established on ground given by the 
University, and is working in co-operation with the University bio- 
chemical, botanical, agricultural, and other laboratories. As for the 
investigations upon fruit and vegetables, the report may again be quoted, 
for it illustrates in a sentence something approaching the ideal of scientific 
co-operation brought to bear upon one particular home necessity, and 
(what is more) upon a particular and important branch of Imperial 
commerce. ' There is (it says) a closely knit scheme of work, which rests, 
on the one hand, in university schools of botany, and, on the other, in 
commercial stores scattered all over the country, where accurate records 
of results and conditions have been kept, and extends to the conditions 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 11 

of transport by ship, and overseas so far even as the Aiistralasian orchards.' 
Other directions of research which touch upon commonplaces of our daily 
life are those concerned with fuel, with illumination, with the deteriora- 
tion of fabrics and the fading of coloured stuffs, and— perhaps most homely 
example of all — with the application of scientific methods in the laundry 
industry. This will be good news to those of us who may have suffered, 
or may even be suffering to-night, from the torture of a collar which comes 
back from the wash with an edge like a surgical saw. It must be clearly 
understood that the few instances mentioned represent only a small 
fraction of the present activities of Science in co-operation with the State. 
And expressed as they are here expressed, they may appear to wear an 
aspect even of triviality, because they deal with common things. But it 
is precisely because they do deal with common things that they are not 
trivial. There may be matter for amusement in the fact that Science is 
concerning itself with the contents of the clothes-basket ; but there is 
also matter for congratulation, and there may, in the future, be matter 
for sincere gratitude. Scientific research, properly applied and carried 
out, is never wasted. It may prove that a thing can be done, or that it 
can not be done ; but even the proof of a negative may save the waste of 
further effort. 

This attitude of the State toward Science makes for an easing of the 
paths for the advancement of science in many directions ; it marks a 
definite step in human progress, taken after long hesitation, but in itself 
new ; and because it is new, we may believe with some reason that, we 
live, not merely in an age of science, but at the beginning of it. The 
movement for co-operation which we have been discussing is not confined 
to this country. It has borne fine fruit already in other lands ; and in 
particular it is active in our own Dominions. The Indian Empire stands 
in a somewhat different category from these : there is here a tradition, 
so to say, for the application of science in its government, and the 
scientific results of its census investigations, its surveys, its agricultural 
forestry, and other administrative departments have long been famous. 
This is not to imply that brilliant scientific work has been wanting in the 
Dominions — far from it — but the co-operative movements with their 
governments have followed that in this country and with a laudable 
promptitude. The trend of developments following upon all these move- 
ments has been similar broadly speaking ; it is sought to take a compre- 
hensive survey of the natural resources and industrial opportunities of 
each Dominion, to explore the means by which Science may be best applied 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 

to their exploitation, to provide, whether in State institutions or in uni- 
versity and other laboratories, for the pursuit of the necessary researches, 
to co-ordinate the work, and to ensure the dissemination of knowledge 
acquired. The nature of the researches themselves is conditioned to a 
large extent (though by no means wholly) by geographical circumstances 
in the respective territories : agricultural, pastoral, and forestry problems, 
for example, are not identical in all of them, and that very fact adds to 
the interest and value of co-ordinating the results of research work 
throughout the Empire. While problems may difEer, solutions may 
point to a common end. Nothing but good can follow from personal 
contact between scientific workers in different parts of the Empire. Nothing 
but good can follow from their researches if they add, as gradually they 
must add, to the wider knowledge of the Empire not only among the 
workers themselves, but ultimately among the whole body of informed 
Imperial citizenship ; not only in the overseas territories, but here at 
home. For us at home the Empire is worth knowing. Our knowledge 
of it begins with the school lessons in geography and history — or should 
do so ; no doubt the ideal here is yet to be attained. Such knowledge 
may become later of vital importance to those who wish to join the stream 
of overseas migration. The British Association, in pursuit of its policy 
of obtaining from time to time ' reports on the state of science ' in one 
department or another, has recently, through a committee of the Section 
of Educational Science, been collecting evidence as to the facilities existing 
in our schools for training boys and girls for life overseas. In the crowded 
curriculum of most schools these facilities, at any rate in their particular 
Imperial application, are not conspicuous. Yet any labour which time 
allows us to spend, whether in school days or after them, upon the advance- 
ment of scientific knowledge of the Empire, of the means and manner and 
environment of life in its component territories, must be well spent. The 
British Association has played its part in this advancement since, in 1 884, 
it admitted the principle and established the practice of holding occasional 
meetings overseas. Those of our members who travelled from this 
country to take part in these meetings have had peculiar opportumties 
to meet and discuss each his own scientific problems with fellow-workers 
in the Dominions — and it should be added with particular reference to 
those meetings which have been held in Canada that they have provided 
almost unique opportunities for personal contact between British workers 
in science and their American colleagues. Our travelling members have 
been able to see how science is cultivated in the universities of the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 13 

Dominions and in many other institutions ; they have gained first-hand 
acquaintance with the special problems of one territory and another ; and 
when they have returned home they have talked— as anyone who travels 
the Empire is impelled to talk. I have myself been guilty of giving 
way to this impulse once in a while. Opportunities for travel are none 
too common for most of us, but most of us can at least cast our minds 
back to the exhibition at Wembley. Science herself, as an exhibitor, 
took a place there befitting her natural modesty. The scientific exhibit 
arranged by the Royal Society, admirable as it was, was confined to two 
rooms of the Government Pavilion. But was not a very large proportion 
of the entire exhibition, in point of fact, an exhibition of applied science ? 

It is impossible in the Imperial connection to overstate the case for 
Science. Sir William Huggins, in his Presidential Address to the Royal 
Society in 1901, said that ' assuredly not only the prosperity, but even 
the existence of this Empire will be found to depend upon the more 
complete application of scientific knowledge and methods to every depart- 
ment of industrial and national activity.' To-day we see that application 
in much fuller progress than when Huggins spoke only a quarter of a 
century ago, and already we know how truly he prophesied. 

It is not for a moment to be supposed, because the State has come 
to take a more active and practical interest in scientific research, that 
there is therefore any occasion for the lessening of interest on the part of 
societies and individuals. The State interest involves that other interest, 
and invites it. It can never become the exclusive function of the State 
to aid the individual research worker. The State may, and does, co-operate 
in aiding him, as for instance through the universities and the Royal 
Society. Nevertheless, there are whole departments of research which 
do not come within the range of public assistance, but are no less valuable 
because they do not. Therefore the support of science remains the 
concern of our scientific societies, educational institutions, industrial 
organisations, and private benefactors, no less than it ev^ did ; nay, the 
very fact that the State has lent its aid should encourage them to continue 
their aid and to reinforce it — ^indeed, there is satisfactory evidence that 
this actually happens. One example will suffice which indicates, inci- 
dentally, that from the purely materialistic point of view scientific research 
is not a luxury ; for the community it is probably the cheapest possible 
form of investment. The Government's fuel-research station has not yet 
proved the commercial possibility of the low-temperature treatment of 
coal which would result in the more economical production of smokeless 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

fuel, oils, and gas ; but in attempting this difficult task it has already, 
by results unforeseen when the task was undertaken, shown at any rate 
the possibility of economies for the State and for some of its major 
industries which are well in excess of the cost of the research itself. 

There are parallels in many respects, as has been often pointed out 
and as often forgotten, between the periods of our history following the 
Napoleonic Wars and the Great War. The application of science in 
industry and daily life received impetus in the earlier of these periods in 
such directions as the introduction of steam motive-power ; it is receiving 
it now, as it has been attempted here to show. The auspices now are more 
favourable. Science is more powerful. Men more adequately and more 
generally recognise its power, and therein should lie a certain ethical 
value for it as offering a new point of view, in the manifold interest of 
which all can share. Should not the application of science, for instance, 
offer a new field for community of interest, not only between one industrial 
organisation and another, but within the whole body of workers in any 
single organisation ? But in order that the community may fully realise 
all that it owes, and all that it might owe, to the advancement of science, 
the channels of communication between research and the public mind 
have to be kept clear, maintained and widened. The non-scientific public 
is accustomed to view science as it might view a volcano ; prepared for 
the eruption of some new discovery from time to time, but accepting the 
effects of the eruption without realising the processes which led up to it 
during the preceding period of quiescence. The period of preparation by 
research before science can offer the world some new benefit maj' be long, 
but the scientific machine is always running quietly in the laboratory. 
There is an example ready to our hands. We recall the introduction of 
wireless telegraphy and telephony as a scientific gift of quite recent years. 
Do we all realise that it was here in Oxford, at the Meeting of the British 
Association so long ago as 1894, that the first public demonstration of 
wireless signaling by means of electro-magnetic waves was given by Sir 
Oliver Lodge ? It was the work of science to develop the methods then 
demonstrated until they have been brought to their present marvellous 
uses. On the other hand it is often the case, whether in industrial or agri- 
cultural, domestic or whatever application, that science has knowledge at 
command, awaiting use, long before mankind can be brought actually to 
apply it. Though we have quickened, we are not yet so quick in the uptake 
of the results of applied scientific research as, for instance, some of our 
commercial competitors. The public support of scientific research, upon 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 15 

all these grounds, should be accorded freely, with understanding, and with 
patience. 

This brings me, Ladies and Gentlemen, to the close of what I have to 
say to you this evening. From my opening remarks, you will have 
gathered that I looked on you as an extremely formidable audience. That 
was when I only knew you, so to speak, on paper. Now that I have met 
some of you face to face — and hope to meet others in the Town Hall in a 
few minutes — I can only say that, if the Presidential Address has not the 
traditional weight of knowledge behind it, no President in the history of 
the Association has ever received a more kindly and sympathetic welcome 
than you have given me to-night. I am deeply grateful for it. 

One more duty remains to me— a duty to our hosts and to our guests. 
The University and the City of Oxford have received us all with a high 
hospitality worthy of this town, to which all who have known it in the 
past always return with delight, and which never fails to throw its spell 
on those who see it for the first time. Their friendly reception has made 
it possible for those who have worked so hard at the organisation of this 
meeting to bring it to the successful culmination which it promises to 
attain. Not the least successful feature of it is the large number of 
distingmshed guests whom it has attracted from overseas. To all of 
these I wish to offer a most cordial welcome, with the sincere hope that 
they may always carry with them, as I shall myself, the most pleasant 
recollections of a very memorable gathering. 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



THE ANALYSIS OF LINE SPECTRA. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOK A. FOWLER, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Although spectroscopy formed the subject of Prof. McLennan's Presi- 
dential Address to tlie Section so recently as 1923, I feel that no apology 
is needed for returning to this subject on the present occasion. In the 
three years which have elapsed spectroscopy has, in fact, made immense 
progress in several directions. It has now become one of the most 
important developments of physical research, and seems likely in the 
near future to make contributions of a fundamental character to other 
branches of science. Its development from a subordinate and little-known 
adjunct of chemistry to the commanding position which it now occupies 
forms a most interesting chapter in the history of science, and, as one who 
has long been associated with spectroscopic research on the experimental 
side, I may perhaps best approach the modern viewpoint by recalling some 
of the more important stages in its progress. 

Rather more than sixty years ago, when the spectroscope became an 
effective instrument of scientific research through the work of Kirchhoff 
and Bunsen, it was regarded essentially as providing a new and powerful 
method of chemical analysis. It soon had brilliant results to show in the 
discovery of a number of new elements, but this kind of discovery could 
not go on indefinitely, and the interest of chemists as a body in spectrum 
aneJysis would appear to have declined rather rapidly. In contrast with 
the present outlook in spectroscopy, it is interesting to recall that what 
was then regarded as one of the greatest attributes of the spectroscopic 
test was its extreme delicacy, so that Kirchhoff and Bunsen, for example, 
were able to show that one three-millionth of a milligram of sodium could 
be recognised with certainty. Spectrum analysis, however, as was soon 
realised, was not so simple a matter as it first appeared, and called for so 
much study that its pursuit was mainly left in the hands of a small band 
of specialists. 

The introduction of the spectroscope into astronomy, which also 
followed almost immediately the discovery by Kirchhoff in 1859 of the 
nature of the dark lines of the solar spectrum, gave another interest to 
spectroscopic investigations, which has continued to grow without a break. 
Some of the most important developments of spectroscopy have, in fact, 
been closely associated with attempts to interpret the spectra of celestial 
bodies. It was not long before Huggins and Lockyer, who were prominent 
among the pioneer workers in this field, realised that laboratory experi- 
ments must go hand in hand with observations of the heavenly bodies. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 17 

and a spectroscopic laboratory came to be regarded by them as an 
indispensable adjunct to an astrophysical observatory. The methods of 
physical laboratories were freely utilised in these investigations and the 
chemical interpretation of celestial spectra made rapid progress. The 
introduction of photographic methods of observation by Huggins led 
almost at once to the discovery of new lines apparently belonging to 
hydrogen in the spectra of Sirius and other white stars, which were subse- 
quently of great value in the establishment of Balmer's law of the hydrogen 
spectrum. Perhaps the greatest contribution of early astrophysics to 
our stock of knowledge, however, was that which so clearly pointed to the 
essential identity of matter throughout the universe. 

With the discovery that the spectra of certain elements were modified 
by varying the character of the exciting source, chemical analysis of the 
sun and stars was supplemented and eventually overshadowed by 
investigations of the physical conditions which prevail in those bodies. 
The sun and stars thus came to be regarded as natural experiments on 
generally similar masses of matter at various high temperatures — experi- 
ments ready prepared for observation and always in operation. Thus 
many laboratory researches were directly instigated by astrophysical 
observations. To take one instance, the fragmentary observations by 
Lockyer and by Liveing and Dewar of what were afterwards called enhanced 
lines were extended and systematised through an attempt by Lockyer, 
in which I myself took part, to interpret the spectrum of the solar chromo- 
sphere as photographed during the total eclipses of the sun in 1893 and 
1896. The immediate result was an important correlation of the changes 
in the laboratory spectra of the elements with the succession of types 
in stellar spectra, ^ from which it appeared that enhanced lines were 
especially characteristic of stars which, on other grounds, were believed 
to be hotter than the sun. These investigations laid the foundations for 
a true interpretation of the spectra of the hotter stars, and led to the 
more extended studies of enhanced lines which have proved of such great 
importance in the development of the theory of the origin of spectra and 
the structure of atoms. 

On the other hand, it may be remarked, astrophysics owes much to 
laboratory experiments which were undertaken without regard to the 
sun and stars. One of the most notable examples is Zeeman's famous 
discovery of the splitting of spectrum lines when the source is placed 
in a magnetic field — a discovery which was afterwards appHed with such 
brilliant success by Hale to the detection of the magnetic fields in sun- 
spots and of the general magnetic field of the sun. 

In one way or another the spectrum has thus become much more than 
a key to chemical composition ; it has become also a key to the physical 
conditions under which the corresponding radiation is excited ; and, as 
some of the earlier workers clearly anticipated, a key to the problem of 
atomic and molecular structure. 

The remarkable developments of modern spectroscopy in the direction 

of atomic physics have resulted from discoveries relating to regularities 

in spectra. Such regularities were suspected as long ago as 1869, and 

were actually revealed about ten years later by the admirable experimental 

1 Lockyer, Boy. Soc. Proc, vol. GO, p. 475 (1897). 

1 92(5 C 



18 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

work of Liveing and Dewar and of Hartley, who appear, however, to have 
made no very serious attempts to represent their results in any systematic 
way. The first important step in this direction was the formulation by 
Balmer in 1885 of the law of the line spectrum of hydrogen, in which the 
four laboratory and ten stellar lines then known were represented by a 
very simple formula involving a sequence of integers. The idea of a 
' series ' of spectrum lines which originated in this way was shortly after- 
wards extended by Kayser and Runge, and by Rydberg, to the regularities 
in other comparatively simple spectra, with results which are now generally 
familiar. Three types of series — the so-called Principal, Sharp and Diffuse 
series'- — were recognised, and while some of the series consisted of single 
lines, others consisted of doublets or triplets.'"' 

The foundations for subsequent developments were firmly laid by the 
classical work of Rydberg, in which the interrelationships of the different 
series in the spectrum of a single element were clearly formulated. 
Rydberg also suspected that other lines might be brought into the series 
relationships, but it is to Ritz that we owe the first clear statement of the 
' combination principle ' and the emphasis which it gives to the significance 
of spectroscopic ' terms ' as distinct from spectrum lines. 

In the representation of series spectra the wave-number of a line 
always appears as the difference of two terms, and a series of lines appears 
as a regular succession of differences between a limiting term and a 
sequence of terms, the limit itself being a term of another sequence. Thus 
the entire line spectrum of hydrogen, including the ultra-violet and infra- 
red series, as well as the Balmer series, is represented by dift'erences between 
terms of the form R/«^ where R is the Rydberg constant (=109,678 in 
wave-number) and n takes successive integral values beginning with 1 
and theoretically extending to infinity. Other spectra are more complex, 
but lines in these also were found to be represented by dift'erences between 
terms of the form R/(n*)^, where n* is not restricted to integral values and 
has different values for the different sequences of terms included in a 
spectrum ; ?i* increases, however, approximately by unity from one term 
to the next in each sequence. 

Much of the early work on series regularities in spectra is summarised 
in the now well-known symbolic representation of a series system, namely. 
Principal series . . . . . . ..IS — wP, 

Sharp series . . . . . . . . 1 P, — wS 

Diffuse series . . . . ..IP, — »iD, 

Fundamental series .. .. 2D, — mF, 

where 1 S, for example, represents an individual term, and mS a sequence 
of terms of S type. The S terms are always single, but the others are 
complex in all but singlet systems ; so that i=l for singlets ; 1, 2 for 
doublets ; and 1, 2, 3 for triplets (in the older numeration). A sequence 
of terms may be represented by an approximate formula such as that 
of Hicks, in the form R/[m-|-(j(. + a/m]'", where R is the Rydberg constant, 
m a serial number, and [x and a constants (usually proper fractions) to be 
determined from the observed Unes. The possible combinations of terms 

- The ' Fundamental Series ' was added later. 
* See Fowler's ' Report on Series.' 



A.— JLVIHEJIATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 19 

in the production of lines are restricted in accordance with selection rules 
which have since been extended to more complex spectra, as will appear 
later. 

From the theoretical point of view the terms have a more direct physical 
significance than the actual lines, and it is therefore important to determine 
them with the greatest possible accuracy. Actual values of the terms can 
be determined only from spectra in which series have been identified. The 
calculated limit for one of the series then gives one of the terms of a system, 
and all the rest follow from the interrelations by subtracting the observed 
wave-numbers of lines from the limits of the series to which they belong. 
Since the same terms may enter into several combinations, it is obvious 
that the representation of a spectrum by terms is a great simplification. 

It should be understood that these studies of the structure of spectra 
were pursued with the clear conviction that they would ultimately reveal 
the secrets of atomic structure, and the analysis of spectra, as distinct 
from spectrum analysis, gradually became one of the principal objects 
of spectroscopic research. 

Notwithstanding the absence of a guiding theory of the origin of 
spectra, experimental spectroscopy continued to attract a number of 
workers, who approached the subject from various points of view and 
accumulated a vast store of observational data. 

With the advent of Bohr's theory of spectra in 1913, spectroscopy 
entered on a new phase of activity. The theory and its immediate 
explanation of the spectra of hydrogen and ionised helium are now so 
well known as to call for little more than mention. Adopting the Ruther- 
ford conception of a neutral atom (namely, a positively charged nucleus 
with sufficient electrons in orbital motion around it to neutralise the 
positive charge of the nucleus) and restricting the possible orbits by 
quantum considerations, Bohr was able to extend the theory to account 
in a general way for the series spectra of other elements. Spectroscopic 
terms were translated by the theory into ' energy levels ' of the atom, so 
that a spectrum line is considered to represent the energy emitted by 
an excited atom when it passes from a non-radiating state of a certain 
energy to another of lesser energy. The terms are, in fact, proportional 
to the energies of the corresponding 'stationary' states. 

The spectrum of a neutral atom is supposed to be generated, one 
line at a time, by the transitions from one possible orbit to another of 
the most loosely bound of the outer electrons (the ' series electron ' or 
' light electron '), while the whole spectrum represents the integration 
of the various transitions taking place in different atoms. In partial 
justification of this view, one might point to the spectra of the alkali 
metals, which are very closely similar, and thus indicate that the general 
type of spectrum is independent of the total number of electrons present. 
The influence of the underlpng electrons, or of the nuclear charge, however, 
becomes apparent in the increase of doublet separations with atomic 
number, and in the displacement of corresponding lines to different parts 
of the spectrum. 

The theory in its first form also gave a definite significance to the 
enhanced lines occurring in the spectra of other elements besides helium. 

2 



20 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Lockyer's hypothesis that such lines originated in dissociated atoms — 
i.e. atoms split up into parts of comparable size, constituting ' proto- 
e.lements' — was in fact replaced in the new theory by the conception that 
the first stage of dissociation is the breaking up of a neutral atom into an 
ionised atom and an electron. An excited atom in which the series 
electron does not pass outside the sphere of influence of the nuclear charge 
remains neutral as a whole, and the spectrum is that of the neutral atom, 
having the Eydberg number R for the series constant. If the most loosely 
bound electron be driven out of the atom, and the next most loosely 
bound one transferred from its normal position to larger orbits by the 
exciting agency, the spectrum generated by the return of the second 
electron will be that of the ionised atom. This process could obviously 
be supposed to be repeated, so that spectra originating in doubly- or 
multiply-ionised atoms might be considered possible. The theory pre- 
dicted that such spectra would be characterised by series systems for 
which the series constant would be 4 R, 9 R, 16 R, and so on, for atoms at 
successive stages of ionisation. The spectrum of ionised helium, which 
had previously been obtained without its identification as such,^ had 
indeed already contributed very materially to the formulation of the new 
theory. 

Bohr's theory proved a great stimulus to experimental spectroscopy 
as well as to theoretical investigations. Among the first-fruits was the 
experimental verification of the predicted 4 R value for the series constant 
in the spectra of ionised magnesium, calcium and strontium.^ Next, 
Sommerfeld's well-known extension of the theory of the hydrogen 
spectrum by taking account of the relativistic variation of the mass of 
the electron with its orbital velocity predicted a fine structure of the 
lines of hydrogen and of ionised helium which was almost immediately 
verified by Paschen's remarkable observations of the structure of ionised 
helium lines under very high resolving power. 

A general explanation of the existence of several types of series 
S, P, D . . .in the spectra of more complex atoms immediately followed, 
namely, that such types of series are to be attributed to the action on the 
series electron of a perturbing field due to the presence of other electrons 
in the atom, producing a precessional motion similar to that associated 
with the relativity effect, but of very much greater value. Two quantum 
numbers thus became necessary in order to describe the motion of the 
series electron. They are usually written as n,., where n is the 
' principal ' quantum number and k the so-called ' azimuthal ' quantum 
number. In a simple ellipse, n determines the semi-major axis, and k 
the semi-minor axis ; kJij2Tz is the angular momentum of the electron. 
In the case of the simpler spectra first dealt with, the same quantum 
numbers could be used to specify the characters of the corresponding 
spectral terms, so that we have k—1, 2, 3 . . . corresponding to the term 
types S, P, D. . . . 

« A. Fowler, Mon. Not. R.A.S., vol. 73, p. 62 (1912). 

» A. Fowler, Phil. Trans., A, vol. 214, p. 225 (1914). 

The verification of 9 R for doubly-ionised aluminium by Va,schen (Ann. d.Phys., 
vol. 71, p. 142, 1923), and of 16 R for trebly-ionised silicon by A. Fowler (Roy. Soc. Proc, 
A, vol. 103, p. 413, 1923), followed in due course. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 21 

The azimuthal quantum number is the same for all terms of the 
same sequence, and, in accordance with the previous empirical deductions, 
considerations based upon Bohr's correspondence principle indicated 
theoretical reasons for the restriction imposed on combinations of terms 
of different types, namely, that terms of different types combine in 
ordinary circumstances only when their h values differ by unity. 

When a series consists of doublets or triplets, ' inner ' quantum 
numbers, usually represented by j, are introduced to distinguish the 
individual components ; the accepted physical interpretation is that 
jhj'Iiz represents the resultant angular momentum of the entire atom, and 
fixes the orientation of the orbit of the series electron relative to the axis 
of the remainder of the atom (the atom core). 

The theory also indicated an important relation between the ionisa- 
tion potential of an element and the highest spectroscopic term, repre- 
senting the normal state of the corresponding atom, which has been 
verified experimentally for numerous elements.'^ Indeed, the ionisation 
potentials of many elements can be determined with greater accuracy 
from series data than by direct measurements. 

Other earlier successes of the quantum theory of spectra which should 
not be passed over without mention are Sommerfeld's derivation of a 
formula for the normal Zeeman effect in 1916, and the theoretical interpre- 
tation of the Stark effect, which was given independently by Schwarzschild 
and Epstein in the same year. The latter is rightly regarded as one of the 
greatest triumphs of the quantum theory, since classical electrodynamics 
had failed to give any explanation at all. 

Following the pioneer work of Schwarzschild, Lenz and Heurlinger, 
the quantum theory has also been applied with conspicuous success to 
the highly complex band spectra of molecules by several workers, notably 
by Kratzer, Curtis, Jevous, and Midliken. The underlying idea is that 
each component line of such a spectrum results from the simultaneous 
occurrence of three distinct quantum transitions, involving the electronic 
energy, the energy of nuclear vibration, and the energy of molecular 
rotation. In general, the quantum number of each may change by integral 
steps, and the complexity of the spectrum results from the great variety 
of possible changes. Of special interest is the application of the theory 
to the investigation of the isotopes of a given element." 

It will have been observed that while certain experimental data were 
essential for the formulation of the quantum theory of spectra, the theory 
has sometimes been in advance and has suggested new observations. I 
shall next refer to new discoveries in experimental work which have given 
a great impetus to theoretical investigations of a far-reaching character. 

Apart from the first two groups and the aluminium sub-group of the 
periodic table, the spectra of the elements, with few exceptions, are 
extremely complex and long defied analysis. It is true that certain 
' constant differences ' had been noted in many of these spectra by Kayser 
and Runge, Paulson, and others, but these gave little knowledge of the 
real structure of the spectra. It was not until 1922 that a key to the 

^ See Foote .and Mohler's Origin of Specira. uhap. 3 (1922). 

' MuUikeu, Phys. Rei\, vol. 2.5, p. 119 (192.5), and other papers. 



22 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

structure of complex spectra was furnished by the investigations of 
Catalan, who was then working at the Imperial College. Catalan first 
made an extended study of the spectrum of manganese," in which series 
of triplets of somewhat peculiar character had already been partially 
disentangled by Kayser and Runge, and discovered that, while the 
principal and sharp series consisted of simple triplets, the members of the 
diffuse series each consisted of nine lines in place of the six which had up 
to that time been considered to characterise a diffuse ' triplet.' It followed 
that the D terms had five values, as against three values in calcium and 
other elements of the second group. Besides lines forming regular series, 
Catalan also identified several complex groups which he called ' multi- 
plets,' one of which included as many as fourteen lines. In each multiplet 
the lines were of similar character and generally of the same class in King's 
temperature classification, and the lines could be arranged on a simple 
plan to show the regularity of their distribution. 

The essential feature of Catalan's work was the discovery that in the 
arc and spark spectra of manganese, and in the arc spectrum of chromium, 
there were terms of greater complexity than the triple terms which had 
previously been recognised. It was this discovery that opened a way to 
the analysis of complex spectra in general. It has been pursued with 
amazing success by Catalan himself, Walters, Laporte, Meggers, Sommer, 
and others, and the main features of the structure of many spectra as 
complicated as that of iron have been revealed. 

It is not necessary to go into all the intricate details of the spectra, 
because the general results can now be very simply summarised in conse- 
quence of the theoretical developments which have gone hand in hand with 
the experimental investigations. Bohr and Sommerfeld had already 
established certain ' selection rules ' for the combination of the terms of 
the simpler spectra on a quantum number basis, and, immediately following 
the work of Catalan, Sommerfeld showed that the scheme of ' inner quantum 
numbers ' which he had devised for the simpler spectra could be extended 
so as to fit the observations empirically. As other spectra came to be 
disentangled, an assignment of quantum numbers which appears to be 
adapted to all spectra was completed by Lande.''' 

In accordance with the work of Bohr, Sommerfeld and Land^, a spectral 
term may be represented by four quantum numbers, written in the form 
nlj or 'n^j. Here n is the principal quantum number, increasing by 
unity for successive terms of the same sequence"* ; k is the azimuthal 

quantum number and has the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 for the term 

tyjaes S, P, D, F, G, ; j is the inner quantum number, having one 

8 Phil. Tram., A, vol. 223, p. 127 (1922). 

» Zeit.f. Phys., vol. 15, p. 189 (1923). 

''■" For descriptive purposes the initial values assigned to n in the respective 
sequences of terms are of no great importance. In the Ritz-Paschen system of 
numeration, the first terms are IS, 2P, 3D, 4F ; in the Rydberg system adopted in 
Fowler's ' Report on Series ' they are IS, IP, 21) (occasionally ID), 3F. The latter 
system has the advantage that the term numbers are usually the integral parts of the 
' effective quantum numbers,' i.e. the values of 7t* in the expression R/(n*)- for the 
terms. Paschen's numeration, however, has been extensively used. In theoretical 
investigations the values assigned to n are definitely associated with the corresponding 
values in the hydrogen spectrum. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



23 



or more values according as the term is single or multiple ; r represents the 
maximum muUiplicity of terms in the system to which the term belongs, 
so that r= 1 for singlets, 2 for doublets, 3 for triplets, and so on. Correspond- 
ing members of successive terms of the same sequence have the same values 
of j. Values of r, k, j different from those mentioned are used in certain 
theoretical discussions, but the above suffice for expressing the empirical 
results obtained in the anah'sis of spectra. 

In practice the azimuthal quantum number is most conveniently indi- 
cated by retaining the old designations S, P, D, F for the term 

sequences, and the value of r representing the multiplicity of the system 
is now, by general agreement," written on the upper left of the term 
symbol ; for example, T, represents a term of the triplet system for which 
k—2 and_^=l. The values oi j corresponding to the various terms and 
systems are collected in Table I. 

Table I. 

Inner Quantum Numbeks. 
Odd Multiplicities. 



1 

Terms 


Ic ' 


Singlet 
r=l 


Triplet 
r=3 


Quintet 
r=5 


Septet 
r=l 


s 1 

P 1 
D 
F 
G 


1 
2 

3 
4 
5 


2 
3 
4 


1 
1 2 
1 2 3 
2 34 
3 45 


2 
1 2 3 
12 34 
12 345 

2 345 6 


3 

2 3 4 

12 345 

12 3456 

12 34567 



Even Multiplicities. 



p , Doublet 
Ferms k ^ ^_o 


Quartet Sextet Octet 
r=4 1 r==6 r=8 


S 11 
P 2 12 
D 3 23 

F 4 3 4 

G 1 5 1 4 5 


2 
1 23 
1234 

2345 
345 6 


3 4 
2 34 34 5 
12345 23456 
123456 1234 5 67 
234567 1234567 8 



There is theoretically no limit to the number of types of terms, and other 

types H are found for which k>b. In each system, however, 

the number of components in these additional types of terms never exceeds 
the maximum indicated by the value of r for the system. 

It is to be noted that since differences of j values are alone embodied in 
the combination rules for inner quantum numbers, there is a certain 
arbitrariness in the values tabulated. With j'=0 for the singlet S term and 
j=l for the doublet S term, however, all the other values follow from the 
combinations indicated by observational data. 

The selection rules regulating the term combinations of most general 



occurrence are : 

For different types of terms : Ak- 



:1. 



>* Aslrophys. Journ., vol. 61, p. 66 (1925). 



24 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

For individual component terms : Aj=±l or 0, with ^=0 to j=0 
forbidden. 

For systems of terms : Ar= ±2 or 0. 

Thus, according to the first rule, D terms may be combined with P or 
F terms, but not with terms of types S or G. The second rule greatly 
reduces the number of combinations which are arithmetically possible, 
so that an FGr combination in the octet system, for example, does not 
consist of 56 lines, but of 20 ; no individual term combines with more than 
three other terms of the same set. Although more than one system of terms 
may occur in the same spectrum, such systems are either all of odd or 
all of even multiplicity,'^ and the third rule indicates that, in addition to the 
ordinary combinations within the same system (Ar=0), there may be 
inter-system combinations for which Ar=2. Thus, terms of a singlet 
system may be found in combination with terms of a triplet system — still 
subject to the azimuthal and inner quantum number restrictions — but 
not with terms of a quintet system which might occur in the same 
spectrum. 

In the more familiar spectra the components of multiple terms which 
have the smallest j values have the highest actual values, corresponding 
to deeper levels in the atom — i.e. 'n,.y < 'n,,. ^-.i. The more recent 
analyses of spectra, however, have revealed the frequent occurrence of 
' inverted ' terms, for which the components with largest j values have 
the largest actual values — i.e. '% > 'n,. j,-^. Such inverted terms are 
especially numerous in the spectra of the elements of the later groups of 
the periodic table, all the known terms of the iron arc spectrum (Fe I), 
for example, being inverted. ' Partially inverted ' terms are also of 
occasional occurrence. 

The general character of the regularities which appear in a group of 
lines resulting from the combination of two multiple terms will be best 
gathered from examples, which will at the same time illustrate applications 
of the inner quantum rules. The examples chosen are PD and DF quartet 
combinations from a recent analysis of the spectrum of ionised oxygen'' 
(Table II). 

The table is almost self-explanatory, but it should be mentioned that 
the sufSxes are inner quantum numbers, and that the numbers in brackets 
which follow the wave-numbers representing the actual lines of the 
spectrum denote the relative intensities on a scale of ten for the maximum. 
The numbers printed in italics are differences of terms, or intervals 
separating lines in the multiplets ; the slight departures from equality of 
corresponding intervals are due to difficulties of observation. It should 
further be noted that, while the relative values of the terms have been 
determined with considerable accuracy, the actual values quoted above 
are only approximate. 

Apparent exceptions to the first selection rule, A^-=Hhl, are of very 
frequent occurrence. In the spectra of the alkaline earths there are 
several groups of lines — some of them of great intensity — which do not 
belong to the regular series, but are related to them through the character- 
istic separations of the respective triplet systems, as was first recognised 

12 Neutral helium is possibly an exception. 

" A. Fowler, Roy. Soc. Proa., A, vol. 110, p. 497 (192G). 



A.— .^LATHEAIATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 25 

by Rydberg more than thirty years ago. Groups of this type were furtiicr 
investigated by Popow and by Gotze/^ and their real structure was 
deduced from observations of Zeeman effects. It then appeared that 
such a group was derived from combinations of P terms of the regular 
series with another set of P terms, or of ordinary D terms with a second 
set of D terms. The additional types of terms, which are usually distin- 
guished as ' anomalous terms ' and designated by P', D' . . . , have the 
same inner quantum numbers and show the same Zeeman effects as 
ordinary terms of corresponding types ; but in their combinations v«'ith 
the regular terms they mostly follow the rule AZ;=0, giving the combina- 
tions PP', DD'. . . . Among themselves, however, the anomalous terms 
combine in accordance with the ordinary selection rule, Ak=±l, giving 
such combinations as P'D', D'F'. . . . Such terms are not restricted to 
the spectra of the alkaline earths, but have been found to be of very 
general occurrence in all but the simplest spectra. 

Russell and Saunders'^ have since found other terms in the alkaline 
earth spectra which have the same combining properties as ordinary 
terms of corresponding types, but are anomalous in the sense that thev 
do not form part of the regular term sequences ; they have distinguished 
such terms by the convenient symbols, P", D". . . . 

Further examples from the spectrum of ionised oxygen will conveniently 
indicate the selection rules applicable to quartet D'P' and D'D combina- 
tions (Table III). 

Multiplets formed from terms of higher multiplicities thanthose shown in 
the foregoing examples are built up on the same general plan, but naturally 
include a greater number of lines. The combination rules for anomalous 
terms have thus been more or less systematised, but exceptions to the 
selection rule for azimuthal quantum numbers occasionally occur also 
among regular terms. Thus in the arc spectrum of sodium there is a 
series of faint lines represented by 2-P — m'-^P (Lenard's series) and another 
by 2'-P— wrF, corresponding to Ak=0 and AZ;=2 respectively. Such 
combination lines are generally faint, except when produced under the 
influence of a strong electric field, in which case they may be very 
numerous. It should be observed, however, that the series I'S — »rD, 
for which Ak — 2, appears in the absorption spectrum of potassium under 
conditions in which no electric field would appear to be present.'"^ Excep- 
tions to the inner quantum combination rule are very rare under ordinary 
conditions of observation, but such lines are especially liable to be excited 
in strong magnetic fields. Paschen and Back, for example, were able to 
excite the complete T — ^D ' triplets ' of Ca, Zn and Cd, the usual six 
lines in each being increased to nine. Among other observations which 
could be mentioned, extensive experiments on ' forbidden lines ' in 
zinc, cadmium and mercury have been made by a number of Japanese 
physicists. ^^ 

1* Ann. d. Phys., vol. 66, p. 285 (1921). 

15 Astrophys. Jour., vol. 61, p. 38 (1925). 

i« Datta, Hoy. Soc. Proc, A, vol. 99, p. 69 (1921) ; Foote, Mohler and Meggers, 
Phil. Mag., vol. 43, p. 659 (1922). 

1' E.g., Fukuda, Kuyama and Uchida, Sr. Pap. Xo. 56, In'^i. of Phiis. and Chem. 
Res. (1926). 



26 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Table II. 

^d^'p and ^rf""/ Combinations of Oil. 







di 4 (/., 


rf, 


Term Values. 


78496-68 72=^-62 78621-30 r?2-56' 78712-86 


.55-5-^ 78768-40 


O-Vx = 


= 100263-84 


21550-98(6) 


55-55 21495-43(6) 




105-32 


105-34 


105-31 


aPi = 


= 100158-52 


21537-23(9) 91-59 21445-64(9) 


55-52 21390-12(4) 




158-52 


158-53 15S-49 




a_pa = 


= 100000-00 


21o03-32(10) 124-62 21378-70(8) 91-55 21287-15(2) 


(ap - d) i 


hpy = 


= 46872-88 


31840-27(4r) 


55-37 31895-64(3r) ' 




105-22 


105-10 


105-18 


bp2 = 


= 46767-66 


SlS5S-78{8r)91-59 31945-37(7r) 


55-45 32000-82(2?) 




161-42 


161-36 161-38 




bp:, = 


= 46606-24 


31890-56(10r)y24-5.S 32015-14(6r)9i-(Si 32106-75{lr) 


(d - bp) 


h = 


= 54203-15 


24418-05(0) 91-69 24509-74(4) 


55-57 24565-31(4) 




54-03 


54-15 53-96 




/. = 


= 54149-12 


24347-57(0) 124-63 24472-20(3) 91-50 24563-70(6) 






77-91 


77-88 77-91 




/. = 


= 54071-21 


24425-45(5) 72^^-66 24550-11(8) 






102-27 


102-29 


1 


f., = 


= 53968-94 


24527-74(10) 


(d-f) 



Table III. 

^d' *p' and *d' *d Combinations of II. 





d\ 




d'. 


d^2 


d\ 


Term Values. 


52745-34 


6-35 


52751-69 


1-53 52753-22 


0-47 52753-69 


p\= 77153-03 








24399-76(4) 


0-42 24399-34(1) 


46-10 








46-08 




p:,= 77106-93 






24355-24(5) 


1-56 24353-68(7) 


[24353-26] 


91-97 






91-99 


91-90 




p\= 77014-96 


24269-61(8) 


6-36 


24263-25(3) 


1-47 24261-78(2) 


ip' - d') 


rf, = 78768-40 








26015-20(3) 


[26014-71] 


55-54 








55-51 




d.2 = 78712-86 






25961-22(2) 


1-53 25959-69(3) 


[2.5959-17] 


91-56 






91-63 


91-63 


1 


rf, = 78621-30 


25875-96(2) 


6-37 


25869-59(5) 


7 -,5.3 25868-06(1) 




124-62 


124-59 




1-24-57 






di = 78496-68 


25751-37(7) 


6-35 


26745-02(3) 




(d - d') 



A.— MATHEMATICAL ANJJ PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 27 

In the actual analysis of a spectrum, the selection rules which have 
been indicated for the combination of terms are supplemented in a very 
practical way by Sommerfeld's ' intensity rule ' and to a less degree bj 
Landc's ' interval rule.' 

The intensity rule was indicated in the first instance in connection witl 
the simpler spectra, but has since been found to be of general application. 
It is to the effect that lines for which the changes in j and Ic are in the 
same direction are the strongest, while those for which the changes are of 
opposite sign are the weakest. Thus, in the 'DT combination previously 
shown, where ^ is 3 for D and 2 for P, the strongest line is DjP.„ while 
the weakest is D.^P,, ; the same rule holds good for the combination 
■"D'^P'. In combinations of ordinary and anomalous (or ' primed ') 
terms, however, such as ^D'^D' previously tabulated, k is the same for 
both, and the strongest line is that resulting from the terms having the 
largest (identical) j values (D'^DJ. The detailed relations may easily 
be gathered from the examples of multiplet structures given above. 

The whole question of intensities in related groups of lines has recently 
been placed on a quantitative basis through photometric measurements 
initiated by Ornstein, Burger and Dorgelo at Utrecht. It results that the 
intensities in such groups are in the ratio of integers, and it may accordingly 
be concluded that intensities, like frequencies, are determined by quantum 
considerations. In an application of the correspondence principle Sommer- 
feld and Heisenberg had already investigated the probabilities of emission, 
and formulae for computing the relative intensities in multiplets on this 
basis have since been deduced.'** Russell has found excellent agreement 
between calculated and observed values in an extensive comparison with 
the approximate experimental data available. Further photometric 
measurements to test the formulae are much to be desired. The constancy 
or otherwise of the intensity relations in the same multiplet imder different 
conditions of excitation is a question which also calls for the attention of 
experimental workers. 

In general the separations between successive components of a multiple 
term increase as the inner quantum number j increases. In systems of 
odd multiplicity these separations are approximately proportional to the 
larger values of ^ ; thus in a triplet P term with_^'=2, 1, 0, the separations 
are in the ratio 2:1. In a group of terms of even multiplicity the separa- 
tions are proportional to the means of the j values ; in a quartet P term, 
for example, j'=3, 2, 1, and the separations are in the ratio 5:3; for a 
sextet system the rule gives the ratio 7 : 5 for the P separations. The 
interval rule in its present form, however, frequently breaks down, as is 
emphasised especially by Hicks. '^ 

The characteristics of the various systems and types of terms which 
are outlined above are sufficient for the classification of the lines of most 
spectra in a form adapted for theoretical investigations. The quantum 
numbers which have been assigned, however, may be considered entirely 

" Ornstein and Burger, Zeit. /. Phys., voL 31, p. 355 (1925). Kronig, Zeit. f. 
Phys., vol. 31, p. 885 ; vol. 32, p. 261 (1925). Sommeifeld and Honl, Sitz. Preuss. 
Akad. Wiss., vol. 9, p. 141 (1925). Russell, Proc. Nat. Acad. Wash., vol. 11, p. 31-t 
(1925). 

i» Phil Mag., vol. 48, p. 1036 (1924). 



28 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

empirical so far as they are concerned in the mere analysis of a spectrum, 
and are subject to such modifications as may be indicated by theoretical 
considerations. 

Unfortunately, the analysis of a spectrum does not always lead to a 
knowledge of the actual values of the terms, or energy levels. These can 
be determined for any of the relatively simple spectra, in which com- 
paratively extended series can be traced and their limits calculated. In 
most of the complex spectra, only the relative values of the terms have 
been deduced, since extended sequences in these spectra are apparently of 
rare occurrence. Even for these, however, the term of highest numerical 
value, representing the lowest energy level, can often be identified, and 
this is of special value in view of its association with the normal state of 
the atom. 

This completes the story of spectroscopic terms and their possible 
combinations on what might be called a purely numerical basis ; that is, 
in so far as the analysis of a spectrum can at present be based merely on a 
table of wave-lengths and intensities. Especially as regards the more 
complex spectra, however, advantage has to be taken of every possible 
experimental aid to the classification of the lines — particularly, in the 
first instance, as a means of sorting out the lines characteristic of an 
element at difierent stages of ionisation. I shall return to this subject 
later. 

Thanks to the industry of numerous workers, many of the complex 
spectra have now been partially analysed, and two of the principal 
generalisations foreshadowed some years ago have been greatly 
strengthened. The first of these is expressed by the so-called 'alternation 
law,' according to which the arc spectra of the elements are alternately 
of even and odd multiplicities in passing from the first to the higher groups 
of the periodic table. No exceptions to the rule have yet been found. 
Until recently it was thought that the maximum term multiplicity was 
equal to the chemical group number increased by unity, but recent work 
has shown that this simple rule is not of general application ; for example, 
in the arc spectrum of copper quartets occur as well as doublets.™ 

The second generalisation is expressed by the spectroscopic ' dis- 
placement law,' which states that the first spark (enhanced) spectrum of 
an element has a structure similar to that of the arc spectrum of the 
element which precedes it in the periodic table. To make this generally 
applicable, however, it is necessary to qualify the rule by restricting the 
meaning of similarity to a common odd or even multiplicity. The 
spectrum of ionised scandium, for example, though including singlet and 
triplet terms, differs from the spectrum of neutral calcium in having a 
^D term in place of a SS term corresponding to the normal state. The 
same rule may be extended to higher states of ionisation, the second 
spark spectrum, for example, resembling the first spark spectrum of the 
preceding element, or the arc spectrum of the element of atomic number 
two units smaller. Clearly the alternation law of multiplicities is also 
applicable when the first or higher orders of spark spectra of the elements 
are respectively compared. 

20 Shenstono, Phil. Mag., vol. 49 (May 1925) ; Beals, Roy. Soc. Proc, A, 
vol. Ill, p. 168(1926). 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



20 



The above rules have by no means been proved for all elements, but 
they are true for all spectra which have been disentangled up to the 
present time, and may safely be adopted as a starting-point in the analysis 
of further spectra. They have been almost completely verified for the 
elements of the two short periods Li (3) to CI (17), but may be more 
effectively illustrated by the arc spectra of the elements K (19) to Ni (28) 
by the use of data collected by Catalan,'"' which are given in Table IV. 

The table includes references to the ' ground term ' {i.e. the highest 
term or deepest energy level), and indicates also the regular or inverted 
character of the terms. 

Table IV. 
Term Systems in Aec Spectka., K-Ni. 



Group. 


I 


II 


Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 






Element. 


19.K 


20.Ca 


21.Sc 


22.Ti 


23.V 


24.Cr 


25.Mn 


26.Fe 


27. Co 


28.Ni 






1 




1 












1 




2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 




3 


2 


3 


Multi- 






4 




4 




4 




4 




plicities 








5 


6 


5 

i 


6 

8 


5 

7 


6 


5 


Ground 


=S 


^S 


2D 


3F 


4F 


'S 


6S 


5D 


4r 


sp 


term 






















Class of 


Reg. 


Reg. 


Reg. 


Reg. 


Reg. 


Reg. 


Reg. 


Inv. 


Inv. 


Inv. 


terms 














& Inv. 









For the elements Rb-Pd, similar data collected by Meggers and Kiess^* 
are given in Table V. 

Table V. 
Term Systems in Arc Spectra, Rb-Pd. 



Group 


I II 


III 


IV 


V VI VII 


VIII 




Element. 


37.Rb SS.Sr 


39.Y 


40.Zr 


41. Nb 42.Mo 43.Ma 


44.Ru 


4o.Rh 46.Pd 




1 




1? 






1 




2 


2 




2? 




2 




3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


Multi- 




4 




4 (4) 




4 


plicities 






5 


5 

6 ^ (6) 

(8) 


5 

(7) 


(5) 
(6) 


Ground 


*S 'S 


2D 


5F 


«D 'S (6D) 


5F 


«F IS 


term 















Note. — The numbers in brackets have been filled in from considerations of 
symmetry. 

" An. Soc. Esp. Fis. y Quimica. vol. 23, p. 403 (1925). 
22 Jour. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 12, p. 446 (1926). 



30 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Catalan has remarked that, iu passing from Ca to Ni, the terms are 
regular so long as the maximum multiplicity is increasing, and inverted 
when it is decreasing, both classes of terms occurring at the turning-point 
(Mn), as shown in Table IV. A similar alternation of even and odd 
multiplicities is shown by the spark spectra of the elements Ca to Ni, as 
will appear from Table VI, which is also taken from Meggers and Kiess. 
The data here are less complete and for Co* and Ni* they are merely 
conjectural. 

Table VI. 

Teem Systems in Spark Spectra, Ca'''-Ni"'". 



Group 


I II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII VIII 






Element 


19.K+ 20.Ca^- 


21. Sc--^ 


22.Ti+ 


23. V+ 


24.Cr-^ 


25.Mn+ 26.Fe+ 


27.CO+ 


28.Ni+ 






1 




1? 






(1) 


1 




2 


3 


2 


3 


2? 


2? 
3? 


(3) 


(2) 


Multi- 






4 




4 


4 




(i) 


plicities 








5 


6 


5 

6 

7 


(5) 




Ground 


•^s 


3D 


IF 


5F 


«S 


'S °D 


(=E) 


(4F) 


term 



















The spark spectra of only very few of the elements of the next row 
(Rb-Pd) have at present been classified, but these are in accordance with 
the above so far as they go. Thus 38.Sr"^=doublets ; 39.Y'^=singlets 
and triplets ; 40.Zr^=doublets and quartets. 

It will be observed that the alternation law and restricted displacement 
law are completely satisfied by the observational data includedinthe tables, 
and the same appears to be true for other spectra which have been 
sufficiently analysed. The tables, however, bring out several other points 
of interest. It will be noted, for example, that not more than three 
different systems of terms have yet been found in the same spectrum, and 
it would seem probable that this is the actual maximum number which 
can occur. 

A very striking relation, to which attention appears to have first been 
directed by Hund,^* is that, as regards the ground term, the spark 
spectrum of each of the elements Ca to Ni is more closely related to its 
own arc spectrum than to the arc spectrum of the preceding element. 
Thus, from Ca to Fe, the ground terms of the arc and spark spectra are of 
the same type, and, apart from Cr, which is in certain other respects 
exceptional, the multiplicity of the system to which the ground term 
belongs is increased by unity in passing from the arc to the spark 
spectrum. This may be shown as follows : — 

20.Ca 21.Sc 22.Ti 23.V 24.Cr 25.Mn 26.Fe 27.Co 28.Ni 



Arc 
Spark 



IS 
^S 



2D 
3D 



3F 



5F 



'S 

«s 



6S 

'S 



«D 
«D 



4F 

(5F) 



3F 

(4F) 



" Zeif. f. Phys., vol. 33, p. 362 (1925). 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 31 

It is not improbable that such systematic relations will be of con- 
siderable assistance in the unravelling of the numerous complicated spectra 
which remain to be investigated. 

The more recent results of the analysis of complex spectra have pro- 
vided an ordered knowledge of a multitude of facts which have an 
important bearing upon the development of the theory of spectra and the 
arrangement of electrons in the outer parts of normal atoms. Theoretical 
workers have not been slow to utilise the new data, and have, indeed, 
frequently been able to forge ahead of experimental results. I shall not 
attempt to discuss in detail these theoretical developments, more 
especially as a critical discussion by Prof. J. H. Van Vleck has been 
published very recently.'"'' It will suffice to refer briefly to the more 
important steps in the interpretation of the empirically known spectra, as 
supplementing the interpretation of the simpler spectra previously given 
by Bohr. 

Among the principal problems immediately resulting from the analysis 
of the more complex spectra are those indicated by the existence of 
anomalous terms, the absence of extended sequences of terms in most of 
the complex spectra, and the question of reconciling our ideas of the 
arrangement of electrons in the outer parts of atoms with the structure 
of the spectra — in particular with the occurrence as ground terms of such 
types as 'F. 

These problems, however, are not independent of one another. It 
will be recalled that the existence of sequences of terms involving the 
Rydberg constant, in the spectra of elements whose atoms contain more 
than one electron, was explained by Bohr on the assumption that the 
spectra were generated by the transitions of a single electron between 
orbits in an approximately Coulomb field arising from the unchanged 
remainder of the atom. This, however, is not a process which, in the 
absence of experimental evidence, would be expected to take place in all 
atoms. Excitation of a complex atom might well be expected to involve 
simultaneous disturbances of more than one electron, and the fact that 
many spectra do not appear to exhibit Rydberg sequences naturally 
leads to a consideration of the possibility that such simultaneous dis- 
turbances actually take place. Again, the occurrence of unexpected 
ground terms is a matter for surprise only when the ground term of a 
spectrum is directly associated with the innermost orbit of the series 
electron. If there is no uniquely characterised ' series electron,' there is 
no reason to expect any particular type of term to be the highest, and the 
problem of determining the ground term is merged into that of deducing 
the spectroscopic terms (anomalous as well as regular) from the simul- 
taneous movements of the disturbed electrons. The problems of complex 
spectra thus resolve themselves into two — first, the distribution of the 
electrons among the various possible types of orbit ; and, second, the 
deduction of spectroscopic terms from a given distribution of electrons. 

In the consideration of the first problem we are not confined to the 
evidence afforded by optical spectra. Other data towards this end are 

^* ' Quantum Principles and Line Spectra.' Bulletin No. 54, Nat. Ees. Council, 
Washington {1926). 



32 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Table VII. 
X-Ray Levels and Optical Teems. 







f 


K L, 


M, 


N, 


Oi 


yt= 1 


i=i 


1 
1 


1 o 


3„ 


4„ 


5,1 






Is, 2s, 


3s, 


4s, 


5s, 






f 


L„ 


M„ 


N„ 


o„ 




i=i 




221 


3-21 


4=1 


521 






( 


2pi 


3pi 


4pi 


5pi 


A = 2 


















f 


I'm 


M„, 


N„, 


0„i 




j = 2 




222 


3o., 


422 


522 






2P2 


3P2 


4p2 


5po 






f 




M,v 


N,v 


0,v 




i = 2 


1 




3.2 

3do 


4.2 

4d.2 


5:^2 

od2 


k = 3 






















Mv 


Nv 


Ov 




i = 3 




3:« 


4.,. 


Saa 








3d, 


4d, 


5d, 1 






(1 






Nv: 


1 
1 

I 




i = 3 






44.S 












4f., 


5is 


k = 4: 




1 
( 




■ 


Nv„ 






j = 4 






444 












4f, 


5f4 

j 



Table VIII. 

Aebangement of Electrons in Rare Gases. 
Bohr. 





Atomic 


K 


L 


M 


N 




Number 


li 


2, 22 


3, 32 3;i 


4, 42 4, 4, 


He 


2 


2 








Ne 


10 


2 


4 4 






A 


18 


2 


4 4 


4 4 




Kr 


36 


2 


4 4 


6 6 6 


4 4 









Main Smith and Stoner. 








Atomic 
Number 1 


K 
111 


L i M 
2ii 2,1 222 3,1 821 822 3a2 33, 


4u 


N 

421 422 


He 
Ne 
A 
Kr 


2 

10 
18 
36 


2 
2 
2 
2 


2 2 4 

2 2 4 ; 2 2 4 

2 2 4; 2244 6 


2 


2 4 




nk= 


li 


2, 22 3, 3.3 83 


' *^ 


42 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 33 

furnished by X-ray spectra and by the variations of the chemical and 
physical properties of the elements according to their positions in the 
periodic classification. Bohr's well-known table of electron orbits (1922) 
was built up by taking account of these properties and considering the 
formation of atoms by the successive capture and binding of electrons. 
The orbits themselves were distinguished by the quantum numbers 
«* (A; < n), and it was assumed that the orbits of the earlier bound electrons 
were essentially unchanged when another electron was introduced into 
the system. The classification was notably successful in accounting for 
the appearance, at certain stages, of elements which deviate in their 
properties from corresponding elements of the previous periods. 

These ideas of Bohr have been remarkably developed in recent years, 
especially through the work of Main Smith'^^ and Stoner,-* who inde- 
pendently arrived at similar conclusions, chiefly from the consideration 
of chemical and physical properties respectively. Whereas Bohr had 
considered only the distribution of electrons among sub-levels defined by 
the quantum numbers n^, Main Smith and Stoner suggested a distribution 
among all the sub-levels which were known to exist from X-ray spectra, 
and which were characterised by the three quantum numbers n^j. In 
partial justification of the proposed new distribution of electrons in the 
different groups, Stoner pointed to the remarkable analogy between the 
accepted classification of X-ray levels and the terms of the optical doublet 
spectra of the alkali metals which had previously been discussed by 
Lande. This correspondence between X-ray and alkali terms may 
perhaps be most conveniently shown in the form adopted by Wentzel, 
as in Table VII. 

The combinations between the X-ray terms are governed by precisely 
the same selection rules as those between the optical terms, and it can 
scarcely be doubted that the two types of doublets have a similar origin. 
This analogy was regarded by Stoner as strong justification for assuming 
a relation between the inner quantum number and the number of electrons 
in a sub-group. His reasoning was as follows. In the case of alkali 
doublets, if the inner quantum numbers are given the values shown above 
{k and k~l), the number of components into which each term is split in 
a weak magnetic field, as revealed by observation, is double the inner 
quantum number {e.g. 2 for S, 2 for Pj, and 4 for P.,). Since, therefore, 
there are 2j possible states of the atom corresponding to each energy 
level %j (distinguishable, however, only when there is an external magnetic 
field), it seems reasonable to suppose that the number of ' possible and 
equally probable ' orbits % also is 2j ; i.e. that there are 2j electrons in 
a complete sub-group n^j. Although the doublet term values seem to 
depend primarily on the outermost electron orbits, Stoner suggested that 
the rule might be of general application. The distinction between orbits 
having the same values of ?i,^ was ascribed to differences in orientation 
with respect to the atom as a whole. 

These considerations led Stoner independently to an electron distribu- 
tion similar to that proposed by Main Smith and differing in important 

" Chemistry and Atomic Structure, London, 1924 ; Review of Chemistry and 
Industry, March 28, 1924. 

26 Phil. Mag., vol. 47, p. 719 (1924) ; vol. 49, p. 1289 (1925). 

1926 ^ 



34 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

details from that first given by Bohr. In the new scheme the inner 
sub-levels are completed at an earlier stage, and there is a greater concen- 
tration of electrons in the outer sub-levels of each group. For the present 
the nature of the modification will be sufficiently indicated by comparing 
the electron distribution among the sub-levels in helium, neon, argon and 
krypton, according to the old and new arrangements. 

With the_^' values assigned above, the total number of electrons required 
to fill each n^. group is double the sum of the inner quantum numbers for 
the group. From the relation of the j's and k's, however, the number may 
also be considered as being equal to 2{2k — 1). 

In this connection it should be observed that Sommerfeld and others 
now assign half-integral values to j in term systems of even multiplicity, 
so that, although integral values as above are most frequently adopted 
for convenience of writing and printing, it is to be understood that they 
are to be reduced by ^ for certain purposes. With this modification 
the number of electrons in each sub-level is equal to 2j-\-l, which Sommer- 
feld calls the ' quantum weight,' representing the number of possible 
orientations of the angular momentum, j, in a magnetic field. 

The new scheme of electron distribution was shown by Stoner to be 
supported by a consideration of the intensities of X-ray lines, the absorption 
of X-rays, chemical and magnetic properties, and optical spectra. It 
retains all the essential features of Bohr's picture of the building up of 
atoms, and is equally in accord with chemical considerations, as is especially 
shown by the work of Main Smith. 

The electronic arrangements of all the elements from 1 to 92, in their 
normal states, may now be specified with considerable confidence. They 
are indicated in Table IX, which, with slight modifications, has been 
taken from a paper by Foote.^' The spectroscopic ground term associated 
with the normal state of each neutral atom is shown in the fourth column, 
the values directly determined from spectra being marked with an asterisk, 
while the remainder are the ground terms predicted by the new theory of 
complex spectra. 

" Amer. Inst, Mining and Metallurgy, Sc. Paper No. 1547D (1926). 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



85 



Table IX. 
Abbanqememt of Electboms in Atoms. 



, 




o 












1 


1 1 




•-5 












1 








o 


Number of Electrons in Shell of Quantum Number %4' 






•u 


g~ 
















oxi 


a 


2 r^* 






1 ( ( 








1 ■ 


a s 


a 


a a 


K 


Li 


L„ 


Liii 


Mx 


M„ M,„| 


M„ 


Mv 


Ni 


N„ 


Nrx, 


u 

o 


^. 




111 


2n 


2^1 


222 


3n 


321 


322 


33, 


333 


4ii 


421 


422 


Pk ■ 


< 


w 


«2 


























1 


1 

2 


H 

He 


%* 


1 
2 






















1 


2 


3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


Li 
Be 
B 

C 

N 

F 

Ne 


"Si* 
^So 
»Pi 
»Po 

*Si 

»P2* 

'Pi 


2 
2 

2 
2 
2 

2 

2 

2 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 

2 
3 
4 


















3 11 


Na 


^SJ* 


2 


2 


2 


4 1 
















12 


Mg 


%* 


2 


2 


2 


4 2 


















13 


Al 


'Pi* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


1 
















14 


Si 


"Po* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 
















15 


P 


*si 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


1 














16 


S 


'Pa* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 














17 


CI 


"PS 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 












1 


18 


A 


^So 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 












4 


19 


K 


'Si* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 






1 








20 


Ca 


%* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 






2 








21 


Sc 


»Df • 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


1 




2 








22 


Ti 


'Fa* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


2 




2 








23 


V 


•FS* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


3 




2 








24 


Cr 


's;* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


1 


1 








25 


Mn 


•S5* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


1 


2 








26 


Fe 


SD4* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


2 


2 








27 


Co 


*Fi * 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


3 


2 








28 


Ni 


3F4* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


2 








29 


Cu 


'Si* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


1 








30 


Zn 


%* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 








31 


Ga 


'Pi* 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


1 






32 


Ge 


»Po 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 






33 


As 


«ss 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


1 




34 


Se 


»P.2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


2 




35 


Br 


'Pg 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


3 




36 


Kr 


^So 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 



.D2 



36 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Table IX. 
Akeangement of Electrons in Atoms — {Continued). 
K, L, and M Shells like Kr Complete with 28 Electrons. 









■I 


Number of Electrons in Shell of Quantum Number n^^t- 




„l 


->i 


§~ 












1 




o .n 


S 


O •■ 




















% 


li 


a 


^ a 


N. 


N„ 


N„, 


N„ 


N^ 


Nvx 


Nv„ 


0, 


o„ 


Or„ 


Olv 


Pi I 


1 






to 


4n 


421 


422 


432 


4,3 


4« 


4« 


5n 


621 


^22 


63, 


6„ 


5 


37 
38 


Rb 

Sr 




2 

2 


2 
2 


4 
4 










1 
2 












39 


Y 


2D,3 * 


2 


2 


4 


1 








2 












40 


Zr 


»F2* 


2 


2 


4 


2 








2 












41 


Nb 


»DJ* 


2 


2 


4 


4 








1 












42 


Mo 


'S,,* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


1 






1 












43 


Ma 


'D? 


2 


2 


4 


4 


(2). 






(1) 












44 


Ru 


"f;* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


3 






1 












45 


Rh 


4Ff • 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 






1 












46 


Pd 


%♦ 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


















47 


Ag 


»SJ* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






1 












48 


Cd 


^So* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 












49 


In 


"Pi* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






.2 


1 










50 


Sn 


"Po* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 










51 


Sb 


*s? 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


1 








52 


Te 


'Pa 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


2 








53 


I 


'Pf 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


3 








64 


Xe 


^So 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


4 






6 


55 


Cs 


«Si* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


4 




1 




56 


Ba 


%* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


4 




2 




57 


La 


«Df 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 


4 




2 




58 


Ce 


»h' 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


1 




2 


2 


4 




2 




59 


Pr 


»KV- 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 




2 


2 


4 




2 




60 


Nd 


»Le 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


3 




2 


2 


4 




2 




61 




•LV- 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


4 




2 


2 


4 




2 




62 


Sm 


'K, 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


5 




2 


2 


4 




2 




63 


Eu 


"HI 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 




2 


2 


4 




2 




64 


Gd 


•De 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


1 


2 


2 


4 




2 




65 


Tb 


"HA,- 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


2 


2 


2 


4 




2 




66 


Dy 


'K,; 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


3 


2 


2 


4 




2 




67 


Ho 


«L%i. 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


4 


2 


2 


4 




2 




68 


Er 


«L,o 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


5 


2 


2 


4 




2 




69 


Tm 


•K-V- 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


6 


2 


2 


4 




2 




70 


Yb 


'He 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


7 


2 


2 


4 




2 




71 


Lu 


«DS 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


8 


2 


2 


4 




2 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



37 



Table IX. 

Areangemekt of Electrons in Atoms — (Continued). 

K, L, M and N Shells like Lu Complete with 60 Electrons. 









o 








1 








'e^ 


Number of Electrons in Shell of Quantum | 


t 


mic 
imber 


§ 


g . 

is a 






Number n^j^' 




0, 


o„ 


Om 


0,v 


Ov 


Pi 


Pn 


P.n 


Piv 


Q. 


1 


1* 


.2 




5,1 


021 


622 


^32 


^33 


6u 


6ai 


622 


632 


7u 




72 


Hf 


='F, 


2 


2 


4 


2 




2 












73 


Ta 


*FJ 


2 


2 


4 


3 




2 












74 


W 


'Du* 


2 


2 


4 


4 




2 












75 


Re 


"Si 
«D8 


2 


2 


4 


4 


1 

2 


2 

1 












76 


Os 




2 


2 


4 


4 


2 
3 


2 
1 












77 


Ir 




2 


2 


4 


4 


3 

4 


2 
1 












78 


Pt 


»d; 


2 


2 


4 


4 


5 


1 












79 


Au 


^SJ* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


I 












80 


Hg 


'So* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 












81 


Tl 


spj* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


1 










82 


Pb 


"Po* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 2 










83 


Bi 


«S^ 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


1 








84 


Po 


»P.2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


2 








85 




»P§ 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


3 








86 


Rn 


»s; 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 




7 


87 




"Si 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 


1 




88 


Ra 


'So 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 


2 




89 


Ac 


«D§ 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 (1) 


(2) 




90 


Th 


'F," 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 1(2) 


(2) 




91 


PAo 


«Fi| 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 (3) 


(2) 




92 


U 


*Do 


2 


2 


4 


4 


6 


2 


2 


4 (4) 


(2) 



38 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

With the attainment of a definite conception of the electronic structure 
of the various atoms it becomes possible to approach the second of the 
two problems referred to above, namely, the determination of the spectro- 
scopic terms associated with a given distribution of electron orbits. The 
first steps were taken by Russell and Saunders,''^- and independently in 
part by Wentzel,^^ who, in a discussion of the so-called ' anomalous ' 
terms, which have already been mentioned, made one of the most 
illuminating contributions to spectroscopy of recent years. To the three 
^PP' groups of calcium already known two more were added by Russell 
and Saunders, who were thus able to show that the five groups formed a 
series which could be approximately represented by a Ritz formula. The 
surprising result then appeared that, as referred to the regular triplet 
limits, the later P' terms were numerically negative. The earlier P' 
terms, having positive values, certainly originated in the neutral atom, 
and it could scarcely be doubted that the later terms also had the same 
origin. 

The existence of these negative terms implies a greater equivalent 
energy than that required for ionisation of the atom, and it follows that 
it is possible for an atom to remain neutral while absorbing more energy 
than that necessary to remove the series electron. Hence, in accordance 
with a previous suggestion made by Bohr, but unknown to them, Russell 
and Saunders concluded that the energy must be divided between two 
(or more) electrons, each of which is displaced to a higher energy level, 
without the removal of either of them. The detailed numerical evidence 
led inevitably to the conclusion that both valence electrons might jump 
at the same time from outer to inner orbits, and that the net loss of energy 
would then be radiated as a single quantum, i.e. as monochromatic 
emission. Epstein has shown that such simultaneous transitions of two 
electrons, with the emission of a single quantum of energy, is con- 
sistent with the correspondence principle, and similar combinations of 
transitions into a single emission had already been found to be involved 
in the theory of band spectra. 

Experimental evidence in support of this view of the origin of the 
anomalous terms in neutral atoms of the alkaline earths is afforded by 
the fact that such terms do not appear in the spectra of the alkalis, where 
the energy required to displace a second electron is known to be much 
greater than that for the first. Additional evidence is provided by the 
observation that they do occur in the spectra of most of the elements in 
which enhanced lines are easily produced. It may be added, in further 
support of the hypothesis, that PP' groups appear conspicuously in the 
arc spectrum of silicon, in which lines of the ionised atom are entirely 
wanting. 

In their theoretical discussion Russell and Saunders showed that the 
anomalous relations could be explained by assuming that the angular 
momenta of the two valence electrons are quantised in space with respect 
to each other, and their resultant quantised with respect to the angular 
momentum of the residue of the atom. 

Arising out of the work of Russell and Saunders, together with further 

" Phys. Mev., vol. 22, p. 201 (1923) ; Astrophys. Jour., vol. 61, p. 38 (1925). 
"» Phys. Zeit., vol. 24, p. 106 (1923) ; vol. 25, p. 182 (1924). 



A.— IVIATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 39 

contributions by Pauli,'" Goudsmit,^^ and Heisenberg,'" a general theory 
of complex spectra has been developed in a practical form by Hund.^' 
By a complex spectrum, from this point of view, is to be understood the 
spectrum of an atom which contains more than one electron with k>l 
in outer uncompleted n^ groups. Thus, while aluminium, with two of 
the outermost electrons in 3i orbits and one in a 3., orbit, gives a ' simple ' 
spectrum, the next element, silicon, with tivo electrons in 3^ orbits, gives 
a ' complex ' spectrum. The theory enables the deeper spectrum terms 
corresponding to any specified configuration of electrons to be determined 
with considerable certainty. While it adds nothing to the theory of 
simple spectra, the theory is clearly of great importance in relation to 
spectra of greater complexity. It shows, for example, that deep-lying 
terms which must be classed as F terms on account of combination 
properties and Zeeman effects, are quite compatible with low values of 
the angular momenta of the individual electrons. 

It is a fundamental feature of the new theory that, in a complex 
spectrum, the quantum numbers which specify an electron orbit are quite 
distinct from those which specify a spectroscopic term. The former are 
five in number, viz., n, k^, k^, m^, m.^ The latter, which number three, 
are represented by r, l,j. n is the principal quantum number as previously 
defined ; k^ is equal to k — h (where k is the azimuthal quantum number) ; 
jfcj may be either k^ — ^ or k^-i-^ ; and wij and m.^, which are expressible 
in terms of k^ and ko, are the magnetic quantum numbers for weak and 
strong fields respectively. The term quantum numbers are defined as 
follows : r is half the multiplicity of the system ; I denotes the type of 
term (1=^, |, f . . . for S, P, D . . . terms respectively) ; and j is the 
inner quantum number which distinguishes the components of a given 
I term. The theory consists of semi-empirical rules for deducing r, I, and j 
for the deeper-lying terms from the quantum numbers of the electrons in 
uncompleted groups. 

The assignment of five quantum numbers to each electron orbit is due 
to Pauli, who supplemented it by a hypothesis — generally known as Pauli's 
principle — which asserts that no two electrons in an atom can occupy 
orbits having the same values for these five quantities. This principle 
can be shown to lead immediately to the scheme of electron distribution 
suggested by Main Smith and Stoner ; so that in deducing spectroscopic 
terms from the orbital quantum numbers given above, it is consistent, 
and even necessary, to deal with the particular orbits given by Main Smith 
and Stoner's scheme. 

It is impossible here to give in detail the procedure to be followed 
in deriving the terms ; when the rules are grasped it becomes mainly a 
matter of arithmetic. There is a particular case, however, in which the 
calculation is greatly simplified. If the normal state of an ionised atom 
is known to be specified by values, r=R, Z=L, then the neutral atom, 
formed by the addition of an electron in an n,. orbit (provided n, k are not 



»» Zeit.f. Phys., vol. 31, p. 765 (1925). 
» Zeit.f. Phys., vol. 32, p. 794 (1925). 
'2 Zeit.f. Phys., vol. 32, p. 841 (1925). 
s' Zeit. f. Phys., vol. 33, p. 345 ; vol. 34, p. 296 (1925). 



40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

both equal to n, k of an electron already present), will contain deep-lying 
terms for which r=Rii, and I has the several values, IL— A;+^, 
iL-^l+t, . . . L+i-i/ _ 

The theory has been applied in great detail by R. H. Fowler and D. R. 
Hartree^'' to the spectrum of ionised oxygen (0 II), and the terms to be 
expected on the theory have been found to be in very satisfactory agree- 
ment with the numerous regularities deduced from the analysis of the 
observed spectrum. 

By the application of these methods it has been possible, as indicated 
in Table IX, to determine the probable ground terms of elements for which 
the spectra have not yet been classified, or even for which no spectroscopic 
observations are available. In cases where the arrangement of electrons 
is most doubtful, such as osmium and iridium, on account of the near 
equality of energies of different configurations, alternative arrangements 
and ground terms are suggested. The precise arrangement in such 
atoms can be decided only by further discussion of the spectroscopic data. 

Grimm and Sommerfeld^^ have drawn attention to two general rules, 
namely : (1) All elements with completed sub-groups (n^.^..) of electrons 
have ground terms with j=0. (2) The element which immediately 
precedes or follows one that completes such a sub-group has a value 
of j for the ground term identical with the inner quantum number (k') 
of the sub-group to which the last bound electron belongs ( = k' for odd, 
and k'—h for even multiplicities). Mg (12), for example, has ^S^ for the 
ground term, while the'preceding element, Na (11), has °S| corresponding 
with 3ii, and the following element, Al (13), has ^F^ corresponding with 
3.2J. In these simple spectra we also have l=k, but, as already indicated, 
this does not hold for complex spectra. A partial exception to thfe second 
rule is apparently found in comparing Rh (45) with Pd (46), but it is to 
be noted that there is a discontinuity in the succession of configurations 
at this part of the table. 

There can be little doubt, however, that the foregoing table of electron 
arrangements and ground terms is substantially correct, and it may 
accordingly be utilised in the consideration of such questions as that of 
chemical valencies. In the paper above mentioned, Grimm and 
Sommerfeld have discussed the closing of sub-groups in relation to 
valencies, and have concluded, among other things, that the completion 
of the shell of two electrons must be taken into account, as well as that of 
the shell of eight which occurs in the inert gases. Attention is also 
directed to the elements copper, silver, and gold, which are of special 
interest because they immediately follow nickel, palladium, and platinum, 
respectively, these being the last of the ' triad ' elements of Group VIII 
for which completed shells of eighteen electrons might have been expected. 
The position with regard to silver is quite clear, because it has been found 
that palladium has a ground term ^Sq, lying considerably below other 
levels, and implying a completed shell more or less resembling that of 
the inert gases. Thus the silver atom, with one additional electron, 
behaves essentially like the alkali metals, which have underljdng com- 
pleted groups or inert gas shells ; silver is correspondingly always 

34 Proc. Roy. Soc, A, vol. Ill, p. 83 (1926). 

35 Zeit.f. Pkys., vol. 36, p. 38 ; Nature, vol. 117, p. 793 (1926). 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 41 

monovalent, and its spectrum contains relatively few arc lines which have 
not been classified in the system of doublets. The spectrum of copper, 
on the other hand, is more complex than that of silver ; in addition to a 
doublet system similar to the doublets of the alkalis, it shows many lines 
of a quartet system. The underlying shell cannot therefore be always 
completed, and it must be assumed that, in addition to the valence 
electron, one or more of the underlying electrons is easily displaced, giving 
an uncompleted group resembling that of nickel, which has a *F^ term for 
ground term. The two valencies are probably to be accounted for in this 
way. A similar argument applies to gold, which is monovalent and 
trivalent, since the preceding element, platinum, has a ^D term for ground 
term, and the spectrum also is of greater complexity than that of silver. 

An outstanding difficulty in connection with the scheme of atomic 
structures embodied in Table IX is that the azimuthal quantum numbers 
of Sommerfeld's theory of the regular X-ray doublets correspond with 
inner quantum numbers, and not with the azimuthal quantum numbers of 
the levels indicated. The difficulty is further emphasised by Millikan and 
Bowen's^* important discovery that the regular doublet law is valid also 
in the optical doublet and triplet spectra, which they have especially 
investigated in the extreme ultra-violet, and by the further work of 
Land^^' on the same subject. 

An important step towards the removal of this and other theoretical 
difficulties, however, appears to have been taken by Uhlenbleck and 
Goudsmit^^ in a consideration of the possible effects of a rotation, or spin, 
of each electron. In further developments of the theory by Heisenberg 
and Jordan,^' it has, in fact, been found that the ' spinning electron,' 
combined with the ' new quantum mechanics ' previously initiated by 
Heisenberg, is competent to explain why the relativity doublet occurs 
between two levels that differ in their inner quantum numbers, and not, 
as in the original theory, in their azimuthal quantum numbers. At the 
same time, it may be noted, the conception of a spinning electron suggests 
a modified view of the fine structure of the hydrogen lines, which has been 
further developed by Sommerfeld and Unsold*" and appears also to be 
capable of giving an explanation of anomalous Zeeman effects. 

The extraordinary theoretical developments in recent years, leading to 
the prediction of certain features of the spectra of elements and the 
structure of atoms, have possibly overshadowed the progress in experimental 
spectroscopy. Nevertheless, much experimental work of immediate 
importance to theory has been carried on, and much more is urgently 
called for. It must not be forgotten that, notwithstanding their general 
probability, the adopted electron configurations and the spectroscopic 
terms which are deduced therefrom are by no means all finally established. 
The theory is at present largely empirical, and important modifications 
may be demanded when the structures of other spectra have been deter- 
mined. Indeed, there are relatively few spectra for which the analysis 

3« Phys. Rev., vol. 24, p. 209 (1924). 

»' Zeit. f. Phys., vol. 25, p. 46 (1924). 

38 Nature, February 20, 1926 ; see also Thomas, Nature, April 10, 1926. 

»» Zeit.f. Phys., vol. 37, p. 263 (1926). 

*" Zeit.f. Phys., vol. 36, p. 259 (1926). 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

can be regarded as complete, and many which have not been explored. 
at all. Naturally, the spectra in which the regularities have not yet been 
traced are those which present special experimental difficulties. The 
spectra of some of the rare earths, for example, consist of a vast number 
of lines, and the determination of their structure will be extremely 
laborious, demanding in the first instance great accuracy in wave-length 
measurements. On the other hand, boron presents a difficulty because 
its lines in the ordinary region of observation are too few for complete 
classification. Very little is known also of the structure of the spectra 
of the halogen elements, and much work remains to be done on the 
classification of the lines of some of the inert gases, in continuation of 
Paschen's masterly analysis of the spectrum of neon. 

Furthermore, predictions which can be made remain to be tested ; 
for example, the spectrum of doubly-ionised scandium, which, in opposition. 
to earlier expectations, should not resemble that of neutral potassium, is. 
as yet unknown. Results of great importance to theoretical progress with 
respect to atom building may confidently be expected also from investiga- 
tions of the spectra of other elements at successively higher stages of 
ionisation, as witness the results already obtained for the spectra of 
numerous elements in which the outermost shells of the atoms have been 
reduced to a single valency electron. *i 

The present resources of experimental spectroscopy would appear ta 
be adequate for the elucidation of the majority of the outstanding 
problems. For most elements the conditions of excitation can be sa 
modified that the spectrum is well under control, so that all the lines, or 
only a selection of them, can be produced at will. In the discussion of 
regularities it is, in fact, often required to excite the complete spectrum, 
including the fainter lines, for the completion of multiplet groups. On 
the other hand, as an aid to the determination of ground terms, one 
desires to produce the smallest number of lines that an element can be 
induced to give. 

The old, well-tried methods of exciting substances to luminosity — the 
flame, arc, spark, and vacuum tubes — have by no means been superseded. 
They provide the observer with a wide range of exciting energies, and 
seem likely to continue long in use as standard methods applicable to 
most of the elements. While the flame yields only the lines representing 
combinations with the deepest terms of the spectrum, the spark with some 
elements, such as silicon, is capable of exciting even trebly-ionised atoms, 
and it is usually possible to sort out the lines associated with atoms at 
different stages of ionisation by merely observing the extensions of the 
lines from the tips of the electrodes. Experiments on the absorption 
spectra of metallic vapours will no doubt also continue to be of effective 
service in the identification of lines which originate in the normal atomic 
energy levels, or in the verification of deductions as to the normal states 
based upon analyses of the more complex emission spectra. 

The older methods of observation, however, have been supplemented 
by numerous other experimental arrangements. Some of these, like the 

" A. Fowler, Phil. Trans., A, vol. 225, p. 1 (1925). MilUkan and Bowen, Phys. 
Rev., Sept. 1924 ; Phil. Mag., May 1925. J. A. Carroll, Phil. Tram., A, vol. 225, 
p. 357 (1925). D. R. Hartree, Roy. Soc. Proc, A, vol. 106, p. 552 (1924). 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 43 

electric furnace so effectively employed at Mount Wilson by A. S. King, 
have brought the spectrum of an element under more gradual control, 
so that a valuable aid in the classification of the lines of a complicated 
spectrum is provided by the order of their appearance as the temperature 
is raised. From other experiments by A. S. King,*- it would appear that 
an arc with a current of the order of 1,000 amperes, at 100 volts, has the 
advantage, from the present point of view, that it exhibits with relatively 
greater intensity the high temperature lines which are weak in ordinary 
arcs ; moreover, the fact that the widenings and reversals of lines, which 
are a prominent feature of this kind of arc, are of the same type in the same 
multiplet, promises to be of distinct value in the analysis of complicated 
spectra. 

A valuable method of producing or modifying the spectra of certain 
gases by admixture with helium was introduced by Merton" in his 
experiments on the band spectrum of hydrogen. Among the most 
remarkable results obtained by this method was the production, almost 
free from enhanced lines, of spectra attributed to atoms of neutral carbon 
and neutral nitrogen when a trace of one of these elements was present 
in helium at a pressure of several centimetres.** Little was previously 
known of these spectra, apparently because carbon compounds and 
nitrogen, in ordinary vacuum-tube observations, mainly break down 
directly from the molecular state (giving band spectra) to ionised atoms, 
the spectra of which were already well known. Other observations have 
shown that while the presence of helium is not essential for the develop- 
ment of these spectra, the mixture method has the advantage of bringing 
out the lines with greater completeness and intensity. 

A further important application of this method to oxygen has been 
made by McLennan and Shrum,** resulting in the appearance of a 
previously unrecorded oxygen line at 5577 -35, apparently agreeing in 
position with the well-known green line in the spectrum of the aurora. 
Here again, the line could be obtained, but with much lower intensity, in 
the absence of helium. A continuation of the experiments may be 
expected to reveal other members of the singlet system, which probably 
forms part of the spectrum of oxygen in company with the already known 
triplet and quintet systems. 

Among numerous other methods of controlling the spectra of certain 
elements which have been successfully adopted, it will suffice to mention 
the electrodeless ' ring discharge ' of Sir J. J. Thomson, in which different 
spectra of the same element may be excited by varying the voltage and 
the pressure in the bulb or tube. Zeeman and Dik,'"^for example, in this 
way obtained the second spectrum of potassium entirely free from 
arc lines, and, as expected from the displacement law, found it to be of 
the same general character as that of argon. McLennan^' similarly found 
it possible to obtain spectra of potassium apparently corresponding to the 

*2 Astrophys. Jour., vol. 62, p. 238 (1925). 
*3 Roy. Soc. Proc, A. vol. 96, p. 382 (1920). 

** Merton and Johnson, Boy. Soc. Proc, A. vol. 103, p. 383 (1923). Merton and 
Pilley, Roy. Soc. Proc, A, vol. 107, p. 411 (1925). 
*5 Roy. Soc Proc, A, vol. 108, p. 501 (1925). 
*« Proc. Kon. Acad. Amst., 1922, 1925. 
*' Roy. Soc. Proc, A, vol. 100, p. 182 (1921). 



44 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

' red ' and ' blue ' spectra of argon. By using a cylindrical tube for this 
form of discharge, L. and E. Blocb^® were able to distinguish the lines of 
mercury representing the first and second stages of ionisation by observing 
the extension of the lines from the edges towards the centre ; and in the 
same way, Esclangon** has sorted out lines attributed to four successive 
spectra of cadmium. 

Some of the newer methods have definitely brought additional spectra 
within the range of laboratory experience. Thus, by electric bombard- 
ment of lithium at a temperature of 1,000 deg. C, Werner^" succeeded in 
producing the spectrum of ionised lithium, which had resisted all attempts 
to obtain it by ordinary spark discharges. In accordance with theoretical 
expectation, the new spectrum was resolvable into series having 4R for 
the series constant, and was found to correspond closely with the spectrum 
of neutral helium. A similar, but less complete, spectrum of ionised lithium 
was also obtained by Schuler.^^ who made use of the ' hollow cathode ' 
method, and by Morand*^ with an apparatus in which the metal was 
excited by anode rays. 

One of the few sources which can at present be employed for observa- 
tions in the extreme ultra-violet is that known as the 'vacuum spark,' 
which has been extensively utilised by Millikan^^ and his colleagues. In 
this method the spectrograph and spark chamber are highly evacuated, 
and a powerful spark is made to pass between electrodes separated by 
one or two millimetres or less. The spectra include lines representing 
various stages of ionisation in a single photograph, but their disentangle- 
ment can be effected with the help derived from the analysis of spectra 
obtained under better controlled conditions in more accessible regions. 
The interpretation of such spectra, however, has been greatly simplified by 
the recent remarkable work of Bowen and Millikan,^* who, by utilising high 
orders of the grating, have obtained a high degree of resolution of complex 
groups, and wave-lengths of a degree of accuracy approaching that 
obtainable in ordinary parts of the spectrum. 

Another class of ' experiments,' as I have previously mentioned, is 
provided by the heavenly bodies. Saha's theory of high-temperature 
ionisation, further developed by Fowler and Milne^^ and by Miss C. H. 
Payne, 8« has already been utilised in the prediction of the ionisation 
potentials of certain multiply-ionised atoms for which the structures of 
the corresponding laboratory spectra have not yet been sufficiently 
determined to indicate the energies of the normal states. In this way it 
is conceivable that we may obtain approximate values of the actual 
energy levels in some of the complex atoms for which only relative values 
can at present be directly determined from the spectra. 

" Jour, de Phys., vol. 4, p. 333 (1923). 
«» Dissert., Paris, 1926. 

50 Nature, vol. 115, p. 191 (1925). 

51 Die Naturwiss., July 11, 1924. 

52 Comptes Rendus, vol. 178, p. 1528 (1924). 
" Astrophys. Jour., vol. 52, p. 47 (1920), etc. 
51 Phys. Rev., vol. 26, p. 150 (1925). 

55 Mon. Net. R.A.S., vol. 83, p. 403 (1923) ; vol. 84, p. 499 (1924). 
5^ ' Stellar Atmospheres,' Harvard Obs. Monographs, No. 1 (1925). 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 45 

Apart from the question of sources for spectroscopic study, Zeeman 
effects, with the rules of Laude" for their interpretation, provide the 
observer with a powerful means of determining the types of terms in many 
spectra. 

Enough has been said, I hope, to give some idea of the main lines of 
development and present trend of spectroscopy. The analysis of spectra 
with which I have been chiefly concerned is a fascinating pursuit, and the 
establishment of a beautiful order out of an apparent chaos of spectrum 
lines brings great satisfaction to the investigator. I have endeavoured 
to show, however, that the analysis of spectra is not an end in itself, but 
that under the guidance of quantum theory it has fundamental con- 
tributions to make to our understanding of atomic structure and of the 
periodic classification of the chemical elements. It appears not at all 
improbable that some of the mysteries of chemical valency may also find 
a solution in the classification of spectrum lines, and there are indications 
that the conceptions of spectroscopy may ultimately extend our knowledge 
of the structure of matter in the liquid and solid states. 

It may be that in the future the theory of spectra will be so far 
developed that it will become possible to calculate the positions and 
intensities of the lines composing the spectrum of an element with greater 
accuracy than they can be observed. We are, however, still very far 
from this ideal, and meanwhile experiment and theory must go hand in 
hand towards a better understanding of the problems that lie immediately 
before us. 

*' Back and Lande, Zeemaneffeki vnd Multipletistrvkiur, Berlin, 1925. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



THE SCOPE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. J. F. THORPE, C.B.E., D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OP THE SECTION. 



The chemistry of the compounds of carbon covers a wide field, wider 
than that covered by any other element. Its scope embraces all living 
matter, as well as the vast number of non-living substances which are 
produced through the agency of life. Moreover, it includes a very great 
number of compounds unrelated to life or to living processes which have 
been built up by the chemist in the laboratory by methods he has devised. 
Already some 200,000 definite compounds have been tabulated in 
Richter's Lexicon and in the supplements thereto, and this number is 
increased yearly by several thousands through the agency of a band of 
zealous workers scattered over the globe. It may well be asked what is 
the good of continuing to increase this already astonishing number ; and 
is the expenditure of time, labour and energy justified which leads to the 
discovery of some new fact having, apparently, no useful application to 
any department of human activity ? The answers to these questions are 
quite clear and definite. You must acquire a knowledge of the simple 
before you can attack the complex with any hope of success. The element 
carbon has been used by nature as the basis of organised life because the 
capacity of carbon to combine with itself is shared by no other element, 
and it is upon this capacity that nature has relied in order to build up 
the tissues and reserve materials which form the living world around us. 
Moreover, since the compounds of carbon containing a moderate number 
of atoms of the element are usually crystalline or capable of becoming 
crystalline, and there are obvious disadvantages attaching to the use of 
potsntially crystalline substances as the basis of living matter, it has been 
found necessary to employ the more complex carbon derivatives con- 
taining many hundreds of elemental atoms, which by reason of their 
high molecular complexities no longer possess, or seem capable of acquiring, 
a crystalline structure, but belong to the class of jelly-like or colloidal 
substances. Until we can determine how a small number of carbon atoms 
combine one with the other we cannot hope to obtain any insight into 
the manner in which the more complex natural substances are built up, 
or any information regarding the way in which they are utilised to bring 
about the changes occurring during animal and vegetable metabolism. 

Structure. 

The science of structural organic chemistry is only just fifty years old. 
It was born when the genius of van't Hoff gave to the world the clue upon 
which the three-dimensional formula we now use is based. It is, therefore, 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 47 

DO inconsiderable achievement to have gained in so short a time a know- 
ledge of many of the reactions and properties of the more simple complexes 
of carbon in combination with oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. 
But much yet remains to be done before we can attack with any real 
hope of success the problems which the chemistry of nature presents. 
It is true that the knowledge already gained has led to the synthetic 
preparation of quite a number of natural products, many of which are of 
service in relation to human needs. Many of the alkaloids, colourin'' 
matters like indigo and alizarine, camphor, and a large number of natural 
products, have yielded the secrets of their structures and have been produced 
by laboratory methods and, where necessary, on the factory scale. But the 
synthesis of such compounds has not provided much insight into the 
mechanism leading to their production in nature, and, indeed, the reason 
for their occurrence in the plant is not understood. They are, moreover, 
crystalline substances which either occur in the plant as such or are formed 
by the hydrolytic fission of some more complex plant materials. Their 
homogeneity is, therefore, not open to doubt, and their degradation into 
known fragments and the rebuilding of these fragments into the original 
substances, although by no means easy, is nevertheless comparatively 
simple when the difficulties attending the investigation of more complex 
natural products are taken into account. Even so, some of the simpler 
type, for example, strychnine, still resist the attack of the chemist. 

The Electronic Theory. 

It is clear that our knowledge of the finer mechanism of reactions is 
slight, and that, great as has been the advance made through the discovery 
of van't Hofi, we are still at a loss to explain or predict the shades which 
determine whether one particular type of reaction will be more, or less, 
facile than another. The chief trouble seems to be that the electronic 
theories, which are quite satisfactory in themselves, are not yet developed 
so fully that they can include any quantitative statement relating to the 
changes in the free energy of systems. Yet it is evident that any theory 
of organic structure must conform to the modern physical conceptions of 
matter. The principle of shared electrons is primarily justified by its 
success in explaining the linking of atoms, i.e. valency, and by its successful 
interpretation of the theory of co-ordination and ' onium ' salt formation. 
The subsidiary hypothesis of electron displacement also provides a means 
by which an explanation can be supplied to account for the ease of forma- 
tion, stability, and general reactions of conjugated systems, thus placing 
the hypothesis of Thiele on a sounder theoretical basis. 

Butadiene. 

CH.,=CH-CH=CHo 



H H H H 

II II II II 
"C=C=C=C- 

II 11 

H H 



(Thiele.) (Electronic formula.) 



CHj : CH— CH 

II 
CH2 : CH-CH 


CHj : CH-OH 

II 
CH-CH 


(cis.) 


(trans.) 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In the formula for butadiene shown above, the dotted line indicates 
the interchange of an electron between the two end carbon atoms of the 
system ; it is to be assumed that this condition provides a point of attack 
and leads to the 1 : 4 addition which is characteristic of this substance. 
Evidence has been sought in order to substantiate this view, and with, 
this object an extended investigation on the properties of hexatriene has 
been undertaken. 

Hexatriene contains a three-conjugated system, and must, in accordance 
with stereo-chemical theory, exist in two forms, which may be represented 
diagrammatically thus : 



=CH, 



In accordance with the Thiele hypothesis these would be conjugated 
thus : 



CH-, : CH— CH CHa : CH— CH 

II II 

CH2 : CH-CH CH-CH=CHj 

• m 

m 

and there should thus be no difference in the behaviour of the two forms 
towards additive reagents such as bromine. 

On the other hand, if these two forms are expressed in terms of the 
electronic hypothesis thus : 

H H H H H H 

II II II II II II 

H=C=C=C H=C=C=C 



H=C=C=C C=C=C=H 

II 11 II II II II 

H H H H H H 

the cis form, in which the two terminal atoms are near together, might 
be expected to share the electron, as shown by the dotted line, whilst the 
trans form, having the terminal carbon atoms too remote from one another 
to enable this interchange to take place, would react in the form 

H H H 

II II II 
H=C=C=C H 

II II II 
H H H 

There can be no doubt that the hexatriene prepared by van Romburgh 
is the trans form. This, as its discoverer showed, adds on bromine in the 

positions 3 : 4 to give 

CH2=CH-CHBr 

CHBr-CH=CH, 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 40 

It is, therefore, not a conjugated system in the sense that butadiene is 
a conjugated system. 

We have now succeeded in isolating cis-hexatriene, and are studying 
the action of bromine on it. If, as is to be anticipated, the addition takes 
place in the 1 : 6 positions, direct evidence will be available in favour of 
the electronic hypothesis. The work is, however, exceedingly difficult 
because, unlike those of the trans series, the cis compounds are liquids 
and therefore dilficult to identify. Moreover, they are unstable and 
readily polymerise to resins on keeping. There is no doubt, however, 
that these difficulties will be overcome. 

In the same way the Thomson^ formula for benzene provides an 
expression for the intermediate state as postulated by Kekule, and renders 
the so-called centric formula, which is meaningless, now unnecessary. 



I 







Benzene. 




^\ 


/\ 


^ 


H 

C 


(Kekule. 


) 


(Centric.) 


H : C C ; H 
„ .1 l,H 

c 










H 








(Thomson.) 



There can be no question that the distribution of electrons among the 
carbon atoms and other atoms of organic molecules must determine the 
reactions of the complexes involved, and future research will no doubt 
lead to an advance in our knowledge concerning the causes which promote 
or retard this distribution. 

The ductility of the carbon to carbon bonds which have now been 
clearly demonstrated enables us to impart strains to certain parts of an 
organic molecule at will, and it is reasonable to assume that such strain 
when once set up will be shared as far as possible equally by all the atoms 
of the system involved. If this distribution is, as Robinson postulates, 
effected by a restricted flow * of electrons from one atom to another in 
the molecule, we have, at any rate, a definite picture of the process which 
the mind can grasp ; and if the distribution leads ultimatelj^— as is to 
be surmised— to the establishment of polar characteristics at different 
parts of the molecule, which will determine reactivity at those points, we 
are in a fair way to reconcile the views of various contending schools and 
to reach a general hypothesis acceptable to all chemists, and which may 
even satisfy the physicists. It seems that, despite the organic chemist's 
proneness and ability to distort the molecules with which he deals, nature 
has provided a means by which a certain degree of molecular equilibrium 
can be attained. Nevertheless it will be by the investigation of the 
conditions leading to the setting up of strain and of the effect produced 

' See also H. Kaufimann {Die Valenzlehre, 1911, p. 539). 

2 Robinson considers that an electron may leave its 'moormga' on one of the 
atoms which holds it but never on both. 

1926 E 



50 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

thereby that we shall gain the most information regarding the chemistry of 
carbon structures in the near future. The course of a reaction in 
organic chemistry which involves an equation such as the following 

^,^^000 Et. 
CHa.CHa.CHjBr + CHNa 

-^ COO Et. 

->- NaBr + etc. 

is determined by the tendency to form NaBr — the organic residues have 
to make the best they can of the situation, and the manner in which they 
will combine with themselves or react each with the solvent is dependent 
on the influence of many factors. Undoubtedly there will be a tendency 
to produce the most stable system and the one whose formation involves 
the greatest loss of free energy, but there must be a possible mechanism, 
and this involves the polar factors. Even these cannot force a group 
into a position in which there is no room for it, and therefore the effect of 
polarity must always be dependent on steric conditions. No doubt polar 
conditions determine the order of priority of a number of possible arrange- 
ments, but it is the steric condition that determines which of these arrange- 
ments shall be followed. 

Strainless Systems. 

It is reasonable to assume that the organic substances that occur in 
nature as such are produced by means which involve the least expenditure 
of energy, and that they are, therefore, strainless. Among such natural 
products there are many containing carbon rings belonging to ring systems 
which cannot normally be produced without distorting the carbon tetra- 
hedral angles of the component carbon atoms, and thus imparting intra- 
molecular strain to the compounds formed. Nevertheless it is inter- 
esting to note the means adopted by nature to relieve this strain and thus 
to confer equilibrium and stability on quite unlikely ring systems. Ring 
systems stabilised in this way are found frequently among terpenes ; 
two, namely camphor and pinene, need only be mentioned to illustrate 
the general method. In camphor the bridged ring is stabilised by the 
presence of two dimethyl groups, and in pinene, where the junction of 
the inner ring has to take effect in the position 3, the presence of a double 



C . CHs C . CH, 

/ \ //\ 

CHs CO CH CH 

QCHs)., 



CHs 
\ 



CH, CHa 

/ \ 



C(CH3) 

! 
CH., 

/ 



CH CH 

(Camphor.) (Pmene.) 



bond on the shoulder of the external ring is necessary. Still more remark- 
able examples are afforded by more complex natural ring systems. For 
instance, there is a substance named civetone, which is extracted from 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 51 

certain glands of the Civet-cat. There is no doubt as to its structure, 
which has been shown to contain a 17-membered ring, thus : 

CH. (CHa), 

II )^C0 

CH. (CHa), 

the evidence of structure being" derived both from a study of the degrada- 
tion products of the substance and also by its recent synthesis. If this 
compound is set up on the tetrahedral models, thus : 




it will be found to form a triplanar figure which is strainless ; the condition 
being produced by the presence of the double bond in the position shown. 

Biochemistry. 

In its earliest days the science of organic chemistry dealt only with 
those compounds which were derived from natural sources, and it was 
regarded as certain that such substances could only be produced through 
the agency of life and by no other means. Since then this theory has 
been shown to be wrong by the preparation in the laboratory of many 
substances identical with those formed during the operation of life pro- 

E 2 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

cesses. Nevertheless, the more complex substances which nature utilises 
in building up her animal and vegetable structures still show no signs of 
yielding the secrets of their constitutions, or the mechanism by which 
they are produced. Indeed, although we can imitate in the laboratory 
certain natural operations such as the hydrolysis of starch to glucose, 
we are still quite ignorant of the means by which glucose is converted, by 
the appropriate enzyme, into alcohol and carbon dioxide, neither can we 
imitate this process in the laboratory. 

When once the chemist has passed beyond the crystalline and the 
distillable he enters a region full of difficulties, because he has few means 
either of purifying the materials with which he has to deal, or of deter- 
mining their homogeneity when they have been purified. These are the 
real difficulties which confront the biochemist when he approaches his 
subject from the structural side of organic chemistry. Biochemistry is 
in the unique position of being both a descriptive or observational science 
and also one of the experimental sciences. From the biological side it has 
at its disposal the wealth of knowledge acquired by the physiologists and 
pathologists, and from the chemical side it is in touch with the recorded 
experience of several generations of organic chemists. If biochemistry is 
to justify its name it must carry out its function of bringing into line the 
discoveries of the physiologists with organic chemical structure, for by 
this means only will it be possible to gain an insight into the chemistry 
of natural processes which it is the object of biochemistry to discover. 
It is far from my object to disparage the wonderful work which has been 
done and is being done bj' physiologists and pathologists in their attack 
on the mechanism of normal and abnormal life processes. Their record 
speaks for itself. But too little is being done to approach the problems 
from the purely organic chemical side, and too few of the people engaged 
in biochemical research have an adequate knowledge of organic chemistry 
or the methods of the organic chemist. The number of organic chemists 
who are co-operating with biologists in their attack on natural processes 
is too few. Indeed, the very difficult question arises here as to how best 
to organise methods for dealing with problems which are essential border- 
land problems between two great sciences. I do not propose on this 
occasion to discuss the vexed question of the chemical engineer, but actually 
the analogy between this hybrid and the biochemist is fairly close. Is the 
biochemist to be a biologist with a knowledge of chemistry, or is he to be 
a chemist with a knowledge of biology ? I refer, of course, to the method 
of training required for a man or woman who proposes to take up bio- 
chemical research during the fourth year. Given twenty years and the 
requisite capacity it is, of course, possible for a man to acquire sufficient 
acquaintance with both sciences to render him an effective worker in the 
borderland field, although here again the temperament which promotes 
enthusiasm for research in the experimental sciences and that which 
leads to initiative in the descriptive sciences is not usually found in the 
same individual. As knowledge increases the need for specialisation must 
also increase, because the time factor — that is, the time during which it 
is possible for a student to undergo training — cannot be prolonged beyond 
a certain period. Even at the present time it is an open question whether 
it is possible to give a student a special training in more than one science 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 53 

and in the sciences subsidiary thereto in the time available, and this 
problem will become more acute as knowledge increases. It has been 
suggested that we should revert to the older method by which a student 
was instructed in, say, three sciences without any special training in anv 
one of them, and doubtless this method was a good one for the require- 
ments of those times. But the day of the universalist is past, and general 
scientific culture has become a luxury of the leisured classes. It is only 
by the aid of the specialist that, nowadays, we can hope to obtain advances 
in knowledge either in the sciences or in the sciences applied to industry. 
It seems that the best method to attack problems in the borderland 
subjects is by co-operation between two types of trained investigators. 
In the case of biochemistry, for example, by the provision of trained 
students of two kinds, the one trained in physiology but with a sufficient 
knowledge of organic chemistry to promote sympathy with and knowledge 
of the chemist's point of view, and the other trained as an organic chemist 
with a similar knowledge of the methods and requirements of the 
physiologist. The former would be a trained physiologist who would 
devote his final year to organic chemistry, the latter an organic chemist 
who would devote his final year to a study of physiology. This is, of 
course, no new idea, but one which is being carried out in at least one 
institution in this country in connection with other borderland subjects. 
But it is the absence of any real attempt to approach biochemical problems 
from the chemical side that renders it particularly desirable that the need 
for some such scheme should be emphasised. It is true that the fault is 
largely on the side of the organic chemists, who, for the most part, seem 
appalled by the difficulties attaching to the study of natural processes. 
The difficulties are indeed great, but not insurmountable. We are far 
from gaining any insight into the meaning of life, but it is not unlikely 
that we shall, in the near future, obtain some information regarding the 
mechanism of the action of the enzyme, the important agent in the non- 
living transformation of living matter into chemical products. It may 
be that organic chemists are waiting to see how Willstiitter, who has 
already made great progress in enzyme chemistry, will surmount the 
difficulties confronting him, and it may well be that this great organic 
chemist will introduce new methods of attack which will open up fresh 
fields for investigation. ' 

Analytical, 

Except for the substitution of gas for charcoal, it cannot be said that 
the ordinary methods of analysis employed by the organic chemists have 
changed much since the days of Liebig. They have been modified, 
notably by Dennstedt, and more recently some have adopted the micro- 
chemical methods introduced by Pregl, but the older methods, for example 
the long and tedious process for the estimation of halogens by the method 
of Carius, are still in vogue in many of our laboratories and are taught 
to the students. In any case the usual operations entailed by the estima- 
tion of carbon and hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and the halogens require 
considerable time, which has not been materially shortened by the intro- 
duction of the less cumbersome methods due to Dennstedt. Pregl's 
methods, in which a very small quantity of material is used requiring 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the provision of a special type of balance, have been tried in many- 
laboratories, and have found favour, it is understood, in several of them, 
more particularly abroad. But the general experience has been that the 
technical skill required to obtain good results is acquired only after long 
practice, and that whereas the methods are useful for gaining an indication 
of structure when the quantities of material at hand are so small as to 
necessitate their use, yet when a sufficient quantity of substance is available 
the older methods are more reliable and more easily carried out. It is 
interesting to note that the new methods which have been introduced by 
Prof, ter Meulen, of Delft, are going to be described to us by Prof, ter Meulen 
himself, who is fortunately with us at this meeting. Prof, ter Meulen will 
give an account of his methods on Tuesday morning, and they will be 
shown in actual operation during the soiree on Tuesday evening. Chemists 
will then see that a great saving of time can be effected by methods which 
can not only be used to analyse the small quantities employed by Pregl, 
but also quantities of 0.1 grm., such as organic chemists have been accus- 
tomed to use in the past, and which have been shown to produce the most 
accurate results. 

The Utilisation of Forest Products. 

The immense number of organic compounds distributed among the 
plants, trees, and grasses which form the forests and jungles of the world 
offer a wide field for research which has still much to yield. Our know- 
ledge of the medicinal properties of organic substances and the various 
uses to which they could be put in the service of mankind did not come 
to us through any effort of the chemist, but as the outcome of a process 
of trial and error which is as old as the human race itself. These products 
were obtained from vegetable materials present in the forests, and as 
time went on they were extracted in a form possessing some degree of 
purity, and the plants containing those with specially valuable properties 
were cultivated for their production. As soon as a theory of organic 
structure was evolved upon which prediction could be based, these useful 
products were subjected to close investigation, and in several cases they 
were prepared by laboratory means. As an outcome several of them, such 
as indigo and alizarine, were found to be capable of production more 
economically by the chemical method than by the processes of life, and 
the natural substances were rapidly replaced by the artificial products. 
Others still resist all efforts to unravel their structures, and remain still 
unsynthesised. Nevertheless it has been by a study of the chemical 
structure of natural products that much has been learnt regarding the 
relation between chemical composition and physiological action, and 
although it may not have been found possible economically to prepare 
the natural substance itself, the clue revealed by the determination of 
structure has led to the production of other substances which have not 
only shown the properties of the natural compound in an enhanced form, 
but have also exhibited other valuable physiological effects. The 
determination of structure has, therefore, two objects — to prepare the 
natural substance and to ascertain the particular arrangement of the 
atoms in the molecule which confers on it the properties which determine 
its value. The determination of the striicture of indigo led not only to 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 55 

the production of the blue natural indigo, but enabled indigoes of every 
shade of the spectrum to be prepared as commercial products. The 
determination of the structure of cocaine revealed the molecular complex 
which conferred on this substance its power to act as a local anaesthetic, 
and has led to the production of a number of other substances possessing 
this valuable property, but without the special disadvantages attaching 
to the use of the natural substance. Examples of this kind are numerous 
and should be increased. A systematic examination of our forest products 
would undoubtedly lead to the discovery of many others, and would 
provide opportunity for the investigation of many other important 
problems, such as, for example, the utilisation of forest grasses as a source 
of power alcohol. 

Systematic team-work research by organic chemists in close association 
with botanists is required, and now that the Forest Production Research 
Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research is in active 
operation, no doubt this branch of its work will receive attention. 

Petroleum. 

The complex hydrocarbons which form the main constituents of crude 
petroleum belong to a section of organic chemistry at present too little 
explored. Although many millions have been made through the produc- 
tion and sale of petroleum products, it is safe to say that the percentage 
of profit devoted to research in oil products has been infinitesimal. It is 
true that in the United States large sums are given by the oil interests 
towards research in other subjects, but until quite recently none of these 
was, curiously enough, given for the purpose of improving our knowledge 
of the science on which the utilisation and isolation of petroleum products 
depends. The reason is not far to seek. The apparently inexhaustible 
supplies of petroleum rendered it unnecessary to devise means for 
economical working. The crudest and most wasteful methods were 
employed, because economy and the conservation of the natural product 
were not paying propositions. This applies not only to the methods 
used in fractionisation, but to those employed for the purpose of ' cracking ' 
the higher boiling fractions into liquids of lower boiling-point. For at 
the present moment it is the fraction up to 200° C. which is the important 
product, because it is the ' petrol ' of the internal-combustion engine. 
Time was, before the introduction of this particular machine, when the 
light fraction from crude petroleum was a drug on the market, and in 
many cases was actually set on fire at the refinery because no use could 
be found for it. In those days the chief product was the kerosene fraction 
which was used as lamp-oil. At the present time the rapid increase in 
the use of the motor-car for personal and commercial transport indicates 
that at no distant period, if progress continues to be made in the same 
direction, the amount of the ' petrol ' fraction will be insufficient for the 
world's needs. This point has already been reached in America, where 
approximately 70 per cent, of the world's consumption of petrol (gasoline) 
is effected. During 1925 the consumption of petrol in the U.S.A. 
approached 800,000,000 gallons a month, which is about twelve times 
the amount consumed in this country. It has been stated that one in 
every five persons in the States — men, women, and children — possess a 



56 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

motor-car,' and, be this as it may, it is evident that to meet such a colossal 
consumption means have to be found to utilise the higher boiling fractions, 
and, indeed, even the residues from the distillation processes. This 
' cracking ' operation is now carried out on an enormous scale by numerous 
processes, all subject to patents, but differing from one another only 
slightly on the question of principle. All depend on the well-established 
fact tlaat hydrocarbons of high molecular weight will break down into 
those of lower molecular weight if they are subjected to the requisite 
degree of temperature. Pressure appears to play an important part in 
the character of the product, as does also the surface action of the container 
or material used in the container to promote surface action. All are 
wasteful, because little or no research has been carried out on the true 
chemical nature of the cracking operation. Much permanent gas is 
always produced, consisting for the most part of ethylene and propylene. 
In the States the ethylene is allowed to go free, because its obvious 
utilisation in the form of ethyl alcohol is attended with difficulties, but 
the propylene is usually absorbed in sulphuric acid, and thus converted 
into isopropyl alcohol, useful as a solvent. The production of these two 
unsaturated hydrocarbons provides a clue to the mechanism of the 
cracking process which is of some significance. If you break a long chain- 
saturated hydrocarbon one of your products must be an unsaturated 
hydrocarbon, and it is evident that cracked spirit contains a considerable 
proportion of such unsaturated bodies. Moreover, the cracking processes 
at present in use do not produce aromatic hydrocarbons, and it is on the 
presence of a proportion of these aromatic hydrocarbons that certain 
special properties of petrol depend. For example, the tendency at the 
present time is to produce for motor-cars internal-combustion engines of 
increased compression ratio, in order mainly to diminish the petrol con- 
sumption and thus increase mileage per gallon consumed. For some 
reason, which research has not yet ascertained, the use of petrol which 
does not contain the right quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons of the 
benzene type leads to ' detonation,' ' knocking,' or ' pinking ' when ignited 
in cylinders giving more than a small compression ratio. This detriment 
diminishes the value of cracked spirit as such for any but low-compression 
engines, and many have been the devices suggested in order to overcome this 
difficulty. A vast number of substances, selected more or less at random, 
have been tried as ' anti-knock ' materials, and as an outcome it has been 
found that one, namely lead tetraethyl, possesses the property, when 
present in exceedingly small quantities, of preventing the ' detonation ' 
of the explosion mixture in the cylinder. For a time lead tetraethyl 
(ethyl gas) fell under a ban in the States owing to a fatal accident which 
attended the spilling of a certain amount in one of the American factories, 
but it is understood that further investigation has led to a revision of 
the view first formed, and that considerable quantities of ' ethyl gas ' 
are now being used. The writer remembers visiting Wilmington in 1924, 
when some 500 gallons of lead tetraethyl were being made daily. Although 
there was naturally a strong smell of the material in the factory building, 
and he remained for some hours there, no ill-efiects were noticed. It is 

s Cars registered on January 1, 1925, were: U.S.A., 17,591,981; Canada, 638,794; 
Great Britain, 1,094,534. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 57 

obvious that the conditions which produce ' knocking,' and the reason why 
certain substances are ' anti-knock ' compounds, and why the presence 
of aromatic hydrocarbons prevent the phenomenon, must be made the 
subject of systematic research. 

The question is also one of national importance, because in the case 
of high-compression engines, such as those used in aeroplanes, it is essential 
that a petrol should be used containing a high percentage of aromatic 
hydrocarbons. In war-time these aromatic compounds will be required 
for the manufacture of explosives, and it is quite certain that there will 
not be enough for both purposes. 

Nevertheless, it must be remembered that it is only at the moment 
that the low boiling fraction of petroleum is the chief marketable product. 
It is probable that progress in the future will tend more and more to 
produce a motor-car engine of the Diesel type, or one having a carburettor 
capable of effectively vaporising the higher fractions of petroleum. In 
these circumstances it may well be that the low fraction will become the 
less important part of crude petroleum, and that, instead of having to 
resort to ' cracking, ' a process of synthesis, by which the lower hydrocarbons 
can be converted into higher ones, will have to be adopted. As a matter 
of fact there are methods known by which this can be effected. Pure 
i'soamylene can, for example, be converted into diamylene by interaction 
with stannic or aluminium chloride, and the process can be carried 
further, so that perfectly good lubricating oils can now be made by the 
polymerisation of the lower unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

Polymerisation and depolymerisation are, therefore, the two operations 
which the petroleum industry must investigate and establish on a firm 
■scientific basis by research, so that it may be in a position to supply the 
public need for any particular form of engine which the engineer may 
■evolve. Especially is it desirable to ascertain under what conditions 
polymerisation leads to the formation of aromatic and naphthenic hydro- 
carbons. Considerable attention has been drawn within recent times to 
what may be termed in general the Bergius processes for depolymerising 
organic substances. The operation, which consists in heating the material 
under high pressure in the presence of hydrogen, was introduced in the 
first instance for the treatment of coal. There can be no question that 
great and fundamental changes are brought about in organic substances 
by the treatment whether a catalyst is present or not, and that a wide 
field for research is opened up thereby, but it is doubtful if, at the moment, 
general operations of this type can be regarded as commercial propositions. 
The plant is exceeding costly and the conditions subject to wide variations 
which are difl&cult to control. Actually it has been ascertained that in 
the ' cracking ' of the kerosene fraction of petroleum hydrogen is un- 
necessary, and can be replaced by nitrogen without affecting the character 
of the final product. 

Little is known of the constituents of crude petroleum, or, indeed, 
of the fractions into which it can be separated after purification and 
distillation. Some of the simpler hydrocarbons of the pentane and 
hexane type have been isolated and the presence of cyclic compounds has 
been established. Many of them are classed under the head of ' naphthenes, ' 
but these are of uncertain structure. No doubt many are present in the 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

crude oil, but it is certain that others are formed during the distillatiou 
process. It is clear that much opportunity for research work offers itself 
here, and it is probable that small alterations in the method of distillation 
may cause deep-seated changes in the character of the distillate, causing 
it to be of greater service for particular purposes. The occurrence of 
hydrocarbons of the naphthalene series in petroleum products has also 
been clearly established. The higher fractions which constitute the 
valuable lubricating oils also need attention, for it is now certain that 
viscosity bears no relation to oiliness, that is, the capacity for acting as 
an efficient lubricator. The addition of small quantities of ' polar ' 
substances of the type of fatty oils or acids confers increased oiliness on 
these compounds, and although we are now gradually reaching a stage 
when we know more about the effects of such ingredients, the field for 
research is still a large and important one. 

The formation of free carbon occurs during both the distillation and 
' cracking ' processes, in some cases to a very considerable extent. The 
utilisation of this carbon for the purposes of making electrodes is an 
important part of the industry, and the formation of carbon in a condition 
in which it can be used by the rubber-tyre manufacturers is also likely 
to become practicable as an outcome of the thermal decomposition of 
hydrocarbons. 

At present we know nothing about the structure of the hydrocarbons 
present in the lubricating oils. Indeed, it seems possible that these may 
net be long-chain hydrocarbons with which the organic chemist is familiar, 
but rather polymerised products formed from unsaturated components 
liable to be formed or destroyed under comparatively mild conditions. 
The relative ease with which the oil in the engine sump of a motor-car 
loses its oiliness through continued use is not characteristic of the stability 
usually associated with an organic hydrocarbon. Recent researches on 
the formation of dimeric products of the simple type 

XCH=CHY XCH-CHY XCH-CHY 

-^1 I or I I 

XCH=CHY XCH-CHY YCH-CHX 

show that the ease of formation and stability of such systems depend on 
the composition of X and Y. In some cases stable complexes of this 
kind are formed which can be distilled without undergoing disruption, but 
which are broken down slowly on prolonged heating even at a moderate 
temperature. 

In the complex hydrocarbons under discussion the letters X and Y 
represent hydrocarbon residues, probably themselves containing other 
unsaturated linkages, and under the conditions of high pressure which 
were probably present during the formation of natural petroleum it is 
possible many of these four-membered rings are formed in a single 
molecule, for example : 

XHC - CH - CH2 - CH - CHX 

II II 

YHC-CH-CH2-CH-CHY 

an expression which, incidentally, indicates the manner in which the 
cyclohexane complex can also be produced by a similar process. So far 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 59 

as the chemistry of petroleum is concerned this is at present mere surmise, 
which must be investigated as soon as practicable. The view is, however, 
rendered plausible by the work which has been carried out at the Imperial 
College during the past five years, which shows conclusively that the 
formation and stability of ring systems depend on the character of the 
groups attached to the carbon atoms forming the rings, and are not merely 
dependent, as Baeyer supposed, on the tetrahedral angle of the carbon 
atoms involved. It is probable also that a similar explanation may account 
for the ' naphthenes,' and will provide a general explanation of polymerisa- 
tion and depolymerisation upon which it will be possible to base improved 
technical processes. 

The composition of petroleums varies in accordance with their origin. 
Some are rich in aromatic hydrocarbons, and some are practically sulphur 
free ; others contain so much of the last-named element as to render them 
unfit for use. The Kimmeridge shale oils are instances of the latter type, 
although doubtless if it were a paying proposition the sulphur could be 
readily eliminated from these products. The oil from the Persian, 
Mexican, and Ohio fields contains sulphur, which has to be eliminated 
during the process of refining. Among the sulphur compounds present 
mercaptans and thioethers have been identified, although whether they 
are present in the crude oil as such or whether they are formed during 
the refining process is still an open question. Their removal by washing 
with liquid SO.^, an operation which is now carried out on a very large 
scale at the refineries at Skewen, is of interest. 

It is clear, therefore, that the need for systematic research into the 
character of petroleum products is urgent, and it is gratifying to note 
that the Anglo-Persian Oil Company has established a research laboratory 
at Sunbury-on-Thames, in which the important principles underlying the 
industry have been and will be studied. 

Dyestuffs and Intermediates. 

Prior to the war Germany manufactured three-fourths of the dyestuffs 
required for the world's markets. Of the remaining one-fourth, one-half 
was made from German intermediates and was, therefore, dependent on 
Germany. Switzerland, although without a domestic source of raw 
materials, ranked second with about 7 per cent, of the world's production. 
Great Britain produced about one-tenth of her requirements, and France 
produced in French-owned and operated plants from 10 to 15 per cent, 
of her cousiimption. In order to meet the patent requirements of France 
and Great Britain, German manufacturers operated plants in those 
countries where the final assembling operations were completed. The 
small dye industry of the United States was almost entirely dependent 
upon German intermediates. At the present time Great Britain produces 
80 per cent, of the dyestuffs required for our own use, and we are, therefore, 
in a position to review the conditions which have led to this remarkable 
change and to consider the procedure necessary to strengthen it. It 
cannot be said that any fundamental advance in the chemistry of the 
dyestuffs has been made since Bohn discovered indanthrene in 1901, 
although great advances have been made since then in the preparation of 
new colours belonging to this and other known series. Consequently the 



60 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

researcli work necessary in order to establish our position as a dye-making 
country has been mainly along known lines, involving the extension of 
reactions which had already been established rather than the discovery 
of new ones. Nevertheless it is no inconsiderable achievement for our 
research chemists to have established a position such as that indicated 
above in so short a space of time, for many of the preparations, the details 
of which could only be found in the patent literature, had to be worked 
out de novo and the correct conditions found for their adaptation to the 
technical scale. It is probably along the lines of decreased cost of produc- 
tion that research work in the immediate future will be mostly engaged, 
and especially is this the case with the intermediate products from which 
the dyestuffs are derived. Moreover, the intermediate products are of 
the greatest importance for other industries, for example, the Fine Chemical 
Industry, the Perfumery, and the Explosives Industries, and any improve- 
ment in the processes for their manufacture or the production of new 
compounds having enhanced value from the commercial point of view is 
of the greatest importance to all these industries alike. The parent 
substances of the intermediate products are the hydrocarbons of coal-tar 
or the coke-oven by-products. The operations required to convert these 
hydrocarbons into the finished intermediates often involve many stages, 
any one of which depends for its cost on the purity and yield of the product, 
when large quantities are involved a difference of 1 per cent, in the yield 
may lead to a considerable difierence in the cost of production, and it 
is obvious that reactions which yield their products in a state of purity 
sufficient for the market or further stage production' without subsequent 
treatment make for reduced cost in production. There is thus a wide field 
for research into the improvement of technical methods which may well 
occupy the attention of our dyestufis chemists for some time to come. 
On the other hand, the question of fundamental research into new 
processes, both for the preparation of new intermediates and new dyestufis, 
must not be lost sight of. The intermediate determines the character of 
the dyestufi, and it is always possible that a new intermediate may be 
discovered which will yield a dyestufi with just that difference of shade 
as to catch the public fancy, and which will lead to the replacement 
of the older dyestufi on the market. The sulphonic acids of the 
naphthol, naphthylamines and amino-naphthols are cases in point. 
These substances are used extensively for the preparation of azo 
dyes. There are a great number of these compounds theoretically 
possible, but only a few have found technical application, owing mainly 
to the high cost of producing the others. The high cost is nearly 
always caused by poverty of yield, an objection which may be at any 
time removed by the discovery of an improved process. The same 
argument holds good for the dyestuffs themselves. It is futile to 
say that the vast field of organic chemistry has been thoroughly explored 
f r the production of new types. At any moment one or other of the 
men or women engaged in fundamental research may repeat Bohn's 
discovery of 1901, and obtain a new compound which will be the fore- 
runner of a new series of dyestufis. It is perhaps too much to ask an 
industry which is struggling to hold its own to expend large sums on the 
prosecution of abstract research, most of which will be of no use to it. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. Gl 

but it is not too much to expect that the industry will take every means 
to foster and encourage abstract research in our university institutions, 
and even to give some hint as to the direction in which its experience 
leads it to think that advances may be made. There is at present n"b 
organisation which can bring the manufacturers of dyestuffs and inter- 
mediates into touch with the work being carried on in our university 
laboratories, and it is possible that if at the present time a valuable dis- 
covery were to be made it would be unrecognised as such, and, following 
the usual course of academic research, would be published and thus lost 
to the country. What is required is a lead from manufacturers which 
will indicate the matters which they regard of importance, but which 
they do not consider as likely to yield results sufficiently quickly to justify 
them in employing their own research stafE for investigating them. This 
aspect is of all the more importance at the present time, when organic 
chemistry is entering on a new phase which will undoubtedly revolutionise 
many of the existing processes of manufacture. It is now recognised that 
the presence of a small quantity of a catalyst may either alter the course 
of a reaction or may lead it to proceed to completion where otherwise a 
totally inadequate yield would be obtained. The catalyst may either 
be added or the containing walls of the reaction vessel may act in this 
capacity. The well-known example of the oxidation of naphthalene to 
phthalic anhydride by vanadium pentoxidc is an example of this, but 
similar cases are continually recurring, and it has only recently been 
found that the classical method for preparing ketones by the distillation 
of the calcium salt of the appropriate acid can be utilised in the most 
unexpected directions if the thorium salt instead of the calcium salt is 
employed. It is perhaps appropriate to conclude this section by the 
following quotation from the United States Tariff Commission Report, 
No. 32 :— 

' The acute shortage of dyes arising in the various dye-consuming 
markets, due to the disappearance of German dyes shortly after the 
beginning of the war, was soon followed by prices of unprecedented levels, 
while certain dyes were not to be had at any price. This dye famine 
threatened the activities of the vast textile industries, as well as other 
industries dependent upon dyes for their operation. The manufacture of 
dyes was soon entered upon in the United States, Great Britain, France 
and Italy, and each of these countries has developed a dye industry capable 
of supplying from 80 to 90 per cent, of its requirements and has, in 
addition, exported significant quantities of dyes since the war. As a 
result of this remarkable period of expansion and development the world's 
present capacity to produce dyes is nearly double that of the pre-war 
period. This existing capacity to produce over and above normal require- 
ments is resulting in an era of severe competition in the world's markets 
which may eliminate many of the plants now in operation. The German 
industry has certain advantages over the industries of the new producing 
countries, including cumulative experience, unified organisation for buying 
and selling, and lower manufacturing costs. The high post-war price 
levels of dyes exported from Germany would appear to indicate a strong 
probability of price reductions during the next few years. The com- 
mercial warfare which is likely to follow may involve the utilisation of 



62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

such methods as full-line forcing and dumping, such as was practised by 
the German chemical industry prior to the war. The retention of a tariff 
and other protective measures by the new producing countries will doubt- 
less lead the German industry to form affiliations to establish branch 
plants in those countries. The war made clear the relationship of the 
coal-tar dye industry to the production of munitions, war gases, medicinals, 
and other essential products, and demonstrated the desirability of home 
dye production as a means to prevent shortage in times of war. This 
will probably result in an effort by the large industrial nations to retain 
dye industries of sufficient size to meet peace requirements and to provide 
for war emergencies. Reduced production costs and constructive research 
will be vital factors in the maintenance of their competitive place in the 
world's trade.' 

This seems to sum up the situation with which we are at present faced. 

Publications. 

Our chemical publications grow apace — already they have outstripped 
in number and size those produced prior to the war. If one may take the 
Joitrnal of the Chemical Society as representing a standard example, it 
may be noted that the number of pages published in 1914 was 2,909, 
whilst in 1923 the number was 3,441. This was reduced in 1924 to 
2,698 pages, but rose again in 1925 to 2,986 pages. The drop in 1923-1924 
was not, however, due to lack of material but to the exercise of necessary 
economy, because the costs of printing have increased- by 70 per cent, since 
the war, and the funds of the Society could not carry the increased 
expenditure. Until new sources of income could be created economy had 
to take the form of asking authors to cut down their papers to the greatest 
possible extent, and this had the effect of checking the advance for that 
year. Nevertheless during 1925, although authors continued to co-operate 
and still expressed their views and results in as small a space as possible, 
the steady rise in the amount of research work carried out in the country 
led to an increase in that year, showing that the new matter was due to 
new research, and was not the outcome of any remissness on the part of 
the Publications Committee. This fact is well brought out by the following 
graph, which shows the incidence of the number of published papers and 
the number of pages published. 

The increase is still continuing, and is a welcome sign of the healthy 
condition in which research in chemistry stands at the present time. Still 
it means a Journal of well over 3,000 pages for 1926, and represents a 
condition of affairs which is shared by many other scientific societies. 

There were many national scientific shortcomings revealed by the war, 
but it is probable that those in the chemical sciences loomed largest 
because they were the ones which had to be rectified by makeshift arrange- 
ments at the time, and although our national aptitude rose to the occasion, 
and we blundered through in our usual manner, yet when time for thought 
occurred the contrast between our state of unpreparedness and the 
complete scientific equipment of our enemies was very marked, and gave 
cause for earnest consideration. The result has been a great increase in 
the numbers entering our chemical research schools and the consequent 
output of an increased amount of new knowledge, all of which has to be 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 



68 



3250 



t 



Record of Pages and Papers 

Published by 

The Chemical Society. (1921-1925). 



4 00 




64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

recorded. The burden of publication has fallen, therefore, heavily on 
the societies dealing with chemistry, and more particularly on the Chemical 
Society, which is the chief means by which, through its Journal, new 
knowledge is published to the world. 

The remedy is not obvious. The societies caimot increase their 
subscriptions without inviting loss of membership. Neither does it seem 
that much is to be gained by amalgamation, because each society deals 
with some branch of chemistry, and there is little or no overlapping or 
duplication. Amalgamation of the societies would not, therefore, 
decrease the costs of publication nor materially diminish the subscriptions 
necessary to meet these costs. 

You cannot curtail papers beyond the point which enables the work 
described to be repeated, otherwise publication is valueless. You cannot 
say within wide limits that new knowledge is not worth recording, or that 
views expressed are best suppressed. The criticism has been raised that 
the modern tendency to issiie short communications at frequent intervals 
leads to premature publication, and that much that is published has to 
be corrected in later papers, and it cannot be denied that recent experience 
has shown this criticism to be partly true. But it has been the custom 
of societies to accept short papers with more avidity than long ones, and 
in consequence authors have come to realise that the short communication 
stands more chance of acceptance than longer ones. The policy is in a 
sense wrong, because a series of short papers on the same subject neces- 
sarily leads to redundancy and frequently to a revision of the views 
expressed in earlier parts as the work progresses. The trouble seems to 
lie in the custom which requires an introduction to the series, the aim of 
which is to give the reader who has no interest in the experimental details 
a readable account of the scope of the work. If this ' introduction ' were 
abolished and a ' summary and conclusions ' placed at the end of the 
paper or series of papers, it would no doubt crab the literary style of the 
author and detract from the value of the communication as bed-side 
reading matter, but it would most certainly shorten the paper and would 
no doubt enhance its value from the scientific standpoint. 

When it is remembered that there are some 23,000 scientific periodicals 
published throughout the world the mind stands appalled at the prospect 
that will confront civilisation even in so short a time as 100 years hence, 
unless some general method of curtailment is agreed on. The space 
occupied by our ever-increasing libraries must cause alarm to those who 
contemplate the possibilities of the future. The agreement between the 
various societies dealing with chemistry to form a joint library at Burling- 
ton House means at the present time an increase of something like 800 
volumes yearly — an increase which will augment as time goes on. In 
the not far distant future the library will occupy the whole of the space 
available in the society's apartments, and the same problem has to be 
faced by every other scientific society. Indeed, ciA'ilisation seems to be 
confronted with two ever-growing problems — the increases in its 
cemeteries and in its libraries. The former, no doubt, will be solved by 
cremation. Is it too much to hope that a judicious exercise of this method 
may also be applied to our libraries 1 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF THE 
LOWER CARBONIFEROUS (AVONIAN) 
ROCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. S. H. REYNOLDS, M.A., Sc.D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It is now about ten years since our science suffered an irreparable loss in 
the premature death of that brilliant worker on the Carboniferous rocks, 
Arthur Vaughan. Only twenty years have passed since the publication 
of his classical paper on the ' Palseontological Sequence in the Carboniferous 
Limestone of the Bristol Area,' and when we think of what he accomplished 
during the ten years in which he devoted his scanty leisure to the study 
of the Lower Carboniferous rocks we may well wonder what he would 
have achieved by now were he still with us. 

Vaughan's chief work was done at Bristol, but the last few years of 
his life were spent at Oxford. I hoj^e it is not inappropriate that one 
who hails from Bristol and was associated with Vaughan in some of his 
work should choose the Lower Carboniferous rocks for an address at Oxford. 

This subject was not chosen without careful consideration, but it may 
be doubted whether I am well advised in attempting it. In the first place 
I am fully aware of the others who are better qualified to deal with it than 
I am myself. In the second place there is so much work in progress, par- 
ticularly in the Midlands and in the North, and there is still such difEerence 
of opinion on many important problems, that there is much to be said for 
postponing any such attempt as I am now making. Part of the ground, 
too, has been covered by the report of a committee of this Association 
jjiesented at the last Meeting (Southampton), while Prof. Kendall's 
chapter in the ' Handbuch der rcgionalen Geologic ' renders any general 
survey of the succession unnecessary. I have therefore chosen for con- 
sideration a number of subjects unrelated except in so far as they are 
concerned with the study of the Avouiau rocks. 

All the workers to whom I have applied for information have most 
kindly and willingly helped me, and I should like to acknowledge my 
special indebtedness to Mr. R. 6. S. Hudson, Dr. Stanley Smith, and 
particularly to Mr. Ernest Dixon. Thanks to the help I have received I am 
hopeful that, although this address contains little that is novel, it may 
prove a useful summary. 

1926 ' ¥ 



66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

I have decided to restrict my subject to England and Wales. 

Note. — I wish to convey my sincere thanks to the following for help and 
information : Mr. W. S. Bisat, Mr. R. G. Carruthers, Dr. R. Crookall, 
Prof. E. J. Garwood, JMr. T. Neville George, Dr. E. Greenly, Mr. 
J. W. Jackson, Mr. W. W. Jervis, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. D. Parkinson, 
Mr. H. C. Sargent, Dr. T. Franklin Sibly, and Dr. A. E. Trueman. 

It has long proved convenient to divide England and Wales into 
provinces, each characterised by its own special features of deposition 
diuring Lower Carboniferous times. The following provinces have been 
generally recognised :^ 

1. Devonshire, including parts of North Cornwall. 

2. Soidh-ivestern Province, including the Bristol district, the Forest of 
Dean, South Wales, and the Clee Hills. 

3. Midland Province, including Anglesey and North Wales, the Wrekin, 
and the midland area of Derbyshire, Staffordshire and Leicestershire. 

4. Yorkshire Province, including the Craven and Dale country and 
the Clitheroe and Colne region of Lancashire. 

5. North-western Province, including parts of North-west Yorkshire, 
Westmorland, North Lancashire and Cumberland. 

6. Northern Province, including Durham and Northumberland. 

Subdivisions o£ the Avonian Rocks in the South-western Province. 

Vaughan's subdivisions have been adopted by . all workers on the 
Carboniferous Limestone in the central and south of England and by all 
recent workers in Wales and Ireland. 

Certain modifications of his original classification have been introduced 
from time to time and will be alluded to in stratigraphical order. 

1. In his original ' Bristol ' paper (1905) he called the lowest Carbon- 
iferous rocks transitional from the Old Red Sandstone Modiola zone (M), 
pointing out, however, in a footnote that the Modiola zone had better be 
regarded as a shallow-water phase of the Cleistopora zone (K). Soon he 
definitely adopted this arrangement, so that the Modiola zone became Km. 
Later on^ Vaughan dropped the term Km, including these deposits in Kj. 
The term Km is, however, used in the table of classification appended to 
the Belgian^ paper, and is \ised in a phasal sense in the Tenby memoir. 

2. Although, as Vaughan explains, the fact that Caninia has two 
maxima, one in the Tournaisian and one in the Visean, is a reason why he 
did not adopt it as an index fossil, he still makes use of the term Caninia 
zone. In his original paper he uses it as including the Syringothyris 
zone (C), which he did not then subdivide, and the lower part of the 
Seminnla zone (SJ. In the Winnipeg report the expression ' Syringothyris 
and Caninia zone C ' is used. In the Gower paper (1911) the term 
' Syringothyris zone ' is still used, but in the Burrington paper (1911' it is 
dropped in Vaughan's portion of the paper, the Caninia zone (Middle 
Avonian) being taken to include y and C^ Dixey and Sibly ^ also drop 
the term Syringothyris zone. 

1 Q.J.O.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), p. 363. 
a /6ti., vol. Ixxi. (1915). 
"Ibid., vol. Ixxiii. (1918). 



C— GEOLOGY. 67 

The symbol y was originally applied to rocks at the level of 
co-occurrence of Zaphrentis and Caninia. In the table of succession of 
the Bristol paper these arc grouped with Z, but in that of the Gower paper 
with C. In the Burrington paper Vaughan re-defined horizon y as beds 
with abundant Caninia patula and without C. cyUmlrica (Scouler) Salee, 
and extended it so as to include the major portion of C, (styled C'ly in 
the illustrations). As Dixon* remarks, the value of y as a means of 
comparing distant developments has been much enhanced, C. patula 
having a wide distribution but apparently limited range. 

3. The most important change since the publication of Vaughans 
original paper has been in the dividing line between Tournaisian and 
Visean. Vaughan originally drew the line at the top of the Syringothyria 
zone. Dixon,'^ however, showed by the study of the Gower section and 
others in South Wales that a slight discordance, becoming more pronounced 
along the outcrop north of the coalfield, occurs in places between C, aud 
C.J, and that it was at the top of C, that emergence in the south-western 
province temporarily interrupted subsidence, to give way in turn to 
renewed subsidence. He further showed that over a large area, particu- 
larly in Pembrokeshire, C, aud S, are not sharply separable, either as 
regards lithology or fauna. Consequently he drew the line between 
Tournaisian and Visean at the top of C„ and in this he has generally beer, 
followed by workers in the South-western Province. Vaughan, however, on 
fossil evidence preferred to draw the line somewhat above the break, t.e. 
in the middle of C.„ and this is also the level adopted by Delepine m 
Belgium. 

4. In the Bristol paper horizon S, that of overlap between the C and S 
zones, is shown in the table of succession, but its limits and faunal characters 
are not defined, as was done in the case of horizons [3 and y. 

The term horizon S is practically dropped in all the earlier papers on the 
British Carboniferous Limestone. In his later paper (Correlation of 
Avonian and Dinantiau) Vaughan revives the term in an emended and 
extended sense so as to include upper C.^ and S, of the original classifica- 
tion, i.e. from the maximum of Cyathophyllum 4> to the incoming of Cyrtina 
carbonaria. Vaughan •* gives full details as to the faunal characters of this 
level, and indicates the corresponding level in a number of sections through- 
out the British Isles and in Belgium. 

Vaughan introduced the term Avonian, which is nearly equivalent to 
the Belgian Dinantian, to replace the somewhat cumbersome designation 
Carboniferous Limestone Series. He also habitually used the terms 
Tournaisian and Visean for the lower and npper Avonian respectively, 
though the use of the terms was not quite identical with their use in 
Belgium. He suggested the terms Clevedonian aud Kidwellian as alter- 
natives, and if it be essential that terms be used strictly in the sense in 
which they were originally employed, these should replace Tournaisian 
and Visean. The terms Tournaisian and Visean are now so thoroughly 
established with us that it would probably be impossible, even if desirable, 
to displace them. British geologists will doubtless continue to use them 



* Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 65. 
■ Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), p. 542. 
« Ibid., vol. Ixxi. (1915), p. 17. 



f2 



68 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Vaughan's earlier 
usage. 



'a 
o 
t> 
<1 



Dibunophylluui 
zone 



Seminula 
/ zone 



Lower 
'Millstone Grit' 



Base_o y of Visean 



'a 

'a 
a 



Syringothyrie 
zone 



1 1- 



1 a ' 



Zaphrentis 
zone 



Cleistopora 
zone 



Modiola 
phase 

Base of Tournaisian 



D, 



Di 



s.; 



Si 



Y 
Z2 



Zi 



Ka 



Ki 



Vaughan's later 
usage. 

Top of Visean 



Belgian 
equivalents. 



M 
O.R.S. 



Base of Visean 



,--0) 



C, 



Ci 



Cleistopora 
zone 



Base of 
Tournaisian 



a 
.2 

'5 
■ c 

§ 



EiG. L 



Table showing the Subdivisions of the Avonian Rocks in the 
South-western Province and thetr Equivalents in Belgium. 



C— GEOL0C4Y. 69 

in the same sense as heretofore, not binding themselves by adherence to 

the Continental usage. 

Note. — The chief differences between the British and Belgian use of the 

terms Tournaisian and Visean, and between Avonian and Dinantian, 

are : 

1. In Belgium the K beds are excluded from the Dinantian and 
grouped with the Famennian. 

2. The line between Tournaisian and Visean is drawn in Belgium 
at about the middle instead of at the base of C.^. 

3. The top of the Dinantian is drawn at the base of the Yoredale 
equivalent, that of the Avonian at th»^ top. 

Variability and Persistence. 

In my remarks on this subject the Northern Province is not taken 
into account. 

The several horizons of the Avonian difier much as regards variability 
and persistence. 

The Cleistopora beds are both the lowest and most constant horizon. 
Throughout the Bristol area, South Wales and the Forest of Dean, where 
alone they are present, they show remarkable constancy not only in fauna! 
and lithological character but in thickness. Metasomatic changes such 
as dolomitisation and silicification have affected them very little, and 
while in parts of the South Wales coalfield all the other horizons are 
concealed by overstep of the Millstone Grit, the Cleistopora beds are never 
reached. 

The Zcvphrentis beds, wliich are also comparatively little developed in 
the region under consideration outside the South-west Province, are 
relatively constant in lithological character. They are predominantly 
crinoidal limestones of the ' petit granit ' type, but may sometimes be 
highly dolomitised or silicified. They are concealed by overstep in parts 
of the South Wales coalfield. 

The Syringothyris beds, the oldest strata commonly seen in the North- 
west Province, show much variability. In the south they contain much 
dolomite, and the whole or part may be cut out by non-sequence or con- 
cealed by overstep as in the South Wales coalfield. 

The Seminula beds, the oldest strata occurring in the Midlands or North 
Wales, are also a variable series. In the Bristol district they are on the 
whole more frequently exposed than any other horizon. 

The limestones of the lower Dibimophyllum zone (Dj) are the most 
constant limestones in faunal and lithological characters of the whole 
succession. Throughout the whole of the Bristol district, North and 
South Wales, the Midlands, Yorkshire and the North-west Province, 
wherever limestones of this level occur, they are of the same general type, 
save in certain districts where the Knoll facies is found. The Avonian 
rocks of later date than the D, beds are much more variable. 

Relations ot the Carboniferous to the underlying Rocks. 
Wherever the Carboniferous and Devonian (O.R.S.) rocks are seen 
in relation to one another the succession is conformable save in Carmarthen- 
shire, at Kidwelly and Llandebie, where, as Mr. T. N. George informs me, 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

ther«! is evidence of a slight discordance. Except in North Devon, where 
the Carboniferous rocks succeed marine Devonians, there is a gradual 
passage from rocks of the Old Red Sandstone facies deposited under conti- 
nental conditions to rocks of definitely Carboniferous character deposited 
under marine conditions, and the horizon at which the dividing line 
between the two formations is drawn is often, as in the Avon section, 
merely a matter of convenience. Thus in the Avon section the line is 
drawn above the highest band in which fish remains were found. In the 
Tenby district Dixon "^ states that the conformable passage is sometimes 
gradual, sometimes with abrupt change of conditions. In the Forest of 
Dean^ there is no appreciable development of a transition series. 

In North Devon the lower part of the Pilton beds — a variable series of 
shaly, gritty and calcareous strata — contains a fauna of predominantly 
Devonian type, while the upper Pilton, though containing some Devonian 
species, is more related to the Carboniferous. No full description of the 
Pilton faunas is yet available, but Vaughan^ correlated the Proditctella 
■productoides beds with Km, and stated that in the uppermost Pilton beds 
the fauna is essentially a p fauna with a few persistent Devonian forms. 
This would be in accord with Evans' ^'^ correlation of the Baggy and Lower 
Pilton beds of North Devon with the Upper Famennian. 

The Midland counties of England were mainly land areas in lower 
Avonian times, and the upper Avonian rocks rest with strong unconformity 
on Lower Palaeozoic or Precambrian rocks. 

Unconformities and Breaks in the Succession. 

A. In the Culm of Devon and Somerset. 

While the Upper Pilton beds of North Devon apparently represent the 
K and p beds of the S.W. Province, no representatives of any later horizon 
have been recognised till one reaches D.^, to which level the lowest zones 
of the Culm are assigned. 

B. In the Smith-western Province. 

(1) Mid- Avonian breaks and unconformities. 

It is well established that there is evidence of disturbed conditions in 
mid-Avonian times in the S.W. Province, increasing in intensity as one 
passes N. and N.W. from the Bristol area. Thus, while in the Mendip 
region the C beds are to a large extent represented by ' standard ' limestone, 
in the Avon section and those of Gower and along the S.E. margin of the 
South Wales coalfield the place of standard limestone is taken by shallow- 
water oolites, shales and dolomites. Farther west, in Carmarthen, much, 
if not all, of the C beds and of horizon y is missing, while in most localities 
the Z beds are also absent, so that at Fan and other places near Kidwelly, 
and for many miles along the outcrop to the north of the South Wales coal- 
field, the Sj beds rest directly on the K beds. Along the northern crop 
of the Pembroke coalfield west of Carmarthen Bay the same state of affairs 

' Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 67. 

8 Sibly, Oeol. Mag., Dec. v., vol. ix. (1912), p. 418. 

• Q.J.O.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), p. 385. 

w GeoL Mag., Dec vi., vol. vi. (1919), p. 548. 



C— GEOLOGY. 71 

is found, the S., beds resting directly on the K beds. At Pendine they 
have a conglomeratic base, but no such rock is known E. of Carmarthen 
Bay. On the south crop of the Pembroke coalfield, at Wesfc Williams- 
town, there is only a slight break between C^ and C.^, while at Tenby the 
sequence is complete, though the C beds are of shallow-water type. In 
the southernmost part of Pembrokeshire not only is the sequence complete, 
but the C beds are represented by ' standard ' limestones. 

(2) Post-Avonian Unconformities. 

Throughout South Wales, in the Forest of Dean and in the Glee Hills 
district, there were upheaval and erosion prior to the deposition of the 
Upper Carboniferous. At the Titterstone Clee^^ and in the Forest of Dean 
the Coal Measures rest unconformably on various levels of the Avonian. 
Along both the south-eastern and northern crops of the South Wales coal- 
field the Millstone Grit shows remarkable over-stepping relations to the 
Avonian rocks. These are described in the section dealing with the 
Millstone Grit. In the Clevedon and Clapton district of North Somerset 
no representatives of any Avonian horizons higher in the series than the 
Caninia-doloimte (C.^) are met with. In the Clapton district the Coal 
Measures rest directly on Zafhrentis beds. In the Clevedon district the 
relation of the Coal Measures to the Avonian rock is sometimes faulted, 
sometimes indeterminable. 

It is very rare in the Bristol district and North Somerset to get sections 
showing the relations of the Millstone Grit to either the overlying or under- 
lying strata. The best section from the Carboniferous Limestone to Mill- 
stone Grit is probably that at Wick Rocks, while the best section from the 
Millstone Grit to the Coal Measures is that described by Dr. H. Bolton ^^ 
from Ashton Vale. 

In neither of these sections has any break in the sequence been observed, 
though, as is pointed out more fully in the sequel, the occurrence of 
Yorkian plants in the upper part of the Millstone Grit shows that if, as is 
generally believed, the lower part is Avonian, the upper is much later, 
so that a considerable gap occurs in the sequence. In the Radstock area 
a second big gap occurs, namely between the Yorkian (upper Millstone 
Grit) and the Coal Measures, which are represented only by the uppermost 
group, the Radstockian.^* 

C. In the Midlands and North of England. 
Mr. J. W. Jackson's work shows the existence of an important un- 
conformity above the D, beds of North Derbyshire. The Edale shales, 
which lie between these beds and the Kinderscout grit, were formerly 
regarded as Avonian, and often grouped with the Yoredalian. Mr. Jackson 
confirms Hind's i* conclusion that they are of later date, and shows that 
they contain goniatites of Bisat's zones Rj, H and Upper and Middle E 
{bisidcafum beds). There is a break below the bisulcatum beds, the 

" Dixon, Hep. Brit. Ass., Sheffield (1910), p. 611, and Geol. Mag., 1910, p. 458. 
^■^ Q.J. 0.8. , vol. Ixiii. (1907), pp. 445-69. 

1' The ahove statements are based on information supplied by Dr. R. Crookail 
and on his papers in the Qeol. Mag., vol. Ixii., 1925. 
" Oeol. Mag., Dec. iv-, vol. iv. (1897), p. 209. 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

pseudobilinque beds aud certain underlying shales (' Pendleside shales ') 
being absent. 

Sibly ^^ describes a case near Youlgreave where the ' Pendleside shales ' 
with Posidoniella Icevis rest on D.^, the Cyathaxonia beds, D.„ being absent ; 
Wedd ^^ a similar case near Bridgetown, Derbyshire. Mr. Hudson informs 
me that in the Knoll region of Cracow the upper Bowland shale rests 
unconformably on the Knoll limestones, which were subject to uplift and 
denudation prior to the deposition of the lower E beds. 

The great post-Avonian unconformity at the base of the Millstone Grit 
is described more fully in the sequel. 

Note. — The nomenclature of the rocks of the Pendle Hill area is very 
confusing to those unfamiliar with the district. The Pendleside 
group of Hind and Howe (1897) originally included all the strata 
between the Mountain Limestone and Millstone Grit, and was con- 
sidered to be all of Upper C!arboniferous age. Subsequently Hind 
relegated the lower part of his ' Pendleside series ' (the ' shales with 
limestone ' of the Survey and the Worston shale of Parkinson) to the 
D beds, leaving the Pendleside limestone and overlying shales, the 
Bowland shale of Phillips, in his ' Pendleside group.' He also included 
in it the shales overlying the Pendle top grit, which later work has 
shown to be Lancastrian. It is clear from the above account that, 
although the terms ' Pendleside ' and ' Pendleside group ' are frequently 
employed as roughly equivalent to Phillips' Bowland shale, they lack 
definiteness and there is little to justify their retention. Mr. Bisat ^^ 
and Dr. Parkinson^* clearly show that the terms, as indicating a time 
division, had better be drojaped. 

The grits of the Pendleside section are also confusing, and in 
hopes of making things clearer I have carried on the section in 
Table II. up to the Kinderscout grit from information supplied by 
Dr. Parkinson. 

Piping or Pot-holing under Subaerial Conditions on Levels of 

Unconformity. 

Several interesting examples liave been described : — 

(a) Dixon describes^" very remarkable cases from If ton, Monmouth, 
where the S beds below the Millstone Grit are worn into steep-sided 
channels and cavities, some of imknown depth filled with sandstone and 
shale. 

(b) In the Forest of Dean Sibly describes^" piping of the Carboniferous 
Limestone by Coal Measure sandstone at Kuardean. 

(c) Dixon alludes 2^^ to piping at Llanmarch Dingle, near Brynmawr, 
in the north-eastern portion of the South Wales coalfield. Here grit fills 
holes in the Carboniferous Limestone. 

^^tQ.J.0.8., vol. Ixiv. (1908), p. 63. 

1" iV. Derby Memoir, p. 35. 

1' Proc. Yorks Oeol. Soc, vol. xx., pt. 1 (1923-4), p. 45. 

i« Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxxii. (1926), p. 223. 

" Geol. Mag., vol. Iviii. (1921), p. 157. 

=" Ibid.,*T)eo. vi., vol. v. (1918), p. 26. 

" g.J.G.8., vol. Ixxiii. (1917), pp. 161-2. 



C— GEOLOGY. 7:i 

{(l) Piping occurs in Z beds at Pendine^'^ bel?»w the conglomeratic base 
of the S beds, and at Haroldston St. Issell-^ Millstone Grit pipes into 
limestone of a low S horizon. At West Williamstown"* the case is some- 
what different, as here the material forming pipes in the C«>m??"a-oolite(C,) 
is C, mudstone, and consequently does not imply any considerable break. 
It was found, however, that the upper part of the CVf;(?/«i«-oolite is 
missing, and the inference was drawn that the case at West Williamstown 
is analogous to the others, the emergence, though brief, being sufficient to 
bring the limestone within reach of subaerial agencies. 

(e) Greenly describes ^^ cases in Anglesey where at several levels in D., 
beds of sandstone pipe into the limestone. 

(/) In the West Cumberland area Edmonds"'** and Dixon ^^ describe 
contemporaneous pot-holes recurring at several horizons intho Fourth lime- 
stone (Di to D3). They are mainly cylindrical, with an average diameter 
of 2 feet and depth of 4-6 feet. They widen oiit rapidly at the top and 
are filled with mudstone, sandstone or rubbly limestone. They point to 
repeated intervals during which subsidence and deposition of limestone 
were interrupted by elevation above sea-level and contemporaneous 
erosion. 

(g) Near Ingleton pot-holes in D, limestone have been recognised by 
Dixon.2* 

(h) The pits in the pitted D^ limestone of Gower^® are also of the 
character of contemporaneous pot-holing. 

Phasal Equivalents oJ the Avonian. 

In his most suggestive report presented at the Winnipeg Meeting of 
the British Association in 19(j9 Vaughan recognised three phasal equiva- 
lents, and introduced, though without defining, the following terms to 
express them : — 

1. Standard fauna. 

2. Zaj)hrentid and Cyathaxonid phase. 

3. Modiola and Posidonomya phase and other shallow-water deposits. 
He regarded the ' standard fauna ' as indicating the greatest depth of 

water, and the Modiola and Posidonomya phase the least. 

1. Standard -phase. — This type of deposit, which is mainly calcareous 
in character, is seen in most of Z, y, S.j and Dj in the Avon section and 
in the Mendips also in C, and C,. In the North-west Province and in the 
Midlands D, and D.^ are standard phase and in N.W. Yorkshire and 
Westmorland S and the whole of Dj and Dj. 

2. Zaphrentid and Cyathaxonid phase or fauna. — Dixon gives a clear 
statement of the sense in which he uses this expression. He describes the 

"^ Haverfordioest Memoir, p. 142. 

23 Ibid., p. 161. 

'*Ibid., p. 142. 

'^Oeol.Mag., Dec. iv., vol. vii.( 1900), pp. 20-24, and Anglesey Memoir, pp.612-16. 

20 Ibid., vol. lix. (1922), pp. 120-1. 

■^' Summary of Progress for 1921, pp. 53-4. 

•;« Q.J.G.S.. vol. Ixxx. (1924), p. 215. 

23 Figured Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), pi. Ixxxviii., fig. 1. 



74 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

rocks as thinly and evenly bedded dark argillaceous limestones inter- 
bedded with shales and including much chert, which is typically black. 
Fossils are generally abundant, and include crinoids, simple corals 
{Zaphrentis, CyatJmxonia, Caninia), bryozoa, such brachiopods as frilled 
athyrids, spinose productids, Syringothyris and Sjnriferina, Leptcena 
analoga, Rhipidomella michelini, ScMzophoria resupinata. Small trilobites 
are less abundant. 

Rocks of this type occur in the K and Z beds of various sections in the 
South-west Province, and are typically represented in the D., {Cyathaxonia 
beds) of Oystermouth Gower, the Craven lowlands, and Derbyshire. They 
probably indicate muddy conditions, depth being immaterial. Dixon ^^ 
points out that the study of the fauna of Zaphrentid phases has upset 
former ideas as to the zonal importance of certain forms. Thus an upper 
Avonian Zaphrentid phase such as that of Sj at Bosherton, Pembroke, 
suggests at first sight a level in Z or y. 

The thin-bedded dark limestones of upper D.^ in Derbyshire and the 
Cement Stone development of the Northern Province seem to be inter- 
mediate in character between standard limestones and Zaphrentid-phase 
beds. 

3. The third phase is styled in Vaughan's table ' Modiola and Posido- 
nomya phases and other shallow- water deposits.' The deposits included 
under this head, which are very varied and widespread, are divisible into 
two main sections : — 

(a) The lainellihnmcli-goniatite or Culm phase. . 

(b) The lagoon-phase deposits (Dixon), including 

(1) Modiola j)^rese=calcareous lagoon-phase. 

(2) Radiolarian phase^cheitj lagoon-phase. 

This large and varied series of deposits seems to me to overweight the 
third phase, and I think that it would be a distinct convenience to separate 
the lagoon-phase deposits as a fourth phase. 

(a) The lamellibranch-goniatiie or Culm phase is very widespread 
and important in the North of England, and is represented also 
by the Culm of North Devon. 

The rocks consist of thin-bedded black shales, often papery, with thin 
limestones prevalently of the calcite-mudstone type, and more rarely 
radiolarian cherts. Sandstone bands may be present, but are not essential. 
The fauna is somewhat monotonous, and forms with thin shells prevail. 

(&) Lagoon-pihase Deposits. 

The term was introduced by Dixon^^ to connote a group of rocks 
deposited in wide but shallow coastal areas more or less isolated from the 
deeper parts of the sea. In siich ' lagoons ' rocks of a peculiar type and 
containing a peculiar fauna and flora were deposited. Dixon distinguishes 
two types of lagoon phase : — ■ 

(1) Modiola j:?^ase= calcareous lagoon-phase. 

3° Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 72. 
" Q.J.Q.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), p. 511. 



C— GEO LOG Y. 75 

The rocks grouped here include china stones and otlior calcile mud- 
stones, dolomite mudstone, oolite, i)isolite, algal limestones, ferruginous 
bryozoal and crinoidal limestone of the type of the well-known Bryozoa 
bed (hor. a) of the South-west Province. 

The characteristic fossils of the Modiola phase are small lainellibranchs, 
ostracods, spirorbid annelids, foraminifera and calcareous alga;. The 
brachiopod Seminula is also characteristic. 

Bands of standard limestone witli the normal fauna are intercalated 
at certain localities and horizons, probably indicating invasion of the 
lagoon area by the open sea. 

(2) Rcdiolarian phase=GheTty lagoon-phase. 

These rocks show far less lithological variability than the calcareous 
lagoon-phase rocks, and are far less abundant. They consist of chert 
bands alternating with shales. 

Dixon shows that radiolarian cherts are not, as was claimed by Hinde, 
necessarily deep-sea deposits, and that they may be interbedded with 
shales wliich are clearly of shallow-water origin. The finely laminated 
and current-bedded character of many cherts is inconsistent with a deep- 
water origin. The evidence for the existence of these radiolarian lagoon 
phases was obtained by Dixon in Gower, and he points out that, though 
absent in the Bristol area, such phases occur throughout the whole area 
south of the Pembroke coalfield. He claims that the radiolarian cherts 
of the Culm of North Devon were accumulated under lagoon-phase conditions. 
Dixon in the Gower paper recognises four Modiola phases, three of which, 
those of Km, G,, and top of S,,, are very widely traceable throughout the 
South-west Province. They are essentially similar in the Avon, Sodbury 
andTytherington sections, tlie S, development being particularly prominent 
at Sodbury. In the Burrington section Modiola phases are not con- 
spicuous, the Km beds being ill-exposed, C, being mainly standard 
limestones, and the S,, development relatively thin. The fourth Gower 
lagoon phase is at the base of P. 

In the eastern part of the South Wales coalfield Morftok-phase conditions 
start earlier than in the Gloucestershire sections, and a lower Modiola 
phase (Ci-G,), 250 ft. thick, is separated by 100 ft. of dolonaite from an 
upper Modiola phase (S,) at Cefn On, to the north of Cardiff. 

The rocks of the isolated mass of Cannington Park^'^ (S,) near Taunton 
appear to be mainly of Modiola-\)hase type. 

In the Forest of Dean the Km Modiola phase is not well developed, and 
includes bands of standard limestone, but the Whitehead limestone (C.,) 
constitutes a well-marked Modiola phase, the algal development bemg 
one of the most remarkable in Britain. 

In the outcrop south of the Pembroke coalfield (Tenby, &c.) Modiola 
phases are thinner than in most of the country farther east, but occur 
at the same general levels Km, C, and top of S,. The Km phase is recog- 
nisable throughout except at Freshwater West; the C, phase is thin along 
the northern outcrop (West Williamstown and Tenby), and is absent 
south of Tenby. The S, phase is present throughout, but poorly developed 
in the southernmost outcrop. 

"■■i F. S. Wallis, Geol. Mag., vol. l.xi. (1924), p. 218. 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Yoredale rocks of Wensleydale include typical algal ' lagooii- 
phase ' deposits intercalated with the standard limestone, shale and 
sandstone, but the finest development of such deposits in the north of 
England hitherto described is that of the Solenopora sub-zone of Garwood 
at Shap and Raveustonedale. 

In the Winnipeg report it might appear that each of the three facies — 
standard, Zaphrentid and Culm — is to be regarded as a phasal equivalent. 
Dixon,^^ however, points out that this was not quite the sense in which 
Vaughan intended the expression to be used. He did not regard the 
standard limestones as a phase, but applied the term only to the 
Zaphrentid and Culm developments. I can see no reason why the 
calcareous development, even though recognised as ' standard ' in 
Vaughan's sense, is not to be regarded as a phase exactly as with the 
other phases. 

D., is the horizon of greatest importance from the point of view of these 
phasal equivalents. The symbol D.^ was first used by Sibly for rocks in 
the Midland area overlying D.^. These rocks are of Zaphrentid-phase 
type, and it has hence been frequently assumed that Sibly intended to 
restrict the symbol D., to rocks of this character. I have never been 
able to see that there was anything phasal in his original use of the symbol, 
and he informs me by letter that the symbol was, as I imagined, originally 
employed in a chronological, not phasal, sense. This usage was not, 
however, adhered to. Vaughan, while originally iising the symbol in a 
chronological sense, subsequently, as in the Loughshinny paper, employed 
it in a phasal sense as indicating rocks of Zaphrentid phase at any level 
in the D beds. He employed the symbol Dy in a chronological sense as 
equivalent to Dj and D^. Other authors have followed Vaughan in using 
D., in a phasal sense. Thus the symbol is attached to the Botany Beds 
in Garwood's vertical section of the succession in the North-west Province, 
and clearly indicates a phasal use of the term. 

The net result of this varying use of these symbols has proved very 
confusing, and probably no worker would disagree with Sibly and the 
British Association Committee in recommending that the use of Dy in 
a chronological sense be discontinued. Sibly,^^ when discussing the 
nomenclature of the D beds, suggested that, taking the numbers 1, 2, 3 to 
indicate time divisions, the letters y,x and p should be added to indicate re- 
spectively the standard or calcareous phase, the Zaphreutid-Cyathaxonid 
phase, and the Culm or lamellibranch-goniatite phase. If this method 
were adopted and were extended to the whole Avonian system it would 
afford a simple method of stating the character of the rocks at any level or 
locality, and would be specially useful in the case of developments like 
those of Loughshinny, Gower and Wensleydale, where more than one 
phase is represented at a horizon ; thus at Gower lower D , is D.,x, upper 
is D.,p. If all phases were dealt with in this way any suggestion that one 
phase was less important than another might be avoided. 

The foregoing account is chiefly confined to the phases of deposition 
originally recognised by Vaughan. There are, however, other well- 

33 Geol. Mag., vol. Ixii. (1925), p. 382. 
31 Proc. Geol. A.ss., vol. xsxi. (1920), p. 81. 



C— GEOLOGY. 77 

marked phases or sub-phases, and the whole series may be classified 
as follows : — 
Predominantly limestone. 

1 . Standard phase. 

2. Modiola phase (calcareous lagoon-phase). 

3. Reef-kuoll phase (including the ' brachiopod beds ' of the Midlands). 
Partly limestone, partly shale. 

4. Zaphrentid and Cyathaxonid phase. 
Predominantly shaly. 

5. Goniatite-lamellibranch or Culm phase. 

6. Radiolarian phase (siliceous lagoon-phase j. 

7. Shale phase. 

Variable — limestone, shale, sandstone, and sometimes coal. 

8. Yoredale phase. 
Sandy. 

9. Massive sandstones. 

Of these Nos. 2, 4, 5 and 6 have already been defined, Nos. 7 and 9 
require no definition, while No. 3 is defined in the sequel. 

The standard phase may be said to consist of limestone, frequently 
coarse-grained or crystalline, in which fossils are commonly abundant. 
Some of the chief varieties are crinoidal limestone, coral limestone and 
brachiopod limestone. Foraminiferal limestone and oolite link these 
rocks with those of the calcareous lagoon-phase. 

The Yoredale phase. — The limestones are sometimes of standard, 
sometimes of Zaphrentid phase type, and include also calcite mudstones 
and algal limestones. The standard limestone fauna may be a coral- 
brachiopod assemblage, or may be mainly a brachiopod fauna or mainly 
a coral fauna. The fauna of the associated shale may be very much 
that of the shales of the Zaphrentid phase, but sometimes bands with 
the goniatite-lamellibranch fauna occur. 

The Cement Stones of the Northern Province have features linking 
them to the Zaphrentid phase and to the Yoredale phase. They consist 
of thin-bedded sandstone and shale, the latter often highly coloured, with 
bands of argillaceous limestone or cement stone, which is sometimes algal. 
The fossils, which are somewhat scanty, are mainly of shallow-water 
type — spirorbids, ostracods, horny brachiopods, and small lamellibranchs 
and gastropods. 

'Millstone Grit.' 

As has been emphasised by Prof. Kendall,^^ the rocks alluded to under 
the name of Millstone Grit are the most difficult of all the members of the 
Carboniferous series to reduce to any systematic arrangement. The term 
has been, and still frequently is, used in a purely lithological sense, as 
indicating the prevalentlj' sandy rocks which sooner or later succeed the 
prevalently calcareous or sometimes argillaceous rocks of the Avouian. 
Any general account of the Millstone Grit is quite outside the scope of this 
address, which will be concerned merely with the n'latious of the Millstone 

'* Handbuch der re.gionahn Gcnl., iii., 1, s. 153. 



78 



SECTIONAL ADI>RESSES. 



Grit {sensu lato) to the underlying strata. In briefly considering this 
subject the following regional diAnsion is most convenient, A-iz. : — 

1. West of England. 

2. Sonth Wales. 

3. North Wales, Midlands and Northern Counties. 

West of England (see fig. 2). 
In the West of England, as is well known, ' jMillstone Grit ' conditions 
set in at a progressively lower level as one passes northwards from the 
Bristol area. Thiis in the Avon section ^^ and in the Mendips they set in 
at the top of D.^. At Sodbury, where the section is incomplete, 84 ft. 
of Dj limestones are exposed, but in the Wickwar cutting''' a few miles 
to the north the early advent of ' ilillstone Grit " conditions reduces the 
limestone to 55 ft. In the Tji:herington district ^^ and in the Chepstow 
area Millstone Grit conditions set in at the top of S.,. In the Forest of 
Dean the Drybrook sandstone (jMillstone Grit of earlier authors) is probably 



Mendipa and 
Avon Section. 



Wickwar. 



Tytherington 
and Chepstow. 



Forest of 
Dean. 



Cloo. 



Do 



Di 











>^^ 








ii S 




Q-^ 




OJ 


Di 




1 










S 


S 

c 










S, 


c 


C 


z 


z 


z 


K 


K 


K 



■iA s 

o a 
2,3. 

b c 

O cj 



K K K K K 

Fig. 2. 

Table showikg the Level at which Sandy Co^'DITIONS set in at 
Certain Localities in the South-west Province. 

{Not to scale.) 

»« Q.J.O.S., vol. Ixi. (1905), pi. xxvii. 

»^ Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc, 4th Ber., vol. vi.. pt. 3 (1926, issued for 1925), p. 242. 

»• Ibid., pt. 1 (1924, is8u«d for 1923), p. 64. 



C— GEOLOGY. 



7'J 



of S.^ age. lu the Clee Hill district the Millstone Grit facies (Cornbrook 
sandstone) comes on at about the base of C,. In all these districts then 
the ' Millstone Grit ' is wholly or partly {vide infra) Avonian. 

The thickness of the ' Millstone Grit ' in the West of England is 
insignificant as compared with the thickness of the rocks generally called 
by the same name farther north, and it was suggested by Vaughan that 
it may all be of D, age.^^ Kecent work*" shows, however, that the upper 
part of the ' Millstone Grit ' near Yate contains plants of Yorkian type. 
This would imply a big unconformity between upper and lower ' Millstone 
Grit ' of the Bristol area. 

Lithologically, as Kendall*^ points out, the quartzosc grits and con- 
glomerates which go by this name near Bristol are totally distinct from 
the arkoses of the Millstone Grit farther north. He consequently suggests 
that the term ' Millstone Grit' as used in the Bristol area be dropped and 
replaced by ' Farewell-rock.' There is, however, the objection that the 
term ' Farewell-rock ' is also used in South Wales, a region where the 
true post-Avonian Millstone Grit is found; and I am informed by Mr. Dixon 
and Dr. A. E. Trueman that in parts of South Wales the Farewell-rock is 
Yorkian in age. Were it not for the fact that the upper beds contain 
Yorkian plants it would probably be best to use Sibly's term Drybrook 
sandstone for the ' Millstone Grit ' throughout the whole Bristol area, 
instead of confining it to the Forest of Dean. The existence of these 
Yorkian plants necessitates a local name for the Avonian ' Millstone 
Grit ' of the Bristol district — I suggest the use of the term ' Brandon Hill 
Grit,' from Brandon Hill, Bristol, where it is well developed. The term 
* Farewell-rock ' could be used for the Yorkian portion. 

South Wales and the Forest of Dean (see fig. 3). 
The Millstone Grit of South Wales shows very remarkable and varying 
relations to the Avonian. ^^ j^ ^j,g south-east part of the South Wales coal- 
field and in Monmouth it sometimes overlies a big thickness of D beds (Ruthin 
and Llansanuor), sometimes rests directly on upper S.^ (Miskin), sometimes 




Diagram showing Overstep of the Millstone Grit on the south-eastern margin of the 

South Wales Coalfield. (From figs, and descriptions in the paper by Dixey & Siblv, 

Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxiii. (1918), pp. 1 1 1-164.) 



" Rep. Brit. Ass., Winnipeg (1909), table 3. 
*» R. Crookall, Geol. Mag., vol. l.xii. (1925), p. 403. 
" Handbuch der reg. Geol., iii., 1, s. 156. 
*-Q.J.G.S., Ixxiii. (1917), p. 119. 



80 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Swaledale Wensleydale 



Kettlewell 



Trollet's Gill 
near BurnsaM 



Mirk Fell ■ 
Main Li' ■■ 

Sitnonstone ■ 

HardrawScar 
Girvanella Bed 




Fig. 4. 



Diagram showing Overstep of the Millstone Grit in the Yorkshire Dale and Craven 
Country. (From information supplied by Mr. R. G. Hudson.) 

on the very base of Sj (Oefn On). This is uot, however, due to the coming 
in of grit conditions at successively lower levels, but, as suggested by 
Dixon ^^ and confirmed by Dixey and Sibly,** to overstep. Farther to 
the north-east the overstep continues to still further reduce the exposed 
thickness of the Carboniferous Limestone, till at the north-east corner of 
the coalfield little, if anything, more than the K beds remains between 
Millstone G-rit and Old Red Sandstone. This is the limit of the overstep, 
as, when followed westward along the north crop, the Millstone Grit rapidly 
retrogresses, with the result that all the zones up to S.^ reappear in a distance 
of six miles, and farther west the D beds are seen. Still farther west, 
however, overstep again sets in, Mr. T. N. George informing me that at 
Penwyllt (Tawe Valley) the Upper Limestone Shales or rottenstones (D.^.^) 
are cut out by overstep and the Millstone Grit rests directly on D.^. Finally 
at a point about three miles east of Kidwelly it oversteps down to about 
the base of D,^. 

At Pendine, to the west of Carmarthen Bay, it again rests on D,„ but 
at Haverfordwest it rests on S.,. 

In the Forest of Dean there is no Millstone Grit seen, owing to the 
overlap of the Coal Measures, which may overstep all the Avonian rocks 
till they come to rest on the Old Red Sandstone.^^ The Coal Measures 
play in the Forest of Dean the part which is played by the Millstone Grit 
in the South Wales coalfield. 

North of England. 

In the Yorkshire dales it has long been known that the beds of the 
Yoredale series immediately below the Millstone Grit disappear in 
successioii southwards, the Grit thus appearing to become estalilished at 
lower and lower horizons in that direction. The officers of the Survey, 
especially Dakyns and Clough, realised this, but Goodchild*^ was the first 
to show that it was due to unconformable overstep of the Millstone Grit, 
and this fact has been fully established by later workers,*' by whom it has 
been shown that the Millstone Grit of North- West Yorkshire rests in 

*^ Newport Memoir, 2nd ed., p. 20. 

*^ Q.J.G.S., Ixxiii. (1917), p. 167. 

« Sibly, Oeol. Mag., Dec, v., vol. ix. (1912), p. 421. 

** Victoria County History, Cumberland, Geology, 1901, p. 28. 

*' See L. J. Chubb and R. G. S. Hudson, ' The Nature of the Junction between the 
Lower Carboniferous and the MiUstone Grit of North West Yorkshire,' Proc. Yorks 
Oeol. Sac, n.s., vol. xx., pt. 2, 1925, p. 257 ; and L. H. Tonks, ' The Millstone Grit 
and Yoredale Rocks of Nidderdale,' ibid. p. 226. 



C— GEOLOGY. 81 

succession on all the Avonian rocks from the Mirk Fell beds, which are 
high up in the Yoredalian above the Fell Top limestone, to strata probably 
as low down as D.*^ (see fig. 4). Mr. Hudson informs me that un- 
published work shows a continuation of this overstep south of the Craven 
faults in the region of TroUer's Gill, near Burnsall, on to the base of D, 
and almost on to S.^. Mr. Hudson's work also shows overlap of the successive 
zones of the Millstone Grit, the pseudobilinque zone of Bisat (lower E) 
resting on the Avonian at Craven, while at Grassington and Arkendale the 
bisulcatum zone (upper E) is the lowest level represented. 

While the stratigraphical level at which the so-called ' Millstone Grit ' 
of the South-west Province comes on is so variable, the base of the true 
Millstone Grit seems to be at a fairly constant stratigraphical horizon 
throughout South Wales and the North-western and Northern Provinces. 
The evidence now available from so many areas shows that the uncon- 
formity between Millstone Grit and Avonian which was first observed by 
Prof. 0. T. Jones*^ in the Haverfordwest area is of widespread occurrence, 
and the establishment of this very important fact has helped and will 
help to the solution of many problems in Carboniferous stratigraphy. 

There are cases in the North of England where beds with fossils of a 
characteristically Avonian facies overlie some considerable thickness of 
grit. This may in some cases be due to early establishment of grit con- 
ditions, in other cases to a late survival into Lancastrian times of 
Avonian types. Thus the Snebro Gill beds^'' ol West Cumberland which 
overlie some 50 ft. of grit are considered by Mr. Dixon to be high in the 
Yoredalian, but the evidence as to their age is admittedly inconclusive, 
and Mr. Bisat is inclined to correlate them with the Cayton Gill beds 
(Lancastrian). In Teesdale, Prof. Garwood's Botany Beds,'^ with a late D 
fauna, are believed to overlie strata about 200 ft. thick originally mapped 
as Millstone Grit. 

In Yorkshire, when circumstances were favourable, a marine fauna 
temporarily invaded regions ^^ where Millstone Grit conditions were 
thoroughly established. Thus Hind^^ described the Cayton Gill beds of 
Nidderdale, which lie just below the Kinderscout grit equivalent and have; 
an Avonian type of fauna. The goniatite fauna of these beds is not 
sufficient to enable Mr. Bisat to speak confidently as to their age, but he 
suggests lower R.^* The Colsterdale ^^ marine band of the same area, 
with a goniatite-lamellibranch fauna, is assigned by Mr. Bisat ^* to his 
horizon E. Again, the Shunner Fell limestone ^^ of Yorkshire contains a 
coral and brachiopod fauna such as is usually found in Avonian rocks of 
Zaphrentid or Cyathaxonid phase, associated with a goniatite {Anthra- 
coceras glabrum) characteristic of zone E of Bisat's table. 

*^ Well brought out in Chubb and Hudson's map, op. cit., pp. 282-3. 

*^ Haverfordwest Memoir (1914), p. 151. 

*" Eastwood (Mem. Gaol. Surv.), Sum. Progress for 1922, p. (54; and Dixon, Proc. 
Geol. Ass., vol. xxxvi. (1925), p. 44. 

•^1 Q.J.O.8., vol. Ixviii. (1912), p. 542. 

»= See L. H. Tonks, Proc. Tories Geol. Soc, n.s., vol. xx., pt. 2 (1925), pp. 226-5*), 
for fuU references on the marine bands. 

S3 Hind, Naturalist {1902), T;i]p. 17-63 and 90-96; also Bisat. I'roc. Yorks Geol. Soc. 
vol. xix., pt. 1 (1914), p. 20. 

" Ibid., vol. XX., pt. 1 (1924), pp. 40-124. 

•"'S Chubb and Hudson, ibid., pt. ii. (1925), p. 261. Other references are given. 

G 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

But, in addition to these brief and local minglings of Avonian and 
Lancastrian, evidence is accumulating to show that the upper Yoredalian 
was synchronous with the lower Lancastrian ; in other words, that the 
Yoredale type of deposit was being laid down in parts of Yorkshire while 
Mr. Bisat's lower E beds were accumulating elsewhere. If this is established 
it will mean that the upper Yoredalian is not Avonian at all, but Lancastrian, 
and will render it more possible to regard the D, and D^p beds of the 
Midlands and South as the time equivalent of the Yoredalian, reduced as 
it will then be by the separation of its Lancastrian portion. 

The Dibunophyllum Zone (sensu lato) and its equivalents in the 

North of England. 

While, as regards the -pie-Dibunophyllum beds, the calcareous phases 
in England and Wales are far more important than any other phase, when 
we come to the Dibunophyllum beds this is not so, at any rate in the North 
of England, where rocks predominantly shaly are fully as important as 
those of the calcareous phases. 

While, too, in the South-western Province the difficulties of correla- 
tion are comparatively slight, when we reach Yorkshire this is far from 
being the case, and much difference of opinion exists even on major 
questions of classification and correlation. To clear up these difficulties, 
a Committee of this Association was appointed, and a report, mainly drawn 
up by Mr. R. G. S. Hudson, the secretary, was issued at the Southampton 
Meeting last year. Largely owing to the still imperfect state of our 
knowledge, it proved impossible to obtain general agreement among the 
members of the Committee, and two sub-reports dissenting from certain 
parts of the main report are appended. These differences of opinion are 
partly on questions of terminology, partly as to the correlation and sub- 
division of the strata. The various proposals will be found in the Report 
of the British Association Committee, and in Mr. Cosmo Johns' paper in 
the Naturalist of July 1926. Little is to be gained by recapitulating 
these in detail. The main thing to strive for is to avoid increasing and, 
if possible, to lessen the existing confusion. Some of the chief questions 
at issue are : — 

(1) As regards ' Yoredalian.' Is the term to be used ? If so, what are 
its limits to be ? Is it to be (a) a major division of the Lower Carboniferous 
equivalent to the Tournaisian and Visean, or (6) a subdivision of the 
Visean equivalent to the D zone and S zone, or (c) an alternative name 
for the highest part of the D zone, equivalent in fact to an extended D., ? 

(2) Is it desirable to adopt the zone (of Orionastrcea philUpsi) as 
proposed by the B.A. Committee 1 

(3) What are the best levels to take for delimiting Dj and D.j ? 

(4) If the term Yoredalian is adopted, is D3 also necessary ? or may D., 
as far as the northern development is concerned be merged in Yore- 
dalian ? 

We have in the first place Phillips' main division into Great Scar 
Limestone and Yoredale Series, based on obvious differences conspicuous 
throughout the greater part of the area, though, as he recognised, this is 
not the case in part of the south-eastern section, owing to the lower 
members of the Yoredale series being represented by massive limestone. 



C— GEOLOGY. 



83 



i <0 



© i-H 



<D 



O 'O 
02 t. 



•J 

ID 
bl 
O 



<u 
o 



Lancastrian 



Q ^ 



fi" 






fii 



« i « - q"- 



I I I I I 



I I I I I I I 



Great, or Main 



Underset 



Middle 

y Orionastrsea level 

Simonstone 



Hardraw (of Wensleydale, 
not Ingleborough) 



a, 

.1? 



03 



Gayle 
Girvanella band 

C. septosa band 






5,° 



>H .S 0-1 



FiQ. 5. 

Classification of the Uppermost Avonian (calcareous phases) 

OF Yorkshire. 



g2 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

I think there can be no doubt as to the desirability of the use in 
Yorkshire of the term Yoredale Series or Mr. Cosmo Johns' variant 
Yoredalian. Its top must clearly be taken as the level of entry of the 
Lancastrian fauna of Upper Carboniferous type defined by Bisat. 

As regards the level to take as the base of the Yoredalian, the difficulty 
is increased by the uncertainty as to what significance is to be attached 
to the expressions ' top of D.^ ' and ' top of D.,.' The top of D,^ in the 
Settle paper is just below the Orionastrcea band (Simonstone limestone 
level), while in the Southampton report the Orionastrcea band is the top 
of D3 (or 'upper D.^ '). 

The level taken as the top of D.^ (and base of the Yoredalian) by Mr. 
Johns is in the shale below the Hardraw limestone, which he says corre- 
sponds exactly with the base of the Yoredale series as defined by Phillips, 
and with the base of Bisat's zone P. I am informed, however, by Mr. 
Hudson that the latter argument no longer holds, recent goniatite work 
having shown that part of D.^ is to be correlated with lower P. The 
chief argument in favour of Mr. Johns' proposal is the admitted con- 
venience of the base of the Yoredalian coinciding with a well-marked 
change in lithology, and with the base of the Yoredale series of Phillips. 

On the other hand the following facts tell in favour of the adoption of 
the Orionastrcea level as the top of D.^ : — ■ 

1. It is a level having as a rule a well-marked palseontological character. 

2. If this level be adopted, D^ forms a subdivision of considerable 
thickness and includes both the upper and lower Lonsdaleia beds, instead 
of only the lower. 

3. This is the level adopted for the top of Dj in the two most important 
papers published in recent years on the northern succession, viz., that on 
the Carboniferous Succession in the North-west Province by Prof. 
Garwood, and that on the Lower Carboniferous Succession in the Settle 
district by Prof. Garwood and Miss Goodyear. 

4. The level appears to coincide with the horizon of important strati- 
graphical events, such as the Derbyshire and Cracoe unconformities. 

In view of these facts, I think that, on the whole, the best course to 
pursue is to commence the Yoredalian at the base of the Orionastrcea level 
and to include all between that level and the Girvanella level in D.^. There 
would then be no need to use the expression D., in Yorkshire and the 
North-west Province. 

The chief argument for giving the Yoredalian the status of a major 
division of the Avonian equivalent to the Tournaisian and Visean is its 
thickness and importance in the North of England. If, however {vide 
supra), the Yoredalian is to be reduced by including its upper portion in 
the Lancastrian, the argument loses much of its force. As was pointed 
out by the authors of the sub-reports, the Yoredalian is not sufficiently 
marked off faunistically or otherwise to merit its recognition as a major 
division. The fauna is essentially a D fauna, and, in spite of its thickness 
and importance in the North, I think there is nothing for it but to group 
it with the D beds. 

I do not feel capable of expressing an opinion as to the desirability or 
otherwise of recognising the zone 0. The fact that Orionastrcea is found 



C— GEOLOGY. 85 

in the Bristol district, Midlands and North Wales at a lower level (D.^) than 
the proposed zone is no valid argument against its adoption. 

There is, I think, no difference of opinion as to the limits of Di ; it begins 
with the entry of the D-coral fauna, and particularly of Cyathophyllum 
{PalcBOsmilia) murchisoni, and ends below the Girvanella bed. 

The following classification of the chief limestones of the North of 
England is drawn up with the aid of Dr. S. Smith. 

Di, the sub-zone of Cyathophyllum murchisoni. — The base of D is marked 
by the entry of the D-coral fauna. Dp which in Westmorland has at 
the base a well-known level, the Bryozoa bed of Garwood, includes 
part of the Great Scar limestone of Yorkshire, part of the Melmerby 
Scar limestone series of the North- West Pennines, and all the strata from 
the Redesdale and Woodend limestones at the base to the Oxford lime- 
stone at the top in Northumberland. In West Cumberland it includes 
the sixth and fifth limestones, and the lower part of the fourth up to the 
base of the Girvanella nodular bed. 

Dj, the Lonsdaleia sub-zone of Vaughan's original classification, is 
divided into lower D.^, the sub-zone of Lonsdaleia floriformis (lower 
Lonsdaleia beds) ; upper D.,, the sub-zone of Lonsdaleia duplicata (upper 
Lonsdaleia beds). The Girvanella nodular bed, which is very well marked 
throughout much of Yorkshire and the North-west Province, is found also 
in Northumberland (Oxford limestone), and forms an admirable datum 
line for the base of D.^. The top of D.^ will lie just below the Orionastrcea 
level, and in D.^ will be included all strata from the Productus giganteus 
to the Productus edelbergensis beds of the Settle district, the Gayle, 
Hardraw, and lower part of the Simonstone levels of the Dale country, 
and in Northumberland from the level of the Oxford limestone to that 
of the Eelwell and Tynebottom limestones. 

The Yoredalian under the scheme here adopted includes the Orion- 
astrcea zone and others not yet defined of the Southampton report, and 
extends on to the base of the Lancastrian. In the Settle area it includes 
the strata from the Orionastrcea level (Simonstone) to the Great, Upper 
Scar, or Main limestone, and in the Dale covmtry also strata above the 
Main limestone. In the Alston district and in South Northumberland it 
includes the succession from the Tynebottom to the Fell Top limestone. 
As has been already pointed out, some of these strata may prove to be of 
the age of the lower Lancastrian. 

The Shaly development {Goniatite or Culm phase P). 

Rocks of this phase form the large Culm area of North Devon, and in 
the North much of the contiguous parts of Yorkshire, Lancashire, and 
Derbyshire, the type area beiiig that of Pendle Hill and Clitheroe. 

Although Wheelton Hind devoted much time to their study, they 
were, until a comparatively few years ago, relatively neglected by workers 
on the British Carboniferous rocks, but, thanks primarily to Mr. W. S. 
Bisat's work on the goniatites, this is far from being the case at the 
present time, and their succession is now known with an accuracy and 
detail which has often not yet been reached in areas where the rocks are 
of the calcareous phase. Mr. Bisat's work on the goniatites, following on 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the earlier work of Wheelton Hind in England and of Haug in France, 
shows them to have a value for zonal purposes in the Upper Carboniferous 
comparable to that of the graptolites in the Lower Palaeozoic and the 
ammonites in the Mesozoic. It may be safely stated that his paper on 
the Carboniferous goniatites of the North of England is by far the most 
important contribution to Carboniferous stratigraphical palseontology 
which has appeared since Vaughan's classical paper. 

Goniatites are on the whole characteristic of the Upper Carboniferous, 
and it is not till quite near the end of Avonian times (D^ or D,) that 
they appear in British Carboniferous rocks in any number. As far 
as I know, not a single goniatite has been found in the Avonian rocks of 
the Bristol area, although in Dj and D2 are thick shales in which they 
might be expected to occur. The D3 beds of the Bristol district are un- 
fossiliferous quartzites or grits, but the Lower Coal Measures of Ashton,*^ 
near Bristol, include marine bands with a typical Culm assemblage, 
including goniatites. 

Although the non-occurrence of certain forms may commonly be due 
to unsuitability of physical conditions, the best explanation of these facts 
seems to be to conclude that goniatites did not migrate into the Bristol 
area till Lower Coal Measure times. 

While as a rule the calcareous coral and brachiopod facies and the 
shaly goniatite facies are sharply defined, rendering correlation a matter 
of great difficulty, it has long been known that goniatites appear 
sparingly in the Knoll limestone of Craven and the Yoredale series of 
Settle and Wensleydale. Bands with the goniatite facies are occasionally, 
as at Budle Bay, intercalated in the upper Bernician series of Northumber- 
land. In the classical area of Pendle Hill, originally described by Hind 
and Howe, and recently restudied by Parkinson, both calcareous and 
goniatite phases are represented. 

Although as regards the highest Avonian rocks, in view of the difficulty 
of correlating the deposits of the two chief phases, the standard phase and 
the goniatite-lamellibranch or Culm phase, it is clear that two time scales 
and two ?ets of zonal indices are for the present necessary I think few 
workers on the Avonian will disagree as to the desirability of eventually 
correlating all phases in one scale. Further, I think there will be few to 
dispute that, partly as it is only in the case of the uppermost Avonian rocks 
that a goniatite scale is necessary or proposed, partly owing to the fact 
that modern work on the Avonian rocks was first put on a firm basis by 
the study of the standard or calcareous phase, it is this development with 
which other facies should be compared, and as far as possible correlated. 
For the Lancastrian deposits no one can doubt that the goniatite succession 
is the one with which any others must be correlated. 

The use of the symbol P may next be considered. Some authors have 
used it in a chronological sense, others in a phasal sense, and others again, 
including its original users Vaughan and Matley, partly in a chronological 
and partly in a phasal sense. Vaughan and Matley first used it in 1908 
for strata at Loughshinny above D^ in which a Zaphrentid or Cyathaxonid 
facies alte nated with a lamellibranch or Culm facies. 

«« H. BoJtoa, Q.J.G.S., Ixiii. (1907), pp. 445-69, and Ixvii. (1911), p. 337. 



C— GEOLOGY. 87 

In the Gower paper ^' P is used primarily in a chronological sense for 
strata succeeding D,,,.,, while Sibly^^ suggests its use in a purely phasal 
sense. 

The zone P was re-defined by Bisat^^ in a strictly chronological sense as 
the zone of Goniatites crenistria, and probably that of any member of the 
genus Goniatites {sensu stricto). This use is somewhat more restricted than 
that of the Loughshinny paper, but wider than that of the Gower paper. 
It is thus clear that there has been no uniformity in the use of P, and 
probably it would really be best if, as Dixon®" suggested, the symbol as 
used in a chronological sense were dropped, and, as Sibly proposed, it were 
used purely in a phasal sense for Avonian rocks displaying the Culm or 
goniatite development. The successive zones might then (as Dixon pro- 
posed) be alluded to by the zonal fossil, as is done with the graptolites of 
the Lower Palaeozoic and the ammonites of the Mesozoic. 

It cannot, however, be expected that such a course should commend 
itself to the workers on the Culm-goniatite development, particularly in 
view of the already extensive literature based on Mr. Bisat's work. It 
seems to me that both zone P and Yoredalian are north-country 
denominations, and that in the south it would be more convenient to 
designate their equivalents D^p and D.jy. 



Reef Knolls 



61 



The general facts regarding reef knolls are well known. They are 
highly fossiliferous limestone, in certain cases dolomite, hills or mounds, 
the fossils being exceptionally well preserved. ' The term reef as used in 
these cases implies that, though not composed of corals, the masses have 
undoubtedly caused local elevations at the bottom of the Carboniferous 
sea ' (Dixon). ®^ In some cases the stratification shows a quaquaversal 
dip, and the massive and frequently crystalline limestone of which the 
reefs are composed is succeeded in all directions by rocks of the 
Zaphrentid phase — thinly-bedded limestones and shales. 

Mr. Hudson, in describing the Cracoe knolls, says that the characteristics 
of reef limestone are seen in its irregular non-bedded nature, in the con- 
temporaneous breccias, in the frequent shell-beds of rolled and broken 
Productids, and in the abundant pockets packed with shells in perfect 
preservation, often showing colour bands and evidently in the position 
of growth. He remarks that the frequent occurrence of sheets of 
calcareous tufa points to deposition in shallow water or even to emergence. 

Such reefs are met with in the Lower Carboniferous rocks at a number 
of localities in the British Isles, but particularly in West Yorkshire, in 
the South Craven area between Skipton and Malham, and in the Cracoe 
and Burnsall areas between Skipton and Grassiugton, and in the Bowland 

•' Cf. table facing p. 105. 

" Proc. Oeol. Ass., xxxi. (1920), p. 81. 

■''■> Op. cit., pp. 43-5. 

'^ Southampton Report, sub-report i. 

^1 Note. — Dr. D. Parkinson's paper on the ' Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Clitheroe,' Q.J.O.S., vol. Ixxxii. (1926), pp. 188-249, contains an import- 
ant account of the Clitheroe knolls. 

" Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 68. 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and Clitheroe areas. Other examples occur at Poolvash, near Castleton, 
Isle of Man, while the Waulsortian of Belgium, part of the Syringothyris 
beds of Co. Clare, and the well-knowu brachiopod beds of the Midlands^^ 
(Treak Cliff, Castleton, Park Hill, near Longnor, Thorpe Cloud, in Derby- 
shire, Narrowdale, near Wetton, and Cauldron,®* in Staffordshire), and 
those of St. Doulagh, near Dublin, are analogous. 

From South Wales, Dixon ®^ describes in C\ reef dolomites largely of 
bryozoal origin and a small limestone reef of C2 age, the relations of which 
to the surrounding rocks of the Zaphrentid-phase are particularly well 
seen. 

The Waulsortian of Belgium is described by Vaughan®® as ' composed 
of thick irregular accumulations of powdery limestone often brecciated 
and seamed with calcite veins ; its most striking aspect is a massive lime- 
stone, mottled with bluish blotches rich in Fenestellids. Every now and 
then the beds swell out into mushroom-shaped lenticles of unstratified 
reefs (the " knolls ") roofed over by the next stratified deposit, which 
spread over the uneven floor.' 

Both in Britain®'^ (S. Wales and Clitheroe) and in Belgium^® a peculiar 
laminar structure occurs associated with the Fenestellids of the reef 
dolomites. The significance of this is not yet understood. Fenestellids, 
though generally characteristics of reef-knoll limestones, are not common 
in the Cracoe knolls. 

It was observed by Tiddeman,®^ who first described them, that the 
knolls do not all lie on the same horizon. He divided them into two 
groups — an upper series which he grouped with the Pendleside lime- 
stones, and a lower series included in the Clitheroe limestone. Vaughan'''' 
maintained that Tiddeman's upper group is of D2 age, and showed that 
his lower group included two distinct series, an upper series of S age and 
a lower series of C age. Dr. Parkinson's recent work is in accord with 
that of Vaughan as to the age of the Clitheroe knolls. 

With few exceptions recent workers are agreed that Tiddeman's 
original views as to the origin of reef-knolls are essentially correct. He 
held that they are due to the original deposition of the remains of calcareous 
organisms in an area undergoing depression, not to any subsequent packing 
by earth movements, as was maintained by Marr.''^ Tiddeman's theory 
was originally supported by Dakyns, and received weighty confirmation 
from Vaughan, who showed that there is a special reef-facies easily recog- 
nisable as such, whatever the level may be from which the specimens are 
derived. Gastropods and lamellibranchs, sometimes bryozoa and trilo- 
bites, and in particular certain persistent brachiopods {Piignax, Schizo- 
phoria, Martinia), which often attain an exceptional size, abound in these 
reef deposits, but corals, with the exception of Amplexus, are rare. 

" Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixiv. (1908), p. 49. 

«« Oeol. Mag., vol. Iviii. (1921), p. 367. 

^ Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 127. 

«8 Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxi. (1915), p. 12. 

*' Dixon, Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 127. 

«» Delepine MS. 

«5 Rep. Brit. Ass., Newcastle, 1889, p. 602, and Bradford, 1900, p. 740. 

'" Proc. Yorks Oeol. Soc, vol. xix. (1916), pp. 41-60. 

'1 Q.J.O.S., vol. Iv. (1899), pp. 327-58. 



C— GEOLOGY. 



89 



Viiugliau'- gives a list of species characteristic of reef knolls in general, 
and further lists of those characterising Tournaisian and Visean knolls 
respectively. It remains to be seen whether any comparison can be made 
between the physiographic relation of Avonian reefs and those of the 
coral reefs of our own time. 

Distribution of Reef Knolls and Limestone. 

/■South Craven Area. 

Cracoe neighbourhood : Swinden, Skeltertou, Stebden, 

Butterhaw, Garden. 
Burnsall neighbourhood : Elbolton, Thorpe Kail, Hart- 

lington Kail. 
Grassington neighbourhood: Thorpe to Hebden.^^ 
Gargrave neighbourhood : Fogger,^^ Crag Laithe.^^ 
D \ Malham neighbourhood : Cawden, Wedber. 
Settle neighbourhood : Scaleber. 

Midland Area. 

Wetton, Thorpe Cloud. 

Isle of Man. 
Poolvash. 

BowLAND Area. 

Ashnott. 

Bowland Area. 

Dunmow, near Slaidburn, Knowlmere. 

Clitheroe Area. 

Salt Hill, Crow Hill, Worsaw, Withgill, Gerna, Sykes, 
Twiston. 

Clitheroe Area. 

White Croft Wood, Waddow, Coplow. 

Pembrokeshire. 
Freshwater West. 



D or 



high S i 



S 



Pseudobreccia. 

This well-known rock type, originally described by Tiddeman^* and 
subsequently and much more fully by Dixon, ^^ is very characteristic of 
the D beds, particularly of Dj, throughout the whole South-western 
Province. While, perhaps, best developed in Gower, where these rocks 

" Q.J.Q.S., vol. Ixxi. (1915), p. 13. 

'* Mr. Hudson informs me that these are not true knolls, but are local develop- 
ments of limestone of reef type. Similar developments occur at other places in the 
Craven lowlands. 

'* Swansea Memoir, p. 10. 

''^ Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), p. 507. 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

were first described, they are typically exposed in tlie Avon section, in 
South Pembrokeshire and many other localities. The following is in 
the main an abstract of Dixon's account. The rock consists of patches 
(' fragments ') of dark limestone generally crowded with foraminifera, 
surrounded by lighter and more argillaceous limestone (' ground mass or 
matrix '), the two generally occurring in approximately equal proportions. 
Both ■' fragments ' and ' matrix ' consist essentially of a calcareous mud, 
and microscopic examination shows that the outline of the ' fragments ' is 
not sharp and well defined, but that they shade off into the ' matrix.' 
The material of both ' fragments ' and ' matrix ' is partly recrystallised, 
but the change has affected the ' fragments ' more than the ' matrix,' 
tending to slightly clarify them, and has been accompanied by concentra- 
tion of the argillaceous and ferruginous material in the ' matrix.' This 
recrystalhsation is believed to have taken place shortly after deposition. 
The patchy distribution of pseudobreccia, its widespread occurrence on 
the same level, and the fact that the ' matrix ' has often been dolomitised 
while still under the influence of the Avonian sea, point to this conclusion. 
Dolomitisation tends to increase the appearance of brecciation ; indeed, it 
was the emphasising of their structure by contemporaneous dolomitisation 
which first drew Tiddeman's attention to pseudobreccias. Pseudobreccia 
often passes laterally into what has been termed in the Gower area ' clay 
with rubble,' and in the Avon section ' rubbly limestone.' These bands, 
which are very discontinuous, consist of rounded masses of limestone often 
several inches in diameter, embedded in a red shaly matrix ; they probably 
owe their character to a concretionary or recrystalhsation process whereby 
the lime gathered in nodules, from which the iron and shaly material 
became separated. The characters are emphasised by weathering. 

There are other noteworthy features shown by weathered pseudo- 
breccia. The more coarsely crystalline character of the ' fragments ' 
renders them relatively resistant to chemical change, so that they stand 
out prominently on the weathered surface. This is well seen both in 
Gower and the Avon section. A more remarkable feature is the deep 
pitting of the bedding planes, best known from Gower, where it was 
originally described by Tiddeman,''® but also very well seen at Mells in 
Somerset. These pits are roughly circular, and as described from Gower 
are 18-30 inches in diameter and a foot deep. The Mells examples are 
rather wider and shallower. In each case they contain some clay, and 
it is suggested that they, like the rubbly limestone, may be an expression 
of a process of recrystalhsation leading to a local concentration of the 
argillaceous material. Mr. Dixon, however, informs me that after seeing 
the pot-holed limestones of the Whitehaven district he believes that the 
Gower pitting is shallow pot-holing. 

Pseudobreccias, though mainly met with in foraminiferal limestones of 
Di age, may also occur at other horizons and in other kinds of limestone. 
High up in D.2 in the Avon section'^ is a band of sandy limestone showing 
pseudobrecciation in which recrystalhsation has led to the concentration 
of sandy and ferruginous material in the ' matrix,' while in the more 
usual type of pseudobrecciation it is argillaceous material that is so 

'* Swansea Memoir (1907), p. 10. 

" Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxvii. (1921), p. 235. 



C— GEOLOGY. 91 

concentrated. The honeycomb sandstone described by Cantrill'^ which 
occurs at the base of I>^ along part of the North Crop of the Souili Wales 
coalfield seems to be similar. A second exceptional case of pseudo- 
brecciation in the Avon section occurs on a small scale in the Cleistopora 
beds, some four feet above the base of the Bryozoa bed. In this case the 
change has led to much sei^aration of iron and some of argillaceous 
material. The rock affected is a crinoidal limestone. 

The prevalence of pseudobreccias in the Dj beds of the Midlands and 
the North-west Province, as well as in the South, is one of the features 
emphasising the uniformity of conditions which apparently prevailed in 
the Avonian seas of England and Wales at this time. 

Though pseudobreccias are not alluded to as such in the Anglesey 
Memoir, the term not having been introduced when the field work was in 
progress. Dr. Greenly informs me that they are extensively developed 
both at the top and near the bottom of D.^. They are alluded to in the 
Memoir as mottled limestone.'^ Pseudobreccias occur in the Lilleshall 
limestone (D.,), but, as Mr. Wedd informs me, are characteristic and 
apparently confined to the ' White Limestones ' (upper Dj and lower D.,) 
of Denbigh and Flint. In the southern part of the area they mark a well- 
defined and persistent horizon near the top of the ' White Limestone.' 

Typical pseudobreccias are described by Jackson*'' from the upper D, 
of the Miller's Dale area, Derbyshire. 

Garwood®^ describes from the D, beds of the North-west Province 
certain structures under the names of (1) spotted beds, (2) pseudobreccias, 
saying that the two occasionally pass into one another. The spotted beds 
are of two types ; in the first the spots consist of small spherical patches 
of darker limestone surrounded by a lighter matrix, the two grading into 
one another. No constant difference between spots and matrix was 
detected beyond the concentration of the coloured impurities in the spots, 
this being attributed to slight concretionary action. The second type of 
spotted bed, which is far less common, differs in the fact that the original 
rock contained a considerable amount of sandy material. Concretionary- 
action in this case has led to the concentration of the sand grains in the 
matrix, while the colouring matter as in the first case collected in the spots. 
In each case the process is believed to be contemporaneous. The structures 
described appear to be identical with those of the South-west Province. 

Pseudobreccias are known from many other localities in the D^ beds of 
the North of England ; thus Garwood and Goodyear ®^ describe them from 
the Great Scar limestone of the Settle area, and Edmonds*^ from Cumber- 
land, while they occur also in the Dale Country (Wensleydale). 

In West Cumberland they are found at many levels in the D beds and 
extend up to D^. 

Though nodular structures suggesting pseudobrecciation are present 
in some dark limestones, the structure is only typically developed in beds 

" Ammanford Memoir (1907), p. 69 et seq. 
'• Anglesey Memoir, vol. ii. (1919), p. 606. 
80 Oeol. Mag., vol. lix. (1922), p. 467. 
" Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixviii. (1912), p. 476. 
" /6i(/., vol. Ixxx.( 1924). 
" Geol. Mag., vol. lix. (1922), p. 80. 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

free from dark mud, but we have still to learn what were the conditions 
that determined its formation. 

Algal Limestones. 

Mr. E. B. Wethered and the late Prof. H. A. Nicholson were the 
earliest British workers to pay attention to the calcareous algae and other 
somewhat obscure organisms which are met with in the Carboniferous 
Limestone. But it was not till Prof. Garwood turned his attention to the 
subject that their importance as rock-builders was fully recognised. His 
presidential address to Section C (Birmingham, 1913) and papers in the 
Geological Magazine** have led to the recognition of these organisms at 
several horizons and in many localities. 

In the North-west Province, Garwood describes*^ well-marked algal de- 
velopments at three levels, viz. : (1) the Solenojpora sub-zone (lower Ci), 
(2) near the base of the Seminula gregaria sub-zone (lower C.^), and (3) the 
Girvanella nodular bed (base of D.J which forms the top of the Great Scar 
limestone. 

The Girvanella band is met with in many of the Yorkshire dale sections, 
and occurs in the equivalent of the Great Scar limestone of other areas, 
such as the Melmerby scar limestone of Alston, and the Oxford limestone 
of North Northumberland. 

Algse also occur at the base of Dj in the Woodend, Eedesdale and Dun 
limestones of Northumberland. In the Berwick-on-Tweed Memoir 
Girvanella-Yik.Q nodules are recorded from several levels.*® 

Garwood*'' mentions that Mitcheldeania is found in the highest 
calcareous bands of the Cement Stones at a number of localities in 
Northumberland. 

The rhythmic succession in the Yoredale series of Wensleydale, 
described by Hudson,** ends in each case with algal limestone deposited 
under shallow-water conditions. His table of succession shows such 
bands in the Middle, Simonstone, Hardraw Scar, and Gayle limestones. 
There are also indications of a rhythmic succession in the Northumberland 
sequence. In West Cumberland algal bands occur at a number of levels. 
Edmonds*^ mentions three principal ones in addition to the Girvanella 
band at the base of D.2. 

A study of the rocks of the Avon section^" has shown that a strong 
algal development occurs at three levels, Km, C.^-Si, and the top of S.^. 
The well-known ' concretionary beds ' at the top of S.^, and the pisolites 
which occur at various levels in Sj and S.^, were shown to be — in part, at 
any rate — algal. Algal limestones have been recognised in all the other 
Carboniferous Limestone sections in the Bristol district that have been 
studied in detail wherever rocks deposited under MocZtoZa-phase conditions 
occur. Thus algal Umestones occur in both Sj and S.^ in the Wickwar 

«« Dec. v., vol. X. (1913), pp. 440, 490, 545, and Dec. vi., vol. i. (1914), p. 265. 

" Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixviii. (1912). 

^^ Hem. Oeol. Surv., Berwick-on-Tweed (1926), pp. 18 and 23. 

" Geology in the Field, p. 676. 

" Proc. Yorks Oeol. Soc, vol. xx., pt. 1 (1923-24), p. 125. 

«» Geol. Mag., vol. lix. (1922), p. 119. 

*» Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxvii. (1921), and Geol. Mag., vol. Iviii. (1921), p. 546. 



C— GEOLOGY. 93 

area,^^ that in Sj at Bury Hill being one of the finest in the Bristol district. 
In the Burrington section algal layers were tound only in S.^, and in the 
Sodbury^'^ section in CVSi and So. 

The algal development of the Whitehead limestone at Mitcheldean is 
perhaps the most remarkable in the Soixth of England. In the Pembroke 
and Tenby district^^ algal limestones occur in the K and C^-Sj beds, while 
the Sg pisolites of the Kidwelly area are doubtless algal. 

Dolomitisatiou.^^ 

This subject would by itself afford sufficient material for several 
presidential addresses. I make no attempt to deal with the general 
question, and in particular cannot discuss the important results obtained 
by American investigators of coral-reef dolomitisation. My aim is merely 
to summarise some recent work on British Carboniferoiis dolomites and 
provide a brief statement as to their distribution. 

The dolomites of South Wales were very carefully studied by Dixon, ^' 
while those of the Midlands are fully described by Parsons. ^^ These 
authors agree as to the general classification of dolomites, Parsons dividing 
them into : — 

1. Primary, including 

(a) Those deposited as clastic rocks derived from some pre-existing 

dolomite. 
(6) Those chemically precipitated as dolomite. 

2. Secondary, including 

(a) Contemporaneous, i.e. rocks deposited as ordinary limestones but 
dolomitised soon after deposition. 

(6) Subsequent, i.e. rocks dolomitised at some later period. 
Primary dolomites are of comparatively slight importance among 
Avonian rocks, but, according to Dixon, ^^ include dolomite-mudstones 
and reef dolomites. Dolomite-mudstones occur in the Athyris glabristria 
zone of the North-west Province. The reef dolomites of the Tenby dis- 
trict are grey unbedded dolomite-mudstone showing a peculiar association 
with Fenestellids, which is to be matched exactly in the knoll limestones of 
Clitheroe and the Waulsortian of Belgium. It is now generally admitted 
that most dolomites are secondary and contemporaneous, having been 
produced in part by a process of leeching out of the lime and subsequent 
concentration of the magnesia, in part by a process of replacement of 
lime by magnesia derived from sea-water. The occurrence over a wide 
area of dolomite of constant character points to its contemporaneity, 
e.g. the Zaminosa-dolomite of the South-west Province, while patchy 
dolomite such as occurs on a large scale in the D beds of Derbyshire is 
subsequent. The lateral and often abrupt passage into unaltered lime- 
stone such as occurs in Derbyshire is also characteristic of subsequent 

•1 Proc. Bristol Nat.Soc, 4th series, vol. vi., pt. 3 (1926, issued for 1925), p. 246i 

•2 Geol. Mag., vol. Ix. (1923), p. 117. 

•' Dixon, Pembroke and Tenby 3Iemoir, p. 69. 

•* See F. W. Clarke, The Data of Geochemistry (1908), p. 480. Full references. 

•5 Swansea Memoir (1907), p. 11, and Pembroke and Tenby Memoir (1921), p. 70i 

»« Qeol. Mag., vol. Ux. (1922), pp. 51 and 104. 

•' Pembroke and Tenby Memoir (1921), p. 70. 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

dolomites. In contemporaneous dolomites, which are normally dark grey, 
the crystals interlock with one another and produce a granular mosaic 
of allotriomorphic crystals, while in subsequent dolomites, which are 
normally light grey or reddish, the crystals as a rule tend to be relatively 
large and idiomorphic. In Derbyshire, however, the thick dolomites 
claimed by Parsons as subsequent are mainly allotriomorphic. The inter- 
bedding of a dolomite with non-dolomitised strata is not necessarily a 
proof of contemporaneous alteration, for, as Parsons points out, subsequent 
dolomitisation is capable of afiecting a bed while leaving those above and 
below unaltered. 

Organic remains, particularly those which, like crinoidal 'ossicles,' are 
composed of calcite in fairly large crystals, tend to be more resistant to 
dolomitisation than the matrix, which is acted on with special readiness 
if consisting originally of aragonite mud. Dixon^* shows that in con- 
temporaneous dolomites corals and ooliths are resistant as compared with 
the matrix, while in subsequent dolomites the corals and ooliths are 
affected first. In several districts where Triassic rocks rest or have rested 
on the Avonian, the dolomite crystals are seen to contain haematite, 
presumably derived from the Trias, and affording proof that the dolomite 
is subsequent ; Parsons®^ figures an excellent case of this from Breedon, 
in Leicestershire. 

Selective dolomitisation is a term employed by him when the formation 
of dolomite occurs in certain portions of the rock, tending to produce a 
mottled or brecciated appearance, e.g. the pseudobreccias of the South- 
west Province. Cases are known where there is evidence of the secondary 
addition of Mg. at more than one period ; such are termed by Parsons 
complex dolomites. 

Distribution of Dolomites. 

South-ivestern Province. — There is progressive increase in dolomiti- 
sation as one passes northwards from the Mendips and eastward from 
Pembrokeshire, the phenomenon reaching its maximum in the region 
south and east of the South Wales coalfield. It is not easy to trace any 
relation between the amount of dolomitisation and the shore-lines of the 
period.^"" 

In the Burrington section lower Cj is dolomitised, and there is some 
dolomite at various levels in S^ 

In the Avon section^"^ dolomitisation is widely prevalent throughout 
Z and y, without, however, leading to the obliteration of the fossils. Lower 
Cj and C.2 are almost completely dolomitised, while there is a good deal 
at various levels in S. The Sodbury section^"^ is essentially the same as 
the Avon section as regards dolomitisation. 

In the Chepstow area Z and C are greatly dolomitised, while there is 
a good deal in S, especially Sj. 

"8 Q.J.G.S., Ixxiii. (1917), p. 110. 
" Ibid., pi. X., fig. 4. 

^'"' See Vaughan, ' Shift of the Western Shore-lines in England and Wales during 
the Avonian period,' Eep. Brit. Ass., Manchester, 1915, p. 429. 
"1 Oeol. Mag., vol. Iviii. (1921), p. 544. 
"- Ibid., vol. Ix. (1923), pp. 112-3. 



C— GEOLOGY. 95 

In the ' Main Limestone ' (Z,— y) of the Forest of Dean dolomitisation 
is very complete,^"^ and while chiefly contemporaneous, in the hsematite- 
bearing beds where it is at its maximum, subsequent (vein) dolomitisation 
has been added to the contemporaneous. Along the south-eastern margin 
of the South Wales coalfield in the TaflE Valley, and to the east, there is an 
almost unbroken series of dolomites extending throughout the whole 
section from the base of Z to the Millstone Grit. The change is mainly 
contemporaneous, but in C.^ and S.^ there has been vein dolomitisation. 
West of the TafE Valley, as at Ruthin, dolomitisation is in the main 
restricted to Zj and Cj.^''* 

Throughout Gower"^ C, retains the character of the laminosa-dolomite 
of the Avon section, and there is much dolomite in Z^. In B. Gower Zj is 
also dolomitised, as are to some extent the pseudobreccias of D. There is 
less dolomite in the S beds of W. Gower than in those of B. Gower. 

In the Tenby district,!"*' except for the fact that there is little dolomite 
in Z, dolomites prevail at much the same levels as in Gower, viz., Cj, various 
levels in C^ and in the pseudobreccias of D^. The peculiar reef-dolomite 
of Ci has been alluded to above. On the whole, in Pembrokeshire, as in 
the eastern part of the South-west Province, dolomitisation of the 
Tournaisian increases northwards.^"^ Both in Pembrokeshire and along 
the north crop of the main South Wales coalfield it is almost wholly 
absent from the Visean. 

Midland Area and North Wales. 

In the D limestones of the Midland area, as Parsons ^^^ points out, 
dolomitisation shows two contrasting types. In the main limestone mass 
of central Derbyshire it is wholly subsequent, while in the marginal deposits 
of the Leicester coalfield it is almost or wholly contemporaneous. 

In North Wales there are no horizons of widespread dolomitisation, but 
Greenlyi"" states that local dolomitisation is not uncommon in Anglesey, 
and appears to have been, partly at any rate, contemporaneous. On the 
other hand the masses of dark-brown dolomite of Seiriol and Peumon 
(top of D.j) are subsequent. 

North of England. 

In Yorkshire and the North-west Province dolomitisation is com- 
paratively slight. No contemporaneous dolomite is mentioned as occur- 
ring in the Settle district, though extensive subsequent dolomitisation has 
taken place locally in relation to the Craven faults.^^" 

Dolomitisation is not a characteristic feature of the North-west 
Province, but the dolomite mudstones of the Solenopora sub-zone (Oi) of 
the Shapi" area are characteristic examples of primary dolomites. 

103 Geol. Mag., Dec. v., vol. ix. (1912), p. 419. 

"1 Dixey and Sibly, Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxiii. (1917), p. 122. 

105 Gower paper, Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixvii. (1911), table facing p. 505. 

io« Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 70. 

107 Dixon, Sum. Prog. (1906), p. 54. 

108 Geol. Mag., lix. (1922), p. 115. 
io» Anglesey Memoir, ii., p. 606. 

110 Q.J.O.S., Ixxx. (1924), pp. 210-212. 

"1 Ibi'l., vol. Ixviii. (1912), pp. 456 and 487. 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In the Whitehaven district^^^ subsequent dolomitisation occurs locally 
m many of the limestones. 

There is very little dolomitisation in the limestones of Northumberland 
and Durham, though Dr. S. Smith informs me that the Great or Dryburn 
limestone of Beadnell (D3) shows subsequent dolomitisation. 

Chert. 

The subject of chert, or even of Carboniferous chert, would alone jaeld 
material for a lengthy address. I make no attempt to deal with it 
exhaustively, and there is the less reason to do so since the publication 
of Mr. H. C. Sargent's^^^ two important papers, which contain full 
references to the literature, British and foreign. 

Distribution, Stratigraphical and Geographical. 

In the Culm area of North Devon chert is strongly developed in Dg, 
where the fauna includes forms characteristic of D^x and D^p. 

In the Mendip region cherts are plentiful, particularly at the y level in 
the Frome area. In the Burrington section chert occurs in Z, and is 
strongly developed in Cjy and S.^. At Vallis there is a great development 
of laminated chert in Z.^. There is much chert in ^ and Zj at Portishead. 

In a large proportion of the North Somerset sections the fossils in Zj 
are much silicified (beekitised), even if massive chert is not present. 

Chert is much less developed in the Gloucestershire sections than in 
those of Somerset. In the Avon section it is not conspicuous, but a little 
occurs in Zj and above and below the Seminula oolite in S^. There is 
no sign of chert in the Sodbury, Tytherington and Wickwar sections. With 
regard to the Forest of Dean, Dr. Sibly informs me that he does not know 
any considerable development at any horizon anywhere in the district. 

Chert occurs low down in Z along the S.E. margin of the South Wales 
coalfield and in the Gower area, where it is also found at three other levels — 
in Sp in the Black Lias of lower D.^ (Dgx), and in the lagoon-phase rocks of 
upper D3 (D.,p). 

In the Pembroke and Tenby district Dixon^^* describes chert as 
occurring at many horizons of the Main Limestone {i.e. ^ to D^), especially 
in rocks of the Zaphrentid phase, which form most of the sequence in the 
southern outcrop. Cherts are mentioned as occurring at the base of the 
Millstone Grit at Lydstep, Gower, and all along the north crop of the 
South Wales coalfield. 

In the Midland^^^ area there is a great development of nodular and 
lenticular chert in the thinly-bedded upper D^ limestones. Feeble 
development may occur in the thickly-bedded Dj limestones. The D., 
beds also contain abundant chert, while in Flint^^® the development of chert 
in the upper D, and lower Lancastrian (' Cefn-y-fedw sandstone ') is one 
of the most remarkable in the British Isles. These cherts are not of the 

"2 Geol. Mag., \ix. (1922), p. 79. 

"3 Ibid., vol. Iviii. (1921), pp. 265-78, and vol. Ix. (1923), pp. 168-83. 
'" Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 69. 
"5 Q.J.O.S., vol. Ixiv. (1908), p. 38. 

"^ See Sargent, Oeol. Mag., vol. Ix. (1923), p. 168. Other references will be found 
here. 



C— GEOLOGY. 97 

nodular type, but, as Mr. Wedd informs me, are a cherty silicification of 
silts and shales, sometimes accompanied by patches of chert, in calcareous 
sandstones. Beekitisation of fossils may also be a marked feature of the 
Flint development. 

Chert occurs in the Pendleside limestone of Pendle Hill. In the 
Settle^i^ district chert occurs in the upper part of the Bryozoa series (Sj) 
in the districts between the faults, and is typically developed in the 
OrionaslrvBa bed (base of Yoredalian). In Wensleydale and other York- 
shire dales cherts are well developed at several levels in the upper 
Yoredalian, particularly just above the Undersett limestone. 

In the North-west Province chert isnot characteristic ; Garwood^^* states 
that it is met with locally, especially in the higher part of D, but never 
in any great quantity. Replacement of fossils by beekite is not unusual 
at various horizons. Cherty limestones occur in the Botany Beds, the 
highest calcareous beds in the Avonian of the North-west Province. 
Chert occurs low in the series near the bottom of the Seventh limestone 
(upper S.J in the Whitehaven^^" district, and again in D.^ in the upper 
part of the Fourth limestone. 

Classification of Cherts. 

The cherts alluded to in the above list fall into three groups, which 
practically correspond with the three phases of deposition of Vaughan's 
Winnipeg report. 

(a) The irregular nodular chert often forming impersistent bands at 
various levels throughout the South-west Province, and in the Dj beds 
of the Midlands and Yorkshire, is specially characteristic of the standard 
limestones. 

(fe) The great development of bedded cherts in D,, of the Midlands 
and North Wales and in the Bishopston beds (' Black Lias ') of Gower is 
intermediate in character between those of groups (a) and (c), and is 
specially characteristic of the Zaphrentid and Cyathaxonid phase. The 
laminated cherts of Z.^ at Vallis, Somerset, should probably be placed here. 

Note.—h\ alluding to these cherts as bedded, it is not intended to imply 
that they themselves show traces of bedding. They are lenticular or 
nodular cherts developed along the bedding planes. The laminated 
cherts mentioned below are those frequently alluded to as banded 
cherts, but the term laminated is substituted in view of the fact that 
the term banded has often been applied to concentrically zoned flints. 

(c) The laminated cherts of the lagoon-phase deposits of Dixon are 
represented by those of the North Devon Culm, by those of the P beds 
(Dap) of Gower, and by those at the base of the Millstone Grit of the 
Pembroke area. The deposits in which they occur belong to the third 
phase of Vaughan's table {Modiola and Posidonomya phases and other 
shallow-water deposits). 

"' Q.J.O.S., vol. Ixxx. (1924), p. 206. 

"8 Ibid., vol. Ixviii. (1912), p. 551. 

"• See Edmonds, Geol. Mag., vol. lis. (1922), pp. 78 and 81. 

1926 2 



98 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The two chief problems which confront a student of the cherts in any 
area are to determine in the first place the source of the silica, and in the 
second place to obtain proof as to its period of origin, i.e. to ascertain 
whether its deposition was contemporaneous with that of the associated 
strata, or whether it was due to some process of replacement. 

Note.- — There are possibilities of confusion in the use of the term contempo- 
raneous. It may be used (1) as implying direct deposition at the 
same time as the associated strata. Or it may be used (2) in a sense 
corresponding to that in which the term contemporaneous dolomite 
is used, implying that the chert was produced by a metasomatic 
change shortly after the formation of the limestone with which it is 
associated. To avoid confusion I propose to allude to cherts of 
type (1) as contemporaneous and those of type (2) as penecontempo- 
raneous. The term subsequent may then be applied to cherts produced 
by a relatively late alteration, i.e. one taking place after the consolida- 
tion of the limestone. 

Mr. Dixon points out (by letter) that proof as to the period of origin 
is clearest in the case of cherts associated with contemporaneous dolomite. 
The organisms are perfectly preserved in the chert but obliterated in the 
surrounding dolomite. Consequently chert formation preceded the bulk 
of the contemporaneous dolomitisation. 

The problems both as to the source of the silica and as to the period of 
its formation have attracted much attention of recent years, especially 
in America, and have been discussed in considerable detail by Mr. H. C. 
Sargent ^2" in his study of the cherts of the Midlands and North Flintshire. 
As regards the source of the silica, one view is that it has a directly organic 
origin, being derived from the tests of radiolaria,or perhaps in some cases 
of diatoms, and from the sjDicules of certain kinds of sponges. The other 
view regards the silica as directly deposited from solution in sea-water. 

The three types of chert may be separately considered. 

{a) The irregular nodular chert often forming impersistent bands is the 
prevalent type in the South-west Province, and is probably the most widely 
spread in general. I have found no radiolaria and few sponge spicules 
in a limited number of sections of this rock from the Bristol district. Hull 
and Hardman,^^^ and also Renard,^-^ referring probably to chert of this 
type, consider it to be a pseudomorph of gelatinous silica after limestone, 
and believe that the change took place when the strata were more or less 
plastic. In the Burrington section the chert is particularly developed in 
bands of Lithostrotion, and at Waterlip and Windsor Hill in the Mendips 
in highly crinoidal limestone. In each case I am convinced that the 
chert is due to replacement, and I do not see any reason to assume that 
the limestone was still plastic when this took place. I should therefore 
regard the chert as subsequent in the sense alluded to above. As far as 
I know, all workers on the limestone of the South-west Province agree as 
to the origin of the associated chert by replacement. 

120 Geol. Mag., vol. Iviii. (1921), p. 265, and vol. Ix. (1923), p. 168. 
1=1 8ci. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc, vol. i. (1878), pp. 71-94. 
1" Bull. Acad. Boy. de Bel i ue 2me aer., t. 46, pp. 471-98. 



C— GEOLOGY. 99 

Silicified foraminiferal limestones and oolitic cherts such as those 
from Bullslaughter Bay, Tenby, described by Dixon, ^^^ are obviously 
cases of replacement. The oolitic cherts, which are devoid of spicules, 
are lenticular intercalations in rocks of Zaphrentid phase, crowded with 
highly spicular cherts, so that the average sea -water which soaked them 
while they were still within its influence would probably carry some 
dissolved organic silica. 

(b) We now come to the cherts occurring in bands or beds, sometimes 
tabular, more often nodular, at various levels and horizons. Such cherts 
are particularly characteristic of the D.^ beds of the Midlands and N. Wales, 
and the equivalent level of Pembrokeshire and of Gower ('Black Lias' ); 
and whatever be the method of formation of the cherts of the Midlands 
and Flint, there can be no doubt that some of the Zaphrentid-phase 
cherts of S. Wales resemble the standard-phase cherts in being due to 
replacement. Of these rocks Dixon ^'•^* remarks that doubtless in all 
cases they owe their silica largely to sponge spicules. Such spicules have 
been observed in sections of the chert from many localities, e.g. the ' Black 
Lias ' of Gower, also Chirk, Holywell and Prestatyn^-^ in Flint. G. J. 
Hinde^"® refers to the cherts of N. Wales as ' remarkable and hitherto 
unequalled sponge beds.' 

The presence of the sponge spicules has hitherto been as a rule claimed 
as indicating the source of the associated chert. Sargent regards the 
matter from a different light, his argument being that, if solutions capable 
of dissolving organic silica were present to the extent necessitated by the 
sponge-spicule theory, it is hardly likely that any spicules would be 
preserved. This argument would, on the other hand, counter' that adduced 
from the frequent absence of spicules in sections of Carboniferous cherts. 

Mr. Sargent's opinion as regards the bedded cherts of the Midlands and 
Flint is that they are due to deposition contemporaneously with the 
•country rock, and not, except to a limited extent, to any metasomatic 
replacement thereof. The source of the silica is found in the immense 
■quantity which must be poured into the sea in solution in river-water. 

(c) Evidence of the presence of organisms is generally very clear in 
the case of the laminated cherts of Dixon's lagoon-phase deposits. Thus 
the radiolarian character of the Codden Hill cherts of Barnstaple has long 
been familiar. Similar radiolarian cherts occur in the P beds (D,p) of 
'Gower. There can be little doubt that the silica of these deposits is 
largely, at any rate, derived from the associated organisms, and that 
the cherts are contemporaneous in the sense that they are not due to the 
:subsequent introduction of silica. It cannot be denied, however, that 
the amount of silica present in these rocks is so much in excess of the 
ladiolaria themselves as to suggest direct precipitation. 

The chief facts relative to cherts may be summarised as follows : — 
The origin of the silica is (1) organic, and derived from siliceous 

organisms (radiolaria, diatoms and sponges); (2) inorganic, and derived 

from the silica in solution in sea-water. 

12S Pembroke and Tenby Memoir, p. 70. 

i2« Ibid., p. 70. 

i'-'6 G. H. Morton, Proc. Liverpool Biol. Soc, vol. i. (1887), p. 69. 

"0 Geol. Mag., Dec. iii., vol. iv. (1887), p. 444. 

h2 



100 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Although sections of many cherts disclose the presence of siliceous 
organisms, this is not generally the case, and although the absence of 
such organisms is by no means a conclusive argument against their former 
presence, yet it does not seem probable that they can have supplied the 
immense quantities of silica that are so often met with. Hence inorganic 
silica must sometimes be called on. 

As regards the period of chert formation, the best case for contempo- 
raneous direct deposition is that aiJorded by the laminated chert of 
group (c). 

Penecontemporaneous cherts in the sense defined above are illustrated 
by those interbedded with contemporaneous dolomites, while the irregular 
nodular cherts of the South-west Province and many other areas (group a) 
are due to replacement and may sometimes be penecontemporaneous, but 
in many cases are probably subsequent. The same is probably the case 
with many of the cherts of group (b). Difference of opinion exists regarding 
the group (b) cherts of the Midlands and N. Wales, the bulk of which, 
according to Mr. Sargent, are due to contemporaneous deposition. 



C— GEOLOGY. 101 

DETAILS CONCERNING VERTICAL SECTIONS. 

The iiiinimum of detail is introduced into the actual section. 
Unconformities and other breaks = U . . ., a = algal layer, c = coal, 
ch = chert, d = dolomite, m = Modiola-phase deposits, p = goniatite — 
lamellibranch or Culm phase, ps = pseudobreccia, x == Zaphrentid or 
Cyathaxonid phase. 

1. Bristol. — Mainly from Vaughan. Post-Avonian not to scale. 

2. Devonshire. — From table given by Evans, Proc. Geol. Ass., vol. xxxiii. 

(1922), p. 205 (not to scale). 

3. Chepstow Area. — From information supplied by Mr. W. W. Jervis. 

4. Forest of Dean. — From Sibly, Geol. Mag., 1912 and 1918, and from 
information supplied by him. 

5. North Crop oJ South Wales Coalfield. — From the Geological Survey 
Reports and information supplied by Mr. T. N. George. 

6. Gower. — Compiled from Dixon, Q.J.G.S., 1911, p. 505. Thickness of 
the K beds from N.W. Gower, the remainder from E. Gower. In 
addition to that at the levels indicated, there is some dolomite through- 
out D, S, C and Z. Mr. Dixon informs me that the shales above D^, 
classed as P in the Gower j^aper, are probably Lancastrian. 

7. South Pembroke. — From Dixon, Pembroke and Tenby Memoir. Post- 
Avonian from Tenby area, not South Pembroke. In addition to the 
levels indicated there is some dolomite at intervals throughout 
D, S, C and Z. 

8. Anglesey (principal region). — From thicknesses given by Greenly, 
Anglesey Memoir. 

9. Flint. — From thicknesses given by Wedd, Flint, &c., Memoir, 1924. 

10. North Derbyshire.— The Avonian from Sibly, Q.J.G.S., 1908, the 
Lancastrian from information supplied by Mr. J. W. Jackson. S.^ 
also entered on the authority of Sir. Jackson. 

11. Clitheroe District. — Adapted from Parkinson, Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxxii. 

(1926), with additions from information supplied by him. 

12. Settle. — Adapted from Garwood and Goodyear, Q.J.G.S., vol. Ixxx. 

13. Yorkshire Dales (generalised). — From section drawn by Mr. R. G. S. 
Hudson. 

14. West Cumberland (Whitehaven). — Mainly from Edmonds, Geol. Mag., 

1922. The upper beds chiefly from information supplied by Mr. 
Dixon. 

15. East Cumberland (Alston). — Drawn up by Dr. Stanley Smith from 

Westgarth Forster's section. 

16. South Northumberland. — Drawn up by Dr. Stanley Smith from the 
Northumberland Memoirs of the Geological Survey. 

17. North Northumberland. — Drawn up by Dr. Stanley Smith from the 
Northumberland Memoirs of the Geological Survey. 

Note. — In sections 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7, the K beds succeed upper O.R.S. conformably; in 
section 5 an unconformable junction is indicated between K beds and lower 
O.R.S. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



BIOLOGY AND THE TRAINING OF 
THE CITIZEN. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOR J. GRAHAM KERR, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



I PROPOSE in tliis address to depart somewhat from precedent, and to 
devote it neither to a general review of recent progress in our science, nor 
to the exposition of my own special views on problems of evolutionary 
morphology, but rather to a more general subject — -one which I believe 
to be at the present time of transcendent importance to the future not 
merely of our nation but, indeed, of our civilisation— namely, the relation 
of Biology to the training of the future citizen. Speaking as I do from 
this chair, I need hardly say that by Biology I mean more especially 
Animal Biology. 

It is unnecessary to emphasise at length the enormously important 
part which biological science plays in the life of our modern civilised 
State. The provision of food for the community — crop-raising, stock- 
breeding, the production of dairy products, fisheries, the preservation of 
food by canning and freezing, and so on — is obviously an immensely 
complicated system of applications of biological science. And so also 
with the maintenance of the health of the community — the prevention 
of disease, much of which is now known to be due to the machinations of 
parasitic microbes, often transported and spread by other living 
organisms, and the cure of disease by the modern developments of medicine 
and surgery — these again are applications of biological science. When we 
contemplate merely such simple facts known to everyone, when we see to 
what an extent the results of biological science are woven in and out 
through the whole complicated fabric of modern civilisation, when we con- 
template further the gigantic expenditure in money devoted to the school 
training of our future citizens, it must surely strike us as an extraordinary 
fact that biological science enters hardly, if at all, into the school training 
of our average citizen. 

What I have said, indeed, applies, if only in lesser degree, to the 
subordinate position occupied by science as a whole in our school training. 
In the earty stages of human evolution, as we see illustrated on the earth 
of to-day by those comparatively primitive savages who still remain in 
the nomadic hunting phase, what we should now call science plays an all- 
important part in the education of the J^oung individual : he is taught to 
observe accurately the phenomena of nature, dead and living, to draw 
the correct conclusions therefrom, and to regulate his actions accordingly. 
In our own early history science undoubtedly played an equally important 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 103 

part in the training of the young. Even down into the Middle Ages it 
supplied an appreciable part of the curriculum of the educated man, the 
seven liberal arts of those days containing a large infusion of what we 
now call science. In later times, however, from the renaissance of 
classical learning onwards, science has been kept in the obscure back- 
ground of our educational curriculum, and in spite of much tinkering of 
detail in recent years that curriculum continues unchanged in its main 
features : it remains preponderatingly literary and classical. Even to-day, 
if we listen to contemporary discussions on education, we commonly hear 
arguments as to the relative merits of different constituents of the current 
curriculum, but the general framework of that curriculum seems to be 
regarded as sacred from all interference. 

And yet these recent years have witnessed the most tremendous 
advances in the evolution of our social organisation, and, as the position 
now is, it seems as certain as anything can be that unless further advance 
is accompanied by a corresponding evolution in the training of our future 
citizens a condition of instability will soon be reached such as to involve 
the risk of complete disaster. Probably the factor in our modern social 
evolution which has brought in its train the greatest danger is the develop- 
ment of what in general terms we may call means of intercommunication — 
the means by which transport is effected — on the one hand of material 
things, on the other hand of ideas. Primitive man in the hunting phaise of 
his evolution is a nomad, but a nomad within a restricted area : his wander- 
ings are limited by the more or less vague boundaries between his own terri- 
tory and that of neighbouring tribes. He is entirely dependent for food and 
raiment upon what nature provides within these limits : he knows little of 
the world beyond except that it is peopled by strangers of varpng degrees 
of hostility : his code of ethics is limited by the same boundaries — highly 
developed as regards intercourse with his own tribe, it ceases to exist in his 
intercourse with those outside. His dominating idea is loyalty to his own 
kinsfolk and fellow tribesmen, and for this idea he is ready to make any 
sacrifice. 

With advancing evolution, when the conmiunal unit is no longer the 
clan or tribe but the nation or federation of nations, geographical and 
political boundaries still exist; but with the evolution of means of transport 
by road and rail and sea they cease to form impassable barriers — men 
and goods are able to pass them freely. Of even greater moment to 
citizenship than the transport of material things is the transmission of 
ideas. The great developments in this have come about in the first 
place with the evolution of language, the vehicle of thought, which has 
rendered possible the transmission of thought from individual to individual. 
The use of visible material symbols of a lasting kind — whether 
pictorial or simply conventional, as in writing and printing — while 
facilitating still further the transmission of thought from individual to 
individual and from place to place, has done far more, for it has enabled 
the achievements of each generation to be handed on to its successors 
with a completeness that was quite impossible by the merely spoken word. 

While these advances in the methods of transmitting thought have 
played an all-important part in rendering secure the orderly progress of 
human knowledge, they have brought in their train curiously one of the 



104 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

most potent disturbing factors to the progress of communal evolution. 
This disturbance is brought about through interference with the workings 
of one of the great principles of communal evolution — that of leadership. 

Leadership. 

Already in the primitive tribal community we find this factor at work. 
Tribes differ in their size and power^their men may number a mere half- 
dozen or several hundreds — and the main factor in this is the personality 
of the tribal chief. Among his own men the chief stands out by his 
capacity, mental and physical : a quick and accurate observer, he is also 
quick and accurate in drawing his deductions : he is wise, he is rich in 
knowledge and in its bearings ; while alert and quick in decision, he is of 
steady nerves, has a good sense of balance, and is reliable in emergency. 

And so it is onwards through historical evolution — ^the chief, the ablest 
man of his tribe, finds his successors in a long sequence of natural leaders 
of men. 

It is the more modern developments concerned with the transmission 
of thought — printing, telegraphy, wireless telephony, cinematography, 
and so on — that constitute the great disturbing factor, inasmuch as they 
have given enormously increased importance to elements of individual 
personality quite distinct from general strength and capacity, mental and 
physical. Amongst such elements there stand out conspicuously 
oratorical power and skill in the method of advocacy. - The leader no 
longer forces himself to the front by the sheer power of his outstanding 
constructive ability ; the place of this is to a great extent taken over by 
the power of effective and persuasive writing and speaking. The most 
responsible posts in the leadership of the modern State have been rendered 
accessible to the skilled orator, even though his constructive ability in 
statesmanship may not be of the highest. That this development involves 
serious dangers is obvious ; it seems equally obvious that one of the 
main tasks confronting the. community is the devising and setting up of 
the educational safeguards which alone can be efficient against these 
dangers. The task will, indeed, be no easy one : it will clearly, for its 
satisfactory accomplishment, call for the best intellects the community 
can provide. However great the ability of those to whom the task is 
entrusted, it will prove one of high complexity and much difficulty ; but 
certain inevitable conclusions seem to be visible, one of the chief of these 
being the need of drastic cutting down of the number of subjects at present 
inflicted upon the young citizen in training during his school period. How 
exactly this is to be done will have to be carefully worked out; but it seems 
clear that at present an immense amount of time is given, during the early 
stages of the curriculum, to subjects which might profitably be replaced by 
others of greater value in mind-training during these earlier stages. If 
postponed to a later stage of mental development such subjects can be 
mastered in a small fraction of the time required in the earlier stages — when, 
by the way, their prolonged and wearisome study is but too apt to kill 
effectively all interest on the part of the pupil in the particular subject. 

While I am in complete agreement with those who desire to see the 
school curriculum greatly lightened as regards number of subjects and who 
desire to see ' snippets of many subjects ' replaced by more thorough 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 105 

training in a few, my special task now is to urge the necessity of including 
in the training of every citizen before the completion of his school period 
.at least a grounding in the main principles of biological science. 

It is necessary in approaching any such question to keep clear in our 
minds the two main functions of education : (1) the educative function 
in the strict sense— the training and development up to the highest 
attainable level of the brain-power which Nature has provided, and (2) the 
informative function— the providing the mind with an equipment of 
information which will be of use to it later on. 

Science and the Curriculum. 

It is again necessary to glance for a moment at the general question 
oi science in relation to education. I, of course, believe that the almost 
■complete exclusion of science from the elementary education of the young 
which has persisted over a prolonged period has been a real tragedy. 
In the life of the ordinary active citizen, as opposed to that of the mere 
scholar and recluse, some of the most important factors are those which 
training in science is specially adapted to develop. Such, above all, are the 
powers of accurate and rapid observation, and of the accurate and rapid 
drawing of conclusions from observation. 

But I do not support the claim of Biology to an important place m 
the basic stage of school education, which should have to do with the early 
development of these powers. On the contrary, I harbour no doubt m 
my mind that the department of science to be used for this purpose is not 
Biology but Physical Science. For the early training of the powers of 
observation there are two essentials : (1) that the phenomena observed 
should be capable of numerical expression to a high degree of accuracy, 
or, in other words, that they should be measurable; and (2) that a given 
observation should be capable of repetition over and over again under 
approximately the same set of conditions. Biological observation fails as 
regards both "of these essentials. When we proceed to apply the method 
of measurement to something that is alive or that has once been alive, 
or to some form of vital activity, we find ourselves confronted not with a 
phenomenon of comparative simplicity, but with a complex of extreme 
and, in great part, unknown intricacy. If we measure the length of 
marks upon a piece of paper, or of similar rods of a particular metal, we 
obtain by so doing data of a totally different order of scientific reliability 
from those that we obtain by measuring the length of some particular 
animal, where the particular dimension is the visible residuum left at the 
end of an immense chain of events during the racial and the individual 
history of the animal. While such measurements may provide important 
material for the skilled biometrician, they are, as I believe, totally 
unsuited for use in elementary education. And a somewhat similar con- 
sideration affects the repetition of observations upon living things or upon 
things that have lived— the observable phenomena result from the 
interaction of so many imperfectly known factors, and are so liable to 
the influence of disturbing forces, that it is difficult or impossible to repeat 
observations with any assurance that all the conditioning factors are really 
the same. 

It is rather in the later stage of education— the informative stage- 
when the individual has already had his powers of observation and 



106 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

reasoning developed iu the earlier stages, that Biology should be called 
upon to play its role. 

What is required is by no means the storing of the memory with a vast 
array of separate facts. It is rather that the budding citizen should be given 
a grasp of broad principles, as accepted by the competent authorities of 
the day. Such broad principles are generalisations from immense masses. 
of detail. The probable soundness of the generalisation is intimately 
related to the broadness of its basis of fact. It is, of course, impracticable 
to place before the pupil the entire body of facts that constitute this base, 
and if it were possible it would be useless, for it is only a master who is 
able to perceive clearly the relations of superstructure to base. The object 
of the teacher is, then, not to attempt the vain task of demonstrating the 
truth of the general principle in the short period available : such facts as 
are introduced should serve merely to ilhistrate the particular principle 
and facilitate its appreciation. 

I know that there are many who will criticise as unscientific andl 
unsatisfactory such a simple manner of approach to general principles^ 
They will say you cannot really instil such principles unless you make 
the pupil go through an elaborate course of laboratory training in dis- 
section and microscopic observation such as we impose upon the specialist 
student of Biology. I do not agree. My experience has been that an 
audience, whether of youths or of adults, of ordinary average composition 
such as we get in a public lecture in a big industrial city, appreciates the 
points and follows the argument perfectly satisfactorily without such 
elaborate preparation, provided always that the argument is clothed in 
plain, non-technical English. 

Biology in the Curriculum. 

The question may now be put : What exactly are the biological facts 
and principles that should be introduced into such a course of instruction 'I 

I. Firstly, the great fact of evolution. We still see with tiresome 
frequency in magazine articles the statement that evolution is not a fact, 
but merely an unproved hypothesis. No doubt it may be said with 
perfect accuracy that in one sense absolute proof is unknown to science, 
except in relation to successive steps of an operation in pure mathematics. 
Taking, however, the word ' proved ' as we use it in ordinary life, e.g. in 
relation to a matter inquired into by a Court of Law, then we are com- 
pletely justified by the data of embryology and palaeontology in stating 
that evolution is a definitely proved fact. The realisation that it is a fact 
admitted by all competent judges should be incorporated in the mental 
equipment of every citizen at an early stage of his training. 

II. Secondly, the broad fact of inheritance : the fact that the offspring 
repeat the characters of the parent — physical, mental, moral — but that 
this repetition is never so complete as to amount to identity as regards 
such characters. It is not always realised that, were the repetition 
actually exact and complete, it would constitute a fact that would shake 
our whole biological philosophy to its foundations ! 

The voyager upon the open ocean often sees a towering wave 
approaching his vessel, overwhelmingly impressive in its seeming 
individuality, and yet we know from physics that that onwardly rushing 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 107 

wave is merely an apparent form, its outward semblance cloaking a 
comparatively gentle heave of the constantly changing particles of water. 
Or, again, one sees a cap of cloud covering a distant mountain peak. It 
seems to remain unchanged for hours, and yet we know it is undergoing 
constant change — water particles separating o£E on its leeward, and 
others being added on its windward, side. So it is with every mass of 
living substance : active interchange of substance — regarding much of 
the details of which we are profoundly ignorant — is constantly taking 
place not only between different parts of itself, but also between itself and 
its environment. It is this swirl of activity that constitutes life, and it 
carries with it the necessary implication that a bit of living substance is 
never the same at two separate instants of time, nor two .separate bits of 
living substance ever identical in detail with one another. As soon might 
we think of constancy in a flickering candle-flame as in substance that is 
• alive. And how, in view of this lack of constancy in all that lives, could we 
expect the progeny to be exact repetitions of the parent ? How could we 
expect them to be otherwise than different from one another ? If I 
would emphasise this point, commonplace though it will seem to many, it 
is because of the widespread tendency to ignore it even amongst biologists 
themselves. 

The biologist constantly using the species as his classificatory unit 
involuntarily becomes dominated by his mental picture of the ideal 
member of the species, conforming exactly to description, and an 
individual which obviously does not so conform impresses him as a 
departure from his ideal. He comes in this way to think of variation as 
being an active j^ositive process by itself, instead of an inherent 
characteristic of life and of inheritance. It would not occur to him to 
decry the science of physiology because it does not know the ultimate 
nature of the phenomena of life with which it deals, but yet he will some- 
times attempt to discredit our evolutionary philosophy because it is 
similarly without any clear idea as to the ultimate nature and cause of 
the variation which is the necessary accompaniment of life. 

This instability of living things which finds its expression in the 
constantly fluctuating incompleteness of inheritance has to be driven well 
home — in the first place because it constitutes the raw material of 
evolutionary progress, and in the second place because its proper appre- 
ciation provides the citizen with his surest safeguard against the talk of 
those who make it their business to belittle, if not to deny, the ever- 
present differences in the capacities of their fellow-men. 

III. Thirdly and lastly, the fact of the struggle for existence in nature 
and the consequent elimination of the less fit. To the biologist and, indeed, 
to anyone who devotes thought to the matter, the struggle for existence and 
the consequent elimination of the unfit is an obvious truism, apart 
altogether from the question whether or not he accepts the Darwinian 
view of its potency as a factor causing evolutionary change ; but yet 
among our fellow-citizens interested in sociological questions there is a 
very prevalent lack of appreciation of the widespread nature and the 
intensity of the struggle, induced in many cases by the perusal of 
charming descriptions of mutual aid in the animal kingdom, combined 
with ignorance of the fact that such mutual aid is restricted to the 



108 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

individuals of a community, and is actually an important factor in 
rendering the community efficient in holding its own in the struggle with 
other communities. 

When once the pupil has fully grasped the three great primary facts 
I have mentioned, he can profitably pass on to elementary notions of the 
biology of communal life. Gateways leading to these may be found by 
way of the fascinating phenomena presented by communities of social 
insects such as bees and ants and termites. Still better in some ways is 
the study of cell-communities, culminating in the immensely complex 
cell-communities that constitute the bodies of the higher animals. By 
whichever route, the pupil is easily led to the three great principles of 
communal evolution : (1) increase in the size of the community, (2) 
increased specialisation of its constituent individuals, (3) increased per- 
fection of the organisation by which the constituent individuals are knit 
together into the communal indi\aduality of a higher order. In some 
animal communities this organisation is of a material kind, the individuals 
being linked together by strands of living substance, in others the connection 
is not material but is of the nature of social interrelationships. 

When once these basic principles are clearly apprehended an approach 
may profitably be made to the study of human society, where the same 
principles are seen clearly at work — the simple nomadic group with its 
individuals few in number, showing hardly any trace of specialisation, and 
so loosely knit together that they separate from one another under stress 
of circumstances, such as attack by a hostile tribe — leading up to the 
complex modern civilised State with its millions of inhabitants, intensely 
specialised for the performance of the various communal functions, and 
knit together by an immensely complex social organisation. 

The Intercommunal Struggle. 

The appreciation of the fact that our civilised community has come 
about by a long process of social evolution paves the way to an aj^pre- 
ciation of the further fact that human societies are still in process of 
evolution — States becoming larger and larger, the specialisation of their 
citizens becoming ever more pronounced, their social organisation more 
complicated — and that here again a great dri\ang force is the struggle for 
existence, in this case an intercommunal struggle. 

It is surely one of the saddest experiences a biologist can have, to live 
amongst men whose communal evolution has lagged behind, and to see how, 
unless helped in their struggle with competitors at a higher level of social 
evolution by some natural protective feature such as geographical isolation 
or immunity to local diseases, they are doomed to disappear. Innumerable 
examples of this are seen in the continents of the New World, where the 
relatively primitive communities of red men have been displaced by whites 
in a higher stage of communal evolution. The same process has taken 
place in the past, races that lagged behind in their communal evolution 
giving place to others more progressive. 

The realisation of the importance of intercommunal and interracial 
competition is of use indirectly as a safeguard against falling into the 
common error of ignoring differences — in material interests, in racial 
prejudices, in religious beliefs — ^those troublesome factors which, in actual 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 109 

practice, form serious obstacles in the way of those who would find in 
signed agreements between different nations a sure shield against the 
danger of war. 

The Biological Outlook. 

Finally, our training, if successful in inducing in our citizen's mind 
what we may call the ' biological outlook,' enables him to take a fresh 
and an enlightening view even of that distressful subject, economics. 
He appreciates more fully how the customary units of the economist, 
pounds and dollars, are merely tokens with local values dependent on their 
power of purchase. In a remote spot on the earth's surface, a pile of 
golden coins becomes merely so much workable material out of which 
articles useful or ornamental may be fashioned ; a bundle of scrip becomes 
material of possible use for kindling a fire. Their actual value bears no 
relation whatever to their token value in other circumstances. 

Our citizen from his biological view-point looks beyond this veil of 
make-believe and realises that the true unit of value is the capacity of the 
human individual. He sees in each individual a biological capitalist. 
His store of capital may be small or large. It may consist of the precious 
bullion, intellectual power, or the humbler metal, bodily strength. And the 
store, small or great as it was to begin with, may have been simply left like 
talents buried in the earth, or by education it may have been increased in 
amount and coined into the kind of currency, such as skill in handicraft 
or other form of social activity, which gives it its greatest local value 
in the community. 

To what End? 

But now the question may fairly be put : what good would come of it 
all were the biologist given his way, and his subject, resting on a basis of 
elementary physical science, accorded the place in the ordinary school 
curriculum that he claims for it ? How might it fairly be expected to work 
out in practice to the advantage of the community and of the individual 
citizen ? 

To state adequately the answer to this question would exhaust the 
time not merely of one address but of many, and I can only indicate one 
or two points which the answer would include. The scientific training we 
are arguing for would in the first place be a potent power on the side of 
social stability, inasmuch as it would help to develop the scientific habit 
of mind with its constant distrust of the ably stated ' case.' There is no 
more potent defence against the plausible rhetoric of the advocate than 
infusion of the scientific habit of bringing verbal statements up against 
the touchstone of actual fact. 

With recognition of the principle that the welfare and happiness of the 
individual citizen is by no means independent of the material prosperity of 
the community, proper appreciation would be given to biological economics. 
It would be recognised that the training of the individual citizen must 
include the scrutiny of the nature and amount of his biological capital, 
and the taking of appropriate measures to increase his stock and to ensure 
its being minted into the most suitable form of currency. 

Individual scrutiny would in turn drive home the necessity of confining 
within as narrow limits as possible the workings of the principle of mass 



110 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

production in education. The application of that principle plays a great 
part in industry, but its introduction into the sphere of education is apt 
to be accompanied by forgetfulness that its success in industry is entirely 
conditioned by one basic factor, namely, uniformity of raw material. 
Without such uniformity the practice of mass production is recognised as 
absurd. The clearer realisation how completely wanting this uniformity is 
in the human raw material on which education works will serve to impress 
upon us all the desirability of confining mass education within the narrow 
limits at the commencement of the educational period when it is for practical 
reasons unavoidable. 

The fostering of the biological element in education would do some- 
thing to quicken into renewed life the primitive relationship of parent 
a.nd offspring which has tended to become deadened under the influence 
of modern civilisation and more especially of mass education. The 
parent would be no longer encouraged to regard his child as merely 
number so-and-so in a vast number of units poured into the hopper of the 
educational mill. He would be encouraged to keep up his natural sense 
of responsibility for the welfare and interests of his offspring — the 
slackening of which in our present s)^stem is responsible for so much that 
is dej)lorable — and incidentally he would be stimulated to take a live 
interest in the education of his children, in the selection of those 
responsible for the ordering of that education, and in the subject of 
■education as a whole. 

This greater interest would lead him to a better appreciation of many 
things connected with education. One of those of which a deeper appre- 
ciation is greatly needed has to do with the reciprocal relations of physical 
and mental deportment. Passing along a city street the biologist is 
constantly having his attention caught by little peculiarities of attitude 
and movement which reveal to him the existence of peculiarities of quite 
-another kind — stability or instability of character, mental sluggishness or 
alertness. He realises to the full that there is a reciprocal relation between 
mind and body. With the spread of the biological outlook through the 
community this realisation would become general, and we should have 
the average parent awakening to the full appreciation of the fact that 
he is inflicting grievous harm upon his children if he fails to see to it that 
their ordinary education is accompanied by the full allowance of physical 
training and games, which, while developing physical activity in the first 
place, plays a great part in developing mental alertness as well. 

The training of the individual to the highest attainable degree of 
biological aptitude as a citizen involves naturally his relations to other 
members of the community. He must be fit not merely to play his part 
as an isolated individual, but also to carry out smoothly and eificiently 
his communal activities. As communal evolution progresses, these latter 
relations become relatively more and more important. In the primitive 
savage phase the individual is still subject to the ruthless pressure of 
natural selection. His whole organisation — his bodily health and strength, 
the acuity of his senses, his mental alertness — is kept up to the highest 
pitch. As communal evolution goes on, however, the pressure of natural 
selection becomes modified. In one particular respect no doubt it 
becomes intensified, for the crowded community provides greatly increased 



D.— ZOOLOGY. Ill 

liability to the attacks of pathogejiic microbes, and consequently we find 
active evolution proceeding in the direction of increased immunity to such 
as are prevalent and dangerous. It is a hideous experience to witness 
the immigration of people from a more highly evolved society with their 
.accompanying microbes into the midst of a remote and primitive com- 
munity, and to see the horrible ravages these microbes produce when 
disseminated amongst the virgin population. While, however, in this 
particular respect evolution jjroceeds actively in the more advanced 
communities, it is not so in other respects. The individual no longer depends 
on his perfect bodily fitness, on the acuity of his senses, on the alertness 
of his mind, to survive and reproduce. As a result, as seems beyond 
question, the individual necessarily deteriorates with high civilisation in 
his all-roimd fitness both mental and physical, and this retrogression 
renders him correspondingly more and more dependent upon the com- 
munity for his welfare. Emerging from this consideration, we have the 
•conclusion that with higher and higher communal evolution, with more 
and more intimate dependence of the individual upon the community, 
we should have greater and greater attention paid in our educational 
system to these subjects which have to do with the citizen's relations to 
and duties towards the community — such as discipline, ethics, patriotism 
and loyalty to country and comrades, and the past history of the community 
and race. 

The last of these, in fact, the history of our race, is one of the subjects 
of the present school curriculum which the biologist would be particularly 
anxious to see retained, and even accorded increased importance. His 
natural sympathies go out to it, for his own philosophy — Evolution — is 
but history of a larger growth. No doubt he would sometimes wish its 
■teaching to be modified in detail : he would like to have less attention 
•devoted to brawls and murders — on however great a scale — and to have a 
little space spared for the achievements of science. In my own town of 
Glasgow I often wonder how much the average child is taught regardinf 
the two great events of the world's history which took place in that city — ■ 
.James Watt's improvement of the steam-engine and Joseph Lister's 
inauguration of antiseptic surgery. 

In these flippant days there is a tendency to scofE at pompous lines 
regarding 'lives of great men,' and so on ; but are we quite sure that our 
•children are not greatly the losers by hearing so little in their school days 
regarding the dedicated lives of great heroes of science like Darwin or Lister ? 

In this address, which I must now draw to its close, I have touched 
•upon some of the general considerations which naturally come to the 
mind of the biologist when he thinks of his subject in relation to this 
great and, as it has become, vitally important problem of the training of 
the future citizen. Some matters that at once suggest themselves I have 
deliberately avoided : Eugenics — ^there are others who speak of that ; 
■Sex — the whole air is abuzz with discussions on sex. The importance of 
■€very citizen being given a little elementary knowledge of the biological 
-aspects of health and disease ; the importance of the school paying more 
attention than it generally does to training the power of prolonged and 
concentrated effort upon dull bits of work : neither of these points requires 
Any special emphasis. 

There are, however, many other aspects of the problem which I refrain 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

from developing, only because forbidden by the tyrant Time. Summing 
up the more important of these, I would say that the biologist would like 
to see a movement of our whole educational system away from the merely 
literary, doctrinaire, academic regions, in which it is apt to be out of 
touch with the reality of biological fact and practical affairs. He would 
like to see a far more general recognition of the fact that the primary 
object of education is to make the individual able rather than learned. A 
learned individual may be, and often is, a stupid one. And in any case 
the development and the training of general brain-power fits biologically 
into the earlier years of life in a way that is not the case with the acquire- 
ment of mere learning. 

He would regard as another prime object in the training of the citizen 
the getting him back towards the primitive habit of thinking constantly. 
The primitive savage is kept constantly alert by ever-present danger. He 
is constantly thinking about the meaning of what he sees and hears. 
Civilised man, freed from the stress of savage life, gets into the habit of 
not thinking. His actions become automatic. He gulps down whatever 
is served up to him. If he were only to think he would promptly dis- 
criminate as to what is worthy of acceptance and what is not. 

The biologist would like to see still another reawakening of ancient, 
custom, namely, the more effective shackling of personal liberty in the: 
bonds of duty towards the community. Amongst primitive men one 
finds a high degree of personal freedom, but this is bounded strictly by the: 
interests of the community. These interests are regarded as sacred, and' 
the offender against them receives prompt and severe punishment. 
Throughout the long ages of social evolution, the traitor^the blackleg ta 
his country — has ever been regarded as the most despicable of men, and it. 
is a new and strange development of modern times that toleration is. 
extended to those who deliberately work an injury to their country and 
kindred — it may be on the grounds of their own material interest. A 
biologically educated community, while according to the individual in. 
his ordinary affairs the widest range of personal freedom, would take 
measures to prevent effectively its interference with the public welfare 
whatever might be the form of this interference. 

There is one other argument I would use for the biological factor in 
training the citizen. As social evolution progresses, the natural differences 
between men become more and more marked, as does also the material 
expression of these differences. One individual — say, a Lister — is worth- 
to the community many millions of pounds ; another is worth little or 
nothing, or in some cases his value may be expressed by a negative 
quantity. And along with this increase of inequality there comes,, 
unhappily, the deteriorating nervous balance which accentuates dis- 
content and social friction. 

The biological outlook I believe to furnish a most potent aid towards, 
the smoothing away of such social difliculties and the lubrication of the- 
social mechanism, for it enables us to see with clear vision through the- 
obscuring veil of superficiality that separates class from class, and shows- 
us how our fellow-citizens beyond, in spite of their differences in manners- 
and clothes and language, are, after all, on the average, merely human, 
beings like ourselves, fitted out with the same strengths and trammelled 
by the same weaknesses as our own. 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF 

TROPICAL AFRICA AND ITS EFFECT 

ON THE NATIVE POPULATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

THE HON. W. ORMSBY-GORE, M.P., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Four million square miles of Africa lie within the British Empire. In 
fact there is more of the British Empire in Africa than in any other 
continent. British North America and Australasia are both smaller 
in area than the African possessions of the Crown. Approximately three- 
quarters of this African area lie within the Tropics, and it is only outside 
the Tropics, in the Union of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, that 
European colonisation has yet succeeded in establishing the European 
race m any considerable numbers. 

I define Tropical Africa as that part of Africa which lies south of the 
Great Sahara and north of the Zambesi River. As far as the British 
Empire is concerned this area comprises three main blocks of territory : 
first, the East African group, consisting of British Somaliland, Kenya 
Colony, Uganda, Tanganyika Territory, Zanzibar, Nyasaland, and Northern 
Rhodesia. This block contains a population of approximately 12,500,000 
Africans, 50,000 Asiatics, and less than 20,000 Europeans. 

The second block, almost equal in area to the East African group, but 
with less than half the population, is formed by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 

In West Africa we have four colonies with a total area of half a million 
square miles and a population of over 24,000,000 Africans. In British 
West Africa there are no permanent European settlers or colonists, and 
owing to climatic reasons the European is only a temporary resident, 
usually for quite brief spells at a time. A small exception is found in 
the German plantations on Cameroon Moimtaiu. 

The greater part of these vast territories has only been brought under 
the guidance of British administration within the last forty years, conse- 
quently the problems of economic development as well as of policy and 
adminstration are comparatively new. . We are beginning to realise, 
however, that this new African Empire is one of enormous potentialities 
and great natural riches. These riches are in the main agricultural, as 
the mineral deposits so far discovered are comparatively few. History 
shows that the discovery of valuable minerals is one of the most fruitful 
causes of the rapid opening up of new country. There is copper, zinc, and 
lead in Northern Rhodesia ; tin and coal in Nigeria ; gold and manganese 
in the Gold Coast ; but so far, at any rate, the value of these products is 
1926 I 



114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

comparatively small wlien compared with the value of the products of 
the soil and forests. For example, more than four-fifths of the exports 
of the Gold Coast are cocoa, and more than nine-tenths of those of Uganda 
are cotton. 

The leading products of Nigeria and Sierra Leone are those of the oil- 
palm ; those of Kenya and Tanganyika, sisal hemp and cofEee. The 
principal export of Nyasaland is tobacco ; of Uganda and the Sudan, 
cotton ; and of the Gambia, groundnuts. 

This brief re\aew shows us we are considering countries to which the 
temperate world is looking to-day, and is bound to look more and more 
in the future, as the source of those raw materials and foodstuffs which 
cannot be grown in the temperate zones. They are thus of peculiar 
importance to Britain as a manufacturing country, but also to the whole 
civilised world inhabited by persons of European race. 

Conversely the absence of iron and coal, as well as the character of 
the population, seem to point to Tropical Africa as an area of the world 
where manufacturing industry is not likely to develop. Consequently 
Tropical Africa is a natural new market for the manufactured goods of 
the temperate zones, and between Tropical Africa and the countries 
inhabited by Europeans there is a natural complementary trade between 
raw materials and foodstuffs of the one and manufactured goods of the 
other. 

Thus we see that the development of the economic resources of Tropical 
Africa is one of our duties as well as one of our rights. We undertake the 
task from no selfish motive, but from the dual point of view of helping the 
indigenous populations to advance in the scale of ci\Tlisation and of 
furnishing the world with an increased supply of products which it urgently 
requires. 

The task is complicated by two main factors : the first climate, and 
the second the wide differences in traditions and capacities between the 
ruling race and the native population. 

As regards climate, we have to recognise that throughout practically 
the whole of the area with which we are dealing manual labour cannot be 
undertaken by Europeans. In many parts of the area the climate, and 
the dangers of disease which I include imder the heading of climate, are 
such that even the task of supervision and leadership by Europeans is 
often rendered difficult. 

There are in each of the five principal mainland territories of East 
Africa comparatively small areas in which the general altitude exceeds 
5,000 ft. above sea-level, where this generalisation does not obtain. But 
even in these highland patches the European requires the assistance of 
native labour in any work of development which he undertakes. 

So for the most part the role of the European in Tropical Africa, and 
especially in West Africa, is strictly confined within definable limits. 
The European in these areas is the administrator, the teacher — using the 
word in its broadest sense — and the organiser of trade and commerce. 
He is seldom, if ever, a direct producer. 

Before the advent of European rule there was astonishingly little 
contact between Tropical Africa and the outside world. Africa was practi- 
cally a sealed continent, both as regards knowledge and trade. But 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 115 

to-day we are confronted by the impact of highly organised Western 
civilisation, with its immense command over natural forces by means of 
machinery, science and skill in the arts, on a people and a country in a 
far more primitive stage of development. 

Perhaps nothing brings this out more clearly than the fact that, with 
the exception of a comparatively slight infiltration of the use of Arabic 
script from the north-eastern Sudan and from Zanzibar, we have found in 
Africa no knowledge of writing, and consequently no means of communica- 
tion between man and man by means of the written word. 

We still know astonishingly little regarding the history of the interior 
of the continent. We learn dimly the traditions of the continual move- 
ment of peoples, constant and almost universal warfare, of slavery and 
the slave trade. We must admit that the first contact between Europe 
and Tropical Africa was to take a hand in this last nefarious business, and 
up to a hundred years ago African trade and commerce may be summed 
up in the two words ' slaves ' and ' ivory.' 

It was only in the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first 
decade of the ^jresent century that the interior of Africa became effectively 
parcelled out among the principal European Powers. In some parts of 
it we are still in the pioneer stage, in others we are just passing out of the 
pioneer stage into a new stage of consolidation. 

The history of modern Africa is bound up with the history of the 
railways which European enterprise is pushing every year into the interior 
of the continent. Forty years ago there were no railways in Tropical 
Africa. To-day there are over 10,000 miles, and the locomotive may be 
taken as the outstanding symbol of this new force which is entering into 
the continent for the first time. 

One other fact is illustrative of our problem. Money is a new thing 
in Africa. I have visited a market town in Nigeria where I have seen 
cowrie-shells still being used as currency. Twenty-eight years ago the 
missionaries opened the first post-office in Uganda. British administration 
had not yet been established, and the missionaries produced their own 
postage-stamps, and the value on those stamps was expressed in cowrie- 
shells, not in pence. To-day something over £3,000,000 in coin and notes 
is being paid out annually to Uganda natives for their cotton crop alone. 
In West Africa money has only recently replaced square-shaped bottles 
of alleged gin and yards of cloth as the medium of exchange. 

Money is therefore quite a new idea to the African mind, and it is even 
true to say of many parts of Africa that the idea that the products of the 
soil or of the forests have a value in the exchange is a new one. The 
' economic crop ' is really a new factor. The idea that land has a value 
is a new factor, particularly among the Bantu people of the continent, 
whose previous agricultural activities were limited to the production of a 
sufficient quantity of food by each family for that family and as tribute 
to a chief, while wives and cattle were regarded as the chief measure of a 
man's wealth. 

The farther we push our investigations into the contrast between the 
old Africa of the past and the new just dawning, the more we have to realise 
how great is the gulf between them. In the old Africa, disease was regarded 
as the work of evil spirits, and the prevention and cure of maladies was 

i2 



116 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

regarded, and is still so regarded in many places, as the task of propitiating 
these spirits. The European arrives and tells the native that these maladies 
are not caused by evil spirits but by mosquitoes and the tsetse fly ! We 
must not be surprised if we were not believed. 

I do not wish to draw an exaggerated picture, and the marvel is that 
the African native is accommodating himself so rapidly, and on the whole 
so cheerfully, to all this new world that has been brought into his midst. 

It is, of course, a mistake to generalise about Africans as a whole, for 
there are probably just as great differences between the different races of 
Africa as there are between the different races of Europe, but generally 
speaking the African is probably the most imitative and adaptable of all 
races of the human family. He starts with a far cleaner slate than the 
populations of Asia with their ancient civilisations and intensely conserva- 
tive traditions. 

To the African the steam-engine is not so much a foreign devil as a new 
and wonderful toy. The African, too, has no idea of caste; he is ready to 
turn his hand to any trade or craft, and to try anything new. He is perhaps 
even too ready to jettison his old ideas and customs. The Mohammedan 
peoples of Northern Nigeria, the Sudan, and Somaliland are more 
conservative and more stable, but, for the rest, Africans are eager to 
adopt hurriedly European clothing and European ideas. The moment they 
acquire wealth they demand education, and the particular form of 
education which they seek most is what is described in West Africa as 
' education for book.' The main source of attraction to the Missions is 
the Mission school. 

It is true that the impact and sudden development of the African 
produce changes which are only skin-deep. This must necessarily be 
so where things are moving so rapidly. The mere fact that the African 
native so readily abandons his own primitive paganism for Christianity 
or Mohammedanism is an indication not that his conversion is ungenuine 
but that it is frequently not very profound. Reversions and breakdowns 
are inevitable. Remove the impetus and the example and the African 
will quickly sUp back into old ways. The fact is that both the African 
himself and we ourselves are setting a very fast pace, and we must expect 
that the results of our efforts will be frequently superficial. 

I have already said that we still know comparatively little about the 
history and mental traditions and aptitudes of the African native. The 
work of the anthropologists is yearly widening our knowledge. Anthro- 
pology is a science which is rapidly expanding in its scope. It is now recog- 
. nised that it must include a study of native law and customs, methods of 
agriculture, beliefs, and languages. Their variety is infinite, and as we are 
still in the stage of collecting a vast mass of data there has as yet been 
little time or opportunity to develop adequately the comparative and 
synthetic side of the work ; still less to be able to deduce from our know- 
ledge those lessons which will be most useful in guiding polic3^ There are 
so many tribes, so many languages to be studied, and such a variety of 
local problems, that it is very difficult to ensure that scientific investigation 
shall keep pace with the practical day-to-day running of Government 
administration and of economic development. Consequently our methods 
and the whole character of our administrations in different parts of Africa 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



117 



may seem to be empirical rather than to follow any clear line or consistent 
principles. We are always supposed to have a natural genius for empiri- 
cism, and probably our greatest successes in Colonial Administration are 
•due to the fact that we are naturally suspicious of the doctrinaire, and are 
prepared to delegate authority to the individual on the spot. Nevertheless 
we must henceforth clear our ideas on certain fundamental questions which 
are common to our problem. We can begin to take stock, and judge of 
cause and eiiect on the basis of a great mass of ascertainable knowledge. 

Perhaps the first problem which we should examine is what is the efEect 
of the European impact and economic development on the numbers and 
health of the African population. Africa is a very sparsely populated 
continent. The group of our six East African dependencies has an area 
approximately equal to that of British India. Yet in East Africa we have 
a, population of \2h millions, as against over 220 millions in British India. 
Even in British West Africa, which has double the population for half the 
area of East Africa, the population is still sparse. The following table 
of population densities is taken from the Report of the East Africa 
Commission : — 



(1) Transkei (Cape Colony Native Reserve) 

(2) Nigeria 

(3) Gold Coast (Colony only) 

(4) Basutoland . 

(5) Uganda 

(6) Nyasaland 

(7) Tanganyika Territory 

(8) Kenya Colony 

(9) Northern Rhodesia 



The population per square mile of 
England is . . 701 



Belgium 
Germany 



658 
348 



Japan 

Italy 

France 



59 per square mile 
53 
50 
42-5 
33 
31 
11 
11 
3 

. 339 
. 319 

. 187 



On the other hand, our African territories have a far denser population 
than our as yet undeveloped Dominions or the rapidly developing countries 
of South America. The population per square mile of 

New Zealand is .11 Australia ... 2 

Brazil ... 9 Canada ... 2 
Argentine . . 8 

Naturally these all-inclusive figures do not give a complete picture of the 
distribution of population. For instance, in Nigeria the population of the 
great Province of Kano is over 100 to the square mile, while that of Bornu 
adjoining it is only 23 ! Broadly speaking, however, there is more fertile 
land in Tropical Africa than there are people to cultivate it, and in the 
development of Africa it is an axiom that with rare exceptions — such as 
British Nyasaland — the demand for labour always exceeds the supply. 
This shortage of available labour is already observable in connection with 
the native cultivation, as in the cocoa industry of the Gold Coast or the 
cotton industry of Uganda, quite as much as upon the European plantation.s 
of Kenya and Tanganyika. 



118 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

An increase in the man power of Africa is everywhere required if its 
resources are to be developed by any means whatever, and it is very 
important to ascertain what effect European contact and economic 
expansion are having on the vital statistics of the various territories. 

The trouble is that we have very little data to go upon. In regard to 
many of the territories the 1921 census was really the first one that can 
be taken as effectively reliable — and the absence of scientific statistics is 
one of our difficulties. It is only in the Union of South Africa, with its 
far longer history of established government, that we have sound figures 
for purposes of making deductions. 

The Royal Society of South Africa has recently published an extremely 
valuable paper by Senator Alexander Roberts, entitled ' A Statistical 
Enquiry into the Population Problem in South Africa.' He proves that 
the rate of increase of both the European and native populations is 
astonishingly low and seems to be decreasing. Between 1904 and 1921 
the white population of the Union has only increased by I'S? per cent, 
per annum, whereas between 1835 and 1904 the annual average increase 
was nearer 5 per cent. A normal percentage increase such as one has the 
right to expect would seem to be at least three. 

Similar results appear from his examination of the statistics of native 
population. Enumerations show a declining rate of increase everywhere 
except in Zululand. The native increase throughout the Union was 
about 2"4 per cent, at the commencement of this century. The figures 
for the famous Transkei native reserve, containing nearly one quarter of 
the total native population of the Union, are of special interest. Reliable 
data are available for that district from 1875 to 1921. The average rate 
of increase for the whole period 'is 2 per cent, but for the period 1911 
to 1921 the rate has dwindled to '68 per cent, per annum. 

These figures are significant. They show that even in the healthiest 
part of the African continent, where modern hygiene and sanitary con- 
ditions are more developed, the native population, so far from tending 
to increase more rapidly, is increasing at an unexpectedly low rate, and 
that even the rate is diminishing. 

When we turn to the more populous tropical areas of the continent 
we are faced by the fact that we have no scientific data to go upon. A 
great part of the area has only come under effective administration during 
the last thirty years. We have only the censuses of 1911 and 1921 to go 
upon. The 1911 censuses were admittedly far from perfect, and though 
the 1921 censuses marked a great improvement in accuracy, it is now 
generally admitted that in many places the enumeration involved 
estimating rather than actual counting. 

There are very few places in Tropical Africa where it is yet possible to 
secure the recording of vital statistics. In the townships of Lagos and 
Freetown fairly accurate figures are obtainable, but nowhere else in West 
Africa. Thanks to the co-operation of the native administrations, useful 
figures are now obtainable in regard to several parts of the Uganda 
Protectorate, but elsewhere in East Africa the registration of births and 
deaths is as yet impracticable, and still more the causes of death. 

From such figures as are available we can deduce the fact that in 
Uganda theie can be little doubt that the population declined between 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 119 

1900 and 1924. Such •decline was due to two main causes. First, the 
great sleeping-sickness epidemic of 1902, which caused the death from 
this disease alone of 300,000 out of 3,000,000 in one year. The second 
cause of decline was undoubtedly venereal disease. This was particularly 
striking in the Principality of Bunyoro, where until active measures were 
undertaken by the British medical stafl: it was estimated that 90 per cent. 
of the population had become infected by syphilis. Thanks to the energy 
of the medical administration the tide has now turned, and during the last 
two years it would seem that there has been a slight increase — but very 
slight — in the population. 

But, broadly speaking, in East and West Africa the principal cause 
arresting the natural growth of population is infantile mortality. It has 
been estimated that in the purely native district of Tanganyika Territory 
between Tabora and Lake Victoria there is an infantile mortality rate 
under the age of twelve months of anything up to 400 per 1,000. I 
was recently given the estimated figure of 250 per 1,000 in more than 
one part of West Africa. 

The main cause of this very high mortality would seem to be mal- 
nutrition both of mothers and babies, and the continuance of barbarous 
superstitions in connection with childbirth and early rearing of children. 
Further, it must be remembered that in many parts of Africa it is the 
native custom that the women should perform a very large part of the 
agricultural work on the native holdings. This undoubtedly is afiecting 
the infantile mortality, which has always been abnormally high. 

The medical care of the natives, hygiene, sanitation, and preventive 
medicine are only just beginning to operate in many parts of Tropical 
Africa. In many places the natives first resort to the witch doctor or the 
old women, and only come to the European medical officer as the last resort. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that in countries where infective diseases, 
many of them insect-borne, are rampant progress is slight. We must 
remember also that in many parts of Africa — South-Eastern Nigeria for 
example — the native methods of agriculture are still so primitive that the 
existing native diet is quite inadequate to provide the stamina necessary 
to withstand the attacks of disease. The great prevalence of septic 
ulcers is due partly to the unhygienic habits of the natives and partly to 
the low general health and resistance, due to malnutrition. The 
investigations now being undertaken by Dr. Fisher and others in Kenya 
into this problem of native diet are most important. 

We must admit, however, that over and above these endemic causes 
the coming of settled rule and civilisation has aggravated the problem. 
Before we established roads and railways and suppressed the tribal wars, 
communities lived in comparative isolation. There was little trade or 
intercourse between neighbouring peoples. Now, however, the old 
barriers are broken down and natives travel all over Africa comparatively 
freely, with the result that they carry infection with them and diseases 
have far more opportunities of spreading than heretofore. 

I think I have said enough to show what a vast task we have before 
us in increasing the number and well-being of populations for whom we 
have become trustees, and I now turn to some of the more important 
social problems that are arising as a result of rapid economic development. 



120 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

How rapid this development is few people have yet realised. In 1921 
tlie domestic exports of Nigeria were valued at 8j millions sterling, in 
1925 at 17 millions. Those of the Gold Coast in 1921 were £6,000,000, 
in 1925 £10,500,000. 

Such examples of expansion are sufficiently sensational, but the rate 
of development in West Africa is completely eclipsed by the rate of 
progress in East Africa. The domestic exports of Kenya and Uganda 
in 1921 were £2,250,000, and in 1925 £7,820,000. The corresponding 
figures for Tanganyika Territory are £1,000,000 in 1921 and £2,900,000 
in 1925. 

These figures are illustrative of the sudden acquisition of money 
wealth among peoples to whom in a very large measure such an experience 
is entirely novel, and there are not a few students of the problem who are 
inclined to think that the rate of progress is almost too fast. 

However this may be, I doubt if we can stop it or should be justified 
in doing so. Practically the whole of this rapid increase in production is 
represented by agricultural products and only a fraction by minerals. 
The two most sensational examples of the expansion have been cocoa in 
the Gold Coast and cotton in Uganda. The exportation of cocoa from the 
Gold Coast rose from 7,000 tons in 1905 to 78,000 tons in 1915 and 
220,000 tons (nearly half the world's total supply) in 1925. 

Uganda exported 93,000 bales of cotton lint in the season 1923-24, 
and the past season's crop has exceeded 200,000 bales. 

In both these cases the crops have been produced entirely by 
what is termed ' native production,' i.e. by the native working for him- 
self on his own holding, or for native chiefs or other native employers 
of labour. 

Apart from the great accretion of wealth to the native producers, the 
development of a permanent crop like cocoa has an important bearing 
upon the development of native ideas in regard to land tenure. In parts 
of Uganda where the chiefs are large landowners, a new relation between 
landlord and tenant and landlord and labourer is developing. 

I should say that the main efEect of this economic development due to 
the native production of money crops is the enhancement of the individual 
vis-a-vis his society. In the old Africa society was largely communal, the 
rights and functions of the individual being entirely subordinate to those 
of the tribe or the village. With personal wealth an individual becomes 
emancipated from the former limitations and controls, and his first 
instincts are to better himself and his family not only in the economic 
but also by using his wealth to better himself in the social and political 
spheres. 

The nature and sanctions of tribal authority are undergoing rapid 
changes, due in part to these economic causes and in part to a more pro- 
found spiritual and moral change. In many parts of Africa the two 
principal sanctions behind the chief's authority were formerly military 
and religious. The chief was not only the tribal or national leader for 
purposes of defence and offence, but also the guardian of the national 
fetishes and the chief executive of native law and custom, which are bound 
up ultimately with religious sanction. Consequently the missionary in 
converting the individual native to an individualist religion such as 



E.— GEOGRAPHY'. 121 

Christianity must inevitably sooner or later affect not only the sanctions 
behind native political authority, but also the whole moral order associated 
with that authority. 

In the coast towns of West Africa, where European contact has been 
established for a longer period than elsewhere in Tropical Africa, we 
observe this decay in tribal authority and the development of the individual 
in its highest degree. A very large proportion of the population of these 
towns is completely de-tribalised and no longer bears any allegiance to 
a native authority. 

Some people go even farther than that, and describe these individuals 
as ' denationalised.' That is to say, we are witnessing the rise of a new 
community of people who have thrown off all their ancestral traditions 
and are engaged in imitating Western civilisation as fast as they can. 
Certainly the demand for Western education, particularly Western 
literary education, creates a most formidable problem, and throws special 
responsibilities on Government and missionaries alike in providing the 
right type of education for the African with his special characteristics, 
still living in Africa but in a new and rapidly changing environment. 

Hitherto we have been perhaps too easily content to give the African 
a mere veneer of the nineteenth-century English Board-school education, 
without studying the real needs of the people or the right methods of 
bringing out their innate capacity on modern scientific lines. This is 
why a great experiment like the Prince of Wales College, Achimota, in 
the Gold Coast, is fraught with so much interest not only for that Colony 
but for Africa as a whole. 

There are so many disruptive tendencies at work in Africa to-day that 
constructive thinking is urgently needed if the African communities are 
not to be reduced by our impact to the condition of disorganised mobs 
drifting about without leadership and without any clear goal before them 
except the new desire to acquire personal wealth. 

I turn now to another aspect of the problem. Both deliberately and 
also unconsciously we are teaching the African the mastery of new arts 
and crafts, new methods of agriculture, and in some cases entirely new 
methods of life. In Tropical Africa we are forced, by the difficulty and 
expense of running things like railways with European staffs unsuited 
to the climatic conditions, to develop the skill of the African. He is 
being trained to become an engine-driver, a fitter, a mechanic, a stone- 
mason and a carpenter. Every year he is being entrusted with the 
management of more and more complex machinery, and every year sees 
an increase in the number of quite highly skilled African industrial crafts- 
men. Our recent experience shows that the African can very readily 
acquire skill in the mechanical arts and is capable of becoming an industrial 
craftsman of quite a high order. 

Thus we are training up a new African labour class of wage-earners, 
for the most part in the employ of the various Government Departments, 
but in West Africa also in the employ of the mining companies and in 
East Africa in the employ of the European, farmer settlers. 

In the old Africa wage labour was largely unknown. Compulsory 
labour for communal purposes was a fairly general rule, while in many 
places, particularly in West Africa and those parts of East Africa which 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

had become subject to Arab domination, slavery was general for nearly 
all labour purposes. We have suppressed slavery and regularised the 
amount of compulsory labour which may be performed for chiefs or 
Government, and prohibited the employment of forced labour for purposes 
of private gain. That such drastic changes in the customs of the continent 
have already produced great economic and social changes — in this case 
for the better — must be obvious. 

Nevertheless the labour problem in Tropical Africa is a most important 
one. As I have already stated, there is a far greater demand for labour 
than supply. There is no unemployed problem such as we have in Great 
Britain. On the other hand, there is not the same necessity for the Africaa 
native to work as there is for the European. In Africa nature is bountiful, 
and food can usually be easily and cheaply obtained. The climate is. 
such that the cost of housing and of such clothing as may be required is 
comparatively insignificant. The wants of the ordinary African in his 
present stage of development are few, and therefore the incentives to 
effort are far less insistent than in temperate climates and more civilised 
conditions. 

In the old Africa — especially Bantu Africa — a young man's life was 
very largely taken up by fighting, with the preparation for fighting, and 
with hunting the wild game. Now that tribal warfare has ceased there 
is a real danger that deterioration will set in unless the energies formerly 
expended upon fighting are diverted to honest toil. To allow the manhood 
of a race to remain dependent on the labour of its women-folk is bound to 
result in national decay. I see nothing wrong in encouraging the African 
to work either as a direct producer or as a wage-labourer. In fact, his 
advance in the scale of civilisation is bound up with his economic advance 
as a producer. Nevertheless it is our duty to ensure that such a new 
development is made consistent with the lessons of experience concerning the 
welfare of labour and the best relations between employer and employed. 
A good deal of discussion is going on just now regarding the treatment 
of native labour engaged on capitalistic enterprise in the development of 
the continent. In Tropical Africa the Governments, notably the Railways 
and Public Works Departments, are by far the largest employers of African 
labour, and they set the standards. Then there is the wage-labour engaged 
in the mining industries and upon the farms of European and Asiatic 
settlers in East Africa, and on the larger native farms in parts of West 
Africa and in Uganda. 

In the past year there have been published two very important reports 
dealing with this problem. The first is the ' Rapport de la Commission 
pour I'etude du probleme de la main-d'oeuvre au Congo Beige,' issued 
by the Government of the Belgian Congo in 1925 ; and the second is the 
report by Major G. Orde Browne, Senior Commissioner of Tanganyika 
Territory, on labour in that country, issued last month by H.M. Stationery 
Ofiice as Colonial Paper No. 19 of 1926. The last named is the most 
interesting and objective study that has yet been made by an experienced 
British native administrator on this subject. It touches upon almost 
every aspect of the question. It reveals great diversities of practice, and 
Major Orde Browne's observations on the data which he has collected 
are of the highest value. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 123 

There are, of course, many varieties of labour engaged in work on the 
same plantation. There is often the nucleus of permanent labour — 
squatters, as they are often termed — who live permanently with their 
families on the estate. Then there are the contract labourers, recruited 
often from great distances, who work for six months or a year and return 
to their homes at the conclusion of their contracts. Thirdly, there is 
casual local labour — usually harvest labour — drawn spasmodically from 
the neighbourhood. Each category requires special investigation. 

Without going deeply into these questions I should like to quote some 
of Major Orde Browne's conclusions. 

He writes : ' The impact of the capitalistic system upon the African 
social organisation in Tanganyika has not the dangers that it would have 
elsewhere ; the almost entire absence of any class earning a living by 
industrial crafts eliminates the tragedy of the gradual crushing of such 
a class by mechanicalised competition, and there is no fear of a duplica- 
tion of the situation which has arisen from this cause in Indian industrial 
centres. The African is self-supporting through his own agriculture, and 
if he goes to work for wages it is primarily to secure money for hitherto 
imrealised needs or luxuries. The class sometimes termed " wage slaves " 
— i.e. people who are forced by economic pressure to work willy-nilly at 
some particular task — is non-existent in Tanganyika and likely to remain so. 

' The introduction of non-native enterprise has conferred a real boon 
on the African, since it has tended to regulate and equalise the extreme 
fluctuations resulting from the success or failure of the harvest. Whereas 
in former years a bad season might entail literal starvation for great 
numbers, it is now largely mitigated by the possibility of work on a 
property that provides foods as well as money ; while improved transport 
consequent upon economic development has also done much to ease the 
situation created by a bad harvest. 

' In . another direction the native benefits to a minor though still 
appreciable extent from work on a plantation, it secures him adequate 
food at a time when the natural improvidence of the African has possibly 
led to a shortage before the new crop is reaped. That this aspect is fully 
appreciated is proved by the flow of labourers seeking work during the 
hungry months ; I have, in fact, frequently been told by natives that 
they were going to work because the food in the village was growing 
scarce. It is, indeed, quite possible that this feature will have a beneficial 
effect on the whole population in time, for there is no doubt that at 
present many tribes are definitely under-nourished towards the approach 
of the new harvest, not through any failure of the previous one, but because 
the thriftlessness of the African frequently leads to inadequate storage 
or excessive sales. 

' The creation of large industrial centres with workers completely 
divorced from food production would be an entire innovation of very 
doubtful desirability ; it appears most unlikely to occur. The African 
man, and still more the woman, is firmly attached to the soil, and the 
whole fabric of social organisation is based upon the right to cultivate ; 
it thus seems probable that the native will always aim at having his 
own home among his own crops, whether in a distant village or as a 
" squatter " on an estate.' 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

I thiuk it is quite clear that there are four main duties which we have 
to perform if we are to render the impact of European civilisation upon 
the African not only innocuous but in the long run beneficial to the latter's 
welfare. We have in the first place to concentrate upon the various 
problems summed up under the words ' public health.' We have in the 
second place to improve the standard and quality of the native as an 
agricultural producer both of food and economic crops. Thirdly, we have 
to provide for further transport facilities both to secure the wider 
marketing of African products and to secure that in the movement of 
labour there is not the same wastage as obtains at present. Fourthly, 
we have to educate the native in such a manner that, whether he is a 
direct producer or a wage-earner, he may advance in the scale of civilisa- 
tion and assimilate such new moral controls as will fit him to withstand 
the dangers and make the best use of increasing wealth. 

As regards the second point, I think we must recognise that throughout 
the greater part of Tropical Africa below the 5,000 feet altitude native 
production under the guidance of European agricultural officers is the 
only practicable policy. Where there are highlands — and it so happens 
that these highland areas are at present very sparsely populated by 
Africans — European colonisation can be introduced. Personally, I hold 
that this European colonisation, so far from being detrimental to the 
native, may be of the highest educative value. The European farmer and 
stock-owner introduces examples of more scientific development, and 
I think it is already clear from the experience of Kenya that no small 
proportion of the natives who have worked on European plantations 
have learnt not only improved methods of cultivation which they can 
apply on their family holdings when they return to their reserves, but 
also something of a higher standard of life. 

There are many plantations, particularly in Kenya, where an ever- 
increasing interest is being shown in the housing and sanitation of native 
labour. The settler's wife is frequently quite as valuable as her husband 
in educating up native labour not merely to be a more efficient labourer, 
but to be a better man. 

The recent articles in ' The Times ' from the pen of Mr. J. H. Oldham 
are among the most striking that have recently appeared upon native 
policy in Tropical Africa. He has clearly come to the conclusion that 
Kenya presents not merely a series of problems of local significance, but 
offers an almost unique opportunity for an experiment in racial 
co-operation, which, if wisely directed and based upon a scientific study 
of cause and effect, is perhaps more full of promise than any experiment 
that has hitherto been tried. 

I think it is clear that in East Africa, where the contact between 
European and native is probably closer than elsewhere and the mutual 
interdependence most marked, we have an opportunity, such as seldom 
presents itself, for working out on scientific and humane lines the various 
contributions which European civilisation can give to the African races 
without destroying what is valuable and distinctive in their characteristics. 

European colonisation, in the few areas where it is climatically 
feasible, has been the principal means of introducing not only a new 
crop but a whole series of new ideas which can contribute to the advance- 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 125 

ment in the scale of civilisation of the peoples for whom we have become 
trustees. It is now generally accepted that throughout Tropical Africa 
we are in the position of trustees. In the words of Article 22 of the 
Covenant of the League, we are entrusted with the guidance of ' peoples 
not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the 
modern world.' 

The field of work covered by the phrase ' public health ' is a gigantic 
one, especially in Tropical Africa. In addition to certain disi. ases peculiar 
to the tropics, we find practically all the diseases common to temperate 
climates. Some of the latter appear to have been introduced as a result 
of European contact, and with regard to these it sometimes happens that, 
being new, there is no acquired resistance on the part of the populations 
affected. As an instance, I was told iu my recent tour in West Africa 
that an African who gets tuberculosis rarely, if ever, recovers. 

The special tropical diseases, such as malaria, sleeping-sickness, and 
the like, aj^pear in both endemic and epidemic forms. It sometimes 
happens that an infectious disease will suddenly flare up and spread in 
tropical conditions with terrible results. The task of combating these 
epidemics is a gigantic one, and the field for research as well as treatment 
and cure is still large. I cannot overestimate the importance or value 
of research workers of all kinds in Africa. 

I include in this field and in the field of ' public health ' the animal as 
well as human diseases. The scourges of rinderpest, pleuro-pneumonia, 
east-coast fever, red- water fever and trypanosomiasis require the services 
of an increasing number of veterinary research officers and veterinary 
staff throughout Tropical Africa. 

We have been, so far, able to do little in the way of developing the 
immense potential resources of Tropical Africa in animal foods. I am 
told there are something like 6,000,000 head of cattle within 200 miles 
of the Uganda railway system, but at present there is no export of meat, 
and the first small shipment of East African butter reached England this 
summer. 

In Northern Nigeria there are approximately 3,000,000 cattle cut oflE 
from the coast by a wide belt of tsetse-ridden country. 

The development of animal husbandry is still in its infancy, as it is 
only in the European highlands of East Africa and among a few natives 
in Uganda and Tanganyika that the plough has been introduced. Else- 
where the land is cultivated by means of exclusively human labour with 
the hoe. 

Finally there is transport. In many parts of Africa the principal 
means of transportiug produce is still the human carrier. The human 
carrier is the most expensive and wasteful form of transport, as each 
individual is limited to an average load of approximately 60 lb., with a 
speed of 15 to 18 miles a day. 

During my recent tour in West Africa I was at great pains to collect 
some figures regarding the comparative costs of different forms of transport. 
In the populous cotton-growing area round Zaria in Northern Nigeria 
head transport costs from 2s. 6c^. to 3s. Qd. per ton-mile, motor transport 
Is. per ton-mile, and animal transport 9d. per ton-mile, but the railway 
is carrying cotton and groundnuts at approximately l^d. per ton-mile. 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

There can be no doubt that in the conditions of Tropical Africa, where 
roads are diflficult to construct and even more difficult to maintain, the 
railway is by far the cheapest, as well as by far the most expeditious form 
of transport. 

We are only at the beginning of the construction of our arterial system 
of railways. In the bulk of our African possessions such railways as do 
exist not only pay directly, but their indirect effect in bringing about 
production is sensational. When the railway from Baro to Kano was 
first constructed it was estimated that two trains a week would be all 
that would be required to carry the produce. When I was in Kano in 
February this year the average number of goods-trains leaving Kano 
was eight per day, and the tremendous expansion of the cultivation of 
groundnuts round Kano is due entirely to the coming of the railway. 
The export of groundnuts from Nigeria has risen from nil in 1910 to 
120,000 tons last year. Similarly the expansion of cotton cultivation in 
Uganda is the direct outcome of the Uganda Railway and the feeder 
roads and water transport provided as auxiliaries to that railway. 

Railways without roads are of little value, but I have definitely come 
to the conclusion that in the conditions of Tropical Africa roads are no 
substitute for railways. Tropical rains alone prevent the use of roads 
except during the dry seasons of the year. 

Cheap transport is the life-blood of commerce, and everywhere I have 
been in Africa I have met the same demand by European and native alike 
for the provision of more roads and more railways. An example of the 
comparative stagnation of a naturally rich and populous country where 
the transport facilities are at present inadequate is provided by Nyasaland, 
where, in consequence of the incompleteness of Lake Nyasa's communica- 
tion with the sea, some thousands of the most progressive natives leave 
the country every year in search of opportunity in more developed parts 
of Africa. 

As in the other questions that I have discussed, the right solution of 
the many transport problems which arise in Africa can only be brought 
about by scientific study, and we should do well to watch all new develop- 
ments in the means of transport, in new fuels and such-like matters which 
have a bearing upon any undertaking. 

It is quite clear that we cannot develop either the land or the people 
unless we have easier and quicker means of access which modern rapid 
transport alone can give, but every line of railway we open, every road 
we construct, adds to the jiressure of the impact of our coming, and I feel 
that, in addition to research into all these practical sciences, we shall 
require in ever-increasing degree the scientific observation of the sociological 
facts of our development ; mere humanity and enthusiasm is not sufficient. 
We have to study the problems we ourselves are creating with a con- 
siderable degree of objective detachment, and make certain that in our 
natural zeal for material development we are not disrupting more than 
we are creating. Here again it is Kenya that is leading the way, and the 
Kenya Government have asked that a portion of the loan to be spent on 
transport development in East Africa shall be ear-marked for the closer 
scientific study of what is rather loosely called ' the native problem.' 
I think I have said enough to show that both our opportunities and 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 127 

our responsibilities in our African Empire are very great. We can only 
solve our problems by applying to them the energies of our best brains, 
working in a sjairit of objective detachment, studying failures and successes 
with a view to building up gradually a body of knowledge and experience 
which will render mistakes few and successes great. In this task we shall 
have to rely not only upon the continued efforts of those officials and 
unofficials who are actually working in Africa, but also on the men of 
science over a whole range of human experience such as are meeting under 
the auspices of the British Association. 

There is no finer field for scientific investigation and endeavour than our 
tropical dependencies, and I should regard myself as fortunate if I were 
able on this occasion to arouse your interest in matters of great importance 
not only to the Empire but to the advancement of human welfare. 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



INHERITANCE AS AN ECONOMIC 

FACTOR. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR JOSIAH STAMP, G.B.E., F.B.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



I. Introduction. 

It will probably not be disputed that one of the fundamental institutions 
of our modern life which is likely to come under criticism and challenge 
in the next twenty or thirty years is that of Inheritance. In the first 
place, it is considered to be inextricably bound up with the inequality of 
incomes and wealth ; this inequality is said to be an ofience against social 
justice ; and this offence, in turn, is said to be a source of social unrest 
which is against the interests of the whole community. In the second 
place, it is said to be essential to the accumulation of capital resources 
which, irrespective of their ownership, are said to be vital to progress, 
and, indeed, to the maintenance of industrial civilisation. In the third 
place, the satisfaction of fiscal needs, with the problems of the most suitable 
forms of taxation, raises important questions as to the economic reactions 
of inheritance. And lastly, the theory of socialism, continually urged as 
a better and more advanced system for economic life, is demanding 
profound changes in this principle. 

It is the purpose of my address to ask whether economic science, 
standing clear of the political arena and so-called class interests, with 
their mere defence of what is, or their mere attack upon it, has had any 
definite findings to contribute to the discussion of the whole case ; and, if 
not, to suggest some of the chief questions which have to be explored 
and answered by economists before such findings can properly be arrived 
at, and to set out some possible or provisional answers which are at 
present available. 

I am aware that a complete discussion of the matter extends beyond 
economics into ethical, and even philosophical fields. For example, 
suppose that a case of social injustice stands clearly proven upon all those 
facts of a case which are apparent to and comprehensible by the average 
individual who is moved by such a feeling. But suppose, also, that if 
an extension of mental power or experience were possible, a second series 
of underlying tendencies could be brought into comprehension which would 
modify that case, and correct an illusion. What is the proper mode of 
action ? If society has a right to determine its own form and destiny, 
must it be dealt with as it thinks it is, or as it ought to think it is ? It 
may well be that the full economic case will ultimately present the most 
difficult dilemma of all — a dilemma of two planes, transcendental, or, at 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 129 

least, indeterminate. But ray reflections upon the subject convince me 
that there is a field of deliberation and inquiry for economists which has, 
so far, only been casually and cursorily surveyed, but which uuist be 
carefully explored before the economic case can be 2)Tesented. 

n. Methods of Inquiry. 

It has often and rightly been remarked that economics sufters as a 
science because it is unable to avail itself of the method of agreement and 
difference as an engine of discovery. The isolation of the presence of a 
I^articular factor, in order to discern if some effect or concomitant is always 
present ; the isolation of its absence, to determine whether the supposed 
eSect or concomitant is always absent ; or, failing isolation, the association 
of that factor with a wide variety of others, and the observation of absence 
or presence of the antecedent with the presence or absence of the conse- 
quent ; or again, the establishment of a quantitative relationship so that 
small and large ' doses ' of the antecedent are accompanied by small and 
large doses respectively of the consequent : all these methods of direct 
experimentation ox^en to the phj'sical sciences are lacking to the economist. 
At the most he can follow by induction, with all the dangers bi the false 
cause or the multiple cause, from observation of conditions existing at 
the same moment in different places, or at the same place at different 
times. If he is told that a given economic condition is brought about by 
a particular factor, such as a law or a social custom, he is seldom in a 
position to try the absence of that law or custom directly. Even if he 
docs, the other conditions will not remain constant, and a logical weakness, 
if not a common-sense doubt, will exist. It will exist especially if some 
human likes or dislikes are involved, with consequent sectional feeling or 
sentiment. The precise economic effect of Prohibition, for example, is 
open to dispute because of the difficulty of dispassionate observation and 
reasoning where feelings as distinct from intellectual processes are involved. 

But the economist has one advantage over the physicist. If the 
latter cannot actually remove the element in question from his phenomena 
or introduce it at will, he is usually at a loss. It is not generally open to 
him to imagine what would follow from its absence or presence, or to 
reason from analogy. (And here I am not overlooking the immense 
advances made by postulating, from observation of what are imagined 
to be effects, certain qualities which any factor, operating as a cause, 
would need to possess, and then elaborating what would follow from such 
qualities if they really existed, and finding, under other or dift'erent circum- 
stances, that those prognostications are verified. Working hypotheses of 
this order are the commonplaces of science.) I am, rather, referring to 
another kind of postulation from experience. We see about us a certain 
set of economic conditions, and co-existent a certain law or custom. 
Interest or ignorance, or superficial observation, or political prejudice, 
may urge that they are related as cause and effect. But the economist 
has to be wary and watchful. It is open to him to imagine an economic 
world free from such a law or custom, and, by what he knows as to the 
behaviour of the average man under the hodonic impulse, to work out a 
new or hypothetical economic system. This type of economic psychology 
is rendered more possible if there are, in fact, alreadv in existence a number 

1926 " K_ 



180 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of individuals unaffected by the factor in question, whose behaviour is 
known and observed. By splitting the problem or the community up 
into its smaller significant or fractional sections, and making an estimate 
for each section, the possibility of error in the aggregated estimate is much 
reduced. If the resultant economic system which the economist deduces, 
following the subtraction or the addition of the particular custom or law, 
differs widely from the actual state, then the efiect of that custom or law 
is obviously large and important. But if much the same state of affairs 
is hypothetically evolved, then the explanation of such a state must be 
elsewhere, if the explanation that is being sought is a true diflferential. 

Everywhere we observe that men are not born equal ; stations oi 
fortunes in life are influenced by the fact that A and B were their parents, 
and not C and D. Something that A and B did or had, that C and D did 
not or had not, lives after them, and influences the economic position of 
X, the son of A and B, so that he is essentially different from Y, the son 
of C and D. The fact that men ' inherit ' seems to be a fact that prima 
facie should have real economic significance. What would the economic 
world be like, as compared with the present economic world, if men really 
started equal ? Or what would the economic world be like if men started 
with great inequalities, but these inequalities were quite fortuitous and 
had no relation to the circumstauces or qualities of parents ? In either 
case we postulate a world in which inheritance is absent as an economic 
factor. 

It may well be that such an analysis would be inconclusive or indeter- 
minate at the last, that at certain points we find we need close or exact 
statistical data that are absent, that at others the balance of probability 
as to economic psychology in the mass is in doubt, and that at a critical 
point unbiassed scientific estimates differ widely. At the worst we should 
know the area of scientific uncertainty ; we should have exposed the points 
on which exact observation ought in future to be focussed ; we should 
have given an estimated result with an idea of the probability of error. All 
of these stages are some way towards truth, at least further on than no 
analysis at all. In practical matters we may, after all, like others who have 
not joined in our analysis, have to ' jump ' the gap and flagrantly guess, or 
act empirically by instinct. This the world has been doing on the widest 
scale for centuries while knowledge has been growing. But it is some- 
thing to know that we are voting or deciding not indeed unscientifically 
but «on-scientifically, which we have no business to do, ssivefautedemieux. 

III. The General Heritage of an Environment formed under Certain 
Conditions of Inheritance. 

I am not referring particularly to what we call our social heritage, i.e. to 
what the whole community A enjoys by reason of all that the preceding 
whole community B has left, either produced and evolved by B itself, or 
received and perpetuated by the whole community C that preceded B. 
I am dealing with the principles and fact of individual heritage. But the 
two cannot be wholly dissociated. As Prof. Pigou has said, ' environments 
have children as well as individuals.' And if the social heritage which 
A received from B was one in which individual heritage played an 
important part, it may well be that it is an entirely different social 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 131 

heritage from what it would have been if the practice of individual 
inheritance in that heritage had then been absent. All men to-day are 
the heirs of a body of knowledge accessible to them without distinction ; 
to a system of law, and to a considerable amount of communal wealth 
in parks, roads, and public facilities. That social heritage is an important 
factor in the total quantity of wealth which is produced in response to a 
specified aggregate of human effort to-day. If that heritage had been less 
in quantity or different in quality from what it actually is, the economic 
response to human effort to-day would certainly be quite different. It 
may also be, though this is less capable of proof, an important factor in 
the share of that quantity which accrues to a specified individual effort 
on the part of M and N, members of that community, respectively. Now 
the social heritage in question when it was ' incubating,' so to speak, in 
readiness for the present generation, was incubating iinder certain con- 
ditions of individual inheritance. Would it have been the same social 
heritage if the incubating conditions had not included individual inherit- 
ance ? 

It will be seen, therefore, that while we may focus on individual 
inheritance, it cannot be wholly dissociated from the communal aspects. 
When M comes into the world, he has, as an economic unit, to associate 
with two types of assistance, i.e. what he individually inherits from his 
parents, and what he socially inherits from previous society, and in both 
of these the principle of individual inheritance has been present. 

But this social heritage, which is either economically richer or poorer 
in potentiality because it was the product of a set of conditions which 
included indi\'idual inheritance, is one of the chief working assets of every 
individual to-day, whether he has the benefit of some particular individual 
inheritance or not. The effects of inheritance as a custom do not, 
therefore, exhaust themselves in the direct line, as may be clearer from 
hypothetical illustrations. Suppose that the power of bequest is an 
immense stimulus to an able man, who under its influence exerts his 
ingenuity to the highest degree, creates new capital forms, and new mental 
embodiment of his genius in organisation. He raises the potentiality of 
the average worker as a unit in the social system, enriching himself and 
his social environment simultaneously. Under this system an individual 
in the next generation observes that he is not so well off as he would have 
been if the inherited wealth had not gone to the heir, but had been diffused 
over the community, but he perhaps fails to observe or realise that if the 
personal wealth had not been destined to go to the heir, the addition to 
the social heritage might never have come into being. He has not, 
indeed, inherited his share of the wJwle results of that man's life, but only 
that unseen, unrealised part which was enjoyed by the community. It 
was, moreover, impossible to inherit both, because this non-inheritance"of 
the personal part was a condition under which both the personal part and 
the social part came into being. Whether this is a likely picture of reality 
or not depends obviously on the initial assumption, i.e. whether it is true 
in any sense that the power of bequest is a real differential as an economic 
incentive. Let us take an assumption applicable to the environment as 
distinct from the individual, and suppose that the knowledge that the 
individual can leave his wealth to his son and not to the community acts 

k2 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

as a social irritant, an economic ' sulkiiier.' All workers' efforts are then 
crabbed and limited by their psychological state ; their output is restricted, 
and often interrupted on trivial pretexts ; they have no ready elasticity 
to participate willingly in new combinations of the organising mind. Then 
the total economic result of the community's efforts may be less than if 
our original mind had never exerted itself at all, producing individual 
wealth for individual bequest. The individual may, indeed, have 
abstracted, by his ingenuity, something as an accumulation for bequest, 
but the quantitative reaction on the economic or environment heritage is, 
in minute individual amounts, greater in the aggregate. The social 
heritage for the forthcoming generation to work with is poorer. Even if 
the lucky inheritor comes into his personal share he may have to employ it 
with an impoverished social heritage which will reduce his share far below 
what he, a man of ability, might have secured with a responsive social 
environment and a better social heritage. And each individual of that 
second generation has a poorer standard because of the stunted social 
heritage, poorer perhaps even if he had his share of the direct inheritance 
as a set-off. Here the truth of the conclusions is not objectively measur- 
able, and depends on the truth of the assumption that the system is an 
economic irritant. Whether the system is au individual incentive or a 
social irritant, or both, or neither, is a question of average psychology. If 
both assumptions are true, the effects may balance, and the resultant 
economic systems, with or without the inheritance factor, be identical. But 
if either is more powerful the result must be different, and a system 
including inheritance either worse or better than the system without it. 

I have laboured all this preliminary analysis, because it is so necessary 
to observe that tlie social and individual interact ; so necessary to convince 
people that the dynamic tendencies of forces affecting the distribution of 
wealth are at least as important as the static results, and may even be 
more powerful. 

IV. Contributions by Classical Economists. 

The discussion by economists has usually arisen in connection with 
' social justice ' in distribution, or justice and expediency in connection 
with taxation. I will take two examples : — 

In 1795 Jeremy Bentham asked the question, ' What is that mode of 
supply of which tlie twentieth part is a tax, and that a heavy one, while 
the whole would be no tax and would not be felt by anybody ? ' His 
plan was to abolish intestacy, all property where there was no will going 
to the State. He also proposed to limit the power of bequests of testators 
who had no direct heirs, and, in addition, that the State should have a 
half-share of sums going, either under a will or not, to such relatives as 
grandparents, uncles and aunts, and perhaps nephews and nieces, and also 
a reversionary interest in the succession of direct heirs who had no 
children anc^no prospects of them. I am not concerned to give you all 
the^various legal and philosophical reasons underlying Bentham's proposal. 
He held that this was not a tax, and that its chief advantage was freedom 
from oppressiveness. In the case of a tax on successions, a man looks on 
the whole of what is left to him as his own, of which he is then called 
upon to give up something. Bvit if, under the law regulating successions, 



F._ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 133 

he knows that nothing, or only a small share, is due to him, then Bentham 
claimed that he would feel no hardship, ' for hardship depends on dis- 
appointment, disappointment upon expectation, and if the law of 
succession leaves him nothing, he will not expect anything.' 

Prof. Seligman remarks that, exaggerated as Bentham'a idea and 
distinction undoubtedly was, it contained a kernel of truth — namely, that 
there is no such thing as a natural right of inheritance, and that the 
extension of intestate succession to collateral relatives is, under existing 
social conditions, defensible only to a very limited extent. Graduation 
of the tax according to the degree of relationship was the definite corollary 
of his ideas. The idea of the basis of taxation described as the theory of 
copartnership originated later, when writers combined with Bentham's 
argument the thought that the State should inherit property from 
individuals because of what it does for them during their lives.* Andrew 
Carnegie, the millionaire, was an enthusiastic advocate of this idea. I 
am not concerned with the socialist or ' diffusion of wealth ' theory, 
based upon the doctrine that it is a proper function of Government to 
use the power of taxation as an engine of social improvement, to stop the 
growth of large fortunes and bring about an equal distribution of wealth. 
Here it is necessary to remark that those defences of inheritance which 
rest upon the family theory of property are not altogether consistent 
with that kind of freedom of bequest which is commonly found in English- 
speaking countries. In Continental Europe, of course, the ' legitime,' 
and in the United States some of the State laws providing for a 
certain portion of the estate to go, in a definite direction, to near relatives, 
make for a better support of the family theory. Seligman says that most 
thinkers, as well as the mass of the public, would still to-day maintain 
the custom of inheritance, not, indeed, as a natural right or necessary 
constituent in theory of private property, but as an institution that is, 
on the whole, socially desirable. Those who are not prepared to accept 
socialistic methods of reasoning cannot acknowledge the validity of the 
' diffusion of wealth ' argument. 

Other economists have discussed the question almost entirely as one 
of ' social justice,' and in so doing have often begged the question of its 
economic effects without examination. 

John Stuart Mill held the view that there was nothing implied in 
property ' but the right of each to his own faculties, to what he could 
produce by them and to whatever he could get for them in a fair market, 
together with his right to give this to any other person that he chooses, 
and the right of that other person to receive and enjoy it.' He thought 
that it followed that, although the right of bequest or gift after death 
formed part of the idea of property, the right of inheritance, as distinguished 
from bequest, did not. The succession, in the absence of disposition, by 
children or near relatives, might be a proper arrangement, but he agreed 
that there were many other considerations besides those of political 
economy which entered into it. He traced in antiquity a definite economic 
factor, where the disposition of the property -otherwise than to the family 
surrounding it and interested in it had the effect of breaking up a little 
commonwealth, united by ideas, interests, and habits, and casting them 
' Vide Max West : The Inheritanee Tax. 



184 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

adrift upon the world. This created the idea of an inherent right in 
children to the possessions of their ancestors. But bequests at random 
were seldom recognised. Other reasons have usually been assigned by- 
later writers, such, for example, as the supposition that the State in 
disposing of property along recognised lines would be likely to do it in a 
better way than the proprietor would have done, if he had done anything 
at all. Such reasons were hardly economic in their basis. Mill argued 
his case almost entirely on ethical and moral considerations, and not from 
the point of view of any greater economic advantage, either to the 
individual or the community. He reached more economic ground when 
he discussed the conflict that may exist between bequests and the 
permanent interests of the community. He says : ' No doubt persons have 
occasionally exerted themselves more strenuously to acquire a fortune 
from the hope of founding a family in perpetuity. But the mischiefs to 
Society of such perpetuities outweigh the value of this incentive to 
exertion, and the incentives in the case of those who have the opportunity 
for making large fortunes are strong enough without it.'- By this, he 
would appear to imply that economic expansion or betterment in one 
direction was more than offset by economic contraction or worsement in 
another, although one is never quite clear whether he is balancing against 
improved material welfare deficiencies in other kinds of welfare. 

Of the French law he remarked that ' the extreme restriction in the 
power of bequest was adopted as a democratic expedient to break down 
the custom of primogeniture and counteract the tendency of inherited 
property to collect in large masses. I agree in thinking these are greatly 
desirable, but the means used are not, I think, the most judicious.' 

When Mill comes to his case for limitation of bequests, he touches 
somewhat lightly several economic considerations — e.g. where capital is 
employed by the owner himself, there are strong grounds for leaving it to 
him to say which one person of those who succeed him is the best equipped 
to manage it and avoid the inconveniences of the French law of breaking 
up a manufacturing or commercial establishment at the death of its 
chief. He refers to the upkeep of ancestral mansions. He regards it as 
advantageous that, while enormous fortunes are no longer retransmitted, 
there would be, by the limitation, a great multitude of persons ' in easy 
circumstances,' for from this class the community draws benefits which 
are semi-economic or non-economic. Moreover, the practice in the 
United States, neither compulsory partition nor a custom of entail and 
primogeniture, allows for liberty to share wealth between kindred and the 
public, leading to munificent bequests for public purposes. 

I will refer later to those other economic considerations which have 
merged in the discussion of taxation, both for justice and expediency. 

V. The Discussion To-day. 

Scientific economic inquiry into the subject of inheritance from the 
point of view of its purely economic effects has thus been very scanty 
amongst the classical economists. It is referred to, in passing, as a 
powerful factor in producing an uneven distribution of wealth, but its 
influence upon the direction of wealth production, or t)ie actual aggregate 

'^ Principles, B. II., Ch. II., §4. 



F,— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 185 

mass of such production, has, so far as I am aware, not been really analysed. 
The economic asjieot of the subject sufEers from the fact that it has nearly 
always been developed in an environment of political thought rather than 
scientific analysis— of a programme of social change to be formulated or 
supported. As a consequence, therefore, assumptions have been made 
and adopted, without critical examination, as the basis of the case which 
the economist ought to admit only as the conclusion of abstract argument 
or definite research. However much a politician may desire to ' get on ' 
with the argument and develop his theme, and therefore treat as axiomatic 
a common belief, the economist who treats his science seriously is hardly 
justified in imitating him. 

The normal approach to this subject is by way of innate or instinctive 
ideas as to social justice, based upon a study of distribution of product. 
It is pointed out that largo individual fortunes exist side by side with 
extremes of poverty, or that a large proportion of the natiorial income is 
enjoyed by a relatively small fraction of the people. It is suggested that 
the inequality arises from inheritance as an exercising cause, which there- 
fore serves no socially useful purpose, or even a socially harmful purpose. 
It is stated to be an offence against the general sense of the fitness of things. 
The tendency by way of reaction is to assume thai; if the right of inlieritunce 
did not exist the economic condition of affairs would not be similar, and 
that current economic problems would tend to be simpler and on their 
way to solution. This may indeed be the case, but it is not demonstrated. 
It may be one of those lucky instincts for political truth which the popular 
mind sometimes possesses. On the other hand, having regard to the 
unlucky instinct for error which popular economic ideas have been shown 
by experience to entertain, it is rather much to expect that in this particular 
matter instinctive judgment can be wholly trusted to dispense with 
analysis, reasoning, or research. To put the matter quite bluntly, any 
assumption that an apparent social injustice is also an economic ill is a 
non sequitur. I am using the word ' economic ' in a strict sense, viz. 
in relation to the aggregate production of goods and satisfactions which 
are exchangeable, and which are produced in response to human demand 
and for human satisfaction, together with their distribution to individuals. 
I use it in no ethical sense, and am not concerned with whether the things 
produced in response to demand, or first produced and then provoking 
demand, are the things most worthy of human effort, or most likely to 
lead to the highest types of life, or even in the long run to give the highest 
forms of happiness. To bring in these conceptions would be to overweight 
the argument and analysis and make it intractable. It is quite sufficient 
to deal with those aspects which are uppermost in the ordinary mind, 
that is, purely material welfare, the greatest quantity of objects of desire 
produced for the least human effort, the question of worthy use and aim 
being entirely begged until the economic conclusion is introduced into a 
set of considerations for ' the whole duty of man.' 

Dr. Dalton, in his valuable work on ' Some Aspects of the Inequality 
of Incomes in Modern Communities,' summarises much previous observa- 
tion on the subject of the effect of inheritance on the proportions of 
distribution. The different national practices in regard to inheritance 
may also be conveniently studied in his book, from which will be realised 



1 Pjf) SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that IIh' liglit of inheritance is not an absohite. liglit of ])roperty, but has 
varied much in different places and at different times even in this country. 
(I have written a short note upon it myself in the introduction to the 
English edition of Eignano's ' Social Significance of the Death Duties.') 
Dr. Dalton concludes that the effect of inheritance upon distribution of 
wealth has been almost ignored by economists.^ Ho takes the view that 
inequality of incomes is due not merely to the direct influence of bequest, 
but also indirectly because inheritance enables some to have higher earning 
power than fithers. But he does not specifically deal with the subject of 
the aggregate wealth to be divided. 

Prof. Hobhouse in his book on Liberalism says, ' Inherited wealth is 
the main determining factor in the social and economic order of our time,' 
with particular reference to the existing distribution of the common 
product. But there is no examination of its actual economic tendencj^ in 
the sense in which alone an economic answer is complete. Prof. Henry 
Clay, in his contribution to the Liberal Summer Schools, gives us the best 
approach to economic analysis of recent times, but even he does not come 
to grips with the central problem. He takes as his starting-point the 
inequality in distribution of proj^erty, as deduced statistically from the 
Estate Duty returns, and says : ' This inequality enhances and, in part, 
accounts for the inequality of incomes which is the chief cause of social 
imrest and the chief cause of waste in the modern economic system.' 
But again he recognises that inequality of property is, in part, merely a 
reflection of inequality of incomes. People with large incomes can save 
and so accumulate property. It is the diffusion of wealth that to him is 
the central problem, and, although the allied problems are there in his 
mind, he too takes much as axiomatic that I think ought to be examined. 
Mr. E. D. Simon, in a recent address to the Liberal Summer School, avows 
his object to be to point out ' how dangerous is the social effect of the 
excessive inequality of v/ealth that exists among us to-day.' He says 
' there is a strong and growing feeling among the workers that the existing 
social and industrial order, with its excessive inequalities of wealth, is 
fundamentally unjust.' And he gets the whole ' jump off ' in his argument 
by a graphic and moving contrast between the low wages and poverty of 
the jute industry and the great stone mansions of the jute lords, ' set in 
spacious, well-tended gardens." The recent debate in the House of 
Commons on this subject, when reduced to its simplest elements, 
consisted of the following nou sequiturs : 

There arc gross inequalities in wealth, which are socially unjust. 
Inheritance laws bring these about, and if they were abolished wealth 
would be better distributed. If wealth were better distributed the 
average man would be economically better off. To be better off economi- 
cally is to be aware of the fact and to be more contented. A sense of 
social justice and actual economic betterment are identical. People 
would then have a ' fair start in life.' 

The economic question-begging, or confusions of thought on the other 
side, bluntly summarised, were : ' Capital is an essential of life, and the 
worker would be badly off if it were not accumulated. Incentive is 
required for this. Right of bequest is an incentive to accumulation ; 

'P. 283. 



K— ECONOMIC yClENOE AND STATISTICS. 137 

inheritance and bequest are correlatives. Therefore, if rights of inheritance 
were altered, capital would dry up, and workers would suffer. The worker 
lias no real right to be annoyed or sulky at a system which really benefits 
him, and in which the appearance of social injustice is an illusion ; there- 
fore we can ignore the fact that he actually is annoyed and sulky. Great 
businesses give the worker something he would not otherwise liave — they 
depend on the right of accumulation, and therefore inheritance laws are 
sacrosanct." 

Now I would say that since what people think, however unjustifiably 
or erroneously, affects their conduct and motives, and has, therefore, 
economic significance, these ideas are, as existing features of conduct, 
economic /ads or ingredients. But to say they represent actual economic 
truths, or logical economic analysis, would be very inexact. 

VI. The Problem To-day. 

Before we can approach to any conclusions upon inheritance laws as 
an economic factor, we need research and analysis to give answers to a 
number of specific questions, some of them quite central and critical in 
making an economic contribution to the subject, and others less important, 
but helpful. 

First, we have those which depend upon an inductive study of periods 
and places, and which can at best be only broadly indicative of the pre- 
disposing causes : 

1. Has distribution tended to become more unequal under freedom 
of inheritance or beqiiest as tinie has gone on l 

2. Is it most unequal where freedom is greatest ? 

3. Is there any evidence that the actual standard of life and oppor- 
tunity of a person of given powers has failed to improve under such a 
system, or has improved at a less rate than it would have done under 
another system ? 

4. Is there any evidence that the actual modal standard is highest 
wherever and whenever inequalities, however caused, are least ? 

5. Ignoring the proportions in which aggregate wealth or income is 
distributed, and focussing upon the increase in the aggregate wealth or 
income of separate communities, is there anj' evidence that the rate of 
increase is greater or less in communities with most liberal rights of 
bequest ? (This is similar to 3 stated in another way, and disregards the 
effect upon average wealth which an increase or decrease of population, 
stimulated by increasing prosperity, may have.) 

Second, there is the group of questions bearing on the importance 
of inheritance amongst all the factors which proniote inequality. 

6. What other factors besides inheritance are held to promote or niain- 
tain inequality, and what is their relative importance in such causation ? 

7. What proportion of the number of recipients of the larger incomes 
draw such incomes wholly from invested sources ? What proportion of 
the total amount of income drawn liy the recipients of the larger incomes 
comes from sources unconnected with their personal toil or enterprise ? 
(This is essential to help us find the relative importance of inheritance under 
question 6.) 



188 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

8. If cessation of inheritance could in itself bring about even distribu- 
tion, what would be the maximum effect on the average worker ? 

Third. Next we have to consider, a priori, whether the even distribu- 
tion test is the economic summum honum. This involves psychological 
factors, and whether anything is economically good in itself if thinking 
does not make it so. 

9. Is absolutely even distribution an economic, as distinct from a 
social, ideal? i.e. will wealth production be at its maximum in quantity 
and quality ? 

10. If not, at what point is ' gross ' inequality reached ? By what 
standards, absolute or comparative, does one conclude that a given range 
of inequality is ' gross," ' indefensible,' and, above all, economically dis- 
advantageous ? 

11. Is a ' fair wage ' a relative or an absolute idea? i.e. in view of 
differences between different epochs and countries, is there any evidence 
that men's ideas are sufficiently stable for a ' fair wage ' finally to be 
reached ? How far is it the product of difference of station ? 

Fourth. Then we have to ask, what motives, with any economic effect, 
are set up in the human mi'id or will, by a system of free bequest ? 

12. Is the right of bequest an overmastering factor in capital accumula- 
tion ? What proportion of capital accumulation would go on without it ? 

13. Is the sense of social injustice arising from it of economic signifi- 
cance in aggregate production ? 

Fifth. There may be directional, or partial, as distinct from aggregate, 
advantages in a system, which are a useful ingredient in social and economic 
betterment, i.e. variety and stability as against mere quantitative tests. 

14. Does the right of bequest best preserve economic values which 
are of importance in particular directions, i.e. consolidation of estates, 
hindrance to natural development, the conservation of amenities as 
against utilities, continuity of policy, &c. ? 

Si.cth. In the last group we have a series of inquiries which approach 
the problem from the reverse direction, and also have a highly practical 
bearing. 

15. What are the economic consequences of discouraging or nullifying 
bequest and inheritance by heavy taxation ? Is there any evidence to 
show that its distribution is made more even in this way, ex pod facto, 
or that aggregate wealth-making is discouraged or wealth-making capacity 
is reduced ? 

16. As regards the many who benefit, what is the effect upon motives 
towards production and towards psychological contentment ? 

17. As regards the few who suffer, what is the effect upon motive to 
work and to save ? Must a given amount of taxation laid upon a given 
amount of capital wealth left at death have the same total effect, however 
it is imposed ? Is it possible to arrange the imposition on any principle 
which will depress wealth-making motives to a minimum degree and fall 
more heavily at points where the harmful economic reactions are least ? 

There is a seventh group of questions which deal with the broader 
aspects of inheritance. 

18. As other things besides objective wealth are inherited, can wealth 
be really or effectively dissociated from them ? 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 18.9 

VII. Comparative Inequality of Distribution. 

I regard the foregoing imposing schedule of questions as all pertinent 
to the economic inquiry. To some of them we have at present no answer 
at all ; to others we have a partial answer or general indication ; to others, 
again, a little reasoned analysis will afford us a high degree of probability. 
Within the scope of this paper I cannot do justice to all these questions 
or explore them all. I may perhaps summarise what we know in regard 
to some of them and give provisional answers to a few and suggest my 
views on others. 

I. I have been able to find no positive evidence that the slope of distri- 
bution has materially changed in the past hundred years.* The scale of 
wealth is different and the whole population is strung out on the line 
further up. There are probably at the very top much richer men, and 
wealth on a scale unknown in former times. In this way I think that a 
given minute fraction of the people holds to-day a slightly larger fraction 
of the total income. So much of this has arisen, in the cases of great 
wealth, from activity during the income-receiver's life that it is not so 
much a part of the problem of inheritance as of distribution of the product 
of industry, the potentiality of the industrial system and accumulation of 
savings during life. This broader aspect of distribution is not the subject 
of our discussion. Some forces tend in an opposite direction, i.e. to lessen 
the centralising force of bequest : Heavy Death Duty taxation on these 
large aggregations, and the lessening importance of land in total wealth, 
and the weakening influence of primogeniture, which makes for family 
diffusion rather than concentration. Even if the distribution slope has 
not greatly changed, probably the inheritance system affects the angle 
of the existing slope. Prof. Pigou remarks, in regard to the alleged 
immutability of the Pareto law, that income depends not on capacity 
alone, but on a combination of capacity and inherited property, and the 
latter is not distributed in proportion to capacity but is concentrated 
upon a small number of persons. This must deflect the curve from its 
normal form. The actual form cannot, therefore, be ' necessary ' unless 
the broad scheme of inheritance now in vogue is also necessary. But a 
very large change in the existing laws is not essential to bring about a 
great difference in the income curve, since property is more unevenly 
distributed. Thus 76| per cent, of the population owned only 7 per cent, 
of the property, but 73 per cent, owned 35^ per cent, of the income. 
(Clay : ' Property and Inheritance,' p. 19.) As regards the United 
States, Watkins ( Growth of Large Fortunes ') says : ' For wages, the 
upper decile is less than twice the median down to 5/4ths the median. For 
salaries it is twice the median, and for property eight times the median.' 
So far as Great Britain is concerned, the statistical indications are that 
static redistribution to-day would not add an appreciably different 
percentage to the modal income than formerly. Statistical evidence for 
past years for other countries on this point is too scanty to be of any use. 
There are no distribution figures of any value for Germany prior to 1890, 
and none for France at all, while the United States figures are good, but 
quite recent, and no comparisons with earlier times are possible. Kesearch 

•■ Vide my Wealth and Taxable Capacity, iii. 



140 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

in this field, I believe, will be barren, cand in the case of the United States, 
owing to other powerful factors, the figures would be inconclusive. 

2. Distribution seems to me to be probably less unequal where bequest 
is trammelled, i.e. the ' legitime " in Continental countries makes for family 
diffusion and equalit}^ as in France and Germany. But, for what it is 
worth, we must observe that the two richest countries have freedom, and 
the next two in order of wealth have conditional bequest. The only 
considerable one (Russia) with no rights of inheritance is now sinking into 
poverty, but this tendency, of course, cannot be assigned merely to 
inheritance custom. In any case, owing to the effects of the war, the 
comparison must be confined to pre-war years, and the evidence will be 
found in the tables in my ' Wealth and Income of the Chief Powers.' There 
is room for research and some comparative study of the diffusive effect of 
the ' legitime ' as compared wth our own system. It must be remembered 
that, so far as all past wealth is concerned, without accumulation and 
concentrative power for new wealth being fullj- maintained, there must 
be an increase in equality, even if wealth is left to all the children, where 
the effective birth-rate for the wealthy is not maintained near the national 
average. If 5 per cent, of the adult population own half the property, 
then in the two generations (assuming a similar birth-rate to the general), 
without any new accumulation, and, say, three times the total population, 
this 5 per cent, would still own one-half, but they would be three times as 
numerous and their individual shares only one-third the size. Now neiv 
accumidation must be relatively of great importance if the individual 
fortunes of the richest people are to be on the old scale of magnitude. It 
follows, therefore, that in the economics of the venj ricli, current or 
iumiediate right of accumulation tends to be much more important than 
inheritance at the second and later stages. Taxation and family diffusion 
tend to reduce the long-range inheritance effect on the size of individixal 
fortunes in such a way that, even if inheritance ceased altogether, the 
existence of the very large fortune would be very marked under the 
influence of other economic factors. 

3. My conclusions as to the average position or actual standard of 
life have already been given elsewhere.* During the 120 years prior to 
the war I concluded that the real position of a typical or standard person 
in this country — e.g. at the lower decile — had improved four times. During 
this period the inheritance system has been fully in force. There is 
nothing to prove that the rate of increase would have been more if it had 
not been in force. Education and improved health have doubtless done 
a great deal in this advance, but probably the quota of accompanying 
fixed and circulating capital per head in improved machinery and transport 
has been the most effective feature. The question is, therefore, thrown 
back on to the inquiry, which hardly admits of statistical research, whether 
the accumulation of capital (regardless of ownership) could be as great 
under another system. There are four rival systems on which we may 
depend for the aggregate saving : (1) dependence on the better-off ; 
(2) equalising individual resources and then expecting each individual 
small-income receiver to save ; (3) saving through taxation ; (4) collec- 
tive saving {e.g. company reserves). In my view the third is the least 

■'- Wealth and Taxable Capacity. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 141 

satisfactory ; the second ought to be the best, but, in fact, is not. The call 
of spending on a small income is great, and it is difficult to save perma- 
nently for fixed capital assets. One man with £10,000 and 500 with £100 
per annum may save £8,000 with its improvement in the future incomes 
of the 500, but on even distribution 501 people will each have £119, and 
they are not likely to save £16 each and spend only £103. This is where 
the redistribution due to heavy taxation is affecting our present aggregate 
savings to-day. Although the workers are saving more, they are not 
making up the gap so caused. The real rival to nineteenth-century saving 
is the saving that goes on silently through company reserves, &c., and that 
never actually becomes anyone's spendable resources at all. 

■4. Inequalities of wealth appear to be statistically less in France and 
probably in Germany, and certainly in Italy. In all these the average 
standard of life is lower than in the countries where inequality is greatest. 
There is, therefore, no statistical correlation between extremes of 
inequality and poverty of standard. The association is probably in the 
opposite direction, but this is, of course, no proof of actual or causal 
connection. 

5. The comparative rapidity of increase in total national wealth can 
be tested by statistics to only a limited extent {vide ' Wealth and Taxable 
Capacity'). We can enquire back to 1850 with the United States, whether 
other factors than inheritance are so powerful, but some research 
would be needed to give good comparisons for the countries with 
limited rights of bequest, France, drermauy, &c. 

6. Coming now to the second group of questions. No. (3, Dr. Dalton 
has auatysed some of the causes of inequality besides inheritance in the 
work referred to. But quantitatively we know little of their relation. 
Probably 110 years ago, when the income from property was to the income 
from business as 100 to 60, instead of 100 to 400 as it is to-day,^ the effect 
of inheritance and accumulation on distribution was far greater than to-day, 
when many of the highest fortunes have generally been made within the 
lifetime of the holder, without significant initial resources. I think there 
is considerable room for statistical research upon this matter in different 
countries. 

7. The proportion of people in the higher ranks of income who have 
income from occupations or businesses in which they are actively engaged, 
and also the amount of the income so earned in relation to the total income 
in each class, is, I believe, as follows : Speaking generally for the total 
incomes of those with from £10,000 to £100,000, there has been a tendency 
for the proportion of income coming from earned sources to increase, and 
it would now be about 30 per cent. The proportion of the incomes over 
£100,000, of c ourse, is rather lower. I have no means of knowing how much 
of this 70 per cent, comes from savings accumulated within the lifetime 
of the possessor, and how much from inherited wealth ; but having regard 
to the rate of increase of the national wealth in the past fifty years, and 
the rate of increase of the inheriting population, it is probably a much 
smaller proportion from inheritance than is popularly supposed. 

But when we come to consider how many of the rich people have an 
occupation earning income, there are over 70 per cent, earning and under 
''' Vide British Incomes and Properiy. 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

30 per cent, who have investment income only. (In the highest incomes 
the percentage of incomes from investment only is much smaller.) Out 
of this 30 per cent, a good proportion are of course doing voluntary unpaid 
work as magistrates or in other public positions ; another section com- 
prises women who have no opportunities ; while another section would 
be men too aged to work. As you know, the larger investment fortunes 
tend to be concentrated on the higher ages. On the whole, I should doubt 
whether the percentage of able but unoccupied men living entirely on 
investment income in these classes exceeds 10, and it may be as low as 
5 per cent., or, say, under 1,000 people.' The actual numbers of the ' idle ' 
in the classes from £1,000 to £10,000 would exceed this by far, but I have 
no means of knowing whether the percentage is greater. Moreover, of 
those gainfully employed, only a minority are drawing their earned 
incomes solely from directors' fees, and the majority have industrial or 
financial activities in which they take a personal part. 

8. I think the only test of the effect of equal distribution of wealth 
upon the average worker would be by distribution of the income. I 
have already published my statistical conclusion that if all the incomes 
in excess of £250 were pooled, then, after deducting the present taxation 
and a fund of new savings equivalent to the pre-war real savings, it would 
not give each family more than 5s. per week.* But much of this 
redistributed income is earned income, and therefore the redistribution 
of property income would give spendable income falling below this figure. 
There is room for research on this question for the United States, France, 
and Germany. 



VIII. The Standard of Life and Psychology. 

The third group of questions deals with the psychology of the standard 
of life and of ecj^uality of distribution. 

9 and 10. There is as yet no economic evidence that equality of indi- 
vidual income, whether derived from earnings or from property, would 
give the maximum economic advantage. Nor is there evidence that 
equality of investment income added to unequal earned incomes would 
give an optimum point for national production. There are three possible 
assumptions : — 

(a) That the community should take over all accumulated savings at 
death and hold them for common enjoyment in new social services in 
common forms, and in payment for all public services ; (6) that the popula- 
tion should receive the income and dividends by equal sharing ; and 



' Since 16 per cent, of the large estates corresponding to these supertax incomes 
are left by women, we may deduct 5 out of this 30 per cent., leaving 25 per cent, for 
men. But since out of all estates of the magnitude left by men, 76 per cent, are left 
by men of over sixty-four, this leaves only 6 per cent, out of the 30 per cent, for 
younger men. Making due allowance for mortality rates in the estate distribution 
tables, the estimate in the text is reasonable. 

^ Vide Wealth and Taxable Capacity, iii., and The Christian Ethic as an Economic 
Factor, Appendix III. Also Bowley : Distribution of the Product of Industry; and 
Chiozza Money : The National Wealth. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. l-tS 

(c) that compulsory family diffusion would do something to mitigate 
concentration in Britain and the United States. 

I have referred above to effects upon accumulation of savings which 
I regard as of enormous importance in economic advance. 

One may learn something from the proved effects of remission of 
taxation and social expenditure, that direct additions to individual 
resources soon exhaust their effects as direct additions to that kind of 
contentment which makes for incentive to greater or better output. The 
addition becomes the ex^^ected and the normal, and there is no evidence 
that an improved standard of life in fifty years has made, through incentive 
alone, for harder work. It has made a physically better worker, and 
improved output has proceeded from this cause. In fact, even short- 
period effects are often disappointing, and a betterment of conditions 
through improved rate of wage has been partially offset by claims to 
shorter hours by regulation or absenteeism. Here psychological effects 
are not identical in different countries, and by no means all the workers 
aim at working long enough or short enough, as the case may be, to bring 
in a normal wage. If this is the case for additional direct rewards, it is 
pretty clear that indirect additions to income through parks, libraries, 
roads, &c., are much more removed as a direct stimulus to increased 
economic effort. A small minority of workers will respond to the social 
idea in which their additional effort will not enrich the few and carry 
down the unearned property of those few to the select heirs. As regards 
those whose incentive is being considered from the point of view of depriva- 
tion of the privilege of bequest, we may study these later. A more even 
family diffusion presents a difficult problem, which the example of France 
does little to elucidate. Those who base their views as to the effects of 
inheritance not so much upon the facts of inequality as of its extent, its 
' grossness,' do not indicate at what point inequality ceases to be defensible 
and becomes mischievous. We are entirely without guidance upon this 
subject, nor does it appear that there will be a consensus of view upon it 
sufficiently stable for common action. One cannot be dogmatic upon this, 
because a similar lack of standard exists for fixing proper rates of progres- 
sion in taxation ; but the problem is roughly, though only temporarily, 
solved in practice, and progressions tend to increase in steepness, the 
instances to the contrary being very few. Just as ideas about a fair 
standard of life are relative, so ideas about the weight of taxation are 
relative too. If anyone doubts this, let him read the Parliamentary 
Debates on the subject of the income-tax at Is. 3d. in the £, which was 
' gross ' and ' indefensible ' and ' disastrous.' I think, therefore, that it 
would be exceedingly hard to say at what precise point between 1"3 and 
rS in the oc slope of the Pareto line the line becomes either economically 
indefensible or an offence against social justice. I am impressed with the 
importance of a general popular sense of social injustice as a basis for 
political ideas, in the absence of exact standards, but I distrust its finality 
as an economic conception. 

At the same time, men are moved in economic action by motive, and 
the motive is no less potent because it is incorrectly or inadequately 
informed. 

It is my conclusion, after much study of men's attitudes, that they are 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

much more afEected by comparisons than by absolute facts." Under a 
state of affairs in which accumulation, inheritance, and bequest have been 
the rule, A finds himself in possession of 10 units out of a total of 10,000, 
and he sees B enjoying 1,000 out of that total. His assumption may be 
that if the present practice of inheritance did not exist, but some other 
practice obtained in its place, he would enjoy some different number, a 
number, in his judgment, much more than 10— say 20 — and B would 
have less, say 500. Or perhaps he assumes that equality would reign, 
and that with 500 inhabitants each would enjoy 20. This, so far, is only 
an argument post hoc ergo propter hoc, for, failing demonstration, some 
other reason majr exist for the difference. But it is almost invariably 
assumed in this, as in other discussions of distribution of wealth, that 
under a system in which inheritance was not the rule, the aggregate jDroduc- 
tion to be divided would be at least the same — -viz. 10,000 units^ — -whereas 
of course it remains a probability that it would be either less or more, 
and an improbability that it would be identical, for the inheritance system 
must have some appreciable economic effect on accumulation and produc- 
tion. Sujjpose, for example, that inheritance, whatever its effects on 
distribution, has a net beneficial effect on aggregate production ; then it 
might well be that, instead of 10,000 units, there would in its absence be 
only 8,000, of which A would have 18 and B 500— that is, the distribution 
is not so extreme, though, measured absolutelj^, all are worse oft'. Now 
men are not given to the comparison of absolute changes, mainly because 
they arc not available at any moment of time, and arc at best historical. 
Thej^ do not compare their own absolute position at one moment in their 
actual condition with what it would be in liypothetical conditions. 
Neither does it im2)ress them very much if it is proved to them that under 
the existing scheme of society they are four or five times as well off abso- 
lutely in goods and services as their forefathers in similar circumstances 
a hundred years ago. They compare themselves with their fellows at 
the same moment of time. So a man may be even worse oft' absolutely, 
but his sense of social justice will be less oft'ended if the difference between 
himself and B is less marked than it was. He would rather have 10 jjcr 
cent, of a moderate cake than 8 per cent, of a larger one, because he is 
always comparing his angle of the sector with another man's angle or the 
length of the arc, but never thinks of the cubic content. As a matter of 
fact, any sense of injustice in distribution based upon this attitude of mind 
is a very poor measure of actual economic welfare. 

We can thus postulate three possible positions of the economic aggre- 
gate for a community which results when a system of unlimited inheritance 
is banned as compared with a system where inheritance is in force. The 
first is that it would be lower, the second that it would be the same, and 
the third that it would be greater. But this tells us little about the 

f '•> Dr. Daltou, in touching upon ambiguities and confusions between absolute and 
relative shares, dismisses this aspect by accepting it. ' Though absolute shares are 
the chief determinant of actual economic welfare, relative shares are one of the 
determinants of the potential economic welfare, which might be realised under a 
difierent scheme of distribution. Human psj'chology is such that the satisfaction, 
and hence the economic welfare derived from an income, depends not onl,y on the 
absolute size of this income, but also on its relative size as compared with other 
incomes.' Op. cit., p. 161. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



145 



fortunes of a particular person A of given ability and energy in that 
community. These three cases may be subdivided to give twelve con- 
ceivable positions. 



1. Where the aggregate is lower than 10,000, say 8,000 units. 





A's actual 
position. 


Wealth 

distribution 

and A's sense 

of justice. 


(a) A's fraction higher than l/500th and actual sum 

greater than 20— say 25 or 1 /320th 
(6) A's fraction higher than l/oOOth, but actual sum 

the same— say 20 or l/400th .... 

(c) A's fraction the same, but actual sum lower — say 
16 or l/500th 

(d) A's fraction and actual sum both lower — say 
15 or l/600th 


better 
same 
worse 
worse 


better 

somewhat 
better 

same 
worse 



2. Where the aggregate is the same— 10,000 units. 



A's actual 
position. 


Wealth 
distribution 
and A's sense 
: of justice. 


better 


better 


same 


same 


worse 


worse 



(a) A's fraction higher than l/500th and actual sum 

greater than 20— say 25 or 1 /400th 
(6) A's fraction and sum the same — 20 and l/500th . 
(c) A's fraction worse and actual sum lower — say 

16 or l/625th 



3. Where the aggregate is higher, say 12,000 units. 



j Wealth 
A's actual i distribution 
position. and A's sense 
of justice. 



(a) A's fraction higher and actual sum higher — say 
l/400th or 30 units 

(6) A's fraction the same and actual sum higher 
l/500th or 24 

(c) A's fraction lower, but actual sum higher — l/545th 
or 22 . . 

(d) A's fraction lower, but actual sum the same 
l/600th or 20 

(c) A's fraction lower and actual sum lower — l/800th 
or 15 



better 


better 


better 
1, 


same 


better 


worse 


sa tne 


worse 


. 1 worse 


worse 



On the assumption that it is a definitely higher //ad joh of the total, 
as distinct from a definitely better absolute amount, which will give rise 
to a feeling of greater contentment or a less sense of social injustice, it is 
1926 L 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

clear that there are only three out of twelve possible alternatives which 
can yield the required result, although there are five possible cases in which 
A may be actually no worse ofi and five in which he may/eeZ worse off. 



Here I may pass to question 13. 

To what extent does a feeliry of social injustice operate to affect a 
man's motives to make him work harder, or less hard, or work less regu- 
larly, and thus in itself become, psychologically, an economic factor 
affecting the aggregate production ? It is only in certain special circum- 
stances that the feeling will lead to harder work. It would do so where 
an effort to escape the inferior position is great, but this is hardly distin- 
guishable from the incentive which is afforded by the prospect of wealth, 
and of distinction itself, which must be examined later. It is probable 
that with many temperaments the feeling operates to exasperate, not, 
indeed, all the time, but at occasional periods when the difference is brought 
home by some marked external incident. It is probable, therefore, that 
it contributes to an underlying feeling of unrest, and a complete unwilling- 
ness to do more for the wages obtained than the minimum that will pass 
muster. There must be many thousands, even millions, who continue to 
accept inequality, not so much of wealth, as of wealth due to inheritance, 
as part of the scheme of things against which they have little grievance. 
They are believers in ' luck,' and coming into wealth from a forgotten uncle 
in Australia may move to envy, but it does not lead into malice or resent- 
ment. These vast numbers are sufficiently untouched in their economic 
activity by a sense of social injustice in everyday life not to work less 
faithfully or less hard. There are, however, numbers who, in times of dis- 
tress and unemployment or labour trouble, can be brought to considerable 
moral reaction against any display of luxury on the part of the ' classes ' 
who do not work for a living. We have heard of the resentment against 
mining royalties, which as a peculiarly provocative form of inherited 
wealth are contributory in a marked degree to that lack of good feeling in 
the mining industry which has a marked economic significance in output. 
In my judgment the feeling of resentment against wide differences of 
fortune due to inherited wealth is seldom distinguished in popular feeling 
from differences due to the right of accumulation as distinct from inherit- 
ance. It is the inequality of reward and the multiplying power of 
accumulated wealth which excites animosity, not so much that particular 
part of it which may be due to the inheritance system. I- find it difficult 
to believe that a sense of social injustice addressed simply to the existence 
of a system of inheritance is, in itself, an important economic factor. The 
average man is unaware that inheritance is not a ' natural right ' existent 
at all times and in all places. If he has any sense of injustice it is against 
inequality in general, and not to inequality as brought about by this 
system. 

I have made many inquiries in America of workmen and of those who 
are in touch with them and know their psychology, and I am assured that 
grievances about inheritance as such have no adverse effect whatever on 
production. Indeed, I was assured that inequality of wealth, to which 
this is contributory, stirs men to effort, to emulation, to ambition, and 



F.— EC!ONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 147 

gives a dream and a goal. In this sense the inequality serves to urge 
many to greater efforts than would otherwise be made if all were on a 
dead level of attainment and power. 

At the same time, so far as this country is concerned, if there were 
no inherited wealth at all, it might be easier for the average mind to accept 
as inevitably associated with difference in human capacity, and even with 
the luck of the game, inequalities of fortune arising entirely in their own 
lifetime. But the rooted practice of the ' legitime ' in France gives an 
entirely different outlook upon the abolition of inheritance altogether in 
its psychological influence. 

I can give the answer to question 11 only generally, viz. that ideas 
concerning the standard of life and fair wages are relative and not absolute. 
As arrived at subjectively, they are of little use as an indication of economic 
actualities or possibilities. I have dealt with this elsewhere.^" 

The right of bequest and the right of inheritance respectively may 
differ as incentives. When we come to consider the effect of an 
inheritance system, we have four sections to study. We divide, first, 
on a time basis, into those living at the time wealth is accumulated in 
response to the stimulus of the system, and those living at later times 
when the wealth accumulated has been inherited, and when the system 
has the effect of ' dictating ' the distribution of currently produced wealth. 
Again, we di\'ide the people in each period into two functional sections, 
those who do the accumulating and those who watch others do it. 

Here we are in the field of personal views about human psychology in 
the mass, although the statistics of the growth of life insurance, and the 
proportion of wealth left out of the direct family line, are valuable. There 
is room for research into systematic life-insurance statistics, but the 
indications are clear that the family-provision incentive (including a 
buttress against death duties) is more powerful even than formerly. 
There is fair statistical evidence that the proportion of amounts bequeathed 
to distant relatives and ' strangers ' to those bequeathed to close relatives 
was relatively stationary in the depressed eighties, and, with the rising 
tide of prosperity in the twenty years before the war, slowly rose and has 
since fallen. Two kinds of incentive must be distinguished — the first 
is to save more out of a definite income or work, and the second is to 
produce more in order that still more may be saved. Two kinds of 
objectives must be distinguished : first, provision for old age merging into 
provision for a surviving widow, but irrespective of children's welfare ; and, 
second, provision definitely for children or others. A positive and a 
negative side must be distinguished : first, the positive right to bequeath 
may have less importance in creating savings that would otherwise not 
exist, than the knowledge that all savings would be annihilated would 
have in stopping savings coming into existence at all. If there were no 
power to bequeath by inter vivos giving, there would be a great tendency 
to individual cZecumulation. 

My own view, after long consideration of the available data, is that the 
power to bequeath savings that will remain intact is a most important 
factor in wealth accumulation and saving, and the desire to leave these 
savings for the direct line, children and grandchildren, is an important 

"> Wealth and Taxable Capacity, iii. Also Christian Ethic as an Economic Factor. 

l2 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

special case of that incentive.^^ But I am equally convinced that the 
mental horizon, which is so powerful an agent in business calculations 
during life, which reduces the present value of a reversion over fifty years 
hence to a negligible figure, is even more restricted for events after death. 
The fate of one's savings, with the special case of landed estates ruled out, 
after, say, thirty or forty years, has but a negligible influence on present 
eft'ort or production. I therefore accept the popular estimate of this 
incentive, but I emphasise it much more in its immediate effects and 
belittle it much more in its final effects. This distinction is of great 
importance in the theory of taxation. 

As regards incentive to the recipients, it is possible to exaggerate its 
influence in making idle men, who would otherwise add more to the mass 
of production. This effect really exists, but it is a very slight percentage 
of potential production, however glaring individual cases may be. A man 
who has great capacity to add to production and raise the general standard, 
has enough character not to be idle and unproductive simply because he 
has other means ; indeed, he may play less for safety and be a risk- taker 
and pioneer, and so add to economic welfare. The gilded idlers would 
not, in any case, have made much greater economic additions than their 
own subsistence. I am not referring to moral or ethical aspects, of course. 

But the effect upon subsequent saving and accumulation is most 
important. A man with an inherited fortune of £20,000 who works hard 
and makes, say, £1,500 a year, has no strong incentive to do any more 
saving out of his combined income of £2,500, and may be content to pass 
on the £20,000 intact. But for this fortune he might have been a new 
saver. I think there is singularly little statistical evidence of accumulative 
saving, and while inheritance sustains inequality, it does not greatly 
increase it ; the old inequalities of fortune are fed from new inequalities in 
earning and the immediate bequests made from that source. I doubt, 
therefore, if the deterrents to saving which high death duties create are 
so important in their final effects when one considers the increased 
incentive to new saving (and perhaps effort) which the lesser fortune to 
the recipient brings about. 

IX. Special Cases o£ Inheritance. 

(fl) Land. — One of the most obvious ways in which the laws or practice 
of inheritance move to a direct economic result is in the sphere of land 
tenure. Clearly, there will be a prima facie difference between the 
agricultural conditions that would exist after a long period of compulsory 
division of property on Continental lines as compared with centuries of 
primogeniture and the desire to maintain large land-units intact. There 
have been certain important changes lately in the law of property which 

^1 For estates over £1,000, 80 per cent, of the married men and 90 per cent, of 
widowers have children living at the time of their death, while married women and 
widows have children in 68 to 70 per cent, of the cases. There is no weakening of 
these figures — if anythmg, the reverse — m the higher sections. In 10 per cent, of the 
cases of single men there are parents living at the time of death. Intestacy, of course, 
decreases with the size of theestate, and in the case of single men,for estates exceeding 
£1,000, over 21 per cent, die intestate; but in the case of married men it is under 
10 per cent., and even less for widowers. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 149 

may have economic reactions, but I am leaving the whole of this field to 
the succeeding paper by Sir Henry Rew on the effect of land-tenure 
systems on production. 

In stressing the iniportance of the right of bequest without diffusion, 
reference is frequently made to the continuity of management and interest 
in large businesses. A man of energy and resource builds up a great 
business, and one of his incentives is the knowledge that he is training 
his son to follow him and make it greater and better. The old instinct 
which vented itself in landed estates passes to commerce. It is urged 
that the right to bequeath and the power to keep the control in the family 
has been an actual feature in economic development, in this country at 
any rate, and a study of the history of typical firms, especially in the 
North of England, during the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century, 
does much to confirm it. But it is doubtful whether such a practice 
occupies a sufficiently important place to-day to deserve a front place in 
the general argument. Two modern features have seriously influenced 
it. The fiirst is the growth of an independent managerial class as a pro- 
fession who can, for a salary, pass from business to business and lead 
its administration. The second is the facility with which private businesses 
at the height of success pass into the joint-stock form, often with a public 
issue of preference shares, and the family taking the cash and retaining 
the equity.i^ The percentage of profit made by private businesses out 
of the total changed from 70 to a little over 30 in a period of forty years. 
It would be a bold thing to say that a big business depended to any serious 
extent upon continuation of direct family control or interest for a number 
of generations. On the contrary, the infusion of new blood and outside 
interest has rejuvenated many a business that has been living on its 
traditions. The death of a rich part-owner rarely affects modern business. 
The proportion of wealth, excluding War Loan, passing in the form of shares 
at death, has increased from 32 to 48 per cent, of the whole in ten years. 
However important this element of inheritance may have been in the 
past, it is now relatively insignificant in dealing with the whole mass of 
accumulated saving. 

A correspondent who raises no claim to be an economist sends me a 
thoughtful letter in which he says : — 

' I live in the country and have some opportunities of observing and 
reflecting upon the more primitive social and economic order of the country- 
side, centuries behind the specialised professional labour of the city only 
a dozen miles away. As long as sons generally followed their father's 
trade— as I suppose they mostly did in England until a century ago— it 
seemed reasonable that a son shoidd inherit his father's tools, and this 
not so much because he is a son as because he is a junior partner in business. 
For any outside body, parish, county, or state to step in with an extraneous 
€laim to these tools or to some of them is simply to shatter the economic 
order and the chance of maintaining production just when the business 

'^ Fide Chapman and Ashton on 'Sizes of Businesses' {Statistical Journal, 1914) 
and ' Growth of Textile Businesses ' (S.J., 1926). Out of 221 concerns in 1884, 127 
were private firms with a modal size of 20,000 spindles, the mode for companies being 
about 80,000. In 1924, out of 203, only 5 were private, with 20,000 spindles as a 
maximum. The mode of the companies was about 110,000 spindles. 



150 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

is hard hit by the loss of its senior partner. To-day " tools " might be 
interpreted in the city to include a factory and all its machinery ; in the 
country 1,000 acres of woodland is a means of production using the sun's 
radiant energy instead of coal. The limited liability company is a shock- 
absorbing system in the economic order of the city, and factory work 
goes on in spite of the funeral of a director. In the more primitive order 
of the country the death of the landlord may paralyse his estate. Even 
if one were to accept the argument that big estates ought to be broken 
up into small estates (no matter whether these would be more or less 
remunerative per acre), one effect of heavy death duties levied on rural 
estate is to withdraw capital from agriculture at a most inconvenient 
moment. Death duties on a landlord's personal effects — pictures, furni- 
ture, &c. — might have one sort of justification — the distribution of luxuries. 
Death duties (in excess of one year's rent on land) may mean the paralysis 
of repairs, fencing, draining, planting, &c., for years, and inhibition of 
capital development for decades. It might be more defensible if death 
duties on land all went to the Board of Agriculture, to be redistributed 
to the same industry in the form of agricultural education, expert advice, 
new breeding stock, &c. But the drain on the capital sources of the industry 
(to be distinguished from the drain on individuals) has widespread effects 
which need not be confused with the whinings of discomforted individuals. 
The old order accepted disposition by will to the family ; it was justified 
as long as the family continued the business. If the families do not 
continue the business, would it be wise to initiate a .new order in which 
inheritance should go by occupation, so that if a manufacturer died intestate 
his employees would succeed to his factory, so that legacy duties should 
differentiate not in favour of near relatives, but in favour of those in the 
same business, so that if there were any death duties these should 
go not to the State but to the trades union, or in bonus shares to the 
employees ? ' 

Businesses both of landowning and of commerce have become so 
impersonalised that no great case for unlimited powers of bequest for 
economic reasons can be based on the objective personal link. We are 
thrown back on the subjective factors. 

X. 

In the sixth group, with questions 15 to 17, we touch upon the large 
question of the influence of taxation, and it would take me too far afield 
to deal with them at all adequately, because they involve comparisons 
with the effect of alternative methods of raising revenue. But the Report 
of the Colwyn Committee on Taxation and the National Debt, with which 
I am concerned, will, when issued, probably deal with many features 
germane to this address. I will content myself with saying that if practical 
considerations are ignored, to raise a given revenue with some reference 
to graduation by order of succession and time on the Rignano principle, 
and to extend the graduation of taxation of bequests outwards by relation- 
ship, would, in my judgment, offer some important economic advantages 
over the present methods of raising the revenue. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 151 

XI. Inheritance of Ability. 

The principle of the inheritance of wealth is complicated by its biological 
affiliations. A man has certain qualities which make for distinction and 
success in himself and for unusual service at the same time to the com- 
munity. His son may inherit a full or partial measure, and this inheritance 
is a factor of economic importance, making both for an uneven distribution 
of the aggregate of wealth, which is obvious, and also, what is less obvious, 
for a greater economic aggregate for all to share. Now such inherited 
powers, so far as they exist, are a part of nature, and cannot be gainsaid, 
nor abrogated nor repealed. But in a developed national science of 
eugenics, in a socialistic community with a certain type of socialist ideal, 
in which equality of division of wealth (or wealth-making power) is counted 
as of greater importance than the greatest accretion to aggregate wealth 
unevenly divided (by which the individual benefit may be even greater 
after subtracting the rich man's portion), it would be logical to direct 
human mating so that inherited tendencies to superior wealth-making 
powers should be diffused or defeated. If it were found that the mating 
of types A and B would perpetuate a characteristic particularly forceful 
in economic afiairs for the individual exercising that characteristic under 
the hedonic stimulus, and not exercising it under any other, but that the 
mating of A and C would obliterate it, then the obvious duty of those 
who put equality of wealth as paramount would be to promote eugenic 
laws that discouraged A and B and encouraged A and C to matrimony. 
But I do not wish to pursue this type of eugenic speculation. I am dealing 
with the inheritance of qualities, only because of the argument that a 
man's accumulated wealth is an objective extension of his personality, a 
material result of his qualities, and that if nature passes on the effective 
element of his personality to his heirs this extension logically and legiti- 
mately, by social sanction, goes with them. 

In my judgment, while we are apt to regard the cultivation of mental, 
moral, and physical qualities, and their effect upon future descendants, 
as biological problems, internal to the human organism, we also tend to 
regard those extensions of a man's personality which are reflected in his 
ability to acquire and accumulate belongings around him, as purely 
economic. No such hard-and-fast line is final. A man may enrich his 
life by the expenditure of a part of his income in immediate travel and 
widening of his powers and knowledge, or he may externalise it by the 
acquisition of works of art, or he may put it into the field of economics 
by saving that portion of his income so that it will jdeld him an income 
which will perhaps enable him to travel or to extend his personality in 
some way or other in years to come, after he has ceased to be an earner. 
Similarly in his treatment of his children. For one he may spend a large 
amount of money to make him a professional man, a doctor or solicitor, 
in which case the bequest or inheritance goes on without any obvious sign 
of his ' leaving ' wealth. To another son he may leave an equivalent 
amount to be invested in a business, and if they are men of equal ability 
it may be assumed that the income from personal effort and invested 
capital will be similar in the business and in the profession. In the one 
case the effect of inheritance is clear ; in the other it is masked. Nothing 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

can stop him bequeathing certain personal qualities of character and the 
environment of early life to his children, and they perhaps, in a less marked 
degree, to his grandchildren, but that extension of his personality which 
represents the modification of their environment by their control over 
saved wealth seems to be on another footing. But a man conscious 
that his sons were ' fitted ' in the best sense, and that they ought to 
survive, could help their survival both by personal training and also by 
accumulation of wealth which he bequeaths to them, in either case repre- 
senting personal self-denial, and in either case representing some quality 
imposed upon their human environment. Whetham, in ' The Family 
and the Nation,' says that unless the fittest to survive hand on their 
qualities to a larger number of descendants than are left by the failures, 
natural selection cannot act. It is of no use for an organism individually 
to survive unless it transmits the character which enabled it to do so to 
a preponderating number in succeeding generations. A struggle for life 
and the survival of the fittest are meaningless alone ; the qualities of the 
fittest must survive superabundantly his own fleeting existence if the 
struggle and the survival are to produce any good effects on the race. 
The bequest of some investment income to a man undoubtedly enables 
that man to be freed from some of life's cares, and in that sense to devote 
himself more closely to his pursuits, and to make him more fitted to 
survive. The qualities that brought about the original accumulation 
have had social advantages, and the reflection of those qualities is in their 
tangible objective results plus the subjective capacity for continuation of 
them. Whether qualities are inherited in a great measure or a small, and 
whether they are important as economic factors, I am not greatly con- 
cerned, for such inheritance, so far as it is a fact, is unalterable, and I am 
pursuing this subject more with its bearing upon practical social action 
in mind. So if biological inheritance is marked and substantial, the 
argument for transmission of accompanying wealth may be relevant. 
But if biological inheritance is wayward or unimportant, the bequest 
argument, however closely knit to such heredity, has certainly no greater 
force. Suppose that it could be shown that only in one case in ten thousand 
does the distinctive personality of a parent descend to his son. Then, 
even if the argument that objective extensions of that j^ersonality should 
not be separated from it were fully valid, it could only apply to one case 
in ten thousand. Moreover, even if the biological descent were effective 
one hundred per cent., the doctrine does nothing to support freedom of 
bequest or primogeniture or the British ideas at all. If the argument is 
valid at all, since every child would share its parents' personality, every 
child should share the parents' wealth, and the doctrine leads towards 
family diffusion of fortunes on the Continental princiiale of 'legitime,' and 
would discontinue all bequest out of the direct blood descent, to collaterals, 
&c. Besides, even in the direct line any force the argument possesses 
is greatly weakened. If a man can claim on biological grounds his inherit- 
ance of ability from a great-grandparent to be a merely fractional part, 
qualified and diffused by his inheritance from seven other primary sources, 
then his right to rank his claim superior to the rest of the community for 
the inheritance of the whole of the wealth is equally tenuous. Nevertheless, 
the bioloi^ical argument may have some economic ' point ' so far as the 



I 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIKNCE AND STATISTICS. 153 

first generation is concerned, mainly when it is viewed in its eugenic setting, 
(1) Heredity in genius exists to a definite extent, and this fact has economic 
value to the community, since, if one dare put a qualitative aspect in quanti- 
tative terms, a community of 100 persons of n degrees of ability flus one 
with 100 n degrees, will reach higher economic levels than a community 
of 101 persons each with n-\-\ degrees. 

The starting-point of any consideration of the inheritance of ability 
is Sir Francis Galton's great work on ' Hereditary Genius,' published in 
1869, and recently quoted with approval by the Whethams in their book 
on ' The Family and the Nation,' in which the most recent eugenic and 
biological views confirm Galton's works. Galton found that the propor- 
tion of eminent men in the population — that is, eminent in the sense of 
having manifested unusual ability — was about 250 in the million, or about 
"025 per cent., and it was found that the chance of the son of a man of 
great ability, such as a judge, himself showing great ability, was five 
hundred times as great as that for a man taken at random. (You must 
refer to these works to see the effect, upon these chances, of marriage 
with an able or an ordinary woman respectively.) The Whethams state 
as a conclusion : ' As long as ability marries ability a large proportion of 
able offspring is a certainty, and ability is a more valuable heirloom in a 
family than mere material wealth, which, moreover, will follow ability 
sooner or later.' 

They say : ' Since the assumption of the responsibility of offspring 
falls on those of the younger generation whose financial position, even in 
the upper classes, is usually not yet secure, it should become an increasing 
habit for the older generation, where they have it, to distribute a sub- 
stantial part of their property during their lifetime. Such a distribution 
should not excite the animosity of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
Security or affluence often comes too late to make easy the heavy burdens 
of early maturity, and when it comes provides but bitter reflection over 
lost opportunity. Those in the prime of life can make the best use of 
wealth in the service of the nation. May each generation as they grow 
older learn to relinquish it in time to watch their successors meet their 
responsibilities fully.' 

Let us assume that the peak responsibility of the average married 
couple is reached at a period in their lives when they have not got to their 
highest earning power, and that they could do better for their families — 
educate them better, and bring them up in a superior style — if they had 
some assistance from outside. 

There could be no better eugenic or sociological institution than a 
kind of moving annuity which should pass from generation to generation, 
not at the death of each person, but from him to his children at a point 
when his personal need for it has become less, and when his son's need for 
it has become greatest. The inheritance would not, therefore, be one 
passing at death, but would be one passing at middle life ; it would be 
like a permanent endowment of the family at its most difficult periods, 
and there could be no more honourable object of ambition than to endow 
one's family and descendants in this way, because it would be of the 
highest eugenic value to the community. In middle life a man cannot 
both save for his old age and retirement and also spend the best of his 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

income upon his family. It is here that the inheritance from the previous 
generation, coming at an earlier date, would enable him to be sure of this 
fund in time, and to save his own surplus towards his own old age, after 
he had passed on what might be called the succession, to his children. 

What, however, is the upshot of a ' survey ' of the biological side of 
inheritance upon the economic aspects of inheritance of wealth without 
a more minute analysis of its trend ? 

The more we survey the biological field the less do we find justification 
for inheritance of wealth by others than direct descendants or dependents. 
On the other hand, it does seem to me that we derive considerable support 
for the orthodox view that the power to make bequests in the direct line 
is an important economic factor in the accumulation of capital and in great 
personal effort. It does not, indeed, justify that kind of inter vivos giving 
which means the escape, almost on the death-bed, or within three years 
from it, from the Chancellor's net, but it does support the scheme of trans- 
mission of wealth in middle life as an economic factor of some importance, 
and a worthy use of accumulated wealth, which cannot be regarded as a 
net toll upon the community in view of its indirect contribution to the 
community. The argument, of course, spends its force as generations 
go on. 

XH. Conclusions. 

It will have been seen that the answers we have to the critical questions 
put at the outset vary in completeness and conclusiveness, and that in 
certain fields fruitful research is possible. Certain " elements that have 
at one time been highly significant are now of less importance, while others 
are emerging. 

My own present views, which, of course, are provisional in the sense 
that they are open to modification as new facts emerge and as analysis 
reveals tendencies not previously put into the balance, are as follows : — 

1. In the past century unprecedented economic advance has been due 
in the main to the greater use of invention and fixed capital. This has, 
in turn, made new accumulation of savings possible, and has been made 
possible by the growing fund of accumulation. In this accumulation 
the principle of inheritance or bequest has played an important part. 
Where there has been freedom from the shackles of a family-diffusion 
system the greater progress has been possible. The individual motives 
which are operative under such a system are stronger than ever, but 
operate over a diminishing part of the field ; they are also stronger over 
a short period, and of diminishing effect over a long period of time. In 
other words, communal saving via company reserves (not subjected to 
the individual volition for saving against spending) and via repayment of 
debt through funds derived from taxation, and via large capital efforts 
(housing, &c.) partly financed through taxation, is an increasing proportion 
of the total. Although some of the values set up by such collective sums 
may figure in individual estate values, they are not created or destroyed 
by interference with, or promotion of, the right of inheritance. 

2. The remaining considerable section of capital accumulation is still 
powerfully affected by inheritance rights, and would be more affected 
than heretofore by interference with rights in the direct line, though less 
affected than hitherto bv rights out of that line. More considerable 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 155 

changes might be made in the loidtli of the rights than hitherto without 
seriously affecting accumulation. On the other hand, the time clement 
is changing — accumulation is just as sensitive in the immediate provision 
and immediate rights of family enjoyment, but less sensitive to change 
(by restriction or encouragement) in the most remote rights. 

3. The sense of ' social injustice ' is directed against inequality of 
wealth, of which inequality through inheritance is not now the larger 
part. This sense, if limited to inheritance features, has less economic 
reaction than is generally supposed. In any case, it is a sense which is 
not scientifically based. I think it probable that, through the inequalities 
due to the system in which inheritance has a part, the average man has 
a slightly smaller proportionate share of the aggregate than he would 
have had if there had been no inheritance system, but a substantially 
larger absolute amount, because he shares a larger aggregate or better 
standard of life than he would have had under a system with no such 
aid to accumulation. Whether under these circumstances he is justified 
in having a sense of injustice, whether it is better for human welfare to 
have a low standard without envj^, or a higher one with envy, is a matter 
lying beyond economics in the sphere of social psychology and philosophy. 

4. The particular claims for unlimited rights of bequest, as settling 
the best economic direction and control, are gradually losing their force. 

5. The princij^les upon which death duty taxation is at present based, 
though they may be the best available when administrative aspects are 
included, might be improved upon by closer regard to the foregoing 
analysis. The actual sum now being raised is not necessarily more 
harmful economically than a similar sum raised by additional income- 
tax, but it is more repressive in accumulation than the same sum would 
be if a less sum were raised at lower rates on the first succession and the 
balance were raised at higher rates on succeeding successions.^^ 

'•^ The practical aspects are discussed in the Stalisiical Journal, May 1926. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



THE PRESENT AND FUTURE 
DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRICITY 

SUPPLY. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR JOHN F. C. SNELL, G.B.E., M.Ikst.C.E., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The rapid and almost universal development of electricity affords an 
example of the practical application of a great source of power in nature 
to the use and convenience of mankind with which there is no parallel. 
In telegraphy, telephony, telephotography, and especially in wireless 
telegraphy, the effects on humanity have been incalculable. Wireless 
telegraphy especially adds nowadays to the amenities of life, whether 
broadcasting world news, weather forecasts, music or educational addresses. 
It enables commimication to be effected between, and the safe direction 
of, ships at sea in fog and all weathers, and the direction of aeroplanes 
and dirigibles in fog or at night, and it thus greatly lessens the risks of 
those who go down to the sea in ships or who travel by air. 

The jubilee of the telephone was celebrated only a few weeks ago, 
and wireless telegraphy has come into prominence within recent years. 

The aid to the surgeon and the electrical treatment of various diseases 
have enormously reduced human suffering ; the investigations and researches 
of J. J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, and others have thrown a new and 
vivid light upon our conception of the structure of matter, and have aided 
the knowledge and researches of both the physicist and the chemist. 
Finally, in the almost universal application to all kinds of mechanical 
requirements — ranging from 100,000 kw. turbine generators or heavy 
freight locomotives at one end of the scale to motor-driven sewing-machines 
or vacuum cleaners at the other end — the advance it may simply be said 
has been remarkable. 

Is there any other known form of energy which can be so readily and 
generally applied to large and small power, chemical and metallurgical 
processes, the production of light in various forms, or to all sorts of heating 
appliances, surgical and dental implements and laboratory instruments 
of the highest attainable degree of accuracy — in short, capable of almost 
universal application to all kinds of tools and transformation into various 
kinds of energy ? 

The development of electricity supply as a necessary agent in the 
progress of civilisation has been accomplished within a very few years, 
for there was no general supply available in any part of the world prior 



G.— ENGINEERING. 157 

to 1889. Great Britain may be said to have been the pioneer of the 
public supply of electricity. The first legislation actually dates from 
1882, but effectively only from 1888. An electrical supply industry has 
grown up in Great Britain by authorised undertakers (excluding railways 
and private plants), in which alone over £200,000,000 has been expended 
within the short period of thirty-seven years. In the earlier years distribu- 
tion was confined to low-pressure direct current, with its necessarilv 
restricted economic radius of supply, and to single-phase distribution at 
higher pressures for series arc lighting, applied in some districts to what 
was known as the ' house-to-house ' system at pressures of 2,000 volts, 
and reduced by house transformers to the required service pressure. 

It is interesting to note that at the present day, owing to the increasing 
difficulties of meeting the growing density of loads due to domestic require- 
ments and the relatively high cost of L.T. distribution, there is a revival 
of the ' house-to-house ' system where there are large blocks of buildings 
to be supplied. To such blocks of premises H.T. mains can be laid and 
transformers can be installed locally in order to reduce the street pressure 
to the low pressure required by consumers in the building itself. 

The whole trend of development in this country was then towards 
the adoption of small local government areas as the areas of electricitv 
supply, fostered largely by the technical restrictions brought about by 
the imperfect systems then available. The scientific world was divided 
into two camps — one favouring direct current, which has the advantage of 
using accumulators or storage batteries, and the other declaring in favour 
of alternating current. At that time only carbon-filament lamps were 
available, the single-phase alternating motor had not been perfected, and 
multi-phase currents were commercially unknown. Electricity was 
supplied mainly for lighting purposes, with a consequent low load factor. 
Hence very numerous independent systems of small size grew up, with the 
result that numerous private generating stations were installed in local 
factories and the larger workshops. 

Individual development rather than collective effort was encouraged, 
and was, indeed, probably the only way at that time along which progress 
could have been made. The whole art of electricity generation and supply 
was also undergoing rapid development, and was the subject of numerous 
experiments by many designers, some of whom adopted 100 cycles for 
their alternating-current systems, others 93, 90, 87.5, 85, 83.5, 80, down 
to 25 or 16 1 cycles, so that a chaotic condition followed, made worse by 
a want of agreement between the engineers engaged on the work as to 
the most effective pressures of supply. 

Distribution systems were gradually evolved from a simple 2-wire 
system, which, due to the influence of Hopkinson, became a 3-wire system, 
greatly reducing the weight of conductor required for any given amount 
of energy distributed and also extending the economic radius of supply. 

There were two instances of 5-wire distribution, in Manchester and 
St. Pancras, but these proved to be cumbersome and costly and were 
eventually changed back to the 3-wire systems. 

Among one's earliest recollections is the change-over in Kensington, 
under that veteran Colonel Crompton, from 100 to 200 volts and from 
a 2-wire to a 3-wire system ; and again under the late Prof. H. Kobinson, 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

when he laid the St. Pancras 5-wire system ; the space occupied under 
the streets over thirty years ago by electrical mains would not be available 
or allowable to-day. 

An extension of the useful radius of direct-cmrent supply was made 
in this city and came to be known as the Oxford system ; this was applied 
to several other localities. Electricity was generated at 2,000 volts direct 
current, or thereabout, and transmitted to sub-stations in which motor 
generators reduced the pressure to that required for local distribution 
and service to consumers, thus enabling a wider radius to be suppUed from 
the generating station. 

In those days great benefits were derived from the engineering skill 
of Willans, whose high-speed single-acting engines were largely used iu 
the power stations of that time, and later from the splendid double-acting 
high-speed engines built by Belliss & Morcom and other well-known makers 
of high-speed sets. 

It was not uncommon then to construct non -condensing generating 
stations, largely owing to the low load factor of the system ; the con- 
sumption of coal per unit generated was correspondingly great and wasteful. 

It is interesting to note how far we have progressed by comparing the 
ideal put forward by Colonel Crompton thirty-two years ago with present- 
day results. 

The ideal cost of production was then placed at 1.^2d., excluding capital 
charges, and the average price to the consumers 3d. It is true that the 
load factor was only 20 per cent, and the capital outlay then as much as 
£125 per kw.i. At the present time the average revenue from all classes 
of consumer is 1.15d. — the average station load factor 29 per cent, and the 
capital outlay £52 per kw. 

Far too little credit has been given to the pioneer work of Dr. Ferranti, 
who was the first to advocate generation on a large scale and transmission 
by high pressure over an extensive area of supply. It was he, in fact, who 
initiated this system at Deptford, necessarily limited to single-phase 
current in those early years. The principles now generally accepted were 
enunciated by him many years ago. 

Then came the revolutionary discovery of the practical application of 
multi-phase currents, with all the attendant advantages arising from 
simpler construction of machinery, easy transformation by means of static 
apparatus, efiicient long-distance transmission and facile application to 
appliances for lighting, power, or heat. This immensely Avidened the 
economic area of supply, and when a little later that illustrious pioneer. 
Sir Charles Parsons, after persistent and indefatigable research from 1884 
onwards, at length overcame his initial difficulties, and about the year 
1892 gave the electricity industry the steam turbine, so peculiarly fitted 
to the driving of 3-phase generators, electrical engineers at last possessed 
an equipment which enabled them to revolutionise the methods adopted 
in former years. Thereafter, all important power stations gradually changed 
over from reciprocating engines to the steam turbine, A^dth its enormous 
gain in higher revolutions per minute, a factor of so fundamental an import- 
ance in the design and cost of modern electric generators. At the present 
time, reciprocating-engine sets represent only 8 per cent, of the total 
prime movers employed in public power stations, and their proportion is 



G.— ENGINEERING. 159 

decreasing each year. From speeds of 500 to 600 r.p.m. there was a stride 
to 1,500, 2,400, or 3,000 r.p.m., according to the frequency of system 
and size of generator. There was ahnost immediately a significant improve- 
ment in the machinery constructed for electric-supply purposes. 

In 1898 an important inquiry was conducted by a Committee, under 
the chairmanship of Lord Cross, from whose Report sprang the power 
companies which now operate in most of our industrial districts, and whose 
areas of supply extend over whole counties and in some cases over several 
county areas. 

There had thus been growing up not only a constant increase in the 
size and output of the generating stations, but constant increases in the 
pressures adopted for transmission brought about an ever-widening radius 
of supply and enlargement of the area served. 

To-day we find a rapidly increasing growth of output, a decreasing 
cost and consequent widening circles of application ; and as in due season 
the industry simplifies its position still further by adopting one standard 
frequency and by reducing the number of supply pressures to the minimum 
practicable, the demands for electricity in this densely populated country 
are bound to expand to a degree which is not yet visualised. An attempt 
is made hereafter to envisage this growth of demand. 

An important result follows from widening an area of distribution — 
it enables supplies to be given from a common source to many industries, 
to railways and tramways, and all kinds of domestic and trade require- 
ments. It is found by investigation that the maximum requirements of 
the various classes of consumer do not coincide in point of time, and, speak- 
ing generally, if all their maximum demands occurred simultaneously, 
no less than from 2| to 3 times the generating plant would be necessary 
to meet the load than is the case when their several supplies are drawn 
from one common source of generation. It is, in fact, only by supplying 
all the needs of a community within a large area from one common system 
that the maximum use can be made of the capital employed. 

When one remembers that the annual capital charges on a generating 
station represent some two-fifths of the total cost of generation, it will be 
seen how important it is to obtain the greatest user of the plant installed. 
In fact, the combination of all requirements of a community, whether for 
domestic purposes, traction or industrial power, is a fundamental condition 
of economy in the public supply of electricity. 

The ' load factor,' an expression for which the industry was indebted 
to Colonel Crompton at an early date in its history, is therefore a very 
important matter. It may shortly be defined as the ratio of the electrical 
energy actually produced by any generating plant in any period of time 
to the amount which would have been produced had that plant been 
■working at full load continuously during that time. A kilowatt of plant 
working continually throughout a year (which is not a leap year !) 
will produce 8,760 units or kilowatt hours. 

Now the average v'early load factor (on units sold by undertakings) 
throughout Great Britain to-day is under 25 per cent. — that is to say, the 
aggregate kilowatts required to meet the individual demands for hundreds 
of systems only produce one-quarter of the units possible were the plant 
working continuouslv. 



160 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

No doubt the intrinsic load factor is really higher — by which is meant 
that could all these numerous undertakings be supplied from one common 
source, the resulting load factor on the generating plant would be found to 
be higher in value. 

Still the fact remains that the capital expenditure on generating plant 
is four times what it would be were the load factor 100 per cent. The 
latter condition is of course not attainable, but something much better 
than 25 per cent, can certainly be obtained, an improved load factor on 
his system being the objective of every responsible engineer. 

A small undertaking supplying a district mainly for lighting purposes 
will have only a low load factor, probably some 15 per cent, or less. If the 
consumers add other domestic requirements to their demands for lighting, 
such as heating rooms, cooking, and many small domestic appliances, 
it is found in practice that there is a great diversity among the times 
when the maximum loads of individual consumers occur. 

Some observations made on the use of electric ranges, for example, 
reveal a diversity factor as high as eight, or in other words the maximum 
coincident load is only one-eighth of what would be recorded if all the 
apparatus were working fully at the same time. 

A recorder chart which was taken by the Glasgow Corporation and 
published in Prof. S. Parker Smith's paper read before the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers in December 1925, shows that the daily load factor 
is 44 per cent, in the author's all-electric house, taking the maximum load 
as the continuous half-hourly maximum consumption: In this case 36 per 
cent, of the total units consumed are used at night for heating water on 
the storage system, and a general adoption of this arrangement would 
materially improve the load factor on the distribution system as well as 
on the generating station. 

A very complete investigation was made a few years ago in a large 
southern residential district, which revealed the fact that the maximum 
demand on the power station followed the growth of lighting connections 
almost directly, and did not increase proportionately to the total connections 
of heating and lighting. In other words, the connections for heating had 
not noticeably affected the maximum load on the station. There was, in 
fact, a high diversity factor. That is material in the economics of electricity 
supply, for it meant in that particular case that no appreciable addition 
to the generating plant or capital involved in generation was necessary in 
order to supply the heating load, though a heavier outlay on distributing 
mains was necessarily incurred. 

This increased service raised the load factor, which was stated to be 
15 per cent, or less for lighting alone, to 30 per cent, or more with the 
comparatively limited application for heating and cooking at the time of 
the investigation referred to. That improvement refers only to one 
district. Consider further the combination of this district with another 
where the customs of the residents are somewhat different, such as their 
hours for meals, and an improved diversity would then be found. 

If we go further and bring in industrial power loads, large and small, 
a yet higher load factor will generally be realised, albeit some industries 
per se have only a small load factor ; but again their maximum require- 
ments do not coincide. There are industries such as coal-mining where 



G.— ENGINEERING. 161 

the pumping and ventilating loads are almost continuous, and the load 
factor of which is therefore very high, and chemical or metallurgical works 
where processes are almost continuous. Other industries record a much 
smaller load factor, corresponding to the length of their working day. 
Combination of these various classes of industrial load again raises the 
general load factor. At the present time certain undertakings in this 
country which are supplying a wide range of industrial loads from a 
common source are enjoying load factors ranging from 40 to 50 per cent. 
Were domestic requirements to be expanded greatly and added to these 
industrial loads, the resultant load factor would be further raised in value. 
Finally, there is the railway traction load, which must inevitably grow 
to large dimensions. The load factors of generating stations supplying 
railway demands are found to have values of 40 and 50 per cent. 

If all these classes of demand can be met from a common source of 
supply, the general load factor can be raised to a maximum value. The 
result is to reduce the capital expended on generation to a minimum 
value. This has been done on a wide scale in this country on the north- 
east coast, where a supply over a wide area of approximately 1,400 square 
miles has been afforded for many years past by three or four principal 
generating stations supplemented by seven smaller waste-heat stations 
interconnected by trunk transmission lines. The annual load factor is 
not far short of 50 per cent., and the average costs of electricity supplied 
are very low ; a large proportion of the output being delivered, of course, 
in the form of high-pressure 3-phase energy. 

At the present time the amount of electricity generated in Great 
Britain, omitting privately-owned generating stations, amounts to about 
7,000,000,000 units annually, of which 5,069,000,000 are sold by authorised 
undertakers, the balance being required for railway and tramway traction 
purposes. 

It is found that in the four years 1921-2 to 1924-5 the average rate 
of growth has been exactly 20 per cent, per annum, the growth of output 
for power having been 25.3 per cent., domestic supplies 27 per cent., and 
traction 12 per cent, per annum respectively. 

In recent Government publications it has been estimated that the 
output in Great Britain within the next fifteen years may reach a total of 
21,000,000,000 units, or an even higher figure if electricity systems fulfil 
the requirements of a more extensive railway electrification. Let us see 
what are the possibilities of future development. While it may be unwise 
to predict an estimate of future demands, it is at least wise to endeavour 
to make some survey of possible extensions, however extravagant the 
results may seem at the moment. This survey enables us to have some 
vision of the extent of development and to plan the engineering system 
and methods of distribution in an economic and co-ordinated manner, 
while paying due regard to the more immediate needs. In other words, 
to be able to plan boldly but without prejudicing practical judgment by 
the adoption of a too extravagant immediate outlook. 

An exhaustive survey has recently been completed by an influential 

committee of the National Electric Light Association relating to nine of 

the United States of America, and the Report of this survey ought to be 

read carefully by all who are interested in assisting a wide and wise 

1926 M 



162 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

electrical development in tliis country. It is interesting to quote a 
paragraph from this masterly Report, which is as follows : — • 

' The futility of trying to forecast the development in time-steps 

of a few years was early recognised, and some definite time, not too 

near nor yet too far distant, had to be selected for the forecast. The 

year 1950 was chosen for this purpose and the estimates are based on 

that time. ... It may be thought that the conditions for 1930 or even 

1940 could be forecast with more certainty, and probably they could. 

However, the year itself is of no importance, but the approximate 

correctness of the picture is. If the development here assumed for 

1950 is actually reached by 1945 or not until 1955, this is of no importance 

whatever. What is important is the direction that the development now 

should take so as to insure building best for the future, and for this the 

assumed 1950 picture should serve as a guide.' 

Let us now try to sketch the probable scope in this country — a theme 

which may be appropriate for such an occasion as this, as being of general 

as well as of scientific interest. 

There are three classes of supply in which great extensions may reason- 
ably be expected : (1) domestic supplies, (2) industrial power, and 
(3) railway electrification. 

Let us first consider the possibility of an extended domestic supply. 
Statistics derived from actual records of several housing estates and other 
sources, where electricity has been extensively but not wholly employed 
for heating, cooking, and lighting, show that the consumption per capita 
is over 1,100 units per annum, or 5,500 units for each house. 

When electricity is the sole agent and is used not only for the above- 
named purposes but also for heating water for baths and general domestic 
requirements, and for many minor but economic and necessary operations 
such as vacuum cleaning, irons, sewing-machines, many kinds of small 
domestic and table appliances, and in some cases electrical washers, wringers 
and driers, the consumption per capita rises to over 2,500 units (equivalent 
to 85.3 therms) per annum. The amount consumed appears to be largely 
a question of the price of electricity ; the cost, reliability, and availability 
of domestic appliances and competition with other sources of heat such 
as gas or central heating by fuel. 

The existence of a great gas industry would make it absurd to suggest 
that in the course of the next generation the requirements of the country 
for domestic purposes would rise to a figure represented by the multiplica- 
tion of the population of the country by 2,500 units per capita, to which 
would be added the requirements for industrial power and traction. 

The output of the gas-supply industry for the year 1924 was 
256,891,922 thousand cubic feet. The actual value in therms is not 
recorded. On the assumption that the average calorific value of the gas 
supply was 500 B.Th.U. per cubic foot, then the total therms supplied 
amounted to 1,284,000,000, or 30 therms per head of population, the 
total population of Great Britain being taken at 43,000,000 (1921 Census). 
This output is thermally equivalent to 870 units of electricity per capita. 
This is not a strictly correct statement, for a proportion of the population 
has neither a supply of gas nor of electricity, and the consumption per 
co^ito by the population actually served is really higher than the figure given. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 163 

Taking all these factors into consideration, and assuming the popula- 
tion at the end of the next twenty-five years will have grown to 50 millions, 
and that the methods and extent of distribution have advanced and 
developed — coupled with a sensible reduction in the cost of appliances 
resulting from scientific and commercial improvement and greatly increased 
scale of manufacture — the total output for domestic requirements, 
including residential premises, shops, offices, and public places, may bo 
estimated at not less than 20,000,000,000 units, with a maximum load of 
8,000,000 kilowatts. 

An interesting speculation may be made and some support afforded 
to the reasonableness of this estimate from the following figures : — 

In 1924 the amount of raw coal used for domestic purposes was given 
in the annual report of the Secretary for Mines as 34,280,000 tons, being 
19 per cent, of the total consumption of coal in Great Britain. 

Observations by the Fuel Research Board have assessed the average 
thermal efficiency of open coal fires, allowing both for radiation and 
convection of heat, at 22i per cent, of the total heat contained in the coal 
consumed. If we assume that the average thermal value of the coal per lb. 
is 11,000 B.Th.U., an average which is probably lower than the real 
figure, this tonnage is equivalent to 190,048 x 10' B.Th.U. 

The gas returns published by the Board of Trade show that the average 
increase in the output between 1913 and 1924 of all the gas undertakings 
in the United Kingdom was 2.2 per cent, per annum, based on the 1913 
returns, and the annual increase expressed in therms (assuming an average 
calorific value of 500 B.Th.U. per cubic foot of gas) was 22.7 x 10' over 
that period. 

The electricity returns record an average rate of increase in the sales 
of electricity during the same period of 25.8 per cent, per annum, being 
a yearly increase of 340,000,000 units, equivalent to 11.6 xlO" therms per 
annum. Now it has been stated by the Fuel Research Board (Technical 
Paper No. 12) that the radiation efficiency of modern gas fires is generally 
from 55 per cent, to 60 per cent., to which must be added about 10 per cent, 
for convection, as is usually claimed. The radiation efficiency of electric 
heaters ' varies according to type, but reaches as much as 70 per cent. . . . 
Whatever the radiation efiiciency, however, the total efficiency is 100 per 
cent., the balance appearing as direct convection.' 

In future years, through the public demand for effective means of 
preventing atmospheric pollution and reducing the smoke nuisance, for 
increased cleanliness of buildings and from other considerations of public 
health, we can imagine most of the coal now consumed in open grates and 
kitchen ranges to be replaced by gas or by electrical apparatus. Without 
making any allowance for increased population, it would be fair to assume 
that this substituted means of heating at the consumer's premises could 
be subdivided approximately in the ratio of the recorded increased annual 
sales of gas and electricity, paying due regard to the efficiency of utilisation 
in each case. On this basis consumers' heating requirements would be 
provided as to 22.7 xO.7 =15.9 parts by gas and as to 11.6 xl =11.6 parts 
by electricity. The resultant annual sales of gas and electricity merely 
for the purposes of displacing the above-mentioned tonnage of domestic 
coal would then be : — 

m2 



164 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Gas, 1569.7 x 10» therms. 
Electricity, 801.6 xlO« therms. 
This will probably not be considered to be an unfair proportion of sub- 
division as between the gas and electrical undertakings. 

The quantity of electrical units equivalent to the 801.6x10" therms 
apportioned to electrical undertakings is 23,500,000,000. This figure, to 
which must be added the present electrical output for lighting and heating, 
assists in confirming the estimated total output of 20,000,000,000 referred 
to in previous paragraphs. 

Unfortunately we have no idea at the moment of the total h.p. of 
machinery employed in the many industrial trades of the country. The 
last Census of Production dates back to 1907, and is obviously completely 
out of date. Details are known, however, of the total machinery installed 
in some of the industrial districts, which reveal the fact that the proportion 
of private electrical generating plant to public utility plant in those districts 
is 14 : 9 ; that is to say, that there is in those districts 55 per cent, more 
electrical plant privately owned. This survey, moreover, does not account 
for steam or other machinery unconnected with electric generators. In 
the Interim Report of Lord Haldane's Coal Conservation Sub-Committee, 
. published in 1917 (Cd. 8880), an interesting table was taken from the 
Census of Production showing the average net output per employee in 
relation to the mechanical power employed in the factory. The table 
showed that when the net output per employee was between £50 and £75 
per annum the h.p. employed (per 100 persons) was 67. The net output 
was increased to £125-£150 when the power used was 269 h.p., or £175 
to £200 with 221 h.p. per hundred persons employed, according to the 
class of industry. Speaking generally, this may be expressed as an 
increase of earning capacity proportionate to the increased use of 
mechanical power. It is well known that in the U.S.A. the amount of 
power used is much greater per employee than in this country, and it was 
pointed out in the report referred to that in the U.S.A. the standard rates 
of wages were higher and the living conditions were better. Mr. John W. 
Lieb, the vice-president of the New York Edison Company, stated at 
last year's Conference on World Power, when discussing the social aspects 
of the greater development of power in industry, that the power used in 
productive industries in the U.S.A. increased from 2.14 h.p. to 3.24 h.p. 
per worker between 1899 and 1919. ' Taking forty-two industries, it is 
estimated that the actual value, measured in quantity of production added 
per worker to manufactured products, was increased by about 23 per cent., 
and in terms of money about two and a half times, despite shorter hours 
and less heavy labour. Increasing electrification is adding to the national 
prosperity and improving the conditions of the worker.' Mr. F. S. 
Low, the president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, also 
said : ' The workers are commencing to grasp another economic fact, that 
the more power there is used per workman the greater the workman's 
wages ; and that in various districts, and in other countries, the rates of 
pay are in substantial proportion to the amount of power available to each 
productive hand.' In fact, Lord Haldane's sub-committee summed up 
the situation in the following words : ' The solution of the workman's 
problem, and also that of his employer, is the same, viz. the greatest 



G.— ENGINEERING. 165 

possible use of power. Hence the growing importance of having available 
an adequate and cheap supply of power produced with the greatest 
economy of fuel.' 

Mr. D. Brownlie, in papers published in * Engineering ' in 1918-1920, 
recorded a survey made by him of the steam-raising plant in this country, 
and an analysis of the statistics collected by him showed that the coal 
used for the generation of steam in Great Britain for heat and power 
purposes at that time was between 75 and 100 million tons a year. He 
showed that the then existing boiler installations could be divided into 
three classes — bad, average, and highly efficient. The respective per- 
centages were 10 per cent, bad, 85 per cent, average, and 5 per cent, highly 
efficient. It is clear, therefore, that there is scope for enormous economies, 
and, as practice is tending more and more to centralise, much of the power 
now provided locally by independent plants, 95 per cent, of which are 
only of average efficiency, including some which are really bad, will be 
gradually replaced by power electrically transmitted from central sources 
of generation. As the late Sir George Beilby said : ' The problem of the 
future which awaits solution is how to stimulate the practical interest of 
owners of steam-raising plant throughout the country. It may be that 
the permanently increased cost of coal will supply the necessary stimulus.' 
In the Coal Conservation Committee's Report (Appendix A) the estimated 
coal consumption for industries, excluding public utility plants, was 
given as 66,000,000 tons, made up as follows : — 

Mining, 18,000,000 tons. 

Iron and steel, engineering, textiles, chemicals, paper, and all other 
trades, 48,000,000 tons. 

In the 1924 coal returns the coal-mines consumed 16.2 million ton,s, 
while general manufactures and all other purposes consumed 68.5 million 
tons, a total of 84.7 millions. It will be observed that the coal-mines have 
dropped their consumption, due no doubt to the installation of modern 
electrical machinery, such as we know that some of them possess. 

Some of this coal is required for heating purposes by the textile trades, 
or in brewing, chemical trades, brick-making, bakeries, and so forth. If 
we deduct 25 per cent, for that purpose from the 68.5 millions, there remain 
51.4 millions plus 16.2 millions used by coal-mines, or a total of 67.6 million 
tons of coal for which electrical power could be substituted. 

Owing to the prevalence at that time of iiidifierently efficient steam- 
raising and power plant, it was stated in the Appendix to the Coal Con- 
servation Report that approximately 8.03 lb. of coal per horse-power 
hour were consumed, which, if true, represented an appalling waste, being 
equivalent to no less than 10.76 lb. per kw.h. or electrical unit. 

While so high a figure as 8.03 lb. may have been recorded at the time 
of the last Census of Production in 1907, advance must assuredly have 
been made in recent years. Making some allowance for this advance 
(though necessarily not too liberal an allowance having regard to Mr. 
Brownlie's figures for 1918-1920), we may reasonably assume a reduction 
from 8.03 lb. to 6 lb. per horse-power hour, which is equivalent to 8 lb. 
per electrical unit. From this it may be directly deduced that if all these 
power requirements could be supplied, as in all probability some day they 



166 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

will be supplied, from electrical systems, the equivalent output would be 
19,000,000,000 units per annum. 

Now we know that the usual ratio of plant connected to electrical 
systems to the maximum load is 2.5 : 1, that the average industrial load 
factor is about 30 per cent., having regard to the variety of trades — the 
output from public generating stations for industrial power in 1924-.5 
was 3,556,000,000 units, and the rate of growth has been in recent years 
25 per cent, per annum. 

From all these data it may be fairly assumed that if the majority of 
our industrial works (omitting certain classes which require steam for 
particular processes) derived their supply from public systems of supply, 
and an increasing use of power per employee must also be assumed, we 
should expect a future output for industrial power of not less than 
20,000,000,000 units with a maximum load of 9,200,000 kilowatts. There 
are certain well-equipped collieries which will probably continue to retain 
their own plant by reason of their high load factor, and the cheap small 
fuel which they consume with a consequent low cost of production. The 
large output from these collieries cannot be credited to the future output 
from public systems of supply. 

There are possibilities of great expansion in railway electrification in 
this country. The present electrified systems, with the exception of the 
Shildon Branch Line in the County of Durham, are confined to suburban 
services. The largest development is that of the Southern Railway 
(Metropolitan Suburban) lines ; the others being the London Electric 
Railways, the Metropolitan District Railway, London and North Eastern 
Railway (Tyneside), and the London Midland and Scottish Watford line, 
Lancaster-Heysham Branch, Liverpool Southport and Manchester-Bury 
systems. The present output for railway traction is about 700,000,000 
units, 615,000,000 units of which are generated at stations belonging to 
the railway companies, the remainder being purchased from general 
supply systems. A Committee of the Ministry of Transport reported 
within the last few years the desirability of standardising railway electrical 
systems so far as is practicable, having regard to what has already been 
put into operation. That Committee recommended that the supply for 
traction purposes should be generated in the form of 3-phase 50-cycle 
energy, and converted in the requisite sub -stations to direct current with 
a conductor pressure of 1,500 volts or a multiple (or sub-multiple) of 
that pressure. The Inner London systems have already adopted 600 
volts D.C. extensively, and cannot be reconciled comj^letely with a 
pressure of 750 volts, which would be the practical sub-multiple of the 
recommended standard. In the case of the A.C. 11,000-volt system — - 
twenty-five cycles — in operation on that part of the Southern Suburban 
services originally known as the L.B. & S.C., a recent public statement of 
the chairman of that railway made it clear that a change to the D.C. 
system is being contemplated. In France the Government have adopted 
a standard of 1,500 volts D.C, and extensive systems in the Midi are now 
being electrified ; other French railway systems will also be converted from 
steam to electric traction. In a recent report published by the British 
Government it was stated that calculations had been made by the 
Ministry of Transport of the total consumption by British railways were 



G.— ENGINEERING. 167 

the whole of the lines to be electrified. The result was a total of nearly 
7,000,000,000 units, equivalent to an output of 160 units 'per capita — • 
a figure almost identical with the railway consumption estimated in the 
survey of certain railways in some of the United States. At a load factor 
of 40 per cent., this output would represent a maximum demand of 
practically 2,000,000 kw. 

Summarising these figures, the following total is obtained : — 



Domestic, &c. 
Industrial power 
Railway traction only 



Total 



Units in 

Millions. 

20,000 

20,000 

7,000 


Kw.D. 

8,000,000 
9,200,000 
2,000,000 


47,000 


19,200,000 



The aggregate maximum demand is 19,200,000 kw., but an allowance 
for some diversity should be made on this output of 47,000 X lO*' units 
which would probably reduce the maximum demand to 15,500,000 kw., 
representing an annual load factor on the whole output of about 35 per cent. 

This, then, is a reasonably possible output to be provided for at some 
future date — an expansion which can only be met by a much larger con- 
ception of the methods of generation and transmission than has hitherto 
been adopted. Such a figure may be criticised as being entirely visionary 
and quite unlikely of attainment— but is it really so ? Development has 
been accelerating during the last few years : improvements which are 
already being carried out will certainly have a further economic effect, 
and the whole trend of public requirements, domestic consumption, public 
health improvement, improved means of transport, better organisation of 
industry, and a greater use of power, with improved machine tools, are all 
tending to a greatly increased application of electricity as being the 
readiest agent for these purposes. This is a development which cannot be 
denied, and must not be overlooked by those entrusted with the design 
of the future electrical systems in this country. 

The recent survey in nine of the United States before referred to 
showed that at the time of the survey 86 per cent, of the prime movers 
was steam-driven, only 13 per cent, was derived from water-power, and 
10 per cent, from internal-combustion engines. The output from the 
steam plant was 83 per cent, of the whole, and from water-power about 
15 per cent. 

The rate of growth in five years — i.e. between 1917 and 1922 — -was 
63 per cent., or an average of 12.6 per cent, per annum on the 1917 figures, 
which may be compared with the 20 per cent, annual increase in Great 
Britain. 

The powerful and skilled Committee made this exhaustive survey with 
a view to regulating throughout that area the proper kind of development 
of so important an industry as electricity supply, which, in the United 
States, is considered so indispensable not only for industrial expansion 
but also for railway electrification and for general domestic purposes. 
This Committee endeavoured to envisage the output which may be expected 
in the year 1950, when the population of the area in question is estimated 



163 


units 


pel 


• capita 


833 


>; 




!> 


40 


>> 




J) 


383 


JJ 




J) 


79 


J> 




)l 


. 153 


>) 




SJ 


. 1,651 





168 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to reacli a total of 32,624,000 persons (Electric Power Survey made 
by Power Surveying Committee, National Electric Light Association, 
December 1, 1925). 

The consumption in 1950 is estimated at 1,651 units per capita, or 
1,924 units generated. 

The subdivision is interesting, and is as follows : — 

Railways . . 

Industrial power 

Agricultural power and drainage 

Domestic and business services 

Public services, street lighting, sewage pumps, 

&c. 
Other uses 

Total . . 

While no exact parallel can be drawn between the consumption in 
this country and the U.S.A. — because the conditions are so diiJereut — 
it is nevertheless a modest estimate which only anticipates an average 
consumption in this country of 940 units per capita, as against 1,651 units 
estimated by a Committee of skilled investigators as the future require- 
ments in the Central States of the great Republic. 

Whether this estimate for Great Britain be exaggerated or not, it is 
certain that provision for a largely increased output will have to be made. 

The sources of power available in this country are mainly coal and 
coke, but there are also inland and tidal water-power to a small extent, 
and some sources of waste heat. It is certain, however, that the bulk of 
this future electrical output must be produced in fuel-fired stations. 

An investigation was made into the water-power resources of Great 
Britain by the Water Power Resources Committee appointed by the Board 
of Trade in 1918, whose final report was issued in 1921. Many watersheds 
were carefully examined by eminent Civil Engineers, and these indicated 
a capacity of some 275,000 kw. working continuously, being made up of 
195,000 kw. in Scotland, 60,000 kw. in North and Mid Wales, and 20,000 kw. 
in England. Of this total it was then considered that 210,000 kw. could 
be economically developed. Since this report was issued. Parliamentary 
powers have already been granted for the Lochaber scheme (54,000 kw.), 
now in course of construction, the Grampians scheme (estimated to 
develop 80,000 kw.), and for small schemes of 7,000 kw. in Ayrshire at 
Loch Doon, and 12,000 kw. at the Falls of Clyde, now under construction 
by the Lanarkshire Hydro-Electric Power Company. 

This Committee was careful to note that the figures quoted above 
relate only ' to certain specific water-power schemes, and that they by no 
means represent the total water-power resources of Great Britain.' Having 
regard to the average rainfall in North Wales and in Northern Scotland 
and the contours of those districts, it is almost certain that other economic 
sources of water-power would be revealed by a more extended survey. 
For the present purposes, and including the important existing works of 
the British Aluminium Company at Kinlochleven (23,000 kw. with an 
annual output of 173,(X)0,000 units) and those of the North Wales 



G.— ENGINEERING. 169 

Power Company and the Aluminium Corporation in North Wales, it may 
be taken that at least 400,000 kw. (continuous rating) could be developed 
by inland water-power in Great Britain. 

Suggestions and schemes have also been put forward for the develop- 
ment of tidal power, notably in the Severn Estuary ; and the Water Power 
Resources Committee, after hearing evidence, reported that a prima facie 
case had been made out, and that more detailed investigation should be 
undertaken. A hydrographical survey is, in fact, now being conducted by 
the Government. Preliminary estimates of the power available — -making 
allowance for secondary water storage at high elevation working supple- 
mentary turbines in order to level out the intermittency of the lunar 
cycle — show that approximately 260,000 kw. could be generated, equivalent 
to at least 1,000,000,000 units transmitted annually from this source. 
It is possible that tidal schemes in other situations may hereafter be deemed 
practicable ; but in no part of Great Britain can such potentialities be found 
as in the Severn, not only because of the enormous volume of water 
flowing and ebbing in that estuary, but also because the physical con- 
figuration assists in producing a 47-foot rise at ordinary spring tides. 

The utilisation of water-power for electrical generation and transmission 
is one of the finest and perhaps most fascinating ways of harnessing the 
great forces in nature for the use and convenience of man. It is a power 
which ought to be utilised as fully as possible in ouf country in the interests 
of true national wealth. It must not be overlooked that a well-constructed 
dam and works will last for centuries, that the wasting assets in the form 
of turbines and possible pipe-lines represent only a small proportion of the 
total expenditure. Moreover, of the total cost of electrical energy produced, 
no less than 85 to 90 per cent, represents capital charges. When the capital 
outlay on the permanent assets is redeemed the cost of energy is reduced 
to a very low figure indeed. This is a factor which is insufficiently appre- 
ciated in this country. Other countries which have been endowed with 
more liberal sources of water-power will for this reason benefit considerably 
a generation or two hence. 

This is an additional reason for so laying our plans in this industrial 
country, where we must depend upon our industries — agricultural, 
engineering, shipbuilding, textiles, and others — in order to live and continue 
to exist as a great nation. It is essential that abundant power shall be 
available in all necessary parts of the country. The bulk of this power, 
as has been said, must be derived from coal. 

There is no known method of storing electricity on a very large scale, 
and thus consideration must be given to the most economical means of 
coping with the public demand from hour to hour, or even minute to minute. 
If anyone will look at a 24-hour load-curve recorded at any electricity 
station, a considerable variation in the height of the curve will be noted 
at various times of the day or year according to the demand for power, 
heating, traction, or lighting. But it will also be seen that if a line be 
drawn through the curve parallel to the base, at a point some two-fifths 
of the highest ordinate, all below that line represents an almost uniform 
output all the year round, excepting week-ends and holidays ; in other 
words, there is a base load of very high value, representing generally an 
annual load factor of 50 or 60 per cent. The remainder of the curve, 



170 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

according to the time and season, is less regular and more intermittent. If 
we take as example the estimated total requirements at some future day — 
namely, the 15,500,000 kw. and 47,000,000,000 units output— the base 
load would represent a load of 6,000,000 kw., the output of which would 
be 30,000,000,000 units or thereabout, while the remaining 9,500,000 kw. 
would produce the balance of the outpiit, viz. 17,000,000,000 units, 
at the low annual load factor of 20 per cent, or thereabout. It is 
a fundamental requirement in the economics of electricity supply that the 
base load or high load factor component of the total output must be 
generated at the most economical rate that engineers can devise. What are 
the lines along which improvements are now being made to convert the 
highest possible thermal units available in the fuel consumed into useful 
work for the benefit of the consumer ? 

The published Analyses and Summaries of Returns of fuel consumption 
show that the average thermal efficiency of 1924-25 for all public generating 
stations in this country was as low as 12.45 per cent, with an average 
station load factor of 28.84 per cent. The highest recorded efficiency for 
that year was at the Barton Station of the Corporation of Manchester, 
viz. 19.85 per cent, based on units generated, the station working at an 
average annual load factor of only 29.5 per cent. Corresponding figures 
for the year 1925-26 show that the average thermal efficiency has been 
raised to 21.48 per cent. — equivalent to 20.40 per cent, based on units of 
' output '- — with an annual station load factor of 48 per cent. 

From a paper recently presented to the Mid West Power Conference 
in Chicago by Mr. Wm. S. Monroe, it would appear that the Crawford 
Avenue Station of the Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago has 
recorded a thermal efficiency based on ' output ' of 22.24 per cent., 
working at a station load factor of between 60 and 70 per cent. It is 
understood that the plant at this station is not yet in full operation, and 
therefore higher operating efficiencies may be anticipated. 

The steam pressure at Barton is 375 lb. per square inch, and at 
Crawford Avenue 550 lb. In the former case the condensing water is 
drawn from the Ship Canal, which has its limitations, while the Crawford 
Avenue Station draws its condensing water from Lake Michigan, where 
the volume is relatively inexhaustible and the average annual temperature 
is low. A higher average percentage vacuum is therefore probable at 
the latter station, assisting towards higher thermal efficiency. 

The published results of other American stations — notably at Philo 
and Boston- — would appear to indicate that thermal efficiencies of the 
order of 24 per cent, have been obtained. 

Let us examine, first, the improvements which are being tested in 
practice to turn into useful work the highest amount of the heat available 
in fuel, and then consider their commercial value ; having regard to the 
capital invested. If we take a modern station as an example, working 
at an annual load factor of 40 to 50 per cent., the total costs of generation 
may be subdivided as follows : — 

Coal . . . . . . 46 per cent, of the total generating costs 

Capital charges . . 40 „ „ „ „ 

Other costs . . . . 14 „ „ „ „ 

100 per cent. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 171 

The two principal items in which economies must be sought are 
obviously a reduction in the consumption of coal per unit generated, and 
a reduction in the capital expenditure. 

Many refinements can be employed which may economise coal, but at 
the expense of an undue capital expenditure. Broadly speaking, the 
employment of bigger stations and an increase in the size of plant employed 
reduces the capital employed per kw. of plant installed. Interconnection 
of stations fiirther reduces the percentage of reserve plant, and thus 
reduces the capital employed per kw. of plant demanded. 

The employment of higher steam-pressures, reheating the steam in the 
later turbine stages, so as to reduce its total volume and minimise the diffi- 
culties of design experienced in the vacuum stages of the turbine, stage 
feed-water heating through ' bleeding ' the turbine, and thus utilising the 
latent heat in the steam, are all producing higher thermal eSiciencies 
between the electricity generated and the fuel consumed. 

Sir Charles Parsons, to whom the world owes so much, has shown that 
with a steam-pressure of 500 lb. per square inch and a 97.5 per cent, 
vacuum we may hope to reach a full-load thermal efficiency (steam to 
electricity) of 33i per cent., while with an initial steam-pressure of 1,000 lb, 
per square inch we may obtain a thermal efficiency of 35 per cent. 

Assuming a boiler-plant efficiency of 83 per cent., the equivalent 
efl&ciencies (fuel to electricity) are 27.97 per cent, at 500 lb. pressure, and 
29.2 per cent, at 1,000 lb., which are figures comparable with the best 
realised results claimed from internal-combustion engines. The equivalent 
heat consumptions per kw.h. are 12,200 and 11,685 B.Th.U. respectively, 
or, assuming coal as fired to have a value of 11,500 B.Th.U. per lb., the 
coal consumed is 1.16 lb. and 1.11 lb. per kw.h. 

The development and steady improvement of the steam-using plant 
at the generating station is proceeding satisfactorily, and we are certainly 
within sight of a heat consumption not exceeding 12,000 B.Th.U. per 
kw.h. generated at base-load stations. Where a group of stations is 
interconnected the peak-load stations with annual load factors of only 
about 20 per cent, woidd, cceteris paribus, require a fuel consumption of 
about 20,000 B.Th.U. per kw.h. generated. Although the annual load 
factor is low, the programme for running the plant can be so arranged 
that the plant load factor is high. There is a probability that fewer 
refinements would be commercially justified in peak-load stations, and in 
the estimates which follow the heat consumption at such stations is 
advisedly taken at 22,000 B.Th.U. per unit generated. The average 
B.Th.U. per imit sent out or available for transmission would thus be 
16,500, at a station load factor of 35 per cent., and representing a thermal 
efficiency all round of 20.6 per cent., which would be a notable advance 
on the last recorded figure of 12.45 per cent, for the whole country. 

There is also the steam-raising plant to be considered, and it may be 
well to review briefly the economic developments which may be looked for. 

With the coming of the larger turbine, a demand has arisen for larger 
boiler units and higher evaporative capacities. The present general land 
practice is some 7 to 8 lb. of water evaporated per square foot of heating 
surface, but in marine practice, and in naval practice particularly, 
evaporations up to 20 lb. per square foot are normally called for. 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Boilers are already in commission with an evaporative duty of 300,0001b. 
per hour. For pressures of 800 lb. and over it is necessary to avoid 
riveting and to adopt a seamless drum. With high evaporative duty 
per square foot of heating surface, the de-aeration of the feed water 
becomes of great importance, in order to avoid rapid corrosion of the tubes, 
and in modern types especially, where pulverised fuel is used, the com- 
bustion chamber is practically lined with tubes, so as to obtain as large 
a tube surface as possible exposed to direct radiation. 

The tendency in boiler design for large power stations is unquestionably 
towards higher evaporative capacities, larger boiler units, and higher 
steam-pressures. 

The use of pulverised fuel appears to lend itself to these modern 
requirements in capital stations, enabling better control to be exercised, a 
higher thermal efficiency to be obtained, and less wear and tear of plant, 
a better distribution of heat in the boiler, and therefore a better 
evaporation. 

It is reported that at the Lake Shore Station, Cleveland, U.S.A., 
boilers of 30,000 square feet heating surface and fed with pulverised fuel 
are maintaining an average efficiency of 90.4 per cent. 

The utilisation of pulverised fuel also raises a larger question. Not 
only is there a possibility of commercially utilising the waste from coal- 
mines, but it would appear to bring within the ambit of possibility a 
combination of some form of low-temperature carbonisation of the fuel, 
so as to enable some of the valuable by-products to be recovered, coupled 
with the production of a soft coke which can be applied in a pulverised 
form to the boilers for steam-raising purposes. 

A practical application is now being made of the McEwen-Runge 
low-temperature carbonisation plant to the Lakeside Power Station of 
the Milwaukee Electric Railways and Light Company, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 
the result of which will be awaited with interest, and if satisfactory should 
be of great value to designers of future base-load stations. 

Suggestions have been made that gas and electricity undertakings 
should be combined for the purpose of conserving fuel. It is significant 
that although a large number of local authorities in Great Britain have 
owned both gas and electricity undertakings for many years past, there 
is no single instance of any such authority having effected a complete 
amalgamation of its undertakings. There are a few cases where companies 
operate gas undertakings in conjunction with electricity-supply under- 
takings, but their total plant capacity is very small, and represents only 
0.1 per cent, of all the generating plant installed by authorised undertakers 
in the country. 

There can be no advantage to a gas undertaking unless the price at 
which the gas or coke can be supplied to the power station shows a margin 
over the costs incurred in producing the gas or coke ; nor is there an 
advantage to the electricity undertaking unless the price paid for the coke 
or gaseous fuel on an effective heat-value basis is at the best not greater 
than the cost at which raw coal of equivalent heat value can be purchased. 
The average price paid for coal by electricity undertakings between 
1922 and 1924 was approximately 205. per ton. If we assume the average 
calorific value as being 10,500 B.Th.U. per lb., there would be no economic 



G.— ENGINEERING. 173 

advantage to the power station unless the gaseous fuel could be purchased 
in the necessary quantity at 1.02(?. per therm delivered to the power 
station, which is equivalent to 5.1ci!. per 1,000 cubic feet of gas, having a 
calorific value of 500 B.Th.U. per cubic foot. 

Nor does it appear that coke obtained from ordinary gasworks 
practice can be commercially applied on a large scale to capital power 
stations. There would, of course, be an advantage to the gas industry 
if a regular and stable market for their principal by-product were thus 
procured. In 1924 the principal gasworks of the country produced 
14.2 cwt. (gross) of coke per ton of coal consumed — -before deducting the 
amount of coke used for water-gas and for the carbonising plant^the net 
amount per ton of coal being generally about 10.3 cwt. of coke. The 
receipts from the sale of coke represented (in the principal gas under- 
takings) some 19 per cent, of the total income of those undertakings, the 
average price received having been 27s. 2d. per ton, which, was a higher 
price than that of the coal used by electricity undertakings at equivalent 
thermal values. There is, it must be remembered, a wider scope in the 
classes of coal which can be purchased by electricity undertakings than is 
the case with gasworks. The fact that in 1924 the average price paid by 
electricity works for coal was 20s. per ton, and the average price paid by 
gas undertakings which only produce coal-gas was upwards of 27s. per 
ton, cannot be ignored, though the latter was of course of a higher thermal 
quality, containing more volatiles and probably a less ash content. Gas- 
works coke has a higher ash content and is less easily ignited than coal, 
and so far has had only an exceedingly limited outlet as power-station fuel 
in this country, the amount, in fact, being about 1 per cent, of the total 
coke and breeze available for disposal by the gas industry, and being less 
than 1| per cent, of the raw coal consumed in the generation of electricity 
in public-utility stations. It lies with the gas industry to show whether 
they can supply heat to future large power stations in the large volumes 
necessary in modern practice, at rates which would be no greater than 
the equivalent cost of raw coal, and in forms which will be as efficient in 
application to boilers of large evaporative capacity. If they can do so, 
then assuredly electricity undertakings should in the national interest give 
the fullest consideration to such a proposal. 

In the case of low-temperature carbonisation it is obvious that more 
coal must be consumed for any given heat requirements at a power station. 
Various technical problems still remain to be solved, and reliable com- 
mercial data both as to capital and operating costs still remain to be 
established. The application to a definite purpose, such as steam-raising 
in a base-load power station, would, of course, minimise any commercial 
uncertainty, for there would be a definite purchaser of the heat products, 
while the other marketable products would be limited to the crude fuel oils, 
for which a sale could probably always be found. 

As Dr. C. H. Lander and Mr. R. T. McKay have pointed out, the peld 
of coke (with a calorific value of about 12,500 B.Th.U. per lb.) per ton 
of coal from straight low-temperature carbonisation processes averages 
14 cwt., and ' therefore the value of the liquid and gaseous products must 
be sufficient to yield a profit after paying the entire costs of retorting and 
the costs of about 6 cwt. of the raw coal treated.' 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The late Sir George Beilby, in his James Forrest Lecture at the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers in 1921, said : ' When coal is used for steam- raising 
under the best known conditions, it is obvious there is little to be gained 
in thermal efficiency by any preliminary sorting out of the thermal units 
of the coal into fuels of liigher availability. It is well known that an 
efficiency of 75 to 80 per cent, is attainable in steady practice,' and he went 
on to quote the results from two power stations — namely, the Central 
Electric Supply Company at St. John's Wood, where the average boiler 
efficiency was 75.5 per cent, although the average ash content in the coal 
fired was 18.4 per cent., and the Southern Railway Company's power 
station at Wimbledon, where the average boiler efficiency was 78 per cent, 
with an ash content of 16 per cent. 

Sir George Beilby also said : 'Supposing the coal used at these stations 
had been submitted for preliminary carbonisation and its thermal units 
sorted out into the forms of gas, tar, and coke, how would this have affected 
the evaporative capacity ? Of the thermal units of coal 

Per Cent. 
The coke would contain . . . . . . . . 70 

The gas „ „ 12 

The oils „ „ . . . . . . . . 11 

93 

Per Cent. 

Intrinsic thermal loss . . . . . . 7 

Heat for carbonisation . . . . . . 6 

— 13 

Net thermal value . . . . . . . . 80 

' The high thermal availability of the rich gas would be thrown away if 
it were used for steam- raising, the fuel oil would be a boiler fuel decidedly 
superior to the original coal, and the coke would not be of more than equal 
value to the coal. Solely from a steam-raising point of view, therefore, 
a thermal loss and not a gain would result from the operation. I am quite 
prepared to admit that in special cases this thermal loss might be compen- 
sated for if a local market for the rich gas were available. In most cases, 
however, the margin of profit would be much too small to justify the extra 
capital expenditure which would be required.' 

The additional capital cost of low-temperature carbonisation plant 
appears to be from £0.9 to £1.1 per ton of coal carbonised, which is equiva- 
lent to £4 per kw.i. additional capital expended, or 28 per cent, addition 
to the normal capital expended upon a modern power station. It has 
been claimed that, after allowance for the extra capital charges on the 
station and crediting the cost of production with the marketable value of 
the fuel oils recovered by the process, the net cost of electrical energy 
delivered (not only the net cost of the fuel consumed) would be reduced 
by more than 50 per cent. One may be sceptical about the realisation of 
so great an improvement, but until the matter has been put thoroughly 
to the test it is impossible to say whether this method of treating coal will 
really be a source of economy in the generation of electricity. 

Whatever the future may bring forth in the application of coal 



G.— ENGINEERING. 175 

carbonisation to large power stations, it is clear that developments are 
taking place which will bring about a substantial reduction in the cost 
of generating electricity and effect a more scientific utilisation of our 
natural fuel resources. 

There can be little doubt about the modern tendency to concentrate 
the points at which electricity can be generated and made available for 
general distribution and consumption, whether it be for railway traction, 
power stations taking the place of the individual locomotives ; or in large 
industrial plants where a public system of generation and distribution of 
■electricity takes the place of individual generating plant at the local 
works ; or in domestic requirements for heating and other purposes in 
place of the open coal fire. All of these measures assist in preventing a 
wasteful expenditure of coal. It is clear, therefore, that any system which 
can recover the greatest amount of the stored energy available in coal 
should be fully explored, and it is the large power station of 200,000 kw. 
and upwards that would appear to offer a means of investigating the value 
of new fuel processes on a practical scale. 

There has been a far too prodigal use of coal in the past and more 
.scientific methods for its utilisation are urgently wanted. There is all 
the waste of small coal at the pits to be dealt with, and there is this question 
of the more perfect utilisation of the coal which is consumed. Having 
regard to the recommendations of the recent Royal Commission on Coal 
and to the very real need for national economy in the present and succeed- 
ing generations, any improved method which will either turn into useful 
work the highest heat units or obtain the utmost commercial value of the 
raw coal consumed must be fully and practically explored. 

There seems little doubt we may expect that within a few years elec- 
tricity will be generated at modern power stations even with direct firing 
at a figure of 0.3d. or less per unit. This will be transmitted at liigh pressures 
for such purposes as railway traction, large blocks of industrial power, 
and supplies in bulk to local undertakers, who in turn will retail it to their 
consumers. This involves the construction of high-tension transmission 
lines or cables and the provision of transformers and switchgear. Broadly 
speaking, transmission costs would add 10 per cent, to the cost of the units 
sent out from the power stations, assuming a reasonable average load 
factor. So we can hope to transmit energy in quantity and transform it 
locally to the required service pressure at a cost of 0.33d. or less per unit 
sent out when applied at an average load factor of say 33 per cent. This 
cost of bulk supplies is equivalent to about O.id. per unit transmitted and 
delivered by means of H.T. mains, and transformed locally to the requisite 
pressure. 

In Great Britain it will probably not be possible to make use of overhead 
lines to the same extent as is possible in the U.S.A. and some other countries. 
The advantage of overhead lines lies in the ability to use the highest 
pressures and in their smaller cost compared with underground cables. 
For equal losses the cost of cable transmission of large carrying capacity, 
and working at the comparatively low pressures of 33,000 and 66,000 volts, 
is proportionate to the cost of overhead lines working at like pressures as 
2.5 : 1 and 2 : 1 respectively. 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The highest working pressure on 3-core cables so far applied in practice 
has been 66,000 volts between phases or 37,500 volts phase to earth. The 
construction of 3-core cables for large power transmission, i.e. with con- 
ductors of 0.25 square inch, for example, offers great difficulties of both an 
electrical and mechanical nature. Moreover, the short lengths in which 
such heavy cables can only be constructed entail the use of numerous joint 
boxes. 

It would seem that future practice in cable transmission at the higher 
pressures must tend towards the adoption of single-core cables which 
can be manufactured in greater lengths and with greater facilities in the 
factory. These have the benefit of simpler jointing and are more easily 
handled in the road. Single-core cables are now being constructed with 
a pressure of 132,000 volts between phases or 76,000 volts to earth, and 
cable manufacturers are confident that such cables can be applied with 
safety. 

It is the cost of local distribution which causes a considerable addition 
to be made to the cost of generation and transmission, and in which 
economies must also be made possible in future extensions. As the 
published official statistics show, the present average capital expended on 
distribution systems in Great Britain is £21 per 1,000 units sold, including 
the cost of sub-stations ; in numerous cases rotary converter sub-stations 
are included, the cost of which is some seven to eight times that of static 
transformer stations. The actual cost, for example, in Glasgow is £15.96 
per kw.i. for rotary sub-stations and only £1.822' per kw.i. for static 
sub-stations ; the ratio of costs in this case being 8.76 : 1. If one com- 
pares the operating costs, including capital charges on the sub-station, 
the rotary sub-stations required 0.1926c?. per unit sold, as against only 
0.0334cZ. in the static sub-stations — in other words, the rotary sub-station 
expenses are nearly six times those of the static sub-stations per unit sold. 
In a large English city where A.C. distribution has been exclusively 
adopted (excepting the supply to the local tramway system), the capital 
outlay on distribution, including H.T. feeders and sub-stations, L.T. mains 
services and meters, is actually reduced to £13.48 per 1,000 units sold. 
The future cost where A.C. distribution is exclusively used is estimated at 
£11.25 per 1,000 units sold. 

In ordinary town-distribution systems the capital cost depends upon 
the number of consumers obtained per niile of main laid. 

The conditions of domestic electric services and loads are changing so 
rapidly that it reqm'res considerable judgment on the part of the engineer 
to lay out a distribution system with a due regard to a reasonable balance 
between future requirements and the immediate outlay. 

It is not unreasonable to assume that future capital investment in 
distribution will not exceed £11 or £12 per 1,000 units sold, since the bulk 
of future distribution will be by means of alternating current and the 
simpler static transformer sub-stations. 

Assuming that the average price of coal (of 10,500 B.Th.U. value) 
delivered to the generating stations throughout the country is 20s. per 
ton, it is safe to say that the average price at which electricity should be 
available within a few years should be under ^%ths of one penny per unit. 



G.— ENCIINEERING. 177 

This may be expressed in the following terms when applied to various 

classes of consumer : — 

A.C. energy transmitted in bulk to large From 0.5(1 to Q.25d. per unit, 

consumers, such as railways and large according to increasing load 

industries factor. 
A.C. energy distributed locally for 

general domestic purposes, including 

lighting . . . . . . . . About O.Sd. per unit. 

Lighting only . . . . . . . . About 2d. per unit. 

Small power supplies . . . . . . About l.25d. per unit. 

As was previously mentioned, energy in bulk and supplied after simple 
transformation directly from the high-pressure transmission system can 
then be sold for an average of 0.4 penny. It is the capital expenditure there- 
after on local distribution systems and their operating costs which raise 
the price to the local consumer. In the figures referred to it will be noted 
that the average cost of low-tension energy after distribution is 2J times 
the average cost of energy requiring only high-pressure transmission lines. 
And when one speaks of an average cost of xn^^is of a penny, even after this 
cost of local distribution is included, it must be remembered that local 
costs of distribution differ widely at the present time, due mainly to the 
differing densities of load and load factor and number of consumers served 
per unit length of main laid. Therefore, although it will be possible 
hereafter to supply electricity for lighting purposes at an average cost of 
2d., it is certain that sparser districts will have to pay more owing to the 
incidence of the capital expended on local distribution, unless a much 
greater freedom is allowed in the use of overhead lines. One cannot 
readily understand the great objection raised to the use of such lines if 
they be properly designed and erected. They are far less obtrusive than 
the ordinary telephone and telegraph lines which are now so ubiquitous. 
Light steel taper poles painted to suit their environment are barely notice- 
able, and in many places bracket attachments can be made to buildings. 
Without entering into too much detail, it is enough to say that local distribu- 
tion systems in villages can be installed at a quite small expenditure, and 
local communities must assist in this matter if they desire to obtain the 
benefit of a cheap electrical service at an early date. 

What prospect is there of electricity helping what is, after all, our 
greatest industrj'- — agriculture ? For it umst not be forgotten that half 
of the area of the country is farm- laud, and that there are nearly 500,000 
farms in Great Britain. For several years past it has been a matter of 
great interest to preside over a Committee appointed by the Minister of 
Agriculture and Fisheries, the purpose of the Committee being to investi- 
gate the application of electrical discharge to the growth and yield of 
crops. Under the patient and skilled investigation of Prof. V. H. Black- 
man, assisted by that great authority Sir E. J. Russell, experimental 
work has now been conducted at Rothamsted and at Lincluden for several 
years, with variable but on the whole definitely encouraging results. 

For the time being work is concentrated on scientific pot-culture and 
small-plot observations, but it is hoped soon to resume field experiments 
on a wider and practical scale. While the future may reveal a way by 
which electricity can be used directly to stimulate growth and improve 

1926 N 



178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the yield of cereals and other crops on a definitely practical and com- 
mercial basis, for the present it is in the application of power to the farm 
and the provision of better and more convenient lighting of the farmstead 
to which we must look for affording immediate assistance to the farmer. 
It is doubtful whether electricity will be used to any marked degree in 
this country for field operations such as ploughing or reaping, partly owing 
to the small area of the average holdings and to the prevalence of hedges 
and comparatively small fields which are so essentially an English institu- 
tion. In some of the larger holdings, however, as in the eastern counties 
of England or in southern Scotland, it is probable that electricity will be 
used in field operations, as is the case in other countries, more especially 
in Scandinavia and some parts of Germany and Canada. In Sweden, 
for instance, there are 52,000 farms, representing 40 per cent, of the arable 
land, which have the advantages arising from an electrical service. It is 
interesting to note that the average consumption is 53 units per acre, 
and the individual load factor is only about 15 per cent. It is stated that 
the consumption by these farms is one-twentieth of the total electricity 
supplied, and is equal in amount to the aggregate consumption for lighting 
and domestic purposes in the Swedish towns. 

In Norway and Canada considerable progress has been made in the 
supply to the rural communities, there being no less than 350 out of the 
645 rural districts in toto in the former country which possess an electrical 
service. 

In parts of Canada great progress has been made- in this direction, due 
mainly to the utilisation of water-power and the consequent large trans- 
mission systems which enable rural districts readily to be served by 
secondary distributing systems. 

Though the conditions are very different in this country, it is quite as 
feasible to afford supplies to rural districts if the people desire to use 
electricity and will support it locally. The conditions should be better 
here than in Canada, owing to the greater density of population even in the 
rural districts. 

Apart from work in the field or the application of electricity for inten- 
sive culture, the immediate applications wliich are already being made 
successfully include the curing of ensilage by electrically served silos, an 
operation which can be carried out at night ; hay-drying ; threshing ; 
chaff-cutting ; oat-crushing ; root-cutting ; wood-sawing ; milking ; 
cream separation and churning ; water-pumping ; sheep-shearing ; 
clipping and grooming ; incubator heating ; besides electrical cooking and 
heating and the lighting of the farmhouse, byres, and yards. Altogether 
quite a useful list of mecham'cal appliances can be compiled through 
which electricity can help the farmer. In Great Britain the useful pioneer 
work of Mr. Borlase Matthews is steadily making progress. The problem 
to be solved is the reduction of the cost of distribution to these generally 
somewhat isolated farms. Where it can be made commercially possible 
any increase in the extent of the high-pressure transmission systems con- 
structed in this comitry must gradually envelop more and more of the 
rural districts. 

On the Continent considerable development has taken place in the 
provision of an electrical service to rural communities. It is true that 



G.— ENGINEERING. 17& 

facilities have been afforded in some of these districts by transmission 
lines conveying the energy derivable from water-power and traversing the 
rural districts on their way to the main outlet for the consumption of the 
electricity generated at the distant source. In Denmark, nevertheless, 
where there is no large water-power at all, a considerable service has been 
afforded to rural districts, and small pole transformers with cheaply con- 
structed overhead lines are made to serve districts within a two-mile 
radius from each transformer. Surely we can devise similar means of 
assisting our great agricultural industry in this country. 

This short review would be incomplete without a reference to electrical 
research — a subject which must always be of interest to this Association. 

Excellent progress is being made by the British Electrical and Allied 
Industries Research Association, now in its sixth year, under the direction 
of Mr. E. B. Wedmore. This Association was instituted principally by 
the British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association, under the 
auspices and with the help of the Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research. Fundamental researches have been conducted and are being 
continued on dielectrics in general; on conductors and on apparatus for 
electric control, including severely practical experimental work on heavy 
switches ; prevention of corrosion in condenser tubes ; steam-turbine 
bladings, and in the properties of extra high-pressure steam up to 1,500 lb. 
per square inch and at temperatures of 850^ F., conducted by Prof. 
H. L. Callendar. A most important and patiently investigated research 
into the behaviour of buried cables (that is, cables laid underground in 
various ways, either direct in the soil or drawn into iron and earthen- 
ware pipes) has resulted in obtaining the most useful information of a 
practical and economic nature. 

Great possibilities of a beneficial kind lie ahead of the Association, 
assisted as it is in many directions by the skilled investigators of the 
National Physical Laboratory under the directorship of Sir Joseph Petavel. 
The completion next year of the uiillion-volt testing laboratory at the 
N.P.L. will make possible tests which will be of great practical value to 
the industry. 

The investigations of the Fuel Research Board begun under the 
chairmanship of the late Sir George Beilby, now succeeded by Sir Richard 
Threlfall, and under the direction of Dr. C. H. Lander, will greatly assist 
the designers of future power houses, as well as generally helping the great 
gas industr)'^ and other fuel industries, including the development of low- 
temperature carbonisation processes. These researches will have an influence 
upon public health, will bring about the better utilisation of our fuel re- 
sources, and help to educate the general public to a better and less prodigal 
use of the natural wealth laid down in this old country in past geological 
times. 

It has been a privilege and. an education to be associated directly or 
indirectly with these bodies through the Advisory Council of the Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research, and of real assistance in dealing 
with the problems involved in the consideration of systems for future 
electrical development. 

The work done by these bodies and by the research departments 
separately established by the great cable-making and manufacturing 

n2 



180 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

firms is bound to be reflected in practical improvements and general 
progress. 

One has got the impression that more encouragement is required to 
be given to Research Students in Engineering to enable full advantage 
to be taken of the excellent training facilities offered by our Universities 
and so that a sufficient number of recruits may be forthcoming. 

Development of another kind is rapidly overtaking the laissez-faire 
policy of past years. The Electrical Development Association, under 
the direction of Mr. J. W. Beauchamp, is making known by educative 
processes and by practical demonstrations the most efficient manner in 
which to use electricity for all kinds of purposes. Both classes of develop- 
ment — scientific research on the one hand, commercial application and 
intelligent use on the other — are bound to benefit greatly the whole 
industry of electricity supply and the people. The most liberal support 
and encouragement must be afforded by all electricity-supply authorities. 

In 1925 the -first World Power Conference was convened in London 
and was attended by leading engineers and scientists from all parts of 
the British Empire and the world. A series of valuable papers was 
submitted on fuel resources, water-power, electrical methods of trans- 
mission, and many other cognate subjects. The value of such a gathering 
cannot be over-estimated, and the success of this first conference was so 
marked that further conferences are to be arranged and will assemble in 
other capitals from time to time. The good work thus begun will be 
continued. 

Such is a brief review of the possible future develo])ment of the elec- 
tricity-supply industry in this country. It is clear that a period of great 
activity and progress is before us, which must inevitably be of great value 
to the nation. 

It is a duty laid on those of us who may be in responsible positions to 
shape properly and with foresight the lines along which this progress shall 
be made. Although a steady development is already discernible, much 
bigger things are before us, and it may be that we shall sow that a suc- 
ceeding generation may reap. As Great Britain is essentially dependent 
on imported foodstuffs to a large degree and on other raw materials for 
the feeding of her essential industries, it is clear that the most efficient 
and economic systems of industrial power and transport are necessary 
parts of the future equipment of the country. If we can add to this 
work of increased power application a notable improvement in the condi- 
tions of rural life, we shall help to improve the physical conditions of our 
people in both urban and rural districts, in addition to providing those 
engaged in industrial pursuits with better means of competing and holding 
their own with manufacturers in other countries. In this electricity 
must necessarily play a great part. Public opinion will increasingly 
require that this indispensable service shall be brought to the highest degree 
of efficiency and made as generally available throughout the country aa 
true economic development will allow. j 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



THE REGIONAL BALANCE OF 
RACIAL EVOLUTION. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOR H. J. FLEURE, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



I. Introduction. 

A MEETING of the British Association at Oxford naturally recalls to one's 
mind the famous stand of Huxley for the Darwinian theory of descent 
with modification at the 1860 Meeting, as well as his speech at the 1894 
Meeting in this city. At the present time there is no longer any doubt 
among scientific workers that the body and mind of man are the outcome 
of a long process of descent with modification, and that all life on earth is 
genetically one. The unity of animate nature is accepted without reserve 
or qualification, despite little outbursts where old modes of thought linger 
on the fringes of civilisation. These outbursts serve only to demonstrate 
the widespread applicability of the principle that survivals tend to have a 
peripheral distribution. 

The general acceptance of the idea makes it important to survey 
what is known and thought as to how, when, and where the remarkable 
evolution of modern man worked itself out. Of the early stages of man's 
•evolution little need be said here, as Elliot Smith ^ has recently dealt with 
it in a fresh and masterly fashion. He has emphasised the correlated 
improvement of brain and eyes as the key fact. Stereoscopic vision has 
heen promoted by the habit of walking on two legs on the ground, for this 
ireed the hands to carry objects to the mouth, bringing them within range 
of minute observation by the eyes working together. Improved ajij^recia- 
tion of objects was, in his opinion, one factor in the development of names 
for them. 

The period of pre-natal life in apes ancestral to man was probably 
220 days, as compared with the period of 280 ± accepted for mankind. 
'This represents a change of great importance, for it appears to have led 
to a marked continuance of growth of the head region and to the j)ostpone- 
ment of the hardening of the frontal and facial elements that must once 
have occurred soon after birth, i.e. soon after the 220th day, but which 
now is unnecessary at that stage. Increased growth of the fore-brain is 
a main feature of mankind. We must not, and need not, argue that this 
increase occurred somehow because it would be useful to its possessors ; 
it is nearer the truth to say that it did occur, and that those who showed it 
were thereby enabled to take advantage of opportunities their predecessors 

1 Smith, G. Elliot. Lectures on the Evolution of Man, 1924. 



182 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

could not grasp. That the utilisation of these opportunities led to the 
survival of the bigger-brained beings is also probably true, but it may 
well have been a physiological change which started the remarkable 
process. 

The fact that only slight differences in the duration of pre-natal life 
occur throughout mankind, and that there is a widespread tendency to 
premature birth about the 220 ±th day suggests that the extension of the 
pre-natal period is a very old-established feature of mankind, and is a 
change from a 220 ± days' period. It does not seem useful to speculate on 
the position of extinct early types of man in this respect, apart from a 
reminder of the fact that they show some measure of increased growtli of 
fore-brain as compared with ape-relatives. 

The extension of pre-natal life seems to have induced further important 
changes which must be mentioned. 

First, it seems that the growth of hair is affected. Downy hair spreads, 
over the embryo body, becoming very apparent after about the 100th day, 
and reaching a maximum about the 200 ± th day, but afterwards it becomes 
less and less, though a little remains throughout life, especially in women, 
and to some extent in men of the Ainu, Australian, and some European 
groups. It is much less abundant in the negro, though the Bushman 
retains some of it, and cases of specially marked persistence of the downy 
hair occur, with other supposed traces of infantilism, among the Central 
African pigmies. The indications of hair in lines down the chest and 
abdomen of a woman depicted at Laugerie Basse (la femme aii renne) in 
Aurignacian times should be remembered. 

The persistence of an embryonic character such as the downy hair is- 
a remarkable feature in mankind and an example of partial emancipation 
from the otherwise general rule that development nearly completes itself 
by the time of sex-maturity. It will be best at this stage of our ignorance 
to say merely that there is a pronounced prolongation of features of youth 
in mankind. 

From about the 170±th day of life-before-birth the growth forms of 
hair change, and this change becomes very marked after the 200th day. 
Now in an ape this is near the period of birth and just after it, and the 
conditions are necessarily those which promote grov/th of protective hair. 
In man, on the other hand, the conditions rather favour maintenance of 
the downv hair, though it is not so abundant in the new-born as in the- 
200 ±th d'ay baby.' 

Thus the lengthening of pre-natal life seems to have been an important 
factor in the reduction of hairiness in the human race, and also in the 
retention of a measure of embryonic downiness, and this has increased the- 
' tactile ' sensitiveness of the skin of those who retain the downy covering, 
i.e. especially of children and women. That this has had consequences 
for the development of the relations between mother and child is almost 
beyond doubt. 

It is thought by physiologists that the growth of hair absorbs rather 
a large quantity of energy, and that the thyroid secretion is closely 
associated with this growth. We shall, therefore, not go far wrong i£ 

^ Friedenthal, H. Das WoUhaarkleid, Das Dauerhaarkleid, &c., 4 Lieferungen^ 
1908. 



\ 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 183 

we take it that, with diminished hair-growth, the influence of the thyroid 
secretion has been liberated to exert itself elsewhere, and, as we understand 
its relations with brain-growth are also close, we may see in this an accessory 
factor of brain-growth in man. 

The increased brain-growth, whatever its causes, is an outstanding 
fact of human development, and the corresponding increase of the volume 
of the skull has apparently made the training for the holding up of the head 
a longer process, consequently the helplessness of the infant, the oppor- 
tunities for maternal care, and the delaying of hair-growth are all empha- 
sised. The process of brain-growth and delay of skull-hardening can also 
be prolonged still further as infancy is lengthened. 

The changes just noted have doubtless contributed, from early stages, 
to the differentiation of men's and women's activities, a differentiation 
which is a marked feature of our race,'' for, among other mammals, the 
two sexes for the most part share much the same habits and run together, 
though there are well-known partial exceptions. The emphasis on this 
differentiation of work between the sexes seems to have arisen as man 
was becoming man in a fairly full sense, and we can hazard an hypothesis 
as to how it came about. 

Man's animal relatives search out nuts and fruits and various forms of 
vegetable food, and occasionally indixlge in animal food ; man, even as 
early as the middle Pleistocene, and probably even earlier still, was partly, 
perhaps largely, carnivorous. Though General Smuts warns us against 
overweighting European evidence, we must agree that the Euro-Africo- 
West- Asiatic quadrant of the world was a very important home of early 
and mid-Pleistocene man. The cold winter anti-cyclone of that period 
limited vegetation severely, and, while much of mid-Pleistocene Europe 
was ice-covered, the belts of climate were shifted southward,^ so that 
parts of the Sahara and Arabia got winter rain and were more grassy than 
now. Lands with climate most suitable to the type of modern man (see 
details below) would thus be largely grasslands, and here the food problem 
seems to have urged the men towards hunting, while the women were 
occupied with maternal duties, probably more necessary imder mid- 
Pleistocene conditions on the grasslands than in earlier times. The 
success of hunting in providing energising food which helped to maintain 
body-heat under cold conditions, and generally promoted activity, must 
soon have become evident, and man became largely a hunter. Women 
seem to have continued more or less the traditional gathering, but there 
were no doubt many grades and variations in this differentiation of work. 
It was not the substitution of a largely carnivorous for a largely vegetarian 
diet which was so important ; rather should we emphasise the supple- 
mentary natures of the two diets among people who had not yet the 
assured position of food-producers. The strenuous exercise of hunting, 
using the accompanying increase of energising food, would prolong growth 
and probably retard the oncoming of sex-maturity in the young men. 

It is noteworthy that among hunting peoples the difference in stature 
between the two sexes is still often much greater than it is among culti- 
vating peoples. Here, again, we seem to get another indication of the 

8 Thomson, J. A. ' What is Man ? ' 1923. 

* See discussion in Journ. Roy. Anthr. Inst., L, 1920, 



184 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

prolongation of growth as a feature of mankind alongside of a growing 
sex-differentiation affecting general habits to a degree previously unknown. 

It is, next, very important to remember that this differentiation took 
place within groups rather than among solitary individuals or even isolated 
families, for in all likelihood the habit of group-life is part of man's heritage 
from animal ancestors. So human society does not so much result from 
the coming together of individuals as human individuality results from 
the liberation, bit by bit, of individual initiative within groups. This 
is a fact which sociologists have in the past too often neglected. The 
different food-quests of the two sexes, the increased dependence of the 
infant, and the growth of brain all helped to make society more durable 
and more complex, especially as organised hunting provided a link between 
the younger fathers and the elder boys. Another factor, which must 
have operated at the same stage, was Fire. As it was used both by mid- 
Pleistocene men and by the almost unrelated late Pleistocene men in 
Europe, it must be very old indeed, and it was almost certainly used by 
the Foxhall men, who date very far back, while ashes of fires are known 
from the later phases (Acheulian) of the early Pleistocene. It would help 
to give society a focus, and to give women another stay-at-home function. 
Its values for warmth in a cold climate, for food preparation, for scaring 
wild animals, for hardening and pointing the ends of broken branches, for 
preparing flints for flaking, are all too well known to need long discussion. 

One more theoretical point. Elliot Smith has shown that some 
measure of human speech is a very old feature indeed in mankind, and 
the exercise of the faculty of speech is an insistent need all through man- 
kind. Probably progress towards the erect attitude freed the laryngeal 
region from the constraints of some of the tissues previously helping to hold 
in place the projecting snout. The increase of family life must have pro- 
moted development of intercommunication, and the growth of brain made 
possible new and varied registrations of associations of sounds with objects, 
which became better appreciated, thanks to improved detailed vision. 

The ceremonial burial at La Chapelle aux Saints in the mid-Pleistocene 
period is very generally held to imply that, probably from reflection on 
their dreams, men were already beginning to picture a life after death. 
This development of fancy can be seen to have bearings on the conduct 
of nurture, on the relations of the generations, on the continuity and 
stability of society. 

The stone implements of early Pleistocene man are generally of a few 
types only, though they may be wonderfully executed, with evident 
affection and esthetic appreciation. They illustrate the heavy hand of 
tradition limiting initiative but allowing the compensation of the crafts- 
man's joy, a feature of society one might demonstrate from many regions 
at many periods. 

II. — The Early Forms of Modern Man— General Considerations. 

The foregoing inevitably too speculative preface seemed necessary in 
order to help us to know the rock whence modern man was hewn, and it 
is the evolution of the forms of modern man that I should like to touch as 
my main theme. Here we find a difficulty at the outset. Modern man 
is known first from the north-west quadrant of the Old World, chiefly from 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 185 

Europe. Research was long hampered by the grouping of all or nearly all 
the men of the later Pleistocene under the one name of the Cro Magnon 
Race. Thanks largely to the lamented Giuffrida Ruggeri,' we have got 
beyond that unsatisfactory position, and now recognise several sub-groups 
of modern man in Europe as early as the Aurignacian period. This 
implies that modern men had, somewhere or other, gone through a long 
history before they came to Europe with Aurignacian culture. On the 
whole the divergences between the various types do not seem great enough, 
in the present state of our knowledge, to force us to assume that they 
developed from widely different types of ancient man, but we need not 
assume a single ancestral pair or even a small number of ancestral pairs 
all very much alike. 

Huntington, Hill, Taylor, and Olbrichf^ have tried in various ways to 
•estimate the climates which make the body and mind of the European 
function most efficiently, and it is generally agreed that much depends 
upon the number of calories of heat which the body is able to emit. This 
amount may be well over 3,200 calories per day for a strong man's active 
life in a cool climate, and as little as 1,500 calories for a sedentary life 
under equatorial conditions. More heat can be emitted when the 
•atmosphere is dry as well as cool, as in the United States of America. 
White people there find it useful to have houses, &c., warmer than ours in 
England during the winter. The conditions that make us function most 
■actively are those of a climate with temperatures usually varying between 
70° and 20° F., without too long spells at either of these limits, with 
■enough, but not too much, bright sunshine, and with variability and 
storms as a feature. It would appear that these conditions are most 
favourable to activity and general well-being of some other race types 
besides Europeans, and Huntington, for example, believes, with some 
justification, that the Bantu peoples coming into South Africa profit by 
the greater cooling power of the region, and are physically and mentally 
better than those in the equatorial regions. Very great cold appears to 
have deleterious effects mentally and physically. We must not argue too 
•crudely that the ' ideal climate ' is the climate of the region where modern 
man originated, but we may go so far as to say that, as his constitution 
seems attuned to certain climatic conditions, those conditions must not 
be very far from the conditions of the region in which he evolved, admitting 
■that quite possibly he migrated into a region of the climate in question 
and so gained an access of vigour. His mental processes are most active 
at a temperature below that of the greatest comfort physically, and this 
has induced Olbricht to venture the suggestion that the great mental 
advance to the fully human condition occurred in a cold period, probably 
one of the later phases of the Ice Age. 

5 Giuffrida Ruggeri, V. ' Quatro crani preistorici dell' Italia,' Arch, yer I'Ayitr. e 
■la Etn., xlv., 1915 ; ' Antropologia e Archeologia,' ibid., xlvi., 1916 ; ' La posizione 
antr. d. Uomo d. Combe Capelle,' Riv. di Anir., xxi., 1916-17; ' Su I'orieine dell' 
Uomo,' 1921. 

6 Huntington, E., 'Civilisation and Climate,' 1915; 'World Power and Evolu- 
tion,' 1919. Hill, L., ' The science of ventilation and open-air treatment ' (Medical 
Research Committee), pt. 1, 1919, pt. 2, 1920. Hill, L., and Campbell, G., ' Health 
and Environment,' 1925. Taylor, G., ' Evolution and Distribution of Race, Culture 
and Language,' Geographical Review, 1921. Olbricht, K., ' Khma und Entwicklung,' 
1923. Cornish, Vaughan, ' The Great Capitals,' 1923. 



186 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

If modern men are descendants of one ancestral group, it was probably 
a group of Pleistocene and possibly of mid-Pleistocene date. At that 
period, we may take it that the requisite climatic conditions obtained in 
various parts of the belt now forming the Sahara and S.W. Asia, for the 
belts of climate then lay farther south, and the winter westerlies apparently 
visited that belt ; it is interesting that the Sahara shows a good deal 
of evidence of inhabitants of possibly mid-Pleistocene date. We may, 
perhaps, venture to ' place ' the ancestors of modern man in the zone 
from the Atlantic edge of the Sahara to Persia, and may think of several 
groups not all exactly alike. Those on the colder side of the zone may 
well have been distinguished by greater mental activity. 

What were the early modern men like ? Firstly, as all men of modern 
type walk nearly erect and as the older extinct types of man did not, we 
may argue that an advance, still incomplete in some cases [Grimaldi 
(lower levels) and Chancelade], towards the erect posture was character- 
istic of early modern man. Next, nearly all healthy men show some 
tendency to produce brown pigment, and, save in N.W. Europe, have 
dark hair and eyes. In fact, these are almost universal in the rest of the 
world except for migrants from North Europe, in which area (possibly 
also, slightly, in parts of N.E. Asia) therefore a process of depigmentation 
has most probably occurred. So it is likely that early modern men were 
more or less brown-skinned, dark-haired and dark-eyed, and if this be 
so they doubtless lived where there was a good deal of summer sunshine, 
as, no doubt, there was in the region indicated. 

Next we note that, however strong the jaws and brow-ridges of modern 
types of men (fossil or living) may be, they are less strong and project 
far less thaii those of the most ancient types of men. Reduction of jaws 
and brow-ridges is thus a process we can postulate, and we may go one 
step farther and associate this with progress towards the erect posture. 
Reduction of face and jaws would certainly make it easier to balance 
the head on the end of the vertebral column, and this reduction was. 
undoubtedly made possible by increased use of the hands. There was. 
also, no doubt, some influence of what Roux called the ' Struggle of the 
Parts,' according to which parts that are of increasing importance draw 
nutrition during development from their neighbours. In this case it 
would be the growing fore-brain that was capturing energy. It may also 
be that there has been a relative reduction of the pituitary secretions 
or of one or other of them, and it has already been suggested that there 
had been a liberation of thyroid secretion from old duties, or even an 
increase of that secretion. 

III. — Early Forms of Modern Man — A Brief Summary. 

Among the early (Aurignacian and Solutrean) examples of modern 
men we notice a good deal of difference of characters, and this suggests 
a number of ancestors spread over a fairly large zone rather than an origin 
from a very small group of very localised origin. It is admitted that the 
number of skeletons known is, as yet, too small for us to argue with con- 
fidence about races and migrations in that early time. Nevertheless, it 
is useful to have some working hypothesis, and for this purpose we shall 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 18T 

venture to sketch out characters of some groups of men of the periods in 
question. 

The well-known youth and old woman from the lower layers at 
Grimaldi' show very long high heads, which, however, altogether lack 
the brow-ridges found in some of the others. The nose is very broad and the 
mouth projects strongly, while the teeth are much larger than those of 
living men. The stature is short. 

These two skeletons have been said to be ' negroid,' but it would be 
better to say that, both in them and in some African individuals, we find 
some of the characters above enumerated. If it is right to look upon a 
marked relative elongation of the head as an early specialisation in some, 
but not all, forms of modern man, then we can say that these two Grimaldi 
skeletons show that specialisation, and are also characterised by absence 
of brow-ridges. The proportion of the lower limb to the upper one was 
remarkably high, as Verneau has shown, and it is interesting that this 
seems also to be a feature among some African peoples, notably the 
Bushmen. The relations are quite reversed among some West African 
negroes, and apparently among the Semang pigmies. There thus seems 
reason to suppose that among the early forms of modern man — for I 
shall claim later on that the pigmies are, to some extent, survivals of such 
forms — there were differences in the proportions of the limbs. This is 
what might be expected to occur in a species with an original home 
probably on the grassland borders of the forest, and possibly an arboreal 
stage in its ancestry. 

Menghin" has recently ventured the suggestion that the Grimaldi type 
is to be linked with the rock-face art of Alpera and other places in E. and 
S. Spain. The idea is that here we have a type and culture related to 
those of N. Africa, though the indications are that the culture (Capsian) 
concerned reached Europe from Africa via Italy rather than via Spain. 

The name of Cro Magnon has been widely used as a label for nearly 
all the types of the late Palaeolithic with the exception of the two Grimaldi 
skeletons above mentioned, though often the calotte from Briinn or that 
from Briix, both in Moravia, have also been made into types. The late 
Giuffrida Ruggeri helped greatly to make our conceptions clearer, but some 
exaggerations of Klaatsch hindered the spread of a more reasonable view. 
It is interesting that Klaatsch withdrew those exaggerations before he died. 

Three individuals are known from Cro Magnon," one, ' the old man,' 
being almost perfectly preserved. There is also a very closely similar 
skeleton from La Grotte des Enfants on the Riviera. Further, two malo 
skeletons from Barma Grande (Riviera), and possibly two or three more 
from Cavillon and Baousso da Torre (Riviera), show facial characters of 
this type combined with the very long and high-ridged character of the 
skull-roof of the type to be discussed next. 

This combination of the broad, short, strong- jawed Cro Magnon face, 
with a very long and high head as just noted, also occurs in the male 
skeleton of Magdalenian date from Obercassel, near Bonn. 

■' Verneau, R. ' Les grottes de Grimaldi,' vol. ii., 1906. 
" Hoernes-Menghin. ' Urgeschichte der bildenden Kiin.st in Europa,' 1925. 
de Quatrefages, H., and Hamy, E. T., ' Crania Etlmica,' 1882. Also Verneau, R.» 
oj). cit. 



188 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In the Cro Magnon type the head is long absolutely, but only moderately 
long relatively, so the cephalic index is moderate (74-5-6). The malar 
bones are strong, and it is clear that both the temporal muscles and the 
muscles for lateral working of the jaws were powerful. The height of the 
skull is much less than its breadth. The nose and chin are prominent 
•and narrow. The stature is great. It would seem that the pull of the 
jaw muscles was exerted well away from the median line, and with this 
standing out of the jaw muscles at the side seems to be associated the 
breadth of cheek-bones, orbits and jaws, which is such a marked feature 
here. The pre-frontal region seems to have grown out to the level of 
the heavy brows, so that the latter do not project out as strong brow- 
ridges, though the eyes are deep-set beneath. 

It is difficult to accept either the Briinn or the Briix'" skull-caps as 
suitable subjects from which to name a race, and there are difficulties 
about naming it from the allied skull from Combe Capelle. Science is 
waiting anxiously for a full account of skulls found at Predmost, as it 
seems likely that these will furnish a useful basis for naming the type. 
The general characters here are the extreme length and narrowness of 
the head, so that the cranial index is rarely as high as 73 on the skull, and 
the strong development of the brow-ridges. It was once supposed that 
the strong brow-ridges betokened Neanderthaloid kinship, but that idea 
has been given up, though some have discussed whether the skull-cap 
recently found at Podkoumok " in the Caucasus should not be included in 
this group rather than in the Neanderthal group. The accepted distinc- 
tions between the two groups have included the lowness of the vault in 
the Neanderthal group, and the fusion in that group of all the elements 
of the brow-ridges and glabella to form a frontal torus. 

It has, however, been found that some of the Lautsch skulls (Moravia) 
a.re very low in the vault, and this is true for one from Mechta-el-Arbi 
(cranial index, however, 76.7) in N. Africa. In one of the Lautsch skulls 
also the brow-ridges and glabella are fused, though there is nothing like 
the strength of the frontal torus of the Neanderthal type. It may be that 
the progress of discovery will lead us to a knowledge of a type approxi- 
mately ancestral to both the Neanderthal group and the group now under 
■discussion, these two representing divergent specialisations. 

From the fact that Briinn, Briix, Lautsch, Predmost are all in Moravia 
one may speak tentatively of the Moravian group, with the Combe Capelle 
skeleton as an outlying find in the French Aurignacian. The group is 
important because it is so widely represented in skulls of subsequent 
periods and in present-day populations, in both cases with modifications 
in detail. 

The Combe Capelle, Briinn, and apparently some Predmost skulls are 
high, with the median line standing out as a ridge. Where it is known, the 
face is longer and less broad than that of the Cro Magnon type, though 
iere again the cheek-bones stand out. The nose is sometimes fairly broad, 
the stature is moderate. 

Menghin has ventured the suggestion that this type may be linked with 

1° Schwalbe, G. ' Die Schildel von Briix,' Z. fiXr Morph. und Anth., 1906. 
" Fleming, R. M., ' The Podkoumok Skull,' Man, June 1926. Szombathy, J.. 
■* Die Mensclienrassen im oberen Palaolithikum,' Mitt. Anth. Ges. Wien, 1926. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 180 

the art of sculpturing in the round, so characteristic of some Aurignacian 
stations in Europe. 

Skulls from Solutre show high heads apparently without strong brow- 
ridges, but here the head is relatively shorter and the cranial index is 
much higher (77.9-83.2, as against 74-5-6 in Cro Magnon, and about 70 
or less in several others). We await with great interest further details of 
these Solutre skulls.''^ 

IV. — A Comparative Review of the Early Forms Noticed. 

We must note first that it is no longer possible to speak of the people 
of the Aurignacian and Solutrean jDhases as all long-headed ; the Solutre 
skulls show that fairly broad-headed men had already appeared in Europe 
at that time. It is also evident that there are several characters which 
are widespread among these early forms of modern man, but that these 
characters occur in different associations in different cases. Extrezne long- 
headedness is common to several specimens, and is usually, but not always, 
associated with high-headedness and with strength of brow-ridges and of 
cheek-bones, connected with great strength of the temporal muscles. 
There is, however, also a fairly frequent occurrence of a somewhat greater 
width combined with less height of head, as in the Cro Magnon type, and 
here it would seem that the brow-ridges do not stand out forwards in 
most cases. The temporal muscles were undoubtedly strong in this last 
type, but they seem to have been set farther out to the side. 

The increase in length of the skull, which undoubtedly seems to have 
occurred in the early forms of modern man, appears to have been mainly 
an increase in length in front of the ear, and it is important that, in 
children's growth, the part of the head in front of the ear increases in 
length more and faster than the part behind the ear. Here it is interesting 
to note that the Chancelade skull seems to have less lengthening of the 
front part than many others, and to remember also that Chancelade jnan 
did not walk quite erect. He has not been described in the previoiis section 
because he is later in presumed date than those mentioned, but he appears 
to show some early features. 

Now, if growth was taking place particularly in the anterior region of 
the skull, and was often especially growth in length, this means that 
additions were being made most of all along the coronal suture which 
goes across the head near the vertex, and we may inquire why this was so. 
One reason seems to be that the temporal muscles, functioning stronf^lv 
when the jaws were used for tugging at flesh food, were obviously of verv 
great importance to the men of the late Palaeolithic Age, as they had beeii 
to earlier man and to his animal ancestors. In other words, a persistent 
ancient feature frequently exercised a marked influence on a new growth. 
In several cases the two sides of the skull-roof were pulled down, or the 
median line was ridged up, and this is found frequently associated with 
a deep temporal hollow, and markedly outstanding brow-ridges remain 
as a natural consequence. These are not new features but, rather, per- 
sistent old ones. In other cases the front part of the roof is less gabled, 

1- Deperet, Arcelin, and Mayet. ' Decouvertes d'hommes fossiles d'age aurignacien 
et le gisemeiit prehistorique de Solutre,' La Nature, 2587 (1923) and 2654 (1926), 



190 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and the brows are then usually less outstanding as elements distinct from 
the brain-case. In other cases again the temporal muscles seem to exercise 
still less influence on the skull, and growth is not so predominantly a growth 
along the coronal suture ; here the head is less narrow, the brow-ridges 
are generally weaker, and, especially in women who have little growth of 
brow-ridges, the forehead may even bulge forward to some extent above 
the brows. 

Lest too much importance be attached to the influence of the temporal 
muscles upon the skull-form attained as growth proceeded, it is well to 
remember that the face was still strongly developed in most early examples 
of modern man, and that to balance this the head must project backwards 
a good deal ; therefore growth in length would be marked in those forms 
which had a weighty development forwards. This occurred in most cases, 
whether the skull was very narrow and high or less narrow and lower. 
This growth in length leading to backward projection resulted, as has been 
said, chiefly from growth of the front part. 

In trying to understand the variations in form of early Neanthropic 
men's skulls as essentially growth-differences, it is well to remember that 
the man of Neanderthal type from La Chapelle aux Saints had a cranial 
index in the neighbourhood of 80 if the brow-ridges be excluded in taking 
the length. The relation of breadth to length in the Piltdown skull was 
about 79 per cent., and most of the apes are brachycephalic (apart from 
the brow-ridges), though H. A. Harris has recently shown that some 
gorillas are dolichocephalic* 

It is thus possible to think that, with the growth changes involved when 
there evolved men of the types found in Aurignacian and Solutrean times 
in Europe, some individuals responded with little change of cranial index 
and became what are often called mesaticephals or sub-brachycephals. 
Others responded with a lesser or greater degree of growth in relative 
length, not in absolute length be it noted. The skulls with very low 
cranial index and great height so characteristic for the Solutrean, and to 
some extent for the Aurignacian phase of culture, are thus held to be an 
early specialisation among men of modern type, and this view is contra- 
distinguished from that which has been suggested from time to time, 
and which supposes that dolichocephaly was the one primitive condition 
in men of modern type, and that brachycephaly somehow evolved from it. 

When the types of living men are studied, it becomes evident that the 
heads which have a very low index have a distribution which includes the 
following features : — 

s 

(a) Many of their locations are peripheral, as though they had been 
pushed out to the very edges. 

(b) Some of their peripheral locations, and many of those which are 
not peripheral, are in regions of difficulty which are typically 
refuges of old types. 

It is unreservedly recognised that this does not account for all the 
facts. There are, for example, types — e.g. in S.E. Australia — with low 
indices and heavy brow-ridges, but the head there is generally low, not 
high, as would be anticipated from what has been urged here. I think 

* ' Endocranial Form of Gorilla Skulls,' Amer. Journ. Phys. Anthr., 1926, p. 167. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 191 

this point could be met by more minute speculation as to evolution of 
types ; they may be a very early variant. It is also proper to add that 
in N.W. India there are large numbers of men with very high heads of 
very low index, and that area is neither peripheral nor a region of difficulty. 
This problem needs to be thought out in its prehistoric setting, but I do 
not think it, as yet, invalidates the view here sketched out. 

It is still far too early to build on the suggestion, but one may use as 
a preliminary sketch the idea of the evolution of very long-headed early 
modern men somewhere on the great plains from Cap Verde to Persia, and 
of their spread to the great plains north of the Euxine, as well as to 
S.W. Europe. If, at the same time, one thinks of types with less 
lengthened heads, for example in the highlands of Asia Minor and on the 
southern flank of the Cap Verde-Persia area, one has a picture which will 
be of use till a better can be made. That the early home of modern man 
was a broad zone, with local differences in types of people, can hardly be 
doubted. 

Before proceeding to a rapid survey of some living groups of mankind 
w^e must note a few more features of early modern man, features in which 
he seems to contrast with his predecessors. 

Ceremonial burials became frequent, and in a few cases group-burials 
also indicate increased group-life, and artistic expression found special 
development in the carving of statuettes, emphasising especially the fact 
of maternity. There is also clear indication of liberation of initiative 
within the group, in that implements took on more varied forms for various 
purposes and in various localities ; and, in handling quantities of them, 
one cannot but feel that men were more accustomed than heretofore 
to throwing away an old implement and taking a new one. There can 
be little doubt that with the growth of social life went an increase of 
parental interests, with the probable accompaniment of prolongation of 
infancy, and, very probably with this, of prolongation of the whole life 
cycle. Increased possibilities of education would seem to have been 
opened up, and would in their turn not only help to lengthen the adolescent 
phase, but could also contribute to the refinement of the hand and the 
completion of acquisition of the erect posture. 

V. — Some Possible Survivors of Early Types of Modern Man— 
the Pigmies and Others. 

Had we the whole pageant of evolution before us we should expect to 
find that early stages of the evolutionary changes noticed above survived 
here and there, especially in out-of-the-way places or unfavourable situa- 
tions. We should expect to notice amongst them degenerative as well as 
primitive features, and probably evidences of infantilism. Near the base 
of the vertebrate genealogical tree cluster such forms as Amphioxus, 
Appendicularia, Tunicates, &c., each with a medley of primitive, 
degenerative, and infantile features. Similarly near the base of the 
Molluscan genealogical tree occur Chsetoderma, Neomenia, and Chiton. 

Looking at certain groups of living men with these analogies in mind, 
and thinking of their present distribution in relation to the supposed 
home of the earliest men of modern type, we are led to interpret some 



192 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

characters as survivals of early stages of the evolution of modern mani 
from ancient man. These characters may be accompanied by indications- 
of infantilism and perhaps of special adaptations. 

The Andamanese, Semang, Aeta and Tapiro all live around the south- 
easterly fringe of Asia, in a region where land-connections must have been 
far more extensive when the coastline was near the present 100-fathom 
line. They are all very short, with small heads of moderate relative 
length, i.e. there is every ground for thinking that among them the growth 
in length noted for a number of early types of modern man has not taken 
place. Their noses are flat and broad, again an early feature, but this is- 
less marked in the Tapiro. The skin is very dark and the hair is set in 
close spirals. It seems almost necessary to think that some of these 
types have left their mark on the population of various parts of India. 
Papua has other pigmy and short peoples besides the Tapiro, people who' 
have spirally curved hair and are moderate-headed, some even very long- 
headed. In the Semang the ratio arm/leg is said to be unusually high. 

The Akka and other pigmies of equatorial Africa are again small and 
small-headed, the relative head-length being again only moderate, so that 
the cephalic index is 77-81, but lower in some groups. In these people 
pigmentation is less than it usually is in Africa, and downy hair occurs in 
notable development, especially on the legs ; these points suggest partial 
infantilism, especially as the very short stature is due rather to extremely 
short legs than to smallness of the trunk-length. The absence of the 
very dark colouring otherwise so general in Africa has been supposed ta 
be due to forest life, and this environmental influence may have played! 
an important part in the evolution of the pigmy. 

The Bushmen of S. W. Africa are a little taller than the above ; their- 
body is poor in hair, though the hairs are in close spirals, and among them. 
Fritsch''^ finds down-hairs (lanugo) here and there. The head, according 
to Broom," has small measurements, but the relative length is greater 
than the above, so the cephalic index on the skull ranges down from 78 tO' 
about 72 ; the head is low in the crown. Are these survivors of a stage 
in the lengthening process, or are they due to a cross between two types ?' 
It has sometimes been supposed that the low stature of the Bushmen is 
a result of poor feeding. The skin-colouring is not very dark. The 
nose is very broad and flat, the brow-ridges are not marked, but the cheek- 
bones stand out. 

The Tasmanians, now just extinct, were of moderate height. The 
head form ranged from brachycephaly to well-marked dolichocejihaly.. 
One skull, for example, is 205 mm. in length and has a cranial index of 
72.2. The basi-bregmatic height of the skull is not great, but its average 
value is only 5 mm. less than that of the breadth, and only 75 per cent, 
of the skulls known from Tasmania have the height less than the breadth. 
The colour of the Tasmanians was very dark, their hair was in close- 
spirals and was fairly abundant, their nose was very broad and fiat. 
Their brow-ridges, in contradistinction to those of the peoples mentioned 

i' Fritsch, G. ' Das Haupthaar,' 1912 ; ' Die menschliche Haupthaaranlage/ 
1915. 

!■* Broom, R. ' Craniology of Yellow-skinned Races of South Africa,' Journ. 
Boy. Anihr. Inst., liii., 1923. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 193 

before, are strongly marked. On the whole the Tasmanians seem to have 
descended from early types of modern man in whom the process of 
skull-lengthening, inferred above, had proceeded some distance. 

VI. — Some African Features. 

Before going any farther, attention must be drawn to the curious 
problem of the hair, which in all these types is in close spiral curves. 
Now, ape- hair is wavy, with roots stretching down into the deeper layers 
of the skin, and Sarasin*^ and Junod have recently claimed that it is only 
at about the time of birth that the hair of a negro child becomes spirally 
curved. Fritsch has shown that the slighter, or downy, hairs of the 
Bushman have a fairly straight course up from the roots, and that the 
spirally curved hairs develop that curve just above the root, often with 
a fairly sharp angle between the root and the beginning of the curve. 
For the moment it seems probable that these slighter hairs are part of 
the downy-hair covering already mentioned, but it would not be safe to 
assume that they are the modified survivors of ape-hair ; they may be. 
In any case it would seem that among some early representatives of 
modern man, if not earlier still, a specialisation of hair-growth occurred 
and produced the ' spiral ' types of hair among those groups which were 
on the south side of the presumed early home of modern man. That 
specialisation has fixed itself racially, in the end, at an early stage of growth. 
Factors of equatorial climate probably contributed to this result, for by 
this change the hairs were concentrated nearer the surface and the blood 
could thus be brought near the surface, and possibilities of cooling could 
be increased. This condition is a step towards that which obtains in 
various degrees among African peoples, in which the blood-vessels of the 
skin are abundantly developed. It is worth noting that the Aurignacian 
statuette called the ' Venus of Willendorf ' is sculptured to suggest woolly 
head-hair, while the ' Sorcerer ' of Lourdes is drawn to show wavy hair. 

Next, we may think of the cases in which the lengthening of the head 
argued in an early paragraph has taken place fairly clearly and com- 
pletely ; but for the moment we shall consider only those of the southern 
lands of the Old World, those who may have drifted southwards from the 
early home of modern man. Certain Hottentots and Koranas measured 
by Broom'" are distinctly taller than the peoples discussed above, their 
heads are often quite long, absolutely as well as relatively, and their 
cranial indices range from 64.2 to 72.3 on the skull. The brow-ridges 
are often very strong, and some men have more face-hair than is usual 
in Africa ; the hair is spirally curved, as usual. Some are tall and strongly 
built. The height of the skull is usually as great as, or greater than, the 
width, so in this feature again they illustrate what I have supposed 
occurred in some types of early modern man. The ancient S. African 
Boskop" skull differs from these in some ways, just as the Cro Magnon 

'•' Sarasin, F. ' Sur le changement de la chevelure chez les enfants des 
Melanesiens, et des negres Africains,' L'Anthropologie, 1925. 

'^ Broom, op. cit. 

" Pycraft, W. P. 'On the Calvaria found at Boskop,' Journ. Roy. Anihr. Inst., 
1923. 

1926 O 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

skull difiers from those of Predmost and Combe Capelle ; its height is 
much less than its breadth. 

Thus it is seen that from Africa (south of the Sahara) we can match, 
mutatis mutandis, the known early Aurignacian types of Europe, allowing 
that the best matching of the Grimaldi type on the whole would be with 
some of the true negroid types to be mentioned next. Among the negroids 
we find a general indication of long-headedness as a basic character ; 
high-headedness is also widespread, and both features are sometimes 
developed to extremes. The close-spiral hair arising from curved roots 
near the surface of the skin, the great development of blood-vessels in 
the skin, the poverty of body-hair and the utilisation of the sebaceous 
secretion for keeping the skin surface supple and alive, so that non-con- 
ducting layers do not accumulate much, the variable but dark colouring, 
the flat broad nose (in many but not all cases), the thick everted lips are 
all well-known characters. Some are presumed here to be inheritances 
from early types of modern man, retained in some cases because infantilism 
seems to be apt to occur ; in others, such as that of the broad flat nose, 
because the features are of value to promote cooling. Others may be 
specialisations, including perhaps the close-spiral hair, the great develop- 
ment of skin blood-vessels, the everted lips, the thin supple epidermis 
without many dry dead layers, all of which would promote cooling. The 
Bushman ^* in the desert has a fair thickness of dry skin, and has not the 
great development of skin blood-vessels seen in some other African types. 

It is interesting to note the general dark colouring of the presumed 
survivors of early man in the southerly lands of the Old World, with the 
exception of the African forest pigmies and the Bushmen. It may be 
that the pigment formerly supplying the hairs remained in the skin as 
the hair diminished in quantity, especially in view of the fact that a 
certain amount of pigment is a valuable protection against the too great 
influence of the shorter visible (blue end of spectrum) rays of the sun.'" 
The ultra-violet rays are mostly filtered out by the horny layers of the 
epidermis. One should remember that deposited pigment is probably 
also waste matter laid aside where it can do but little harm, and that 
pigment of the surface above blood-vessels is a widespread feature in 
Vertebrates, Arthropods, Molluscs, &c. It was obviously especially 
types with broad flat noses, prominent mouths, and feeble brow-ridges 
and spirally curved hair that spread southwards in Africa, but a brow- 
ridged type also went that same way. 

Vn. — South-eastward Drifts of Early Types of Modern Man, as 
Represented in Present-day Populations. 

The supposed southward drift into Africa south of the Sahara was a 
drift affecting chiefly the people of the southerly belt of the zone early 
modern man is held to have occupied. What may be called the south- 
easterly drift would be a drift of somewhat different character, a drift 
from the eastern end of the zone and a drift thus affecting not only the 
people of the southerly belt but also those of the belt farther north. Thus 

1'' Fritsch, G., op. cit. 

13 Hill, L. ' The Science of Ventilation ' {vide supra), pt. 1, pp. 122-3, 1919. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 195 

there drifted in this direction not only the little peoples with small 
non-lengthened heads, who reached various points around S.E. Asia, as 
already mentioned, but also other types. The Tasmanians, for example, 
also showing spirally curved hair, have heads to some extent lengthened, 
and the brows are well marked. The Australian natives, with their very 
long heads and strong brow-ridges, broad flat noses and prominent mouths, 
are in some ways comparable with the Koranas of S. Africa,^" but have wavy 
hair growing from fairly straight roots. The height of the head is often 
small in S.E. Australia, but is great in N. Australia. Their resemblance 
to the Vedda of Ceylon is universally recognised. 

In Papua and Melanesia, on the other hand, though many of the same 
skull- and face-characters are present, the hair is in spirals. Nevertheless, 
it is to be noted that, whereas the African hair is said by Sarasin and 
Junod to change in character about the time of birth, they claim that 
the change in Papua and Melanesia comes when the child is from two to 
four or five years old. In Melanesia it would appear that there is, as one 
would expect, much admixture. 

As has been indicated, then, the south-easterly drift of the older 
varieties of modern man seems to be a more varied one than that into 
inter-tropical Africa, and this is apparently due to the fact that it is a 
drift from the eastern end of all belts of the zone of occupation of early 
modern man as well as to complexities of physical geography. One cannot 
but suppose that the earliest drift in this direction was of people with 
dark skins, spirally curved hair and non-lengthened heads, but that there 
followed people with more lengthened heads (Tasmanians in one direction 
and Melanesians in another, though the two groups are not at all closely 
related). Subsequently there would seem to have followed people with 
the fully lengthened head, but with wavy hair, people, however, retaining 
dark skin. These early drifts have obviously intertwined, as one would 
expect from the relative narrowness and the great length of the belt through 
which they moved. 

To understand these drifts a little more closely one may move the 
coastline of S.E. Asia to about the present 100-fathom line, thus adding 
Ceylon to India, as well as Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo to the Malay 
Peninsula and Cambodia. Palawan would then become a peninsula 
stretching north-eastwards from Borneo, and almost making contact with 
the Philippines, which again would almost attain contact with N.E. Borneo 
on the other side of the Sulu Sea. Farther east, Papua would be united 
to N. Australia, and only narrow straits between N. Australia and Timor, 
between Timor and an enlarged Lombok-Flores-Ombaya, and between 
this enlarged island and Bali, would separate the land masses of this 
region. 

Vni. — North-westward and North-eastward Drifts of Early Types of 
Modern Man, as Indicated in Present-day Populations. 

Hyperdolichocephalic people occur here and there in the European 
quadrant of the Old World, in Ireland, Wales, Norway, the Dordogne, 
Tras-os-Montes in N. Portugal, in Sardinia, in the south-east Carpathian 
region, and in N. Africa. The appropriate type of skull is a noteworthy 

^^ Broom, op. cit. 

o 2 



196 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

feature in Kurgan burials in S. Russia. Sometimes, as in N. Africa and 
in Wales and France, at" least, the people concerned suggest likeness to 
the Grimaldi type. In other cases the resemblance is rather to the 
Moravian group or the Combe Capelle skull. 

Rodd^^ has claimed that the Libyans include people who show the 
features of the Cro Magnon tjrpe. Telesforo de Aranzadi^'" makes similar 
claims for Biscayan Spain, and Collignon made them also for the 
Dordogne.^^ The survival of the Cro Magnon type is perhaps hardly 
established, but it seems probable. 

We may thus form the idea that a basic element in the population of 
the European quadrant is a very old mixture of early types of modern 
man, with subsequent inter-breeding and modifications. In addition to 
this basic element there are immigrants of other types from outside. 

V/hen the ice sheets were retreating finally the way northward between 
the Elburz Mountains and the Hindu Kush was probably beginning to be 
opened up, though doubtless the ice sheets on the Pamirs and adjacent 
ranges were still mighty, and the highland plateau of Mongolia, and 
much more the mountains of Thibet, were certainly still almost un- 
inhabitable. Doubtless, therefore, men spreading in this direction were 
from the first possessed of characteristics protecting them from bitter 
cold. 

Men with very long, high heads who appear to bo linked at least distantly 
with the early types mentioned in a previous section have reached America 
by north-eastward drift, at first avoiding the great highland mass of 
Central Asia. 

Some living near or on the ice sheet would seem in the end, probably 
long after this period, to have reached the Arctic tundra, and to have 
suited their mode of life to its environment. It is as survivors of such 
people that I interpret the Greenland and Baffin's Land Eskimo, without 
in any way suggesting that they go back to high antiquity in these 
particular regions. Others reached the American pine forest, and long- 
headed, high-headed types are known from skulls in the eastern States of 
North America. Others are scattered here and there in North America, 
in the extremity of the peninsula of Lower California, for example, also 
in a few spots in Mexico. In South America" there are both skulls of some 
antiquity and living people with these head characters on the plateau of 
Central and East Brazil, and old skulls in Colombia as well, while analogous 
features existed among some peoples of the extreme south. Hrdlicka 
has advanced arguments for racial resemblances throughout the ancient 
native population of America, and we would look upon these extreme 
long-heads as the first and most peripheral wave of a series generally 
becoming broader-headed with each succeeding wave. 

The Ainu of N. Japan and Sakhalin and some ancient crania from 
Japan seem another wave of early types surviving in what is in a sense 

21 Rodd, F. ' The Origin of the Tuareg,' Qeogr. Joiirn., 1926. 

22 de Aranzadi, in a letter to Dr. Haddon, 1918. 

23 Mem. Soc. Anthr. Paris, t. 1, No. 3, 1894 (Dordogne). 

24 Rivet, P., ' La Race de Lagoa Santa,' Bull. Mem. Soc. Anthr., 1909. Hrdlicka. 
A., ' Early Man in South America,' Amer. Bureau Ethnol., lii., 1912 ; ' Origin and 
Antiquity of the American Indian,' 1925. Vemeau, R., ' Crdnes d'Indiens de la 
Colombie,' U Anthr., xxxiv., 1924. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 197 

an ultimate corner, but among them apparently the specially long-heads 
are not in the majority. None the less, long-headedness with high- 
headedness is a feature here. The Ainu also stand out in contrast to 
most other peoples of East and North Asia in having very hairy bodies. 
Extreme hairiness may be looked upon as a protective scheme alternative 
to the development of the very dry skin with very few hairs, characteristic 
of Mongolia, &c. 

Looking generally at the early spread of man northward in Asia, we 
note that yellow-brown or brown or red-brown skin is a widespread 
feature. It is partly a maintenance of early pigmentation, partly, perhaps, 
an adaptation of that pigment to conditions of snow-glare and sunlight 
in a cold climate along lines which are being made the subject of physical 
investigation. The skins are usually well provided with dry epidermal 
layers, as would be natural in such climates. For the most part, hair- 
reduction has been carried to an extreme, and such hair as remains grows 
in firm pores in such a way as to fill the pore very completely. Sweat- 
glands also are not over-numerous, and, in consequence of this, skin garments 
can be worn without undue discomfort for a long time. A skin of this 
kind has a low irritability, an important fact in relation to the equability 
of temperament and relatively low sensibility to pain that is characteristic 
of many of the peoples who have spread north-eastwards in Asia ; needless 
to say, modifying factors affecting the temperament in other ways could 
be discussed. A moderate nose and strong cheek-bones may be supposed 
to be a general ancient feature of these peoples, but this matter will be 
discussed later. The diet generally includes a good deal of fat, thus 
encouraging production of heat that balances the high cooling power of 
the environment. Some of the broader-headed spreads in the directions 
indicated have reached regions with warmer seasons, and have adopted 
very different diets, especially as the type of skin just discussed does not 
make easy the dispersion of internal heat. 

Some broad-heads spreading northwards in Asia took the river-bank 
ways, such as that of the Yenisei, and, arriving on the tundra, ultimately 
found the westward route via North Kussia to Scandinavia possible as 
the ice sheet of the latter diminished. This last spread must have been 
relatively late. 

In concluding this brief review of early spreads of man and of their 
probable effects on present-day populations, it is well to refer to the 
interesting new light that is beginning to be shed on racial problems by 
the study of blood groups.'^^ The results are fragmentary and still lack 
correlations, but it already seems that, in some extreme peripheral regions, 
such as Australia, America, Iceland, and, to some extent, N.W. Europe, 
the proportions of persons with Groups III or IV of the usual blood- classifi- 
cation scheme are very low indeed. It is as though a large element of the 
blood of these peripheral peoples was inherited with little alteration from 
a phase before certain specialisations occurred in the composition of the 
blood. 

2» Snyder, L. H. ' Human Blood Groups,' Am. Journ. Phys. Anthr., 1926. 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

IX. — Post-glacial Changes and Food Production. 

According to de Geer, sinking of land in North- West Europe contri- 
buted to rapid retreat of ice sheets aboiit 6000 B.C., and the belt of the 
Atlantic westerlies shifted northward to its present position. The Central 
Asiatic ice sheets would thus be diminished through reduction of precipita- 
tion in consequence of this shift. For some millenia the Central Asiatic 
ice continued to yield enough water to keep moist certain areas that are 
now arid. Farther south the Mediterranean region and especially Mesopo- 
tamia were acquiring their well-known alternation of a cool rainy with a 
dry warm season. Mesopotamia doubtless long retained a good deal of 
moisture from melting of mountain-ice, especially as there was occasional 
slight regrowth of ice, as in the ' Gschnitz ' period of the glaciologists. 
This, however, was followed by marked subsidence of land in N.W. Europe, 
giving the mild conditions of the ' Littorina Sea ' in the Baltic area, and 
presumably considerable heat farther south {e.g. in Mesopotamia). 

The change of climate in N.W. Europe brought pine forest to replace 
the earlier steppe, and this was a serious crisis for the animal and human 
inhabitants. A pine forest is generally unfriendly to men who depend 
on collecting for their own needs, and the old culture seems to have 
decayed, leaving fragmented groups near the shores living on shell-fish, &c. 
Some patches free of forest because of loess soil or porous rock seem to 
have retained a hunting population, but the general condition seems to 
have been one of poverty and stagnation, though Kossinna thinks the 
south Baltic shores saw an advance of culture which most other students 
ascribe to awakening influences from the south-east at a later date. The 
oak forest succeeded the pine, and might have brought better opportunities 
had there been indigenous food-plants in W. or N.W. Europe. As it was, 
however, what may be called epipalseolithic conditions continued for long 
ages in the west. 

The probable early home of grain was in some part of the Fertile Crescent 
around the north end of the Arabian Desert, and food production was 
already undertaken there, e.g. at Susa, about or before 5000 B.C. A 
culture complex, which included cultivation of wheat and barley, the art 
of stone-grinding, that gave rise to the wedge and a mastery over work 
in wood, the hafting of tools, pottery, the beginnings of domestication of 
animals (possibly mainly for milk), the dawn of metallurgy and other arts, 
seems to have arisen in the Fertile Crescent ; and the Nile area may have 
contributed to, as well as been helped by, this. Evidence is as yet frag- 
mentary, but there are indications of the spread of elements of this culture 
complex during the fourth millennium B.C. to W. Europe, probably via 
Hungary.'^" The lake-dwellings of Switzerland seem to be a result of 
this. A spread of early Danubian culture to Belgium is held by several 
to have brought agriculture to W. Europe. There is, however, no need 
to picture the awakening West as copying exactly from old and distant 
civilisations. One will be nearer the truth if one thinks of the incoming 
of a germinating influence. The mastery of a wood technique, food 

26 See further discussion in ' The Corridors of Time,' H. J. E. Peake and H. J. 
Pleure (iu the press) ; also Childe, V. G., ' Dawn of European Civilisation,' 1925 ; 
Hoemes-Menghin, op. cit. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 199 

production, and the art of the pottery all contributed to home-making, to 
the provision of soft food for infants and to the enhancement of parental 
opportunities. Thus began the development of our agricultural civilisa- 
tion of W. and N.W. Europe with its more and more settled life and its 
improving equipment. It is in relation to these changes that one may- 
picture the continuation of a progressive diminution of the jaws and the 
brow-ridges, but one must remember the long persistence of ancient 
characters in the north-west, where they are foimd frequently enough 
among the skeletons from graves of the period of transition from stone to 
metal. Menghin is inclined to think that there was a direct inheritance 
from the old loess hunters of Hungary and Moravia to the later agricultural 
peasantry of that region. 

X. — Brachycephalic Types. 

We have seen that the Palaeolithic flesh-hunters without pots or pans 
must often have pulled at flesh- food half raw with their jaws, and their 
temporal muscles had to remain strong and firm, giving a head growth 
towards the long and high form. But among the mountains and forested 
valleys there may well have remained people among whom the lengthening 
of the skull may have been less marked (c/. Sect. IV), peoples for 
whom roots and seeds and berries were more important, and who, as 
Prof. Thomson and Mr. Buxton would put it, used their chewing (masseter) 
muscles far more. 

Among such people the general human tendency to reduction of brow- 
ridges would find freer scope, and the general head-growth could express 
itself more freely by increase of both diameters. I am thus inclined 
to venture the hypothesis that broad-headedness is not so much an 
evolution from long-headedness as a separate evolution from a medium- 
broad condition of very early modern man as already suggested (Sect. IV). 
A further hypothesis is that this line of evolution, i.e. increase of space 
for the fore-brain without much relative lengthening, even possibly with 
relative broadening, occurred somewhere in the mountain zone of the Old 
"World, and most probably in Asia Minor or the W. Persian area or near 
by. Why is this region suggested ? 

Among the highlands of S.W. Asia, Anatolia and Armenia have long 
been the home of one of the most remarkable developments of broad- 
headedness, with specialisations not shared to any extent by the Carpatho- 
Alpine or by the Irano-Pamirian broad-heads. The two groups are like 
one another in several ways, and it may be suggested that they are survivals 
of a stage of the development of broad-headed types which has been passed 
and left behind by the people of the Tauro- Armenian region. If this be 
so, on the principle of wave-spreads from an evolutionary centre which 
Clark Wissler'" has so well expounded for cultural anthropology, one may 
risk the suggestion that the broad-headed type of modern man had his 
first home not far from Asia Minor. 

So far, the only suggestion about physical character of these people 
has been that, among men using the masseter muscles to a greater extent 

27 Wissler, Clark. ' Man and Culture,' 1923 ; ' The Relation of Man to Environ- 
ment in Aboriginal America,' 1925. 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

than the temporals, the skull would be freer to expand along both diameters 
instead of almost exclusively in length. More chewing and less tearing 
and pulling would less definitely pull the jaws lengthwise. More power 
for chewing would be gained by growth in length of the ascending ramus 
of the jaw, and this added growth is a feature of most broad-headed tjrpes. 
Increase of power of the masseters above a certain amount can be secured 
probably only by increased width of the malar bones, and thus by increased 
width of the face. If the face and jaws tend towards width rather than 
length the same tendency is likely to show itself in the head. After men 
had attained the upright posture a strong forward projection of the face 
would have to be balanced by a backward projection of the head ; on 
the other hand, a reduction of such a forward projection would allow the 
reduction of the backward projection. On the whole, then, with the 
changes indicated, it is possible to think that men among whom chewing 
was far more important than tearing and pulling with the jaws, might find 
their normal head-growth leading rather to an increase than to a 
decrease of relative cranial breadth. Broad-headed people spread very 
early into Europe, and their skulls are known from Ofnet and Mugem. 
Some of the Ofnet skulls show a frontal region which suggests dolicho- 
cephaly, while the parietal region demonstrates brachycephaly ; this is 
a natural feature in skulls of early date if we remember the restrictions 
operating in early times on frontal growth in breadth. 

There has been no attempt to argue that emphasis on chewing rather 
than on tearing and pulling by the jaws has led to a change from 
dolichocephaly to brachycephaly. The suggestion has rather been that 
modern types of men may well have started medium-headed with indices 
not very different from those of ancient man (the frontal torus of 
Neanderthal types not being counted with the skull for purposes of 
measurement). On this has been built up the idea that growth would 
express itself in form changes which would on the whole tend towards 
growth in length in some cases and more towards growth in breadth in 
others. 

The skulls of early modern men, in which the growth in length is fully 
seen, rarely have a cranial index of more than 72, and this gives, for them, 
an index not above 73-4 on the living head. Specimens with indices below 
these respective limits form a much better-marked group than those 
below the ' 75 ' limit of dolichocephaly often quoted and used. 

Skulls with indices 72 or so to 77.5 (say 73.5-79 on the living head) 
are a more heterogeneous group, including perhaps survivors of early 
types with increase of fore-brain space but only relatively slight increase 
of relative length. They probably also include cases in which there has 
been an evolution from long-headedness of the extremer type, thanks to 
the reduction of restraining influences of the temporal muscles during 
the period of growth. 

No sharp divisions in a continuous series, such as that of skull forms, 
can be really satisfactory, but 72 aud 77.5 on the skull or 73.5 and 79 
on the living head would be more useful than the limits generally 
chosen. 

Another factor seems to have operated in the evolution of the broader- 
headed types. The nasal chambers, as Thomson has pointed out, are 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 201 

often large in broad-headed men.'"' In the broad-headed people of Asia 
Minor this largeness is emphasised in unique fashion. They have grown 
forwards and give the remarkable Hittite noses of the ancient reliefs and 
of the modern population. This suggests the accentuation of the median 
plane in more or less frontal growth, and this tendency is carried to an 
extreme in some peoples of Asia Minor and the Illyrian region with very 
high, small-crowned heads as well as very strong noses. 

On the other hand, among the later spreads of broad-headed man to 
the high plateau of the Tarim, Mongolia and Tibet, we find a flattening in 
and deepening of the malar, giving extra strength and directness to the 
masseter muscles ; and with this the nasal bones are naturally inclined 
to remain flat, so the space for the nasal chambers lies well in towards 
the brain instead of projecting far forwards. This gives an increased 
tendency to frontal breadth of the skull, resulting in the well-known 
rounded-head form characteristic of some peoples of this region. 
Here it should be noticed, first, that many people, especially towards the 
north side of the plateaux of Central Asia, do not show this flattening, 
but rather have prominent noses ; they may well be drifts from the 
Pamirs or Anatolia. The broad heads of the high plateaux are generally 
brown or yellow-brown in skin colour ; this is to be correlated first with 
the retention of an ancestral brown tinge by people who remain exposed 
to marked glare of sun and snow, and second with the thickening of 
the dry superficial layers of the skin and the sinking of the blood-vessels 
into the deeper layers of the dermis, both protective devices in a region 
where the cold anti-cyclone of winter is so highly developed. Those who 
are interested in correlations with activities of endocrine glands will note 
that dryness of skin and flatness of face (' Mongolism ') have been said to 
be associated in the West with unusual lowness of pituitary secretion. 
Excess of pituitary, on the other hand, produces acromegaly, including 
over-development of the mouth, brow-ridges, &c., and it can be corrected 
to a remarkable extent by giving doses of thyroid extract. Our know- 
ledge of the endocrines is still in its infancy, but it seems likely that the 
proper balance of these secretions is one prime need for normal growth, 
and that balance seems to be somewhat different in different regions. It 
would seem, at the moment, that the influence of pituitary relatively to 
thyroid is greater in tropical Africa than it is in inner Asia, i.e. in a warm, 
rather moist, than in a cold, dry climate. 

To sum up as regards broad-headed men, I think the type originated 
somewhere in the S.W. Asiatic mountain-country and that broad- 
headedness spread both north-westward as the moimtain regions of Europe 
cleared themselves of glaciers, and north-eastward as Turkestan, &c., 
became more habitable. On the one hand, I think that the development 
of broad-headedness, with accentuation of the median plane, has gone 
much farther in Illyria and Anatolia than among the broad-headed people 
who have spread, whether to the Alpo-Carpathian region on the north- 
west or to Turkestan, the Pamirs, and Gobi on the north-east. On the 
other hand, I think that some of the broad-heads entering the region of 

2« Thomson, A., Journ. Roy. Anthr. Inst., xxxiii., 1903 ; also Proc. XVII Internal. 
Med. Congress, 1913. Thomson, A., and Buxton, L. H. D., ' Man's Nasal Index,' 
Journ. Roy. Anthr. Inst., 1923. 



202 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the high plateaux of Asia have undergone a further course of evolution 
in features affecting skin, cheek-bones, nose and skull. May we not look 
upon the very variable extra fold of the upper eyelid as a more or less 
mechanical adaptation closely linked with the flattening of the malars ? 
Once it had begun, it might well be developed farther by use and conse- 
quent growth in the individual, as it is of value as a protection against glare. 

Before leaving this part of the subject it may be permissible to add 
a few words concerning ' Mongolism ' in Western Europe. It occurs 
sporadically in the Celtic fringe of Britain and France, as Beddoe noticed, 
and there was little that he did not notice ! It may conceivably be there 
because of some extension into those areas of people from North Europe 
in early times ; the influence of Arctic cultures on the West in epipalseolithic 
times is now generally acknowledged. But it may also be correlated with 
some alteration of endocrine balance occurring among inbred populations, 
for such populations are very apt to show such disturbances of balance as 
we infer from the distribution of goitre, cretinism, &c. 

If ' Mongolism ' in the West is associated with disturbance of what 
may be called a regional balance of development usually obtaining there, 
and is thus sometimes, but not by any means always, associated there 
with mental peculiarity or defect, this is no ground for arguments such as 
have been rather frivolously advanced about fancied inferiority of Mongol 
types generally. The regional balance of development may well be 
different in Eastern Asia. 

To return to our broad-heads of the high plateaux of Central Asia, 
with their dry yellow-brown skin, almost hairless bodies, and in some 
cases flattened malars and non-prominent noses, the idea is suggested 
that these high plateaux, for reasons some of which have been indicated, 
became a region of evolution along the lines mentioned, and became such, 
probably, relatively late in the spread of mankind. Around this region, 
as the general hypothesis would lead us to expect, we usually find less 
broad-headedness, whether we look north-east or east or south-east, though 
south-eastwards there are, it is said, more broad-heads than in other 
directions. Towards the east, that is, in North China, the brown pigment 
of the skin becomes much less pronounced, but the skin remains dry and 
to some extent yellowish, while south of latitude 30° with the stronger 
insolation the brown pigment remains, though there is apparently less 
extension in this direction of the tendency to flattening of the malars. 
Towards the north there are traces of long-heads, as has already been 
said, in the Arctic north-east ; but the Arctic north-west, towards Europe, 
must long have remained peculiarly forbidding, and the spreads in this 
direction are of broad-headed types with most of the accessory features, 
including the facial flattening. Under conditions of Arctic glare the 
pigment is, naturally, retained, and the dryness and hairlessness of the 
skin are also characteristic. Beyond the north-east, in America, are 
broad-heads, especially, as one would expect, on the American highlands 
and on the Pacific side. 

These few indications concerning the great zone of the broad-heads and 
its fringes, must suffice in a sketch of this length, and we turn from them 
to a review of the long-heads of the north-western quadrant and of certain 
other regions. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 203 

XI The European Quadrant of the Old World. 

In the Mediterranean basin, it has been suggested, we have from 
Aurignacian times onwards extreme long-heads, together with perhaps 
modified or unmodified survivors of the long- but not very narrow-headed 
type illustrated at Cro Magnon. It is quite possible that these ancient 
peoples were brownish skinned, and that the Grimaldi element was an 
important one, for, though we have only the two specimens from Grimaldi 
and possibly a woman from Mugem as ancient examples, there are 
numerous traces of an analogous type in present-day populations. The 
Predmost-Combe Capelle group may also have been important, but was 
apparently more characteristic farther north, in spite of GiufErida 
Ruggeri's wish to associate it with Ethiopia. The low long-head from 
Mechta el Arbi may represent another element. In the western 
Mediterranean basin, with climatic improvement and beginnings of 
food production and settlement, it would seem that a balance of develop- 
ment was reached giving a head long, but not so long nor with such 
strong pressure of temporal muscles as some of those of early times, with 
olive or pale complexion and moderate nose and face. Maturity comes 
earlier, apparently, with settled life in this climate than farther north, or 
it may be that the girls marry early. With this early maturity may be 
associated diminution of brow development, also correlated with 
decrease of temporal muscles, and relative slimness of build. In the 
desert of Arabia, with its sun-glare and its sharp night-air, we find more 
skin-colour and more prominent noses. In North Africa, betwixt and 
between, we have old characters persisting, but with tendencies, on the 
whole, in the same direction as in the western Mediterranean, though 
more skin-colour is a feature. Thus one may look upon Mediterranean, 
Semitic, and so-called Hamitic races as fairly late regional specialisations 
among the descendants of a mixed lot of types of early long-headed and 
very-long-headed man. 

In North-West Europe the Predmost-Combe Capelle group seems to 
have been important, along with probable traces of the Cro Magnon group. 
The penetration of food-production schemes into this region was apparently 
slow, and ancient British and Scandinavian skulls, for example, give 
strong indications of the persistence of old characters. With the growth 
of settlement and related changes came, it would seem, reduction of the 
jaws and their muscles, and this, in a region which encouraged long con- 
tinuation of growth, led to the increase of tallness and to the development 
of a rather large regularly curved skull, preserving the brow-ridges to 
some extent, but developing nose and chin and the sagittal curve generally. 
Thus one may look upon the Nordic Race as a fairly late regional specialisa- 
tion, probably on the European loess as well as near the Baltic, of the 
survivors of late Palteolithic men. 

Britain belongs fully neither to the north-west nor to the western 
Mediterranean region, and, while it shows types fairly closely linked with 
the specialisations of both these regions, it also shows as its most character- 
istic element a fair-skinned but rather dark-haired long-head who, however, 
has a larger nose and a taller stature than is typical of the west Mediter- 
ranean. This fundamental British type is most likely to be a descendant 



204 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of early immigrants, who had not as yet fully specialised in either the 
Nordic or the Mediterranean direction. It should be noted that this 
view in no way denies or controverts the idea of the distinctiveness of 
Nordic and Mediterranean races, as has been suggested by one or two 
critics. 

In both the Mediterranean and the Nordic area, and in the British 
too, it is thus suggested that, as the compulsion exercised in early times 
by the temporal muscles diminished, the skull became freer to grow in 
breadth as well as in length. In the far west and north-west food produc- 
tion came late, when, presumably, fairly inbred types had been consoli- 
dating and fixing their characters for some time, or, one might also say, 
had been approaching a regional balance of development. Fair hair seems 
specially characteristic of some Baltic lands, and an analysis of Bryn's ^ 
catalogues of measurements for parts of Norway leads me to think that 
this character penetrated across Scandinavia to the Trondhjem fjord. 
His results show that more dark hair persists in Norway than has at times 
been supposed ; and the fair-haired types are not by any means always 
very long-headed. 

Turning now to the Indian side of the region of early modern man, it 
would be of the greatest interest could we reconstruct Pleistocene con- 
ditions in India. Was the heating of the Deccan then sufficient to give 
rise to the summer monsoon, and, if so, was it strong enough to create a 
continuous barometric gradient from the equator to the Deccan ? If 
so, again, did the trade winds of the southern hemisphere sweep in and 
dominate the situation as they now seem to do ? If so, finally, did the 
great swirl they set up work in the Indo-Gangetic trough, or rather to the 
west, as now ? All these are questions I shall not venture to answer. 
Provisionally one may note that we have already spoken of survivors of 
early types of modern man in S. India, Ceylon, Malaysia, Australia, 
Tasmania, Philippines, Papua, some of them survivors of very early stages 
indeed. Without venturing any distance into the Indian race question, 
one may say that, broadly, the noses become more prominent as we go from 
the south to the north-west, and general profile development and growth 
along the sagittal plane is best marked among the north-western peoples, 
who spread, one might even say migrated, into India, according to most 
accounts, in the early part of the second millennium B.C., with the horse 
as a feature of their equipment. These are people among whom there 
was obviously, ere they moved far, a great liberation of initiative and a 
great call for energy. There are analogous spreads into Mesopotamia, 
even probably towards Europe at that time, all with the horse, and in 
later phases with the bronze sword, and all apparently of long-headed types 
with strong profiles. So the broad-headedness of the modern lowlands of 
Western Central Asia may well be in the main a fairly recent feature, and 
may be a spread of that character from the adjacent highlands analogous 
to a similar spread which appears to have been going on during the last 
millennium in Central Europe. 

The extension of our Indian long-heads of various grades of profile 

29 Bryn, H. ' Tr(J)ndelagens Antropologi,' K. Norske V. S. Skr. 1917, No. 2 
(1920); 'M<pTe Fylkes Antropologi,' Vidensk. Skr., 1920; ' Troms Fylkes Antro- 
pologi,' Vidensk. Skr., 1921. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 205 

development to the East Indies and Polynesia, their inter-mixtures with 
earlier types and with migrants from the Chinese side, and the tendency 
towards the evolution of types aggregating characters from different 
ancestors are too special subjects for treatment in a general outline. 

Xn Concluding Considerations. 

The intention of this sketch has been to suggest that we are approaching 
a stage at which it is possible to outline something of the process of race 
development. It bases itself upon the essential conservatism of heredity, 
and is in no way in agreement with the opinions of Franz Boas '"' as to 
rapid modifiability of type. I feel clear in my own mind that Boas' 
figures are quite inadequate to the support of his conclusions, both because 
of his use of averages and because of his argument from a single genera- 
tion. At the same time I feel that modifications have occurred, and 
that we need to have working hypotheses as to the factors calling them 
forth and developing them on divergent lines. 

It might seem that the thoughts expressed in this address lead direct 
to the Lamarckian position in evolutionary theory — changes of use of 
muscles, of jaws, and so on, being brought out repeatedly as influencing 
the racial resultant. This is a large topic to touch upon at the end of 
an address, but I should be sorry to give the impression that I was either 
blind to the problems or disposed either to extreme Lamarckism or to pure 
anti-Lamarckism. It seems to me that development is a resultant of 
the working of hereditary factors of an essentially conservative kind, and 
of environmental influences which have undergone modifications through 
changes of climate and vegetation and food, as well as through changes 
of social habit and infant care and so on. Man, a social animal from the 
first, has developed his social sense and social organisation, and with 
this has gone change of environmental influences in plastic infancy, 
changing in various ways the net outcome of the struggle of factors (and 
with it the struggle of the parts) in development. 

Are we, then, forced to think of every baby as being moulded from a 
very primitive stage to its appropriate modern form solely by repetition 
of these environmental influences generation after generation ? I think 
not. We could not experiment, even if we dared, for a modern English 
baby placed under palaeolithic conditions from birth would probably die, 
with its mother, who would have to be treated in the same way for the 
sake of such an impossible experiment. 

Changes of environmental influences are usually cumulative, for 
natural processes are essentially irreversible even if, as in climate, there 
is something like a cyclic scheme of change. The cumulative change may 
be said to draw out the course of development more and more from its 
original path, thus creating a state of internal strain. No two embryos 
can possibly be exactly alike, unless they be early stages of identical twins, 
and some of the hereditary units may well vary towards, others away from, 
a condition which would diminish that internal strain. Those varying 
so as to diminish the strain would probably grow best. So we have a 
theoretical possibility of variation of the germ, limping after variation 

*" Boas, F. ' Changes of bodily form of Descendants of Immigrants,' 1911. 



206 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of the soma, and in the case of man, whose development is so closely- 
linked with varj-ing balances of the influence of endocrine glands, the 
limping may be fairly nimble after all. 

It seems to me that students of the physiology and morphology of growth 
are leading us away from both the more extreme Lamarckian and the 
more extreme anti-Lamarckian view towards a view that takes in many 
more considerations. The study of growth in children, pre-natally and 
post-natally, is a matter of urgent scientific importance, but a matter to 
be done patiently, lest, by taking arrays of children of varied types, even 
if all English, at various ages, we fall into error, as some have done recently. 
Every case, to be of real value, should be that of an individual child 
followed year by year. Any method of arrays presupposes a homogeneous 
population with one set of general growth tendencies, and such conditions 
are unattainable. 

This attempt to outline an evolutionary, rather than a taxonomic, 
survey of the races of man naturally owes a great debt to Dr. Haddon ; 
to W. Z. Eipley, who pioneered in the direction of historical interpretations ; 
to Collignon, who saw a long generation ago that there were among us 
sur\avors of several ancient types of modern man ; to Prof. Myres, to Prof. 
Elliot Smith's studies of human evolution, to many suggestions in the 
work of Prof. Sollas and Sir Arthur Keith, Dr. Hrdlicka and Prof. Arthur 
Thomson, and also to both Prof. R. B. Dixon and Dr. Griffith Taylor, 
with whose stimulating work readers of this address will gather I do not 
altogether agree.'" 

A doubt persists in my mind as to the assignment of more than a 
somewhat limited value to taxonomic treatment of the question. It 
seems worth while to think rather of regional gatherings-together of physical 
characters. 

A special attempt has been made to suggest the part played by the 
development of social life in the evolution of human physique, and the 
importance of parental care. These factors seem in particular to have 
led in certain circumstances to a vast liberation of individual initiative 
within our human societies, especially after the development of intercourse 
between groups. 

We must speedily undertake more and more biological observation 
and measurement among ourselves, and we must exercise ever more care 
in treatment of our measurements. Averages of cases which are not 
properly homologous should not be made lest we mask the biological truth 
in mathematical abstractions. If our anthropological work can but go on 
becoming more biological, gaining insight into physiology, especially of the 
brain and the endocrine organs and their correlations with growth, I venture 
to think that Racial Study will develop great practical value for educa- 
tion, for the fight against tuberculosis and other diseases, and for race- 

=>! Haddon, A. C, especially 'The Races of Man,' 192-1; Myres, J. L., 'Intro- 
ductory Section to Cambridge Ancient History,' vol. i., 1923 ; Sollas, W. J., ' Ancient 
Hunters,' 1924 ; Keith, Sir A., ' The Antiquity of Man,' 1925 ; Dixon, R. B., ' The 
Racial History of Man,' 1923 ; v. Eickstedt, E., ' Gedanken uber die Entwicklung 
und Gliederung der Menschheit,' 3Iitt. Anthr. Ges. Wien, 1925 ; Smith, G. Elliot, 
op. cit. ; Boule, M., ' Les Hommes Fossiles,' 1923 ; Martin, R., ' Lehrbuch der 
Anthropologic,' 1914 ; Taylor, G., oji. cit. ; Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe,' 1899 ; 
Hrdli6ka, A., op. cit. ; Thomson, A., op. cit. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 207 

improvement. Evolutionary Race Biology seems to me to be a hopeful 
sphere of work that may bring about a much-needed enrichment of public 
opinion on social questions, a diminution of race-arrogance, and a check on 
schemes that do not sufficiently allow for the mutual adaptations between 
diverse human stocks and diverse environments. I would ask for faith in 
the future of such work to bring out its great possibilities for nobler 
races with freer personal initiative in societies both more stable and 
richer in the things that are not seen. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



FUNCTION AND DESIGN, 

ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOR J. B. LEATHES, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Among natural sciences physiology takes a place which in one respect is 
different from that taken by any other. It studies the phenomena of life, 
but more particularly the ways in which these phenomena are related to 
the maintenance of life. Anatomy and morphology are concerned with 
the forms of living organisms and their structure ; biological chemistry, 
as distinct from physiology, with the composition of the material in which 
the phenomena of life are exhibited. The province of physiology, in 
studying the functions of these forms and of this material, is to ascertain 
the contributions that they make to the organisation of the living 
mechanism, and learn how they minister to the maintenance of its life. 
Function implies ministration, structure for physiology implies adaptation 
to function, what in a word may be termed design. 

Ultimate analysis of the phenomena with which physiology deals leads 
to the fundamental distinction between matter in which life is manifested 
and matter in which it is not. Life is exhibited only in aqueous systems, 
containing unstable, perishable combinations of carbon with hydrogen, 
nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen, in the presence of certain 
inorganic ions, those which are present in the sea, the native environment 
originally of all forms of life ; and the inalienable property that such 
matter exhibits when alive, and that matter which is not alive does not, 
is that these unstable organic combinations are for ever reforming them- 
selves out of simpler combinations that do not exhibit this property, and 
do so at a rate which averages at least not less than that at which they 
break down. This power of self-reformation, spontaneous regeneration, 
operates not only when living organisms, cells or communities of cells are 
growing or reproducing their kind ; the very maintenance of living 
existence requires by definition that it should persist. In the absence of 
water the living process may sometimes apparently be suspended for a 
time, as it may be if the surrounding watery medium is immobilised by 
cold : it is a question whether this is anything more than a retardation 
to a rate of change that is imperceptible by the ordinary methods of 
observation, and a question how long such suspended animation is possible 
where it is possible at all. It is only where water has the kinetic activity 
of the liquid state that spontaneous regeneration of living matter can in 
general proceed, and then it must, for when it ceases the unstable material 
ceases to live. 

Chemical analogies for this power of spontaneous regeneration, if such 
exist, can only exist in part ; in the present state of our comprehension 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 200 

of it, certainly, it is hazardous to try to trace them. Tho attempt so 
commonly made to trace one between the growth of living matter and the 
growth of crystals in a saturated solution, it is safe to say, is in so many 
respects on the wrong lines that it is merely misleading. Crystals are 
not alive. The molecules that constitute the crystal are set in solid forma- 
tion ; so long as the crystal exists they are stable and unchangeable. 
These molecules collect on the growing crystal, but they exist ready-made 
in the surrounding solution ; they do not come into being by the influence 
of the crystal ; tliey are themselves so constituted as to take up a set 
position in relation to each other and to those already ranged side by side 
in the crystal, as soldiers on the drilling-ground at the word ' fall in ' ; they 
are available because the solution is kept saturated by the dissolving of 
smaller but similar crystals that for physical reasons are more soluble in 
the solution than the larger ones. In contradistinction to this, the mole- 
cules that enter into the composition of living matter exhibit the phe- 
nomena of life only when permeated with water molecules exercising the 
kinetic activity of the liquid state ; they are unstable and perishable ; 
the added molecules, some of which even during growth and all of them 
at other times, serve but to replace those that perish, do not exist ready- 
made ; they come into being only in conformity to the pattern and under 
the influence of those already in existence, a pattern that these alone can 
use ; and they are formed out of material that is chemically different from 
them. 

Let us for a moment consider what this spontaneous regeneration 
implies. Of the various chemical components of protoplasm, proteins 
are generally considered the most important, often the only important, 
ones. The elucidation of the chemical principles xipon which the structure 
of proteins rests, which took place about the beginning of this century, was, 
like the neurone hypothesis of the structure of the nervous system, an 
advance the magnitude of which only those perhaps can appreciate who 
began the study of physiology well back in an earlier one. For a time it 
seemed in each case that the problem was solved and all that was to follow 
was simple. Those were great days. The best-known varieties of proteins, 
when detached and uprooted from the place where they grew, consist of 
chains of about a hundred, sometimes nearly two hundred, links. Each 
link is an amino acid coupled by its acid group to the amino group of one 
neighbour and by its amino group to the acid group of its other neighbour, 
a molecule of water being lost at each linkage. There are not more than 
about twenty different amino acids, so that some of them must occur 
several times in the chain ; in some kinds of protein one amino acid may 
occu]:)y thirty or forty of the hundred places in the chain. In any such 
isolated protein it is probable that the order as well as the proportion in 
which each amino acid occurs in the molecule is fixed, and it is this specific 
order and proportion that accounts for the specific character and properties 
of the protein. What could be simpler ? And only yesterday all was so 
obscure. 

It is not recorded that in the rush of this advance anyone stopped to 

reflect what number of formations such a protein might still possibly 

have. Supposing it were a chain of only fifty links, a very simple case ; 

if all the links were different the number of possible permutations is 

1926 P 



210 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

denoted by the innocent -looking symbol \50, If, instead of all being 
different, one kind of link recurred ten times, the number would be reduced 
to [50 / [10. If, in addition, there were four that recurred four times and 
ten that recurred twice, it would be further reduced to 

\^l\^x{\LYx{il_Y\ 

It would now consist of a chain of only fifty links, of which there were 
only nineteen different kinds, and the number of different arrangements 
of its parts would be about 10". Astronomy deals with big figures. 
Light, it is said, takes 300,000 years to travel from one end of the Milky 

Way to the other ; this distance expressed in Angstrom units, 10,000,000 
of which go to a millimetre, would be less than 10*^ So far are we from 
knowing the structure of protein molecules. So far are we from knowing 
what variations in disposition of the parts in such a molecule may not 
occur without our being within a measurable distance of detecting them. 
For if the number of possible varieties of a protein whose molecular weight is 
known, and known to be exceptionally small, and which contains the several 
amino acids in a known proportion, is as great as this, the number that 
is possible when that proportion may be changed is practically incalculable, 
each change in proportion being capable of a number of new arrangements 
that could be calculated, as was done for our hypothetical case. 

But in the living cell where these chains are put together each link 
must first be fashioned and then forged into the chain- ; unfinished chains 
in statu vaseendi must exist which our analytical methods can never 
detect. In such unfinished chains the order presumably in which the 
amino acids are linked up is observed, but the proportion must be different 
from that in the finished product ; for in a chain of nearly a hundred links 
a particular amino acid, cystine, for instance, may occur only once. 

Now it is possible that the analogy of crystal formation may be applied 
to the reproduction of the characteristic order in which the Unkings 
occur, and that the parts out of which a new chain is to be formed may be 
collected and brought into position alongside of the corresponding parts 
of an existing chain by forces that are similar to those that determine the 
latticed relations of atoms in a crystal. But something more than this is 
required to account for the linking up of these links by the loss of water, 
and still more for the fashioning of the links themselves. In plants all 
varieties of amino acids come into being as required ; in animals, it is 
true, some must be supplied ready-made in the medium in which the 
proteins grow ; but even in animals some of them can be formed from 
material of a totally different nature. 

Wherever this is the case we have to suppose that it is by selective 
emphasis of certain otherwise unemphasised but possible arrangements 
of atoms or groups of atoms, evidence for the occurrence of which under 
similar conditions in the absence of life is generally not obtainable. Specific 
catalysed syntheses must co-operate with the forces that merely sort out 
and place in proper order the assembled parts, and must fashion for them 
Ihe particular links that they need at each step. Specific catalytic agents 
playing an important part in cell chemistry are familiar in the enzymes 
found in digestive secretions and also locked away within the cells 
themselves. There is much to support the idea that such agents act by 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 211 

modifying the chaotic, indeterminate, kinetic agitation of certain kinds 
of molecules in their immediate neighbourhood in such a way that the 
relative positions in space of groups capable of reacting with one another 
tend to become those in which reaction is likely to occur and to occur in 
conformity with a certain pattern. The peculiar thing about the chemistry 
of living matter is not that the reactions that are characteristic in it are 
novel, but that in the rough and tumble of ordinary liquid systems their 
occurrence is almost infinitely improbable. Where there is life, circum- 
stances exist which make them the rule. Anyone conversant with work 
in animal metabolism can supply many illustrations ; for instance, it has 
been shown that in a simple solution of the amino acid, alanine traces of 
methyl glyoxal occur ; in the animal body there is reason for thinking 
the reaction may become practically quantitative. Forces which deter- 
mine the relative positions of adjacent foreign molecules and so affect 
their behaviour are something to which there is no analogy in the growth 
of crystals in a saturated solution. 

Moreover, if the forces that determine the reproduction of a certain 
order in the arrangement of the parts of a protein are similar to those 
that determine the lattice pattern of a crystal, the crystals with which 
the comparison is made are solid, and life is manifested only in liquid 
aqueous systems. The analogy should rather be with the formation of 
licjiiid crystals, a phenomenon that is itself as yet too urifamiliar to shed 
common light on the obscurity of spontaneous regeneration. The ordered 
disposition of the ultimate components of protoplasmic systems is such 
as to leave play, generally but little checked, for the fluid properties of 
water, and in some modified degree too of molecules and ions dissolved 
in water. Even a solid jelly may include within its protein framework a 
hundred times its weight of water in which diffusion is free to take place 
almost as if the framework were not there, and protoplasm, with 
commonly twenty times as much protein in it as this, more often resembles 
a fluid of varying viscosity than a solid gel, which means that the great 
protein chains float and drift in the whirlpool of kinetic agitation, 
observing, it may be, so far as is possible, certain unstable relations to 
their kind, but with no rigid fixity. It is commonly felt that the behaviour 
of iinicellular organisms makes the hypothesis necessary that there is an 
insoluble surface layer that keeps the watery contents of the cell from 
dispersing in the water that surrounds it. Much experimentation, and 
no lack of speculation, has not made clear what the nature and structure 
of this limiting layer is. It may be that the flexible cohesion at many 
alternative points between clinging floating chains of amino acids, the 
innermost of which are made fast to the nucleus, may go some way to 
maintain the identity of the cell and prevent its contents from scattering. 

But in the chemical make-up of protoplasm, proteins, the most abundant 
component, are not the only ones that are necessary. Pre-eminent among 
the others are the nucleic acids. When we consider what has been learnt 
of the behaviour and of the chemical composition of the nuclear chromo- 
somes, and that according to Steudel's reckoning the nucleic acids form 
'40 per cent, of the solid components of these chromosomes, into which 
are packed from the beginning all that pre-ordains, if not our fate and 
fortunes, at least our bodily characteristics, down to the colour of our 

p2 



212 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

eyelashes, it becomes a question whether the virtues of nucleic acids may 
not rival those of amino-acid chains in their vital importance. From 
Steudel's figures it can be reckoned that there are about half a million 
molecules of nucleic acid in a single sperm-cell of the species with vvhicli 
he was working. 

But in addition to nucleic acids there are also strange compounds 
of higher fatty acids containing suspiciously significant groups, identical 
in their general character with those found also in nucleic acid, namely, 
phosphoric acid, organic bases and sugar ; and besides these there are 
the mysterious sterols. All of these are frankly insoluble in water, and 
yet have in some part of their composition features that make them not 
indifferent to water or even to the molecules and ions that exist in true 
solution, in the liquid state, within the cell. The physical condition of 
these insoluble substances in the aqueous system of the cell is still little 
understood. All that can be said with certainty is that they must modify 
its homogeneity even more than the long floating chains of amino acids, 
however much these may be linked together one with another. If the 
characteristic behaviour of living matter is rightly regarded as due to the 
order that it introduces into the movements and spatial relationships of • 
foreign molecules in its vicinity, then these insoluble components may 
well be expected to play a leading role by forming films and surfaces that 
permeate its texture and delimit its parts. 

Such an analysis of the chemical meaning of material life viewed in 
the light of scientific facts has to be largely an exercise of the imagination, 
but it may present itself as an intellectual necessity. If it is right to regard 
the power of spontaneous self -regeneration as the distinctive property of 
living matter, it is not intellectually possible to be content with a phrase 
and dismiss it. A phrase is itself an image, and an image, however 
shadowy, has parts and dimensions. Those who feel it an intellectual 
necessity to explore unexplored lands cannot procure maps, but that 
does not justify their setting out with no forethought or reasoned plans. 

The beginning of life, if it is an intellectual necessity to trace this, 
would thus appear to have been in the coming together of atoms of certaii\ 
elements in such a pattern that this power in its simplest form resulted 
from its design. Some might call this event fortuitous, others the pre- 
dictable outcome of the inherent properties of those elements, the inevitable 
operation in the course of time of the laws of chance. Those who call it 
fortuitous may go so far as to regard the whole history of life as fortuitous, 
and give priority to the concurrence of the atoms over the properties and 
functions that are revealed by the concurrence. The others may look on 
Life as the fulfilment of the destiny of these elements, and give priority 
to the potential properties of matter over the concurrence which was no 
more than their epiphany. 

If this analysis is approved, and the distinctive property of living 
matter, the power of self-regeneration, depends upon the power of limiting 
the movements and directing and controlling th e spatial relations of surroun d- 
ing molecules so as to modify their chemical behaviour, it is the exercise 
of this same power that leads to the formation of substances such as 
starch, glycogen and fats ; and in so far as such substances contribute to 
the regeneration of the living matter, the power of forming them contributes 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 213 

to its survival. Where energy is necessary for such synthetic rearrange- 
ments of adjacent matter — where, that is, the rearrangement involves 
coercion of atoms into positions of strain in which they have the potential 
energy of position which we call chemical energy — this energy may be 
derived from the radiant energy of the sun or from the combination of 
oxygen with adjacent organic matter. In the latter case the combination 
is again a manifestation of the power of ordering the disposition of sur- 
rounding molecules and directing their movements so that they behave 
as in other circumstances they would be but little j^rone to do. The 
energy so liberated, besides contributing to the formation of new living 
matter or of the material to be used in its formation, may serve in other 
ways to promote the processes by which life is maintained. It may 
accelerate them by imparting increased kinetic activity or rise of tempera- 
ture, or may bring about movements that are resisted by external forces, 
and so enable the living system to do work. 

This is all merely a restatement of the commonplaces of biology, 
necessary only as part of the attempt to correlate them physiologically 
with the fundamental property of that which is alive to regenerate itself 
at the expense of material that is not alive. This faculty implies the 
power of introducing order into the chaotic movements of adjacent matter 
in conformity with patterns that it possesses. It is a facultv resident in 
material that is capable of incalculable variation. The number of permuta- 
tions of its parts that are possible without aifecting the results of such 
analysis as is practicable defies calculation. Their calculation, were it 
possible, would lead to figures that are so large as to mean no more than 
the dimensions of the universe. Some of these permutations confer 
synthetic powers which others do not. When they appear, are they not 
what biologists call, for short, mutations ? But when they appear, if the 
retain the power of self-regeneration, and if they minister to its mainten- 
ance, they will ipso facto survive. For whatever promotes persistence 
of this power must itself survive. 

A disposition of matter in molecules or aggregates, unstable and 
incalculably variable, that has and retains the power of determining the 
disposition of matter not yet so disposed in such a way as to conform to 
its own disposition or to patterns which help it to exercise this power, 
is all that must be premised for the whole of evolution to follow. Varia- 
tions that do not or cease to contribute to the retention of this power do 
not survive. The condition of survival is ministration to self-regeneration ; 
that is, to the maintenance of life. 

Before the days of vertebrates, in pre-Silurian time, an unstable 
variation in the disposition of atoms and organic combinations of atoms 
occurred in certain types that was mainly protein in character, a protein 
to the making of which little short of 200 amino-acid links must contri- 
bute. Coupled to this protein, which probably is not the same in all 
species of animals in which it is found, is another group containing iron 
that is probably always the same. This group is of remarkable nature, 
and is closely related to one that occurs in the far older substance 
chlorophyll. This complex substance, hajmoglobin, had the power of 
attaching to itself two atoms of oxygen for each atom of iron that it 
contained in such a way that it could be readily detached and made 



214 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

available for effecting oxidations. Such was the service that this variation 
rendered that it is safe to say that without it there could be no vertebrate 
creation. It is this service that has made it possible for it to survive to 
this day, when in the human species alone it is being produced at the 
rate of about 10,000 tons a day. The story of the service of chlorophyll 
would, of course, be more remarkable than this. 

Natural selection applies to the survival of the chemical forms of 
living matter as it does to complex living organisms. These forms, 
infinitely protean in their variety, survive and persist in so far and so 
long as they minister to its self-regeneration. It is the principle of survival 
by service. Function alone gives permanence to structure. Structure 
without design is a pathological excrescence that has in itself the seeds 
of its own destruction. What does not minister to self-regeneration has 
no enduring share in life, for self-regeneration is the key to life. 

Why is it that what may be termed official physiology takes so little 
cognisance of the doctrine of evolution ? These branches of biological 
study appear to follow courses so exactly parallel that they never meet. 

The doctrine of evolution digs down into the foundations of scientific 
philosophy. If a physiologist addressing physiologists ventures to say 
anything on this subject of supreme appeal to all biologists it must be in 
exaltation of the work of those who have approached it from the morpho- 
logical side, and it may be in hopeful anticipation of the ultimate share 
in the elucidation of some of its problems to be borne by physiology. 

On the part that function plays in the determination of structure it 
is to be supposed that physiology will ultimately, at any rate, have some- 
thing more to say. May I submit to the consideration of physiologists 
certain points in the physiological development of the machinery of the 
body where, unless I am mistaken, it is possible to detect the operation of 
function in determining the design of the machine ? The properties and 
behaviour of cells result from the properties and behaviour of the material 
composing them. When a muscle-cell contracts this is, in general terms, 
a reversible rearrangement of its parts in response to some alteration in 
the distribution of forces within or about it due to a disturbance from 
without. Such reversible reaction to adequate disturbance is a property 
common in the material of which living cells are composed. In addition 
to this reversible type of reaction there are irreversible reactions which 
are characteristic of other kinds of cells, and it is what we call connective- 
tissue cells that I would ask you to consider. There are several kinds of 
connective-tissue cells, but they are alike in that they produce and dis- 
charge into their vicinity material of a characteristic composition ; in 
some of the commonest this material is chemically collagen, the substance 
out of which gelatine can be obtained. In course of time these cells 
come to be embedded in the material which they deposit about them- 
selves and so form one kind of connective tissue. Cells capable of behaving 
in this way are found, however, which have not yet exercised their faculty ; 
these fibroblasts are then undifferentiated wandering cells that have found 
no abiding-place in the community in which they have their birth. What 
it is that makes them settle down and start producing the material in 
which they come to be embedded has never yet been determined. But 
the most striking structures to which they give rise are the tendons and 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 21.'5 

'aponeuroses that make the muscles fast to the bones, and tlic ligaments 
that bind the bones to one another. The material that they deposit is 
composed of inextensible fibres that lie, in the case of tendons at any rate, 
so exactly and exclusively in the line of the resultant of the tension set 
up in the muscle to which they attach themselves, that it is difficult to 
believe that the disturbance which starts them producing their character- 
istic secretion is anything else than the pull exerted on them by the muscle- 
fibres to which they are attached ; the recurring external disturbances 
that produce reversible states of tension in the muscle, indirectly producing 
in them an irreversible reaction, which consists in the discharge of material 
that by its inextensibility can transmit the tension along the line of the 
force that provokes its deposition. In their simplest form cells of this 
kind deposit the. wavy fibres in areolar tissue which, when straightened 
out under the action of a displacing force, set a limit by their inextensibility 
to the dislocation of the part first affected, and so distribute. the action of 
the displacing force over surrounding areas. It is interesting to note that 
the origin of cells of this kind has been traced to the mesothelium cells 
that line tissue spaces and serous cavities, the clefts that make the gliding 
displacements of parts over one another possible. The deposition of 
fibrous material seems here, as in the tendons and ligaments, to be the 
result of reaction to the recurring disturbances set up by displacements, 
such, for instance, as those of the lungs, the alimentary tract, the heart 
and pidsating vessels, and the deposition occurs in the line of strains set 
up by the displacing forces. The service rendered by this behaviour of 
the cells is that the fibres which they deposit, in virtue of their inextensi- 
bility, limit the extent of displacement at any one point by distributing 
it to surrounding parts. 

The other component of areolar tissue, the elastic fibres, is similarly 
produced by other cells. These fibres take a straight course between their 
attachments; displacements in the line of their deposition are rendered 
possible by their stretching, and are recovered from by their elasticity. 

The contribution made by such cells to the fabric of the body appears 
to result from the recurring operation of disturbances, to which they 
react by depositing fibres along the lines of disturbance. 

More striking are the properties of cells upon which the formation of 
the skeleton depends. The cells that make bone not only secrete fibrous 
collagen, they also encrust the fibres with insoluble lime-salts, and it has 
long been subject of comment that the rigid bone that results always 
comes to lie in the line of prevailing strains and stresses. The analysis of 
the structure, for instance, of the head and neck of the human femiir, 
by Wolff and others who have followed him, shows how strictly this is 
true. Calculations prove that no particle of bone lies anywhere but where 
the strains dictate. We can predict with certainty, it seems, that it will 
be found that bone-cells are composed of material that in reacting to 
physical forces directs, in constant relation to the line of action of those 
forces, the de})osition of the substances which make up this connective 
tissue. Bone can only arise where strains and stresses set up this reaction, 
and the greater the strain or stress the denser the deposit. When a bone 
is fractured many bone-cells are dislodged, and, in the abundance of nutri- 
ment that ruptured vessels supply, these cells, released from their 



216 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

imprisonment, multiply. At first the force of gravity and the twitching 
of muscles acting on the soft semi-fluid tissues between the broken ends 
of the bone supply stimuli that are indeterminate in direction, and such 
reaction as occurs results only in the formation of loosely ordered 
calcareous fibres ; but even this soft callus gives some degree of rigidity, 
sufficient to restrict the strains gradually to more and more clearly defined 
lines along which in proportion a stronger reaction can take place. Once 
it is established that bone corpuscles react to strain and stress by dis- 
charging collagen, the intimate spatial disposition of which, as well as of 
the lime-salts with which it comes to be encrusted, is determined by the 
directing forces to which it is expoeed, and once it is recognised that 
the law of spontaneous regeneration requires that this reaction will 
persist in proportion to the prevalence of these forces, not only must the 
gradual replacement of callus by appropriate permanent bone necessarily 
follow, bone in which no particle persists except it be in the line of 
constantly recurring stress and strain, but it will also necessarily follow 
that the position of every spicule of bone in the skeleton, cancellous or 
compact, is the expression of a physiological reaction to the forces of 
gravity and muscular tension. The evolution of the machinery of the 
connective tissues seems to be not entirely the result of natural selection 
and the survival of individuals in which this machinery chanced to be of 
appropriate design. The appearance in early vertebrates of the material 
that is characteristic of the bone corpuscle seems to have ensured that 
skeletons would take a shape determined by the direction of the forces 
to which these corpuscles were exposed, and that the formation of this 
skeleton is as much a reaction to recurring stimuli as are the reflexes, 
composite movements, and postures characteristic for the species. 

This conception of the way in which the vertebrate connective tissues 
take their shape transfers a large share of the development of the bodily 
form back into the nervous system, in which the machinery is stored that 
directs and determines the habitual movements and postures that in reac- 
tion to external disturbances are specific. A physiological account of the 
evolution of the nervous system, one certainly that is based on the chemical 
constitution and chemical behaviour of its component parts, must seem 
almost infinitely remote from practical investigation. But the work of 
Paylov has made one thing clear, that by a physiological reaction in it 
machinery may come into existence which did not exist before. The 
repeated occurrence of a disturbance at times that are uniformly related 
to the normal operation of existing machinery results in the acquirement 
of a new reaction which must require machinery that is new. It is rendered 
probable, if not proved, that this new machinery is situated in what may 
be called the growing point of the central nervous system, the cortex of 
the cerebral hemispheres, the part where all is not cut and dry, where 
cells retain more of the properties of the developing neuroblasts, the 
properties that enable them to grow out through the embryonic tissues 
along courses that make it certain that the maturing organism will behave 
in a manner true to type. In the formation of a conditioned reflex two 
events are made to occur in the cerebral cortex at times which are uni- 
formly related to one another ; one of these events, from the constitution 
of the nervous system, necessarily results in a certain activity of some 



1.— PHYSIOLOGV. 217 

muscle or gland, the other has been hitherto in no way related to such a 
result ; after many repetitions of the association of these events it is 
found that that one which previously had never resulted in this particular 
activity, comes to have this result as certainly as the other. 

The sight and smell of food in any hungry animal results in the secretion 
of saliva because the cells to which the effect of these visual and olfactory 
stimuli is referred are anatomically connected with cells that set the 
salivary gland in action ; the cells on which some particular sound takes 
effect are not anatomically connected with them, and this particular sound 
Las therefore no effect upon them. But with the establishment of the 
conditioned reflex the anatomical connection comes into existence. As a 
result of a functional reaction of nerve-cells to disturbances in other nerve- 
cells with which they were not previously anatomically connecteil, a 
structure appears which is indistinguishable so long as it lasts from the 
structures that constitute any other reflex arc. The conditions that 
determine its persistence or effacement have been, and are being, studied 
as thoroughly as were those which allow it to appear. The outcome of 
these studies must be of incalculable importance in evolutional physiology. 
They are being watched with the keenest interest doubtless by all 
biologists, but more especially by those who believe that physiology has 
to take a much bigger part in the solution of some of the fundamental 
difficulties of biological science than it has been able to take in the jmst. 

But if and when it is possible to trace the origin of structures to 
functional reactions of cells, and to reactions that depend upon the 
chemical properties of the cell substance ; and if and when this is possible 
not only in the connective tissues, but also in the nervous system, the 
functions of which have so controlling an influence on the operation of 
every part of the body ; until it becomes clear that the results of changes 
in such influence reappear in succeeding generations, the study of functions 
can have no bearing upon the ultimate problem of biology, the evolutional 
history of life upon the earth. Pavlov communicated to the last Inter- 
national Congress of Physiology in 1923 some results of experiments that 
he had done upon this subject which, when confirmed, would electrify the 
atmosphere. Conditioned reflexes that are established only after many — 
eighty or a hundred — repetitions of the associated stimulus, in each suc- 
ceeding generation require fewer and fewer rej)etitions, and in the fourth 
may be established after only four. In April of this year he wrote to say 
that owing to other work he had not been able to give the necessary time 
to confirmation of these results. We are content to wait. 

In the great question whether characteristics developed in the life of 
an individual have any influence on descendants, experimental evidence 
must come slowly. In what is called parallel induction a step has been 
taken which is probably of greater importance than is generally conceded. 
External influences that affect the bodily characteristics of an organism 
affect also the germ-plasm in such a way that these characteristics appear 
in the first, and even, in a less degree, in the second generation, born after 
the external influences have ceased to operate. While such experiments 
furnish evidence only of a temporary change in the properties of the 
germ-plasm, one that may be put down to the lodgment in it of uuassimi- 
lated foreign matter that is gradually eliminated, the fact that the eternal 



218 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

germ- plasm has been shown to be subject to temporal influences must not 
be belittled. A true mutation is not eternal. Our descendants may be 
able to dispense with haemoglobin. Whether the hereditary melanism 
that in certain moths, it is said, can be induced by food infected with 
manganese is something more than such parallel induction, I hope there 
may be some present who can say. 

Physiological inquiry is a stream that has many sources ; its waters 
gather from quarters far removed from one another. A marvellous meeting 
took place in the early years of this century when the forgotten experi- 
ments of Mendel came to the surface again, and found corroboration in 
the cytological studies that from about the same time had pursued their 
slow, obstructed way above-ground in the endeavour to elucidate the 
changes in the nucleus of maturing germ-cells. In a resting germ-cell the 
chromosomes form an even number, characteristic for the species ; they 
consist of half that number of pairs of homologues, one of each pair 
descended from the paternal element in the last zygosis, the other from 
the maternal. At one of the cell divisions by which the germ-cell gives 
rise to the mature gamete, with half the characteristic number of chromo- 
somes, there occurs a segregation of the two members of each pair so 
that they pass into different gametes ; the exact cytological equivalent 
of Mendelian segregation of allelomorphic pairs of characters. To-day 
the study of genetics and of the ' topographical anatomy of the chromo- 
somes,' with its " groupings ' and ' crossings over,' seems to call out for 
chemical assistance. It may be that in the lifetime of some of us those 
confluent streams of thought and experiment are to be joined by yet 
another that rises in the vast, remote, and, as it must appear to some, 
muddy swamps of physiological chemistry ; and it then, forgetting its 
' foiled, circuitous wanderings,' will form with them a ' majestic river, 
brimming and bright and large." 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF OUR 
PENAL SYSTEM. 



ADDRESS BY 

JAMES DREVER, D.Phil., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A WELL-KNOWN American authority on the treatment of young offenders 
quotes with approval the words of the girl who said to her judge : ' You 
and your officers are here to do your duty, and I suppose you are going 
to send me away, but before I go I want to tell you one thing — you don't 
at all understand me.' The analogy of the patient and the surgeon is 
not quite a fair one, but it is sufficiently close to allow us to use it for 
illustrative purposes. Think how intolerable the situation would be if 
the patient could with equal justice say to the surgeon : ' I know you have 
decided to perform a serious operation on me, but before you administer 
the anaesthetic I should like to say that you do not in the least understand 
my case.' 

There is very real pathos in the girl's words to her judge ; but it is not 
on the pathos of the situation that I would wish to lay stress, but on a 
common-sense view of the facts. Society, through its accredited repre- 
sentatives, acting under its recognised and established laws, is compelled 
to take action of the gravest import, affecting directly one individual 
member of society, and possibly affecting many other individuals in- 
directly, and this, in plain terms, without any clear and exact knowledge, 
either of what is being done, or of why it is being done. 

No matter how deeply an individual has sinned, his sins do not free 
us from responsibility for our treatment of him, and for the consequences 
of that treatment on him and on other people. And we certainly do not 
divest ourselves of the responsibility by closing our eyes to the results of 
our action with respect to him. These are almost truisms, but like many 
other truisms affecting conduct, while we do not hesitate to do lip-service 
to their truth, we frequently ignore them in our practice. These con- 
siderations appear sufficiently weighty to justify an examination of certain 
aspects of our penal system from a psychological point of view. In fact 
they impose such an examination upon the psychologist as an imperative 
duty, demanded of him both as an individual member of society, who shares 
the responsibility of society for the results produced by its penal system, 
and as a psychologist, who, from his calling, is presumably better able 
than most to trace and evaluate these results. It is because I believe that 



220 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

iu this direction lies one of the greatest services the psychologist can 
render to the community that I have chosen as the subject of my presi- 
dential address ' Psychological Aspects of our Penal System.' 

The root-idea in punishment as ordinarily understood is the infliction 
of some kind of disagreeableness, pain, or loss on an individual, because he 
has been guilty of some misdeed. There are thus two aspects — on the 
one hand the infliction of hurt, on the other hand the relation of this to 
some wrongdoing or crime. Originally any end to be gained by such 
infliction was scarcely conscious, if it existed at all — any end, that is to 
say, beyond the satisfaction of the anger evoked by the misdeed itself. 
The psychological source is to be found in the anger caused by the wrong. 
From this primitive source to the modern conception the evolution of 
theories of punishment, conscious or unconscious, may be said to have 
passed through four stages or phases. These may be designated the 
vindictive, the retributive, the protective or deterrent, and the reformatory 
or curative. 

Let us consider the psychology of this process of evolution. To begin 
with, an individual who has suffered injury by the wrongdoing of another 
responds to the injury with the emotion and impulse of anger. This is 
satisfied by the infliction of some hurt on the wrongdoer. At the simplest 
and crudest stage of development — the stage where we have to deal with 
the mere instinctive impulse of the brute or the savage — the hurt inflicted 
on the wrongdoer may have no direct relation, either in kind or in degree, 
to the injury done, but only to the intensity of the anger evoked. Of 
course this is not really punishment in any strict sense. Nevertheless it 
is unquestionably the psychological origin, and it therefore marks the 
first stage in the evolution of what became punishment in the strict sense. 
This is the vindictive stage or phase. In so far as punishment at any time 
reveals the same emotion and impulse it represents this primitive vindictive 
stage. 

Even in a very primitive social life, however, some crude notion of 
justice must very early act as a determining influence on the hurt that 
may be inflicted on another for some injury done. We are not at present 
concerned in the tracing of the psychological processes by which this 
notion of justice comes into being. It is only necessary to put ourselves 
in the j)lace of the impartial onlooker to understand the psychology of 
these processes. So far as some notion of justice is a conscious determinant 
of the hurt inflicted on the wrongdoer by the injured individual, this hurt 
takes on the character of retribution, and punishment as such comes into 
being. This phase or stage in the evolution of punishment is the retri- 
butive phase or stage. 

Another factor must have made its influence felt in a rudimentary 
way at a comparatively early stage. The notion of punishment must 
have involved a looking forward as well as backward, in the shape at least 
of a dim feeling that similar actions to that which has incurred it must be 
prevented in the future. There can be little doubt, that is to say, that 
at a comparatively early stage primitive society must have felt vaguely 
that punishment had a protective function, since by means of punishment 
of a culprit the individual and society were protecting themselves against 
the repetition of an injurious act. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 221 

The general line of evolution of our modern penal systems is thus 
clear. First of all we have purely vindictive action on the part of the 
injured individual. Then there is some sort of legalising — if we may use 
that word — of retributive action on the part of the injured, so long as this 
retributive action does not go beyond the limits of ' justice,' this being 
regulated by social law. Finally, recognising that punishment has a 
protective function as far as social life is concerned, society itself 
takes over the infliction of punishment, and a penal system is 
inaugurated. This stage or phase is the protective or deterrent stage 
or phase. 

To leave the matter thus, however, would be to obscure important 
aspects and phases of the actual course of events, and could not fail to 
produce a misleading impression of the facts. Stages in social evolution 
are never clear-cut. Thus the development of the retributive view of 
punishment by no means involved the discontinuance in practice of 
vindictive punishment. Still less did the realisation of protection as the 
primary social function of punishment alter the practice which had been 
founded on the older and more primitive conceptions. Practice lagged a 
long way behind theory in this, as in so many other cases. The psycho- 
logical explanation of the actual facts would appear to be that the crude 
emotion of anger remained the driving force behind punishment, though 
it was cloaked and obscured by other motives, and by various forms of 
rationalisation. After all, the reaction of anger is a natural reaction to 
an act which society agrees in reprobating. One leading authority on 
criminal law has, indeed, placed on record his conviction that it is ' highly 
desirable that criminals should be hated, that the punishments inflicted 
upon them should be so contrived as to give expression to that hatred, 
and to justify it so far as the public provision of means for expressing 
and gratifying a healthy natural sentiment can justify and encourage it.' 
I am afraid the learned author's thoughts have become somewhat mixed 
up in the latter portion of this statement. It sounds as if his rationalisa- 
tion were not very satisfactory, even to himself. However that may be, 
it is certain that the realisation by society in theory that the function of 
punishment from the point of view of society was primarily protective 
did not prevent an almost religious sanction continuing to be attached 
to the lex talionis — ' an eye for an eye.' This remained, in fact, an assump- 
tion at the base of all penal systems which no one seriously challenged. 
And it is equally certain that the protective function of punishment was 
frequently made the excuse, as in the writer just quoted, for continuing 
the practice of vindictive punishment — ' for deterrent purposes ' was the 
usual rationalisation — even when it was quite evident that the psycho- 
logical situation thus produced was often quite inimical to the ends sought. 
One need only instance the brutalising influence of capital punishment on 
society at large, and its inevitable tendency to increase the frequency of 
the crime of murder, during the period when it was the punishment also 
for less serious crimes, to show the kind of psychological situation which 
was created. Curiously enough the humaner — and, indeed, saner — attitude 
and practice of modern times in civilised countries were due far less to 
recognition of the fact that vindictive punishment for deterrent purposes 
was frequently an entire failure, than to the fact that the infliction of 



222 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

pain and suSering on human beings became objectionable to the general 
sense of society. 

The phase or stage of evolution at which we have now arrived is 
characterised, on the one hand, by the discontinuance, or the radical 
limitation, of what v/as virtually the primitive vindictive punishment in 
disguise, and, on the other hand, by the recognition of social punishments 
as possibly possessing a reformatory or curative function. We may speak, 
therefore, of the present phase or stage as the reformatory phase or stage 
in the evolution of social punishment. The actual situation, however, is 
somewhat complex. Practically punishment still rests, in law and in 
popular thought, on the retributive basis — the lex talionis. Theoretically 
it is recognised that from the point of view of society punishment is pro- 
tective, and this is its primary function, and also, I believe, that society 
is not directly concerned with the retributive aspect of punishment as 
such, but only indirectly because of the deterrent effect of retributive 
punishment. Moreover — and this is the mark of the phase of evolution 
at which we have arrived — it is realised that, as far as the individual is 
concerned, social punishment may be made reformatory, and that the 
reformatory function of punishment is worth keeping in view, if only 
because reformation of the individual means protection of society against 
the repetition of the injury as far as that individual is concerned, always 
provided that the attempt to reform the criminal does not involve the 
sacrifice of the primary aim. 

Though there is thus some conflict between the popular and practical 
view of punishment as protective and retributive and the theoretical view 
of punishment as protective and reformatory, practice is tending gradually 
towards conformity with theory. This is as it should be, since the theo- 
retical view represents the view of the vast majority of those who have 
given serious consideration to the problems of social punishment. In 
what follows I am going to assume that there is general agreement with 
respect to three points : (1) that the punishments inflicted by society 
ought to be based on the protective and reformatory functions of punish- 
ment, but of these the protective is primary and fundamental ; (2) that 
the retributive view of punishment is really a relic of an older theory of 
punishment that has rightly been set aside, though as a secondary 
determinant of the kind and degree of punishment the old lex talionis may 
still have to be reckoned with ; and (3) that the reformatory view of 
punishment represents an ideal which a civilised community should 
always keep in mind, provided the true relation of the reformatory function 
to the protective is not forgotten. 

The psychological problems of social punishment fall into two groups : 
on the one hand those involved in the effects of punishment on the indi- 
vidual who is punished, and on the other hand those connected with the 
effects of punishment on the community itself. Of course there is a 
repercussion on society of the effects on the individual, so that the problems 
of punishment are ultimately in every case social problems. Nevertheless 
we shall find it convenient to consider the two groups of problems separately 
in the meantime. 

Consider, first, the problems arising in connection with the effects of 
punishment on the individual who is punished. So long as the retributive 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 223 

aspect of punishment is placed in the foreground, the only psychological 
problems of serious import are those involved in the question of the 
responsibility of the offender. This question of responsibilitj^ is one over 
which medical and legal minds have long been at loggerheads. The source 
of this age-old controversy between lawyer and medical man lies primarily 
in the fact that the two use the word ' responsibility ' in entirely different 
senses. For the lawyer ' responsibility ' is purely a legal term, and the 
question of responsibility is to be determined on the basis of evidence 
germane to its legal meaning. For the medical man ' responsibility ' is 
an ethical term, and the question of responsibility therefore raises much 
wider issues. As the controversy develops it becomes more and more 
entangled, owing to the fact that the lawyer insists on discussing psycho- 
pathology and medicine, which he is not competent to discuss, and the 
medical man insists on discussing ethics, which, however competent he 
may be to discuss such topics, has little relevancy to the problem whether 
an individual is to be regarded as legally ' responsible.' 

It is by no means easy to define clearly what we mean by ' responsi- 
bility,' even in the legal sense. The legal position would appear to be, in 
the words of the leading authority on criminal law already quoted : ' No 
act is a crime if the person who does it is at the time when it is done pre- 
vented either by defective mental power or by any disease affecting his 
mind (a) from knowing the nature and quality of his act, or {b) from knowing 
that the act is wrong, or (c) from controlling his own conduct, unless the 
absence of the power of control has been produced by his own default. 
But an act may be a crime if the person who does it is affected by disease, 
if such disease does not in fact produce upon his mind one or other of the 
effects above mentioned in reference to that act.' I need not in a gathering 
of psychologists point out the extreme difficulty of the psychological 
problems involved in that definition, more especially in so far as the 
question of control is raised. I do not believe, however, that responsibility 
in this sense is a practical issue at all in connection with any penal system. 
At least it does not arise in the form in which it is usually raised, nor at 
the point at which it is usually raised, in a practical consideration of the 
problems of punishment as affecting the individual who has infringed 
social laws. It is a question wliich we inherit from an antiquated and 
outworn theory of punishment. So far as real, urgent, and soluble psycho- 
logical problems are involved, these arise at an entirely difierent point 
and in an entirely different connection, as we shall see presently. 

It is when we emphasise the protective and particularly the reformatory 
aspects of punishment that the vital psychological problems emerge. So 
far as we base our practice in social punishments upon these two functions, 
it is not too much to say that our whole practice must be guided primarily 
by the outcome of psychological inquiry. The two functions are not in 
conflict. We may aim at the protection of society by the reform of the 
delinquent. Treatment which is successful in eliminating a particular 
tendency to delinquency in an individual will ipso facto protect the com- 
munity against the repetition of this delinquency by the same individual. 
Of course it will not necessarily protect society against the same form of 
delinquency in another individual. That is why we have to consider 
punishment, rather than reformation pure and simple, and that is why 



224 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

tte silly and sickly sentimentality which regards the wrongdoer as a 
suffering victim rather than a criminal will always fail to appeal to anyone, 
no matter how soft-hearted, who regards the whole situation frankly and 
sanely. It is obvious also that the failure of reformatory measures must 
not be taken to imply the failure of society to protect itself. Other 
measures must be available, which are merely protective, and not at all^ 
or only indirectly, reformatory. On the other hand, it is clear that reforma- 
tion is, as a rule, the more economical way to secure protection for the 
community, provided there is reasonable hope of success, and so long as 
we restrict our attention to the individual delinquent. The reform of the 
delinquent is doubly a social gain. From being a minus quantity with 
respect to social efficiency he becomes a plus quantity. This point is 
especially important in the case of the juvenile delinquent. 

So far as we are to aim at the protection of society by the reform of 
the delinquent, the punishment of the delinquent necessarily becomes an 
individual question, since we are concerned with the operation of motives, 
and that is always an individual matter. Punishment exerts its influence 
through disagreeableness, or the fear of disagreeableness. The question 
whether we can ever reform an individual by means of punishment may 
possibly be an arguable question. But it is only an arguable question if 
we interpret ' reform ' to mean more than is intended when we speak of 
the reformatory aspect of punishment. A misdemeanour is the outcome 
of a certain external situation meeting with certain inner conditions in the 
wrongdoer, certain conditions, I mean, in his nature or mind. On a 
strict scientific reading of the facts we may assume that under all the 
circumstances of the moment the only kind of behaviour possible was the 
kind of behaviour that took place. That is to say, we may admit that the 
delinquent, being what he was, in the circumstances then present, could not 
have acted otherwise than he did. This may seem a very damning 
admission, as far as the action of the a.uthority which punishes is concerned, 
if the ethical question of the moral responsibility of the criminal is to be 
raised as a practical issue. As I have already said, however, I do not 
believe that the question of responsibility in any sense, legal or ethical, 
arises as a practical issue at this point at all, or in this connection. What 
punishment does, to put the matter in its simplest terms, is so to change 
the inner conditions, and therefore the inner nature, that in circumstances 
similar to those present on the previous occasion the misdemeanour is no 
longer possible, a new kind of behaviour being now the necessary outcome 
of all the conditions present. This is a reformatory effect in a practical, 
if not in an academic sense. 

The function normally performed by unpleasantness encountered in 
the activity of any living organism is to guide the activity so that un- 
pleasantness may in future be avoided. The fear of unpleasantness again 
checks the immediacy of impulse, and so allows time for a new kind of 
behaviour to be substituted for the old kind which led to unpleasantness — 
the beginnings in the case of the human being, it is worth noting, of self- 
control. But it is only low down the scale of organic life that the 
phenomena are to be seen in their simplicity. As we pass up the scale the 
inner conditions which determine behaviour become more and more 
complex, and the actual results of any impleasantness or fear become more 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 225 

and more difi&cult to foretell. With the human being the complexity ot 
the inner situation has become enormous. The web of impulse and 
motive is so intricately and so subtly interwoven that the introduction of 
a new impulse and motive may come to have a result wholly unforeseen 
and entirely different from the result intended. 

Hence, however simple the general psychological theory of punish- 
ment may be, the practical difficulties of punishment in the concrete, 
when its aim is the reformation of the delinquent, are very formidable. 
One source of practical difficulty is the actual, and possibly innate, 
differences between individuals, which make them respond in an entirely 
dift'erent way to the same external situation. What is intensely dis- 
agreeable to one individual may not seriously inconvenience another, and 
may be positively pleasant to a third. Hence a punishment that is 
effective with one individual may be quite ineffective with another. 
There are even differences in the same individual at different times, so that 
a punishment effective at one time may be quite ineffective at another, 
even with the same individual. A second source of practical difficulty is 
the fact that the effect produced by punishment has a very different 
duration for dift'erent individuals. One extreme is illustrated by many 
defective delinquents. 

The most important source of practical difficulty, however, is 
frequently our almost complete ignorance of the inner conditions which 
issue in any particular misdemeanour. This necessarily involves 
ignorance of the effect which our punishment is likely to produce. As 
far as the reformatory aspect of punishment is concerned, this is a very 
serious matter. We have to deal with an individual, and we must know 
the facts of that individual case. Any psychologist who has had 
experience of conflict cases among juvenile delinquents can easily find 
illustrations from his experience. The usual form of misdemeanour that 
occurs is stealing, and frequently irrational and apparently motiveless 
stealing. Thus money, jewellery, and all kinds of things may be stolen 
and given away, or even thrown away. Until the inner conditions are 
understood and the causes of the trouble removed, no kind of treatment 
seems to be of any avail. Or sometimes, where punishment is apparently 
successful in eliminating the tendency to one particular kind of mis- 
demeanour, there is a criminal outbreak in a totally different direction, 
the result of the punishment itself, which more than counterbalances any 
apparent success. 

A typical conflict case is described by Healy. This was a girl of ten, 
who for two years previous to coming under his notice had been addicted 
to stealing. She stole from her parents, from neighbours, and from school. 
Threats, whippings, expulsion from school were all of no avail. There was 
no improvement when the child was given money to spend. In all other 
respects her physical and mental condition appeared to be quite normal. 
There was no hereditary taint that could be traced. Her school- work was 
above the average. She liked games, and excelled in them. Apart from 
the stealing, in fact, she presented a complete picture of normality. Only 
after careful and prolonged inquiry did the real cause of the stealing come 
to light. This was found to be an emotional conflict which had no direct 
connection with stealing, but which nevertheless resulted in the stealing 

1926 a 



226 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

as a ' compromise formation.' According to the girl's own account of the 
stealing, when she thought of certain ' bad things,' stealing was the only 
way in which she seemed to be able to escape from her thoughts. One 
form of misconduct was thus, as it were, substituted for another, that 
form which was repressed being the real source of the trouble. The 
futility of punishment of practically any kind in a case such as this is 
obvious. Punishment would in all probability only aggravate the evil. 
Yet when the source of the trouble was known, this case of delinquency 
could be, and was, dealt with successfully. 

Cases of this kind tend to make one speak and think of treatment 
rather than punishment. It might be asked whether this is not the point 
of view from which all cases should be approached, not as a matter of 
ethics, but as a matter of practical expediency, punishment being merely 
a particular method of treatment. The proposition is arguable, but only 
so long as we confine attention to the individual delinquent, and that is 
only one side of the picture, as we shall see presently. Personally, I do 
not think the point of view will matter very much so long as we keep firmly 
in mind the essential fact that the action taken, whether we call it treat- 
ment or punishment, is primarily action taken by society for its own 
protection, the reform of the criminal being a means adopted to this end. 
There is undoubtedly a class of offender in whose case treatment, rather 
than punishment, is the appropriate notion and procedure. Other cases 
occur with fair frequency in which punishment as ordinarily understood 
is quite ineffective as regards the reform of the individual. The case of 
serious mental defect may be instanced. The facts are such that we 
find the old problems of responsibility, so far as they were practical 
problems at all, cropping up in a new guise, and in new surroundings. It 
may be possible to determine beforehand, without waiting for the event, 
whether punishment will be effective for reform, and if so what kind of 
punishment, or whether the case is one demanding treatment, and not 
punishment at all, and if so what kind of treatment. The problems now, 
however, are neither legal nor ethical problems, but purely psychological 
problems. 

The suggestion that in some cases punishment, as ordinarily understood, 
may be quite ineffective leads us on to the consideration of the measures 
society takes, and must take, for its own protection in certain instances. 
The most important method of protection that society utilises is the 
restraint of the offender in some appropriate institution — as far as the 
idea of punishment is concerned, some sort of prison. The restraint or 
imprisonment may be merely temporary, or it may be permanent. In 
the first case it is clear that the reformatory aspect of punishment ought 
to be still kept in view, so far as the psychological situation is taken into 
account. If it is not, it does not require much foresight to prophesy 
somewhat lamentable results. In particular, if the criminal is returned 
to social life, not only with his tendency to the original form of misdeed 
unaffected, but with other anti-social tendencies developed by his prison 
life, or by circumstances arising out of his prison life, our only possible 
verdict is that society is playing the fool. On the other hand, when the 
restraint is permanent, while reformatory measures must not be entirely 
excluded as intrinsically hopeless m every case, it is clear that the whole 



J 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 227 

psychological situation and outlook are different. The prisoner will 
never be returned to civil life. For the protection of society he must be 
kept in restraint permanently. But he is a human being, and the moral 
sense of society will demand that he be treated as such, not merely 
negatively by the avoidance of inhuman conditions, but positively by the 
provision of such amelioration of his lot as is possible without sacrificing 
essential principles. 

Everyone is agreed, I think, as regards these general matters. There 
will also be general agreement that the stigma of prison life means in 
itself the very serious modification of the psychological situation in the 
case of every individual who incurs it, so serious that no psychologist can 
regard short-term prison sentences with anything but dismay. It must 
be recognised that it is with respect to prison treatment especially that 
society, in protecting itself, or attempting to do so, runs the risk of 
making matters worse instead of better, and the gravest practical problems 
arise with regard to this type of punishment. Much has been done in 
recent years to remove acknowledged evils and defects of our prison system. 
Much may still be done. Nevertheless, I personally, and, I imagine, most 
psychologists, would look upon any further advance in the directions 
hitherto pursued with serious misgivings as to psychological results, until 
we have first attacked more fundamental problems, and reviewed our 
whole penal system in the light of the psychological knowledge of to-day. 

Let me try to indicate where, in my opinion, the crux of the whole 
matter lies. I think all will agree that the very first essential is that we 
should have the requisite knowledge and understanding of the psychological 
situation with which we are faced, and the psychological effects likely to 
be produced by the action taken. Society has to decide whether an 
individual delinquent is to be punished in this way or that way, whether 
he cannot be reformed but must be placed under restraint for life, or can 
be reformed during temporary restraint by appropriate treatment, or can 
be reformed without undergoing prison life, and in each case what can 
and ought to be aimed at. No general theories concerning the causation 
of crime, no systems of penal philosophy, not even the best intentions in 
the world, can take the place of a thorough knowledge and understanding 
•of the individual case. This is precisely where our whole penal system is 
at present most defective. Moreover, the defect is one that can be remedied 
without serious difl&calty in the present state of development of modern 
science, medical and psychological, but no opportunity is afforded. The 
first and essential step towards the further reform of our penal system 
lies in affording this opportunity. This could be done by instituting a 
■clinical examination, medical and psychological, of every delinquent 
before sentence is jjassed, and by taking advantage wherever possible of 
modern psychological knowledge. The psychological clinic is at present 
practically non-existent in this country. It is high time this state of 
matters was remedied. School and law-court both demand its institution. 
That is the first step. When we have taken that step, we shall be able to 
take further steps in penal reform, with the advantage of acting with 
adequate knowledge of what can be done and what we are really doing in 
each particular case. Until that step is taken, every other change we 
introduce by way of reform has a hit-or-miss character, which cannot fail 

q2 



228 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to be profoundly disturbing to any thoughtful student of social develop- 
ment. 

But it may be objected that we are in danger of losing sight of the 
fact that the topic under discussion is punishment, not simply the reforma- 
tion of the criminal. A few minutes ago the suggestion was made that 
in certain cases at least it might be more appropriate to speak of treatment 
than of punishment, the suggestion involving the view that delinquency 
ought to be looked on as the outcome of something not unlike disease. 
However that may be, I do not think there is any warrant for excluding 
either the idea or the fact of punishment, provided we look to the future, 
and not simply to the past, in our conception of punishment. The action 
taken against an individual in the form of punishment must involve some 
disagreeableness or deprivation, and the reason for the punishment is 
some past act of the individual. But its purpose is the prevention of 
similar acts in the future. The fact that hitherto we have been discussing 
the individual aspect only has tended somewhat to obscure this deterrent 
function, and the consideration of this function will lead us over to the 
discussion of the social aspect. 

The deterrent function of punishment has played no inconsiderable 
part in the discussion of penal measures at all times. The severity of 
past penal systems has been largely due — almost entirely so far as it has. 
had a rational basis at all — to the attempt to deter others from similar 
offences to those for which punishment is inflicted on an ofiender. It is 
unquestionably the case that many a misdeed is prevented by the fact 
that the individual who is tempted knows that he will inevitably pay the 
penalty, and it is also a well-known fact that where, through the 
inefficiency of the police or other cause, punishment is easily evaded, 
crime shows a corresponding increase. The justification of a deliberate- 
use of punishment for deterrent purposes must rest on considerations 
which are other than purely psychological. Whatever justification is 
attempted must satisfy the moral sense of the particular society. That 
is, however, a side-issue so far as our present discussion is concerned. The 
deterrent effect of punishment as a fact is the main point that concerns- 
the psychologist, and his business as a psychologist is to analyse and 
explam this fact. 

It cannot be lightly assumed, however, that the deterrent effect of 
punishment depends merely on fear of the disagreeableness or suflering^ 
which the punishment in itself involves. The penal system is an expres- 
sion, however imperfect, of the sentiments of society with respect to- 
certain acts — sentiments of hatred in varying degrees. It is not the 
result of a purely intellectual review of the social results and bearing of 
these acts. Apart, therefore, from the punishment by law decreed and 
legally inflicted, the criminal act is inhibited, so far as the normal socialised 
individual is concerned, by this sentiment in himself and in his fellows,, 
how developed we cannot at present stop to consider, but resting ultimately 
on the primitive anger evoked by injury. ' The sentence of the law,' to 
quote again the legal authority already quoted, ' is to the moral sentiment 
of the public in relation to any offence what a seal is to hot wax. It 
converts into a permanent final judgment what might otherwise be a. 
transient sentiment.' Fear of the punishment as such, fear of the social 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 229 

disapprobation dependent on the evoking of the moral sentiment of which 
the punishment is a concrete and tangible embodiment, recoil from the 
act because of the existence in the individual who is tempted of the moral 
sentiment in question in however feeble, attenuated, and fragmentary a 
form — all these are motives holding back an individual member of society 
from wrongdoing. The legal punishment exercises its deterrent influence 
because it, as it were, embodies and presents all of them in unmistakable 
and arresting fashion. The relative force of the different motives will 
vary with individuals. But until we can rely on the last of these motives 
being of itself sufficiently powerful to restrain every individual member 
of society from the breach of social laws — which would seem to involve 
a radical change both in the existing social structure and in human 
nature — the social necessity of some kind of penal system, in the strict 
sense, must remain. 

Arguing on the basis of the deterrent influence of punishment, several 
writers have defended punishments which can only be described as 
vindictive. This has been due in part to the belief that the deterrent 
effect depended solely on fear, and in part to inability to distinguish 
between hatred of an offence and hatred of the offender. After the sound 
and generally acceptable statement of the relation between penal law 
and the moral sentiments of the community, just quoted, the same legal 
authority goes on to say : ' The criminal law thus proceeds upon the 
principle that it is morally right to hate criminals, and it confirms and 
justifies that sentiment by inflicting upon criminals punishments which 
express it.' This is a frank enough expression of the vindictive theory 
of punishment. We are here concerned neither with the ethics nor with 
the religion of the view thus expressed. It is certain that, psychologically, 
hatred of a sin need not involve hatred of the sinner. It is also certain 
that the writer in this passage is speaking of the emotions of anger and 
revenge, and not of any moral sentiment at all. 

I do not wish, however, to develop that line of thought at present. 
Enough has already been said about vindictive punishment. I would 
rather in conclusion revert to the varjang motives upon which the deterrent 
influence of punishment depends. Two points in particular demand notice. 
In the first place we cannot assume that penal law and moral sentiment 
will always be in harmony, and so reinforce one another. There may, 
in fact, be acute conflict between the two, as far as a considerable minority 
of the members of a community are concerned. In certain cases also 
they may be, so to speak, indifferent to one another. In either case the 
psychological situation is very radically modified, and the problems of 
punishment may in practice become very difficult. 

In the second place the influence of the different motives may, as we 
have seen, vary with the individual. If that be so, two consequences 
would appear to follow. On the one hand — and this refers more particu- 
larly to the adult criminal — our penal system must be such as to appeal 
with sufficient cogency to all the motives, as far as the criminally disposed 
individual is concerned. On the other hand — and now we have in mind 
chiefly the juvenile delinquent — it is of capital importance that we should 
recognise as early as possible in their criminal career those individuals who, 
either by nature or circumstances, or both, are tending towards abnor- 



230 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

mality in their reactions to social claims and social penalties. This brings 
us back to the crux of the whole situation. Means must be provided by 
which a knowledge of the individual case may be made available, before 
the decision is taken as to how any offender is to be treated. The tempera- 
mentally defective individual may be born, the habitual criminal is largely 
made. It ought at least to be possible to prevent the making of criminals. 
Again the glaring defect of our penal system stands revealed. No pro- 
vision whatever is made for the diagnosis of incipient criminality. It is 
not merely a case of locking the door after the horse is stolen ; it is a 
case of providing neither lock nor door. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1860-1894-1926. 



ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOR F. 0. BOWER, Sc.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



' The future of Biology lies not in generalisation but in closer and 
closer analysis.' — Bateson (Birkbeck Lecture, 1924). 

Death sudden and wholly unforeseen has stepped between this Section 
and the President of its choice. Professor Bateson had presided over the 
whole Association at its meeting in Australia, and partly on that account 
he had been specially selected for the chair of this Section in Oxford. 
From him we might have expected a broad outlook upon biological 
science. His address would have been instinct with wide experience in 
both of the branches of living things, the interests of which interweave 
in enthralling and often most perplexing ways. We should have heard 
a fearless statement of his mature views. Something constructive would 
certainly have justified the congratulations with which some of us had 
already welcomed his nomination. A great figure has been taken from 
the arena of biological science. A career still full of the promise of further 
achievement has closed prematurely. 

This is not the time or the place for any comprehensive obituary of 
Bateson ; nor would I divert your attention from those already before 
you, written by more competent hands. I will only allude briefly to 
four leading events in his scientific career. He felt in early life the lack of 
facts bearing on variation, and sought to extend their area in his great work 
' Materials for the Study of Variation,' published in 1894. This was the 
year when the Association last met in Oxford. I do not remember that 
its contents came into the discussions in Section D, though the book 
centred upon the vital question of continuity and discontinuity. The 
second event was the publication in 1902 of ' Mendel's Principles of 
Heredity,' in which, though essentially a controversial statement, Bateson 
perceived latent in the rediscovered writings an expanding vista of 
advance. ' Each conception of life (he says) in which heredity bears 
a part must change before the coming rush of facts.' In a third stage of 
his work Bateson expanded this theme into a fuller statement under the 
same title, and it was published in 1909. Passing from this period of 
high hopes to the fourth phase of 1924, we see in his Address at the Birkbeck 
Centenary a chastened attitude. He there remarks : ' We must frankly 
admit that modern discoveries have given little aid with the problem of 
adaptation,' and that, much as Mendelian analysis has done, ' it has 
not given us the origin of species.' But that analysis having ' led to 
the discovery of transferable characters, we now know upon what to 



232 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

concentrate. . . . Henceforth the study of evolution is in the hands of 
the cytologist acting in conjunction with the experimental breeder. Every 
appeal (he says) must ultimately be to the mechanics of cell-division. 
The cell is a vortex of chemical and molecular change. . . . The study of 
these vortices is biology, and the place at which we must look for our 
answer is cell-division.' I would ask you to mark that last word. It is 
cell-division, not nuclear division ; and earlier in his address we find the 
pregnant sentences : ' As to what the rest of the cell is doing, apart 
from the chromosomes, we know little. Perhaps the true specific charac- 
ters belong to the cytoplasm, but these are only idle speculations.' Such 
extracts from Bateson's latest public pronouncement may suggest to you 
what the Section has lost by his death. They show the mind still elastic 
and perceptive : still both constructive and critical. 

Any address that follows such a tragedy of disappointment as the 
Section has suffered can only fall short of what we had hoped to hear. 
Instead of attempting to fill the broad biological rdle that naturally fell 
to Bateson, I propose to centre my remarks upon three dates when the 
Association has met in Oxford, viz. 1860, 1894, and 1926. It happens 
that these dates mark approximately periods of transition in the progress 
of biological science, and particularly in Botany, 

1860. 

I need not remind you of the fact that the meeting in Oxford of 1860, 
the year after the publication of the ' Origin of Species,' witnessed the 
clash between the new view and the oj^positi .n it was certain to arouse. 
The story has been often told of the aggressive attack and the crushing 
retort. But it is not sufficiently recognised that, though Huxley bore the 
first brunt of the fight, a large part in the contest was taken by Hooker. 
The meeting closed after he had spoken, and in his own words he was 
' congratulated and thanked by the blackest coats and the whitest stocks 
in Oxford.' 

Two generations have passed since the Oxford meeting of 1860 : and 
still the ' Origin of Species ' holds its place as a great philosophical pro- 
nouncement. As the methods of research passed into greater detail, 
the area of fact has been extended through the labours of an ever-growing 
army of inquirers, and naturally divergences of view have arisen. Some 
authors appear to demand that for all time the '' Origin ' must cover every 
new aspect of biological inquiry, or else the whole theory crumbles. That 
is to demand a prophetic vision for its author. We need not for the 
moment follow these or other criticisms, but rather recognise that the 
theory rested essentially on facts of heritable variation, without defining 
their magnitude, limitations, or origin ; and that it explained a means 
of their summation so as to produce progressive morphological results. 
As an index of current opinion on the validity of Darwin's theory as a 
whole, I would draw your attention to three British works on evolution, 
all published within the last two years. In 1924 Dr. Scott concludes his 
volume on ' Extinct Plants and Problems of Evolution ' with the judicious 
sentence : ' I may venture ... to maintain that a consideration of all the 
evidence ... is on the whole favourable to the old, truly Darwinian concep- 
tion of an orderly and gradual evolution without sudden and inexplicable 



K.— BOTANY. 233 

leaps, an evolution in harmony with the uniformitarian principles estab- 
iished by LyelL' But he remarks that he does not favour any exaggerated 
ideas such as the so-called ' omnipotence of natural selection.' 

In the present year Professor Graham Kerr, in his volume on ' Evolu- 
tion,' also adopts a distinctly Darwinian position, but with greater stress 
laid upon the potency of natural selection ; this might be expected from 
•one who spent same of his most impressionable years in the wild surround- 
ings of the Gran Chaco. He speaks from experience of the effect of selec- 
tion as being ' in actual fact enormous,' and he holds that the attempts 
that have been made to minimise its importance are to a great extent 
fallacious. He sees in the recognition of Mendelian inheritance that the 
natural-selection theory has been greatly fortified since Darwin's day. 
Variability, upon which the theory depends, he regards as an expression 
of that instability which constitutes one of the inherent and most character- 
istic features of living substance, and he states that such variation has to 
be accepted as a basic fact. He further regards as an added strength 
to the Darwinian theory ' the recognition that a particular variation is 
the outward expression of a tendeiicy to vary in that particular direction, 
and that as a consequence the selection of variations in a particular direc- 
tion involves a necessary intensifying of the tendency towards that 
particular variation, and in turn the encouragement of evolutionary pro- 
gress along a definite directed line.' These expressions are in general 
accord with the doctrine of Weismann that acquired characters, or, as 
Graham Kerr terms them, ' impressed ' characters, are not themselves 
inherited. It is not for a botanist to interfere with the arguments of 
zoologists on this question, as applied in their own science. There are, 
however, zoologists who strongly maintain their belief in such inheritance, 
a position upheld by Professor MacBride in the volume on ' Evolution ' 
published last year by Messrs. Blackie, which is the third of the works above 
mentioned. 

In that same volume I took the opportunity of stating that the question 
of the origin of heritable characters, or mutations as they are called, is 
still quite an open one for plants. But it was maintained that a wide 
latitude of time is a real factor in the problem. This was already recog- 
nised by Hofmeister, who on the last page of his ' AUgemeine Morphologic ' 
said : ' It appears to me probable that only gradually, in the course of 
many years' development, the influential effects on outer form appeared 
and became hereditary.' Thus Hofmeister contemplated a slow inherit- 
ance of acquired or impressed characters in plants. To anyone who notes 
how directly susceptible individual plants are to external conditions, and 
how greatly these affect their individual form, it would seem improbable 
that there should be any sharp line of demarcation between the individual 
and the racial life, or that what affects every individual plant so pro- 
foundly should never affect the race. In my essay in Messrs. Blackie's 
volume on ' Evolution ' I advanced comparative evidence, which commends 
itself to my own mind as a raorphologist, indicating that the boundary 
between fluctuating variations and heritable mutations is not absolute : 
in fact that in plants, given latitude of time, variations related causally 
with external circumstance, and not merely initiated at random, are 
liable to be transmitted to the offspring. There is no need to repeat the 



234 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

argument here,, for it was submitted to the Section at Southampton. It 
may be remarked that this is in direct opposition to the doctrine which 
Weismaun laid down with special reference to the animal kingdom. But 
what may be applicable for one kingdom of living things does not neces- 
sarily apply for the other. The evolution of animals and plants has. 
certainly been homoplastic in all its later stages. Our minds should be 
perfectly free to follow the facts of our own science to their legitimate 
conclusions. These indicate to me that heritable variations in plants 
have been promoted or actually determined in their direction, or their 
number, or their quality, in some way by external conditions. But these- 
need not necessarily have worked within restricted time-limits of present 
experiment ; for the wide latitude of geological time has been available- 
for evolution to proceed. Hence negative results of the experiments of 
a few years need not be held as overruling the conclusions drawn from 
comparison of nearly allied forms.' 

Before we leave this historical aspect of evolution a moral may b& 
drawn from the lives of its four protagonists of 1860. Darwin, Wallace,. 
Hooker, and Huxley were all equipped for the battle from the armoury 
of personal experience in the great world. The theory of evolution was 
born and bred of foreign travel, and upon foreign travel quite as much as. 
upon quiet work at home its future still depends. We should not for a 
moment minimise the great developments of laboratory study and of 
breeding experiment in recent years that bear upon its progress. But it 
is not thence alone that the fullest achievement can be anticipated. The 
cytologist and the breeder, just as much as the abstract theorist, should 
know Nature face to face, not merely through a glass darkly. To those- 
who believe in the close relation between environment and variation, 
which is to me the very core of evolution, this seems essential to any well- 
balanced view. The open forest, the sea-coast, steppe, and mountain-side 
should be regarded as the natural complement to the laboratory and 
the breeding-station. No one, morphologist or physiologist, should hold 
himself equipped for research or fully qualified to teach unless he have at 
least some experience of travel through wild Nature. This can best be 
acquired in the tropics. But what do we find ? 

In 1886 a committee of this Association was appointed to assist the 
visits of botanists to Ceylon for study. Several well-known botanists 
availed themselves of its aid ; but after a few years the scheme flickered 
out through inanition. In 1909 I visited the Cinchona Station in Jamaica, 
and again a scheme for continued use of the station by British botanists 
was initiated ; but it has since died out for want of consistent support. 
Why did these efforts fail ? We may set these failures down to under- 
valuation of the importance of foreign, and particularly of tropical, study ; 
and the lack of full perception that open Nature is the greatest laboratory 
of all. Our future Botany seems in danger of becoming myopic by reason 
of study being concentrated at too short focus. To correct this, young 
aspirants should travel early, as free-lances, hazarding the fortune of the 
wild, as Darwin and his fellows did. 

1 Gates, in his volume on the ' Mutation Factor in Evolution ' (1915), draws to 
a close ■« ith -words that may well be quoted here. ' It would appear (he says) that 
something within the organism is responsible for such unswerving progress in a given 
direction as appears to be repeated over and over again in the palaeontological record.' 



K.— BOTANY. 235 

Homoplasy. 

I have already alluded to the tempestuous meeting of 1860 in Oxford. 
Shortly after it an undergraduate came up to Christ Church who, before 
he was of standing to take his M.A. degree, had himself made a real contri- 
bution to the philosophy of evolution. It was Ray Lankester, who in 
1870 published a short paper ' On the use of the term Homology in Modern 
Zoology, and the distinction between Homogenetic and Homoplastic 
Agreements.' ' Its author was only twenty-three years of age, and its 
date barely a decade after the publication of the ' Origin.' This short paper 
went far to clear up the vague ideas surrounding the term ' homology ' 
in the minds of early evolutionists. Lankester introduced the idea of 
* homogeny,' substituting in a more strict sense the word ' homogen ' for 
' homologue.' He also suggested, to avoid confusion, the use of another 
new term, viz. ' homoplasy.' He defined homogeny as simply the in- 
heritance of a common part, while homoplasy depends upon the common 
action of evoking causes or of a moulding environment upon homogeneous 
parts, or upon parts which for other reasons offer a likeness of material to 
begin with. 

This definition was at once adopted in the morphological study of 
animals, but Lankester did not himself apply it at the time to the 
morphology of plants. In point of fact the conception of homoplasy and 
the use of this clarifying term made its way but slowly into botanical 
literature. There is reason to believe that we are as yet only beginning 
to recognise in the evolution of the plastic plant-body how far-reaching 
has been the influence of homoplasy, not only upon external form, but 
also in the internal evolution of tissues. As to external form, a wide recog- 
nition of the results of homoplasy is now generally accepted for land- 
living plants, and in particular in respect of the origin of foliar appendages ; 
for instance, the leaves in Bryophytes and Vascular Plants are held as 
homoplastic, not as homogenetic ; similarly with the leaves of Bryophytes, 
and possibly also of Pteridophytes, ivter se. On the other hand, we may 
find among the larger Brown Algae indications of the difierentiation of a 
supporting organ and lateral appendages from a common branch-system, 
that can only have been homoplastic with an origin of like parts in certain 
Red Algae. Such conclusions, drawn from the Algae themselves as well 
as from the Archegoniatae, have the natural effect of raising distrust of 
wide comparisons between any seaweed and any land-plant in respect of 
foliar differentiation. Comparisons of this nature cannot be held accept- 
able as mere guesses, by loose reference between one class and another. 
They would have to be based on the recognition of compact sequences 
within reasonably close circles of affinity before they could carry con- 
viction. 

Similarly in the morphology of the internal tissue-tracts, we are already 
familiar with certain examples of homoplasy ; for instance, that of 
secondary thickening. No one would now hold, with the school of 
Brongniart, that all plants with cambial activity are akin. But it is only 
in later years that we have come to realise the far-reaching results of 
homoplasy in the region of primary vascular morphology. MeduUation, 

'^Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. vi, p. 34. 



236 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

solenostely, polycycly, and dictyostely have all arisen in more than one 
phyletic sequence, while the fluted form of the stele, or of the xylem-tract 
that it contains (which gives a stellate transverse section), is now recognised 
as a conformation meeting the demands that follow from increasing size, 
rather than as an indication of community of racial origin. These are 
examples of the effect of internal homoplasy. We are only now beginning 
to realise how far-reaching have been its results in plants as we see them. 
On the other hand, such realisation when well assured cannot fail to react 
upon our estimates of affinity of the organisms in which homoplasy appears. 
It may be going too far to trace all such results as consequences of the 
meeting of 1860 ; but the initiative was certainly given by Lankester in 
the years that followed. 

1894. 

Passing from the stormy period of 1860, when the whole outlook of 
biological science was being transformed by the advent of evolution, to 
1894, we see that the atmosphere had cleared. One result was that the 
evidence of descent tended to become too definite in the minds of some 
enthusiasts, and there was even a disposition to argue deductively from 
the accepted position, a tendency that is much too prevalent to-day. I 
feel bound to refer critically to my own contribution to that meeting, 
which was the statement of a Theory of the Strobilus. Thirty years have 
materially extended the field of established fact. Though certain parts 
of that theory relating to sterilisation may still hold, in view of new and 
material facts any close comparison between a vascular strobilus as a 
whole and a bryophytic sporogonial head must fall. In particular, the 
suggestions of progressive septation and eruption of appendicular organs 
cannot now be upheld as accounting for the origin of a compact strobilus. 
The theory was stated tentatively, as a working hypothesis, and time 
has shown that the hypothesis does not accord with facts now known. 

The outstanding feature of the Oxford meeting of 1894 was Stras- 
burger's generalisation on the Periodic Eeduction of Chromosomes. This 
shed a new light on the vexed question of alternation which, based on the 
brilliant results of Hofmeister, by this time held the field not only as an 
objective fact but as an evolutionary problem. The effect of Strasburger's 
communication was to establish the chromosome-cycle as general for 
plants that show sexuality. It provoked comparison with a similar cycle 
in animals. The recognition of both cycles took its origin in the discovery 
by van Beneden in 1883 that in sexual fusion the number of chromosomes 
is the same in both of the conjugating nuclei. Later observers have 
confirmed this in a multitude of instances, and disclosed the correlative 
reduction, or meiosis. The existence of a nuclear cycle alike in animals 
and in plants cannot, however, be held as establishing any homogenetic 
unity of the two kingdoms. Comparison of the simpler forms of each 
indicates that the divergence of the kingdoms, if they ever had a common 
origin, was very early indeed, and probably antedated sexuality in either. 
Such similarities as they show in propagative detail, and particularly in 
the nuclear cycle, would be homoplastic, not homogenetic. If this be 
so for the two kingdoms of living things, may it not be equally true for 
the several phyla of plants that show sexuality ; for we are not justified 
in assuming that sexuality arose but once in plants ? 



K.— BOTANY. 237 

Historically this generalisation of Strasburger fell like a bomb-shell 
into the midst of the old controversy between the rival theories of alterna- 
tion, styled in the words of Celakovsky ' homologous ' and ' antithetic' 
But it must be remembered that at the moment there was no complete 
demonstration of a cytological alternation in any one Alga, though the 
facts soon followed for Fuciis [Strasburger (1897), and Farmer and 
Williams (1898)] ; and for Dictyota (Lloyd- Williams, 1897-8). We need 
not recite again the arguments fro and con of that old discussion. It 
soon lost its intensity in face of the obvious deficiency of crucial facts, 
which alone could lead to some final conclusion. Loose comparisons 
between organisms not closely allied are but the long-range artillery of 
morphology. Comparisons between organisms closely related are its 
small-arms. The discussions of the 'nineties of last century on alternation 
were all engagements at long range, which could not be decisive without the 
use of close comparison. As the necessary facts were not then in our hands, 
those premature engagements might be held as drawn ; and it was open 
to both parties still to entertain their own opinions. Meanwhile it may 
interest us as spectators to note the relation that exists between homoplasy 
as defined by Lankester in 1870, and those intimate questions that arise 
from Strasburger's paper to this Section in 1894. The cytological facts 
acquired since the latter date tend to confirm the normal constancy of a 
nuclear cycle. Their effect has been to accentuate more than before 
the inconstancy of the somatic developments related to it. Like the 
fabulous genie let loose from its bottle, the conception of a nuclear cycle 
in plants that show sexuality, disclosed in 1894 by Strasburger, dominates 
ever more and more the morphological field. 

Before discussing the relation of somatic development to that cycle, 
it will be well to revise the terminology. The word ' homologous ' has a 
double significance, as shown by Lankester. If it be used to include 
examples of ' homoplasy ' the whole field is open for what has been styled 
antithetic alternation, in which the two generations were presumed to be 
homoplastic. If in the sense of ' homogeny,' then it would be necessary 
to prove the relation of the somata throughout descent to the nuclear 
cycle. On the other hand, the term ' antithetic,' while it accentuates 
the difference between the two somatic phases, is not explicit, in that it 
dut s not describe the method believed to have been involved in their origin. 
It would be well to drop these old terms, which are neither exact nor 
explicit, and to support a more general use of the words ' interpolation 
theory ' in place of ' antithetic ' and ' transformation theory ' in place of 
' homologous.' These words accord better with current views, and are 
explicit. 

1926. 

From the time that the periodic reduction of chromosomes was recog- 
nised as general in organisms showing sexuality, the nuclear cycle has 
formed a natural foundation for the comparison of the life-histories of 
plants. The normal cycle may be figured to the mind as a closed circular 
thread with two knots upon it, syngamy and reduction. Between those knots 
beads may be strung, one, or more than one, or none. These represent 
somatic developments, which are normally diploid between syngamy and 
reduction, haploid between reduction and a fresh act of syngamy. They 



238 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

follow in alternate succession in any normal cycle, but either may be 
repeated indefinitely by vegetative propagation. Certain questions arise 
with regard to the evolution of these somata as we see them. The first 
is, how far are the diploid and haploid somata of the same cycle comparable 
one with another ? The reply will turn upon the constancy of the events 
of syngamy and reduction throughout descent. If they were constant, 
then it appears a necessary consequence that the alternating diploid and 
haploid somata must have been distinct throughout their history ; and 
any similarity which they may show, as in Dictyota or Polysiphonia, would 
be homoplastic. It would, indeed, appear natural that they should be 
alike in Algee, since they are parts of the same organic life and live under 
identical circumstances. It has, however, been suggested that reduction 
may not be a fixed but a movable event in the individual life : liable to 
be deferred or carried over to a later phase, in which case a diploid genera- 
tion might arise by transformation from an already existent haploid 
phase. The monospores of the Nemalionales have been cited as possibly 
convertible in other Red Seaweeds into tetraspores, by some sudden 
deferring of the act of reduction. I am not aware that this has been 
advanced by close comparison beyond the position of tentative sugges- 
tion, though the existence of a diploid gametophyte and of a haploid 
sporophyte in certain abnormal ferns would indicate the possibility of 
the suggestion being true. Pending the advance of a closely reasoned 
argument it is best to keep an open mind." Meanwhile the weight of 
facts hitherto known from plants at large may be held to support the 
stability of the events of syngamy and reduction during normal descent. 
The two generations of the same life-cycle would, in the absence of a 
carry-over of reduction, be homoplastic, not homogenetic. 

It is, however, round a second question that divergent views as to 
alternation chiefly centre. How far are the diploid and haploid somata 
in the cycles of different types of organism comparable one with another ? 
This is, in fact, the old problem of Pringsheim and Celakovsky. It applies 
to all plants where somata alternate, but a special interest attaches to 
the case of Land-living plants ; in particular, we shall trace the origin of 
the dominant sporophyte of a Land Flora, and inquire whether it originated 
by transformation of diploid developments such as are seen in certain Algae, 
or by formation de novo through interfolation ? A clear statement of 
the former hypothetical alternative was made by Scott in 1911, viz. 
' that the Fern with its stem and leaves corresponds to the Seaweed in 
which stem and leaf are not differentiated, the whole plant being a thallus.' 
' On this theory the sexual prothallus and the asexual plant are both alike 
derived from a thallus, and may once have been perfectly similar to each 
other.' In alluding to leafy Liverworts and some of the higher Seaweeds 
as illustrations, he then remarked that ' these are only analogies, it is 

■^ Even if such a carry-over of reduction were proved to occur in certain Algje, 
I do not see that this would disprove interpolation in other organisms. We have 
been too apt to assume that all alternation arose in the same way — either by inter- 
polation or by transformation. Among the infinite possibilities of Organic Nature 
I see little justification for assuming this. The evolutionary problem has been to 
impose the amplification of a vegetative system upon a nuclear cycle. I see no 
reason to exclude its solution in a multiplicity of ways. (Cf. .1. Buder, 'Zur Frage des 
Generationswechsels im Pfianzenreiche,' Ber. a. d. Bot. Oesellach., 1916, p. 659.) 



K.— BOTANY. 239 

true.' But after reference to the fossil evidence, as it then was, he con- 
■cluded that it is more probable that the higher Cryptogams came direct 
.from plants of the nature of Algae than from Bryophyta or any plants at 
.all like them ; he added, however, that ' this view is pure hypothesi.s.' 
It must, of course, be remembered that these quotations from Dr. Scott's 
* Evolution of Plants ' (p. 225) were of pre-Ehynie date. A luminous 
.statement of his later views was contained in his address to Section K in 
Edinburgh in 1921, which will be in the memory of you all. 

Church, in his vivacious essay on ' Thalassiophyta ' (1919), went much 
further than this guarded and scientific statement by Scott of 1911. By 
■' deduction from types still existent in the sea ' he assumes ' Algae of the 
transmigration ' as a bridge between the vegetation of land and sea. His 
transmigrant Algae ' appear, in fact, to have been more highly organised 
than any single algal type at present known to exist in the sea,' and ' to 
jhave combined the best features, as factors of the highest grade of pro- 
.gression, of the known great conventional series of marine phytobenthon, 
-and yet to have belonged to none of them.' He boldly fills the gap that 
puzzles us all by hypothetical organisms that no one has seen, and which 
he expressly tells us we shall never see {I.e., p. 88). If the discussions of 
the 'nineties were inconclusive engagements at long range, what is this ? 
It is certainly not that closer analysis advocated by Bateson. 

An alternative to such an effort of imagination may be found in the 
-examination of organisms that really exist, or are known to have existed, 
illuminated by the conception of homoplasy, or, as it is often called, 
parallel-development. The comparisons should be based upon the 
recurrent fact of the chromosome-cycle, since this underlies the ontogeny 
•of all plants that show sexuality. Somatic development in sexually 
produced organisms is seen to be in some measure independent of the 
•successive events in the chromosome-cycle. The somata may be uni- 
•cellular, existing only as potential gamete or zygote respectively ; they 
need' not necessarily be alike in themselves, nor need they appear at the 
.same points in the cycle. For instance, it is found that the pennate 
Diatoms have diploid vegetative cells, while in the centric Diatoms they 
are haploid, this latter state being shared by the vegetative cells of the 
Desmideae and Zygnemese. That a soma should appear at the same 
ipoint in the cycle of two or more organisms does not necessarily prove 
that they have had the same phyletic history. The full proof that they 
■did can only follow from the observation of sequences of close relationship, 
Tvhich should indicate the successive steps to have been the same if a true 
homogeny exists. We are, in fact, thrown back upon close comparative 
•observation for tracing truly homogenetic sequences of somatic develop- 
jnent, rather than upon the mere position of a given soma in the cycle, 
■or the recognition of its diploid or haploid state. Until such evidence is 
available it will be best to hold it as possible that the origin of any somata 
•compared has been homoplastic. 

Some such view as this was clearly in the mind of Professor Oltmanns 
dn 1923 {Morph. und Biol, der Algen, vol. iii, p. 143). Speaking with the 
fullest knowledge of the cytologically distinct alternation as it appears in 
the Algae, he says : ' When we affirm that an alternation of a gametophyte 
;and a sporophyte is seen in the more highly developed Algae, that is not 



240 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the equivalent of saying that all the forms cited betray an affinity to the 
Archegoniatse. Just as sexuality may be held to have arisen repeatedly 
and independently in various groups of the lower organisms, so may the 
various higher families have carried out independently the establishment 
of two generations. Where a second generation is present we may assume 
that it was independently interpolated, and has developed from small 
beginnings such as we see in (Edogonium or Sphceroplea, &c.' If this be 
admitted for various families of the Algse, it may be contemplated the 
more readily for the Archegoniatse, which are more distinct in their 
characters from the Algse than these are among themselves. 

No one has yet made out a closely reasoned case for the descent of the 
Axchegoniatae from the Green, the Brown, or the Red Algas. The old- 
view that they originated from the Green Algae has never recovered from 
the blow delivered by Dr. Allen, when he showed that the reduction in 
ColeochcBte takes place in the first divisions of the zygote, and that the 
presumed primitive sporophyte is really haploid, and not cytologically a. 
sporophyte at all. It is a perfectly tenable position to hold that the 
Archegoniatee sprang directly from none of these groups, as we know 
them. In the absence of definite comparative evidence the field appears 
to be open to an origin of alternation in the Archegoniatse by interpolation 
of a sporophyte de novo, developed not in water but in relation to a land- 
habit. Against such an origin of a sporophyte there is in some minds a 
strange, and to me an inexplicable, preconception. Many years ago- 
Professor Von Goebel drew attention to a curious leaning among: 
morphologists towards reduction-series. It appears as a prevalent 
psychological phenomenon that men are more prone to admit down-grade 
sequences than those that are up-grade. But it is clear that in evolution 
at large there must have been a credit-balance of upward development 
as a whole, otherwise no multicellular organisms could exist at all. Each 
morphologist no doubt strikes his own financial balance at the end of the 
year, and notes justly whether or not his credits meet his debits. * Why 
should he not carry forward the same accurate balance of amplification 
against reduction into his morphology ? But we find him cheerfully 
accepting evidence of the practical elimination of the gametophyte in 
Seed-plants, and contemplating a similar elimination in the Brown Sea- 
weeds, thus making drafts upon his morphological account. When, how- 
ever, an origin by interpolation of the sporophyte is suggested to him, he 
regards this morphological asset with something more than suspicion. 
He will overdraw his morphological balance more willingly than he will 
pay in assets to his morphological credit. 

Here it may be well to consider what rational explanation is now possible 
for the origin of a diploid generation. The old biological idea that the 
alternation arose in relation to amphibious life will not suffice, since 
alternation is seen to exist in fully aquatic Algae. Nevertheless, the 
amphibial life may have been one of the circumstances that have modified 
the development, and guided it into the special channel seen in Arche- 
goniate Plants. Svedelius, however, suggests a more general reason for 
the somatic development of a diploid sporophyte which deserves the 
most careful attention (' Binige Bemerkungen ueber Genera tionswechsel 
und Reduktionstheilung,' 1921). Instead of laying weight upon 



K.— BOTANY. 241 

meiosis as reconstituting the daughter-nuclei, he suggests that the 
greatest importance of the reduction-division lies rather in its making 
nevf combinations of chromosomes possible. He points to the difference 
between only one reduction in each cycle, as in the simplest organisms, 
and many, as in those that have achieved a higher development ; and he 
concludes that the origin of a large diploid sporophyte is thus an advan- 
tageous biological organisation, since it secures many reduction-divisions, 
and consequently niimerous new combinations. This hypothesis has the 
advantage of giving a general explanation of the origin of a diploid 
sporophyte, independently of any special circumstances of life under which 
it came into being. 

Devonian Fossils and a Land Flora. 

We may here leave aside any detailed study of alternation in the 
Thallophytes, though it is full of interest, and the investigation of it rich 
in promise ; particularly that of the Brown Seaweeds, as last year's 
proceedings of the Section have shown. This year we may concentrate 
on the Land Flora, and inquire how recent discoveries may have affected 
our outlook on it. Notwithstanding that the years since 1894 have been 
marked by discoveries of the first rank, I see no reason to alter my belief 
in an interpolated sporophyte in the Archegoniatse, except in respect of 
the primary causality ; nor do I relinquish the view that the two genera- 
tions are homoplastic and not homogenetic. Indeed, the new evidence 
appears to me to strengthen rather than to oppose the position previously 
stated. I see no need materially to modify the biological reasoning which 
T offered in 1890 in explanation of the formal difference in Land-plants 
between the alternating generations, nor the recognition of the stabilising 
influence of the amphibious life upon them. But the new discoveries 
have altered the aspect in certain particulars, and in nothing more than 
in the relations of the Bryophyta to the rest. 

The most impressive event of recent times in the sphere of morphology 
has certainly been the recognition and constitution of a new class of 
vascular plants. The disclosure of the fossils of the Rhynie Chert, of 
early Devonian age, is not only notable as introducing in unusual detail 
a type of vegetation barely hinted at before, but also because those early 
land-plants present material of the highest importance for comparison. 
The new class of the Psilophytales was founded to receive them, together 
with the old Devonian fossil Psilophyton, and some others ; while their 
relation to the li^^ng Psilotacese is recognised. These rootless plants 
together present a new facet upon the problem as to the origin of members 
in vascular plants, though they do not wholly resolve it. Apart, however, 
from such conclusions as the new facts may suggest, they introduce a 
tonic effect into morphology. Something positive is actually seen, and 
of very early existence, as a set-off against reasoning from data so often 
isolated and insufficient, or even purely imaginary. For a balanced 
statement on land-vegetation viewed in the light of the newly acquired 
facts one cannot do better than refer to Chapter VI of Dr. Scott's book on 
' Extinct Plants and Problems of Evolution,' 1924. Discussing the 
relation of the Bryophytes to other Archegoniatae, he remarks how Kidston 
and Lang had pointed out that the three phyla, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, 
1920 R 



242 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and Algse, are undoubtedly brought nearer together by the Rhynie dis- 
coveries ; and I may be pardoned for re-quoting from him a passage of 
my own (^.c, p. 205) : ' Long ago it was remarked that the widest gap in 
the sequence of plants was that between the Bryophytes and the Pterido- 
phytes. It is within this gap that the newly discovered fossils take their 
natural place, acting as synthetic links, and drawing together more closely 
the whole sequence of land-living, sporangium-bearing plants.' Under 
the influence of these and other late discoveries the Bryophyta are coming 
into their own. Not only has the problematical Sporogonites been 
described by Halle from the Devonian rocks, but undoubted Liverworts 
of the Carboniferous Period have been disclosed by the refined methods 
of Walton. These events coincide with the advent of the Psilophy tales, 
the most sporogonium-like of all vascular sporophytes. It seems there 
may be a natural place for Anthoceros at last, as Campbell tells us. 

The effect of the establishment of the Rhyniaceous type on the com- 
parison of the parts of the sporophyte is important ; in particular the 
question of the origin of the root and leaf may be canvassed afresh. We 
see a class of early rootless, land-living sporophytes, sharing this feature 
with the Psilotales, and we may reasonably hold them to represent a 
primitive type. On the other hand, we see in all Pteridophyte embryos 
which have a suspensor that the root, often late in appearance, is a lateral 
appendage on the embryonic spindle. Moreover, the root arises as an 
exogenous growth in Phylloglossum, and in certain species of ZycoyotiiMm, as 
do also the enigmatical rhizophores of Selaginella. Provisionally, then, we 
may conclude that the root is a late addition to the plant-body in descent, 
and that it was in the first instance some form of exogenous branch at the 
base of the primitive sporophyte, such as is seen in the Psilotacese and in 
Asteroxylon. 

Much greater interest and more consecutive reasoning centres on the 
question of the foliar developments of vascular sporophytes. Studies on 
' Leaf -Architecture ' and passages dealing with that subject in my book 
on Ferns, vol. i, have shown that, by inductive comparison based on an 
analysis of plants now living, we may arrive at a theoretical origin of 
leaves of the Fern-type from a dichotomously branching system ; and 
already in 1884, long before the discovery of the Psilophytales, this con- 
ception had been tentatively extended to include the axis as well, though 
the material facts such as we now possess were not then in evidence. It 
was also concluded from comparison of living plants that the sporangia 
were originally distal on the branches. Thus the Psilophytales supplied 
m actual fact a sub-aerial type already contemplated as a result of inductive 
argument. If this origin of a Fern-shoot by sympodial development from 
a dichotomous branch system, such as that of the Rhynie fossils, be true, 
there would be no need to draw upon supposititious ' Algae of the trans- 
migration ' to explain the origin of leaves of the Fern-type, for sub-aerial 
plants would be seen to have originated such leaves for themselves. Any 
similarities between Algae and Ferns in respect of foliar appendages would 
appear only as interesting facts of homoplasy. 

This does not, however, exhaust thejquestion of foliar origin. Such 
plants as Thursophyton and Asteroxylon, as well as the living Psilotaceae, 
present features which suggest a second type of foliar appendage. Lignier 



K,— BOTANY. 243 

has long ago designated these as ' phylloides,' while his ' cauloides ' 
correspond to the leaves of ferns. I do not propose here to discuss this 
difficult question. The present purpose is fully served by showing that 
induction from the facts of land-living plants alone will now give a 
reasonable history of the origin of leaves of the Filicinean type, without 
any need to refer to some transmigrant Alga to explain it. Why should 
we assume any limit to the capacity of Organic Nature to originate new 
members 1 Or to do this in more than one way, and in more than one 
phyletic line ? At the back of the theory of Transmigration is the 
assumption that she cannot, or probably would not, do this. But a wide 
comparison of things now living before our eyes, or that have lived, 
shows that she can, and that she has done it repeatedly. 

Palseobotanical discovery has been greatly advanced within the 
period under review. The features of the vegetation of Mesozoic time are 
becoming clearer than ever before under the hands of Professor Seward. 
The Carboniferous Flora has been richly presented to us by Williamson, 
Scott, Oliver, and Kidston in Britain, and by Continental workers such as 
Eenault, Zeiller, Bertrand, Nathorst, and Solms-Laubach. We are now 
able to substitute something positive in place of vague surmisings. Not 
only do the new facts illuminate our knowledge of plants now living, but 
they also apply a check upon theories as to their origin. Latterly a vision is 
becoming ever more and more real of a Devonian flora, revealed by 
Kidston and Lang at home, and by other workers in Scandinavia, in 
Germany, and in America. Given more extended collecting, an improving 
technique, and the fortune of finding more material as well preserved as 
that at Rhynie, who knows biit what the coming decades may see the land 
of the Devonian period clothed before our eyes by a flora no less stimulating 
and even more suggestive than that of the coal 1 But though Devonian 
lands are the earliest yet known to have supported a sub-aerial flora, the 
highly advanced structure of such a fossil as Palccopitys Milleri suggests 
that we are still far from visualising the actual beginnings of Land 
Vegetation. Moreover, the mixture in the Rhynie Chert of Algal types 
with vascular land-plants presents at the moment a problem as perplexing 
as it is ecologically strange. It is always difficult to estimate justly the 
times in which we live ; but we may well believe that the future historian 
of botany will note the present period as one specially marked by 
successful study of the floras of past ages, and by the increasing cogency 
of their comparison with the vegetation of the present day. 

The ' Annals of Botany ' as an Historical Document. 

Perhaps too much of your time has been claimed for morphological 
questions, which are closely related to the dates of the three meetings 
of the Association here in Oxford. The brief space that remains may be 
devoted to a more general survey of the period which these dates cover. 
In this we could not do better than to take as an index the pages of the 
'Annals of Botany,' for the existence of which we owe a deep debt to the 
Oxford Press. In 1860 there was no organised laboratory teaching of 
Botany in any University in Britain ; and as yet there was no journal of 
the nature of the ' Annals.' But the revival of close observational study in 
Botany under Huxley and Thiselton Dyer at South Kensington in the early 



244 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

'seventies, recorded last year by various writers in the ' New Phytologist, ' 
was beginning to take effect in 1881, when the British Association met in 
York. There the outstanding feature was the address of Hooker on 
Geographical Distribution. This and the papers by Bayley Balfour on 
Socotra and by Baker on Madagascar were all that really mattered 
botanically, and almost all the contributions were systematic or regional 
in subject. The revival of the laboratories had not yet fructified. At 
this time all the work that was done in laboratories was called ' physiology,' 
as distinct from systematic botany, which was conducted on dry specimens 
in the herbarium. In 1887, six years after the York meeting, the ' Annals 
of Botany ' was founded through the activity of Sir Isaac Bayley Balfour, 
and a small committee of guarantors whose personal security induced the 
Clarendon Press to make the venture. From the start that journal has 
paid its way. The forty stately volumes form a record, between the 
pages of which you may read the history of botanical progress in Britain, 
and in some degree also in the United States, for American botanists have 
always been with us in its pages. In the first issues of the 'Annals,' 
morphology and systematic botany preponderated, and from the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting of the Association in Oxford in 1894 we see that 
this was still so. That meeting witnessed a crisis in the affairs of botany 
in Britain. A newly established Section I of Physiology assumed that 
the functional activities of plants would be swept, together with those of 
animals, into its hands. Up to this time Section D had been the 
undivided section of Biology. An irregular cleavage of interests was 
set up by this claim, for the zoologists were mostly willing to give up 
their physiology, but the botanists were not. Their refusal to accept 
divorce of form from function contributed to, or at least coincided with, 
the foundation of a separate Section K of Botany, and has dictated the 
policy of British Botany ever since. 

As we pass from 1894 to the current period we perceive a marked 
shifting of the interest of botanists from the study of form to that of the 
intimate constitution and functional activity of plants. Whole fields of 
colloidal chemistry and physics, of quantitative physiology, of cytology 
and genetics, of ecology, of fungology and bacteriology, have been opened 
up. The present century has been specially marked by the extension of 
opportunities for physiological research, by better equipment of depart- 
ments in the universities, and by the foundation of independent 
establishments carrying on experimental inquiry in its broadest applica- 
tion. This is rapidly bringing the science into closer relation with 
Imperial and social aims. It is needless to specify, but the effect of it all 
is plainly written in the pages of the ' Annals.' Experimental results have 
gradually taken the preponderant place over description and comparison, 
as is amply shown in the last January number. ' For better, for worse,' 
the pendulum has definitely swung over from the extreme systematic 
position of half a century ago, through a phase of prevalent morphology 
(or perhaps we should better say of organography), to an extreme 
physiological position at the present time. Some of you may even have 
felt that this address is in itself an anachronism, in that it has not touched 
upon the moving physiological questions of the day. While I may claim 
none the less to sympathise with physiological aspirations, I do not 



K.— BOTANY. 245 

assent to any ultra-physiological aspect of botany that would degrade or 
minimise the comparative study of form. ' Medio tutissimus ibis ' is 
still a true maxim. The laboratory physiologist, dealing with the things 
of the moment, cannot safely detach himself from the things of the past 
as recorded in heritable form. He should not allow himself to be 
immersed in statistics and neglect history. The pendulum has gone full 
swing, within a period of about half a century ; but we may confidently 
anticipate a return towards some middle position. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



ADDRESS BY 

SIR THOMAS H. HOLLAND, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In the other Sections of the Associatiou the Chair is reached normally 
after an apprenticeship and prolonged service in the ranks. This Section, 
devoted to Educational Science, has shown on the contrary a spirit of 
enterprise by recruiting as presidents some, at any rate, whose views on 
education must necessarily be a matter of nervous speculation on the 
part of the Sectional Committee. 

From this I assume that those who are responsible for the development 
of this Section — all of them experienced in the art of education — are still 
searching for what the petrologists call a mineralising agent — some ideas 
which will facilitate the regular crystallisation of their observational data 
into an organised and orthodox science. 

More than half of my distinguished jDredecessors have never professed 
an acquaintance with the forms of natural and physical science that 
occupy the attention of the other Sections ; but the scientific method — 
the development of ' organised common sense ' — is not limited to the 
data of what is popularly known as science : it equally follows the training 
of the classical scholar. So our aim is not the study of scientific education 
so much as the discovery of principles applicable to all forms of education. 
Nevertheless, for each of us in turn our experiences in testing methods of 
teaching must necessarily be limited to a single and relatively narrow 
branch of culture. 

The teaching of science to students who have passed on to university 
classes has been my only experience of practical education, and the only 
generalisations that appear to me to be justified from a limited experience 
in this field are necessarily, in the first instance, applicable only to a 
sphere of short radius. I will confine myself to three such generalisations, 
and leave you to judge whether any part of them offers contributions of 
practical value to the art of training the younger generation to fulfil their 
duties as healthy and happy citizens. 

In the first place I wish to submit for your consideration the results 
of our experience at South Kensington in practising the so-called ' tandem 
system,' and this is suggested because a colleague bred in other ways has 
described it as fundamentally rotten. Secondly, I should like to explore 
the possibility of introducing into scientific education some form of 
humanism which might neutralise the criticisms justifiably offered by 
classical students. Thirdly, I feel that the plea for the teaching of general 



I 



L.— EDUCATION. 247 

science, which was eloquently expressed by 8ir Uichard Gregory at Hull 
iu 1922, has not yet received the practical appreciation in schools that 
it deserves. 

With your permission I will give the results of my observations as 
judicially as possible ; for, in spite of my limited experience in practical 
teaching, I do not feel inclined to be dogmatic. 

Someone has given the appropriate name ' tandem system ' to a 
form of curriculum in which the students are limited to one main subject, 
and one subject only, at a time. As an essential characteristic of this 
system the examination, which is final so far as the course is concerned, 
is taken immediately at the end of the course and before the next subject 
is taken up. 

So far as I know, there is only one institution of university rank in this 
country in which this kind of curriculum is observed with any approach 
to rigidity, and that is the Imperial College at South Kensington, where 
it is still followed in the Royal College of Science and Royal School of 
Mines. The introduction of the system there is generally attributed to 
the late Professor Huxley ; at any rate, the supposed virtues of the system 
were recognised and enforced during his tenure of oiiice as Dean of the 
two joint colleges. 

In the normal course for the diploma during Huxley's time, the student 
devoted his first half -session entirely to Chemistry, Part I ; that is approxi- 
mately the Pass standard of the ordinary B.Sc. He had one lecture each 
morning, spent the rest of the day in the laboratory, and in February took 
what was for that ' part ' his final examination. During the second half- 
session the student was similarly confined to Physics, taking his final for 
Part I in June. 

The second year was similarly taken in two halves, and then the 
student specialised in his main subject for the third year ; but even in 
his third year Parts II and III, being distinct branches, were taken sepa- 
rately, with a final examination for the part at the end of each half-year. 
Thus, after the entrance examination or matriculation, the student took 
four main subjects of Pass standard, one of which was Part I of the 
third-year subject of a more specialised or Honours standard. 

The only departure from this simple life was due to attendance for 
any necessary repairs and improvements required in Mathematics above 
that taken at the entrance examination. It was indeed a simple life, 
summed up in the approximately accurate formula — ' One lecture each 
day ; one subject one term.' 

It is not necessary to trace the evolutionary history of the model 
commonly adopted for the ordinary university curriculum. The structure 
of any such course is in all essential respects similar to that of the ordinary 
secondary-school curriculum in requiring the consumption of two, three, 
or more subjects simultaneously. The graded ' forms ' at school are 
continued under another terminology in the university — matriculation, 
intermediate, and degree final, or other local equivalents. The top of the 
school column and the lower grades at the university overlap one another 
in standard, and to various extents are interchangeable. 

It will be sufficient to take as a fairly representative sample the 
regulations at any of the younger or so-called provincial universities. At 



248 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Manchester, for example, students who have matriculated are examined 
for the ordinary' degree uf B.Sc. iu two parts — ^namely, the Intermediate 
and the Final. To sit for the Intermediate examination, candidates must 
attend a course of study at the University extending over at least one 
academic year in three of six defined science subjects, and must pass in 
either the three subjects at the same examination, or two subjects at one 
and the third at a subsequent examination. For the Final examination 
for the ordinary B.Sc, candidates must take two subjects, which are more 
specialised than at the Intermediate stage. 

Training in all the subjects prescribed is spread over at least one 
academic year at each stage, and the examinations in all are held in one 
bunch at the end of the year or two years. 

As the result of this system, students attend on the same day three and 
sometimes more lectures on distinct subjects, in different departments, 
and under separate professors ; they may put in two or three hours of 
laboratory work in two unrelated branches each day. 

This is the commonly recognised imiversity system of training for 
the Science first degree in this country : it is assumed to be a suitable 
system, and those of us who have been compelled to spend some years in 
administration, requiring a rapid transfer of thought and action from oni 
question to another of a^quite unlike nature, realise that, for the develop 
ment of mental fitness, the compound diet provided each day at both 
schools and universities has some strengthening qualities. But one rarely 
finds on inquiry among university teachers any real consciousness that 
the system is the product of a definite design or attempt to put into 
practice any recognised principles of education. University authorities 
assume, however, that to pass an examination in two or more subjects at 
the same time requires more mental nimbleness than when, as in tht 
tandem system, the final examinations are taken at the end of each course 
in one subject only. This may be a simple guide for universities that have 
a strong external side and are thus driven to regard examinations as their 
only test. But the passing of examinations is not the only or, indeed, the 
ideal object of the university. 

During the last four years, since returning from an intensive form of 
complex, semi-political administration to the more uniform atmosphere of 
academic life, in which barometric pressures are less liable to sudden 
variation, I have made a point of soliciting from experienced university 
teachers an estimate of the relative merits, as educational methods, of 
the commonly followed compound system on the one hand and of the 
so-called tandem system on the other as practised at South Kensington. 
My impressions have been gathered from witnesses who have followed 
approximately similar courses of training themselves ; for most of the 
professors at South Kensington had been through the older universities 
and thus were themselves brought up on a mixed diet. Some of my 
colleagues confess to a clear recollection of coming to South Kensington 
with a definite prejudice against our system ; but there is not one among 
them now who would give up the tandem system for that which is the 
commonly accepted practice elsewhere in this country. 

The question was forced upon us recently in our attempt to persuada 
the University of London to accept our training and examinations for 



L.— EDUCATION. 249 

their degree ; and it was in these circumstances tiiat 1 found, to my sur- 
prise as a newcomer, that in the Imperial College a very definite conviction 
had been formed in favour of the tandem system, a conviction so strong 
in some instances that certain of our professors would prefer the handicap 
of an independent set of degree examinations for their students rather 
than revert to the ' mixed ' system. 

I assume that for particular students both systems have their advan- 
tages, but in all forms of educational practice we are forced by limitations 
of time and staff to adopt systems that are most applicable to large groups, 
and one must remember that all of our students at South Kensington 
come from the same schools that feed other colleges, and all follow the 
' mixed ' method of training ; the question that I am trying to answer 
is — Which for the average student of university standard is the better form 
of education ? 

The difficulties of changing over from one system to another 
are practically insuperable in any large college or university : it would 
necessitate the closing of the college for some three years, and then starting 
afresh with a clean slate. To advocate a general change-over seems out 
of the range of practical politics ; but the merits of the two systems are 
nevertheless worth consideration for better than academic reasons ; for 
one notices that, even within a single Honours school, the mixed system 
is adopted in most institutions, sometimes deliberately and in accordance 
with an assumed theory of education, sometimes merely because the 
' mixed ' diet is taken for granted as the right thing for normally minded 
students. 

It is not possible now to adopt the tandem system as a whole in any 
long-established college working on the other more usual lines, but it is 
possible within most dei^artments to adopt it for subjects which have grown 
so enormously in recent years that Honours schools in science have now to 
be subdivided. For example, in Geology the various subdivisions can be 
gathered into two groups — the petrological and the palseontological 
groups. Either group can be taken separately, and consequently, in an 
Honours course of two years after the Intermediate, students of the 
second and third year standard may be trained together, taking the 
petrological branch in one year and the palseontological branch in the 
next, instead of both branches simultaneously in two separate classes 
for second-year and third-year students respectively. 

If there are merits in the tandem system the question is thus worth 
consideration for at least departmental use in most colleges and universities. 
It is not sufficient for those of us who favour the tandem system to assert 
that the other has merely grown without conscious guidance, and that 
vested interests and a complicated time-table now prevent reform. Among 
those whom I consulted during our recent discussion with the London 
University I found some experienced teachers who thought, and were 
honest enough to say, that Huxley took the wrong turning when he 
impressed his ideas on the old School of Mines and later College of Science. 

With these opinions held generally outside and the contrary opinion 
held unanimously by our professors inside, there is obviously some justifica- 
tion for attempting an estimate of the relative merits of the two systems 
as alternative methods of treating the average student. 



250 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Since my time as a student at South Kensington, when Huxley was 
still Dean of the college, science has grown not by accretion but by multipli- 
cation. Our professors still adhere to the tandem principle, although one 
detects in the time-tables a slight yielding to the demands of the more 
complex life ; but an extension of the course from three to four years 
in most of the ' schools ' has helped still to preserve the simplicity of the 
student's night thoughts. 

Candidates for the diploma and degree in Biology, for example, in 
their second year are compelled to take home with them twice a week 
an afternoon lecture on Biochemistry or Organic Chemistry as well as the 
morning lecture on Geology. Those who intend to specialise similarly in 
Geology for their finals are compelled during the first half of their second 
year every Friday to absorb a lecture on Zoology as well as one on 
Botany, and even after they enter the Geology Department finally for 
their third and fourth years, they have to attend more than one lecture 
a day, although always on some recognised branch of Geology itself. 

Advocates of the tandem system claim that a student who has evening 
revision work to do is liable, when following more than one subject at a 
time, to give his extramural thoughts and study only to his favourite 
subject, and to trust to subsequent cramming for the others before his 
final exartdnatious. They claim that a student should sleep only on one 
subject, preferably on one lecture only, in order that his subconscious 
cerebration may be effective in classifying data and in discovering 
principles for himself. An accessory advantage in a science department 
is the complete relief of some of the teaching sta'ff from lectures and 
demonstrations for definite and fairly large sections of the academic 
session. This freedom from daily interruption facilitates research work 
by the staff, especially where extensive laboratory accommodation is 
necessary for their operations. 

As I have said, an essential feature of the system is that the final 
examination in each subject or well-defined Part should be held at the 
end of the period of training in that branch. To undertake the teaching 
in tandem order and then to hold the examinations at the end of the full 
year, or, as in the Honours schools, at the end of two years, defeats the 
real object of the system ; for an examination impending in June on a 
course which ended in February distracts the student's mind from the 
subject taken between February and June. It is not the first subject 
which suffers by delay, but the second : the student suffers, not from want 
of memory-freshness regarding the subject in which his training ended 
last year, but by the disturbing influence of an examination menace which 
prevents his simple concentration on the later lectures and laboratory work. 

It is not easy to equate the merits of these two systems, and it is 
impossible for one who has been brought up on the tandem system to 
avoid bias. For a subsequent career in which scientific research forms a 
major interest it seems fair to assume that the tandem system has a dis- 
tinct advantage ; for a post-graduate career in business or administration, 
when many unrelated questions have to be handled daily and with 
promptness, one cannot help feeling that mental mobility is increased, or 
at any rate more rigidly tested, by the composite system of training and 
examination. 



L.— EDUCATION. 251 

There are three main stages in the educational career of the average 
student — the primary or preparatory school, in which it seems desirable 
especially to arouse the interest of the boy ; the secondary school, in which 
discipline might form the dominating note ; and the university, in which 
more individuality is permissible, and the student should be given an oppor- 
tunity of being more contemplative as specialisation approaches. It 
seems to me that if a student is expected to form his own ideas and to 
work out for himself the meaning of facts, his mental operations should 
not be disturbed by the rapid intake of unrelated groups of data. It is 
difficult for a housewife to put a room straight if the furniture is all put in 
before the carpet is laid ; nor can picture-hanging and paper-hanging be 
carried on simultaneously. 

Critics of the tandem system say, on superficial consideration, that if 
a student be examined in a subject finally and for good at the end of his 
first college term, he must necessarily forget the subject soon after and 
almost completely before the end of his third year. That is not in 
accordance with my observation. It is difficult, however, to obtain 
strictly comparative data on this jjoint ; for all observations are neces- 
sarily made on different students who would differ in any event ; but my 
residual impression, as the result of the oral examination of candidates 
before Committees of Selection for appointments, is that the man who has 
been trained by the tandem system retains a clearer and cleaner recol- 
lection of his subjects than those who have been trained by the composite 
system. Whatever be the end in view — whether administration, business, 
or the academic life — it is important precisely to know what one knows 
and what one does not know. 

There are special virtues in many systems of education : we have not 
yet discovered any that is universally applicable to the exclusion of others ; 
and so with these two alternatives, which have been hitherto the main 
difficulty in fitting the Imperial College into the London University 
complex, each has its own merits. The institution of Honours schools 
is in itself a partial recognition of the tandem system, but we carry the 
principle much further at South Kensington by adopting it at an earlier 
stage and even in the Honours stage itself by subdivision of the final 
subject ; and especially by holding examinations after each Part, instead 
of in a group of subjects at the end of the training. 

When anyone engaged in practical education presses attention on a 
feature that he thinks to be too much neglected by others, it is not unusual 
to hear his principles spoken of as fads, which merely shows how far we 
have yet to travel before we can regard education as an organised science. 
This much is said to anticipate the label that some would use for my 
second point — the value of humanism in science teaching. 

Under the tyranny of terminology our classical friends have usurped 
the * humanities.' But they sometimes forget, through their specialisa- 
tion in the purely rhetorical aspects of classical literature, that what 
gave rise to the Renaissance was the discovery of the long-buried wisdom, 
especially of the Greeks — -their art, their religion, and their science. 
The revolt of the intellect from previous formalism and theological 
bondage resulted in more than the revival of literature and art, more 
than the religious freedom which gave us the Reformation : it aroused 



252 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

curiosity regardiug natural laws — what we now call the spirit of research, 
because the word curiosity is more widely occupied. The invention of the 
mariner's compass, and the exploratory spirit which accompanied it, led 
to the discovery of the Americas, South Africa, India and the Far East. 
The invention of gunpowder and that of paper and printing were the 
technological offspring of classical literature, strange as this may seem to 
us who see the wide gap between the modern classical school and the 
technical institute. 

Some of the scientific developments which followed the classical 
Renaissance had possibly independent origins, but they were mainly the 
product of intellectual activities quickened by the rediscovery of biiried 
philosophies. What would otherwise have been but slow combustion 
developed, because of the classics, with the speed of an explosion. Greek 
literature acted on mediaeval scholasticism like nitric acid on combustible 
cellulose : cotton was converted into gun-cotton. 

Thereafter followed the usual life-history of every organism : classical 
learning went through a phase of vigorous youth, vitalising the world 
with new energy and new ideas, till it reached the stage of adolescence 
and, with it, specialisation. With specialisation the study of the classics 
tended to become narrowed to its linguistic, grammatical, and purely 
rhetoric aspects : its main object became obscured and stricken with a 
formalism and even pedantry. 

In the same way there is a danger, if not a noticeable tendency, in 
our study, and therefore teaching, of science so to produce by specialisa- 
tion similar cultural ptomaines and thus to obtain what corresponds to 
the devitalised residue of the humanities without humanism. 

In a thoughtful paper read in this city before the Congress of Empire 
Universities in 1921, Dr. C. H. Desch advocated the adoption of the 
historical method in teaching science. Emerson said that ' there is 
properly no history, only biography ' ; for history consists of innumerable 
biographies. Nothing appeals to a man like humanity ; if we inspire the 
student's curiosity regarding the life-histories of our leaders, he wiU find 
out for himself the facts and principles of their science and technology. 

Everyone here must recollect the time when he passed from the 
secondary school to the university ; when he saw and met in real life men 
whose names he had heard before as objects of another world. Recalling 
the thrills of those days, one can understand why the professor's lecture 
was more inspiring than the more directly useful demonstration by a 
junior assistant in the laboratory. The professor, who has grown with 
his science, more naturally recalls the work of his contemporaries and 
immediate predecessors ; and, until he reaches the stage of pure reminis- 
cence, inspires his teaching by biography. 

The educational balance is not secured by requiring students to attend 
a formal course of classics or history as well as of science. That would be 
merely to double the offence. Separate courses of history and science form 
a mechanical mixture as dead as the chemical constituents of protoplasm. 
It is the biographical history of science itself that contains the essential 
vitamins of the student's food. An illustration, possibly somewhat 
exaggerated, that I used here in 1924 will show what is intended : giving 
two separate doses of two unrelated subjects to act as mutual correctives 



L.— EDUCATION. 253 

18 equivalent to giving a patient a metallic-sodium pill with a snifE of 
chlorine gas, when what he really wants is a pinch of common salt. The 
two constituents given separately might be fatal, whilst the two in the 
form of the compound sodium-chloride make an essential food. 

I have so far resisted the temptation to quote definitions of education, 
but perhaps at this stage of the Address one may be permitted. Sir 
Richard Gregory, in the Address that I have already referred to, defined 
education as the ' deliberate adjustment of a growing human being to its 
environment.' May I remind our teachers of science and technology 
that their students are not wanted only as experts in the laboratory and 
workshop ? — they have post-graduate duties to perform as citizens, and 
must face relations — competitive relations — with other human beings, 
with most of whom they cannot communicate in techm'cal terms alone. 
To be appreciated they must understand and be understood by others : 
they want the humanities, and the humanities are not the monopoly of 
the classical scholar. 

My object in referring to the subject of Sir Richard Gregory's Address 
is not to revise his remarks or even to supplement them : it would be 
impossible for me to do either with advantage ; but it is important that 
his advice should not be forgotten or displaced by influences altogether 
different from those of the principles which !we 'are 'endeavouring to 
discover and use in teaching. 

There are such influences at work mouldin^^ the trend of education 
without regard to its fundamental essentials. I find that most of those 
who enter the Imperial College as scholars have already attained a first- 
year standard in Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics. These subjects 
form a considerable section of their school training and are thus used for 
purely commercial purposes — namely, the acquisition of scholarships. The 
candidates for scholarships seem to dictate to their teachers the educational 
principles which they should follow ; and, through economic necessity, 
the teachers submit. 

At the universities we close the vicious circle, admit the brilliant 
scholars to our Honours schools, and so produce a graduate in Chemistry 
or Physics who is blind for the rest of his life to what lies before him 
out of doors, where he ought to spend much, if not most, of his life. In 
the old days, when Sir Richard Gregory and I were together at South 
Kensington, a student could not obtain the College full diploma in any 
subject, not even in Mathematics and Mechanics, without passing through 
Part I Geology. Huxley and his colleagues believed that every man 
ought to know something of the history and origin of the features of the 
only world on which he will live in human form ; and that without an 
acquaintance with those branches of science which are more observational 
than experimental no man should be regarded as an educated man. 

Geology is now an optional not a compulsory foundation subject at 
South Kensington : the Imperial College has yielded to outside influences 
and the pressure which has followed the abnormal growth of each science, 
with the consequent demand for more time to be given to the final 
schools. Possibly, we turn out better Chemists, more specialised 
Mathematicians, and more efficient Physicists than we did in the old days ; 
but I imagine that we run the risk of producing less valuable citizens who 



254 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

are relatively happy only because they are blind to the beauties of the 
world around them. One pities the Wrangler as one does a deaf man at 
a concert, or a colour-blind man at a flower show. 

Nature knowledge now is getting into the position that science 
generally occupied in the older classical schools : it is accessible only to 
the boy whose bent is too strong for the teacher, and who thus shows an 
individuality which tends to mark him down and so confirm his position 
as a freak. Possibly I am exaggerating, but it is obvious that scholar- 
ships are driving us to premature specialisation. The schools conform to 
the universities : each professor in the university pounces on the scholar 
and turns him to account as a recruit for his Honours school. 

If I do no more than encourage some of you to read Sir Richard 
Gregory's Address again, my intrusion into this Section may be partially 
justified. 

In an Address to the Universities Congress five years ago, Dr. Farnell, 
then Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, referred to as ' alarming ' the recent 
decline of classical studies and their replacement by science, even at 
' Oxford, the stronghold of Hellenism.' 

This change-over to science and technology, dictated largely by 
utilitarian motives, is even more alarming to the teachers of science, 
whose agitation to this end has been embarrassingly successful ; for the 
change brings with it a responsibility which was unforeseen in its fullness. 
When we remember that our chief public men and our army of adminis- 
trators, here and overseas, who have made the British Empire what it is, 
have been trained mainly on classics, the duty of replacing them effectively 
falls on our teachers of science as a burden that they ought to feel as 
serious. That our classical teachers have been successful, even con- 
spicuously so, is beyond question. Anyone who has had the privilege of 
watching the members of the Indian Civil Service carrying on the 
administration of their districts — with sympathy as well as efficiency, not 
here and there, but generally ; not under the eye of the Press or of 
Parliament, but isolated, alone and unobserved — would seriously seek for 
the cause of their efficiency and character ; for nine-tenths of the data 
employed in their early education has had no direct application to the 
problems that they have now to tackle. 

I do not feel inclined to modify the words that I used here in 1924 in 
drawing the attention of teachers in engineering institutes to their new 
responsibilities — ' Stresses set up by limitations of time and economic 
necessities force us, in modern educational institutions, to concentrate 
our attention on, and even in some instances to limit it to, professional 
and vocational subjects. But it is our duty to see that these stresses do 
not exceed the intellectual elastic limits of our students, and so be followed 
by mental strains. 

' If the older system of classical education justified itself, not by the 
outturn of experts in the Greek and Latin languages, but by the develop- 
ment of character and capacity for affairs, we have to see to it that science 
and technology are also so taught that these essential features are developed, 
not inhibited, in the student.' 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



THE RELATION BETWEEN 
CULTIVATED AREA AND POPULATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR DANIEL HALL, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Recent considerations of the problem of the capacity of the world to 
continue to feed its growing population appear to have begun with the 
late Sir William Crookes' address as President of this Association when 
he discussed the ultimate curtailment of the wheat supply through 
exhaustion of the soil nitrogen. Crookes' views attracted little more 
than academic attention at the time (1898), because the great tide 
of wheat that was setting in from the newer countries still in the 
process of exploitation was barely slackening ; moreover, Crookes had 
neglected a factor then imperfectly appreciated — -the fact that land 
under any of the conservative systems of farming adopted in the 
old settled countries does not become exhausted. The recuperative 
effects of the leguminous crops and the assimilation of nitrogen by soil 
bacteria like Azotobacter, have maintained unimpaired the fertility of 
European soils for perhaps thirty centuries of cultivation. Of course, 
reckless exploitation, such as the continuous growth of wheat and maize 
without any manuring, will eventually burn out the resources of even the 
prairie soils of the Middle West, and there is evidence that some of the 
long-cultivated Indian soils are losing fertility if only because dung and 
other residues which should go back to the soil are being burnt as fuel or 
sold away ; but, generally speaking, a soil will maintain itself indefinitely 
at a certain level of production. Latterly in Europe that level has been 
raised by the introduction of extraneous fertilisers. In his review Crookes 
predicted the development of the synthetic processes of bringing nitrogen 
into combination which are to-day rendering that prime element of 
fertility so abundant and so cheap. But, though we no longer fear the 
exhaustion of soils, of late years certain sociological considerations have 
revived interest in the old thesis of Malthus. Over-population and 
unemployment have become terrible realities in this and other countries ; 
many States are finding themselves under pressure to maintain their 
standard of living against the intrusion of neighbouring races propagating 
recklessly down to the barest margin of sustenance. Again, various 
studies of the course of prices of wheat have led to the conclusion that 
before the war the real price was rising continuously, and that this 
tendency is manifesting itself again, however much the true sequence of 
prices has latterly been obscured by fluctuations of currency. These 
considerations led Mr. Keynes to envisage the approach of scarcity : his 
attitude is very much a return to Malthus. On the other hand, Sir William 



256 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Beveridge, addressing the Economics Section two years ago, dismisses 
this fear as regards the world at large : whatever may be the troubles 
in Britain, ' the limits of agricultural expansion are indefinitely far.' On 
the whole that seems a very safe proposition ; it has been so amply fulfilled 
for the last hundred and fifty years — during the greatest expansion of 
population the world has ever known — that it would almost seem to be 
necessarily true, especially as it can be buttressed by agricultural experi- 
ments showing the enormous potentialities of production from the soil. 

There is, however, one aspect of the case that appears to have received 
insufficient attention : the capacity of agriculture to provide food for the 
people depends upon the extent of land available as well as upon the 
pitch of cultivation — to what degree can the tuning-up of methods be 
made to compensate for a non-expanding acreage ? The first step towards 
a more exact consideration of the problem may therefore be an estimate 
of the amount of cultivated land that is required to maintain one unit 
of population — man, woman, and child. 

We may make our estimates by either of two methods — abstract or 
actual. The Food (War) Committee of the Royal Society adopted the 
figure of 2,618 calories as representing the minimal daily energy require- 
ment of one unit of the population, and calculated that the actual United 
Kingdom consumption in the five years 1909-1913 amounted to 3,091 calories 
per head per day. An average English acre of wheat yielding 32 bushels 
will produce food, in the shape of wheat, flour, and pig obtained from the 
offals, of a calorie value of about 2| millions. As the average consumption 
was about ri3 million calories per head per year, we "arrive at the conclu- 
sion that one acre of wheat would support more than two head, the 
relationship being more exactly 0-45 acre to feed one unit of population. 
But this figure is of no service in our more general consideration. The 
yield of wheat of 32 bushels per acre is far above that of the wheat- 
producing areas, and is that of only a few selected countries growing but a 
limited acreage. It is, again, the produce of land under the plough, and 
is consumed in the main as a vegetable product. 

The great areas of grassland have a lower output of energy than the 
cultivated land, and the conversion of vegetable into animal food, whether 
of natural or cultivated fodder crops, is always attended by a great waste 
of energy. In the most economic production of pig-meat or milk the 
energy recovered is only about one-sixth of that consumed, and this 
represents the machine at the top of its efficiency. The longer period of 
beef -production results in a recovery as beef of only one-eighteenth of 
the energy consumed, and in practice the actual wastage of fodder and 
feeding-stuffs doubles or trebles the inevitable losses by conversion. 
And just as man is not a vegetarian making the most of the mere sustaining 
power of the land, so he does not use the land for food alone, but also for 
drink, for wool and fibre and other industrial materials, and for amenities. 
You may remember Maitland's argument that in the early mediaeval times 
of Domesday Book and the two or three centuries following, about one- 
third of the arable land of the country was devoted to beer. 

We shall not get far on the theoretical basis, and I have only mentioned 
it as indicating the order of the superior limit of the maintaining power 
of land. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 257 

We must approach the question in a more empirical fashion and 
endeavour to ascertain the existing relation between the land in use and 
the people fed by it. Taking again the estimates of the Royal Society's 
Committee, it concluded that the United Kingdom production of food for 
the five pre-war years was 42 per cent, of the food consumed. 46-7 million 
acres of cultivated land then produced 42 per cent, of the food consumed 
by a mean population of 45*2 millions, which works out to 2'5 acres to eacli 
unit of the population. This figure, however, is somewhat misleading, in 
that it does not do justice to British agriculture, since our farming is to a 
considerable degree concentrated on the more costly elements of diet like 
meat or milk rather than upon cereals and sugar. For example, 49 per 
cent, of the food production at home, as against only 24 per cent, of the 
imported food, consisted of animal products. 

Working on a different basis, Sir Thomas Middletou estimated that 
100 acres of British land fed forty-five to fifty persons, so that his estimate 
is over 2 but less than 2| acres for the maintenance of the unit of 
population. Middleton proceeds to estimate that 100 acres in Germanv 
fed seventy to seventy-five persons, or TS to 1'5 acres per unit, the 
advantage being due on the one hand to a much higher proportion of 
arable laud in Germany, and on the other to a dietary in which the energy 
was obtained more economically, i.e. from potatoes compared with meat, 
and in meat from pork rather than from beef. 

The importance of this relation between cultivated area and population 
is so great, and the calculations by which it can be ascertained are so 
approximate and subject to so many estimates of a speculative kind, that 
I may be allowed to set out various results obtained by different methods. 

We may begin by comparing population and area of cultivated land for 
all European countries except Russia, to which we add the United States, 
Canada, Argentine, Australia, and New 2;ealand, as the white countries 
which are also the chief exporters of food to Europe. I exclude all 
Oriental countries because in them the mass of the population possesses a 
different standard of living, and I have excluded the other South American 
States and the Union of South Africa and other African colonies because 
they all possess a very large ' native ' population and their exports do not 
bulk large in the food account of Europe. We must recognise, however, 
that the errors in the calculation will be loaded on to one side, because 
all the unenumerated countries, Russia and the tropical lands, are to a 
greater or less degree exporters and not importers of food. Sugar from 
the East and West Indies, rice and similar Oriental cereals, copra and other 
edible oils for margarine, are but a few of the agricultural products which 
the white population consumes from land outside our immediate purview. 
However, with this proviso we find that in the States enumerated there 
are 464" 1 million hectares of land under cultivation and a population of 
481 -5 million persons, or 2*4 acres per head. 

In the United States about 356 million acres are in cultivation : from 
this may be deducted as producing exported materials, for cotton 24, for 
wheat 16, for maize 2, for meat products 22 million acres, or 65 million 
acres in all. Other products are exported but may be regarded as balanced 
by imports, so that we find 291 million acres of cultivated land devoted 
to supplying a population of approximately 112 millions, or 2-6 acres per 
unit of population. 

1926 S 



258 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



France, we know, is a country that is largely self-supporting ; it has a 
population of 39'3 millions and 36'3 million hectares under cultivation. 
To this acreage we must add 0"9 million for imported wheat, 0"5 for other 
cereals, and I'l for imported meat ; the exports of wine and fruit we 
may regard as balanced ofi by other imports. The net result is approxi- 
mately 1 hectare, or 2'4 acres, for each head of the population. 

A similar calculation applied to Spain, a country in whose economy 
neither exports nor imports of food play a large part, gives over 4 culti- 
vated acres per unit of population ; but then the so-called ' cultivated ' 
land includes a considerable proportion of mountain pasture of a very low 
order of productivity. On the other hand, Denmark, ^ with the most 



Denmark, 1909-13. 



1 Summary. 

-Population (1911), 2,757,076; cultivated area, 7,957,000 acres 
Cattle food units — millions. 



Produced . 


. 6,648 


Consumed vegetable . 


. 708 


Imported . 


. 1,452 


Seed 


. 202 






Export as vegetable. 


90 






Animal food 


. 7,100 



8,100 



8,100 



Allocation of animal food units. 

Available. Consumed. Exported. 



Horses 

Cattle 

Pigs . 
Sheep 
Poultry (eggs) . 




1,194 

4,134 

1,706 
250 
267 


Milk 2,818 
Meat 1,316* 


1,194 

845 
780 
580 
250 
84 


1,973 

536 

1,126 

183 


Deduct for milk-fed 


• 


7,551 
451 

7,100 




3,733 
451 

3,282 
3,818 

7,100 


3,818 


* Corrected for meat 


import, 6,368 tons. 




Vegetable produce 

Seed 

Animal produce 


Fooa 


imits 


[millions). 

Consumed. 
708 
202 
3,282 


Exported. 
90 

3,818 








4,192 
3,908 




3,908 


1,452 food units were imported. 
Net export is thus reduced to 
Home consumption . 


8,100 

2,456 food units = 37 % 
.4,192 „ „ =63% 





Home production . .6,648 

63 per cent, of the home production is thus required for home consumption. 
63 per cent, of the acreage 7,957,000=5,012,910 acres. 

Population 2,757,076 = 1-82 acres per person. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 259 

highly developed agriculture of all countries, shows a production well 
above the average. A much closer calculation of production is possible 
for Denmark than for other countries— the data are set out in Mr. Harald 
Faber's paper before the Statistical Society in 1924. Denmark is a 
country exjiorting agricultural produce chiefly in its most costly form as 
meat, butter, and eggs, but the means for equating the export against 
consumption is supplied in Mr. Faber's paper by the reduction of pro- 
duction and imports to food units. Making the necessary corrections for 
imports, it would appear that for the years 1909 to 1913 the population of 
Denmark was maintained on 63 per cent, of the production of her own 
land, or r82 acres per person. 

Putting the various estimates together, we arrive at the conclusion 
that under the existing conditions of agriculture among the Western 
peoples it requires something between 2 and 2| acres of cultivated land 
to supply the needs of one unit of population living on the standard of 
white peoples. 

We may confirm this estimate by a consideration of the growth of 
population during the last century. Between 1800 and 1920 the number 
of the white peoples increased from about 200 millions to about 700 
millions. Data, however, for the land under cultivation in 1920 are very 
imperfect, and, again, there was another factor of improved agriculture 
which came into play in the first half of the nineteenth century. If we 
take 1870 as our jumping-off point, we may estimate the increase in the 
white man's numbers up to 1920 as approximately 225 millions. During 
the same period the addition to the cultivated lands in Europe, United 
States, Canada, Argentine, Australasia, and South Africa, the countries 
which have provided the white races with food, has amounted to about 
450 million acres. Again we reach a relation between cultivated land 
and population of between 2 and 2| acres per head. 

This brings me to the central point of my argument, that an increase 
of population is in the first instance dependent upon an increase in the 
area of cultivated land. The expansion of the white peoples in the last 
century was an event unprecedented in the world's history, and was 
achieved only because of the vast areas of unoccupied land, chiefly in the 
Americas, which suddenly became available for settlement through the 
power conferred by the railroad, the steamship, and modern weapons. 
It will be noticed that the population of Europe previously had become 
comparatively stable, even as it has become approximately stabilised in 
France at present — the expansion came with the opening up of the new 
lands and in proportion to the amount that could be settled. 

Accepting as a basis for further discussion that imder the present 
system of agricultiire something more than two acres of new land will 
have to be brought under cultivation for each unit of increase in the 
population; we may examine if any means exist of modifying this relation- 
ship before considering its consequences. 

I have already suggested that a vegetarian diet is the more economical 
of the resources of the soil, and that meat and all animal products like 
milk and eggs are produced with an expenditure of energy which may be 
as low as seven but also as high as twenty times the energy available 
from them. It is true that to a certain extent the animal will utilise 

s2 



269 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



material otherwise of little service to man, like milling offals and low- 
grade fodder crops — roots, hay, or straw. None the less, if the maximum 
of population supported by a given area of land is the objective, 
vegetarianism becomes increasingly necessary, as we see among the 
crowded populations of India and China. At the same time, the tillage 
of lands now given up to the grazing of animals becomes possible because 
of cheapness of labour resulting from a redundant population. Most of 
the beef and mutton supply comes 'from land left untilled because of 
the costliness of labour relative to products ; the meat may represent a 
very low level of production from the land and yet a high cash return 
for the labour expended. Hence the apparent paradox of grazing being 
general in Middlesex because of the proximity of London. Another item 
of waste which would have to be eliminated in case of stern necessity is 
the conversion of potential food into alcoholic drink. Great Britain 
ferments the equivalent of one and a half million acres of barley. France 
devotes 4,000,000 acres, nearly 4|- per cent, of her cultivated area, to vine- 
yards. Without going so far as to say that beer or wine possesses no 
food value, it is certainly not half of that which could have been grown 
from the land thus used for the production of drink. In such matters it 
is vain to prophesy, but I cannot help feeling that the race (not 
individuals) which cuts out meat and alcohol in order to multiply is 
of the permanent slave type destined to function like worker bees in the 
ultimate community. 

The second question that merits very careful consideration is whether 
the current agriculture cannot be intensified so as to bring about a great 
increase of production from the existing area of cultivated land. A 
cursory examination of the average yields of our chief crops in different 
countries shows what an immense potential increase of production is here 
open. The average yield of wheat (1921 to 1924) for all the countries 
of the world collecting statistics was 13' 2 busliels per acre; the average 
yield in Denmark for the same period was 41 '4 bushels per acre, more than 
three times as much. Of course the area devoted to wheat in Denmark 
is about 200,000 acres in all, or 3 per cent, of her arable land, whereas 
the wheat acreage of the world amounts to about 250 million acres. The 
mass production of wheat in the world is from countries of low yield ; 
more than half is grown in countries in which the average yield is less than 
13 bushels per acre. 



1924. 


Total production 
miUion quintals. 


Quintals per 
hectare. 


Bushels 
per acre. 


Russia .... 

Canada .... 

United States 

India .... 

Argentina 

Australia 


90 
71 
238 
99 
52 
44 


5-4 

8-0 

10-8 

7-8 

7-2 

10-0 


7-9 
11-4 
15-5 
111 
10-3 
14-3 


594 (mean) 


909 


130 



Recorded total 



932 (estimated for all countries 1,250). 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 261 

It is from these countries with the low yield per acre that wheat is 
exported and their production determines the world market, with the 
consequence that wheat production has been increasing in these and 
similar countries while it has been shrinking in the European countries 
with a higher yield per acre. 

The dominating factor has been cost of labour ; speaking broadly, it 
may be said that increased yields per acre are associated with higher 
expenditure per bushel for labour, and the great wheat-producing countries 
with a low yield per acre are the countries with a correspondingly high 
yield per man employed. It may be estimated that in England a man's 
labour produces about 960 bushels of wheat, in Australia 1,500 bushels. 
A more exact comparison shows that in England the labour cost amounts 
to Is. per bushel of wheat, against 8d. in Canada, this with an average 
wage rate of 30s. to 36s. a week in England as compared with 60s. in Canada. 

All this goes to show that intensification is only to be purchased at 
the cost of labour and that in the past extending the cultivated area 
has been a cheaper way of getting the wheat required by the world than 
by higher farming. 

This general statement, however, does not tell the whole story ; par- 
ticularly it disguises the intensification of yield that may be obtained 
without a commensurate increase of labour. For example, the intro- 
duction of more heavily cropping varieties, originated by the skill of the 
plant-breeder, may add greatly to the production from a given area 
without increasing costs other than those of harvesting and marketing. 

One must not, however, expect too much of the plant-breeder. Over 
the greater part of the cultivated land of the world the gross amount of 
production is limited by external factors such as water supply, temperature, 
available fertility of the soil, etc. For example, the plant-breeder seems 
to have had little or no power to increase the absolute production of Beta 
vulgaris ; from all the forms of sugar-beet or fodder-beet (mangolds) on 
a given soil there is much the same yield of dry matter per acre, though in 
the well-bred sugar-beets the proportion that is in the useful form of sugar 
is greatly enhanced. The wheats and barleys grown in England had long 
been subjected to selection and improvement before the scientific methods 
of plant-breeding were evolved, and the further steps in improvement are 
going to be neither big nor easily won, depending as they do upon altering 
what Dr. Beaven has called the migration ratio, whereby the plant will 
convert more of the material obtained from the air into useful grain and 
leave less as straw. The chief opportunities, in fact, lie in the elimination 
of susceptibility to disease or destruction by frost, or general tenderness of 
constitution, by which means the range of the high-yielding cereals or 
even of cereal growth at all may be enormously extended. Absolute 
yielding power is perhaps less in question than productive capacity in 
relation to the environment. 

The general enhancement of production by processes which induce 
improvements of the water supply or the temjierature, as by irrigation 
and drainage, soil amelioration, cultivations, etc., suffers from the dis- 
advantage of calling for labour, until it may prove far more costly than 
the increased produce can repay. Fertilisers appear to offer more promise. 
It may be recalled that the general level of production from English land 
was raised by nearly 50 per cent, between 1840 and 1870. At the beginning 



262 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of the period the average yield of wheat was of the order of 20 bushels per 
acre, this being the crop the land was capable of maintaining under a 
conservative rotation with no extraneous source of fertility. But between 
1840 and 1870 artificial fertilisers were introduced and became a generally 
accepted part of British farming, with the result that the yield of wheat 
had risen to about 30 bushels per acre, though no other marked change in 
the routine of cultivation had been adopted during the period. The 
employment of fertilisers still lags far behind the opportunities of employing 
them to profit ; from 1870 onwards came the great depression upon 
British agriculture consequent on the growing irruption of the cheaply 
grown American corn and meat. British agriculture had to shorten sail 
and restrict expenditure ; falling prices breed lack of confidence and 
even lack of knowledge, for why should a farmer study a science that calls 
for expenditure when the safer procedure is to let the land grow a small 
crop without cost rather than to buy a big crop at a dangerous price ? At 
any rate, our employment of fertilisers continues to be unnecessarily low 
even under later conditions of prices, and the revolution that is being 
brought about in the production of nitrogenous fertilisers finds our 
farmers comparatively disinclined to take advantage of it. The various 
processes of bringing atmospheric nitrogen into combination to which 
the war gave such a stimulus are now being developed on a vast scale in 
all civilised countries, and will result in an almost unlimited increase in 
the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser available at low prices compared with 
the prices of agricultural produce. Here at least is the opportunity for 
another step up in production from our cultivated laiids comparable with 
the progress that was made between 1840 and 1870. It is not all plain 
sailing; the farmer has to study carefully where an increased supply of the 
cheapened nitrogen can be most suitably applied to his land and what 
changes in his system of cropping are demanded. The plant-breeders' 
art is needed ; on most of our land any great enhancement of growth of 
cereals brought about by the use of nitrogenous fertilisers is attended with 
the danger of lodging. Few of our cereals possess stiff enough straw to 
remain standing on a soil enriched to the degree even that is reasonably 
practicable to-day. Thus the more immediate outlet for the new 
fertilisers would appear to be the fodder crops which are convertible into 
meat and milk. 

But in the solution of the main probleni under discussion — the 
possibility of intensification of production from the existing farmed land 
to meet the needs of a growing population — ^the development of the 
synthetic nitrogen fertilisers must play a dominant part. C'rookes' 
prophecy is coming true. 

I have reserved until the end the question of whether the intensification 
is necessary or probable. From previous experience it would appear to 
be probable that as long as new land is available the increase in food 
supplies will be won less by increased skill and expenditure applied to 
existing land than by taking in new land. The recent history of 
United States land affords an illustration ; we see little improvement 
in farming or increase of yield on the older land — we see even 
abandonment of farms in the eastern States ; at the same time we 
see continued attempts to win new land by forcing into cultivation 
the arid lands and alkali soils which the earlier settlers had rejected. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 263 

All over the world it always astonishes the traveller to see on what bad 
lands the new settler is now trying to farm. Evidently the good, 
easy virgin land is no longer easy to find. It is indeed significant that 
in the United States vast irrigation schemes are being carried out, though 
they show little signs of paying interest on their construction ; that in 
Canada new wheats are being acclaimed because they may extend settle- 
ment into regions where killing frosts may be expected in August ; that 
' dry farming,' with a crop in alternate years only, has to be resorted to 
in Australia and S. Africa. These facts would seem to show that land 
is getting short in the world, at any rate the naturally productive laud like 
that over which the great expansion of the nineteenth century proceeded. 
"Where are we to find the 500 million acres of land such as was added to 
the world's farm between 1850 and 1 900 ? 

In Europe there are still great areas of forest, swamp, and heath that 
might be brought into cultivation, but the process would involve an 
expenditure both of initial capital and continuing labour out of proportion 
to the returns. Either the prices to be received for produce must rise 
greatly or the cultivators must be content with a much lower standard 
of remuneration before there is much addition to the European area under 
cultivation. In fact, the present tendency is in the other direction — only 
Italy, with its great pressure of population increase, is adding to its 
farming land and reclaiming wastes. All over the poorer land of Great 
Britain abandoned holdings and crofts may be traced, abandoned for 
economic reasons alone, because men would no longer live and work so 
near to the starvation level. Nothing but the direst need or a new scale 
of prices, whereby agriculture becomes relatively the most paying industry, 
will ever bring such land back into cultivation. Other European countries 
to a less degree show the same tendency at work. Russia was one of the 
granaries of Europe, but over a large proportion of that vast territory 
production is precarious because of drought on the one hand and cold on 
the other. It may be doubted whether there will be any great surplus 
for export even when its agriculture has been fully resumed, so rapid had 
been the growth of its population to a magnitude which makes the losses 
of the last decade insignificant. 

In the United States there are still great areas of potential farming 
land ; for example, 0. C. Baker (' Economic Geography,' 1925) estimates a 
possible increase of the wheat area in the U.S.A. from the present 80,000 
to 130,000 square miles. But little of this, however, is the natural 
easily farmed land the settler looks for ; the drift of late years of American 
farmers to Canada, the efforts to make good the arid lands by dry farming 
and irrigation, show that the good land has mostly been taken up. What 
remains is land on which capital outlay is required, land on which produc- 
tion will always be more costly than on the great fertile plains of the 
Middle West. As in Great Britain, the recent tendency in the United 
States has been to abandon the cultivation of some of the poorer lands 
and let them fall back to grazing. Canada still presents enormous 
potentialities for settlement, though the vast areas the map reveals are 
severely restricted by increasing aridity towards the west and by cold 
northwards ; Baker considers an increase of the wheat area from 25,000 
to 120,000 square miles as physically possible. But similarly on most 



264 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of tliis land the wheat will have to be more dearly bought by labour, 
fertilisers, aud skill than on the land now being farmed. 

The potentialities of South America arc less easy of estimate, but in 
this region there is still a great area of rich plain country unsettled, and 
it is not too much to expect that another 40 million acres of land are 
available for farming under present conditions. 

The potentialities of non-tropical Africa and of Australia are small ; 
in the latter country the arid zone lies so near to the coast that the 
additional area available for normal cultivation is negligible in considering 
the world's need of food. The great unknown factor in this survey is 
Western Siberia, a natural wheat area, and Manchuria. All that can be 
said is that the physical possibilities are great, perhaps as high as 300 million 
acres, but no one can guess when that will be realisable, dependent as it 
is upon the establishment of a stable and ordered Government. Moreover, 
on the flank of these regions hang the vast unsatisfied populations of China 
and Japan, ever ready to expand as the means of sustenance permits, 
and on this account the expectation of food for the Western peoples from 
this area can be but small. It is noteworthy that the far-eastern 
countries, so far from contributing to the food supply of the European 
peoples, have themselves of late years become competitors for wheat in 
the world market to an extent that has had a decisive effect upon 
prices. 

As potential sources of food there still remain the tropical countries, 
in particular Brazil and Central Africa, where abundant rainfalls and 
high temperatures render feasible a very high level of production from 
the soil. The last fifty years has witnessed remarkable examples of 
organised production of tropical crops under western direction and 
management. The growth of sugar in Java, Cuba, and Hawaii, of rubber 
in Ceylon and the Straits, of tea in Ceylon and Assam, afford examples 
of the possibilities of organised agriculture, employing the resources of 
science, the labour-saving power of machinery, the criticism of cost book- 
keeping, such as can rarely be paralleled in the farming proper of the 
temperate regions. The same organisation is being extended to the 
coconut, which as margarine is becoming one of the chief edible fats of 
the world. Without doubt the tropics present enormous potentialities 
of food production for the world, mainly in the direction of oil-seeds and 
edible beans. It must, however, long remain uncertain to what extent 
the cheap native labour upon which these tropical exploitations are 
dependent will continue to be available. It does not appear to be possible 
to maintain a white population itself engaged in the cultivation of the 
soil in contact with native labour, and Queensland is the only tropical 
country where agricultural development is being attempted with white 
labour only. The lesson of S. Africa and to some extent of the southern 
States of the U.S.A. would seem to be that the white races cannot expand 
agriculturally in competition with the black. 

The present annual increment in the white population may be estimated 
at about five millions. This, taken alone, would necessitate the taking 
into cultivation of twelve million acres of new land every year. No 
process of the kind is going on ; indeed, for many crops there has been 
an actual shrinkage in the acreage since the war. Full records are not 
available, but the following table shows the changes in the areas of some 
o{ iho main crops : — 



M. -AGRICULTURE 



265 



Changes in Area under Crop. Million hectares. 





1909/13 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Wheat 


107-8 


103-5 


99-5 


104-0 


105-6 


Rye . 






44-3 


37-0 


40-7 


44-6 


43-9 


Barley 






33-3 


29-4 


27-3 


30-9 


30-7 


Oats . 






57-4 


551 


50-7 


53-8 


55-8 


Maize . 






70-6 


71-7 


730 


74-1 


(75) 


Rice . 






47-8 


53-0 


53-3 


51-8 


52-8 


Potatoes 






15-3 


14-8 


15-3 


16-2 


16-6 


Sugar Beet 




2-3 


1-7 


1-7 


2-0 


2-6 








378-8 


366-2 


361-5 


377-4 


383-0 



The shrinkage is doubtless no more than a temporary matter, the back- 
water of the wild fluctuations of prices and values brought about by the 
war, but it does not promise well for that continued expansion of the 
cultivated area which the still growing population demands. Indeed, 
we may detect a new influence at work, the growing disinclination of the 
civilised peoples to continue in agriculture because of its small and un- 
certain returns as compared with other occupations. It appears to be 
a general experience that wherever by the extension of communications 
tlie industries or commerce come close to agriculture the latter declines 
and begins to lose its best brains, its capital, and its men. The lure of the 
cities is proverbial, but the fundamental factor is economic ; unorganised 
agriculture cannot pay the wages obtainable in the organised industries. 
The decline in the agricultural popidation of Great Britain and the United 
States is the most marked, but it is significant that in France, where of 
all countries the farmer is most protected and prices have been main- 
tained, the peasants are leaving the land for the growing industries, their 
places being taken, in the soutli at least, by Italian immigrants. 

The flight from the land is manifest equally among the wage-earners 
of large-scale agriculture and among the peasants or family farmers in 
whose hands resides the greater part of the cultivation, whether in the old 
settled countries of Europe or the newer exploitations of America. Again 
and again it must be urged that the determining cause is economic ; 
for the last half-century, save for the abnormal war-years, farming has 
not paid a return on the capital and labour expended comparable with that 
obtainable elsewhere. It has been said that even the American farmers 
of the Middle West, who ciit prices for all the world, made no profits during 
the last half-century except those derived from. the accretion of land 
values. And the peasant farmer, who counts neither the capital he 
has in the business nor the hours of labour he gives to his land, who in 
Europe is held to the land by secular tradition, finds agriculture unattrac- 
tive as soon as the growth of industries and the spread of communications 
render an escape possible. If not the peasant himself, at least the sons 
look for an easier and less exacting mode of life. 

At this stage it would be impossible to begin to diagnose the causes of 
the comparative unprofitableness of agriculture. Fundamentally it is 
due to the weakness of the farmer as a commercial unit ; the smaller the 
fanner the more ruthlessly does he compete with his neighbours and 
reduce prices to a bare level of sustenance for his long hours of labour. 



266 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Even the large farmers who can put into practice some of the economies 
of an ordered industry are helpless against the large commercial organisa- 
tions which pass on their produce to the customers. Always there is the 
peasant farmer to cut prices. The position of the imperfectly industrialised 
farms may be compared with that of the new factories a century ago : their 
processes are not sufficiently developed to enable them to compete with 
any certainty of success against the single-handed worker, the power-mill 
has not yet beaten the hand-loom. 

I cannot, however, jiursue this issue. I return to my original text, 
that if we are to continue to feed the growing population of the world on 
the present methods a continued expansion of the cultivated area is 
required ; new land is called for year after year. I cannot see where 
this new land of the necessary quality is to be found in quantities com- 
mensurate with the immediate demand. Doubtless the white races will 
insist on maintaining their rising standard of living and will apply deliberate 
checks to their fertility, a process we already see in action. But the restric- 
tion of increase will not take effect all at once even under economic pressure, 
and the danger lies in the period preceding the comparative stabilisation. 
As it cannot be supposed that the development of the civilised races can be 
allowed permanently to be checked by lack of food when food is obtainable, 
it follows that resort must be had to the intensification of production from 
the area already under cultivation. The means for that intensification 
are already in sight, more will be supplied with the advancement of 
research. Intensification, however, is in the main attended by a higher 
cost of production, and movement in that direction' is likely to be slow 
until it is stimulated by a rise of prices. Organisation will have to be 
introduced into the industry, and it may be expected that organisation 
will take one or other of three forms. The farmer may be left as the 
producing unit, but his methods will be strictly controlled and standardised 
by the great selling corporations that handle his produce, and these 
corporations may be either commercial ventures or co-operative associa- 
tions of the farmers themselves. The co-operative venture appears to 
imply an even more rigid discipline of the indi\ddual than that imposed 
by the capitalist firm. Alternatively the capitalist may venture upon the 
direct exploitation of large areas of land and industrialise farming as he 
has industrialised other producing businesses. But capital will only be 
tempted back to farming, whether for the organisation of the business or 
even to enable the individual to take advantage of the possibilities of 
intensification, if prices rise to a definitely remunerative level. I hope I 
have given reasons for supposing that they must rise, because the surge 
in population set up by the unprecedented extension of the cultivated 
area last century cannot all at once be checked, whereas the new land 
still available is either inadequate in amount or unsuited to cheap pro- 
duction by the old methods. How close at hand the jieriod of pressure 
may be it is unsafe to prophesy, but it may be agreed that pressure is 
sooner or later inevitable and that one of the biggest problems before the 
world at present is to prevent the pressure developing suddenly or becoming 
unbearable. The intensification of production is the only remedy, and, 
again, the only means of rendering intensification practicable is the 
continued pursuit of scientific research. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



Seismological Investigations. — Thirty-first Report of Committee 
(Prof. H. H. Turner, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, Secretary ; Mr. 
C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, Prof. H. 
Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, 
Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer. 
Mr. W. E. Plummer, Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson. 
Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, and Mr. F. J. 
W. Whipple). [Draicn up by the Chairman except where otherwise 
mentioned. 1 

General. 

As a sequel to the death of Mrs. Mihie in 1925, as annouticed in the last Report, the 
Bum of £1,000 bequeathed to this Committee by John Milne (provided that his widow- 
should have the use of it during her lifetime) has been paid to the Chairman of the 
Committee, and is at present on deposit at the Westmirster Bank, Oxford. The words 
of the Will are as follows : — 

' And from and after her death (i.e. Mrs. Tone Milne) my Tnistees shall stand 
possessed of my residuary estate and the income thereof upon trust to pay thereout 
the sum of £1,000 to the fund created by Matthew H. Gray, of Lessness Park, Abbey 
Wood, in the County of Kent, to be used by the Chairman of the Seismological Com- 
mittee of the said British Association by the Trustees of that fund for the encourage- 
ment of the study of earth physics and its attendant subjects (the said sum to be paid 
free of legacy duty and the receipt of the said Chairman or Trustees for the time being 
to be a sufficient discharge of such legacy).' .... 

The occasion suggested a reconsideration of the Trusteeship of the Gray Fund, 
into which the Milne Bequest is by this clause to be paid, and Messrs. Murray, Hutchins 
and Co. (the sohcitors to the late Matthew H. Gray) suggested to the Committee that, 
to save the trouble and expense connected with the change in Trusteeship when any 
member of the Trust dies or retires from it, the Official Trustee of Charitable Funds 
should be asked to be Trustee of the Gray Fund. The approval of the Committee for 
this course is practically assured, though replies from one or two members of it have 
not yet been received. 

Dr. Crombie has again generously provided half the salary of Mr. J. 8. Hughes. 
The provision of the other half by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 
was terminated in September 1925. 

We have again to acknowledge the help of Fordham University, New York, in 
sending telegrams on the occasion of important earthquakes, which havemuch facilitated 
the identification of epicentres. A notable example is that of the earthquake near 
Crete on 192G June 20d. i9h. 46m. 20s. The Oxford film was developed on Sunday 
morning, June 27, and the receipt of telegrams from Fordham and West Bromwich 
made it possible to telegraph that afternoon an approximate epicentre. A message 
from Helwan next morning added considerable precision. The occasion was, un- 
fortunately, one where the loss of life and the nature of tlie damage done (e.g. to the 
Candia Museum) gave special importance to the earthquake. 

In Dr. C. Davison's History of British Earthquakes, noticed in the last Report, the 
little town of Comrie is conspicuous as an earthquake centre. An opportunity offered 
for visitmg Comrie last August, as mentioned below ; and it was foimd that the earth- 
quakes had ceased, rather to the chagrin of the inhabitants. But there were renewed 
shocks on February 22 and February 23. 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

International. 

There is little to report under this head, except that the publication of the Inter 
national Scientific Summary has been continued as below. 

The serious fall in the value of the franc, in which international subscriptions are 
paid, has had a disastrous effect on the funds available for such work as the printing of 
the International Summary, which has onlj' been relieved by the intervention of the 
Roj-al Society. 

The Geodetic and Geophysical Union is to meet at Prague next year (1927), 
though as yet nothing has been said about the date ; it seems imperative to reconsider 
the whole question of finance. 

Instrumental. 

(Chiefly from notes by Mr. J. J. Shaw.) 

The attempt to get seismological observations made at Christmas Island (Indian 

Ocean) has unfortunately proved a complete fiasco. It seems desirable to record 

the circumstances briefly. First we give the Report of Mr. H. S. Jones, now 

H.M. Astronomer at the Cape Observatory, who kindly took charge of the instrument. 

Christmas Island Eclipse Expedition. 
Report on Seismograph, June 9, 1923, by H. S. Jones. 

' The expedition from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, to Cliristmas Island for 
the observation of the Total Solar Eclipse of September 21, 1922, took with it, at the 
suggestion of Prof. H. H. Turner, a Mihie-Shaw seismograph, lent by Mr. J. J. Shaw. 
It was hoped that it would be possible to arrange for the seismograph to be left on the 
island, and for continuous observations to be carried on by employees of the Christmas 
Island Phosphate Company. 

' The seismograph was unpacked after the erection of the astrographic telescope, 
and it was found that, owing to faulty packing, the clock dial had come adrift and had 
smashed up the timing contacts, besides domg other damage. Mr. Shaw was at once 
written to for information as to the manner in which the timing gear was intended to 
function, but owing to the infrequent mails to Christmas Island it was some months 
before a reply was received. With the assistance of one of the Phosphate Company's 
engineers the damage was then repaired and the clock put into going order. 

' Careful investigation was made as to the most suitable site for the seismograph. 
The eclipse camp was at the south-east end of the island, the settlement being on the 
north-west side. A site near the settlement was necessary if the seismograph were to 
be left on the island. The settlement is on a narrow flat shelf facing the sea, with steep 
cUfis behind, and does not provide very suitable sites for the purpose. An attempt 
was made in several places to find a place where the pier for the instrument could 
be built up from the solid rock, but the depth of soil was in all cases too great. 

' Ultimately a site was chosen near the thermometer screen, somewhat sheltered 
by a large rock and by coconut palms, so as to reduce as much as possible the tempera- 
ture variations. A concrete pier was constructed, extending 2 ft. 6 in. below the surface. 
Owing to the shortage of carpenters on the island and the pressure of work for them, 
including the erection of a new hospital and two new bungalows, it was not possible 
to get a hut erected for the seismograph until earl}' in September. This consisted of a 
wooden framework, covered with corrugated iron, with shuttered window and door. 
The seismograph was erected and adjusted, a few minor alterations which were found 
to be necessary being carried out. The clock was fixed to the side of the pier. Several 
trial sheets were secured before the observers left the island, which showed that the 
adjustments were satisfactory, although owing to the diurnal variation of temperature 
there was a tendency for the traces to run into one another. 

'The two chemists in the employ of the Phosphate Company, who are responsible 
for the meteorological observations, undertook to carry on the records, changing the 
sheets daily and developing them once per week. The construction and adjustment of 
the seismograph was explained to both these gentlemen. Written instructions were 
left that the sheets should be sent monthly to Prof. Turner, who would be responsible 
for the supply of photographic paper after the stock taken with the instrument was 
exhausted. 

' It may be added that the erection of the seismograph pier and hut is included in 
the work done for the Expedition by the Christmas Island Phosphate Company, the 
cost of which has been generously given by them as a contribution towards the 
expenses of the Expedition. As also the Blue Funnel S.S. Company conveyed the 



ON SE18M0L0GICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 269 

iustruinents free of charge, there is no charge upon the Seismology Committee in 
connection with the erection of the seismograph at Christmas Island.' 

As no records were received at Oxford, nor any answers to repeated inquiries 
(principally made through Mr. Jones), application was ultimately made, as suggested 
by Mr. Jones on March 17, 1925, to the Secretary of the Phosphate Company at the 
London office, that the seismograph and clock might be returned to Mr. J. J. Shaw. 
They were received by him free of charge, but in a very much damaged condition ; 
corrosion had attacked many of the metal parts, and the wooden cases were ruined 
by some form of dry rot. The instrument is being thoroughly repaired, and will now 
be lent to the Colombo Observatory. 

The original Milne-Shaw instrument set up at Bidston, which has been replaced 
by another with larger magnification, is to be set up at Oxford as aN.-S. component, 
being similar to the E.-W. component already mounted (by the courtesy of Prof. 
Lindemann) in the basement of the Clarendon Laboratorj-. It seems now probable 
that a basement may bo constructed at the University Observator}"^ itself, to which 
this pair of instruments will then be transferred. 

The two Milne-Sliaw seismographs sent to Entebbe, Uganda, in 1923, which 
were awaiting suitable accommodation, have now been installed in a well-appointed 
observatory. The ground floor is used as the office, beneath is the dark room, and 
lower still (23 ft. below ground) is the instrument room. This should prove a very 
efficient station in a locality where one was much needed. There are a number of 
epicentres running down the African continent at which shocks occur which may not 
reach more distant observatories. 

Seismographs have also been sent to Seiior Scipion Llona, Director of the Seismo. 
logical Observatory, Lima; also a second component to Fordham University, New 
York ; finally to Prof. N. E. Norlund, Copenhagen, with a view to the establishment 
of a station in Greenland, which would be of great importance for the observation of 
earthquakes in the Arctic regions. 

Bulletins and Tables. 

The ' International Seismological Summaries ' for April to December 1921 and 
January to September 1922 have been printed and distributed. The number for 
October to December 1922 is passed for press, with the exception of an appendix 
dealing with some belated observations. There are thus now five years of the Summary, 
1918-1922, and the residuals for P and S shov,Ti by the chief earthquakes have been 
collected for discussion of the corrections to tables. The general nature of these 
corrections has already been anticipated from partial study of the records, but it is 
an important question whether we are in a position to make a definitive change, 
for it is undesirable to multiply changes. The answer is, on the whole, encouraging ; 
the corrections to the P and S tables are clearly shown within about 1 second as far 
as A =80^. But beyond that point the correction to S is ambiguous ; it seems that 
we are dealing with two phenomena and not one. The second phenomenon is easily 
identified as that designated ScPcS by Gutenberg many years ago. It represents 
the passage of a ray as S down to the liquid core ; its passage as P through the core, 
and again as S on leaving the core. Attention was recently drawn to Gutenberg's 
papers by Dr. Harold Jeffreys, and the accord between observation and this particular 
part of his theory is very striking. (Other parts have not j'et been compared with 
our records.) Accordingly Dr. Jeffreys has written the following paragraphs for this 
Report : — ■ 

The Earth's Central Core. 
By Dr. Harold Jeffreys. 
The high mean density of the earth, in comparison with that of surface rocks, has 
long been held to imply that the earth has a dense metallic core, probably mainly 
of iron. From considerations relating to the figure of the earth Wiechert determined 
the radius of this core as 0'78a, a being the outer radius, and its density as 8*2. Oldham 
in 1906 found that the compressional waves from earthquakes showed a systematic 
delay when observed at epicentral distances greater than 103^ or so, and inferred that 
within a central region the velocities of these waves were lower than elsewhere. 
Subsequent work of the greatest importance by Gutenberg has strongly confirmed 
and extended Oldham's result. There is a central core of radius 0-55a, which transmits 
P waves with about two-thirds of the velocity they have just outside it, but does not 
transmit S waves at all. Several incidental phenomena implied by the existence of 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

such a core have been confirmed. A distortional wave incident on such a surface 
from above would give rise to reflected compressional and distortional waves, and to 
a transmitted compressional wave. The former are denoted by Gutenberg as SjP 
and S4S. The latter, on emergence, is agam broken up into a compressional and a 
distortional wave ; these are called S4P4P and S4P4S (in later work the suffix 4 is 
replaced by c). These transmitted waves with change of type are found on the 
seismograms at the predicted places and times. So is a wave that emerges after 
havmg undergone a reflection at the mside of the region. The waves reflected at the 
©utside of the core are so spread out as to have only small amplitudes when they 
emerge, but Prof. V. Conrad has found waves that are capable of this interpretation. 
The velocity of P waves, as found from near earthquakes, is nearly 7'8 km. /sees., 
which points to a rock of the nature of olivine within a few tens of kilometres of the 
surface. Its density would be about 3'4. But at a depth of the order of 1,500 km. 
such a rock would be so compressed by the weight of the overlying rock that its 
density would be increased by about unity ; the density of the iron core would be 
increased still more. Hence Wiechert's numerical results need revision, and it is found 
that when the increase of density due to compression is taken into account the boundary 
between the rocky shell and the iron core must be almost exactly where Gutenberg 
finds the discontinuity of elastic properties to be situated. The failure of the core 
to transmit S waves is most naturally attributed to its being fluid. Such a view has 
been denied, because it was found by Kelvm that the earth's tidal properties showed 
that as a whole it possessed about the rigidity of steel. But seismology now indicates 
that the rocky shell has a mean rigidity about twice that of steel, and reopens the 
possibility of a fluid core. In an investigation just published the present writer 
finds that the tidal data definitely imply a rigidity of the core much lower than that 
of the shell ; if both the core and the shell were homogeneous, and the core fluid, 
the tidal yielding would be somewhat more than is observed, but allowance for varia- 
tion of density witliin the laj^ers would reduce the discrepancy, and it seems very 
probable that the core is truly fluid. 

Gutenberg's ScPcS. 

Of the waves or rays mentioned above by Dr. Jeffreys, the only one which has 
received attention up to the present in the discussion of 1918-1922 is that denoted 
first S4P4S and then ScPoS. By a curious coincidence this had attracted attention in a 
particular earthquake, October 11, 1922, the night before a letter from Dr. Jeffreys 
drawmg attention to Gutenberg's work was received. The accord with observation is 
so close that the following extract from a note to that earthquake in the International 
Summary may be reproduced here : — 

Note to 1922 Oct. lid. 14h. 49m. 453. 

The readings for S from near A =80° to about A = 110° probably refer to some- 
thing preceding the true S. The residuals can be represented by the formula : — 

— (A— 80°)x4-6s. 

A 0. C, 0-C. A O. C. O-C. 



81-4 


- 6 


- 6 





94-1 


-64 


-65 


+ 1 


81-6 


- 8 


— 7 


— 1 


94-4 


-62 


-66 


+ 4 


83-3 


-24 


—15 


- 9 


950 


-68 


-69 


+ 1 


83-6 


- 9 


-17 


+ 8 


95-5 


-65 


—71 


+ 6 


84-5 


-19 


-21 


+ 2 


95-7 


-65 


-72 


+ 7 


88-0 


-35 


-37 


+ 2 


95-7 


-76 


-72 


— 4 


88-4 


-31 


-39 


+ 8 


96-5 


-76 


-76 





89-4 


-72 


-43 


-29 


97 


-77 


-78 


+ 1 


90-6 


-65 


-49 


-16 


97-4 


-77 


-80 


+ 3 


90-8 


-f48 


-50 


(+98) 


981 


-97 


-83 


-14 


91-1 


-18 


-51 


(+33) 


98-2 


-84 


-84 





91-2 


-52 


-52 





100-9 


-96 


-96 





91-5 


-51 


-53 


+ 2 


103-2 


-106 


-107 


+ 1 


91-8 


—46 


-54 


+ 9 


103-5 


-112 


—108 


— 4 


92-3 


-56 


-57 


+ 1 


104-4 


-112 


-112 





92-3 


-41 


-57 


+ 16 


104-7 


-119 


-114 


- 5 


92-9 


—52 


-59 


+ 7 


109-8 


-142 


-137 


— 6 


93-9 


-64 


-64 





115-3 


+ 75 


—162 


(+237) 










120-8 


-98 


-188 


( + 90) 



I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 271 

These results had just been tabulated when a letter was received from Dr. Harold 
Jeffreys calling attention, in enthusiastic terms, to Prof. Gutenberg's paper Erdbeben- 
wellen Vila, in Gott. Nach. 1914, and it was at once seen that the readings tabulated as 
S refer to Gutenberg's ray ScPcS; that is, a ray which travels as S until it reaches the 
liquid core of the earth, is then transformed into P, and finally emerges as S. Since 
the middle part of its path is described with the velocity of P, which is greater than that 
of S, it naturally arrives before S. The figures given by Gutenberg compare with the 
adopted tables lor S as below : — 

A 54 65 70 77 79-5 87°0 94°5 102 





s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


ScPcS 


1175 


1260 


1295 


1341 


1348 


1395 


1442 


1480 


S 


1029 


1165 


1226 


1309 


1338 


1421 


1501 


1575 


ScPcS-S 


= + 146 


+95 


+ 69 


+ 32 


+ 10 


-26 


-59 


-95 


Formula 


= + 120 


+ 69 


+46 


+ 14 


+ 2 


-32 


-67 


-101 


Diff. 


+ 26 


+26 


+ 23 


+ 18 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 6 



It will be seen that throughout the range A = 80° to A «= 1 10°, from which thef ormula 
(80° — a)x4-6s. was deduced, the difierence between it and the value of ScPcS— S 
assigned by Gutenberg is constant at about +7s. It changes a little for values of A 
back to 54°, but this only means that the formula for the difference from S is only 
approximately linear ; and it is rather remarkable that the approximation should be 
80 close. In this region ScPcS follows S, and is not very likely to be recorded. 

But the large negative residuals from S were noticed in 1917 in discussing the 
observations of 1913 {The Large Earthquakes of 1913, B.A. Seism. Ctee., 1917). 

The last reference need not, however, be followed here. The main point is that for 
this particular earthquake nearly all the thirty -five observatories between a =80° 
and A = 110° which attempt to record S, record ScPcS instead. There are only two 
possible exceptions, Bidston (+98s) and Honolulu { + 33s), and of these the latter has 
a positive residual not much greater than the — 29s for Barcelona. Since for these 
values of A ScPcS precedes S, and S is generally counted as the earhest indication of a 
change from P, it is easy to see how the earUer ScPcS is preferred to the real S, provided 
it is large enough. [For values of A less than 80° ScPcS follows S according either to 
Gutenberg's theory or the above suggested empirical formula ; and that S should then 
be preferred is equally natural.] 

But it is not always that ScPcS is large enough to be mistaken for S, as can be seen 
from the counts of residuals for the principal earthquakes in the five years 1918-1922 
now under discussion. It will suffice here to give the counts for every 10 sec. in S and 
every 5° of a , and to restrict ourselves to the groups near the maximum. 

Nos. of S residuals for the years 1918-1922 :— 

s. s. s. s. s. s. s. S. S. 8. 



A +30 +20 +10 
70° to 75° 13 29 68 
75° to 80° 13 41 93 
80° to 85° 7 29 106 
85° to 90° 5 12 47 
90° to 95° 1 3 2 


-10 
45 
92 
126 
83 
12 


-20 -30 
20 7 
12 13 
43 15 
67 57 
15 13 


-40 -50 -60 

2 1 4 

4 7 7 

9 6 2 

32 12 4 

19 20 20 


For greater values of A the maximum is shifted so much that we must start afresh. 


s. s. 
A —40 —50 - 
90° to 95° . 20 20 
95° to 100°. 6 18 
100° to 105° 4 5 
105° to 110° 2 3 


s. 

-60 - 

18 

19 

13 

1 


s. s. 

-70 -80 

8 1 

24 13 

16 19 

2 2 


fi S 

-90 -100 - 

2 1 

16 3 

19 16 

5 12 


s. s. s. s. 
110 —120 —130 -140 

1 

1 1 2 
14 3 5 
13 10 1 



Thus for values of A between 75° and 85° the maximum is definitely near zero ; 
there are two large groups enclosing zero, and the fall on either side is rapid. Between 
85° and 90° there are five comparable groups near maximum ; from 90° to 95° there 
are seven. This is the effect of the double max. for S and ScPcS. But then the S max. 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

practically drops out, leaving only the ScPcS. This work was done on cards, and it was 
easy to remove the cards referring to SoPcS. Those left showed something much later 
than S ; but it seems better to say no more until the discussion is complete. 

New Stations. 

The number of observatories which send readings for inclusion in the Intematioual 
Seismological Summary continues to increase. In May 1923 a list of 165 was 
published, and in November 1925 a list of forty-six more. Seven more are to be added 
to date, making 218 in all. Some of these have dropped out of action, and some send 
only rarely, but even after these deductions the list is a long one. Among stations 
recently established, a special welcome is due to Sucre in Bolivia (19'0^S., 65-3^ W.), 
which collaborates with La Paz (16-5'^ S., 68-1° W.). Many shocks in South America 
are too slight to reach many observatories, and a pair of stations not very far apart 
is very useful on such occasions. An even closer pair is formed by La Plata (34-9° S., 
57-9<^W.), and Chacarita (34-6° S., 68-5'" W.). Readings from La Plata for the later 
months of 1922 were received just in time for inclusion in the number of the Summary 
before it was passed for press, and it is hoped that they will henceforward be available ; 
but there is still a tendency to delay communication of the information. The 
Summary for October-December 1922 is being passed for press at the time of writing 
(July 1926), and is thus in arrear by three years and five months ; an interval which 
was much larger just after the War, but has been steadily reduced at the rate of about 
six months per year. Its limiting value, however, will depend upon the most backward 
stations, for it adds greatly to the labour of producing the Summary when information 
is received at the last moment. Hence observatories are earnestly requested to send 
their readings as soon as possible. 

Time Determinations. 

Before and during the War the time-determinations at many of the outlying 
stations were undoubtedly faulty, which complicated the process of interpreting the 
readings. A great improvement in this respect has followed on the introduction of 
wireless time-signals, though we in Europe perhaps overestimate the facility of getting 
accurate time in this way. For instance, the table of readings for Dehra Dun for 1925 
is accompanied by the note : ' The time is expressed in Indian Standard Time, which 
is five hours thirty minutes east. It is liable to error as great as thirty seconds.' 

If this is the state of things at the headquarters of geodesy in India, there must be 
even greater uncertainty at more outlying stations. Moreover, even where wireless 
signals are available, so that the seconds may be trusted, the minutes or hours may 
go wrong. Indeed, it seems possible that confidence in the seconds has begotten a 
little carelessness about the minutes. Perhaps the mistakes are made in applying 
the longitude, though in these days of standard time this ought not to upset the 
minutes. 

Visit to Comrie. 

As above mentioned, a visit was paid in August 1925 to Comrie, in Perthshire, 
where sixty-eight earthquake shocks were recorded between 1788-1804, and over 
300 shocks in the eleven years 1839-49. There followed, however, fifteen blank 
years, and only fifteen shocks in the years 18G4-1898, with a couple more in 1020. 
The village seems to regret the cessation. As the local guide-book puts it : ' The 
district misses the gratuitous advertisement which these shocks gave. Thus it has 
been found advisable to bring the merits of the place before the public in ordinary 
up-to-date advertising style.' 

Interest in earthquakes is, however, still maintained, and has been rewarded since 
my visit by a couple of renewed shocks (1926, February 22 and 23). There was, 
however, little of importance to be gathered on the spot. The ' earthquake house ' 
where experiments were made is still in existence, and by the courtesy of the present 
owner of the property (Mr. Drummond) I was allowed to see it. There is now no 
trace of its former occupation — it might be an ordinary summer-house. Objects 
like small ninepins of various cross-sections were set up on the floor ; the observations 
consisted in noting which of them fell and what was the direction of fall. Tradition 
preserves the memory of a complete fall and scattering of the pins which could be 
associated with nothing seismological, and was ultimately traced to a raid by boys. 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 273 

A noteworthy remark was made by the driver of Comrie's one bus, who remembered 
several earthquakes. According to him the most noticeable feature of these earth- 
quakes is the sound, which, once heard, cannot be mistaken. It definitely travels, 
at Comrie, from N. or N.W. to E. or S.E. Once he heard an indubitable earthquake 
sound and could feel no tremor at aU, but two horses he was tending started violently 
and stopped dead, showing that they felt a tremor. ' They would not have stopped 
for a noise.' 

Finally, I could find no knowledge of any records, which I thought might possibly 
have been preserved. 



Calculation of Mathematical Tables,— Report of Committee (Prof. 
J. W. Nicholson, Chairman ; Dr. J. R. Airey, Secretary ; Dr. D. 
Weinch-Nicholson, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Dr. A. T. Doodson, 
Prof. L. N. G. FiLON, Dr. R. A. Fisher, Profs. E. W. Hobson, 
Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, and H. M. Macdonald). 

The following tables referred to in the last Report have been completed : — 

(a) Tables of Fresnel's Integrals. S(x) and C{x) to six places of decimals for the 

range of values of x from 0-1 to 20'0 by 0-1 intervals. 

(6) Tables of the Confluent Hypergeometric function M(a, y, x) for some thirty 

values of the argument x from 0-1 to 8-0, the parameter a ranging from 4-4-0 to — 4-0 

and Y having the four values + \ and + |. 

(c) Tables of sinh x and cosh x to fifteen places of decimals, similar to those of 
sin X and cos x given in previous Reports of the Committee, x from 0-1 to 10-0 by O'l 
intervals. 

(d) Corrections of Logarithmic and Bessel Function Tables : the corrections of 
Thoman's and Degen's Tables of Logarithms were communicated by M. F. J. Duarte, 
Geneva. 

The publication of the tables of zeros of Lommel-Weber and Neumann functions 
is deferred. 

For next year's Report it is hoped to submit further tables of the Confluent Hyper- 
geometric and other functions. 

Fresnel's Integrals, S(x) and C(x). 

For small values of the argument x, from 0-1 to 1-5, S(a;) and C{x) were computed 
from the ascending series, viz. : — 






15.7 



. + 



x" ^ 



13.6! 



From the tables of Bessel Functions of half odd integral order given to twelve places 
of decimals in the 1925 Report, S(a;) and C(a;) were found for integer values of x from 
1 to 20 by the relations 

S(a;)= J3(«)+ J,(a;)+JT,{rr)+J,,(a;)-f .... 

C(x) = Ji(a!)+J,(x)-fJ (a;)+J,,(x) -f . . . . 
355-5 

1926 T 



274 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ETC. 
Fresnel's Integrals, S(a;) and C(x). 





X 

0-0 


Six) 


C(x) 


X 


S(x) 


C(x) 




OrOOOOOO 


0-000000 


5-7 


0-370576 


0-398539 : 




0-1 


0-008404 : 


0-252061 


5-8 


0-362122 


0-412861 




0-2 


0-023720 : 


0-355400 


5-9 


0-355200 : 


0-427825 




0-3 


0-043422 


0-433102 : 


6-0 


0-349852 : 


0-443274 




0-4 


0-066518 : 


0-496612 


6-1 


0-346105 


0-459047 






0-5 


0-092366 


0-550247 


6-2 


0-343968 : 


0-474985 






0-6 


0-120465 : 


0-596157 


6-3 


0-343438 


0-490927 






0-7 


0-150396 


0-635581 : 


6-4 


0-344493 : 


0-506717 






0-8 


0-181782 


0-669309 : 


6-5 


0-347100 


0-522201 






0-9 


0-214277 : 


0-697884 : 


6-6 


0-351207 


0-537232 




1-0 


0-247558 : 


0-721706 


6-7 


0-356752 : 


0-551667 : 




11 


0-281317 : 


0-741088 : 


6-8 


0-363659 


0-565375 




1-2 


0-315262 


0-756294 : 


6-9 


0-371839 : 


0-578229 




1-3 


0-349113 


0-767555 


7-0 


0-381194 : 


0-590116 




1-4 


0-382604 : 


0-775083 


7-1 


0-391614 : 


0-600932 




1-5 


0-415483 : 


0-779083 


7-2 


0-402982 


0-610585 






1-6 


0-447511 


0-779758 - 


7-3 


0-415171 : 


0-618997 






1-7 


0-478462 : 


0-777310 


7-4 


0-428051 : 


0-626101 






1-8 


0-508128 : 


0-771943 


7-5 


0-441485 : 


0-631845 




1-9 


0-536316 


0-763869 


7-6 


0-455332 : 


0-636190 




2-0 


0-562849 


0-753302 


7-7 


0-469451 : 


0-639111 : 




21 


0-587568 


0-740465 


7-8 


0-483698 : 


0-640599 




2-2 


0-610333 


0-725582 


7-9 


0-497931 : 


0-640656 : 




2-3 


0-631022 : 


0-708885 


8-0 


0-512009 : 


0-639301 




2-4 


0-649534 : 


0-690607 


8-1 


0-525795 : 


0-636564 






2-5 


0-665787 


0-670986 


8-2 


0-539157 


0-632490 






2-6 


0-679717 : 


0-650259 


8-3 


0-551966 : 


0-627135 






2-7 


0-691284 : 


0-628664 


8-4 


0-564104 


0-620568 




2-8 


0-700466 : 


0-606437 


8-5 


0-575457 


0-612868 




2-9 


0-707260 : 


0-583813 


8-6 


0-585923 : 


0-604124 




3-0 


0-711685 


0-561020 


8-7 


0-595409 


0-594436 




31 


0-713776 : 


0-538281 


: 8-8 


0-603831 : 


0-583909 : 




3-2 


0-713591 


0-515813 


8-9 


0-611119: 


0-572659 




3-3 


0-711200 


0-493822 


9-0 


0-617213: 


0-560804 




3-4 


0-706695 


0-472505 


9-1 


0-622066 : 


0-548468 : 




3-5 


0-700180 : 


0-452047 


9-2 


0-625644 : 


0-535780 




3-6 


0-691777 


0-432621 


: 9-3 


0-627925 


0-522868 




3-7 


0-681618 


0-414387 


9-4 


0-628899 : 


0-509863 




3-8 


0-669849 : 


0-397488 


9-5 


0-628573 


0-496895 




3-9 


0-656628 


0-382052 


: 9-6 


0-626962 


0-484092 




4-0 


0-642118 : 


0-368193 


9-7 


0-624096 


0-471579 




41 


0-626495 


0-356004 


: 9-8 


0-620015 : 


0-459477 




4-2 


0-609935 : 


0-345565 


9-9 


0-614774 : 


0-447902 : 




4-3 


0-592623 : 


0-336934 


: 10-0 


0-608436 : 


0-436964 




4-4 


0-574746 


0-330154 


: 10-1 


0-601074 : 


0-426764 




4-5 


0-556489 : 


0-325249 


10-2 


0-592772 : 


0-417396 






4-6 


0-538040 : 


0-322225 


10-3 


0-583621 : 


0-408946 






4-7 


0-519583 : 


0-321070 


: 10-4 


0-573721 


0-401488 






4-8 


0-501299 


0-321756 


: 10-5 


0-563176 


0-395086 






4-9 


0-483362 


0-324239 


10-6 


0-552097 : 


0-389795 




5-0 


0-465941 : 


0-328456 


: 10-7 


0-540600 : 


0-385655 : 




51 


0-449197 : 


0-334333 


10-8 


0-528803 


0-382698 




5-2 


0-433280 


0-341778 


: 10-9 


0-516825 


0-380941 : 




5-3 


0-418330 : 


0-350690 


11-0 


0-504786 : 


0-380392 




5-4 


0-404476 : 


0-360952 


11-1 


0-492807 : 


0-381044 




5-5 


0-391833 : 


0-372439 


11-2 


0-481007 : 


0-382880 : 




5-6 


0-380504 


0-385015 


: 11-3 


0-469500 : 


0-385872 


: 1 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



275 





Freanel's Integrals, S(x) anc 


C(a;)— contd. 




X 


S(x) 


C(x) 


X 


8{x) 


C(x) 


11-4 


0-458399 : 


0-389980 


15-8 


0-599937 


0-493920 : 


11-5 


0-447810 : 


0-395152 : 


15-9 


0-598519 : 


0-484005 


11-6 


0-437834 


0-401329 : 


16-0 


0-696126 : 


0-474310 : 


11-7 


0-428564 : 


0-408441 


16-1 


0-692788 


0-464933 : 


11-8 


0-420087 


0-416408 


16-2 


0-688543 : 


0-455964 


11-9 


0-412480 


0-425144 : 


16-3 


0-583440 : 


0-447489 : 


12-0 


0-405811 


0-434557 : 


16-4 


0-577536 


0-439591 


12-1 


0-400139 


0-444547 


16-6 


0-670890 : 


0-432343 : 


12-2 


0-395511 : 


0-465010 


16-6 


0-563578 : 


0-426815 : 


12-3 


0-391966 : 


0-465838 


16-7 


0-555674 : 


0-420067 : 


12-4 


0-389530 


0-476920 : 


16-8 


0-647261 : 


0-416152 


12-5 


0-388217 


0-488146 


16-9 


0-538426 : 


0-411113 


12-6 


0-388032 : 


0-499401 


17-0 


0-629269 


0-407986 : 


12-7 


0-388969 


0-510574 


17-1 


0-519853 : 


0-405796 


12-8 


0-391007 : 


0-521554 : 


17-2 


0-510303 : 


0'404558 : 


12-9 


0-394120 : 


0-532234 : 


17-3 


0-500706 : 


0-404282 


13-0 


0-398267 : 


0-542510 : 


17-4 


0-491167 


0-404963 : 


131 


0-403400 : 


0-552283 : 


17-5 


0-481760 


0-406590 


13-2 


0-409460 


0-561460 


1 17-6 


0-472579 


0-409140 


13-3 


0-416379 


0-569954 


17-7 


0-463733 : 


0-412583 : 


13-4 


0-424082 : 


0-577685 


17-8 


0-455300 


0-416880 


13-5 


0-432488 


0-584683 


17-9 


0-447360 


0-421983 : 


13-6 


0-441507 


0-690586 


18-0 


0-439989 : 


0-427837 


13-7 


0-451044 : 


0-596638 


18-1 


0-433269 


0-434379 : 


13-8 


0-461002 : 


0-599698 : 


18-2 


0-427232 


0-441541 


13-9 


0-471279 


0-602734 


18-3 


0-421964 : 


0-449247 : 


14-0 


0-481769 : 


0-604721 


18-4 


0-417504 : 


0-457419 


14-1 


0-492368 


0-605647 : 


18-5 


0-413893 


0-465971 : 


14-2 


0-502968 


0-606511 : 


18-6 


0-411160: 


0-474818 


14-3 


0-513464 : 


0-604322 : 


18-7 


0-409330 


0:483869 


14-4 


0-523754 : 


0--602099 : 


18:8 


0-408414 


0-493032 : 


14-5 


0-533735 : 


0-698871 


18-9 


0-408418 


0-502217 : 


14-6 


0-543312 


0-594677 


19-0 


0-409336 : 


0-511332 


14-7 


0-562390 : 


0-589666 : 


19-1 


0-411156: 


0-520286 : 


14-8 


0-560884 : 


0-583593 : 


19-2 


0-413862 


0-628990 


14-9 


0-568713 


0-576826 


19-3 


0-417395 


0-637360 


150 


0-575803 : 


0-569336 


19-4 


0-421744 : 


0-545314 


151 


0-582089 : 


0-561203 


19-6 


0-426853 : 


0-552774 : 


15-2 


0-587614 


0-552511 : 


19-6 


0-432666 : 


0-559670 


15-3 


0-592029 


0-643352 : 


19-7 


0-439122 : 


0-565935 


•15-4 


0-596595 : 


0-633819 : 


19-8 


0-446153 : 


0-571510 


15-5 


0-598184 


0-624010 


19-9 


0-453687 : 


0-576342 : 


15-6 


0-599775 


0-514023 


20-0 


0-461646 


0-580389 


15-7 


0-600359 


0-503960 






1 

1 



The tables were completed to nine places by interpolating to tenths of a unit of the 
argument, first differences being calculated from the known values of J Ax) and 

J_ i(a;). Lommel's tables of S(x) and C{x) appear in various collections of mathematical 

tables, although the last digits are unreliable in a considerable number of the entries. 
The difficulty in checking these results was due to the absence of adequate tables of 
sines and cosines in radian measure. Tables of these functions to fifteen places of 
decimals were published in the 1916, 1923 and 1924 Reports of the Committee. 



T 2 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

The Confluent Hypergeometric Function. M (a . y . x). 

Attention has been drawn to the importance of this function* in the solution of 
differential equations of the second order 

where f(x) and 9(2;) are linear, quadratic or other simple functions of x. In 
ascending powers oi x,M. {a . y . x) is 

, , a ^ , a(«+l) «! , a( a+l) ( a+2) x^ , 
Y Y(T+1)" 2!^y(y+1)(t+2)" 3! 
and satisfies the differential equation 

x.i^^ + C^-x)f-a.y = 0. 
dx^ ax 

By changing both dependent and independent variables, it can be shown that 
differential equations of the type 

g + {px+q) g + {Ix^+mx+n) 2/ = 

can be solved in terms of M (a . J . x). The exponential function appears in associa- 
tion with this function. Very extensive tablesf of e-r and e-' were published in the 
Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Other differential equations 
which can be solved by means of the M functions are set out in the Phil. Mag. paper, 
e.g. Petzval's equation : 

x^'^+x{p + qx'")'^+{r+sx"'+tx^'»)y = 0. 
dx^ dx 

Spitzer's equation : 

y = X (x y.—ny). 
dx^ dx 

Laplace's equation^ : 

{a,+ b^z)^+{a,+b,x)p^+(ao+box)y = 



dx^ V X' dx ^ x x^i 



dx^ ^ x' dx 
The asymptotic expansion of M (« . y • ^) is 
r(Y) / ^^-Ji a(a-Y+l ) , a(a+l)(a-Y+l)(a-Y+2) | , 

r (Y) e. xa- V 1 1 4- (l-a)(Y -«) + (1-a ) (2-a) (y-a) (y-a+l) , 1 

r (a) I x ' 2 ! a;2 ^ • / 

The six difference relations may be used to extend the tables for other values of a 
and Y 

a;M(a+l.Y+l-a;) = y [M (ix+1 . y . x) — M{ai.y.x)] 

aM(a+l.Y+l-a;) = (a— y) M (a . y+l • ^■) + YM(a.Y.a;) 

(a+a;)M(a+I.Y+l.a;) = (a— y) M (a . y+l . a;) + y M (a+1, y . a;) 

ay M (a+1 . y . x) = y (a+x) M (a . y . a;)- x(y-a) M (a.y + 1, a;) 
aM(a+l.y.a;) = (a;+2a— y) M (a . y . a;)+ (y-a) M (a-1, y . a;) 

(y-a)a; M (a . y+l ■ a;) =y (a;+y — 1) M (a . y . a;)+ y (1-y) M (a, y-1 . a;) 

* H. A. Webb and J. R. Airey. ' The practical importance of the Confluent 
Hypergeometric Function ' : Phil. Mag., vol. 36, July 1918, pp. 129-141. 

t J. W. L. Glaisher. Tables of the Exponential Function : Camb. Phil. Trans., 
1883, vol. 13, part 3, pp. 243-272. F. W. Newman. Table of the Descending 
Exponential Function : Camb. Phil. Trans., vol. 13, part 3, pp. 145-241. 

% Laplace. Theorie analyt. des probabiliies. Livre I, premiere partie. 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 277 

For small values of the argument, the series in ascending powers of x were used 
in calculating M (1 . J . x) and M ( — ^ . J . a;) to nine places of decimals. 

^ ^ ' 3 3-5 3.5.7^ 



M(-i.^.x) = 1 



3.2! 5.3! 7.4! 



Since M (0 . ^ . x) = 1 and M (^ . ^ . z) = e'^, the recurrence relations may be 
applied at once to construct the rest of the table for these values of x and other values 
of the parameters, a and y- 

For larger values of x, the asymptotic series were employed, viz. : 

\T /I JL \ r — r 1 1.3,1.3.5 1.3.5.7, 1 , , 

^ - ^ ' l2x^(2a;)2 (2a;)» (2a:)* ^- ' ' j ^"' 

Both these series begin by converging, but eventually become divergent, and it was 
maintained that the approximation to the value of the functions could not be carried 
beyond the point where the terms begin to diverge, i.e. the calculation must not be 
taken beyond the least term. 

' When the argument is at all large, the series at first are rapidly convergent, but 
they are ultimately in all cases hypergeometrically divergent. Notwithstanding this 
divergence, we may employ the series in numerical calculation, provided we do not 
take in the divergent terms.' § 

' Series of this kind are, strictly speaking, not convergent at all, for when carried 
sufiiciently far, the sum of the series may be made to exceed any assignable quantity. 
But, though ultimately divergent, they begin by converging ; and when a certain 
point is reached, the terms become very small. Calculations founded on these 
series are, therefore, only approximate ; and the degree of approximation cannot be 
carried beyond a certain point. If more terms are included, the result is made worse 
instead of better. In numerical calculations, therefore, we are to include only the 
convergent part.' || 

In the case of M (1 .\ .x), where the signs of the terms are alternately positive and 
negative, if a; = v-j-^ and v = n-\-\, it can be shown that the asymptotic series 
becomes 

1 _. 1.3| 1.3.5 _ , 1.3.5 (2w-l) -. . 

2a; (2a;)2 (2a;)'* - (2a;)» ^ '5'^'' 

where cpi is the ' converging factor.' The first six terms of ^j are 

When X is about 10, it is possible to add eight or nine decimal places to the result 
obtained when the divergent terms are omitted in the calculation from the asymptotic 
series (a). 

For the function M ( — i .\ .x), where the signs of the terms in the asymptotic 
series are all positive, a 'converging factor' may also be found. If a;=v+A and 
v=n+^, the descending power series in (6) is 

1 , 1.3 ,1 .3.5 , 1.3.5 (2/t— 1) -, . 

2a; "^ (2a;)2 "^ (2a;)-'' "^ (2a;)" ^ "^ 'P''' 

§ Stokes. Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. 2, p. 237. 

II Rayleigh. Scientific Papers, vol. 1, p. 190. Also Glaisher, Phil. Tninn. 
London, vol. 160, pp. 367-387. Borel, Series JDivergentes, p. 3. 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

i.e. the divergent terms of (6) are represented by the product of epa and the nth term ; 
92 is given by the series 



e-" 1 + 



hV 



4 "60" 



144 "^ 336/ 



A- Kb + - - — 4- — _ 1!- 4- _^'_ \ + 1 
v*\ 5 360 252 128 3456 7 " " J 

where 60 = —0-33333 33333 33 

6j= +0-02962 96296 3 

62= +0-00282 18695 

6g= —0-00188 1246 

6^= -0-00071 196 

65= +0-00067 84 

^6= +0-00047 3 

6,= —0-00059 

6g= -0-0006 

In this case, an improvement may be effected in the approximation to the value 
of the function M ( — ^ . ^ . x), when x is comparatively small. Even with the short 
table of b„ given above, when x=10-5, twelve places of decimals can be added to the 
result where the terms of the asymptotic series beyond the n'^ are neglected. With 
more extended tables of 6„, the approximation has been carried to twenty places : 
when X has the small value 3-5, to ten places. When a- is a negative integer, 
M (a . Y • ^) reduces to a polynomial which is easily evaluated. 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



279 



M (a . I . a;) 



X 




a=i 




a=f 


1 


a=l 




«=5 


00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


i + 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-1 


+ 


110617 


+ 


1-32621 


! + 


1-56197 


+ 


1-81307 


0-2 


+ 


1-22140 


+ 


1-70996 


+ 


2-26367 


+ 


2-88772 


0-3 


+ 


1-34986 


+ 


2-15977 


+ 


3-13167 


+ 


4-28499 


0-4 


+ 


1-49182 


+ 


2-68528 


+ 


4-19700 


+ 


6-07789 


0-5 


+ 


1-64872 


+ 


3-29744 


+ 


5-49574 


+ 


8-35352 


0-6 


+ 


1-82212 


+ 


4-00866 


+ 


7-06982 


+ 


11-2155 


0-7 


+ 


2-01375 


+ 


4-83301 


+ 


8-96791 


+ 


14-7869 


0-8 


+ 


2-22554 


+ 


5-78641 


+ 


11-2464 


+ 


19-2132 


0-9 


+ 


2-45960 


+ 


6-88689 


+ 


13-9705 


+ 


24-6669 


10 


+ 


2-71828 


+ 


8-15485 


+ 


17-2158 


+ 


31-3609 


1-2 


+ 


3-32012 


+ 


11-2884 


+ 


25-6313 


+ 


49-4087 


1-4 


+ 


4-05520 


+ 


15-4098 


+ 


37-3619 


+ 


75-8463 


1-6 


+ 


4-95303 


+ 


20-8027 


+ 


53-5588 


+ 


114-041 


1-8 


+ 


6-04965 


+ 


27-8284 


+ 


75-7416 


+ 


168-606 


2-0 


+ 


7-38906 


+ 


36-9453 


+ 


105-910 


+ 


245-809 


2-2 


+ 


9-02501 


+ 


48-7351 


+ 


146-687 


+ 


354132 


2-4 


+ 


11-0232 


+ 


63-9344 


+ 


201-504 


+ 


505-003 


2-6 


+ 


13-4637 


+ 


83-4752 


+ 


274-840 


+ 


713-765 


2-8 


+ 


16-4446 


+ 


108-535 


+ 


372-526 


+ 


1000-95 


3-0 


+ 


20-0855 


+ 


140-599 


+ 


502-138 


+ 


1393-94 


3-5 


+ 


33-1155 


+ 


264-924 


+ 


1037-62 


+ 


3108-44 


4-0 


+ 


54-5982 


+ 


491-383 


+ 


2092-93 


+ 


6722-85 


4-5 


+ 


90-0171 


+ 


900-171 


+ 


4140-79 


+ 


14186-7 


5-0 


+ 


148-413 


+ 


1632-54 


+ 


8063-78 


+ 


29336-3 


5-5 


+ 


244-692 


+ 


2936-30 


+ 


15497-2 


+ 


59639-6 


6-0 


+ 


403-429 


+ 


5244-57 


+ 


29450-3 


+ 


119496 


6-5 


+ 


665-142 1 


+ 


9311-98 


1 

-r 


55428-5 


+ 


236436 


7-0 


+ 1096-63 ' 


+ 16449-5 


+ 103449 


+ 


462706 


7-5 


+ 1808-04 


+ 28928-7 


+ 191652 


+ 


896789 


8-0 


+2980-96 ! 

1 


+50676-3 


+ 352747 


+ 1723192 



280 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 







M (a . i . x) — cont. 




X 


a=-^ 


.=-1 


a=-§ 


«=-? 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


01 


+ 0-89830 


+ 0-70503 


+ 0-52483 


+ 0-35717 


0-2 1 


+ 0-79306 


+ 0-42027 


+ 0-09866 


— 0-17593 


0-3 


+ 0-68405 


+ 0-14593 


— 0-27955 


— 0-60616 


0-4 


+ 0-57104 


— 0-11777 


— 0-61082 


— 0-94026 


0-5 


+ 0-45376 


— 0-37060 


— 0-89622 


— 1-18487 


0-6 


+ 0-33195 


— 0-61230 


— 1-13680 


- 1-34653 


0-7 


+ 0-20530 


— 0-84264 


— 1-33367 


- 1-43167 


0-8 


+ 0-07349 


— 1-06133 


- 1-48791 


— 1-44662 


0-9 


- 0-06383 


— 1-26810 


— 1-60066 


— 1-39759 


1-0 


- 0-20702 


- 1-46265 


— 1-67305 


- 1-29070 : 


1-2 


— 0-51269 


— 1-81386 


— 1-70143 


- 0-92716 


1-4 


- 0-84712 


— 2-11231 


— 1-58259 


— 0-40261 


1-6 


- 1-21453 


— 2-35506 


— 1-32641 


+ 0-23822 


1-8 


- 1-61983 


— 2-53887 


- 0-94317 


+ 0-95249 


2-0 


- 2-06876 


- 2-66015 


— 0-44354 


+ 1-69933 


2-2 


- 2-56803 


— 2-71489 


+ 0-16135 


+ 2-43989 


2-4 


- 312551 


— 2-69863 


+ 0-85988 


+ 3-13740 


2-6 


- 3-75041 


— 2-60642 


+ 1-63992 


+ 3-75727 


2-8 


- 4-45358 


- 2-43267 


+ 2-48875 


+ 4-26710 


30 


- 5-24774 


- 2-17117 


+ 3-39301 


+ 4-63681 


3-5 


— 7-73625 


— 1-08523 


+ 5-80218 


+ 4-77248 


4-0 


— 11-2124 


+ 0-73183 


+ 8-22631 


+ 3-50330 


4-5 


— 16-1581 


+ 3-46583 


+ 10-3857 


+ 0-57370 


5-0 


— 23-3084 


+ 7-37289 


+ 11-9516 


— 4-15213 


5-5 


- 33-7890 


+ 12-8099 


+ 12-5319 


—10-6749 


6-0 


- 49-3319 


+ 20-2790 


+ 11-6501 


-18-8409 


6-5 


- 72-6130 


+ 30-4942 


+ 8-71849 


—28-3180 


7-0 


—107-781 


+44-4780 


+ 2-99906 


—38-5646 


7-5 


—161-288 


+ 63-7081 


— 6-45002 


-48-7901 


8-0 


-243-202 


+90-3340 


-20-8501 


-57-9033 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



281 



M(a. J.x) — cont. 



X 




a=l 


a=2 




a=3 




a=4 


00 


+ 


1-00000 i 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


01 


+ 


1-21388 


+ 


1-44221 


+ 


1-68557 


+ 


1-94455 


0-2 


+ 


1-45786 


+ 


1-97835 


+ 


2-56656 


+ 


3-22784 


0-3 


+ 


1-73572 


+ 


2-62430 


+ 


3-68438 


+ 


4-93621 


0-4 


+ 


2-05174 


+ 


3-39831 


+ 


5-08790 


+ 


7-17427 


0-5 


+ 


2-41069 


+ 


4-32137 


+ 


6-83473 


+ 


10-0683 


0-6 


+ 


2-81790 


+ 


5-41759 


+ 


8-99263 


+ 


13-7704 


0-7 


+ 


3-27935 


+ 


6-71458 


+ 


11-6411 


+ 


18-4628 


0-8 


+ 


3-80175 


+ 


8-24402 


+ 


14-8733 


+ 


24-3640 


0-9 


+ 


4-39256 


+ 


10-0421 


+ 


18-7983 


+ 


31-7346 


1-0 


+ 


5-06016 


+ 


12-1504 


+ 


23-5433 


+ 


40-8851 


1-2 


+ 


6-66425 


+ 


17-4935 


+ 


36-1115 


+ 


66-0710 


1-4 


+ 


8-70287 


+ 


24-7383 


+ 


54-0818 


+ 


103-773 


1-6 


+ 


11-2870 


+ 


34-4896 


+ 


79-4831 


+ 


159-369 


1-8 


+ 


14-5548 


+ 


47-5309 


+ 


115-041 


+ 


240-324 


2-0 


+ 


18-6789 


+ 


64-8761 


+ 


164-400 


+ 


356-937 


i 2-2 


+ 


23-8738 


+ 


87-8331 


+ 


232-419 


+ 


523-348 


2-4 


+ 


30-4068 


+ 


118-087 


+ 


325-550 


+ 


758-877 


' 2-6 


+ 


38-6102 


+ 


157-802 


+ 


452-338 


+ 


1089-81 


; 2-8 


+ 


48-8969 


+ 


209-757 


+ 


624-061 


+ 


1551-77 


30 


+ 


61-7801 


+ 


277-510 


+ 


855-573 


+ 


2192-87 


3-5 


+ 


109-914 


+ 


549-072 


+ 


1839-32 


+ 


5060-39 


4-0 


+ 


193-640 


+ 


1064-52 


+ 


3846-72 


+ 


11294-2 


4-5 


+ 


338-545 


+ 


2030-77 


+ 


7869-18 


+ 


24538-3 


5-0 


+ 


588-290 


+ 


3823-38 


+ 


15808-2 


+ 


52142-4 


5-5 


+ 


1017-20 


+ 


7119-91 


+ 


31276-7 


+ 


108748 


6-0 


+ 


1761-60 


+ 


13136-5 


+ 


61084-6 


+ 


223211 


6-5 


+ 


3005-76 


+ 


24045-6 


+ 


117974 


+ 


451857 


1 7-0 


+ 


5142-69 


1 


43712-4 


+ 


225633 


+ 


903710 


7-5 


+ 


8776-41 


+ 


78987-2 


+ 


427847 


+ 1788182 


8-0 


+ 14944-4 


+ 141971 


+ 


805125 


+ 3504751 



282 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . J . x) — cont. 



X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=— 3 


a=-4 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-1 


+ 0-80000 


+ 0-61333 


+ 0-43947 


+ 0-27788 


0-2 


+ 0-60000 


+ 0-25333 


— 0-04427 


— 0-29682 


0-3 


+ 0-40000 


— 0-08000 


— 0-45440 


— 0-73637 


0-4 


+ 0-20000 


— 0-38667 


— 0-79413 


- 1-05263 


0-5 


+ 0-00000 


- 0-66667 


- 1-06667 


— 1-25714 


0-6 


- 0-20000 


- 0-92000 


- 1-27520 


— 1-36105 


0-7 


- 0-40000 


— 1-14667 


- 1-42293 


- 1-35715 


0-8 


- 0-60000 


- 1-34667 


- 1-51307 


— 1-30985 


0-9 


- 0-80000 


— 1-52000 


— 1-54880 


- 1-17522 


1-0 


- 1-00000 


- 1-66667 


— 1-53333 


- 0-98095 


1-2 


- 1-40000 


— 1-88000 


- 1-36160 


— 0-45042 


1-4 


- 1-80000 


— 1-98667 


- 1-02347 


+ 0-21152 


1-6 


- 2-20000 


- 1-98667 


— 0-54453 


+ 0-94051 


1-8 


— 2-60000 


- 1-88000 


+ 0-04960 


+ 1-67803 


20 


— 3-00000 


— 1-66667 


+ 0-73333 


+ 2-37143 


2-2 


— 3-40000 


- 1-34667 


+ 1-48107 


+ 2-97388 


2-4 


- 3-80000 


- 0-92000 


+ 2-26720 


+ 3-44443 


2-6 


- 4-20000 


— 0-38667 


+ 3-06613 


+ 3-74798 


2-8 


— 4-60000 


+ 0-25333 


+ 3-85227 


+ 3-85525 


3-0 


- 5-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 4-60000 


+ 3-74286 


3-5 


- 6-00000 


+ 3-33333 


+ 613333 


+ 2-40000 


4-0 


- 7-00000 


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+ 6-86667 


- 0-52381 


4-5 


- 8-00000 


+ 10-0000 


+ 6-40000 


- 4-91429 


50 


- 9-00000 ! 


+ 14-3333 


+ 4-33333 


—10-4286 


5-5 


-10-0000 


+ 19-3333 


+ 0-26667 


-16-4952 


6-0 


-11-0000 


+ 25-0000 


- 6-20000 


—22-3143 


6-5 


-12-0000 


+ 31-3333 


-15-4667 


—26-8571 


7-0 


— 13'0000 1 


+ 38-3333 


-27-9333 


—28-8667 


7-5 


-14-0000 


+46-0000 


-44-0000 


-26-8571 


8-0 

1 


—15-0000 


+54-3333 


-64-0667 


—19-1143 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



283 



M (a . f . x) 



X 


a=i 


«=! 


a=f 


a=5 


0-0 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


O-I 


+ 


1-03436 


+ 


1-10517 


+ 


1-17885 


+ 


1-26547 


0-2 


+ 


1-07086 


+ 


1-22140 


+ 


1-38426 


+ 


1-56014 


0-3 


+ 


1-10968 


+ 


1-34986 


+ 


1-61983 


+ 


1-92220 


0-4 


+ 


1-15098 


+ 


1-49182 


+ 


1-88964 


+ 


2-35112 


0-5 


+ 


1-19496 


+ 


1-64872 


+ 


2-19830 


+ 


2-85778 


0-6 


+ 


1-24181 


+ 


1-82212 


+ 


2-55097 


+ 


3-45474 


0-7 


+ 


1-29175 


+ 


2-01375 


+ 


2-95350 


+ 


4-15639 


0-8 


+ 


1-34503 


+ 


2-22554 


+ 


3-41250 


+ 


4-97928 


0-9 


+ 


1-40191 


+ 


2-45960 


+ 


3-93536 


+ 


5-94240 


1-0 


+ 


1-46265 


+ 


2-71828 


+ 


4-53047 


+ 


7-06753 


1-2 


+ 


1-59700 


+ 


3-32012 


+ 


5-97621 


+ 


9-90723 


1-4 


+ 


1-75083 


+ 


4-05520 


+ 


7-84005 


+ 


13-7444 


1-6 


+ 


1-92736 


+ 


4-95303 


+ 


10-2363 


+ 


18-9008 


1-8 


+ 


2-13041 


+ 


6-04965 


+ 


13-3092 


+ 


25-7957 


2-0 


+ 


2-36445 


+ 


7-38906 


+ 


17-2411 


+ 


34-9749 


2-2 


+ 


2-63478 


+ 


9-02501 


+ 


22-2617 


+ 


47-1467 


2-4 


+ 


2-94764 


+ 


11-0232 


+ 


28-6603 


+ 


63-2289 


2-6 


+ 


3-31041 


+ 


13-4637 


+ 


36-8009 


+ 


84-4087 


2-8 


+ 


3-73183 


+ 


16-4446 


+ 


47-1413 


+ 


112-218 


3-0 


+ 


4-22221 


+ 


20-0855 


+ 


60-2566 


+ 


148-633 


3-5 


+ 


5-83596 


+ 


331155 


+ 


110-385 


+ 


295-831 


4-0 


+ 


8-22631 


+ 


54-5982 


+ 


200-193 


+ 


578-740 


4-5 


+ 


11-7973 


+ 


900171 


+ 


360069 


+ 


1116-21 


5-0 


+ 


17-1722 


+ 


148-413 


+ 


643-124 


+ 


2127-26 


5-5 


+ 


25-3164 


+ 


244-692 


+ 


1141-90 


+ 


4012-95 


6-0 


+ 


37-7301 


+ 


403-429 


+ 


2017-14 


+ 


7503-78 


6-5 


+ 


56-7504 


+ 


665-142 


+ 


3547-42 


+ 13923-6 


7-0 


+ 


86-0296 


+ 1096-63 


+ 


6214-25 


+ 25661-2 


7-5 


+ 131-289 


+ 1808-04 


+ 10848-3 


+47009-1 


8-0 


+201-510 


+ 2980-96 


+ 18879-4 


+ 85652-9 



284 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . f . «) — cont. 



X 


a 


-i 


a- 


= -§ 


a=-f 


a 


-i 


0-0 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-1 


+ 


0-96633 


+ 


0-90100 


+ 


0-83831 


+ 


0-77817 


0-2 


+ 


0-93196 


+ 


0-80404 


+ 


0-68648 


+ 


0-57867 


0-3 


+ 


0-89687 


+ 


0-70913 


+ 


0-64435 


+ 


0-40054 


0-4 


+ 


0-86101 


+ 


0-61632 


+ 


0-41179 


+ 


0-24279 


0-5 


+ 


0-82436 


+ 


0-52562 


+ 


0-28865 


+ 


0-10446 


0-6 


+ 


0-78688 


+ 


0-43708 


+ 


0-17477 


— 


0-01539 


0-7 


+ 


0-74853 


+ 


0-35074 


+ 


0-07000 


— 


0-11771 


0-8 


+ 


0-70926 


+ 


0-26661 




0-02581 


— 


0-20341 


0-9 


+ 


0-66904 


+ 


0-18475 


— 


0-11281 


— 


0-27341 


1-0 


+ 


0-62782 


+ 


0-10520 


— 


0-19118 


— 


0-32862 


1-2 


+ 


0-54216 


— 


0-04685 


— 


0-32261 


— 


0-39818 


1-4 


+ 


0-45185 


— 


0-18919 


— 


0-42142 


— 


0-41907 


1-6 


+ 


0-35642 


— 


0-32145 


— 


0-48895 


— 


0-39805 


1-8 


+ 


0-25529 


— 


0-44325 


— 


0-52657 


— 


0-34169 


2-0 


+ 


0-14785 


— 


0-55415 


— 


0-53572 


— 


0-25634 


2-2 


+ 


0-03338 


— 


0-65369 


— 


0-51785 


— 


0-14813 


2-4 




0-08893 


— 


0-74136 


— 


0-47448 


— 


0-02300 


2-6 


— 


0-22000 


— 


0-81660 


— 


0-40718 


+ 


0-11337 


2-8 


— 


0-36088 


— 


0-87883 


— 


0-31756 


+ 


0-25552 


3-0 


— 


0-51276 


— 


0-92736 


— 


0-20730 


+ 


0-39821 


3-5 


— 


0-95014 


— 


0-98392 


+ 


0-14710 


+ 


0-72527 


4-0 


— 


1-49302 


— 


0-93681 


+ 


0-59038 


+ 


0-95449 


4-5 


— 


2-18044 


— 


0-76887 


+ 


1-09022 


+ 


1-02566 


5-0 


— 


3-06813 


— 


0-45788 


+ 


1-61038 


+ 


0-89006 


5-5 


— 


4-23626 


+ 


0-02527 


+ 


2-10970 


+ 


0-51163 


6-0 


— 


5-80091 


+ 


0-71908 


+ 


2-54092 


+ 


0-13181 


6-5 


— 


7-93132 


+ 


1-67505 


+ 


2-84896 


— 


1-04691 


7-0 


— 


10-8756 


+ 


2-96278 


+ 


2-96883 


— 


2-22284 


7-5 


— 


14-9998 


+ 


4-67721 


+ 


2-82267 


— 


3-62892 


8-0 


— 


20-8460 


+ 


6-94901 


+ 


2-31583 


— 


5-21156 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



285 







M(a.5.«)— cont. 








X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-1 


+ 1-06941 


+ 1-14165 


+ 


1-21679 


+ 


1-29492 


0-2 


+ 1-14464 


+ 1-30125 


+ 


1-47052 


+ 


1-65320 


0-3 


+ 1-22620 


+ 1-48096 


+ 


1-76680 


+ 


2-08639 


0-4 


+ 1-31468 


+ 1-68321 


+ 


2-11198 


+ 


2-60797 


0-5 


+ 1-41069 


+ 1-91069 


+ 


2-51336 


+ 


3-23359 


0-6 


+ 1-51491 


+ 2-16641 


+ 


2-97920 


+ 


3-98144 


0-7 


-f 1^62811 


+ 2-45373 


+ 


3-51894 


+ 


4-87264 


0-8 


+ 1-75109 


■i- 2-77642 


+ 


4-14332 


+ 


5-93166 


0-9 


+ 1-88475 


+ 3-13866 


+ 


4-86453 


+ 


7-18682 


10 


+ 2-03008 


+ 3-54512 


+ 


5-69644 


+ 


8-67091 


1-2 


+ 2-36010 


+ 4-51217 


+ 


7-75750 


+ 


12-4832 


1-4 


+ 2-75103 


+ 6-72695 


+ 


10-4798 


+ 


17-7468 


1-6 


+ 3-21467 


+ 7-25081 


+ 


14-0605 


+ 


24-9643 


1-8 


+ 3-76523 


+ 9-16002 


+ 


18-7527 


+ 


34-8008 


20 


+ 4-41972 


+ 11-5493 


+ 


24-8810 


+ 


48-1342 


2-2 


+ 6-19860 


+ 14-5362 


+ 


32-8604 


+ 


66-1202 


2-4 


+ 6-12642 


+ 18-2666 


+ 


43-2216 


+ 


90-2764 


2-6 


+ 7-23273 


+ 22-9215 


+ 


66-6415 


+ 


122-591 


2-8 


+ 8-55302 


+ 28-7250 


+ 


73-9829 


+ 


165-663 


30 


+ 10-1300 


+ 35-9550 


+ 


96-3439 


+ 


222-882 


3-5 


+ 15-5592 


+ 62-7368 


+ 


184-321 


+ 


460-153 


40 


+ 24-0800 


+ 108-860 


+ 


347-775 


+ 


930-933 


4-5 


+ 37-5051 


+ 188-025 


+ 


648-712 


+ 


1852-12 


60 


+ 58-7290 


+ 323-509 


+ 


1198-48 


+ 


3633-42 


6-6 


+ 92-3820 


+ 664-792 


+ 


2196-07 


+ 


7042-85 


6-0 


+ 145-883 


+ 948-740 


+ 


3995-68 


+ 


13510-5 


6-5 


+ 231-213 


+ 1618-45 


+ 


7225-24 


+ 


25683-3 


7-0 


+ 367-264 


+2754-98 


+ 12994-3 


+ 


48434-1 


7-5 


+585-027 


+4680-72 


+ 23257-3 


+ 


90689-0 


8-0 


+933-960 


+7939-16 


+41447-1 


+ 168727 



286 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . § . x) — cont. 



X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-1 


+0-93333 


+0-86933 


+0-80792 


+0-74903 


0-2 


+0-86667 


+0-74400 


+ 0-63139 


+0-52826 


0-3 


+0-80000 


+0-62400 


+ 0-46994 


+0-33691 


0-4 


+0-73333 


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+0-32312 


+0-17026 


0-5 


+0-66667 


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+0-19048 


+0-02963 


0-6 


+0-60000 


+0-29600 


+0-07154 


—0-08763 


0-7 


+0-53333 


+0-19733 


—0-03413 


—0-18313 


0-8 


+0-46667 


+ 0-10400 


—0-12701 


-0-25844 


0-9 


+0-40000 


+0-01600 


-0-20754 


—0-31506 


1-0 


+ 0-33333 


-0-06667 


-0-27619 


—0-35450 


1-2 


+0-20000 


-0-21600 


-0-37966 


-0-38752 


1-4 


+0-06667 


-0-34400 


-0-44107 


-0-36856 


1-6 


—0-06667 


-0-45067 


-O-46408 


-0-30801 


1-8 


-0-20000 


-0-53600 


-0-45234 


-0-21563 


2-0 


-0-33333 


-0-60000 


-0-40952 ■ 


-0-10053 


2-2 


-0-46667 


-0-64267 


-0-33928 


+0-02885 


2-4 


-0-60000 


-0-66400 


-0-24526 


+0-16471 


2-6 


-0-73333 


-0-66400 


-0-13112 


+0-29989 


2-8 


-0-86667 


-0-64267 


-0-00053 


+0-42789 


3-0 


-1-00000 


-0-60000 


+0-14286 


+0-54286 


3-5 


-1-33333 


-0-40000 


+0-53333 


+0-74074 


4-0 


-1-66667 


-0-06667 


+0-92381 


+0-76296 


4-5 


-2-00000 


+0-40000 


+ 1-25714 


+0-57143 


5-0 


-2-33333 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-47619 


+0-15344 


5-5 


-2-66667 


+ 1-73333 


+ 1-52381 


-0-47831 


6-0 


-3-00000 


+ 2-60000 


+ 1-34286 


-1-28571 


6-5 


-3-33333 


+ 3-60000 


+0-87619 


-2-20529 


7-0 


-3-66667 


+4-73333 


+0-06667 


-3-14815 


7-6 


-4-00000 


+ 6-00000 


-1-14286 


-4-00000 


8-0 


-4-33333 


+7-40000 


-2-80952 


-4-62116 



ON CALCULATION OF MA.THEMATICAL TABLES. 



287 







M(a.-i. 


X) 




X 


a=J 


a=i 


a=| 


a=l 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-1 


+ 0-88414 


+ 0-61890 


+ 0-30650 


- 0-05611 


0-2 


+ 0-73284 


+ 0-04886 


— 0-85661 


— 2-01170 


0-3 


+ 0-53994 


- 0-75592 


— 2-63492 


— 6-20692 


0-4 


+ 0-29836 


- 1-84986 


- 6-20746 


- 10-0698 


0-5 


+ 0-00000 


— 3-29744 


— 8-79318 


— 17-1467 


0-6 


- 0-36442 


- 5-17482 


- 13-6586 


- 27-1172 


0-7 


— 0-80560 


- 7-57171 


- 20-1268 


- 40-8284 


0-8 


- 1-33532 


- 10-5936 


— 28-5878 


— 59-3290 


0-9 


- 1-96768 


- 14-3641 


- 39-5111 


— 83-9114 


1-0 


- 2-71828 


— 19-0280 


— 53-4596 


- 116-161 


1-2 


- 4-64816 


— 31-7403 


— 93-2554 


— 211-836 


1-4 


— 7-29936 


— 60-4467 


- 155-060 


— 367-430 


1-6 


— 10-8967 


- 77-4654 


- 248-854 


— 613-786 


1-8 


— 15-7291 


- 115-911 


— 388-681 


— 995-563 


2-0 


- 22-1672 


— 169-948 


- 593-588 


— 1576-82 


2-2 


— 30-6850 


- 245-119 


- f90-540 


— 2448-72 


2-4 


- 41-8881 


— 348-773 


- 1315-99 


- 3740-00 


2-6 


- 56-5477 


— 490-619 


- 1919-79 


— 5631-36 


2-8 


— 75-6454 


- 683-440 


— 2769-59 


- 8374-90 


3-0 


- 100-428 


— 944-020 


— 3956-85 


— 12320-5 


3-5 


- 198-693 


— 2053-16 


— 9316-48 


— 31075-6 


4-0 


— 382-187 


- 4313-25 


- 21056-7 


— 74839-6 


4-5 


- 720-137 


- 8821-68 


— 46088-8 


— 173769 


5-0 


-1335-72 


—17661-2 


- 98299-0 


— 391662 


5-5 


—2446-92 


-34746-3 


-205215 


— 861250 


6-0 


-4437-72 


-67372-6 


-420776 


—1864724 



288 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . — J . x) — cont. 



X 


a=-k 


a=-§ 


«=-! 


a=-J 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-1 


+ 1-10517 


+ 1-28483 


+ 1-42584 


+ 1-53080 


0-2 


+ 1-22140 


+ 1-53863 


+ 1-70673 


+ 1-74620 


0-3 


+ 1-34986 


+ 1-76029 


+ 1-84785 


+ 1-68012 


0-4 


+ 1-49182 


+ 1-94865 


+ 1-85444 


+ 1-36578 


0-5 


+ 1-64872 


+ 2-10248 


+ 1-73189 


+ 0-83567 


0-6 


+ 1-82212 


+ 2-22046 


+ 1-48569 


+ 0-12153 


0-7 


+ 2-01375 


+ 2-30117 


+ 1-12148 


- 0-74565 


0-8 


+ 2-22554 


+ 2-34312 


+ 0-64500 


- 1-73566 


0-9 


+ 2-45960 


+ 2-34471 


+ 0-06214 


- 2-81904 


10 


+ 2-71828 


+ 2-30424 


- 0-62106 


- 3-96716 


1-2 


+ 3-32012 


+ 2-08967 


- 2-26361 


- 6-34704 


1-4 


+ 4-05520 


+ 1-68326 


— 4-23121 


— 8-66245 


1-6 


+ 4-95303 


+ 1-06653 


- 6-46967 


— 10-7142 


1-8 


+ 6-04965 


+ 0-?1826 


- 8-92169 


— 12-3171 


2-0 


+ 7-38906 


- 0-88598 


—11-5266 . 


- 13-3007 


2-2 


+ 9-02501 


— 2-27432 


-14-2198 


- 13-5099 


2-4 


+ 11-0232 


- 3-97925 


-16-9327 


- 12-8053 


2-6 


+ 13-4637 


— 6-03840 


-19-5918 


- 11-0642 


2-8 


+ 16-4446 


- 8-49538 


-22-1184 


— 8-18138 


30 


+ 20-0855 


- 11-4009 


-24-4279 


- 4-06981 


3-5 


+ 33-1155 


— 21-0383 


—28-6349 


+ 11-9804 


4-0 


+ 54-5982 


— 35-1007 


-29-2461 


+ 36-5644 


4-5 


+ 90-0171 


- 55-4061 


-24-2136 


+ 69-2576 


5-0 


+ 148-413 


- 84-6710 


-10-9422 


+ 108-574 


6-5 


+244-692 


—126-987 


+ 13-9218 


+ 151-772 


6-0 


+403-429 


-188-554 


+54-7948 


+ 194-596 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



289 







M(a.-i.a;)— 


cont. 






X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


01 


+ 0-75722 


+ 0-46878 


+ 


0-13167 


- 0-25724 


0-2 


+ 0-41686 


- 0-37448 


— 


1-40111 


— 2-69225 


0-3 


- 004143 


- 1-61601 


— 


3-82664 


— 6-78836 


0-4 


- 0-64139 


- 3-36004 


— 


7-43036 


- 13-1698 


0-5 


1-41069 


- 5-73206 


— 


12-5668 


- 22-6351 


0-6 


— 2-38148 


— 8-88258 


— 


19-6737 


— 36-1982 


0-7 


— 3-59110 


— 12-9915 





29-2891 


— 55-1370 


0-8 


— 5-08280 


— 18-2732 


— 


42-0706 


— 81-0529 


0-9 


— 6-90660 


— 24-9825 


— 


58-8194 


— 115-942 


1-0 


— 9-12031 


- 33-4211 


— 


80-5076 


— 162-278 


1-2 


- 14-9942 


— 56-9785 


_ 


143-646 


- 302-216 


1-4 


— 23-3680 


— 92-6354 


— 


244064 


— 534-628 


1-6 


— 35-1182 


— 145-485 


— 


399-831 


- 909-811 


1-8 


- 51-3974 


- 222-509 


— 


636-655 


— 1501-82 


2-0 


- 73-7155 


- 333-220 


— 


990-820 


- 2418-57 


2-2 


- 104-045 


- 490-511 


— 


151315 


— 3815-89 


2-4 


- 144-953 


- 711-768 


— 


2274-41 


- 5917-02 


2-6 


- 199-773 


- 1020-34 


— 


3372-50 


- 9039-51 


2-8 


— 272-823 


- 1447-46 


— 


4942-20 


— 13632-1 


3-0 


- 369-680 


- 2034-74 


— 


7168-18 


- 20325-4 


3-5 


— 768-401 


- 4611-90 


— 


17487-1 


- 52909-8 


40 


— 1548-12 


- 10064-3 


— 


40838-1 


- 131192 


4-5 


— 3045-91 


-^ 21322-9 


— 


92145-5 


- 312990 


5-0 


- 5881-90 


- 44115-7 




202197 


— 723621 


5-5 


-11188-2 


- 89507>3 


-433551 


—1629779 


6-0 


-21018-2 


-178656 


^< 


911671 


-3590197 



192G 



U 



290 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 







M(a.-i.x)— 


cont. 




X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-1 


+ 1-20000 


+ 1-36000 


+ 1-48267 


+ 1-57056 


0-2 


+ 1-40000 


+ 1-64000 


+ 1-74133 


+ 1-72363 


0-3 


+ 1-60000 


+ 1-84000 


+ 1-79200 


+ 1-51936 


0-4 


+ 1-80000 


+ 1-96000 


+ 1-65067 


+ 1-01536 


0-5 


+ 2-00000 


+ 2-00000 


+ 1-33333 


+ 0-26667 


0-6 


+ 2-20000 


+ 1-96000 


+ 0-85600 


- 0-67424 


0-7 


+ 2-40000 


+ 1-84000 


+ 0-23467 


- 1-75744 


0-8 


+ 2-60000 


+ 1-64000 


— 0-51467 


- 2-93557 


0-9 


+ 2-80000 


+ 1-36000 


- 1-37600 


- 4-16384 


10 


+ 3-00000 


+ 1-00000 


- 2-33333 


— 5-40000 


1-2 


+ 3-40000 


+ 0-04000 


- 4-47200 


— 7-73984 


1-4 


+ 3-80000 


- 1-24000 


- 6-80267 


- 9-66837 


1-6 


+ 4-20000 


— 2-84000 


- 9-19733 


- 10-9398 


1-8 


+ 4-60000 


- 4-76000 


- 11-5280 


- 11-3494 


20 


+ 5-00000 


- 7-00000 


- 13-6667 . 


- 10-7333 


2-2 


+ 5-40000 


- 9-56000 


— 15-4853 


- 8-96864 


2-4 


+ 5-80000 


- 12-4400 


— 16-8560 


- 5-97344 


2-6 


+ 6-20000 


- 15-6400 


— 17-6507 


— 1-70677 


2-8 


+ 6-60000 


- 19-1600 


— 17-7413 


+ 3-83136 


30 


+ 7-00000 


— 23-0000 


- 17-0000 


+ 10-6000 


3-5 


+ 8-00000 


— 34-0000 


- 10-6667 


+ 32-2667 


4-0 


+ 9-00000 


— 47-0000 


+ 3-66667 


+ 58-6000 


4-5 


+ 10-0000 


- 62-0000 


+■ 28-0000 


+ 85-6000 


5-0 


+ 11-0000 


— 79-0000 


+ 64-3333 


+ 107-667 


5-5 


+ 12-0000 


- 98-0000 


+ 114-667 


+ 117-600 


6-0 


+ 13-0000 


-119-000 


+ 181-000 


+ 106-600 


6-5 


+ 14-0000 


-142-000 


+265-333 


+ 64-2667 


7-0 


+ 15-0000 


-167000 


+ 369-667 


+ 21-4000 


7-5 


+ 16-0000 


-194-000 


+496-000 


-164-000 


8-0 


+ 17-0000 


-223 000 


+ 646-333 


-378-733 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



291 











M (a . - f 


X) 








X 


a=4 


a=3 


«=f 


«=5 i 


00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1 
1-00000 


0-1 


+ 


0-97255 


+ 


0-93129 


+ 


0-91086 


+ 


0-91460 


0-2 


+ 


0-96084 


+ 


0-95432 


+ 


1-06854 


+ 


1-33676 


0-3 


+ 


0-97190 


+ 


1-12308 


+ 


1-65007 


+ 


2-69125 


0-4 


+ 


1-01444 


+ 


1-50774 


+ 


2-89639 


+ 


5-68167 


0-5 


+ 


1-09915 


+ 


2-19830 


+ 


5-12936 


+ 


10-8449 


0-6 


+ 


1-23904 


+ 


3-30897 


+ 


8-77241 


+ 


19-6193 


0-7 


+ 


1-44990 


+ 


4-98337 


+ 


14-3759 


+ 


33-4291 


0-8 


+ 


1-75076 


+ 


7-40067 


+ 


22-6475 


+ 


64-2896 


0-9 


+ 


2-16445 


+ 


10-7829 


+ 


34-4895 


+ 


84-8364 


I-O 


+ 


2-71828 


+ 


15-4036 


+ 


51-0433 


+ 


128-484 


1-2 


+ 


4-38265 


+ 


29-7748 


+ 


104-379 


+ 


273-848 


1-4 


+ 


7-08308 


+ 


54-1667 


+ 


198-889 


+ 


541-824 


1-6 


+ 


11-2929 


+ 


93-9227 


+ 


359-366 


+ 


1014-07 


1-8 


+ 


17-6650 


+ 


156-758 


+ 


623-056 


+ 


1817-73 


20 


+ 


27-0932 


+ 


253-691 


+ 


1045-14 


+ 


3147-57 


2-2 


+ 


40-7931 


+ 


400-301 


+ 


1706-43 


+ 


5297-88 


2-4 


+ 


60-4070 


■f 


618-444 


+ 


2724-03 


+ 


8708-03 


2-6 


+ 


88-1426 


+ 


938-548 


+ 


4266-18 


+ 


14027-2 


2-8 


+ 


126-953 


+ 


1402-71 


+ 


6572-60 


+ 


22205-7 


30 


+ 


180-770 


+ 


2068-81 


+ 


9982-51 


+ 


34623-4 


3-5 


+ 


419-462 


+ 


5210-16 


+ 


26948-6 


+ 


99458-2 


40 


+ 


928-169 


+ 


12430-2 


+ 


68581-3 


+ 


268153 


4-5 


+ 


1980-38 


+ 


28445-4 


+ 


166712 


+ 


688019 


50 


+ 


4106-10 


+ 


62976-7 


+ 


390640 


+ 1696181 


5-5 


+ 


8319-53 


+ 135722 


+ 


888177 


+4046095 


6-0 


+ 16540-6 


+ 286031 


+ 1969136 


+9388030 

1 



292 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 









M(a.-f .«)— 


cont. 






X 




a=-i 


«=-i 


«=-§ 


oc=-5 


0-0 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


01 


+ 


1-03149 


+ 1-10517 


+ 


1-19083 


+ 1-28588 


0-2 


+ 


1-06855 


+ 1-22140 


+ 


1-42655 


+ 1-65412 


0-3 


+ 


1-07989 


+ 1-34986 


+ 


1-70192 


+ 2-07149 


0-4 


+ 


1-09400 


+ 1-49182 


+ 


2-01147 


+ 2-50598 


0-5 


+ 


1-09915 


+ 1-64872 


+ 


2-34955 


+ 2-92685 


0-6 


+ 


1-09327 


+ 1-82212 


+ 


2-71030 


+ 3-30458 


0-7 


+ 


1-07400 


+ 2-01375 


+ 


3-08763 


+ 3-61099 


0-8 


+ 


1-03859 


+ 2-22554 


+ 


3-47521 


+ 3-81920 


0-9 


+ 


0-98384 


+ 2-45960 


+ 


3-86643 


+ 3-90371 


1-0 


+ 


0-90609 


+ 2-71828 


+ 


4-25444 


+ 3-84040 


1-2 


+ 


0-66402 


+ 3-32012 


+ 


4-99185 


+ 3-18097 


1-4 


+ 


0-27035 


+ 4-05520 


+ 


5-62625 


+ 1-67712 


1-6 




0-33020 


+ 4-95303 


_L 


6-09067 


— 0-81031 


1-8 


— 


1-20993 


+ 6-04965 


+ 


6-31155 


— 4-39448 


2-0 


— 


2-46302 


+ 7-38906 


+ 


6-20775 


- 9-16102 


2-2 


— 


4-21167 


+ 9-02501 


+ 


5-68935 


- 15-1664 


2-4 


— 


6-61391 


+ 11-0232 


+ 


4-65638 


- 22-4359 


2-6 


. — 


9-87341 


+ 13-4637 


+ 


2-99718 


— 30-9619 


2-8 


— 


14-2520 


+ 16-4446 


+ 


0-58660 


— 40-7010 


30 


— . 


20-0855 


+ 20-0855 





2-71621 


— 51-6719 


3-5 


— 


44-1539 


+ 33-1155 





15-9738 


— 82-7886 


4-0 


— 


90-9969 


+ 54-5982 


— 


39 0038 


—116-993 


4-5 


— 


180-034 


+ 90-0171 


— 


76-2011 


—148-842 


5-0 


— 


346-297 


+ 148-413 


-133-824 


-170-297 


5-5 


— 


652-512 


+ 244-692 


-220-925 


-169-879 


6-0 


-1210-29 


+403-429 


—350-786 


-127-607 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



293 



M (a . — ij . x) — cont. 



X 


a=l 


a=2 




a=3 




a = 4 


00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-1 


+ 


0-94952 


+ 


0-91827 


+ 


0-90949 


+ 


0-92664 


0-2 


+ 


0-94442 


+ 


0-99435 


+ 


118116 


+ 


1-54013 


0-3 


+ 


1-00829 


+ 


1-33149 


+ 


2-09682 


+ 


3-45449 


0-4 


+ 


1-17104 


+ 


2-06705 


+ 


4-04848 


+ 


7-56042 


0-5 


+ 


1-47023 


+ 


3-38091 


+ 


7-66984 


+ 


15-1149 


0-6 


+ 


1-95259 


+ 


5-50562 


+ 


13-3751 


+ 


27-8644 


0-7 


+ 


2-67585 


+ 


8-73855 


+ 


22-4068 


+ 


48-1374 


0-8 


+ 


3-71082 


+ 


13-4565 


+ 


36-8942 


+ 


79-1224 


0-9 


+ 


5-14396 


+ 


20-1334 


+ 


55-4251 


+ 


124-990 


10 


+ 


7-08021 


+ 


29-3609 


+ 


83-0327 


+ 


191-218 


1-2 


+ 


12-9954 


+ 


68-5782 


+ 


174-495 


+ 


415-268 


1-4 


+ 


22-8102 


+ 


109-270 


+ 


337-063 


+ 


836-049 


1-6 


+ 


38-4595 


+ 


193-643 


+ 


620-130 


+ 


1590-59 


1-8 


+ 


62-6768 


+ 


329-687 


+ 


1093-67 


+ 


2895-86 


20 


+ 


99-2874 


+ 


543-580 


+ 


1864-67 


+ 


5089-43 


2-2 


+ 


153-599 


+ 


873-015 


+ 


3092-31 


+ 


8688-94 


2-4 


+ 


232-924 


+ 


1371-75 


+ 


5010-81 


+ 


14478-0 


2-6 


+ 


347-273 


+ 


2115-87 


+ 


7961-53 


+ 


23630-0 


2-8 


+ 


610-269 


+ 


3212-19 


+ 


12437-6 


+ 


37884-3 


30 


+ 


740-361 


+ 


4809-85 


+ 


19146-2 


+ 


59797-0 


3-5 


+ 


1793-93 


+ 


125550 


+ 


63358-3 


+ 


176815 


4-0 


+ 


4129-32 


+ 


30967-4 


+ 


139869 


+ 


489713 


4-5 


+ 


9138-73 


+ 


73107-3 


+ 


349644 


+ 1288514 


50 


+ 19607-3 


+ 166660 


+ 


840661 


+ 3252722 


5-5 


+41024-5 


+369218 


+ 1968906 


+ 7934763 

i 



294 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC 



M (a . — § . x) — cont. 



X 


a= -1 


a= -2 


a= -3 


"- 1 


0-0 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-1 


+ 1-06667 


+ 1-14667 


+ 


1-23733 


+ 


1-33618 


0-2 


+ 113333 


+ 1-32000 


+ 


1-53867 


+ 


1-77084 


0-3 


+ 1-20000 


+ 1-52000 


+ 


1-88800 


+ 


2-24640 


0-4 


+ 1-26667 


+ 1-74667 


+ 


2-26933 


+ 


2-70951 


0-5 


+ 1-33333 


+ 2-00000 


-f 


2-66667 


+ 


3-11111 


0-6 


+ 1-40000 


+ 2-28000 


+ 


3-06400 


+ 


3-40640 


0-7 


+ 1-46667 


+ 2-58667 


+ 


3-44533 


+ 


3-55484 


0-8 


+ 1-53333 


+ 2-92000 


+ 


3-79467 


+ 


3-52018 


0-9 


+ 1-60000 


+ 3-28000 


+ 


4-09600 


+ 


3-27040 


1-0 


+ 1-66667 


+ 3-66667 


+ 


4-33333 


+ 


2-77778 


1-2 


+ 1-80000 


+ 4-52000 


+ 


4-55200 


+ 


0-97440 


1-4 


+ 1-93333 


+ 5-48000 


+ 


4-32267 


— 


2-02649 


1-6 


+ 2-06667 


+ 6-54667 


+ 


3-51733 


— 


6-29316 


1-8 


+ 2-20000 


+ 7-72000 


+ 


2-00800 


— 


11-8256 


2-0 


+2-33333 


+ 9-00000 


— 


0-33333 


— 


18-5556 


2-2 


+2-46667 


+ 10-3867 


— 


3-63467 


— 


26-3465 


2-4 


+2-60000 


+ 11-8800 


— 


8-02400 


— 


34-9936 


2-6 


+ 2-73333 


+ 13-4800 


— 


13-6293 


— 


44-2238 


2-8 


+2-86667 


+ 15-1867 


— 


20-5787 


— 


53-6958 


30 


+ 3-00000 


+ 17-0000 


— 


29-0000 


— 


63-0000 


3-5 


+ 3-33333 


+ 22-0000 


— 


57-3333 


— 


82-2222 


4-0 


+3-66667 


+ 27-6667 


— 


97-6667 


— 


87-8889 


4-5 


+4-00000 


+ 34-0000 


— 


152-000 


— 


68-0000 


5-0 


+ 4-33333 


+41-0000 


— 


222-333 





7-88889 


5-5 


+4-66667 


+48-6667 


— 


310-667 


+ 


109-778 


6-0 


+5-00000 


+57-0000 


— 


419-000 


+ 


305-000 


6-5 


+ 5-33333 


+ 66-0000 




549-333 ' 


+ 


600-444 


7-0 


+5-66667 


+ 75-6667 


i 


703-667 


+ 1021-44 


7-5 


+6-00000 


+86-0000 


1 


884-000 


1 +1596-00 


8-0 


+ 6-33333 


+97-0000 


•~~* 


1092-33 


+2354-78 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



295 



Hyperbolic Sines and Cosines, Sinh x and Cosh x. 

The exponential and other functions were calculated by Bretschneider* to twenty 
places of decimals for the first ten integer values of x. Tables of the first hundred 
multiples of e°'' and e~°'' were constructed to the same number of places to find inter- 
mediate values of both e' and e~^ : the results were checked by comparing the values 
of, say, e"-' obtained from e'-° and e^-". The calculations were carried to eighteen or 
more decimals : fifteen places are given in the following tables of sinh x and cosh x. 



X 


Sinh X 


X 


Sinh X 


0-1 


0-10016 


67500 


19844 


5-1 


82-00790 


52766 


68114 


0-2 


0-20133 


60025 


41094 


5-2 


90-63336 


26553 


65209 


0-3 


0-30452 


02934 


47143 


5-3 


100-16590 


91904 


42387 


0-4 


0-41075 


23258 


02816 


5-4 


110-70094 


98116 


22237 


0-5 


0-52109 


53054 


93747 


5-5 


122-34392 


27463 


90962 


0-6 


0-63665 


35821 


48241 


5-6 


135-21135 


47812 


18073 


0-7 


0-75858 


37018 


39534 


5-7 


149-43202 


75008 


01381 


0-8 


0-88810 


59821 


87623 


5-8 


165-14826 


61774 


61639 


0-9 


1-02651 


67257 


08175 


5-9 


182-61736 


42102 


55004 


1-0 


M7520 


11936 


43801 


6-0 


201-71315 


73702 


79228 


11 


1-33564 


74701 


24177 


61 


222-92776 


36073 


98723 


1-2 


1-50946 


13554 


12173 


6-2 


246-37350 


58313 


09979 


1-3 


1-69838 


24372 


92616 


6-3 


272-28503 


69105 


76002 


1-4 


1-90430 


15014 


51534 


6-4 


300-92168 


81574 


04441 


1-5 


2-12927 


94550 


94817 


6-5 


332-57006 


48025 


84432 


1-6 


2-37556 


79532 


00230 


6-6 


367-54691 


44369 


67674 


1-7 


2-64563 


19338 


37233 


6-7 


406-20229 


71278 


20220 


1-8 


2-94217 


42880 


95680 


6-8 


448-92308 


89376 


34926 


1-9 


3-26816 


29115 


28317 


6-9 


496-13685 


39097 


98414 


20 


3-62686 


04078 


47019 


7-0 


548-31612 


32732 


46522 


21 


4-02185 


67421 


57334 


7-1 


605-98312 


46938 


26728 


2-2 


4-45710 


61705 


35894 


7-2 


669-71500 


89043 


04727 


2-3 


4-93696 


18055 


45969 


7-3 


740-14962 


60228 


86014 


2-4 


5-46622 


92136 


76095 


7-4 


817-99190 


93715 


82705 


2-5 


6-05020 


44810 


39787 


7-5 


904-02093 


06858 


46630 


2-6 


6-69473 


22283 


93678 


7-6 


999-09769 


73263 


42259 


2-7 


7-40626 


31060 


66542 


7-7 


1104-17376 


95300 


12819 


2-8 


8-19191 


83542 


35916 


7-8 


1220-30078 


39447 


60049 


2-9 


9-05956 


10746 


93327 


7-9 


1348-64097 


87624 


84194 


30 


10-01787 


49274 


09902 


8-0 


1490-47882 


57895 


50186 


3-1 


11-07645 


10395 


24038 


8-1 


1647-23388 


58723 


51627 


3-2 


12-24588 


39965 


65491 


8-2 


1820-47501 


63393 


92375 


3-3 


13-53787 


78766 


28324 


8-3 


2011-93607 


26527 


41367 


3-4 


14-96536 


33887 


18344 


8-4 


2223-53326 


14162 


65953 


3-5 


16-54262 


72876 


34998 


8-5 


2457-38431 


84153 


82682 


3-6 


18-28545 


53606 


15348 


8-6 


2715-82970 


36285 


93327 


3-7 


20-21129 


04167 


98526 


8-7 


3001-45602 


63376 


05496 


3-8 


22-33940 


68607 


22329 


8-8 


3317-12192 


77724 


05032 


3-9 


24-69110 


35970 


42185 


8-9 


3665-98670 


13835 


33212 


4-0 


27-28991 


71971 


27762 


! 90 


4051-54190 


20827 


89961 


41 


30-16185 


74609 


80104 


' 91 


4477-64629 


59083 


51610 


4-2 


33-33566 


77320 


52332 


9-2 


4948-56447 


88522 


57025 


4-3 


36-84311 


25702 


91798 


9-3 


5469-00955 


83704 


76138 


4-4 


40-71929 


56625 


32525 


9-4 


6044-19032 


37464 


59420 


4-5 


46-00301 


11519 


91786 


9-5 


6679-86337 


74050 


21194 


4-6 


49-73713 


19030 


94588 


1 9-6 


7382-39074 


89242 


68062 


4-7 


54-96903 


85875 


10902 


9-7 


8168-80356 


83659 


68590 


4-8 


60-75109 


38858 


42930 


9-8 


9016-87243 


61884 


55907 


4-9 


67-14116 


65509 


32280 


1 9-9 


9965-18519 


40278 


03717 


5-0 


74-20321 


05777 


88759 


100 


11013-23287 


47033 


93377 



* C. A. Bretschneider. Archiv der Math. v. Phya., Band 3, 1843, s. 28-34. 



296 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



X 


Cosh X 


X 


Cosh X 


01 


1-00500 


41680 


55804 


5-1 


82-01400 


20232 


33630 


0-2 


1-02006 


67556 


19076 


5-2 


90-63887 


92197 


85970 


0-3 


1-04533 


85141 


28860 


5-3 


100-17090 


07843 


49298 


0-4 


1-08107 


23718 


38455 


5-4 


110-70546 


63925 


64850 


0-5 


1-12762 


59652 


06381 


5-5 


122-34800 


95178 


29426 


0-6 


1-18546 


52182 


42268 


5-6 


135-21505 


26449 


34556 


0-7 


1-25516 


90056 


30943 


5-7 


149-43537 


34662 


58852 


0-8 


1-33743 


49463 


04845 


5-8 


165-15129 


37321 


97015 


0-9 


1-43308 


63854 


48774 


5-9 


182-52010 


36550 


73773 


10 


1-54308 


06348 


15244 


6-0 


201-71563 


61224 


55894 


11 


1-66851 


85538 


22256 


6-1 


222-93000 


64751 


18209 


1-2 


1-81065 


55673 


24375 


6-2 


246-37553 


52619 


46275 


1-3 


1-97091 


42303 


26628 


6-3 


272-28687 


32153 


53031 


1-4 


2-15089 


84653 


93141 


6-4 


300-92334 


97146 


77615 


1-5 


2-35240 


96152 


43247 


6-5 


332-57156 


82417 


77409 


1-6 


2-57746 


44711 


94885 


6-6 


367-54827 


48050 


05221 


1-7 


2-82831 


54578 


89967 


6-7 


406-20352 


80397 


22893 


1-8 


3-10747 


31763 


17266 


6-8 


448-92420 


27127 


82771 


1-9 


3-41773 


15307 


50952 


6-9 


496-13786 


16952 


27463 


2-0 


3-76219 


56910 


83631 


70 


548-31703 


51552 


12077 


21 


4-14431 


31704 


10316 


71 


605-98394 


97987 


49994 


2-2 


4-56790 


83288 


98227 


1 ■^•^ 


669-71575 


54901 


13103 


2-3 


503722 


06492 


68762 


7-3 


740- 15030 


15616 


60208 


2-4 


5-55694 


71669 


65507 


7-4 


817-99252 


06243 


43835 


2-5 


6-13228 


94796 


63686 


7-5 


904-02148 


37702 


16677 


2-6 


6-76900 


58066 


08012 


] 7-6 


999-09819 


77777 


75700 


2-7 


7-47346 


86188 


06292 


7-7 


1104-17422 


23571 


95705 


2-8 


8-25272 


84168 


61134 


7-8 


1220-30119 


36797 


39029 


2-9 


9-11458 


42947 


49734 


; 7-9 


1348-64134 


95060 


24653 


30 


1006766 


19957 


77766 


8-0 


1490-47916 


12521 


78089 


31 


11-12150 


02419 


17596 


81 


1647-23418 


94114 


89706 


3-2 


12-28664 


62005 


43857 


8-2 


1820-47529 


09929 


62347 


3-3 


13-57476 


10440 


29564 


8-3 


2011-93632 


11695 


68475 


3-4 


14-99873 


66586 


78670 


; 8-^ 


2223-63348 


62835 


90132 


3-5 


16-57282 


46710 


57316 


1 8-5 


2457-38452 


18837 


51693 


3-6 


18-31277 


90830 


62640 


8-6 


2715-82988 


77343 


86995 


3-7 


20-23601 


39432 


68865 


8-7 


3001-45619 


19234 


16484 


3-8 


22-36177 


76325 


78494 


8-8 


3317-12207 


85054 


80127 


3-9 


24-71134 


55084 


87989 


8-9 


3665-98683 


77724 


59694 


40 


27-30823 


28360 


16487 


9-0 


4051-54202 


54925 


94047 


41 


30-17843 


01363 


81865 


9-1 


4477-64640 


75741 


60100 


4-2 


33-35066 


33088 


72810 


9-2 


4948-56457 


98916 


58862 


4-3 


36-85668 


11293 


03999 


9-3 


5469-00964 


97947 


07616 


4-4 


40-73157 


30024 


35593 


1 9-4 


604419040 


64705 


24977 


4-5 


45-01412 


01485 


30028 


' 9-5 


6679-86345 


22568 


51082 


4-6 


49-74718 


37388 


39221 


9-6 


7382-39081 


66530 


04553 


4-7 


54-97813 


38646 


12597 


9-7 


8158-80362 


96494 


63643 


4-8 


60-75932 


36328 


91950 


9-8 


9016-87249 


16400 


55339 


4-9 


67-14861 


31340 


03205 


9-9 


9965-18524 


42024 


85773 


50 


74-20994 


85247 


87844 


10-0 


11013-23292 


01033 


23140 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



297 



Corrections of Logarithmic and Other Tables. 

Tables of Logarithms to 27 decimals : Fedor Thoman. Paris, 1867. 

Pages 42, 51 and 52. 
log ^ = 2-346787 486224 656320 623683 088 
log 45 = 1-653212 513775 343679 376316 912 
log 551 = 73-103680 711122 772280 05 

Tables of Logarithms of Factorials : Degen. Copenhagen, 1824. 
log 137!= 234-700088 066363 221083 500006 



log 185! = 


340-615162 


028791 


001231 


20.5096 


log 268 ! = 


535-962496 


022591 


207008 


492058 


log 345! = 


727-384095 


927392 


776589 


468706 


log 393! = 


850-614919 


208496 


417262 


475578 


log 397! = 


861-003498 


218637 


078989 


486725 



Tables of Bessel Functions — Meissel, reprinted in the Treatise on Bessel 
Functions, Gray and Mathews, first and second editions. 
Jo (0-62) =+0-906184 
Jo (1-89) = + 0-287631 
Jo (3-07)=— 0-282862 
Jo (5-90)= +0-122033 
Ji (7-87)= +0-214074 

Meissel's Tables of Jo{x) and Ji(a:) to twelve places of decimals were differenced 
some years ago and led to the discovery of a small number of errors : the tables of 
J,i(p) were checked by the various relations between the trigonometrical and the 
Bessel functions. 



297124 


J^ (5) =+0-391232 


360458 


648178 


264839 


J23(6) =+0- 


2 


495677 


262230 


J,o(14) = +0- 


16775 


399534 


354593 


Jhi(16)=+0- 


152594 


322163 


933156 









298 REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Photographs of Geological Interest,— Tiventy-second Report of 
Committee (Professors tu. J. Garwood, Chairman ; S. H. Reynolds, 
Secretary; Mr. G. Bingley, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. A. S. Reid, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. R. Welch). 

Since the publication of the previous report (Liverpool, 1923), the Committee has 
sufEered severe loss in the death of several of its oldest members, Dr. T. G. Bonney, 
Dr. R. Kidston, Sir J. J. H. Teall, and Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Since the issue of the previous report the Committee has had presented to it by 
Mr. F. W. Reader the great collection of geological negatives made by his brother the 
late Mr. T. W. Reader. These photographs were mainly taken on the excursions of the 
Geologists' Association, which Mr. T. W. Reader regularly attended for many years. 
They form an unique series, and are particularly important in the illustrations they 
afiord of the geology of the Home Counties, which have hitherto not been well repre- 
sented in the coUoction. A large proportion of the negatives were accompanied by 
one or more prints. Time has not yet allowed the whole to be thoroughly dealt with, 
but 611 prints from the Reader collection are listed in the present report. 

The Committee wish to repeat their very hearty thanks to Mr. F. W. Reader for 
his most valuable and important gift. 

The task of getting the Reader photographs described, prior to listing, was a very 
heavy one, and could not have been accomplished had not the Secretary received 
unstinted help from many geologists, including the leaders of the excursions on which 
many of the photographs were taken. The Committee are particularly indebted to 
Miss M. S. Johnston, who most kindly transcribed on to some hundreds of prints the 
information entered in Mr. Reader's own albums, which are now in her possession. 

Hearty thanks are tendered to the following for help in the description of the Reader 
photographs — Mr. G. Barrow, Dr. B. Pope Bartlett, Mr. C. J. Bayzand, Dr. H. H. 
Bemrose, Dr. F. W. Bennett, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. S. S. Buckman, Mr. E. St. 
J. Burton, Mr. H. Bury, Miss M. E. J. Chandler, Mr. R. H. Chandler, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, 
Prof. A. H. Cox, Prof. A. Morley Davies, Mr. E. H. Davison, Mr. G. E. Dibloy, Mr. E. 
E. L. Dixon, Mr. E. W. Handcock, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Mr. R. S. Herries, the Rev. 
E. Hill, Mr. J. W. Jackson, Prof. P. F. Kendall, Mr. W. B. R. King, Dr. W. D. Lang, 
Mr. A. L. Leach, Mr. H. W. Monckton, Dr. G. M. Part, Mr. R. W. Pocock, Mr. S. 
Priest, Mr. L. Richardson, Mr. H. C. Sargent, Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, Dr. R. L. 
Sherlock, Mr. LI. Treacher, Mr. J. W. Tutcher, Mr. G. W. Young. 

The Committee particularly wish to thank Dr. W. D. Lang for the very large 
amount of trouble he has taken in minutely describing, with the aid of lettered sketches, 
the photographs illustrating the Dorsetshire Lias. There is nothing in the Committee's 
collection to vie with these in artistic completeness. 

The total number of photographs listed in the present report is 869. 

In most years the collection received from the Isle of Wight would be the most 
important of the year. It forms a set of eighty, all photographed and described 
by Mr. J. F. Jackson, F.G.S., and was presented in part by Mr. F. Morey and m part 
after his lamented death by his sister Miss C. Morey. 

The Committee are glad to welcome new contributors in Mr. A. W. Coysh, Mr. 
C. S. Garnett, and Mr. G. G. Lewis. 

Mr. Tutcher sends a further series of his excellent photographs illustrating the Lias 
of Somerset, Mr. E. H. Davison a valuable series from Cornwall, and Mr. P. B. 
Roberts an interesting set from Wicklow. Mr. A. L. Leach and the Secretary contribute 
photographs from Norfolk. The Committee has acquired, by purchase, some of Mr. 
J. H. Savory's remarkable flashlight photographs of the Mendip caves and some of 
Mr. Amos's views of the Dover cliffs. Prof. Cox sends copies of photographs illustrating 
his papers on the geology of Cader Idris, and the Abereiddj' and Abercastle districts 
of Pembrokeshire. These were taken by Mr. N. G. Blackwell. 

The negatives of the published series of geological photographs which had been 
missing since before the war have fortunately been recovered, and prints and lantern 
shdes are obtainable through the Secretary at the following rates : — - 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



29» 



1st issue — 22 Bromide Prints, with letterpress, unmounted 



22 

„ 22 Lantern Slides 

2nd issue — 25 Bromide Prints 

» 2o ,, 

„ 25 Lantern Slides 

3rd issue — 23 Bromide Prints 

>> ^^ >> 

„ 23 Lantern Slides 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed 



mounted on cards 



unmounted 
mounted on cards 

unmounted 
mounted on cards 



£ 


«. 


c/. 


1 


13 





2 


4 





2 


4 





1 


18 





2 


10 





2 


10 





1 


14 


6 


2 


6 





2 


6 






TWENTY-SECOND LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

From September 1, 1923, to May 31, 1926. 

List of the geological photographs received and registered by the Secretary of 
the Committee since the pubKcation of the last report. 

Contributors are asked to afiBx the registered numbers, as given below, to their 
negatives, for convenience of future reference. Their own numbers are added in 
order to enable them to do so. Copies of photographs desired can, in most instances, 
be obtained from the photographer direct. The cost at which copies may be obtained 
depends on the size of the print and on local circumstances over which the Committee 
have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copjTight of any photograph included in 
this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications for permission to repro- 
duce them, should be addressed to the photographers direct. 
Copies of photographs should be sent, unmounted, to 

Professor S. H. Reyijolds, 

The University, Bristol, 
accompanied by descriptions written on a form prepared for the purpose, copies, 
of which may be obtamed from him. 

The size of the photographs is indicated as follows : — 

L=Lantern size. l/l=WhoIe plate. 

1/4= Quarter- plate. 10/8=10 inches by 8. 

l/2=HaL*-nlate. 12/10=12 mches by 10, &c. 

E signifies Enlargement. 



ACCESSIONS. 
England. 



Berkshire. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader a7id presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

Knowl HiU, between Maidenhead 

and Twyford 
Knowl HiU, between Maidenhead 



6311 

6312 

6313 

6314 
6315 
6316 



and Twyford 
Knowl HiU, between Maidenhead 

and Twyford 
Warren Row, near Wargrave 
Warren Row, near Wargrave 
Uffington . . . . 



Clay pit m Reading beds. 1911. 
Brickfield in Reading beds. 1911. 
Sun-cracked clay (Reading beds). 1911. 



6317 Ufl&ngton .... 

6318 Faringdon 

6319 Faringdon 

6320 Little CoxweU, Faringdon . 

6321 ( ) Little Coxwell, Faringdon 



Reading beds resting on chalk. 1911. 

Reading beds resting on chalk. 1911. 

Gault section in briek3'ard S. of station. 
1913. 

Gault section in brickyard S. of station - 
1913. 

L. Greensaud, Farmgdon Pit. 1913. 

L. Greensand, Faringdon Pit. 1913. 

L. Greensand fossils in reUef, WmdmiU 
Pit. 1913. 

Hard band in L. Greensand sponge- 
gravel, WindmiU Pit. 1913. 



300 

6322 
6323 
6324 
6325 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Little Coxwell, Faringdon 
Little Coxwell, Faringdon 
Little Coxwell, Faringdon 
Little Coxwell, Faringdon 



Sponge gravel, L. Greensand. 1913. 

Sponge gravel, L. Greensand. 1913. 

Sponge gravel, L. Greensand. 1913. 

Sponge gravel, L. Greensand. 1913. 



Buckinghamshire. 



-Photographed by the late T. W. 
sented by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 



Reader and pre- 



6326 

6327 

6328 

6329 
6330 
6331 
6332 



(1) Whiteleaf Hill, near Princes Escarpment of ChUtern Hills. 1912. 

Risboro 
(3) Whiteleaf Hill, near Princes 

Risboro 

(5) Near Longdown Farm, Princes 
Risboro 

(6) Chequers Park 

(7) Combe Hill, near Wendover . 
Penn Lands brickfield, Hedgerley 
Saunders' brickfield, Hedgerley . 



Pipe in Chalk filled with clay with flints. 

1912. 
Beech-trees on clay with flints. 1912. 



Combe in Chalk. 1912. 
Chalk escarpment. 1912. 
Section of Reading beds. 1910. 
Implement-bearing gravel overlying 
London clay. 1910. 



CaMBRIDC4ESHIRE.- 



6333 (4) LTpware. 

6334 (5) Upware. 

6335 (6) Upware. 



-Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented 
by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

S. pit . . . Coralline Oolite. 

S. pit . . . Coralline Oolite. 

N. end of S. pit . ' Rag ' beds formed of Thamnastrcea. 



Cornwall. — Photographed by the late T. 

F. W. Reader. 



W. Reader and presented by 
1/4. 



6336 (6) Land's End . 

6337 (5) Land's End . 

6338 (4) Land's End . 

6339 (1) Land's End . 

6340 (2) Land's End . 

6341 (3) Land's End and Longships 

6342 W. of Clodgy Point . 

6343 Zennor .... 

6344 Zennor .... 

6345 Zennor .... 

6346 Luxulyan Valley 

6347 Kynance Cove . 

6348 Lizard Point from above Housel 

Bay 

6349 Porth, 1 m. E. of Newquay 



Granite cliffs and' stacks. 

Well-jointed granite cliSs, joints nearly 

vertical. 
Well- jointed granite cliffs. 
Granite cliffs showing jointing. 
Granite cliffs. 
Granite cliffs and stacks. 
Slate cliffs and stacks and Pliocene 

peneplain. 
Sea caves in granite cliffs. 
Granite cliffs, principal joints inclined at 

angle of about 40°. 
Granite cliffs, principal joints inclined at 

angle of about 35°. 
Granite logau stone. 
Serpentine cliffs. 
Hornblende gneiss cliffs and inlet due to 

collapsed sea cave. 
Inlet in Devonian slate. 



Photographed by E. H. Davison, B.Sc, School of Mines, Camborne. 



21 X 31 



6350 Tvethosa, St. Stephen's 

6351 St. Stephen's . 

6352 Tremorebridge, near Lanivet 



Sluicing in china-clay pit. 

Tvethosa china-clay pit. 

Granite porphyry dyke in calc-flmta. 



Photographed under the direction of E. H. Davison, B.Sc, School of 
Mines, Camborne. Post-card and 1/4. 

6353 St. Michael's Mount . . . The island is half slate, half granite. 

1922. P.C. 

6354 St. Michael's Mount . . . Greisen veins in granite. P.C 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



301 



6355 Foreshore, S. side St. Michael's 

Mount 

6356 Gwithian, cliffs opposite Godrevy 

Lighthouse 

6357 Gwithian, cliffs opposite Godrevy 

Lighthouse 

6358 Cliffs at Godrevy, near Gwithian . 

6359 North Cliffs, Camborne 

6360 Mullion Is., Lizard 

6361 Ballswidden, St. Just-in-Pendcen . 

6362 Tregargas Qu., St. Stephen's 

6363 St. Erth sandpit 

6364 Cam Brea, Redruth . 

6365 Cam Brea, Redruth . 



Greisen bands in granite. 1/4. 



Undercutting by the sea. 1922. P.C. 

Disturbed lower Palaeozoic slates and grits. 

1922. P.C. 
Mylor slates folded and overthrust. P.C. 
Pliocene platform above slate cliffs. 

1922. P.C. 

Veryan rocks with spilite and radiolarian 

chert. 1922. P.C. 
Development of china-clay pit. 1/4. 
Quarry in china stone. 1922. P.C. 
Pliocene sands and clays. 1922. P.C. 
Granite tor, showing aplite veins. 1/4. 
Hollows in granite due to rain and wind. 

1923. pre. 



Derbyshire. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and ■presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 



6366 

6367 

6368 

6369 

6370 

6371 
6372 

6373 

6374 

6375 

6376 

6377 

6378 
6379 
6380 
6381 
6382 
6383 
6384 
6385 
6386 

6387 
6388 

6389 
6390 

6391 

6392 



l)TideswellDale 

4) Knott Low, Miller's Dale 

5) Knott Low, Miller's Dale 

6) Knott Low, Miller's Dale 

7) Knott Low, Miller's Dale 

8) Calton Hill, near Miller's Dale 

9) Calton Hill, near MiUer's Dale 

10) Calton Hill, near Miller'sDale 

11) Shothouse spring between 
Winster and Grange Mill 

12) N. of Grange MOl 

13) Via Gellia, Matlock Bath 

14) Via Gellia, Matlock Bath 

15) Via Gellia, Matlock Bath 

16) Via Gellia, Matlock Bath 

18) Ible Quarry, off Via GeUia . 

19) Ible Quarry, off Via GeUia . 
22) Ible Quarr'y, off Via Gellia . 

24) Bonsall, near Matlock Bath . 

25) Bonsall, near Matlock Bath . 

26) Bonsall, near Matlock Bath . 

27) Bonsall Qu., near Matlock 
Bath 

28) Pig of Lead Quarry, Via Gellia 
31 ) Pig of Lead Quarry, Via Gellia 

) Pig of Lead Quarrv, Via Gellia 
33) Pig of Lead Quarry, Via GeUia 

35) Pig of Lead Quarry, Via Gellia 

1) Cromford, Black Rocks . 



Spheroidal weathering of dolerite sill. 
1914. 

LTpper lava, on bedded tuff on Carboni- 
ferous Limestone. 1914. 

Upper lava, on bedded tuff on Carboni- 
ferous Limestone. 1914. 

LTpper lava, on bedded tuff on Carboni- 
ferous Limestone. 1914. 

Upper lava, on bedded tuff on Carboni- 
ferous Limestone. 1914. 

Basalt quarry in vent. 1914. 

Imperfect columnar structure in basalt 
of vent. 1914. 

Imperfect columnar structure in basalt 
of vent. 1914. 

Spring issues at junction between lime- 
stone and underlying tuff. 1914. 

Hills composed of agglomerate of vent. 
1914. 

Spring thrown out at top of lower lava. 
1914. 

Spruig thrown out at top of lower lava. 
1914. 

Tufa on limestone. 1914. 

Tufa on limestone. 1914. 

Dolerite sill. 1914. 

Dolerite sill. 1914. 

Dolerite sill. 1914. 

Columnar dolerite siU. 1914. 

Columnar dolerite sill. 1914. 

Columnar dolerite sill. 1914. 

Sill of columnar dolerite. 1914. 

Lower lava. 1914. 

Spheroidal weathering of lower lava. 

1914. 
Spheroidal weathering of dolerite. 1914. 
Spheroidal weathering of lower lava. 

1914. 
Spheroidal weathering of lower lava. 

1914. 
Millstone Grit crag. 1914. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



S02 

6393 (2) Cromford, Black Rocks . 

6394 (3) Winster .... 

6395 (i) Winster .... 

6396 (23) Wyedale .... 

6397 (24) Harboro' pit, Brassington 

6398 (6a) Matlock Bath 

6399 (7) Matlock Bath 

6400 (8) Matlock Bath 

6401 (9) Matlock Bath 

6402 (10) Ible .... 

6403 (11) Matlock Bridge . 

6404 (12) Peep of Day Qu., Litton 

6405 (13) Peep of Day Qu., Litton 

6406 (14) Monsal Dale Station Quarry. 

6407 (15) Monsal Dale Station Quarry . 

6408 (16) Darley Dale 

6409 (17)TideswellDale . 

6410 (18) Ravenstor, Miller's Dale 

6411 (5) Alport . . . . 

6412 (6) Alport .... 

6413 (26) River Dakin, Alport . 

6414 (27) Dakin Valley, Alport . 

6415 (28) Dakin Valley, Alport . 

6416 ( 38 ) Ridgeway Cutting, Ambergate 

6417 (30) Ridgeway Cutting, Ambergate 

6418 (31) Ridgeway Cutting, Ambergate 

6419 ( ) Bullbridge, Ambergate 

6420 (33) Old Mill near Youlgreave 

6421 (34) Old Mill near Youlgreave 

6422 (35) Old Mill near Youlgreave 

6423 (36) Old Mill near Youlgreave 



6424 (32) Howden Dam . 

6425 (29) Cresbroke Dale . 

6426 ( ) Crick, Cliff quarry 

6427 (19) KlondykeQu., Crick 

6428 (35) Klondyke Qu., Crick 

6429 (36) Klondyke Qu., Crick 



6430 (33) Hopton Wood, Middleton by 

Wirksworth 

6431 (3) ' Robin Hood's Stride,' near 

Winster 

6432 (34) Hopton Wood, Middleton by 

Wirksworth 

6433 (4) Via Gellia, near Cromford 

6434 (6) N. Darley Qu., near Wensley. 



Millstone Grit crag. 1914. 

Crag of 4th or Up. Kinderscout grit. 

1914. 
Crag of dolomitised limestone. 1914. 
Gorge in Carboniferous Limestone. 1914. 
Mass of sand and clay fiUing hollow in 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1914. 
Tufa quarry. 1914. 
Surface of tufa. 1914. 
Tufa enclosing Helix. 1914. 
Tufa coating twigs. 1914. 
Sandy concretion (scrablag). 1914. 
Thin-bedded cherty limestone (D3). 1914. 
D2 Umestone, crowded with corals. 



Dj limestone, crowded with corals. 
Carboniferous 



1914. 
1914. 
Lime- 



Carboniferous Lime- 



1914. 
1914. 



D, 



Boulder Clay on 
stone. 1914. 

Boulder Clay on 
stone. 1914. 

Weathered surface of crinoidal limestone, 
1914. 

Dale scenery with Umestone crags. 1914. 

Carboniferous Limestone (Dj) with lower 
Toadstone at base of chff. 1914. 

Tufa Quarry. 1914. 

Tufa Quarry, holes were formerly occu- 
pied by branches of trees. 1914. 

Stream forming tufa terraces. 1914. 

Enlarged joint in limestone. 

Limestone dale scenery. 1914. 

Coal seam. 

Section of Lower Coal Measures. 

Section of Lower Coal Measures. 

Cone in cone. 1914. 

' Pendleside ' shale unconformable on 
limestone. 1914. 

' Pendleside ' shale unconformable on 
Umestone. 1914. 

' Pendleside ' shale unconformable on 
Umestone. 1914. 

' Pendleside ' shale unconformable on 
Umestone. 1914. 

Anticline. 1914. 

Stepping stones across bed of stream dry 
in summer. 1914. 

Mamillated surface of Carboniferous 
Limestone. 1914. 

Clay-fiUed solution cavities in Dj Ume- 
stone. 1914. 

Clay-fiUed solution cavities in Dj lime- 
stone. 1914. 

Carboniferous Limestone (D^) capped by 
glacial drift. 1914. 

Quarry in Carboniferous Limestone (D^). 
1914. 

OutUer of Kinderscout Grit. 

Quarry in Carboniferous Limestone (Dj). 

1914. 
Carboniferous Limestone (Dj) surface in 

part smoothed, ? slickensided. 1914. 
Cherty Carboniferous Limestone with 

overlying shales (Dj and D3). 1914. 



D, 



D, 



D, 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST 
6435 (7) Crick, Hilt's Quarry 



303 



Ca