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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 

REPORT 

OF THE 

NINETY-FIFTH MEETING 

(NINETY-SEVENTH YEAR) 




LEEDS — 1927 

AUGUST 31-SEPTEMBER 7 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, W.l 

1927 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Officers and Council, 1927-28 v 

Local Officers, Leeds, 1927 vii 

Sections and Sectional Officers, Leeds, 1927 vii 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1927) x 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1926-27) .... xiv 

General Meetings, Public Lectures, etc., at Leeds xviii 

External Lectures xx 

General Treasurer's Account (1926-27) : xxi 

Research Committees (1927-28) xxvi 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Leeds Meeting) xxxi 

The Presidential Address : 

Darwin's Theory of Man's Descent as it stands to-day. By Prof. Sir 

Arthur Keith, F.R.S 1 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

A.— The Outstanding Problems of Relativity. By Prof. E. T. 

Whittaker, F.R.S 16 

B. — Co-ordination Compounds. By Dr. N. V . Sidgwick, F.R.S. .. 27 

C. — The Tertiary Plutonic Centres of Britain. By Dr. Herbert H. 

Thomas, F.R.S 43 

D. — The Ancient History of Sponges and Animals. By Dr. G. P. 

Bidder 58 

E. — Some Problems of Polar Geography. By Dr. R. N. Rudmose 

Brown 75 

F. — Rationalisation of Industry. By Prof. D. H. Macgregor . . 98 

a 2 



i v CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

G. — Invention as a Link in Scientific and Economic Progress. By 

Prof. Sir James B. Henderson 120 

H — The Englishman of the Future. By Prof. F. G. Parsons 138 

I. — -The Development of Human Physiology. By Dr. C. G. Douglas, 

C.M.G., F.R.S 155 

J . — Mental Unity and Mental Dissociation. By Dr. William Brown 167 

K. — Some Aspects of the Present-day Investigation of Protophyta. 

By Prof. F. E. Fritsch 176 

L. — The Broadening of the Outlook in Education. Bv the Duchess 

of Atholl, D.B.E., M.P ' 191 

M. — Agriculture and National Education. By C. G. T. Morison . . 202 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 215 

Sectional Transactions 314 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 419 

References to Publications of Communications to the Sections 430 

Index 437 



fritislj Ibsariaiion for tyt %bbnmtmnxt 

ai Srunte. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1927-28. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT FOR THE GLASGOW MEETING. 
Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, K.B.E., D.Sc, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR 

The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of 
Leeds (Alderman Hugh Lupton). 

His Grace the Lord Archbishop of 
York (Most Rev. Cosmo G. Lang, 
P.O., G.C.V.O., D.D.). 

The Chancellor of Leeds University 
(His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, 
K.G., P.O., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O.). 

The Lord-Lieutenant of the County 
of the West Riding of Yorkshire 
(Rt. Hon. the Earl of Harewood, 
G.C.V.O.). 

Viscount Lascelles, K.G., D.S.O. 

The Lord Bishop of Ripon (Rt. Rev. 
E. A. Burroughs, D.D.). 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Airedale. 

The Pro-Chancellor of Leeds Uni- 
versity (Col. C. H. Tetley, D.S.O., 
T.D., M.A.). 

The Vice-Chancellor of Leeds Uni- 
versity (J. B. Baillie, O.B.E., M.A., 
D.Phil., LL.D.). 

The Chairman of the Leeds Education 
Committee (Alderman Leslie Owen). 



THE LEEDS MEETING. 
The Chairman of the West Riding 

Education Committee (Sir Percy 

Jackson, LL.D.). 
The Hon. Sir Gervase Beckett, Bart., 

M.P. 
The Hon. Rupert Beckett. 
Col. Sir E. A. Brotherton, Bart., LL.D. 
Sir Berkeley Moynihan, Bart., 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.C.S. 
Sir Charles Wilson, LL.D., M.P. 
Sir Edwin Airey. 
The Vicar of Leeds (Rev.W. Thompson 

Elliott, M.A.). 
The Bishop of Leeds (Rt. Rev. J. R. 

Cowgill). 
The President of the Free Church 

Council (Rev G. Hunt). 
The Chief Rabbi of Leeds (Rov. Dr. J. 

Abelson). 
Alderman G. Ratcliffe. 
Alderman Charles Lupton. 
Alderman J. Arnott. 
Sir Alfred F. Yarrow, Bart., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT FOR THE GLASGOW MEETING. 



The Rt. Hon. the Lord Provost of 

Glasgow (Mr. David Mason, O.B.E.). 
His Grace the Duke of Montrose, 

C.V.O., C.B. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Home. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, 

D.S.O. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Blythswood, 

K.C.V.O., D.L. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Belhaven and 

Stanton. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Invernairn. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Weir, LL.D. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Maclay, LL.D. 



The Rt. Hon. Sir John Gilmour, Bart., 

D.S.O., M.P. 
Sir Donald Macalister, Bart., K.C.B., 

LL.D., D.L. 
Sir John Maxwell Stirling-Maxwell, 

Bart., D.L., LL.D. 
Sir James Bell, Bart., C.B., D.L., LL.D. 
Sir D. M. Stevenson, Bart., D.L., LL.D. 
Sir Archibald McInnes Shaw, C.B., 

D.L, LL.D. 
Sir Matthew W. Montgomery, D.L., 

LL.D. 
Prof. F. O. Bower, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
E. H. Griffiths, Sc.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



Prof. J.L.Myres, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.S.A., 
F.B.A. 



F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. Howarth, O.B.E., M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. J. H. Ashworth, F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe, K.B.E. 

Prof. A. L. Bowley. 

Prof. E. G. Coker, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Dalby, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. H. Dale, Sec. R.S. 

E. N. Fallaize. 

Sir J. S. Flett, K.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. 

Sir R. A. Gregory. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. P. Hill, F.R.S. ' 

A. R. Hinks, C.B.E., F.R.S. 



Sir T. Holland, K.C.S.I., F.R.S. 

Col. Sir H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. 

Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. P. Nunn. 

Prof. A. 0. Rankine. 

C. Tate Regan, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Dr. N. V. Sidgwick, F.R.S. 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Smithells, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. B. Wood, C.B.E., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present 
General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past Assistant General Secretaries, and 
the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the Annual Meetings immediately 
past and ensuing. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 



Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Sir Arthur Evans, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.S.A. 



Hon. Sir Charles A. Parsons, O.M., K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl of Balfour, O.M., Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons, O.M., K.C.B., 



F.R.S. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 



F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Ernest Rutherford, O.M.,Pres. R.S. 
Major-Gen. Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S. 



H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 



Prof. A. B3WLEY. 



HON. AUDITORS. 

| Prof. A. W. KlRKALDY. 



vn 

LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE LEEDS MEETING. 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 

James Graham, Ph.D., Director of Education | Prof. A. Gilligan, D.Sc. 

LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 

James Mitchell, City Treasurer. 

ASSISTANT LOCAL HON. SECRETARY. 
J. D. Griffith Davies, M.A. 

EDITOR, GENERAL HANDBOOK. 
C. B. Fawcett, B.Litt., D.Sc. 

EDITOR, EXCURSIONS HANDBOOK. 
H. E. Wroot. 

SECTIONAL OFFICERS. 

A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 
President.— -Prof. E. T. Whittaker, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. J. R. Atrey ; Prof. S. Brodetsky ; Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. P. Milne ; Prof. R. Whiddington, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 

Secretaries. — Capt. F. Entwistle ; Prof. E. H. Neville ; W. M. H. Greaves. 
Local Secretary. — -J. Ewles. 

B.— CHEMISTRY. 
President.— Dr. N. V. Sidgwick, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Dr. S. H. C. Briggs ; Prof. J. B. Cohen, F.R.S. ; Prof. R. W. 

Whytlaw Gray ; Prof. J. F. Thorpe, C.B.E., F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. C. S. Gibson. 
Secretary. — Dr. E. K. Rideal. 
Local Secretary. — H. S. Patterson. 

C— GEOLOGY. 
President. — Dr. Herbert H. Thomas, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Sir T. W. Edgeworth David, K.B.E., C.M.G., F.R.S.; Prof. 

A. Gilligan ; E. Hawkesworth ; Prof. P. F. Kendall, F.R.S. : Sir F. G. 

Ooilvie, C.B. ; W. Parsons : Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Recorder. — Prof. W. T. Gordon. 
Secretaries. — -I. S. Double ; Dr. A. K. Wells. 
Local Secretary. — H. C. Versry. 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 
President. — Dr. G. P. Bidder. 
Vice-Presidents. — H. Crowther ; Prof. W. Garstang ; Prof. J. Graham Kerr, 

F.R.S.; J.W.Taylor. 
Recorder. — Prof. F. Balfour Browse. 
Secretary. — Dr. G. Leslie Purser. 
Local Secretary. — E. Percival. 



v [[[ OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1927. 

E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lt.-Col. E. Krrsox Clark ; Dr. Vaughan Cornish ; F. Debexham : 

Dr. C. B. Fawcett ; J. McFarlane ; Dr. Marion Newbigix ; Rt. Hon. W. 

Ormsby-Gore, P.C., M.P. 
Recorder. — W. H. Barker. 
Secretary. — R. H. Kinvig. 
Local Secretary. — A. V. Williamson. 

F.— ECONOMICS. 

President. — Prof. D. H. Macgregor. 

Vice-Presidents. — Hon. Rupert Beckett ; Geoffrey Ellis ; Prof. T. E. Gregory ; 

Prof. J. Harry Jones ; Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E. 
Recorder. — R. B. Forrester. 
Secretaries. — K. G. Fenelon ; A. Radford. 
Local Secretary.— C. V. Dawe. 

G.— ENGINEERING. 

President. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. H. Barker; T. F. Braime ; Alexander Campbell; Prof. 

W. T. David ; Sir W. Ellis, G.B.E. ; Alderman Hugh Lupton ; Sir J. Snell, 

G.B.E. ; Major F. L. Watson. 
Recorder. — Prof. F. C. Lea. 
Secretaries. — Prof. G. Cook ; J. S. Wilsox. 
Local Secretary. — Hugh R. Lupton. 

H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. F. G. Parsons. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. J. Fleure ; Prof. J. K. Jamieson ; H. B. MoCall ; 

Dr. D. Randall McIver. 
Recorder. — -E. N. Fallaize. 

Secretaries. — L. H. Dudley Buxton ; Miss R. M. Fleming. 
Local Secretary. — Prof. H. A. Ormerod. 

I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Dr. C. G. Douglas, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Prof. J. S. Haldane, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. B. Leathes, F.R.S. ; Prof. 

H. S. Raper, C.B.E. ; Prof. H. E. Roaf. 
Recorder. — Dr. M. H. MacKeith. 
Secretary. — Prof. B. A. McSwiney. 
Local Secretary. — A. Wormall. 

J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. W. Brown. 

Vice-Presidents. — F. C. Bartlett ; Dr. J. Drever ; Dr. Ll. Wynn Jones ; Miss 

L. A. Lowe ; Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S. ; Prof. T. H. Pear ; Dr. W. H. Maxwell 

Telling ; Prof. Godfrey Thomson. 
Recorder. — Dr. Shepherd Dawson. 
Secretaries. — R. J. Bartlett ; Dr. May Collins. 
Local Secretary. — A. J. Monahan. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS. 1927. i x 

K.— BOTANY. 
President.— Prof. F. E. Fritsch. 
Vice-Presidents.— Prof. V. H. Blackman, F.R.S. : Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ; Dr. 

T. F. Chipp ; Sir Peter Clutterbuck, CLE., C.B.E. (Subsection of Forestry) : 

Prof. J. H. Priestley ; Dr. H. W. T. Wager, F.R.S. 
Recorder.— Prof. J. McLean Thompson. 

Secretaries.— Prof. W. Robinson; Prof. A. W. Borthwick (Subsection of Forestry). 
Local Secretary.— Miss L. I. Scott. 

L.— EDUCATION. 

President.— The Duchess of Atholl, D.B.E., M.P. 

Vice-Presidents.— Miss A. Fleming : Dr. J. Graham ; J. H. Hallam ; Prof. J. 

Strong, C.B.E. 
Recorder. — G. D. Dunkerley. 
Secretaries.— H. M. Icely ; E. R. Thomas. 
Local Secretary.— Miss E. M. Blackburn. 

M.— AGRICULTURE. 

President.— C. G. T. Morison. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. C. Crowther ; Major J. W. Dent ; Major Fawkes ; Sir 

Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. R. S. Seton. 
Recorder. — Dr. G. Scott Robertson. 
Secretary. — Dr. B. A. Keen. 
Local Secretary. — W. A. Millard. 

Hon. Secretary for Exhibit of Scientific Instruments, <fcc— H. S. Patterson. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



I 



1831, Sept. 27.. 

1832, June 19.. 

1833, June 25.. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10 .. 

1836, Aug. 22.. 

1837, Sept. 11.. 

1838, Aug. 10 .. 

1839, Aug. 26 .. 

1840, Sept. 17.. 

1841, July 20 .. 

1842, June 23 . 

1843, Aug. 17 .. 

1844, Sept. 26 .. 

1845, June 19 .. 

1846, Sept. 10.. 

1847, June 23 .. 

1848, Aug. 9 .. 

1849, Sept. 12 .. 
1860, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 

1856, Aug. 6 .. 
1867, Aug. 26 . 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, June 27 .. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 ., 

1863, Aui. 26 . 

1864, Sept. 13 .. 

1865, Sept. 6 ., 

1866, Aug. 22 .. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18.. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14. 

1873, Sept. 17. 

1874, Aug. 19. 

1875, Aug. 25 . 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15. 

1878, Aug. 14 . 

1879, Aug. 20 . 

1880, Aug. 25 . 

1881, Aug. 31 . 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19 . 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13 . 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 . 
189S, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 . 

1898, Sept. 7 . 

1899, Sept. 13 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool , 

Glasgow , 

Cheltenham 

Dublin , 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne.. 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 



Presidents 



Old Life 

Members 



New Life 
Members 



Viscount Milton, D.O.L., P.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, P.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd.LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S I 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S.I 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Roase, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W.Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton.Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, P.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. O. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.. . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WiUis,M.A.,F.R.S, 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.O.B..F.R.S, 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S. . . 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. , 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A.O.Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. O. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyou Playfair, K.O.B., F.R.S. .. 
Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. .. 
Sir H. E. Roseoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury .K.G..F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S... 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 



» Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. + Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

[ Continued on p. xii. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XI 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Old 
Annual 
Members 



46 

75 

71 

45 

94 

65 

197 

54 

93 

128 

61 

63 

66 

121 

142 

104 

156 

111 

126 

177 

184 

150 

154 

182 

215 

218 

193 

226 

229 

303 

311 

280 

237 

232 

307 

331 

238 

290 

239 

171 

313 

253 

330 

317 

332 

428 

510 

399 

412 

368 

341 

413 

328 

435 

290 

383 

286 

327 

324 



New 
Annual 
Members 



Asso- 
ciates 



317 
376 
185 
190 
22 
39 
40 
25 
33 
42 
47 
60 
57 
121 
101 
48 
120 
91 
179 
59 
125 
57 
209 
103 
149 
105 
118 
117 
107 
195 
127 
80 
99 
85 
93 
185 
59 
93 
74 
41 
176 
79 
323 
219 
122 
179 
244 
100 
113 
92 
152 
141 
57 
69 
31 
139 
125 
96 
68 



33f 

9t 

407 
270 
495 
376 
447 
510 
244 
510 
367 
765 
1094 
412 
900 
710 
1206 
636 
1589 
433 
1704 
1119 
766 
960 
1163 
720 
678 
1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 
1265 
446 
1285 
529 
389 
1230 
516 
952 
826 
1053 
1067 
1985 
639 
1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 
1384 
682 
1051 
548 



Ladies 



1100* 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
669 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 



Foreigners 



Total 



34 

40 



28 



35 
36 
53 
15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45J 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 

13 

12 
24 

21 

5 

26&60H.§ 

6 

11 

92 

12 

21 

12 

35 

50 

17 

77 

22 

41 

41 

33 

27 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 



Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 



— 




1079 




857 




1320 




819 


£707 


1071 


963 


1241 


1085 


710 


620 


1108 


1085 


876 


903 


1802 


1882 


2133 


2311 


1115 


1098 


2022 


2015 


1698 


1931 


2564 


2782 


1689 


1604 


3138 


3944 


1161 


1089 


3335 


3640 


2802 


2965 


1997 


2227 


2303 


2469 


2444 


2613 


2004 


2042 


1856 


1931 


2878 


3096 


2463 


2575 


2533 


2649 


1983 


2120 


1951 


1979 


2248 


2397 


2774 


3023 


1229 


1268 


2578 


2615 


1404 


1425 


915 


899 


2557 


2689 


1253 


1286 


2714 


3369 


1777 


1855 


2203 


2256 


2453 


2532 


3838 


4336 


1984 


2107 


2437 


2441 


1775 


1776 


1497 


1664 


2070 


2007 


1661 


1653 


2321 


2175 


1324 


1236 


3181 


3228 


1362 


1398 


2446 


2399 


1403 


1328 




























































































£20 

167 

435 

922 12 

932 2 
1595 11 
1546 16 
1235 10 11 
1449 17 8 
1565 10 

981 12 

831 9 

685 16 

208 5 

275 1 

159 19 

345 18 

391 9 

304 6 

205 

380 19 

480 16 

734 13 

507 15 

618 18 

684 11 

766 19 
1111 5 10 
1293 16 6 
1608 3 10 
1289 15 
1591 7 
1750 13 



1739 
1940 
1622 
1572 
1472 
1285 
1685 
1151 16 

960 
1092 4 
1128 9 

725 16 
1080 11 11 



7 7 

8 1 
1 11 



731 

476 
1126 
1083 3 
1173 4 
1385 

995 
1186 18 
1511 
1417 11 

789 16 8 
1029 10 

864 10 

907 15 

583 15 

977 15 
HOt 6 
1059 10 
1212 
1430 14 



Tear 



1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1860 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 



% Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 

[Continued on p. xiii. 



XI] 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 



Where held 



Presidents 



1900,Sept.5 Bradford 

1901, Sept. 11 Glasgow 

1902, Sept. 10 Belfast 

1903, Sept. 9 Southport 

1904, Aug. 17 Cambridge 

1905, Aug. 15 South Africa 

1906, Aug. 1 York 

1907, July 31 Leicester 

1908, Sept. 2 Dublin 

1909, Aug. 25 Winnipeg 

1910, Aug. 31 Sheffield 

1911, Aug. 30 Portsmouth 

1912, Sept. 4 Dundee 

1913, Sept. 10 Birmingham 

1914, July-Sept.... Australia 

1915, Sept. 7 Manchester 

1916, Sept. 5 Newcastle-onTyne.. 

1917 (No Meeting) 

1918 ' (No Meeting) 

1919, Sept. 9 Bournemouth 






Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof . A . W. Riicker, D.Sc, Sec M.S. . . . 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.B.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S I 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonnev, F.R.S. .... 
Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Schafer. F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S 

Hon. Sir O. Parsons, K.O.B., F.R.S.. 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 
267 


Members 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 


376 


40 


172 


13 


242 


19 


164 


12 


— 


— 



1920, Aug. 24 Cardiff 

1921, Sept. 7 Edinburgh 

1922, Sept. 6 Hull 



1923, Sept. 12 Liverpool 

1924, Aug. 6 Toronto 

1925, Aug. 26 Southampton 

1926, Aug. 4 Oxford 



1927, Aug. 31 Leeds 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir T. E. Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir C. S. Sherrington, G.B.E., 
Pres. R.S 



Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G. 

F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S 



235 



288 
336 



228 



326 
119 
280 

358 
249 



11 
9 



13 



12 

7 
8 

9 
9 



1 Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 
= Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

2 Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report. 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L' Association Francaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, 10*. 

s Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Xlli 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 



Old 

Annual 


New 
Aunual 


Asso- 


Members 


Members 
45 




297 


801 


374 


131 


794 


314 


86 


647 


319 


90 


688 


449 


113 


1338 


937' 


411 


430 


356 


93 


817 


339 


61 


659 


465 


112 


1166 


290-' 


162 


789 


379 


57 


563 


349 


61 


414 


368 


95 


1292 


480 


149 


1287 


139 


4160 3 


639 : 


287 


116 


628* 


250 


76 


251' 



Ladies Foreigners Total 



254 



688' 



482 
246 
305 
365 
317 
181 
352 
251 
222 

90 
123 

81 
359 
291 

141 
73 



153 



9 
20 

6 

21 

121 

16 

22 



1915 
1912 
1620 
1754 
2789 
2130 
1972 



Old 
Annual 
Regular 
Members 



136 
133 



90 



123 
37 
97 

101 
84 



Annual Members 


Meeting 

and 
Report 


Meeting 
only 


192 
410 


571 
1391 


294 


757 


38U 

520 
264 


1434 

1866 

878 



Transfer- 
able 
Tickets 



42 
121 



Students 
Tickets 



120 
343 



453 
334 



2338 
1487 



89 



163 

41 
62 

169 
82 



I 



235 s 



550 

89 

119 

225 
264 



42 

14 


1647 , 
2297 


I 


1468 j 


8 


1449 


31 


1241 


88 


2504 


20 


2643 


21 


5044 3 


8 


1441 


— 


826 ! 


3 


1482 


20 


138} 


22 


2768 


21 


1730 


Compli- 




mentary. 




308' 


3296 


139 


2818 


74 


1782 


69 


3722 


161 


2670 



Amount 

received 

for 

Tickets 



Sums paid 
ou account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 



£1801 
2046 
1644 
1762 
2650 
2422 
1811 
1561 
2317 
1623 
1439 
1176 
2349 
2756 
4873 
1406 
821 



1736 



£1072 10 

' 920 9 11 

947 

845 13 2 

887 18 11 

928 2 2 

882 9 

757 12 10 

1157 18 8 

1014 9 9 

963 17 

922 

845 7 

978 17 

1861 16 

1569 2 

985 18 10 

677 17 2 

326 13 3 

410 



1272 10 1251 13 0* 
2599 15 518 1 10 



1699 5 772 



2735 15 777 18 
3165 19'° 1197 5 
1C:10 5 1231 



3512 917 1 G 
2414 5 761 10 



Year 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 



1920 
1921 



1922 



1923 
1924 
1925 

1926 
1927 



6 Including grants from tlie Caird Fund in this and subsequent years. 

' Including Foreigu Guests, Exhibitioners, and others. 

" The Bournemouth Fund for Research, initiated by Sir 0. Parsons, enabled grants on account of 
scientific purposes to be maintained. 

* Including grauts from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 
to 1926. 

'° Subscriptions paid in Canada were $5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some 
gain on exchange. 



XIV 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1926-27. 



I. The Council in November last took the earliest opportunity of 
acknowledging the deep obligation of the Association to Sir Alfred Yarrow 
in the following terms : — 

That the Council places upon record its profound gratitude to Sir 
Alfred Yarrow for his munificent gift of £10,000 to the funds of the 
Association for general purposes ; that the Council welcomes the wise 
condition made by Sir Alfred Yarrow that the gift should be expended 
as to both capital and interest within twenty years, and resolves that 
effect shall be given thereto. 

II. The Council places upon record its grateful memory of the late 
Prof. A. W. Scott, of Lampeter, a regular attendant at the meetings 
of the Association for many years, who by his will devised the sum of 
£250 to the funds of the Association. 

Among other supporters and former office-bearers, the Council has 
had to deplore the loss by death of Sir William Ashley, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, Prof. F. W. Gamble, Sir George Greenhill, Dr. E. Sidney 
Hartland, Sir John Scott Keltie, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. J. J. Lister, 
Mr. Edwin Ransom (who became a life member in 1868), Sir William 
Ridgeway, Prof. E. H. Starling, Sir William Tilden, Gen. Sir Charles 
Warren, and the Rev. P. H. Wicksteed. 

III. Prof. Sir William Bragg, F.R.S., has been unanimously 
nominated by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association 
for the year 1928-29 (Glasgow Meeting). 

IV. Representatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follows : — 

International Congress of Plant Sciences . Prof. A. W. Hill and 

Dr. A. B. Rendle. 
Deutsche Naturforscher, Diisseldorf Meeting Dr. J. G. Garson. 
American Association for the Advancement 

of Science ...... Prof. J. L. Myres. 

Royal Sanitary Institute, Hastings Meeting . Mr. T. S. Dymond, Mayor 

of Hastings. 
Royal Microscopical Society, Liverpool 

Meeting ...... Prof. J. McLean Thompson. 

American Philosophical Society, second 

Centenary ...... Prof. A. N. Whitehead. 

Lister Centenary ..... Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer. 

University College, London, Centenary . Prof. Sir A. Keith. 

V. Resolutions referred by the General Committee, at the Oxford 
Meeting to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, 
were dealt with as follows : — 

(a) The Council requested Dr. J. R. Airey to consider whether, in the 
event of the Association's undertaking to republish the reports of the 
Mathematical Tables Committee in collected form, it would be advantageous 
to include tables published by other institutions by arrangement with 
such institutions. This matter is expected to come up for further con- 
sideration at the Leeds Meeting (Resolution of Section A). 

(b) The Council has had under discussion with the Board of Trade the 
question of the duty required by H.M. Customs on the introduction of 
cinematograph films into this country for scientific purposes and not 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1926-27. xv 

intended for commercial uses. The matter was referred to the Lords 
Commissioners of H.M. Treasury, from whom a reply was received that 
' having regard to the impracticability of framing a statutory exemption 
which would be free from grave difficulties of definition and administra- 
tion,' they were unable ' to submit to Parliament proposals of the nature 
desired by the Association.' (Resolutions of Sections D and H and the 
Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies.) 

(c) The Council received from Lord Clinton and Dr. T. F. Chipp the 
fullest assistance in investigating the disastrous effects which follow the 
destruction of hill slopes in tropical hill-regions, and a statement drawn 
up by Lord Clinton was forwarded to H.M. Secretary of State for the 
Colonies for communication to the Colonial authorities concerned. The 
statement was also ordered to be printed in the Report of the Council, 
and is as follows (Resolution of Section K) : — 

Owing to strict limitation in the programme the only aspect of this question 
which it was possible to consider at the Meeting at Oxford was the destruction of 
forest on hill slopes. 

Reports, articles in the local Press of countries, periodicals and statements of 
eye-witnesses all bear witness to the continued prevalence of this practice and emphasise 
the consequent loss sustained by many of our tropical Colonies. 

The destruction of these hillside forests is due to several causes : the natives 
destroying the forest by fire in the annual burning preceding their hunting ; the 
native agriculturalist destroying the forest in the course of his shifting cultivation ; 
the farmer encouraging young pasture grass for his cattle ; or over-grazing old 
pastures ; or again the agriculturalist, practising a more intensive system of 
agriculture, who replaces the forest by permanent crops such as rubber, coffee or tea. 

Whatever be the cause, the ultimate result is the same. Impoverishment of the 
soil is effected by destruction of organic matter by fire. The torrential rains soon 
leach the exposed soil surface and very quickly remove it entirely to the valleys 
below. The bare exposed rocks heated by the sun tend to disperse the rain clouds 
and the daily temperature variation becomes extreme. The hillside is freely exposed 
to the action of every wind with the consequent desiccation of the atmosphere. The 
rain water rushes destructively down the slopes almost as soon as it falls, scouring 
the mountain sides, cutting into neighbouring farms and depositing broad beds of 
silt in the lower part of its course. Such impoverished hillsides soon become barren 
and the headwaters of the rivers become seriously affected. In the low-lying ground 
the silt brought down chokes the ordinary river channel so that the water spreads 
over the valleys, causing inundations both periodic and permanent, with the destruction 
of lowland vegetation, crops and even towns. 

Where plantations replace the forest the process is more gradual, but without 
protective measures the soil is continuously removed from the clean-weeded ground 
and the roots of the trees freely exposed so that the crop becomes stunted and 
valueless. 

All this tends to the impoverishment of a country, the gradual drying up of the 
highlands and the conversion of the lowlands into swamps, the spoliation of agriculture 
with the failure of the population to find land on which to support itself, for the 
hillsides become unstable or more frequently barren rocky slopes. 

Afforestation as a remedy is a big problem and in country of this nature requires 
the advice of expert foresters, and a long period must elapse before its effects can be 
realised. Intensive agriculturalists, as in Ceylon, when the terrain permits, resort 
at great expense to terracing, generally with the aid of cover crops. 

The argument it is now desired to emphasise is that every effort should be made 
to prevent such destruction rather than wait till destruction has taken place and 
then try to remedy the error. Prevention entails preliminary reconnaissance and 
the scheduling of areas likely to prove dangerous, where, in the interests of the 
country, it is not expedient that the natural vegetation shall be removed. 

Clinton, 
Chairman of the Forestry Sub-section, 
British Association. 



xv i REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1926-27. 

(d) In order to give effect to the Resolution of Sections L and M, 
asking that public attention be drawn to the need for preparation for 
overseas life in schools, etc., the Council took measures to bring to the 
notice of appropriate Government authorities and educational associations 
the reports of the Overseas Training Committee and of the discussion on 
overseas training at the Oxford Meeting. 

(e) The Council received from Sir John Flett a statement on the value 
of records of temporarily open geological sections, and circulated it to the 
Corresponding Societies. (Resolution of the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies.) 

VI. The Council has to report that the claims for remission of income 
tax by the two societies taken as test cases, 1 viz., the Geologists' Associa- 
tion and the Midland Counties Institution of Engineers, have been rejected 
by the Special Commissioners for Income Tax. The cases are in preparation 
for presentation in the High Court. 

VII. As previously reported (1925-26, x), the Council, in co-operation 
with the British Science Guild, caused a Conference, representative of 
learned societies and scientific institutions in London, to be called to 
consider the desirability and possibility of establishing a Science 
News Service for the Press. The matter has been further under considera- 
tion, and a report, presented to the Conference by a committee thereof, 
was published in the Journal of the British Science Guild. July, 1927. 
The Council, however, after full inquiry, has decided not to take any 
further action toward the establishment of such a service. 

VIII. The Council appointed a committee to consider and report upon 
the advisability of approaching the British Science Guild with a view to 
establishing closer relations. Having received the report of this com- 
mittee, the Council resolved to ' invite the co-operation of the British 
Science Guild in considering whether, having regard to the close 
community of scientific interests between the Association and the Guild, 
their objects would, as the Council believe, be more fully attained by 
means of a working union between the two societies ; and if so, by what 
means such union would best be given effect.' The Guild proposed a 
joint committee to consider this resolution, and the Council appointed 
thereto Lord Bledisloe, Dr. C. S. Myers, Prof. T. P. Nunn, and Prof. A. 
Smithells, together with the General Secretaries. The Council has 
received a report from this joint committee, and will report further in 
due course to the General Committee. 

IX. The Council has received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His accounts have been audited and are presented 
to the General Committee. The Council made the following grants to 
research committees from the Caird Fund : — 

Naples Table ... £100 Seismology ... £100 

and a donation of £25 towards the expenses of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute's expedition to the Abyssinian frontier. 

X. The Corresponding Societies Committee has been nominated as 
follows : the President of the Association (Chairman ex-qfficio), Mr. T. 

1 See Report of the Council, 1925-26, xii. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1926-27. xv ji 

Bheppard (Vice-Chair man), the General Treasurer, the General Secretaries, 
Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir R. A. Gregory, Sir D. Prain, Sir J. Russell, 
Mr. Mark Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney. 

XI. The retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are : Sir W. H. 
Bevi'ridge, Prof. C. H. Descti, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
Sir J. Russell. 

The Council nominates the following new members : Dr. N. V. 
Sidgwick, Dr. G. C. Simpson, Prof. T. B. Wood ; leaving two A^acancies 
to be filled by the General Committee without nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : — 



Prof. J. H. Ash worth. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe. 
Prof. A. L. Bowley. 
Prof. E. G. Coker. 
Prof. W. Dalby. 
Dr. H. H. Dale. 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize. 
Sir J. S. Flett, 
Sir R. A. Gregory. 
Mr. C. T. Heycock. 
Prof. J. P. Hill. 
Mr. A. R. Hinks. 



Sir T. H. Holland. 
Sir H. G. Lyons. 
Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Prof. T. P. Nunn. 
Prof. A. O. Rankine. 
Prof. A. C. Seward. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 
Dr. G. C. Simpson. 
Prof. A. Smithells. 
Prof. T. B. Wood. 



XII. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as 
follows : — 

General Treasurer, Dr. E. H. Griffiths. 

General Secretaries, Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. F. E. Smith. 

The Council during its present session has been unhappily deprived 
of the presence of Dr. E. H. Griffiths, General Treasurer, at its meetings 
owing to ill-health, though he has fortunately been able to retain his 
office at the request of the Council, from which he has received an 
expression of its sympathy and an assurance of its deep sense of the value 
of his services. 

XIII. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : Dr. F. A. E. Crew, Prof. David Ellis, Prof. A. D. Peacock, 
Mr. F. W. Shurlock, Dr. A. B. Walkom, Dr. W. Wardlaw. 

XIV. The Council having received the instructions of the General 
Committee to make the necessary inquiries relating to the invitation from 
South Africa for the year 1929, the General Secretaries have been in 
correspondence with the South African Association for the Advancement 
of Science. They had also an opportunity, kindly arranged by Lord 
Bledisloe, of meeting General Hertzog, the Prime Minister of the Union 
of South Africa, and of discussing with him the prospects of, and arrange- 
ments for, a meeting in South Africa. The General Secretaries have 
further collected particulars as to dates, duration and extent of the 
journey, costs of transport and maintenance, etc., and a separate report 
upon these will be furnished to the General Committee at the Leeds 
Meeting. The Council has approved in principle the acceptance of the 
invitation and recommends the General Committee accordingly. 

XV. The Council has received with satisfaction intimations of the 
intention of the city and university of Bristol to invite the Association to 
meet there in 1930, and of the city of Leicester to invite the Association 
to meet there in 1932. 

1927 6 



XV111 



GENERAL MEETINGS, ETC., IN LEEDS. 

The Inaugural General Meeting was held on Wednesday, August 31, 
1927, at 8.30 p.m., in the Majestic Theatre. In the absence in Canada 
of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., F.R.S., the retiring President, the 
chair was taken at the outset by Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. After the Lord 
Mayor of Leeds and the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds had 
welcomed the Association, Sir Oliver Lodge read the message which 
follows from the retiring President : — 

A Message from H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., F.R.S., on 
Laying Down the Presidency of the Association. 

My year of office as President of the British Association has come to an 
end, and I can only express my regret to the members of the Association, 
and to our hosts the City and University of Leeds, that I am unable to 
attend personally in order to take my leave. 

At Oxford last year I ventured in my address to lay before the 
meeting a view of the relations between Science and the State. I felt 
subsequently some justification for having chosen this topic, when I 
observed in the proceedings of the Imperial and Colonial Conferences 
of the past year the extraordinary emphasis laid upon the value of scien- 
tific research in relation to imperial development. Both conferences set 
up special committees on research, and we cannot but believe and rejoice 
that the foundations of an imperial scientific service are being firmly 
laid. The Prime Minister of Australia indicated ' the application of 
science both to our primary and secondary industries ' as ' the most 
important thing for Empire trade' ; more recently our ex-president, the 
Earl of Balfour, invited the attention of the House of Lords to ' the enor- 
mous value of the work given by men of science, with the most lavish 
generosity,' to the study of problems of the common welfare. 

Such events as these place it beyond doubt that one of the main objects 
of the British Association itself is in process of achievement namely, 
that of ' obtaining more general attention for the objects of science.' 
The Association, the so-called parliament of science, is one of the chief 
instruments to that end, and I trust that the public support will continue, 
in increasing measure, to be accorded to its work. Its powers, I am 
happy to say, have been very materially strengthened, during my own 
term of office, through the splendid generosity of Sir Alfred Yarrow, in 
making a gift of £10,000 for the general purposes of the Association, to be 
expended, in accordance with his wise provision, in the course of twenty 
years. I gladly take this opportunity of publicly repeating the thanks 
of the Association to Sir Alfred Yarrow. 

In resigning the chair to Sir Arthur Keith, I can whole-heartedly 
congratulate the Association on its choice of my successor. His name 
stands very high in the science of man's origin and early biological history. 
I have reason to believe that when anyone in this country digs up a bone 
his first instinct (subject to the intervention of the police) is to send it to 
Sir Arthur Keith. You are to hear from him an address on Darwinism 
as it stands to-day — a subject of perennial interest, and more than once 
one of warm controversy at our own meetings. The occasion of the 



GENERAL MEETINGS, PUBLIC LECTURES, &o. XJX 

Presidential Address does not (I am thankful to say) lend itself to con- 
troversy, but the warmth I am sure you will supply in your welcome to 
Sir Arthur Keith, and, meeting as you are in Leeds, that warmth will be 
increased by the traditional quality of Yorkshire hospitality. 

(Signed) Edward P., President. 

Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S., then assumed the Presidency of the 
Association, and delivered an Address (for which see page 1) on ' Darwin's 
Theory of Man's Descent as it stands to-day.' A vote of thanks was 
proposed by Prof. Sir William Boyd-Dawkins, F.R.S., and the President, 
in his reply, uttered a plea for funds to ensure the preservation of Darwin's 
residence at Downe. He was able to announce to the General Committee 
at its final meeting (September 6) that this provision had been obtained 
through the munificence of Mr. George Buckston Browne. 

On Thursday evening, September 1, a reception was given by the Lord 
Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Leeds, which was honoured by the presence 
of H.R.H. The Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles. On Tuesday 
evening, September 6, a reception was given in the University by the 
Pro-Chancellor and Mrs. Tetley and the Vice-Chancellor and Mrs. Baillie. 

An exhibition of scientific instruments was arranged in the Town Hall 
during the meeting, and demonstrations of noctovision and television 
were given by Mr. J. C. Baird in the Education Department, and of 
educational broadcasting by the British Broadcasting Corporation. 

Evening Discourses. 

Prof. R. A. Millikan : ' Cosmic Rays.' 8 p.m., September 2, Albert 
Hall. 

Dr. F. A. E. Crew : ' The Germplasm and its Architecture.' 8 p.m., 
September 5, Albert Hall. 

Citizens' Lectures. 
Dr. Macgregor Skene: 'By-products of Plant Activity.' 8 p.m., 
September 2, Philosophical Hall. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. : ' Energy.' 8 p.m., September 6, Albert 
Hall. 

Lectures to Young People. 

Mr. F. Kingdon Ward : ' Plant Hunting on the Roof of the World.' 
3 p.m., September 2, Albert Hall. 

Dr. C. Tierney : ' Nature's Secrets.' 10.30 a.m., September 5, 
Majestic Theatre. 

Concluding General Meeting. 

The Concluding General Meeting was held in the Albert Hall on 
Wednesday, September 7, at 12 noon, when the following resolutions were 
adopted with acclamation : — 

That the British Association desires most warmly to thank the 
Citizens and Corporation of the City of Leeds, through the Right 
Honourable the Lord Mayor, for the City's generous hospitality on the 
occasion of the Meeting of the Association in 1927. The Association 
deeply appreciates the unrestricted facilities afforded to its members to 
acquaint themselves with the manifold economic industrial and other 

b 2 



XX 



GENERAL MEETINGS, PUBLIC LECTURES, &c. 



scientific interests of the City and locality, and is grateful for the use of 
the many fine buildings placed at its disposal for its Meeting. Especially 
does the Association acknowledge the powerful aid of the City's Education 
Department and its able staff, on whose unremitting labour so much of 
the successful organisation of the Meeting has depended. 

That the British Association most gratefully acknowledges the 
generous co-operation and hospitality of the University of Leeds, through 
its Vice-Chancellor, on the occasion of the Meeting in 1927. The Associa- 
tion fully recognises that the unremitting work of many members of the 
University staff, the ample accommodation afforded by the University 
buildings, and the generous reception of the members of the Association, 
have contributed in large measure to the success of a very notable 
Meeting. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the General Officers of the Association 
on the motion of Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. 



EXTERNAL LECTURES. 

Public Lectures were given in connection with the Leeds Meeting as 
follow : — 

To Adults. 



Guiseley . 


Sept. 1 . 


Dr. G. H. Miles . . . 


. Industrial Psychology. 


Brighouse 


Sept. 2 . 


Prof. 0. H. T. Rishbeth 


. Aspects of Life and Economics 
in Northern China. 


Pontefract 


Sept. 2 . 


Prof. P. F. Kendall . 


. Geology and Coal Resources 
of the Pontefract District. 


Otley . . 


. Sept. 2 . 


Prof. J. L. Myres . . 


. The Place of Women in 
Simple Societies. 


Harrogate 
Wakefield 


. Sept. 2 \ 
. Sept. 6 1 


Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton 


| China : the Land and the 
[ People. 


Castleford 


. Sept. 5 


Prof. H. J. Fleure 


. The Evolution of Human 
Races and their Societies. 


Batley 


. Sept. 6 


Mr. F. Kingdon Ward . 


. Plant Hunting on the Roof of 
the World. 


Huddersfield 


. Sept. 6 


Mr. H. J. E. Peake 

To Young People. 


. The Beginnings of Civilisation. 


Otley . . 


. Sept. 1 


Mr. W. W. Jervis . . 


. Travels in Higher Latitudes. 


Keighley . 
Shipley 


. Sept. 2 1 
. Sept. 5 J 


Prof. W. Garstang 


. The Songs of the Birds. 


Pontefract 


. Sept. 2 


Prof. F. Balfour Browne 


. Domestic Affairs of Cater- 
pillars. 


Harrogate 


. Sept, 2 


Dr. C. J. Patten . . 


. The Language of Birds : its 
Mechanism and Interpreta- 
tion. 


Batlej 


. Sept. 2 


Miss R. M. Fleming 


. Old Time Tales. 


Wakefield 


. Sept. 6 


Prof. B. H. Bentley . 


. Flowers : their Message to 
the Young. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION EXHIBITIONS. 

These were awarded on the general lines of previous years, but repre- 
sentatives from Oxford and Cambridge were included for the first time. 
It is hoped that the scheme may now be regarded as permanently 
established. 



BEITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

July 1, 1926, to June 30, 1927. 



XXII 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Balance Sheet, 



Corresponding 
Figures 
June 30, 

1926. 
£ s. d. 



10,575 15 2 



9.5S2 16 3 



470 4 10 
52 3 11 



65 16 
10,000 

75 



933 12 2 
450 



182 IS 10 



4,544 18 6 



36,933 5 



LIABILITIES. 

To Capital Accounts — 
General Fund — 

As at June 30, 1926 . 
John Perry Guest Fund . £75 
Less Grant to Prof. Michotte 1 



10,575 15 
65 



in Value of 



in Value of 



As per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation 
Investments) 

Caird Fund — 
As per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation 
Investments) 

Caird Fund Revenue Account- 
Balance as at July 1, 1926 .... 
Add Excess of Income over Expenditure 
for year ..... 

Crdrd Gift, Radio -Activity Investigation . 
Sir F. Bramwell's Gift for Enquiry into Prime 
Movers, 1931 — 
£50 Consols now accumulated to £138 lis. lid., 
as per contra ...... 

Sir Charles Parsons' Gift .... 

Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift ..... 
John Perry Guest Fund ..... 
Life Compositions — 

As at July 1, 1926 . 

Add Received during year 

, Legacy — F. W. Backhouse 
, Toronto University Presentation Fund 
Add Dividends . 



Less Awards given 

Income and Expenditure Account — 

Balance as at July 1, 1926 .... 
Add Legacy — F. W. Backhouse, now in- 
vested in 3i per cent. Conversion Stock 
Add Excess of Income over Expenditure 
for the year ..... 



10,040 15 



9,582 16 



470 4 10 
164 11 8 



634 
52 



69 

10,000 
10,000 



933 12 
195 


2 



182 18 
8 15 


10 



191 13 
9 12 


10 
6 



4,544 18 6 

450 

1,032 2 10 



16 
3 



1,128 12 



182 



6,027 



£48,317 9 11 



I have examined the foregoing Accounts with the Books and Vouchers and certify the same 
Approved, 

A. W. KIRKALDY, 1 Audiiors 
A. O. RANKINE, I Auditors. 
July 12, 1927. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



xxm 



June 30, 1927. 



Corresponding 
Figures 
June 30, 

1926. 
£ s. d. 



10,575 15 2 



9.582 16 3 



i'.y 



ASSETS. 

Investments on Capital Accounts — General 
Fund — 

£4,651 10s. 5d. Consolidated 2Jpercent. Stock 
at cost .....•• 
£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stock at cost. 
£879 lis. 9<Z. £43 Great Indian Peninsula 

Railway ' B ' Annuity at cost . 
£52 12s. Id. "War Stock (Post Office Issue) at cost 
£831 16s. (id. 4 i percent. Conversion Loanatcost 
£1,400 War Stock 5 per cent. 1929/47 at cost 
John Perry Guest Fund — 
£96 National Savings Certificates £74 8 
12 Less Sale of ditto . . 11 13 



3,942 
3,522 

827 

54 

835 

1,393 



s. d. 





2 

4 

11 



£84 



£62 15 



62 15 



£7,880 ISs. 8d. Valueatdate, £7,931 19s. lid. 
Balance Uninvested. Cash at Bank 



10,638 10 
2 S 



470 


4 


10 


52 


3 


11 


65 


16 





10,000 








75 








933 
450 


12 



2 



182 


18 


10 


4,514 


IS 


6 


36,933 


5 


* 



£138 14 11 

Value at date, £75 5s. id. 
, Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

£10.300 4£ per cent. Conversion Loan 
£9,888. Value at (law, £9,888 
Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

£10.000 5 per cent. War Loan (£50 Bonds) 

1929/47 

Value at date, £10,087 10*. Od. 
John Perry Guest Fund 
Life Compositions — 

£1,733 10s. 7(7. Local Loans at cost 

Value at date, £1,100 15s. 9d. 
Cash at Bank .... 

Legacy — T. TV. Backhouse 
Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
£175 5 per cent. War Stock at cost 

Value at date, £176 10s. Id. 
Cash at Bank . . . 

Revenue Account — 

£2,098 Is. 9d!. Consolidated 2i per 

Stock at cost 
£4,338 6s. 2d. Conversion 3 1 per cent 

fit post 

Value at date, £l',429 18s. Id. 
Sundry Debtors 

Cash at Bank .... 
Cash in Hand .... 



Caird Fund — 

£2,027 0s. lOd. India 3 i per cent. Stock at cost 2,400 13 3 

£2,100 London Midland and Scottish Railway- 
Consolidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 
at cost 2,190 4 3 

£2,500 Canada 3i per cent. 1930/50 Regis- 
tered Stock at cost 2,397 1 6 

£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per 

cent. Preference Stock at cost . . . 2,594 17 3 

£.7,045 6s. Id. Valueatdate, £7,116 15s. lOd. 
Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Caird Gift — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift — 

£132 12 9 Self-Accumulating Consolidated 

Stock as per last Balance Sheet 65 1 6 
Add Accumulations to June 
6 2 2 30, 1927 . . . 3 7 3 





1,125 







3 12 


2 




173 11 


4 




3 10 





r cent. 
' Stock 


1,200 
3,300 



9 




197 3 

1,147 16 

12 14 


10 
5 
1 



s. d. 



10.640 15 2 



9,582 16 3 



634 16 
52 3 



6 
11 



69 3 3 



10,000 



10,169 7 



1,128 12 2 



182 1 



5,857 14 
£48,317 9 



to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers and the Investments. 

W. B. KEEN, 

Chartered Accountant. 



XXIV 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Income and 

for the Year Ended 



Corresponding 
















Figures 
June 30, 


EXPENDITURE. 












1626. 
















£ s. d. 




£ 


s. 


a. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


25 13 2 


To Heat, Light and Power . 


20 


16 


8i 








715 7 


„ Stationery ..... 


65 


18 


5 








10 


„ Rent 


1 














UO 12 7 


„ Postages ..... 


180 


2 


11 








121 15 5 


„ Travelling Expenses 


149 





11 








36 12 9 


„ Exhibitioners .... 


30 


10 


6 








187 3 4 


„ General Expenses .... 


205 


2 


n 








5Si 2 10 


652 


12 


3 




1,1S4 19 2 


,, Salaries and Wages 


. 1,254 


17 











75 


,, Pension Contribution 


75 














1,466 17 5 


„ Printing, Binding, etc. . 


. 1,566 


8 


5 


3,548 


17 


8 


3,310 19 5 
















,, Grants to Research Committees — 
















Quaternary Peat Committee 


80 
















Macedonia Committee 


40 
















Growth of Children Committee . 


25 
















Plymouth Committee 


35 
















Derbyshire Caves Committee 


25 
















Bronze Implements Committee . 


90 
















Egyptian Peasants Committee 


20 
















Marine Algae Committee 


45 
















Vasoligation Committee 


10 
















Sex Ratio Committee 


10 
















Zoological Record Committee 


50 
















Pigment in Insecta Committee . 


15 
















Illumination of Plants Committee 


40 
















Triplets Committee . 


20 
















Earth Pressures Committee 


10 
















Dolgarrog Committee 


5 
















Medullary Centres Committee 


20 
















Geography Teaching Committee . 


5 
















African Geography Committee . 


2 


10 













Vocational Tests Committee 


14 














170 11 6 










561 


10 


o 












,, Balance, being Excess of Income over E> 


;pendi- 












1,327 2 S 


ture for the year 








1,032 


2 


10 


4, SOS 13 7 








i 


5,142 


10 


6 











£ s. d. 



546 10 



546 10 



EXPENDITURE. 

To Grants Paid — 

Seismology Committee . 
Naples Tables Committee . 

,, Balance, being Excess of Income over Expendi- 
ture for the year ..... 



100 
100 



s. d. 






Gaird 

£ s. d. 

200 
164 11 8 



£364 11 8 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



XXV 



Expenditure Account 

June 30, 1927. 



Corresponding 
















Figures 
June 3C 


, 


INCOME. 














1926. 


















£ s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


249 





By Annual Members (Including £63 10s., 1927/28) 
,, Annual Temporary Members (Including £357, 








168 


10 





1,806 





1927/28) 

„ Annual Members with Report (Including £195 








1,669 


15 





732 





1927/28) . ...... 

,, Transferable Tickets (Including £6 5s. 








468 








148 15 





1927/28) 








153 


15 





92 10 





„ Students' Tickets (Including £15, 1927/28) 
(Total Tickets issued in Advance for the Leeds 
Meeting, £636 15s.) 








91 








5 





,, Donations ....... 














52 12 


4 


„ Interest on Deposits . . . . . 








70 


3 


8 


581 13 


11 


,, Sale of Publications . . . . . 








621 


5 


6 


167 


3 


,, Advertisement Revenue 








463 


6 


11 


157 13 


10 


„ Income Tax recovered .... 








181 


13 





24 2 


10 


„ Unexpended Balance of Grants returned. 








27 


12 


11 


— 




„ Liverpool Exhibitioners. . . . . 
,, Dividends — 








3 


3 


4 






£.135 


Consols ...... 


£135 


















86 8 


India 3 per cent. . 


86 


8 















26 9 


Great Indian Peninsula ' B ' Annuity 


26 


11 


6 












30 1 2 


4i per cent. Conversion Loan . 


30 


1 


2 












370 16 


Ditto, Sir Charles Parsons' Gift. 


370 


16 















54 11 8 


31 per cent. Conversion Loan 


73 


8 


9 












30 7 1 


Local Loans . 


43 


7 


3 












58 12 6 


War Stock . . . . . 
Ditto, Sir A. Yarrow's Gift 


58 
400 


12 




6 
















792 5 


5 


792 5 5 








1,224 


5 


2 


4, SOS 13 


7 












£5,142 


10 


6 



s. d. 



289 


12 





71 


8 


8 


185 


9 


4 



546 10 



INCOME. 

Bv Dividends — 
£73 11 India 3| per cent. . 
70 ; Canada 3 \ per cent. . 

London Midland and Scottish Railway Con 
66 13 6 ! ' solidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 

Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent 
79 7 6 Preference Stock 



By Income Tax recovered . . . . . 

By Balance, being Excess of Expenditure over Income 

for year ....... 



s. d. 



73 11 

70 










67 4 









80 





290 15 
73 16 




8 







£364 11 8 



XXVI 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENEEAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

LEEDS, 1927. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. . 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

Seismological Investigations. — Prof. H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, 
Sir F. W. Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. H. Lamb, Sir J. 
Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. 
Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, Mr. F. J. W. 
Whipple. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Tides. — Prof. H. Lamb (Chairman), Dr. A. T. Doodson (Secretary), Dr. G. R. 
Goldsbrough, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. J. Proudman, Prof. G. I. Taylor, Prof. 
DArcy W. Thompson, Commander H. D. Warburg. 

Annual Tables of Constants and Numerical Data, chemical, physical, and technological. 
- — Sir E. Rutherford (Chairman), Prof. A. W. Porter (Secretary), Mr. Alfred 
Egerton. £5. 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables.— Prof. J. W. Nicholson (Chairman), Dr. J. R. 
Airey (Secretary), Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Dr. A. T. Doodson, Prof. L. N. G. Filon, 
Mr. R. A. Fisher, Dr. J. Henderson, and Profs. E. W. Hobson, Alfred Lodge, 
A. E. H. Love, and H. M. Macdonald. 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — Sir Napier Shaw (Chairman), Mr. C. J. P. 
Cave (Secretary), Prof. S. Chapman, Mr. J. S. Dines, Mr. L. H. G. Dines, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. G. M. Dobson, Commr. L. G. Garbett, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, 
Col. E. Gold, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Dr. H. Knox-Shaw, Sir J. Larmor, Mr. R. G. K. 
Lempfert, Prof. F. A. Lindemann, Dr. W. Makower, Mr. J. Patterson, Sir J. E. 
Petavel, Dr. L. F. Richardson, Sir A. Schuster, Dr. G. C. Simpson, Sir G. T. 
Walker, Mr. F. J. W. Whipple, Prof. H. H. Turner. £70. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

Colloid Chemistry and its Industrial Applications.— Prof. F. G. Donnan (Chairman). 
Dr. W. Clayton (Secretary), Mr. E. Hatsehek, Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis, Dr. E. K. 
Rideal. 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. — Prof. I. M. 
Heilbron (Chairman), Prof. E. C. C.Baly (Secretary), Prof. A. W. Stewart. £10. 

The Chemistry of Vitamins. — Sir F. G. Hopkins (Chairman), Prof. J. C. Drummond 
(Secretary), Prof. G. Barger, Prof. A. Harden, Sir J. C. Irvine, Prof. J. W. McBain, 
Prof. Lash Miller, Dr. S. Zilva. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Mr. W. B. Wright (Chairman), 
Prof. T. Johnson (Secretary), Dr. W. A. Bell, Dr. J. W. Evans, Prof. W. H. Lang, 
Sir A. Smith Woodward. £10. 

To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — Prof. 
W. W. Watts (Chairman), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, 
Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Prof. V. C. Illing, Prof. 0. T. Jones, 
Prof. J. E. Marr, Dr. T. F. Siblv, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman. £30. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. xxv ii 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geo- 
logical Interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood {Chairman), Prof. S. H. Reynolds (.Secre- 
tory), Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. A. S. Reid, Prof. W. W. Watts, Mr. R. Welch. 

To investigate the Quaternary Peats of the British Isles.- — Prof. P. F. Kendall (Chair- 
man), Mr. L. H. Tonks {Secretary), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Miss Chandler, Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, Dr. E. Greenly, Prof. J. W. Gregory, Prof. G. Hickling, Mr. J. de W. 
Hinch, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, Mrs. Reid, Dr. K. S. Sandford, Mr. T. Sheppard, 
Mr. J. W. St.at.her,' Mr. A. W. Stelfox, Mr. C. B. Travis, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Mr. 
W. B. Wright. £90. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary Rocks of the London Area. To 
tabulate and preserve records of new excavations in that area.— Prof. W. T. 
Gordon (Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge {Secretary), Miss M. C. Crosfield, Prof. 
H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling. £10. 

To consider the opening up of Critical Sections in the Mesozoic Rocks of Yorkshire.— 
Prof. P. F. Kendall {Chairman), Mr. M. Odling {Secretary), Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Mr. F. Petch, Dr. Spath, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. H. C. Versey. 

To assemble information regarding the Distribution of Cleavage in North and Central 
Wales.— Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Chairman), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell and Mr. 
W. H. Wilcockson (Secretaries), Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. I. S. Double, Dr. Gertrude 
Elles, Prof. 0. T. Jones, Dr. E. Greenly, Mr. W. B. R. King, Prof. W. J. Push, 
Dr. Bernard Smith Dr. A. K. Wells, Dr. L. J. Wills. 

SECTIONS C, D, E, K.— GEOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, BOTANY. 

To organize an expedition to investigate the Biology, Geology, and Geography of the 
Australian Great Barrier Reef. — Rt. Hon. Sir M. Nathan (Chairman), Prof. J. 
Stanley Gardiner and Mr. F. A. Potts (Secretaries), Sir Edgeworth David, Prof. 
W. T. Gordon, Prof. A. C. Seward, and Dr. Herbert H. Thomas (from Section C) ; 
Mr. E. Heron Allen, Dr. E. J. Allen, Prof. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. G. P. Bidder, 
Dr. W. T. Caiman, Sir Sidney Harmer, Dr. C. M. Yonge (from Section D) ; Dr. 
R. N. Rudmose Brown, Sir G. Lenox Conyngham, Mr. F. Debenham, Admiral 
Douglas, Mr. A. R. Hinks (from Section E) ; Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Dr. Margery 
Knight, Prof. A. C. Seward (from Section K). 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

To aid competent Investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Secretary), Dr. G. P. Bidder, Prof. F. 0. Bower, Sir W. B. 
Hardy, Sir S. F. Harmer, Prof. S. J. Hickson, Prof. W. C. Mcintosh. £100 
(Caird Fund grant). 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Prof. E. B. Poulton (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. T. Caiman, Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, Mr. W. L. Sclater. £1. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory, Plymouth. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
W. J. Dak'in, Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, Prof. S. J. Hickson. £35. 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, for 
the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir S. Harmer 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman (Secretary), Prof. E. S. Goodrich, Prof. D. M. S. 
Watson. £50. 

On the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the Parents on the Sex-Ratio of the Offspring. 
— Prof. W. J. Dakin (Chairman), Mrs. Bisbee (Secretary), Prof. Carr-Saunders, 
Miss E. C. Herdman. £10. 

To report on the Pre-Linnean Zoological Collections and Specimens still extant in 
Great Britain, with a view to their safe custody. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Dr. R. T. Gunther (Secretary). 

To draw up recommendations for the taking and presentation of Biological Measure- 
ments, and to bring such before persons or bodies concerned. — Prof. J. S. Huxley 
(Chairman), Dr. R. A. Fisher (Secretary). 



xxv jjj RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

Investigations on Pigment in the Inseeta. — Prof. W. Garstang (Chairman), Dr. J. W. 
Heslop Harrison (Secretary), Prof. E. B. Poulton, Prof. A. D. Peacock. £15. 

Experimental investigation of the effects of Vasoligation, Cryptorchidism, Grafting, 
etc., on the Seminal Tubules and Interstitial Tissue of the Testes in Mammals. 
— Dr. F. A. E. Crew (Chairman), Mr. J. T. Cunningham (Secretary), Prof. J. S. 
Huxley. £10. 

To consider the position of Animal Biology in the School Curriculum and matters 
relating thereto. — Prof. R. D. Laurie (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. H. W. 
Ballance, Dr. Kathleen E. Carpenter, Prof. W. J. Dakin, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Prof. 
E. W. MacBride, Miss M. McNicol, Miss A. J. Prothero. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To consider the advisability of making a Provisional Population Map of the British 
Isles, and to make recommendations as to the method of construction and 
reproduction. — Mr. H. 0. Beckit (Chairman), Mr. J. Cossar (Secretary), Mr. J. 
Bartholomew, Mr. F. Debenham, Dr. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. R. H. 
Kinvig, Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Prof. 0. H. T. Rishbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Lt.-Col. 
H. S. L. Winterbotham. £25. 

To inquire into the present state of Geographical Knowledge of Tropical Africa, and 
to make recommendations for furtherance and development. — Sir Charles Lucas 
(Chairman), Mr. A. G. Ogilvie (Secretary), Mr. W. H. Barker, Mr. J. McFarlane, 
Prof. P. M. Roxby. £10. 

SECTIONS E, L.— GEOGRAPHY, EDUCATION. 

To formulate suggestions for a Syllabus for the Teaching of Geography both to Matricu- 
lation Standard and in Advanced Courses ; to report upon the present position 
of the geographical training of teachers, and to make recommendations thereon ; 
and to report, as occasion arises, to Council through the Organising Committee 
of Section E, upon the practical working of Regulations issued by the Board of 
Education (including Scotland) affecting the position of Geography in Training 
Colleges and Secondary Schools. — Prof. T. P. Nunn (Chairman), Mr. W. H. 
Barker (Secretary), Mr. L. Brooks, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, 
Mr. J. McFarlane, Sir H. J. Mackinder, Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. Marion Newbigin, 
Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Mr. A. Stevens, and Prof. J. F. Unstead (from Section E) ; Mr. 
D. Berridge/Mr. C. E. Browne, Sir R. Gregory, Mr. E. R. Thomas, Miss 0. Wright 
(from Section L). £3. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

To investigate certain aspects of Taxation in relation to the Distribution of Wealth. — 
Sir Josiah Stamp (Chairman), Mr. R. B. Forrester (Secretary), Prof. E. Carman, 
Prof. H. Clay, Mr. W. H. Coates, Miss L. Grier, Prof. H. M. Hallsworth, Prof. 
J. G. Smith, Mr. J. Wedgwood, Sir A. Yarrow. £20. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

Earth Pressures. — Mr. Wentworth Sheilds (Chairman), Dr. J. S. Owens (Secretary), 
Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. F. C. Lea, Mr. R. V. Southwell, Dr. 
R. E. Stradling, Dr. W. N. Thomas, Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson. £10. 

Electrical Terms and Definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson (Chairman), Prof. F. G. 
Baily and Prof. G. W. 0. Howe (Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Dr. W. H. Eccles, 
Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Dr. F. E. Smith, Prof. L. R. 
Wilberforce, with Dr. A. Russell and Mr. C. C. Wharton. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chair- 
man), Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, 
Prof. T. H. Bryce, Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt. £100. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. xx i x 

To conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. — 

Sir C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. 

O. G. S. Crawford, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir Arthur Evans, Sir W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 
To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), Mr. S. 

Casson (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. M. Thompson. £50. 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments. — Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary). Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. C. Fox, Mr. G. Marshall, Prof. J. L. 
Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Rev. Canon Quine. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthro- 
pological Interest. — Mr. E. Torday (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, Prof. J. L. Myres. 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of Copper used by the Sumerians. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. H. Desch, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Prof. S. Langdon, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir Flinders Petrie, Mr. C. Leonard 
Woolley. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — 

(Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. 
Evans, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To investigate the Culture of the Peasant Population of Modern Egypt. — Prof. J. L. 
Myres (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Capt. Hilton Simpson, Prof. H. J. Rose. £100 (contingent). 

The Investigation of a hill fort site at Llanmelin, near Caerwent. — Dr. Willoughby 
Gardner (Chairman), Dr. Cyril Fox (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Prof. H. J. Rose, Dr. R. Mortimer Wheeler. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. — 
Sir A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. R. V. Fa veil, Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt, Prof. W. J. Sollas, Mr. Mark L. Sykes. 

To conduct Anthropological investigations in some Oxfordshire villages. — Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. F. G. Parsons. £15. 

To report on the present state of knowledge of the relation of early Palaeolithic 
Implements to Glacial Deposits. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. M. Burkitt, Prof. 
P. F. Kendall, Prof. J. E. Marr. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the explora- 
tion of Caves in the Derbyshire district. — Sir W. Boyd Dawkins (Chairman), 
Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. 
M. Burkitt, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. R. V. Favell, Prof. H. J. Fleure, MissD. A. E. 
Garrod, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Dr. L. S. Palmer, Prof. F. G. 
Parsons, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. £50. 

To investigate processes of Growth in Children, with a view to discovering Differences 
due to Race and Sex, and further to study Racial Differences in Women. — Sir 
A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. H. J. Fleure (Secretary), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, 
Dr. A. Low, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To report on proposals for an Anthropological and Archaeological Bibliography, with 
power to co-operate with other bodies. — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. W. H. Barker, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Dr. D. Randall-Maclver, 
Mr. T. Sheppard. 

To report on the progress of Anthropological Teaching in the present century.— 
Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To investigate certain Physical Characters and the Family Histories of Triplet Children. 
— Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Chairman), Dr. R. A. Fisher (Secretary), Miss R. M. Fleming, 
Dr. A. Low. 



xxx RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

To conduct explorations on Early Neolithic Sites in Holderness. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake 
(Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. M. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. 
Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. H. Ormerod, Dr. L. S. 
Palmer. 

To investigate the antiquity and cultural relations of the Ancient Copper Workings 
in the Katanga and Northern Rhodesia. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E.N. 
Fallaize and Mr. G. A. Wainwright (Secretaries), Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, 
Dr. Randall-Maclver. 

To arrange for the publication of a new edition of ' Notes and Queries on Anthro- 
pology.' — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mrs, 
Robert Aitken, Mr. H. Balfour, Capt. T. A. Joyce, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mrs. Seligman, 
Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To consider the lines of Investigation which might be undertaken in Archaeological and 
Anthropological Research in South Africa prior to and in view of the meeting of 
the Association in that Dominion in 1929. — Sir H. Miers (Chairman), Dr. D. 
Randall-Maclver (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Prof. J. L. Myres. 

To co-operate with Dr. Klercker's archaeological laboratory in Scania in research. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. E. K. Tratman. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The Investigation of the Medullary Centres. — Prof. C. Lovatt Evans (Chairman), 
Dr. J. M. Duncan Scott (Secretary), Dr. H. H. Dale. £17. 

Colour Vision, with particular reference to the classification of Colour-blindness. — ■ 
Sir C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Prof. H. E. Roaf (Secretary), Prof. E. N. daC. 
Andrade, Dr. Mary Collins, Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, Prof. H. Hartridge. 

Ductless Glands, with particular reference to the effect of autacoid activities on 
vasomotor reflexes. — Prof. J. Mellanby (Chairman), Prof. Swale Vincent 
(Secretary), Prof. B. A. McSwiney. £30. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

Vocational Tests. — Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Mr.F.M.Earle, Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof . C. Spearman. 
£14. 

The place of Psychology in the Medical Curriculum. — Dr. W. Brown (Chairman), 
Dr.R.D. Gillespie (Secretary), Dr. C. H. Bond, Prof. E. P. Cathcart.Dr. H.Devine, 
Dr. J. A. Hadfield, Dr. Bernard Hart, Dr. D. K. Henderson, Dr. J. R. Lord, 
Dr. C. S. Myers, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof. G. M. Robertson, Dr. T. A. Ross. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

The effect of Ultra-violet Light on Plants. — Prof. W. Neilscn Jones (Chairman), Dr. 
E. M. Delf (Secretary), Prof. V. H. Blackmail. £60. 

To consider further the advisability of instituting a Diploma in Biology for Students in 
Training Colleges. — Prof. F. O. Bower (Chairman), Dr. Ethel N. M. Thomas 
(Secretary), Prof. R. D. Lauiie, Prof. S. Mangham, Miss A. Moodie, Mr. J. L. Sager, 
Miss E. H. Stevenson, Prof. J. Lloyd Williams. 

To assist in the Publication by Mr. W. B. Turrill of ' The Phytogeography of the 
Balkan Peninsula.' — Prof. A. G. Tansley (Chairman), Mr. W. B. Turrill (Secretary), 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, Dr. E. J. Salisbury. £50. 

The Chemical Analysis of Upland Bog Waters. — Prof. J. H. Priestley (Chairman), Mr. 
A. Malins Smith (Secretary), Dr. B. M. Griffiths, Dr. E. K. Rideal. £25. 

The Status of a series of naturally occurring British Rose-hybrids. — Prof. J. W. 
Heslop Harrison (Chairman), Dr. Kathleen B. Blackburn (Secretary), Miss A. J. 
Davey. £10. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES— RESOLUTIONS, &c. xxx i 

To co-operate with other bodies in furthering the Preservation of Rare Plants in 

Britain.— Dr. A. W. Hill (Chairman), Dr. H. Hamshaw Thomas (Secretary), Dr. 

G. Claridge Druce, Mr. W. O. Howarth, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. A. G. Tansley, 

Dr. T. W. Woodhead. 
Transplant Experiments.— Dr. A. W. Hill (Chairman), Mr. W. B. Turrill (Secretary), 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. A. G. Tansley. £25. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To consider the Educational Training of Boys and Girls in Secondary Schools for over- 
seas life.— Sir J. Russell (Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne (Secretary), Major A. G. 
Church, Mr. H. W. Cousins, Dr. J. Vargas Eyre, Mr. G. H. Garrad, Rev. Dr. 
H. B. Gray, Sir R. A. Gregory, Mr. O. H. Latter, Miss E. H. McLean, Miss Rita 
Oldham, Mr. G. W. Olive, Miss Gladys Pott, Mr. A. A. Somerville, Dr. G. K. 
Sutherland, Mrs. Gordon Wilson. £10. 

The bearing on School Work of recent views on formal training.— Dr. C. W. Kimmins 
(Chairman), Mr. H. E. M. Icely (Secretary), Prof. R. L. Archer, Prof. Cyril Burt, 
Prof. F. A. Cavenagh, Miss E. R. Conway, Sir Richard Gregory, Prof. G. 
Thomson. 

Science in School Certificate Examinations : To enquire into the nature and scope 
of the science syllabuses prescribed or accepted by examining authorities in 
England for the First and Second School Certificate Examinations, and to make 
recommendations relating to them; particularly in regard to their relation to 
Matriculation and other University Entrance Examinations and their suitability 
as essential subjects of instruction in a rightly balanced scheme of education 
designed to create an intelligent interest in the realm of nature and in scientific 
aspects of everyday life.— Sir Richard Gregory (Chairman), Mr. H. W. Cousins and 
Mr. G. D. Dunkerlev (Secretaries), Mr. C. E. Browne, Mr. D. Berridge, Dr. Lilian 
Clarke, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Dr. J. Wickham Murray, Dr. T. P. Nunn, Prof. A. 
Smithells, Mr. E. R. Thomas. Dr. H. W. T. Wager, Mrs. U. Gordon Wilson. 
£10. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr.T.Sheppard (Vice-Chairman), the General Secretaries, the General 
Treasurer, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir David Prain, Sir John 
Russell, Mr. Mark L. Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney ; with authority to co-opt representa- 
tives of Scientific Societies in the locality of the Annual Meeting. 



RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The following Resolutions and Recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at Oxford for consideration, and, if 
desirable, for action (except where specified as approved for action) : — 

From Section A. 

The Committee of Section A reaffirms its recommendation of last year with 
reference to the collection of the Mathematical Tables published by the Association 
and their republication in collected form, but adds also its opinion that it would be 
highly desirable to include in the volume other tables at present published individually 
in various journals. It is recommended that the selection of the tables be left to the 
Committee dealing with Mathematical Tables. 



XXXli RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

From Section E. 

The Sectional Committee strongly recommends the Council to urge upon the 
Ordnance Survey the desirability of the early preparation and publication of the 
survey of the St. Kilda group of islands now practically completed. (Supplemented 
by Sections C, D, H, K.) 

From Section E. 

The Sectional Committee recommends to Council that the attention of the Scottish 
Board of Education be drawn to the Report of the Committee on Geography Teaching 
with a view to the improvement, if possible, of the status of geography in Scottish 
schools. 

From Section E. 

In the opinion of the Sectional Committee, it is desirable that a Committee of 
the British Association be formed for the study of coral reefs in the Pacific. 

The Committee therefore supports the recommendation of Section D relative to 
the Australian Great Barrier Reef Expedition (1928) and hopes that work of a 
geographical character may be included in the expedition's programme. 

From Section H. 

That the Council be authorised to expend an amount of the Association's funds 
as may be requisite upon such investigations in South African archaeology as may seem 
desirable in view of the South African meeting. 

From Section H. 

That the Council be authorised to publish a new edition of ' Notes and Queries 
in Anthropology,' the cost being defrayed from the proceeds of the sales of the last 
edition which have been or will be received from the Treasurer of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute, together with such further sums from the Association's 
funds as may be required. 

From Section K. 

It is requested that Section K be granted permission to adopt a similar organisa- 
tion to that of Section A, and to form a separate department to be devoted to the 
discussion of forestry subjects. (Approved for action.) 

From Section K. 

That the low percentage of productive forest area in Britain is a matter of grave 
concern, and in the national interest it is urged that afforestation and reafforestation 
should be largely expedited. It is further urged that encouragement and financial 
support should be given to the development of silvicultural research and education, 
as well as to the Empire Forestry Association and other societies participating in the 
advance of the industry. 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

Preservation of British wild flowers and plants : — ■ 

1. That it is desirable that information should be obtained as to the number of 
Local Government areas in the United Kingdom and the Irish Free State in which 
by-laws relating to the destruction of wild flowers and plants at present exist ; as 
to the terms of such by-laws ; and as to the prosecutions which have taken place 
thereunder. 

2. That it is desirable to approach educational and other public bodies with a view 
to securing their co-operation in the protection of wild flowers and forest or woodland 
trees from fire or other damage. 




THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



DARWIN'S THEORY OF MAN'S DESCENT 
AS IT STANDS TO-DAY. 



BY 



Prof. Sir ARTHUR KEITH, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., 
President of the Association. 



My Lord Mayor, Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Ladies and Gentlemen, 

My first duty as your President, and it is a very pleasant one, is to 
send the following message in your name to H.R.H. The Prince of 
Wales :— 

Your Royal Highness, 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, now 
assembled in Leeds to begin another session, cannot allow your year 
of office to terminate without offering to you sincere and humble 
congratulations on the happy results which have attended your 
Presidency. A year ago, in the historic city of Oxford, you did 
British Science the signal honour of coming among us as our President ; 
the meeting you then inaugurated set a standard which future 
gatherings will strive to emulate. The inspiring message you then 
addressed to us, and through us to men of science in every part of 
the Empire, has already borne fruit. We are within sight of a closer 
union, for which the Association itself has always striven, between 
men of science overseas and their colleagues at home, in their 
endeavour to solve problems of Imperial concern. It is too soon as 
yet to assess the value of the harvest of science planted under your 
aegis, for the best vintages of science mature slowly, but of this we 
are certain : the interest Your Royal Highness has taken in the 
work of this Association will prove a permanent source of encourage- 
ment for all who work for the betterment of life through increase of 
knowledge. To-night we proudly add your Presidential banner to 
those of the great men of science who have presided over this 
Association since its inception at York ninety-six years ago. 

1927 B 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

In olden times men kept their calendars by naming each year according 
to its outstanding event. I have no doubt that in future times the 
Subject of historian of this Association, when he comes to distinguish 
Address. the Presidential year which opened so auspiciously in Oxford 
twelve months ago, will be moved to revert to this ancient custom and 
name it the Prince's Year. And I am under no misapprehension as to 
what will happen when our historian comes to the term which I have now 
the honour of inaugurating at Leeds ; he will immediately relapse to the 
normal system of numerical notation. Nor will our historian fail to note, 
should he be moved to contrast the Meeting at Oxford with that which 
now begins at Leeds, that some mischievous sprite seems to have tampered 
with the affairs of this Association. For how otherwise could he explain 
the fortune which fell to ancient Oxford, the home of History ? To her 
lot fell a brilliant discourse on the application of science to the betterment 
of human lives, while Leeds, a city whose life's blood depends on the 
successful application of Science to Industry, had to endure, as best she 
could, a discourse on a theme of ancient history. For the subject of my 
address is Man's remote history. Fifty-six years have come and gone 
since Charles Darwin wrote a history of Man's Descent. How does his 
work stand the test of time ? This is the question 1 propose to discuss 
with you to-night in the brief hour at my disposal. 

In tracing the course of events which led up to our present conception 

of Man's origin, no place could serve as a historical starting-point so well 

as Leeds. In this city was fired the first verbal shot of that 

Shot in^he g l° n § an( ^ bitter strife which ended in the overthrow of those 

Darwinian w h defended the Biblical account of Man's creation and in a 
Battle. 

victory for Darwin. On September 24, 1858 — sixty-nine 

years ago — the British Association assembled in this city just as we do 

to-night ; Sir Richard Owen, the first anatomist of his age, stood where 

I now stand. He had prepared a long address, four times the length of 

the one I propose to read, and surveyed, as he was well qualified to do, 

the whole realm of Science ; but only those parts which concern Man's 

origin require our attention now. He cited evidence which suggested a 

much earlier date for the appearance of man on earth than was sanctioned 

by Biblical records, but poured scorn on the idea that man was merely a 

transmuted ape. He declared to the assembled Association that the 

differences between man and ape were so great that it was necessary, in 

his opinion, to assign mankind to an altogether separate Order in the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 3 

Animal Kingdom. As this statement fell from the President's lips there 
was at least one man in the audience whose spirit of opposition was 
roused — Thomas Henry Huxley — Owen's young and rising antagonist. 

I have picked out Huxley from the audience because it is necessary, 
for the development of my theme, that we should give him our attention 
Owen and ^ or a momen t- We know what Huxley's feelings were towards 
Huxley. Owen at the date of the Leeds Meeting. Six months before, 

he had told his sister that ' an internecine feud rages between Owen and 
myself,' and on the eve of his departure for Leeds he wrote to Hooker : 
' The interesting question arises : shall I have a row with the great 0. 
there ? ' I am glad to say the Leeds Meeting passed off amicably, but it 
settled in Huxley's mind what the ' row ' was to be about when it came. 
It was to concern Man's rightful position in the scale of living things. 

Two years later, in 1860, when this Association met in Oxford, Owen 

gave Huxley the opportunity he desired. In the course of a discussion 

Owen repeated the statement made at Leeds as to Man's 

Man's 

Position in separate position, claiming that the human brain had certain 

the Animal structural features never seen in the brain of anthropoid 
Kingdom. L 

apes. Huxley's reply was a brief and emphatic denial with 

a promise to produce evidence in due course — which was faithfully kept. 
This opening passage at arms between our protagonists was followed 
two days later by that spectacular fight — the most memorable in the 
history of our Association — in which the Bishop of Oxford, the repre- 
sentative of Owen and of Orthodoxy, left his scalp in Huxley's hands. 
To make his victory decisive and abiding, Huxley published, early in 
1863, ' The Evidences of Man's Place in Nature,' a book which has a very 
direct bearing on the subject of my discourse. It settled for all time that 
Man's rightful position is among the Primates, and that as we anatomists 
weigh evidence, his nearest living kin are the anthropoid apes. 

My aim is to make clear to you the foundations on which rest our 
present-day conception of Man's origin. The address delivered by my 
Owen's predecessor from this chair at the Leeds Meeting of 1858 has 

Opinion of given me the opportunity of placing Huxley's fundamental 
Darwinism. ,. . __ , , .... 

conception ot Man s nature in a historical setting. I must 

now turn to another issue which Sir Richard Owen merely touched upon 

but which is of supreme interest to us now. He spent the summer in 

London, just as I have done, writing his address for Leeds and keeping 

an eye on what was happening at scientific meetings. In his case some- 

B 2 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

thing really interesting happened. Sir Charles Lyell and Sir Joseph 
Hooker left with the Linnean Society what appeared to be an ordinary 
roll of manuscript, but what in reality was a parcel charged with high 
explosives, prepared by two very innocent-looking men — Alfred Russel 
Wallace and Charles Darwin. As a matter of honesty it must be admitted 
that these two men were well aware of the deadly nature of its contents, 
and knew that if an explosion occurred, Man himself, the crown of creation, 
could not escape its destructive effects. Owen examined the contents of 
the parcel and came to the conclusion that they were not dangerous ; 
at least, he manifested no sign of alarm in his Presidential Address. He 
dismissed both Wallace and Darwin, particularly Darwin, in the briefest 
of paragraphs, at the same time citing passages from his own work to 
prove that the conception of Natural Selection as an evolutionary force 
was one which he had already recognised. 

As I address these words to you I cannot help marvelling over the 
difference between our outlook to-day and that of the audience which Sir 
Th _ Richard Owen had to face in this city sixty-nine years ago. 

formation of The vast assemblage which confronted him was convinced , 
on Man's almost without a dissentient, that Man had appeared on earth 
Origin. ^y a S p ec i a l ac t of creation ; whereas the audience which I 

have now the honour of addressing, and that larger congregation which 
the wonders of wireless bring within the reach of my voice, if not con- 
vinced Darwinists are yet prepared to believe, when full proofs are 
forthcoming, that Man began his career as a humble primate animal, and 
has reached his present estate by the action and reaction of biological 
forces which have been and are ever at work within his body and brain. 

This transformation of outlook on Man's origin is one of the marvels 
of the nineteenth century, and to see how it was effected we must turn 
Darwin's our attention for a little while to the village of Downe, in the 
Generalship. Kentish uplands, and note what Charles Darwin was doing 
on the very day that Sir Richard Owen was delivering his address here in 
Leeds. He sat in his study struggling with the first chapter of a new book ; 
but no one foresaw, Owen least of all, that the publication of the 
completed book, The Origin of Species, fifteen months later (1859), was to 
effect a sweeping revolution in our way of looking at living things and to 
initiate a new period in human thought — the Darwinian Period — in which 
we still are. Without knowing it, Darwin was a consummate general. 
He did not launch his first campaign until he had spent twenty-two 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 5 

years in stocking his arsenal with ample stores of tested and assorted fact. 
Having won territory with The Origin of Species, he immediately set to 
work to consolidate his gains by the publication in 1868 of another book, 
The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication — a great and 
valuable treasury of biological observation. Having thus established an 
advanced base, he moved forwards on his final objective — the problem 
of Human Beginnings — by the publication of The Descent of Man (1871), 
and that citadel capitulated to him. To make victory doubly certain 
he issued in the following year — 1872 — The Expression of the Emotions in 
Man and Animals. Many a soldier of truth had attempted this citadel 
before Darwin's day, but they failed because they had neither his general- 
ship nor his artillery. 

Will Darwin's victory endure for all time ? Before attempting to 
answer this question, let us look at what kind of book The Descent of Man 

is. It is a book of history — the history of Man, written in a 
History as . _ 

written new way — the way discovered by Charles Darwin. Permit 

by arwin. mg ^ ju ustrate t ^ e Darwinian way of writing history. If 
a history of the modern bicycle had to be written in the orthodox way, 
then we should search dated records until every stage was found which 
linked the two-wheeled hobby-horse, bestrode by tall-hatted fashionable 
men at the beginning of the nineteenth century, to the modern ' jeopardy ' 
which now flashes past us in country lanes. But suppose there were no 
dated records — only a jumble of antiquated machines stored in the 
cellar of a museum. We should, in this case, have to adopt Darwin's way of 
writing history. By an exact and systematic comparison of one machine 
with another we could infer the relationship of one to another and tell 
the order of their appearance, but as to the date at which each type 
appeared and the length of time it remained in fashion, we could say 
very little. It was by adopting this circumstantial method that Darwin 
succeeded in writing the history of Man. He gathered historical docu- 
ments from the body and behaviour of Man and compared them with 
observations made on the body and behaviour of every animal which 
showed the least resemblance to Man. He studied all that was known 
in his day of Man's embryological history and noted resemblances and 
differences in the corresponding histories of other animals. He took into 
consideration the manner in which the living tissues of Man react to disease, 
to drugs, and to environment ; he had to account for the existence of 
diverse races of mankind. By a logical analysis of his facts Darwin 
reconstructed and wrote a history of Man. 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

Fifty-six years have come and gone since that history was written ; 

an enormous body of new evidence has poured in upon us. We are now 

able to fill in many pages which Darwin had perforce to leave 

Position has blank, an d we have found it necessary to alter details in his 

become narrative, but the fundamentals of Darwin's outline of Man's 

Impregnable. . .-,■,■«■ i i • • • 

History remain unshaken. Nay, so strong has his position 

become that I am convinced that it never can be shaken. 

Why do I say so confidently that Darwin's position has become 

impregnable ? It is because of what has happened since his death in 

„„. _, . , 1882. Since then we have succeeded in tracing Man by means 
The Evidence . 

of Fossil of his fossil remains and by his stone implements backwards 

in time to the very beginning of that period of the earth's 

history to which the name Pleistocene is given. We thus reach a point 

in history which is distant from us at least 200,000 years, perhaps three 

times that amount. Nay, we have gone farther, and traced him into the 

older and longer period which preceded the Pleistocene — the Pliocene. It 

was in strata laid down by a stream in Java during the latter part of the 

Pliocene period that Dr. Eugene Dubois found, ten years after Darwin's 

death, the fossil remains of that remarkable representative of primitive 

humanity to which he gave the name Pithecanthropus, or Ape-man ; from 

Pliocene deposits of Bast Anglia Mr. Reid Moir has recovered rude stone 

implements. If Darwin was right, then as we trace Man backwards in 

the scale of time he should become more bestial in form — nearer to the 

ape. That is what we have found. But if we regard Pithecanthropus 

with his small and simple yet human brain as a fair representative of 

the men of the Pliocene period, then evolution must have proceeded 

at an unexpectedly rapid rate to culminate to-day in the higher races 

of Mankind. 

The evidence of Man's evolution from an ape-like being, obtained 

from a study of fossil remains, is definite and irrefutable, but the process 

has been infinitely more complex than was suspected in 
IVl3,n*s 
Descent has Darwin's time. Our older and discarded conception of Man's 

™j* be ®?,i n a transformation was depicted in that well-known diagram 
straight hne. r ° 

which showed a single file of skeletons, the gibbon at one end 
and Man at the other. In our original simplicity we expected, as we traced 
Man backwards in time, that we should encounter a graded series of fossil 
forms — a series which would carry him in a straight line towards an anthro- 
poid ancestor. We should never have made this initial mistake if we had 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 7 

remembered that trie guide to the world of the past is the world of the 

present. In our time Man is represented not by one but by many and 

diverse races— black, brown, yellow, and white ; some of these are 

rapidly expanding, others are as rapidly disappearing. Our searches 

have shown that in remote times the world was peopled, sparsely it is 

true, with races showing even a greater diversity than those of to-day, 

and that already the same process of replacement was at work. To 

unravel Man's pedigree, we have to thread our way, not along the links 

of a chain, but through the meshes of a complicated network. 

We made another mistake. Seeing that in our search for Man's 

ancestry we expected to reach an age when the beings we should have to 

deal with would be simian rather than human, we ought to 

T f h t^™ erSity have marked the conditions which prevail amongst living 
oi form 

in Ancient anthropoid apes. We ought to have been prepared to and, 
as we approached a distant point in the geological horizon, 
that the forms encountered would be as widely different as are the gorilla, 
chimpanzee and orang, and confined, as these great anthropoids now are, 
to limited parts of the earth's surface. That is what we are now realising ; 
as we go backwards in time we discover that mankind becomes broken up, 
not into separate races as in the world of to-day, but into numerous and 
separate species. When we go into a still more remote past they become 
so unlike that we have to regard them not as belonging to separate species 
but different genera. It is amongst this welter of extinct fossil forms 
which strew the ancient world that we have to trace the zigzag line of 
Man's descent. Do you wonder we sometimes falter and follow false 

clues ? 

We committed a still further blunder when we set out on the search 
for Man's ancestry : indeed, some of us are still making it . We expected that 
Discordant Man ' s evolution would pursue not only an orderly file of stages 
Evolution. but that every part of his body — skull, brain, jaws, teeth, skin, 
body, arms, and legs— would at each stage become a little less ape-like, 
a little more Man-like. Our searches have shown us that Man's evolution 
has not proceeded in this orderly manner. In some extinct races, while 
one part of the body has moved forwards another part has lagged 
behind. Let me illustrate this point because it is important. We now 
know that, as Darwin sat in his study at Downe, there lay hidden at 
Piltdown, in Sussex, not thirty miles distant from him, sealed up in a bed 
of gravel, a fossil human skull and jaw. In 1912, thirty years after Darwin's 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

death, Mr. Charles Dawson discovered this skull and my friend Sir Arthur 

Smith Woodward described it, and rightly recognised that skull and jaw 

were parts of the same individual, and that this individual had lived, as 

was determined by geological and other evidence, in the opening phase of 

the Pleistocene period. We may confidently presume that this individual 

was representative of the people who inhabited England at this remote 

date. The skull, although deeply mineralised and thick-walled, might 

well have been the rude forerunner of a modern skull, but the lower jaw 

was so ape-like that some experts denied that it went with the human 

fossil skull at all, and supposed it to be the lower jaw of some extinct 

kind of chimpanzee. This mistake would never have been made if those 

concerned had studied the comparative anatomy of anthropoid apes. 

Such a study would have prepared them to meet with the discordances 

of evolution. The same irregularity in the progression of parts is evident 

in the anatomy of Pithecanthropus, the oldest and most primitive form of 

humanity so far discovered. The thigh-bone might easily be that of modern 

man, the skull-cap that of an ape, but the brain within that cap, as we 

now know, had passed well beyond an anthropoid status. If merely a 

lower jaw had been found at Piltdown an ancient Englishman would have 

been wrongly labelled ' Higher anthropoid ape ' ; if only the thigh-bone 

of Pithecanthropus had come to light in Java, then an ancient Javanese, 

almost deserving the title of anthropoid, would have passed muster as a 

man. 

Such examples illustrate the difficulties and dangers which beset the 

task of unravelling Man's ancestry. There are other difficulties ; there 

still remain great blanks in the geological record of Man's 

remain in the evolution. As our search proceeds these blanks will be filled 

Geological m jjut m ^ e me antime let us note their nature and their 
Record. 

extent. By the discovery of fossil remains we have followed 

Man backwards to the close of the Pliocene — a period which endured at 

least for a quarter of a million years, but we have not yet succeeded in 

tracing him through this period. It is true that we have found fossil 

teeth in Pliocene deposits which may be those of an ape-like man or of a 

man-like ape ; until we find other parts of their bodies we cannot decide. 

When we pass into the still older Miocene period — one which was certainly 

twice as long as the Pliocene — we are in the heyday of anthropoid 

history. Thanks to the labours of Dr. Guy E. Pilgrim, of the Indian 

Geological Survey, we know already of a dozen different kinds of 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 9 

great anthropoids which lived in Himalayan jungles during middle 
and later Miocene times ; we know of at least three other kinds of 
great anthropoids which lived in the contemporary jungles of 
Europe. Unfortunately we have found as yet only the most resistant 
parts of their bodies — teeth and fragments of jaw. Do some of these 
fragments represent a human ancestor ? We cannot decide until a lucky 
chance brings to light a limb-bone or a piece of skull, but no one can 
compare the teeth of these Miocene anthropoids with those of primitive 
man, as has been done so thoroughly by Prof. William K. Gregory, and 
escape the conviction that in the dentitions of the extinct anthropoids of 
the Miocene jungles we have the ancestral forms of human teeth. 

It is useless to go to strata still older than the Miocene in search of 
Man's emergence ; in such strata we have found only fossil traces of 
Date of Man's emerging anthropoids. All the evidence now at our disposal 
Emergence. supports the conclusion that Man has arisen, as Lamarck 
and Darwin suspected, from an anthropoid ape not higher in the zoological 
scale than a chimpanzee, and that the date at which human and anthropoid 
lines of descent began to diverge lies near the beginning of the Miocene 
period. On our modest scale of reckoning, that gives Man the respectable 
antiquity of about one million years. 

Our geological search, which I have summarised all too briefly, has 

not produced so far the final and conclusive evidence of Man's anthropoid 

. . origin ; we have not found as yet the human imago emerging 
Proofs of our B J ° 

Anthropoid from its anthropoid encasement. Why, then, do modern 
anthropologists share the conviction that there has been an 
anthropoid stage in our ancestry ? They are no more blind than you are 
to the degree of difference which separates Man and ape in structure, in 
appearance and in behaviour. I must touch on the sources of this con- 
viction only in a passing manner. Early in the present century Prof. 
G. H. F. Nuttall, of Cambridge University, discovered a trustworthy and 
exact method of determining the affinity of one species of animal to another 
by comparing the reactions of their blood. He found that the blood of Man 
and that of the great anthropoid apes gave almost the same reaction. 
Bacteriologists find that the living anthropoid body possesses almost the 
same susceptibilities to infections, and manifests the same reactions, as 
does the body of Man. So alike are the brains of Man and anthropoid 
in their structural organisation that surgeons and physiologists transfer 
experimental observations from the one to the other. When the human 



10 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

embryo establishes itself in the womb it throws out structures of a most 

complex nature to effect a connection with the maternal body. We 

now know that exactly the same elaborate processes occur in the 

anthropoid womb and in no other. We find the same vestigial structures 

■ — the same ' evolutionary post-marks ' — in the bodies of Man and 

anthropoid. The anthropoid mother fondles, nurses and suckles her 

young in the human manner. This is but a tithe of the striking and 

intimate points in which Man resembles the anthropoid ape. In what 

other way can such a myriad of coincidences be explained except by 

presuming a common ancestry for both ? 

The crucial chapters in Darwin's Descent of Man are those in which he 

seeks to give a historical account of the rise of Man's brain and of the 

„ varied functions which that organ subserves. How do these 

The & 

Evolution of chapters stand to-day ? Darwin was not a professional 
anatomist and therefore accepted Huxley's statement that 
there was no structure in the human brain that was not already present 
in that of the anthropoid. In Huxley's opinion the human brain was 
but a richly annotated edition of the simpler and older anthropoid book, 
and that this edition, in turn, was but the expanded issue of the still older 
original primate publication. Since this statement was made thousands 
of anatomists and physiologists have studied and compared the brain of 
Man and ape ; only a few months ago Prof. G. Elliot Smith summarised 
the result of this intensive enquiry as follows : ' No structure found in the 
brain of an ape is lacking in the human brain, and, on the other hand, the 
human brain reveals no formation of any sort that is not present in the 
brain of the gorilla or chimpanzee. . . . The only distinctive feature of 
the human brain is a quantitative one.' The difference is only quanti- 
tative but its importance cannot be exaggerated. In the anthropoid 
brain are to be recognised all those parts which have become so 
enormous in the human brain. It is the expansion of just those parts 
which have given Man his powers of feeling, understanding, acting, 
speaking and learning. 

Darwin himself approached this problem not as an anatomist but as 
a psychologist, and after many years of painstaking and exact observation, 
The Evidence succeeded in convincing himself that, immeasurable as are 
of Psychology, the differences between the mentality of Man and ape, they 
are of degree, not of kind. Prolonged researches made by modern psycho- 
logists have but verified and extended Darwin's conclusions. No matter 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 11 

what line of evidence we select to follow— evidence gathered by 
anatomists, by embryologists, by physiologists, or by psychologists— we 
reach the conviction that Man's brain has been evolved from that of an 
anthropoid ape and that in the process no new structure has been intro- 
duced and no new or strange faculty interpolated. 

In these days our knowledge of the elaborate architecture and 
delicate machinery of the human brain makes rapid progress, but I should 
Unexplained mislead if I suggested that finality is in sight. Far from it ; 
Problems. our enquiries are but begun. There is so much we do not 
yet understand. Will the day ever come when we can explain why the 
brain of man has made such great progress while that of his cousin 
the gorilla has fallen so far behind? Can we explain why inherited 
ability falls to one family and not to another, or why, in the matter 
of cerebral endowment, one race of mankind has fared so much 
better than another ? We have as yet no explanation to offer, but 
an observation made twenty years ago by one on whom Nature has 
showered great gifts — a former President of this Association and the 
doyen of British zoologists — Sir E. Ray Lankestcr — deserves quotation in 
this connection : ' The leading feature in the development and separation 
of Man from other animals is undoubtedly the relative enormous size of 
the brain in Man and the corresponding increase in its activities and 
capacity. It is a striking fact that it was not in the ancestors of Man 
alone that this increase in the size of the brain took place at this same 
period — the Miocene. Other great mammals of the early Tertiary period 
were in the same case.' When primates made their first appearance 
in geological records, they were, one and all, small-brained. We have to 
recognise that the tendency to increase of brain, which culminated in the 
production of the human organ, was not confined to Man's ancestry but 
appeared in diverse branches of the Mammalian stock at a corresponding 
period of the earth's history. 

I have spoken of Darwin as a historian. To describe events and to 

give the order of their occurrence is the easier part of a historian's task ; 

his real difficulties begin when he seeks to interpret the 

Conception happenings of history, to detect the causes which produced 

of Evolution them, and explain why one event follows as a direct sequel to- 
illustrated. L J , .. . , il _ 

another. Up to this point we have been considering only the 

materials for Man's history, and placing them, so far as our scanty informa- 
tion allows, in the order of their sequence, but now we have to seek out the 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

biological processes and controlling influences which have shaped the 
evolutionary histories of Man and ape. The evolution of new types of 
Man or of ape is one thing, and the evolution of new types of motor cars 
is another, yet for the purposes of clear thinking it will repay us to use 
the one example to illustrate the other. In the evolution of motor 
vehicles Darwin's law of Selection has prevailed ; there has been severe 
competition and the types which have answered best to the needs and 
tastes of the public have survived. The public has selected on two 
"rounds — first for utility, thus illustrating Darwin's law of Natural 
Selection, and secondly because of appearance's sake ; for, as most people 
know, a new car has to satisfy not only the utilitarian demands of its 
prospective master but also the aesthetic tastes of its prospective 
mistress, therein illustrating Darwin's second law — the law of Sexual 
Selection. That selection, both utilitarian and aesthetic, is producing an 
effect on modern races of mankind and in surviving kinds of ape, as 
Darwin supposed, cannot well be questioned. In recent centuries the 
inter-racial competition amongst men for the arable lands of the world 
is keener than in any known period of human history. 

The public has selected its favoured types of car, but it has had no 

direct hand in designing and producing modifications and improvements 

which have appeared year after year. To understand how 

Production such modifications are produced the enquirer must enter a 

of New TVD6S 

" factory and not only watch artisans shaping and fitting parts 

together but also visit the designer's office. In this way an enquirer will 
obtain a glimpse of the machinery concerned in the evolution of motor 
cars. If we are to understand the machinery which underlies the 
evolution of Man and of ape, we have to enter the ' factories ' where 
they are produced — look within the womb and see the ovum being 
transformed into an embryo, the embryo into a foetus, and the foetus 
into a babe. After birth we may note infancy passing into childhood, 
childhood into adolescence, adolescence into maturity, and maturity into 
old age. Merely to register the stages of change is not enough ; to under- 
stand the controlling machinery we have to search out and uncover the 
processes which are at work within developing and growing things and 
the influences which co-ordinate and control all the processes of develop- 
ment and of growth. When we have discovered the machinery of 
development and of growth we shall also know the machinery of Evolution, 
for they are the same. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 13 

If the simile I have used would sound strange in Darwin's ear, could he 
hear it, the underlying meaning would be familiar to him. Over and 

over again he declared that he did not know how ' variations ' 

Machine and i i r i_i 0.1, 1 1 i t. 

Animal were produced, favourable or otherwise ; nor could he have 

Evolution known, for in his time hormones were undreamt of and 
contrasted. 

experimental embryology scarcely born. With these recent 

discoveries new vistas opened up for students of Evolution. The moment 
we begin to work out the simile I have used and compare the evolutionary 
machinery in a motor factory with that which regulates the development 
of an embryo within the womb, we realise how different the two processes 
are. Let us imagine for a moment what changes would be necessary 
were we to introduce ' embryological processes ' into a car factory. 
We have to conceive a workshop teeming with clustering swarms of 
microscopic artisans, mere specks of living matter. In one end of this 
factory we find swarms busy with cylinders, and as we pass along we note 
that every part of a car is in process of manufacture, each part being 
the business of a particular brigade of microscopic workmen. There is 
no apprenticeship in this factory, every employee is born, just as a hive- 
bee is, with his skill already fully developed. No plans or patterns are 
supplied ; every workman has the needed design in his head from birth. 
There is neither manager, overseer, nor foreman to direct and co-ordinate 
the activities of the vast artisan armies. And yet if parts are to fit when 
assembled, if pinions are to mesh and engines run smoothly, there must 
be some method of co-ordination. It has to be a method plastic enough 
to permit difficulties to be overcome when such are encountered and to 
permit the introduction of advantageous modifications when these are 
needed. A modern works manager would be hard put to were he asked 
to devise an automatic system of control for such a factory, yet it is just 
such a system that we are now obtaining glimpses of in the living work- 
shops of Nature. 

I have employed a crude simile to give the lay mind an inkling of 
what happens in that ' factory ' where the most complicated of machines 
Th are forged — the human body and brain. The fertilised 

Machinery of ovum divides and redivides ; one brood of microscopic 
" living units succeeds another, and as each is produced the 
units group themselves to form the ' parts ' of an embryo. Each ' part ' 
is a living society ; the embryo is a huge congeries of interdependent 
societies. How are their respective needs regulated, their freedoms 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

protected, and their manoeuvres timed ? Experimental embryologists 
have begun to explore and discover the machinery of regulation. We 
know enough to realise that it will take many generations of investigators 
to work over the great and new field which is thus opening up. When 
this is done we shall be in a better position to discuss the cause of ' varia- 
tion ' and the machinery of Evolution. 

If we know only a little concerning the system of government which 
prevails in the developing embryo we can claim that the system which 
The Machinery prevails in the growing body, as it passes from infancy to 
of Growth. maturity, is becoming better known to us every year. The 
influence of the sex glands on the growth of the body has been known since 
ancient times ; their removal in youth leads to a transformation in the 
growth of every part of the body, altering at the same time the reactions 
and temperament of the brain. In more recent years medical men have 
observed that characteristic alterations in the appearance and constitution of 
the human body can be produced by the action of other glands — the pitui- 
tary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenals. Under the disorderly action of 
one or other of these glands individuals may, in the course of a few years, 
take on so changed an appearance that the differences between them and 
their fellows become as great as, or even greater than, those which separate 
one race of mankind from another. The physical characters which are 
thus altered are just those which mark one race off from another. How 
such effects are produced we did not know until 1904, when the late 
Prof. E. H. Starling, a leader amongst the great physiologists of our time, 
laid bare an ancient and fundamental law in the living animal body — his 
law of hormones. I have pictured the body of a growing child as an 
immense society made up of myriads of microscopic living units, ever 
increasing in numbers. One of the ways — probably the oldest and most 
important way — in which the activities of the communities of the body 
are co-ordinated and regulated is by the postal system discovered by 
Starling, wherein the missives are hormones — chemical substances in 
ultra-microscopic amounts, despatched from one community to another 
in the circulating blood. Clearly the discovery of this ancient and 
intricate system opens up fresh vistas to the student of Man's evolution. 
How Darwin would have welcomed this discovery ! It would have given 
him a rational explanation to so many of his unsolved puzzles, including 
that of ' correlated variations.' Nor can I in this connection forbear to 
mention the name of one who presided so ably over the affairs of this 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 15 

Association fifteen years ago — Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer. He was the 
pioneer who opened up this field of investigation and has done more than 
anyone to place our knowledge of the nature and action of the glands of 
internal secretion on a precise basis of experimental observation. With 
such sources of knowledge being ever extended and others of great 
importance, such as the study of Heredity, which have been left 
unmentioned, we are justified in the hope that Man will be able in due 
time not only to write his own history but to explain how and why 
events took the course they did. 

In a brief hour I have attempted to answer a question of momentous 
importance to all of us— What is Man's origin ? Was Darwin right when 
he said that Man, under the action of biological forces which can be observed 
and measured, has been raised from a place amongst anthropoid apes to 
that which he now occupies ? The answer is Yes ! and in returning 
this verdict I speak but as foreman of the jury — a jury which has 
been empanelled from men who have devoted a lifetime to weighing the 
evidence. To the best of my ability I have avoided, in laying before you 
the evidence on which our verdict was found, the role of special pleader, 
being content to follow Darwin's own example — Let the Truth speak for 
itself. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



THE OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS 
OF RELATIVITY. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. E. T. WHITTAKER, LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It was in January 1914 that Einstein 1 made his great departure from the 
Newtonian doctrine of gravitation by abandoning the idea that the 
gravitational potential is scalar. The thirteen eventful years which have 
passed since then have seen the rapid development of the new theory, 
which is called General Relativity, and the confirmation by astronomers 
and astrophysicists of its predictions regarding the bending of light-rays 
by the sun and the displacement of spectral lines. At the same time a 
number of new problems have arisen in connection with it ; and perhaps 
the time has now come to review the whole situation and to indicate where 
there is need for further investigation. 

Speaking from this Chair I may perhaps be permitted to recall that 
my first experience of the British Association was as one of the secre- 
taries of Section A nearly thirty years ago ; and that my secretarial duties 
brought me the privilege of an introduction to the distinguished mathe- 
matical physicist, Prof. G. F. FitzGerald of Dublin, who was a regular 
and prominent member of the section until his death in 1901. FitzGerald 
had long held an opinion which he expressed in 1894 in the words ' Gravity 
is probably due to a change of structure of the aether, produced by the 
presence of matter.' 2 Perhaps this is the best description of Einstein's 
theory that can be given in a single sentence in the language of the older • 
physics : at any rate it indicates the three salient principles, firstly, that 
gravity is not a force acting at a distance, but an effect due to the modifica- 
tion of space (or, as FitzGerald would say, of the aether) in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the body acted on ; secondly, that this modification 
is propagated from point to point of space, being ultimately connected 
in a definite way with the presence of material bodies ; and thirdly, that 
the modification is not necessarily of a scalar character. The mention 
of the aether would be criticised by many people to-day as something out 
of date and explicable only by the circumstance that FitzGerald was 
writing thirty-three years ago ; but even this criticism will not be uni- 
versal ; for Wiechert and his followers have actually combined the old 
aether theory with ideas resembling Einstein's by the hypothesis that 
gravitational potential is an expression of what we may call the specific 
inductive capacity and permeability of the aether, these qualities being 

1 Zeits. f. Math. u. Phys. 63 (1914), p. 215. 

2 FitzGerald's Scientific Writings, p. 313. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 17 

affected by the presence of gravitating bodies. Assuming that matter is 
electrical in its nature, it is inferred that matter will be attracted to places 
of greater dielectric constant. It seems possible that something of this 
sort was what FitzGerald had in mind. 

Let us now consider some of the consequences of Einstein's theory. 
One of the first of them is that when a planet moves round a central 
attracting body in a nearly circular orbit, the perihelion of the orbit 
advances by (approximately) 6nv 2 / c i in each revolution, where v is the 
planet's velocity and c is the velocity of light. This gives for the motion 
of the perihelion of Mercury almost exactly the amount (42" per century) 
which is found from observation. Another consequence is that light-rays 
which pass near a massive body are deflected, the bending at the sun's 
limb being l"-75. This was confirmed observationally by the British 
expeditions to the eclipse of May 1919, and still more decisively by the 
Lick Observatory expedition to the Australian eclipse of September 1922 : 
the Lick observers found for the shift l"-72±0"-ll, which differs from 
Einstein's predicted value by much less than its estimated probable 
error. Yet another result of general relativity is that, by the Principle 
of Equivalence, light which reaches us from a place of different gravita- 
tional potential (such as the sun) must exhibit a kind of Doppler effect. 
This ' gravitational shift of the solar spectral lines ' is now generally 
admitted to be confirmed by comparisons of wave-lengths at the centre of 
the sun's disc with wave-lengths from the arc in vacuo ; and in 1925 the 
effect was observed, on a much larger scale, by W. S. Adams in the 
spectrum of the companion of Sirius. 

Besides the effects which have been verified observationally there are 
many consequences of Einstein's theory which are of interest as opening 
up new fields or presenting new inter-relations of phenomena in astronomy 
and physics. For instance, there is a contribution to the precession of 
the equinoxes which, unlike ordinary precession, does not depend on the 
oblateness of the earth. Again, the bending of the rays of light near a 
gravitating body, which has been observed in the case of the sun and the 
companion of Sirius, may, theoretically at any rate, be so pronounced 
that the ray is permanently captured by the attracting body, and describes 
for ever a track round and round it, which approaches spirally and 
asymptotically to a circle whose centre is at the centre of gravitation. 
Yet another deduction is that an electrified body, or a single electron, 
which is at rest in a varying gravitational field, must emit radiation. 
Indeed, now that a definite connection has been set up between electricity 
and gravitation, the whole of electromagnetic theory must be rewritten. 

As a further illustration of the (as yet) unexplored possibilities of the 
new physics, let us consider the well-known equations for the potential 
of Newtonian gravitation, namely Laplace's equation 

8*y , s 2 v , s^v = 

in space where there, is no matter, and Poisson's equation 

8 2 V S 2 V S 2 V = _ 4 
8z 2 + S^ 2 + 8z 2 " " np 

1927 C 



18 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

in space where matter of density p is present. In general relativity, 
when the field is statical, these are replaced by an equation 

where A 2 V is the Beltrami's second differential parameter for the form 
ds 2 = %a ilc dxi dx k which specifies the line-element in the three-dimen- 
sional space, Tj fc is the energy-tensor, and N is the velocity of light at 
the point. This equation reduces to Laplace's equation in one extreme 
case (when no matter or energy is present at the point) and to Poisson's 
equation in another extreme case (when the energy is entirely in the 
form of ordinary matter), but it offers an infinite variety of possibilities 
intermediate between the two, in which energy is present but not in the 
form of ordinary matter. It is possible that this equation, which evidently 
suggests an approach to the new wave-mechanics, may play as important 
a part in the microphysics and astrophysics of the future as the equations 
of Laplace and Poisson have played in the ordinary physics of the 
past. 

Let us take another consequence of the new theory. Consider the 
field due to a single gravitating particle. Take any plane through the 
particle, and in this plane draw the family of concentric circles, whose 
centre is at the particle. The length of the circumference of these circles 
will, of course, diminish as we take circles nearer to the centre : and at 
one place we shall have a circle whose circumference is of length 

4:rpM/c 2 

where (3 is the Newtonian constant of attraction, M is the mass of 
the particle in grams, and c is the velocity of light in empty space. When 
we arrive at this circle we find that the element of length directed radially 
towards the centre is infinite : that is to say, the space within the circle 
is impenetrable. Every gravitating particle has a ring-fence around it, 
within which no other body can approach. 

It will be noticed that in all that I have said I have used the ordinary 
language of three-dimensional physical space, and have avoided mention 
of that four-dimensional world of space-time which looms so largely in 
most expositions of relativity. The reason is that I have been speaking 
only of phenomena belonging to the statical class, i.e. those for which the 
field does not vary with the time : and for such phenomena, as Levi-Civita 
showed in a famous paper on the Rendiconti dei Lincei of 1917, the four- 
dimensional problem can be reduced to a three-dimensional one of the same 
kind as physicists have been accustomed to deal with. It may be consoling 
to those who distrust their own powers of doing research in four dimensions 
to know that in general relativity there are enough important unsolved 
problems of the statical type, for which capacity in three dimensions is 
sufficient, to keep all the investigators of the world busy for at least 
another generation. 

It is interesting to see how these new three-dimensional problems 
differ from those of the older Physics. Taking as an example a small 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 19 

particle moving in a statical field in general relativity, we find that the 
motion is determined by Lagrangian differential equations 

1 -0 (r-1,2,3) 



dt \8x r ) 8x r 

just as in the classical dynamics : but L is not now a simple difference of 
terms of the ' kinetic energy ' and ' potential energy ' types. It shows 
the sound instinct of the creators of the old dynamics that they almost 
always studied the equations without making the assumption that L 
consists of terms of kinetic and potential type : and thus their discoveries 
remain perfectly valid in the dynamics of general relativity. 

The fundamental researches of Einstein and Hilbert, with the discovery 
of the field equations of gravitation, were published in 1915. At that 
time German scientific journals did not reach this country regularly, and 
British physicists and mathematicians were mostly occupied in one way 
or another with duties arising out of the Great War ; so that comparatively 
little notice was taken of the new theory on this side of the North Sea 
during the first year or two of its existence, and indeed it was not until 
the end of the War that most of us had any opportunity of studying it. 
In Germany, however, it was quickly realised that general relativity was one 
of the most profound and far-reaching contributions that had ever been 
made to science. Its successful prediction of new phenomena of a most 
unexpected kind was an event of the first importance, but still more 
significant was its complete subversion of the foundations of physics and 
reconstruction of the whole subject on a new basis. From time immemorial 
the physicist and the pure mathematician had worked on a certain agree- 
ment as to the shares which they were respectively to take in the study of 
nature. The mathematician was to come first and analyse the properties 
of space and time, building up the primary science of geometry ; then, 
when the stage had thus been prepared, the physicist was to come along 
with the dramatis persona? — material bodies, magnets, electric charges, 
light, and so forth— and the play was to begin. But in Einstein's revolu- 
tionary conception, the characters created the stage as they walked about 
on it : geometry was no longer antecedent to physics, but indissolubly 
fused with it into a single discipline. The properties of space, in general 
relativity, depend on the material bodies that are present ; Euclidean 
geometry is deposed from its old position of priority, and from acceptance 
as a valid representation of space ; indeed its whole spirit is declared to 
be alien to that of modern physics, for it attempts to set up relations 
between points which are at a finite distance apart, and thus is essentially 
an action-at-a-distance theory ; and in the new world no direct relations 
exist at all except between elements that are contiguous to each other. 

The scheme of general relativity, as put forward by Einstein in 1915, 
met with some criticism as regards the unsatisfactory position occupied 
in it by electrical phenomena. While gravitation was completely fused 
with metric, so that the notion of a mechanical force on ponderable bodies 
due to gravitational attraction was completely abolished, the notion of a 
mechanical force acting on electrified or magnetised bodies placed in an 
electric or magnetic field still persisted as in the old physics. This seemed 

c2 



20 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to be an imperfection, and it was felt that sooner or later everything, 
including electro-magnetism, would be re-interpreted and represented in 
some way as consequences of the pure geometry of space and time. In 
1918 Weyl proposed to effect this by rebuilding geometry once more 
on a new foundation, which we must now examine. 

Weyl fixed attention in the first place on the ' light-cone,' or aggregate 
of directions issuing from a world-point P, in which light-signals can go 
out from it. The light-cone separates those world-points which can be 
affected by happenings at P, from those points whose happenings can 
affect P ; it, so to speak, separates past from future, and therefore lies at 
the basis of physics. Now the light-cone is represented by the equation 
ds 2 =0, where ds is the element of proper time, and Weyl argued that 
this equation, rather than the quantity ds 2 itself, must be taken as the 
starting-point of the subject; in other words, it is the ratios of the ten co- 
efficients g, m in ds 2 , and not the actual values of these coefficients, which 
are to be taken as determined by our most fundamental physical ex- 
periences. Following up this principle, he devised a geometry more 
general than the Riemannian geometry which had been adopted by 
Einstein : instead of being specified, like the Riemannian geometry, by a 
single quadratic differential form 

^ 9 m dx p dx a 

it is specified by a quadratic differential form 

■*■* g pq dx p ax q 

and a linear differential form 2<p p dx p together. The coefficients g m 

of the quadratic form can be interpreted, as in Einstein's theory, as the 
potentials of gravitation, while the four coefficients (p p of the linear form 
can be interpreted as the scalar-potential and the three components of the 
vector-potential in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. Thus Weyl suc- 
ceeded in exhibiting both gravitation and electricity as effects of the 
metric of the world. 

The enlargement of geometrical ideas thus achieved was soon followed 
by still wider extensions of the same character, due to Eddington, Schou- 
ten, Wirtinger, and others. From the point of view of the geometer, 
they constituted striking and valuable advances in his subject, and they 
seemed to offer an attractive prospect to the physicist of combining the 
whole of our knowledge of the material universe into a single unified 
theory. The working out of the various possible alternative schemes for 
identifying these more general geometries with physics has been the chief 
occupation of relativists during the last nine years. Many ingenious 
proposals and adaptations have been published, and more than one author 
has triumphantly announced that at last the problem has been solved. 
But I do not think that any of the theories can be regarded as satisfactory, 
and within the last year or two a note of doubt has been perceptible ; 
were we after all on the right track 1 At last Einstein himself 3 has made 

8 Math Ann. 97 (1926), p. 99. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 21 

up Lis mind and renounced the whole movement. The present position, 
then, is that the years 1918-1926 have been spent chiefly in researches 
which, while they have contributed greatly to the progress of geometry, 
have been on altogether wrong lines so far as physics is concerned, and we 
have now to go back to the pre-1918 position and make a fresh start, with 
the definite conviction that the geometry of space-time is Riemannian. 

Granting then this fundamental understanding, we have now to in- 
quire into the axiomatics of the theory. This part of the subject has 
received less attention in our country than elsewhere, perhaps because 
of the more or less accidental circumstance that the most prominent and 
distinguished exponents of relativity in England happened to be men 
whose work lay in the field of physics and astronomy rather than in mathe- 
matics, and who were not specially interested in questions of logic and 
rigour. It is, however, evidently of the highest importance that we should 
know exactly what assumptions must be made in order to deduce our 
equations, especially since the subject is still in a rather fluid condition, 
and there is a possibility of effecting some substantial improvement in it 
by a partial reconstruction of the foundations. 

What we want to do, then, is to set forth the axiomatics of general 
relativity in the same form as we have been accustomed to give to the 
axiomatics of any other kind of geometry — that is, to enunciate the 
primitive or undefined concepts, then the definitions, the axioms, and 
the. existence-theorems, and lastly the deductions. In the course of the 
work we must prove that the axioms are compatible with each other, and 
that no one of them is superfluous. 

The usual way of introducing relativity is to talk about measuring- 
rods and clocks. This is, I think, a very natural and proper way of 
introducing the doctrine known as ' special relativity,' which grew out of 
FitzGerald's hypothesis of the contraction of moving bodies, and was 
first clearly stated by Poincare in 1904, and further developed by Einstein 
in 1905. But general relativity, which came ten years later, is a very 
different theory. In general relativity there are no such things as rigid 
bodies — that is, bodies for which the mutual distance of every pair of 
particles remains unaltered when the body moves in the gravitational 
field. That being so, it seems desirable to avoid everything akin to a 
rigid body — such, for example, as measuring-rods or clocks — when we 
are laying down the axioms of the subject. The axioms should obviously 
deal only with the simplest constituents of the universe. Now if one of 
my clocks or watches goes wrong, I do not venture to try to mend it 
myself, but take it to a professional clockmaker, and even he is not always 
wholly successful, which seems to me to indicate that a clock is not one 
of the simplest constituents of the universe. Some of the expounders of 
relativity have recognised the existence of this difficulty, and have tried 
to turn it by giving up the ordinary material clock with its elaborate 
mechanism, and putting forward in its place what they call an atomic 
clock ; by which they mean a single atom in a gas, emitting light of 
definite frequency. Unfortunately the atom is apparently quite as compli- 
cated in its working as a material clock, perhaps more so, and is less 
understood ; and the statement that the frequency is the same under all 
conditions, whatever is happening to the atom, is (whether true or not) 



22 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

a highly complex assumption which could scarcely be used in an axiomatic 
treatment of the subject until it has been dissected into a considerable 
number of elementary axioms, some of them perhaps of a disputable 
character. 

It seems to me that we should abandon measuring-rods and accurate 
clocks altogether, and begin with something more primitive. Let us then 
take any system of reference for events — a network of points to each of 
which three numbers are assigned — which can serve as spatial co-ordinates, 
and a number indicating the succession of events at each point to serve 
as a temporal co-ordinate. Let us now refer to this co-ordinate system, 
the paths which are traced by infinitesimal particles moving freely in 
the gravitational field. Then it is one of the fundamental assumptions 
of the theory that these paths are the geodesies belonging to a certain 
quadratic differential form 

A 9 m dx v dx a- 

The truth or falsity of this assumption may, in theory at any rate, be 
tested by observation, since if the paths are geodesies they must satisfy 
certain purely geometrical conditions, and whether they do or not is a 
question to be settled by experience. 

Granting for the present that the paths do satisfy these conditions, 
let us inquire if a knowledge of the paths or geodesies is sufficient to 
enable us to determine the quadratic form. The answer to this is in the 
negative, as may easily be seen if we consider for, a moment the non- 
Euclidean geometry defined by a Cayley-Klein metric in three-dimensional 
space. In the Cayley-Klein geometry the geodesies are the straight lines 
of the space ; but a knowledge of this fact is not sufficient to determine 
the metric, since the Absolute may be any arbitrary quadric surface. 

In order to determine the quadratic form in general relativity we must 
then be furnished with some information besides the knowledge of the 
paths of material particles. It is sufficient, as Levi-Civita has remarked, 
that we should be given the nidi geodesies, i.e. the geodesies along which 
the quadratic form vanishes. In the Cayley-Klein geometry these are 
the tangents to the Absolute ; in general relativity they are simply the 
tracks of rays of light. 

So from our knowledge of the paths of material particles and the 
tracks of rays of light we can construct the quadratic form 



i g pq dx p dx 



a 



and then we are ready for the next great axiom, namely Einstein's 
Principle of Covariance, that ' the laws of nature must be represented 
by equations which are covariantive for the quadratic form 



IhQ 



<9iin dx i> dx a 



with respect to all point-transformations of co-ordinates.' 

The theory is now fairly launched and I need not describe its axiomatic 
development further. The point I wish specially to make is that in the 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 23 

above treatment there has been no mention either of length or of time : 
neither measuring-rod nor clock has been introduced in any way. We 
have left open the question whether the quadratic form does or does not 
represent anything which can be given directly by measuring-rods and 
clocks. For my own part I incline to think that the notions of length of 
material bodies, and time of clocks, are really rather complex notions 
which do not normally occur in the early chapters of axiomatic physics. 
The results of the ether-drift experiments of D. C. Miller at Mount 
Wilson in 1925, if confirmed, would seem to indicate that the geometry 
which is based on rigid measuring-rods is actually different from the 
geometry which is based on geodesies and light-rays. 

The actual laws of nature are most naturally derived, it seems to me, 
from the Minimum Principle enunciated in 1915 by Hilbert, that ' all 
physical happenings (gravitational, electrical, &c.) in the Universe are 
determined by a scalar world-function i) being, in fact, such as to annul 
the variation of the integral 



I II S*> dx u dx l dx 2 dx :i .' 



This principle is the grand culmination of the movement begun 2000 
years ago by Hero of Alexandria with his discovery that reflected light 
meets the mirror at a point such that the total path between the source 
of light and the eye is the shortest possible. In the seventeenth century 
Hero's theorem was generalised by Fermat into his ' Principle of Least 
Time ' that ' Nature always acts by the shortest course,' which suffices 
for the solution of all problems in geometrical optics. A hundred years 
later this was further extended by Maupertuis, Euler, and Lagrange, into 
a general principle of ' Least Action ' of dynamical systems, and in 1834 
Hamilton formulated his famous Principle which was found to be capable 
of reducing all the known laws of nature — gravitational, dynamical, and 
electrical — to a representation as minimum-problems. 

Hilbert's minimum principle in general relativity is a direct application 
of Hamilton's principle, in which the contribution made by gravitation 
is the integral of the Riemann scalar curvature. Thus gravitation acts 
so as to make the total amount of the curvature of space-time a minimum : 
or as we may say, gravitation simply represents a continual effort of the 
universe to straighten itself out. This is general relativity in a single 
sentence. 

I have already explained that the curvature of space-time at any 
point at any instant depends on the physical events that are taking place 
there : in statical systems, where we can consider space of three dimensions 
separately from time, the mean curvature (i.e. the sum of the three 
principal curvatures) of the space at any point is proportional to the 
energy-density at the point. Since, then, the curvature of space is wholly 
governed by physical phenomena, the suggestion presents itself that the 
metric of space-time may be determined wholly by the masses and energy 
present in the universe, so that space-time cannot exist at all except in 
so far as it is due to the existence of matter. This doctrine, which is 
substantially due to Mach, was adopted in 1917 by Einstein, and has led 
to some interesting developments. The point at issue may be illustrated 



24 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

by the following concrete problem : if all matter were annihilated except 
one particle which is to be used as a test-body, would this particle have 
inertia or not ? The view of Mach and Einstein is that it would not ; and 
in support of this view it may be urged that, according to the deductions 
of general relativity, the inertia of a body is increased when it is in the 
neighbourhood 'of other large masses ; it seems needless, therefore, to 
postulate other sources of inertia, and simplest to suppose that all inertia 
is due to the presence of other masses. When we confront this hypothesis 
with the facts of observation, however, it seems clear that the masses of 
whose existence we know — the solar systems, stars, and nebula? — are 
insufficient to confer on terrestrial bodies the inertia which they actually 
possess ; and therefore if Mach's principle were adopted, it would be 
necessary to postulate the existence of enormous quantities of matter in 
the universe which have not been detected by astronomical observation, 
and which are called into being simply in order to account for inertia in 
other bodies. This is, after all, no better than regarding some part of 
inertia as intrinsic. 

Under the influence of Mach's doctrine, Einstein made an important 
modification of the field-equations of gravitation. He now objected to 
his original equations of 1915 on the ground that they possessed a solution 
even when the universe was supposed void of matter, and he added a 
term — the ' cosmological term ' as it is called — with the idea of making 
such a solution impossible. After a time it was found that the new term 
did not do what it had been intended to do, for the modified field-equations 
still possessed a solution — the celebrated ' De Sitter World ' — even when 
no matter was present ; but the De Sitter World was found to be so 
excellent an addition to the theory that it was adopted permanently, and 
with it of course the cosmological term in the field-equations ; so that 
this term has been retained for exactly the opposite reason to that for 
which it was originally introduced. 

The ' De Sitter World ' is simply the universe as it would be if all minor 
irregularities were smoothed out : just as when we say that the earth is a 
spheroid, we mean that the earth would be a spheroid if all mountains were 
levelled and valleys filled up. In the case of the De Sitter universe the 
levelling is a more formidable operation, since we have to smooth out the 
earth, the sun, and all the heavenly bodies, and reduce the world to a 
complete uniformity. But after all, only a very small fraction of the cosmos 
is occupied by material bodies ; and it is interesting to inquire what 
space-time as a whole is like when we simply ignore them. 

The answer is, as we should expect, that it is a manifold of constant 
curvature. This means that it is isotropic (i.e. the Riemann curvature is 
the same for all orientations at the same point), and is also homogeneous. 
As a matter of fact, there is a well-known theorem that any manifold 
which is isotropic in this sense is necessarily also homogeneous, so that 
the two properties are connected. A manifold of constant curvature is 
a projective manifold, i.e. ordinary projective geometry is valid in it 
when we regard geodesies as straight lines ; and it is possible to move 
about in it any system of points, discrete or continuous, rigidly, i.e. so 
that the mutual distances are unaltered. 

The simplest example of a manifold of constant curvature is the 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 25 

surface of a sphere in ordinary three-dimensional Euclidean space ; and 
the easiest way of constructing a model of the De Sitter World is to take 
.a pseudo-Euclidean manifold of five dimensions in which the line-element 
is specified by the equation 

_ &« = dx 2 + df + dz* - du 2 + dv 2 

and in this manifold to consider the four-dimensional pseudosphere whose 
equation is 

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 — a 2 + v 2 = R 2 . 

The pseudospherical world thus defined has a constant Riemannian 
measure of curvature — 7^ 2 - 

The De Sitter World may be regarded from a slightly different stand- 
point as having a Cayley-Klein metric, governed by an Absolute whose 
equation in four-dimensional homogeneous co-ordinates is 

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 — u 2 + v 2 = 

where u is time. Hyperplanes which do not intersect the Absolute are 
spatial, so spatial measurements are elliptic, i.e. the three-dimensional 
world of space has the same kind of geometry as the surface of a sphere, 
differing from it only in being three-dimensional instead of two-dimen- 
sional. In such a geometry there is a natural unit of length, namely the 
length of the complete straight line, just as on the surface of a sphere 
there is a natural unit of length, namely the length of a complete great 
circle. 

We are thus brought to the question of the dimensions of the universe : 
what is the length of the complete straight line, the circuit of all space ? 
The answer must be furnished by astrophysical observations, interpreted 
by a proposition which belongs to the theory of De Sitter's world, namely 
that the lines of the spectrum of a very distant star should be systematically 
displaced ; the amount of displacement is proportional to the ratio of 
the distance of the star from the observer to the constant radius of curva- 
ture R of the universe. In attempting to obtain the value of R from this 
formula we meet with many difficulties : the effect is entangled with the 
ordinary Doppler effect due to the radial velocity of the star ; it could 
in any case only be of appreciable magnitude with the most distant 
objects ; and there is the most serious difference of opinion among 
astronomers as to what the distance of these objects really is. Within 
the last twelve months the distance of the spiral nebula M 33 Trianguli 
has been estimated by Dr. Hubble of the Mount Wilson Observatory at 
857,000 light-years, and by Dr. Perrine, the Director of the Cordoba 
Observatory, at only 30,000 light-years ; and there is a similar uncertainty 
of many thousands per cent, in regard to all other very remote objects. 
Under these circumstances we hesitate to assign a definite length for the 
radius of curvature of the universe ; but it is millions of light-years, though 
probably not greater than about a hundred millions. The curvature of 
space at any particular place due to the general curvature of the universe 
is therefore quite small compared to the curvature which may be imposed 
on it locally by the presence of energy. By a strong magnetic field we 
can produce a curvature with a radius of only 100 light-years, and of 



26 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

course in the presence of matter the curvature is far stronger still. So 
the universe is like the earth, on which the local curvature of hills and 
valleys is far greater than the general curvature of the terrestrial globe. 
In concluding these remarks I ought perhaps to apologise for having 
said nothing about the relation of general relativity to the new wave- 
mechanics. My excuse must be that, at the request of the Secretary of the 
British Association, this address was sent to the printer many weeks 
before the meeting ; and the wave-mechanics is developing so rapidly 
that, as one eminent worker has declared, anything printed is ipso facta 
out of date. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS. 

ADDRESS BY 

N. V. SIDGWICK, O.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



When the British Association last met in Leeds, thirty-seven years ago, 
the attention of Section B was largely devoted to the discussion of 
ionisation, and at a joint meeting with Section A the new theory of 
Arrhenius was defended by van 't Hoff and Ostwald against the attacks 
of such conservative die-hards as S. U. Pickering and Prof. H. E. 
Armstrong. That meeting may be taken as marking the recognition in 
this country of the distinction between ionised and non-ionised linkages. 
It seems appropriate therefore that I should devote this address to the 
discussion of a third species or sub-species of atomic linkage, that of 
co-ordination. 

The theory of co-ordination is indeed by no means new : it is only a 
few years younger than that of electrolytic dissociation ; but its inter- 
pretation, and especially the establishment of its relation to the older 
theory of structural chemistry, have only become possible through the 
advance made in our knowledge of atomic structure in the last few years ; 
and there are still many points in which its bearing on questions of general 
chemistry is not yet fully realised. 

Werner's Theory of Co-ordination, which was first put forward in 
1891, the year after our last meeting at Leeds, originated in an attempt 
to explain the structure of certain compounds formed by apparently 
saturated molecules with one another. A large number of such com- 
pounds, often very stable, had been observed, but they were commonly 
disregarded by chemists, or were shelved under the convenient name of 
molecular compounds ; and such attempts as had been made to formulate 
them on the lines of structural chemistry had been conspicuously 
unsuccessful. The most marked peculiarities of these compounds were 
three. In the first place their structure appeared to be quite independent 
of the ordinary rules of valency, according to which the numerical value 
of the valency of an atom element was primarily determined by the 
group in the periodic table to which it belonged, first rising and then 
falling by single units as we go from one group to the next. In these 
compounds the structure was rather determined by the tendency of four 
or six atoms or groups to arrange themselves round a central atom. 
Secondly, in these complexes, a univalent atom or group of atoms such 
as chlorine or N0 2 could be replaced by a whole apparently saturated 
molecule such as water or ammonia without affecting the stability of the 
complex. Thirdly, such replacement was always accompanied by a 



28 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

remarkable change in the ionisation of the molecule. Thus, platinic 
chloride PtCl 4 combines with six molecules of ammonia forming a com- 
pound Pt(NH 3 ) 6 Cl 4 , in which all four chlorine atoms are ionised. As 
the ammonia molecules are removed one by one, the chlorine atoms 
appear to take their places in the non-ionised part of the molecule, until 
we reach Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 4 , which is not ionised at all, and is not a salt : 
every replacement diminishes the positive charge on the platinum -com- 
plex by one. If more ammonia molecules are replaced by chlorine atoms, 
the ionisation occurs again, but now the complex has acquired a negative 
charge, so that we finally reach the well-known ' double salt ' K 2 PtCl 6 . 

To explain these phenomena, Werner proposed a theory of molecular 
structure founded on entirely new principles : that it was determined by 
the tendency of atoms, irrespective of the periodic groups to which they 
belonged, to attach to themselves a definite number (usually six, sometimes 
four, and less often other numbers) of other atoms or groups, which 
might either be univalent radicals or whole molecules capable of independent 
existence. These groups, together with the central atom, formed the 
' co-ordination complex,' and the groups were said to occupy the ' first 
sphere ' of combination of the central atom ; the molecule might also 
contain other atoms or groups occupying a ' second sphere,' which were 
less firmly attached, and did not count as part of the co-ordination com- 
plex. For example, in the hexammine of platinic chloride [Pt(NH,) 6 ]Cl 4 , 
the ammonia molecules were regarded as occupying the first sphere of 
the platinum and satisfying its co-ordination number 6, while the chlorine 
atoms occupied the second sphere. Experimentally , the groups in the 
second sphere were distinguished by the fact that they were ionised in 
water, while those forming part of the co-ordination complex were not. 
Werner produced a great mass of evidence in support of these views ; 
the chemical public in general did not, however, pay much attention to 
them until in 1911 Werner was able to show that certain compounds of 
chromium and other elements which, on his theory, should have asymmetric 
molecules could actually be resolved into their optically active forms. It 
then became evident that the theory must at least contain a large element 
of truth. 

Thus, some fifteen years ago, Werner had been able to demonstrate 
that his theory accounted for the structure of a large number of (mainly 
inorganic) compounds, with which the ordinary structural theory was not 
able to deal. He himself applied the theory to organic compounds as 
well : he regarded it as a general theory of molecular constitution, and 
sought to show that the structural theory failed even in dealing with 
organic compounds. But this must be admitted to be the weakest 
part of his argument : he was not really able to prove that the structural 
theory was inadequate in the sphere of its greatest triumphs, that of 
organic chemistry. 

An impartial critic writing at this time (say, in 1913) might have 
summed up the position thus : The theory of structural chemistry gives 
a satisfactory account of the molecular constitution of nearly all organic 
and a certain number of inorganic compounds, but it is unable to deal 
with a large number of substances of the latter class. The theory of 
co-ordination, which proceeds on wholly different lines, is able to explain 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 29 

the structure of those compounds with which the former theory breaks 
down : it can account for their composition, their properties, their 
isomerism, and even their stereoisomerism. There thus appear to be 
two different modes of chemical combination, each holding within its own 
sphere, but neither applicable to the whole of chemistry. This was 
obviously a most unsatisfactory position, and one which could only be 
temporary. It was clear that the true theory of molecular structure 
when it was discovered must be one which would apply to all compounds, 
both organic and inorganic, and that the two rival theories, that of 
structural chemistry and that of co-ordination, must ultimately prove 
to be two partial aspects of the same general phenomenon. 

The final solution of the problem was scarcely to be expected until a 
more definite idea had been reached of the physical mechanism of atomic 
linkage, and this could only be attained when more was known of the 
structure of the atom. The discovery by Sir Joseph Thomson and others 
of the electron as a universal constituent of all forms of matter had 
suggested that it was in this that the mechanism of valency was to be 
sought ; but a further development of our knowledge of the electronic 
arrangement was necessary before it could be applied in detail to answer 
the questions asked by the chemist. This development was reached, in 
the years from 1911 onwards, mainly through the work of Rutherford, 
Bohr, and Moseley. Through their researches we learnt that the atom 
consists of a positive nucleus surrounded by groups of electrons, and that 
each successive element in the periodic table contains one more unit of 
positive charge on its nucleus than the one before it, and one more 
planetary electron : the atomic number being at once the ordinal number 
of the element in the periodic table, the number of units of positive 
charge on the nucleus, and the number of surrounding electrons. The 
conceptions of the nuclear atom and of atomic number may be said to 
give us the empirical formula of the atom. The next stage, the deter- 
mination of the structural formula, of the way in which the surrounding 
atoms are arranged, although it is not yet complete, has been so far 
developed by means of the Bohr theory and its subsequent modifications, 
that we are now in a position to apply the physical results to the solution 
of the purely chemical problems of valency and molecular structure. 

It is evident that the cause of chemical combination is the striving 
of atoms to attain more stable arrangements of their planetary electrons 
by some kind of redistribution. The inert gases, since they do not enter 
into chemical combination, must already possess an arrangement too 
stable to be capable of improvement ; their atomic numbers therefore 
give us the sizes of a series of completed or stable groups, and it may be 
expected that when other atoms combine to form a molecule, they thereby 
attain these numbers of electrons, or something like them. 

The application of these ideas in detail to the explanation of valency 
was primarily due to Kossel and G. N. Lewis, who published their views 
almost simultaneously in 1916. Kossel dealt with ionised links, and 
showed that their structure could be explained by supposing that they 
were due to the migration of one or more electrons from an atom which 
had a few more than a stable (inert gas) number, to another which had 
a few less ; hence the valency in ionised compounds was usually equal to 



30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the number of places by which an element was removed from an inert 
gas, and was positive if it came after the inert gas, and negative if it 
came before. The more difficult problem of the non-ionised link, such 
as we find in elementary chlorine or hydrogen, or in methane, was 
explained by Lewis by the assumption that it is possible for two atoms, 
each of which is a few electrons short of a stable number, to share electrons 
in such a way that each counts as part of the constitution of each atom, 
thus forming a link which is not merely due to electrostatic attraction, 
and so cannot be ionised. 

These views of the two fundamental kinds of linkage — ionised and 
non-ionised, polar and non-polar, or, as Langmuir has conveniently 
called them, electrovalent and covalent — that one is due to the trans- 
ference and the other to the sharing of electrons between two atoms, have 
been confirmed by all subsequent discoveries, and may be taken to be 
generally accepted. The atomic models on which both Kossel and Lewis 
founded their theories have indeed been shown to be impossible. These 
authors supposed that the electrons surrounding the nucleus were at 
rest, and Lewis in particular assigned to them definite positions in his 
famous cube, which was subsequently developed in so much detail by 
Langmuir. We now know that any such static hypothesis is untenable ; 
it involves the assumption of a variety of otherwise unknown forces, and 
it is incapable of explaining many of the properties of atoms, especially 
their spectra ; whereas all these are accounted for by a dynamic model, 
in which the electrons move in orbits round the nucleus much as the 
planets move round the sun. But the conceptions of the transference 
and the sharing of electrons can equally well be applied to the dynamic 
model of Bohr. 

So far the mechanism of valency at which we have arrived is that of 
structural chemistry rather than that of co-ordination. The numerical 
value of the valency of an atom appears equal to the excess or defect of 
its electrons as compared with the stable number of an inert gas. If it 
has, say, two electrons in excess, loosely attached and forming an imperfect 
group, it can lose them and become a divalent cation, or it can share them 
and so form two covalent links ; if it has two electrons less than the 
stable number it can take up two from another atom or atoms and become 
a divalent anion, or it can share two electrons belonging to other atoms 
and become di-covalent ; if the excess or defect is two, the valency, of 
whichever kind, is two also. The next element, with an excess or defect 
of one, will have a valency of one. We thus arrive at the relation between 
the valency of an element and its group in the periodic table which was 
originally pointed out by MendeleefE. In fact the majority of the structural 
formulae of organic chemistry can be translated into electronic formulae 
by the simple process of writing two dots (for two shared electrons) in 
place of a line. It is important to notice the reason for the two dots — 
for Lewis's assumption that two shared electrons are necessary for every 
covalency. The most familiar property of valency, which has been recog- 
nised from the earliest times, is that if one atom combines with another 
it not only uses up one of its own units of combining power, but one of 
those of the other atom as well. Where the link is ionised, the reason 
of this is obvious : the electron which one atom loses must be taken up 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 31 

by the other. But the same must hold with covalency also. If the 
covalent link consisted of a single shared electron, this would not be true. 
If the atom A could form a covalent link with B merely by sharing one 
of its own electrons with B, this would use up one of the units of B, since 
it would increase B's electrons by one ; but it would not affect the com- 
bining power of A. For example, hydrogen (1) is one electron short of 
the stable helium number 2 ; carbon (6) is 4 short of the stable neon 
number 10. If in methane CH 4 each hydrogen atom is attached to the 
carbon by a single shared electron, then if this electron is derived from 
the hydrogen it will satisfy the carbon, but will leave the hydrogen still 
one electron short ; if it is derived from the carbon, it will leave the 
carbon four electrons short of the stable number. In either case the 
resulting molecule would be unsaturated, whereas it is in fact saturated. 
It was to meet this difficulty that Lewis assumed that the covalent link 
consisted of two shared electrons, one derived from each of the two linked 
atoms. On this hypothesis the carbon in methane shares one of its four 
valency electrons with each of the four hydrogen atoms, thus increasing 
the number of each hydrogen to two, and at the same time each hydrogen 
shares its own electron with the carbon, thus satisfying the carbon. 

We have therefore got an electronic mechanism which will account 
for the two recognised forms of valency, the ionised and the non-ionised. 
If these are really the only two forms of linkage which can exist in a 
molecule, it must be possible to extend them so as to account for co- 
ordination. This is in fact surprisingly simple, and the solution was 
foreshadowed by Lewis in his paper of 1916. It is clear that the link 
which attaches one of the groups of a co-ordination complex to the central 
atom is of the non-polar type. It is an essential point in Werner's theory 
that such links are not ionised ; this is how they are distinguished from 
the links to atoms in the ' second sphere.' Thus in the compound 
[Pt(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 ]Cl 2 the two chlorine atoms outside the bracket enclosing 
the co-ordination complex are ionised, while those inside are not. The 
same conclusion is sujjported by the fact that the arrangement of the 
groups in the co-ordination complex round the central atom can give 
rise to optical activity ; for this, as we know from organic chemistry, is 
only possible with groups which are attached by covalent links, that is, 
by directed forces. We must therefore look for an explanation of co- 
ordination in the formation of covalencies, that is, of links formed of 
pairs of shared electrons. But they must arise in some way different 
from that which we have hitherto assumed, since their numerical relations 
are different ; their number is not related to the periodic group of the 
central atom, and also they can be formed with atoms (such as the nitrogen 
in ammonia or the oxygen in water) which have already completed a 
stable number of electrons. Now in the normal covalency formation 
described above it was assumed that one of the two shared electrons of a 
link came from each of the two atoms concerned. It is obviously possible 
that both might be derived from one of them ; and the recognition of 
this possibility is all that is required to provide an electronic mechanism 
for co-ordination. By means of this extension of the idea of covalency 
formation we can explain all the peculiarities of co-ordination compounds, 
of which, as we have seen, the most important are the power of further 



32 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

combination shown by apparently saturated molecules such, as water 
and ammonia, the attainment of a valency limit (the co-ordination number) 
independent of the periodic group to which the atom belongs, and the 
peculiar change of electrovalency which accompanies the replacement of 
a univalent radical such as chlorine by a whole molecule such as ammonia.. 
We may consider these in turn. In nitrogen there are five valency elec- 
trons ; by combination with three hydrogen atoms this number is increased 
to eight, giving a molecule of ammonia, in which the octet of the nitrogen 
is complete and the atom is so far saturated. But, though complete, the 
octet is not fully utilised : six of its members are shared with the three 
hydrogen atoms, but the other two are unshared, and so can form a fourth 
link if another atom can be found which will share them without sharing 
some of its own electrons with the nitrogen in return. This may happen 
in a variety of ways. A hydrogen ion, consisting of a single proton with 
no attendant electron, is capable of taking up two electrons, and, as we 
all know, if a hydrogen ion meets an ammonia molecule it combines with 
it to form an ammonium ion 



H 

H:N + [H] + = 



H 
H:N:H 



H L H 

The nitrogen has now shared all its eight valency electrons, two with 
each of the four hydrogen atoms ; but since the ammonia molecule is- 
electrically neutral, while the hydrogen ion is positively charged, the 
resulting NH 4 molecule is also positively charged. Again, boron has 
three valency electrons ; it can share one of them with each of three 
chlorine atoms (thus completing the octets of the chlorines), and at the 
same time take a share in one of the electrons belonging to each of the 
chlorines. This gives boron trichloride BC1 3 , in which the boron has 
increased its valency group from three to six. The boron cannot combine 
with a fourth chlorine atom, because, although its own octet is not complete, 
it has no more unshared valency electrons to offer for a covalent link. 
But if it meets an ammonia molecule it can share the unshared pair of 
electrons of the nitrogen, and so form a co-ordinate link : — 

CI 
CI : B + 

CI 

In this way each of the two atoms assumes a covalency (or, if we prefer 
to call it so, a co-ordination number) of four. 

The conditions for the formation of a co-ordinate link thus are that 
we should have one atom which has a pair of unshared valency electrons 
to offer, and another which has room for one or more pairs of electrons 
in its valency group. It is convenient to have a symbol and a nomen- 
clature to express this process, and I have therefore suggested that, while 
the ordinary covalent link is represented by a line A — B, the co-ordinate 
link should be written as an arrow A-*B, pointing away from the atom 
which contributes the two electrons of the link ; also we may call the 



H 




C1H 


:N:H 


= 


C1:B:N:H 


~H 




CI a 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 33 

atom which lends the electrons (A) the donor, and that which receives 
them (B) the acceptor. 

We have now to apply these ideas to the compounds on which Werner 
based his theory. Any simple cation — that is, an atom stripped of its 
valency electrons — can act as an acceptor. It can build up a valency 
group by sharing electrons belonging to other atoms, that is, by forming 
co-ordinate links. Thus the chromic ion [Cr] + + + contains a stable core 
of twenty-one electrons and has no valency group ; the stability of this 
arrangement is proved by the stability of the chromic salts. This ion 
can then form a series of co-ordinate links with molecules of ammonia, 
by sharing the ' lone pair ' of electrons of the nitrogen atom. Since the 
stable size of the valency group for such an ion is 12, six molecules of 
ammonia will be taken up, and in this way the hexammine [Cr(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 3 
is produced. We have thus accounted for the power which certain 
complete molecules possess of combining further through co-ordination. 

The next point is to explain the peculiar change of electrovalency 
which accompanies the replacement of an ammonia molecule by, say, a 
chlorine atom. It is natural that if an ammonia molecule is removed, 
this should be replaced by another covalently linked atom, because that 
is required to maintain the valency group of 12. When the ammonia is 
removed it takes away with it the two shared electrons which it originally 
contributed ; the chlorine atom which replaces it supplies one electron 
to be shared by the chromium, but the chromium is called upon to supply 
the other electron for the link. Thus the chromium is one electron short 
of its stable number, and must take up an electron from elsewhere to make 
up the deficiency. In other words, the replacement of the ammonia by 
chlorine will reduce the positive charge on the ion bv one unit, giving 
instead of [Cr(NH 3 ) 6 ] + + + the ion [Cr(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] + + , or the salt[Cr(NH 3 ) 5 Cl]Cl 2 . 
The same change will occur for every replacement of a whole molecule in 
the complex by a univalent radical. Thus the very peculiar change of 
electrovalency which Werner established is a necessary result of the 
electronic mechanism underlying the linkage. The third important 
characteristic of the co-ordination compounds is the co-ordination number 
itself. As we have seen, the most remarkable point about these com- 
pounds is that the relation observed in ordinary structural chemistry 
between the valency of an element and its group in the periodic table 
disappears. Instead of finding that the valency — the number of links 
which an atom can form — increases from one in the first group to four in 
the fourth, and then falls (in the simpler compounds at any rate) to one 
in the seventh, we find that the co-ordination number is independent of 
the periodic group, and is usxially either six or four. But this again 
follows necessarily from the theory. So long as the valency is expressed 
by ionisation, or by normal covalencies to which each atom contributes 
one electron, it must be limited either by the number of electrons which 
the atom has to offer or by the number for which it has room in its valency 
group ; it will therefore be determined by the distance of the atom in 
question from the nearest inert gas, or, in other words, by the group in 
the periodic table to which it belongs. In its saturated compounds the 
atom will usually be left either with an imperfect valency group (like 
the boron in boron trichloride) or with one which is incompletely shared, 

1927 D 



34 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

like the nitrogen in ammonia. Where co-ordination occurs this limitation 
is removed ; the atom can give or take as many electrons as may be 
necessary, and in the fully co-ordinated atom it will have a fully shared 
valency group. Its maximum co-ordination valency, or co-ordination 
number, is therefore half the number of electrons in its maximum valency 
group. 

In this way the conception of the co-ordinate link as being a covalency, 
that is, a link of two shared electrons, differing from the ordinary covalency 
only in this, that the two electrons both come from one of the linked atoms 
instead of one from each, provides the mechanism required to explain the 
existence and the properties of the co-ordination compounds of Werner. 
This conclusion removes the apparent contradiction between organic and 
inorganic compounds ; it refers the structure of molecules of both classes 
to the same physical principles, and exhibits the original co-ordination 
theory of Werner and the older structural theory as two aspects of the 
same general process. It further removes two objections which might 
have been urged against the co-ordination theory as it was originally 
proposed. The first of these is that it seemed to assign a unique position 
to one or two of the atoms in a molecule, which were regarded as ' co- 
ordination centres ' in some way governing the structure of the whole. 
This is obviously an incorrect view of the molecule, in which every atom 
is in a sense as important as every other. We can now see that this is in 
fact the case, and that the nitrogen in an ammine, for example, is just 
as inuch a centre of co-ordination as the metal. The second point is that 
the distinction which Werner made between principal and subsidiary 
valencies, which was always unsatisfactory, now disappears. It originated 
in a desire to retain the valencies of the structural theory, while recog- 
nising the formation of more links than the structural theory would 
permit. It has long been clear that there was no ground for maintaining 
the existence of this distinction within the co-ordination complex. The 
electronic theory shows that the difference between a normal and a 
co-ordinate covalency is in their method of formation ; when they have 
been formed both alike consist of two shared electrons. 

The further application of these ideas to those compounds with which 
Werner's name is most closely connected is an inquiry of great interest, 
but I do not propose to pursue it here. I would rather consider some 
more general questions. We have been led, in seeking an explanation 
of the structure of co-ordination compounds, to the conception of a third 
form of atomic linkage in addition to the recognised forms of electro- 
valencies and covalencies ; or, as we should rather say, we have found 
that a covalency can arise in a second way. This new method is peculiar 
in that it allows of the combination of apparently saturated atoms or 
molecules with one another, and it is therefore the condition which makes 
the association of liquids possible. Links of this type are not confined to 
inorganic compounds, but are widely spread in organic chemistry, as 
Werner himself showed. Co-ordination is thus of great importance 
throughout the whole of chemistry. Now that we understand the physical 
mechanism which underlies it, we may hope to arrive at some idea of 
its characteristic properties, and it will be well to consider what new 
light these throw on various problems of chemistry in general. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 35 

We have already seen that the formation of a co-ordinate link involves 
the presence of one atom which can act as a donor and another which can 
act as an acceptor. The donor must have a pair of unshared valency- 
electrons. The acceptor must have fewer valency electrons than it is 
capable of holding. This raises the question of the maximum size of the 
valency group. If we maintain the original octet theory, that the valency 
group cannot exceed 8, and at the same time hold that every covalency 
involves two shared electrons, it follows that the maximum covalency 
cannot exceed 4. The existence of stable compounds such as sulphur 
hexafluoride shows that this conclusion is false, and hence that one or 
other of the two assumptions must be abandoned. Some chemists main- 
tain the octet limit, and explain the existence of atoms with a covalency 
greater than four by assuming the possibility of a covalent link formed of 
a single shared electron : they suppose, for example, that in sulphur 
hexafluoride the sulphur has eight shared electrons, and that two of the 
fluorine atoms are attached by two electrons each, and the other four by 
one each. This view seems to me to be untenable. There must be some 
relation between the mechanism of a link and its behaviour ; if not, it 
is of little use to discuss the mechanism. Links of single electrons 
undoubtedly occur in a limited number of compounds of hydrogen, such 
as [H 2 ] + and the hydrides of boron (B 2 H 6 , &c.) ; but, as we should expect, 
they are always very unstable. I cannot believe that a substance like 
sulphur hexafluoride, which is one of the most stable of known com- 
pounds, and can be heated to a red heat with sodium without 
decomposition, can contain four such links. I should therefore abandon 
the limit of 8 for the valency group (as G. N. Lewis has now done), 
and adhere to the view that in all but a few unstable compounds every 
covalency involves two shared electrons. On these principles the 
maximum size of the valency group is twice the covalency or co-ordination 
maximum. An examination of the structures of known compounds 
gives strong reason to believe that there is a direct and simple relation 
between the maximum covalency (co-ordination number) of an atom and 
its position in the periodic table, and that this depends not on the periodic 
group but on the period in which it occurs, so that the co-ordination 
classification runs horizontally, while the normal valency values, as we 
all know, run vertically. It would take too long to discuss the evidence 
for this statement, but I may give the conclusions. The maximum 
covalency of hydrogen is 2 : that of elements in the first short period 
(lithium to fluorine) is 4 : that of elements in the second short period 
(sodium to chlorine) and the first long period (potassium to bromine) is 
6 : and that of the later elements is 8. The maximum number of electrons 
in the valency group is, of course, twice as great, being 4, 8, 12, and 16, 
respectively. No physical reason for these facts can as yet be given, but 
a certain relation can be traced between the numbers and those in the 
grouplets of the Bohr theory as modified by Stoner and Main Smith. 

The next question is the difference in properties which is to be expected 
between the normal and co-ordinate covalencies. These are essentially 
of two kinds. In the first place the co-ordinate links are in general less 
stable. The stability of a link depends on the work required to break it, 
or, in other words, on the difference of energy content between the original 

d 2 



36 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

molecule and the products of the rupture of the link. Hence, the more 
unstable these products are, the more difficult it is to break the link. The 
rupture of a normal covalency leads to the production of two univalent 
radicals 

A : B > A- + .B 

that is, of two highly unstable products. But a co-ordinate link can break 
by the return of the two shared electrons to the atom to which they 
originally belonged 

A:B y A + : B 

and one at least of the products is now a molecule capable of independent 
existence. Thus, the products of the rupture of a co-ordinate link are, as 
a rule, more stable than those formed by breaking a normal covalency, 
and the co-ordinate link is therefore less stable. This difference is 
particularly marked in rings containing co-ordinate links, those which 
Prof. Morgan has called chelate rings : these are far more sensitive to 
strain, owing to the weakness of the co-ordinate link, than the ordinary 
rings of organic chemistry ; while the latter are known of every size from 
three to eighteen members, chelate rings almost invariably contain 
either six or five ; a few 4-rings are known and one or two 7- and 8-rings ; 
but none with less than four or more than eight members. This 
explanation of the difference in strength between normal and co-ordinate 
links is of considerable importance ; the fact is beyond dispute, and if 
we are to maintain that the mechanism of both forms of linkage is the 
same, consisting in the sharing of two electrons, we must be able to give 
a reason for this difference in stability. 

The second point of difference is that while the normal covalency in- 
volves no considerable disturbance of the electrostatic equilibrium in the 
molecule, this is not true of the co-ordinate link. In the normal link 
between two atoms, each atom shares one electron with the other atom. 
If the electrons were shared equally between the two, there would be no 
electrostatic disturbance at all. We do not know enough about the 
dynamics of the sharing of electrons to say how nearly this is true, but 
the properties of ordinary covalent compounds indicate that it is not far 
from the truth, and that the shared electron usually divides its time 
more or less equally between the two atoms which share it. But when a 
co-ordinate link is formed between two originally neutral atoms, one of 
them loses and the other gains a share in two electrons. Hence, the 
acceptor must receive a negative charge from the link and the donor a 

positive charge. This fact is expressed by some chemists, such as Prof. 

+ — 
Lowry, by writing the link A — B instead of A->B. A molecule contain- 
ing such a link is therefore an electrical dipole. This electrostatic 
disturbance will have two chief results : it will increase the dielectric 
constant of the substance, and it will increase the attraction of the 
molecules for one another, and therefore diminish the volatility. That 
this does actually occur we have plenty of evidence ; I may give a few 
examples, selected from non-associated substances, in order to avoid 
the complications which association might produce. While the value 
of the dielectric constant for hydrocarbons is about 2-3, for ethers about 4. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 37 

and for esters about 7 (all these being free from co-ordinate links), it is 
greatly increased by the introduction of a nitro-group 

^° 
- -W , 

^0 

which contains this link, and is for nitromethane 39 and for nitro- 
benzene 36. The effect on the boiling point is seen by comparing the 
alkyl nitrites K— — N=0 with the isomeric nitro-compounds 

R-N^ : 

the latter boil from 50° to 100° higher than the former. Many other 
examples might be quoted. 

These examples suggest the consideration of associated liquids. As 
long as we were at liberty to invent new kinds of subsidiary valencies, the 
existence of association caused no trouble. But now that we claim to 
have discovered the mechanism of atomic combination, we must identify 
the link between the molecules of an associated substance with one or 
other of the forms of link that we have recognised, and it is evident that 
the co-ordinate link is the form required. We ought therefore to be 
able to find in every associated substance a donor and an acceptor atom. 
Such atoms are always found to be present : in the most familiar class of 
associated compounds, those containing hydroxyl groups, the oxygen 
atom of this group, with its two pairs of unshared valency electrons, is the 
donor, and the hydrogen atom, being able as we have seen to increase its 
valency group from two to four, is the acceptor. We thus* get the 
possibility of an indefinite degree of polymerisation : — 

vH. /R / 
R-O^H-O^H-0-> &c. 

That the association does depend on the two atoms of the hydroxyl group 
is shown by the fact that if we replace either the oxygen by sulphur 
or the hydrogen by an alkyl group the association disappears : neither 
the mercaptans nor the ethers are associated. Associated substances 
possess the properties which we have seen to accompany the co-ordinate 
link, the high dielectric constant and the low volatility. The latter 
property is commonly taken to be sufficiently explained by the rise of 
molecular weight which the association produces, but unless this is much 
greater than we have any reason to suppose, it will not account for the 
whole effect. For example, the ethers boil about 60° lower than the 
corresponding thio-ethers ; hydrogen sulphide boils at -61°, and so 
unimolecular H 2 should boil about - 120°. If the real formula of water 
is H 6 3 (and it is very improbable that its average polymerisation is even 
as great as this at 100°), its true molecular weight is not 18 but 54. This 
will account for a rise in the boiling point, but not for so large a rise as 
is actually found. Hydrogen selenide (mol. wt. 81-2) boils at — 42°, 
and butane (mol. wt. 58) at + 1°. Evidently the polymerised molecules 



38 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

themselves are much less volatile than corresponds to their molecular 
weights, as we should expect from the presence of the co-ordinate link. 
The high values of the dielectric constant (water, f ormamide, and hydrogen 
peroxide about 80, methyl alcohol 35, ethyl alcohol 27) are further evidence 
of co-ordination. This reference to the dielectric constant raises a point 
which is worth mentioning, although I cannot discuss it in detail here. 
In some modern developments of the theory of organic reactions great 
stress is laid on the dipole moment of such groups as hydroxy!. The 
values of these moments are calculated from the dielectric constants of 
the hydroxylic compounds, and are assumed to apply to the single 
unassociated molecules. Now since we have seen that the association 
itself must increase the dielectric constant owing to the co-ordination of 
the molecules with one another, it is by no means certain that values so 
obtained hold good for the unpolymerised hydroxyl group. It is, if course, 
quite possible that the same conditions which make the hydroxyl group 
so ready to polymerise also give it a high dipole moment even in the 
simple molecule ; but the rise in the dielectric constant which the associa- 
tion itself must produce is a factor which must be taken into account, 
especially as it is one which will vary with the temperature. 

This view that association is due to co-ordination throws light on the 
behaviour of a group of substances whose position was hitherto rather 
puzzling. There are many substances such as sulphur dioxide, ethers, and 
amines which behave in many ways like associated liquids, and yet when 
they are directly tested are found not to be associated ; they are volatile, 
and give simple values of the molecular weight in the' pure state and in 
non-associated solvents. It has long been a problem how such substances 
should be classified. It is now clear that they contain only one of the 
two elements necessary to co-ordination : they have donor atoms (oxygen 
or nitrogen) but no acceptor atoms (the acceptor properties of hydrogen 
attached to nitrogen are for some reason very weak). They are thus 
incapable of polymerisation, and in the presence of non-associated liquids 
they behave as normal non-associated substances. But in the presence 
of a substance capable of association, and so containing acceptor as well 
as donor atoms, they behave as associated substances. 

These considerations emphasise a very important and far-reaching 
characteristic of the co-ordinate link, its one-sided nature. The two 
atoms taking part in it perform quite different functions ; and in deter- 
mining the structure of a co-ordination compound it is essential to show 
which of the two co-ordinated atoms is the donor and which the acceptor. 
This distinguishes the electronic view of co-ordination from the subsidiary 
valency theory of Werner and his school ; there was no apparent reason 
why two atoms which could form subsidiary valencies with a third atom 
should not also form them with one another. We can see now that such 
a linkage is impossible : there must be the necessary opposition in 
character between the two atoms before co-ordination can take place. 
It is true that Werner himself was saved by his almost uncanny insight 
into molecular structure from falling into this error, but there was nothing 
in his theory to save him from it, and not all his followers had as true an 
intuition as he had himself. The recognition of this distinction, to which 
the electronic interpretation directly leads, is a definite advance. 



B— CHEMISTRY. 39 

Among the more important developments of the theory of co-ordination 
which must be expected in the near future, its systematic application to 
organic chemistry must take a high place, for it is by the study of organic 
compounds that we really can examine in minute detail the influence of 
structure on properties. * The very existence of organic chemistry — the 
fact that the compounds of carbon form a group at least as numerous 
and important as all other chemical compounds together— can only be 
fully explained by reference to the theory of co-ordination. Werner 
pointed out long ago that the unique position of carbon was due to the 
fact that its valency and its co-ordination number were identical. This 
we should now express by saying that as it has four valency electrons it 
can obtain a fully shared octet by normal covalency formation and without 
the production of co-ordinate links. But this is not all. Since carbon 
is in the first short period of the table, this octet is incapable of further 
expansion. Hence the ordinary saturated quadrivalent carbon atom is 
incapable of acting either as an acceptor or as a donor, and for this 
reason it is peculiarly well protected from the attack of other atoms. 
This is undoubtedly the chief cause of the remarkable sluggishness 
(Tragheit, as Victor Meyer called it) so characteristic of carbon, a dis- 
inclination to react which gives comparative stability to a large number 
of thermodynamically unstable compounds. That this explanation is 
sound may be seen by comparing the behaviour of the halides of carbon 
with that of the halides of neighbouring elements. Most non-metallic 
halides are readily hydrolysed by water, and we may assume that the 
hydrolysis is preceded by a combination (through the formation of 
co-ordinate links) of the water with the halide. In boron trichloride, for 
example, the incomplete octet of the boron completes itself by sharing a 
pair of electrons from the oxygen of the water, forming the compound 

>O^B-Cl , 

h/ \ci 

analogous to the ammonia compound discussed above. A hydrogen and 
a chlorine atom then separate as hydrochloric acid, leaving a hydroxyl 
group attached to the boron, and by the repetition of this process 
the hydrolysis to boric acid is completed. The same reaction occurs 
with silicon tetrachloride, because, although the silicon has already a 
complete octet, it can expand this to a group of 12, since it is in the 
second period. With nitrogen the position is not quite the same. In 
the trichloride NC1 3 the octet of the nitrogen is complete, and it is incapable 
of expansion ; but it is not fully shared, and contains a lone pair of elec- 
trons. Hence, though it cannot be an acceptor, it can be a donor. It 
forms a co-ordinate link not with the oxygen but with the hydrogen of 

the water, giving 

Civ XJ1 

CK ^H-O-H 

The chlorine then reacts with the hydroxyl, forming hypochlorous acid, 
while the hydrogen remains attached to the nitrogen the ultimate product 



40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

being ammonia. The truth of this hypothesis of intermediate co-ordina- 
tion with the water is strongly supported by the fact that it explains the 
unusual production of hypochlorous acid from chlorine attached to 
trivalent nitrogen. 

But carbon tetrachloride cannot react in either of these ways. It 
has a complete octet, and cannot increase it, and the octet is fully shared, 
so that it cannot act as a donor. It therefore does not react at all. The 
remarkable inactivity of carbon tetrachloride has long been regarded as 
an unexplained anomaly, but we can now see that it is a necessary conse- 
quence of the theory of co-ordination. If we want to find a similarly 
inactive halide of an element in a later period, where a valency group of 
12 is possible, we must obviously choose one in which this group of 12 is 
fully shared and also is incapable of further expansion. Examples of 
this are the hexafluorides of sulphur and selenium, whose inactivity is 
as remarkable as that of their carbon analogue. Tellurium hexafluoride 
on the other hand is hydrolysed by water, since its valency group of 12 
can expand to 16, and the tellurium can therefore (like silicon in the 
tetrahalide) act as an acceptor. 

Now the carbon atoms in an ordinary saturated organic compound all 
resemble that in the tetrahalide in having fully shared valency groups of 
the maximum size. They are therefore incapable of the most obvious 
form of reactivity, which begins by co-ordination with a reagent molecule : 
if they are to react at all, it must be through some other atom in the 
molecule. It is a significant fact that one of the most elementary rules 
of organic chemistry is that a carbon atom united only to other carbon 
atoms or to hydrogen or the halogens is very slow to react, but that the 
introduction of a single oxygen atom into the molecule facilitates reaction. 
The comparison of the paraffins with the ethers or alcohols, of the ethers 
with the esters and the esters with the acid anhydrides, or of the alkyl 
halides with the acyl halides, illustrates the effect which an oxygen atom 
may have on the stability of a molecule. It seems natural to relate this 
effect to the strong donor properties which oxygen exhibits, and to suppose, 
for example, that the rapid hydrolysis of an acyl halide is due to the 
formation through the oxygen of a compound 

R-C^ >0, 

in which the hydrogen of the water is brought into close proximity with 
the chlorine, while the relative inactivity of an alkyl halide is the result 
of its inability to form such a compound. 

I make these suggestions (which might easily be extended) because 
it seems to me that in the intensive modern study of the influence of 
structure on the reactivity of organic compounds this side of the question 
has been too much neglected. Great attention has been devoted to the 
consideration of the effect of other atoms in the molecule on the strength 
of a particular linkage. A new mechanism and a new terminology — or 
perhaps more than one — have been invented to account for the results. 
This mechanism is described in terms of physical concepts, and although 
it appears to me that the properties which are assigned to these concepts 
need considerable modification before they can be accepted by the 



B— CHEMISTRY. 41 

physicist, there is no doubt that this mechanism enables its inventors to 
correlate a large number of important generalisations, so that some real 
truth must underlie it, although we may at present be in some doubt as 
to what that truth exactly is. But I think these chemists have tended 
to rely too much on supposed modifications of the linkages within the 
molecule, and have not sufficiently considered the possibility of the forma- 
tion of co-ordination compounds with the reagents employed, such as 
those which I have suggested above. The effect of one atom in a molecule 
in hastening the replacement of another may not be due merely to a 
weakening of the attachment of the latter, but may be caused by the 
formation of a co-ordinate link through the former, or this may promote 
co-ordination through some other atom in the molecule. We know now 
that even in purely ' organic ' compounds — quite apart from those organo- 
metallic compounds which the old-fashioned organic chemist regarded 
with so much distaste — co-ordination is of frequent occurrence. In the 
particular form of the production of chelate rings, that is, in the form of 
co-ordination between two atoms of the same molecule, it has been shown 
to occur in (3-diketones and (3-ketoesters, in many ortho-substituted 
phenols, and in a-keto-oximes, and to be responsible for much of the 
chemical as well as the physical peculiarities of these substances ; and in 
the more general form of association or ' molecular compound ' formation 
its occurrence is widespread. Formerly the production of such compounds 
was ascribed to some inferior and rather contemptible form of valency, 
possibly to a force acting not between atoms at all, but between whole 
molecules, and so the influence of their formation on what were regarded 
as the reactions of genuine valencies was naturally taken little into account. 
But we now realise that they owe their existence to the production of 
co-ordinate links, and that the co-ordinate link is in essence the same as 
a normal covalency. The co-ordinated hydrogen, for example, as in 

H— 0— H^O< , 
\H 

is attached to each of the two oxygen atoms by means of two shared 
electrons. The link on one side is just as genuine as that on the other, 
although, owing to the difference in the states of the two oxygen atoms, 
one of them may separate more easily. It therefore seems probable that 
the formation of such a link may often be a preliminary stage to the 
complete transference of the hydrogen from one point of attachment to 
another, and that the possibility of its formation may be a necessary 
condition of reaction. We have further to recognise another way in which 
reaction may be promoted by co-ordination, which is illustrated by the 
example I gave of the hydrolysis of an acid chloride. The formation of a 
co-ordination compound between two molecules may bring two atoms 
into proximity with one another, and so favour their reaction. In 
developing this possibility we have to consider the stereochemical relations. 
The study of chelate rings has shown us what forms of ring are most 
stable ; owing to the weakness of the co-ordinate link which they contain 
such rings afford, as I have already pointed out, a more delicate test of 
strain than the ordinary rings of organic chemistry. Thus we find that 
a chelate ring of six atoms, including double links, is formed with peculiar 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

ease. Froni this we may conclude that when a chain of atoms is formed 
by co-ordination which includes one or two double links, the sixth atom 
of this chain will be able to approach the first very closely, and so may 
be expected to react with it. In these and other ways the consideration 
of possible intermediate co-ordination products may provide the clue to 
many organic reactions. 

If this line of thought is to be pursued, there is a preliminary question 
which requires investigation. We have seen that two conditions are 
essential to the formation of a co-ordinate link, the presence of an atom 
with an unshared pair of valency electrons (the donor), and of another 
(the acceptor), which can add two electrons to its valency group. But 
these conditions, though necessary, are not sufficient. They are both 
fulfilled in most organic molecules other than those of hydrocarbons. The 
normal hydrogen atom has only two electrons, and it can hold four : 
every halogen atom, every oxygen atom, every trivalent nitrogen atom 
has an unshared pair of valency electrons ; and yet halides, ethers, and 
amines are not as a rule associated. For co-ordination to take place it 
is necessary not only that such atoms should be present, but also that 
they should be so linked that they are able to exercise their donor or 
acceptor properties. Hydrogen, for example, is a powerful acceptor 
when it is joined to oxygen or fluorine ; it is a weak acceptor when it is 
joined to nitrogen ; it is practically not an acceptor at all when it is 
combined with carbon or one of the heavier halogens. We cannot at 
present explain these differences in behaviour, but it is quite easy to show 
that they exist In the same way the donor properties of oxygen are 
very largely influenced by its state of combination. If the influence of 
co-ordination on reactivity in organic compounds is to be studied in 
detail, the first necessity is a knowledge of the factors which promote 
co-ordination itself, and this can only be attained by a careful examination 
of the facts from this point of view ; a thorough investigation of the 
influence of substitution on the tendency of molecules of a particular 
type to associate with themselves, or to form addition compounds with 
other substances, would no doubt throw much light on the question. 
It would be particularly interesting to know what is the effect on activity, 
both in donors and in acceptors, of the peculiar tendencies to reaction 
which the modern organic chemist represents by positive and negative 
signs. 

I have tried in these remarks to emphasise the fact that the modern 
electronic interpretation of the theory of co-ordination has a value far 
outside the range of those compounds which the theory was originally 
devised to explain. There is too great a tendency even now to regard 
the question of co-ordination as one which is of interest only in connection 
with a highly special group of substances which the ordinary chemist 
rarely meets, whereas in truth the study of this question has given us a 
wider and a truer conception of the nature of the processes by which 
molecules are built up. The determination of the factors which influence 
chemical reaction is perhaps the most important of the fundamental 
problems of chemistry, and it is essential that the factor of co-ordination, 
with the new possibilities of reaction-mechanism which it opens up, should 
be recognised and investigated. 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



THE TERTIARY PLUTONIC CENTRES 

OF BRITAIN. 

BY 

HERBERT H. THOMAS, ScD., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In presenting to you the subject of the Tertiary Plutonic centres of 
Britain, I do so with some diffidence, for of late years so much has been 
written concerning them and so much work has been done on related 
subjects that, of necessity, a great deal of what I am going to bring to 
your notice will not be new to you. I cannot pretend that I am armed with 
an array of fresh facts and observations, nor do I propose to follow the 
fashion and propound some new theory relating to petrogenesis. All I 
desire to do, and feel capable of doing, is to stress the importance of certain 
features displayed by the igneous rocks of these centres, feeling that 
they are not merely matters of local interest but are such as must influence 
fundamentally any conception of igneous intrusion and the explanation 
of the variability of rock-types and rock-composition. 

The great Brito-Icelandic Province of Tertiary igneous activity, as you 
are well aware, stretches over a known area of some hundreds of thousand 
square miles, and so far as its major development is concerned, reaches 
from north-east Ireland, through the Inner Hebrides to the Faroe Islands, 
Iceland and beyond. Although broken up by the sea into more or less 
isolated areas that represent but a fraction of their original extent, these 
areas are sufficiently large and of sufficient relief to offer unparalleled 
opportunities for detailed study, both as regards the lateral and vertical 
distribution, and mutual relations of their component rock-masses. 

In the early days the lava-field received the greater share of attention, 
and it was not till the later decades of the last century that the importance 
of the major intrusive bodies was either suspected or realised. 

It is not necessary to delve into the early history of petrographical 
work connected with this region, but sufficient to pay tribute to the 
astute observations of such pioneers as Pennant, Ami Boue, Jameson and 
Macculloch, and to acknowledge the great debt that we owe to Judd and 
Archibald Geikie who, although often holding divergent views, together 
laid the sure foundations on which the whole fabric of subsequent work 
has been erected. 

The definite establishment of the Tertiary age of the igneous rocks as 
a whole, the conception of a great petrographical province, and the 
proof that the lavas of the great field were of the plateau-type due to 
fissure-eruptions, constituted the first real advance in our knowledge. 

What I may refer to, however, as the intensive study of the Tertiary 



44 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

igneous rocks of Britain, made possible by the progress of petrographical 
methods and ideas, commenced when Dr. Harker undertook in 1895 the 
detailed mapping of the Island of Skye — work that led up to the pro- 
duction of the most complete account of any extensive and complicated 
region of igneous rocks which up till then had been presented to the 
scientific public. Later he extended his researches into Rum and the 
Small Isles of Inverness, where problems of a similar nature confronted 
him, and which he elucidated with the same skill and perseverance. Since 
that time the Geological Survey undertook and completed the investiga- 
tion of what is probably the most complex, but at the same time most 
illuminating, plutonic centre in the Tertiary province, namely, the Island 
of Mull. Here many of the discoveries of Dr. Harker in Skye and else- 
where received ample confirmation, but, as might be expected from a 
region of greater size and complexity, many features that were obscure or 
unrepresented in the previously described region were made clear and 
established as matters of general importance. 

A complete account of this region, prepared largely by Mr. E. B. 
Bailey, has now appeared and is probably familiar to most of you. No 
memoir, however good, can do Mull justice, and no student, even with the 
aid of map and memoir, can fully appreciate all that Mull has to teach 
without a study of the actual exposures. The companion centre of 
Ardnamurchan, although of smaller extent, is equally important because, 
in addition to reproducing many of the salient features of Mull, it supple- 
ments as well as confirms many of the deductions framed on work done 
in the larger area. Mr. Richey was mainly responsible for the survey of 
Ardnamurchan, and although references to the progress of the work have 
been made from time to time, the complete account of this centre has 
yet to appear. I am glad to be able to say, however, that the publication 
of the memoir on this interesting area will not long be delayed. 

In other districts, the petrography of the Island of Arran, with its 
two centres, has been made the subject of revision by Dr. Tyrrell of 
Glasgow, who is now preparing an official memoir and explanation of the 
map. The Mourne Mountains in Ireland have received attention at the 
hands of Mr. Richey, and his account of the granite masses has been 
communicated to the Geological Society. Still farther afield, Dr. Hawkes, 
following on the work of Thoroddsen, has undertaken an investigation of 
the plutonic centres of south-eastern Iceland, the results of which we 
await with interest, while others have studied the remnants of the great 
Tertiary lava-field in even higher latitudes. 

When Dr. Harker commenced his work in Skye the magnitude of the 
lava-field was fully appreciated, and in addition it was well known that 
breaking through this field were strictly localised intrusive masses of 
considerable extent. Till then, however, none of these plutonic areas 
had been studied in detail, the form and mutual relations of their com- 
ponent rock-masses were but imperfectly understood, and only the 
dominant rock-types had received serious attention. Now, practically 
every one of the Tertiary centres has come under review in recent years. 
Each has yielded its quota of new facts, and we have reached a stage at 
which generalization is both possible and legitimate. 

The plateau lavas which rest directly upon a platform of denuded 



C— GEOLOGY. 45 

Mesozoic and older rocks, as was shown by Geikie, and has been borne 
out by all subsequent observations, have emanated from a series of 
fissures formed by uniformly directed tensional forces acting in the 
earth's crust. Individual flows had no great thickness compared with 
their great lateral extent, they were more or less unaccompanied by any 
explosive action, and there was consequently little in the way of 
associated pyroclastic deposits. They were erupted on a land-surface 
and collectively made a covering that amounted to many thousands of 
feet in thickness. Even now, after ages of denudation, thicknesses of 
3,000 feet can be measured. 

They are the earliest and greatest expression of Tertiary igneous 
activity and as such first claim our attention in view of their bearing on 
later events. The similarity of type, widespread distribution, and great 
aggregate thickness of the plateau lavas lead directly to the supposition 
that beneath this north-west province lay an enormous intercrustal 
reservoir filled with a basic magma that differed not at all in composition 
from that of the lavas erupted at the surface. Further, this reservoir 
must have been situated at such a depth that its minimum temperature 
during the eruptive period was above the freezing point of any mineral 
constituent of the magma. For all normal silicate magmas, differen- 
tiation without crystallization is sufficiently improbable to enable us to 
dismiss the separation of immiscible liquid fractions from our considera- 
tions. Thus it would appear that the uniform composition of the lavas, 
the general absence of phenocrysts of intrateliuric character and the 
scarcity of cognate xenoliths may be taken as indications that crystalliza- 
tion and consequent differentiation had not proceeded to any extent, and 
that great depth and related elevated temperature were the restraining 
factors. 

It does not concern us particularly what produced the tensional stress 
in the crust with its accompanying fractures. It is sufficient to realise 
that such a state of tension undoubtedly existed and that consequent 
crustal weakness allowed large portions of the region to founder. The 
causes have recently been discussed by Dr. J. W. Evans, who attributes 
them to isostatic adjustment between the north-western continental area 
and the Atlantic deeps. 

The foundering of the crust either as a whole, or more likely in restricted 
but ever changing areas, produced the uprise of magma in the fissures and 
the general outpouring of the plateau lavas ; and we may assume that the 
end of this eruptive period coincided with temporarily restored equilibrium. 
The next phase appears to me to be the local subsidence of the roof of the 
deep-seated magma-basin. These local subsidences must have been more 
pronounced than the general settling that was responsible for the extra- 
vasation of the plateau lavas, and the magma, instead of merely rising up 
more or less restricted fissures, ascended to take the place of the locally 
subsiding crustal masses. The reason for this assumption is that within 
the primary magma-basin differentiation was restrained by depth and 
elevated temperature. Further, the initial temperature would not be 
reduced to any extent by the outpouring of the lavas. Therefore, for 
differentiation to take place, portions of the original magma would have 
to occupy reservoirs of a local character situated in a zone of the earth's 



46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

crust where the temperature gradients would permit the cooling of the 
magma below the crystallization point of some or all of its constituents. 
The origin of localised centres of highly differentiated intrusive rocks, such 
as those with which we have to deal, appears to me to be inseparable 
from the idea of pronounced local subsidences. 

The first expression of local activity, as in Skye, Mull and Ardnamurchan, 
usually takes the form of vent-agglomerates, or explosion-breccias, which 
are the result of the explosive shattering and brecciation of the country- 
rock — most frequently the plateau lavas. The magma responsible for the 
formation of these agglomerates is invariably of acid composition, and 
it may have actually broken through, producing a true vent, or merely 
effected intense shattering of its roof. These agglomerate-masses or vents 
were presumably formed by the action of the highest liquid portion of a 
more or less completely differentiated magma that filled a local reservoir. 
If the magma prior to differentiation had ascended to within a reasonable 
distance from the surface, as differentiation progressed the pressure due 
to accumulation of gases in the acid differentiate would increase, and cause 
it to break through and shatter the remaining portion of the crust. The 
first intimation of its presence would be the formation of agglomerates, 
followed or accompanied by the outpouring of acid igneous material of 
rhyolitic or trachytic composition. Such appears to have been the manner 
of formation of the Kilchrist vent in Skye, which breaks abruptly through 
the adjacent strata and has almost vertical sides with a roughly cylin- 
drical form. Vent-breccia or agglomerate plays a very significant and 
conspicuous part in the geology of central Mull, and its distribution 
clearly outlines the two important calderas of that region. Although 
explosive action on the part of an acid magma was repeated at several 
periods in the history of Mull, such was one of the earliest, if not the 
earliest, manifestations of central activity. In Ardnamurchan, in the 
neighbourhood of Ben Hiant, and conforming to the outline of the 
plutonic centre, large accumulations of vent-agglomerate break through 
the older strata and are associated with rocks of trachytic character and 
composition. 

It appears to be fairly certain that the intrusive centres of Skye, Mull, 
Ardnamurchan and probably central Arran were marked out by the 
explosive breaking through of a magma of acid composition. In Mull 
there is evidence of the strongest kind that magma continued, under 
repeated subsidence, to be erupted with the temporary establishment of 
a volcano of Hawaiian type. 

From this point onwards in each centre we enter a period during which 
all the major plutonic masses were intruded, and I should now like to 
offer some generalizations on the forms they have adopted. A glance at 
the published geological maps of Skye and more particularly of Mull will 
at once reveal the fact that the major intrusions have circular, annular, 
or crescentic form around some central point. A review of all the Tertiary 
plutonic masses of Britain, as well as those of south-east Iceland, brings 
out the fact that laccolitic intrusions are the exception. By laccolitic I 
mean intrusions that have definitely forced up and displaced pre-existing 
rocks to make room for themselves, or occupy domed regions, and have a 
well-defined base. Most of the Tertiary plutonic masses appear to have 



C— GEOLOGY. 47 

no recognisable bases but seem to extend indefinitely downwards so far 
as the accessible portions of the crust are concerned. Similarly in Iceland 
Dr. Hawkes finds that the true laccolitic form of intrusion is seldom met 
with. This is in accordance with the generally accepted view that lacco- 
lites are associated with mountain-building movements, whereas every- 
thing points to the intercrustal stresses in the Tertiary province having 
been of a tensional character. 

The main plutonic masses of Mull have been shown by the Survey to 
be due to the rise of magma up ring-shaped or arcuate fissures caused by 
the general subsidence of a central area. Such fissures are, as might be 
expected, either vertical or steeply inclined in an outward direction. They 
thus tend to bound either a cylinder or a steep angled cone. 

Subsidence of a conical block or cylindrical mass of crustal material 
into a magma-reservoir would naturally cause a welling up of molten 
matter into the fissure that bounds the subsiding mass. If the fissure 
reached the surface a cauldron-subsidence similar to that of Grlencoe 
would probably be established, and eruptions of central type would ensue. 
If, however, the ring-fracture, instead of reaching the surface was completed 
by a truncating cross-fracture beneath the surface, the magma would 
not only ascend along the sides of the subsiding mass but would insinuate 
itself in the form of a sheet between the top of the sinking mass and the 
relatively stable crust. The thickness of this practically horizontal sheet 
would depend upon the amount of subsidence of the block beneath, while 
the thickness of the cylindrical part of the intrusion would be determined 
by the inclination of the ring-fracture to the vertical together with the 
amount of central subsidence. Repeated subsidence that would allow 
fresh influxes of magma in the widening fissures, or the formation of fresh 
fractures of a similar kind, would give rise laterally to a succession of ring 
or arcuate intrusions arranged about a common vertical and generally 
central axis. 

To such intrusions the term ring-dyke has been applied, but it will be 
seen that in their most complete form, that is to say when the steep 
ring-like portions of the intrusion are connected transversely, they present 
points of similarity to stocks. In fact, in this case, the difference appears 
to be one of degree rather than of kind, for it is quite probable that 
many stocks, if sufficiently denuded, would reveal a ring-dyke structure in 
depth. 

Subsidence with the quiet welling up of magma from beneath gives 
rise to intrusions that have one great distinguishing feature from those 
which are due to the forcible injection of magma, or which occupy regions 
affected by mountain-building forces. They will not disturb to any extent 
the rocks into which they are intruded but will simply replace a definite 
block of the pre-existing crust, and at the same time transgress without 
serious modification all pre-existing structures. Such were found to be 
features presented by the ring-intrusions of Mull. 

A further point of interest is that within the same area of general 
subsidence the centre of actual subsidence may, and does, shift its position, 
so that an earlier series of ring-dykes may be intersected by another 
series of later date, of which the axis is not coincident with the first but 
removed some distance from it. In Mull the successive centres of subsidence 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

responsible for the two suites of ring-dykes are separated from each other 
by a distance of about two miles. The earlier centre lies to the south-east 
and the later centre to the north-west, situated in the neighbourhood of 
Loch Ba. 

It was not till the mapping of Mull had progressed towards completion 
that it was recognised how characteristic and prevalent was the ring-dyke 
type of intrusion, but Dr. Harker's description and mapping of central 
Skye made it quite clear that ring-dykes were there represented, more 
particularly in the region of the Red Hills. His description of the compo- 
site nature of the main granophyre, its vertical western margin, its arcuate 
inclusions of older plutonic rocks, and on the eastern side its relation to 
the older sedimentary rocks, are in perfect agreement with those of the 
ring-dykes of Mull. He emphasises the steeply inclined or vertical 
boundaries and the almost flat or slightly domed roof so characteristic 
of this type of intrusion. 

Since the detailed study of Skye and Rum three additional plutonic 
centres have come under review, namely Ardnamurchan, the Mourne 
Mountains and Arran. 

Mull must always be regarded as the type area of ring-dyke intrusion, 
especially as it possesses in the Loch Ba felsite, one of the intrusions around 
the later centre, the most perfect example yet met with. The neighbouring 
centre of Ardnamurchan, however, offers most striking instances of ring- 
dykes, and being less complex than Mull or Skye the relations of the rock- 
bodies to each other and their forms are readily understood and appreciated. 
The forthcoming memoir on this district should prove an interesting sequel 
to those on Skye and Mull. 

Mr. Richey, who spent many years mapping the peninsula, has estab- 
lished at least two suites of ring-dykes, one intersecting the other and with 
centres of subsidence situated more than a mile apart. A third, but less 
obvious centre, is the earliest, and, from the agglomerates which appear 
to be related to it, marked the initiation of the Ardnamurchan centre as 
a whole. It is the latest series of intrusions, ranging from eucrite to 
monzonite, that most clearly exhibits the typical features of ring-dyke 
injection. The steep junctions, the intercalation and metamorphism 
of older rock between successive intrusions, the sharp transgression and 
disregard of pre-existing structures, and the welding of intrusive junctions 
with a general absence of structures due to chilling, are all features that 
we have come to recognise as peculiar to ring-dykes. No roofs are now 
preserved, denudation having been very severe, but it is practically certain 
that several of the ring-dykes were connected across the area of subsidence 
by transverse continuations. 

Carrying his work farther afield, Mr. Richey has lately demonstrated 
that in the Tertiary granites of the Mourne Mountains we have a very 
clear case of ring-dyke intrusion due to central subsidence. He has found 
that the Mourne granite, instead of being one simple intrusion, com- 
prises four successive intrusions, one within the other, the outermost 
being the oldest and the innermost the most recent. Further, that these 
intrusions were effected without any disturbance of the strike or dip of 
the neighbouring Lower Palaeozoic rocks, a fact which shows that the 
magma did not force apart the rocks into which it was intruded, but 



C— GEOLOGY. 49 

merely replaced, bulk for bulk, a mass of solid crust which had foundered 
and has completely disappeared. Although not perfectly symmetrical, the 
relations of the successive intrusions to each other, and to the country- 
rock, are typically those of ring-dykes. The granites show to perfection 
their roofs as well as their bounding sides, and demonstrate how the 
vertical or steeply inclined walls turn abruptly into a slightly domed roof. 
In this respect the intrusions closely resemble the granophyres of Beinn 
a Ghraig and Knock in Mull, which have replaced a great mass of lavas 
and minor intrusions without disturbing the arrangement of the adjoining 
country-rock. Mr. Richey states that no floor can be detected to the 
Mourne intrusions. He postulates that overhead piecemeal stoping has 
played no part in allowing the rise of magma, and that the space occupied 
by the various granites has probably been provided by a subterranean 
cauldon-subsidence of the pre-existing rocks. 

In 1900 Gunn discovered a large oval area, about four miles in 
diameter, in central Arran, which consisted of fragmental rocks in close 
association with numerous igneous masses, and which he described as a 
volcanic vent. Dr. Tyrrell, as the result of recent work in the island, 
clearly recognises in this vent a ring-complex, which, though less perfectly 
preserved than those of Mull, Ardnamurchan and Skye, he considers to 
have had an equally long and complicated history. The main complex 
is outlined by masses of explosion-breccia, of which the formation was 
concomitant with the intrusion, and possible eruption, of an acid magma 
that ascended an arcuate fissure bordering the vent. It probably occupies 
the position of, or intersects, an older complex, for gabbros and other basic 
plutonics of older date are cut by it and also enter into the composition of 
the explosion-breccias. 

It is interesting to find within the region of the complex isolated 
masses of plateau basalt preserved from denudation. Their presence 
points to two facts : firstly, that before the initiation of the central area, 
plateau basalts had been erupted as in other districts ; and secondly, 
that their preservation can only be accounted for by assuming subsidence 
of central type. 

In the north of Arran a granite mass, some eight miles in diameter, 
occupies an almost circular area outlined by Dalradian schists. This 
mass also is regarded as being of Tertiary age, although definite proof is 
lacking. Its relation to the surrounding sedimentary rocks and its 
general likeness to the granites of the Mourne Mountains and of the central 
complex of Arran are certainly strong evidence for its intrusion in Tertiary 
times. 

Although a feature usually associated with laccolitic intrusions, it 
has been proved in Mull and elsewhere that individual ring-dyke or stock- 
like masses may arch their roofs when they develop an excess of pressure — 
either hydrostatic or due to dissolved gases. This arching, as in the 
Mournes, is usually quite gentle ; but if carried to a greater height than 
usual, Mr. Bailey considers that the centrifugal forces acting within the 
unconsolidated magma in the higher portions of a cylindrical intrusion 
will exert an outward pressure on the containing walls. The relief of 
this pressure, he argues, would be accomplished by the arcuate folding 
or wrinkling up of the surrounding strata, and be accompanied by a 
1927 E 



50 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

lateral spread of the magma and depression of its roof. This theory was 
put forward by Mr. Bailey to explain the pronounced overfolding of the 
margin of the north Arran granite previously referred to, but it appears 
to be equally applicable to the arcuate folding that surrounds the south- 
eastern caldera of Mull. The folding in the latter instance was presumably 
caused by early intrusion of granophyre (Glas Bheinn granophyre) guided, 
as has been suggested, by the peripheral ring-fracture that bounded the 
area of central subsidence. 

Dr. Daly, writing two years ago on the relation of mountain building 
to igneous action, commented upon this very case, and suggested that the 
arcuate folding was possibly due to the centrifugal sliding of large fragments 
of a complex dome which had become unstable because of its high elevation 
and the weakening of the interior by magmatic injection. The difference 
between the views of Dr. Daly and Mr. Bailey is that the former would 
make the folding subsequent to the formation of the dome, while Mr. 
Bailey would regard the doming and folding as practically contempo- 
raneous phenomena dependent upon the intrusion of the igneous mass. 

Iceland, although affording good examples of ring-fractures, has not 
so far been credited with ring-dyke intrusions. In the plutonic regions 
of the south-east all but one of the intrusions examined by Dr. Hawkes 
are stocks, which, like the ring-dykes of Britain, have been intruded in 
tensionally stressed regions. Of these the granophyre stock of Slaufradal 
is one of the most beautiful examples of its kind. It is elliptical in outbne, 
has steeply inclined walls and an almost flat roof. It is exposed to a 
depth of more than two thousand feet, and the almost horizontal plateau 
basalts that constitute its walls and roof are absolutely undisturbed. 
Such a form of intrusion is that which I consider the earliest member 
of a ring-dyke complex is most likely to assume. 

The one exception, in Iceland, to the perfect replacement of country- 
rock without disturbance of the surrounding strata is the plutonic mass 
of Faskrudsf jord. In this case Dr. Hawkes informs me the basalts are 
tilted into an almost vertical position against the intruding granophyre, 
and there are other signs of forcible disturbance of the country-rock. 

As a generalization, however, we may state that the ring-dyke, or stock, 
with its circular walls and flat or gently domed roof, is the type of intrusion 
that specially characterises the plutonic centres of the Tertiary province. 
It should certainly be borne in mind when studying the form of intrusions 
that a simulation of laccolitic intrusion can be produced, as we have 
seen, by the lateral spread of magma in the upper portion of a domed 
intrusion of ring-dyke type. 

One of the most important discoveries of Dr. Harker in Skye was his 
detection of a great group of basic sheet-like intrusions that were inclined 
inwards towards a definite centre. He demonstrated that their distribu- 
tion and their regular inclination towards the centre of the great gabbro 
intrusion of the Cuillins proved them to be a local group connected 
with the gabbro-centre, though much younger than the plutonic rocks 
themselves. 

When Mull and Ardnamurchan were surveyed it was found that inclined 
sheets, or cone-sheets as they have been synonymously called by the 
Survey, played even a more important part than they did in Skye. 



C— GEOLOGY. 51 

In these last-named regions they exist as the usual sheet-like intrusions, 
directed towards the apex of an inverted cone which is situated deep down 
in the plutonic centre. They constitute a very definite and important 
stage in the igneous history of the respective regions. Although of great 
thickness, they exhibit a marked constancy of type, but have been intruded 
at more than one period. 

The most interesting feature connected with their distribution in Mull 
is that each successive centre of subsidence has its own suite of cone- 
sheets, a fact that even more than their central inclination seems to connect 
them with the respective ring-dyke centres. The same is true in the 
case of Ardnamurchan, for here also each of the two centres has its related 
cone-sheets. 

Cone-sheet intrusion, therefore, is definitely connected with the 
establishment of a local magma reservoir beneath an area of central 
subsidence. It is a phenomenon that can be repeated on several occasions 
during the formation of a ring-dyke complex, but it generally comes to 
an end before the last plutonic members of the complex have established 
themselves. In Mull the Loch Ba ring-dyke is later than all the cone- 
sheets, and in Ardnamurchan the inner and later members of the complex 
appear to be cpiite free from such intrusions. 

The relation of cone-sheet to ring-dyke intrusion has been discussed 
theoretically by Mr. Anderson, who attributes the conical fracturing and 
the subsequent injection of magma to the development of excess pressure 
in the upper portion of a cylindrical or parabolic magma-reservoir. He 
proves that in the event of an increase of pressure in the magma-basin 
the crust above would have superimposed upon it a system of tensions 
acting across surfaces which near the basin are roughly conical. At 
the same time a system of upward pressures would act across surfaces that 
were parallel to the roof of the magma-basin. The effect of such forces 
would be the opening of conical fissures followed by the uprise of magma 
from the reservoir beneath. 

Expressed in other words, the production of cone-sheets may be 
described as the result of an effort on the part of a deep-seated magma 
to raise its roof by fracture rather than by flexure. The uplift of a roof 
by such means is purely differential, but in the aggregate the uplift, as 
gauged by the cone-sheets, must be very considerable. In Mull the 
combined thickness of the cone-sheets reaches several thousands of feet, 
and Mr. Bailey considers that the central elevation which they denote 
is quite comparable to the doming of the roof of the Arran granite. 

A highly characteristic feature of certain of the plutonic centres, such 
as Mull, Arran, and the Mourne Mountains, is the occurrence of swarms of 
basic dykes. These dykes, which show a definite orientation, are crowded 
together in the region of the plutonic intrusions but extend far beyond the 
limits of the areas of local subsidence. It is clear, therefore, that their 
intrusion was influenced but not wholly controlled by these centres. The 
Mull swarm has a width of some 8 miles and is over 100 miles in length. 
Such dyke-swarms, related to older plutonic intrusions, are well known in 
the regions of the Ettive and Ben Nevis granites. 

In the Tertiary province intrusion of the dyke-swarms extended over a 
considerable period, but was determined by a renewal, possibly in a less 

E 2 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

acute form, of the great tensional stresses that preceded and accompanied 
the extrusion of the plateau-lavas. 

The crowding together of the dykes in a region of central subsi- 
dence can only be explained by assuming that such regions fractured more 
readily and were possibly subjected to greater tensile stresses than the 
country on either side. Further, this intense fracturing could only occur 
if the tensional stresses were acting on a relatively thin crust and tangential 
to the upper surface of a reservoir filled with liquid or plastic material. 
We are, therefore, led to the conclusion that the dyke-swarms must be 
due to a general rise of the primary basalt-magma, and that this rise was 
accentuated in the regions of central subsidence. The magnitude of the 
tensional stretch in these regions can be gauged by noting the aggregate 
thickness of dykes in a given distance. In Mull it was found to be about 
one mile in twenty-four, while in Arran the stretch is even greater and 
amounts to as much as one mile in eight or ten. 

I have only touched upon a few features of the dominant and most 
interesting types of Tertiary intrusions, but before leaving this part of the 
subject I would like to refer to the mutual relations of some of these bodies 
to each other and to the rocks into which they have been intruded. 

In unravelling the structure of an igneous complex two essentials con- 
front us : firstly, the proof that any rock-body is a unit and not composite, 
and secondly, its absolute or relative age. In the case of most intrusions 
we apply the criteria of chilled margins and contact metamorphism, but 
this necessitates a relatively low temperature for the rocks into which 
the intrusion penetrated. With the ring-dyke complexes, however, the 
intrusions, other than the dykes, sills and cone-sheets, are of considerable 
magnitude and fairly deep-seated ; while as regards time they followed 
closely upon each other. Thus, frequently, the cooling effect of an earlier 
intrusion upon one of later date is not well marked. 

In Mull, and also in Ardnamurchan, it is not usual for the ring-dykes, 
especially those of more basic composition, to show markedly the ordinary 
effects of rapid chilling at their margins. Instead, there is usually some 
slight assimilation of the country-rock and formation of narrow transitional 
belts between contiguous intrusions. 

Extreme cases of the interaction of an intruded magma with an igneous 
rock of related but different composition have been described by Dr. Harker, 
first from Carrock Fell and later from Skye and elsewhere. To rocks due 
to such a process he gave the now well-established name of hybrids, and 
he called the process of interaction hybridization. 

When the rocks have interacted or hybridized at their contact with 
each other it is not always easy to discover whether we are dealing with 
a single intrusion locally differentiated, or with an intrusion of composite 
nature ; for the results of partial differentiation and the effects of 
hybridization have much in common. It is, however, in such cases that 
what the officers of the Geological Survey have termed screens come to 
our assis tance. 

A sc reen is a narrow mass of country-rock separating two neighbouring 
steeply bounded intrusions, and older than either of them. Such masses 
separati ng ring-dykes will have curved outcrops, and are the logical sequel 
to the a rcuate Assuring of the walls of a centrally subsiding area. 



C— GEOLOGY. 53 

They may be formed of portions of older ring-dykes or other intrusive 
masses, lavas, or pre-Tertiary sediments. They usually show a fairly 
high state of metamorphism for they have come under metamorphosing 
influences from both sides. Igneous rocks in screens generally show 
Tecrystallization and granulitization, while sediments have usually been 
hornfelsed in a manner dependent on their respective original composition. 

Such masses locally interpolated between two intrusions that elsewhere 
have reacted with each other at their junction, will at once free us from 
doubt : firstly, as to the separate nature of the intrusions, and secondly, as 
to their relative ages. , . 

In Mull, screens were found to be of the utmost value in determining 
the relations of the intrusive rock masses to each other, and the same 
has proved to be the case to a like degree in the ring-dyke complex of 
Ardnamurchan. 

Turning now to a consideration of the composition and origin of the 
major intrusions, the fact that impresses us most is the remarkable and 
more or less constant association of widely divergent rock types. All 
through the Tertiary province of Britain and Iceland gabbros and grano- 
phyres or granites are the dominant plutonic intrusions, and may be said 
to characterise the province as a whole. There can be no question that 
these types are more or less extreme differentiation products of a common 
magma, and this magma we may reasonably infer was that which supplied 
the plateau basalts. Except in the case of certain cone-sheets, dykes and 
other minor intrusions, this magma in an unmodified state is unrepresented 
amongst the Tertiary intrusions. All the plutonics, as well as the majority 
of the cone-sheets and sills, are products of a magma that must have 
substantially changed its composition. In other words, almost every rock 
type, excepting those specially mentioned, is a product of differentiation. 
This fact leads us to the unavoidable conclusion that differentiation had 
at any rate commenced in the local intercrustal reservoirs beneath the 
plutonic centres before any intrusion into the upper part of the crust was 

effected. 

The gabbros and granophyres often occur, either alone or together, 
without any rocks of intermediate composition, but these latter are 
occasionally well represented, as in Mull and Ardnamurchan, by minor 
intrusions such as sills and cone-sheets and occasional larger masses. Taken 
as a whole the rocks of intermediate composition are of considerable bulk, 
and therefore their corresponding magma should be given an honourable 
place in any scheme of differentiation. As to the manner in which 
differentiation was effected, we are convinced that the differentiation of a 
normal magma cannot be accomplished by any process that does not 
depend primarily upon the separation from it of solid crystalline phases. 
Recent work both in the field and in the laboratory demonstrates that 
there is no necessity to call to our aid such theories as those of dual magmas, 
immiscible liquid fractions, or magmatic assimilation to account for the 
differences of composition displayed by the major intrusions. 

In all the Tertiary centres the plutonic masses show but the feeblest 
attempt at differentiation in place, and thus it is clear, with one notable 
exception, that such variation of rock type as is met with was determined 
before the respective magmas came to occupy their present positions. 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Now, the course of differentiation of a complex silicate melt, as suggested 
by the relative freezing points of the various constituents, would be the 
separation by crystallization of the more basic constituents from a residuum 
that became progressively more acid as crystallization proceeded towards 
complete solidification. If by any chance, as some have held, crystalliza- 
tion of early phases in the upper portions of a magma reservoir led to a 
settling and remelting of these constituents in the lower and hotter regions, 
it is conceivable that an exaggerated diffusion-column might be produced, 
with denser basic material below, and lighter acid material above. The 
effect, however, of a crustal mass subsiding into such a differentiated but 
wholly fluid magma would be to produce intrusions of a progressively basic 
character. The upper acid portion would be intruded first, and the more 
basic subsequently ; also, it may be inferred that none of these intrusions 
would be true to type, but that they would exhibit excessive variation 
on solidification. 

Such conditions would give rise to an igneous cycle that, so far as the 
plutonic rocks are concerned, is exactly the reverse of what is encountered 
in nature. In all the Tertiary plutonic centres it has been clearly estab- 
lished that the order of intrusion of the plutonic rocks is invariably 
from basic, or even ultra-basic, to acid. 

If we agree that differentiation is due to the separation and settling of 
crystals and culminates in complete solidification, any intrusion drawn 
from a basin other than the residual liquid fraction of the period must be 
consequent upon remelting. I agree with Dr. Harker in regarding the 
process of remelting of the already differentiated magma as the only means 
whereby the basic to acid order of intrusion could be induced or maintained. 

It would appear that a local intercrustal reservoir established as an 
upward extension of the primary magma, to take the place of a centrally 
subsided crustal mass, became more or less completely differentiated before 
it made its presence felt at higher crustal levels. The fact that the explosion 
breccias which heralded the plutonic intrusions are associated with an acid 
magma, or rather an acid differentiate of a basic magma, shows that 
differentiation within the basin had almost run its course. 

It will, however, be readily understood that, without remelting, pressure 
produced by a crustal block subsiding into a magma reservoir could only 
cause to be exuded such a portion of the differentiated magma as still 
retained its fluid state, and in no case could this fluid be as basic as the 
original magma. That an acid differentiate may collect in a liquid form 
in the upper portion of a magma column or reservoir when the rest is solid 
has been argued by Bowen, and it is certainly probable that many acid 
intrusions originated in this way without the intervention of remelting. 
In this connection we may cite the case of the quartz-dolerite magma, 
itself a product of differentiation. 

The quartz-gabbros and quartz-dolerites form some of the ring-dykes 
and late basic cone-sheets of Mull, and some of the older ring-dykes and 
most of the cone-sheets of Ardnamurchan. These rocks were derived 
from a magma which as crystallization progressed clearly gave rise to an 
acid differentiate. This acid partial magma was of strikingly different com- 
position from the early crystalline phases, and its temperature of complete 
consolidation was evidently far below that at which the larger and earlier 



C— GEOLOGY. 55 

individuals had practically ceased to grow. It represents the original 
basalt magma almost depleted as regards lime and magnesia, but retaining 
abundant alkalies and dissolved water. It evidently retained its fluidity 
over a fair range of temperature and would thus be capable of separation 
under gravity or any externally applied stress. This process of the 
migration of the acid differentiate can be studied in the Carboniferous 
quartz-dolerites of the Lothians, and we assume that it has taken place 
under the action of gravity in the quartz-gabbro ring-dyke of Glen More 
in Mull. 

It would appear, therefore, that stresses produced by subsidence acting 
upon a partially differentiated magma of this character could bring about 
the separation of the fluid acid differentiate and cause intrusions of 
granophyre or allied rocks. 

The separation of an acid differentiate that exists in the interstices of 
an almost solid magma, by external stress, has repeatedly been used by 
Dr. Bowen to account for the close association of widely divergent rock- 
types. He considers that an external pressure applied to a magma that 
had become about 80 per cent, solid by the formation of a mesh-work of 
crystals could break down this mesh-structure. The interstitial liquid 
would then feel the pressure which would be transmitted hydrostatically 
to all parts, and if continued would produce a separation and intrusion of 
the acid differentiate in a comparatively pure state. Such action is 
supported by the frequently bent and broken state of felspars and early 
formed augites of the quartz-dolerites. 

Although the magmatic sequence, in Ardnamurchan, is from basic to 
acid, like that of other centres, the ring-dykes almost invariably have 
margins of varying width which are more acid than the bulk of the rock 
forming the particular intrusions. In these less basic margins we 
certainly see, not the result of differentiation in place, but the effects of 
the injection and partial chilling of a magma that was followed immediately 
by one of somewhat more basic composition. Such a condition of things 
might conceivably be brought about by the subsidence of a crustal mass 
into a basin filled with partially differentiated magma. The first portion 
to be intruded would be that richer in the acid differentiates, while as 
subsidence continued there would be an uprise of the more basic and less 
differentiated magma that represented the bulk of that contained in the 
upper part of the reservoir. Such a process appears to me to be the 
explanation of the quartz-dolerite margins to the Ardnamurchan gabbros 
and eucrites, and the felsitic margin to the tonalitic ring-dyke of the 
central complex. 

The alkaline rocks call for passing notice on account of the varied and 
sometimes fanciful suggestions put forward to explain their origin. In the 
Tertiary province they form a very insignificant group so far as bulk is 
concerned, but are important on account of their unusual composition. 
In the plateau-lavas certain segregation veins that represent a late phase 
in the consolidation are of definitely alkaline character. They prove that 
the differentiation of the plateau basalt magma, even under superficial 
pressure and rapidly falling temperature, is capable of producing rocks of 
alkaline character. Dr. Bowen on theoretical grounds concludes that th< j 
alkali-rocks can, and do, originate from the same primitive magma as the 



56 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

calcic rocks, and that the separation was the result of differentiation under 
stress. In this he is supported by a great number of penologists, and 
so far as the evidence of the Tertiary province is concerned, no other 
explanation appears possible. 

If we consider the course differentiation has followed to produce the 
various rock-types met with amongst the Tertiary plutonic rocks we find 
that it depends chiefly on three factors which are, the separation of olivine 
and lime felspar and the production of a quartz-rich and alkaline residuum. 

The formation of a magma supersaturated as regards silica from one of 
basaltic composition was for long regarded as improbable. Now, however, 
on theoretical and experimental grounds there appears no difficulty in 
developing quartz from a hydrous basic magma. Whatever the explana- 
tion, however, no one studying the intrusive rocks of Mull and Ardna- 
murchan in the field could for a moment doubt the consanguinity of the 
abundantly represented quartz-gabbros and quartz-dolerites and their more 
basic associates the normal gabbros, eucrites and peridotites. 

It appears that the differentiation of the plateau basalt magma has 
been responsible for the production of two magma-types, which as differen- 
tiation progressed converged in the direction of increasing acidity and 
alkalinity. The representative rock-members of each magma are linked 
together by common compositional characters that are certainly of genetic 
significance. 

In Skye, Mull and Ardnamurchan we find that the basic major intrusions 
constitute a group of rocks that on a chemical basis of comparison are richer 
in alumina, lime and magnesia than corresponding members of the normal 
magma series. These more basic rocks suggest that their origin lay in a 
basaltic magma enriched by the addition of the constituents of lime-felspar 
and olivine, either singly or together. It follows that the magma supplying 
the enrichments will be correspondingly poorer in olivine and the basic 
plagioclases, and proportionately richer in alkali-felspar and quartz. 

The differentiation characteristic of the normal magma series is the 
rapid fall in the percentage of lime, magnesia and iron, with a more or less 
constant percentage of alumina, and a rise in alkalies, more especially of 
potash. Such variations point to the continued separation of non- 
aluminous ferromagnesian minerals as being the dominant factor in the 
differentiation. The general increase in the alkalies and the relative 
concentration of potash is undoubtedly due merely to the separation of 
soda-lime felspar. Such a differentiated magma would account for the 
non-porphyritic central types of lava in Mull, the intermediate and sub-acid 
intrusive rocks, and the great group of granites, granophyres and felsites. 
All these rocks can be derived from the plateau-basalt magma by the 
normal process of the crystallization and abstraction of one or more solid 
phases, and the separation may be produced either by the gravitational 
settling of the crystals, or the removal of the liquid residuum as the result 
of stress. 

The other magma-type is responsible for the gabbros and related 
rock-types. It appears to be a magma of plateau basalt composition 
enriched by the addition of olivine and lime-felspar. Its character, as 
reflected in the gabbros of Skye, Mull and Ardnamurchan, and carried on 
into the. tonalites and monzonites of the last-named centre, is the generally 



C— GEOLOGY. 57 

high percentages of alumina, lime and magnesia when compared with the 
plateau basalt and rocks of the other series with similar percentages of 
silica. Thus, for instance, the normal quartz-dolerite magma, represented 
in Mull and Ardnamurchan by innumerable sheet-like intrusions, and by 
the great mass of Ben Hiant, has a similar silica percentage to the magma 
represented by the quartz-gabbros of these regions. The quartz-gabbro 
magma, however, is richer in lime and alumina, a fact that indicates a 
concentration of lime-felspar greater than that encountered in the plateau- 
basalt and its normal derivatives. 

One other point. There are still petrologists who see in the variation 
of igneous rocks the results of wholesale contamination of a magma by 
the assimilation of country rock. But, whatever the evidence elsewhere, 
in the Tertiary province the idea of serious modification of a magma by 
such means receives no support. 

The chemical and mineralogical characters of all the major intrusive 
bodies are quite normal and are just such as would be presented by 
straightforward differentiates. A study of the margins of intrusive masses 
shows that the effects of interaction and assimilation are quite local, of 
relatively insignificant extent, and where encountered are distinguished by 
characters that are unrepresented in normal igneous rocks. Even where 
interaction between a magma and its retaining walls can be presumed, as 
in the case of the magma that supplied the xenolithic sills of south-west 
Mull, the extent of interaction was very limited. It would appear that a 
narrow reaction zone was established and that the early precipitation of 
insoluble phases in this zone protected the country rock from further 
attack. The magma as a whole remained unmodified, and the reaction 
zone presented quite abnormal chemical and mineralogical characteristics. 

If assimilation was going to be operative on a large scale the place to 
look for it would be in the deep-seated basin of the primary magma, where 
elevated temperatures and the unsaturated state of the magma as regards 
silica would be in its favour. The greatest argument, therefore, against 
serious magmatic modification by assimilation is furnished by the repeated 
appearance of the plateau basalt magma throughout the Tertiary province 
in an unmodified form at widely separated periods — first as the plateau- 
lavas, then as cone-sheets and sills, and lastly as basic-dykes. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF SPONGES 
AND ANIMALS. 



ADDRESS BY 

G. P. BIDDER, Sc.D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Among animals, man alone knows of a past and hopes for a future. Our 
life is still delightful, because still we do not know what will happen an 
hour from now ; but as the intellectual development of man has increased, 
so has he lengthened his conscious past. 

The Cambrian, as the lowest of our fossiliferous rocks, used to be con- 
sidered the limit of life. With masterly insight Darwin concluded, on 
purely evolutionary grounds, that living things were on the earth for 
as long a time before the Cambrian epoch as they have been since. Huxley 
and Poulton — two great names in our history — showed that such a time 
must be measured by the hundred million of years. They maintained, 
against the full strength of Section A, the power of biology and geology 
to prove the important physical fact, that for hundreds of millions of years 
the world had been cool enough for habitation. 

The past has lengthened now for mathematicians ; they have enriched 
us with the time-scale of radio-activity, and proved Darwin, Huxley and 
Poulton to have been right. They show that the ocean has existed for 
more than 1000 million years at a habitable temperature, and promise us 
the great boon of a date for every geological formation. We may 
gather from Jeffreys 1 and Holmes 2 that the constants for the time-scale of 
the age of rocks are rapidly approaching certainty, but that the constants 
of the lunar theory and the knowledge of geophysics and palaeogeography 
are not yet sufficiently ascertained to determine the height of tides in the 
sea five hundred or a thousand million years ago. 

I wish to draw your attention to the great denudation just before the 
Cambrian, and to biological indications that it was produced by a period 
of gigantic tides, on such a cataclysmic scale as gravely to interrupt the 
sequence of evolution. 

Beneath the Cambrian in Scotland is the Torridonian sandstone, in 
which Geikie 3 describes some two miles thick of peacefully bedded sand- 
stones, with shales and sea-beaches, deposited over an old land-surface of 

1 ' The Earth.' Cambridge, 1924, University Press. 

2 ' The Age of the Earth.' London, 1927, Ernest Benn. (Price Gd., and worth 
a guinea !) 

3 Text-book of Geology. Vol. ii, pp. 877, 891, S92. London, 1903, Macinillan. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 59 

hill and valley. But he gives a powerful picture of the tremendous water- 
erosion which followed this quiet period. Everywhere the top of the 
Torridonian is eroded ; in one place a channel has been cut 4000 feet deep 
and miles wide. It is cut down to the Lewisian gneiss underneath, and it 
seems from Geikie's description that the total depth of erosion was probably 
10,000 feet. 

I will ask you to consider Zoological evidence that the denuding torrents 
of this period were succeeded by terribly strong currents in the Cambrian 
Sea, still powerful in the Ordovician, only returning to tranquillity with 
the advent of the Devonian. 

In the Silurian we have no signs of the loafing, carp-like fish which so 
characterise the Devonian. The Silurian fauna, outside some deep- 
water creatures, with one group of very powerfully swimming fish, consists 
largely of animals specially adapted to hold on for their lives in a terrible 
current. Trilobites have centipede claws to clutch with, and a low, flat 
body shaped like a mud-shoal in a stream, or like Major Segrave's racing- 
car. The ostracoderm fishes, instead of claws, have to trust to the weight 
of their massive bones to press them in the mud ; they are armoured to 
resist the battering of the stones driven by the tide ; they are shaped, 
like the trilobites, in stream-lines, so that the resistance offered to the 
current is the least possible, and the resultant pressure holds down flatly 
and firmly the similar forms of fish, trilobite, motor-car or mud-bank. 
The fish Cephalaspis is so like the trilobites Paradoxides and Olenellus that 
Gaskell claimed they proved the descent of vertebrates from crustaceans. 
The resemblance is the convergence of very diverse animals, shaped to 
resist destruction from the same 10-knot current. Each is armoured, with 
a flat stream-line carapace and eyes as far out of the mud as is possible ; 
in each the parabolic crescent of the carapace is prolonged in two lateral 
spines, which not only carry back a stream-line revetment around the 
mobile body, but also are driven splaying into the sand, if the animal is 
pushed back by the current, and anchor it like the flukes of a grapnel. 
The four-spined Cambrian trilobite Crepicephalus anchors more securely 
than those of the Silurian ; it was moored fore and aft, having two earwig- 
like spines at the end of the abdomen. 4 The armoured fish Pterichthys 
has a flipper on either side, which, as he is pressed backwards through the 
mud, will spread out to a click at right angles, like the barbs of a harpoon. 
If a trilobite be forced from his hold, he coils into a ball and rolls, so as to 
take glancing blows only. This chance of life, if driven from moorings, 
seems to be taken by some spherical shells such as the brachiopod Rhyn- 
conella, and by the extraordinary armoured sponge, Ischadites. The fish- 
lamprey Palaeospondylus held on by a sucker to a smoothed rock, the 
crinoids were thickly plated and rooted to the bottom, polyzoa and corals 
were massive. Before the Caledonian upheaval and the Devonian period, 
we see a world of mud, clattering stones, and torrential currents. 

I suggest also that the absence of terrestrial life shows that the Torri- 
donian continents had been smoothed so flat that the Cambrian tides 
swept over all surfaces except those of recent upheaval. There must have 

4 C. D. Walcott: 'Cambrian Geology and Palaeontology,' iii. Pis. 29-34. 
Washington, 1916, Smithsonian Institution. Many Cambrian trilobites have posterior 
epines of various morphology. 



60 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been miles and miles of foreshore, exposed between tides, where fishes, 
cut off in the mud, gasped air, until the water came over their gills again, 
and the undertow carried them back into the depths. But in fossili- 
f erous times until the Devonian, there was little dry land ; and there were 
no undisturbed shallow marshes, where water animals and plants could 
learn to do without water. 



We said ' in fossilif erous times.' It is not fitting for one who is not a 
geologist to do more than touch very lightly on the problems of the Pre- 
Cambrian. But connected with them is an interesting consideration to 
which I would draw the attention of fellow-biologists. If we follow the 
American geologists '° in attributing organic origin to the graphites of the 
Grenville series at the base of the Laurentian — which are stated by Dawson 
to contain as much carbon as the whole American coal-measures, and with 
which we may class the graphite schists described by Geikie 6 under the 
Scottish Lewisian, and the seven feet of so-called ' anthracite ' found in 
Finland by Sederholm 7 in the Jatulian, at least three miles under the 
Cambrian — I do not see how we can avoid the conclusion that there was 
vegetation growing in or about quiet landlocked waters, for many thousands 
of years, as long before the Cambrian as the Cambrian was before us. 
Among palaeontologists the view prevails that it is in such still landlocked 
waters that rapid evolution has always taken place. It seems impossible 
not to believe that a terrestrial flora, and a terrestrial fauna, must have 
been evolved in those favourable times and the long ages which followed, 
to be swept to destruction in the deluge that denuded the Torridonian. 
If so, we see in the succession of Cambrian and Ordovician fossils — the 
' marine period ' of the Palaeozoic, as Marr 8 designates it — the development 
for a second time of a littoral from a deep-sea fauna ; which fits closely with 
Walcott's conclusions on the Cambrian." And in the Silurian and 
Devonian we see the evolution of a terrestrial flora and fauna for the 
second time. 

If all the Pre-Cambrian lands were swept by fierce and terrible torrents, 
marine organisms might nevertheless survive in the deep abysses of the 
sea, to recolonise later the still-vexed Cambrian shores. It is also con- 
ceivable that exceptional organisms might survive in the tranquil abysses 
of the high air, or on the occasional mountain-tops ; and the fancy has 
struck me that such isolated survivors from the ancient sub-aerial popula- 
tion may conceivably be recognised in the progenitor of the Ordovician 
winged insects, and in the ancestor to Hugh Miller's conifer of the Old 
Red Sandstone. 10 

Leaving the geologists and botanists to settle for us the truth or error 

5 C. Schuehert, Pirsson and Schuchert's Text-book, vol. ii, p. 545. New York, 1920. 
A. Geikie, I.e. p. 890. » Nature, 1908, p. 266. 

8 ' Principles of Stratigraphical Geology,' p. 149. Cambridge, 1905, University Press. 

9 He believes that before the Cambrian there was an era, ' of unknown marine 
sedimentation between the adjustment of pelagic life to littoral conditions and the 
appearance of the Lower Cambrian fauna.' Quoted by Schuchert, I.e. p. 570. 

10 Compare D. H. Scott, 1924 : ' Extinct Plants,' p. 181. London, Macmillan. 
In America the denudation before the Cambrian marks the ' third Great Erosion 

Interval.' The Grenville coal was before all these ; Grabau (p. 203) puts Jatulian 
between the second and third. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 61 

of the premisses, 11 the argument does not seem without philosophic 
interest : — that if the 7-foot graphite bed in Finland be of organic origin, 
there may be a class or classes of terrestrial animals or plants which have 
breathed air two or three times as long as those which left the sea in the 
Devonian. 

The Laurentian coal, if coal it be, must mark the climax of a long 
evolution in the seas of the still earlier Pre-Laurentian, and in that part 
of our history must come the primary advance which Church has rightly 
taught us to regard as the greatest step in evolution, the evolution of the 
flagellates. Church claims that, since protoplasm appeared, we may 
fairly estimate half the time elapsed as being required for the evolution of 
the flagellate. 1 ' 2 If Dr. Church measures his time in years, the geological 
record seems difficult to fit ; for the chaetopods, molluscs, Crustacea and 
echinoderms of the Cambrian are clearly very old phyla. But the single 
step in evolution is not a year but a generation, and there may well have 
been as many generations of our ancestors before they became flagellates 
as there have been since we have been multicellular. If we have 
been ' higher animals,' averaging ten generations a year, for 1000 million 
years, then some 10,000 million generations may have brought us from 
jelly-fish to men. But 1000 generations a year would be a very moderate 
number for flagellates and pre-flagellates, 13 so that 10 or 20 million years 
would give them as many steps in evolution, to make a flagellate from 
nothing, as it has taken us to build up a flagellate into that highest of all 
living creatures, a member of the British Association (Section D). 

We are still lacking a satisfactory account of the early ocean in which 
those fateful 20 million or 200 million years were passed, and in which life 
began. I must relegate to a printed Appendix some arithmetical criticism 
which I have ventured to make on Professor Joly's theory of the sea. 
Resulting from that arithmetical discussion, I suggest as a working 
hypothesis for biologists that, since the Pre-Cambrian, there have been no 
variations in the mean salinity of the ocean so great as the difference 
between the salinity in the Mediterranean and in the North Sea. 

The first ocean was more or less saline : it was also soaked with carbon- 
dioxide. In the air there was no oxygen, but nitrogen, much water- 
vapour, and carbon-dioxide in large quantities. Life is the history of 
high carbon compounds, in which every atom of carbon has been in a 
molecule of carbonic-acid gas. Volcanoes and springs have always been 

u Prof. A. C. Pickering (Geol. Mag. lxi, 1924, p. 31) supposes the moon to have 
left the earth 700 million years ago. If we shorten this to 600 million it would account 
for the cataclysm, and from the ratio given by Jeffreys (I.e. p. 229) it would be 30 million 
years before the tides dropped to double their present height. But I am informed 
that the mathematical theory of the earth's period of oscillation makes a geological 
date for the moon's birth highly improbable. It seems from the maps conceivable 
that in Torridonian times the tide might have swept right round the Northern 
Hemisphere. 

12 A. H. Church, 1919 : ' The building of an autotrophic Flagellate,' p. 4 (citing 
Naegeli and Minchin). Oxford University Press. 

13 In the highly developed ciliate, Paramecium, Woodruff recorded 600 generations 
a year, but in bacteria Brefeld found two generations occur in an hour. Gray found 
34 minutes to a generation in the trout's segmenting egg (1927, Brit. Journ. Exp. 
Biol., iv. p. 315). 



62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

pouring into the air C0 2 from the bowels of the earth, coal-plants and cal- 
careous animals have buried in solid form the carbon from many thousand 
times the quantity of C0 2 which we have now in the atmosphere ; it is 
therefore probable that the alkalinity of the sea, and the dissolved 
calcium, have varied considerably from epoch to epoch. If all the surface 
of the globe were one continuous meadow, evenly producing a ton of hay 
an acre annually, I make out that in twenty-five years it would have 
fixed as much carbon-dioxide as there is in the atmosphere, and in 15,000 
years it would produce as much free oxygen as we have in the world to-day. 
We see, therefore, that the advent of photo-synthetic protein in the ocean 
must itself have changed the physiology of the world very considerably, 
and that the change in conditions, after a million years' duration of the 
lowest form of life, rendered the world capable of supporting organisms 
which would have been impossible at the beginning of that age, and 
conceivably rendered it incapable of supporting ever again the first 
forms of life. 

Of the possible genesis of the first form of life we heard from Dr. Allen 
at Hull. To-day let us take up the tale, in the warm Pre-Laurentian 
sea, with little fragments of protein lying in the sunlit waters. Each 
fragment is continuously receiving energy — whether from the sun, accord- 
ing to Professor Baly's theory of activation, or from some other electro- 
magnetic source — and with that energy is building up the molecules of 
the surrounding solution into molecules of protein, so that the fragment 
grows. 

The supply of energy is continuous, and the supply of solution is con- 
tinuous, yet growth of the fragment of protein cannot be continuous, 
because number is discontinuous. A growing fragment contains 100 
molecules of protein, presently it will contain 101, then 102. It may be a 
thousandth of a second, it may be an hour between the moment of attain- 
ing 100 and the moment of attaining 101 molecules, but with a constant 
supply of energy it will be closely the same interval after acquiring the 
101st molecule and before the 102nd is added. Let us suppose that the 
interval has been 10 seconds. What will be happening during the next 
ten seconds before the molecules number 103 ? 

The continuous supply of energy must in some form be stored in the 
102 molecules until its total is adequate to compel the combination of the 
water, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and the rest of it into the new 103rd 
molecule of protein. This stored energy is then spent in forming the 
combination, and for another 10 seconds the 103 molecules accumulate 
gradually a sufficient supply to force the combination of a 104th molecule. 
We cannot suppose that the molecules can store energy except by a change 
of atomic or electronic arrangement, nor that such change fails to affect 
their molecular volume. Expansion of molecular volume means storage 
of energy which is released on contraction ; we may feel sure that even if 
the main storage of energy be in some other form, it will at least be accom- 
panied by expansion in volume and surface. When energy is given up to 
form the new molecule, all the old ones will return to their original volume, 
and if their expansion was by more than one-hundredth of their volume, 
the whole fragment will contract. 

A slow expansion while energy is being accumulated, a rapid but 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 63 

smaller contraction when the new molecule is formed, so these fragments 
of protein pulsate steadily through the day. So they continue through 
the ages, while protein enters into new combinations, and the aggregate 
of protein molecules is replaced by a unit of protoplasm, still keeping the 
rhythm of saving up energy and making-a-molecule, saving up energy and 
making-a-molecule. 

Now protoplasm in most organisms which we can study becomes 
altered at the surface which is in contact with water, by a change which is 
conveniently called ' gelation,' the protoplasm at the surface losing most 
of its fluidity and changing in other properties. In certain circumstances, 
such as increased salinity of the water, the internal fluid protoplasm will 
burst out through this gelated surface in fine threads, which either gelate 
in their turn or change into strings of drops. 

I venture to suggest that the great evolution of the flagellate, which 
Church pointed out to us, accomplished in some ten thousand or hundred 
thousand million generations, was the formation of a permanent filament 
of protoplasm of which one side was more gelated than the other side, so 
that one longitudinal strip of the cylindrical outer surface is more elastic 
and therefore less easily extensible than the opposite strip. Let us sup- 
pose the gradual accumulation of energy causing, as before, a gradual 
increase in volume of the protoplasm ; then the more easily extensible 
surface will swell, and therefore lengthen, and the filament will gradually 
bend. When the quantum of energy is reached which suffices for forma- 
tion of a new molecule, every old molecule will suddenly lose its surplus 
energy and return to its old molecular volume, the distended surface will 
return to its old dimensions and the filament will straighten. 

I have spent an appreciable part of my life watching the flagella on the 
living collar-cells of Calcareous sponges— Grantia, Sycon, Lencandra, and 
Clathrina. Their movement is nearly confined to one plane and is asym- 
metrical, being almost always with a faster beat to one side than to the 
other. There is a pause, a stroke and a counterstroke. Mr. James 
Gray pointed out to me that if the counterstroke be elastic, as I supposed, 
it should always take the same time, as compared with the varying time 
of the active contraction. This I found to be the case. At about 
24 double vibrations to the second, the stroke and counterstroke are of 
equal duration ; at higher frequencies the stroke is the shorter, as in 
a schoolmaster's cane ; at lower frequencies the stroke is the longer, as in a 
fisherman's trout-rod. The broad features of the phenomena are therefore 
consistent with the hypothesis that the counterstroke is an elastic 
rebound. 14 

The. apparent improbability of a lowly organised cylindrical cell, with 
an axial straight flagellum, having one longitudinal strip of the surface 
of that flagellum different from all the rest of that surface, disappears 
when we recognise that one longitudinal strip has a different history from 
all the rest of the surface. A collar-cell in a sponge is usually surrounded 
on all sides by six other collar-cells, of which one is its twin sister. Like 
all flagellates, including metazoan spermatozoa, collar-cells divide longi- 
tudinally. The details of this division were worked out very beautifully 

14 See Appendix B. 



64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

by Miss Kobertson and the late Professor Minchin 1S ; and they showed 
that the little bead at the base of the flagelluni, known as the blepharo- 
plast, is the first thing in the cell to divide, and forms two daughter ble- 
pharoplasts which take the part of centrosornes and induce the division 
of the nucleus into two daughter-nuclei, followed by the division of the 
cell into two daughter-cells. In each of these daughter-cells the new 
blepharoplast grows a new flagellum. It will be seen that the part of the 
blepharoplast which was last in contact with its sister is, as it were, a 
healed wound, and the strip of flagellum which grows from this has there- 
fore a different parentage from that which grows from the opposite surface 
of the blepharoplast, which is an intact part of the parent surface. 

There is no nervous system in sponges, and no sign of nervous control 
of the flagella, either from the individual cell or from the community. 
The direction and timing of their beat is wholly uncorrelated, and though 
the frequency of two neighbouring cells generally approximates to equality 
it is not exactly the same. The frequency varies when the temperature 
and soluble contents of the water vary. Except in certain cases where a 
wandering ovum (Grantia) or pore-cell (Clathrina) is laid over a collar-cell, 
I have never seen a flagellum motionless in a cell which was not moribund. 16 
I believe the motion to be ceaseless, unconscious, and uncontrolled, a direct 
function of the chemical and physical environment. 

What has this to do with the history of animals ? Our ancestors were 
flagellates, or lower than flagellates, for as many generations as they have 
been anything else, for perhaps five or fifty times as many generations as 
they have been vertebrates, at least two hundred times as many generations 
as they have been mammals, and our ancestors were flagellates for at least 
five thousand times as many generations as they have been men. All 
those flagellate ancestors of ours passed their whole active lives in this 
continual rhythm of accumulating energy and building, accumulating 
energy and building, twenty or more to the second through the whole of 
their short lives. Do you believe we have forgotten that rhythm ? I 
believe that all through our growth, from infancy to prime, we added our 
molecules to every unit of protoplasm, rhythmically, as our flagellate 
ancestors did. And when we have passed our prime, our units keep their 
rhythmic reconstruction ; only now, because we are land-animals and must 
not grow any bigger for fear that our limbs should snap, the rhythm or the 
chemical change is readjusted, so as only each beat to add as many mole- 
cules as we use up between the beats. But the adjustment is not perfect, 
so that when we have done growing, our protein units do not keep abso- 
lutely constant — they lose a little each beat on the balance of gain and 
expenditure. 17 So that as we grow older our muscles shrink, and our 
nerves shrink, and our cartilages shrink, and our brain shrinks, 
and we become what other people call ' senile ' ; and at length we die — 
a thing which none of our twelve thousand million flagellate ancestors 
ever did. 

Incidentally, I believe that to that same metabolic rhythm, inherited 

" Q.J. M.S. 1910, vol. 55, p. 611 ; 1912, vol. 57, p. 129. 

16 Cf. J. Gray, 1926 : P.R.8., B, xcix, p. 398, and G. H. Parker, 1910 : Journ. Exp. 
Zool. viii, p. 795 (or 31) ; and cf. Journ. Linn. Soc. 1921, vol. xxxiv, p. 317. 

17 Proc. Linn. Soc. 1925, p. 17 ; 1926, p. 19. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 65 

from the flagellates, we owe our sense of time ; so that our appreciation of 
dancing, poetry, and music shows that we are still flagellates at heart. 

How was the transition from flagellate to multicellar organism effected ? 
And what advantage did it bring ? We have seen that a flagellum beats 
continuously and that a flagellate divides longitudinally. We must now 
turn our attention to a third cardinal characteristic — that flagellates exude 
on their exterior a watery jelly which is sticky. 18 

It seems at first sight a trifling detail of natural history to mention 
that flagellates exude a transparent mucilaginous substance which coats 
them, thinly if they swim, and thickly if they stay still for it to accumulate. 
Yet to this one property is due, not only their first aggregation into multi- 
cellular masses, but the possibility of all the physiological developments 
in plants, sponges, and metazoa, of which up to the present day those 
masses have shown themselves capable. Church said that in the primitive 
unit of protoplasm the peripheral deposit of waste carbohydrate is a 
necessary condition of its metabolism, but culminates in the production 
of the timber-tree. I would add, that it culminates also in the production 
of the mammal. 

That an adhesive surface will enable flagellates to cohere is obvious ; 
this, with the repeated longitudinal fission of the cells, produces first the 
temporary cohesion of rapidly dividing monads, which are the product 
of the encysted flagellate, and are gametes — exactly comparable with those 
of the sperm-tassels of Lumbricus ; where the asexually produced genera- 
tion of the earth-worm is a flagellate, dividing longitudinally, and ad- 
hering to its brethren, so as to resemble a piece of floating columnar ciliated 
epithelium. In the earth-worm's spermatozoa, as in most flagellates, 
the coherence is only temporary and the ultimate product of the longi- 
tudinal division is a free-swimming gamete. But in many flagellates — 
in members of almost every group of flagellates — as a method of distribu- 
tion the original products of division never separate, and with repeated 
longitudinal fission the swimming sheet of cells becomes larger and larger, 
and therefore swims faster. Almost always, however, it becomes convex 
on the flagellate side — possibly because there the continuity of the water- 
jelly surface is broken by the moving bases of the flagella — but there is 
clearly no a priori reason to expect surface tensions to be equal in the 
dissimilar flagellate and non-flagellate surfaces. The phenomena show 
that the surface tension of the flagellate surface is the less, so that it 
becomes increasingly convex, until the growing sheet of cells is bent 
round into a hollow sphere, such as we admire in Volvox, Synctypta, 
Uroglenopsis, &c. 

Thus the properties of longitudinal fission and gelatinous exudation 
give rise in all flagellate groups to a secondary characteristic of the flagellates, 
their tendency to form hollow spheres bounded by a single layer of cells. 

18 Church, I.e. p. 8, considers that because the supply of CO., is disproportionally 
large compared with that of the other ingredients of protein, there is a general excessive 
synthesis of CHOH compounds, followed by their elimination on the periphery of tbe 
cell as mucilage or ' wall ' deposits. See E. Bresslau, 1924, ' Neues iiber Tektin ' : 
Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges., E.V. xxix, p. 91. He finds the slime on Colpidiurn to be 
mucin ; see also Bresslau, 1924, Senckenbergischen Naturf. Ges. p. 49, and G. Lapage, 
1925, Q.J.M.S. ; also see Q.J.M.S. 1895, p. 22, and p. 14, Fig. (a). 

1927 F 



60 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

These spheres we may perhaps call ' hilospheres,' 19 because of the hiluin or 
scar left at the point of ultimate closure, leaving the name ' blastospheres ' 
for spheres produced by the secondary process of holoblastic segmentation 
in three Cartesian planes, which has been adopted by the metazoan zygote. 
This, like so much of the phenomena of embryology, must be regarded 
not as a repetition of history, but as a direct method of obtaining a result 
previously reached by a longer process. It is interesting that the zygote, 
both of the Calcaronean sponges and of the Ctenophora, clings to primitive 
flagellate longitudinal division up to the 8-cell stage, producing a crown 
or ring of cells strongly reminiscent of the 8-celled crown of the flagellate 
Stephanosphaera or of the 16-celled Cyclonexis or Gonium. 

When a hilosphere has been closed, the mucilaginous secretion on the 
inner surface of the cells which bound it can no longer be washed away, 
and the interior cavity becomes filled with jelly. In sponges, the com- 
paratively uniform diameter of the adult flagellate chambers in a given 
sponge indicates that they cease to grow when the hydraulic pressure 
of the water within them is equal to the static pressure in the interior 
of a bubble, which is of the diameter of the chamber and has the surface 
tension of its surface. That is, a collar-cell only divides longitudinally 
when it is pressed upon by its neighbours on either side, dividing against 
this lateral pressure. It is possible that a similar response determines 
the diameter of a closed hilosphere ; inside it there is not only the pressure 
at which the jelly is secreted, but unless the cellular envelope be 
impervious there will also be osmotic pressure due to the jelly not being 
isotonic with the external sea-water. In the plasma of the frog's blood the 
osmotic pressure is about 3 cm. of water for each 1 per cent, of proteins 20 ; 
in the flagellate chambers of sponges I have published a calculation de- 
ducing the surface-tension of - 35 C.Gr.S. units. 21 This, in a hilosphere or 
blastosphere 60|i. in diameter, would be balanced by an internal pressure 
of 1*2 mm. of water. Therefore a percentage of '04 per cent, protein 
in the central cavity would produce equilibrium, the cells of the 
spherical wall would neither be pressed against each other nor dragged 
apart, and on the above hypothesis the growth of the hilosphere 
would cease. 

It is interesting to note that, apart from any such hypothesis, if at any 
stage the cells of a blastosphere or hilosphere proceed to feed on the fluid 
in the segmentation-cavity and to withdraw proteins, carbohydrates, 
or salts, the osmotic pressure will be lowered. If the central fluid be made 
hypotonic as compared with sea-water 22 then the internal osmotic pressure 
will be negative, and if the wall of the blastosphere be permeable to water 
it will be invaginated. If from the central cavity the cells of a blasto- 
sphere abstract soluble substances the blastosphere must be invaginated. 

ln This word will not bear philological analysis ; but it is convenient in length and 
sound. 

20 C. Lovatt Evans, 1925 : ' Recent Advances in Physiology,' p. 148. London, 
Churchill. [See also Adair, 1925, P.R.S., B. 98.] 

21 Q.J.M.S. 1923, lxvii, p. 300. 

22 At a recent meeting of the Challenger Society observations were quoted 
showing that the urine and pseudo-cartilage of the sun-fish is each lighter than sea- 
water. I regret that at the moment of going to press the references are not 
to hand. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 67 

This is obviously more likely to take place where certain definitely digestive 
cells have been segregated in the wall of the blastosphere, as in the ontology 
of a metazoon. 

With the completion of a closed cellular envelope externally flagellate 
and internally filled with jelly, we have now the possibility of any true 
sponge (excluding the hexactinellids) and of any metazoon. We scarcely 
note the mucilaginous exudation in free flagellates except when they 
cling together, though we observe it in the fixed forms as the investing 
jelly of the palmellar stage, or as the gelatinous ' houses' of choanoflagel- 
lates and others. But, enclosed in a hilosphere, it has now the potenti- 
alities of the intercellular jelly of the sponge parenchym, of the structureless 
lamella of the hydroid or the jelly of the medusa disc, of the semi-fluid 
which fills the segmentation-cavity in every larva and embryo. With 
slight modification it has become in us the jelly of our cartilage and the 
plasma of our blood. 

The late Dr. Strangeways and others, who have cultivated tissues in 
vitro, have shown that living tissue, from almost any source except highly 
differentiated epithelium, when placed in a nutrient medium, will proliferate 
feathery cells into the medium until a network is formed of nucleate 
masses of protoplasm stretching fine processes into the delicate threads 
which join them. 23 That form of proliferation into a nutrient medium 
must have been inherent in the flagellate ancestors of true sponges and 
of metazoa. But we get a cobweb growth of similar form into sea-water 
in the flagellate Dendromonas,'* 4 and in the hexactinellid sponges, as 
described by Ijima. 25 We have no idea of the conditions which determine 
coalescence or independence, 26 but the ' buffy coat ' of human blood, 
which is a measure of the agglutination of the red corpuscles, may be 
increased a hundredfold by some change in the constitution of the plasma, 
the nature of which is still the subject of surmise. 27 In true sponges, 
coelenterates, and trochospheres, we find the surface toward the water 
preserving the firm outline of an epithelium, while the surface toward 
the internal nutrient medium, as in laboratory preparations, proliferates 
into the segmentation-cavity feathering cells — named by the Hertwigs 
mesenchyme — to form the tissues of the organism. This is well shown in 
Baitsell's drawings of the segmentation-cavity in the chick embryo. 28 

The exudation from the cell-surface, which our cartilage and ganglion 
cells have inherited from the flagellates, is the foundation of metazoan 
physiology and of metazoan morphology. 

We must still ask, with what advantage did sponges and Metazoa 
arise in the Flagellate Sea of the early Pre-Cambrian ? Among the photo- 
synthetic monads we know that there were some which learnt the canni- 

23 E.g. T. S. P. Strangeways, 1924 : ' Tissue Culture in Relation to Growth and 
Differentiation. ' Cambridge, Heffer. 

21 Pascher, 1914 : Siissu-asserflora, Jena, Fischer ; i. p. 95. 

"' 'Studies on the Hexactinellida,' Tokyo : Jour. Sci. Coll. xv, pi. 5, and passim. 

26 J. Gray (1926: Brit. Journ. Exp. Biol, iii, p. 167, quoting Galtsofi, 1925) has 
results allowing the deduction that coherence was only possible while the sea 
retained a certain acidity or after it had reached a certain salinity. 

27 C. Lovatt Evans, I.e. p. 8. 2 » G. A. Baitsell: Q.J. M.S. 1925, lxix, p. 571. 

F2 



68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

balistic habit of supplementing their own synthetic products by engulfing 
the spores of their neighbours or their fragmentary mortal remains. Some 
carried cannibalism so far as to give up altogether the colouring matter 
which in sunlight made carbohydrates out of their environment, living 
instead on carbohydrates and proteins formed by productive contem- 
poraries. 

These seceders formed many specialised groups, of which the choano- 
flagellates, like many of the much higher ciliates, adopted the policy of 
fixing themselves to the ground by their blunt ends, so that the flagellum 
made a current carrying the desired spores, which passed over the sticky 
body. For this function they changed the tractellar action of the flagellum 
(still preserved in sponge larvae) into a pulsellar action 20 — a change 
which may be effected merely by lengthening the flagellum. Also, by 
means of the well-known transparent collar, they masked the part of 
the flagellum nearest the cell, where the motion is purely lateral and 
only drives the food away from the adhesive surface without assisting 
the current. 

Where two choanoflagellates, side by side, drove their currents in the 
same direction, each reinforced the other and each cell obtained more food 
than when working alone. 30 Consequently choanoflagellates began to 
form colonies of various types. One, the Proterospongia of Saville Kent, 
has been hailed by all as marking a stage towards the evolution of sponges ; 
but from this flat gelatinous crust it is very difficult to imagine the 
advantageous steps which led to an Olynthus supplied by intracellular 
pores ; I would conceive the ancestor as a saucer-shaped Proterospongia 
colony fixed by a narrow base. I propose the name of Porifera vera for 
the sponges descended from this form, and, like it, having collar-cells 
based on interstitial jelly that contains other cells and is sheathed by 
other cells from the water. Such sponges, calcareous, horny, and tetracti- 
nellid, are contrasted with the Porifera nuda, the Hexactinellida, in which 
the collar-cells and most other cells are connected with each other by 
protoplasmic threads, but lie otherwise naked in the water. Hexacti- 
nellida must be descended independently from some colonial choano- 
flagellate like a Codonosiga, whose branches developed the faculty of 
anastomosis ; and they are of a lower grade altogether than the true sponges. 
Living in the permanent currents of abyssal depths, they have not found 
necessary the hydraulic mechanism for a powerful outflow, which is found 
in every other group of sponges 31 ; their hydraulic organisation is limited 
to a separation of the effluent from the afferent channels, but they have 
developed the secretion of cubic opal, on the skeleton crystals of which the 
network of their naked cells is extended across the current. They re- 
produce by ciliate gemmules : Ijima finds no gametes, but we are at 
liberty to imagine that the free-swimming gemmule may possibly produce 
them, as in Volvox and other flagellates. 

Among the monaxon members of Dendy's Tetraxonida many sponges, 
of the general appearance of Porifera vera, have spicules which show, 
by a symmetry about three planes at right angles to each other, that they 

29 Geoffrev Lapage, 1925 : Q.J. M.S. Ixix, pp. 477, 465. 

30 Q.J.M.S. 1923, lx\ai, p. 298. 
31 Jbid. p. 312. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 69 

are of the cubic opal. 8 ' 2 I propose to call these Orthogonida, with the four 
orders Clavulida, Axinellida (?), Desmacidonida and Renierida. 

In biology a new secretion seems one of the most difficult things to be 
produced in evolution, so that biochemists tabulate long series of allied 
respiratory pigments and chlorophyll derivatives : we inherit our visual 
purple from so far back that we still denominate as ' light ' the limited 
range of vibrations which the sea transmitted to our flagellate ancestors, 33 
and prove our descent from them by considering water perfectly trans- 
parent. Therefore it seems most probable that opal crystallising on the 
cubic system was only evolved once. 

This principle indicates that the Orthogonida are probably descendants 
of Porifera nuda, and there is some evidence that in histology and re- 
production they retain some resemblances to the Hexactinellida. 34 I 
suggest that they are descended (probably the four orders independently) 
from hexactinellids which found themselves in waters where the permanent 
current was inadequate. Thus they found it necessary to develop a 
hydraulic engine generally similar to that developed, probably inde- 
pendently of each other, by each of the three orders of the Porifera 



vera. 35 



It is agreed by all that the main groups of sponges were developed 
before the Cambrian. And since Porifera nuda and Porifera vera arose 
from differing forms of Choanoflagellate colony, we may suppose that in 
the Flagellate Sea we had. at least these two strains of sponges, and possibly 
the four main forms of skeleton ; though possibly the slime of Halisarca 
and the horny sponges, and the three forms of crystallising secretion, may 
have only been developed for defence, when Metazoa arose and began to 
feed on sponges. 

For of metazoan animals in the Flagellate Sea there were none. All 
the choanoflagellates, all the sponges, and all the intermediate ancestors 
were microphagous, that is, evolved to supply their component monads 
with food in the form of minute particles, such as spores, very small pro- 
tista, and minute fragments of decayed protista. So they fed in the 
Flagellate Ocean of the early Pre-Cambrian age, and so they feed to-day. 

32 Cf. Nature, 1925, vol. cxv, p. 299; and G. C. J. Vosrnaer, 1886: Bronn's' Porifera,' 
p. 473. The chelae of Media and Melonanchora have each three planes of symmetry 
at right angles to each other. The spicules of Reniera and Chalina are absolutely 
symmetrical end for end, as are the birotulae of Ephydatia. This is extremely unlikely 
in spicules formed of tetraxon opal, where one end corresponds to bases of tetrahedra, 
and the other to their apices. 

33 Church, I.e. p. 6. 

34 H. V. Wilson, 1891 : Journ. Morph. Boston, v. p. 511 (Esperella) ; and 1894, ix. 
p. 277. Kirkpatrick, 1911 : Q.J. M.S. lvi, pi. xxxii. (Media normmi— note collar- 
cells) ; J. Cotte, 1903 : Theses presentees a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris. Lille ; 
p. 428, ' chez les Clionides une disposition rappelant la structure trabeculaire des 
Hexactinellides ' ; Topsent (on the flagellate chambers of Cliona), Arch. Zool. Exp. 
(2) V bis. 

:,s As to the relationship to each other of the Porifera vera, I have published remarks 
on the similarity of the outer cells of horny sponges with those of Calcarea (P.R.S. vol. 
52, p. 134), Dendy and Row have noted the resemblance between the canal system 
and collar-cells of Oscarella and those of a calcareous sponge (Lcucettusa, P.Z.S. 1913, 
p. 738), and I may add that the collar-cells of Oscarella and Clathrina are strangely 
alike. 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Grant named the group Porifera 36 from the pores of their external surface, 
through which all water enters to the collar-cells. We know now that in 
most sponges these pores represent only the most exterior of two, three or 
more filters, interposed to prevent access of larger bodies than those which 
the collar-cells ingest. There is no sponge into which the sponge current 
can carry a body larger than a frog's blood-corpuscle, and in most the 
entrance pores of the flagellate chambers will not admit a particle of 
one-third of this diameter. 

Stomached animals are formed with a cavity into which many cells 
pour a secretion, which thus digests up to fragmentation portions of organic 
matter too large to be ingested by any single cell. In the early Flagellate 
Ocean there were no particles of organic matter too large to be digested by 
a single cell, and therefore stomached animals did not arise until the) r had 
multicellular algae and sponges on which to feed. The sponges are therefore the 
more ancient group, and have had little need for change, except for defence 
against animals. Few of the changes which have taken place in mollusc, 
crustacean, or vertebrate, affect their life ; except as the abundant repro- 
ductive products of the Metazoa provide more food for the Porifera. The 
secondarily assumed rnicrophagous habits of Lamellibranchs and Tunicates 
do not prevent the sponges, with their longer history, from flourishing on 
an oyster-farm and damaging the oysters. When we watch the currents 
of a sponge, or under the microscope watch its collar-cells feeding, we are 
seeing, unchanged, what took place in the seas of the Pre-Cambrian more 
than 1000 million years ago, when the inhabitants of the ocean were 
flagellates, low algae, and sponges. 

How did animals come ? Embryologists tell us of the blastula — ■ 
a common form of motile spore-bearer among flagellates, never, so far as 
I know, observed to feed except by photosynthesis. They tell us of a 
gastrula, but the laws of viscous motion make it clear that the free-swim- 
ming gastrulae we observe as larvae could never earn their own living, 
since the stream-lines would carry every particle of food outside the cone 
of dead water which is dragged behind the gastrula mouth. Creeping 
planulae or gastrulae might pick things up, but as a predatory organism 
a free-swimming planula would seem a most ineffective and unarmed 
buccaneer, 37 and it is not surprising that in nature no such creature has 
ever been known as an adult, and no planula or gastrula larva has ever 
been recorded to have taken into its endoderm a single particle of food. 

In the embryology of sponges I am convinced that the blastula, gas- 
trula and planula have no historical significance, other than the fact that 
flagellates are in the habit of distributing themselves by flagellate aggre- 
gates, often of the blastosphere form. For the rest, the amphiblastula of 
Sycon and the planula of Axinella are merely convenient ways of arranging 
in the motile aggregate the segregated elements of the future tissues. The 
embryology of animals is held by those who study it to be more significant 

36 Grant called them first Porophora (1825, Edin.Phil. Journ.), then Poriphera (' Out- 
lines of Comparative Anatomy,' 1835, p. 5), and Porifera in 1855, Todd's Cyclopaedia, 
■fide Vosmaer (Bronn, p. 52). Hogg objected (1839, p. 399 footnote) that he had used 
the word Porifera first in 1827 for an order of corals {Cellepora, &c). 

37 So also E. W. MacBride : 'Text-book of Embryology,' p. 99. London, 1914, 
Macmillan. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 71 

than this ; if so, in view of the fact that Enterozoa arose later than sponges, 
it might seem easiest to guess that Enterozoa arose from Porifcra vera, 
and that the blastopore which persists as an anus in Echinoderms re- 
capitulates the osculum of a Sycon. This does not oppose the view that 
the keyhole blastopore of molluscs or Peripatus may recapitulate the 
siphonoglyphs of a coral 38 ; but I suggest that if there be recapitulation 
in the gastrulae, it is recapitulation of a comparatively high stage of 
development (as Sedgwick supposed), and that the cavity into which 
the blastopore opens is in either case a cavity which was lined with the 
embryologically outer layer of the ancestor recapitulated. Gill-slits, the 
posterior position of the blastopore, enteric diverticula, the calcareous 
spicules of Echinoderms and the embryology of the Ctenophora 39 offer 
great temptations, but I will not waste more of your time on the easy 
elaboration of the hypothesis that Metazoa, or some of them, are descended 
from sponges. 

When Metazoa arose, the world contained Protista, Sponges and 
Algae. It seems more easy to imagine the evolutionary steps which would 
convert a Sycon into an Enterozoon than those which would build one 
up out of unicellular Protozoa, or convert into a beast of prey the green 
and innocent Volvox. That must be decided by those who study the 
Metazoa and their embryology. As a student of sponges I entirely reject 
the view that there is any common ancestor, above the flagellate monad, 
from which the two branches of Parazoa and Metazoa have diverged. If 
the hypothesis be acceptable that Parazoa were parents to Metazoa, 
the word ' animals ' may still be used phylogenetically to include alike 
the Enterozoa and the sponges from which they sprang. If those who 
study Metazoa reject this hypothesis, the Mickophaga must be recognised 
as constituting a third kingdom of multicellular organisms, specialised 
for the intracellular digestion of living organisms under 5[i in diameter. 



APPENDIX A. 
Salinity of the Ocean. 

Joly has given his opinion, as a chemist, that the original boiling and 
superheated ocean only dissolved from the magma one-ninth the percentage 
of chlorides which our ocean now possesses. Professor Joly assumes that, 
ever since that primeval ocean, sodium brought down by the rivers has 
been steadily accumulating in the sea and progressively increasing its 
salinity. This assumption the man in the street may criticise. 

About half the sodium in the rivers comes from sedimentary rocks: 
where did the sedimentary rocks get it from, if not from the sea under 
which they were formed ? When a portion of the ocean is landlocked and 
evaporated, as began 5000 years ago over the Caspian plains, the distilled 

38 Adam Sedgwick : On the origin of segmented animals and the relation of the 
mouth and arms to the mouth of the Coelenlerata : in Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. vol. v, 
1884. The historian may care to know that Sedgwick gave this theory to us in his 
lectures in the Michaelmas term of 1882, 1 think two months before he read his paper 
on Peripatus at the Royal Society. 

39 Besides the segmentation of the ovum in Berde, Idi/ia, &c, see Mortensen's account 
of Tjalfjellia, 1912, quoted by MacBride, Enc. Brit. vol. 30, p. 973. 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

water is returned to the ocean, but the whole of the salt it contained is with- 
held in the land, as we see in the New York salt-wells, or the shores of 
the Dead Sea. Landlocked seas have provided a great volume of our sedi- 
mentary rocks ; but, even when formed on a sinking continental shelf, a 
sandstone would take down from the ocean enough sea-water in its inter- 
stices to leave it with "25 per cent, of sodium when the water was evaporated. 
If we call the sodium in the sea and in the land above sea-level the ' avai lable ' 
sodium, of this quantity 82 per cent, is in the sea, about 8^-per cent, has been 
in the sea and is now in sedimentary rocks, and only about 10 per cent, is in 
igneous rocks above sea-level, and has presumably never been in the sea. 
Geologists tell us that we are at the climax of a period of maximum elevation ; 
therefore much salt has been imprisoned in the land and the present 
salinity of the sea must be a minimum. If we take the extreme hypothesis 
that, at the next period of maximum denudation, a quantity equal to 
one-sixth of the mass of the present land will be denuded without com- 
pensation, and all its sodium dissolved in the sea, it would only increase 
the specific gravity of sea-water from I -026 to l - 027. If it be true 
that in 1500 million years igneous rocks have supplied eight-ninths of 
the salt of the ocean, a mass equal to all the igneous rocks now above 
sea-level must on the average have been erupted and dissolved every 
200 million years, which is about the age of the Permian. Yet most of 
our volcanic rocks are far older than the Permian. 

From Murray's calculations (1888, Scott. Oeog. Mag. iv, \,fide Mill, 1892, ' Physio- 
graphy,' p. 191) the volume of the ocean is 14 times that of the volume of the 
land above sea-level. Taking the specific gravity of the land as 2-6 times that of 
the ocean, the mass of the land in tons is therefore ^.^ that of the ocean. Holmes 
(I.e. p. 37) estimates ' igneous and other crystalline rocks ' as roughly forming a 
quarter of the land. From descriptions of Canadian and Scandinavian geology one 
would guess that half of these are sedimentary, but to give Professor Joly the largest 
figure possible, we will assume that a quarter of the mass of the land is volcanic. 
Taking Holmes's figures for the percentage of sodium, we find therefore : — 











Sodium 


Sodium 






Mass (taking 




expressed as 


expressed as 






mass of the 




per cent, of 


per cent, of 






ocean as 


Per cent . 


the ocean's 


the ocean's 






unity). 


sodium. 


mass. 


sodium. 


Sea 




1-00 


1-08 


1-08 


100 


Volcar 


lie Rocks 


•046 


2-85 


•131 


12 


Sedimi 


sntary Rocks 


•139 


•81 


•113 


10J 



Therefore to provide eight-ninths of the sodium in the sea would require 7 J times the 
mass of volcanic rocks now above sea-level. Also a sixth of the whole existing land would 
yield 3-8 per cent, of the sodium now in the sea ; and, supposing that the sodium 
yielded were accompanied by its proportional chlorine (on which see Jeffreys, I.e. p. 71), 
magnesium, lime salts, &c, since the existing sea of sp. gr. 1'026 contains 
3-4 per cent, of salts, these would be increased to 3-53, and the specific gravity to 
1-0270. 

As to included sea-water, we may take from Molesworth's Engineering ' Pocket- 
Book ' (1917, p. 99) the interstices of pounded sandstone or of gravel as 34 per cent. 
of the total volume. Therefore in a cubic metre of this the sandstone would weigh 
1500 kilogrammes, and the sea-water 350 kilogrammes, containing 3-8 kilogrammes 
of sodium, which would amount to -25 per cent, of the weight of the consolidated 
rock when the water had evaporated from the warm lower strata. 

[Schuchert, in his 1924 edition, p. 133, calculates that igneous rocks sufficient to 
supply the salt of the ocean would cover all continents to the height of one or two 
miles. Possibly four-fifths of its salt reached the ocean in Pre-Palaeozoie erosion.] 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 73 

APPENDIX B. 

Some Numerical Data of Flagellar Motion. 

In the active flagellum of Grantia compressa the longitudinal extension 
of the convex side as compared with the concave side must be in the ratio 
x y° to produce the observed radius of curvature (about 3-5[x) 40 . Assuming 
the length of the concave side constant, this would mean an average 
extension approximately in the ratio if. If this were the passive result 
of an increase in volume, as in the elementary theory suggested in the 
text, and if the diametral expansions were in the same ratio, then the 
indicated increase in volume would be in the ratio |. 

But it was pointed out to me by a biologist at Plymouth, working on 
spermatozoa, that their right-handedness of motion indicates that the 
molecules of the flagellum are orientated with length parallel to its axis. 
It seems possible, therefore, that the unstable molecular strain which 
causes the flexion may be accompanied by an addition only to length of 
the molecules. It is' impossible to assert definitely that a change of 
width from -4[A to -44p. would be recognisable in the retinal image, but my 
own belief is that in a slowly moving flagellum such a change in width 
would have an appreciable optic effect, and that in the flagella which 
I watched there was no increase in width of 10 per cent. ; though as to 
5 per cent, one would have no strong opinion, and as to 2 per cent, none 

at all. 

It will be noted that the diameter of the flagellum can only contain 
some 40 to 80 protein molecules, and that of the flagellum of a minute 
flagellate cannot contain more than a quarter of this number, so that the 
true theory of flagellar movement must be simple. 

The conception of one meridian of the flagellar skin being importantly 
more or less extensible than the rest was suggested to me by Sir W. B. 
Hardy ; but he has no responsibility for the treatment of his suggestion. 

The wave of contraction generally passes up the flagellum of Grantia 
with a velocity of 25fA ± 5 [A per second, but was observed with velocity 
over 100[A s. " I concluded from other data that it is probably 200 to 
500\i s. in healthy life, and that about 2b\i s. is a minimum, so that if this 
cannot be attained, transmission does not take place. I computed the 
work done on the water per double stroke to be of the order of 1 xlO -10 
C.G.S. units, with 5 vibrations per second. Healthy frequency {Q.J. M.S. 
1895, p. 17) is probably nearer 20 vibrations per second. 

40 Internal radius. 



74 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



APPENDIX C. 
Proposed Classification of Sponges and Suggested Genealogy. 

Choanoflagellata 



Proterospongia 
MICROPHAGA 



Porifera nuda Porifera vera 
(Hexactinellida) 



Orthogonida 



Clavulida 
(with Hymeniacidori) 



Desmacidon 



Ceratosa 

(with 

Halisarca) 



Tetraxonida s.s. 
(with Oscarella 
and with Donatio) 



Calcarea 



ida 



Axinellida ? Renierida 

(with Spongillidae 
and Chalinidae ; 
without Halt- 
clwndria) 

ENTEROZOA 

Orthogonida are defined ; — Sponges resembling Porifera vera in hydraulic system, 
but having spicules formed of opal crystallising obscurely on the cubic 
system. Macroscleres of monaxon facies. 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



SOME PROBLEMS OF POLAR 
GEOGRAPHY. 

ADDRESS BY 

R. N. RUDMOSE BROWN, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Since the last meeting of the British Association at Leeds, thirty-seven 
years ago, the whole meaning of geography has changed. The purely 
empirical stages of the collection of data have largely given way to the 
higher stages of interpretation and explanation, and these in their turn 
have called for re-examination of the facts by the use of more accurate 
methods. An even greater change is the important place which geography 
has won in education. Nothing could be more striking than this advance 
in a generation or two unless it was the former neglect of the subject ; 
one might say the entire omission of any geographical teaching in any 
grade of education— an almost incredible defect in the training of youth 
at a period of rapid imperial growth and consolidation. The battle is 
not yet won, but even if some of the universities of this country, which 
move but slowly, do not give geography the place it merits, it has at 
least a foothold in all. Geographical research and serious geographical 
publications have also shown an increase in recent times, though the 
output in this country is far too small. This, however, is neither the 
time nor the place to dwell on the educational side of geography. I 
recall these developments only because the present year has seen the 
passing of one who will always be associated with geographical work 
during the last half-century, and especially the rise of geography to a 
place of importance in the universities and the scientific world. Sir John 
Scott Keltie was one of the pioneers of geographical education, and as 
editor of the Geographical Journal and for many years recorder and 
secretary of Section E took a leading part in the advancement of explora- 
tion and the spread of sound geographical knowledge and research. The 
present position of geography in this country is largely a monument to 
his untiring labour, enthusiasm and tact. 

Geographical thought of to-day shows a growing tendency to lay 
more stress on the human interests of the subject than it did of old. So 
far as this leads to a broadening of the outlook in what was formerly 
known as economic geography, with its somewhat narrow standards of 
the bourse and market-place, the development is all to the good. The 
humanising of the subject has done much to rob it of aridity and, by 
widening its scope, to bring it into close touch with other aspects of the 
study of man. It is a good thing for the growth of knowledge when 
barriers between allied subjects break down on a ground common to 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

both. These trends in human and social geography are to be welcomed, 
but at the same time there is a tendency to forget that our geography 
must be founded on a knowledge of the surface features of the earth. 
The physical factors must be thoroughly understood if the superstructure 
of human and social geography is to have a sure foundation. This 
foundation can be best laid in personal experience of earth, air and water. 
In other words, travel is an essential part of the training of the geographer 
if his work is to have any reality. The complexity of geographical values 
can never be gauged by any mere statistical presentment of the facts. 
The experience of the world that is necessary to the equipment of the 
geographer must be gained not merely by travel in densely populated 
lands, where the modern applications of science do so much to protect 
man from actual contact with the factors of climate, the influence of 
land forms and the effect of biological distributions, but of travel by sea 
and in empty lands and of practical experience in exploring the natural 
phenomena and occurrences, of real contact with the raw materials of 
geography, in order to learn the elements of the science at first hand. The 
scientific no less than the humanistic aspects of geography must be learnt 
by personal observation. The geographer who depends solely on maps 
will never understand his subject or be a source of inspiration to others. 
The best map is a poor substitute for reality. A year of personal 
-experience of nature is worth the whole of a university course as a 
foundation of geographical study. 

In selecting for the subject of my address some of the problems of polar 
geography I have been moved by a twofold reason. First, these problems 
come near to my interests by personal experiences, and I think that in 
a comparative lull in polar exploration in this country it is well to take 
stock of the problems that still await solution, and secondly, I feel that 
modern geographical thought, with its stress on the humanistic side, is 
tending to overlook the polar regions in spite of their wide geographical 
interest. They offer an incomparable field of observation for all sides of 
pure geography. From the many problems I can select only a few of 
importance. 

The Tasks of Exploration. 

To turn first to the Antarctic, there are certain fundamental problems 
in physical geography — problems of the nature of those which in other 
continents were solved several centuries ago. The broad features of the 
map of Antarctica are not built on ascertained fact so much as on intelligent 
guesswork. 

The existence of an Antarctic continent is still based on circumstantial 
evidence, and until more than some 5000 miles of its coastline, or only 
about 35 per cent, of the total length, are known, direct evidence of 
Antarctica will be lacking. It is not a little remarkable that all the 
exploration of the twentieth century has merely modified the probable 
outline of that continent as it was predicted by Sir John Murray in 1886. 
He had little but the reports of Boss, d'Urville, Wilkes, a few sealers 
and the Challenger to go on, and, mainly on circumstantial evidence, he 
built his Antarctic continent. The one considerable change in that map 
has been the curtailment of the Weddell Sea and the removal of its 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 77 

southern extremity some four degrees north of Murray's position inlat. 82°S. 
But that southward prolongation of the Wedded Sea and Atlantic 
Ocean at the expense of Antarctica was based solely on Ross's mistaken 
sounding of 4000 fathoms, no bottom, in lat. 68°48'S., long. 12°20'W. 

Most of the Antarctic ' lands,' and certainly nearly all those that may 
be classed as key positions to the coastline of Antarctica, date from last 
century, some of them from a hundred years ago. Coats Land, Wilhelm 
Land and Oates Land are among the few exceptions. Enderby Land, 
the one certain or nearly certain land in over 3000 miles of hypothetical 
coastline, has never been seen or seriously searched for since Biscoe found 
it in 1831. It should be the base of an expedition that is prepared to 
work westwards. Heavy ice congestion so far found by all vessels that 
have tried to push south between Enderby Land and Coats Land, suggests 
that this stretch of coastline will have to be put in by sledge journeys- 
along the edge of the ice cap. The western shores of the Wedded Sea are 
another ice-girt region which no ship has been able to penetrate, a region 
of dangerous ice pressure. Here, too, the advance must be by land 
journey, but it should be relatively simple, since accessible bases are 
known in Oscar Land and adjoining parts of Graham Land. Lastly,, 
there is the great gap south of the Pacific between Charcot and Edward 
Lands, which leaves ample scope for an attack from both ends. A minor 
problem in the outline of Antarctica for an expedition based on Edward 
Land is the determination of the eastern side of the Ross Sea and the 
elucidation of Amundsen's sighting of land to the south of Edward Land, 
the appearance of land which he called Carmen Land. 

But even more important than the discovery of the ' missing ' stretches 
of the Antarctic coastline— a mere matter of descriptive geography— is 
the explanation of the structure of the continent and its former con- 
nections with other lands of the Southern Hemisphere. The problem is 
made more difficult of solution by the immense covering of ice that 
completely hides the underlying rock in most parts. Detailed exploration 
has so far concentrated on the two more accessible coasts of Antarctica, 
those of Graham and Victoria Lands. In fact, one might reasonably argue 
that there has been too great a concentration of interest on those coasts, 
on the part of well-found expeditions, to the neglect of unknown or little- 
known areas more difficult of access but promising more striking 
discoveries. That has been due, no doubt, to the one, Graham Land 
with its islands, projecting northward into open sea and lying near civilised 
lands, and the other, Victoria Land, offering the most promising point of 
departure for sledge journeys to the Pole. However, now that the South 
Pole has been reached, the temptation to focus effort on the best available 
base for that undertaking has gone, and the explorer's energy of the 
future is more likely to be expended in directions more profitable to the 
advancement of knowledge. 

Graham Land, for we discard the awkward title of West Antarctica, 
and Victoria Land, or more strictly South Victoria Land, are both regions 
of lofty mountain ranges, but apparently of contrasted structure and 
diverse origin. The ranges of Graham Land, often called the Antarctic 
Andes, in stratigraphy and structure as well as in their eruptive rocks, 
bear so close a resemblance to the Cordilleras of South America that there 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

can be no reasonable doubt that they were at one time connected and are 
in fact disunited parts of the same foldings. Nor does it appear doubtful, 
any longer, that the line of former continuity can be traced by a submerged 
ridge on which stand relics of the chain : in the South Orkneys, the 
volcanic South Sandwich Group and South Georgia, extending in a great 
arc between Trinity Land and Tierra del Fuego and sweeping well to the 
east of Drake Strait. There is no doubt of this line of connection, but 
we are still uncertain if South Georgia, and even more so, if the Falklands 
are really fragments of the arc or relics of a lost South Atlantic Land. 

The Antarctic Andes, or Southern Antilles, have been traced 
south-eastward but lost sight of at Alexander Island and Charcot Land, 
which in all probability are parts of the same formation. The great 
problem of the Antarctic is what happens to other ranges. On the 
opposite, or New Zealand, side of the Antarctic the great fault ranges of 
Victoria Land show little if any resemblance in structure and origin with 
the Antarctic Andes. A great horst capped with horizontal layers of sand- 
stone, probably of Permo-Carboniferous age, is associated with much 
evidence of volcanic activity, and seems to rise from a great peneplain of 
crystalline rocks which underlie the whole of that side of the Antarctic 
ice-sheet. 

The structure of the Victoria Land edge of the Ross Sea is reminiscent 
of Tasmania and eastern Australia, and the suggestion of former continuity 
across the Southern Ocean receives further support from our knowledge 
of submarine relief between Antarctica and Australia, especially the work 
of the Aurora Expedition. 

The relationships between Antarctica and South Africa are still very 
obscure since the African quadrant of the Antarctic, both by land and by 
sea, remains one of the least explored parts. It will prove a fruitful area 
for an expedition to tackle. 

It is unnecessary to enter into the details of the arguments in 
geomorphology bearing on the relationships of the two contrasted sides of 
Antarctica. I have recently expounded these at greater length elsewhere. 

Only further exploration can solve the mystery. We must go and 
see if we want to know. But it may be of interest to state the possible 
solutions. 

One suggestion is that the horst of Victoria Land is continuous 
with the Antarctic Andes. Certainly the direction of the Maud 
Mountains to the south of the Ross Sea supports this view, and evidence 
of great faults bounding the Andes may show that those ranges after all 
are not entirely different in nature from the ranges of Victoria Land. A 
second suggestion is that the Antarctic Andes reappear in the Ross Sea 
in the old crystalline rocks of King Edward Land — which as yet are but 
little known — and that these were once continuous with the folds of New 
Zealand. If this be true, the ranges of Victoria Land and the Maud 
Mountains probably swing across to Coats Land and may cause those 
vague shadowy shapes that a few of us who have seen Coats Land believe 
to exist in its far interior. Nothing is known at first hand of the structure 
of Coats Land, but rock fragments dredged in the Weddell Sea, and 
presumably derived from Coats Land, suggest a closer relation with 
Victoria than with Graham Land. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 79 

In any case, it looks probable that our knowledge of Antarctica con- 
firms the growing belief that the Pacific basin is girdled by a ring of fold 
mountains marking the course of a system of geosynclines. The remains 
of the borderlands of this Pacific geosyncline may possibly be found in 
small islands in that mysterious ice-bound region to the north of Edward 
Land which no ship has been able to penetrate. 

In the face of these great problems in exploration, it seems trivial to 
speak of the minor ones that await solution in the south. Reference, 
however, may be made to the desirability of measuring an arc of meridian 
in a high southern altitude. F. Debenham has pointed out how Victoria 
Land lends itself to this task. 1 I have not time to dwell on the problems 
of meteorological exploration and can only point out that much has yet 
to be done in explaining the peculiar Antarctic blizzards which rank 
among the fiercest winds on the face of the globe. G. C. Simpson has 
given an explanation of these in the Ross Sea, but are the blizzards of 
Wilkes and Coats Lands, which occur under different topographical 
conditions, amenable to the same explanation, or has W. H. Hobbs 
found the solution in his theory of strophic winds associated with glacial 
anticyclones, a theory which he applies also to Greenland where he is at 
present investigating it ? 

Recent observations in North-East Land, Spitsbergen, confirm the 
association of this general air circulation with a dome of ice-covered land, 
but, as Sir Napier Shaw, L. C. W. Bonacina and others have pointed out, 
we require another term than anticyclone for this state of affairs since 
the high pressure is only a shallow surface effect resulting from local 
conditions, and not a true anticyclone developed as the outcome of general 
atmospheric circulation independent of local topography. Even the 
qualification of ' glacial ' does not remove a possible confusion of ideas. 
The supply of cold air from polar regions towards lower latitudes appears 
to be independent of pressure inasmuch as the winds are katabatic winds 
flowing down the slope of high land. It is orographical relief and not 
pressure which supplies the driving force of the cold air currents of the 
polar front. 2 

A further important meteorological problem, with strong geographical 
bearings, is the alimentation of the ice-sheet. We know that it is wasting 
by the calving of icebergs, by surface ablation, and other processes, and 
that it has shrunk considerably since its Pleistocene maximum, but we are 
at a loss to explain satisfactorily how the precipitation in the heart of an 
anticyclone can ever have been sufficient to allow such an ice-sheet to 
grow. There is every reason to believe that during the great Ice Age 
ice-sheets did not develop over the Arctic islands of Canada or over 
most of Siberia. The temperatures were low, but moisture was in- 
sufficient. And yet in the Southern Hemisphere the ice grew in the heart 
of a vast high-pressure area. 

1 British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13. Report on Maps and Survey, 1923. 

3 W. H. Hobbs, The Glacial Anticyclones (1926). A valuable symposium on Arctic 
meteorology is the collection of papers read at the first meeting of the International 
Society for the Exploration of Arctic regions by Airship, published in Petermann's 
Mitteilungen, Erganzungsheft 191 (1927). A chart shows the route of the proposed 
expedition and the location of observing stations. 



80 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Still another problem is that of oscillation of climate as expressed by 
varying amounts of sea-ice and variations in the intensity of currents. 
R. C. Mossman and others have shown that there is a correlation between 
certain Antarctic records and those from places in the Northern Hemisphere. 
There seems to be every likelihood that before long general weather fore- 
casts of real value will be possible for some months ahead. 3 At Buenos 
Aires, for example, the high correlation coefficient of +O88 is reached 
when the summer rainfall there is correlated with the temperature of the 
South Orkneys for the winter that began three and a half years earlier. 
In fact, statistical correlation indicates that a very cold winter at the 
South Orkneys will be followed after an interval of three and a half years 
by a drought over the Argentine cereal belt ; a very mild winter, after 
the same interval of time, by bountiful rains. 

Lastly, there is great need of oceanographical work in high southern 
latitudes. This branch of research has been overlooked by most ex- 
peditions in their hurry to reach their southern bases. Certainly in 
the tempestuous seas of the fifties and sixties of southern latitude it is 
uncomfortable and trying work and exasperating in delays and loss of 
apparatus. The employment of echo-sounding should, however, make it 
both easier and more accurate. 

There has been much careful and intensive work in the Antarctic 
during this century, indeed since the voyage of the Belgica, but it has 
merely touched the fringe of what there is to be done. The recent work of 
the R.S.S. Discovery in the seas to the east of South Georgia should fill 
gaps in existing knowledge of the Southern Ocean, ■ but details are not 
yet available. 4 

Antarctic expeditions are costly, far more costly than expeditions to 
the Arctic. It is unlikely that an impoverished Europe will be able to 
find the necessary funds for years to come. We must look with hope 
towards the great new nations of the Southern Hemisphere, some of whom 
have already shown a marked interest in the Antarctic. It will be a sad 
day when man is so free from curiosity about this earth that the last 
mysteries of its surface are not probed because the task demands 
enthusiasm and money. 

No pioneer problems of equal magnitude await the explorer in north 
polar regions. There is small likelihood that any new land of importance 
remains to be discovered. There is certainly no ' polar continent.' 
However, there are gaps to be filled. Nicholas Land, found by the 
Russians to the north of the Taimir peninsula in 1913, has still to be 
investigated. Its full extent and its relation to other Arctic islands are 
unknown. North-west of it the Arctic Ocean has never been penetrated 
except by the drifting St. Anna in 1912-14. We hope that Russian 
investigators of the coast of Siberia will include Nicholas Land within 
their scope of work. 5 

3 ' Southern Hemisphere Seasonal Correlations,' R. C. Mossman. Symons 
Meteorological Mag., 48, 1913; and 'TheClimate and Meteorology of the Antarctic and 
sub-Antarctic Regions,' R. C. Mossman, Jour. Scot. Met. Soc. 1918, pp. 18-29. 

4 ' Discovery ' Expedition. First Annual Report, H.M.S.O., 1927. 

5 For the latest map of the Russian Arctic coasts, see ' The Russian Hydrographical 
Expedition to the Arctic,' N. A. Trausche, Geog. Review (New York), No. 3, 1925. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 81 

The Beaufort Sea to the north of Alaska and to the west of the 
Canadian Arctic Archipelago, across which Amundsen, Ellsworth and 
Nobile made their daring flight in 1926, has never been penetrated. Its 
exploration is required in the interests of Arctic oceanography, and the 
mystery of Peary's Crocker Land should be finally solved. Tidal observa- 
tions of the Maud Expedition off the Siberian coast have been shown by 
H. U. Sverdrup to negative the probability of extensive land to the north 
of Bering Strait and Alaska. Yet the five hours' retardation of the tidal 
wave in reaching Point Barrow, Alaska, from the north, compared with its 
time of arrival at the De Long Islands, north-east of the New Siberian 
Islands, indicates the possibility of small islands in the Beaufort Sea or 
more probably merely the existence of shallow water. 6 

In addition to Crocker Land, several elusive lands have been reported 
in the Arctic Ocean, and from time to time have found their way on to 
maps, in most cases only to disappear when confirmation of their existence 
was not forthcoming. Experience has shown that visibility plays strange 
tricks on the observer in polar regions. A snow-covered land may 
merge completely in the background of sea-ice and grey sky or an un- 
suspected local fog bank may blot it out at a few miles' distance. No 
polar land can be said to be disproved until its site has actually been 
sailed over. And even then one may ask, Was the reputed site a true 
one ? Its position may have been guessed from a single long-distance sight, 
and guessed perhaps on a basis of faulty observations. The drift of Fram 
and the voyages of Taimir, Vaigach and Maud may be held to have dis- 
posed of Sannikov's Land to the north of the New Siberian Islands. 
Keenan Land to the north of Alaska has also gone. There is little 
probability of Andrejev's Land being a reality, but no ship has yet 
penetrated the area of sea where it was reported to lie (1763) to the west 
of Wrangel Island, in about the meridian of 170° W., between lat. 72° and 
73° N. There between the tracks, on the south of Taimir and Vaigach 
and on the north of Jeannette and Maud, occurs a region of heavy impene- 
trable pack. Kellett's Plover Land, a degree or two north of Herald 
Island, north-north-west of Bering Strait, was removed from the map as 
a result of several later voyages of vessels that sailed over its reputed site 
and saw no land. But a shadow of doubt has fallen on these corrections 
since, in 1914 from the high eastern end of Wrangel Island, the appearance 
of land was noted on several days away in the east-north-east beyond 
Herald Island in an area of the sea where the water on the continental 
shelf is known to be very shallow. This appearance was given the name 
of Borden Land and may, if it really exists, be the long-lost Plover Land. 
Inaccuracies in latitude and longitude are easily made in hasty observations 
in high latitudes. 7 

An even more alluring mystery can be solved only by the exploration 
of that part of the Arctic Ocean between Spitsbergen and Franz Josef 
Land from lat. 80° to 84° N. There is no record of a ship traversing it, and 

6 ' The Tides on the North Siberian Shelf.' H. U. Sverdrup, Journal Wash. Acad. 
Sciences, 16, pp. 529-540, 1926. 

7 ' Plover Land and Borden Land,' V. Stefansson, Geog. Review (New York), 
April 1921. It may be noted that Keenan Land is the only one of these doubtful 
lands that Stieler retains in his most recent Nordpolar map. 

1927 G 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

there is more than one report of high land seen to the north-east of the 
Spitsbergen group. This, if it exists, is not Giles Land, which is farther south 
and relatively low, but it may be an outlying island of the Franz Josef group. 8 
There are, however, other problems of great interest in the north. The 
extent and bottom features of the Arctic basin are still little known, and 
only in a few places has the width of the remarkable continental shelf 
been denned. North of Alaska, the New Siberian Islands, and Spitsbergen, 
the edge has been charted and with less certainty north of Ellesmere 
Island and the Franz Josef group. In other parts it is still vague. When 
evidence is scanty it may seem rash to speculate on the origin of the 
Arctic Ocean, but there are many features about the Arctic basin which 
suggest that it is not comparable with the basins of the Atlantic and 
Pacific, and that it is possibly a relatively new feature of the earth's 
crust. On the other hand, the discovery in East Greenland of extensive 
series of Palaeozoic rocks seems to dispose of the idea of a former Arctic 
continent of great extent. 

Another problem of importance and far-reaching influence is the 
mysterious fluctuation in the extent of Arctic sea-ice. The fluctuations 
appear to be cyclic rather than progressive, but so far defy satisfactory 
explanation. 0. B. P. Brooks has recently pointed out the influence of 
the amount of ice in the Labrador and East Greenland currents on pressure 
distribution and -consequent amount of precipitation in the British Isles. 9 
Here at least is one direct link between the Arctic and the most important 
factor in our climate. But until we know more about Arctic climatic 
conditions and the distribution of ice in the Arctic basin, we are not likely 
to find the cause of these fluctuations. 

Facts so far available point to a rotary surface movement with over- 
flows from an overcharged Arctic basin, by the Greenland Sea and other 
less important outlets. This movement may account for the tendency 
of ice-bound vessels in the Arctic basin to take a peripheral drift, as the 
Fram, Jeannette, Karluk and Maud. It may also explain the relatively 
smooth and unrafted ice reported from the vicinity of the Pole. Again, 
the heavy ice to the north of Greenland, which proved so baffling to the 
Nares expedition that it received the title of palaeocrystic ice, may be due 
simply to the heaping and rafting against the land of the pack that has 
been swept past the overflow of the East Greenland current. It cannot, 
however, be said that this circulation is proved. Far more observations 
are required. 

Fluctuations in the amount of ice in the overflow currents may well 
be due to variations in the strength of these currents. These variations 
may be associated with departures from the normal in the amount of 

8 Giles Land (also Gillies Land or Island), discovered in 1707, was re-discovered 
by J. Kjeldsen in 1876 and explored by A. G. Nathorst in 1898. It lies in about 
lat. 80° N., due east of Spitsbergen. This is where Giles himself placed it. 

9 See the annual report on The State of Ice in the Arctic Seas, published by the 
Danish Meteorological Office from all available records. It is necessarily incomplete 
and leaves great areas untouched, especially the seas north of Asia and the Beaufort 
Sea where observations are most needed. C. E. P. Brooks, ' Pressure distribution 
associated with seasons in the British Isles,' Quart. Jour. Boy. Meteorol. Soc, 52, 
1926 ; W. Weise, ' Polareis und atmospharische Schwankungen,' Oeogr. Ann., 6, 
p. 273, Stockholm, 1924. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 83 

water poured into the Arctic basin from the great Siberian and American 
rivers, which in its turn depends on causes far removed from Arctic 
regions. The complexity of the problem is almost baffling, but even 
before the chain of cause and effect is traced, useful work could be done 
in looking for correlations. 

Methods of Exploration. 

Every age has seen a change in the methods employed in polar 
exploration, and it may be of interest to review the resources of the 
explorer in the light of modern knowledge. In the early days of Arctic 
exploration, attempts concentrated on the hope of finding an open sea 
route to the north. Hence the lines of attack were by the two gulfs of 
warmth due to the northward flowing waters of the North Atlantic drift, 
Hudson Bay with Davis Strait and, particularly, the Greenland Sea. By 
the early part of the nineteenth century the hopelessness of advance by 
that means was realised, and not long after the prospect of an open-water 
route across polar regions in a lower latitude faded. Then came the 
period of probing the unknown north from a land base in a high latitude 
from which sledge journeys could take their start. Eventually the North 
Pole was achieved by this means long after Nansen, throwing aside all 
accepted canons of polar travel, had found a new and daring method. 
Instead of avoiding besetment he courted it : instead of battling with the 
floes he made use of their drift. 

Meantime, the age of steel prompted a new method of attacking ice. 
The ice-breaker was tried away back in 1899, when the Yermack made an 
experimental voyage to the north-west of Spitsbergen. On more serious 
exploration the Russians used ice-breakers on the Arctic coast of Siberia 
in the years immediately before the Great War. But though an ice- 
breaker can deal with ice several feet in thickness, it cannot dispose of 
that ice ; if the pack is close the ice-breaker will sooner or later become 
beset and helpless and at the mercy of pressure due to wind and current. 
Even a powerful ice-breaker could be crushed by such enormous pressure. 
Only a ship that rises is safe. For keeping harbours open and smashing 
new ice, the modern ice-breaker is valuable, but it has no place in serious 
polar exploration. 

The polar pack-ice is still the most formidable obstacle that the 
explorer has to face. It may provide a laborious but uncertain road for 
sledging, but because of its drift before current and wind, it is always 
dangerous to vessels except those built on lines that defy crushing. Such 
a ship can drift in safety with the moving pack, but seldom can retain its 
freedom of action. Man to-day is little better able to penetrate heavy 
pack than he was three hundred years ago. The ice-infested seas are 
still barred to commerce and the only advance that has been made is in 
a knowledge of the position and drift of the ice, so that navigation of the 
edge of the pack is relatively safe. 

And now another method of advance has been tried. The baffling 
pack-ice can be avoided by progress through the air. Air transit in the 
Arctic is not new ; as long ago as 1897, S. Andree made a hazardous and fatal 
attempt, but in those days the aeronaut could do no more than drift, and 
Andree unfortunately drifted to destruction. In recent years the aero- 

g2 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

plane has appeared in the Arctic, and Amundsen and Nobile have used 
the airship. It was inevitable that aviation should be tried in high 
latitudes, if for no other reason than its spectacular daring, but so far its 
success has not been marked. That, however, does not necessarily imply 
that aviation is never to be a serious help in polar exploration. Amundsen's 
flighb in the Norge gave a probable confirmation of what had already been 
deduced from indirect evidence. He found no land where none was 
expected. He saw nothing but ice-covered sea. Moreover, a rapid 
flight over snow-covered land, even if the eye could distinguish that 
surface from ice-covered sea, would tell little of importance. Byrd's 
flight to the Pole and back was of even less value to exploration, for on 
his track there was no possibility of land. The kind of exploration that is 
now required entails patient observation and accurate measurement. A 
quick-moving machine cannot help in this, and there is always the prob- 
ability of mist to hamper the value and imperil the success of aviation 
in the polar summer. Amundsen himself admits that owing to ' a tre- 
mendous sea of fog, in some places of extraordinary density ' in the Beaufort 
Sea, he may have passed over islands of low altitude without seeing them. 
So that on the only part of its course where land can possibly exist, the 
flight of the Norge has left us where we were, and the field is clear for 
the next explorer. 

Even for reconnaissance the aeroplane has doubtful value. So much 
depends on ground organisation which never can be perfect in polar 
regions, and there is the even greater difficulty of satisfactory landing- 
places. On the long flight of the Norge from Spitsbergen to Alaska, not 
a single landing-place was seen, at least not one suitable to the eyes of 
those who had experience of polar ice. Pack-ice rarely offers the requisite 
surface, and certainly cannot be relied on to do so, while among drift-ice 
the necessary expanse of open water is seldom available for a hydroplane. 
The use of a lead may prove fatal by the ice closing in on the machine. 
In his first attempt on the North Pole in 1925, Amundsen very nearly 
lost his machines and the lives of his expedition by landing in a pool of 
water. As it was, he had to abandon one machine, and it was only by 
his skill and determination that he retrieved from disaster what was a 
complete fiasco so far as scientific exploration was concerned. 

It should, however, be noted that G. H. Wilkins, from his flying 
experience north of Alaska, maintains that landing-places on pack-ice 
are numerous. He certainly made safe landings on two occasions 
without much difficulty. 

For the transport of stores, equipment and collections, the aeroplane 
has little value because its use introduces an element of grave uncertainty 
into the work of the expedition. The explorer must be prepared for the 
journey on foot or by boat if his aeroplane fails him. He must carry 
the necessary equipment, or he is incurring a foolhardy risk. And in 
that case, why take the aeroplane at all ? 

In one respect, however, the aeroplane can be successfully used in polar 
water, that is in aerial survey of difficult country that lies within reach 
of a base accessible by sea transport and provided with a good landing- 
place. The value of aerial surveys has been proved in many parts of the 
world. The survey of the Irawadi delta in a few weeks instead of the 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 85 

two or three years that ground work would have entailed, is a case in 
point. And J. M. Wordie has instanced the eastern edge of Greenland 
as a country where the aerial surveyor could rapidly make a map of the 
most rugged and untraversable country. The investigation of the move- 
ment of pack-ice in Hudson Strait, undertaken this year by the Canadian 
Government, is another instance of the value of the aeroplane in Arctic 
work. 10 

In the Antarctic, where I have pointed out the pioneer explorer still 
has ample scope, long-distance flights may be of some value. The ice- 
cap offers the prospect of better landing than the pack-ice. Yet in view 
of its great expanse there is even less chance of retreating on foot after a 
forced descent. The Argentine aviators, A. Pauly and Zanni, propose to 
fly across Antarctica from Graham Land on the Weddell Sea to Victoria 
Land or the Barrier edge on the Ross Sea next December. Their success 
depends largely on the efficiency of their machine. A forced landing will 
probably mean their total disappearance, but a successful flight will 
certainly give some broad results of value, although tantalisingly vague 
and inconclusive, as to the structure of Antarctica. An American flying 
expedition to the Ross Sea has also been announced. 

Probably some reliable form of mechanical traction for sledges would 
be more serviceable than aviation in serious exploration. Dogs are 
useful for traction to men who are accustomed to manage them, but 
their area of action is limited by the amount of food that they require. 
Man-haulage gives longer range, but is terribly destructive of human 
energy. Machine-drawn sledges would require fuel, but the carriage of 
light fuel would not seriously impede their radius of use. The whole 
problem of mechanical transport really turns on its reliability. So far its 
use has been a failure. But we live in an age of rapidly increasing 
mechanical skill. Yet. is it ever safe to put absolute trust in a machine ? 

There must be risk in all exploration, but can one ever reduce the risk 
of the motor-sledge breaking down to reasonable limits ? The wear and 
tear is tremendous, far greater than in a motor gliding smoothly through 
the air. On a short journey a breakdown would be merely a nuisance, 
on a long journey, far from the base, it might well be fatal. In short, 
while a man knows his own capacity he can never have an equal faith in 
the capacity of the machine. The use of motor-sledges is bound to come 
and they will be very useful, but undoubtedly they will introduce an 
element of uncertainty in the journey. They will increase the chance 
of success as well as the risk of failure. 

Quite apart from means of transport, polar exploration has undergone 
changes in recent years. Equipment is better than it was of old, food is 
better preserved, more varied and more in accordance with human 
requirements. But the greatest change has come in the passing of the 
fear of the Arctic. Men who know the polar regions are no longer 
frightened of the cold and darkness and no longer shun the food resources 
of polar lands and seas. The terror that the Arctic inspired was a legacy 
of mediaeval superstition ; the outcome, like all superstitions, of 

io F ew men have flown in the Arctic. Some of the most valuable fruits of experience 
will be found in G. Binney's With Seaplane and Sledge in the Arctic (1925), and 
E.Amundsen's My Polar Flight { 1925) and The First Flight across the Polar Sea (1927). 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

ignorance. Before Europeans had ever experienced a polar night, they 
thought that it must be fatal. The old whalers in Spitsbergen could 
conceive of no greater horror than to stay there during the winter. There 
is a tale that an attempt to found a winter settlement, to guard the whaling 
stores, failed because the settlers, who could be obtained only by releasing 
convicts, begged, on seeing Spitsbergen, to be allowed to return to gaol and 
even execution rather than stay and endure the unknown horrors of an 
Arctic night. The legacy of fear is still part of Europe's regard for polar 
regions, but the explorer has conquered it and he knows well that it 
requires no particular courage to face the polar climate. Fifty years ago 
expeditions dug themselves into winter quarters and stagnated half the 
year. Nares considered it cruelty to ask his men to sledge before April. 
But now winter is regarded by the explorer, as by the Eskimo, as a useful 
period for sledging. The snow and ice have better surfaces and the 
temperatures are not uncomfortably high. 

Even more striking is the lightness of the modern explorer's equipment 
compared with the heavy load of old. In ' living off the land ' and 
travelling lightly and qvrickly without supporting parties and depots of 
stores, John Rae set an example seventy years ago which was later 
followed by Nansen, Isachsen, Stefansson and others. On a purely meat 
diet man can maintain his health and vigour for weeks and months. If 
he can so break with his habits as to give up tea, coffee, sugar, bread and 
tobacco, his equipment in many of the more favoured parts of the Arctic 
can be reduced to personal clothing, sleeping-sack, rifle and ammunition. 
But the practice cannot everywhere be adopted. Even its most ardent 
advocate, Stefansson, had to abandon it at times and in certain gameless 
areas. The Arctic is not friendly everywhere : it can be very unfriendly, 
and it is rash to generalise from the most favoured regions. 

The Antarctic may be termed invariably hostile except for its penguin 
rookeries tenanted for only a few weeks a year. Once the ship is left in 
the Antarctic, a provisioned base is absolutely essential. Journeys 
without stores would in all probability prove fatal. Antarctic travel 
must be mainly over the land-ice which is wholly devoid of any living 
thing. The sea-ice, in the lack of land-locked channels and basins, 
seldom affords a road for the traveller. Not only is it very rough, piled 
and rafted, but it drifts even in midwinter. Seals are seldom accessible 
to the. Antarctic sledge traveller, for comparatively rarely can he descend 
from the ice cap to the sea-ice owing to the steep ice-cliffs. 

Even in the Arctic it must be remembered that living off the land 
demands the sacrifice to hunting of much time that could be more 
profitably employed by a party of scientific men. While if hunters are 
specially attached to the expedition, in addition to the scientific staff, 
there is the liability, even certainty, of a large party exhausting the 
game in any one locality and requiring to move on in search of food. 
Such contingencies would be detrimental to the real aims of the expedition. 
Without neglecting the valuable resources of sea and land, it will seldom 
be wise for an exploring party to dispense wholly or even largely with 
transported stores, however great the temptation may be to lighten the 
load and thus widen the area of activity. In a forced march of retreat, 
however, ability to find food and confidence in its value are important. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 87 

A greater terror than the danger of lack of food in polar exploration 
used to be the prospect of scurvy. That has practically gone. Scurvy 
used to be considered inevitable sooner or later. No expedition entirely 
escaped it, and nearly all lost men and power of work through its ravages. 
Much of the bad reputation which the Arctic gained in the past must be 
attributed to scurvy. And its prevalence on the Franklin expedition— it 
was really attributable for its total loss— and on the Franklin search 
expeditions gave a grim aspect to polar travel which it has not yet lost in 
popular opinion. There is no excuse for the occurrence of scurvy on an 
Arctic expedition to-day, although there may still be risk of it on a journey 
over the Antarctic continent, but its total disappearance from the 
casualties the explorer has to face can be a matter now of only a few years. 
The advance of physiological science will no doubt result in scurvy being 
classed with the rare or extinct diseases. 

Thus, as knowledge grows, the power of the explorer increases, and 
the old-time hardships that we read of seem curious fantasies or epics of 
heroic men battling blindly with ignorance. 

When Europe came to realise that there were no commercial sea 
routes across the Arctic Ocean, a new motive, other than commercial 
gain, fortunately inspired polar endeavour or it might have ceased 
altogether. That aim was found largely in the attainment of the Pole. 
The actual attainment was of no scientific importance, but it was of 
value as an ultimate objective and the lure of the Pole led men onwards 
into the unknown, and thus it served science in its day. 

Once the Poles were gained, that lure vanished. There is to-day as 
much need as there ever was for the penetration of the Antarctic 
continent along a score of meridians or of the passage towards the North 
Pole by more than one route across the Arctic Ocean. But the feat has 
been accomplished and so the aim no longer fires the popular imagination. 
It fails to serve as a bait to secure the necessary financial backing for a 
well-found polar expedition. It may be regrettable, but it is certainly 
true, at least in this country, that an expedition with purely scientific 
aims and no sensational journey or feat in its programme must appeal 
in vain for funds. These are seldom forthcoming for the advancement of 
pure knowledge. Scott and Shackleton fully realised this in putting 
their Antarctic plans before the public. Bruce, on the other hand, 
deploring the necessity, refused to accept it. And after all, high endeavour 
in the strenuous field of polar exploration has a value of its own, even if 
that value be not scientific. It is, however, unfortunate that in recent 
years more than one expedition has been successful in raising funds, and 
others have attempted to do so, for programmes that were little else than 
spectacular and bore the smallest prospect of useful work. This is to be 
deplored because it diverts funds from earnest work and sometimes even 
brings discredit on polar exploration. Every serious worker in polar 
research must regret the entry into the field, from time to time, of men who 
have few qualifications for the task and see in it merely an opening for 
spectacular notoriety, or a measure of financial gain by means of dramatic 
cinematograph films and newspaper articles. 

I have tried to show that even if pioneer journeys have not ended, 
exploration is entering on a new phase, that of fixed stations of at least 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

a year's duration and preferably longer, where detailed researches in 
meteorology, biology, and other branches of science can be pursued. 
Many years ago Denmark led the way with such a station at Disko in 
Greenland. Norway has at least one permanent meteorological station 
in Spitsbergen, but the only permanent station in the Antarctic regions 
is the Argentine Observatory at the South Orkneys, founded in 1903 by 
W. S. Bruce, unless we look upon the temporary marine laboratory of 
the Falkland Islands Government at South Georgia as an Antarctic 
station. There is room for more, and it is to be hoped that some day 
there will be at least an oceanographical laboratory in that Arctic land, 
only a few days' sail from our shores, western Spitsbergen. 

Meanwhile, we welcome the stimulus to real polar research afforded 
by the Polar Research Institute at Cambridge and the new interest in 
polar exploration evinced by the recent successful Cambridge expedition 
to East Greenland, and no less valuable Oxford expedition in North-East 
Land two years earlier. Such expeditions fill in details that were over- 
looked in the age of pioneer journeys when the scientific problems 
awaiting solution were not formulated. They can in one season accom- 
plish as much as the older expeditions did in a year. We may look for 
useful work from the Cambridge expedition now engaged in the survey 
of the little-known Edge Island, Spitsbergen. Nor must we forget that 
for some years now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in their patrols 
between their far-flung Arctic posts have been quietly conducting useful 
explorations. The excellent work of the Danes in Greenland should also 
be noted and especially the exhaustive work on the Eskimo which 
K. Rasmussen has extended westward to Bering Strait. Norway also is 
filling in the details omitted by earlier explorers in Spitsbergen and 
publishing a series of valuable monographs on that country. 

Settlement 01 Polar Lands. 

During recent years territorial claims have been made to all parts of 
Arctic regions that were not formerly subject to sovereignty, and even 
in the Antarctic great dependencies have appeared. This is an expression 
of the growing belief that polar regions are not merely desert wastes but 
have some economic resources of value to man. 

Fur and oil first brought Arctic regions into the areas of commerce. 
The advance by sea, as with the explorer searching for a sea route to the 
East, was naturally by the two gulfs of warmth into Davis Strait and the 
Barents Sea. The most approachable Arctic lands were first exploited 
and first devastated by hunter and trapper. Thus Greenland and 
Spitsbergen have suffered first. The land approaches were naturally 
where continental land projects farthest north, Canada and Siberia. 
Those routes led to a later advance of the trapper, but to as ruthless an 
exploitation when once it began. Hunting cannot last : it is rapidly 
failing. Modern weapons are too effective, and already the Eskimo are 
suffering after a brief period of prosperity. But since the market for furs 
will continue and even grow, and since the best furs will always be 
Arctic winter skins, the demand must be met by breeding fur animals. 
Climate exercises a rigorous control on the commercial value of the 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 89 

furs, a control from which there is no escape. Under wise game laws 
the Arctic lands and seas may produce a steady crop of furs, but the new 
form of exploitation will be rather an aspect of stock-raising than of 
hunting. Even the hunting of sea mammals will suffer eclipse as the 
■civilisation of machines advances. The whaler has now deserted most 
Arctic seas, the sealers are fewer and the walrus hunter has nearly 
exterminated his prey. The addition of motor power to sloops has 
enabled the Arctic hunter to extend his area of operations by penetrating 
the pack farther than sail would admit. Arctic animal life has suffered 
as a result, as for instance the inroads on Spitsbergen reindeer in their 
relatively safe sanctuaries on the north and east. 

Of all Arctic animals, at least of those that have a commercial value 
at present, the polar bear will endure longest, not because he is least desired, 
but because he is a sea mammal who lives in the inner fastnesses of the 
polar pack and can be hunted only on its fringes. 

Exhaustion of game leads to a decrease in the number of hunters. 
So far as this decrease concerns temporary hunters from the south, it may 
lead to a slow revival in resources ; but as regards the permanent 
inhabitants of Arctic America, the Eskimo, it has serious effects. Their 
standard of living is reduced, want appears, and their culture and their 
race languish. A century ago the Eskimo had struck a balance between 
numbers and resources. They were perfectly attuned to their environ- 
ment even if their area of settlement oscillated a little on the confines 
where game was liable to fail as numbers increased. Then the introduction 
by Europeans of more effective weapons upset the balance. So nicely 
adjusted was their equilibrium that the looting of iron from McClure's 
abandoned ship, Investigator, was probably the cause of the virtual 
extermination of musk-ox on Banks Island and its consequent abandon- 
ment by the Eskimo. The exhaustion of game brought the Alaskan 
Eskimo to the verge of starvation a few years ago, and if the United 
States Government had not intervened, might have wiped out that 
branch of the race. 

The resources of the Arctic are not, however, limited to hunting, even 
if we include with hunting the breeding of fur-bearing animals. Outside 
Greenland, with its ice-sheet covering 94 per cent, of the island, a com- 
paratively small area of Arctic lands at present bears permanent ice. 
The Canadian Arctic islands are free except small ice-sheets in the east, 
in parts of Ellesmere and Baffin Islands ; the Eurasian Islands have more, 
though there are large free areas in Spitsbergen and the south island of 
Novaya Zemlya, while the whole of the mainland areas of Siberia, Alaska, 
and Canada, which can by any stretch of meaning be called Arctic, are 
free from permanent ice. Beyond the northern limit of trees there may 
be said, at a rough estimate, to be about 5,000,000 square miles of ice-free 
land, or considerably more than the total area of the United States. 
Most of this is covered with some kind of tundra. The mainland and some 
of the island areas have a close covering which in favoured places may 
attain a luxuriance and vigour of growth which has little relation to 
latitude and contradicts all preconceived notions of Arctic productivity. 
Thus western Ellesmere Island and north-western Greenland are noted for 
their vegetatiou. In other places the plant covering is open, and on 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

some of the islands there are areas which are practically desert and bear 
only a few mosses, lichens, and scattered plants. 

These tundras are the natural grazing grounds of caribou, reindeer, and 
musk-ox. The musk-ox go farthest north, being found even in Ellesmere 
Island and northern and eastern Greenland, and they are confined to 
the American Arctic. Neither animal — for of the three caribou and 
reindeer are essentially the same — leaves the Arctic in winter. They are 
natives of the north and do not suffer from the winter cold and light 
snow. Their only enemy besides man is the Arctic wolf. It preys 
successfully on the reindeer and is less likely to attack the musk-ox, 
which not only can fight the wolf with its sharp horns but finds safety in 
numbers. The wolf seldom cares to attack a herd. 11 

Musk-ox and reindeer are complementary to one another in their food 
requirements. The reindeer prefers grass and willow shoots in summer 
and the lichens known as reindeer and Iceland moss in winter, while the 
musk-ox eats grass and shoots at all seasons. Now grass and shoots are 
more abundant than lichens on the Arctic tundras, so that the number of 
reindeer are limited by the winter feed, while much grass remains surplus 
and could be utilised by musk-ox. The relatively restricted area of the 
musk-ox to-day in Arctic Canada is solely due to the ease with which it is 
hunted. Now that it is protected by law, there is no reason why its 
range should not increase considerably. 

The reindeer has been domesticated from early times in the Old 
World, even if we cannot be sure that the reindeer of Stone Age man in 
Europe were tamed and not merely wild flocks. The prosperity and very 
existence of most peoples of the Old World tundras from Lapland to 
Bering Strait to-day depend on the reindeer. Lapp, Zirian, Samoyede, 
Ostyak, Tungus, Chukchee, and Koryak are all reindeer breeders to a 
greater or less degree, and the reindeer provides them with meat, milk, 
clothing, and leather. They alone are the prosperous tribes, and their 
prosperity, as is the way of prosperity, causes them to look down on the 
hunting and fishing tribes such as the Yuchagir, Kamchadals, and some 
Samoyedes, who have a hard struggle to survive. Yet it should be noted 
that even among the Chukchee, who are the most successful reindeer 
breeders in Siberia, the reindeer is only partially domesticated, and the 
herds often run wild owing to the interbreeding with wild deer. The 
herds of the Koryaks also frequently revert to the wild state. 

In the New World, including Greenland, the caribou has never been 
domesticated. The Eskimo are chiefly dependent on sea mammals and 
fish. Sea mammals yield a greater supply of oil, their only source of fuel 
and light, than caribou and musk-ox. To the Eskimo, land animals are 
a secondary consideration, valuable in the summer nomadism as offering 
a change of food and variety of occupation, but rarely now the staple of 
their existence. Even the Caribou Eskimo, inland dwellers to the west of 
Hudson Bay, have never tamed the reindeer, but exist by hunting the 
wild herds. 

In his well-known efforts to dispel the prevalent misconception about 

11 The Canadian Government now offer £6 per pelt for wolves destroyed in the 
North-West Territories. The skins find a ready market. In 1926 about a thousand 
wolves were thus accounted for. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 91 

the Arctic, V. Stefansson has drawn a glowing picture of the future of 
the Arctic prairies. 12 His statements have met with some criticism, not 
invariably by men who know the Arctic. It may be well to examine 
his arguments in some detail, since this matter touches the future of the 
Arctic and its possible contribution to the material welfare of man. 

Experiments in reindeer breeding in Alaska were begun in 1891 with 
the introduction of a small herd of sixteen deer from Siberia. Next year 
167 more were introduced. This was an attempt by the United States 
Government to give a new means of livelihood to the Alaskan Eskimo, 
who were in dire straits because game was exhausted. The experiment 
was entirely successful. The herds have been doubling themselves every 
three years, and the 1,280 deer introduced before 1902 have now increased 
to about 500,000. The United States Department of Agriculture calculate 
that the grazing grounds of Alaska can support over three million reindeer 
at a low estimate. At present the deer are a small variety, but it is hoped 
to increase their size by interbreeding with wild caribou. This, however, 
must be done carefully lest the herds become unmanageable. 

There can be no doubt of the success of the experiment in Alaska, and 
the forecast of an Alaskan production for the market, in less than twenty 
years, of over a million carcases of reindeer a year is probably no exaggera- 
tion. This is the equivalent of nearly three million sheep, and so would 
be no small accession to the meat resources of the United States. 

It has been suggested that the Alaskan success shows what can be 
done in Arctic Canada, the Barren Lands and islands, and possibly also in 
parts of Greenland. Undoubtedly there are wide grazing grounds that 
are now practically unoccupied, but it is easy to exaggerate their 
potentiality. Estimates of productivity based on the number of species 
of plants here and there or per square yard have little value. Many of the 
plants are of no use to grazing animals and others are rare. It must never 
be forgotten that most Arctic plants grow slowly and have poor means of 
reproduction, so that Arctic prairies can easily suffer from over-grazing. 
One reason for the wandering of the caribou and musk-ox is their liability to 
exhaust any but the richest grazing grounds to such an extent that a year 
or two, or even more, are required for their recovery. 

Siberian reindeer in a wild state commonly migrate southward to the 
forest edge in winter and even on the rich pastures of Lapland nomadism 
is essential. The Lapps know well that the sites of the winter villages, 
must be frequently changed in order to ensure enough lichen for the 
herds. Intensive pasturage on confined areas is impossible. 

Six years ago the Hudson's Bay Company acquired from the Canadian 
Government a lease of 100,000 square miles of tundra in southern Baffin 
Island and imported five hundred reindeer from Norway to Amadjuak on 
Hudson Strait. All the deer perished. Yet the failure of the experiment 
must not be used as an argument against the possibility of reindeer 
breeding in Arctic Canada. Siberian reindeer, for there are many varieties 
of the reindeer, would probably have suited the conditions better than the 
tamer and richer-feeding Norwegian variety. And furthermore Baffin 
Island, as its small ice-fields bear witness, has a greater precipitation than 

12 V. Stefansson, The Northward Course of Empire (1922); The Friendly Arctic 
(1921) ; 'Polar Pastures,' The Forum, Jan. 1926, and other articles. 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

most reindeer lauds and a humid climate seldom suits reindeer. The 
failure to acclimatise reindeer in the Orkneys and the Scottish highlands, 
many years ago, was attributed, no doubt rightly, to the dampness of the 
climate, for the food supply was entirely adequate. Lastly, the wolves 
of Baffin Island made serious inroads on the new flocks quite unprepared 
to defend themselves from this unknown enemy. The wolf is a far more 
serious enemy than man to the reindeer and more effective in reducing 
numbers. 

There is no reason to suppose that the domestication of reindeer, 
starting with Siberian stock and gradually introducing the American 
caribou, will be anything but successful in most parts of the Canadian 
tundra, in the rich pasture lands of western Greenland, and the more 
restricted areas of Spitsbergen. All these regions have supported vast 
numbers of reindeer in the past, and should do so again if excessive 
hunting is curbed, wise game laws instituted, and the wolf exterminated, 
as Canada is endeavouring to do. Already the killing of reindeer in 
Spitsbergen is totally prohibited until 1934, the first enactment of Norway's 
rule in her Arctic possession. 13 

Alaska is said to have pasturage for 4,000,000 reindeer. Basing his 
estimate on this figure, Stefansson calculates that the Arctic tundras as 
a whole are capable of supporting about 100,000,000 reindeer and perhaps 
five times as many musk-ox. This is probably an over-sanguine estimate, 
for it must be remembered that the Alaskan herds are mainly in the more 
fertile valleys of the south and south-west, which have few, if any, equals 
in fertility in the tundras farther north ; but even if we reduce the 
numbers considerably, say by as much as 50 per cent., there remains a 
possible food production from the waste Arctic lands equivalent to some 
1,000,000,000 sheep, or more than ten times the total number of sheep 
that Australia now supports. 

This would, of course, take many years to accomplish, and naturally 
will not occur until the temperate lands of the world are more fully 
occupied than at present. But gradually as world population multiplies 
and food production has to be increased, the lands that are not fit for 
cereal growth will command attention by their possibilities for pasturage. 
It is a geographical axiom that the herder must always give way to the 
tiller of the soil with his more intensive occupation. With the extension 
of dry farming, there seems little likelihood of any considerable areas of 
temperate lands in the long run being left to pastoral pursuits. But the 
Arctic tundras are entirely unsuited for agriculture by unfitness of soil 
and shortness of summer for ripening the grain. Their advantage as 
pasture land is that the farmer can never displace the herdsman. As the 
world's supply of beef decreases, the supply of venison and musk-ox flesh 
will come more into demand. 

A further important aspect of Arctic pasturage has been suggested in 
the supply of leather and wool. The musk-ox wool has been shown to have 
the qualities of merino and to be softer than cashmere, but it is unlikely 
that it will be possible to shear flocks that have to resist the rigours of a 

ls Norwegian proposals for game laws are published in Naturfredning i Norge, 
Arsberetning, 1926 (Oslo, 1920). See also Scottish Geog. Mag., May 1926. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 93 

long Arctic winter or the pestilential irritation of the mosquito in 
summer. 

The reindeer industry in Alaska is largely in the hands of Eskimo. 
It was started to maintain them and 70 per cent, of the flocks now belong 
to Eskimo. In Siberia, where the reindeer are for native use only, there 
being no export of meat as from Alaska, all the herds are owned and 
managed by natives. In Arctic Canada, when the industry grows, no 
doubt Eskimo and Indians will be largely employed to tend the flocks, 
but the slaughter of the beasts, the preparation of the meat and its 
export, as well as the transport arrangements, will no doubt be in the 
hands of Americans, Canadians, and Europeans. Eskimo and white will 
meet even more than they do to-day. 

The experience of the past, in every quarter of the globe, of the fate 
of hunting peoples in contact with more highly organised races gives room 
for legitimate doubt as to the ultimate survival, still less the increase, of 
the different peoples of the tundra. The clash of widely divergent cultures, 
to say nothing of the introduction of new diseases, almost invariably has 
meant the extinction of the more primitive people. 

The same will probably occur in the Arctic. The latest reports from 
the North- West Territories of Canada do not hold out much hope for 
Eskimo survival. The Eskimo are depending more and more on the 
police and trading post for supplies and help. Only the remoter tribes 
seem to preserve their strength and independence. The Hudson's Bay 
Company and the Canadian Government, through the Mounted Police, 
are doing all they can for the Eskimo in sheltering him from the evil 
effects of civilisation. Yet the fact is admitted by the police themselves 
that the sturdiest and most attractive Eskimo are those who are not in 
contact with outposts of the white man's civilisation. 14 

Siberian natives in their greater isolation will no doubt last longer, but 
they also show signs of failing. 

Up to the present the tide of human migration has flowed and ebbed 
on Arctic shores and has been mainly a seasonal movement, marked even 
in the permanent residents by a great degree of nomadism. But eventually 
the tide of white settlement will definitely set northward, even to the 
Arctic seas, and in its flood destroy the present inhabitants. 

It is no more presumptuous to forecast a scattered population of 
reindeer and musk-ox farmers in the ' barren lands ' of Arctic Canada, 
the tundras of Siberia, and even in Greenland and Spitsbergen too, a 
hundred years hence than it was a hundred years ago to suggest sheep 
farmers in the plains of Australia or wheat fields in the Peace Valley of 
Canada. Every land beyond the frontiers of settlement has been a 
' never-never land ' to unadventurous and unimaginative folk living in 
sheltered homes. But in most cases the prediction has been falsified. 

Prejudice and antipathy, which loom so strong at present, can be 
ignored : when the Arctic calls for population and offers inducement in 
the form of material gain, all difficulties of that kind will vanish, just as 
the old-time horror of the tropics disappeared as knowledge grew and 
prospects of gain loomed through the heat. The only question that 

14 See Report of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 1926, and K. Rasmussen, 
Across Arctic America (1927). 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

remains unanswered is the adaptability of peoples of European descent 
to life in the Arctic climate. At present there is little evidence on which 
to base satisfactory conclusions, for nearly all migration in historic times 
has been either within the temperate zone or from temperate to tropical. 
There are few instances of migrations from temperate to polar or even 
from warmer to cooler climates. 

The problem is one of considerable importance in the future of human 
settlement for two reasons. First, because there is no real evidence that 
the white races are suited for the tropics ; that is to say, for permanent 
racial transference as apart from visits. All the evidence that is conclusive 
points the other way and suggests that only by a slow process of natural 
selection can the white races ever find a sure footing in the tropics. 
Long before that is achieved, the coloured races will have effectively 
occupied the warm lands. 15 This means that the white races must turn, 
as in effect they have been turning for several centuries, polewards in 
their search for new homes. Secondly, the possibility of polar settlements 
affects, as I have tried to show, the future food production of vast areas 
which at present enter little into the economic life of the crowded popula- 
tions of food-importing communities. 

There are plenty of isolated cases to illustrate the healthiness of polar 
climates and how a man can thrive in the Arctic for a year or several 
years. But it is unsafe to found faith in polar colonisation on such cases. 
First, they are almost entirely cases of men, and secondby, of men in the 
prime of youth and of strong physique and mentality at the outset. 
Witness the trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company, the fur traders of 
Siberia, or the adventurers in the K Ion dyke and Yukon goldfields. It 
has even been argued that because a negro accompanied Peary to the 
Pole there is no reason why peoples of the tropics should not colonise the 
Arctic ! 

Successful colonisation entails not merely the maintenance of health 
and vigour during a shorter or longer stay in the new environment. It 
demands that race transference can take place and that the transferred 
population can thrive with undiminished fertility from generation to 
generation without the infusion of new blood from the mother country. 
From this point of view the health and energy of women and children 
is the important consideration. 

The Danes in Greenland are the nearest modern approach to this state 
of affairs, but though the Danish families thrive during their stay in the 
North they do not regard Greenland as a permanent home : they are 
exiles counting the years until they can return to Denmark. At certain 
of the large mining camps in Spitsbergen there are Norwegian families of 
several years' uninterrupted residence with bright, healthy children born 
and reared in the Far North. 

There are, unfortunately, no data bearing on climatic energy in polar 
regions such as E. Huntington has collected for the United States and some 

15 From this statement it does not of course follow that all regions within the 
tropics are necessarily uncolonisable by whites, since altitude may in certain places 
compensate for the ill effects of a tropical climate. Nor does it follow that a few 
exceptional families may not now and then persist in the tropics for a generation or 
two, though such instances generally involve the introduction of fresh blood. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 95 

other countries. But if his conclusions are true, that a low mean daily 
temperature is more conducive to high mental energy than a high or even 
moderate one, then we can be sure that the Arctic colonists will not at 
least suffer intellectual degeneration. On the other hand, those of us 
who have experienced the extraordinary physical energy which is one of 
the joys of life in polar climates must be a little sceptical of Huntington's 
further conclusion that a mean daily temperature of about 64° is the 
optimum for physical activity. That figure would appear to be too high, 
but of course it represents a value that is extraordinarily difficult to 
measure. 

The only example of real Arctic colonisation that exists is that of the 
old Norse colonies in south-western Greenland founded in the tenth 
centurv. At their height the two colonies must have contained between 
2000 and 3000 people, men, women, and children, scattered in about 
280 farms, where they kept cattle, goats, sheep, and horses, perhaps 
raised a few poor crops of little account, and hunted bears, reindeer, and 
seals. There is no need to recall the history of these settlements, how 
trade with Europe gradually ceased and how the Norsemen had entirely 
disappeared when late in the sixteenth century communications with 
Greenland were reopened. 

Recent Danish researches at Herjolfsnes, near Cape Farewell, have 
discredited the old belief that the colonies disappeared either by Eskimo 
extermination or by fusion with the Eskimo races. 16 It now seems clear, 
at least as regards Oesterbygd, that the Norse race maintained its racial 
purity and did not ' go native.' The general reluctance of the Nordic 
races to mix with widely divergent stock was as noticeable then as it has 
been in later centuries. Examination of skeletons in the churchyard of 
Herjolfsnes reveals the interesting facts that while clothes and ornaments, 
in graves of the fifteenth century, show little trace of Eskimo influence, 
the skeletons all show signs of rickets or other malformations and stunted 
growth, but no sign of racial mixture with the Eskimo. There is also a 
very high proportion of remains of infants and young people. Evidently, 
therefore, the Norse colonies, at least Oesterbygd, perished by exhaustion. 
Even if the climate were changing for the worst during the existence of 
these colonies — and such a change is by no means proved — there is no 
reason to suppose that the habitual meat diet failed. The cessation of 
communications with Europe cannot have affected the diet of the colonists 
to any great extent. The King's Mirror, describing conditions when the 
colonies were prosperous, notes that most of the settlers did not know 
what bread was. And what else could they get from Europe to vary their 
meat diet ? 

The conclusion is, therefore, that the Norse colonists in Greenland 
died out for want of new blood, or, in other words, that they were not 
acclimatised to their Arctic home. From this it might be argued that 
even the Nordics can never colonise the Arctic. Certainly no other race 
from temperate climates is likely to try, since the Nordics alone show that 
distaste for gregariousness and that capacity for enduring solitude which 

16 See papers by P. Norlund, F. C. C. Hansen, and F. Jonsson in Meddelelser om 
Cronland, LXVII (1924), and by D. Brunn, ditto, LVII (1918). 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

are essential qualities for the task. We may even grant them a greater 
measure of physical enterprise and love of wandering than other people. 

The Greenland experiment is not, however, a sure criterion of Nordic 
unsuitability for the Arctic. The pastoral settlement, which is suggested, 
will be a slow colonisation, in which natural selection will have some say. 
Those suited will remain, others will move away or perish. But the 
colonists will not be cut off from the world : they will be in close touch 
with it. New blood will continually flow in their veins, so that the 
unchecked course of natural selection which operated in the old isolated 
Norse colonies and killed out the more nervous and imaginative type, a 
type that is least adapted to the Arctic, will not have free play. There 
is no reason why the race should become impoverished by the elimination 
of its most progressive element. Even though a diet solely of meat has 
proved wholesome enough in the case of Eskimo and some explorers, 
it will not be necessary for the Arctic colonists to subsist on it entirely : 
transport facilities will bring every variety of food to their doors. 
If the Norsemen suffered from insufficiency of certain ingredients in 
their diet, a similar fate will not be the lot of the colonists of the future. 
If they died out by lack of new blood and continual inbreeding, the 
Arctic settlers of the future will be able to avoid that disaster. 

Such is the legitimate forecast, as I see it, of the outer rim of the Arctic 
of the future with its prosperous, though scattered, colonists of pastoral 
interests, and its fur farms here and there supplying high-priced Arctic 
furs in limited numbers. But the settlement must wait until the pressure 
of population or the world's resources is even greater than it is to-day. 
The remoter parts, those without rich tundra and the ice-covered seas 
and lands must remain deserts, visited only by roving hunters and 
occasional explorers. In short, I see a shrinking of the Arctic wildernesses, 
but never their disappearance. I cannot take as glowing a view of Arctic 
settlement as Stefansson can, or visualise the same attraction to popula- 
tion which he forecasts, and I am sceptical of the value of Arctic lands as 
stations on the air routes of the future. But even if he has overstated 
his case, his long-sighted views have done something to dispel current 
misconceptions and reduce the area of polar wastes. 

Of the possibilities of Arctic mining, little need be said. The subject 
is not purely a geographical one. Where minerals of value occur they 
will sooner or later be mined, like the cryolite of Greenland, the copper 
of Arctic Canada, and the coal and gypsum of Spitsbergen. Geographical 
considerations undoubtedly affect the issue, but in the main it is an 
economic problem. Difficulties of climate can nearly always be overcome, 
and transport can generally be arranged if the mineral will pay the cost. 
As coal increases in price, as it promises to do, the Spitsbergen coal mines 
will pay well, and if gypsum finds new uses and higher values, the vast 
deposits of Spitsbergen will be mined on a great scale. Similar con- 
siderations apply to Arctic copper. But the Arctic lands as a whole, so 
far as we know, are not rich in mineral wealth. The only one that will 
eventually have a large mining population is Spitsbergen, and there 
manufactures may develop in relation to the gypsum and metallic ores. 

The Antarctic has no human problems comparable with those of the 
Arctic. It is true that whaling has recently invaded the Antarctic, with 



E.— GEOGRAPHY'. 97 

the vessels in the Ross Sua. not to mention the sub-Antarctic whaling in 
South Georgian and Falkland waters. But this can be little more than 
a passing phase. Already some species of whales show signs of depletion 
of numbers, and unless whaling is so rigorously shackled by regulations 
as to make it of little profit compared with risk it entails, the industry 
must kill itself in a few years' time. For the rest there is nothing of value 
in commerce in the Antarctic : certainly nothing that it can possibly pay 
to exploit. The stories of future Antarctic coal mines can be dismissed 
as a dream without any solid foundation. It is fortunate. And those of 
us who care for the wild waste spaces of the world are glad to think of the 
Antarctic as free from invasion by our modern civilisation with its 
insistence on hurry and noise. We are glad to remember the lonely 
places of the world and their matchless beauty, content to know that to 
others they will bring the same fascination they did to us in years gone by. 



1927 H 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



RATIONALISATION OF INDUSTRY. 

ADDRESS BY 

Prof. D. H. MACGREGOR, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A very remarkable change took place after the war in the expression of 

both public and economic opinion in respect of what may generally be 

described as the problem of industrial leadership). In the former period 

the growth of great concentration of control over production was regarded 

with distrust, and as a thing which had to be carefully watched in the 

interests of the community. While it was admitted that the old theory 

of competition was not working without disadvantages, it was believed 

that all over, these were less than the disadvantages which might result 

from anything monopolistic. It was considered that the anti-Trust 

legislation of the United States and other countries was a serious and wise 

attempt to deal with a public danger. The theory of business profit was 

connected with the fact that risk was paid for, and had therefore to be 

taken ; that enterprise essentially involved this risk-taking function of 

the producer ; that the best risk-takers would win in the competitive 

struggle, and that it was in the general interest that the worst should be 

eliminated. Because of Joint Stock, the units of enterprise became 

larger and more powerful, and this by itself tended to make competition 

more intense ; so much so that it became usual to apply military terms 

to the relations of producers, to speak of ' the war of competition ' that 

was fought between the ' captains of industry.' But there was no settled 

opinion that, alongside of the growth of Joint Stock, there had not grown 

up conditions which qualified the risks of competition ; transport widened 

the market, there was a great organisation of market intelligence, big 

concerns knew more about each other, and in many ways they co-operated 

more fully than would have been possible if they had remained more 

numerous and less powerful. There was a recurrence before public 

Commissions and inquiries of all sorts, of the producers' view that 

competition had become anarchic, chaotic, excessive, unregulated, or 

destructive. But this kind of complaint did not translate itself in all 

countries into the obvious methods of remedy by combination. It was 

always said that British producers remained comparatively individualistic 

in their attitude, meaning that they were unconvinced by the arguments 

used elsewhere. The American combination movement was often 

explained by the special effect which her high tariffs had in over-capitalising 

protected industries, and causing on that ground an excessive competition 

that need not have happened. Again, it could not be said that, given 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 99 

private enterprise and the risks it implied, there was such a tendency to 
bankruptcy as to show an irrational position. Over the period 1903 to 
1912, for instance, the statistics of liquidations of Joint Stock Companies 

in England were on the average as follows : — 

Capital involved 
Companies on Paid-up Capital New in liquidations 

the Register. (1000's). Companies. Liquidations. (1000's). 

40,101 1,862,107 5,028 1,860 54,531 

This was an average rate of liquidation of 4 per cent, of companies, 
involving 3 per cent, of the capital. It is not an unqualified record of 
competitive results, because no country was without some extent of 
combination. But it is the record of prevalently competitive conditions, 
including those which obtained under partial forms of combination. 

Public and economic opinion had come by stages to tolerate, approve, 
and recommend labour combination. But the conditions are different, 
because an individual workman is not related to others, as one business 
concern is to its competitors. Labour is necessarily employed in groups. 
In any case, Trade Unions applied to only one factor of production, but 
combination of businesses applied to the whole product as it came on the 
market. 

Thus, on the whole, the combination movement was a ' problem.' 
Books were written under such titles as ' The Trust Problem,' ' Wealth 
against Commonwealth,' ' Frenzied Finance,' ' Trusts and the State,' 
* The New Feudalism,' and so forth. To call a certain result a ' problem ' 
does not mean that it must be stopped, but it implies doubt, refusing to 
certify the results as rational and inevitable. The United States in 
particular legislated to break up combines of a certain degree, and to 
impede their methods of working. 

II. 

The post-war tendency is to change this attitude. The alteration in 
point of view is very remarkable. Anyone can see this who reads the 
documents submitted on the subject to the World Economic Conference. 
One writer confidently states that the right thing to do now is ' to form as 
many international agreements of producers as possible.' But these 
international agreements presuppose national combines which are parties 
to them ; and if world economy requires the combine formed by agreement 
(the Cartel), then a fortiori of the national economy. 

This change of attitude has been urged both on public opinion and on 
producers under very high auspices. The Reports of the Reconstruction 
Committees on British Industries after the War are unanimous in asking 
for a change of the public attitude toward producers' combinations. The 
Report of the Balfour Committee on Efficiency puts questions of com- 
bination in the forefront. It is not easy to appreciate this without 
considering the future to which such an impulse may lead, in respect of 
our attitude toward organisation. There are three large conceptions that 
are related to each other — competition, combination, and public 
administration. A change equal to that which has taken place in 
reference to the first two of these would carry us far from the second 
toward the third. Public industrial administration, in its broad features, 

H 2 



100 .SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

is as much distrusted now by prevalent opinion as the Trust Movement 
used to be, but no more. It is well to keep this in mind in dealing with 
the recent evolution of opinion. 

The change is due to a few separate causes. The war enforced a good 
deal of co-operation, since the Government had to deal with producers 
as a group in their industries. In some industries it led to constructions 
which the market could not afterwards carry at their capacity, and 
combination is a method of regulating excess of capacity. In some 
cases Governments have, because of special national interests, been a 
party to the formation of large combines. All this influences opinion. 
But most important of all, as the Geneva documents show, has been the 
reaction upon national ideas of the international industrial proposals. 
The formation of the International Steel Agreement was a powerful 
influence in this direction. There were two special reasons for this — its 
semi-official support by the political governments involved, and, above all, 
the fact that it could be presented as a form of pacification between 
Germany and some of her former enemies, especially France. If this 
could be done once, it could be done again. There had formerly been 
international agreements, it is true, but they were not so sure of their 
welcome as they might be after all that was written of the Steel Cartel. 
Their claims became more confident, and this meant that combines within 
each country were also placed in a more favourable position than before. 

The leadership came from Germany, and for that reason we have now 
the ponderous name of ' rationalisation ' to describe methods which 
depend upon this 'policy. This word may be used of such results of large- 
scale production as standardisation, and it is also used of the more broadly 
applied system of scientific management. This paper is not concerned 
with these aspects of the idea. It is obvious that internal business 
administration should be scientific, and it is entirely for the heads of 
businesses to discover the right technical methods ; the ' planning ' of 
work seems to an outsider to be something which ought always to happen, 
and it is remarkable that this general conception should still be taken as 
noteworthy. Standardisation of final products seems, from the public 
point of view, less completely rational than simplification of processes. 
But, from such bases, ' rationalisation ' has been built up so as to imply 
the right organisation of an industry considered as a type of government, 
the producers being so related as to enable such policies to be applied as 
works specialisation, non-destructive elimination of the weak, and the 
control over the entrance of new establishments. Now this in turn 
implies some degree of monopolistic control. And it appears to be 
historically the case that, when the leaders of German industry found 
themselves after the war and the Treaty of Versailles in conditions con- 
fused by inflation and the loss of the sources of supply in the Rhine 
Provinces, they sought to justify the great combines which were formed 
by a title which would give them the strongest commendation. Pre-war 
Germany did not like Trusts or Concerns. For a time at least, strong 
personal leadership seemed necessary after the war. And the conception 
of ' rationalisation ' which was adopted and urged, as the highest form of 
what was scientific in business management, had a successful flotation, 
and has crept into the terminology of organisation of industries. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 101 

The World Economic Conference did not give to these claims the 
endorsement which they hoped to obtain. We get only the conclusion 
that combines may be good or bad according to the motives and outlook 
of those who direct them. This means that, as economists, we have to 
return, without any prejudice from names and titles, to the study of a 
stage of evolution, taken as actual. The change in public opinion must 
no doubt also be taken as a fact. But this is a thing which may at one 
time swing toward the producer, at another toward the consumer, 
according to the conditions of the economic conjuncture. At present 
the difficulties of the producer are more prominent than usual. On the 
other hand, in the immediate post-war boom, we had the Committee on 
Trusts, the Profiteering Act and its Committees, and a different attitude 
toward what had not yet come to be called rationalisation. From any 
long point of view, a perplexing problem is offered, because if on one hand 
it is held that industrial joint stock competition is becoming irrational in 
intensity, and will be destructive of itself as one industry after another 
reaches an advanced stage of capitalist organisation — on the other hand, 
monopolist tendency is also unstable in face of public criticism. Hence 
some dread, and others hope for, more attention to the third method, that 
of public control, applied at any rate in some large instances. 



III. 

But it is still possible that, besides the insecurities and instabilities 
of competition, and the dangers of monopolist influence, there may be 
another idea according to which private enterprise may work out its 
future. This is the idea of leadership. It was the view of the Balfour 
Committee that, if industry was to be adequately responsive to changing 
conditions, and was to develop co-operation amid competition, it would 
specially need ' the exercise of the highest qualities of imaginative leader- 
ship.' If we compare industry with the other great systems of 
administration — political, military, and ecclesiastical — it is evident that 
the latter exist as systems because leadership has a definite place within 
them. They are organised under this form. In industry the fact is 
tending to obtain more consideration, but the question is of its formal 
recognition and status. Policy means leadership, and leadership means 
control ; to control anything well, it is necessary to control a large part 
of it ; and industry is so far from being, as regards conceptions of organisa- 
tion, in pari materia with other organised forms of activity, that definite 
leadership has to overcome objections of a quite unique kind. This is 
because of a fundamental difference between industry and the public 
services, in respect of their immediate aims, and of their relation to the 
idea of responsibility. It will later be seen how this affects arguments 
relating to industrial control, and to the creation within industry of any 
sort of employees' franchise — an idea brought over from politics, on the 
implied assumption that politics is the type of democratic and responsible 
control. Meanwhile it is necessary to show how evolution has created 
the leadership in industry which seeks to confirm its position by com- 
bination, but whose ' sanctions ' create the industrial problem referred 
to above. 



102 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



An analysis was made of the data furnished to the manufacturing Census 
of the United States in 1919, which showed that, even in that country 
of large enterprises, the home of the Trusts, most businesses still operate 
single establishments. Grouping of establishments under one control, 
extending from groups of two to groups of over a hundred establishments, 
accounted for only about 1\ per cent, of all the establishments operating. 
The large groups which make possible a strong personal leadership in 
industry must therefore account for a very small percentage of all the 
producers. The persistence of the producer of small or moderate size is 
still a marked feature of modern industrial organisation. The following 
analysis of the facts may be taken as a basis of the present position. It 
refers to manufacturing industry, exclusive of what are called ' hand and 
neighbourhood (or local) ' industries, such as the village blacksmith. No 
establishment is included which did not have a product worth 5000 
dollars in a year. The basis of this comparison from 1909 to 1923 is the 
number of persons employed per establishment. 



Wage-earners 

per 
Establishment. 


Establishments 
per cent. 


Wage-earners 
per cent. 


Establish- 
ments 
(lOOO's). 


1923 


1914 


1909 


1923 


1914 


1909 


1923 1909 


0—5 

6—20 

21—100 

101—500 

501—1000 

1000 and over 


44-6 

27-8 

19-1 

7-1 

•9 

•5 


42-7 

30-5 

19-1 

6-6 

•73 

•34 


39-8 

32-9 

19-9 

6-4 

•69 

•29 


2-5 
6-9 
19-3 
33-0 
14-1 
24-2 


2-7 
8-7 
22-2 
34-7 
13-5 
18-2 


4-7 
9-7 
23-4 
34-2 
12-7 
15-3 


87-5 68-9 
54-6 56-9 
37-6 34-5 
13-9 11-0 
1-8 1-2 
1-0 -5 


196-3 173-0 



In this distribution the number of the smallest establishments in 1923 
is inflated by the change in prices, which would bring within the range 
of the Census a large number which would otherwise have been below the 
5000-dollar limit. Allowing for this, the persistence of establishments of 
moderate size is notable. 

The average size of establishment in that country, when allowance is 
made for changes in classification, has increased since 1899 as follows : — 



Establishments. 


Wage-earners per Est. 


1899. 


1914. 


1923. 


All 
Over 5000-dollar product 


22-7 


25-5 
38-6 


44-7 


Index 


100 


112-3 


130-3 



the figure for 1923 being, in view of the classification and of prices, too 
small. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



108 



When account is taken of contribution to the national product, the 
data for 1923 show the following result (subject to gross product being a 
comparative index of net product) : — 



Value of Product 
(1000 dollars). 



5—20 

21—100 

101—500 

501—1000 

over 1000 



Establish- 


Wage- 


Product 


ments 


earners 


per cent. 
1-1 


per cent. 


per cent. 


31-6 


2-2 


36-9 


8-2 


5-7 


21-4 


19-6 


15-7 


4-9 


12-9 


in 


5-2 


57-1 


66-4 



This last table shows in the most striking way the degree of leadership 
which has been obtained by the small number of large establishments. 
And so far as it is large establishments which enter into combinations, 
their influence over policy and prices is increased. 

More detailed examination of particular industries shows that it is 
not only in the great industries that this result holds good. No relation 
exists between size of industry, expressed in persons employed, and scale 
of production, or concentration of power. Some quite small industries 
stand high on the list by both these tests. 

Germany is more typical of older countries where family businesses 
have played a larger part than in America. In Germany also, the Cartel 
system was, until the war, the usual way of obtaining control, and it tended, 
as compared with the Trusts, to maintain the smaller establishments. 
The following gives a pre-war comparison, from which the very small 
establishments are eliminated : — 



Establishments 
employing 


Per cent, of 
Establishments. 


Per cent, of 
Employees. 


U.S.A. 
1914. 


Germany. 
1907. 


U.S.A. 
1914. 


Germany. 
1907. 


6—50 

51—100 

101—500 

500+ 


75-5 

10-8 

11-4 

2-0 


87-1 

6-7 

5-6 

•6 


20-0 
11-8 
35-7 
32-5 


35-2 
15-4 
32-8 
16-6 



For France, the general form of the table at the Census of 1921 is 
similar. As regards this country, the only data available are those of the 
capitalisation of Joint Stock Companies. Over the period 1919 to 1925, 
of all companies registered, only 2-6 per cent, had a capitalisation of over 
£200,000, while over 67 per cent, were capitalised below £10,000. 

In the conditions which these results show, the largest producers 
inevitably feel themselves drawn together in order to create an administra- 
tion for their industry. Evolution has given them a possible leadership 
which they desire to confirm. The large fringe of smaller producers is 
felt to be an obstacle to this purpose. The position of the large producers 
gives them an oversight over the market the confirmation of which means 
the organisation of the industry against inroads and uncertainties, overlap 



104 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES; 

and weak selling, and it is this further organisation which is presented as 
industrial rationalisation. Hence the terminology which is applied to the 
excesses, or destructiveness, or anarchy, of modern industrial competition. 
As a matter of industrial psychology, the desire to be at the head of 
wide-reaching organisations may have just the same motives as the desire 
for control in other spheres. It comes up against the same problem of 
exceptions which political, military, or ecclesiastical organisation wishes 
to incorporate in a system. It may indeed be said that, upon the 
possibility of creating in industry, and reconciling with public opinion, 
spheres of influence which will make industrial leadership as attractive as 
political or any other form of leadership, depends the sujiply to industry 
of the highest organising ability. There are recent cases in which, when 
such a sphere in industry was open, it has been preferred to political 
office. As compared with the services just mentioned, industry had, 
however, to evolve into a condition of large and influential units of 
enterprise, in order that any further step might appear possible. The 
data quoted above show how this position has been reached. 

IV. 

In the problem of industrial organisation there is involved an element 
which does not belong to the other great types of organisation. In the 
latter, the desire for efficient unity of control, strengthened by personal 
aspirations for great influence and authority, is not complicated by the 
special industrial fact that the resources involved are personal and subject 
to the risk of loss. It is in all the cases regarded as of national importance 
that resources should not be wasted or lost, and the desire for rationalisation 
appeals to this conception of general economy, but industry is unlike other 
administrations as regards the origin of resources, and the incidence of 
liability. It is necessary, therefore, to consider to what extent the 
evolution just described affects this liability, as distinct from the pure 
impulse to higher organisation ; that is to say, what is the place of 
mitigation of risk, as compared with that of leadership itself, in the move- 
ment for combination. 

Leadership may be got either by fighting it out, the ' method of 
bankruptcy,' or by some method of absoqjtion in one organisation. It is 
one of the claims of the combination method that, whether by Trusts or 
Cartels, the latter is adopted, so that the fringe of smaller businesses is more 
humanely or rationally dealt with than under the former method. On the 
other hand, the maintenance of over-investment in this way is often the 
basis of criticism of modern combines, because somehow it must be a 
charge on the community through prices, so that it is asserted that it is 
not the rational way of creating system. 

And on the other hand, leadership may be maintained by steps taken 
to prevent or impede the entrance of new enterprises into the field. 
Development is desired from within, so far as possible through the dis- 
cretion of one governing body. It is held that this also is the rational 
procedure, by which industries will become systems of administration, and, 
as will be shown later, impediments on independent new enterprises have 
sometimes been imposed with legal authority. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 105 

It is Joint Stock which has made possible the evolution of the great 
concerns, and which has also made them powerful competitors, so that, it 
is said, an ever intenser incidence of risk is a fundamental cause of the 
combination method. But Joint Stock has also itself modified the risk 
element. 

So long as an industry was in the hands of a large number of producers 
who were individual in the sense of finding their own capital, the com- 
petitive struggle, which destroyed a business, ruined individuals. There 
are modern instances of interference with this competitive result for this 
very reason, when an industry was still of that grade ; for example, the 
remarkable scheme devised for the Greek currant trade, and known as 
the ' Retention.' As the ruin of individual small cultivators would 
otherwise have been the result, the Government organised a system of 
maintenance. But when the units of enterprise are Joint Stock Com- 
panies, liquidation does not imply ruin in the same way, because Joint 
Stock brought with it the method of distributed investment. In the case 
of failure, some people lose part of their capital ; perhaps because some 
other investment of their own has been unusually successful. The 
ramifications of interests can now become very great, and the question, 
what method of creating industrial control is most rational, has to take 
account of this, in conjunction with the fact that profit involves a risk 
premium, and that these are the understood conditions of investment. 
By the fact of distribution of investment, the industrial risks of capital 
are to be contrasted with those of labour, since wage-earners as a rule can 
work for only one business at a time. 

The same considerations apply to the entrance of new competition. 
Enterprises entering the field are not now individuals staking everything 
on little-known chances, but may be directed by and largely composed of 
individuals who are in that same field already, and who know a good deal 
of its conditions. 

In a second degree, these modifications of personal risk appear, through 
the practice, also rendered possible by Joint Stock, of company investment. 
While the individual may distribute his direct investment, his risks are 
spread again by the system of mutual company holdings, a company in 
which he invests having done this further spreading for him. 

While, therefore, the direction of an independent business does and 
must consider its shareholders as if they had no other investment interests, 
the intensity of risk in its final incidence is not fully represented by 
Directors' statements. What applies to shareholders, also applies to 
Directors as such. The ' spread ' of Directors' interests is a very remark- 
able fact. 

As distinct, therefore, from the pure desire to rationalise, that is, to 
organise industry in a systematic way under some kind of unified control, 
it is not easy to assign its right place to the ' revulsion against risk." on 
which also the desire for combination has rested its case. 

It is always necessary to distinguish between risks which a combination 
may have been formed to overcome, and such as it may have created by 
its own policy. In many notable cases the alleged struggle against 
competitive risks was not so much ' rationalising ' as ' de-un- 
rationalising.' 



106 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



The foregoing considerations show that there is something to be said 
for capitalist evolution in the alleviation of risks ; so that we cannot easily 
separate the risk element from the simple purpose of leadership and wide 
control. This desire for more extensive control is a feature merely of 
active enterprise and ambition ; it has counterparts outside of industry. 
But as distinguished from, for instance, the tendency of public Departments 
to expand when they can, the mixture of risk with ambition is a special 
industrial fact. 

The same is true, in a less degree, when the risks in question arise out 
of bargaining, not out of competition. Great industrial influence may 
be gained by the control of enterprises on different levels of production, 
which were not therefore formerly competitive. This comes into being 
as the last stage of the bargaining process, which is made closer by 
long contracts, exclusive contracts, and agreements for exclusive trade. 
Finally, the bargainers combine. There is something to be said historically 
for the view that such combinations have been formed defensively, if it is 
thought that horizontal combination on one level is exacting too high a 
price from producers on another level. Thus horizontal combination 
leads to vertical, and the former becomes split by the engagements of its 
members to deliver their supplies, not to the market, but exclusively to 
some further producers. The latter do not get their supplies by this 
method ' at cost,' but they get them free of the special combination 
profits on the earlier products. Thus a steelworks may buy up a coal 
mine in order not to pay the profits of a coal combine. These are incidents 
of industrial friction. But the permanent or rational aspects of this 
policy are again not purely industrial ; they are more generally adminis- 
trative, while having this industrial application. It is natural for any 
great administration to consider the continuity of its relations with any 
supply on which it depends. Thus when a public Department takes over 
the service of education, it does not rely on the market to find a supply of 
teachers property adapted to its requirements ; it sets about securing 
them by its own arrangements. Analogies can be drawn also from 
ecclesiastical and military administrations. It is in fact difficult in many 
cases to say what is a single process, and how far unity of supervision must 
extend. Apart therefore from temporary or accidental causes, many 
administrations have to extend backwards or forwards from their main 
purpose, and in industry this is called vertical integration. In some 
industries the technical advantages are more obvious than in others ; 
they appear to be greatest in the iron and steel trade. But broad con- 
siderations of administrative supervision may lead to its application in 
any case. 

This form of combination, like the former one, may be undertaken for 
the simple purpose of leadership. But it creates this position only when 
the main administration is itself already so large as to give that position ; 
and it does not by itself create monopolistic influence. When it is 
mixed with a large degree of horizontal control, it approximates to the 
third great type of aggregated interests — the Concern. 



P.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. ]07 

VI. 

Industry cannot be looked at only as a type of government, because 
of its special relation to risks ; but some of its modern developments are 
to be explained in large measure by reference to administrative ideas aol 
peculiar to industry, and especially to the motive for extended leadership 
and influence. When we consider the ' Concerns,' we come to the case 
where technical economic reasons are least easy to assign. These have not 
the definite continuity of the other forms of control. They are of the 
nature of industrial aggregates or blocks. The interests which are thus 
grouped come within the control of one or a few single personalities who, 
because of the diversified nature of their influence, are rather magnates 
than leaders. Thus in the period of the German concerns we had the 
Stinnes, Thyssen, Kloeckner, Haniel, and Stumm groups ; and if, for 
instance, we examine the Stinnes group, we find that it includes iron and 
steel, special steel products, coal, electrical products, shipbuilding 
shipping, chemicals, cables, aluminium, copper, automobiles, mineral oil, 
margarine, newspapers, fisheries, and hotels, and this is not a complete 
list. These interests are obtained largely by the method of holdings of 
shares, and the interests of one group may, within the same large enter- 
prise, touch those of another, the ramifications being so numerous that it 
becomes difficult to say where one set of interests begins and another ends. 
The Concerns appeared in Germany in a time of great unsett lenient, and 
their explanation — the sudden limitation of her resources by the Treaty, 
and the struggle to control what was left; — is not a- reason going back to 
economic considerations to the same degree as in the case of the other 
types. They do not appear to contribute to the solution of an economic 
problem, or to create a force of leadership for any permanent purpose 
of direction, and they cut across the lines of economic grouping. The 
Stinnes Concern broke down by complexity, and it appears that the 
remainder are being shaken out into parts which will adhere to one or 
other of the main lines of economic grouping and control. But grouping 
of this kind, on a lesser scale, is likely to continue, since it represents 
partly a type of ambition which is satisfied by variety of industrial 
interests, and partly the fundamental similarity of industrial finance, 
whatever kind of thing it is that is financed. It appears, from an official 
return, that 65 per cent, of the capital of companies in Germany in 1926 
was in Concerns. 

VII. 

If we look at the picture which is being drawn by these forms of 
grouping taken together, it is something of this nature. On different 
levels, combination takes place by agreements or consolidations, that is. 
Trusts or Cartels in the usual sense. Though the aim of Cartels is to 
prevent the elimination by failure of smaller or weaker producers, in fact 
they tend to create consolidations, because they allow stronger businesses 
to buy up weaker ones, and thus to obtain their share of the allotted 
output. As Cartellisation extends, on each level there come to be pre- 
dominant interests, and decided leadership. But cutting verticallv 
across this are the combinations which terminate on a product in the 
higher stages, these combinations having considerable shares in the output 



108 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of lower products in a succession of stages. Of these lower products they 
use what they require for their own finishing processes, and put the rest 
on the market at Cartel prices. A strong vertical combination may have 
leading influence as regards both its final and its lower products. And 
dispersed in a less systematic way over the whole field are the holdings 
which any large business has obtained in enterprises not closely related 
to any main purpose. All these interconnections, made possible by the 
flexibility of the Joint Stock system, aud disturbing to the theory of 
economic competition and prices, suggest a few broad conclusions. 

First, the capacity of either management or direction is more difficult 
to limit than that of technical industrial equipment. How broad, or deep, 
an area of enterprise can be singly managed is a question to which all this 
development is the only answer. And a fortiori of direction. Examina- 
tion of our own ' Directory of Directors ' shows how widely this 
consultative, responsibility can be extended, before teaching the limit of 
its capacity. One prominent personality has thirty-two directorships, 
thirteen of which are Chairman's positions, and three managing director- 
ships ; some of the enterprises involved are among the largest of their 
kind ; the range covers coal, railways, telegraphs, tea, asbestos, assurance, 
shipping, banking, general merchandise, canals. There are many cases 
where over a dozen of such important positions are singly held. These 
great extensions of control are to be related to the impulse to use the 
powers of management and direction at full capacity. On the other 
hand, a public Department, with much greater routine, is supposed to be 
one man's job. 

Second, the authority of business leaders will increase with the 
magnitude of their engagements. An example of this was the hurried 
endorsement of the proposals for international agreements between large 
interests, on the repeated plea that we must not be ' afraid of big 
business.' This became, with marked rapidity, the right thing to say, 
and almost official sanction was given to recent conferences of business 
leaders simply because the interests represented, and the plans considered, 
were on the largest scale. With authority of this kind it will become 
increasingly difficult to argue, or to contend against its claims that a 
measure of monopolistic power may be essential to a scheme of 
rationalisation. Industry being a field of more special knowledge than 
politics, the difficulty is greater of applying criticism to leadership ; that 
leadership itself is more concerned with working out the administrative 
methods of higher control than with the question of its democratic position. 
' I do not consider,' said one of the organisers of international industrial 
agreements, ' whether I may make these agreements ; I go on and make 
them.' The relation of the community to this authority appears in the 
end to be determined by the expectation that scale of responsibility, and 
the labour of organisation required for these great industrial structures, 
will tend to make leadership, in the words of the Balfour Committee, 
' imaginative,' and therefore considerate. It was in this expectation that 
the recent Committee on Selling Agencies in the coal trade reconciled the 
dilemma that what was necessary for high organisation would create the 
possibility of monopoly. And so Liefmann says : ' When one considers 
what efforts have been made in manv industries to obtain combination. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 109 

to find its most purposeful form, to bring in the outsiders, to settle the 
differences ; when he sees what time and trouble are applied, how many 
conferences held and rules drafted ; and when he considers the earlier 
conditions where such common negotiation, making the inner details of 
management a matter of conference and publicity, would have been 
impossible, then he sees how the whole economic structure has changed, 
and how much the Cartels have revolutionised the whole basis of manage- 
ment and enterprise.' ' The sense of interdependence becomes stronger 
than the thought of economic opposition.' This defines the difference 
between magnates and leaders, and the rationalisation of authority. 

Third, there will be the fact of mere complexity, whether modified or 
not by publicity. Industrial government permits of this in a degree not 
reached in the other great fields of administration, political, religious, and 
military. Its extent is shown, for instance, in the recent official German 
analysis of the cross-relations obtaining within and between the Trusts, 
Concerns, and Cartelled enterprises. This maze of interconnections may 
become itself a matter of distrust and prejudice from the side of the 
community, especially but not exclusively in its international aspects. 
This prejudice showed itself at the outbreak of war in a well-known case, 
described as an ' octopus ' of private interests ; or in the name, a ' King 
of rats,' applied to a control which has indefinitely extended underground 
accesses in all directions. Even if industrial finance is flexible enough 
not to feel anything unmanageable in this, the community, on occasions 
when such complexities are made public, is alarmed and disturbed, as if a 
march were being stolen on its market alternative, or Joint Stock practice 
going beyond the spirit of the law. Sheer complexity of relationships 
might be one of the influences causing opinion to move as far beyond the 
sanction of combination as it has recently moved toward it. Democracy 
likes at any rate to think that it understands how it is governed. 

vra. 

With the growth of industrial leadership a change takes place in the 
relation of price determination to the dynamics of production. The change 
is one of emphasis, that is to say, of the degree to which prices are 
approximated to a cost of production. Under a strictly competitive 
economy, there are producers who are just able to come through the 
fluctuations of prices with an ordinary rate of profit, and these producers 
are marginal. There is an amount of production, not always in the 
hands of the same producers, which is extra-marginal, and of course 
another amount which is infra-marginal. The general conditions of 
supply and demand determine the price level about which the fluctuations 
take place, and therefore determine which producers are marginal. The 
extent to which extra-marginal, or high-cost, producers influence price 
depends on trade practice ; it is less, the more production is ' to order,' 
and they can keep their position only by working at lower than ordinary 
profit. In other words, prices are not usually determined by the costs 
of the highest-cost product, but the profit on that product is determined 
by the range through which prices have fluctuated over a period ; and 
high-cost product has constantly to move to a lower-cost production, or 
go out of the market. This was shown by the price-fixing proceedings 



110 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

which took place during the war, and has been explained by those engaged 
in these proceedings, especially in the United States. It was there found 
that about 10 per cent, of the product was extra-marginal, and prices were 
therefore fixed so as to cover 90 per cent, of the output. The equilibrium 
was not easy to define, but it depended chiefly on the output, and the 
elasticity of the output, of intra-marginal producers. It may be said 
generally that business administration was exercised on the problem of 
costs in relation to prices, which were the ruling fact, and which decided 
how much of the capacity of output was within, on, or over the line of 
profitable production. It was always a mistake to argue, under these 
conditions, that there was a body of marginal producers who determined 
the price. So far as any producers did this, it was the largest, who were 
probably intra-marginal. All producers were, however, affected by the 
knowledge that, though expansions of their own output were possible and 
would be profitable if prices were affected by that alone, other producers 
would be competitively induced to do likewise, and so output was con- 
trolled by a sense of the market, which is a difficult thing to relate exactly 
to prices. 

It is an aspect of ' rationalised ' industry, on the other hand, that the 
price can be more properly regarded as the instrument of an industrial 
administration. It separates itself somewhat from relation to any 
particular cost, and takes priority over the output, the latter being 
adjusted so as to render a certain price policy possible. The leaders of a 
great combine act under the conception of an industrial development 
which is frequently defined as the adaptation of the whole output to the 
possibility of certain prices. This is seen in the details of the price policy 
of Cartels, where a margin exists between base prices and the ' accounting ' 
prices at which the output is taken over from the members ; and also in 
the use of ' guiding ' prices in other cases. This instrumental use of 
prices is the result of the greater supervision which has been made possible 
by combination, and it causes the management to resemble an administra- 
tion in which the methods of development are more capable of a general 
decision. If one looks at such great combines as exist in the tobacco or 
chemical industries, with their high degree of internal organisation and 
their external agreements, the management of the price will be a com- 
promise between the interests of consumers, those of the standing capital, 
the provision of reserves for development, and contingencies. An 
assignable cost of production is less easy to set off against that price. In 
a sense, this means monopolistic influence ; but monopolistic policy would 
be something else, the administrative idea of price policy being worked 
with a larger factor of compromise. It may be described as the ' Safety 
first ' policy in industry. The defence of ' rationalisation ' is just this 
difference between administrative and monopolistic prices, or at least the 
claim that there is such a difference. 

In this administration strategic factors will always be involved, 
because industrial administrations will never be free from reference to 
competitive possibilities. The evolution of combines has shown that one 
limit has specially to be kept in view — the point of what may be called 
' own production.' This is reached well short of monopoly prices. It 
depends on the parallel growth of combines on different levels of production, 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. HI 

each of which may use its resources to expand vertically, a development 
which is not always desired, but which has its point of preference to market 
dependence. 

The administrative use of prices may also extend beyond the con- 
sideration of what will maintain and develop productive capacity in a 
particular industry. It has been claimed that strongly led combines 
may adjust their prices so as to assist the stability of industrial development 
as a whole. Thus a combine might, on a rising market, so advance its 
prices as to render expansion more difficult, and therefore so as to damp 
down that expansion. There are very few cases in which it can be said 
that industrial combines have applied this idea. It has been considered 
that this policy is applicable mainly from the side of the banks which, it is 
suggested, should move the price of loans quickly and strongly enough to 
deter speculative inflations of business, and reduce fluctuations. To keep 
other things more steady than they might otherwise have been, one 
thing, the price of money, would thus be less steady than otherwise. This 
policy is not inapplicable to industries which are as fundamental as 
banking — for instance, to the coal industry, on whose supplies expansion 
depends as vitally. It is, however, unlikely that any industry will have 
the same degree of combination for this purpose which the great banks 
have ; and the relation of such a policy to their own costs is more com- 
plicated than it is in the case of money. Where price administration has 
been applied for this purpose, it has been in the form of price-stability, as 
in the case of the German Coal Cartel. It is natural that this simple 
method should be applied, and anyone can fix a price, especially near the 
top of a boom, as was done in that case. It is, however, price adjustment 
that is required, a more difficult proceeding, and not expectable in respect 
of industrial administrations beyond the necessities of their own internal 
stability. 

IX. 

The idea of a rational administration, in its relation to the ' com- 
petitive war ' and to the monopoly ' problem,' may be otherwise illustrated. 
Liefmann, a great defender of rationalisation by Cartels, states that ' a 
Cartel without monopolist purpose is nothing at all.' It is to him a matter 
of definition that some common administration is to be possible. This is 
the reaction which he describes from the overdone system of individualism, 
in which the consumer was tertius gaudens at a concealed social cost. But 
it will be remembered that Cournot derived the competitive position from 
that of monopoly, by multiplying the monopolists. Historically, as well 
as analytically, it is conceivable that we might have worked downward 
from monopolies, instead of upwards from competition, in order to obtain 
the position now called rational administration. We might equally 
explain the facts on the ground that the monopoly motive is fundamental, 
and that it expresses itself wherever or so far as competition does not 
impede it ; or on the ground that competition is fundamental, and always 
tends to break down or circumvent monopolist tendencies. From the 
former point of view, the more competition is unrestricted the less is the 
influence of organisation ; working down from monopoly, as a unified 
organisation, competition appears as the limiting case, when all the parts 
fly apart and act independently. The latter standpoint gives monopoly 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

as the limiting case, and therefore monopolistic tendency as a description 
of less complete organisation. The conditions now sought for under the 
name of rational control are between these limits of pre-assumption, and 
may therefore be regarded as a departure from whichever end of the 
scale is pre-assumed as ' natural,' in the direction of the other ' extreme/ 
Those whose ideal is the completest regulation of an industry as a whole 
regard therefore the looser structure of the Cartel as not so completely 
rational as the Trust, as a lower organisation ; while the still persistent 
preference for competitive conditions regards the Trust as monopoly and 
the Cartel as monopolist tendency. Comparing the method of Cournot 
with that of Ricardo, the ' letting down ' of organisation with the 
' building up ' of monopoly, the idea of ' dissolution ' with that of 
' restriction,' we see ' rationalisation ' as the endeavour to find the range 
between these limiting concepts of purposive leadership or industrial 
administration. Otherwise stated, there are restrictions on organisation 
as well as on production. Dismissal of the rationalising argument on the 
ground that it is ' another word for restriction ' means that we are arguing 
under one of the pre-assumptions, that which has historically had precedence 
since Adam Smith. The farther from Scylla, the nearer to Charybdis, and 
vice versa. The middle way is open to both dangers, and to the fears of 
those who have become specialists in rock or whirlpool navigation. 



Reference may be made here to two recent contributions to the 
problem of extension of control, which in different ways place it in 
relation to the pre-assumption of independent competitive working. 

It has been shown by Dr. Thorp 1 that there is a great variety in methods 
of industrial grouping, and that the ' power combines ' indicate only the 
last stages of measures taken in a smaller degree to strengthen independent 
positions. He shows that most businesses are operated by a single 
establishment, only 7-4 per cent, of all establishments being in ' groups,' 
though this means a very much larger proportion of the output. Besides 
tho#e groups which he calls uniform, in which the grouped establishments 
are of the same kind, and are ' horizontal,' and the vertical groups to which 
reference has been made above, he finds that producers defend themselves, 
on a small scale as well as on a large, by other forms of extension of 
control. There is grouping of convergent processes, when the same 
business makes complementary or auxiliary products — what may be called 
' lateral integration ' — so avoiding the risk that one product may be affected 
on the market by misfit to products used in connection with it ; e.g. 
bedsteads and mattresses may be grouped for production. And there is 
divergent grouping when different products are made under one direction, 
because of a fundamental common material or process ; e.g. because of 
common process, wire and hempen ropes are sometimes produced together. 
These four types of grouping show themselves in most cases on a small 
scale, and are the origins of what, in the largest cases, is called the 
' rationalisation ' movement. In over 60 per cent, of all the groups 
examined, there were not more than two establishments ; in 4-5 per cent. 

1 The Integration of Industrial Operation (Washington, 1924). 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



113 



of groups there were more than ten. The ' span ' of these groups— the 
extreme distance between their establishments in the same country — may 
also be an indication of the Machtfrage involved ; it was over five hundred 
miles in 17 per cent, of all the groups. Thus the desire for extended control 
arises out of small cases, as a ' rational ' device on various grounds, though 
its theory and title have been examined only in its largest extensions. 

An attempt has been made by Dr. Saitzew, of Zurich, to place the 
' rational ' development in a true perspective as regards both motive and 
structure, in a recent paper. 2 He uses the method of co-ordinates, placing 
along three axes points defining differences of motive, instrument, and 
direction, of grouping. Thus the motive may be pure monopoly, or 







Y 














s 






A 


RI 






/ 1 
IT 


/ 




R 












/ 


AG/ 7 


GU/ 


CO. 




f-'- - 
' H 


M 
/ 




--- 


__.«y 








CA 


/ 


! T, 


/ 


T 2 


/ 

HC 








C 




F 








/ 




/ 


7 










\ / 









HVy 



rational control, or avoidance of risk, or secret influence ; the instrument 
may be contract, fusion, or holding company ; the direction may be 
vertical, horizontal, or a mixture of these. It is thus possible to place 
in relation to each other the chief types of structure, and to classify on 
lines different from those of Dr. Thorp. Part of this classification is 
shown in the diagram, the instruments of Contract, Fusion, and Holdings 
being placed on the X-axis ; the directions Horizontal or Vertical on the 
Z-axis ; and the motives, Monopoly, Rationalisation, Avoidance of Risk, 
Secrecy, and so forth, on the Y-axis. On the monopoly level of motive 
there are Trusts (Tj and T 2 ) and Cartels (CA) ; on that of rationalisation 
there are the ' organised association ' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft, AG), the 
' great undertaking ' (GU), and one type of Concern (COj). It is an 



2 Horizontal und Vertical im Wandel der letzten Jahrzehnle (Jena, 1927). 
1927 I 



114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

exercise in ingenuity to fill in other types. The combination HC, H, RI, 
gives the Investment Trust (IT) ; the secrecy motive S yields one of the 
' Kings of rats ' (R). There are various other forms of Concern. Dr. 
Saitzew has by this means done something to rationalise the argument 
itself. His method indicates the range of organisations, which is neither 
all ' monopolist ' nor all ' rational.' 

XL 

In the policy of rational industrial administration, as it is usually 
presented, restriction is involved, on the ground of the attempt to adapt 
production to a proper rate, to overcome duplication, overlap, or 
speculation, and to give control through leadership. There are some 
important cases where this policy is carried out under public auspices, and 
these involve an admission of necessary organised action, to which private 
enterprise on similar lines may appeal for a general sanction. Instances 
are the Brazilian plan for the valorisation of coffee, that is, the adjustment 
of sales under the instrumental use of prices ; the British rubber scheme ; 
the Greek ' Retention ' in the currant trade ; and the German control of 
potash. The last two of these may be specially noticed, as important 
cases of the refusal to let competition work itself out, but with some 
difference in the fundamental conditions. 

The Greek Retention arose out of the fact that the currant crop is of 
vital importance in the export trade, and is grown by small producers. 
When the French vineyards were ravaged by the phylloxera after 1879, 
Greece supplied the deficiency, so that the currant Was described as the 
' saviour ' of the wine industry. There was a great extension of plantation 
in Greece, the peasants being advanced loans by the State, and great 
prosperity till about 1890. Then France, having repaired her vineyards, 
killed the trade with heavy duties. There was so little elasticity in the 
' pudding ' demand of England, that prices fell ruinously and did not 
cover freights. The peasants were faced with ruin, and the Government 
with revolution in the Morea. It was therefore decreed that a percentage 
of the crop was not to be exported but retained at home, and this per- 
centage had risen to 35 before the war. At first the Government, after- 
wards a Privileged Company, received this ' Retention,' to be disposed 
of at home by finding some new use for it, as currants are not consumed in 
Greece itself. The complicated arrangements would require a long state- 
ment, but they amounted to ' home dumping ' on industries which 
extracted alcohol, or on the Greek wine trade, at prices far below the export 
prices. Heavy taxes were laid on new plantations, and funds were raised 
by the Company to compensate cultivators of plantations given up. All 
this was done against the opposition of those who contended that the 
whole idea was wrong, and that natural laws should work themselves out. 
The Privileged Company, getting 35 per cent, of the crop for nothing, was 
so successful that it was bought up in 1924, and the problem is still 
unsettled. But it shows the following features. The control was con- 
sidered specially necessary, because the units of enterprise were individual 
peasants faced with ruin. The organisation yielded, for a long time at 
least, a solution, because organised effort was able to create conditions 
which would not otherwise have been possible. The new competitor 



P.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 115 

was restrained by taxes, and the elimination of surplus production was 
obtained by financial measures of compensation. The last three of these 
belong to the claim of private enterprise for rational solution of the 
problem of production. 

The significance of the Potash Cartel is different in so far as the members 
were not individuals faced with ruin by competition, but companies. 
But it shows, under Government sanction, the working of the ideas of 
rationalisation in a very marked way. There had been a Cartel since 1879, 
but investment in this industry increased very rapidly, perhaps because 
of the Cartel, but also because of the agricultural demand. A great 
speculative period, the ' Kali fever,' broke out in 1898, the Prussian fiscus 
itself bought (according to Liefmann) an important works in 1906 for 
fifteen times the paid-up capital, and under such conditions there was 
immense over-capitalisation and excessive investment. In this, as in the 
Greek case, many persons advanced the view that the natural economic 
solution would in the end be the best ; and in 1910 the larger producers, 
suffering from reduced quotas in the Cartel and consequent high prices, 
broke away and sold ahead to America at half the current prices. The 
Government considered the position dangerous to German agricultural 
interests. In 1910 a law was passed under which total production, quotas, 
exports, exchange of quotas, and prices were regulated. This law did not 
establish a compulsory syndicate, or create a monopoly, but in effect it 
made adherence to the Cartel necessary. The important rationalising 
feature was that new competition could not arise except on disadvantageous 
terms, the output of such works being by the law subject to special 
limitation for a number of years. Tn 1919, as the result of war conditions, 
the number of producers had increased to 200 (having been 68 in 1910) ; 
and the prospects were so serious that compulsion was applied by a 
new law of 1919. All producers were now compelled to join the Syndicate, 
which became the executive organ of the Federal Potash Council, with 
which, and its organs, final supervision lay as to prices and policy. 

The special application of rationalisation under these auspices is in 
respect of closing down, and of the growth within the Cartel of the largest 
interests. Closing down could take place voluntarily or compulsorily. It 
was decreed in 1921 that owners who declared by a date in 1923 (later 
extended to 1925) their willingness to close down and keep closed till 1953, 
were to retain their quotas ; that is, they would receive their proportion 
of profits exactly as if they had delivered their supplies. Compulsory 
closing down is based on 'proved permanent uneconomical working,' the 
compensation being similar, but on reduced quotas. At the end of 1925, 
out of 224 shafts in existence, 118 had been definitely closed till 1953; 
71 were at work, and 35 held in reserve. The shafts closed down 
represented 441 of the 1,000 quotas of the Syndicate. Within the 
Syndicate, combination by exchangeable quotas, a main method of 
rationalisation under Cartels, has given a dominating position to two 
large groups. 

It is unnecessary to comment further than to say that to carry on 
prices 44 per cent, of idle capacity is a proposition only possible because 
of Germany's virtual monopoly of this product. The case against 
' Ricardian rationalisation ' was not a strong one. But it will be seen 

i 2 



116 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that a sanction is provided by such strong instances as these for the 
proceedings which define as rationalisation the inclusion in a new private 
enterprise of the whole fringe of excess capacity, plus the endeavour to 
counteract this diseconomy by the further rationalisation of grouped 
interests under strong leadership. 

XII. 

It was pointed out earlier in this paper that the whole question was 
thrust on public notice by the recent argument on the international 
extension of grouped control, bringing strongly into prominence the 
influence of industrial leaders in their own countries. They had obtained 
a leadership which enabled them to speak for their own nations in these 
arrangements. This authority, derived also from the impressive magnitude 
of the international plans, imposed on public opinion nearly everywhere 
an attitude of assent, so that in a sense these leaders ' got away with it ' 
in their claims for rationalisation by Big Business. But whatever may 
be thought of the system of grouping and leadership on a national basis 
would not necessarily apply internationally. A community may accept 
the evolution of competition into a type of industrial administration, 
relying always on the foreign market for limitation of monopolistic policy. 
When this guarantee is endangered, it may go back on its assent to 
national combination under purely private leadership. 

For example, it is a usual form of international agreement to ' respect 
home markets,' and this in effect creates prohibitions on trade which are 
greater than the considered fiscal policy of the country was prepared to 
allow. It is argued that tariffs thus become ' superfluous,' a designing 
expression which can scarcely have deceived the distinguished writers who 
have used it. The suggestion to rationalise international production by 
giving to private interests a treaty power overriding that of the Govern- 
ments concerned, compels us to consider in what form such international 
relations are compatible with any system of domestic combination. 

There is, of course, a wide extension of what may be called ' direct 
international capitalism,' through the creation of foreign branches and 
shareholdings. These do not create the problem just referred to, which 
only arises out of agreements to restrict output or markets, and so 
endangers locally the conditions of the consumer. 

A distinction may be introduced here between two types of agreement 
with the aim of rationalisation. There are those which are called ' agree- 
ments for conditions,' and those which are more directly restrictive of 
volume of output and sale. Examples of the former are given by 
agreements on length of credits, or for standardisation of types, or against 
rebates on price. But perhaps the most notable instance is that 
rationalisation of the conditions of competition which is known in the 
United States as a ' trade practice submittal.' If there is any practice 
which may be considered unfair — as in the case where various wares were 
marked ' Sheffield steel ' though produced anywhere — the firms in the 
industry may be called together to a voluntary conference by the Federal 
Trade Commission, and an expression of opinion obtained, which practi- 
cally establishes a law-merchant for the industry. This is an agreement 
on conditions of trading, with no other limitation on competition, and 



E.-ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 117 

there may be scope for international agreements of this nature to which 
no exception could be taken. Thus an agreement against dumping 
might be negotiated, to overcome the ' falsification of the market ' and the 
instabilities which dumping creates ; or an agreement for the exchange of 
patents, or for the organisation of trade information. 

It would seem that acceptance of the claims of combines to rationalise 
within national limits would be easier if on the international level inter- 
combine agreements were of this type of ' Cartels of Conditions.' 
Otherwise, instead of international agreements leading a fortiori to the 
justification of national combines, they are likely to diminish the consent 
to, or increase the legal supervision over, them. The chief instability of 
the present position lies not in the formation of international agreements 
of the recent type, for these have existed for over twenty-five years, but 
in the realisation in the last few years of possible undemocratic extensions 
of industrial authority and leadership. 



XIII. 

So far, the ideas of rationalisation and leadership in industry have 
taken account only of relations between producers, as the heads of 
organised units of enterprise. But the membership of an industry includes 
the great body of workers who are subject to this leadership, and it 
remains to show the bearings of the argument for ' rationalisation ' upon 
them. 

As a defence of the Cartel system in this respect, it has been argued 
by Liefmann that the dangers of ' instrumental ' price policy to the 
position of wage-earners as consumers are continually being lessened by 
the growing participation of labour in prices, through its own combination. 
It has an increasing producers' interest. Or otherwise, the same argument 
has been put by one great industrial leader, who states that there is 
practically no pure consumers' interest except that of the rentiers, and these 
are not to be too seriously considered against plans for a more rational 
organisation of industry. It is, however, too summary to dismiss the 
labour question involved in this way. Even if we consider labour under 
the broad general name of producers, it is obvious that there is a degree 
of restriction which will affect them all without compensation, there being 
fewer goods for the whole wage-bill to buy. And if we allow for the 
diversity of kinds of producers, it is also evident that Group A may 
penalise Group B, and vice versa, and that it will be difficult to follow the 
incidence of various group restrictions, though easy to show that there 
may be a great spread of injurious reaction. The post-war wage position 
in this country is largely due to such reactions between groups. A general 
defence in these terms of the restrictive aspect of rationalisation policy is 
open to Yves-Guyot's pertinent question — ' Qui restreindra la restriction ? ' 
Against the debit of producers' restriction, it is not a set-off to credit 
labour combination, since the right way of distributing the product, 
and the right rate of production, are independent questions. So far as 
rationalisation implies restriction, it has to commend itself to the working- 
class community for reasons against which existing rights of bargaining 
are not offset or debited. 



118 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The aspect of rationalisation in which labour is interested as a further 
ad»ance is that of control. By this is meant the sharing of administrative 
industrial control by labour as such. There are various methods by which 
shareholding may be extended to employees, but in the cases where such 
holdings give a share in administrative control they imply that the 
labour qualification is not itself adequate, and that employees must 
qualify as capitalists. Copartnership schemes have their own place in 
schemes of industrial progress ; but the question is different, how far on 
the basis of work alone it is rational to distribute shares in control. 

The existence of organised wage-bargaining is not a solution of this 
question, because it relates mainly to the terms on which labour is sold or 
delivered. The terms of delivery— that is, the conditions of work — are 
pushed up to a margin called by Mr. Goodrich the ' frontier of control ' ; 
but this, while it compels the management to make some internal arrange- 
ments concerning employment, is at its utmost rather to be compared 
with terms of sale and delivery of products between their consumer and 
producers, the sellers not thereby entering into the buyers' administration 
of their own concerns. This has nowhere been more clearly put than in 
the first clause of the Engineers' Agreement, which stated that ' the 
employers shall not interfere with the proper functions of the Trade 
Unions, and the Trade Unions shall not interfere with the employers in 
the management of their business.' This was called the ' General 
Principles of Employment.' It implied two administrations, related as 
buyer and seller of a service. 

The difficulty of overcoming this dualism within the individual 
business is that of obtaining any equation between units of labour and 
capital. The idea of a franchise implies a basis of qualification, and in 
this case a rule for equating a certain amount of labour of a certain grade 
to a certain holding of capital. This is the point taken by the exponents 
of the New Zealand Companies Empowering Act of 1924. By that Act 
it is possible to issue ' Labour shares,' entitling the holders to full voting 
powers, but Companies have themselves to decide what is the right dis- 
tribution of these shares in relation to those of the holders of capital. It 
is very difficult to see a basis of general application. 

It should be pointed out, however, that the idea of control by some 
kind of industrial franchise is one carried over from politics to industry, 
and that industry is not alone in not having hitherto applied it. Such 
other fields of administration as the Army and the historic Churches do 
not proceed on this method either. The conditions are not regarded as 
being such as to place these spheres in pari materia with politics as to 
their fundamental principles of control. Many criticisms of industrial 
structure in this respect come from sources where authority is a much 
more marked feature of administration than it is in industry. 

Difficulties of this kind arise mainly when the question is of a share, 
in the control of individual businesses. A solution within that sphere 
may be found in time along the path first broken by the New Zealand 
Act. Meanwhile, however, the process of industrial grouping for the 
purposes of technical rationalisation does itself tend to make possible a 
degree of rationalisation as labour understands it. For it creates units 
of enterprise which are on the same scale as labour organisation, that is,. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 119 

which extend over a large part of an industry. Trade Unions have been 
suspicious of attachments of labour to capitalist government within 
individual businesses, but these objections, it may be suggested, would 
not be so serious against the representation of organised labour on the 
government of great combines. The fact that scale of working corresponded 
to size of organisation on both hands, besides removing the labour objections 
to sectionalism, might also shift the problem of qualification from an 
individual to a mass basis, the participation in control being that of 
representatives, and settled on some broader view of rights of government. 
It is a feature of the most organised syndicates in Germany that this 
participation in the general control has been obtained for labour 
representatives. The horizontal combines, rather than the Concerns, are 
obviously the most favourable sphere in which to proceed for this purpose. 
It is to be admitted that the problem of qualification, while simplified, is 
not solved. For purposes of bargaining the rule is equal representation, 
whatever the relative importance of the parties. For purposes of govern- 
ment, in this field, relative importance must count. Great combines 
render a solution more possible, and also more urgent. Some great 
fundamental industry, combined either voluntarily or, as in Germany, by 
law, might develop a solution by the method of trial and amendment. 

Finally, rationalisation by industrial grouping and leadership may 
enable a further step to be taken in respect of industrial peace. Our 
present resources for this purpose, on a voluntary basis, are very complete ; 
but if there is a gap, it is in respect of a method of assuring continuance of 
work while negotiations proceed. The coal subsidy was of this nature on 
an unusual scale. In respect of wage disputes in fundamental industries, 
it seems to be a possible addition to our methods that, when negotiations 
have narrowed the issue to its smallest difference, and there is yet no 
agreement, the disaster of stoppage might be averted if the Trade Union 
could be enabled, pending an arbitration, to advance to its members the 
whole or a part of the difference in question, subject to guarantee of being 
refunded as much of its claim as the award sustained. This might be 
called the method of ' continuation pay.' It would always be less than 
strike pay, since the latter is about two-fifths of wages, while the difference 
in dispute would not often be as much as half of that. The Union would 
therefore suffer less even if the award went entirely against it. There is 
some approximation to this method in the occasional practice of ante- 
dating awards, but the community is not thereby cleared from the loss 
of a stoppage. If a step of a new kind can be taken, it is by way of making 
' continuation pay ' a practicable thing. Now the higher organisation of 
industry does contribute to its practicability, since it enables a more 
complete guarantee to be offered from the side of employers. It may 
therefore contribute to a ' rationalisation ' in industrial relationships 
which would be of great benefit to the community, the more so if some 
working solution of representative control had been also applied. On this 
note these considerations of the bearings of the new tendency may be 
concluded. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



INVENTION AS A LINK IN SCIENTIFIC 
AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. SIR JAMES B. HENDERSON, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Introduction. 

I desire in the first plaoe to thank the Engineering Section of the British 
Association for the great honour they have done me in nominating me as 
their President. Situated as I have been for many years as Professor of 
Applied Mechanics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, engaged in 
Naval Research work of a confidential type and lecturing upon confidential 
matters, then more recently acting as Adviser to the Admiralty, it has 
been very difficult for me to take as great a part as I would have liked in 
many of the proceedings of the Engineering Technical .Societies to which 
I belong, because the line of demarcation between confidential and non- 
confidential matters is very indistinct, and anyone dealing constantly and 
indiscriminately with confidential topics and problems as part of his 
ordinary everyday life, particularly as a teacher, may very easily overlook 
in public the position of this line. To such a man safety lies in silence. 

The British Association, by the width of its scope, the diversified 
nature of the papers read at its meetings and the broad line of treatment 
of the subjects dealt with, has provided me with an opportunity for con- 
tact with problems in many branches of science and an opportunity which 
I have greatly valued to meet scientific colleagues in a social or technical 
manner. I appreciate very deeply the kindly feeling which has suggested 
my term of office as President in spite of the fact that I have had little or 
no training for such an office, a defect which makes it necessary for me 
to rely upon the indulgence of the Section to overlook my shortcomings. 
To my good friend Professor Lee, the Recorder, I am greatly indebted 
for valuable assistance and guidance. 

It is a matter of particular personal pleasure that my term of office 
should occur at the Leeds Meeting, and more especially that it should be 
associated with the buildings of Leeds University, because it is just 33 
years ago since I first entered these buildings, which were then the 
Yorkshire College of the Victoria University, as assistant to Professor 
William Stroud in the Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. 
I had finished my graduate Engineering course at Glasgow University 
two years before, had spent one year doing research work with Lord 
Kelvin and another year in Berlin University under Helmholtz, Planck, 
and the coterie of distinguished physicists at the Physical Institute at 



G.— ENGINEERING. 121 

that time, where I had absorbed the congenial atmosphere of a research 
school and had hoped to spend the rest of my days in such surroundings. 
The sudden change to a modern University like Leeds, where every 
day and every hour of time of both students and staff were determined 
by rigid programme, was a great shock at the time, but I now realise that 
it was an excellent training and I shall always be grateful for the kindness 
which I received from Professor Stroud and the wonderful example which 
he set of conscientious devotion to duty and sacrifice of many of his 
scientific ambitions for the good of his students. I have thus many 
pleasant recollections of the four years I spent in these buildings and of 
the many friendships I formed here. 

Invention as a Link in Scientific and Economic Progress. 

Invention and Discovery are so closely allied that they are often con- 
fused. In our common speech the two terms are frequently used as 
synonymous, and if one seeks an exact line of demarcation between them 
one finds it difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish one from the other 
in any but the most general terms. Both involve an increase in knowledge 
which may be great or slight, and may have an immediate effect or may 
take a lifetime or more to consolidate. Both involve scientific imagina- 
tion. Each may be only a happy idea, the inspiration of a moment or 
in some cases an accident, but the testing of the idea and its final enuncia- 
tion as a physical truth or as a finished invention may occupy many years. 
Newton is reputed to have discovered the theory of gravitation on seeing 
an apple fall from a tree, but assuming that to have been the birth of the 
idea we know that the completion of his discovery and the proof of the 
universal law of gravitation took the best part of his lifetime and involved 
the invention of new branches of mathematics to complete the proofs. 
The record of Newton's work has been so ably revised during the past 
year by Sir Oliver Lodge, Professor Turner, Sir Frank Dyson and others, 
in connection with the Newton Bi-Centenary Celebrations, that these 
matters must be fresh in the memory of all. 

Were I asked to distinguish between discovery and invention I would 
say, in very general terms, that the dividing line is the same as between 
theory and practice, between the abstract and the concrete. Discovery 
is essentially an increase in man's knowledge of nature and its complexities, 
and is therefore intangible. It may be a discovery of a new principle, a 
new element, a new and hitherto unknown quality or characteristic of a 
known substance, and so on, but the discovery, per se, has no regard to 
any particular practical application of the new knowledge. Invention, 
on the other hand, has its sphere in the practical application of knowledge, 
and the knowledge used may be new or may be as old as the hills. It 
may be, and it is often the case, that invention involves other discoveries 
which may be complementary to the original discovery and form its 
completion, or may be entirely unrelated to it and form the nucleus of a 
new branch of study. It is possibly this fact, that the difficulties en- 
countered in developing an invention often lead to new discoveries, which 
makes it so difficult to separate discovery from invention. I think, 
however, that this distinction in general terms is sound, that discovery 
is mental while invention is material, and while it is true that in the large 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

majority of cases an invention is in its origin a mental conception, it is a 
conception of something material and practical, while a discovery begins 
and ends in the realm of the mind. 

Discovery and invention are important links in the chain of progress 
but neither marks the end of the chain. The discovery has to be proved 
or the invention has to be reduced to practice. This brings in a third 
link, finance. The Einstein Theory, for instance, could never have been 
tested and established without the assistance of capital to finance the 
extensive eclipse observations which converted it from a pure mental 
conception to a working theory. The assistance of capital in the develop- 
ment of great inventions of recent years is a necessity too well known to 
need description. 

Here then we have a series of operations. First comes the funda- 
mental discovery laying bare one more of nature's secrets ; then invention 
turning the discovery to practical use ; and lastly, the hand of finance 
to help dreams to come true. The first is a matter of genius or inspiration 
coupled necessarily with deep study. The second needs skill in the arts 
and crafts and generally a high degree of patience and courage to weather 
the disappointments and setbacks which we are too prone to call failures. 
The last, though it may be allied with technical knowledge, requires most 
of all the commercial instinct to sense to-day the needs of to-morrow, 
coupled with faith in the invention and the inventor and courage to see 
the task through to the end. We are often told that the financial world 
of to-day worships above all things a fat and speedy dividend, but when 
one thinks for a moment of the amount of capital that must have been 
spent, often fruitlessly, in financing the discoveries and inventions of the 
past and realises at the same time the number of other channels open to 
finance in its own immediate sphere, offering possibly greater certainty 
and speedier returns, it is surprising, not that it is so difficult to obtain 
finance for a pure scientific invention, but rather that it is possible to find 
it at all. It says something for man's imagination that finance with its 
many other opportunities is willing, even to a limited extent, to place 
its resources at the disposal of scientific progress in the courageous belief 
that it is casting its bread on the waters of knowledge and that in good 
season it will return. 

When one seeks to study the history of some of the great inventions, 
one begins to realise how exceedingly complex they are, despite their 
outward appearance of simplicity. As an example, take wireless telegraphy 
and telephony. No single person deserves the credit for its discovery 
and invention. Maxwell, Hertz, Lodge, Crookes, Branly, Marconi, 
Jackson, Fleming, de Forest, Fessenden and many others have contri- 
buted their share to its development, but the basis of wireless communi- 
cation did not necessarily begin with Maxwell. What was it caused 
him to conceive the idea of the electro-magnetic theory of light ? Most 
probably he was trying to explain, like many others, the experimental 
fact that the ratio between the electro-magnetic and electrostatic units 
was the velocity of light, and having conceived a possible explanation 
he proceeded to work it out and test it, and the electro-magnetic theory 
was the result. The original idea may have been a lightning flash of 
inspiration, but the complete mathematical theory was the work of years. 



G.— ENGINEERING; 123 

Hertz was the first to produce apparatus for transmitting and receiving 
wireless waves, and this apparatus was improved by Branly, Lodge and 
many others, but for further progress finance was needed. The first 
steps to make a wireless telegraphic installation were taken in Italy by 
Marconi and in Great Britain by the Admiralty experiments carried out 
by Admiral Sir Henry Jackson, who was then a Captain. In this kind of 
competition money counts for much, and in the development of an in- 
vention having a commercial as well as a service aspect a commercial firm 
with good financial backing will always have a great advantage over a 
Government Department with a strictly limited Budget allowance for 
research. It says much, therefore, for the scientific direction of the 
Admiralty of that time that the Admiralty are to-day numbered among 
the pioneers of this great invention. 

I have taken wireless as a typical illustration. To the man in the 
street it represents simply an invention, a single invention and an ap- 
parently simple one represented by a small wooden box with a knob to 
turn. But to the scientific historian who tries to decipher all that the 
little box represents in human thought and effort, it presents an appearance 
of amazing complexity in which the discoveries and inventions of some of 
the finest brains of two centuries are inextricably blended. The proverbial 
tree of knowledge is a good simile. It grows incessantly but imperceptibly, 
sending forth new shoots which in turn become branches and subdivide 
in their turn. Growth is not confined to the shoots, however, and a con- 
tinuous process of consolidation and expansion is taking place in the 
trunk and root and branches. The sprouting of a new shoot is a new dis- 
covery and the consolidation work behind it and upon which it is based 
is invention. 

Invention as a Historical Science. 

Invention being generally concerned with the application of physical 
forces in the service of man may at first sight appear to be a branch of 
physical science pure and simple. It is, however, actually concerned less 
with the scientific principles of physics than with the human element, 
with limitations which that element imposes, with peculiar conditions 
under which the forces of nature have to be applied and with the unknown 
elements in physical science. It belongs, therefore, if treated as a science, 
by itself, rather to that group of sciences which are concerned with 
humanity and nature at large, the so-called Historical Sciences. Economic 
Science, a typical historical science, is studied by thousands as a science, 
yet it has no fundamental physical principles like the conservation of 
energy on which to build its superstructure, because its working material 
is the human element which has not so far been reduced to any funda- 
mental basic principles worthy of the name of laws. It is in what Lord 
Kelvin would have called the Natural History stage of its development, 
during which observations are made and correlated, to be followed by the 
Natural Philosophy stage when the fundamental principles are discovered 
which explain the observed facts and cast upon the scientist the mantle 
of the prophet. 

A historical science which is studied at great length in the Staff Colleges 
of the Armies and Navies of the world is the Science of War. It has no 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

fundamental scientific physical principles as basis but is founded simply 
upon deductions made from a close study of warfare from all times. 
Wars are analysed, tactics and strategy studied with the view to learning 
from the history of centuries of war useful lessons to guide the soldiers of 
to-day and to safeguard them against repetition of the mistakes which 
have caused the disasters of the past. 

The science of invention is a curious blend of the exact sciences, like 
mathematics, physics and chemistry, with a historical science. It is in 
many respects similar to the science of war, the war being against the 
complexity of nature, man's ignorance of that complexity and the 
inefficiency and insufficiency of the human intellect itself. Whether 
Nature be regarded as a cantankerous old dame ever ready to take ad- 
vantage of a false step, neglecting no opportunity to obstruct, and resenting 
every attempt to reduce her movements to law and order, or whether she 
be regarded as a kindly old lady in the middle of a sun-lit lawn, calling 
softly ' Come and find me ' to a crowd of eager, blindfold children, the 
fact remains that she and man are age-old opponents in a contest from 
which there can be no discharge to the end of time. Yet if we compare 
this contest with the wars of man with his fellow-man, what a difference 
we find. Napoleon said he learned the art of war from a study of the lives 
of the Great Captains, but in the greater war with nature if we consult 
the books that have been written round the lives of its Great Captains 
we find only human documents in which the searcher after knowledge, to 
help him to carry the fight a little further, finds little help beyond an 
example of high courage. The technical difficulties are seldom recorded 
and the new searcher has generally to start afresh and reconnoitre his way 
across the old battle-ground of centuries. The fault sometimes lies with 
the chronicler but too often with the lack of records which the Captain 
might have left but failed to leave. In fact here we have a startling 
lesson from the science of war, for is it not drummed into every budding 
soldier till it becomes second nature when he attains command, that one 
of his first duties in the field which must never be neglected is to maintain 
communication and pass on all information that may come his way, 
whether it be useful to him or not. The lesson has two sides. The soldier 
knows that he may become a casualty at any moment and the information 
which he gleans may be of vital importance to enable someone else to 
carry on in his stead, also that information which may appear unimportant 
to him may prove to be the key to the movements of the enemy elsewhere 
of which he is in entire ignorance. 

Any invention starts with a scheme which, on paper, promises to be 
successful if the fundamental assumptions or information on which the 
scheme is based are correct. Just as a general draws up his scheme of 
attack based upon certain assumptions or information regarding the 
enemy's disposition, numbers and probable future movements, so the 
inventor lays his plans to curb and control nature by a scheme based upon 
assumptions as to her behaviour. When the general finds that the enemy 
is stronger than he thought, or that he has shifted his ground and is turning 
his flank, or generally that the enemy is not playing the game which he 
had been expected to play and which had been provided for, he has to 
modify his scheme and proceed on new lines, so also the inventor has 



G.— ENGINEERING. 125 

frequently to change his plans on discovering that Dame Nature is not 
quite so simple as he had believed and is seemingly getting the upper hand 
and laughing at his efforts to control her. So the fight goes on from day 
to day, from year to year, and there are very few great inventions which 
are brought to a successful issue without departing in some respect or 
another from the original scheme and without the expenditure of many 
years of effort and large sums of money. The records of the various 
attacks and their results in the series or chain of manoeuvres which are 
finally crowned with success are rarely written, and in the much larger 
proportion of long engagements which are finally abandoned as failures 
no record of any kind is published and most valuable information is lost 
for ever. 

Contrast this with military or naval wars in which records of every 
little move are faithfully kept and are studied by the historian, who draws 
from them lessons for future generations of soldiers. 

The history of the nineteenth century and the enormous economic and 
political progress made in it might be summed up in the word ' Invention.' 
As was pointed out so clearly in Sir John Snell's Presidential Address to 
Section G of the British Association at the Oxford Meeting, economic pro- 
gress can be best measured by the amount of horse-power used per head 
of the population, and since every successful new invention increases this 
amount both in the manufacture of the gear itself and by the power it may 
control, it is very evident that economic progress is closely allied with 
invention. The invention of the steam engine, the spinning jenny, the 
power loom, the steam ship, the power printing press, the dynamo, the 
electric lamp, the steam turbine, the electric telegraph and wireless 
telegraphy, not forgetting the chemical industries, form the economic 
history of last century, yet no one, so far as I am aware, has studied the 
development of any of these inventions with the view of learning therefrom 
and recording lessons which can be passed on to posterity. 

Of the hundreds of inventions which have been abandoned as failures, 
or of possibly revolutionary inventions left incomplete simply from lack 
of capital or lack of courage, no record is available to those who come after 
and who might carry them on to success. Has every inventor for all time 
to start from scratch ? The same difficulties crop up time after time in 
the development of inventions, yet every new inventor has to tackle the 
difficulties de novo, and fortunes are wasted in the process. Development 
of an invention is always costly, even when guided by all the experience 
obtainable from allied inventions ; how much more costly it is when not 
so guided the history of the failures would most surely show. In most 
inventions there comes a time when the inevitable question arises ' Shall 
we cut our loss or risk further expenditure ? ' If the decision is to cut the 
loss, the invention, which is possibly a sound one and of great value, is 
pronounced to be a failure and the result may be the loss of an industry to 
the country or a delay in its introduction for many years. Science will 
prevail in the long run, but the cost of the trials both in time and money 
could probably be greatly curtailed if records of similar ventures in the 
past were available. Inventors would gain much if they could be trained 
in, and benefit by, the experience of their predecessors in the same field, 
while masters of industry, with records of that experience before them, 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

would be better able to appreciate the difficulties of the inventor and to 
co-operate fully with him. 

No one would dream of putting a general in command of an army who 
had not previously studied the art of war either in Staff College or in the 
field, nor would they put an engineer to construct a bridge unless he had 
some experience in bridge-building ; yet in the development of an invention 
some seem to think that no previous experience is necessary and the work 
is frequently left to the inventor himself, who may have no knowledge of 
the practical or commercial side of development, or it may be given to 
someone who has no previous experience of similar development but who 
is supposed to be a good practical man, though devoid of scientific know- 
ledge of the principles to be followed. 

In the development of inventions no general rules can be laid down 
because inventions take so many different forms, and the expert in de- 
veloping inventions, say, in the chemical industry, would not offer an 
opinion on the development of inventions in complicated mechanism. 
Why is it that chemical reactions which work well in the laboratory on 
the small scale in vessels of glass or platinum so frequently go wrong 
when tried on a larger scale in works in vessels of porcelain or the baser 
metals ? The expert in developing inventions in the chemical industry 
has had much experience in overcoming these difficulties, but little of 
that valuable experience has been published. 

In every industry one finds that the experience thus gained in develop- 
ing the inventions of the industry is guarded as a most valuable secret. 
The result is that this knowledge is not recorded and often dies with the 
individuals who possess it. Future workers even in the same industry 
have to pass through the same or similar experience to regain the lost 
knowledge and the whole condition is economically unsound. The expense 
to the nation which it entails must be enormous. It retards progress, 
it adds greatly to the time and expense of developing other inventions, 
and it brings invention into disrepute because so many firms have lost 
money in trying to develop inventions which have had to be abandoned 
simply through inexperience. 

The value of experience in any particular line of invention is that 
it puts the owner of the experience in the position, when called upon to 
express an opinion on a new invention, to form an estimate of the type 
of difficulties likely to be encountered and the time and expense likely to 
be required to surmount them. The novice always underestimates both 
the difficulties and the cost of development, and many failures are due 
solely to this underestimation, while the man who has once been bitten 
tends to overestimate them and to suspect difficulties where there are 
none, with the result that the development of the invention is unnecessarily 
delayed. 

Nursing an Invention. 

So far I have dealt with the sequence of operations of discovery, 
invention, and the financial and technical assistance in development, but 
the process does not stop there. Once an invention has been developed 
and made a commercial article, it merely enters upon a new phase during 
which it requires the most careful attention. It requires nursing. It 
may be sold to users who are free to submit it to any use or misuse they 



G.— ENGINEERING. 127 

like, and even when properly used trouble is sure to arise somewhere and 
it is usually difficult to say whether the fault arises from legitimate use 
or not. This is a most critical financial stage because the invention, if 
put on the market too soon or without full experience of every detail, may 
be killed by financial failure due to faults introduced often by an ill- 
considered change of design at the last minute which may be very expensive 
to rectify. Everyone who has taken a close interest in motoring during 
the last twenty years will remember many mistakes of this kind which 
have retarded progress and have increased the cost of motoring, because 
in the long run the user pays for the mistakes of the industry. 

The type of man required to deal with the problems which arise during 
this nursing period is not necessarily the same as in the period of develop- 
ment. In the latter nature is the only enemy, but in the nursing period 
every user is a potential enemy and has to be treated accordingly. The 
nurse must therefore possess tact and a knowledge of human nature. 
He must, in fact, be a diplomatist, but he must also be able to deal with 
the technical side and accept responsibility where it is called for. 

Every firm, even after it has been turning out its products for years, 
will occasionally turn out one with a serious defect. The prompt recogni- 
tion of that defect, its admission as a defect and its quick replacement 
free of cost to the customer makes a friend of that customer for life. On 
the other hand, failure to recognise the defect, any attempt to throw the 
blame on to the customer and any parsimonious treatment of the remedy 
will make an enemy of that customer, and his friends, which is much 
worse than never having had his custom. 

The financial success of James Watt's engine was as much due to the 
nursing of Murdoch during this critical period as to Watt's own efforts 
in inventing and developing it. In fact the history of James Watt's 
engine is typical of most successful inventions. We have Watt, the 
typical inventor, interested only in his science and living for it, in a happy 
combination with Boulton, its promoter and supporter, and Murdoch, 
the born nurse and improver. Three different types of men all con- 
tributing in different ways to one great advance in civilisation, possibly 
the greatest single advance in the history of the world. 

Boulton must have been a very patient man to continue for twelve 
years financing the experiments of Watt before the engine began to be 
taken up by colliery owners, and when Murdoch, then a youth of 23, 
joined them in 1777, the work he proceeded to do was of a type for which 
neither Watt nor Boulton would have been suited. Smiles has written 
of Watt ' He was not the man to fight the selfishness of the Cornish ad- 
venturers. " A little more of this hurrying and vexation," he said, " will 
knock me up altogether." ' Murdoch, then only 25, went into Cornwall 
and gave himself no rest until he had conquered the defects of the engines 
and put them into thorough working order. He became friendly with 
the Cornish workmen and engineers. Indeed he literally fought his way 
into their affections, for one day some half-dozen of the mining captains 
came into his engine-room at Cliace Water and tried to bully him. Mur- 
doch stripped, selected the biggest and set to with his fists. In a few 
minutes Murdoch, victorious, was shaking hands with the lot of them 
and they parted the best of friends. I quote this little incident merely 



128 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

as illustrative of the man and of the times and not as an illustration of 
what is required of a man called upon to nurse an invention in these more 
peaceable days. 

The Inventor and the Promoter. 

Since I have touched on the chief characteristics required in the nurse 
of an invention, it may not be inappropriate to refer also to the character- 
istics of the two other members of the trio. 

In the Ordnance Department of the Admiralty there is a coloured 
cartoon of a man with an emaciated body, an enormous head of the 
encephalitic type, and wearing very concave spectacles, demonstrating 
a precious invention to a Jack Tar, all muscle and little brain, carrying 
an enormous spanner in his hand. Below it is the motto from ' Our 
Fathers ' — 

' The optimist inventor should remember if he can, 

' Tho' the instrument is perfect, there are limits to the man.' 

That cartoon is perhaps typical of the attitude of many men towards 
the class of men known as inventors. It is an attitude which is as old as 
invention itself and will persist probably until the end of time. The 
inventor's point of view, however, is that with the aid of invention there 
are no ' limits to the man.' It is his whole object to eliminate the limita- 
tions of the human element by giving to man the control through relay 
mechanisms of power infinitely greater than his own and with little or no 
expenditure of effort on his own part. The history of the past century 
shows that he is succeeding beyond belief. His success will continue and 
is bound to have a marked effect on the type of man of the future. 

The highest type of inventor is first of all an artist with a vivid imagina- 
tion in certain and possibly limited directions. Like the painter he con- 
ceives a mental picture and the picture grows as he proceeds to develop it. 
Like most artists he is unconventional and as a rule diffident except, 
naturally enough, in his own particular sphere. Unless he possesses also 
the gift of clear exposition he cannot expound his invention and make 
clear to others the mental picture he has created. Such a man has little 
chance of working out his ideas and making his inventions commercial 
propositions without the assistance of a promoter. 

The promoter is a man of means and imagination who generally knows 
something about inventions or the branch of industry to which the inven- 
tion relates, and is prepared to risk his capital in backing the invention. 
It is only natural that he should back only the inventions for which he 
can himself see a field of usefulness and be chary of those which he con- 
siders comparatively useless or unlikely to provide him with an adequate 
return for his risk. The great promoter is the man of vision who is not 
content to finance minor inventions for improvements in a known industry, 
but launches forth into the blue in support of an invention, unknown and 
untried, like the first steam engine or the first iron ship, and cares nothing 
for the sceptical criticism of the multitude who foretell disaster simply 
because the invention is something beyond their ken. 

Much of the success of the great inventions of history has been due to 
happy combination of inventor and promoter, as in the case of Watt 



G.— ENGINEERING. 129 

and Boulton, and many are the instances where failure has been traceable 
to lack of this same combination. Its absence must, at the very least, 
contribute very largely to delays in development and to the impairing of 
a success which might otherwise have been complete. 

Invention and Industry. 

The history of the twentieth century shows clearly that Invention is 
the heart of Industry, the root of new developments and the source of 
improved methods of production which have led to cheaper costs and 
a wider scope in every industry. It has also been the cause of some of the 
greatest social upheavals and strife. Innumerable strikes have arisen 
from it, and if there is one lesson in political science more potent than 
another to be learned from the history of such movements, it is that science 
is always victorious in the end. Progress may be delayed or an industry 
may be lost to a country temporarily or permanently by such strife, but 
the steady advance of the world's progress through the science of invention 
is certain. One country may lose, but the world will gain in the end. It 
is only a question of time, and if the leaders of industry, both masters and 
men, would only recognise this fundamental truth how much faster progress 
would be. 

It must not be imagined, however, that every invention can or, from 
the commercial point of view, should be introduced into an industry the 
moment it is made. Quite apart from the time necessarily spent in 
developing and perfecting the invention, for which purpose many industries 
have now instituted research departments of incalculable value, it is some- 
times found that the occasion is inappropriate or that the time is not ripe 
for the change involved. The introduction of a new invention or of a new 
design may involve many complicated questions of policy or finance, 
because the change may have to be accompanied by heavy sacrifice in 
other directions, possibly affecting other industries or the public at large. 
There may have to be heavy scrapping of spare parts, tools and plant. 
There may also be considerable loss to the customers of the industry 
through depreciation of the products of the industry already in use, for 
nothing depreciates a firm's production more rapidly than the introduction 
of a new and superior model. Manufacturers have therefore, on some 
occasions, to collect and husband their inventions and improvements after 
testing their merits and keep them in reserve for a more opportune occasion. 
The opportunity may occur very suddenly. It may arise through a sudden 
whimsical change in fashion which no one can explain, or from some other 
cause which it has been impossible to anticipate, and if a manufacturer 
has no policy of improvement all worked out and ready to apply he is 
faced with the awkward alternative of falling behind the times by making 
no change at all, or of risking his market by adopting some new model 
which he has not had sufficient time to test thoroughly. The former policy 
is almost always disastrous and the latter is often worse. Numerous 
illustrations of both these courses and their results could be cited from any 
industry. There inevitably comes to every industry a time when radical 
change is demanded, and the firm which is best prepared for the change 
reaps the reward of its foresight. 

Industry when viewed in its international aspect determines the lives 

1927 K 



130 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of nations. The nation which organises its industry most efficiently, 
which hampers it least and stimulates it most by legislation, or absence 
of legislation, and by its scientific foresight, is the nation which will prosper 
most. Since invention is the heart of industry, the enquirer naturally 
asks : Is this country doing its best to stimulate invention as a means to 
foster industry ? Are the leaders of industry fully alive to the position 
which invention plays in industrial progress ? Have our legislators ever 
paused to think that their function is only called for because of the progress 
which has been made by scientific invention, and that without such pro- 
gress they would be unnecessary ; also that in the past legislation has done 
much to retard progress ? A study of the fundamental scientific causes 
of progress would form a useful addition to the education of legislators. 

Invention as a Link between Exact Sciences. 

It is sometimes stated that the Physics of to-day become the Engineer- 
ing of to-morrow. This is a natural development, since the engineer is 
more concerned than the physicist with the practical application of physical 
discoveries. But the converse is frequently true, for many physical dis- 
coveries and inventions arise in difficulties encountered by the engineer. The 
science of practical hydrodynamics is a case in point. The mathematical 
science of hydrodynamics has been of little service to the engineer in the 
practical problems of the propulsion of ships, in the complex phenomena 
of vortex motion associated with the flow of water and steam through 
turbines, or in problems of aerodynamics, with the result that the engineer 
has had to develop an empirical science of hydrodynamics to supply his 
immediate needs. A huge mass of experimental results in screw pro- 
pulsion, in aerodynamics and in hydraulics has thus been accumulated 
and is now awaiting some discovery or discoveries in mathematics or 
physics to correlate it all. If vortices could only be dealt with like potatoes 
or any other form of merchandise, each a complicated physical system in 
itself but capable of being considered as a unit differing only in mass or in 
its energy contents, a forward step might be made. The Lanchester- 
Prandtl theory of lift and drift of aeroplanes is a first step in a particular 
case of the general problem. Such a discovery, when made, will be bound 
to lead to further advances and improvements on the engineering side of 
the subject. 

Most discoveries in Physics arise from some experimental fact dis- 
covered more or less accidentally. The discovery of Rontgen rays was 
accidental, and the enormous strides which have been made in our know- 
ledge of the atom by J. J. Thomson, Rutherford, Bragg, Born and many 
other physicists during the last thirty years have resulted from Rontgen's 
discovery combined with another great discovery in pure thermodynamics, 
Planck's Quantum Theory, which also arose from an accidental discovery 
made in the course of experiment. The Reichsanstalt in Berlin had 
published a family of curves representing the distribution of energy in the 
spectrum of a hot black body. Professor Wien by trial and error obtained 
an equation to the family, and the form of this equation was suggestive. 
Planck in trying to develop this equation from the laws of thermodynamics 
found that he could only do so by assuming that energy is not indefinitely 
divisible, and he coined the term ' Quantum ' to represent the fundamental 



G.— ENGINEERING. 131 

unit. These two discoveries of Rontgen and Planck form the starting- 
point of that most important branch of modern Physics which has increased 
our knowledge of the constitution of matter, a science which is just 
beginning to find its field of application in engineering practice, as in the 
thermionic valve and the modern power transformers on the same lines. 
From these and other applications great advances are still to be expected. 
In reviewing the discoveries in Physics which have had most effect in 
developing new industries and thus calling forth new inventions, one is 
struck by the great results in this respect which have arisen from applica- 
tion of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, first stated by Carnot in 1824. 
Carnot described his ideal heat engine and showed that the efficiency of 
this engine is independent of the working substance used. Looking back 
upon the history of the science of thermodynamics of the last century it is 
unfortunate that no one seems to have employed this statement of Carnot's 
as a general text, and developed it to find what information could be derived 
from it by using different working substances and mixtures in order to 
discover something about all the substances used. Had anyone done so, 
progress might have been greatly accelerated. James Thomson was the 
first to use this Second Law to determine the lowering of the freezing-point 
of water due to pressure. His brother, Lord Kelvin, followed with the 
application to the change from liquid to vapour. Helmholtz used the 
voltaic cell as the working substance and determined the temperature 
co-efficient of its electro-motive force. Then followed at long intervals the 
application to chemical changes which have resulted in the modern science 
of thermodynamic chemistry with which the names of Helmholtz, 
Ostwald, Nernst, Van 't Hoff and Gibbs are so closely associated, and 
upon which the modern industry of chemical engineering is based. It is 
a wonderful development to be able to prophesy that under certain condi- 
tions a certain chemical reaction will take place, say, that the nitrogen and 
oxygen of the air will combine at certain temperatures and pressures in 
a definite proportion, and that the resultant oxide can be recovered and 
converted to nitrate and used as fertiliser to replace the imported article 
at an economic price. 

The applications of thermodynamic chemistry to explosives enable us 
to calculate the maximum pressure to be obtained by detonating an ex- 
plosive, or to calculate the temperatures and pressures throughout the 
explosion of cordite in a gun from the chemical constituents of the cordite. 
This possibility has gone far to raise internal ballistics from an empirical 
science to a branch of Natural Philosophy. 

The advances which have taken place in the commercial development 
of chemical processes based upon this important new science of thermo- 
chemistry, although already considerable, are only in their infancy, but 
the men with the experience gained in practical development are very few ; 
and as the experiments are generally very lengthy and expensive, the 
development of the industry is necessarily slow. The resultant saving to 
the country, however, will far outweigh the cost. 

Invention forms the natural link between Physics, Chemistry and 
Engineering, and every advance in one or other of these produces a reflex 
action on the other. For instance, a discovery in physics which increases 
accuracy of measurement by providing an indicator more sensitive than 

k2 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

any previously known is soon embodied in an engineering instrument 
carefully designed and manufactured for sale at a price which makes it 
available to every physicist for use in further research. Thus modern 
research in physics and chemistry is carried out with accurate apparatus 
which would be available only at a prohibitive price if it had been made 
for the particular research alone. The assemblage of apparatus used in 
a modern research is sometimes like an engineering installation, and is 
in marked contrast with the cruder, home-made apparatus, designed ad hoc, 
which was common when some of us were students. 

The closer the intercourse between the physicist, the chemist and the 
engineer the greater will be the fertility in invention and the faster the 
economic progress. The physicist working continually in a laboratory 
where everything is specially designed to facilitate accuracy of measure- 
ment and to eliminate disturbance, is apt to forget how artificial his 
working conditions really are, and that before any of his beautiful experi- 
ments can have a practical application in industry a great deal of invention 
is required. As an example of successful invention involving an accurate 
measurement to be made under practical conditions unsuitable to accuracy, 
I may cite the Barr & Stroud Range-finder, which was invented by two 
young professors in this University in the days when it was the Yorkshire 
College. The problem consisted in measuring with great accuracy, say 
to a second of arc, the small angle subtended at a distant target by a short 
fixed base placed at the observer. At the time when this invention was 
made, some forty years ago, the only scientist who normally measured 
angles to seconds of arc was the astronomer with his large telescopes 
mounted on great concrete foundations, with graduated circles from 
three to six feet diameter and microscopes to read the scales. It seemed 
therefore impossible to contemplate the measurement of angles with 
anything like equal accuracy on board a rolling ship and with no expert 
operator. Yet the two inventors, seeing an advertisement in the pages of 
Engineering announcing competitive trials of range-finders to be held by the 
War Office, took this seemingly impossible task in hand. There was little 
time to spare. The first instrument was designed in outline in a week 
and much of the subsequent success is attributable to the sound physical 
principles underlying this design and to the very ingenious design of all 
the constructional details, due to the happy combination of an engineer 
and a physicist both of whom were men of imagination with a flair for 
invention. Their range-finder was constructed in the University buildings 
and, to indicate the amount of time that was available, the final adjust- 
ment of the instrument was made on a star from the railway platform at 
Rugby on the way to the trials at Aldershot. 

During the trials the instrument worked well at first, but after the sun 
came out it commenced to read ' as thousands of yards ranges which were 
palpably a few hundred ' and the inventors discovered that their beautiful 
angle measurer was also a thermometer and a sunshine recorder combined. 
They were not surprised to have it rejected, and they might actually have 
abandoned it entirely if they had not been asked by the Admiralty some 
time later to submit an instrument for naval use. Then followed ten 
years of most patient struggle against physical and engineering difficulties, 
not to mention financial difficulties, for the inventors acted as their own 



G.— ENGINEERING. 133 

promoters and the financial side of the business must have taxed their 
resources to the utmost. But at last they succeeded and their range- 
finder is now the standard instrument in our Army and Navy and in other 
countries as well, and has been the foundation of one of our best firms of 
scientific instrument makers in the country. As student or as assistant 
I had the honour to serve under both Professor Barr and Professor Stroud, 
both of them great teachers, versatile inventors and most lovable men, and 
I am happy to be able to pay this small tribute to them and to their great 
achievement. 

It is unfortunate for Leeds that the transference of Professor Barr to 
Glasgow in the early stages of this invention should have deprived Leeds 
of a new industry, and also robbed her later of Professor Stroud as well. 
Leeds also seems to have been unlucky in regard to at least one other 
inventor, for Sir Charles Parsons started his life's work in Messrs. Kitson's 
in Leeds and developed while there his epicycloidal rotary engine, the 
precursor of the steam turbine which has done so much for British industry 
in general and for the mercantile marine and navies of the world. I 
feel sure, however, that Leeds will join with this Association, and with 
this section in particular, in rejoicing that Sir Charles's great work has 
recently earned for him, as he so rightly deserves, the highest honour 
that this country can confer on a scientist, the Order of Merit. 

I feel sure that the early history of Sir Charles Parsons' work on the 
rotary engine and on the steam turbine would form a valuable addition 
to the scientific history of invention, but it has never been written and is 
passed over in a few lines in the introduction to Mr. Richardson's excellent 
treatise on the Parsons' Turbine. From the little that is written, however, 
it is easy to see that Sir Charles's task was no easy one. 

The Difficulties oi Invention and their Remedy. 

I wish it to be understood that where I have used the word ' invention ' 
I am dealing with the great inventions, and not with the thousand and one 
minor and comparatively unimportant, though useful, inventions which 
flood the Patent Office every year. The latter are generally simple affairs, 
a minor improvement in a known mechanism or a new way of performing 
an old simple function. I do not wish to belittle these minor inventions 
in any way. They serve their purpose in our everyday lives, and all are 
traceable more or less directly to some major invention of the past, but 
the distinction which I wish to draw is that in very few cases is their 
manufacture or development a matter of difficulty. I am therefore 
dealing solely with the big inventions and their development, and it is 
to the question of the obstacles that are too often encountered in their 
development that I wish to draw particular attention. This question of 
difficulty is as old as the history of invention itself, and many of the 
obstacles have required new discovery or fresh invention to surmount them. 
I wish now to examine the question of how to eliminate or at least minimise 
these difficulties that obstruct the inventor and so retard the march of 
progress. 

The first way that suggests itself to me is by means of education. Our 
educational policy in schools on the scientific side deals with physical 
laws as facts, and the teacher generally deals only with phenomena with 



134 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

which he can afford to be dogmatic and ignores the enormously greater 
range of phenomena about which science knows little or nothing. This 
system inevitably breeds in the student and in the general public the 
impression that nature acts according to certain definite laws and that 
there is nothing about these laws which is not known to science. In 
actual fact the more the scientist knows about these laws the more he is 
impressed with his ignorance and the failure of science to fathom the 
complexity of nature. Much of the misunderstanding of invention and 
its difficulties is due to this method of teaching and will endure so long 
as that method is maintained. If it were possible to teach physical 
and chemical science historically much could be done to counteract this 
injurious effect. 

The experimental laboratory tends to modify the dogmatic teaching 
of the schools because the student there finds out for himself how ex- 
ceedingly difficult it is to prove experimentally some of the simplest of 
the physical facts which he learned in the lecture room, and he thus gains 
a first-hand knowledge of the order of accuracy of physical measurements 
and of the difficulty in attaining it. Science taught historically would 
be infinitely more interesting and instructive, but time is the great ob- 
stacle. In a recent leader in the Times the teaching of the history of 
science was advocated as a subject for general culture, and comment was 
also made on similar recommendations emanating from an American 
writer. Such a study would introduce a better understanding of the 
science of invention among those who have not given particular attention 
to it, and the inventor might come to be regarded as a necessary and 
valuable cog in the wheel of industrial progress and not, as he is too often 
regarded, as a freak. After all, the inventor is simply trying to make 
things simpler and easier and safer for his fellow-men, and he is succeeding 
beyond belief. Surely that object is worthy of recognition and encourage- 
ment. 

A second possible remedy to encourage invention and minimise its 
difficulties is by means of legislation. I hesitate to enlarge on this point 
because the question of patents is a controversial one among scientists, 
and between inventors and the outside public, but it seems to me anoma- 
lous that a man who makes an epoch-making invention which is going 
to revolutionise an industry and add millions to the wealth of the nation 
receives exactly the same degree of protection for his invention as the 
man who invents a new kind of shirt button. In the first case the in- 
vention will take years to develop and may cost thousands of pounds in 
the process, and by the time it reaches the productive stage the patent 
may have expired. In the case of the shirt button, a term which I use 
figuratively, there are no difficulties to overcome, practically no expense, 
no loss of time and a clear sixteen years' trade monopoly. I know that 
a patent is granted only for a new method of manufacture which has to 
be described in the patent specification so that any one skilled in the art 
may put it into practice at once. In simple inventions which form the 
subjects of the great majority of patents this is actually the case, but 
there are undoubtedly cases where what appears to the inventor to be a 
practical scheme and was honestly described by him as such, proves sub- 
sequently to be difficult to put into effect on account of technical diffi- 



G.— ENGINEERING. 135 

culties which he had not foreseen, and the remedy for which may not be 
patentable. Such obstacles and tbeir remedy cannot be recorded in the 
patent because they have not been encountered when the specification 
is written. If it be argued that the inventor should not apply for a patent 
until the practical application of the invention has been achieved, then 
the inventor argues in reply that by delaying his application he is incurring 
the risk of having someone else forestall him, by fair means or foul, and 
so lose his trade monopoly. Under our present system a period of nine 
months is allowed between filing the provisional and complete specifica- 
tions, which period, while ample in the case of most inventions, is inade- 
quate for full investigation of the really great inventions, and it is to this 
difference between major and minor inventions that I wish to draw 
attention. 

In America it is possible for an applicant for a patent, by filing periodical 
amendments of his specification, to keep the application pending in the 
Patent Office for a number of years, during which he can be developing 
the invention and adding to the specification any further explanations 
which may be called for in the light of the experience gained. Then when 
the patent is eventually issued it runs for seventeen years from the date 
of issue, whereas a British patent dates from the date of application. 
In addition to this, an American patentee, on any question of priority of 
invention, is allowed to produce any evidence that may be available to 
show conception of the invention up to not more than two years anterior 
to the date of his original application. In this way an American inventor 
can spend several useful years perfecting his invention before his patent 
is granted, while the British inventor has often to watch the most useful 
years of his patent being eaten up in unproductive development. I 
admit that the American system has drawbacks from the point of view of 
an industry, but it has certain undoubted advantages, and I suggest that 
our system does not meet the needs of great inventions, between which 
and the ordinary minor inventions there ought in my opinion to be some 
discrimination. Merely as a suggestion, I see a possible solution in an 
extension of our present system of granting Patents of Addition, that is 
a patent for an improvement on a prior patented invention, the Patent 
of Addition being granted during the lifetime of the original patent and 
running coterminously. If a Patent of Addition could be granted to an 
inventor in approved cases on production of evidence of genuine diffi- 
culties encountered and successfully overcome, these difficulties and their 
remedy to be fully described in the patent for the guidance of the industry, 
and if this Patent of Addition could be made valid for a definite term of 
years, one of the main fears of a patentee would be overcome. 

It will be noticed that in this last suggestion I have stipulated that 
the specification of a Patent of Addition such as I suggest should contain 
not only a description of the finished invention but of all the difficulties 
encountered in its production and the steps taken to surmount them. In 
fact, it is mainly for this reason that I make the suggestion at all. I am 
trying to devise a means to prevent future inventors and industry from 
being handicapped in a way that has been all too common in the past. 
I have already touched on what must be the large volume of valuable 
scientific information that has been lost through lack of records of past 



136 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

difficulties. Patent specifications are in many cases the sole record of 
inventions, yet in the cases of the type I have mentioned they tell us 
nothing of the difficulties, simply because the specification is written 
before the difficulties are encountered. I therefore suggest that if any 
additional protection be given to a patentee in virtue of work done in 
converting his invention into a practical mechanism in face of unsuspected 
obstacles, the grant should be absolutely conditional on his placing on 
public record for the guidance of others a complete history of his efforts 
so that no one may have to contend with the same troubles again. 

I have one more suggestion to offer in closing, a suggestion which 
touches this Association and kindred bodies more intimately. On this 
question of assisting future inventors by increasing the store of knowledge 
at their disposal, I see a possible sphere of usefulness for this Association 
and kindred institutions by encouraging the great inventors of to-day to 
place on record and publish through the medium of the Association or 
institution an account, even a brief one, of the main historical features 
of their inventions. If considerations of patents or of personal diffidence 
make it undesirable to publish these records at the time they are written, 
that need not impede the scheme, as publication could be made subse- 
quently at a more convenient time or, say, after the inventor's death. 
The main thing is to have some authentic record from the inventor or 
discoverer himself recording the origin, growth and development of his 
idea, the difficulties that beset him and the manner in which they were 
overcome. Nor do I think we should stop there. In my opinion too much 
attention has been paid in the past to success and too little to honest 
failure. It is one of our human frailties to look with something of contempt 
on the man who has failed to reach his goal, but this is not the attitude of 
the great minds, nor should it be the attitude of modern science. On 
one occasion Lord Kelvin was shown a report by a professor on a research 
carried out by a research scholar, in which the professor had made some 
rather contemptuous remarks on the results attained because these results 
were mainly negative. Kelvin was highly indignant. All he looked 
to was the fact that the young scholar had done his best on a subject 
which merited investigation and in face of undoubted difficulties, and it 
amazed him that any scientist should speak slightingly of the results, 
simply because they were negative, when the real thing of value was the 
earnest and diligent search after truth. 

If therefore my suggestion be adopted by this Association, would it not 
be in the best interests of science to remember the failures as well as the 
successes, and to encourage all serious workers in important fields of re- 
search to furnish in the common cause a record of their work, even when 
their aim has not been achieved, giving a faithful account of all the diffi- 
culties and all the efforts made to surmount them ? Who knows but that 
many of the so-called failures of yesterday may only be waiting for other 
hands to-day to carry them on to a greater success than the world has yet 
known ? Left to themselves they will lie in oblivion, yet, for all we know, 
two of them may fit together and provide the answer to one more of the 
riddles of the universe. 

Knowledge forms the working tools of Science, and my proposal is in 
no way aimed at giving the scientific workers of to-morrow an easy task. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 137 

They will probably have a far more difficult task than ours, but I do not 
think it fair to condemn them to spend part of their time in a preliminary 
and possibly fruitless search for tools which we have forged and hidden. 

' As one lamp lights another, nor grows less,' Science of to-day will 
partly fail in its clear duty if it fails to pass on to to-morrow any of the 
knowledge which it has been privileged to acquire, or if it forgets that it is 
for to-morrow, rather than to-day, to assess the true value of to-day's 
success and failure. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



THE ENGLISHMAN OF THE FUTURE. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. F. G. PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.S.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



You will believe me when I tell you that, after hearing the honour which 
you had done me in making me the president of your section, I thought 
long and anxiously upon the subject which I should choose for my presi- 
dential address, and upon how best I might hope to gain and to hold the 
interest of a very varied audience, while contributing at the same time 
my slender share to the advancement of our knowledge. 

It was quite clear to me that I must choose the physical side of 
Anthropology, since on that side lay most of my experience and all my 
training. Indeed, on thinking the matter over, I began to see that, 
granting my claim to be an authority at all, I could only hope to be one 
upon the various races which have helped to make the modern English- 
man. And thus my choice slowly narrowed itself until I almost feared 
that I could do nothing more than repeat the time-honoured though 
somewhat threadbare process of weighing our ancestors in the balance 
and in many ways finding them wanting ; for, though I should greatly 
like to have dealt with some local subject, in well-deserved honour to the 
place in which we are meeting, my want of first-hand knowledge stood in 
the way, and I found that I could do little or nothing which could not 
be better done by the local antiquaries and ethnologists. 

As I thought over the matter, however, it was borne in upon me, little 
by little, that some of the characteristics of the Englishman of to-day 
do not seem to be hereditary at all, and that in some things we, in our 
development, are not following any Mendelian laws ; nor are we harking 
back to Long Barrow, Bronze Age, Celtic or Saxon types, but that 
gradually we are building up a new kind of man, differing in certain ways 
from all of these. 

And yet, if I choose for the title of my address ' The Englishman of 
the Future,' you must not expect me to come before you as a prophet, 
foretelling that which shall surely come to pass, but rather as a watchman 
on the wall, who, thinking that he sees dim signs of things stirring, would 
report them to you and talk over with you what they foreshadow, if 
nothing happens to stop them meanwhile. 

Perhaps, however, it will be well for me if I drop my metaphors before 
they get me into trouble, and take up my story, which I will make as 
simple and straightforward as I may. 

I must remind you that, during the last fifty years — long before Sir 
William Arbuthnot Lane and the Daily Mail began their health campaign — ■ 
there has been a steady and rational interest in Hygiene, particularly in 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 139 

relation to the care of the young. It has been said, and I think truly, 
that this awakening took place in the old Crimean days, when our loss of 
men through disease, due to want of hygienic knowledge, was so appalling. 
I call this interest rational because teachings were no longer accepted as 
dogmas, but were tried, and their effect carefully watched. In other 
words, the upper and middle classes were beginning to observe and to 
think for themselves, with the result that one outstanding belief after 
another went by the board, and children of succeeding generations were 
brought up and trained a little differently and, as I think the result 
shows, a little more wisely than were those of the generation which went 
before. 

It may be objected that this study of child welfare has been going on 
throughout the ages, and is by no means limited to the last half-century 
or a little more ; but the point which I wish to make is that rational 
knowledge, based upon experiment and observation, could only have spread 
after medical men themselves began to learn scientific facts and to teach 
them to those who were able and willing to understand them. 

It is in this way that, each year, the younger generation is brought up 
a little more sanely than its forerunner ; and each year, too, the healthier 
influences push their way a little lower into the social scale. Now we have 
reached a stage in which the poorest child of the slums may be, and often 
is, watched over by the child welfare and almoners' departments of our 
great hospitals long before it is born, and, if its parents be not too stupid, 
may, throughout its young life, enjoy very nearly the same healthy 
surroundings and quite as much skilled medical advice as its richer 
brethren, save that we cannot yet give it the amount of air it needs in which 
to sleep healthily, or free it from the results of the ignorant and thought- 
less cruelty of uneducated parents. Another generation or two must 
pass and these things also will cease to be. It is grievous to think that 
the hardest task of all is to give these poorer children their proper share of 
pure night air, that deadly terror of our forefathers. So long as slum 
areas and overcrowding last it is hard to see how this may be done, though 
the chemists of the future, when they are not too busy with poison gas, 
may be able to solve this problem too. 

Now if all, or even part of this, be true ; if for the last half -century 
children have been better and more sanely cared for, there must surely 
be something to show for it — something which our eyes may see at a 
glance, or at least the beginnings of which we may show by contrasted 
records, indices and tabulations. That there is indeed much to show is 
clear enough to anyone who has walked the streets of London or of any 
of our great cities for half a century with open eyes. How seldom nowadays 
do we see the poor little half-starved bodies, so common thirty years ago, 
shivering, coatless and bootless, in the depth of the winter ; their 
miserable little limbs maimed by rickets, their ears streaming with matter 
from middle-ear disease, and their eyelids red with ophthalmia. We 
know, thank God, that these are fast becoming things of the past ; indeed 
the modern medical student thinks himself lucky if he sees a single case 
of rickets, about which his text-book has so much to say. 

Bad teeth, adenoids, septic tonsils, and glands in the neck, unfortu- 
nately, are still common enough, but slowly and surely these are being 



140 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

conquered, and are bound to be swept away before long ; for all this 
improvement is gathering speed as it rolls on, and each year has rather 
more to show than that which went before. 

I have been visiting lately a number of the London County Council 
schools in order to see something of the physical characteristics of the 
rising generation, and I find that, even in the poorest districts, the children 
are, upon the whole, cheerful and fairly healthy, and a wonderful under- 
standing exists between them and their teachers, who as a class are far 
above the pedagogues under whom I sat as a boy ; while in the secondary 
schools, particularly in the healthier districts, such as Plumstead and 
Eltham, the physical beauty and perfect health of the boys and girls 
contrast very favourably with anything that our most expensive public 
schools have to show. It is true that I am speaking from the examination 
of only five thousand out of more than a million London children, and 
may have to modify my opinion as time goes on ; but what I have seen 
fills me with hope for the future, and never again shall I grudge any 
taxes which I may be called upon to pay for education, since I realise 
that, under the cloak of education, London at least is doing its utmost to 
change a C3 into an Al population. 

And now, feeling sure that a change is coming over our younger 
generation, let us try to see where it is leading, and whether heredity or 
environment is taking the greater share in guiding it ; though we shall 
surely be wrong if we allow either of these great influences to leave our 
minds for a moment. I must be careful not to undertake more than I 
can carry through in my time ; and therefore I will only ask you to let 
me say a little about the three physical characteristics of stature, colora- 
tion and head shape, in order to see whether anything may be learnt from 
these. 

I suppose that no one would dare to say what the average height of 
the modern Englishman is, because we have no State-controlled and 
State-aided means of sampling the physical conditions of our population 
in any way. I can tell you at first hand that the men of our labouring 
and agricultural classes in the Chilterns average 5 ft. 6 in., and that the 
mixed classes in a North Kent doctor's practice are 5 ft. 7 in. ; but what 
we do not know is how much the stunted millions in the Midland manu- 
facturing towns, and the mass of unemployed and unemployable humanity 
in the East of London, will pull this down. I suppose that, taking these 
into consideration, the average height of the Englishman to-day is not 
more than 5 ft. 5 in. ; though when we speak of the well-nourished classes 
there is a different tale to tell. I know, for instance, that for the last 
twenty years my students at St. Thomas's Hospital have averaged 5 ft. 9 in. 
and in no single year have they ever risen as high as 5 ft. 10 in. or dropped 
below 5 ft. 9 in. ; but, steady though their average at this height has been 
for twenty years, I am quite sure that they are taller than were my own 
contemporaries forty years ago, just as those contemporaries, in their 
turn, were probably taller than the originals of Bob Sawyer's and Ben 
Allen's fellow-students, who walked the Borough hospitals nearly a century 
ago. 

I think, therefore, that hygiene and better nutrition have done their 
work so far as stature is concerned, and that the class of Englishmen of 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 141 

which our London medical students serve as examples have been brought 
up to, or nearly up to, the limit which their race will reach under the 
most favourable conditions. It may be indeed that the more intensive 
health crusade of the last two or three years may cause a new rise in 
stature which has not yet had time to show itself, but I can see no signs 
of it as yet. It may be, too, that, though environment may have played 
its last card, heredity may not have done so, and that if for any reason 
the individuals with a higher percentage of Nordic traits in their patch- 
work composition are put in a more favourable position to marry and 
beget offspring than those with a large number of Alpine and Mediterranean 
traits, the stature may rise still further. 

I feel sure, however, that there is a certain average height beyond which 
the purest Nordic stock will not rise, and my belief is that this has been 
reached, or nearly reached, already — so far as the higher classes are 
concerned. 

I am taking no account, of course, of whether there is any advantage 
to a nation, or to the world at large, in its citizens reaching a very high 
average stature. Personally I doubt whether, in these modern days of 
machinery, the losses do not outweigh the gains ; for great mental ability 
seldom accompanies great bodily size, nor as a rule are very big and 
muscular men such good lives, from a medical point of view, as their 
more slimly built and wiry fellows. It seems that, while we do well to 
notice and" record the increasing size of our upper and middle class men, 
we have no great reason to be proud of it. Be this as it may, there can 
be little doubt that, as all classes come to take an equal share in the 
benefits of Eugenics, the height of the whole community will increase 
until 5 ft. 9 in. is the average height of the poorest as well as of the richest ; 
though in those parts of the country in which the Mediterranean element 
is greatest the stature no doubt will be lowest. 

I have given my reasons for believing that we have learnt how to 
raise our male stature to a point beyond which it will not go, and beyond 
which it is not well that it should go ; but what of the women ? About 
twenty years ago I measured the height of some 150 students of the School 
of Medicine for Women, and found their average to be 5 ft. 3 in., but after 
ten years their successors had added a fraction over an inch to their 
stature ; while this year I have measured 150 nurses and massage students 
at St. Thomas's Hospital whose average height was 5 ft. 4-9 in. 

Now these girls belong to the very same class of the community as 
the male medical students ; indeed there are brothers and sisters in the 
two groups, and the difference with which they have reacted to altered 
conditions is quite interesting ; for, whereas the boys had reached their 
full average height of 5 ft. 9 in. when first I measured them twenty years 
ago — and their successors, year by year, have never added anything to, 
or lost anything from, this height, up to the present — their sisters have 
gained very nearly 2 inches in the twenty years, and practically have 
reached the height of the average Englishman, whom we dare not estimate 
as measuring more than 5 ft. 5 in. There are no signs, moreover, that 
these healthily nourished girls have reached their maximum, as have 
the boys. 

So far as heredity goes, I know that their Anglo-Saxon forbears 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

showed quite a small difference between the heights of the two sexes, and 
it may be that our Englishwomen of the future may reach an average 
of 5 ft. 6 in. or 5 ft. 7 in. It is unlikely that the two sexes will ever be 
equal in height, because we know that the stoppage of growth is determined 
by the union of the caps or epiphyses at the ends of the long bones with 
the shafts. We know, too, that this closure of the epiphysial lines, as 
they are called, takes place earlier in women than it does in men. Other 
things being equal, therefore, woman is handicapped and pays for her 
well-known earlier maturity by a shortening of the time allotted to growth. 
To follow this matter up would lead us into a discussion upon hormones 
and endocrine glands, a discussion which would take us too far afield, 
although I am fully alive to the importance of the subject. 

There is no reason to believe that the union of the epiphysial lines is 
being delayed in modern Englishwomen, though there is good reason for 
thinking that, during the period before they unite, growth is taking place 
more quickly than in former days, since I am told that an increase of 
height at definite ages is taking place in the children in our L.C.C. schools. 
I am not sure that I have made myself quite clear in the matter of 
heredity and environment. Both surely must be taken into account ; 
and there is always the risk that one observer may try to account for 
every change he notices by ascribing it to Mendelian influences, while 
another may see the influence of environment, unchecked by heredity, 
everywhere. In the present subject of stature we have seen environment, 
in the shape of wise feeding and a full supply of fresh. air, increasing the 
male height to 5 ft. 9 in. twenty years ago ; but at that height the 
hereditary maximum of the Nordic race seems to have been reached, and 
since then no improvements in surroundings have been able to increase 
it. When I say that 5 ft. 9 in. seems the hereditary average maximum 
of the Nordic race I do not mean that our Saxon forefathers were of that 
height ; indeed I know that they only averaged 5 ft. 6 in. What I mean 
is that 5 ft. 9 in. seems to be the highest possible score for Nordic peoples. 
Now, leaving the question of stature for that of colour, I have two or 
three points — small perhaps in themselves, but not without interest — to 
lay before you. One so often hears that the English people are becoming 
darker that one needs must pay some attention to this point. I was 
especially struck by a statement made by Miss Fleming, a trained observer, 
who said that she could find no series of fair children in the slums of 
Liverpool with which to contrast the dark. Another statement which I 
came across in the daily Press was made by a medical officer, who said 
that most of the London poorer children had dark eyes. Before we 
consider these statements it will be well to agree upon what we are to 
regard as light and dark, and thus make sure that we are speaking the 
same language. Rather more than sixty years ago Dr. Beddoe observed 
and recorded the coloration of a very large number of people in these 
islands ; and since a comparison of his results with those we may gain 
to-day is our only chance of solving the question of whether we are 
becoming fairer or darker, it is important to adopt a method of recording 
colour which is comparable with his. Time will not allow me to explain 
the details of Beddoe's tabulations, which, for my purposes, are needlessly 
complicated, but it is easy from his statistics to find the percentage of the 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



143 



following five shades of hair — Fair, Ked, Brown, Dark Brown, and Black — 
and from these to construct an index by taking the percentage of dark 
brown and black hair added together. 

Beddoe also records the percentage of light, dark, and intermediate 
eyes ; and to me the simplest index seems to be gained by adding half 
the number of the intermediate eyes to the light and half to the dark, and 
by then taking the new percentage of dark eyes as the index of eye colora- 
tion. This method has the additional advantage of allowing us to use 
Fleure's records of people in Wales. In most cases it is unwise 10 use 
the hair or eyes alone, but to combine the- two into a general index of 
nigrescence by adding the indices of the hair and eyes together and then 
dividing the sum by two. 

An example will make this clear. I take 158 students from St. 
Thomas's Hospital and find that their hair and eye colours are as follows : — 

/o 

1 29-8 (Hair Index) 



Hair 



Fair 


18 = 11-4 


Red 


6 = 3-8 


Brown 


87 = 550 


Dark 


42 = 26-6 


( Black 


5 = 3-2 




158 100-0 



= 26-61, 

= 3-2} ' 



/o 



(Light 88+ 18-5 = 106-5 = 67-4 

Eyes - Intermed. 37< 

(Dark 33+18-5= 51-5=32-6 (Eye Index) 




-2=31-2 (Index of 

Nigrescence) 



158 



158 1000 



I admit that the personal equation of the observer comes into this, as 
into all systems, because it is often so difficult to draw the line between 
brown and dark brown hair ; but the difficulty may, to a large extent, 
be overcome by having an intermediate group between the two, into 
which all doubtful cases may go, and these may be divided equally between 
the brown and dark groups before the percentages are worked out. 

Let us take this series of students as a sample of the upper middle- 
class youths in London to-day. Of course they come from all over 
England, but so do all Londoners. I have, however, been very careful 
not to include any traceable foreigners in my list. 

Sixty years ago Beddoe observed the coloration of 500 male Londoners 
of the upper classes, and, according to my system, their Hair Index was 
40-5, Eye Index 31-2 ; total index, 35-8. 



Upper-class Londoners' Comparison 



Date. 
1860-70 
1920-27 



Number. 
500 
158 




144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

This comparison is given more as an example of method than as an 
adequate sample of the millions of educated people in London ; indeed 
the whole question of coloration opens up so many points of discussion, 
and needs such large numbers to reach any definite conclusions, that 
I must be content, at this stage, simply to give some massed results in 
trying to solve the question whether Londoners, who practically are 
Southern English People, have grown darker or fairer during the last 
sixty years. The following table gives the material which I have : — 

, Adult Males. 

Hair Index. Eye Index. Nigrescence Index. 

1860 39-7 (2,400) 35-7 (2,400) 37-7 (2,400) 

1927 27-4(1,485) 33-2(1,485) 30-3(1,485) 

Adult Females. 
1860 42-7 (2,813) 40-7 (2,813) 41-7 (2,813) 

1927 23-9 (1,487) 35-3 (411) 29-6 (949) 

Boys (8 to 16 years old). 
1927 8-7 (2,565) 33-1 (2,565) 20-9 (2,565) 

Girls (8 to 16 years old). 
1927 11-0(1,922) 34-3(1,922) 22-6(1,922) 

On looking at this table one cannot fail to be struck by the increase 
in fairness, particularly in the hair ; but I do not wish to press it too far, 
because there are so many possible sources of error. ' Not only is there 
the possibility that Beddoe and I had a different border-line between 
brown and dark brown hair, but other things, such as the modern habit 
of wearing the hair short, the habit of more frequently washing the head, 
and the disuse to a considerable extent of pomatum and grease, all give 
an appearance of fairness which was wanting sixty years ago. In the 
eye records I place more faith, for both Beddoe and I used an intermediate 
group between the light and dark eyes, a group which I have divided in 
both sets of records equally between the light and the dark. The drop 
in the darkness here is not serious, but I think that it is large enough to 
be significant. 

The children's records at first seem irrelevant, since I have nothing of 
sixty years ago with which to compare them. Their use is to supplement 
the present-day eye colours of the adults, especially those of the women, 
which are very scanty. It will be noticed that in children of eight to 
sixteen the eye colours have become permanent, though the hair has 
not, and thus their evidence is valuable. These records, which run into 
several thousands, do not give us any reason to think that the Londoner 
is becoming darker, but do give us reason, though it may need discount- 
ing, to believe that he is growing fairer under changing conditions. 

This question of coloration statistics may be of special as well as of 
general interest, for a neurologist lately assured me that quite 50 per cent, 
of his patients had dark eyes, and asked me whether this were above or 
below the general average of the population. The relation of other 
diseases to coloration also has been worked at by Dr. Shrubsall and 
others, but can be valuable only when the normal percentage is known. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 145 

The last point to which I wish to draw your attention is head .shape. 
As you know, the anthropologist usually thinks of skulls in terms of their 
length and breadth, and certainly he has gained a great deal of useful 
information in the past from this cranial index, his so-called sheet-anchor. 
Lately, however, he has felt that something more is needed, and specialists 
in craniology have piled up such a mass of arcs, indices, coefficients, and 
angles that few are able to criticise their fellow- workers, because few are 
able to understand what their fellow-workers are doing. 

Unfortunately we cannot claim that the results have kept pace with 
the growing complexity of the methods, and if we are ever to interest the 
non-specialist, and to induce him to add to our knowledge by using the 
enormous mass of material which comes in his way, we must devise some 
system simple enough to be grasped by any educated person and yet 
more valuable than the mere record of the length and breadth of the head. 

The reason why the cranial or the cephalic index is not enough is that 
it treats the head as if it were a structure of two. instead of three, dimen- 
sions. To use a homely simile, it is like giving the length and breadth of 
a box and then expecting the hearer to grasp what that box is like. 
We have hundreds of thousands of records of the length and breadth of 
heads, but very few of their height. Even when the height is recorded we 
set it down and try to visualise it by comparing it with the length — just 
as we compare the breadth of the skull with its length. 

In other words, we use the length as though it were a constant with 
which we could compare the variable breadth and height, though we 
know that the length may be just as variable as either of the other 
diameters. 

I want to submit to you that, if we use all three dimensions — length, 
breadth, and height — together, a standard will be gained which roughly 
will represent the size of the skull, and with this each dimension may 
be compared, and a proportional index for each established. The most 
accurate method, no doubt, is to take the product of the three dimensions 
and then to extract the cube root and multiply it by three. The result 
of this is a standard by which the length, breadth, and height of the skull 
may be divided, and in this way proportional indices obtained which will 
bear a definite relation to the size of the skull. Unfortunately the process, 
though soon learned, is tiresome and needs a logarithm table, which is 
not always to hand. 

A much simpler, and for all practical purposes an equally valuable 
method of gaining proportional indices is to add together the length, 
breadth, and height of the skull, and then to divide each dimension by the 
sum thus obtained. This gives a series of indices which are, on an average, 
•006 lower than those which the cube-root system supplies ; but in no 
case does this alter the relative position of any of the series of British 
skulls tabulated in the accompanying list. My colleague, Dr. Mulligan, 
has been kind enough to prepare a second table which shows how nearly 
the results of the two methods correspond. 

Before considering these tables, which I think give a more rational 

and coherent view of British craniology than could be obtained from the 

old cranial index, though I am glad enough to use that too, let us take 

as an example the skull of a Saxon, fately dug up at Bidford-on-Avon. 

1(127 1. 



146 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Its length is 205 ram., its breadth 149 mm., and its vertical height, from 
the top of the ear passage, 124 mm. 

L. 205 + B. 149 + H. 124 = 478 (L. + B. + H. Standard) 

L. 205 = . 9q B. 149 = .o 12 H. 1 24 = . 25 « 

Standard 478 Standard 478 Standard 478 

In other words, the length is -429, the breadth -312, and the height -259 
of the sum of the three dimensions ; and these we may speak of as the 
proportional length, breadth, and height indices. 

Now suppose that we want to contrast this Saxon's cranium with 
that of a London medical student of to-day, whose head measurements 
are as follows : L. 202, B. 149, H. 140. We must remember, of course, 
that we are dealing now with cephalic, not cranial, measurements, and 
that the soft parts of the scalp have been included ; while in the Saxon 
was included the skull alone. 

We must therefore deduct 8 mm. from the length and breadth and 
5-5 mm. from the height to allow for these ; this reduces the measure- 
ments to L. 194, B. 141, H. 134-5. Still another deduction is needed, 
because the height was measured with an auricular height craniometer, 
which fits into the centre of the ear-hole, while the Saxon skull was 
measured from the top of the opening ; thus another 6 mm. must 
be deducted from the height of the modern skull to allow for this. Now 
the measurements are comparable, and the two skulls give the following 
results : — 

L. B. H. 

Anglo-Saxon . . 205 + 149 + 124 = 478 mm. 
Modern Londoner . 194 + 141 + 128-5 = 463-5 mm. 

It is pretty clear that this particular Saxon had a larger head than the 
student, and if we want to see where the gain and loss occurred the actual 
measurements must be reduced to their proper proportions, as follows : — 





Proportional 
Length 
Index. 


Proportional 

Breadth 

Index. 


Proportional 
Height 
Index. 


Anglo-Saxon 
Modern Londoner 


•429 
•419 


•312 
•304 


•259 

•277 


= 1-000 
= 1000 


Londoner . 


-•10 


-•8 


+ •18 



Now it is seen at a glance that this particular London student has a 
head which is shorter and narrower, but a great deal higher in proportion 
to its size, than that of the particular Saxon with which it was compared. 

In this instance I have reduced the Londoner's head to a skull in 
order to compare it with that of the Saxon, but of course it would have 
been just as easy to have reversed the process and to have clothed the 
Saxon skull with the necessary allowance for soft parts. This, indeed, 
is what I propose to do in the table of proportional indices which I may 
now lay before you, since the living head measurements are more numerous 
than those made upon skulls. Anyone using this table must please bear 
in mind that all the skulls have had 8 mm. added to their average length 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



147 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 7 8 




Length. 


Breadth. 


Aur. Ht. 


Ceph. 
Ind. 


|l.+b.+h 


Proportion of 

L. B. H. 






B.C. 5000? 








Neolithic 


201-7 (53) 


146-9(128) 123-1(8?) 


728 


471-7 


•428 -311 -261 


(Schuster) 1 














Neolithic 


204-0 (20) 


1480 (20) 


122-5 (20) 


725 


474-5 


■430 -312 -258 


(Parsons) 2 




B.C. 2000? 








Beaker Folk 


192-5 (48) 


157-9 (89) 


126-6(7) 


820 


477-0 


■404 -331 -265 


(Morant) 1 














Beaker Folk 


188-0(16) 


156-0 (8) 


122-5(16) 


830 


466-5 


•403 -334 -263 


(Parsons) 2 




B.C. 600 ? 








Celtic Iron Age 


195-4(61) 


149-4(102)i No record 


764 


— 




(Morant) 1 














Celtic Iron Age 


194-0 (23) 


144-0 (23) 


No record 


742 


— 




(Wright) 


















A.D. 500. 








Anglo-Saxons 


198-6'(58) 


149-7(103) 120-4(17) 


754 


468-7 


•424 -317 -259 


(Morant) 1 














Anglo-Saxons 


204-6 (47) 


151-2(48) 


121-9(48) 


739 


477-7 


•428 -317 -255 


(Parsons) 


















14th and 15th Centur 


IES. 






Hythe (Parsons) 2 


187-0 (324) 


151-0(324) 


119-5 (291) 


812 


457-5 


1 -409 -330 -261 


Rothwell 


194-0(99) 


150-0 (100) 


120-0 (100) 


773 


4640 


•418 -323 -259 


(Parsons) 2 
















17i 


h Century (Plague Si 


LULLS] 


. 




Whitechapel 


197-1 (137) 


148-7(135) 120-1(135) 


754 


4650 


•423 -319 -258 


(Macdonell) 3 














Moorfields 


197-2 (44) 


151-0 (46) 


119-3(46) 


765 


4650 


•422 -323 -255 


(Macdonell)* 














Farringdon St. 


196-8(139) 


150-4(141) 


115-5(76) 


764 


462-7 


•426 -326 -248 


(Hooke)"' 


















18th Century. 








Clare Market 


196-0 (30) 


150-0(30) i 119-5(30) 


765 


465-5 


•421 -322 -257 


(Parsons) 




Early 19th Centur 


g". 






English Soldiers 


195-2 (44) 


147-0(44) : 121-9(44) 


753 


464-1 


•421 -317 -262 


Millbank 














(Parsons) 


















20th Century. 








Royal Engineers 


194-9(118) 


151-1(118) 125-9(118) 


775 


471-9 


•413 -320 -267 


(Bennington) 6 












St. Thomas's 


193-0(150) 


150-0(150) 127-8(73) 


777 


470-8 


•410 -319 -271 


Patients 












British Assocn. 


198-1 (?) 


155-0(?) ! 130-9 (?) 


782 


484-0 


.409 -320 -271 


('Biornetrika') 7 












St. Thomas's 


196-1(158) 


154-0(158) 130-9(81) 


785 


481-0 


•408 -320 -272 


Students 












Oxford Under- 


196-1 (959) 


152-8 (959) ! 130-6 (959) 


780 


479-5 


•409 -319 -272 


grads 












(Schuster)" 












Brit. Anatomists 


197-7 (27) 


156-3 (27) 1340 (27) 


791 


488-0 


•405 -320 -275 


(Dublin, 1898) 












Univ. Coll. Staff 


196-4 (25) 


153-5 (25) : 135-0 (25) 


782 


484-9 


•405 -317 -278 


(Pearson) 7 













Biometrika, Vol. 18, p. 82. 2 J. R. Anthrop. Inst. 3 Biometrika, Vol. 3, p. 208. 
* Biometrika, Vol. 5, p. 92. 5 Biometrika, Vol. 18, p. 1. 6 Biometrika, Vol. 8, p. 131. 
7 Biometrika, Vol. 1, p. 204. 8 Biometrika, Vol. 8, p. 49. 

L2 



148 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



and breadth and 5-5 mm. to their auricular height. All those living 
heads or skulls, on the other hand, the auricular height of which has been 
measured by a craniometer or head-spanner which fits into the middle 
of the ear-holes, have had 6 mm. deducted from that height, because at 
the Frankfurt agreement it was decided that the auricular height should 
be taken from the top of the auditory opening. 

Columns 1, 2, and 3, therefore, give the length, breadth, and height 
averages of the heads with the soft parts in position, and the figures in 
parentheses represent the number of heads upon which the averages are 
based. Column 4 is the proportion of the breadth to the length, or the 
cephalic index. Column 5 is the sum of the length, breadth, and auricular 
height, of which the three succeeding columns are fractions ; while 
columns 6, 7, and 8 show the proportions which the length, breadth, and 
height bear to the sum of the three in column 5. 

The following lists show how little difference there is between an 
index constructed from the length, breadth, and height of the skull and 
one constructed from the cube root of the product of the three measure- 
ments. Whichever index is used the relative positions of the various 
groups of skulls remain unchanged ; and for this reason I do not think 
that the extra time and labour needed in working out the product index 
is repaid in any way. 





Head Length 










^^^ 




Cranial 




Sum 


Product 




Capacity 




Index. 


Index. 


Differ- 


(from Lee's 




L 


L 


ence. 


Formula). 


L+B + H 


3nxBxH 


Neolithic (Schuster) 


•428 


•437 


•009 


c.c. 
1,385 


Neolithic (Parsons) 


•430 


•440 


•010 


1,399 


Beaker Folk (Morant) 


•404 


■409 


•005 


1,445 


Beaker Folk (Parsons) 


•403 


•409 


■006 


1,370 


Anglo-Saxons (Morant 1 


•424 


•433 


•009 


1,366 


Anglo-Saxons (Parsons' 


•428 


•438 


•010 


1,420 


Hythe 


•409 


■416 


•007 


1,307 


Rothwell 


■418 


•426 


•008 


1,340 


Whitechapel .... 


•423 


•432 


•009 


1,348 


Moorfields .... 


•422 


•431 


•009 


1,357 


Farringdon Street . 


■426 


•435 


•009 


1,318 


Clare Market .... 


•421 


•430 


•009 


1,346 


English Soldiers 


■421 


•429 


•008 


1,342 


Royal Engineers 


•413 


•420 


•007 


1,403 


St. Thomas's Patients 


•410 


•416 


•006 


1,402 


British Association . 


•409 


•416 


■007 


1,486 


St. Thomas's Students 


•408 


•413 


•005 


1,475 


Oxford Students 


•409 


•415 


•006 


1,464 


British Anatomists . 


•405 


•410 


•005 


1,530 


University College Staff . 


•405 

A 


•410 

verage differen 


•005 
ce-007 


1,510 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



149 





Head Breadth 




Head Height. 


Sum 


Product 




Sum 1 


Product 






Index. 


Index. 


Differ- 


Index. 


Index. 


Differ- 




P. 


B 


ence. 


H 


H 


ence. 


L + B + H 


iVLyBxH 


L + B+H 


3 3 v/LxBxH 


Neolithic 


•311 


•318 


•007 


•261 


•267 


•006 


(Schuster) 














Neolithic 


•312 


•319 


•007 


•258 


•264 


•006 


(Parsons) 














Beaker Folk 


•331 


•336 


•005 


•265 


•269 


•004 


(Morant) 














Beaker Folk ! 


•334 


•340 


•006 


•263 


•267 


•004 


(Parsons) 














Anglo-Saxons 


•317 


•32(i 


•009 


•259 


•262 


•003 


(Morant) 














Anglo-Saxons 


■317 


■324 


•007 


•255 


•261 


•006 


(Parsons) 














Hvthe 


•330 


•336 


•006 


•261 


•266 


•005 


Pvbthwell . 


•323 


•330 


•007 


•259 


•264 


•005 


Whitechapel 


•319 


•326 


•007 


•258 


•263 


•005 


Moorfields . 


■323 


•330 


•007 


•255 


•261 


•006 


Farringdon 


•326 


•333 


•007 


•248 


•256 


•008 


Street 














Clare Market 


•322 


•329 


•007 


•257 


•262 


•005 


English 


•317 


•323 


•006 


•262 


•267 


•005 


Soldiers 














Royal 


•320 


•325 


•005 


•267 


•271 


•004 


Engineers 














British Asso- 


•32(1 


•325 


•005 


•271 


•274 


•003 


ciation 














St.Thomas's 


•319 


•323 


•004 


•271 


•275 


•004 


Patients 














St.Thomas's 


•320 


•325 


•005 


•272 


•276 


•004 


Students 














Oxford 


•319 


•323 


•004 


•272 


•276 


■004 


Students 














British Ana- 


•320 


•324 


•004 


•275 


•278 


•003 


tomists 














Univ. Coll. 


•317 


•320 


•003 


•278 


•282 


•004 


Staff 

















Average differei 


ice -006 


A 


verage differei 


tee -005 



150 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



It will be noticed that we are fortunate enough to have two independent 
sets of measurements of the three main stocks which went to the making 
of the Englishman — the Mediterranean, represented by the Long Barrow 
or Neolithic Race ; the Alpine, represented by the Beaker Folk ; and the 
Nordic, represented by the Anglo-Saxons. One of each of these three 
sets has been measured by myself, and the other has been measured or 
collected by Mr. Morant, who published them in Biometrika. 1 

Now, although neither the authorities of Biometrika nor I are un- 
qualified admirers of the other's methods, I firmly believe that we both 
are trying to find out the truth, according to our lights and limitations ; 
and in this case our results, when reduced, as I have reduced them, to 
proportional indices, are so nearly alike that, however much we might 
wish to, neither of us can attack the other with any reasonable chance of 
success. 

If we add the proportional indices of the three stocks together and 
divide them by three, the result is as follows : — 





Length. 


Breadth. Height. 




Morant . 
Parsons 


•4185 -3200 -2615 
•4205 -3210 -2585 


= 1-0000 
= 1-0000 


Mean 


•4195 


•3205 


•2600 


= 1-0000 



This result, surely, is as close as two people working upon different 
samples and different numbers of skulls of the same races could be expected 
to reach ; and there is every reason to believe that the mean between 
the two sets of results is more likely to be nearer the truth than either 
of them taken separately, and ought roughly to represent what we should 
be likely to find, in the descendants, if equal numbers of Long Barrow 
folk, Beaker folk, and Anglo-Saxons were mixed and allowed to interbreed. 
Let us compare this with the records of the Northamptonshire people 
who lived at Rothwell in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries : — 





Length. 


Breadth. 


Height. 




Mean of Long Barrow, 
Beaker, and Saxons . 
Rothwell 
Hythe .... 


•4195 
■4180 
•4090 


•3205 
•3230 
•3300 


■2600 
•2590 
•2610 


= 1-0000 
= 1-0000 
= 1-0000 



This shows that if we evolve, as we have done in the first line, the 
kind of skull which a mixture of the three main stocks which we know 
went to the making of the mediaeval Englishman would produce, we get 
a form which, in its proportional length, breadth, and height, is almost 
identical with that found in the Midlander of the Middle Ages, as shown 
in the second line. 

When, however, the Hythe crania, shown iii the third line, are compared 
with these, we see at once that they must have had a different parentage ; 



1 Biometrika, vol. 18, p. 82. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



151 



and what that parentage is becomes plain when they are placed in company 
with the Beaker folk. 





Length. 


Breadth. 


Height. 




Hythe .... 
Mean of Morant and Par- 
sons' Beaker Folk 


•4090 
•4035 


•3300 
•3325 


•2610 
•2640 


= 1-0000 
= 1-0000 



It seems to me as clear as clear can be that these Hythe people, in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, were the result of an incursion and 
settlement of people from the Continent, of the Alpine Race, who had 
been slightly, but only slightly, modified by mixture with the Kentish 
folk. 2 

In the eighteenth century the Londoners who lived in the neighbour- 
hood of Clare Market had skulls the proportional dimensions of which 
differed very little from those at Kothwell : — 





Length. Breadth. 


Height. 




Rothwell 
Clare Market 


■418 -323 

•421 -322 

1 


•259 
•257 


= 1-000 
= 1-000 



Apparently, however, there was a little more of the Nordic and a little 
less of the Alpine element about them. 

In the seventeenth century three series of plague skulls are available 
and were described by Macdonell and Hooke. They are remarkable for 
their low vaults and receding foreheads, and it has been suggested that 
they show that the modern Londoner has reverted to the Early Iron Age 
type, though formerly Pearson regarded them as Long Barrow in their 
characteristics. Unfortunately we know very little of the craniology of 
the Early Iron Age, and I see that Morant cannot find a single record of 
what their auricular height was. 3 We must therefore let this suggestion 
stand over until more work has been done upon the head shape of the 
Iron Age. There is one point, however, which I think should be borne 
in mind, especially since the Londoners seem to have gone back to a 
more normal head height in the eighteenth century ; it is that during the 
plague the better class of citizens fled from the city, leaving the dregs of 
the population behind, and it is in these dregs that receding foreheads and 

2 Writing in Biomelrika (vol. 18, p. 22) Miss Hooke says that the Hythe skulls 
were ' in all probability those of Kentish men.' This I no longer believe, because I 
examined a number of skulls of the same date from the crypt of a disused church at 
Dover and found them quite different from those at Hythe. Again, the same writer 
says that the skulls which I recorded at Hythe were ' selected ' from at least double 
the number. This, if it were true, would necessarily make the Hythe records value- 
less ; but it is absolutely untrue, since I examined all the skulls which were available 
at the time, and no selection whatever was made. Since then more skulls have been 
recovered from the stack, but there is no reason to believe that they differ in any 
way from those which I measured. 

3 Biomelrika, vol. 18, p. 82. 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

low cranial vaults are most likely to be found. I cannot think that it 
is wise to use plague skulls as types of seventeenth-century Londoners 
as a. whole. 

Now we come to a new and striking development. It will be noticed 
that, until the eighteenth century, the only skulls which show a pro- 
portional auricular height of over -260 are those belonging to the Alpine 
Race, that is to say the Beaker Folk and the Hythe people. Morant, it 
is true, quotes Schuster's Long Barrow Folk as having -261, but there 
were onlv eight of these available, and twenty more gave me an average 
of -258. 

It is therefore fairly clear that in none of the races which have helped 
to make the modern Englishman was the height of the head more than 
•260 of the length, breadth, and height added together, except in the 
Beaker Folk, where it reached at the highest computation -265. 

Bearing this in mind, it is interesting to notice, that in the early 
nineteenth century the proportion of the head height of English soldiers 
was -262, while in the men of the Royal Engineers, measured by Benington, 
in the early part of the twentieth century it had risen to -267, and in the 
patients at St. Thomas's Hospital in the present day it is -271. 

These last three examples are of the less well-educated classes, and 
even in these it is remarkable how the proportional height of the head 
has risen well above anything which any of our ancestors can show, even 
were we to claim the Beaker Folk as our main ancestors, which all the 
evidence tells us would be unjustifiable. 

But when we come to measure the educated classes of the community, 
which have enjoyed a greater share of the modern, improved conditions 
of environment, the result is still more striking, for we see the members 
of the British Association with a proportional head height of -271, the 
St. Thomas's Hospital students with # 272, the Oxford undergraduates 
with *272, a number of British anatomists who met in Dublin in 1898 with 
•275, and the University College staff with -278. 

Perhaps the point will be brought out more clearly if the means of 
the groups of the proportional head measurements are contrasted. 
Unfortunately I am unable always to take the number of observations 
into account, since I have never been able to find out how many members 
of the British Association were measured, but I find that where I have 
the numbers it would have made no appreciable difference to the results 
had I used them. 

We may see at the beginning of this list the relative proportions of the 
three chief cranial measurements of the three stocks which took part in 
making the mediaeval Englishman — the Mediterranean, the Alpine, and 
the Nordic. At Rothwell we have, in the fourteenth century, the result 
of the fusion of these three. In the seventeenth century, according to 
my reading, are the dregs of the populace, with their low cranial vaults, 
left behind to die of plague in London. At Clare Market again in the 
eighteenth century is the low- vaulted, slum population of a great town ; 
while in later years the height of the skull vaults has increased propor- 
tionally with improved conditions of life, until in the richer and more 
intellectual classes, which have enjoyed more of these improved sur- 
roundings, the head height has increased enormously. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOG V. 



153 





Proportion 


to 






the sum of the three. 




Length. 


Breadth 


Height. 


Mean of Schuster and Parsons' Neolithic 


•429 


•311 


•260 


= 1-000 


Mean of Morant and Parsons' Beaker Folk . 


•404 


•332 


•264 


= 1-000 


Mean of Morant and Parsons' Anglo-Saxons . 


•426 


•317 


•257 


= 1000 


Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century (Rothwell) 


•418 


•323 


•259 


= 1-000 


Mean of Whitechapel, Moorfields and Far- 










ringdon Street, seventeenth-century Plague 










Skulls 


•424 


•323 


•253 


= 1-000 


Clare Market, eighteenth century 


•421 


•322 


•257 


= 1000 


English Soldiers (Millbank), eighteenth century 


•421 


•317 


•262 


= 1000 


Poorly educated classes, twentieth century 










(Mean of Benington and Parsons) . 


•412 


•320 


•268 


= 1000 


Highly educated classes, twentieth century 










(Mean of Pearson, Schuster, and Parsons) . 


•407 


•319 


•274 


= 1-000 



At one time I looked upon this change as the result of the immigration 
of people of Alpine and Slavic descent from the Continent in the last 
century, but I think so no longer, since I have examined a series of modern, 
short-headed skulls from the Continent and find that these, like our own 
Beaker Folk, always have an average proportional breadth of more than 
•330, while our modern English people show no sign of increasing their 
proportional breadth and greatly exceed the Continental proportional 
height. 

I can see no signs of heredity or harking back to any known ancestry 
in the change which is coming over the English head, but only signs of 
reaction to environment. Is it not reasonable to think that, as the 
improved conditions of life are gradually shared by all classes, this change 
in the head shape will gradually become more general until the Englishman 
of the future is a man with a very differently proportioned head from that 
of any of his ancestors ? Please do not think that I wish to decry the 
old cranial index ; it has helped us much in the past, it will help us much 
in the future. All that I would say is that unless we take the proportional 
height into account we shall miss a great deal that we ought to know. 

To sum up this, which I fear is a too lengthy communication, I am 
left with the belief that the Englishman of the future is, if present condi- 
tions persist, making for an average height of 5 ft. 9 in., and the women 
for one of 5 ft. 6 in. or 5 ft. 7 in. 

That our people have reached, and are stationary at, a stage in which 
some 66 per cent, have light eyes and some 34 per cent. dark. 

That there are no signs whatever that the hair colour has darkened 
during the last sixty years, though there are signs, which perhaps need 
discounting, that the hair is lighter than it was sixty years ago. 

That the head shape is showing unmistakable signs of an increase of 
its proportional height, with a decrease of its proportional length, and 
that this increase of proportional height is greater than has been found 
in any of the stocks from which the modern Englishman is derived. It 
therefore cannot be looked upon as a harking back to any ancestral form, 
but must be regarded as an evolutionary process, in harmony with the 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

greatly changed conditions of life which have come about during the last 
century. 

After all this suggestion, which a study of the head height presses upon 
us, is one which many have held for a long time. If we accept it I fear 
that many of the sentimental attractions of British Anthropology will 
be lessened, since there will be greater difficulty in determining whether 
the modern Englishman has more Saxon, Neolithic, Alpine, or Iron Age 
blood in his veins ; and we must realise that he is becoming an individual 
who could not be formed by any possible combination of these stocks 
without the aid of external influences. Heredity alone, therefore, will 
not account for the Englishman of the future. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN 
PHYSIOLOGY. 

ADDRESS BY 

C. G. DOUGLAS, C.M.G., M.C., D.M., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In physiology our task is to study the nature of the phenomena which 
characterise normal life, as shown in the individual organism. At the 
outset it would perhaps seem presumption on our part to turn our attention 
to what we must admit to be the most complicated and highly developed 
organism, namely, man, before we have been able to elucidate at least 
the main' features of the life-process of more lowly forms ; should we not 
do better to argue from the simple to the complex ? Yet I suppose that 
man has always been curious about himself, his functions and existence, 
and nothing is likely in the future to lessen this curiosity. It is no matter 
for wonder, therefore, that the early history of physiology is bound up 
with the development of medicine, and that those whose daily life neces 
sarilv brought them into continual association with health and disease, 
and with life and death, should be among the first to turn their attention 
to the investigation of the nature of living processes. 

It is not, however, of the early days of physiology that I propose to 
speak. The progress made in the biological and physical branches of 
natural science has been amazingly rapid in recent years, and I want to 
try to reach some estimate as to the value of human physiology in the 
development of modern physiological thought. 

In the last fifty years we have seen the wide extension of what I may 
term the analytical method of physiological investigation, the attempt to 
differentiate the various components in the complex system which we call 
life, and to study in detail each of these components in turn and to render 
clear the phenomena peculiar to each. The organism is in this method 
treated as a series of systems— we speak, for instance, of the nervous system, 
the circulatory, the respiratory and the excretory systems— which, though 
no doubt but parts of a whole, are yet capable of being treated within 
limits as independent. In pursuing this method we have a perfectly 
definite aim, for we are trying to establish elementary facts about the 
different parts of the body without some knowledge of which we feel, 
and feel rightly, that a general conception of the whole is impossible. No 
one can deny that we have acquired in this way a mass of information 
which is essential to the whole study of physiology, nor is there any reason 
to suppose that the future will witness any diminution either in number 
or importance of the contributions thus made to knowledge. 



156 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The bulk of this information has been attained by the deliberate and 
careful investigation of animals by experimental methods, and as I am 
going to plead the cause of human physiology may I say at once, lest 
you should misconceive my purpose, that I do not believe that progress 
in physiology and in medical science to the lasting benefit of mankind is 
possible without employing such methods. But, while acknowledging 
the great debt which we already owe to these investigations, and my firm 
conviction that their further prosecution will be fully justified in the 
future, I have to face the question whether the method has not in reality 
some limitations. 

We are bound, I think, to admit frankly that direct observation bv 
methods involving operative procedure on the anaesthetized animal cannot 
by itself give us the full answer that we require. I have defined physiologv 
as the study of the nature of the phenomena which characterize norma! 
life, and normal life involves constantly varying activity of all the different 
organs of the body. Under the influence of an anaesthetic our subject is 
no longer normal, and we have perforce deliberately to close our eyes to 
that fundamental aspect of life — ceaselessly varying natural activity. We 
are forced to adopt methods of investigation which are essentially highly 
artificial ; the stimuli which we employ are usually coarse, and the changes 
to which we subject the organs gross, compared with the delicate altera- 
tions to which these same organs respond in natural life. But even if we 
admit this, are we to condemn the method ? Certainly not, in my opinion, 
provided always that we recognize that there is this risk of abnormality 
and artificiality, and honestly ask ourselves the question — what is the 
precise significance of our results in relation to normal life ? how far do our 
observations really help us to understand the phenomena associated with 
the natural existence of the organism ? We may be accumulating facts ; 
can we translate them ? 

If we are to understand life we must ultimately adopt methods of 
investigation which do not interfere with the normality of the organism 
or its power of self-maintenance ; and clearly, so long as we keep this aim 
before us, we are perfectly justified in making our observations on any 
animal the study of which we think will help to solve our problem. The 
conditions will be satisfied so long as our experimental treatment, whether 
that involves operative procedure or not, does not materially prejudice 
the delicate regulation of bodily functions which is so evident in the 
normal intact animal. Pavlov's classical researches on the secretion of 
the digestive juices were principally made on dogs which, though previously 
subjected to operation, were yet capable of exhibiting the normal functions 
and activities of life, and the requisite conditions were therefore just as 
effectively fulfilled as in, for example, the fundamental observations made 
by Rubner on nutrition and energy liberation when absolutely intact 
animals served as subjects. And yet, in spite of such examples, the point 
which I want to emphasize is that in the study of normal physiology man 
is in many instances a far more advantageous subject for investigation 
than are the lower animals. 

It may be urged that, so far as concerns the natural variations in 
activity of everyday life, we may study the lower animals just as profitablv 
as man. But can we guarantee that any animal, even though highlv 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 157 

trained, will provide the particular state of activity that we may require 
at the moment ? Man at least will conform with our requirements, and 
will maintain at request either rest or any degree or type of activity which 
we may desire. What is more, he, though himself the subject of investiga- 
tion, can help us to make our observations, and very often intelligent 
co-operation on the part of the subject may render easy experimental 
procedure which would otherwise be impossible. We gain, too, the 
advantage of learning the subjective impressions of the person on whom 
we are making our experiments. Everyone will admit the importance of 
these impressions when studying the physiology of the sense organs, but 
may they not be of value, too, in the investigation of other functions % 
Indeed they may help us not infrequently to gauge the normality or 
abnormality of the conditions under which we are working. The point 
of view of the mere spectator is, after all, an impersonal one, and if it 
can be amplified and perhaps corrected by reference to the feelings of the 
subject so much the better. The investigation of life is too difficult a 
task to allow us lightly to discard any method which may help us, and 
if we confine our attention to the lower animals we do limit ourselves to 
objective experience and renounce the possibility of assistance from 
subjective impressions. 

Can my assertion that there is a definite advantage in doing experi- 
ments on man be justified by the information that has already been gained 
from investigations on the human subject ? Let me briefly discuss the 
position. 

We know, it is true, not a little about the respiratory exchange of 
animals, but we can fairly claim to know very much more about the oxygen 
consumption, C0. 2 output and energy exchange of man. Data have been 
obtained on man whilst resting, walking, running, pedalling a bicycle, 
rowing, swimming, traversing the snow on ski or the ice on skates, per- 
forming military exercises, hewing coal at the pit face or pursuing other 
industrial occupations, and doing mental work — a fairly representative 
collection of man's various activities in his daily life. 

Such information is not of mere academic interest ; it has not been 
obtained solely to satisfy our idle curiosity ; it is fundamental to physio- 
logy. We learn from it how greatly the oxygen requirements and the 
energy output vary with changes in occupation — we find that the energy 
output when walking at four miles an hour is five times as great as during 
rest, and that the trained athlete may for a number of minutes maintain 
an oxygen consumption not far short of twenty times the resting value — 
and we begin to realize quantitatively something about the latent possi- 
bilities in the respiration, circulation and other bodily functions which 
must be called upon to adapt themselves from moment to moment to 
meet such widely varying demands. Observations on the general 
metabolism and energy exchange in man have played, too, a conspicuous 
part in the development of our knowledge of the general principles of 
dietetics and of the science of nutrition both of the individual and of the 
nation. 

Research on the intact, or practically intact subject, naturally demands 
methods of investigation of very different character from those direct 
experimental methods which may be employed when full functional 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

integrity is no longer preserved. The history of the development within 
recent years of our ideas about respiration has afforded a striking example 
of the application of such methods. Twenty-two years have elapsed 
since the publication of Haldane's and Priestley's classical paper on the 
regulation of the lung ventilation. Up to that time our knowledge about 
the breathing was surprisingly small : we accepted the fact of the apparent 
aixtomaticity of the breathing, and recognised that the respiration adjusted 
itself suitably to changes in bodily activity, but we had no satisfactory 
explanation to offer ; isolated facts were known, but we could not combine 
them into an intelligible whole. Then suddenly light was thrown on the 
whole situation by a series of experimental observations on human subjects 
in full possession of their normal faculties and with their natural powers of 
response to changes in their immediate environment unimpaired. The 
reason for the activity of the respiratory centre in the brain was shown 
to be due in the main to the fact that it was sensitive to the actual concen- 
tration of CO., in the arterial blood which reached it. A trifling rise in 
this concentration above the value shown during quiet breathing at once 
caused hyperpnoea, a trifling fall was at once followed by reduction, if 
not complete cessation of the breathing. As the determining factor was 
apparently the concentration of CO, 2 in the arterial blood, a concentration 
set by the composition of the air in the depths of the lungs, it became 
evident that the activity of the respiratory centre was proportional to 
the mass of CO., produced in the body and carried to the lungs, and this 
in turn implied that the quantitative correlation of the ventilation of the 
lungs with the changes of metabolism in the body as a whole was ensured 
by chemical means. From this work, too, we gained our first real insight 
into the amazing delicacy of true chemical correlation within the organism. 

Since that date innumerable contributions have been made to the 
physiology of the breathing, and the bulk of these have been made with 
man as the subject of investigation. We recognize now that the respiratory 
centre is sensitive not to C0. 2 as such but to changes in the hydrogen ion 
concentration of the blood, that lactic acid accumulation as well as increased 
C0 2 production must be taken into account when studying the hyperpnoea 
caused by muscular exertion, and that reduction in the oxygen concentra- 
tion in the arterial blood and alteration in the temperature of the blood 
may play contributory parts. Yet in spite of this, the fundamental con- 
ception of accurate chemical or physico-chemical co-ordination of function 
remains unimpaired : so long as the respiratory centre is sensitive to 
chemical or physical changes which result from alterations in activity of 
the different organs, the quantity of air breathed must be co-ordinated 
with the varying metabolism of the body. 

And when once we have ascertained the quantitative alterations in the 
respiratory exchange which correspond with our varying activity during 
the course of the day, and have grasped the fact that the breathing is 
automatically adjusted in correspondence with the tissue metabolism, 
because the cells of the tissues are so intimately linked with the respiratory 
centre in the brain by the blood stream that the degree of activity of the 
respiratory centre is actually determined by the events in those organs 
whose metabolism happens to vary, we are led on logically to a further 
inquiry. For so delicate an adjustment of the breathing in conformity 



I.— PH YSIOLOGY , 159 

with changes in the activity of the tissues would be valueless without an 
equally delicate co-ordination of the circulation, since on this depends 
the transport of gases between the tissues and the lungs; nor would this 
suffice unless the blood were of such a nature as to afford a suitable medium 
for the carriage of oxygen and C0 2 . 

So far as our knowledge of the properties of the blood itself is concerned 
we can point to a great deal of progress. Naturally enough, the blood of 
many different animals has been investigated, but it has been found that 
the dissociation or absorption curves, which express the relationship 
between the amount of gas held in dissociable combination in the blood 
and the concentration of that gas to which the blood is exposed, differ in 
different species, and indeed in different individuals of the same species. 
and this fact makes it imperative that in physiological work the properties 
of the blood of the individual under consideration at the time should be 
investigated. Correct inferences as regards the properties of human blood 
from which we may deduce the exact part played by the blood in gas 
transport cannot therefore be drawn from studies of the blood of lower 
animals, and in consequence we find that more and more attention is being 
directed to the experimental investigation of the blood of man under 
widely varying conditions, both in health and in disease. 

I suppose that as much attention has been directed by physiologists to 
the circulatory system as to any other branch of physiology, and yet when 
we begin to question ourselves about the true functional regulation of the 
circulation our information still seems to be amazingly hazy and indefinite. 
Direct observations on the anaesthetized animal with the assistance of 
recording instruments have established a number of perfectly definite, 
facts. We have some notion of the mechanics of the circulatory system ; 
we have ascertained the general course and distribution of the vaso-motor 
nerves ; we have found that not only the arteries but even the capillaries 
are capable of active contraction and dilatation ; we have identified the 
powerful effect that may be exerted on the larger blood vessels and 
capillaries by the products of the ductless glands and by substance? 
produced in the metabolism of the tissues. We have gone farther than this : 
we have by means of artificial methods of stimulation identified various 
vascular reflexes ; we have found that the heart when isolated from the 
body can deal with an increase in the rate at which venous blood is supplied 
to it by altering its amplitude of beat without any variation in rate, though 
if its nervous connections are intact an acceleration of the venous return 
causes a reflex increase in the pulse rate, the antithesis of the reflex 
retardation caused by an undue rise of arterial blood pressure. 

But what does all this seemingly exact knowledge amount to ? Are 
we not really only showing up the potentialities in the circulatory system I 
It may be argued that we shall gradually build up the whole as our know- 
ledge of the component parts becomes more complete, but I retort — can 
you build up the whole without a preliminary notion of its characteristic 
qualities ? Surely before we attempt an explanation we must know what 
it is that we are trying to explain. The circulation has to supply oxygen 
and foodstuffs to the tissues, it has to remove CO a and other waste products 
from them. Well, what are the claims made on the circulation in every lay 
life ? We can answer that question in the case of man from our knowledge 



1G0 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of the changes in his metabolism under different circumstances. Here 
then are the demands : how does the circulation actually accomplish its 
task ; what are the facts of the case ? 

Thirty years ago Zuntz and Hageniann succeeded in making observa- 
tions on the output of blood from the heart in a horse by a method which 
involved operative procedure, though this did not interfere with the 
animal"s capacity for drawing a load, and these experiments afforded the 
first reasonably definite information as to the degree of alteration of the 
cardiac output caused by vigorous muscular work. More recently methods 
have been developed for determining the circulation rate in man, and 
with the help of these we are beginning to find out under different conditions 
of natural bodily activity the actual quantitative variations in the amount 
of blood expelled from the heart, the extent of the changes in gas content of 
the venous blood entering the lungs, and the relative parts played by the 
two factors of increase in pulse rate and alteration in the systolic- 
discharge at each beat which we have already identified as the potential 
means by which the heart can respond to alteration in the demands 
made upon it. 

This is, however, only the beginning of our task. To ascertain the 
full facts of the regulation of the circulation and its adaptation to the 
varying needs of the body is a more difficult problem than the regulation 
of the breathing. We may know a little about the. behaviour of the heart, 
but the heart is, after all, only the pump. We have still got to deal with 
the question of the distribution of the blood to different regions of the 
body. In spite of all the work that has been done in thepast, our ignorance 
on this side of the question is still profound, and the darkness will not be 
dispelled until we know much more about what happens in the normal 
animal. I am not going to assert that human physiology has succeeded 
in this case in giving us a solution where the method of direct experimenta- 
tion on lower animals has proved inadequate. It certainly has not as 
yet, but I do maintain that the knowledge that we have gained from a 
broad study of the whole respiratory function in man has at least empha- 
sized the nature of the problem that confronts us, and has given us some 
conception of the difficulties that we have to face. Suppose we expose 
and stimulate some nerve and find that this leads either directly or reflexly 
to contraction of the blood vessels in some region of the bod} 7 . All we have 
done is to show up a route along which it is possible for vaso-constrictor 
impulses to travel. We must go much farther than this : we must ascer- 
tain whether such impulses do follow this route during normal life, and if 
so, when ; what variation may be exhibited in the frequency or strength of 
the impulses and in the magnitude of the resultant effect ; what is the 
natural stimulus which initiates these impulses and causes them to vary 
from time to time, and what this variation may mean to the tissues in the 
area supplied by the blood vessels in question. 

What we have in fact got to find out are the actual quantitative changes 
which occur under natural conditions in the general circulation, and then 
we must try to interpret these in the light not only of our knowledge of 
the potentialities of the circulatory system itself but in relation also to 
the varying activities and demands of the tissues. 

What matters to the tissues of the bodv is that each and all of them 



L— PHYSIOLOGY. 1G1 

should at all times be furnished with the right amount of blood to satisfy 
their needs, however much these needs may vary. The general circulation 
rate and the calibre of the blood vessels must be accurately adjusted lest 
in satisfying the needs- of some organs others should be starved, and until 
we can express this adjustment in quantitative terms we cannot hope to 
assess correctly the relative importance to be attributed to physico- 
chemical, nervous or hormonal factors in ensuring the necessary co- 
ordination. We devote enough attention in all conscience to the measure- 
ment of blood pressure, and no doubt this has materially aided us to 
appreciate the cruder and more elementary phenomena associated with 
the circulation, but when we look at the question from the point of view 
of the tissues and are brought face to face with the true functional aspect 
of the circulation, blood pressure as such becomes a more or less irrelevant 
detail. The failure lies in the fact that we cannot construe our measurements 
into what is of true functional significance, namely, changes in the rate 
of blood flow. We cannot of course expect an adequate supply of blood 
without an adequate driving force or blood pressure, but the requisite 
force at any moment must depend on the precise setting of the calibre of 
the blood vessels, and in regard to this we must confess that we have 
still got a vast amount to learn. The adaptation and accommodation 
of the circulation to meet the requirements of the body is the real essential 
that we have to study, and it is not until we have gained an insight into 
the quantitative changes of the local and general circulation, and the 
factors on which these depend, in the normal and functionally intact 
animal, that we shall be able to claim to understand the circulation of 
the blood. 

We meet with exactly the same difficulties in the case of the other 
functions of the body when we try to translate potentialities into actuali- 
ties. Take the case of the kidney, for example. Controversy has raged 
for years as to whether the cells in the different regions of the kidney are 
to be regarded as playing an active or a passive role in the formation of 
urine. Observations on the anaesthetized animal or the isolated kidney 
are slowly solving some of the difficulties, but even when we have reached 
agreement on the vexed question as to the degree to which the properties 
of filtration, active re-absorption and specific secretion can be ascribed 
to the kidney epithelium we are only at the beginning of our troubles, 
for we have still to ascertain how these different potentialities may be 
brought into play to account for the normal behaviour of the kidney. 
Observations on man have already done much to show the surprising 
delicacy with which the kidney responds to alterations in the composition 
of the blood, and to throw suspicion on the justice of conclusions based on 
experimental alterations of so gross a character that they could have no 
counterpart in normal life. The kidney is not acting as a simple drain ; 
it is playing a perfectly definite part in helping to maintain the com- 
position of the blood normal, and experiments on human subjects have 
thrown into strong relief the interdependence of the kidney and other 
organs in maintaining this normality. 

The physiological regulation of the hydrogen ion concentration of the 
blood and tissues, a problem to which so much attention has been directed 
in recent years, affords an instance of the interaction of the organs in 

1927 M 



162 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

promoting the normal working of the body. We cannot restrict ourselves 
here to a consideration only of the physico-chemical properties of the blood 
and tissue fluids, for the initiation of any alteration in the hydrogen ion 
concentration of the blood will at once result in a- change in the activity 
of the respiratory, circulatory and excretory organs, the net effect of which 
will be to render the actual change of hydrogen ion concentration a great 
deal less than would otherwise be the case. Thus we see that the reactions 
provoked in response to changed conditions will tend to preserve the 
functional capacity of the body by limiting the changes in the immediate 
environment of the tissue cells. 

The experimental investigation of man has furnished the clearest 
evidence of co-ordination of organ activity of this type. The reaction 
to muscular work is a case in point, for the increased activity of the respira- 
tion and circulation, by hastening the elimination of C0 2 from the body, 
helps to keep within reasonable limits the rise of hydrogen ion concentra- 
tion in the blood caused by the passage of greatly increased amounts of 
C0. 2 , and even lactic acid, from the active muscles into the blood stream, 
and at the same time maintains the oxygen supply. The limitation of 
the changes of hydrogen ion concentration in the blood, which is brought 
about by simultaneous changes in the activity of the respiratory centre 
and in the rate of excretion of acid and basic radicals by the kidney, has 
been demonstrated in man when acid or alkali is temporarily withdrawn 
from the body during the secretion of the digestive juices just as clearly 
as when an excess of acid or alkali gains admission to the body owing 
either to alteration of the diet or to the deliberate ingestion of alkalies, 
such as sodium bicarbonate, or substances, such as ammonium chloride, 
which lead to the liberation of acid within the body. There is evidence, 
too, from experiments on man that in the tissues themselves a still narrower 
limitation of changes of hydrogen ion concentration than in the arterial 
blood may be attained by local acceleration or retardation of the circula- 
tion. 

In the influence of training on a man's capacity for strenuous muscular 
exertion, and in the process of acclimatization to the reduced oxygen 
pressure in the atmosphere at high altitudes — a process to which changes 
in the activity of the respiratory organs and kidneys and in the composition 
of the blood all contribute — we get further examples of the co-ordinated 
accommodation of organ activity to alteration in the conditions of life. 

The more we examine the normal behaviour of the body the more is 
it brought home to us that the maintenance of the natural life and integrity 
of the organism depends on the closest co-ordination of all its different 
parts ; all the organs are interdependent, and can have no real existence 
save as active components of a corporate whole. Life consists of a 
delicate balance of all the different functions, a balance that is being con- 
tinually adjusted so as to ensure the maintenance of the true functional 
capacity of the organism in its struggle for self-preservation in a constantly 
varying environment. As an agent in securing this exquisite co-ordina- 
tion a physico-chemical change in the blood stream may at one moment 
be prominent, at another moment a nervous reflex. Very frequently 
both factors co-operate, the physico-chemical change ensuring perhaps 
strict quantitative co-ordination of activity, the nervous reflex offering 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 163 

the advantage of speed and simultaneity of response in parts of the body 
remote from one another. The two factors are not antagonistic ; the one 
is not gradually supplanting the other, but each plays its part in its own 
peculiar sphere. 

When we recognize the exactness of the co-ordination of the different 
functions in normal life we cannot fail to appreciate the relative crudity 
of some of the experimental methods we are forced to use in physiology. 
Methods that interfere with the mutual interdependence of the different 
organs can only give us a partial insight into the problem of life, and if 
we use these methods we must correct the impression that we gain by 
comparison with the true normal. 

In attempting to put before you what appear to me the outstanding 
contributions which we owe to human physiology — the quantitative 
changes of organ activity associated with normal life, the close functional 
linkage of the different organs, and the power of adaptation to altered 
circumstances — I have, as is only natural, dwelt upon those branches of 
physiology with which I personally have been mainly brought in contact. 
But the study of human physiology is by no means limited to these fields, 
and we must not forget that we owe much to work undertaken primarily 
in the cause of clinical medicine, a debt which we can repay in part as we 
develop new methods by which we may investigate the physiology of man. 
Instances of spontaneous derangement of function in man have helped 
very considerably to elucidate the influence of the ductless glands, and 
modern methods of clinical examination have amplified our knowledge 
of the processes of digestion and the movements of the alimentary canal ; 
while the neurologist is widening the field in which we can find scope for 
the application of the fundamental principles of reflex action which, 
based originally on the experimental investigation and analysis of the 
properties of the lower nervous system, have already been extended by 
the physiologist to embrace some at least of the functions of the cerebral 
hemispheres in the intact animal. 

When we review the development of physiological thought in the last 
quarter of a century we cannot close our eyes to the fact that investiga- 
tions on man are becoming of increasing importance, and that the contri- 
bution made by human physiology does not involve mere matters of 
detail. There is something of far more importance than that, for the 
evidence of balanced interaction of the functions of the different organs 
with the preservation of the functional integrity of the whole, which is 
so convincingly brought home to us in experiments on the human subject, 
has made us appreciate that in physiology the organism as such, be it 
man or one of the lower animals, is our unit, and that, whatever methods 
we may employ in our investigations, we must keep that essential fact 
before us. In the problem of what is meant by life we have set ourselves 
the most complicated puzzle in existence. I firmly believe that human 
physiology, limited though our knowledge may as yet be, has already 
given us a vague glimpse of the final picture which we hope to complete, 
and has put us in a better position to fit together the individual fragments, 
the tiny components of the puzzle, which we have been accumulating in 
such profusion in years past. 

The truth is that we cannot confine ourselves exclusively to any one 

m 2 



164 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

method in physiological investigation. Unless we deliberately study the 
normal organism in its entirety I do not see how we can gain any adequate 
conception about what is really implied by life, but once we have begun 
to gain that conception we can employ the methods of detailed analysis 
about which I have spoken earlier with hope of real success. There has 
been a tendency of late to differentiate the subject of bio-chemistry from 
physiology, but this distinction, though it may have the merit of 
administrative convenience, can have no real justification if the ultimate 
aim of the physiologist and bio-chemist is, as I suppose, the same, namely, 
the investigation of the nature of living processes. Physiology and bio- 
chemistry in fact merge into one another, and if we call to our aid the re- 
sources of chemistry and physics that need not imply that we are any the 
less physiologists, but we have to be on our guard that we do not by 
imperceptible degrees turn from the path of biology into that of pure 
chemistry and, in so doing, miss the goal that we set out to attain. If an 
example is needed of the application of chemical and physical methods of 
investigation to the normal living organism, I would point to the work that 
has been done on human physiology, for it seems to me that a just claim 
may be made that in that there is represented at least one aspect of true 
chemical physiology. 

I have now tried to show you something of the part that has already 
been played by human physiology in the study of the phenomena 
associated with life, and I want to turn to a different aspect with a view 
to urging a wider extension of the study of this branch of physiology. In 
our enthusiasm for research we are apt to overlook the fact that unless our 
teaching can keep pace with our research the general advance of learning 
must be seriously impeded. Age must give place to youth, and we must 
do our best to hand on to those who will succeed us the knowledge which 
we have inherited and to which we have added in our own generation, so 
that they may be able to go forward from the point where we are obliged 
to leave off. 

I cannot help feeling that our teaching of physiology would be more 
satisfactory if human physiology occupied a more prominent position. 
I am not thinking so much in this connection of advanced teaching, for 
the number of students who take advanced courses is relatively small and 
it is fairly easy to arrange suitable work for limited numbers. The great 
majority of students who take up the study of physiology do so as a 
preliminary to a medical career, and but few of them in the end pass on to 
advanced courses, and it is of the elementary teaching of physiology 
required as a preliminary to the study of clinical medicine, or an antecedent 
to more advanced honours courses, that I wish to speak. 

So far as the theoretical side of physiology is concerned, books enough 
and to spare are available ; and if the student is dissatisfied with his text 
book or his teachers he can turn, unless he is appalled at the prospect, to 
the ever-increasing number of monographs, reviews and special volumes 
which offer to him information on almost every conceivable branch, 
however obscure, of physiology. It is, I think, the practical instruction 
in physiology with which we may legitimately find fault. We are, I 
suppose, in part tied by tradition, in part handicapped in our laboratories 
by the accumulation of apparatus of bygone days, and it is easy to point 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 165 

to lack of funds as an excuse for continuing in the same path as those 
who preceded us. The fact remains that so far as elementary practical 
physiology, as distinct from bio-chemistry, is concerned, reliance is still 
largely placed upon an experimental treatment of some of the rudimentary 
phenomena exhibited by amphibian muscle and nerve. I do not deny 
that some of these experiments do afford information which is of value 
to the student, but I am also prepared to maintain that others are merely 
artificial, and but relics of the past that would be better omitted, and that 
they in no way represent the standpoint of the present day in this branch 
of physiology. But though experiments on muscle and nerve still figure 
largely in the physiological curriculum, it is noticeable that simple experi- 
ments illustrating the progress of more recent years are gradually being 
introduced, and that in some laboratories a far more serious attempt has 
been made to remodel the curriculum than in others, and to afford an 
opportunity for gaining acquaintance with some of the facts of human 
physiology. 

Such a change in outlook is very welcome. When dealing with a 
subject which is so rapidly progressive as physiology I feel that we are 
bound to reconsider our methods of teaching at intervals, if we are to 
render those whom we instruct reasonably conversant with the actual 
state of knowledge at the time ; mere addition to the curriculum is of 
no use, what is needed is reconstruction. Do not think that I say this in 
any carping spirit. After all, some facts have become so firmly established 
in the past as to have become axiomatic, and we must be content to accept 
many of these without constant repetition of their proof if time is to be 
found to give the student some indication of the experimental develop- 
ments which have led to alteration and extension of our earlier conceptions. 
If practical courses of instruction are to play their full part and not to 
degenerate into simple exercises in skilful manipulation they must be 
brought into line with current physiological thought ; they must, even 
though the experiments be simple, help to convince the student of the 
meaning and truth of what he reads. I am certain myself that a serious 
attempt to incorporate even in elementary courses experiments on human 
physiology will be amply justified. 

I confess frankly that in my own case if I want to understand the 
facts of physiology I have to think of what they might mean to me in 
my own person ; I cannot think easily in terms of lower animals. I 
have got to translate the information before I can use it. I do not believe 
that I am peculiar in this respect. Many a student would, I am sure, 
acquire a deeper and more real interest in physiology if his attention were 
directed to some of the essential facts of human physiology at an early 
stage in his instruction. Show him something of what really happens 
in himself in the natural course of his daily life, awaken his curiosity 
about the way in which these events are actually accomplished, and he 
will then more readily understand the significance of what he learns 
from other sources. As it is, he runs the risk of being overwhelmed by 
the literature of the subject that he is studying and of losing himself in 
details which he cannot place in the right perspective : he too often fails 
to see the wood for. the trees. The quantitative interdependence of 
function in the body can be well illustrated by simple experiments in 



166 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

human physiology ; and a more convincing introduction to those quanti- 
tative conceptions which must form the basis of physiology, as of other 
branches of natural science, can be gained, I think, in this way than by, 
say, a few quantitative bio-chemical analyses which, essential though they 
may be in themselves, can hardly be more than exercises in method in 
the early days of a student's career. 

These students are for the most part going to follow the profession of 
medicine, and in the short time available our aim must be to develop their 
powers of thought and initiative that they may be the better equipped to 
face the future when they go out into the world ; and if they leave us with 
only the recollection of a medley of seemingly disconnected facts, it is 
quite intelligible that they may fail to grasp what physiology really means, 
and that a gulf, for which there can be no justification, will deepen between 
physiology and medicine. Physiology is not medicine : the physician 
sees a side of life which the physiologist does not meet in the cold aloofness 
of the laboratory. The art of medicine is not based merely on the applica- 
tion of skilled technique ; it demands in addition a full and sympathetic 
comprehension of human nature with all its hopes and fears, its frailty 
and courage. And yet the more the physiologist can find out about the 
characteristics of normal life the greater will be his service to medicine, 
for a knowledge of the normal cannot but help us to estimate with greater 
certainty the influence of the abnormal, and the underlying principles of 
adaptation of organ activity which we as physiologists recognize in the 
functional changes which exhibit themselves in everyday life, and in the 
reactions to alterations of environment, have their counterpart in medicine 
in the natural efforts at compensation for the effects of injury or disease, 
a compensation which it must be the aim of the physician to encourage 
and assist. 

And there is another field in which scope may be found for human 
physiology. In the growing complexity of the modern world the improve- 
ment of the general standard of life is a matter which appeals to all of us. 
Physiologists have already played a prominent part in investigations into 
the means by which conditions may be improved and risk reduced in 
industrial processes, into the factors which affect the efficiency and welfare 
of the working classes, and into the influence of diet on health. Problems 
such as these, whose solution is of direct benefit to the community at 
large, call for the practical application of physiological principles. We 
ought not to regard applied physiology as something distinct, as something 
to be divorced from the more academic study of theoretical physiology ; 
it should be looked upon as the natural extension of our researches in the 
laboratory. These practical problems in their turn often suggest new lines 
of inquiry, new methods of approach, by which the science of physiology 
may be still further advanced. 

The horizon stretching before the physiologist is a wide one, and, no 
matter whether he intends to adopt an academic career in pure physiology 
or to follow the path which leads on to medicine or to hygiene in its broadest 
sense, I am convinced that a study of human physiology will introduce 
him to some of the fundamental facts of life, and by giving him a guiding 
line of thought will help him to make his way through a maze of minutiae 
and speculations in which he might otherwise get overwhelmed. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



MENTAL UNITY 
AND MENTAL DISSOCIATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

WILLIAM BROWN, M.D., D.Sc, M.R.C.P., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It is important to realise that the problem of mental unity and dissociation 
is in direct relationship to the problem of unity and dissociation in the 
physical and physiological spheres. The point of view from which we 
should first approach it is that of biology. The general tendency 
throughout evolution seems to be towards the building up of totalities or 
wholes, in which each separate activity takes place in relation to the 
whole. The general conception is not that of a purely mechanistic 
scheme in which we begin with particles of matter and consider how they 
interact with one another to produce a more and more complex system, 
but one in which there is a guiding unity from the beginning. We may 
indeed, as metaphysicians, assume that there is a guiding unity of the 
entire universe. But short of such an ultimate generalisation we find 
that observation itself reveals this tendency towards a progressive 
development and multiplication of unities, in relation to which individual 
activities occur. 

In one sense, biology may be regarded as the most fundamental of 
the sciences, and even the simpler physical and chemical activities occur 
as parts of systems, which may be likened to organisms in having an 
environment to which their reactions are adjusted. This biological point 
of view needs for its completion the psychological point of view, which is 
not something distinct from the biological, but a continuation of it- 
Psychology is a completion of biology as a science, and gives further 
meaning to it. The unity of the organism becomes more intelligible 
when we think of it as a mental, and in part a conscious, unity. It is a 
unity in plurality. Physically, the organism is a unity of parts in spatial 
relation to one another ; psychologically, it is a system of mental ten- 
dencies in relation to one another. What we find physically is a reaction 
to an environment in the form of reflex action, simple or conditioned. 
Psychologically, response to external stimulation is the satisfaction of 
conation, and, at higher levels, satisfaction of desire, &c. Biologically, 
it is the struggle for existence, with all that this involves. Psychologically, 
it is a conscious striving first of all for something that the individual 
does not know— towards a goal which he gradually realises, gradually 
learns to understand as he achieves it or fails to achieve it. However 
helpful the biological concepts of tropisms and conditioned reflexes may 
be as explanatory factors, the psychological point of view throws further 



168 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

light upon the situation. The ultimate factor that has to be considered 
is something that is purposive — a general striving — which factor has to 
be assumed in order that the theory of conditioned reflexes will work. 

Unity of mind, then, is something which develops. In its general 
form it is there from the beginning, but it only exists in relation to a 
multiplicity. There is a one-and-many relationship from the beginning. 
Moreover, the individual himself is, to some extent, an abstraction. He 
belongs to a species. He has a history, and his history is, in part, the 
history of the entire species. The history of the species is part of the 
history of organic evolution, and the history of organic evolution is part 
of the history of the Universe — if, indeed, we may think of the Universe 
itself as having a history. But within the individual experience there are 
partial activities that may struggle with one another just as individual 
members of a species may compete with one another, and in this nisus or 
striving towards more complete unity and greater complexity and more 
adequate adaptation to environment, the process of dissociation shows 
itself as essential and normal. Right from the beginning we must realise 
that dissociation is just as normal and necessary as association. The 
mind as it grows must be able to reject, and also must be able to segregate 
one activity from another. Different activities must be insulated from 
one another to a great extent within the organism, just as in an electrical 
machine there must be insulation of the wires. This insulation is what 
is meant by normal dissociation or disjunction. And from the patho- 
logical point of view there can be disturbance in both respects — 
disturbance of association and disturbance of dissociation. Experiences 
may become associated in such a way as to blur the clearness of vision 
of the individual as regards appearances and values, just as, more obviously, 
dissociation may go beyond its proper function and tend to destroy the 
unity or totality towards which normal striving is directed. 

The earlier associationist doctrine of psychology was unsatisfactory 
because, among other things, it failed to distinguish between the process 
of experiencing, or the act of experiencing, and the content or object of 
experience ; and its aim seems to have been to describe the mind as a sort 
of mosaic of contents of experience joined up to one another according to 
the laws of association by contiguity and similarity. But association is 
primarily between the acts of experience. These acts of experience are 
differentiations of the fundamental striving — that which Spinoza called 
the conaUis in suo esse perseverare, ' the striving to persist in one's own 
being.' This striving has an object. There is always an object — the 
environmental changes which the individual has to face — and corre- 
sponding with the complexity of the environment there is a complexity 
developing within this general striving, forming a complex system of 
conations. This conation involves the two other well-known aspects of. 
cognition or awareness, and of feeling-tone. Associationist psychology 
erred in failing to allow due weight to the conative side, and in attempting 
to range the different kinds of feeling on a level with the different kinds 
of objective experience. But even according to the associationist scheme, 
dissociation or disjunction was necessary for a complete explanation of 
normal mental activity. Side by side with the principles of association 
by contiguity and similarity, there was the principle of dissociation by 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 169 

varying concomitance. Only by such a principle could the important 
processes of discrimination, comparison and abstraction be brought within 
the circle of associationist doctrine. The general scheme of explanation 
was wrong, in that it dealt with contents of experience when it should 
have been dealing with acts of experience ; and the general scheme of 
mental activity which we put in the place of this associationist scheme is 
that of systems of mental tendencies included within, and in subordination 
to, a wider system — tendencies towards knowledge and action, and 
involving feeling. One such system of explanation is that in terms of 
instinctive-emotional dispositions organised within sentiments, with the 
sentiments in their turn subordinated to one all-inclusive sentiment or 
master-interest. A sentiment is an organisation of emotional dis- 
positions centred about the idea of some object. What are organised 
are not the presentations or representations, not the contents of experience 
primarily, but the processes or acts of experience. The tendencies of 
experience, and the activity and organisation of these tendencies, bring 
with them an organisation of the objects ; and so our memories, which are 
retained and which are used for the retention of past experiences, fall into 
systems because the acts of experience corresponding to those memories 
fall into systems. And from that point of view we see that the dis- 
sociations of memory — the gaps in the memory continuum, known as 
amnesias — find their true significance in the segregation of corresponding 
acts of experience. 

The question then arises, if we reject the associationist scheme accord- 
ing to which the mind is built up of presentations and representations 
cohering together in systems, are we to regard the unity of the mind as an 
aggregation of mental activities and tendencies ? Are we to put in place 
of our mosaic of mental contents a collection or a colony of mental 
tendencies ? The reply is ' No,' because we do not have these mental 
tendencies separate from one another — just coming together and cohering, 
just as we do not have the mental contents coming together and cohering. 
Both subjectively and objectively, we must assume at the beginning a 
generalised striving and mental tendency, with a generalised objective — 
e.g. ' the great big buzzing confusion ' of which William James speaks as 
the world of the new-born babe — a continuum of sensation and movement 
on one side, and a continuum of mental striving on the other. The 
general mental striving which we assume at the beginning becomes 
gradually differentiated in relation to the needs of the organism, and the 
demands made upon the organism by its environment — a differentiation 
superimposed upon the differentiations accumulating in the history of the 
race, and handed on from generation to generation in the form of instinctive 
endowment and inherited aptitudes. The individual inherits not only 
separate instincts, but also the tendency towards an organisation of those 
instincts. He inherits the beginnings of sentiments, as well as instincts. 
He is already a one-and-many unity, with his mind a plurality of part- 
tendencies and processes, and his task in life is to carry that organisation 
to a higher stage. The demands made upon him by his environment 
bring with them movements in two directions — in the direction of greater 
unity and greater organisation, and also of greater complexity — a greater 
degree of differentiation and discrimination. Discrimination is necessary 



170 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

because he has not only to accept, but also to neglect or reject, and this 
neglecting or rejecting involves dissociation, just as acceptance involves 
association. 

As regards dissociation in pathological cases, the writers of the last 
generation thought of this in terms of associationist psychology, and in 
the doctrine of Prof. Pierre Janet one finds that standpoint still apparent. 
In his description of cases of hysteria and multiple personality, he implies 
a general background of explanation, according to which personality may 
be regarded as a synthesis of mental presentations some of which can be 
split off from the main mass. This view is similar to the colonial view of 
personality which we find in the writings of Ribot. But if we remind 
ourselves of the fact that experience involves an act of experiencing, we 
see that the situation is rather different. The power of recall is an 
essential aspect of conscious memory. On the other hand, unconscious 
memories are unconscious or latent mental activities directed towards 
past events. They are not passive, but involve a certain amount of 
mental energy. And so we pass from Pierre Janet's theory to the theory 
of Prof. Sigmund Freud, and we find that the dissociation which is taken 
as a fact in Janet's theory is explained in Freud's theory in terms of 
mental conflict and repression. These memories become inaccessible to 
the individual because the mental tendencies corresponding to them are 
in conflict with other tendencies of the individual and incompatible with 
his more fundamental interests. So they are extruded by an active 
process of repression — they are barred from consciousness. 

That process of repression and extrusion, though pathological in these 
cases, need not be necessarily so. We must not look upon extrusion itself 
as essentially pathological. It is because we have restricted the word 
dissociation so much to the pathological side that we find it so incom- 
prehensible to us. It is because we have thought too much in terms of 
mental unity that cases of multiple personality seem to be inexplicable. 
Actually the most normal mind is a multiplicity. We are all many selves. 
We have to face the world from many different angles. We have many 
different interests. Interests in the most normal mind may conflict and 
be incompatible with one another. And it is a condition of mental 
health that such conflict can be resolved by elimination or by a higher 
synthesis. What makes the dissociation of multiple personality 
pathological is that the elimination is not complete — that dissociation in 
normal mental activity is a successful rejection, and that dissociation in a 
pathological case is unsuccessful — is an incomplete and therefore an 
unsuccessful rejection. A tendency that is pathologically repressed is, as 
it were, rejected and accepted at the same time — rejected by clear con- 
sciousness, but still clung to by the mind. 

It is misleading to look upon the problem of mental dissociation and 
multiple personality as something standing by itself, as if we understood 
mental unity and were perplexed by the appearance of multiplicity. 
Multiplicity is an aspect of the normal mind, just as much as unity is, and 
unity needs explaining just as much as multiplicity does. Those two 
problems must be solved together, and kept in relation to one another 
all through. 

Many of the classical cases of multiple personality are fully explained 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 171 

along these lines. They are cases of alternating personality with 
reciprocal amnesia, as it is called, in which each personality is unable to 
re< all the experiences of the other. The two individuals A and B alternate 
with one another. A has his own system of memories and, when he 
disappears and makes way for B, B has his system of memories distinct 
from the memories of A. We may explain this in terms of two general 
systems of interests which are mutually incompatible and in conflict 
with one another. As a rule, one part of the personality is more 
fundamental, i.e. more stable, than the other. But difficulty arises in 
cases where one personality is shut up within its own memories and 
experiences, while the other personality has access to those memories 
as well as to its own. A may have his system of memories but be quite 
ignorant of B, except from indirect evidence, whereas B not only has a 
special set of memories, but also has direct knowledge, of A's memories, 
thoughts and feelings. This is a difficult problem which needs to be 
faced. We find an analogous, though not identical, situation in most 
cases of deep hypnosis. When a patient passes into the hypnotic state, 
he may remain fully aware of his waking consciousness, and may have free 
access to the memories of his waking self. But on awaking he does not, 
as a rule, remember his hypnotic experiences. The relation is a one- 
sided one. The hypnotic personality is acquainted with the waking 
personality, and all its memories, but the waking personality is not 
acquainted with the hypnotic personality. The range of the hypnotic 
personality is wider than the range of the waking personality. This 
similarity between one-sided multiple personality and the hypnotic 
personality is significant, when we remember that such cases have been 
investigated by the hypnotic method. Pierre Janet, Morton Prince and 
others used the hypnotic method in studying cases of multiple personality, 
and the criticism has been made against them that in doing so they were 
manufacturing personalities — that the personalities were artifacts pro- 
duced by the method. Everyone recognises that these investigators are 
psychologists of exceptional ability and circumspection and honesty of 
purpose, thoroughly trained and alive to the possibilities and difficulties 
of their method. We cannot dismiss their observations as false observa- 
tions, or as misunderstandings on their part. But we must nevertheless 
allow for the influence of the process of hypnosis in the result, and as 
contrasted with that earlier period of investigation — the hypnotic period in 
psycho-pathology — we find that, now that hypnosis is seldom used and 
has been replaced by deep analysis, cases of multiple personality are not 
on record. The psycho-analysts to-day seem to have no such cases to 
report. Moreover, if we contrast the very large number of cases of 
severe nervous disturbance caused by the late war with the absence of 
cases of multiple personality there, we may become still more impressed 
by the argument that it was the persistent use of the hypnotic method 
that was mainly responsible for the complexity of most of the earlier 
cases reported. 1 

1 Cases of extensive amnesia, fugues, <fec., were numerous during the war ; but 
the first aim of the army doctors in the battle areas was to remove these amnesias and 
reassoeiate the patients as quickly as possible, so that the latter might be either 
returned to the line or sent down to the base with the minimum of delay. 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The movement of thought is always towards system and unity. 
Thought abhors hard-and-fast distinctions. Thought is baffled by cases 
of multiple personality because they are so different from the ordinary 
cases of everyday life. If we can build a bridge between one group of 
cases and the other, then we may feel that we are likely to have not only 
a more satisfying but a true explanation of the situation. 

We must therefore approach the question of dissociation from the 
normal side — as manifested in a relatively normal mind. No mind is 
completely normal, since no mind completely solves its problems from 
day to day, and it is the failure to solve mental problems which is one 
of the general causes of the symptoms of psycho-neurosis and mental 
disease. Dissociation and multiple personality are not to be contrasted 
with association and mental unity. Pathological dissociation should be 
contrasted with the dissociationist processes of the normal mind. It 
should be regarded as a failure of the normal process of dissociation. 

The unity of the normal mind, although it is there from the beginning, 
is a striving towards a more and more complete association ; it constitutes 
an urge to a greater and greater degree of completeness of systematisation 
and inclusiveness, but it is never really complete. In the most normal 
mind there is a falling away from complete unity. There is in the activity 
of this unitary mind not only a normal process of disjunction or dis- 
sociation, but also a certain degree of abnormal dissociation. In cases of 
multiple personality this abnormal dissociation has become so pronounced 
as to be apparent to the whole world. The process of deep analysis 
or psycho-analysis fails to reveal cases of thorough-going multiplicity, 
and the reason is that the process itself is a process of unification. As the 
individual is being analysed, the failures of adaptation in his past life are 
cleared up, so that his mind is enabled to work more and more normally. 
Analysis is not a good term for this process. It is more than analysis, it 
is a process of self-revelation or autognosis. The individual learns to know 
himself better, and in the process of analysis there is actual development 
of the mind going on. There is a development in the direction of the 
normal and the unitary. Any dissociation that is encouraged by the 
method is a normal dissociation, not an abnormal dissociation. It is 
only another expression of the same truth when we say that repressions 
are overcome in the process of analysis, because repressions are patho- 
logical dissociations — dissociations that are not complete and not 
thorough going. 

In contrast with this process of autognosis, the process of hypnotic 
investigation carries with it a tendency to abnormal dissociation. A 
person who is easily hypnotised is a person who is already, to some extent, 
dissociated ; in hypnotising him we take a wedge, as it were, and drive 
it into his mind and split him up still more. No wonder the results give 
us an appearance of dissociation ; but it would be very dangerous for us 
to take these results at their face value and draw inferences from them 
as to the structure of the normal mind, or even of the mind of the person 
we have been experimenting with. This general line of criticism seems 
valid as against such a theory as that of Prof. W. McDougall in the last 
chapter of his ' Outline of Abnormal Psychology,' in which he works 
out a theory of the Self as a system of monads which form a hierarchy, 
in which there is one dominant monad, the conscious self, and a whole 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 173 

number of subsidiary monads that are, in a normal mind, adequately 
subordinated to the chief monad and are in relation to the chief monad 
through telepathy 2 ; but in a case of multiple personality one of these 
subsidiary monads may break loose and become insubordinate. This is 
an ingenious theory, and it may be true, but in the present state of our 
knowledge it would seem to be a case of explaining obscurum per obscurius. 
Telepathy may be a fact, but it is something about whose conditions we 
know next to nothing, and therefore not very suitable to take as a funda- 
mental factor in an explanation of the working of the mind. 

The mind can act at different levels on different occasions and under 
different circumstances. In many of the classical cases of multiple 
personality, the subsidiary personalities represent" a regression to more 
juvenile forms of behaviour and of ethical valuation. This is clearly 
apparent in ' Sally Beauchamp ' of the Miss Beauchamp case, and in the 
' B ' personality of the ' B.C.A.' case (Morton Prince). Such mani- 
festations are not accurately described as ' split-off ' personalities. 
Indeed, any spatial metaphor is inappropriate. In other cases the 
tendency to dramatisation, natural to the human mind, may play an 
important part. Mutually incompatible ideas of character may be 
simultaneously or alternately aimed at, and identifications in early life, 
based on love and admiration for relatives, &c, may introduce incompati- 
bilities which reveal themselves under circumstances of stress in later 
years as the grounds of pathological dissociation. 

As regards the problem of the removal of pathological mental dis- 
sociation in hysterical patients, much was learnt from the wide range of 
cases dealt with during the war. While treating shell-shock cases in 
the field in France, I found that a large proportion of the cases showed a 
more or less extensive amnesia for events that had occurred immediately 
after the shell explosion. These patients were easily hypnotised, and 
under light hypnosis the lost memories could be immediately restored. 
But I soon discovered that if I recalled at the same time the terrifying 
emotion that had originally belonged to these experiences, there was a 
tendency for the accompanying hysterical symptoms — deafness, mutism, 
tremors, paralysis, contractures, &c. — to disappear spontaneously, without 
the necessity of giving explicit suggestions to this end. The more com- 
plete I made the working-off of the emotion, or the ' ab-reaction,' to use 
Breuer's original term, the more complete was the recovery. In cases 
seen by me previously in England, I had also restored lost memories by 
light hypnosis, but had not produced intense emotional revival and had 
not seen collateral symptoms disappear. But again, towards the end of 
the war, I was seeing more chronic cases in Scotland, and then found that 
amnesias of longer standing could be cleared up with accompanying 
ab-reaction of the emotion of fear ; and that with the ab-reaction there 
was observable that tendency for the collateral symptoms to disappear 
at the same time, such as I had observed so frequently in France. 

These are observed facts, and I endeavoured to show in a paper in 
the British Medical Journal some years ago 3 that they could be explained 
in terms of a theory of reassociation. The amnesic patients fresh from 

- Unlike the monads of Leibniz, which ' have no windows,' and are in a relation 
of pre-established harmony. 

s « Hypnotism, Suggestion, and Dissociation,' British Medical Journal, June 14, 1919. 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the trenches showed a two-fold dissociation, namely (1) a dissociation of 
the memory of events immediately following upon the shell explosion 
from memories of earlier and later parts of the patient's life ; and (2) a 
dissociation of these memories, as mere intellectual awareness, from the 
accompanying emotional reaction of fear — tremors, sweating, mutism, 
paralysis, &c. — which are of a physiological nature. The physical 
reaction of fear, thus dissociated from its psychical counterpart, had 
become relatively permanent instead of being transitory. The patient 
no longer felt the emotion of fear — at least, of just that fear which the shell 
explosion had aroused — but did show its physical manifestations in the 
form of hysterical symptoms. By re-arousing the whole of the lost 
experience in all its emotional vividness I overcame both dissociations. 
The physical manifestations became linked up with their psychical 
counterpart, and this in its turn was linked up with earlier and later 
memories of the patient's life. In this way the mind was completely 
resynthesised, and the physical symptoms came once more under the 
sway of the entire mind (the complete personality) and could disappear. 

In addition to ab-reaction, I advocate the thorough thinking out of 
the whole psychological situation by the patient, so that he may be 
brought eventually to understand himself adequately. This is the 
process of autognosis, or self-knowledge. The patient is encouraged to 
obtain as objective a view of his entire mental condition as is possible. 

C. G. Jung 4 has explained the beneficial effects of ab-reaction in terms 
of ' transference.' By transference is meant the emotional rapport 
(conscious and unconscious) which springs up between patient and 
physician, and which enables the patient to live again, in the course of an 
analysis, through earlier experiences of his life in relation to the physician, 
and thus become freed from their harmful effects. The following case 
illustrates how ab-reaction can bring benefit without the factor of trans- 
ference coming in. It is a case of a man of considerable education, who 
had for some years suffered from obsessive fear, the origin of which he 
could not fathom. He would wake up in the morning with this fear 
weighing upon his mind. After reading about the method of ab-reaction, 
as used in treating shell-shock patients, he thought that he would try to 
cure himself by a similar method. He endeavoured to recall earlier and 
earlier memories of his past life, using the method of concentration — to 
all intents and purposes producing a light degree of self-hypnosis. At 
length he seemed to get this memory : it was half a memory, half a 
waking vision. He seemed to be in a sort of native compound in India. 
He experienced intense heat, such heat as he never remembered 
experiencing in his life before, and seemed to see a black kid lying on 
the ground with its throat cut and blood pouring out of the wound. He 
felt intense terror as he went through this experience. This terror grew 
and grew ' like a bubble.' It got bigger and bigger and at last burst, 
and all at once the fear began to subside again and eventually disappeared, 
and he remained free of it afterwards. So far as one could make out — he 
came and told me of it afterwards ; I had not treated him at the times — 
he had cured himself of the fear by bringing up this memory. He could 

4 He writes : ' It must, above all, be emphasised that it is not merely the rehearsal 
of experience that possesses an unconditional curative effect, but the rehearsal of 
experience in the presence of the physician.'— Brit. Journ. Med. Psych., vol. ii, 1921. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. !75 

not be certain that the memory was a real memory, but thought that it 
probably was, because he had lived in India up to the age of two, when he 
left for England and had not returned since. It was thus probable thai 
it was a real experience ; if not so in all its details, the central kernel 01 
the experience was probably real, and its recall was effective in curing 
him. It will be noticed that he did not ab-react this experience in 
relation to another person. He was not in a doctor's consulting-room, 
telling the doctor what he could remember. He was by himself. He had 
not even gone to a doctor beforehand, so that it could not be described 
as a transference towards the doctor in the latter's absence. He had 
not applied to any doctor for treatment at that time. He came on to me 
afterwards, simply to talk the matter out still further, and to learn 
whether he had been working on the right lines, and how he should proceed 
in order to ensure that the fearsome experience should not return. An 
example like this is a refutation of the view that the only beneficial effect 
of ab-reaction is the transference. Transference is indeed often the chief 
factor of cure, and in many ab-reaction cases transference is an additional 
factor. But an example like this shows that ab-reaction by itself has 
therapeutic value, in contradiction to Jung's view. 6 

Ab-reaction of repressed emotion sweeps away the repression, and so 
frees energy which had been previously needed to hold the repressed 
memories apart from the rest of the mind and away from clear conscious- 
ness. This freed energy is thus put once more at the general disposal of 
the personality. The previous ' fixation ' of this repressing energy and 
its deviation from the common fund of energy of the personality probably 
explains, to some extent, the feeling of fatigue that generally accompanies 
a psycho-neurosis. 

The unitary personality, as an organisation of mental activities and 
mental powers, is not static but dynamic, and is in process of development 
throughout life. Although it carries with it, as a physical correlate, a 
unitary working of the brain and of other parts of the body, this does 
not necessarily involve complete dependence upon the latter for its con- 
tinued existence. The question of personal survival of bodily death is 
one which can be intelligibly and scientifically put, and which is in theory 
answerable along the lines of scientific observation and inference. The 
investigations carried out by the Society for Psychical Research during 
the past fifty years are of this nature, and the Society's results and 
provisional hypotheses can rightly claim a place in modern psychological 
science. Nevertheless, if due allowance is made for the possible working 
of such factors as conscious or sub-conscious fraud, telepathy between 
the living, and chance coincidence, the scientific evidence for personal 
survival of bodily death is not very strong. 

For more convincing reasons (apart from the pronouncements of revealed 
religion) in support of this belief we still have to turn to philosophy, and 
in modern philosophical theories of value we find arguments that are far 
from negligible. 6 

Note : At the meeting, this paper will be supplemented by descriptions 
of cases illustrating mental dissociation. 

8 1 record this case in Talks on Psychotherapy, University of London Press, Ltd., 
1923. pp. 39-41. 

6 1 have set out arguments from theory of value in my Mind and Personality, 
University of London Press, Ltd., 1926, pp. 309-318. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT-DAY 
INVESTIGATION OF PROTOPHYTA. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. F. E. FPJTSCH, D.Sc, Ph.D., 

PRESIDENT OP THE SECTION. 



Since the last meeting of the British Association two well-known figures 
have disappeared from the ranks of British botanists. Reginald William 
Phillips, after nearly forty years' service in the furtherance of Welsh 
University education during which he found little time for original in- 
vestigation, used the years after his retirement to prosecute vigorously the 
work on marine Algae that had attracted him at the outset of his scientific 
career. That these promising researches were cut short, so soon after 
they were begun, is a source of very great regret to his many friends. 
Moreover, of workers on British marine Algae there are but all too few, 
and a reduction in their number represents a serious loss to science. 

The sudden death of Abercrombie Anstruther Lawson, as a com- 
paratively young man, is a heavy blow to British botany. His exceedingly 
careful work on the gametophytes and embryos of Gymnosperms will 
always remain as a model of what such researches should be. Lawson 
had enjoyed the rather exceptional experience of filling academic posts 
in three distinct quarters of the world, namely, in the Leland-Stanford 
University, California, in the University of Glasgow, and in the University 
of Sydney. At the last he occupied the Chair of Botany from 1912 till 
the time of his death, and we know enough of his many activities there 
to extend our sympathy to our colleagues in Australia at the loss they 
have sustained by his premature demise. 

We have also to deplore the death of two well-known botanical artists 
— John Nugent Fitch, who worked so long for the Botanical Magazine, 
and Miss Matilda Smith, for may years artist at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew. 

* * * * 

In practically confining my address to the Algae, and more particularly 
to the freshwater groups, I need make no apology, for not only have I been 
a student of these forms for some twenty-five years, but it appears that 
the simpler Algae have never before been made the subject of an address 
to this section. My predecessor in 1925, Prof. Lloyd Williams, it is true 
dealt with the many points of interest presented by the Phaeophyceae, 
but my remarks will refer in the main to forms with a much simpler con- 
struction than these. Whatever view we may ultimately take as to the 
relation of the present-day freshwater Algae to the rest of the Vegetable 



K.— BOTANY. 177 

Kingdom, and I shall have something to say on that point anon, they 
represent the most elementary types of holophytic plant-life to which 
we are likely to have access. The probability that such forms will ever 
be found preserved in the fossil state in sufficient numbers and showing 
the necessary details of cell-structure to be of any value for comparative 
morphological study or for the elucidation of the mode of origin of the 
multicellular plant, appears at the best to be remote. A study of fresh- 
water Algae is, therefore, one of fundamental importance, not only because 
they illustrate various stages in the elaboration of a plant-body and 
afford some rough picture of the early beginnings of plant-life, but because 
it is in such unspecialised types that many important physiological problems 
have found and will find solution. From this point of view the absence 
of adequate facilities in this country for the direct investigation of these 
forms on the spot is much to be regretted. 

The relation of the different types of construction, that can be dis- 
tinguished among the lower Protophyta, to one another and to the more 
elaborate parenchymatous soma usual in land-plants must always remain 
in part a matter of conjecture. There are, however, certain definite 
facts which emerge from a comparative study of the simpler holophytic 
organisms and that have an important bearing on these problems. It is 
with these that I shall more particularly deal in the first place. 

Parallel Evolution among Protophyta. 

It is now nearly thirty years since the doctrine of the flagellate origin 
of the Algae became firmly established by the discovery in Sweden of 
Chloramoeba and Chlorosaccus. These two simple forms agreed with a 
number of others, already previously distinguished as Confervales by 
Borzi 1 and Bohlin 2 , in a series of sharply defined characteristics, namely, 
the possession of yellow-green, commonly discoid chloroplasts containing 
an excess of xanthophyll and devoid of pyrenoids, the storage of the 
products of photosynthesis in the form of oil, and the possession of a 
motor apparatus consisting of two very unequal cilia attached at the front 
end. These and other minor characteristics served to separate out from 
the extensive group of the Chlorophyceae a small set of Algae which 
became known by Luther's name, Heterokontae. 3 The large remainder 
of the Chlorophyceae were renamed Isokontae, a designation based 
upon the fact that here the motile stages bear equal cilia (commonly 2 or 4) 
arising from the anterior end. In the Isokontae the chloroplasts are 
often large and few in number and are commonly provided with pyre- 
noids ; they contain the same four pigments as do those of the higher 
plants and, so far as we know, in roughly the same proportions. Most 
Isokontae, moreover, store their photosynthetic products in the form 
of starch. 

Subsequent to this Blackman and Tansley in 1902 4 performed a 
valuable service in issuing a revised classification of the Green Algae in 
which the two classes, Isokontae and Heterokontae, were clearly distin- 

1 Slud. algol. Palermo, II, 1895, p. 99. 

2 Bih. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxiii, Afd. 3, No. 3, 1897. 

3 Ibid, xxiv, Afd. 3, No. 13, p. 17, 1899. 

4 New Phytol. i, 1902, p. 17 et seq. 

1927 N 



178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

guished, and the same course was adopted by G. S. "West in the ' British 
Freshwater Algae ' published in 1904 and by most other contemporary 
authors. Many of these followed Bohlin in regarding the Oedogoniales 
as a separate class, the Stephanokontae, while the designation 
Akontae adopted for the Conjugatae by Blackman and Tansley implied, 
though not quite definitely maintained, a distinct origin also for this 
group. This practice has been followed by many subsequent writers, 
although abandoned by Oltmanns in the most recent edition of his great 
work. He, however, in common with many other authorities, never- 
theless segregates the Conjugatae from the remainder of the Green Algae. 
There can be no doubt that any separation of these two groups from the 
bulk of the Isokontae obscures affinities and cannot reasonably be defended, 
although it is true that both Oedogoniales and Conjugatae have developed 
along very specialised lines. 

It is well to realise that the characteristics separating the Green and 
Yellow-green Algae, like those distinguishing the other great classes of 
pigmented Protophyta to be mentioned later, are essentially physiological, 
depending on the colouring matters present in the plastids and the types 
of metabolism associated with them, as indicated by the nature of the 
substances stored during photosynthesis. That these diverse classes are 
also in general characterised by other features, such as the number and 
arrangement of the cilia in the motile stages, the chemical nature and 
structure of the cellular envelopes, and sometimes by special peculiarities 
of the reproductive cells indicates that the physiological distinctions 
are fundamental and that they go hand in hand with other characters. 
In separating the Oedogoniales and Conjugatae from the Isokontae we 
are, however, carrying out a tour de force, since in the pigmentation 
of their chloroplasts, in the possession of pyrenoids with a ' starch-sheath,' 
in the storage of starch, and in the chemical nature of their cell-walls 
these two groups are altogether Isokontan. Nor do they stand more 
isolated from the bulk of the Isokontae than do many other recognised 
members of this class, such as the Coleochaetaceae and Vaucheriaceae. 
As regards the fringe of cilia of the Oedogoniaceous swarmer, which is 
supposed to have been a feature of the flagellate ancestry of the Stephano- 
kontae, cilial numbers other than the usual 2 or 4 are not unknown among 
the motile Volvocales, a matter to which I shall return later. One pecu- 
liarity of the Conjugatae, viz. the absence of all motile stages, is in no 
way confined to them, being found for instance in a large number of 
Chlorococcales, 5 whilst it is not impossible, as Blackman and Tansley 
first pointed out, 6 to relate the conjugation-process to the sexual fusion 
found in some species of Chlamydomonas (e.g. C. monadina) in which the 
gametes are provided with cell-walls. I think there can be no doubt that 
Isokontae, Stephanokontae, and Akontae all constitute members of the 
same phylum, however much they may have diverged from one another, 
and any attempt to separate them must obscure the essence of the present- 
day concept of the main lines of algal evolution. 

It has been suggested to me by various of my colleagues that, having 
rejected Stephanokontae and Akontae as separate classes, I should abandon 

5 Protococcalea of other authorities. 6 Loc. cit. p. 168. 



K.— BOTANY. 179 

the name Isokontae and revert to the old designation Chlorophyceae 
for the Green Algae. Under this name, however, there were also originally 
included the Heterokontae and its use might thus prove misleading. In 
the following I shall therefore continue to use the designation Isokontae 
for all true Green Algae. 

Already at the end of the last century practically every conceivable 
type of simple plant-body was known in the Green Algae, ranging 
from the motile or motionless unicell, through manifold colonial 
forms, to a more or less highly elaborated filament. This extremely 
varied somatic development corresponds to a remarkable range 
of habitat and goes hand in hand with a great diversity in reproductive 
processes. There is in fact no other group of simple organisms showing 
such a wide scope in all these respects. By contrast the Heterokontae, 
when first distinguished, included only relatively few forms. By 
degrees, however, many additional members have been discovered, and 
in the course of this century it has become increasingly apparent that 
there exists a far-going parallelism between these two classes, Isokontae 
and Heterokontae, which are so sharply segregated by their metabolism 
and other features that the vast majority of algal workers have regarded 
them as quite separate evolutionary lines, in no way related to one another. 

Thus, in each class we have a series of motile unicells, Chlamydomonas 
and its many allies in the Isokontae, Chloramoeba and Heterochloris 7 in 
the Heterokontae, while the palmelloid type, with large numbers of cells 
embedded in a mass of mucilage, is represented respectively by the Tetra- 
sporales and Chlorosaccus, &c. (Heterocapsales). The motionless, often 
spherical, unicell — we may speak of it as the chlorococcoid (or protococcoid) 
type of plant-body — is well represented in both classes, and in part the 
relevant forms are so similar that, prior to the clear recognition of the 
Heterokontae, they were classed in the same genus. Thus, many species 
of Characiopsis were first included in the Isokontan genus Characium, 
while the type-species of Chlorobotrys was first described as a Chlorococcum* 
The unbranched and the branched filamentous habits are met with in 
both classes, while the coenocytic Botrydium is now clearly established 
as a siphoneous variant of the Heterokontan type analogous to Protosiphon 
among the Isokontae. 9 On detailed scrutiny it is not difficult to find 
other points of parallel ; thus, in both classes there are colonial forms 
with an analogous dendroid construction (Chlorodendron, Mischococcus), 
while in each the chlorococcoid type is represented by two series of forms, 
the one reproducing by zoospores and the other (azoosporic) in which 
motility is completely suppressed. We are indebted to Pascher 10 for first 
drawing attention to this striking degree of parallel. 

The Heterokontae do not, however, exhibit anything approaching 
the multiplicity of forms that are seen among the Isokontae, in particular 
they do not appear to have evolved in the direction of the motile colony 
which is so well developed in some of the other classes. Also the fila- 
mentous members are few, and the siphoneous type is as yet only known 

7 Susswasserflora, xi, 1925, p. 23. 

8 Bih. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxvii, 1901, Afd. 3, No. 4, p. 34. 



Kolkwitz, Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gas. xliv, 1926, p. 539. 
10 Hedwigia, liii, 1913, p. 6. 



N 2 



180 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to be represented by Botrydium. The less vigorous development of tbe 
Heterokontae, which is thus manifest, accords with the fact that only 
a few of the more specialised members of the class exhibit sexual repro- 
duction and that this has not passed beyond the phase of isogamy. The 
oogamous Vaucheriaceae, at one time referred by some to the Hetero- 
kontae, are now by practically common consent regarded as outlying 
members of the Siphonales among the Green Algae. 

The few ciliated members of Heterokontae, that are at present known, 
without exception show ' flagellate ' characteristics ; that is to say, they 
are devoid of a cell-wall, their plasma-membrane (periplast) is more or 
less rigid but usually admits of some change of shape, multiplication 
is effected by longitudinal division, the protoplast readily encysts, and 
sexual reproduction is not known to occur. Some of the palmelloid 
members (e.g. Chlorosaccus), possibly all, also show these features. The 
many motile and palmelloid types among the Isokontae are, on the other 
hand, for the most part on a higher plane of organisation and reproduction, 
being true Algae provided with a firm cell-wall and usually exhibiting 
sexuality. When, however, the parallelism between the two classes is 
recognised, the distinction between flagellate and algal organisation loses 
force, and it is realised that the assumption of ' algal ' characteristics 
has taken place at an earlier stage in the evolution of the one and at a 
later stage in that of the other. 

These conclusions, however, do not apply only to Isokontae and Hetero- 
kontae. It is now clear that, in all the classes of pigmented Protophyta, 
an analogous evolutionary sequence has been followed, but that the 
features associated with what may be called ' algal organisation ' have 
appeared, if at all, at different points in the sequence in the diverse classes. 
It is no longer feasible to separate the Algae from the holophytic 
Flagellata as distinct groups of Protophyta. There is reason to believe 
that every series of holophytic Flagellates could potentially have 
acquired algal characteristics, although on the present evidence some 
have failed to do so. 

These points are well illustrated by a consideration of Pascher's Chry- 
sophyceae which, until relatively recent times, were only known to include 
a wealth of flagellate types, the Chrysomonadales, whose members on 
the whole favour pure waters and seem to attain a maximum development 
in the cold streams and pools of mountainous tracts. They are not, however, 
without their marine representatives (Coccolithophoridae) and also appear 
to play a conspicuous part in certain kinds of salt-marsh. 11 

The Chrysomonadales are distinguished by a golden-yellow pigmen- 
tation of their plastids due to the presence of various accessory pigments, 
and by storage of the photosynthetic products in the form of oil and of 
usually rounded lumps of a highly refractive substance known as leucosin, 
the chemical composition of which is unknown ; endogenously formed 
silicified cysts with a very distinctive structure 12 are also peculiar to this 
class. The chromatophores are parietal, relatively large, and generally 
only one or two in number. In the numerous motile individuals the 
cilia are always borne at the front end, but three distinct series can be 

11 Conrad, Archiv f. Protistenk. lvi, 1926, p. 167. 

12 Scherffel, Archiv f. Protistenk. xxii, 1911, p. 334. 



K.— BOTANY. 181 

traced throughout the class, one with a single cilium (Chromulinales), 
another with two equal cilia (Hymenomonadales), and a third with two 
unequal cilia (Ochromonadales). Each series is represented by motile 
unicells (e.g. Chromulina, Ochromonas), by motile colonial types (Synura, 
Uroglena, &c.) parallel with the Volvocales among Isokontae, and by an 
extensive development of sedentary epiphytic forms peculiar to the class 
and provided with a wide offstanding envelope. The palmelloid type is 
also well represented, reaching an exceptionally high differentiation in 
Hydrurus, while the dendroid colony is here realised by the planktonic 
Dinobryon. All of these forms are Flagellates, but within the last dozen 
years quite a considerable number of algal members of this class have 
been discovered on the continent, and it is clear that the Chrysomonadales 
too have progressed in the same direction as Isokontae and Heterokontae, 
but that here the bulk of the forms have remained flagellate and the 
minority have become algal. 

The latter are represented in the first place by chlorococcoid types 
like Chrysosphaera, 13 whose spherical cells contain two parietal yellowish- 
brown chromatophores, harbour masses of leucosin, and are invested 
by a firm cell-wall ; they reproduce by division of the protoplast with 
the formation of two new individuals and by means of zoospores closely 
resembling a Chromulina. There are also a considerable number of 
filamentous forms, such as the unbranched Nematochrysis H and the 
branched Thallochrysis, 15 reproducing by zoospores resembling an Ochro- 
monas and Chromulina respectively. Here also, according to the most 
recent investigations, 16 we must refer Lagerheim's Phaeothamnion, whose 
systematic position was long doubtful. In Hansgirg's Phaeodermatium, 17 
not uncommon attached to stones in cold streams of Central Europe, we 
have a discoid type parallel with similar forms in other classes. It is 
not improbable that each of the three series of motile forms previously 
mentioned has progressed towards the filamentous stage, although at 
present only representatives of two of them are known. That the balance 
in the Chrysophyceae is overweighted on the side of the presumably 
more primitive flagellate types coincides with the fact that sexuality 
has as yet been very rarely recorded in members of this class, and is only 
known to be isogamous. The Chrysophyceae exhibit other special 
developments in the direction of the Ehizopoda, which are of great 
interest, but lack of time renders their consideration impossible. Of the 
great diversity of Chrysophyceae, now known from many parts of the 
continent, only relatively few have so far been observed in this country, 
and there is a wide field for research in this respect. 

The Chrysophyceae show that in an otherwise rather homogeneous 
class the type of ciliation may be somewhat variable. Some species of 
Ochromonas are very similar to species of Chromulina except for this one 
feature, and the Chromulinales may well have originated from forms of 
the Ochromonas-tyipe by suppression of the second shorter cilium. Only 

13 Pascher, Archiv f. Protislenk. lii, 1925, p. 533. 

14 Pascher, loc. cit. p. 511. 

15 Conrad, Bull. Sci. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 1920, p. 180. 

16 Pascher, loc. cU. p. 498. 

17 Pascher, loc. cit. p. 517. 



182 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

one cilium has so far been recognised in quite a number of the Hetero- 
kontae, and here too a suppression of the second is possible. 

Variation in number of cilia is also a feature in the Isokontae, where 
the dikontan and tetrakontan types are traceable throughout the class, 
and quite recently a uniciliate member (Chloroceras) has been described 
by Schiller 1 " ; this form is particularly interesting because occasional 
rare individuals show two cilia. Among the Polyblepharidaceae organisms 
are known with up to eight cilia which presumably result from multipli- 
cation. • These facts demonstrate the risk of basing a separate class, 
Stephanokontae, on the occurrence in the Oedogoniales of swarmers with 
numerous cilia. Moreover, they show that, although cilial characters 
are of undoubted value in the distinction of the main classes of Algae, 
the point must not be stretched too far and must be supported by other 
features. 

The parallel development, evident in Isokontae, Heterokontae, and 
Chrysophyceae, is recognisable, though not quite so markedly, also in 
other classes of Protophyta. One further striking instance may be men- 
tioned. The Peridinieae (Dinoflagellata) are a very distinct and rather 
specialised class of motile forms, abundant in freshwater and marine 
plankton, though on the whole more strongly represented in the sea. 
Their most striking characteristic lies in the division of the body of the 
cell into two usually slightly unequal, apical and antapical, halves by 
a transverse furrow harbouring one cilium, while the other trails out 
behind into the water. There are usually numerous discoid chromato- 
phores which are commonly dark yellow or brown ; .a number of special 
pigments (peridinin, chlorophyllin, &c.) have been extracted from them. 
The reserves are stored as starch and oil. The nucleus is usually large 
and conspicuous, and shows either a granular structure or contains 
numerous fine threads. 

It was in 1912 that Klebs 19 described a number of forms that were 
clearly algal and chlorococcoid members of this class. His Hypnodinium 
shows the derivation clearly ; it consists of large motionless spherical 
cells provided with a firm membrane and possessed of the chromato- 
phores and nuclei characteristic of the class. When reproduction takes 
place, the protoplast contracts somewhat and develops the distinctive 
furrows, but this is followed by division without resort to a motile phase. 
The two daughter-cells show no traces of furrows until a fresh division 
is initiated. In Phytodinium no such furrow-formation is observed and 
with it the last indication of the motile phase has disappeared. It is of 
interest that, among these chlorococcoid Peridinieae, Klebs distinguished 
one tetrahedral form (Tetradinium) recalling in outward shape the 
genus Tetraedron among the Isokontae and Pseudotetraedron among the 
Heterokontae. In 1914 Pascher 20 briefly described a slightly branched 
filamentous Alga, Dinothrix, which is stated to have the discoid yellow- 
brown chromatophores and the large nucleus of the Peridinieae and to 
reproduce by swarmers resembling a Gymnodinium, one of the simplest 
of the motile types. Unfortunately no further description or figure of 

18 Osterr. Bot. Zeitschr. lxxvi, 1927, p. 1. 

19 Verhandl. Nat.-Med. Ver. Heidelberg, xi, 1912, p. 369. 

20 Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. xxxii, 1914, p. 160. 



K.— BOTANY. 188 

this form has so far been forthcoming. There is no doubt, however, 
that in the Peridinieae there have again been diverse ' algal develop- 
ments,' although the main differentiation of the class centres around 
the motile unicell. 

As an antithesis to classes like the Chrysophyceae and Dinophyceae 
(as Pascher has styled the whole series of Peridiniean forms) we have 
the Myxophyceae (Cyanophyceae), where motile types are altogether 
unknown and all the forms exhibit an algal organisation, progressing 
from the unicellular through the colonial to filamentous types. Even 
in this very sharply circumscribed class a considerable degree of parallel 
with those previously considered can be recognised. Other distinct 
classes of Protophyta exhibiting holophytic nutrition, but of more re- 
stricted range and generally showing special development in one direction 
or another, are the Bacillariales (Diatoms), the Cryptophyceae (including 
the flagellate Cryptomonadineae and a few little known algal 
types), the Chloromonadineae, and the Euglenineae. A detailed con- 
sideration of these is unnecessary, but in all of them one or other organism 
can be recognised as parallel with types in the classes that have been 
previously discussed, although none has evolved the branched filamentous 
habit so far as at present known. As instances of parallelism one may 
cite the occurrence of the dendroid colony in the Diatom Gomphonema and 
in Colacium among Euglenineae. In the latter class, too, we have the 
widespread genus Trachelomonas in which the motile cell is surrounded 
by a special rigid envelope separated from the cell proper by a space. 
This encapsuled type is paralleled in the Isokontae t>y Coccomonas and 
in the Chrysophyceae by Chrysococcus. 

To sum up it seems clear that in all the nine classes mentioned evolution 
has progressed along similar lines and in many cases has led to the pro- 
duction of analogous forms of plant-body. Thus, the motile unicellular 
individual, the motile colony, the palmelloid type, the dendroid colony, 
the chlorococcoid type, the simple and the branched filament, thesiphoneous 
type, and others are all to be found in two or more of these classes. In 
five of them, moreover, the stage of the branched filament has been reached. 

While occasional indications of relationship are to be found (e.g. between 
Heterokontae, Chrysophyceae, and Bacillariales), 21 they are not very 
marked, and it is probable that all the nine classes represent as many 
evolutionary series of uncertain origin. We have in them practically 
all that is left to us of the early evolution of the holophytic organism. 
It can scarcely be doubted that there were other phyla which have become 
extinct, nor is it likely that future research will fail to disclose further series 
than those at present distinguished. 

The Relation of the Protophyta to the Higher Plants. 

It has been suggested in certain quarters 22 that the simple freshwater 
Algae are reduced from forms which had a more elaborate parenchymatous 
soma, being in fact ' starvation-forms ' resulting from a paucity of 
nutritive salts. It should be stated in the first place that, although 

31 Pascher, Ber. Deuisch. Bot. Qes. xxxix, 1921, p. 236. 
28 Church, Oxford Bot. Memoirs, No. 3, 1919, pp. 8, 46. 



184 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

reduction-series can be recognised in some groups of the Algae, there is no 
evidence at all to indicate that freshwater Algae as a whole have undergone 
reduction. It must be remembered too that a large number of similar 
unspecialised forms are found in the sea. Moreover, with the facts of 
parallel development before one the supposition of a general reduction 
becomes practically untenable. We have no knowledge of any forms 
from which the filamentous Heterokontae or Chrysophyceae, for instance, 
could be derived by reduction, for the relationship between Chrysophyceae 
and Brown Seaweeds formerly entertained is probably fallacious and now 
no longer credited by most authorities. Until some real evidence can be 
adduced that reduction has occurred, it appears more logical to regard 
the filamentous forms in the different classes as the end-points of an 
upgrade development. Further facts that lend support to such an inter- 
pretation are the wide distribution of the simpler, less specialised, members 
of each class (very noticeable in the case of many groups of the Isokoutae), 
while the more highly specialised forms are commonly of more restricted 
distribution. Within the Isokontae too anisogamy or oogamy are asso- 
ciated with the advanced forms and are mainly a feature of the specialised 
filamentous types, a fact which supports the idea of a progression, rather 
than of a retrogression. In other classes also sexuality is usually found 
only in those forms which have the more elaborate organisation. 

Among the numerous septate filamentous Isokontae, it is possible 
to distinguish four separate series, of which the Oedogoniales and Con- 
jugatae have already been recognised as specialised along directions of 
their own. Of the other two, the Ulotrichales are the simpler and the 
Chaetophorales the more complex, both possibly originating from a common 
stock. Many authorities, in fact, fail to distinguish these two groups, 
but the organisation of the Chaetophorales is so distinct from that of the 
Ulotrichales that, from the standpoint of comparative morphology, 
their separation is desirable. Whereas in the Ulotrichales we have a 
simple or branched filament attached by a more or less elaborate basal 
cell, the central types among Chaetophorales are distinguished by the 
possession of a plant-body showing differentiation into a prostrate system 
of creeping threads serving inter alia for attachment to the substratum 
and a projecting system which is more or less richly branched. This 
differentiation is seen for instance in many species of Stigeoclonium, 
Coleochaete, and Trentepohlia, representing three distinct families and 
three distinct developmental lines within this group. Among its numerous 
members there is much variation in the relative differentiation of the 
creeping and projecting systems, and reduction of the latter has led to a 
whole series of specialised prostrate or discoid types (Aphanochaete, 
Protoderma, &c). It is to be noted, too, that the Chaetophorales exhibit 
a greater morphological diversity and a capacity for existence under 
more varied circumstances than any other group of Isokontae ; and in the 
Trentepohliaceae include one of the most vigorous and highly differentiated 
families of terrestrial Algae. 

The type of construction just considered is not encountered in any of 
the other nine classes of Protophyta previously mentioned, although 
hinted at in the Chrysophyceae and some Myxophyceae. An analogous 
differentiation of the filamentous thallus into a creeping and a projecting 



K.— BOTANY; 185 

system is, however, characteristic of many Ectocarpales (e.g. Ectocarpus) 
and Nemalionales (e.g. Chantransia), which include the simplest known 
members of the Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae respectively. In fact 
it appears that this kind of plant-body represents a definite stage in the 
evolution of various classes of Protophyta, affording another instance of 
parallelism. But, whereas in the Isokontae it represents the most 
advanced type of which we have any knowledge, in the two great marine 
groups it is seen in the simplest of the present-day forms, since no unicellular 
or palmelloid members of these classes are certainly known to exist. A 
consideration of the metabolism and reproductive features of the two 
groups of Seaweeds, however, clearly supports an origin for each of them 
distinct from that of any of the classes previously mentioned. 

It will be familiar that, of all the holophytic Protophyta, the two classes 
Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae, which are almost confined to the sea, 
have alone attained to a high degree of morphological and anatomical 
specialisation, often affording in one feature or another marked instances 
of parallel with those groups of the Vegetable Kingdom which are now 
dominant on the land. We owe to Church' 23 a clear statement of these 
points of parallel and a suggestion that many, if not all, the fundamental 
features of higher land-plants were already realised in a marine environ- 
ment before a terrestrial flora was evolved. The totally differing meta- 
bolism obviously renders impossible, however, any direct derivation of 
the land-flora from forms belonging to either class of marine Algae. 

It will be generally agreed that we must seek the origin of terrestrial 
plants in organisms possessing the same plastid-pigments and the same 
essential metabolism as they do. The only representatives of such 
forms among Protophyta at the present day are afforded by the numerous 
Green Algae, the Isokontae. These, however, as has previously been pointed 
out, stop short at a level of morphological differentiation of the thallus, 
at which the two marine groups commence. Roughly speaking, too, 
the stature of the most highly differentiated Isokontae is approximately 
equivalent to that of the simpler Brown and Red Algae. Yet, in 
sexual differentiation and specialisation of the reproductive machinery, 
there is little to choose between these three classes, although the Red 
Algae have in part developed post-fertilisation complexities peculiar to 
themselves. 

We are thus confronted with the situation that in the Isokontae we 
have a class of great morphological diversity in which almost every con- 
ceivable type of simple plant-body has been realised and is still existent 
at the present day, but which stops short at a massive parenchymatous 
construction and forms of large stature. In the Brown and Red Algae, on 
the other hand, where no simple forms of plant-body are certainly known, 
plants of large size and possessed of a highly developed parenchymatous 
soma are abundantly represented. It appears improbable that a class like 
the Isokontae, showingsuch extreme capacity for morphological elaboration 
in every direction and for adaptation to very diverse habitats, should have 
failed to develop further in the direction generally indicated by Phaeophyceae 
and Rhodophyceae. Moreover, it must be remembered that they possess 

33 Op. cit. 



186 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the photosynthetic equipment which has evidently proved to be the 
only successful one on the land, and that practically every group and 
family of Isokontae has its terrestrial representatives. 

What then, it may be asked, has become of the more highly elaborated 
members of this class ? It seems to me that there is every reason to 
suppose that, approximately at the level of morphological differentiation 
and stature reached by the Isokontae of the present day, the terrestrial 
habit was adopted in the remote past, that the more highly elaborated 
Green Alga became a land-plant, the early forms of which are perhaps 
yet to be disclosed by palaeontological research. The facts of relative 
development of the three large algal classes just considered appear to 
indicate that the first land-plants were probably forms of small stature, 
although not necessarily quite as simple as the most advanced Isokontae 
known to us at the present day. In this connection it is not without 
significance that the oogamous members of this class for the most part 
occupy a peculiarly isolated position, appearing as outliers well in advance 
of the rest, although for none of them is there to my thinking any possible 
connection with the higher land-plants. On the little available evidence 
it seems possible that oogamy may have been undeveloped or in an incipient 
stage in the first land-plants. 

If one recognises among Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae many features 
of anatomy, life-history, &c, that recall the characteristics of land-plants, 
I can see in that only a confirmation of the belief that environment has 
little to do with the broad evolution of the plant-organism and that 
these features are a natural outcome of the evolutionary trend in the 
Vegetable Kingdom and not any positive evidence for the view that they 
must necessarily have originated in a marine environment. The com- 
parative study of the simpler forms of plant-body in the different classes 
of Protophyta lends great support to such a concept of a general evolu- 
tionary trend. Before we adopt the idea of a mythical group of Thalas- 
siophyta as ancestral to the land-flora, the blind termination of the Iso- 
kontae must be accounted for. A more intensive investigation of the 
Chaetophorales, and in particular of the terrestrial Trentepohliacae, than 
has hitherto been undertaken may well afford data bearing upon the 
relation of the Isokontae to higher plants. 

It is scarcely possible to touch on the problem of the origin of the 
latter without some reference to that striking universal phenomenon in 
the life-history of the land-plant, the two alternating generations. It 
is just in this respect that the Isokontae are too incompletely known to 
afford any good points of contact. We know now, thanks to Dr. Knight's 
researches on Pylaiella, that an homologous alternation exists in this 
simple filamentous Brown Alga, and it is possible that analogous cases 
are yet to be discovered in the Chaetophorales among Isokontae. In this 
connection attention may be drawn to certain observations made by 
Meyer' 24 on Trentepohlia umbrina which appear to indicate a segregation 
of sporangia and gametangia on distinct individuals, and other like cases 
are suspected. These merit a fuller investigation. As a matter of fact, 
except in a few special instances, the cytological features of the life-cycles 

M Bot. Zeit. lxvii, 1909, Abt. 1, p. 26. 



K.— BOTANY. 187 

of the filamentous Green Algse are practically unknown, and a reinvestiga- 
tion of Coleochaete (and especially of other species than C. scutata) from 
this point of view is advisable. Lambert in 1910 reaffirmed 4 '' the presence 
in the life-cycle of Coleochaete of a succession of small plants that are 
purely asexual, a feature already emphasised by Pringsheim. 26 

Klebs' classical investigations 27 on the conditions of reproduction in 
various Algae have generally been regarded as disposing of the possibility 
of any alternation between asexual and sexual filaments such as Pringsheim 
postulated, but on closer consideration they afford no absolute proof of 
its non-existence. In the usual dense tangle of filaments asexual and 
sexual individuals may easily be intermingled, either remaining purely 
vegetative until conditions suitable for the formation of reproductive cells 
are realised. But there are more important considerations than these. 
With reference to Ulothrix zonata Blebs 2 * especially remarks that it always 
depended on chance whether he was able to get threads to form gametes 
or not. 29 He also records how at one and the same time threads from one 
habitat readily formed gametes, while those from another failed to do so. 
And Ulothrix is the only member of Ulotrichales and Chaetophorales in 
which Klebs deals at all fully with the sexual reproductive process. 
Yet from this one case conclusions have been drawn for the whole 



group ' 



There is, so far as I can see, little positive evidence that asexual and 
sexual reproduction takes place at all frequently in one and the same 
filament of these forms, although there is no reason why sexual individuals 
should not reproduce themselves asexually after the manner of PylaieUa. 
An important matter for investigation is : are there in these filamentous 
Green Algae threads that can only reproduce asexually and that by no 
manner of means can be brought to sexual reproduction ? This may be 
more readily established than possible cytological differences, which call 
for a highly skilled investigator owing to the small size of the nuclei in 
most of these forms. The fact that in so many Ulotrichales and Chaetophorales 
the zoospores have four, and the gametes two cilia, is perhaps significant 
from this point of view. 

Even if, however, further investigation should altogether support the 
present view that there is no alternation between asexual and sexual 
filaments in the Green Algae, the example afforded by PylaieUa serves to 
show how easily alternation can arise in lowly filamentous types, and in 
the case of terrestrial plants it may have originated after, rather than 
before, the adoption of the land-habit. I have elsewhere 30 indicated 
how the dual development of the plant-body in types like the Chaetophorales 
might readily, in the course of further evolution, afford an upright sporo- 
phyte and a prostrate gametophyte. I have nothing to add to this and 
I do not propose to pursue the topic further. 

25 Tufts Coll. Stud., Scient. Ser. iii, 1910, p. 61. 

26 Gesammelte Abhandl. i, 1895, p. 305 (Jahrb. wiss. Bot. ii, 1858). 

27 Beding. d. Fortpflanzung, Jena, 1896. 
* Op. cit., p. 314. 

29 cf. also Dodel, Jahrb. wiss. Bot. x, 1876, p. 539. 
80 New Phytol. xv, 1916, p. 233. 



188 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Investigation of Freshwater Algae. 

The many new freshwater Algae that have become known in the present 
century and that have contributed so largely to the foundation of the 
concept of a parallel evolution in the different classes, show how much a 
study of these forms may still be hoped to reveal. And at present the 
field of research is restricted to quite a small area of the surface of the 
globe. Over great parts of the earth the investigation of these forms is 
only just commencing, and enormous tracts are still altogether unexplored 
from this point of view, so that it is impossible to say what is yet to come 
to light. Already in many families of Isokontae it would seem that almost 
every conceivable variant of the central type has been evolved, and there 
can be little doubt that the parallelism with which I have dealt in the 
earlier part of this address will become still more striking, as investigation 
proceeds and some of the present gaps become filled up. I propose there- 
fore to devote the little remaining time to a few words upon the methods 
of algal investigation. 

The position of England as the centre of a huge empire is responsible for 
the fact that its few algal workers are inundated with demands for the 
working out of collections made in its dominions and colonies. G. S. West 
and his father devoted much time to such work which is very laborious, 
and I have myself fallen a victim to it. It cannot, however, be suffi- 
ciently emphasised that Algae are far better examined in the fresh condition, 
for however well preserved, in these simple forms where details of cell- 
structure are all important, much is obscured or becomes unintelligible. 
It is greatly to be desired that competent botanists should take up fresh- 
water algal investigation in different parts of the empire, and the activities 
of a number of Indian workers in this direction is a matter for congratula- 
tion. The necessary literature is now available in a fairly condensed 
form, and willing assistance will always be furnished by those in this 
country. 

Moreover, an Alga cannot be said to be properly known until it has 
been studied at frequent intervals and, if widely distributed, examined 
in its diverse habitats. In this respect almost everything still remains 
to be done, even in our own parts of the world. Our cognisance of algal 
genera and species is still very limited, because they have been mainly 
studied on the basis of casual collections. True, in many cases (as for 
example in Oedogoniales and Conjugatae) there are such decided repro- 
ductive or vegetative characteristics that species can be broadly distin- 
guished without a full knowledge of their complete range ; types with 
the same essential characteristics at least recur frequently in different 
habitats and in different parts of the world. But there are many groups 
and genera, where no such decided characteristics exist, or where possibly 
they still remain to be discovered, and where every algal worker has 
again and again experienced the difficulty of a satisfactory determination ; 
this is true, for example, of the majority of the Ulotrichales and Chaeto- 
phorales, not to speak of the many difficult genera of Chlorococcales and 
Myxophyceae. In all such cases we shall never arrive at a satisfactory 
solution of the problem until a careful study has been made of the range 
of variation of at least the commoner forms, not only in the course of 



K.— BOTANYj 189 

their annual cycle but in different habitats. The former is in a sense 
more important than the latter, since habitat-forms may be expected to 
represent distinct entities that in their respective environments will often 
maintain constant differences. Brand's study of the Cladophoras 31 has, 
however, shown how much an algal species can vary in the different seasons 
of the year, and analogous studies of species of genera like Ulothrix, Stigeo- 
clonium, Trentepohlia, &c, are urgently required. They will not only 
lead to some solution of the ' species ' difficulty, but may as already 
indicated afford valuable data in connection with possible points of con- 
tact with higher plants. Moreover, they are readily compassed during 
periodicity studies, such as have already afforded much information as 
to the conditions determining appearance, abundance, and reproduction 
of diverse Algae. 

An attempt has been made in various quarters to find a solution of the 
species problem in the method of ' pure culture.' It is well, however, 
to realise the limitations of the method, and it may be doubted whether, 
except from the standpoint of physiology, the large amount of labour 
that has been expended on such work has been justified. Two mono- 
graphs of the genus Scenedesmus based on pure cultures have appeared 
in recent years, but the authors do not agree in any way as regards the limits 
of the species. It cannot be denied that, as a supplement to frequent 
direct observation, pure cultures may be of considerable value and that 
under certain circumstances (e.g. in the study of subterranean soil-Algae 
or of endophytes) they are essential. The conditions are, however, 
for the majority of Algae so artificial and of necessity in certain respects 
so uniform as compared with those in nature, that the results obtained 
require to be interpreted with great caution. 

Indoor conditions, especially in laboratories, are already a3 a general 
rule sufficiently harmful to freshwater Algae, and the occurrence of various 
bizarre forms in agar-agar or gelatine cultures, while of some interest 
from the point of view of comparative morphology, cannot be regarded 
as proving that such forms belong to the normal cycle in nature of the 
Alga in question. Conversely because, in a pure culture, a given Alga 
varies only between very narrow limits, that is no proof that these repre- 
sent the full range of its morphological variation, but merely that under 
the peculiar circumstances of a pure culture it exhibits this' habitat-form.' 
No systematist would be satisfied with a knowledge of a higher plant 
derived only from specimens grown in a botanic garden, where conditions 
are by no means as artificial as they often are in an algal culture. 

I have offered these comments on the study of Algae in pure cultures, 
not with any wish to deny the utility of the method in certain directions, 
but in order to make clear that it can in no way replace direct observation 
of the Alga in nature. Here alone we have the natural form, subjected 
to the normal seasonal changes and other meteorological influences, 
holding its own in competition with the other living members of its en- 
vironment, and exposed to the influence of the frequent changes in the 
organic and inorganic content of the water. It is a mistake to suppose 
that careful periodic observations cannot in most cases lead to the desired 
goal. The work will be laborious, but the labour will be repaid by the 
31 Bot. CentraM. lxxix, 1899, p. 145. 



190 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

results. Immersion of glass slides or cover-glasses in the water will often 
afford valuable comparative data on the early stages of development. 

Since a large number of botanists are professionally occupied in 
towns, such direct observation of Algae is a matter of some difficulty and 
in some cases of impossibility. Under these circumstances work with 
algal cultures is easiest, and this has no doubt been a factor in its rather 
widespread adoption. It is a matter of regret that practically no facilities 
exist in this country for the direct study of freshwater Algae and of the 
many limnological problems that are linked up with it. There are no 
freshwater biological stations, so far as I am aware, apart from the 
Experimental Station at Alresford, Hants, of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries. Nor have there been many researches in this 
country dealing with the biology and ecology of freshwater Algae, although 
thanks to the Wests and to Dr. Pearsall some very valuable work has been 
done on the waters of the Lake District ; Dr. Griffiths, too, despite the 
difficulties, has made considerable progress with the study of the fresh- 
water phytoplankton of the lowlands. 

It is specially to be deplored that there is no biological station with a 
permanent staff on the Norfolk Broads, where many problems of general 
interest could be attacked, and which would be within fairly easy reach 
of many of our universities. The benefits likely to accrue from the 
pursuit of investigations at such a station would by no means be confined 
to the pure aspects of our science, since the study of freshwater Algae 
is fundamental for the understanding of the general biological features 
of a piece of water and is intimately related to its productivity in animal 
life, including the diverse kinds of freshwater fish. Much profitable 
and important research in this direction emanates from Sweden, Germany, 
and other European countries, nearly all of which possess several well- 
equipped and well-staffed freshwater stations, but to this we, as a 
country with a large area of freshwaters, contribute practically nothing. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



THE BROADENING OF THE OUTLOOK 
IN EDUCATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

THE DUCHESS OF ATHOLL, D.B.E., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D, 

F.R.C.M., 

PRESIDENT OP THE SECTION. 



I feel as if I owed this assembly an apology for speaking on a theme 
which to many may seem well-worn. If I cannot claim any novelty for 
my subject, neither can I pretend to any expert or first-hand knowledge 
of the work of the schools. But perhaps you will allow one whose 
experience of education has been limited to the administrative side to 
indicate one or two conclusions to which that experience has led. A 
further reason for my choice of this subject is its intimate connexion 
with what is generally recognised as the main educational problem of the 
day — the education of the adolescent. It is because I think we all feel 
how important a bearing this question has on our social and economic 
well-being that I venture to bring the subject before you. 

The Board of Education's Consultative Committee, in their recent 
Report on the Education of the Adolescent, have made various recom- 
mendations, of which the one that seems to have attracted most attention 
is that which deals with the raising of the school age to fifteen, as from the 
year 1932. Important as that question is, important as is the further 
recommendation that, a great extension of post-primary instruction 
being desirable, such instruction should be given under a unified scheme 
of administration, the heart and kernel of the Committee's proposals 
lies in their recognition of what I conceive to be a fact of fundamental 
importance — that in a large number of children wide variations of capacity 
and gifts are to be expected, and that courses of instruction must therefore 
be varied to suit. ' Equality,' they declare, ' is not identity, and the 
larger the number of children to be provided for, the more essential it 
becomes that they should not be pressed into a single mould.' The child 
of practical ability must be catered for as well as the child of literary or 
scientific gifts. 

These statements may well appear too obvious to need argument. 
From the day when education began to aim at developing faculties as 
well as disciplining them, the case for a varied curriculum became over- 
whelming. If moral and perhaps intellectual discipline may be acquired 
through the study of uncongenial subjects, intellectual development can 
surely only come with understanding, or when an appeal is made to some 
latent faculty for appreciation or creation. A child to whom the use of 
words is new must have those words related to things seen and realised 



192 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

in his own experience, or they will be meaningless ; once grasped, they 
awake his reasoning faculties. An appeal, therefore, to a love of colour, or 
of animals, or to a child's creative instinct, will equally lay the foundations 
of cultural development. Anything in human or natural creation that 
arouses interest, that awakes a response, any spark that, in Browning's 
words, ' disturbs our clod,' must be an agent, and a powerful one, in the 
great process which we call education. 

It would be ungrateful to the many reformers of the past not to re- 
cognise how extensive has already been the widening of the curriculum 
both in school and university. The history of education may indeed 
be said to be the story of the broadening of the outlook. We have travelled 
long and far since the cathedral schools of the Middle Ages in which, the 
purpose being to train boys for the Church's service, whether as choristers 
or clergy, the instruction was confined to Latin, the language of the Church. 
Universities, when founded, marked a slight extension of function, inas- 
much as they trained men not only for the Church but for medicine and 
the law. But, as Professor Adamson points out, in the age of chivalry the 
education of both school and university was felt to be unfitted for the 
boy who was destined for the more active life of a soldier or an adminis- 
trator of landed estates, and he received training on entirely different lines, 
lines that in some respects appear to us to-day as more truly cultural, if 
somewhat superficial. The Renaissance added Greek to the curriculum of 
our universities — though do not let us forget that the direct intervention 
of Henry VIII. was necessary to secure its admission to Oxford — and the 
' New Learning ' of that time gave a more humanistic outlook to all 
classical study, but many centuries were to pass before the other studies 
necessary to a well-balanced curriculum won their rightful place in school 
or university. 

France, from the sixteenth century onwards, had her ' academies ' in 
which modern languages, mathematics and some science were added to the 
study of the classics. Locke, as early as the end of the seventeenth century, 
took another long step forward, and stressed the value of manual instruction. 
He urged that it should form part of the education of everyone who fol- 
lowed what he termed a ' gentleman's calling,' and pointed out the ad- 
vantage of handwork as a recreation for ' one whose chief business is with 
books and study.' Rousseau and Pestalozzi alike denounced the pre- 
vailing ' bookishness ' of the education of their days ; Pestalozzi in parti- 
cular, as we know, laying great emphasis on the value of handwork. English 
public schools and grammar schools, however, remained dominated by the 
purely classical tradition until the nineteenth century was far advanced, 
though the industrial revolution gradually brought into being private 
schools, with a modern and commercial bias, but for the most part super- 
ficial in their work. Such schools were frequented by the sons of manu- 
facturers who regarded the classical curriculum as an unsuitable pre- 
paration for a business career. ' Academies ' on fairly modern lines were 
opened in Scotland from the middle of the eighteenth century, but so great 
was the prestige of the old classical tradition in North as well as South 
that the Scottish ' academy ' often ended by becoming the grammar 
school on a slightly more modern basis. Mr. Fearon, however, 
reporting in 1866 to the Schools Inquiry Commission on the principal 



L.— EDUCATION. 193 

' burgh ' schools of Scotland, points out that the dependence of these 
schools on fees and support from public funds tended to make their curri- 
culum broader than that of the English endowed schools, which was too 
often limited by the wording of trust deeds. 

Thring introduced manual work and music into Uppingham in the middle 
of the nineteenth century, but until mathematics, science, modern languages, 
and English had won a recognised place in the curriculum, only a limited 
development could be expected of subjects still further removed from the 
tradition of the schools. 

It may be said that it is only within the last twenty or thirty years 
that we have succeeded in establishing a fairly balanced secondary curri- 
culum on academic lines. The claims of English, indeed, in secondary 
schools are hardly yet fully established, and the cultural value of music 
is only slowly gaining recognition. We are no longer ready to accept the 
dictum of William of Wykeham that grammar (i.e. Latin) is ' the founda- 
tion gate and origin of all other liberal arts, without which arts of this 
kind cannot be known,' but are we not too ready to give our assent to the 
view that the study of a foreign language is necessary to culture ? It is 
well to remember that the Committee on the Teaching of Modern Languages 
expressed the opinion that ' in schools where the majority of pupils do not 
stay for more than four years it may be advantageous that, after due trial, 
a certain proportion should be entirely relieved of language study and 
should concentrate their attention on English and the various other 
subjects which cannot be neglected in such schools. A pupil may have 
very useful abilities and yet be incapable of learning any foreign language. 
In the curriculum of such pupils the study of English might be much more 
fully developed than it is at present.' It may be added that for these 
pupils the study of good translations of the best foreign literature, both 
ancient and modern, should greatly assist the attainment of a broad 
culture. 

Such being the history of the literary and scientific subjects, we need 
not be surprised that the progress of handwork has been slow. From 
1889 onwards, Local Authorities were empowered to give technical 
instruction, and a generous provision of public money was made for the 
purpose, but the instruction provided was frequently on too narrow and 
specialised a basis to have great educational value and therefore lacked 
popularity. Until the Education Act of 1902 enabled Local Authorities 
to deal with secondary as well as technical education effective co-ordina- 
tion of the two was impossible. 

It was not, however, until seven years after the passing of the Act 
that the Consultative Committee were asked by the Board of Education 
to consider the extent to which education by means of practical work 
should be developed in secondary schools. In 1912 the Committee 
reported to the effect that secondary education had been too exclusivelv 
concerned with the cultivation of the mind by books and the instruction 
of the teacher, and recommended that every secondary school should 
provide for the teaching of some branch of educational handwork. 
Handwork to-day, therefore, is found in some degree in all secondarv 
schools in England and Wales, but, as the Consultative Committee pointed 
out, pressure of work often leaves little time for it in the forms preparing 
1927 O 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

for external examinations. About 1915 a further step was taken, when an 
alternative course of a practical character was introduced into a boys' 
grammar school in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The experiment was 
found so successful in creating fresh interest, and in its reactions on other 
studies, that it was extended to other schools in the same area. Similar 
■experiments existing to-day elsewhere could be mentioned. It is interesting 
to find that, in 1926, the Association of County Councils, in giving evidence 
before the Consultative Committee, advocated the institution of alternative 
•courses in secondary schools. Whether the alternatives should be within 
the walls of one school or of two seems a point of minor importance from 
the educational aspect, though it raises important administrative questions. 
The main desideratum is that wherever there is a secondary school of the 
usual type, simpler and more practical alternatives should also be available 
in order that the needs of children of varying types of ability may be met. 
We must, in fact, begin with the child and make the curriculum suit him. 
The converse policy has held the field too long in spite of its obvious 
absurdity. 

Even before the passing of the 1902 Act some of the larger School 
Boards had established higher grade schools, many of which provided 
manual instruction — a clear indication of the need felt in many quarters 
for a post-primary school of a more practical type than the purely secondary. 
In 1895 the Bryce Committee had reported favourably on schools of this 
kind, pointing out that they corresponded to the third grade of secondary 
school advocated by the Schools Inquiry Commission in 1868, and recording 
their opinion that secondary education included technical as well as 
academic subjects. In 1905 the Board's Consultative Committee also 
expressed themselves strongly in favour of schools which would combine 
a general education with some practical instruction in a course extending 
up to fifteen years of age. But though grant was allowed for higher 
elementary schools under a minute of 1905, the more immediate necessity 
was felt to be the development of the secondary school of a purely 
academic type, with a normal leaving age of not less than sixteen. 

By 1911, however, the London County Council had taken the initiative 
in developing the type of school known as ' central,' aiming at a 
combination of practical instruction and general culture in a four-years' 
course from eleven to fifteen. The setting up of similar schools followed 
in other areas in England and in Wales ; and in 1918 the Education Act 
made it obligatory on Education Authorities to provide ' practical and 
advanced ' instruction either in central schools and central classes, or 
otherwise. 

The Scottish Education Act of that year contained no such provision, 
but Scotland for some years had had an alternative to ' secondary ' 
education in ' supplementary ' courses for children of the age-range of twelve 
to fourteen, which included practical instruction. In the large centres these 
were well staffed and equipped, but in rural areas too often both staff 
and equipment were insufficient, the long survival of the parochial system 
making it impossible to assemble the older children from various parishes 
at one centre, as in England. In 1919 the establishment of county 
Education Authorities brought a great increase of scholars to secondary 
schools, but too many of these, it was found, left at fourteen and fifteen 



L.— EDUCATION. 1 95 

without taking any certificate. In 1923, therefore, the Scottish Education 
Department instituted ' advanced divisions,' as alternatives to the first 
part of the purely secondary course, but under more exacting conditions 
of staffing than the old supplementary departments. All courses must 
have a ' common core ' of English subjects — these having the lion's share 
of the time-table — training in morals and citizenship, mathematics (or, 
for girls, arithmetic), art and music. At either end of the scale are a 
number of alternative subjects, academic or practical. A foreign language 
is not compulsory. A ' higher day school certificate ' is to be taken 
at the end of the course — normally at the age of fifteen. A ' lower 
day school certificate ' is given a year earlier. 

While, however, it is obvious from a recital of these facts that some 
steps have been taken to meet the demand for a wider curriculum, the 
position as we review it to-day can hardly be considered satisfactory. 
Too often our aim appears to be to pass on as many children as possible 
to the ordinary secondary school. Here the curriculum, however admirable 
an instrument of all-round culture for boys and girls of scholastic ability, 
if they remain at school until sixteen or later, may be quite unsuited to the 
boy or girl of another type who will leave school at the age of fourteen or 
fifteen. Though school life is appreciably lengthening, only one-half of the 
pupils in secondary schools in England and Wales enter for the first schools 
examination ; only one-third of the pupils pass. Moreover, the 
Consultative Committee have expressed the opinion that schools or 
departments of the practical or ' modern ' type are needed for the great 
majority of the children in the country ; yet the number of children 
receiving this type of post-primary instruction, though steadily increasing, 
is only about one-third of the number in secondary schools. What are 
the reasons for this comparative failure to supply what I venture to 
suggest is the most pressing need of our education system as it exists 
to-day ? 

One, I think, is to be found in the fact that most persons interested in 
education have been educated mainly on academic lines, and therefore 
have found it difficult to realise the need for practical instruction. This, 
we are told, is why the efforts made many years ago by Sir James Kav- 
Shuttleworth to increase the practical training in elementary schools 
met with little success. At a later date the grant system was to blame. 
' Payment by results ' tended to restrict elementary education to the 
three R's, and gave a serious set-back to manual training. 

Other reasons were the expense of the equipment, the comparative 
failure of the technical instruction given prior to 1902, the tardy develop- 
ment, outlined above, of the secondary curriculum, and the delay in 
organising secondary education on a national basis. Matthew Arnold's 
plea — first uttered in the 'fifties — that secondary education should be 
organised on a national basis, had fallen on deaf ears. Wales obtained 
powers for secondary education in 1889, but none were available in 
England until the Act of 1902. The varying types of higher grade, 
higher elementary and science schools, which in the years following 
1870 were added to the schools of the old grammar school type, may well 
have made it appear that the first task alike of the Board and of the new 
authorities set up by the 1902 Act must be to develop a clearly defined 

o2 



196 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

secondary school. In recent years the demand for more secondary 
schools, the need for dealing with many arrears of improvements or 
developments left by the war, and the financial difficulties with which 
Central and Local Authority alike have been beset, have delayed the 
expansion of practical instruction required by the Fisher Act. 

Yet another reason may be given. Secondary schools have had 
behind them the prestige of the universities, to which their curriculum 
naturally leads, and central schools in comparison have sometimes been 
regarded as blind alleys. Universities are the crown of our educational 
system. It is a laudable aim that the education of all children of scholastic 
ability should be rounded off there — and, on the other hand, universities 
of late years have broadened their curriculum to include many techno- 
logical subjects. But their doors are guarded, and rightly so, by an 
examination which demands the all-round curriculum of the ordinary 
secondary school. On the maintenance of an effective entrance test 
depends to a considerable extent the standard of work of the universities, 
and on the standard of the universities depends the standard of every 
school in the country. Do not let us make the mistake of judging the 
efficiency of our educational system merely by the number of young men 
and women we send to the universities. Let us judge it rather by the 
standard of our universities, by the extent to which they are accessible 
to young people of scholastic ability, irrespective of circumstances, by 
the adequacy and efficiency of other provision for continued or higher 
education, and by the extent to which universities and other institutions 
alike, whole-time or part-time, are ministering to the development of 
powers of appreciation, thought and varied ability among our people. 

Further, I find it difficult to resist the conclusion that our tardy and 
somewhat grudging recognition of the need for practical instruction has 
been due partly to a failure to appreciate the psychological issues involved. 
There are two things which we seem too ready to forget. The first is that 
not only in the early stages, but also in the later — in adolescence — there 
will be no intellectual development without interest and understanding. 
The second is that if a child is not able to take interest in at least some 
of his lessons, school may be positively harmful to his mental development. 
' An unsuitable course,' said Sanderson of Oundle, ' may not only fail to 
develop, but actually retard progress.' Yet too many of us, quite un- 
consciously, seem to be guided by Mr. Dooley's aphorism that ' it doesn't 
matter what you teach a child so long as he doesn't want to learn it ' ! 

The value of practical instruction for younger children is now fully 
admitted, but too often we seem reluctant to recognise what its worth may 
be higher up in the school. Yet Professor Cyril Burt, to whom I am indebted 
for some valuable notes on this subject, writes that recent psychological 
tests have shown that both the range and nature of individual abilities differ 
increasingly among older children — ' though differences in inborn ability 
may appear quite early among individual children, the degrees to which 
they differ become larger and larger, and continue to increase (at any rate up 
to the age of about fourteen) almost proportionately with increasing age.' 
The need for variety of curriculum increases, therefore, with adolescence. 

Again, we have been ready to own the worth of practical instruction 
for the dull and backward, and to understand that one of its special values 



L.— EDUCATION. 197 

may lie in a rapid and desirable increase in self-confidence and self-respect 
among such children, but we have been slow to grasp the distinction between 
verbal and non-verbal or practical ability, and to realise how much ability, 
quite equal to the normal, may fail to show itself in the ordinary lessons 
of school. We constantly remind ourselves of the many distinguished 
men who in their school days were held to be of little promise, and yet we 
hesitate to draw the obvious conclusion that their school life should have 
been able to do something more to develop their special gifts. 

As long ago as 1912 Sanderson of Oundle expressed the opinion that 
probably the majority of boys thought in things, not words, and described 
how boys considered dull in class developed intellectually when set to 
work in shops, laboratories, drawing-office or fields. They gained in 
self-respect and confidence and returned with good results to subjects 
which previously had been dropped. Their work in school had a new 
interest for them, and many such boys had ended by gaining university 
scholarships. 

But Professor Burt goes further still. ' So much of the children's daily 
work in after-life,' he reminds us, ' will depend upon muscular co-ordina- 
tion that a training in manual dexterity should form a part of the all- 
round culture possessed by every human creature. To perfect their 
accuracy all the muscular mechanisms of the body need specific exercise.' 

Manual work, moreover, in its finer form leads to the development 
of a sixth or ' kinsesthetic ' sense, which Sir Charles Sherrington's research 
has shown to depend on sense-organs embedded in the muscles. On this 
depends the prowess of the athlete, the highest skill of a masseur or 
trained mechanic. It probably reaches its greatest perfection in the 
musician's ' touch.' An organist has this sense developed not only in his 
hands but in his feet. 

Professor Burt is, therefore, I think, right in warning us against the 
popular and exaggerated antithesis between handwork and brainwork. 
' All handwork,' he writes, ' that deserves the name is also brainwork. 
The reception and appreciation of muscle sensation is as much an intel- 
lectual activity as the reception and appreciation of the " higher " sensations 
that are received by the observing eye or by the listening ear. Handwork, 
therefore, may claim quite as much " intellectual respectability" as reading, 
writing or arithmetic' As the Consultative Committee have done well 
to remind us, a liberal or humane education is not to be secured through 
books alone. 

Are we not also in some danger of ignoring the importance of purpose 
in learning ? The child is essentially a practical being. His deepest 
instinct is to create and experiment ; his highest ambition to imitate 
what he sees his elders doing. As adolescence approaches his mind 
develops new interests and powers that are practical rather than purely 
intellectual or academic. The sounds of the world reach him through 
the school doors and lure him with the hope of a life of greater liberty 
and more definite usefulness. Masters of schools of every type can testify 
to the number of boys who take a new and living interest in their school 
work — of whatever kind it may be — from the day that it can be shown to 
them that it will help to prepare them for their future career. This 
sense of purpose — this desire to be of use — seems to me one of the finest 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

instincts to be found in young people. It must be the task of the school 
to foster it, to direct it to the channels in which it will best bear fruit, 
and the school in its turn — and in more classrooms than one — will reap 
the benefit of the new interests aroused. 

There is no need to dwell on the aesthetic value of much handwork, 
especially such as is taught in girls' schools. All indoor handwork bears 
a relation to the art lesson, and therefore has a definite part to play in 
the development of culture. 

Nor must we forget the importance of practical instruction as an 
element in character training. It taps fresh sources of energy, brings 
them under control, and is valuable to neurotic children in giving stability, 
and to adolescence in preventing overwork. At this stage Professor Burt 
tells us that more concrete and practical activities even for the super- 
normal and especially for the bookworm form a wholesome corrective. 
We know how much juvenile delinquency is due to the overflow of 
emotional energy and to misapplied manual skill, and how practical 
activities have proved successful in giving the youthful offender a necessary 
legitimate outlet for his energies. 

It is clear, therefore, on educational grounds that it is at the post- 
primary stage above all others that we need the greatest variety of courses, 
and of courses that will include practical instruction. 

But educational reasons are reinforced by considerations affecting our 
social and economic welfare. We can no more afford to forget the need 
for co-operation between education and industry than to ignore the 
economic interdependence of the different parts of the Empire. On the 
one hand, we recognise variety of character and ability as constituting 
one of the wonders of human nature, and believe that partly owing to our 
varied racial strain and partly to our love of mental freedom we may 
claim to possess it to an exceptional degree. On the other hand, we cannot 
but be conscious of an almost equal need of the country and the Empire 
in general for service of varied kinds. Only by services of infinite variety 
demanding every possible exercise of human ingenuity, initiative and 
industry, can we hope to find employment for our dense and still growing 
population. In particular we in this country need the greatest possible 
development in varied ways of productive industry, as the Overseas 
Dominions need the development of their vast unpeopled territories. Yet 
even twenty-two years ago the Consultative Committee, in the Report to 
which I have already referred, hinted that our education inclined to lead 
boys to desire to be clerks rather than mechanics, and deprecated any 
encouragement being given to enter a profession already at that date 
overstocked. In the years that have elapsed the tendency has increased 
— girls have entered clerical occupations in large numbers, and the crowding 
in the professions is greater than ever. Possibly this process has been 
accentuated since the war by industrial depression ; but if our productive 
industries, both rural and urban, are to meet the competition from abroad 
which now assails them even more fiercely than twenty years ago, 
they urgently need the best ability of varied kinds. Schools other than 
those recognised as ' technical ' cannot be expected to send out trained 
workers, nor definitely to prepare boys and girls for life overseas, but 
schools and departments giving the ' advanced ' and practical instruction 



L.— EDUCATION. 1 99 

required by the Fisher Act will render rare service to the country if they can 
develop a capacity to handle tools common to a group of occupations, some 
knowledge of the main principles of our most important industries or of 
industries peculiar to the locality, a desire to co-operate in their continuance 
and expansion, the adaptability which will enable a worker if need be to 
transfer from one occupation to another, and some understanding of the 
great opportunities which our Overseas Empire offers to the young man 
or woman of initiative who is trained on practical and realistic lines. 

There are some, I know, who feel that the introduction of machinery 
and the subdivision of labour make it hopeless to expect the factory 
worker to be interested in his task. Remembering, however, the interest 
that the average boy is wont to take in the interior economy of clocks and 
motors, the unwearying delight of the small boy in drawing engines and 
aeroplanes, I cannot but believe that the great majority of boys could be 
interested in the machinery of our various industries if they were made to 
understand its basic principles; and I feel pretty certain that much 
generous instinct would respond if it were pointed out that the introduction 
of machinery, though it had deprived the individual worker of the 
satisfaction of producing a complete article by his own labour, had so 
cheapened production that millions now could enjoy what in the days of 
hand labour was procurable only by the few. 

The development of repetitive processes, however, has emphasized the 
need of education for leisure, and, it may be added, has reinforced the 
argument that the education given should be such as will arouse powers 
of interest and appreciation. One of the aims of the school must be to 
instil a love of good literature, music and art, more especially in those 
whose working hours in after-life may be spent in drab or monotonous 
surroundings ; but do not let us ignore the part that practical activities, 
such as needlework, carpentering and gardening may play in the enjoyment 
of leisure, even in the case of men and women to whose daily work it is 
somewhat akin. Miners, for instance, are notoriously fond of gardening, 
and it is difficult to imagine an occupation that can better compensate for 
the limitations under which their work is necessarily carried on. 

Another merit of handwork is that it is often co-operative and so teaches 
the team spirit. That spirit is also being widely inculcated through games 
and school organisation. Few greater services could be rendered by the 
schools to industry and to the country generally than that they should 
teach our young workers to bring with them into factory or office or mine 
the team spirit learned on the school play-ground or through school life 
in general. 

From these many points of view therefore it seems to me that our 
policy must inevitably be to develop new forms of post-primary in- 
struction. Here is the opportunity for the ' modern ' school. But it 
must realise its purpose and be true to it ; it must not be a mere imitator 
and rival of the secondary school. The two types must work in closest 
co-operation ; the ' modern ' school must, wherever possible, pass on pupils 
who give evidence of literary or scientific ability ; and the two schools to 
that end must if possible keep a ' common core ' of fundamental subjects. 
If that be done, the fears which have sometimes been expressed that an 
extension of schools of the ' modern ' or ' central ' type will damage secondary 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

schools should be groundless. When the kind of education which I am 
advocating is available for those whom it suits, the number following 
the conventional secondary curriculum may be proportionately less, 
though we have not yet fully met the need for secondary schools in all 
parts of England and Wales, more especially in the rural areas. But do 
not let us forget that schools exist for the children, not children for the 
schools. The duty of the teacher is to ascertain the varying abilities 
of the children, a process in which the tests devised by psychologists should 
be of value. The duty of the administrator is to see that, so far as is reason- 
ably possible, every child is given a chance of developing his special ability, 
as well as of acquiring general culture. 

Moreover, once we recognise that variety of gifts as between boy and 
boy must receive different treatment, we shall no longer hesitate to differ- 
entiate so far as may seem desirable between boy and girl. Time was 
when it was necessary that girls shoidd give proof of their ability to study 
the more serious subjects hitherto reserved for boys. To-day that claim 
has been long established. Heads of girls' schools can now afford to 
adapt their curricula more than formerly to the varying needs of their 
pupils, intellectual and physical. More especially does it seem desirable 
that, unless preparation for professional life makes it impossible without 
overstrain, time should be found for definite training in domestic science. 
Many new and wider interests are opening up, but honie-niaking must 
still play an important part in the lives of the vast majority of women. 

I have perhaps spoken of the ' central ' school as if it-offered us the type 
of school we want. But its development is recent and it is still in the 
process of evolution, so that the term may connote either a school giving a 
purely general course, or one with a commercial or an industrial bias, or 
both. The London County Council, finding that ' central ' schools of the 
commercial type have tended to increase more rapidly than those with an 
industrial bias, have lately decided that where possible both courses shall 
be included in one school — a step which seems eminently reasonable, 
though the practical difficulties of providing a double bias in one school 
may no doubt be serious. A head master of long experience in a ' central ' 
school has told me that he found further subdivision of these courses 
necessary in order to secure interest and sense of purpose. His experience 
showed that the interest aroused by wider variation had more than made 
up for the lack of special teachers for each group, and, as elsewhere in 
such schools, had had marked results in lengthening school life. 

As the Consultative Committee emphasize, however, whether ' central ' 
or ' modern ' schools realise the desired end must mainly depend on the 
breadth of vision of head master or mistress, and we may add, of the 
staff in general. Every keen teacher must long to see his pupils interested 
in the things which appeal to him personally, and to such it may be a con- 
siderable mental effort to realise that the interests of some pupils may 
develop along quite different lines. As we have seen, the inability of 
educationists generally to realise this has been one of the reasons for the 
loss of precious time. But a clear lead has lately been given from the 
presidential chairs both of the National Union of Teachers and of the 
Association of Education Committees, and we may therefore hope for a 
general broadening of the outlook among educationists in general. 



L.— EDUCATION. 201 

And what of the parents ? Will they, where advisable, accept the 
simpler and more practical alternative to the usual secondary course '. 
Here we may find a difficulty due to the prestige of the secondary school. 
But we must have faith in the influence on fathers and mothers of a sane 
and informed public opinion, if that can be developed ; and if teachers 
in particular will show their belief in this type of curriculum, many parents. 
I am certain, will be guided by them. As to public opinion, in the political 
sphere the auguries are favourable. Unionists at the last General Election 
pledged themselves to the development of ' central ' schools and other 
forms of post-elementary instruction, as well as to the provision of an 
adequate supply of secondary schools, and this has been the policy pursued 
since 1924. The Labour Party have published a statement of their policy 
in which they demand secondary education of a less ' bookish ' type 
than at present, and no one has stated the case I have endeavoured to 
put with greater emphasis or clarity than Mr. Philip Snowden; while a 
recent conference of the National Liberal Federation has declared in 
favour of the provision of such a variety of schools as will secure the full 
development of ability of brain and hand alike. Political parties are 
therefore agreed on this all-important matter. 

Nor must we imagine that only in these islands is the need for variety 
of post-primary curricula felt. The United States found alternative courses 
necessary by the time that seven or eight per thousand of their 
population had been received into secondary schools ; and a feature of 
the recent Imperial Education Conference was the recognition from 
many varying parts of the Empire of the .urgent need for bringing 
the schools into closer relation with reality, and of the cultural value of 
practical training. The provision of the necessary instruction on the 
scale required will take time ; handicraft teachers are all too scarce ; 
many buildings may have to be enlarged ; practical equipment is 
costly ; further experience is needed in the evolution of the curriculum. 
But if we can keep the principle of variety clearly in view, and can frankly 
recognise practical work as forming j>art and parcel of a liberal education, 
our progress will be sure, even if financial difficulties for a time may 
oblige it to be slow ; and if we can make clear to the country as a whole 
that we are being guided by these principles, we shall, I am certain, rally 
to our support much opinion which at present is uninterested or sceptical, 
we shall introduce new and living interests into many lives whose intel- 
lectual development might otherwise have been stunted, and we may 
hope to bring to the service of the community in its varying needs rich 
contributions of equally varied ability. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



AGRICULTURE AND NATIONAL 
EDUCATION. 



ADDRESS BY 

C. G. T. MORISO-N, M.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



When the Council of this Association did me the honour to invite me to 
become the President of the Agricultural Section for this year, I was 
rilled with some consternation and alarm as I recalled the long line of 
distinguished men who have filled this position in previous years, and the 
high standard and excellence of their addresses. One of the difficulties 
that I felt most strongly was that, like many of my predecessors, I was 
originally a chemist who had fallen under the spell of agriculture, and 
whose fancy had led him, in the intervals of an otherwise busy life, to 
work at problems of the soil. Now, engrossing as those problems are, 
and fundamentally important to the business of agriculture as the results of 
such investigations can be, I observe that no one, at any rate in the last 
ten years, who has been President of this section has been brave enough 
to discuss them in his Presidential Address. The reason of this is perhaps 
not far to seek. There was a period in the history of agricultural science 
when chemistry seemed to offer all that was needed for a successful soil 
study, and when the chemists of the time appeared as the magicians of the 
piece, at the touch of whose magic wand all secrets were laid bare. Then 
with increasing knowledge, my colleagues fell under a cloud and a host of 
other scientists began each to play his part and to add each his fragment 
to our simple theme, until, at the beginning of this century, there was 
collected so vast a body of data about the soils of the world that any 
orderly thinking about the subject became almost impossible. Order is, 
however, coming again, and coming once more at the hands of chemists, 
and before many years are past, perhaps one of my successors may be bold 
enough to try to present our knowledge of soil conditions to this audience 
in a suitable form. It is a task, however, for the future and not for to-day. 
What then was there left about which a soil chemist might venture to 
speak ? It has been my fortune to spend most of my life at one of the 
old Universities, where, like many people at Oxford, much of my time 
and energy has been devoted to teaching, and it is because of the experience 
that I have had in teaching agricultural subjects and in organising 
agricultural curricula, and of my great interest and belief in agricultural 
education, that I venture to make it the subject of my address to-day. 

It is not so very long ago that research and education in agriculture 
began to be seriously developed in this country, first, on a physical basis 
which is, and must remain, fundamental, dealing with the technique of 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 203 

manufacture and with the elimination of waste in the manufacturing 
process ; second, from the business side, so that the producer may have his 
business carried out successfully and at a profit. From the point of view 
of vocational training these two aspects are so closely interwoven that any 
attempt to magnify one at the expense of the other can only lead to disaster, 
whereas from the purely educational point of view the two are quite 
distinct, and are better treated as stages in development, leading up 
gradually from the purely scientific subject of the growth of the plant and 
animal, through the application of this science to practical requirements, 
to the business organisation of the fundamental producing units. 

The objects of vocational education in Agriculture have been recently 
described by Sir Daniel Hall, 1 and further by Mr. Dale 2 in his paper to 
this section last year, and may be summarised as improvement of farming 
technique by making the results of recent research more readily and 
more rapidly available, and improvement in business management result- 
ing from more intimate knowledge of the economic details of the particular 
farming business and a wider acquaintance with the economic position of 
the whole industry. 

The development of technical education in this country has had for 
one of its aims the improvement of farming methods by creating a class 
of farmers who have had the benefit of a training at either a Farm Institute, 
an Agricultural College, or a University, according as he could spare time 
and money to pursue his studies. At the conclusion of these studies the 
presumption is that he will spread the light of his knowledge and his skill 
in his neighbourhood and, by the strong force of his example, cause an 
improvement in the methods of his neighbours. Thus would the country 
benefit from the greater yields per acre which would be grown, and the 
farmers themselves from their more satisfactory economic position. 

Unfortunately for the industry things do not work out quite so simply. 
The number of those who, on leaving the Universities and Colleges,, 
engage in farming and set the shining example I have mentioned are 
none too many, and the effect in this way upon farming practice has not 
been as great as might have been expected. The great landlords too, 
with certain notable exceptions, have hardly lived up to their eighteenth- 
century tradition in taking the place which is theirs naturally as leaders of 
the countryside in agricultural and farming affairs. Even the country 
clergy, who seem in the eighteenth century to have been knowledgeable 
in these matters, have apparently lost heart. Thus it appears that, 
despite all the money which is annually spent on higher education, there 
is not going forth into the countryside from our Universities and Colleges 
that stream of well-informed and well-educated young men and young 
women whose influence would so greatly modify farming practice up and 
down the land. For let us be quite candid about the situation : British 
fanning at its best as it is carried out by certain individuals and in certain 
districts — and that there is a greater concentration of these individuals in 
some districts no one will deny — is second to none all the world over. 
There are, however, a large number of farmers whose technique is poor, 
whose methods are slovenly, and whose general standard falls very far 

1 Scottish Journal of Agriculture, vol. x, p. 135. 

2 ' Progress of Agricultural Education in England and Wales.' 



204 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

below that of the best. I cannot but believe that even in the present 
difficult and harassing economic situation their position would be better 
were their standards somewhat higher, and their aim to increase rather 
than decrease their output. 

The improvement in farming technique has been sought by the methods 
described by Mr. Dale, which consist in affording in all parts of the country 
access to three types of education, provided by means of University 
departments and Colleges, by Farm Institutes, and by local classes and 
lectures. Each of these types has a separate function in the whole scheme 
and, while the part played by local classes and by the Farm Institutes 
seems clear enough, the policy of the Colleges and the Universities is often 
rather vague and indefinite. If it is possible to make a criticism against 
these bodies in the last years it is this, that, while they one and all would, 
I imagine, claim that their function was to train their students in the 
technique of the agricultural business, so that as managers and occupiers 
of land, land agents, teachers, experts or officials they could raise the 
standard and status of the industry, they appear to think that the different 
educational requirements of these various classes can be obtained under 
the same general scheme of instruction. There are, of course, great 
difficulties in the way of any one of these institutes definitely adopting a 
course designed to give the maximum benefit to any one of those classes 
which I have enumerated, but I think that in some cases at any rate the 
beaten track has been preferred, and the old methods have been considered 
good enough to suit conditions that have largely altered. I am convinced 
that only by taking careful stock of the whole situation, and by being 
perfectly clear about the result aimed at, can the money which is to-day 
expended upon agricultural education have the desired effect. 

It was pointed out by Mr. Dale in the paper already referred to that, 
if the case of wage-earners be excluded, the facilities in Universities, 
Colleges, and Farm Institutes were equal to the demands made, but that 
if these demands were as great as they should be, then the existing 
institutions would be overwhelmed. According to Mr. Dale's figures, the 
Colleges are only two-thirds full, and of this number only one-third are 
the sons and daughters of farmers. Something is wrong here, and until 
this is put right, excellent as is the work done by these institutions, it 
has not the effect upon the industry in this country which its excellence 
deserves. No doubt a fairly large proportion of these students learning 
agriculture will have some influence upon the industry in the future, 
but it is within my own knowledge that there are a considerable number of 
agricultural students in a University such as Oxford whose connection 
with agriculture subsequent to their leaving the University is very slight. 
I do not propose to traverse here already well-trodden ground in attempting 
to explain why there is not a greater demand for technical training in 
times of stress like the present. I believe that, while many factors 
contribute, it is mainly an economic question, and that the ordinary tenant- 
farmer is to-day in a position in which he can ill afford to spend money, 
even were he sufficiently farseeing to realise the ultimate benefit that 
would result. Such then is the main direction in which it appears to 
me that improvement in higher education is requi'red, and this improvement 
must be achieved by a greater vision and clearer purpose on the part of 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 205 

these institutions, and by a greater appreciation on the part of those 
whom they are designed to serve. 

So far in this scheme of vocational training only the actual farmers 
have been considered ; nothing has been done to meet the needs of the 
manual labourer, and not very much to give the landlord a training 
suitable to his position as one of the partners in the industry. 

The case of the manual worker is one of most urgent need ; little or 
nothing is done to give him or her any kind of vocational training, and 
this in spite of the fact that the whole position of the industry at the 
present time, more than ever before, depends upon the efficiency of the 
labour unit. This aspect of agricultural education was dealt with by 
Mr. Duncan both at the Oxford Meeting and subsequently in an article 
contributed to the Scottish Journal of Agriculture, 3 and it appears from 
this that no educational effort is being made to make the manual worker 
more efficient or to enable him to increase the value of his output. Mr. 
Orwin 4 has recently stated that the lad who remains on farm work 
definitely occupies a lower social position than those of his own age and 
district who seek the more highly remunerated work that can be obtained 
in the towns. Wireless and the motor-bus have done much to enliven 
rural conditions, but they really only succeed in emphasising the super- 
ficial undesirability of country life, country wages, and a country outlook. 
As Mr. Duncan has pointed out, until wages are higher, and until the 
skill of the worker enables him to earn those higher wages, agriculture 
will always be left with the more inefficient and the less active-minded 
of the countryside. The difficulties in the way of rendering labour more 
efficient are very great ; the tasks to be carried out are so various, the 
possibilities of the use of machinery so limited, and the effective over- 
seeing, which is responsible for much of the success in other industries, 
is almost impossible. The comparative failure of agricultural trade unions 
means that there is not the continual pressure for improvement that there 
is elsewhere. If labour became more efficient the result would be either 
that the same amount of work could be done in the same time by a smaller 
number of men, or a larger amount of work done in the same time by the 
same or a smaller number of men. 

Now extensive agriculture in the newer countries is characterised by 
a large production per man engaged in the work, while in more intensive 
agriculture in the more settled countries a lower production per man is 
obtained, although the production per acre may be more than double. 
The urgent practical problem is to increase production per man while at 
the same time maintaining or increasing production per acre. All this 
implies technical skill of no mean order on the part not only of the manager 
but also of the manual worker, and to my mind it requires something 
more, something which makes the acquiring of technical skill a compara- 
tively easy matter, and that something consists in a good general and 
continued cultural education. There is no doubt, I think, that educa- 
tion, cultural education apart from vocational training, is held in greater 
respect in all those parts of the British Isles which are not English. It 
is certainly true of Ireland and of Scotland, and, I understand, of Wales. 

* Scottish Journal of Agriculture, vol. x, p. 28. 

* ' The Transition of Agriculture,' Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, May 20, 1927. 



20 tf SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

England alone stands unconvinced. It is of course difficult to measure 
the extent to which general education contributes to mental alertness in 
later years, but there is often among farmers, and among the rural popula- 
tion generally, a certain lack of elasticity, a certain dullness of outlook, 
which will have to disappear if agriculture is to take its rightful place 
among the other great industries of the country. The skilled manager, 
the skilled man, the educated manager, the educated man — if it pays to 
employ these, and it does appear to do so in other industries, then much 
more should it be remunerative in agriculture, where the calls on the 
management are so multifarious, the task so difficult, and the skill 
demanded of the manual worker so very varied. 

Let us now examine how a development of this kind affects the three 
partners in the agricultural business as we know it to-day — the landlord, 
the farmer, and the manual worker. 

The landlord may, or may not, remain as a permanent partner in the 
agricultural industry ; but while he does remain the power that he 
possesses of influencing the whole industry is enormous. Those of us 
who were privileged to hear Lord Bledisloe's address when he was Presi- 
dent of this section will well remember his almost passionate appeal to 
the landowners of to-day to follow the example set them by their illustrious 
predecessors, and take upon themselves the position of leaders and 
organisers of the agricultural industry. Some there are of course who, 
like Lord Bledisloe himself, have taken up this burden, and whose names 
will be remembered as we remember those of the great leaders of the 
eighteenth century. ' The agricultural community in Britain to-day,' 
said Lord Bledisloe at Hull in 1922, ' above all else needs enlightened 
leadership, just as agriculture needs efficient organisation ; and the land- 
owner, if, after due training, he would but take his proper position, should 
be both leader and chief organiser.' This need for leadership all over the 
world is as great to-day as it was then, and, while the owners of the soil 
supply leaders in almost every branch of this country's activities, they 
undoubtedly do so in smaller numbers in the very industry from which 
they have derived their position. This leadership is only possible to-day 
through suitable education, and if it is possible to provide suitable educa- 
tion for any class in the community, it should be possible in this case. 
The preparatory and public schools of this country, great as their faults 
may be, do undoubtedly at their best furnish an education which in 
certain aspects is surpassed by none, and provide a training in citizenship 
and leadership which it is difficult to equal. Specialisation and vocational 
training are, however, relegated to the last years of a public-school career, 
and so far in this country agriculture has been treated as a purely vocational 
subject, to be dealt with shortly in the secondary school as a preliminary 
to a fuller course in the subject at a subsequent stage. So the prospective 
landlord passes from the school stage to the university, where now he may, 
if he be so minded, spend the whole of his time completing his cultural 
and technical education and training himself for this occupation of 
leadership. And if the schools and universities of this country live up 
to their reputation, and if the latter seriously attend to the provision of 
the most suitable curricula, the education and training will be sufficient. 
In Lord Bledisloe's words, ' their traditions are great, but their future 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 207 

destiny is greater if they have but the vision, the courage, and, above all, 
the will to press resolutely forward towards the goal to which public 
duty and material advantage alike point the way.' 

What, then, is the actual farmer's position ? On him the greater 
part of the burden falls ; how does the education provided help him to 
support it ? 

In the case of the larger farmers general education and technical 
training will be provided by means identical, or nearly so, to those I have 
already discussed, and they with the landowner must share the burden 
of leadership, leadership not only in technical skill and administrative 
ability, but also in the more difficult task of building up a new rural life. 
In the case of the smaller farmers the facilities are not so complete ; 
the majority of these get their education at the local grammar schools, 
which usually require that a boy shall enter before the age of twelve and 
shall stay until the age of sixteen. In this way it should be possible to 
secure that the general education is satisfactory, and that it should have 
what is called a rural bias, or at any rate be closely related to environment 
in country districts. It has been shown by a committee of this Association 
on Training for Overseas Life that quite a number of grammar and 
secondary schools have introduced some agricultural work of a kind which 
may be regarded as semi-vocational, as something which would definitely 
be of service when the boy leaves school, as he usually does, between the 
ages of sixteen and seventeen. Definite technical education is subse- 
quently provided by the Agricultural Colleges, by the Farm Institutes, and 
the activities of the County Council officer in the way of lectures, demonstra- 
tions, visits to institutions, discussion groups, and young farmers' clubs. 
I feel, however, that this is not enough, good though it frequently is and 
excellent as it may become. Something further is required, some scheme 
whereby education may be continued in later years and not cut off short 
at the time when it is perhaps most worth continuing. Is it too much 
to hope that there may develop in this country something in the nature 
of a rural university which shall continue education, and shall continue 
it on university lines ? If I am correct, what is needed is not a greater 
volume of technical instruction but a greater desire for technical instruc- 
tion and a more educated habit of mind, which I believe can only be 
obtained in these cases by an improvement in, and a continuation of, 
general education to a later stage. 

It is frequently, though not universally, held that much of the success 
of modern Danish agricultural organisation is due to the existence of the 
famous Folk High Schools, 5 virtually rural universities, providing as they 
do in a manner which is unique the advantages of a residential university. 
It would take too long to examine the claim that has been made that 
without these schools Danish agricultural co-operation and Danish 
agricultural progress would have been impossible, but even if we make 
allowances for the enthusiasm of the believers, it is certain that much of 
the mental alertness and spirit of mutual help so essential to success has 
been acquired in the High Schools. In Denmark even up to the present 
day these have been almost entirely a rural development ; the towns have 

5 ' The Folk High Schools of Denmark and the Development of the Farming 
Community,' by Holger Begtrup, Hans Lund, and Peter Manniche. 



208 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been unwilling and slow to support the movement. It must be frankly 
admitted that it does not appear possible, with the English outlook on 
education, to transplant the High-school system into this country, but I 
do believe that in the development of the spirit which led to their founda- 
tion lies the greatest hope for the future of rural England. How far is it 
possible that this work can be carried out through the instrumentality of 
such organisations as the Extra-mural Delegacies of the Universities, 
Rural Community Councils, Women's Institutes and other bodies which are 
interested in the regeneration of the countryside ? The success of the 
Women's Institutes has been very remarkable, and the potentialities of 
the Extra-mural wt)rk of the Universities are as yet hardly explored. If 
we look at the report of the Extra-mural Delegacy of my own University, 
we shall see that courses, which have been more or less well attended, 
have been given in purely rural areas on such subjects as ' Citizenship 
and How England is Governed,' ' Industrial History,' ' Current Economic 
Problems,' all of which themes, to mention only a few, might be expected 
to interest a country audience. Some of the lectures deal specifically with 
rural affairs and their development, and it is interesting to learn that in 
the smaller centres, in the more purely agricultural districts, the audience 
generally consists of the parson, the schoolmaster, village shopkeepers, 
sometimes farm labourers and their wives, frequently farmers' wives, but 
practically never the farmers themselves. I do not pretend to know what 
is the reason for this abstention on the part of the farmers, but it does 
indicate an attitude of mind that is to be deplored, and which must 
hinder any attempt to improve rural conditions. 

Turning next to the case of the wage-earner in the industry, as has 
been pointed out by Mr. Duncan, nothing has been attempted so far which 
will either improve his technical training or prolong his education ; the 
improvement, such as it is, that has been effected in the skill and knowledge 
of the farmer has only intensified the difference between master and man. 
One of the real needs of the industry is to keep the best men on the land, 
not those who for one reason or another get left behind in the race to the 
towns, and this will only be possible when the employer can pay wages 
comparable with those which can be obtained in other industries. This 
he is unable to do, and will continue to be unable to do, until it is possible 
to increase the value of the worker's output. I would here remark that 
in other industries employers have found out the value of prolonged 
education, as well as of vocational training, and the real worth of continua- 
tion classes has been clearly demonstrated. Is it too much to hope that 
something of the same kind may happen in the industry in which we are 
all interested ? Much is being done towards the improvement of 
elementary education, and many persons are interested in this side of the 
problem. The development of Senior Country Schools and the possibilities 
that are to be found in such a scheme of fostering a liking for, and an 
understanding of, rural affairs are all happy auguries for a brighter future. 
Any improvement that can be effected, however, in the ordinary schools 
is likely to be very largely sterile, unless it is possible to continue this 
education over the critical years that follow the school-leaving age. Is it 
too much of a dream to look forward to an improvement in the general 
education and training of those who are engaged in agricultural pursuits, 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 209 

to a time when farmers up and down the country will feel that there is 
something worth while in an education and a standard of culture and 
technical knowledge beyond that to which they have been accustomed, 
and when they will be prepared adequately to remunerate good men whose 
output is high, and when the men themselves will realise that only if they 
have adequate education and training can they expect to earn wages 
comparable with those paid in urban industries ? 

I desire to turn now to two other aspects of agriculture in relation 
to national education, one of which I regard as having very great signifi- 
cance from the point of view of the industry itself, and the other as being 
at this stage in the development of the world of paramount importance 
to every civilised community. It has long been the complaint of persons 
interested in agriculture that it is very difficult to arouse intelligent 
interest in the minds of those persons in the country who are not either 
directly or indirectly concerned with the industry. There have, of course, 
been times in the history of every country when circumstances such as 
scarcity of food, or even the possibility of actual starvation, have drawn 
the attention of the whole population to this question. Under such cir- 
cumstances governments may have to act precipitately and commit the 
country to this or that policy without sufficient consideration. Such a 
course is fraught with much danger, especially when dealing with an 
industry like agriculture in which changes can only come slowly and 
gradually. In the present day, when our needs are satisfied by produce 
from all parts of the world, and when only a small portion of the food 
consumed both in the towns and in the country is provided by our own 
soil, is it not time that some effort was made to inform the whole body of 
consumers, not only of the way in which the food is produced, but of the 
manner of life of those who produce it, and of the mode of its arrival in 
their midst ? So smoothly does the machinery of production and distribu- 
tion appear to work that the consumer is apt to think it automatic, and 
to take the arrival of these necessaries and luxuries almost as the falling of 
manna from heaven. Only by education, only by creating an informed 
opinion about agriculture among both the urban and rural populations 
in this country, can the mass of the people come to realise the peculiar 
circumstances of the farming community, and the difficulties with 
which their business is faced, and the particular problems that affect the 
countryside as distinct from the towns. 

To proceed still further, Sir Daniel Hall, in his Presidential Address 
last year, emphasised the fact that the continued expansion of the earth's 
population and of the white races in particular, as representing the highest 
material standard of living, will demand either a great expansion in the 
area of land under cultivation, or an intensification of production in tli3 
area at present utilised. It is apparent from the papers that have been 
written in America by Dr. E. D. Ball, 6 that, even in the United States 
which has up till recently been a large exporter of food, the question of 
a national agricultural policy is regarded as most urgent. He asserts 
that the United States will only maintain her world position and 

6 Dr. E. D. Ball : ' Shall we have a Policy of Future National Development ? ' ' The 
Future of Agricultural Research.' ' The Need of a Food Supply for an Increasing 
Population.' 

1927 P 



210 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

her extraordinary development just as long as she can remain a food- 
exporting nation, and this can only be achieved if the whole energies of her 
scientific men are devoted to the intensification of production upon land 
already farmed. The need for this intensification appears then to be as 
great in America as here, and this calls for continued scientific research, 
not so much to ensure the benefit of any particular class of the community, 
however deserving, but because the nation needs it, because it is vital to 
the life of each and every individual. In Sir Daniel Hall's view the area 
of suitable undeveloped land available is insufficient to provide the 
increase of food required, and, in his own concluding words, ' how close 
at hand the period of pressure may be it is unsafe to prophesy, but it 
may be agreed that pressure is sooner or later inevitable, and that one of 
the biggest problems before the world at present is to prevent the pressure 
developing suddenly and becoming unbearable. The intensification of 
production is the only remedy, and again the only means of rendering 
intensification practicable is the continued pursuit of scientific research.' 

This intensification of production must come sooner or later in an 
ever-growing population, and can only be brought about by increasing 
knowledge and improving technique. Before this intensification can 
occur, the nations must realise the need for further investigation and 
research, and this they will only do if and when there exists among the 
citizens of every civilised community a widespread knowledge of this 
the most basal of all human activities. 

If it be admitted that it is desirable for each boy and girl to know 
something of the way in which their bread and meat are produced, 
something of the lives of those who produce it, and something of 
the sources of the food supply of their country, can the acquisition 
of this knowledge be justified on general educational grounds, and, if it 
can, is it practically possible ? I assume that few would dispute 
the statement that the purpose of education is to enable a man to live a 
fuller and better life and to make a better use of his environment. 
Education must prepare for life and for the conditions which will be met 
throughout its course. Dr. Jesse Jones, 7 in a book published last year, 
has endeavoured to simplify the problem of general educational policy, 
and to make us consider anew its fundamental purpose. As a result of 
his wide observations over three continents, and his experience of many 
different manners of education, he urges upon us to-day the importance of 
resisting what he terms ' Education by accretion,' and ' the need for an 
approach to education that is sufficiently fundamental to be accurate and 
sufficiently simple to be practical.' He finds the solution of his problem 
in what he terms the ' vital consciousness of community conditions,' and 
defines as one of his four fundamental educational elements ' appreciation 
and use of environment.' 

Whether we agree entirely with Dr. Jesse Jones or not, most of us would, 
I think, agree to this, and most of us would further agree that the most 
fundamental subject that can be considered in man's environment is the 
satisfaction of his most urgent bodily need. The Committee of this 
Association which considered the question of Training for Overseas Life, 
while quite definitely regarding the question from the vocational angle, 

' ' Four Essentials of Education.' Thomas Jesse Jones. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 211 

brought to light some very interesting opinions about the possibility of 
dealing with agriculture as a cultural subject in schools. In the first report 
of the Committee presented at the Toronto Meeting occur the words : ' the 
undoubted value of agriculture as an educational instrument has been 
overlooked in the past.' In various parts of Canada the view has been 
deliberately taken that the study of agriculture has definitely a cultural as 
well as a vocational value. In nearly all the newer countries agriculture 
forms part of the curriculum of the secondary schools, where, however, it 
is regarded by many as more vocational than cultural, because of course 
these countries are very largely rural, and depend more directly upon 
agriculture for their existence. Now, although as I have indicated, the 
Committee was concerned with the training of boys and girls who definitely 
propose to go into farming overseas, these interesting opinions about the 
value of agriculture as an educational subject emerge. One further 
sentence may be cited. ' Overseas opinion ... is much better informed 
and more advanced than in England, with the consequence that in the 
Overseas Dominions a considerable body of experience has been accumu- 
lated, which has led the way to a definite adoption of practical work on 
the land, wherever possible, for the urban school equally with the rural 
school.' That is an indication of the lengths to which they are prepared 
to go in those countries where a considerable, or it may be an overwhelming, 
number of their pupils go into an agricultural career. The case in this 
country is, of course, quite different, but nevertheless I would urge that, 
in spite of the small number of those who take up farming as a profession 
at home, and in spite of the comparatively small number of those who go 
abroad and do so in the Dominions or elsewhere, a study of agriculture 
as a cultural subject is more than worth while because of the basal character 
of the industry, the fundamental importance of its products, and the 
particular position of this country with respect to the food supplies of its 
people. The question naturally arises as to what is meant by the study 
of agriculture in this connection, and, while it is a question to which it is 
difficult to give a final answer, it is one to which a reply can best be given 
by considering how this subject could be developed throughout the schools 
and Universities. Nature study, illustrated and taught by means of school 
gardens, forms an integral part of the teaching of most elementary schools, 
and it is a matter for regret that in many preparatory schools this teaching 
is not attempted. If this study be properly carried out, I think that it 
meets the first demand which I would make that, in the elementary stage, 
children should have some slight acquaintance with the plants and animals 
with which they are surrounded and which supply them with the necessaries 
of life. In the next stage, that of the public and secondary schools, formal 
science is a definite part of the instruction provided and of the syllabus 
for the school certificate and for admission subsequently to the 
Universities. In my opinion, much of this science is too formal, too 
broken up into separate subjects which appear to have little connection 
with each other, and no connection at all with the facts and problems 
of everyday life. Certain improvements have been made of late, and 
the inclusion of General Science as an examination subject in the 
University Local Examinations and in that of the Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Joint Board are all steps in the right direction. Science for 

p2 



212 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the ordinary pupil seems to me still to suffer from too much formalism, 
and too great a regard for, and belief in, experimental work in the 
"laboratory. Too much practical work in the laboratory is impossible 
for the boy or girl to whom science is going to be a profession, but it is 
fatally easy to attach too much importance to the laboratory if the whole 
of scientific education is to be limited by what the pupil can illustrate in 
those laboratory experiments that he has time and ability to perform. 
May I refer to the Presidential Address given to the Education Section by 
Sir Eichard Gregory at Hull in 1922, in which he says ' the essential 
mission of school science is to prepare pupils for civilised citizenship by 
revealing to them something of the beauty and the power of the world in 
which they live,' and again, ' reading or teaching for interest, or to learn 
how physical science is daily extending the power of man, receives little 
attention.' The whole tenor of his address was a plea for the expansion of 
scientific instruction in this humanising spirit, an end which can, I believe, 
best be brought about by dealing with elementary science in relation to 
plant and animal life, to agriculture, and the food supply of the world. 

I will not weary you with details of suggestions of what I think school 
curricula might be. I only want at this stage to make the suggestion 
that for the average pupil, who will make little or no vocational use of his 
knowledge later in life, science should be approached from the plant and 
animal ends, that is, from the point of view of the environment of each of us, 
and developed into an elementary knowledge of the employment of plant 
and animal by man for his subsistence, of the means whereby these plants 
and animals are made to satisfy man's ever-increasing needs, and last, but 
by no means least, some slight knowledge of how this country obtains its 
food supply. A development of this kind would not mean the introduction 
of another subject into a curriculum already overcrowded, if it meant 
that elementary science for the normal boy consisted of this work. 
Naturally as the subject developed the applications of science to other 
industries would find their place, and would form part of a coherent whole, 
but the central idea would remain. 

What now is the part which the Universities must play in a scheme of 
this sort ? They should provide courses which would aim at giving their 
students, and these will represent the specialists in the subject, a general 
knowledge of what agriculture has meant in the past, is meaning to-day, 
and must mean in the future. To accomplish this, as I see it, some 
knowledge of technical processes is necessary, some contact with the soil 
is desirable, and some study of practical agricultural methods is essential, 
but let us be quite clear that this is only a small part of the whole study, 
which will demand far deeper inquiry and far wider reading than is usual 
among students of agriculture in the Universities. So far as I know, no 
University has had an end of this kind in view in framing its agricultural 
curriculum. The curriculum at Cambridge is largely a modern develop- 
ment of the older methods adapted to suit the needs of that University, 
and to train men to become managers of land. We, in Oxford, have had 
that view in mind also, but we have I think gone farther towards developing 
a course of study along the lines I have indicated. An undergraduate at 
Oxford may take for his final examination in Agriculture three subjects, 
(1) Agriculture from the practical and technical side, (2) Economic Theory 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 218 

and the Economics of Agriculture, and (3) the History of Agriculture in 
Great Britain and Ireland and Comparative Agriculture, this last signifying 
a study of current conditions in the more important agricultural areas of 
the world. A study such as this seems to me to form the foundation of 
such a curriculum as I have in mind, and to represent more nearly than 
anything else a non-vocational agricultural education. This study will 
demand from the student some knowledge of physical science in order that 
he may understand the technical, that is, the manufacturing, process, for 
it is impossible to understand even in the most general way the relations 
of soil and plant, plant and animal without some scientific training, and 
this student of mine must be able to have an intelligent opinion about 
present practices and future developments. It is not, however, on the 
side of physical science that most of his work will lie. The chief develop- 
ment, as I see it, will consist in a wider and deeper study of economic 
science so that finally his knowledge of agriculture will include not only 
the history of the industry in this country, but in the world as a whole, 
and will be a study of economic history and economic geography of the 
first importance. An interesting new departure has been made by the 
University of Bristol in introducing the study of Agricultural Economics 
as an optional subject for the Final Honours Degree in Economics. This 
is all a move in what I consider the right direction, but for my part I would 
go still farther and make a study of the economics of British Agriculture 
not optional, but compulsory, for those taking a degree of this kind. 

Such a course as I have tried to indicate would then run side by side 
with the ordinary vocational and professional course, and would, I hope, 
in time be taken by a large number of persons who had no intention of 
engaging in practical agriculture, but who would form a nucleus of informed 
opinion that could not fail to produce an effect upon the fortunes of the 
industry and upon the whole of rural life. Thus, even more perhaps than 
by creating a class of farming landlords who would play to-day the part 
played by their predecessors of the eighteenth century, would it be possible 
to recreate the countryside, to build up a new rural order, under the 
enlightened leadership of those who have studied fully and carefully the 
problems of country life and the problems of country industry as they 
have varied throughout the centuries. 

I have ventured to put before you what I believe to be the great 
needs of the agricultural community — greater light in its own ranks and 
a public better informed of the needs of the industry and of its own 
requirements in the matter of essential supplies. It may be urged that 
much of what I have said is unreal and bears little relation to facts as they 
are, and, above all, offers no immediate help to the farming community 
in its present need. This last I admit is true. Others with more practical 
experience are attempting that almost daily. Some indeed would soothe 
the sufferings of agriculture with drugs which can afford but a temporary 
relief and, without removing the trouble, lull the sufferer into a false 
sense of security. I have tried to go beyond this, and in so doing have 
come to the conclusion that what is most fundamentally vital to the 
industry and to the whole body corporate is a new attitude of mind 
towards education and a true realisation of the value of cultural studies 
as distinct from vocational training, the worth of which all would, I trust, 



214 SECTIONAL ADDKESSES. 

readily acknowledge. If, and when, this realisation conies to pass there 
will, I believe, develop all over the English countryside a class of landowners 
who are informed about country affairs, a class of farmers who are able 
and willing to pay rates of wages comparable with those which can be 
obtained in other industries, a class of workmen who by their skill and the 
value of their output make this rate of wages possible, and a general 
community which realises the value to itself of a flourishing agriculture, 
and is capable of thinking intelligently about the future of that industry, 
and of facing with knowledge the problems of its own food supply. Then, 
and only then, shall we be able to build up the new rural civilisation 
of which so many have dreamed. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



Seismological Investigations. — Thirty-first Report of Committee 
(Prof. H. H. Turner, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, Secretary ; Mr. 
C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, Prof. H. 
Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, 
Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, 
Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, and Mr. F. J. W. Whipple.) 
[Drawn up by the Chairman except where otherwise mentioned.} 

General. 

The Milne bequest of £1000 mentioned in the last Report, together with the previous 
bequest from the late Matthew H. Gray, of Lessness Park, Abbey Wood, has been 
placed in the hands of the Official Trustee of Charitable Funds, as a British Association 
Seismological Trust. The income from the Trust will be paid over to the Westminster 
Bank (Oxford branch), and will be at the disposal of the Chairman for the time being 
of the British Association Seismology Committee. The arrangements have involved 
some correspondence and consequent delay, but are on the point of completion. 

A memorial stone to John Milne and his wife was, in November 1926, set up at 
Hakodate, in the graveyard of the Horrkawa family, by subscriptions from ninety- 
seven of Milne's former pupils at Tokyo. Initiative in this matter was taken by 
Prof. Imamui a of Tokyo. 

The University of Oxford has now sanctioned the extension of the University 
Observatory by four rooms to the east of the present buildings, together with a 
basement below them for the reception of the two Milne-Shaw pendulums, which are 
at present, by the courtesy of Prof. Lindemann, mounted in the basement of the 
Clarendon Laboratory. Excavation for the basement has already been made, and 
it is hoped that the work will now go forward without further delay. (See Report 
for 1925.) 

The salary of Mr. J. S. Hughes has been provided, half by Dr. Crombie and (after 
six months' interval, during which it fell on the funds of the University Observatory) 
half by the Royal Society. Under his supervision the current reductions have gone 
steadily ahead. (See below under Bulletins and Tables.) 

The telegrams from Fordbam University have ceased to come, probably in con- 
sequence of the formation of the Jesuit Seismological Association in the United 
States ; but on one or two important occasions very helpful telegrams have been 
received from Helwan, fiom Hyderabad, and from Perth (W. Australia). A con- 
spicuous instance was the great shock of 1927, May 22d, -22h, in Kansu, Western 
China, which must be put alongside the shocks of 1920, December 16, in the same 
neighbourhood, and those in Japan in 1923, September 1 and 2, as the four greatest 
shocks of recent years. Telegrams from Helwan, Hyderabad, and Perth enabled us 
to fix the epicentre at 35-8° N., 103-4° E., some 2-3° to the west of that of 1920, 
December 16, and this position was communicated to The Times of May 25, with the 
information that the intensity exceeded that of its predecessor. But conditions in 
China are so much disturbed that it was not until June 21 that news was received 
direct from the neighbourhood of this ' terrific earthquake.' A month later, under 
date July 29, Mgr. Buddenbrook, Vicar-Apostolic in Kansu, reported that the ' city 
of Kulang has absolutely disappeared. He estimates that the range of the earth- 
quake was seventy miles, and that 100,000 people were killed.' He himself was at 
the time celebrating Mass at Lanchow (the capital of Kansu) and was hurled from 
the sanctuary into the open. {The Times of July 30.) 

Dr. C. Davison has added to our obligations to him by publishing a new work on 
the Founders of Seismology (Camb. Univ. Press, 1927, 12s. 6d. net), in which special 
appreciation is accorded to the work of three Englishmen, Michell, Mallet and Milne. 

At the end of the Oxford Meeting of the British Association, our Secretary, 
Mr. J. J. Shaw, was attacked by serious illness, and was ultimately ordered abroad. 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Fortunately the special treatment suggested has been very successful, and Mr. Shaw 
was able to attend the meeting of this Committee on July 4, though he is still in 
the doctor's hands. 

International. 

The International Scientific Summary has been continued as below, by the help 
of a supplement from the Royal Society, to counteract the effects of the fall in 
the franc. 

The Prague meeting of the Int. Geoph. and Geod. Union has been fixed for 
September 1-10. The Chairman and Secretary of this Committee have been 
nominated as delegates. 

Instrumental. 

(Chiefly from notes by Mr, J. J. Shaw.) 

Mr. Shaw completed the repairs to the Christmas Island machine before leaving 
England ; it is now at Colombo, and has been purchased by the Ceylon 
Government. 

As foreshadowed in the last Report, the original Milne-Shaw instrument, set up 
at Bidston in 1914, July 16, and recently replaced by another with larger magnifica- 
tion, has now been set up at Oxford as a N.S. component. It has the same 
magnification as the existing E.VV. component, and there is a convenience in having 
the two instruments alike in this respect. When the new basement at present under 
construction at the University Observatory is completed, the two components will 
be mounted on the same pier. At present they are mounted on the two separate 
piers erected in the basement of the Clarendon Laboratory by Mr. C. V. Boys, F.R.S., 
for his Cavendish experiment in the years 1891-1895. (See Phil. Trans. 186 (1895), 
A. pp. 1-72.). The use of this basement has been courteously allowed by Mr. James 
Walker in the first instance (October 1918), and by Prof. Lindemann since his 
appointment hi 1919. 

On April 11, 1927, a second instrument was sent to Copenhagen for installation in 
Greenland. Earthquakes in the Arctic regions are occasionally recorded by European 
instruments and others (for instance, the catalogue of epicentres 1913-0-1920-5, 
published three years ago, contains ten epicentres with latitudes greater than 63°, of 
which the most active is that of 72-0° N., 2-8° W., from which six shocks are recorded, 
none of the other epicentres being credited with more than one) ; but it is suspected 
that others escape detection, and a pair of components in Greenland will be very 
valuable. 

The following note is contributed by the Superintendent of Kew Observatory : — 

' An event of some importance to British seismology, the transfer by the 
Meteorological Office of the Galitzin seismographs fiom Eskdalemuir Observatory to 
Kew Observatory, should perhaps have been mentioned in last year's Report. The 
instruments, which were provided in 1910 by the generosity of Prof, (now Sir Arthur) 
Schuster, were moved in October 1925. The pendulums were installed at Kew 
Observatory on a massive concrete pillar in the old inagnel ograph room, accom- 
modation for the photographic recording apparatus being provided in the room 
formerly occupied by the Milne seismograph. The instruments have been in 
continuous operation since the beginning of 1926. 

' The Observatory now supplies the Air Ministry with information regarding 
important earthquakes for communication to the Press, and messages in the 
international seismological code are sent out by the Meteorological Office with 
telegrams of the daily weather service. At the beginning of 1927 the issue of a 
monthly bulletin, to take the place of that issued previously from Eskdalemuir, was 
inaugurated. Fuller details of the seismological records, including measurements of 
microseisms, are being published in the Observatories' Yearbook of the Meteorological 
Office.' 

Bulletins and Tables. 

The International Seismological Summaries for October to December 1922, and 
the whole of 1923, have, been printed and distributed. The number for January- 
March 1924 is passed for press, and the MS. for April- June 1924 is being read with 
the original records. [It has been the custom, almost from the first, to treat such 
MS. as printer's proof, so that very few corrections are needed after it is set in type.] 
During the year the great earthquakes of 1923, September 1 and 2, in Japan, came 






ON SEISMOLOG1CAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



217 



under discussion, naturally adding a good deal both to the work of the year and the 
printing bill. 

The discussion of the P and S residuals for the five years 1918-1922 has been 
completed and published in the Geoph. Supp. to the Monthly Notices R.A.S. Copies 
of the paper will be distributed to the various stations along with the number of the 
Summary for 1924, January-March. One incidental outcome of the discussion is 
that there seems to be near A=57°, a minimum frequency of records both in P and S. 
The following are the ratios of totals (on an arbitrary scale) to the areas of successive 
zones of the earth's surface, 5° in width : — 



A 


P 


S 


A 


P 


S 


A 


P 


S 


A 


P 


S 


o 

2-5 


2-2 


•92 


O 

27-5 


•64 


•57 


G 

52-5 


•21 


•21 


o 

77-5 


•31 


•31 


7-5 


1-2 


•76 


32-5 


•43 


•40 


57-5 


•17 


•18 


82-5 


•38 


•42 


12-5 


0-75 


•44 


37-5 


•31 


•29 


62-5 


•19 


•20 


87-5 


•31 


•39 


17-5 


0-71 


•56 


42-5 


•23 


•21 


67-5 


•18 


•20 


92-5 


•15 


•15 


22-5 


0-65 


•60 


47-5 


•24 


•24 


72-5 


•23 


•25 


1 97 " 5 


•11 


•11 



The phenomenon may, of course, be a simple consequence of the particular dis- 
tributions of epicentres and observatories. The former tend to be near the 
Philippines, and the latter in Europe, at distances not far from 90° ; and this may 
cause the rises in the ratio after A=67-5°, which might continue to fall with a more 
uniform distribution. But the point is worth further examination. 

The corrections to the adopted tables may be represented as follows : — 
Firstly, if we take the simple maximum of the residuals in P we get 



Corrections to Tables op P. 



A 


Corr. 


A 


Corr. 


A 


Corr. 


A 


Corr. 


A 


Corr. 


O 


s 


o 


s 


o 


s 


O 


s 


° 


s 


2-5 


+ 2-9 


27-5 


-1-6 


52-5 


+0-8 


77-5 


+ 0-7 


102-5 


-16-5 


7-5 


+ 2-2 


32-5 


-7-3 


57-5 


+ 1-7 


82-5 


+ 0-2 


107-5 


—17-8 


12-5 


+0-6 


37-5 


-8-8 


62-5 


+ 1-9 


87-5 


— 4-3 


— 


— 


17-5 


+ 1-8 


42-5 


-1-9 


67-5 


+ 1-6 


92-5 


—10-2 


— 


. — 


22-5 


-0-6 


47-5 


—1-4 


72-5 


+ 1-8 


97-5 


—12-8 




— 



It will be seen that besides the well-known negative errors after 85°, there is a 
considerable error near 35°. But this is accompanied by a curious apparent 
duplicitj' in the maximum, which is even more striking in the case of S than of P. 
The results may, therefore, be presented more fully as follows : — - 

Corrections to Adopted Tables for P and S. 



A 




P 


S 




A 


P 


S 


[S] 


O 


s 


s 


s 


s 


O 


s 


s 


s 


2-5 


+2-9 


■ — 


—2 


— . 


57-5 


+ 1-7 


+ 3 


— 


7-5 


+2-2 


— 


+2 


— 


62-5 


+ 1-9 


+ 2 


— 


12-5 


+0-6 


— 


+2 


— 6 


67-5 


+ 1-6 


+ 1 


— 


17-5 


+ 1-8 


— ■ 


+2 


-10 


72-5 


+ 1-8 





+ 25 


22-5 


+0-5 


- 2-5 


+0-7 


-16-8 


77-5 


+ 0-7 


- 3 


+ 12 


27-5 


—1-5 


-19-9 


+3-0 


-17-3 


82-5 


+ 0-2 


— 5 


— 11 


32-5 


-6-3 


-28-5 


—4-8 


—28-6 


87-5 


— 4-3 


— 8 


- 34 


37-5 


-5-0 


—21-0 


—7-0 


-30-3 


92-5 


-10-2 


—13 


— 57 


42-5 


0-0 


-18-6 


—1-5 


-28-2 


97-5 


—12-8 


—22 


— 80 


47-5 


—1-4 


— 


-0-4 


—14-0 


102-5 


—16-5 


-30 


—103 


52-5 


+0-8 


— 


+2-5 


— 7-0 


107-5 


-17-8 




-126 



218 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



It will be seen that the adopted tables are in the main correct with the following 
exceptions : — 

(a) For values of A from 20° to 50° there appears to be a double maximum in 
both P and S. The principal maximum is not far from the tables, though both P and S 
tables require a small negative correction near A=35°. The subsidiary maximum 
may either be real and distinct, involving a considerable departure from the tables, 
in which case the question arises which are the true P and S. Or it may be that the 
dupUcity of maximum is spurious, and in that case the correction to tables must lie 
between the two values, much nearer the numerically smaller. 

The most interesting hypothesis is that the weaker and earlier maximum represents 
the true P and S, or at any rate provided the angles of emergence measured by 
Galitzin. If that is so, there is no difficulty in explaining why he could not reconcile 
his values for the angle of emergence with the adopted tables for P, for the corrections 
indicated above introduce a point of inflexion into the graph of 8P. 

(b) For values of A from 70° to 115° observations of S are liable to be observations 
of [Sj or S C P C S, Gutenberg's wave which goes through the central core of the earth 
as P. Attention was drawn to this phenomenon in the last Report. 

Various suggestions have been made for the improvement of the existing tables, 
many of them based on the results for a single earthquake. The present discussion 
of the results for a large number of earthquakes scattered over the earth during five 
years suggests that there are several difficult questions to be considered before any 
change in the adopted tables is made. Any such change is bound to cause confusion, 
especially if it is made while our knowledge is still imperfect. 

Deep Focus. 

From the above-mentioned discussion of the large earthquakes in 1918-1922 the 
cases of abnormal focus were excluded. They represent another fundamental 
question on which opinion is divided. The cases of abnormal focus are a small 
percentage of the whole, but are by this time sufficiently numerous to constitute a 
considerable body of evidence in favour of the hypothesis put forward. The following 
is a summary of the cases. The four quarters of the year are denoted by I, II, III, IV. 

Cases of ABNOEMAii Focus. 



Year. 


High Focus. 


Total. 


Deep Focus. 


Total. 


I. 


II. 


III. | IV. 


I. 


II. III. 


IV. 


1916 . 

1917 . 

1918 . 

1919 . 

1920 . 
1921 

1922 . 

1923 . 


1 

1 


2 
3 

1 


4 


2 

1 


2 
2 
4 

4 


1 
1 
1 


1 
8 
6 
4 
4 
1 


1 
1 
3 
3 
4 
2 

1 


1 
3 

i 

4 
5 


4 
3 
2 
3 
3 
5 


2 
1 

8 
17 
16 
11 
11 
12 


Totals . 


2 


6 4 3 


15 


24 


15 


19 


20 


78 



In many of these cases a full discussion is given (in the International Summary 
itself) of the evidence for the hypothesis. Three principal points are generally 
examined with care. 

(1) The time T is shown to be well determined by the observations at a number 
of stations near the epicentre. 

(2) The time of transmission to stations at the opposite side of the earth, as 
measured from this T , is shown to differ sensibly from the average time, being less 
than the average when the focus is deep, greater when the focus is higher than normal. 

(3) The observations at stations well distributed in azimuth round the epicentre 
are all shown to require correction of one sign, applied as corrections to A. The 
equations for correction to the position of the epicentre are usually solved both with 
and without the corrections to A, and it is shown that one solution will work, the 
other will not. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 219 

So far no other hypothesis has been put forward for the explanation of any of 
these 15+78=93 anomalous eases. While it is not claimed that all of them are 
convincing in themselves, it is claimed that a large number require some special 
hypothesis for an adequate solution ; and that when a single hypothesis satisfies them 
all, the cumulative evidence in favour of it is strong, and can only yield to some 
alternative which is equally or more successful. 

Near Earthquakes. 

By Dr. Harold Jeffreys. 

When many good seismological stations exist within about 1000 km. of the 
epicentre of an earthquake their records can be used to give information about the 
upper layers of the earth's crust. It was discovered by A. Mohorovicic in 1909 that 
in such cases the records show not only the P and S of ordinary seismology, but also 
a pair of compressional and distortional waves that have travelled in an upper layer ; 
their velocities are lower, but their amplitudes greater. Further work by Gutenberg, 
Conrad and the present writer has shown that three layers are really concerned, which 
probably correspond to the granitic, basaltic, and ultrabasic layers of geologists. The 
foci in all cases yet investigated have been in the uppermost, or granitic, layer. Two 
waves travel in this direct from the focus to the observing station ; these are denoted 
by P g and S g , and their velocities are about 5-4 and 3-3 km. /see. Others called P* 
and S* seem to be transmitted down into the intermediate layer, travel along in this, 
and come up again to the surface. Their velocities in the intermediate layer are 
about 6-3 and 3-7 km. /sec. Others go right down into the deepest layer. These are 
the ordinary P and S. Their velocities are 7-8 and 4-35 km. /sec. Thus six distinct 
pulses are recognisable on the seismograms. 

The times of transmission are linear functions of the epicentral distance, but the 
constant term is different for every wave, owing to the time spent in the upward and 
downward journey. The differences indicate that the granitic layer is about 10 km. 
and the intermediate one about 20 km. thick ; these estimates agree with those 
made by other means. 

The Jersey and Hereford earthquakes of 1926 have supplied much information 
in this work. Those used previously were all on the Continent of Europe. 

The velocity of compressional waves in the uppermost layer agrees with that 
inferred for granite by L. H. Adams and E. D. Williamson from laboratory measures 
of its compressibility and density. That for the intermediate layer agrees with 
Adams's and Gibson's experimental value for tachylite, or vitreous basalt ; and that 
for the lower layer with that of the same authors for dunite, an ultrabasic rock con- 
sisting mainly of olivine. Holmes has suggested the alternative succession granite- 
diorite-eclogite. The intermediate layer is not crystalline basalt ; that would give 
a velocity of about 6-9 km. /sec. 

The observed times of the waves are in accordance with the laws of geometrical 
optics, but theory and observation both indicate that the amplitudes do not follow 
these laws, and that diffraction plays an important part. It affects the amplitudes 
but not the times of arrival. 

The Palestine Earthquake. 

The Palestine earthquake on July 11 must be classed as one of those which excite 
widespread interest and sympathy rather on account of the nature of the locality 
than because of special violence. Though undoubtedly disastrous, the intensity of 
the indications on the Oxford seismograms was far less than that of the China earth- 
quake on May 22, at a far greater distance. The Acting High Commissioner for 
Palestine reported on July 18 [The Times of July 19] that in Palestine 200 people had 
been killed, 356 seriously injured, and 375 slightly injured. At a rough estimate 
1000 houses were seriously damaged. In Transjordan G8 killed, 102 injured. 

On July 22 and 23 there followed several shocks, one of them considerable, in 
Persia. 

The British Earthquakes. 

On 1926, August 15, one of the comparatively rare British earthquakes occurred 
near Hereford and Ludlow. On 1927, January 24, there was an earthquake in 
Scotland, and on 1927, February 17, there was one in Jersey. The Hereford and 
Jersey earthquakes have been carefully discussed by Dr. Harold Jeffreys as mentioned 
above. 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Calculation of Mathematical Tables- — Report of Committee (Prof. 
J. W. Nicholson, Chairman ; Dr. J. E. Airey, Secretary ; Dr. D. 
Wrinch-Nicholson, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Dr. A. T. Doodson, 
Prof. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. R. A. Fisher, Profs. E. W. Hobson, Alfred 
Lodge, A. E. H. Love, and H. M. Macdonald). 

Reference was made in previous Reports to the desirability of publishing various 
tables of functions. The tables in this Report include the Confluent Hypergeometric 
Function, M (a . y . x), y=l, 2, 3, 4 and <x= — 4 to +4 by - 5 intervals and further 
values of the function for Y == i4i i-l l the Exponential, Sine and Cosine Integrals, 
considerably extending the tables calculated by Dr. Glaisher (Phil. Trans., 160, pp. 
367-3S7, 1870) : Zeros of Bessel functions of small fractional order and the Ber, Bei 
and other functions. 

For next year it is proposed to publish tables of 

(a) The Integral I (.r)= e~~* . dt and functions derived by repeated integration 
of To(^), x from - to 7-0 by 0-1 intervals to ten decimal places. 

lb) The Derivatives of Bessel Functions, - J v (x) and J_,,(a;), where v = — L-Z 

Sv Sv 2 

x from O'O to 10'0 by - l intervals to six places of decimals. 

g 

(c ) The first derivative of the Zonal Harmonics, - P n (cos 0) for large values of 

oo 
the order, to six places of decimals. A table of P„(cos0) to Pi O (cos0) has been 
calculated by Prof. A. Lodge (Phil. Trans., 203 A, 1904). 

(d) The hyperbolic sines and cosines, Sinh tzx and Cosh t.x, x from 0-0 to 4-0 
by 0-01 intervals to fifteen places of decimals. 

A list has been prepared of the tables which have appeared in the Reports of the 
Committee. The functions tabulated include the Circular and Hyperbolic functions, 
Gamma functions, the Exponential, Sine and Cosine Integrals, the Integrals of Fresnel, 
Zonal Harmonics, Riccati-Bessel functions, Bessel and other functions with real, 
imaginary and complex arguments, Lommel- Weber functions, and the Confluent 
Hypergeometric function. In a few cases prefatory notes to the tables give the 
properties of the functions and their applications to physical and engineering problems. 
Some tables from other sources are also included in the list. Before publishing in 
book form it will be necessary to rearrange the tables and remove a number of errors 
which have been discovered. 

The Confluent Hypergeometric Function, M (a . y . x). 

In the construction of the tables for y=+£, y= + f, two calculations were made 
to ten decimal places for each value of the arguments, M(— \ . £ .x) and M( — if . \ . x). 
Since M(£ . J .x)=er, the three values could be checked by the recurrence formula, 

«M(a+l . y .z) = (a:+2oc-Y)M(a. y.:r) + (Y-a)M(a-l, y ■ x). 

The remaining values were obtained from the recurrence formula given in the intro- 
ductory note to the tables published last year. 

Similarly, when a is a positive integer, M(l . \ . x) and M(l . ij .x) were calculated 
for each value of x and the results checked by the formula 

-M(a+1 . y + 1 . a:)=M(a+l . y . *)-M(a . y . *). 

The tables are a continuation of those given in last year's Report. Differential 
equations of the second order which can be solved in terms of the function M (a . y . x) 
are also set out in the 1926 Report. 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



221 



M (a 



x) 



X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 1-04054 


+ 1-08162 


+ 


1- 12324 


+ 1-16542 


0-04 


+ 1-08217 


+ 1-16654 


+ 


1-25315 


+ 1-34203 


0-00 


+ 1- 12492 


+ 1-25487 


+ 


1-38998 


+ 1-53037 


0-08 


+ 1-16881 


+ 1-34672 


+ 


1-53403 


+ 1-73102 


0-15 


+ 1-33188 


+ 1-69760 


+ 


209921 


+ 2-53S85 


0-25 


+ 1-59230 


+ 2-28652 


+ 


3-09300 


+ 4-02282 


0-35 


+ 1-88868 


+ 2-99405 


+ 


4-34704 


+ 5-98169 


0-45 


+ 2-22553 


+ 3-83978 


+ 


5-91442 


+ 8-53045 


0-55 


+ 2-60790 


+ 4-84620 


+ 


7-85762 


+ 11-8077 


0-65 


+ 3-04145 


+ 603911 


+ 


10-2501 


+ 15-9800 


0-75 


+ 3-53249 


+ 7-44809 


+ 


13-1778 


+ 21-2471 


0-85 


+ 4-08810 


+ 9- 10703 


+ 


16-7417 


+ 27-8475 


0-95 


+ 4-71620 


+ 11-0547 


+ 


21-0595 


+ 36-0657 


1-1 


+ 5-81390 


+ 14-6161 


+ 


29-2567 


+ 52-1846 


1-3 


+ 7-62288 


+ 20-8441 


+ 


44-3086 


+ 83-0628 


1-5 


+ 9-91880 


+ 29-2564 


+ 


65-7019 


+ 128-924 


1-7 


+ 12-8255 


+ 40-5417 


+ 


95-7892 


+ 196-109 


1-9 


+ 16-4975 


+ 55-5915 


+ 137-724 


+ 293-393 



M (a . i 



x) 



X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 100000 


_i_ 


1-00000 


002 


+ 0-96000 


+ 0-92053 


+ 0-88160 


+ 


0-84318 


004 


+ 0-92000 


+ 0-84213 


4- 0-76637 


_i_ 


0-69266 


0-06 


+ 0-88000 


+ 0-76480 


+ 0-65428 


+ 


0-54834 


0-08 


+ 0-84000 


+ 0-68853 


+ 0-54533 


-4- 


0-41011 


015 


+ 0-70000 


+ 0-43000 


+ 0-18820 





0-02712 


0-25 


+ 0-50000 


+ 008333 


- 0-25833 





0-53274 


0-35 


+ 0-30000 


- 0-23667 


- 0-63287 





0-90918 


0-45 


+ 0-10000 


- 0-53000 


- 0-93860 





1-16815 


0-55 


- 0-10000 


- 0-79667 


- 1-17873 





1-32099 


0-65 


- 0-30000 


- 1-03667 


- 1-35647 





1-37867 


0-75 


- 0-50000 


- 1-25000 


- 1-47500 





1-35179 


0-85 


- 0-70000 


- 1-43667 


- 1-53753 





1-25059 


0-95 


- 0-90000 


- 1-59667 


- 1-54727 





1-08305 


11 


- 1-20000 


- 1-7S667 


- 1-46987 





0-73637 


1-3 


- 1-60000 


- 1-94667 


- 1-21173 





013172 


1-5 


- 200000 


- 2-00000 


- 0-80000 





0-57143 


1-7 


- 2-40000 


- 1-94667 


- 0-26027 


+ 


1-31163 


1-9 


- 2-80000 


- 1-78667 


- 0-38187 


+ 


203331 



222 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . \ . x) 



X 


<*=* 


a=| 


«=f 


*"i 


000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 


1-02020 


+ 1-06101 


+ 1-10236 


+ 1-14426 


004 


+ 


1-04081 


+ 1-12408 


+ 1-20956 


+ 1-29730 


006 


+ 


1-06184 


+ 1-18926 


+ 1-32177 


+ 1-45951 


0-08 


+ 


1-08329 


+ 1-25661 


+ 1-43918 


+ 1-63129 


015 


+ 


1-16183 


+ 1-51038 


+ 1-89379 


+ 2-31414 


0-25 


+ 


1-28403 


+ 1-92604 


+ 2-67505 


+ 3-54177 


0-35 


+ 


1-41907 


+ 2-41241 


+ 3-63754 


+ 5-12690 


0-45 


+ 


1-56831 


+ 2-97979 


+ 4-81472 


+ 7-14931 


0-55 


+ 


1-73325 


+ 3-63983 


+ 6-24549 


+ 9-70402 


0-65 


+ 


1-91554 


+ 4-40574 


+ 7-97503 


+ 12-9040 


0-75 


+ 


2-11700 


+ 5-29250 


+ 10-0558 


+ 16-8831 


0-85 


+ 


2-33965 


+ 6-31705 


+ 12-5483 


+ 21-7997 


0-95 


+ 


2-58571 


+ 7-49856 


+ 15-5229 


+ 27-8410 


1-1 


+ 


300417 


+ 9-61333 


+210692 


+ 39-5044 


1-3 


+ 


3-66930 


+ 13-2095 


+31-0178 


+ 61-3937 


1-5 


+ 


4-48169 


+ 17-9268 


+44-8169 


+ 93-2191 


1-7 


+ 


5-47395 


+ 24-0854 


+ 63-7897 


+ 138-930 


1-9 


+ 


6-68589 


+ 32-0923 


+ 89-6801 


+203-907 



M (a . i . x) 



X 


a=-i 


a=-| 


«=-# 


«=-3 


000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


100000 


+ 


1-00000 


002 


+ 0-97993 


+ 0-94020 


+ 


0-90100 


+ 


0-86232 


0-04 


+ 0-95973 


+ 0-88080 


+ 


0-80399 


+ 


0-72926 


006 


+ 0-93939 


+ 0-82181 


+ 


0-70896 


+ 


0-60075 


0-08 


+ 0-91892 


+ 0-76322 


+ 


0-61591 


+ 


0-47674 


0-15 


+ 0-84613 


+ 0-56136 


+ 


0-30568 


+ 


0-07733 


0-25 


+ 0-73904 


+ 0-28179 


— 


09638 




0-40348 


0-35 


+ 0-62806 


+ 0-01273 


— 


45099 


— 


0-78481 


0-45 


+ 0-51295 


- 0-24556 


— 


0-75919 


— 


1- 07334 


0-55 


+ 0-39344 


- 0-49286 


— 


1-02204 


— 


1-27566 


0-65 


+ 0-26925 


- 0-72891 


— 


1-24063 


— 


1-39826 


0-75 


+ 0-14006 


- 0-95346 


— 


1-41605 


— 


1-44753 


0-85 


+ 000554 


- 1-16622 


— 


1-54940 


— 


1-42972 


0-95 


- 013467 


- 1-36692 


— 


1-64183 


— 


1-28767 


1-1 


- 0-35650 


- 1-64468 


— 


1-70625 


— 


1-13193 


1-3 


- 0-67606 


- 1-96986 


— 


1-65980 


— 


0-68217 


1-5 


- 1-02641 


- 2-24084 


— 


1-47103 


— 


0-09401 


1-7 


- 1-41211 


- 2-45455 


— 


1-15002 


+ 


0-58877 


1-9 


- 1-83845 


- 2-60757 


— 


0-70722 


+ 


1-32431 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



223 



M (a . # . x) 



X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


000 


+ 


100000 


+ 100000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


002 


+ 


101344 


+ 1-02699 


+ 1-04065 


+ 105441 


004 


+ 


102710 


+ 105463 


+ 1-08261 


+ 1-11103 


006 


+ 


1-04098 


+ 1-08295 


+ 1-12593 


+ 1-16994 


008 


+ 


1-05508 


+ 1-11195 


+ 1- 17064 


+ 1-23121 


015 


+ 


1-10627 


+ 1-21907 


+ 1-33871 


+ 1-46546 


025 


+ 


1-18459 


+ 1-38844 


+ 1-61296 


+ 1-85964 


0-35 


+ 


1-26954 


+ 1-57911 


+ 1-93284 


+ 2-33521 


0-45 


+ 


1-36170 


+ 1-79361 


+ 2-30515 


+ 2-90670 


0-55 


+ 


1-46173 


+ 203481 


+ 2-73766 


+ 3-59099 


0-65 


+ 


1-57034 


+ 2-30589 


+ 3-23920 


+ 4-40767 


0-75 


+ 


1-68832 


+ 2-61041 


+ 3-81983 


+ 5-37950 


0-85 


+ 


1-81653 


+ 2-95231 


+ 4-49100 


+ 6-53278 


1 0-95 


+ 


1-95589 


+ 3-33605 


+ 5-26571 


+ 7-89801 


1 M 


+ 


2-18814 


+ 4-00102 


+ 6-65480 


+ 10-4218 


1-3 


+ 


2-54726 


+ 5-08507 


+ 9-02482 


+ 14-9055 


1-5 


+ 


2-97293 


+ 6-44587 


+ 12-1485 


+21-0741 


1-7 


+ 


3-47810 


+ 8-15181 


+ 16-2493 


+ 29-5059 


1-9 


+ 


4-07829 


+ 10-2879 


+ 21-6138 


+ 40-9655 



M (a . | . x) 



X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-98667 


+ 0-97344 


+ 0-96032 


+ 0-94730 


004 


+ 0-97333 


+ 0-94709 


+ 0-92128 


+ 0-89587 


006 


+ 0-96000 


+ 092096 


+ 0-88286 


+ 084569 


008 


+ 0-94667 


+ 0-89504 


+ 0- 84508 


+ 0-79675 


015 


+ 0-90000 


+ 080600 


+ 071774 


+ 63498 


0-25 


+ 83333 


+ 0-68333 


+ 0-54881 


+ 0-42864 


0-35 


+ 0-76667 


+ 0-56600 


+ 0-39473 


+ 0-24985 


0-45 


+ 0-70000 


+ 0-45400 


+ 0-25506 


+ 009692 


0-55 


+ 0-63333 


+ 0-34733 


+ 0-12932 


- 003182 


0-65 


+ 0-56667 


+ 0-24600 


+ 0-01708 


- 0- 13801 


0-75 


+ 0-50000 


+ 0-15000 


- 008214 


- 0-22321 


0-85 


+ 0-43333 


+ 05933 


- 01 6879 


- 0-28899 


0-95 


+ 0-36667 


- 0-02600 


- 0-24432 


- 0-33752 


1-1 


+ 0-26667 


- 0-14400 


- 33341 


- 0-37818 


1-3 


+ 01 3333 


- 0-28267 


- 0-41539 


- 0-38387 


1-5 


+ 0-00000 


- 040000 


- 0-45714 


- 0-34286 


1-7 


- 013333 


- 0-49600 


- 0-46232 


- 0-26522 


1-9 

1 


- 0-26667 


- 0-57067 


- 43459 


- 0-16038 



224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 









M (a . | . 


*0 




X 


a=£ 


a=| 


a=f 


a=l 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 


1-00671 


+ 1-02020 


+ 1-03380 


+ 1-04752 


0-04 


+ 


1- 01349 


+ 1-04081 


+ 1-06857 


+ 1-09676 


0-06 


+ 


1-02037 


+ 1-06184 


+ 1-10431 


+ 1-14780 


0-08 


+ 


1-02732 


+ 1-08329 


+ 1-14106 


+ 1-20069 


015 


+ 


1-05233 


+ 1-16183 


+ 1-27802 


+ 1-40117 


0-25 


+ 


1-08997 


+ 1-28403 


+ 1-49803 


+ 1-73343 


0-35 


+ 


1-13001 


+ 1-41907 


+ 1-75018 


+ 2-12765 


0-45 


+ 


1-17262 


+ 1-56831 


+ 2-03881 


+ 2-59399 


0-55 


+ 


1-21801 


+ 1-73325 


+ 2-36878 


+ 3-14412 


0-65 


+ 


1-26638 


+ 1-91554 


+ 2-74561 


+ 3-79149 


0-75 


+ 


1-31796 


+ 2-11700 


+ 3-17550 


+ 4-55155 


0-85 


+ 


1-37300 


+ 2-33965 


+ 3-66545 


+ 5-44202 


0-95 


+ 


1-43178 


+ 2-58571 


+ 4-22333 


+ 6-48324 


1-1 


+ 


1-52757 


+ 3-00417 


+ 5-20722 


+ 8-37962 


1-3 


+ 


1-67129 


+ 3-66930 


+ 6-84935 


+ 11-6830 


1-5 


+ 


1-83603 


+ 4-48169 


+ 8-96338 


+ 16-1341 


1-7 


+ 


2-02531 


+ 5-47395 


+ 11-6778 


+22-1002 


1-9 


+ 


2-24325 


+ 6-68589 


+ 15-1547 


+ 30-0598 







M (a . | . a 


) 




X 


«=-4 


«=-f 


oc=— f 


a=-i 


0-00 

002 

0-04 

006 

0-08 

015 

0-25 

0-35 

0-45 

0-55 

0-65 

0-75 

0-85 

0-95 

1-1 

1-3 

1-5 

1-7 

1-9 


+ 1-00000 
+ 0-99332 
+ 0-98661 
+ 0-97988 
+ 0-97312 
+ 0-94923 
+ 0-91451 
+ 0-87904 
+ 0-84279 
+ 0-80573 
+ 0-76781 
+ 0-72901 
+ 0-68927 
+ 0-64856 
+ 0-58554 
+ 0-49762 
+ 0-40481 
+ 0-30660 
+ 0-20240 


+ 1-00000 
+ 0-98004 
+ 0-96016 
+ 0-94036 
+ 0-92064 
+ 0-85227 
+ 0-75633 
+ 0-66246 
+ 0-57070 
+ 0-48108 
+ 0-39363 
+ 0-30839 
+ 0-22540 
+ 0-14469 
+ 0-02798 

- 0-11925 

- 0-25660 

- 0-38369 

- 0-50009 
1 


+ 1-00000 
+ 0-96687 
+ 0-93413 
+ 0-90179 
+ 0-86985 
+ 0-76117 
+ 0-61421 
+ 0-47689 
+ 0-34905 
+ 0-23056 
+ 0-12126 
+ 0-02099 

- 0-07040 

- 0-18640 

- 0-26105 

- 0-37601 

- 0-45901 

- 0-51141 

- 0-53461 


+ 1-00000 
+ 0-95380 
+ 0-90852 
+ 0-86416 
+ 0-82071 
+ 0-67569 
+ 0-48700 
+ 0-31917 
+ 0-17125 
+ 0-04228 

- 0-06868 

- 0-16258 

- 0-24032 

- 0-32406 

- 0-36991 

- 0-41428 

- 0-41338 

- 0-37389 

- 0-30225 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



225 







M(a.-£. 


x) 




X 


oc=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-95838 


+ 0-91511 


+ 0-87018 


+ 0-82357 


0-04 


+ 0-91343 


+ 0-82010 


+ 0-71985 


+ 0-61249 


006 


+ 0-86501 


+ 0-71443 


+ 0-54763 


+ 0-36398 


008 


+ 0-81299 


+ 0-59751 


+ 0-35207 


+ 0-07511 


0-15 


+ 0-60044 


+ 0-09116 


- 0-53861 


- 1-30026 


0-25 


+ 0-20385 


- 0-93941 


- 2-48591 


- 4-49732 


0-35 


- 0-32207 


- 2-41791 


- 5-46084 


- 9-64802 


0-45 


- 1-00298 


- 4-45878 


- 9-78176 


- 17-4592 


0-55 


- 1-86869 


- 7-19951 


- 15-8429 


- 28-8314 


0-65 


- 2-95388 


- 10-8047 


- 24-1298 


- 44-9039 


075 


- 4-29873 


- 15-4709 


- 35-2376 


- 67-1082 


0-85 


- 5-94977 


- 21-4317 


- 49-8927 


- 97-2333 


0-95 


- 7-96078 


- 28-9647 


- 68-9778 


- 137-503 


1-1 


-11-7906 


- 43-9461 


-108-311 


- 223-117 


1-3 


-18-8195 


- 730141 


-188-217 


- 404-180 


1-5 


-28-7564 


-116-526 


-313-631 


- 700403 


1-7 


-42-6068 


-180448 


-506-132 


-1172-90 


1-9 


-61-6905 


-272-938 


-796-289 


-1911-18 







M(a. -\. 


X) 




X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 1-04000 


+ 107840 


+ 1-11522 


+ 1-15049 


004 


+ 108000 


+ 1-15360 


+ 1-22097 


+ 1-28228 


006 


+ 1-12000 


+ 1-22560 


+ 1-31738 


+ 1-39589 


0-08 


+ 1-16000 


+ 1-29440 


+ 1-40457 


+ 1-49182 


015 


+ 1-30000 


+ 1-51000 


+ 1-63900 


+ 1-69546 


0-25 


+ 1-50000 


+ 1-75000 


+ 1-79167 


+ 1-66250 


0-35 


+ 1-70000 


+ 1-91000 


+ 1-74433 


+ 1-30133 


0-45 


+ 1-90000 


+ 1-99000 


+ 1-51300 


+ 0-66826 


55 


+ 2-10000 


+ 1-99000 


+ 1-11367 


- 0-18294 


0-65 


+ 2-30000 


+ 191000 


+ 0-56233 


- 1-20107 


0-75 


+ 2-50000 


+ 1-75000 


- 012500 


- 2-33750 


0-85 


+ 2-70000 


+ 1-51000 


- 0-93233 


- 3-54614 


0-95 


+ 2-90000 


+ 1-19000 


- 1-84367 


- 4-78347 


1-1 


+ 3-20000 


+ 0-56000 


- 3-37067 


- 6-60437 


1-3 


+ 3-60000 


- 0-56000 


- 5-62133 


- 8-77184 


1-5 


+ 4-00000 


- 2-00000 


- 8-00000 


-10-4000 


1-7 


+ 4-40000 


- 3-76000 


-10-3787 


-11-2636 


1-9 


-(■■ 4-80000 


- 5-84000 


-12-6293 


-11-1782 



1927 



226 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . - \ . x) 



X 




»=i 


«=1 


oc=| 


<*=S 


000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


002 


+ 


0-97939 


+ 0-93695 


+ 0-89286 


+ 


0-84709 


004 


+ 


0-95755 


+ 0-86762 


+ 0-77085 


+ 


0-66707 


006 


+ 


0-93442 


+ 0-79171 


+ 0-63309 


+ 


0-45795 


0-08 


_i_ 


0-90996 


+ 0-70890 


+ 0-47863 


+ 


0-21763 


0-15 


+ 


0-81328 


+ 0-36017 


- 0-20797 


— 


0-90221 


0-25 


-j- 


0-64201 


- 0-32101 


- 1-65853 


— 


3-42942 


0-35 


+ 


0-42572 


- 1-26297 


- 3-80925 




7-39808 


0-45 


+ 


0-15683 


- 2-52498 


- 6-85823 


— 


13-2926 


0-55 


— 


017333 


- 4-17714 


- 11-0472 


— 


21-7216 


0-65 


— 


0-57466 


- 6-30213 


- 16-6697 


— 


33-4448 


0-75 


— 


1-05850 


- 8-99725 


- 24-0809 


— 


49-4055 


0-85 


— 


1-63775 


- 12-3767 


- 33-7089 


— 


70-7684 


0-95 


— 


2-32714 


- 16-5744 


- 46-0679 


— 


98-9658 


1-1 


— 


3-60500 


- 24-7543 


- 71-1066 


— 


158-016 


1-3 


— 


5-87087 


- 40-2155 


- 120-862 


— 


280-485 


1-5 


— 


8-96338 


- 62-7436 


- 197-194 


— 


476-852 


1-7 


— 


131375 


- 950277 


- 311-913 


— 


784-276 


1-9 




18-7205 


- 140-671 


- 481-456 


— 


1256-30 



M (a . - \ . x) 



1 • 

X 


a=-i 


a=-l 


a=-§ 


— i 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


T 


1-00000 


+ 100000 


+ 1-00000 


002 


+ 


102020 


i 
T 


1-05940 


+ 1-09701 


+ 1-13305 


0-04 


+ 


1-04081 


+ 


1-11759 


+ 1-18805 


+ 1-25237 


0-06 


+ 


1-06184 


+ 


1- 17456 


+ 1-27318 


+ 1-35826 


0-08 


+ 


1-08329 


-f 


1-23031 


+ 1-35243 


+ 1-45097 


015 


+ 


1-16183 


+ 


1-41567 


+ 1-58408 


+ 1-67579 


0-25 


+ 


1-28403 


+ 


1-65354 


+ 1-79444 


+ 1-74625 


0-35 


+ 


1-41907 


+ 


1-85871 


+ 1-86762 


+ 1-55193 


0-45 


+ 


1-56831 


+ 


2-02997 


+ 1-80896 


+ 1-12569 


0-55 


+ 


1-73325 


+ 


2-16604 


+ 1-62390 


+ 0-49965 


0-65 


+ 


1-91554 


1 


2-26556 


+ 1-31798 


- 0-29484 


0-75 


+ 


2-11700 


+ 


2-32709 


+ 89691 


- 1-22716 


0-85 


+ 


2-33965 


+ 


2-34907 


+ 0-36649 


- 2-26749 


0-95 


+ 


2-58571 


+ 


2-32985 


- 26730 


- 3-38678 


1-1 


+ 


300417 




2-21987 


- 1-39843 


- 5-15217 


1-3 


+ 


3-66930 


+ 


1-91154 


- 3-21009 


- 7-52558 


1-5 


+ 


4-48169 


+ 


1-40245 


- 5-32009 


- 9-73319 


1-7 


i 
-r 


5-47395 


+ 


0-67278 


- 7-67269 


-11-5828 


1-9 


+ 


6-68589 


— 


0-30020 


-10-2090 


-12-8964 

1 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



227 



M(oc. -f.a;) 



X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-00 


+ 


100000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 


0-98722 


+ 


0-97502 


+ 


0-96342 


+ 


0-95244 


004 


+ 


0-97564 


+ 


0-95377 


+ 


0-93458 


+ 


0-91824 


006 


+ 


0-96540 


+ 


0-93682 


+ 


0-91492 


+ 


0-90036 


0-08 


+ 


0-95664 


+ 


0-92477 


+ 


0-90600 


+ 


0-90199 


015 


+ 


0-93996 


+ 


0-93084 


+ 


0-98470 


+ 


11 1473 


0-25 


+ 


0-96602 


+ 


1-12259 


+ 


1-53691 


+ 


2-28646 


0-35 


+ 


1-07515 


+ 


1-63933 


+ 


2-91353 


+ 


616473 


0-45 


+ 


1-30089 


+ 


2-63853 


+ 


5-57305 


+ 


10-8108 


0-55 


+ 


1-68519 


+ 


4-32501 


+ 


101341 


+ 


20-7056 


0-65 


+ 


2-28001 


+ 


6-96206 


+ 


17-4183 


+ 


36-8766 


0-75 


+ 


3-14936 


+ 


10-8848 


+ 


28-5036 


+ 


62-0577 


0-85 


+ 


4-37154 


+ 


16-5162 


+ 


44-7887 


+ 


99-8876 


0-95 


+ 


6-04183 


+ 


24-3861 


+ 


68-0721 


+ 


155-157 


1-1 


+ 


9-64643 


+ 


41-8736 


+ 


121-301 


+ 


284-921 


1-3 


+ 


17-3102 


+ 


80-5891 


+ 


243-710 


+ 


593-999 


15 


+ 


29-7564 


+ 


146-282 


+ 


459-913 


+ 


1160-32 


1-7 


+ 


49-2877 


+ 


253-796 


+ 


827-412 


+ 


2156-70 


1-9 


+ 


79-1413 


+ 


424-863 


+ 


1433-50 


+ 


3854-33 



M (a . -f.a;) 



X 


<x=-l 





.= -2 


a 


= -3 


a 


= -4 


000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


002 


+ 


1-01333 


+ 


1-02720 


+ 


104158 


+ 


105645 


004 


+ 


1-02667 


+ 


1-05547 


+ 


108623 


+ 


1-11879 


0-06 


+ 


1-04000 


+ 


1-08480 


+ 


1-13382 


+ 


1-18652 


0-08 


+ 


1-05333 


+ 


1-11520 


+ 


1- 18423 


+ 


1-25914 


0-15 


+ 


1-10000 


+ 


1-23000 


+ 


1-38100 


+ 


1-54490 


0-25 


+ 


1- 16667 


+ 


1-41667 


+ 


1-70833 


+ 


2-00694 


0-35 


+ 


1-23333 


+ 


1-63000 


+ 


2-07567 


+ 


2-48268 


0-45 


+ 


1-30000 


+ 


1-87000 


+ 


2-46700 


+ 


2-92090 


0-55 


+ 


1-36667 


+ 


2-13667 


+ 


2-86633 


+ 


3-27468 


0-65 


+ 


1-43333 


+ 


2-43000 


+ 


3-25767 


+ 


3-50134 


0-75 


+ 


1-50000 


+ 


2-75000 


+ 


3-62500 


+ 


3-56250 


0-85 


+ 


1-56667 


+ 


309667 


+ 


3-95233 


+ 


3-42401 


0-95 


+ 


1-63333 


+ 


3-47000 


+ 


4-22367 


+ 


305601 


11 


+ 


1-73333 


+ 


4-08000 


+ 


4-49067 


+ 


2-01884 


1-3 


+ 


1-86667 


+ 


4-98667 


+ 


4-50133 




0-37049 


1-5 


+ 


2-00000 


+ 


600000 


+ 


400000 


— 


4-00000 


1-7 


+ 


2-13333 


+ 


7-12000 


+ 


2-85867 


— 


8-90382 


1-9 


+ 


2-26667 


+ 


8-34667 


+ 


0-94933 




15-0478 



q2 



228 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 
M (a . - | . x) 



X 


a=J 


a=f 


«=f 


*=l 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-99354 


+ 


0-98105 


+ 0-96914 


+ 


0-95785 


0-04 


+ 0-98752 


+ 


0-96438 


+ 0-94383 


+ 


0-92604 


006 


+ 0-98199 


+ 


0-95032 


+ 0-92499 


+ 


0-90668 


0-08 


+ 0-97698 


+ 


0-93917 


+ 0-91365 


+ 


0-90204 


0-15 


+ 0-96432 


+ 


0-92831 


+ 0-94910 


+ 


103932 


0-25 


+ 0-96302 


+ 


101652 


+ 1-29294 


+ 


1-86451 


0-35 


+ 0-98862 


+ 


1-28331 


+ 2-17213 


+ 


3-89835 


0-45 


+ 1-05077 


+ 


1-80826 


+ 3-86573 


+ 


7-85351 


0-55 


+ 1-16128 


+ 


2-69290 


+ 6-74353 


+ 


14-7081 


0-65 


+ 1-33449 


+ 


4-06542 


+ 11-2889 


+ 


25-7817 


0-75 


+ 1-58775 


+ 


6-08638 


+ 18-1268 


+ 


42-8296 


0-85 


+ 1-94191 


+ 


8-95539 


+ 28-0571 


+ 


68-1591 


0-95 


+ 2-42195 


+ 


12-9191 


+ 42-0954 


+ 


104-774 


M 


+ 3-44478 


+ 


21-5980 


+ 73-7428 


+ 


189-621 


1-3 


+ 5-57733 


+ 


40-4308 


+ 145-178 


+ 


388-265 


1-5 


+ 8-96338 


+ 


71-7070 


+268-901 


+ 


745-753 


1-7 


+ 14-1593 


+ 121-857 


+475-359 


+ 1364-20 


1-9 


+21-9297 


+200-113 


+ 809-957 


+2401-27 







M (a.-f. 


X) 






X 


*=-i 


a=-§ 


a 


_ _ 6 


a=-5 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 1-00660 


+ 1-02020 


+ 


1-03433 


+ 1-04895 


0-04 


+ 1-01306 


+ 1-04081 


+ 


1-07061 


+ 1-10229 


0-06 


+ 101936 


+ 1-06184 


+ 


1-10882 


+ 1-15975 


0-08 


+ 1-02551 


+ 1-08329 


+ 


1-14890 


+ 1-22103 


0-15 


+ 1-04565 


+ 1-16183 


+ 


1-30340 


+ 1-46181 


0-25 


+ 1-07002 


+ 1-28403 


+ 


1-55962 


+ 1-85869 


0-35 


+ 1-08795 


+ 1-41907 


+ 


1-85277 


+ 2-28855 


0-45 


+ 1-09782 


+ 1-56831 


+ 


2-17730 


+ 2-71999 


0-55 


+ 1-09773 


+ 1-73325 


+ 


2-52747 


+ 3-12290 


0-65 


+ 1-08547 


+ 1-91554 


+ 


2-89729 


+ 3-46841 


0-75 


+ 1-05850 


+ 2-11700 


+ 


3-28054 


+ 3-72900 


0-85 


+ 1-01385 


+ 2-33965 


+ 


3-67079 


+ 3-87846 


095 


+ 0-94809 


+ 2-58571 


+ 


4-06128 


+ 3-89199 


11 


+ 0-80111 


+ 3-00417 


+ 


4-63207 


+ 3-60656 


1-3 


+ 0-48924 


+ 3-66930 


+ 


5-32597 


+ 2-54389 


1-5 


+ 0-00000 


+ 4-48169 


+ 


5-88414 


+ 0-56405 


1-7 


- 0-72986 


+ 5-47395 


+ 


6-23644 


- 2-45928 


1-9 


- 1-78291 


+ 6-68589 


+ 


6-30564 


- 6-62572 



To construct the table of M (a. y. x) when a and y are positive integers, two values 
of the function for each value of x are required, M(0. 1 .x) = \ and M(l . l.x)=e*. 
The remaining entries to ten significant figures were calculated as before from the 
various recurrence formulae. When <x=±£, ±f, the independent calculations of 
M(£ . 1 . x) and M ( — \ . 1 . x) were checked from the tables* of l (x) and LJx). 

* A. Lodge. Reports of the Committee, 1893 and 1896. 

* Aldis. Proc. Roy. Society, 64, 1899. 






ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES 
=J, M(a 

imaginary argument : 



229 

When oc=£, M(a . y. *) can be expressed in terms of these Bessel functions of 

38 



M.(l.l.z)=efr (f) and 

K(i.a.)E).i.«r.i 1 g^ 

M (a . 1 . x) 



X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


000 


+ 


1 '00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


002 


+ 


1-02020 


+ 


104061 


+ 


106121 


+ 


1-08203 


0-04 


+ 


104081 


+ 


1-08244 


+ 


1-12491 


+ 


1-16822 


0-06 


+ 


1-06184 


+ 


11 2555 


+ 


119117 


+ 


1-25874 


0-08 


+ 


1-08329 


+ 


1-16995 


+ 


1-26008 


+ 


1-35377 


0-10 


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1-10517 


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1-21569 


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1-33173 


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1-45348 


0-15 


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116183 


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1-33611 


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1-52346 


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0-20 


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1-91574 


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2-49933 


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3-17998 


0-40 


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2-80463 


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3-65597 


0-45 


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3-13858 


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4-18573 


0-50 


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164872 


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2-47308 


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3-50353 


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0-55 


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3-90199 


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0-60 


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1-82212 


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2-91539 


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4-33664 


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6-15147 


0-65 


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1-91554 


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3-16064 


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4-81040 


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6-95250 


0-70 


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3-42338 


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5-32638 


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7-83786 


0-75 


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2-11700 


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8-81532 


0-80 


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9-89327 


0-85 


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2-33965 


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4-32835 


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7-16224 


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11-0808 


0-90 


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2-45960 


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4-67325 


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7-88303 


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12-3878 


0-95 


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2-58571 


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8-66536 


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13-8249 


1-0 


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2-71828 


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5-43656 


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9-51399 


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15-4036 


11 


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3-00417 


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6-30875 


+ 


11-4309 


+ 


19-0369 


1-2 


+ 


3-32012 


+ 


7-30426 


+ 


13-6789 


i 

T 


23-4002 


1-3 


+ 


3-66930 


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8-43938 


+ 


16-3100 


+ 


28-6248 


1-4 


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4-05520 


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9-73248 


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19-3839 


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34-8639 


1-5 


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4-48169 


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11-2042 


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22-9687 


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42-2959 


1-6 


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4-95303 


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27-1426 


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51-1285 


1-7 


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5-47395 


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14-7797 


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31-9952 


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61-6029 


1-8 


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6-04965 


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16-9390 


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37-6288 


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73-9993 


1-9 


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6-68589 


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19-3891 


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44-1603 


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88-6427 


2-0 


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7-38906 


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22-1672 


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51-7234 


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105-910 


2-2 


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9-02501 


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28-8800 


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70-5756 


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150-128 


2-4 


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11-0232 


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37-4788 


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95-6812 


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211-028 


2-6 


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13-4637 


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48-4695 


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128-983 


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294-443 


2-8 


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16-4446 


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62-4897 


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172-998 


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408-134 


30 


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20-0855 


+ 


80-3421 


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230-984 


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562-395 


3-5 


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331155 


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149020 


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467-756 


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40 


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54-5982 


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272-991 


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928-169 


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2602-51 


4-5 


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900171 


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495-094 


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1811-59 


+ 


5406-65 


50 


+ 


148-413 


+ 


890-479 


+ 


3487-71 


+ 


110320 


5-5 


+ 


244-692 


+ 


1590-50 


+ 


6637-27 


+ 


22170-1 


60 


+ 


403-429 


+ 


2824-00 


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12506-3 


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43973-7 


6-5 


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665-142 


+ 


4988-56 


+ 


23363-1 


+ 


86232-8 


7-0 


+ 


1096-63 


+ 


8773-07 


+ 


43317-0 


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7-5 


+ 


1808-04 


+ 


15368-4 


+ 


79779-9 


+322170-6 


8-0 


+ 


2980-96 


+ 


26828-6 


+ 146067-0 


+6150710 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 







M (a . 1 . 


X) 




X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-00 


+ 100000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


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+ 0-96020 


+ 0-94060 


+ 0-92119 


004 


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006 


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0-08 


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0-10 


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+ 0-80500 


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0-15 


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+ 0-71125 


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0-20 


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0-25 


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0-30 


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0-35 


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- 0-06046 


0-40 


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0-45 


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0-50 


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0-55 


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0-60 


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0-65 


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0-70 


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0-75 


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0-80 


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0-85 


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0-90 


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0-95 


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1-0 


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1-1 


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1-2 


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1-3 


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1-4 


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1-5 


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- 0-87500 


— 0-68750 


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1-6 


- 0-60000 


- 0-92000 


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1-7 


- 0-70000 


- 0-95500 


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- 005733 


1-8 


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- 0-98000 


- 0-51200 


+ 0-06940 


1-9 


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- 0-99500 


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2-0 


- 1-00000 


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- 0-33333 


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2-2 


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- 0-98000 


- 0-11467 


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2-4 


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- 0-92000 


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2-6 


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+ 0-41067 


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2 8 


- 1-80000 


- 0-68000 


+ 0-70133 


+ 1-24640 


3-0 


- 2-00000 


- 0-50000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-37500 


3-5 


- 2-50000 


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+ 1-72917 


+ 1-41927 


4-0 


- 300000 


+ 1-00000 


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+ 1-00000 


4-5 


- 3-50000 


+ 2-12500 


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+ 0-08594 


5-0 


- 4-00000 


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+ 2-66667 


- 1-29167 


5-5 


- 4-50000 


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6-0 


- 5-00000 


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+ 1-00000 


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6-5 


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7-0 


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7-5 


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+ 14-1250 


- 7-43750 


- 9-66406 


8-0 


- 7-00000 


+ 17-0000 


-12-3333 


- 9-66667 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



231 











M (a.l. 


x) 








X 


a=| 




a = y 


a=§ 


a=£ 


000 


i 

T 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


002 


+ 


1-01008 


+ 


1-03038 


+ 


1-05088 


+ 


107159 


004 


+ 


1-02030 


+ 


1-06152 


+ 


1-10357 


+ 


1- 14646 


006 


+ 


103069 


+ 


1-09346 


+ 


1-15812 


+ 


1-22471 


0-08 


+ 


104123 


+ 


1.12619 


+ 


1-21458 


+ 


1-30647 


0-10 


+ 


1-05193 


+ 


1-15975 


+ 


1-27301 


+ 


1-39188 


0-15 


+ 


1-07940 


+ 


1-24738 


+ 


1-42811 


+ 


1-62223 


0-20 


+ 


1-10794 


+ 


1-34059 


+ 


1-59688 


+ 


1-87841 


0-25 


+ 


1-13758 


+ 


1-43971 


+ 


1-78038 


+ 


2-16281 


0-30 


+ 


1-16838 


+ 


1-54511 


+ 


1-97970 


+ 


2-47803 


0-35 


+ 


1-20038 


+ 


1-65714 


+ 


2-19606 


+ 


2-82686 


0-40 


+ 


1-23365 


+ 


1-77621 


+ 


2-43072 


-i- 


3-21234 


0-45 


+ 


1-26822 


+ 


1-90272 


+ 


2-68504 


+ 


3-63774 


0-50 


+ 


1-30417 


+ 


2-03713 


+ 


2-96050 


+ 


4-10661 


0-55 


+ 


1-34154 


+ 


2-17989 


+ 


3-25864 


+ 


4-62278 


0-60 


+ 


1-38040 


+ 


2-33150 


+ 


3-58114 


+ 


5-19039 


0-65 


+ 


1-42082 


+ 


2-49248 


+ 


3-92977 


+ 


5-81389 


0-70 


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1-46286 


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4-30645 


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0-75 


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2-84477 


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4-71321 


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7-24823 


0-80 


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3-03727 


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5-15221 


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8-06988 


0-85 


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1-59944 


+ 


3-24154 


+ 


5-62578 


+ 


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0-90 


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1-64872 


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3-45826 


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6-13639 


+ 


9-95237 


0-95 


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1-70000 


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6-68668 


+ 


11-0267 


1-0 


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1-75339 


+ 


3-93197 


+ 


7-27948 


+ 


12-1998 


1-1 


+ 


1-86683 


+ 


4-46473 


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8-60483 


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1-2 


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1-98984 


+ 


5-06357 


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+ 


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1-3 


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+ 


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+ 


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1-4 


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+ 


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13-9588 


+ 


26-2560 


1-5 


+ 


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7-33986 


+ 


16-3179 


+ 


31-4955 


1-6 


+ 


2-59613 


+ 


8-29130 


+ 


19-0338 


+ 


37-6608 


1-7 


+ 


2-78172 


+ 


9-35836 


+ 


22-1567 


+ 


44-9023 


1-8 


+ 


2-98346 


+ 


10-5546 


+ 


25-7439 


+ 


53-3930 


1-9 


+ 


3-20285 


+ 


11-8952 


+ 


29-8600 


+ 


63-3324 


2-0 


+ 


3-44152 


+ 


13-3971 


+ 


34-5784 


+ 


74-9499 


2-2 


+ 


398401 


+ 


16-9621 


+ 


46-1658 


+ 


104-314 


2-4 


+ 


4-62733 


+ 


21-4277 


+ 


61-3121 


+ 


144-102 


2-6 


+ 


5-39122 


+ 


27-0150 


+ 


81-0490 


+ 


197-760 


2-8 


+ 


6-29933 


+ 


33-9986 


+ 


106-696 


+ 


269-814 


3-0 


+ 


7-38010 


+ 


42-7190 


' + 


139-937 


+ 


366-191 


3-5 


+ 


11-0791 


+ 


75-1437 


+ 


271-834 


+ 


770-415 


4-0 


+ 


16-8440 


+ 


131-233 


+ 


519-318 


+ 


1583-08 


4-5 


+ 


25-8738 


+ 


227-865 


+ 


978-790 


+ 


3191-17 


5-0 


+ 


40-0784 


+ 


393-770 


+ 


1824-23 


+ 


6330-98 


5-5 


+ 


62-5213 


+ 


677-927 


+ 


3368-79 


+ 


12394-7 


6-0 


+ 


980333 


+ 1162-67 


+ 


6168-21 


+ 


23975-2 


6-5 


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+ 1988-73 


+ 11218-0 


+ 


45922-4 


7-0 


+244-333 


+3393-22 


+20277-9 


+ 


87186-8 


7-5 


+ 387-747 


+5776-96 


+ 36458-2 


+ 164241-5 


8-0 


+ 617064 


+9816-37 


+65236-8 


+ 307246-6 



232 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . 1 . x) 



X 


«=-J 


«=-| 


.=-s 


«=--* 


000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 


0-98997 


+ 


0-97008 


+ 0-95037 


+ 


0-93087 


0-04 


+ 


0-97990 


+ 


0-94030 


+ 0-90150 


+ 


0-86348 


0-06 


+ 


0-96977 


+ 


0-91068 


+ 0-85336 


+ 


0-79780 


0-08 


+ 


0-95959 


+ 


0-88121 


+ 0-80597 


+ 


0-73381 


0-10 


+ 


0-94936 


+ 


0-85189 


+ 0-75932 


+ 


0-67151 


0-15 


+ 


0-92356 


+ 


0-77925 


+ 0-64592 


+ 


0-52299 


0-20 


+ 


0-89741 


+ 


0-70758 


+ 0-53708 


+ 


0-38460 


0-25 


+ 


0-87092 


+ 


0-63689 


+ 0-43277 


+ 


0-25607 


0-30 


+ 


0-84408 


+ 


0-56716 


+ 0-33296 


+ 


013712 


0-35 


+ 


0-81687 


+ 


0-49843 


+ 0-23759 


+ 


0-02751 


0-40 


+ 


0-78929 


+ 


0-43069 


+ 0-14662 


— 


0-07304 


0-45 


+ 


0-76132 


+ 


036396 


+ 006003 


— 


0-16478 


0-50 


+ 


0-73296 


+ 


0-29824 


- 0-02224 


— 


0-24798 


0-55 


+ 


0-70420 


+ 


0-23355 


- 0-10023 


— 


0-32288 


0-60 


+ 


0-67502 


+ 


0-16988 


- 0-17397 


— 


0-38976 


0-65 


4- 


0-64541 


+ 


0-10727 


- 0-24351 


— 


0-44884 


0-70 


+ 


0-61537 


+ 


0-04570 


- 0-30890 


— 


0-50040 


0-75 


+ 


0-58487 


— 


0-01480 


- 0-37017 


— 


0-54468 


0-80 


+ 


0-55392 


— 


0-07423 


- 0-42737 


— 


0-51892 


0-85 


+ 


0-52248 


— 


0-13258 


- 0-48054 


— 


0-61238 


0-90 


+ 


0-49056 


— 


0-18983 


- 0-52972 


— 


0-63629 


0-95 


+ 


0-45814 


— 


0-24597 


- 0-57497 


— 


0-65390 


1-0 


+ 


0-42520 


— 


0-30100 


- 061632 


— 


0-66545 


1-1 


+ 


0-35770 


— 


0-40765 


- 0-68750 


— 


0-67132 


1-2 


+ 


0-28796 


— 


0-50970 


- 0-74364 


— 


0-65578 


1-3 


+ 


0-21583 


— 


0-60704 


- 0-78510 


— 


0-62068 


1-4 


+ 


0-14118 


— 


0-69956 


- 0-81225 


— 


0-56785 


1-5 


+ 


0-06386 


— 


0-78716 


- 0-82547 


— 


0-49907 


1-6 


— 


0-01630 


— 


0-86972 


- 0-82515 


— 


0-41610 


1-7 


— 


0-09948 


— 


0-94713 


- 0-81168 


— 


0-32068 


1-8 


— 


0-18585 


— 


1-01927 


- 0-78545 


— 


0-21449 


1-9 


— 


0-27562 


— 


1-08599 


- 0-74686 


— 


0-09919 


2-0 


— 


0-36900 


— 


1-14717 


- 0-69634 


+ 


0-02359 


2-2 


— 


0-56754 


— 


1-25233 


- 0-56116 


+ 


0-28527 


2-4 


— 


0-78351 


— 


1-33351 


- 0-38334 


+ 


0-55821 


2-6 


— 


101929 


— 


1-38936 


- 0-16647 


+ 


0-83069 


2-8 


— 


1-27761 


— 


1-41839 


+ 008574 


+ 


1-09152 


3-0 


— 


1-56163 


— 


1-41895 


+ 0-36940 


+ 


1-33016 


3-5 


— 


2-40973 


— 


1-28329 


+ 1-18918 


+ 


1-76605 


4-0 


— 


3-51873 


— 


0-92302 


+ 2-11124 


+ 


1-86572 


4-5 


— 


4-99928 


— 


0-29246 


+ 3-05806 


+ 


1-51950 


5-0 


— 


7-01438 


+ 


0-66928 


+ 3-94092 


+ 


0-64792 


5-5 


— 


9-80795 


+ 


2-04476 


+ 4-65791 


— 


0-79513 


6-0 


— 


13-7333 


+ 


3-94440 


+ 5-08447 


— 


2-81743 


6-5 


— 


19-3375 


+ 


6-52363 


+ 5-07890 


— 


5-38529 


7-0 


— 


27-4321 


+ 


9-99599 


+ 4-46405 


— 


8-41543 


7-5 


— 


39-2484 


+ 


14-6616 


+ 302273 


— 


11-7681 


8-0 


— 


56-6583 


■ 

T 


20-9451 


+ 0-48284 


— 


15-2367 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



233 



M (a . 2 . x) 



X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 


101007 


+ 


1-02020 


+ 


1-03040 


+ 


1-04067 


0-04 


+ 


1-02027 


+ 


1-04081 


+ 


106163 


+ 


1-08272 


006 


+ 


1-03061 


+ 


1-06184 


+ 


109369 


+ 


1-12618 


0-08 


+ 


104109 


+ 


1-08329 


+ 


1-12662 


+ 


1-17111 


0-10 


+ 


105171 


+ 


1-10517 


+ 


1-16043 


+ 


1-21753 


0-15 


+ 


1-07889 


+ 


1-16183 


+ 


1-24897 


+ 


1-34047 


0-20 


+ 


1-10701 


+ 


1-22140 


+ 


1-34354 


+ 


1-47383 


0-25 


+ 


1-13610 


+ 


1-28403 


+ 


1-44453 


+ 


1-61841 


0-30 


+ 


1-16620 


+ 


1-34986 


+ 


1-55234 


+ 


1-77506 


0-35 


+ 


1-19734 


+ 


1-41907 


+ 


1-66740 


+ 


1-94471 


0-40 


+ 


1-22956 


+ 


1-49182 


+ 


1-79019 


+ 


2-12834 


0-45 


+ 


1-26292 


+ 


1-56831 


+ 


1-92118 


+ 


2-32698 


0-50 


+ 


1-29744 


+ 


1-64872 


+ 


2-06090 


+ 


2-54178 


0-55 


+ 


1-33319 


+ 


1-73325 


+ 


2-20990 


+ 


2-77393 


0-60 


+ 


1-37020 


+ 


1-82212 


+ 


2-36875 


+ 


302472 


0-65 


+ 


1-40852 


+ 


1-91554 


+ 


2-53809 


+ 


3-29553 


0-70 


+ 


1-44822 


+ 


2-01375 


+ 


2-71857 


+ 


3-58784 


0-75 


+ 


1-48933 


+ 


2-11700 


+ 


2-91088 


+ 


3-90322 


0-80 


+ 


1-53193 


+ 


2-22554 


+ 


3-11576 


+ 


4-24336 


0-85 


+ 


1-57606 


+ 


2-33965 


+ 


3-33400 


+ 


4-61008 


0-90 


+ 


1-62178 


+ 


2-45960 


+ 


3-56642 


+ 


5-00529 


0-95 


+ 


1-66917 


+ 


2-58571 


+ 


3-81392 


+ 


5-43107 


1-0 


+ 


1-71828 


+ 


2-71828 


+ 


4 07742 


+ 


5-88961 


1-1 


+ 


1-82197 


+ 


3-00417 


-L 


4-65646 


+ 


6-91459 


1-2 


+ 


1-93343 


+ 


3-32012 


+ 


5-31219 


+ 


8-10109 


1-3 


+ 


2-05331 


+ 


3-66930 


+ 


6-05434 


+ 


9-47290 


1-4 


+ 


2-18229 


+ 


4-05520 


+ 


6-89384 


+ 


11-0572 


1-5 


+ 


2-32113 


+ 


4-48169 


+ 


7-84296 


+ 


12-8849 


1-6 


+ 


2-47065 


+ 


4-95303 


+ 


8-91546 


+ 


14-9912 


1-7 


+ 


2-63173 


+ 


5-47395 


+ 


10-1268 


+ 


17-4163 


1-8 


+ 


2-80536 


+ 


6-04965 


+ 


11-4943 


+ 


20-2058 


1-9 


+ 


2-99258 


+ 


6-68589 


+ 


13-0375 


+ 


23-4118 


2-0 


+ 


3-19453 


+ 


7-38906 


+ 


14-7781 


+ 


27-0932 


2-2 


+ 


3-64773 


+ 


9-02501 


+ 


18-9525 


+ 


36-1602 


2-4 


+ 


4-17632 


+ 


11-0232 


+ 


24-2510 


+ 


48-0610 


2-6 


+ 


4-79375 


+ 


13-4637 


+ 


30-9666 


+ 


63-6386 


2-8 


+ 


5-51595 


+ 


16-4446 


+ 


39-4672 


+ 


83-9773 


30 


+ 


6-36185 


+ 


20-0855 


+ 


50-2138 


+ 


110-470 


3-5 


+ 


9-17584 


+ 


331155 


+ 


91-0675 


+ 


216-630 


4-0 


+ 


13-3995 


+ 


54-5982 


+ 


163-794 


+ 


418-586 


4-5 


+ 


19-7816 


+ 


90-0171 


+ 


292-556 


+ 


798-902 


5-0 


+ 


29-4826 


+ 


148-413 


+ 


519-446 


+ 


1508-87 


5-5 


+ 


44-3076 


+ 


244-692 


+ 


917-595 


+ 


2824-15 


60 


+ 


67-0715 


+ 


403-429 


+ 


1613-72 


+ 


5244-57 


6-5 


+ 102-176 


+ 


665-142 


+ 


2826-85 


+ 


9672-27 


7-0 


+ 156-519 


+ 1096-63 


+ 


4934-85 


+ 17728-9 


7-5 


+240-939 


+ 1808-04 


+ 


8588-20 


+32318-8 


8-0 


+ 372-495 


+ 2980-96 


+ 14904-8 


+58625-5 



234 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . 2 . x) 



X 


a=-l 


a- -2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


4- 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-99000 


+ 0-98007 


+ 0-97020 


+ 0-96040 


0-04 


+ 0-98000 


+ 0-96027 


+ 0-94080 


+ 0-92159 


0-06 


+ 0-97000 


+ 0-94060 


+ 0-91179 


+ 0-88356 


0-08 


+ 0-96000 


+ 0-92107 


+ 0-88318 


+ 0-84632 


0-10 


+ 0-95000 


+ 0-90167 


+ 0-85496 


+. 0-80983 


0-15 


+ 0-92500 


+ 0-85375 


+ 0-78611 


+ 0-72194 


0-20 


+ 0-90000 


+ 0-80667 


+ 0-71967 


+ 0-63868 


0-25 


+ 0-87500 


+ 0-76042 


-|- 0-65560 


+ 0-55993 


0-30 


+ 0-85000 


+ 0-71500 


+ 0-59388 


+ 0-48557 


0-35 


+ 0-82500 


+ 0-67042 


+ 0-53446 


+ 0-41548 


0-40 


+ 0-80000 


+ 0-62667 


+ 0-47733 


+ 0-34955 


0-45 


+ 0-77500 


+ 0-58375 


+ 0-42245 


+ 0-28765 


0-50 


+ 0-75000 


+ 0-54167 


+ 0-36979 


+ 0-22969 


0-55 


+ 0-72500 


+ 0-50042 


+ 0-31932 


+ 0-17553 


0-60 


+ 0-70000 


+ 0-46000 


+ 0-27100 


+ 0-12508 


0-65 


+ 0-67500 


+ 0-42042 


+ 0-22481 


+ 0-07822 


0-70 


+ 0-65000 


+ 0-38167 


+ 0-18071 


+ 0-03483 


075 


+ 0-62500 


+ 0-34375 


+ 0-13867 


- 0-00518 


0-80 


+ 0-60000 


+ 0-30667 


+ 0-09867- 


- 0-04192 


0-85 


+ 0-57500 


+ 0-27042 


+ 0-06066 


- 0-07550 


0-90 


+ 0-55000 


+ 0-23500 


+ 0-02463 


- 0-10603 


0-95 


+ 0-52500 


+ 0-20042 


- 0-00947 


- 013361 


1-0 


+ 0-50000 


+ 0-16667 


— 0-04167 


- 0-15833 


1-1 


+ 0-45000 


+ 0-10167 


- 0-10046 


- 0-19963 


1-2 


+ 0-40000 


+ 0-04000 


- 0-15200 


- 0-23072 


1-3 


+ 0-35000 


- 0-01833 


- 0-19654 


- 0-25237 


1-4 


+ 0-30000 


- 0-07333 


- 0-23433 


- 0-26532 


1-5 


+ 0-25000 


- 0-12500 


- 0-26563 


- 0-27031 


1-6 


+ 0-20000 


- 0-17333 


- 0-29067 


- 0-26805 


1-7 


+ 0-15000 


- 0-21833 


- 0-30971 


- 0-25923 


1-8 


+ 0-10000 


- 0-26000 


- 0-32300 


- 0-24452 


1-9 


+ 0-05000 


- 0-29833 


- 0-33079 


- 0-22457 


2-0 


+ 0-00000 


- 0-33333 


- 0-33333 


- 0-20000 


2-2 


- 0-10000 


- 0-39333 


- 0-32367 


- 0-13945 


2-4 


- 0-20000 


- 0-44000 


- 0-29600 


- 0-06752 


2-6 


- 0-30000 


- 0-47333 


- 0-25233 


+ 0-01148 


2-8 


- 0-40000 


- 0-49333 


- 0-19467 


+ 0-09355 


3-0 


- 0-50000 


- 0-50000 


- 0-12500 


+ 0-17500 


3-5 


- 0-75000 


- 0-45833 


+ 0-08854 


+ 0-35469 


4-0 


- 1-00000 


- 0-33333 


+ 0-33333 


+ 0-46667 


4-5 


- 1-25000 


- 0-12500 


+ 0-57813 


+ 0-47969 


5-0 


- 1-50000 


+ 0-16667 


+ 0-79167 


+ 0-37500 


5-5 


- 1-75000 


+ 0-54167 


+ 0-94271 


+ 0-14635 


6-0 


- 2-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


- 0-20000 


6-5 


- 2-25000 


+ 1-54167 


+ 0-93229 


- 0-64531 


7-0 


- 2-50000 


+ 2-16667 


+ 0-70833 


- 1-15833 


7-5 


- 2-75000 


+ 2-87500 


+ 0-29688 


- 1-69531 


8-0 


- 3-00000 


+ 3-66667 


- 0-33333 


- 2-20000 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



235 



M (a . 2 . x) 



X 


«=3 


a=3 


a=| 


«=i 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


O02 


+ 


1-00503 


+ 


1-01513 


+ 


1-02529 


+ 


1-03553 


004 


+ 


1-01010 


+ 


1-03051 


+ 


1-05118 


+ 


1-07214 


0-06 


+ 


1-01523 


+ 


1-04614 


+ 


1-07769 


+ 


1-10986 


O08 


+ 


1-02041 


+ 


1-06205 


+ 


1-10481 


+ 


1-14872 


010 


+ 


1-02564 


+ 


1-07822 


+ 


1-13257 


+ 


1-18875 


0-15 


+ 


1-03895 


+ 


1-11985 


+ 


1-20487 


+ 


1-29416 


0-20 


+ 


1-05261 


+ 


1-16326 


+ 


1-28148 


+ 


1-40764 


0-25 


+ 


1-06662 


+ 


1-20854 


+ 


1-36266 


+ 


1-52974 


0-30 


+ 


1-08100 


+ 


1-25576 


+ 


1-44866 


+ 


1-66108 


0-35 


+ 


1-09575 


+ 


1-30502 


+ 


1-53977 


+ 


1-80228 


0-40 


+ 


1-11090 


+ 


1-35640 


+ 


1-63627 


+ 


1-95405 


0-45 


+ 


1-12644 


+ 


1-41000 


+ 


1-73S48 


+ 


2-11711 


0-50 


+ 


1-14241 


+ 


1-46593 


+ 


1-84673 


+ 


2-29224 


0-55 


+ 


1-15880 


+ 


1-52428 


+ 


1-96135 


+ 


2-48027 


0-60 


+ 


1-17564 


+ 


1-58517 


+ 


2-08272 


+ 


2-68209 


065 


+ 


1-19293 


+ 


1-64871 


1 


2-21122 


+ 


2-89864 


0-70 


+ 


1-21070 


+ 


1-71502 


+ 


2-34726 


+ 


3-13093 


0-75 


+ 


1-22896 


+ 


1-78423 


+ 


2-49125 


+ 


3-38004 


0-80 


+ 


1-24772 


+ 


1-85647 


+ 


2-64367 


+ 


3-64709 


0-85 


+ 


1-26701 


+ 


1-93188 


+ 


2-80499 


+ 


3-93330 


0-90 


+ 


1-28684 


+ 


2-01060 


+ 


2-97570 


+ 


4-23998 


0-95 


+ 


1-30723 


+ 


2-09278 


+ 


3-15636 


+ 


4-56849 


1-0 


+ 


1-32819 


+ 


2-17858 


+ 


3-34751 


+ 


4-92030 


1-1 


+ 


1-37193 


+ 


2-36173 


+ 


3-76373 


+ 


5-70017 


1-2 


+ 


1-41823 


+ 


2-56144 


+ 


4-22953 


+ 


6-59331 


1-3 


+ 


1-46726 


+ 


2-77929 


+ 


4-75066 


+ 


7-61528 


1-4 


+ 


1-51922 


+ 


3-01697 


+ 


5-33356 


+ 


8-78367 


1-5 


+ 


1-57432 


+ 


3-27635 


+ 


5-98536 


+ 


10-1184 


1-6 


+ 


1-63277 


+ 


3-55949 


+ 


6-71403 


+ 


11-6419 


1-7 


+ 


1-69482 


+ 


3-86861 


+ 


7-52844 


+ 


13-3797 


1-8 


+ 


1-76073 


+ 


4-20620 


+ 


8-43848 


+ 


15-3606 


1-9 


+ 


1-83078 


+ 


4-57493 


+ 


9-45513 


_i_ 


17-6171 


2-0 


+ 


1-90526 


+ 


4-97779 


+ 


10-5907 


+ 


20-1858 


2-2 


+ 


2-06888 


+ 


5-89913 


+ 


13-2744 


+ 


26-4310 


2-4 


+ 


2-25452 


+ 


7-00015 


+ 


16-6185 


+ 


34-4959 


2-6 


+ 


2-46558 


+ 


8-31685 


+ 


20-7823 


+ 


44-8890 


2-8 


+ 


2-70605 


+ 


9-89261 


+ 


25-9633 


+ 


58-2563 


30 


+ 


2-98058 


+ 


11-7796 


+ 


32-4059 


+ 


75-4181 


3-5 


+ 


3-85394 


+ 


18-3042 


+ 


56-1972 


+ 


142-452 


4-0 


+ 


5-09068 


+ 


28-5973 


+ 


97-0212 


_i_ 


265-940 


4-5 


+ 


6-86068 


+ 


44-8869 


+ 


166-872 


+ 


491-639 


5-0 


+ 


9-41857 


+ 


70-7383 


+ 


286-093 


+ 


901-349 


5-5 


+ 


13-1508 


+ 


111-892 


+ 


489-248 


+ 


1641-07 


6-0 


+ 


18-6278 


+ 


177-439 


+ 


834-257 


+ 


2967-84 


6-5 


+ 


26-7392 


+ 


282-195 


+ 


1419-89 


+ 


5339-13 


7-0 


+ 


38-8235 


+ 


449-842 


+ 


2412-10 


+ 


9558-42 


7-5 


+ 


56-9328 


+ 


718-562 


+ 


4090-83 


+ 


17037-8 


8-0 


+ 


84-2153 


+ 


1149-91 


+ 


6927-55 


+ 


30251-2 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . 2 . x) 



X 


a=-i 


a=-f 


a=-f 


«=-! 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-99499 


+ 0-98503 


+ 0-97512 


+ 0-96529 


0-04 


+ 0-98997 


+ 0-97010 


+ 0-95050 


+ 0-93116 


0-06 


+ 0-98492 


+ 0-95523 


+ 0-92612 


+ 0-89761 


0-08 


+ 0-97987 


+ 0-94040 


+ 0-90199 


+ 0-86462 


0-10 


+ 0-97479 


+ 0-92563 


+ 0-87811 


+ 0-83220 


0-15 


+ 96202 


+ 0-88892 


+ 0-81949 


+ 0-75360 


0-20 


+ 0-94915 


+ 0-85252 


+ 0-76240 


+ 0-67844 


0-25 


+ 0-93616 


+ 0-81645 


+ 0-70683 


+ 0-60666 


0-30 


+ 0-92305 


+ 0-78070 


+ 0-65277 


+ 0-53818 


0-35 


+ 0-90983 


+ 0-74527 


+ 0-60022 


+ 0-47295 


0-40 


+ 0-89649 


+ 0-71017 


+ 0-54916 


+ 0-41089 


0-45 


+ 0-88303 


+ 0-67540 


+ 0-49958 


+ 0-35194 


0-50 


+ 0-86944 


+ 0-64096 


+ 0-45148 


+ 0-29604 


0-55 


+ 0-85573 


+ 0-60686 


+ 0-40483 


+ 0-24312 


0-60 


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+ 0-35964 


+ 0-19311 


0-65 


+ 82792 


+ 0-53966 


+ 0-31590 


+ 0-14595 


70 


+ 0-81381 


+ 0-50657 


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+ 0-10158 


0-75 


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+ 0-47382 


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+ 0-05993 


0-80 


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+ 0-44142 


+ 0-19319' 


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0-85 


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+ 0-40937 


+ 0-15511 


- 0-01545 


090 


+ 0-75599 


+ 0-37766 


+ 0-11841 


- 0-04930 


0-95 


+ 0-74117 


+ 0-34631 


+ 0-08309 


- 0-08069 


10 


+ 0-72619 


+ 0-31532 


+ 0-04914 


- 0-10966 


1-1 


+ 0-69578 


+ 0-25441 


- 0-01471 


- 0-16062 


1-2 


+ 0-66472 


+ 0-19495 


- 0-07322 


- 0-20268 


1-3 


+ 0-63298 


+ 0-13697 


- 0-12648 


- 0-23630 


1-4 


+ 0-60053 


+ 0-08050 


- 0-17458 


- 0-26197 


1-5 


+ 0-56735 


+ 0-02554 


- 0-21760 


- 0-28015 


1-6 


+ 0-53339 


- 0-02786 


- 0-25566 


- 0-29131 


1-7 


+ 0-49862 


- 0-07968 


- 0-28882 


- 0-29590 


1-8 


+ 0-46301 


- 0-12990 


- 0-31720 


- 0-29437 


1-9 


+ 0-42651 


- 0-17849 


- 0-34088 


- 0-28717 


20 


+ 0-38909 


- 0-22542 


- 0-35997 


- 0-27473 


2-2 


+ 0-31127 


- 0-31417 


- 0-38474 


- 0-23585 


2-4 


+ 0-22917 


- 0-39590 


- 0-39231 


- 0-18109 


2-6 


+ 0-14233 


- 0-47034 


- 0-38352 


- 0-11370 


2-8 


+ 005028 


- 0-53719 


- 0-35921 


- 0-03682 


30 


- 0-04756 


- 0-59612 


- 0-32025 


+ 0-04651 


3-5 


- 0-32184 


- 0-70642 


- 0-16482 


+ 0-26426 


4-0 


- 0-64893 


- 0-75856 


+ 0-06138 


+ 0-46234 


4-5 


- 1-04596 


- 0-74456 


+ 0-34190 


+ 0-60359 


5-0 


- 1-53673 


- 0-65433 


+ 0-65860 


+ 0-65623 


5-5 


- 2-15504 


- 0-47512 


+ 0-99146 


+ 0-59444 


6-0 


- 2-94629 


- 0-19001 


+ 1-31698 


+ 0-39822 


6-5 


- 3-97864 


+ 0-22227 


+ 1-60988 


+ 0-05539 


7-0 


- 5-34686 


+ 0-79028 


+ 1-83993 


- 0-43904 


7-5 


- 7-18801 


+ 1-55186 


+ 1-97211 


- 1-08126 


8-0 


- 9-70042 


+ 2-55778 


+ 1-96494 


- 1-85764 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



237 









M (a . 3 . x) 








X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 1 '00670 


+ 


1-01343 


+ 


1-02020 


+ 


1-02700 


0-04 


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+ 


1-02707 


+ 


1-04081 


+ 


1-05469 


0-06 


+ 1-02030 


+ 


1-04091 


+ 


1-06184 


+ 


1-08307 


0-08 


+ 1-02721 


+ 


1-05497 


+ 


1-08329 


+ 


1-11217 


0-10 


+ 1-03418 


+ 


1-06923 


+ 


1-10517 


+ 


1-14201 


0-15 


+ 1-05193 


+ 


1-10586 


+ 


1-16183 


+ 


1-21993 


0-20 


+ 1-07014 


+ 


1-14389 


+ 


1-22140 


+ 


1-30283 


0-25 


+ 1-08881 


+ 


1-18339 


+ 


1-28403 


+ 


1-39103 


0-30 


+ 1-10797 


+ 


1-22442 


+ 


1-34986 


+ 


1-48484 


0-35 


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+ 


1-26704 


+ 


1-41907 


+ 


1-58463 


0-40 


+ 1-14781 


+ 


1-31131 


+ 


1-49182 


+ 


1-69073 


0-45 


+ 1-16852 


+ 


1-35732 


+ 


1-56831 


+ 


1-80356 


0-50 


+ 1-18977 


+ 


1-40511 


+ 


1-64872 


+ 


1-92351 


0-55 


+ 1-21159 


+ 


1-45478 


+ 


1-73325 


+ 


2-05102 


0-60 


+ 1-23399 


+ 


1-50640 


+ 


1-82212 


+ 


2-18654 


0-65 


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+ 


1-56005 


+ 


1-91554 


+ 


2-33057 


0-70 


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+ 


1-61581 


+ 


2-01375 


+ 


2-48363 


0-75 


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+ 


1-67378 


+ 


2-11700 


+ 


2-64625 


0-80 


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+ 


1-73404 


+ 


2-22554 


+ 


2-81902 


0-85 


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+ 


1-79669 


+ 


2-33965 


+ 


3-00255 


0-90 


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+ 


1-86183 


+ 


2-45960 


+ 


3-19748 


0-95 


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+ 


1-92956 


+ 


2-58571 


+ 


3-40452 


1-0 


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+ 


2-00000 


+ 


2-71828 


+ 


3-62438 


1-1 


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+ 


2-14945 


+ 


3-00417 


+ 


4-10569 


1-2 


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+ 


2-31114 


+ 


3-32012 


+ 


4-64816 


1-3 


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+ 


2-48614 


+ 


3-66930 


+ 


5-25933 


1-4 


+ 1-68898 


+ 


2-67559 


+ 


4-05520 


+ 


5-94763 


1-5 


+ 1-76150 


+ 


2-88075 


+ 


4-48169 


+ 


6-72253 


1-6 


+ 1-83831 


+ 


3-10298 


+ 


4-95303 


+ 


7-59465 


1-7 


+ 1-91969 


+ 


3-34378 


+ 


5-47395 


+ 


8-57585 


1-8 


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+ 


3-60476 


+ 


6-04965 


+ 


9-67944 


1-9 


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+ 


3-88770 


+ 


6-68589 


+ 


10-9203 


2-0 


+ 2-19453 


+ 


4-19453 


+ 


7-38906 


+ 


12-3151 


2-2 


+ 2-40703 


+ 


4-88844 


+ 


9-02501 


+ 


15-6434 


2-4 


+ 2-64694 


+ 


5-70571 


+ 


110232 


+ 


19-8417 


2-6 


+ 2-91827 


+ 


6-66923 


+ 


13-4637 


+ 


25-1323 


2-8 


+ 3-22568 


+ 


7-80622 


+ 


16-4446 


+ 


31-7930 


30 


+ 3-57456 


+ 


914913 


+ 


20-0855 


+ 


401711 


3-5 


+ 4-67191 


+ 


13-6798 


+ 


33-1155 


+ 


71-7501 


4-0 


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+ 


20-5993 


+ 


54-5982 


+ 


127-396 


4-5 


+ 8-34737 


+ 


31-2158 


+ 


900171 


+ 


225043 


50 


+ 11-3931 


+ 


47-5722 


+ 


148-413 


+ 


395-768 


5-5 


+ 15-7482 


+ 


72-8670 


+ 


244-692 


+ 


693-294 


60 


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+ 


403-429 


+ 


1210-29 


6-5 


+31-1310 


+ 173-220 


+ 


665-142 


+ 


2106-28 


7-0 


+44-4340 


+ 268-604 


+ 1096-63 


+ 


3655-44 


7-5 


+ 63-9837 


+417-894 


+ 1808-04 


+ 


6328-15 


8-0 


+92-8737 


+ 652-116 


+2980-96 


+ 10930-2 



238 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . 3 . x) 



X 


a=-l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-99333 


+ 0-98670 


+ 0-98010 


+ 0-97353 


0-04 


+ 0-98667 


+ 0-97347 


+ 0-96040 


+ 0-94746 


0-06 


+ 0-98000 


+ 0-96030 


+ 0-94090 


+ 0-92179 


0-08 


+ 0-97333 


+ 0-94720 


+ 0-92159 


+ 0-89650 


0-10 


+ 0-96667 


+ 0-93417 


+ 0-90248 


+ 0-87160 


015 


+ 0-95000 


+ 0-90188 


+ 0-85557 


+ 0-81103 


0-20 


+ 0-93333 


+ 0-87000 


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0-25 


+ 0-91667 


+ 0-83854 


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0-30 


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+ 0-80750 


+ 0-72205 


+ 0-64322 


0-35 


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+ 0-77688 


+ 0-67991 


+ 0-59177 


0-40 


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0-45 


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+ 0-59911 


+ 0-49529 


0-50 


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+ 0-56042 


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0-55 


+ 0-81667 


+ 0-65854 


+ 0-52285 


+ 0-40708 


0-60 


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+ 0-48640 


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0-65 


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+ 0-60188 


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0-70 


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+ 0-57417 


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0-75 


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+ 0-25400 


0-80 


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+ 0-52000 


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+ 0-22034 


0-85 


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0-90 


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0-95 


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1-0 


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11 


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1-2 


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1-3 


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+ 0-27417 


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- 0-02687 


1-4 


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- 0-05893 


1-5 


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- 0-08594 


1-6 


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- 0-02827 


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1-7 


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- 0-05938 


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1-8 


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1-9 


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- 0-11182 


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2-0 


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- 0-13333 


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2-2 


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- 0-06333 


- 0-16747 


- 0-15813 


2-4 


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- 0-12000 


- 0-19040 


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2-6 


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- 0-17000 


- 0-20293 


- 0-13146 


2-8 


+ 0-06667 


- 0-21333 


- 0-20587 


- 0-10606 


3-0 


+ 0-00000 


- 0-25000 


- 0-20000 


- 0-07500 


3-5 


- 0-16667 


- 0-31250 


- 0-15208 


+ 0-01684 


4-0 


- 0-33333 


- 0-33333 


- 0-06667 


+ 0-11111 


4-5 


- 0-50000 


- 0-31250 


+ 0-04375 


+ 0-18906 


5-0 


- 0-66667 


- 0-25000 


+ 0-16667 


+ 0-23611 


5-5 


- 0-83333 


— 0-14583 


+ 0-28958 


+ 0-24184 


6-0 


- 1-00000 


+ 0-00000 


+ 0-40000 


+ 0-20000 


6-5 


- 1-16667 


+ 0-18750 


+ 0-48542 


+ 0-10851 


7-0 


— 1-33333 


+ 0-41667 


-4- 0-53333 


- 0-03056 


7-5 


- 1-50000 


+ 0-68750 


+ 0-53125 


- 0-21094 


8-0 


- 1-66667 


+ 1-00000 


+ 0-46667 


- 0-42222 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



239 



M (a . 3 . x) 



X 


<x=i 


a=i| 


a=8 


a=.| 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 


1-00335 


+ 


1-01006 


+ 


1-01681 


+ 


1-02360 


0-04 


+ 


1-00672 


+ 


1-02025 


+ 


1-03392 


+ 


1-04773 


0-06 


+ 


1-01011 


+ 


1-03057 


+ 


1-05134 


+ 


1-07242 


0-08 


+ 


1-01354 


+ 


1-04102 


+ 


1-06906 


+ 


1-09766 


0-10 


+ 


1-01698 


+ 


1-05160 


+ 


1-08709 


+ 


1-12348 


0-15 


+ 


1-02572 


+ 


1-07864 


+ 


1-13359 


+ 


1-19061 


0-20 


+ 


1-03463 


+ 


1-10655 


+ 


1-18217 


+ 


1-26162 


0-25 


+ 


1-04370 


+ 


1-13536 


+ 


1-23293 


+ 


1-33671 


0-30 


+ 


1-05296 


+ 


1-16510 


+ 


1-28598 


+ 


1-41612 


0-35 


+ 


1-06240 


+ 


1-19581 


+ 


1-34142 


+ 


1-50010 


0-40 


+ 


1-07202 


+ 


1-22752 


+ 


1-39936 


+ 


1-58889 


0-45 


+ 


1-08184 


+ 


1-26026 


+ 


1-45992 


+ 


1-68277 


0-50 


+ 


1-09185 


+ 


1-29408 


+ 


1-52321 


+ 


1-78205 


0-55 


+ 


1-10206 


+ 


1-32902 


+ 


1-58937 


+ 


1-88696 


0-60 


+ 


1-11248 


+ 


1-36510 


+ 


1-65852 


+ 


1-99788 


0-65 


+ 


1-12311 


+ 


1-40238 


+ 


1-73081 


+ 


2-11514 


0-70 


+ 


1-13397 


+ 


1-44091 


+ 


1-80639 


+ 


2-23908 


0-75 


+ 


1-14504 


+ 


1-48072 


+ 


1-88540 


+ 


2-37008 


0-80 


+ 


1-15635 


+ 


1-52186 


+ 


1-96801 


+ 


2-50854 


0-85 


+ 


1-16789 


+ 


1-56439 


+ 


2-05437 


+ 


2-65486 


0-90 


+ 


1-17967 


+ 


1-60835 


+ 


2-14468 


+ 


2-80950 


0-95 


+ 


1-19171 


+ 


1-65379 


+ 


2-23911 


+ 


2-97291 


1-0 


+ 


1-20399 


+ 


1-70078 


+ 


2-33785 


+ 


3-14558 


M 


+ 


1-22937 


+ 


1-79962 


+ 


2-54909 


+ 


3-52080 


1-2 


+ 


1-25586 


+ 


1-90535 


+ 


2-78014 


+ 


3-93695 


1-3 


+ 


1-28352 


+ 


2-01850 


+ 


3-03288 


+ 


4-40711 


1-4 


+ 


1-31242 


+ 


2-13964 


+ 


3-30941 


+ 


4-92873 


1-5 


+ 


1-34263 


+ 


2-26938 


+ 


3-61201 


+ 


5-51069 


1-6 


+ 


1-37423 


+ 


2-40840 


+ 


3-94318 


+ 


6-15986 


1-7 


_1_ 
1 


1-40729 


+ 


2-55740 


+ 


4-30568 


+ 


6-88389 


1-8 


+ 


1-44191 


+ 


2-71719 


+ 


4-70253 


+ 


7-69129 


1-9 


+ 


1-47817 


+ 


2-88859 


+ 


5-13705 


+ 


8-59151 


2-0 


+ 


1-51618 


+ 


3-07252 


+ 


5-61287 


+ 


9-59510 


2-2 


+ 


1-59783 


+ 


3-48204 


+ 


6-70482 


+ 


11-9605 


2-4 


+ 


1-68779 


+ 


3-95469 


+ 


8-01530 


_j_ 


14-8979 


2-6 


+ 


1-78711 


+ 


4-50098 


+ 


9-58881 


+ 


18-5436 


2-8 


+ 


1-89698 


+ 


5-13326 


+ 


11-4791 


+ 


230664 


3-0 


+ 


2-01876 


+ 


5-86603 


+ 


13-7508 


+ 


28-6749 


3-5 


+ 


2-38616 


+ 


8-25728 


+ 


21-6531 


+ 


49-2884 


4-0 


+ 


2-86980 


+ 


11-7533 


+ 


34-2119 


+ 


84-4593 


45 


+ 


3-51406 


+ 


16-9005 


+ 


54-2157 


+ 


144-341 


50 


+ 


4-38212 


+ 


24-5279 


+ 


86-1418 


+ 


246-103 


5-5 


+ 


5-56575 


+ 


35-9059 


-4- 


137-221 


+ 


418-843 


6-0 


+ 


7-19135 


+ 


52-9370 


+ 


218-940 


+ 


711-194 


6-5 


+ 


9-45163 


+ 


78-6018 


+ 


350-059 


+ 


1205-92 


7-0 


+ ] 


12-6201 


+ ] 


117-434 


+ 


560-644 


+ 2041-81 


7-5 


+ 17-0989 


+ 176-434 


+ 


899-271 


+ 3452-52 


8-0 


+ 23-4789 


+ 266-424 


+ 1444-41 


+ 5830-92 



240 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a. 3.x) 



X 


a=-J 


a=-| 


a=-§ 


a = — I 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


+ 0-99666 


+ 0-99001 


_i_ 


0-98340 


+ 


0-97681 


0-04 


+ 0-99332 


+ 0-98005 


+ 


0-96692 


+ 


0-95391 


0-06 


+ 0-98996 


+ 0-97011 


+ 


0-95056 


+ 


0-93130 


0-08 


+ 0-98660 


+ 0-96020 


+ 


0-93433 


+ 


0-90898 


0-10 


+ 0-98323 


+ 0-95031 


+ 


0-91822 


_i_ 


0-88694 


0-15 


+ 0-97476 


+ 0-92571 


+ 


0-87850 


+ 


0-83308 


O20 


+ 0-96624 


+ 0-90126 


+ 


0-83954 


+ 


0-78096 


0-25 


+ 0-95767 


+ 0-87697 


+ 


0-80135 


+ 


0-73055 


0-30 


+ 0-94903 


+ 0-85284 


+ 


0-76392 


+ 


0-68183 


0-35 


+ 0-94034 


+ 0-82887 




0-72725 


+ 


0-63478 


0-40 


+ 0-93160 


+ 0-80507 


+ 


0-69133 




0-58935 


0-45 


+ 0-92279 


+ 0-78143 


+ 


0-65616 


+ 


0-54554 


0-50 


+ 0-91393 


+ 0-75795 


+ 


0-62174 


+ 


0-50330 


0-55 


+ 0-90500 


+ 0-73463 


+ 


0-58806 


+ 


0-46262 


0-60 


+ 0-89601 


+ 0-71148 


+ 


0-55511 


+ 


0-42347 


0-65 


+ 0-88696 


+ 0-68850 


+ 


0-52290 


+ 


0-38583 


0-70 


+ 0-87784 


+ 0-66569 


+ 


0-49142 


+ 


0-34966 


0-75 


+ 0-86866 


+ 0-64304 


+ 


0-46066 


+ 


0-31494 


0-80 


+ 0-85942 


+ 0-62056 


-1_ 
1 


0-43062 


+ 


0-28165 


0-85 


+ 0-85011 


+ 0-59825 


+ 


0-41030 


+ 


0-24976 


0-90 


+ 0-84072 


+ 0-57612 


+ 


0-37269 


+ 


0-21924 


0-95 


+ 0-83127 


+ 0-55415 


+ 


0-34479 


+ 


0-19007 


1-0 


+ 0-82175 


+ 0-53236 


+ 


0-31759 


+ 


0-16223 


1-1 


+ 0-80250 


+ 0-48930 


+ 


0-26530 


+ 


0-11042 


1-2 


+ 0-78294 


+ 0-44695 


+ 


0-21576 


+ 


0-06360 


1-3 


+ 0-76308 


+ 0-40531 


+ 


0-16896 


+ 


0-02159 


1-4 


+ 0-74291 


+ 0-36439 


+ 


0-12485 


— 


0-01581 


1-5 


+ 0-72240 


+ 0-32420 


+ 


0-08340 


— 


0-04880 


1-6 


+ 0-70156 


+ 0-28475 


+ 


0-04457 


— 


0-07757 


1-7 


+ 0-68036 


+ 0-24605 


+ 


0-00833 


— 


0-10230 


1-8 


+ 0-65879 


+ 0-20811 




0-02536 


— 


012318 


1-9 


+ 0-63684 


+ 0-17094 


— 


0-05654 


— 


0-14040 


2-0 


+ 0-61450 


+ 01 3455 


— 


0-08524 


— 


0-15414 


2-2 


+ 0-56858 


+ 0-06415 


— 


0-13535 


— 


0-17190 


2-4 


+ 0-52089 


- 0-00299 


— 


0-17602 


— 


0-17786 


2-6 


+ 0-47129 


- 0-06679 


— 


0-20756 


— 


0-17343 


2-8 


+ 0-41962 


- 012713 


— 


0-23027 


— 


0-15993 


30 


+ 0-3657 


- 0-18391 


— 


0-24451 


— 


0-13868 


3-5 


+ 0-21976 


- 0-30949 


— 


0-24519 


— 


0-05993 


4-0 


+ 0-05482 


- 0-40997 


— 


0-20048 


+ 


0-04054 


4-5 


- 0-13396 


- 0-48287 


— 


0-11631 


+ 


0-14547 


5-0 


- 0-35296 


- 0-52517 


+ 


0-00095 


+ 


0-23923 


5-5 


- 0-61088 


- 0-53330 


+ 


0-14437 


+ 


0-30803 


60 


- 0-91876 


- 0-50233 


+ 


0-30625 


+ 


0-33970 


6-5 


- 1-29259 


- 0-42696 


+ 


0-47830 


_i_ 


0-32452 


7-0 


- 1-75347 


- 0-29990 


+ 


0-65113 


+ 


0-25471 


7-5 


- 2-33063 


- 0-11207 


+ 


0-81423 


+ 


0-12496 


8-0 


- 3-06455 


+ 0-14821 


+ 


0-95565 





0-06737 






ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



241 











M (a . 4 . x) 








X 


a=l 


a=2 


a=3 


a=4 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


-i_ 


1-00502 


+ 


1-01006 


+ 


1-01512 


+ 


1-02020 


004 


-i_ 


1-01008 


_i_ 


1-02024 


+ 


1-03049 




1-04081 


0-06 


+ 


1-01518 


-f- 


1-03055 


-L. 


1-04610 


+ 


106184 


0-08 


+ 


1-02032 


_L 


1-04098 


+ 


1-06196 


+ 


1-08329 


0-10 


+ 


1-02551 


4- 


1-05153 


+ 


1-07809 


+ 


1-10517 


0-15 


+ 


1-03865 


+ 


1-07849 


+ 


1-11954 


+ 


1-16183 


0-20 


+ 


1-05207 


T 


1-10628 


+ 


1-16270 


+ 


1-22140 


0-25 


+ 


1-06576 


+ 


1-13492 


-i_ 


1-20763 


+ 


1-28403 


0-30 


+ 


1-07974 


+ 


1-16445 


+ 


1-25440 


+ 


1-34986 


0-35 


+ 


1-09400 


-(- 


1-19490 


+ 


1-30311 


+ 


1-41907 


0-40 


+ 


1-10857 


+ 


1-22630 


-L 


1-35382 


+ 


1-49182 


0-45 


+ 


1-12344 


+ 


1-25867 


+ 


1-40664 


+ 


1-56831 


0-50 


+ 


1-13862 


-J- 


1-29207 


+ 


1-46164 


+ 


1-64872 


0-55 


+ 


1-15413 


+ 


1-32651 


+ 


1-51892 


+ 


1-73325 


0-60 


+ 


1- 16997 


-f 


1-36205 


+ 


1-57858 


+ 


1-82212 


0-65 


+ 


1-18614 


+ 


1-39870 


+ 


1-64072 


+ 


1-91554 


0-70 


+ 


1-20267 


+ 


1-43653 


+ 


1-70546 


+ 


201375 


0-75 


+ 


1-21956 


+ 


1-47556 


+ 


1-77289 


+ 


2-11700 


0-80 


+ 


1-23681 


_1_ 


1-51583 


+ 


1-84314 


+ 


2-22554 


0-85 


+ 


1-25444 


+ 


1-55740 


+ 


1-91633 


+ 


2-33965 


0-90 


+ 


1-27245 


+ 


1-60030 


_L 


1-99259 


+ 


2-45960 


0-95 


+ 


1-29087 


+ 


1-64459 


4- 


2-07205 


+ 


2-58571 


1-0 


+ 


1-30969 


+ 


1-69031 


+ 


2-15485 


+ 


2-71828 


1-1 




1-34861 


+ 


1-78625 


+ 


2-33105 


+ 


3-00417 


1-2 


+ 


1-38929 


+ 


1-88856 


+ 


2-52243 


4- 


3-32012 


1-3 


+ 


1-43185 


+ 


1-99770 


+ 


2-73036 


+ 


3-66930 


1-4 


+ 


1-47638 


+ 


2-11417 


+ 


2-95630 


+ 


405520 


1-5 


+ 


1-52300 


+ 


2-23850 


+ 


3-20188 


+ 


4-48169 


1-6 


+ 


1-57184 


+ 


2-37127 


+ 


3-46884 


+ 


4-95303 


1-7 


+ 


1-62298 


+ 


2-51311 


+ 


3-75912 


+ 


5-47395 


1-8 


+ 


1-67659 


+ 


2-66468 


+ 


4-07481 


+ 


6-04965 


1-9 


+ 


1-73281 


+ 


2-82672 


+ 


4-41820 


+ 


6-68589 


2-0 


+ 


1-79179 


+ 


3-00000 


+ 


4-79179 


+ 


7-38906 


2-2 


+ 


1-91868 


+ 


3-38374 


+ 


5-64079 


+ 


9-02501 


2-4 


+ 


2-05867 


+ 


3-82347 


+ 


6-64683 


+ 


11-0232 


2-6 


+ 


2-21338 


-\~ 


4-32803 


+ 


7-83982 


+ 


13-4637 


2-8 


+ 


2-38465 


+ 


4-90772 


T 


9-25546 


+ 


16-4446 


30 


+ 


2-57456 


+ 


5-57456 


_1_ 


10-9364 . 


+ 


20-0855 


3-5 


_i_ 


3-14735 


+ 


7-72103 


+ 


16-6592 


+ 


33- 1155 


4-0 


+ 


3-89983 


+ 


10-7997 


+ 


25-4991 


+ 


54-5982 


4-5 


+ 


4-89825 


_!_ 


15-2456 


+ 


39-2009 


+ 


90 0171 


50 


■+■ 


6-23583 


+ 


21-7075 


+ 


60-5046 


+ 


148-413 


5-5 


+ 


8-04449 


+ 


31-1557 


+ 


93-7227 


+ 


244-692 


6-0 


+ 


10-5119 


+ 


45-0476 


+ 


145-655 


+ 


403-429 


6-5 


+ 


13-9066 


+ 


65-5797 


+ 


227-041 


+ 


605-142 


7-0 


+ 


18-6146 


+ 


96-0729 


-r 


354-870 


+ 


1096-63 


7-5 


+ 


25-1935 


+ 


141-564 


+ 


556-059 


+ 


1808-04 


8-0 


+ 


344526 


+ 


209-716 


i 


873-316 


+ 


2980-96 



1927 



R 



242 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . 4 . x) 



X 


a = -l 


a=-2 


a=-3 


a=-4 


0-00 


+ 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


4 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


002 


+ 0-99500 


-1- 0-99002 


+ 0-98506 


4- 0-98012 


0-04 


4- 0-99000 


+ 0-98008 


4- 0-97024 


4 0-96048 


0-06 


+ 0-98500 


4- 0-97018 


- 0-95554 


+ O94107 


0-08 | 


+ 0-98000 


+ 0-96032 


+ 0-94096 


4- 0-92190 


0-10 


+ 0-97500 


+ 0-95050 


4- 0-92649 


4- 0-90297 


0-15 


+ 0-96250 


+ 0-92613 


4- 0-89085 


+ 0-85664 


0-20 


+ 0-95000 


- 0-90200 


+ 0-85593 


4- 0-81174 


0-25 


+ 0-93750 


+ 0-87813 


+ 0-82174 


+ 0-76823 


0-30 


+ 0-92500 


+ 0-85450 


+ 0-78828 


+ 0-72611 


0-35 


+ 0-91250 


+ 0-83113 


-1- 0-75552 


4- 0-68534 


0-40 


+ 0-90000 


4- 0-80800 


-i- 0-72347 


+ 0-64590 


0-45 


+ 0-88750 


+ 0-78513 


+ 0-69212 


+ 0-60776 


0-50 


+ 0-87500 


+ 0-76250 


+ 0-66146 


+ 0-57091 


0-55 


4- 0-86250 


+ 0-74013 


+ 0-63149 


4- 0-53531 


0-60 


+ 0-85000 


+ 0-71800 


+ 0-60220 


+ 0-50095 


0-65 


+ 0-83750 


-f 0-69613 


+ 0-57359 


+ 0-46781 


0-70 


+ 0-82500 


+ 0-67450 


4- 0-54564 


+ 0-43585 


0-75 


+ 0-81250 


+ 0-65313 


+ 051836 


+ 0-40506 


0-80 


+ 0-80000 


4- 0-63200 


+ 0-49173 


+ 0-37542 


0-85 


+ 0-78750 


+ 0-61113 


+ 0-46576 


4- 0-34690 


0-90 


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+ 0-59050 


+ 0-44043 


4- 0-31948 


0-95 


+ 0-76250 


+ 0-57013 


+ 0-41573 


+ 0-29314 


1-0 


+ 0-75000 


+ 0-55000 


+ 0-39167 


+ 0-26786 


11 


+ 0-72500 


+ 0-51050 


+ 0-34541 


+ 0-22080 


1-2 


+ 0-70000 


+ 0-47200 


+ 0-30160 


4- 0-17687 


1-3 


+ O67500 


+ 0-43450 


+ 0-26019 


+ 013717 


1-4 


+ 0-65000 


+ 0-39800 


4- 0-22113 


4- 0-10111 


1-5 


+ 0-62500 


+ 0-36250 


- 0-18438 


4- 0-06853 


1-6 


+ 0-60000 


+ 0-32800 


4- 0-14987 


4- 0-03927 


1-7 


+ 57500 


+ 0-29450 


+ 011756 


4- 0-01318 


1-8 


+ 0-55000 


+ 0-26200 


+ 008740 


- 000990 


1-9 


+ 0-52500 


+ 0-23050 


4- 005934 


- 003012 


2-0 


4- 0-50000 


+ 0-20000 


4- 0-03333 


- 004762 


2-2 


+ 0-45000 


4- 014200 


- 001273 


- 0-07505 


2-4 


+ 0-40000 


+ 0-08800 


- 0-05120 


- 009330 


2-6 


+ 0-35000 


+ 0-03800 


- 08247 


- 0- 10346 


2-8 


+ 0-30000 


- 0-00800 


- 010693 


- 0-10656 


3-0 


+ 0-25000 


- 0-05000 


- 0-12500 


- 0-10357 


3-5 


+ 0-12500 


- 0-13750 


- 0-14479 


- 0-07552 


4-0 


+ 000000 


- 0-20000 


- 0-13333 


. - 0-02857 


4-5 


- 0-12500 


- 0-23750 


- 0-09688 


4- 0-02567 


5-0 


- 0-25000 


- 0-25000 


- 004167 


4- 0-07738 


5-5 


- 0-37500 


- 0-23750 


+ 0-02604 


4 0-11853 


6-0 


- 0-50000 


- 0-20000 


4- 0-10000 


4- 0-14286 


6-5 


- 0-62500 


- 013750 


+ 0-17396 


+ 0-14591 


7-0 


- 0-75000 


- 0-05000 


-f 024167 


4- 0-12500 


7-5 


- 0-87500 


+ 0-06250 


+ 0-29688 


4- 0-07924 


8-0 


- 1-00000 


+ 0-20000 


+ 0-33333 


+ 0-00952 






ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



243 



M (a . 4 . x) 



X 


a=i 


«=! 


a=| 


«=3 


0-00 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


100000 


+ 


1-00000 


+ 


1-00000 


0-02 


_i_ 


100251 


+ 


1-00754 


+ 


101259 


+ 


1-01766 


0-04 


+ 


1-00503 


+ 


1-01515 


+ 


1-02535 


+ 


1-03564 


0-06 


+ 


1-00757 


+ 


1-02284 


+ 


1-03830 


+ 


1-05394 


0-08 


+ 


1-01012 


+ 


1-03061 


+ 


1-05143 


+ 


1-07258 


0-10 


+ 


1-01269 


+ 


103846 


+ 


1-06474 


+ 


1-09156 


0-15 


+ 


101918 


+ 


1-05842 


+ 


1-09886 


+ 


1- 14053 


0-20 


+ 


1-02577 


+ 


1-07890 


+ 


1-13421 


+ 


1-19176 


0-25 


+ 


1-03246 


+ 


1-09991 


+ 


1-17082 


+ 


1-24535 


0-30 


+ 


1-03926 


+ 


1-12145 


+ 


1-20876 


+ 


1-30143 


0-35 


+ 


1-04616 


+ 


1-14356 


+ 


1-24806 


+ 


1-36009 


0-40 


+ 


1-05318 


+ 


1-16625 


+ 


1-28879 


+ 


1-42147 


0-45 


+ 


1-06030 


+ 


1-18952 


+ 


1-33101 


+ 


1-48570 


0-50 


+ 


1-06753 


+ 


1-21341 


+ 


1-37475 


+ 


1-55306 


0-55 


+ 


1-07489 


+ 


1-23793 


+ 


1-42010 


+ 


1-62322 


0-60 


+ 


1-08236 


+ 


1-26310 


+ 


1-46710 


+ 


1-69681 


0-65 


+ 


1-08995 


4- 


1-28894 


+ 


1-51583 


+ 


1-77381 


0-70 


+ 


1-09767 


+ 


1-31547 


+ 


1-56635 


+ 


1-85440 


0-75 


+ 


1-10551 


+ 


1-34271 


+ 


1-61873 


+ 


1-93873 


0-80 


+ 


1-11348 


+ 


1-37068 


+ 


1-67304 


+ 


2-02700 


0-85 


+ 


1-12158 


+ 


1-39941 


+ 


1-72937 


+ 


2-11938 


0-90 


+ 


1-12982 


+ 


1-42892 


+ 


1-78778 


+ 


2-21606 


0-95 


+ 


1-13820 


+ 


1-45923 


+ 


1-84836 


+ 


2-31726 


1-0 


+ 


1-14672 


+ 


1-49037 


4- 


1-91120 


+ 


2-42318 


1-1 


+ 


1-16420 


+ 


1-55524 


+ 


2-04401 


+ 


2-65011 


1-2 


+ 


1-18228 


+ 


1-62374 


+ 


2-18696 


+ 


2-89877 


1-3 


+ 


1-20099 


+ 


1-69612 


+ 


2-34088 


+ 


3-17128 


1-4 


+ 


1-22038 


+ 


1-77262 


+ 


2-50666 


+ 


3-46996 


1-5 


+ 


1-24045 


+ 


1-85351 


+ 


2-68526 


+ 


3-79736 


1-6 


+ 


1-26126 


+ 


1-93907 


+ 


2-87772 


+ 


4-15627 


1-7 


+ 


1-28283 


+ 


2-02961 


4- 


3-08520 


+ 


4-54978 


1-8 


+ 


1-30520 


+ 


2-12546 


+ 


3-30891 


+ 


4-98126 


1-9 


+ 


1-32841 


+ 


2-22697 


+ 


3-55020 


+ 


5-45442 


2-0 


+ 


1-35251 


+ 


2-33452 


+ 


3-81052 


+ 


5-97334 


2-2 


+ 


1-40352 


+ 


2-56938 


+ 


4-39470 


+ 


7-16685 


2-4 


+ 


1-45863 


a. 

i 


2-83362 


+ 


5-07576 


+ 


8-60321 


2-6 


+ 


1-51826 


+ 


3-13139 


+ 


5-87057 


+ 


10-3325 


2-8 


+ 


1-58288 


+ 


3-46744 


+ 


6-79907 


+ 


12-4151 


30 


+ 


1-65306 


+ 


3-84727 


+ 


7-88479 


+ 


14-9240 


3-5 


+ 


1-85692 


+ 


5-03239 


+ 


11-4822 


+ 


23-6873 


4-0 


+ 


2-11124 


+ 


6-66263 


+ 


16-8440 


+ 


37-6855 


4-5 


+ 


2-43201 


+ 


8-92432 


+ 


24-8768 


+ 


60-0835 


5-0 


+ 


2-84105 


+ 


12-0875 


+ 


36-9683 


+ 


95-9765 


5-5 


+ 


3-36907 


+ 


16-5491 


+ 


55-2626 


4- 


153-612 


6-0 


+ 


4-05506 


+ 


22-8728 


+ 


83-0012 


+ 


246-127 


6-5 


+ 


4-95887 


+ 


31-9154 


+ 


125-288 


+ 


395-013 


7-0 


+ 


6-16010 


+ 


44-9201 


+ 


189-947 


+ 


634-784 


7-5 


+ 


7-77180 


+ 


63-7342 


+ 


289-135 


+ 


1021-30 


8-0 


+ 


9-95380 


+ 


91-1045 


+ 


441-744 


+ 


1644-94 



r2 



244 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



M (a . 4 . x) 



X 


a=-| 


a=-§ 


a=-| 


a= — \ 


0-00 


4- 1-00000 


4- 1-00000 


+ 1-00000 


4- 1-00000 


0-02 


4- 0-99750 


+ 0-99251 


+ 0-98754 


4- 0-98259 


004 


+ 0-99500 


+ 0-98503 


4- 0-97515 


4- 0-96535 


006 


+ 0-99248 


+ 0-97757 


+ 0-96284 


4- 0-94828 


0-08 


+ 0-98996 


4- 0-97012 


4- 0-95060 


4- 0-93139 


0-10 


4- 0-98744 


+ 0-96269 


4- 0-93843 


4- 0-91467 


015 


+ 0-98111 


+ 0-94417 


4- 0-90835 


4- 0-87361 


0-20 


+ 0-97475 


+ 0-92575 


4- 0-87873 


4- 0-83360 


0-25 


+ 0-96835 


4- 0-90743 


+ 0-84957 


4- 0-79464 


0-30 


+ 0-96192 


4- 0-88920 


+ 0-82087 


4- 0-75670 


0-35 


4- 0-95546 


+ 0-87107 


4- 0-79262 


4- 0-71977 


0-40 


+ 0-94897 


+ 0-85303 


+ 0-76483 


4- 0-68384 


0-45 


+ 0-94243 


4- 0-83510 


4- 0-73750 


4- 0-64890 


0-50 


+ 0-93587 


4- 0-81725 


4- 0-71061 


4- 0-61493 


0-55 


+ 0-92927 


4- 0-79951 


+ 0-68417 


4- 0-58192 


0-60 


+ 0-92263 


+ 0-78187 


4- 0-65818 


4- 0-54986 


0-65 


+ 0-91596 


4- 0-76432 


4 0-63264 


4- 0-51872 


0-70 


4- 0-90925 


4- 0-74687 


4- 0-60753 


4- 0-48851 


0-75 


+ 0-90250 


4- 0-72953 


4 0-58287 


+ 0-45921 


0-80 


+ 0-89571 


4- 0-71228 


4- 0-55865 


+ 0-43080 


0-85 


+ 0-88889 


+ 0-69513 


-4- 0-53486 


4- 0-40327 


0-90 


4- 0-88202 


4- 0-67809 


4- 0-51151 


4- 0-37661 


0-95 


+ 0-87512 


4- 0-66114 


4- 0-48859 


4- 0-35081 


1-0 


4- 0-86818 


4- 0-64430 


4- 0-46610 


4- 0-32585 


1-1 


4- 0-85417 


4- 0-61092 


+ 0-42240 


4- 0-27841 


1-2 


4- 0-83999 


+ 0-57796 


4- 0-38040 


4- 0-23419 


1-3 


4- 0-82564 


4- 0-54542 


4- 0-34008 


4- 0-19308 


1-4 


4- 0-81112 


4- 0-51330 


4- 0-30142 


4- 0-15500 


1-5 


+ 0-79641 


4- 0-48160 


4- 0-26440 


4 0-11984 


1-6 


4 0-78151 


4- 0-45034 


4- 0-22901 


4 0-08751 


1-7 


+ 0-76642 


4- 0-41951 


4- 0-19523 


4- 005791 


1-8 


4- 0-75113 


4- 0-38912 


4- 0-16304 


+ 0-03094 


1-9 


4- 0-73564 


4- 0-35917 


4- 0-13242 


4- 0-00650 


2-0 


4- 0-71993 


-'- 0-32968 


+ 0-10336 


- 0-01549 


2-2 


4 0-68786 


4- 0-27205 


4- 0-04983 


- 005251 


2-4 


4- 0-65485 


+ 0-21629 


4- 0-00230 


- 0-08085 


2-6 


4 0-62086 


+ 0-16243 


- 0-03938 


- 0-10125 


2-8 


4- 0-58580 


+ 0-11051 


- 0-07537 


- 0-11440 


30 


4- 0-54961 


4- 0-06060 


- 0-10582 


- 0-12099 


3-5 


4- 0-45364 


- 0-05511 


- 0-15879 


- 0-11316 


4-0 


+ 0-34859 


- 0-15712 


- 0-18077 


- 0-07862 


4-5 


4- 0-23261 


- 0-24438 


- 0-17452 


- 0-02683 


50 


4- 0- 10333 


- 0-31567 


- 0-14297 


+ 003343 


5-5 


- 0-04232 


- 0-36964 


- 0-08927 


4 009410 


6-0 


- 0-20821 


- 0-40429 


- 0-01672 


4- 0-14778 


6-5 


- 0-39952 


- 0-41781 


+ 0-07098 


+ 0-18800 


7-0 


- 0-62296 


- 0-40759 . 


4- 0-16990 


4- 0-20904 


7-5 


- 0-88743 


- 0-37052 


4- 0-27571 


4- 0-20613 


8-0 


- 1-20478 


- 0-30279 


4- 0-38363 


4- 0-17548 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 245 

The Exponential Integral, Ei ( ± x). 

— X 

f ~ u 
Several tables* of the function Ei (x)= - — du for both positive and negative 

' J m 

CO 

values of x, and of the Sine and Cosine Integrals, Si (x) = du and Ci (x) 

f co cos u 
=— I — • du, have been published. 

Dr. Glaisher's Tables give 29 values of the functions to 18 places for x= 0-00 to 
bOO, to 11 places for .r=l-0 to 5-0 by intervals of 0-1, and for integer values from 
5 to 15 ; the Sine and Cosine Integrals are also tabulated to 7 places for a number of 
integer values of x beyond this range. 

The series in descending powers of the argument, 



/, 1 ! 2' 3 ' 4' \ 

\ X X 2 X* x* 1 



is most suitable and convenient for calculating Ei (a:) for large values of x. When 
x is negative, the signs of the terms are alternately positive and negative ; in this 
case several places of decimals can be added to the result obtained by stopping the 
calculation at the least term. If x=n-\-h, the divergent part of series can be repre- 
sented by the product of the least term T and the factor cp;, of which the first five 
terms are 

s-A(H^a + t+*'Ki(K-») 



For example, when £=11, (p t = 0-488898908 . . . and the least term of the series, 
T=0-000139905948, the product, 0-000068399865, is equivalent to the divergent terms. 
The result is, in this case, improved to the extent of eight or nine places of decimals. 
If x is positive and equal to w+oc, the " converging factor " is 



For a=0, i.e. when * is a positive integer, the second least term must be multiplied 

by 

_4 4 + 8 16 
3 135w 2835n' J 8505w 3 



When x=10, Ei (10) is given to four or five significant figures when the calculation is 
restricted to the convergent terms of the asymptotic series ; by the above method 
Ei ( 10) has been computed to twenty places of decimals, giving a result in agreement 
with the value of the function in Bauschmger's Tables. 

*Bauschinger. Archiv der Math. u. Phys., 1843, pp. 28-34. 
Bretschneider. Zeit. fur Math. u. Phys., vol. 6, 1861, pp. 127-139. 
J. W. L. Glaisher. Phil. Trans., vol. 160, 1870, pp. 367-387. 
J. P. Gram. AJhandlinger der Kopenhauencr Akad. (6), vol. 2, 1884, pp. 183-308. 
Lord Rayleigh. Proc. Roy. Soc, A, vol. 90, 1914, pp. 318-323, or Collected 
Papers, vol. 0, p. 228. 



246 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



X 


Ei (x) 


-Ei (-x) 


6-0 


40-18527 536 


0-00114 82955 913 


6-1 


43-27570 764 


0- 102 13001 079 


5-2 


46-62485 051 


0- 90 86216 125 


5 3 


50-25573 031 


0- 80 86083 340 


5-4 


64-19347 580 


0- 71 98044 499 


6-5 


58-46551 425 


0- 64 09260 499 


5-6 


63-10178 598 


0- 57 08401 696 


5-7 


68-13497 924 


0- 50 85464 803 


5-8 


73-60078 735 


0- 45 31612 835 


5-9 


79-53819 015 


0- 40 39035 089 


6-0 


85-98976 214 


0- 36 00824 522 


6-1 


93-00200 999 


0- 32 10870 279 


6-2 


100-62574 194 


0- 28 63763 442 


6-3 


108-91647 253 


0- 25 54714 278 


6-4 


117-93486 570 


0- 22 79479 559 


6-5 


12774722 023 


0- 20 34298 668 


6-6 


13842600 141 


0- 18 15837 393 


6-7 


150-05042 344 


0- 16 21138 452 


6-8 


162-70708 757 


0- 14 47577 922 


6-9 


176-49068 109 


0- 12 92826 836 


7-0 


191-50474 334 


0- 11 54817 316 


71 


207-86250 497 


0- 10 31712 701 


7-2 


225-68780 770 


0- 9 21881 1690 


7-3 


245-11611 222 


0- 8 23872 4446 


7-4 


266-29560 282 


0- 7 36397 2150 


7-5 


289-38839 820 


0- 6 58308 9327 


7-6 


314-57187 850 


0- 5 88587 7207 


7-7 


342 04014 009 


0- 5 26326 1311 


7-8 


372-00559 032 


0- 4 70716 5377 


7-9 


404-70069 585 


0- 4 21039 9713 


8-0 


440-37989 954 


0- 3 76656 2284 


8-1 


479-32172 208 


0- 3 36995 1046 


8-2 


521-83106 662 


0- 3 01548 6215 


8-3 


568-24174 579 


0- 2 69864 1334 


8-4 


618-91925 296 


0- 2 41538 2105 


8-5 


674-26380 152 


0- 2 16211 2104 


8-6 


734-71365 808 


0- 1 93562 4583 


8-7 


800-74879 849 


0- 1 73305 9664 


8-8 


872-89491 793 


0- 1 55186 6315 


8-9 


951-72782 971 


0- 1 38976 8555 


9-0 


1037-87829 07 


0- 1 24473 5418 


9-1 


113203729 51 


0- 1 11495 4242 


9-2 


1234-96188 18 


0- 99880 6919 


9-3 


1347-48150 67 


0- 89484 8755 


9-4 


1470-50503 39 


0- 80178 9673 


9-5 


1605-02840 66 


0- 71847 7469 


9-6 


1752-14306 55 


0- 64388 2915 


9-7 


1913-04518 55 


0- 57708 6483 


9-8 


2089-04581 35 


0- 51726 6533 


9-9 


2281-58199 33 


0- 46368 8776 


100 


2492-22897 62 


0- 41569 6893 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



247 



X 

10-1 


Ei {x) 




Ei (-x) 


2722-71362 2 


0-00000 


37270 4173 


10-2 


2974-92911 


0- 


33418 6054 


10-3 


3250-95108 4 


0- 


29967 3477 


10-4 


3553-05537 6 


0- 


26874 6958 


10-5 


3883-73746 5 


0- 


24103 1296 


10-6 


4245-73383 7 


0- 


21619 0858 


10-7 


4642-04543 3 


0- 


19392 5368 


10-8 


5075-96339 4 


0- 


17396 6147 


10-9 


555109733 5 


0- 


15607 2762 


11-0 


6071-40637 4 


0- 


14003 0030 


11-1 


6641-23321 8 


0- 


12564 5346 


11-2 


7265-34158 5 


0- 


11274 6289 


11-3 


7948-95729 5 


0- 


10117 8495 


11-4 


8697-81340 3 


0- 


9080 3751 


11-5 


9518-19976 


0- 


8149 8288 


11-6 


1041701743 9 


0- 


7315 1262 


11-7 


11401-83851 9 


0- 


6566 3397 


11-8 


12480-97173 8 


0- 


5894 5763 


11-9 


13663-53461 7 


0- 


5291 8695 


120 


14959-53266 6 


0- 


4751 0818 


12-1 


16379-94640 


0- 


4265 8180 


12-2 


17936-82693 


0- 


3830 3473 


123 


19643-40095 


0- 


3439 5340 


12-4 


21514-18607 


0- 


3088 7750 


12-5 


23565-11759 


0- 


2773 9445 


12-6 


25813-68767 


0- 


2491 3443 


12-7 


28279-09832 


0- 


2237 6585 


12-8 


30982-42945 


0- 


2009 9146 


12-9 


33946-82354 


0- 


1805 4472 


13-0 


37197-68849 


0- 


1621 8662 


131 


40762-92065 


0- 


1457 0282 


13-2 


44673-14972 


0- 


1309 0110 


13-3 


48962-00804 


0- 


1176 0903 


13-4 


53666-42637 


0- 


1056 7197 


13-5 


58826-95908 


0- 


949 5118 


13-6 


64488-14140 


0- 


853 2220 


13-7 


70698-88214 


0- 


766 7338 


13-8 


77512-89528 


0- 


689 0452 


13-9 


84989-17431 


0- 


619 2572 


14-0 


93192-51363 


0- 


556 5631 


14-1 


102194-08162 


0- 


500 2389 


14-2 


112072 05053 


0- 


449 6349 


14-3 


122912-28891 


0- 


404 1679 


14-4 


134809-12276 


0- 


363 3143 


14-5 


147866-17221 


0- 


326 6043 


14-6 


162197-27131 


0- 


293 6160 


14-7 


177927-47920 


0- 


263 9707 


14-8 


195194-19178 


0- 


237 3284 


14-9 


214148-36378 


0- 


213 3838 


15-0 


234955-85249 


0- 


191 8628 



248 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

The Sine and Cosine Integrals, Si (x) and Ci (x). 

For large values of the argument x, the Sine and Cosine Integrals were calculated 
from the asymptotic expansions of these functions. 

HW -5-^(i-3+2-S+ ) 

2 x \ x 2 x* x J I 

_sina;/l!_3! + 5!_.7! \ 

X \X X K X r > X 1 J 

, rr/ . sina;/, 2! , 4! 6! , \ 

andCi.r= (1- + -_4- 

x \ x 2 x* x a I 

_coaa!/l!_3! Sj_7! \ 

X \ X ' X ' X r ' X 1 I 

For the series, 1— —A — \ 'A- when 2e=2»4- a, the 'converging factor' is 

X 2 x i x b 

l+j (l-2a)-JL(l_6«)--i 3 (34>20<x-a 2 -2a*) 

2 4w 8n 2 16n 3 

and for the series -— _"4-4— _" + , when 2*=2» + ot f -— , (1 4- 2a) 

* x* x' x 1 2 4m 

+ Q 3 2 (1+a)- 1 (l3+4«-7a' 2 -2a 3 ) 

8w 2 16?r 

The following tables of Si (x) and Ci (x-) from a:=5-0 to 20 - have been employed in 
tabulating derivatives of Bessel functions,* viz., 

[§v Jv(X) l=i =Ji(a:) Ci {2X) ~ J " i{x) S ' (2X) 

and [^ • Jv(^)] v= _ i =J-lW Ci (2*) + Ji(*) Si (2*). 

Schafheitlinf also gives an interesting relation between these derivatives and the 
Sine and Cosine Integrals. 

* Ansell and Fisher. " Note on the numerical evaluation of a Bessel function 
derivative." Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, vol. 24, 1926. 

t Schafheitlin. Sitzungsber. Berlin. Math. Oes., vol. 8, 1909, pp. 62-67. 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



249 



X 


Si (.T) 


Ci (.r) 


5-0 


+ 1 


•54993 


12449 


- 0-19002 97497 


51 


+ 1 


•53125 


32047 


— 0-18347 62632 


5-2 


+ 1 


•51367 


09468 


- 017525 36023 


5-3 


4- 1 


•49371 


50636 


— 0-16550 59586 


5-4 


+ 1 


■48230 


00826 


- 0-15438 59262 


5-5 


+ 1 


•46872 


40727 


- 0-14205 29475 


5-6 


+ 1 


•45666 


83847 


- 0-12867 17494 


5-7 


+ 1 


•44619 


75285 


- 0-11441 07808 


5-8 


+ 1 


•43735 


91823 


- 0-09944 06647 


5-9 


+ 1 


•43018 


43341 


- 008393 26741 


6-0 


-L ] 


•42468 


75513 


- 0-06805 72439 


61 


+ 1 


•42086 


73734 


- 0-05198 25290 


6-2 


4- 1 


•41870 


68241 


- 003587 30193 


6-3 


+ 1 


•41817 


40348 


- 0-01988 82206 


6-4 


+ 1 


■41922 


29740 


- 0-00418 14110 


6-5 


+ 1 


•42179 


42744 


+ 001110 15195 


6-6 


+ 1 


•42581 


61486 


4- 0-02582 31381 


6-7 


+ 1 


•43120 


53853 


4- 0-03985 54400 


6-8 


-4- 1 


•43786 


84161 


+ 0-05308 07167 


6-9 


t ] 


•44570 


24427 


+ 0-06539 23140 


7-0 


+ 1 


•45459 


66142 


+ 0-07669 52785 


7-1 


4- 1 


•46443 


32441 


+ 0-08690 68881 


7-2 


+ 1 


•47508 


90554 


+ 0-09595 70643 


7-3 


+ 1 


•48643 


64451 


+ 0-10378 86664 


7-4 


+ 1 


•49834 


47533 


+ 0-11035 76658 


7-5 


+ 1 


•51068 


15309 


4- 0-11563 32032 


7-6 


+ 1 


•52331 


37914 


4- 0-11959 75293 


7-7 


+ 1 


•53610 


92381 


+ 0-12224 58319 


7-8 


+ 1 


•54893 


74581 


+ 0-12358 59542 


7-9 


+ 1 


•56167 


10702 


+ 0-12363 80071 


8-0 


+ 1 


•57418 


68217 


+ 0-12243 38825 


8-1 


+ 1 


•58636 


66225 


-f 0-12001 66733 


8-2 


+ 1 


•59809 


85106 


+ 0-11644 00055 


8-3 


+ 1 


•60927 


75419 


+ 0-11176 72931 


8-4 


+ 1 


•61980 


65968 


+ 0-10607 09196 


8-5 


+ 1 


•62959 


70996 


+ 0-09943 13586 


8-6 


■I 


•63856 


96454 


+ 0-09193 62396 


8-7 


+ 1 


•64665 


45309 


4- 0-08367 93696 


8-8 


+ 1 


•65379 


21860 


+ 0-07475 97196 


8-9 


+ 1 


•65993 


35052 


4- 0-06528 03850 


9-0 


+ 1 


•66504 


00758 


+ 0-05534 75313 


9-1 


_L I 


•66908 


43056 


+ 0-04506 93325 


9-2 


+ 1 


•67204 


94480 


+ 0-03455 49134 


9-3 


+ 1 


•67392 


95283 


+ 0-02391 33045 


9-4 


+ 1 


•67472 


91725 


+ 0-01325 24187 


9-5 


+ 1 


•67446 


33423 


+ 0-00267 80588 


9-6 


+ 1 


•67315 


69801 


- 0-00770 70361 


9-7 


+ 1 


•67084 


45697 


- 0-01780 40977 


9-8 


_1_ ] 


•66756 


96169 


- 0-02751 91811 


9-9 


+ 1 


•66338 


40566 


- 0-03676 39563 


10-0 


+ 1 


•65834 


75942 


- 0-04545 64330 


101 


+ 1 


•65252 


69863 


- 005352 16129 


10-2 


+ 1 


•64599 


52699 


- 0-06089 20650 


10-3 


+ 1 


•63883 


09477 


- 006750 84193 


10-4 


+ 1 


•63111 


71372 


- 0-07331 97774 



250 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



X 


Si(x) 


Ci(x) 


10-5 


+ 1 


1-62294 06928 


- 0-07828 


40360 


10-6 


+ 3 


[•61439 13081 


- 0-08236 


81222 


10-7 


+ 3 


1-60556 06086 


- 008554 


81414 


10-8 


+ 3 


•59654 12420 


- 0-08780 


94350 


10-9 


+ 3 


1-58742 59756 


- 0-08914 


65523 


11-0 


+ 3 


1-57830 68070 


- 0-08956 


31355 


11-1 


-f 3 


■56927 40993 


- 0-08907 


17213 


11-2 


+ 3 


[-56041 57452 


- 0-08769 


34631 


11-3 


+ 3 


•55181 63692 


— 0-08545 


77762 


11-4 


+ 3 


■54355 65739 


- 0-08240 


19115 


11-5 


+ 3 


•53571 22370 


- 0-07857 


04624 


11-6 


+ 3 


•52835 38648 


- 0-07401 


48108 


11-7 


+ 3 


•52154 60065 


- 0-06879 


25181 


11-8 


+ 3 


•51534 67354 


- 0-06296 


66674 


11-9 


+ 3 


•50980 71987 


- 0-05660 


51650 


12-0 


+ 3 


•50497 12415 


- 0-04978 


00069 


12-1 


-4- ] 


•50087 51047 


- 0-04256 


65182 


12-2 


+ 3 


•49754 72009 


- 0-03504 


25738 


12-3 


+ 3 


•49500 79674 


- 0-02728 


7S062 


12-4 


+ 3 


•49326 97981 


- 0-01938 


28102 


12-5 


+ 3 


•49233 70523 


- 0-01140 


83496 


12-6 


+ 3 


•49220 61397 


- 0-00344 


45755 


12-7 


-4- 


•49286 56808 


+ 0-00442 


97378 


12-8 


4- j 


•49429 67377 


+ 0-01213 


79323 


12-9 


+ 3 


•49647 31146 


+ 0-01960 


61745 


130 


+ 3 


■49936 17229 


+ 0-02676 


41256 


131 


+ 3 


•50292 30057 


+ 0-03354 


51517 


13-2 


+ 3 


•50711 14191 


+ 0-03988 


85695 


13-3 


— ; 


•51187 59633 


+ 0-04573 


80870 


13-4 


+ 3 


1-51716 07571 


4- 0-05104 


22716 


13-5 


+ 3 


[-52290 56528 


+ 0-05575 


70387 


13-6 


+ 1 


•52904 68810 


+ 0-05984 


43271 


13-7 


+ 3 


•53551 77245 


+ 0-06327 


27908 


13-8 


+ ■ 


•54224 91979 


+ 0-06601 


80057 


13-9 


+ 3 


•54917 07698 


+ 0-06806 


26067 


14-0 


+ 3 


1-55621 10501 


+ 0-06939 


63559 


14-1 


+ 3 


1-56329 85047 


4- 0-07001 


61408 


14-2 


+ 3 


[-57036 21513 


+ 0-06992 


59037 


14-3 


+ 3 


[-57733 22411 


4- 0-06913 


65055 


14-4 


+ • 


[-58414 09199 


+ 0-00766 


55230 


14-5 


-i- ; 


[-59072 28621 


-r 0-06553 


69861 


14-6 


+ J 


[-59701 58712 


+ 0-06278 


10551 


14-7 


+ 


[-60296 14427 


+ 0-05943 


36438 


14-8 


+ 


I- 60850 52840 


+ 0-05553 


59920 


14-9 


+ • 


[-61359 77858 


+ 005113 


41927 


15-0 


+ 


[-61819 44437 


4- 0-04627 


86777 


151 


4- 


1-62225 62235 


+ 0-04102 


36693 


15-2 


+ 


[-62574 98701 


4- 0-03542 


66015 


15-3 


+ 


1-62864 81558 


4- 0-02954 


75181 


15-4 


+ 


1-63093 00674 


4- 0-02344 


84533 


15-5 


+ 


1-63258 09314 


4- 0-01719 


28004 


15-6 


+ 


[•63359 24753 


+ 001084 


46765 


15-7 


+ 


I -63396 28269 


+ 0-00446 


82867 


15-8 


+ 


1-63369 64514 


- 0-00187 


27032 


15-9 


+ 


1-63280 40282 


- 0-00811 


57823 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



251 



X 


Si (a:) 


Ci(a:) 


16-0 


+ 1-63130 22683 


- 0-01420 01901 


16-1 


+ 1-62921 36765 


- 0-02006 74889 


16-2 


+ 1-62656 62595 


- 0-02566 21059 


16-3 


+ 1-62339 31849 


- 0-03093 18413 


16-4 


+ 1-61973 23933 


- 0-03582 83375 


16-5 


+ 1-61562 61697 


- 0-04030 75052 


16-6 


+ 1-61112 06774 


- 0-04432 99037 


16-7 


+ 1-60626 54599 


- 0-04786 10702 


16-8 


+ 1-60111 29152 


- 0-05087 17985 


16-9 


+ 1-59571 77500 


- 0-05333 83622 


17-0 


+ 1-59013 64159 


- 0- 05524 26823 


17-1 


+ 1-58442 65368 


- 0-05657 24381 


17-2 


+ 1-57864 63308 


- 0-05732 11212 


17-3 


+ 1-57285 40326 


- 0-05748 80314 


17-4 


+ 1-56710 73231 


- 0-05707 82170 


17-5 


+ 1-56146 27703 


- 0-05610 23592 


17-6 


+ 1-55597 52875 


- 0-05457 66039 


17-7 


+ 1-55069 76135 


- 0-05252 23406 


17-8 


+ 1-54567 98202 


- 0-04996 59346 


17-9 


+ 1-54096 88514 


- 0-04693 84117 


18-0 


+ 1-53660 80969 


- 0-04347 51030 


18-1 


+ 1-53263 70060 


- 0-03961 52498 


18-2 


4- 1-52909 07445 


- 0-03540 15759 


18-3 


+ 1-52599 98956 


- 0-03087 98300 


18-4 


+ 1-52339 02103 


- 0-02609 83036 


18-5 


+ 1-52128 24067 


- 0-02110 73295 


18-6 


+ 1-51969 20207 


- 0-01595 87655 


18-7 


+ 1-51862 93088 


— 0-01070 54687 


18-8 


+ 1-51809 92044 


- 0-00540 07658 


18-9 


+ 1-51810 13248 


— 0-00009 79242 


19-0 


+ 1-51863 00318 


+ 0-00515 03710 


19-1 


+ 1-51967 45419 


+ 0-01029 25282 


19-2 


+ 1-52121 90863 


+ 0-01527 85452 


19-3 


+ 1-52324 31171 


+ 0-02006 04841 


19-4 


+ 1-52572 15595 


+ 0-02459 29217 


19-5 


+ 1-52862 51042 


+ 0-02883 33693 


19-6 


+ 1-53192 05393 


+ 0-03274 26615 


19-7 


+ 1-53557 11167 


+ 0-03628 53073 


19-8 


+ 1-53953 69490 


+ 0-03942 98014 


19-9 


+ 1-54377 54340 


+ 0-04214 88951 


20-0 


+ 1-54824 17010 


+ 0-04441 98208 



252 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Zeros of Bessel Functions oi small fractional order. 

The first zero, pi of Jv (x), was calculated from the relation 

2- 10 7v+19 
P* = 2 9 (v+l) 5 (v+2) 2 (v + 3)(v+4)(v+5) [ 

When v is small, approximate values of p* and p 3 are sufficient to give the value of 
p, to five places of decimals. If v = — 1+a and a is less than 0-15, then to five 
places of decimals, 

^^(i+j-^+Ar- ) 

A short table* of the zeros to four places for the range v= — J to 1 was published 
some years ago. 

* J. R. Airey. " Bessel functions of small fractional order and their application 
to problems of Elastic Stability." Phil. Mag., vol. 41, 1921, pp. 200-205. 



Zero p, of the Bessel Function, J„ (x). 



V 


Pi 


V 


Pl 


V 


Pi 


V 


Pi 


-1-00 


0-00000 


-0-50 


1-57079: 


-000 


2-40482 


+0-50 


3-14159 : 


-0-99 


0-20050 


-0-49 


1-58926 


+0-01 


2-42023 


1+0-61 


3-15576 : 


-0-98 


0-28425 


-0-48 


1-60762 


+0-02 


2-43561 


|+0-52 


3-16992 


-0-97 


0-34898: 


-0-47 


1-62587 


+0-03 


2-45095 


+0-53 


3- 18405: 


-0-96 


0-40395: 


-0-46 


1-64402 


+0-04 


2-46626 


i+0-54 


3-19817 : 


-0-95 


0-45272: 


-0-45 


1-66207: 


-1-0-05 


2-48154 


+0-55 


3-21228 


-0-94 


0-49712 


-0-44 


1-68003 : 


+ 0-06 


2-49679 


1+0-56 


3-22636 : 


-0-93 


0-53823 


-0-43 


1-69790 


-(-0-07 


2-51200 


+0-57 


3-24043 : 


-0-92 


0-57674 : 


-0-42 


1-71568 


+ 0-08 


2-52718 


+0-58 


3-25449 


-0-91 


0-61316 : 


-0-41 


1-73337 


+0-09 


2-54233 


+0-59 


3-26852 : 


-0-90 


0-64783 


-0-40 


1-75097 : 


+0-10 


2-55745 


+0-60 


3-28254 : 


-0-89 


0-68101 : 


-0-39 


1-76850 


+0-11 


2-57254 


+0-61 


3-29655 


-0-88 


0-71292 : 


-0-38 


1-78594 : 


+0-12 


2-58760 


+0-62 


3-31053 : 


-0-87 


0-74372 


-0-37 


1-80331 


+013 


2-60263 


+0-63 


3-32451 


-0-86 


0-77353': 


-0-36 


1-82060 


+0-14 


2-61763 


. +0-64 


3-33846 : 


-0-85 


0-80247': 


-0-35 


1-83781: 


+015 


2-63261 


+ 0-65 


3-35241 


-0-84 


0-83063 


-0-34 


1-85496 


+0-16 


2-64755 


: +0-66 


3-36633 : 


-0-83 


0-85808 : 


-0-33 


1-87203 : 


+0-17 


2-66247 


. +0-67 


3-38024 : 


-0-82 


0-88489 : 


-0-32 


1-88904 


+0-18 


2-67736 


: +0-68 


3-39414 : 


-0-81 


0-91112 


-0-31 


1-90598 


+0-19 


2-69223 


+ 0-69 


3-40802 : 


-0-80 


0-93680 : 


-0-30 


1-92285 : 


+0-20 


2-70707 


+ 0-70 


3-42189 


-0-79 


0-96200 


-0-29 


1-93966 : 


+0-21 


2-72188 


+ 0-71 


3-43574 : 


-0-78 


0-98673 : 


-0-28 


1-95641 : 


+0-22 


2-73667 


+ 0-72 


3-44958 


-0-77 


1-01104: 


-0-27 


1-97310 


+0-23 


2-75143 


+ 0-73 


3-46340 : 


-0-76 


1-03496 


-0-26 


1-98973 


+ 0-24 


2-76617 


+0-74 


3-47721 : 


-0-75 


1-05851 


-0-25 


200630 


+0-25 


2-78088 


: +0-75 


3-49101 


-0-74 


1-08171 


-0-24 


2-02281 : 


+ 0-26 


2-79557 


: +0-76 


3-50479 


-0-73 


1-10458: 


-0-23 


2-03927 


+ 0-27 


2-81024 


+ 0-77 


3-51855 : 


-0-72 


1-12716 


-0-22 


2-05567 : 


+0-28 


2-82488 


: +0-78 


3-53231 


-0-71 


1-14944 


-0-21 


2-07202 : 


+0-29 


2-83950 


+0-79 


3-54605 


-0-70 


1-17145 : 


-0-20 


2-08832 : 


+0-30 


2-85409 


: +0-80 
II 


3-55978 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



253 



V 


Pi 


V 


Pi 


V 


Pi 


V 


Pi 


-0-69 


1-19321 


-0-19 


2-10457 : 


+0-31 


2-86867 


i 
+0-81 


3-57349 : 


-0-68 


1-21472 


-0-18 


2-12077 


+0-32 


2-88322 


+0-82 


3-58719 : 


-0-67 


1-23600 


-0-]7 


2-13692 


+0-33 


2-89775 


+ 0-83 


3-60088 : 


-0-66 


1-25706 


-0-16 


2-15302 


+0-34 


2-91225 : 


+0-84 


3-61456 


-0-65 


1-27791 : 


-0-15 


2-16907 : 


+0-35 


2-92674 


+0-85 


3-62822 


-0-64 


1-29856 : 


-0-14 


2-18508 : 


+0-36 


2-94120 : 


+0-86 


3-64187 


-0-63 


1-31902 : 


-0-13 


2-20105 


+0-37 


2-95564 : 


+0-87 


3-65551 


-0-62 


1-33930 


-0-12 


2-21696 : 


+0-38 


2-97007 


14-0-88 


3-66913 : 


-0-61 


1-35940 : 


-0-11 


2-23284 : 


+0-39 


2-98447 


1+0-89 


3-68275 


-0-60 


1-37934 


-0-10 


2-24867 : 


+0-40 


2-99885 


+0-90 


3-69635 


-0-59 


1-39911 : 


-0-09 


2-26447 


+0-41 


3-01321 


+0-91 


3-70993 : 


-0-58 


1-41873 : 


-0-08 


2-28022 


+0-42 


3-02755 


+0-92 


3-72351 : 


-0-57 


1-43820 : 


-0-07 


2-29593 


+0-43 


3-04187 


+0-93 


3-73708 


-0-56 


1-45753 : 


-0-06 


2-31160 


+0-44 


3-05617 : 


+ 0-94 


3-75063 


-0-55 


1-47673 


-0-05 


2-32723 


+0-45 


3-07045 : 


+0-95 


3-76417 


-0-54 


1-49579 


-004 


2-34282 


+0-46 


3-08472 


+0-96 


3-77770 


-0-53 


1-51472 


1-0-03 


2-35838 


+0-47 


3-09896 : 


+0-97 


3-79122 


-0-52 


1-53353 


-0-02 


2-37389 : 


+0-48 


3-11319: 


+0-98 


3-80472 : 


-0-51 


1-55222 


-0-01 


2-38938 


+0-49 


3-12740 


+0-99 


3-81822 


-0-50 


1-57079 : 


-0-00 


2-40482 : 


+0-50 


3-14159 : 


+ 1-00 


3-83170 : 



Zeros of Ber, Bei, and other Functions. 

In series of descending powers of x, Ber x contains the factor cos 8, where 
x 1 1 25 



8= 



8x\ 2 Ifa? 384s* \ 2 



+ 



If 8=-^-.*, 



H 



2 -Z 1 + 1 W2 + i+-i 2 +- 25 - 
2 87 8x 16* 2 384.T' 1 



If a:=(l+"+X4-— +-j + , then by Lagrange's Theorem, 



x x* ar x 



*=0 + £ + l+^. + izM + 



(3 p p» p« 

If (3 = I — - — + e) TC ^2, the zeros of Ber x are given by 



P» = P + 1 a + ,Vi + ^ 



19 3 v 2 



3899 



8(3 16p a 384(3* 128(3 4 15360(3° 
For the zeros of Bei x, (3= ( n + - J tc v'2 

For Ker x, (3 = (?^=- 1 - *) TC V 2 

and for Kei x, (3= In—- )tc\2. 

The zeros of the functions Ber'a;, Bei'x-, etc., are given by 

= _3 _S\/2_ 39 27\_2_ 621 

P " Y 8y 16y 2 128y ! 128y< 5120y 5 



254 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

For Ber'z, y= ( 2n + 1 --\nV2 
Bei'x, y= ( n— Jtt v'2 



Kei'z, J=[n+~ )tt \ 2 



These formulae cannot be usefully employed in the calculation of the smallest zeros 
of these functions. In the case of Ber x, p x is found from the relation 



2,p-r H = 



1857 
2 10 6 ! - 



A similar method was adopted in calculating p! for the other functions. 



First ten zeros of 



Ber x 


Bei x 


Ker x 


Kei x 


2-84891 : 


5-02622 


1-71854 : 


3-91467 


7-23883 


9-45541 


6-12728 


8-34422 : 


11-67396: 


13-89349 


10-56294 


12-78256 


16-11356: 


18-33398 : 


15-00269 


17-22314: 


20-55463 


22-77544 


19-44381 : 


21-66464 


24-99636 : 


27-21737 : 


23-88558 


26-10660 


29-43845 


31-65958 


28-32768 : 


30-54882 


33-88075 


36-10195: 


32-76999 .- 


34-99120: 


38-32319 


40-54444 : 


37-21244 


39-43370 


42-76572 


44-98701 : 


41-65498 


43-87627 : 



First ten zeros of 



Ber'* 


Bei'a; 


Ker'z 


Kei'a; 


6-03871 


3-77320 


2-66584 


4-93181 


10-51364 : 


8-28099 


7-17212 


9-40405 : 


14-96844 : 


12-74215 


11-63218: 


13-85827 


19-41758 


1719343 


16-08312 


18-30717 : 


23-86430 : 


21-64114: 


20-53068 


22-75379 


28-30979 : 


26-08716 : 


24-97661 : 


27-19922 


32-75456 


30-53225 


29-42165 : 


31-64395 


37-19887 


34-97676 


33-86613: 


36-08823 : 


41-64286: 


39-42090 


38-31025 : 


40-53221 : 


46-08664: 


43-86478 


42-75412 


44-97598 











ON INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 255 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere.— Report of Committee (Sir 
Napier Shaw, Chairman ; Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Secretary ; Prof. S. 
Chapman, Mr. J. S. Dines, Mr. L. H. G. Dines, Mr. W. H. Dines, 
Dr. G. M. B. Dobson, Commr. L. G. Garbett, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, 
Col. E. Gold, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Dr. H. Knox Shaw, Sir J. Larmor, 
Mr. R. G. K. Lempfert, Prof. F. A. Lindemann, Dr. W. Makower, 
Mr. J. Patterson, Sir J. E. Petavel, Sir A. Schuster, Dr. G. C. 
Simpson, Sir G. T. Walker, Mr. F. J. W. Whipple, Prof. H. H. Turner). 

The Committee was originally constituted in 1901 to co-operate with the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society. It was in abeyance from 1915 until it was reconstituted in 1920. It 
presented a report at the meeting at Hull in 1922 in which the main principle for the 
operations of the Committee was ' the desirability of inviting the co-operation and 
interco-operation not only of Directors of Institutes and Observatories but also of 
Scientific Academies and Societies in the study of the upper air.' 

In its report the Committee mentioned that, at its suggestion, a resolution had 
been brought before the Meteorological Section of the British National Committee and 
passed on to the Meteorological Section of the International Union for Geodesy and 
Geophysics with suggestions as to procedure in the development of the plan. It was 
thought by the officers of the Committee that the Meteorological Section of the 
British National Committee might take over the work from the British Association ; 
but the Committee thought otherwise and in June 1923 decided that as the study of 
the upper air was only a part of meteorology the preferable course was to promote the 
co-operation of the various voluntary agencies interested therein, namely the Meteoro- 
logical Section of the National Committee, the Royal Meteorological Society and the 
British Association in a joint committee for the upper air. 

The special objects which the Committee then had in view were a pamphlet of 
instructions for observers in the use of (1) ballons-sondes at sea, and (2) pilot-balloons 
of long carry, with a view to observations at sea and in the less frequented parts of the 
world. 

At the meeting of the Meteorological Section of the Union for Geodesy and Geo- 
physics at Rome funds were allocated for the objects which the Committee had 
recommended, and with them were also joined an international investigation of dust 
in the atmosphere, the composition of the atmosphere above 20 kilometres, and the 
problem of solar radiation, all of which are closely interrelated with the more ordinary 
features of the exploration of the upper air. 

Solar and Terrestrial Radiation. 

For the last two years the Committee's attention has been directed towards solar 
and terrestrial radiation, which must always be regarded as the fundamental problem 
of meteorology and of primary importance for any effective investigation of the 
upper air. 

The Committee was glad to see a resume by one of its own members of the results 
of observations of solar radiation at 59 stations in various parts of the globe which 
formed an Annexe to the report of the meeting of the Meteorological Section of the 
U.G.G.I. at Madrid. It recognises that a summary of the present state of our know- 
ledge of the subject is much needed and has learned with satisfaction that the Meteoro- 
logical Section of the British National Committee is taking steps to secure that 
the issues of the sections of the U.G.G.I. which contain data of the kind indicated 
may be made more generally accessible for the scientific reader. The Committee is 
also informed that our knowledge of solar and terrestrial radiation is treated as the 
basis of the science of meteorology in a Manual by Sir Napier Shaw, now in course of 
publication. It awaits with interest the development of that part of the subject which 
deals with the relation of solar and terrestrial radiation in different wave lengths. 

In 1925 a grant of £38 was obtained for a self-recording radiometer and in con- 
nection therewith the co-operation of the Royal Meteorological Society was revived ; 
the subjects are now under the consideration of a joint committee of the two bodies. 
The instrument was acquired at a cost of £60, to which £17 was contributed by the 
Royal Meteorological Society and £5 by a member of the Committee. The cost of 



256 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

installation at the School of Agriculture at Cambridge was borne by Mr. C. S. Leaf 
of Trinity College. The Committee is not yet in a position to report on the behaviour 
of the instrument. 

At the meeting of the Association at Oxford in 1926 a grant of £70 was obtained 
to aid in promoting the study of the relation of solar and terrestrial radiation by 
making an apparatus designed by Mr. W. H. Dines generally available for that purpose. 
The price quoted was contingent upon finding purchasers for a number of the instru- 
ments to be made at the same time. The Committee, however, have found themselves 
unable to apply for the grant made at Oxford, and there is no immediate prospect 
of being able to utilise it in the way proposed. 

Investigations by Members of the Committee. 

The Committee is, however, of opinion that although organised co-operative work 
had so far not been found practicable, the progress made by individual members 
of the Committee was sufficiently encouraging for the endeavour to be continued. At 
the suggestion of the Committee Mr. L.H. G. Dines has refurnished the Dines meteoro- 
graph with a recording pen for humidity. The pamphlet of directions for observa- 
tions at sea is now available, for ballons-sondes by the translation of the expose 
technique of Teis3erenc de Bort and Rotch, and for pilot-balloons at sea by a special 
issue of the Air Ministry. With the assistance of the Hydrographer, Commander 
L. G. Garbett, Superintendent of Naval Meteorological Services, has secured a 
considerable extension in the use of pilot-balloons at sea, and is still engaged upon 
work with ballons-sondes. It is gratifying that H.M.S. Repulse, carrying the Prince 
of Wales, and H.M.S. .Renown, carrying the Duke and Duchess of York, are enrolled 
in the list of co-operators in the study of the upper air. 

The compilation of the observations of the upper air on the international days 
of 1923, which is now completed as a specimen volume for the International Commission 
for the Exploration of the Upper Air, is in itself a voluntary contribution of some 
importance, especially as, by instruction of the International Commission for the 
Exploration of the Upper Air, the compilation is expressed in units which bring 
meteorology into line with other geophysical sciences as part of a common system. 
The Committee has recorded its congratulations to the editors of the work on its 
completion. 

Jn the specimen volume referred to is found the first general application of the 
indicator-diagrams representing the results of observations of pressure and tem- 
perature in the upper air by a curve referred to entropy and temperature as co-ordinates 
and now known as tephigrams. They also form an important contribution to the 
subject because they add materially to the effective expression of the thermodynamics 
of the atmosphere. The Committee has watched their development through all 
its stages. The introduction of the values of geopotential into the diagrams adds 
materially to their interest. 

In other directions also there has been marked progress — the question of the 
composition of the upper air was raised by a member of the Commission some years 
ago ; upon his contribution was based a resolution of the Meteorological Section of 
the U.G.G.I to invite the possessors of cryogenic apparatus to examine the atmosphere 
from time to time to determine whether the hydrogen content was a fixed or variable 
component. The question has been raised in a new way by the discussion of the 
origin of the green auroral line and the conclusion of Prof. McLennan that a mixture 
of nitrogen and oxygen extends far beyond the limit where they were supposed to 
have been displaced by helium and hydrogen. 

Further light is also thrown upon the composition of the levels of the atmosphere 
beyond the usual meteorological limit by the work of Prof. Lindernann and Dr. 
G. M. B. Dobson on meteors and by Dr. Dobson's measurements of the amount of 
ozone. 

Among other questions in relation to the upper air (in the meteorological sense) 
which are of interest to members of the British Association, mention ought to be 
made of the transmission of sound waves to distances so great as to require the 
assistance of excessive refraction in the upper layers. Mr. Whipple was the first to 
propound the idea that this ' abnormal ' propagation of sound to great distances 
was to be explained by postulating a warm layer of air at a considerable height, 
such as was required for the Lindeman-Dobson theory of meteors, but the layer would 
have to be lower than those authors required, say at 40 instead of at 60 kilometres. 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 257 

Mr. Whipple has recently organised observations of the time of passage of air waves 
from gunfire. His initial success, in January 1926, was in timing the passage of 
audible sound from Shoeburyness to Grantham. Recently, with the assistance of 
the British Broadcasting Corporation, the times of firing a gun at Shoeburyness 
have been broadcast, and the assistance of the public in listening has been invoked. 
It appears that the occasions when sound can be heard at very great distances are 
rare and exceptional ; observations with hot wire microphones, however, have been 
very successful. At Birmingham University good results have been obtained at 
each of three trials. Correlation with meteorological data promises to prove a 
valuable line of research. 

The counting of the dust particles by the Owens dust counter, which was one 
of the original suggestions of the Committee to the British National Committee, has 
been warmly taken up in the United States and observations have been made regularly 
in Australia for the Bureau of Meteorology by Dr. E. Kidson, who has now become 
Director of the Meteorological Service of New Zealand. In Mr. Hunt's report to the 
Meteorological Section Dr. Kidson raises the question of the relation of the dust count 
in the Owens Counter with that in the Aitken Counter, a question of interest and 
importance. In the United States attention was turned to the dust counts at different 
levels of the atmosphere as observed in balloons or aeroplanes ; but the subject has 
not been pursued since the death of Mr. C. Le Roy Meisinger while engaged upon that 
inquiry. No other country has yet contributed information on that subject. 

The Interest of Universities and Science Departments of Schools. 

It is interesting to note that some of these researches owe much to the Universities. 
Dr. Dobson's work on ozone was carried out at Oxford, and his collaborators have 
been students in that University. Yeoman service has been rendered to Mr. Whipple's 
investigation of the audibility of gunfire by the Physical Departments in the Uni- 
versities of Birmingham and Bristol, and in University College, Southampton. 

The Committee is of opinion that there is still an opening for co-operation on the 
part of Universities and the Science Departments of Schools for those aspects of the 
investigation of the upper air which can be worked by the simultaneous action on 
selected occasions of moderately instructed observers over the country generally, as 
distinguished from the repetition of regular observations by the trained staff of the 
official establishments. As an example of an investigation which might be bene- 
fited by such co-operation may be cited the investigation of the structure of a 
typical cyclonic depression by a number of simultaneous soundings with registering 
balloons, supplemented by a much larger number of what may be called post card 
balloons. 

Such an investigation, however, requires the special attention of some such body 
as a Committee of the British Association to prepare a detailed programme, arrange 
for the supply of necessary apparatus and materials, issue instructions and give notice 
of the selected occasion which would naturally be so chosen as to fit in with the 
international organisation. 

If a suitable scheme could be drawn up in conjunction with the Association of 
Science Teachers the B.B.C. would probably not refuse its invaluable help in securing 
volunteers and notifying a suitable occasion. 

The Committee has considered the possibility of initiating investigations of this 
kind. 

They have in mind a project of obtaining foreshortened stereoscopic photo- 
graphs of clouds by which valuable information might be obtained as to the position 
and dynamical condition of lenticular clouds in relation to their environment. The 
idea of obtaining foreshortened photographs of clouds was used with success many 
years ago by Mr. J. Tennant, who has sought various opportunities of developing it. 
It could easily be brought into general use as a co-operative exercise. 

It is also thought that arrangement could be made without great expense for the 
supply of apparatus and material which would enable those in charge of a school 
laboratory to fill a balloon, and that schools thus equipped would be willing to co- 
operate in an inquiry into the structure of the upper air on some occasions which 
might be notified by broadcasting. Mr. L. F. Richardson has kindly given the Com- 
mittee assistance in the matter and devised an effective means of supplying apparatus 
for filling balloons at the cost of two shdlings each for the apparatus and a shilling 
for each turn. A note by Mr. Richardson is appended to this report. The Committee 
is of opinion that a co-operative investigation of that kind would afford evidence of 
the structure of the atmosphere in ' dirty weather,' which is much needed in order 

1927 S 



258 REPORT ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

to arrive at a reasoned conclusion with regard to the opposed views of the nature of a 
sy clonic depression. 

The Committee accordingly asks for reappointment with the addition of the name 
:>f Mr. L. F. Richardson, F.R.S., and for permission to retain the grant of £70 made 
iast year to defray the expenses of a co-operative investigation. 

Problem : To find the cheapest way of filling ' Post Card Balloons ' simul- 
taneously. One at each of 100 places scattered over the British Isles. 

Purity of hydrogen and accuracy of adjustment of lift have been regarded as of 
secondary importance. The following process has been found to work well. 

Apparatus. — -Balloon weighing 5*5 grams empty. Tinned-iron can of capacity 
580 cm. 8 with air-tight lid through which is soldered a brass pipe of external diameter 
09 cm., so as to project 6 cm. outside the can and 1 cm. inside. Carton cup holding 
140 cm. 3 (sold for holding preserved cream). Calcium hydride of Messrs. J. J. Griffin's 
(Kemble St., Kingsway, London, W.C. 2) cheaper quality, Is. per oz. Bucket of cold 
water. Teapot or small jug with spout. Post card. Thin cotton string. Balanoe 
weighing to 0.1 gram. 

Working Instructions. — Slip the neck of the balloon 1 cm. on to the brass pipe and 
tie in place. Weigh out 12-5 grams of hydride in lumps, rejecting powder, as it so 
rapidly spoils in damp air. Dry the canister internally and put the hydride into it. 
Lower the carton cup into place and fill it with water from the jug, taking care not 
to spill any water on hydride. Press the lid into place. Now slightly tilt the canister 
so as to spill a little water on the hydride. To prevent a high temperature float the 
canister in water in the bucket. If the balloon fills lop-sidedly it may often be made 
symmetrical by squeezing the bloated side. Continue the tilting and shaking until 
all the water is spilt and no more fizzling can be heard in the canister. The balloon 
should then be about 30 cm. in diameter, and is ready to be tied at the neck after 
the manner of a football bladder. 

Suggestions for Organisations. 

The vendors of the calcium hydride might be persuaded to supply it ready weighed 
in sealed glass tubes, each containing just enough for one balloon. The canisters and 
cartons should be got ready by a firm and distributed by the firm to the observers. 

Estimate of Cost in Pence. 

1st Ascent. d. Subsequent Ascents. 



Post card 

Balloon .... 

Hydride .... 

Canister .... 

Supplying and soldering pipe 

Carton .... 

Carriage . . . . . 12 ? 



1* 

3 [ lOid. each. 

6 
4 

6? 
2? 



r 



Total . 34| ? 

Other Methods, Rejected, and the Reasons for Rejecting them. 

1. Aluminium and NaOH in the same apparatus. Dangerous, for caustic froth 
entered balloon, and might be thrown in the operator's eyes if balloon burst. Calcium 
hydride and water is much less frothy and less caustic. 

2. Cycle lamp as generator. Difficult to get the necessary pressure because the 
water vessel leaked. 

3. Purchase of hydrogen gas compressed in cylinders. Conversation at British 
Oxygen Co.'s office indicated, without commitment, that their smallest size of cylinder 
contains 10 cubic feet of hydrogen. They have about 50 of these and would lend them 
free for a fortnight. The hydrogen would cost about 12£d. per cylinder. The charge 
for carriage is probably more and is difficult to estimate. (Cylinders are class 3 on rail.) 
For instance, King's Cross to Newcastle-on-Tyne would be 2/2 by goods each way. 
Carriage would be reduced by distributing from Glasgow, Wolverhampton and London, 
whichever was nearest. 

Objections : Carriage ; doubt as to whether enough cylinders ; rent of cylinders 
if kept too long. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



259 



Photographs of Geological Interest. — Twenty-third Report of Com- 
mittee (Profs. E. J. Garwood, Chairman, and S. H. Reynolds, 
Secretary ; Mr. G. Bingley, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. A. S. Reid, Prof. 
W. W. Watts, and Mr. R. Welch). 

In the present report 443 photographs are listed, bringing the number in the Com- 
mittee's collection to 7623. In the previous report (Oxford 1926) 611 photographs 
from the Reader series were included. In the present list there are 218 photographs 
from the Reader series ; these are mainly from the Home counties, but include 
extensive sets from the Lizard and Llangollen areas. 

The following have kindly helped with the description of the Reader photographs 
included in the present list : Mr. G. Barrow, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Prof. A. Morley 
Davies, Mr. E. H. Davison, Mr. H. Dewey, Miss M. S. Johnston, Mr. A. L. Leach, 
Mr. R. W. Pocock, Dr. L. J. Wills, Mr. W. Wright. 

The 1926 report included a valuable series of 80 photographs illustrative of the 
geology of the Isle of Wight taken by Mr. J. F. Jackson, and presented by Miss 
C. Morey and her late brother, Mr. F. Morey. Miss Morey kindly gives a further 
series of twenty-two of Mr. Jackson's Isle of Wight photographs. Mr. Jackson 
further contributes sets from Dorset and Devon ; his photographs have a special 
value from the fullness of detail of the accompanying descriptions. 

Important sets of photographs have been received from the following new contri- 
butors : Mr. J. Challinor, Mr. G. Macdonald Davies, Mr. J. Ranson, Dr. W. G. 
Shannon, and Mr. H. W. Turner. Mr. Davies' photographs, which illustrate no less 
than fourteen counties, are a particularly well-chosen and well-printed series. Dr. 
Shannon sends a beautiful series of enlargements illustrative of the geology of Torquay. 
The Welsh series is much strengthened by Mr. Challinor's set from Cardigan and the 
late Mr. T. W. Reader's from Denbigh. 

Among former contributors the Committee have to thank Mr. E. S. Cobbold, 
Mr. G. G. Lewis and Mr. J. W. Tutcher. Mr. Lewis' varied and well-chosen series 
includes examples from ten counties. 

Mr. T. Sheppard sends two enlargements illustrating coast erosion at Withernsea, 
and Mr. Harold Preston one of Salcombe Cliff. 

Certain photographs by Sir A. Strahan and Mr. A. S. Reid taken many years 
ago have been added to the collection. 

The photographs published by the Committee as prints or lantern slides are 
obtainable from the Secretary at the following rates : — 

1st issue— 22 Bromide Prints, with letterpr 

,, 22 „ „ „ 

„ 22 Lantern Slides „ „ 

2nd issue — 25 Bromide Prints ,, „ 

„ 2o „ „ „ 

„ 25 Lantern Slides „ „ 

3rd issue — 23 Bromide Prints .'„ ,, 

9> "& », ,, J, 

„ 23 Lantern Slides ,, „ 

The Reader negatives being the property of the Committee, prints (J-plate) may 
be obtained through the Secretary at id. each, lantern slides at Is. It is hoped 
before the publication of the next report to publish a fourth series of geological 
photographs. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed. 

TWENTY-THIRD LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

From June 1, 1926, to June 30, 1927. 

List of the geological photographs received and registered by the Secretary of 
the Committee since the publication of the last report. 

Contributors are asked to affix the registered numbers, as given below, to their 
negatives, for convenience of future reference. Their own numbers are added in 

S2 





£ s. 


d. 


unmounted. . 


. 1 13 





mounted on cards . . 


. 2 4 





. • 


. 2 4 





unmounted 


. 1 18 





mounted on cards . . 


. 2 10 





• • . . . . 


. 2 10 





unmounted. . 


. 1 14 


(i 


mounted on cards . . 


. 2 6 





• . 


. 2 6 






260 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. - 

order to enable them to do so. Copies of photographs desired can, in most instances, 
be obtained from the photographer direct. The cost at which copies may be obtained 
depends on the size of the print and on local circumstances over which the Committee 
have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any photograph included in this 
list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications for permission to reproduce 
them, should be addressed to the photographers direct. 
Copies of photographs should be sent, unmounted, to 

Professor S. H. Reynolds, 

The University, Bristol, 
accompanied by descriptions written on a form prepared for the purpose, copies 
of which may be obtained from him. 

The size of the photographs is indicated, as follows : — 

L=Lantern size. l/l = Whole plate. 

1/4= Quarter-plate. 10/8 = 10 inches by 8. 

l/2=Half-plate. 12/10=12 inches by 10, &c. 

P.C.=post card. E signifies Enlargement. 

ACCESSIONS. 

England. 

Berkshire. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

7181 (A) Bracknell Brick Works . . Fossiliferous nodule from London Clay. 

1911. 

7182 (B) Bracknell Brick Works . . Fossiliferous nodule from London Clay. 

1911. 

7183 (C) Bracknell Brick Works . . Septarian nodules from London Clay. 

1911. 

7184 (D) Bracknell Brick Works . Septarian nodules in London Clay. 1911. 

7185 (E) Bracknell Brick Works . . Upper part of the London Clay. 1911. 

Buckinghamshire. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale 

Road, South Croydon. 1/4. 

7186 (13-25) Warren Farm, Stewkley . Purbeck Marl on Portland Stone on 

Portland Sand. 1913. 

7187 (13-26) Hedges' Brickfield, Stewk- Kimmeridge Clay crumpled by ice- 

ley pressure. 1913. 

7188 (26-43) Hartwell, 2 m. S.W. of Large ammonites and concretions from 

Aylesbury Portlands built into wall. 1926. 

Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, London, W. 12. 1/4. 

7189 (4) Combe Hill, Wendover . . Chiltern escarpment, characteristic) Chalk 

hill curve. 

Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 



7190 (1) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7191 (2) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7192 (3) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7193 (4) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7194 (5) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7195 (6) Cowcroft, near Chesham 



Thrust plane at junction of Chalk and 

Reading beds. 1915. 
Thrust plane at junction of Chalk and 

Reading beds. 1915. 
Green-coated flint bed at thrust junction 

of Chalk and Reading beds. 
Reading pebble drift lying horizontally 

on inclined Reading beds. 1915. 
Faulted Reading sand overlain by 

Reading pebble drift. 1915. 
Drift on Reading beds showing erosion 

by torrential rain. 1915. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



261 



7196 (7) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7197 (8) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7198 (9) Cowcroft, near Chesham 

7199 Walter's Ash .... 

7200 Walter's Ash .... 

7201 Walter's Ash . . . . 

7202 Walter's Ash . 

7203 Hartwell, 2 m. S.W. of Aylesbury 



Erosion hollows in Reading beds filled 

with pebble drift. 1915. 
Erosion effect on Reading Sands of a 

storm. 1915. 
Erosion effects on Reading Sands of a 

storm. 1915. 
Blocks of Sarsen for repair of Windsor 

Castle. 1919. 
Sarsen workings. 1919. 
Sarsens in situ. 1919. 
Sarsens in situ. 1919. 
Large ammonites and concretions from 

Portlands built into wall. 



Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, Bristol. P.C. 

7204 (1-24-3) Calvert Brick Works, Method of working Oxford Clay pit. 

Charndon 1926. 

Cornwall. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/1. 

7205 (8-8) W. of St. Ives . . . ' Greenstone ' resisting wave action. 



7206 (8-11) Land's End 



1908. 



' Castellated ' weathering of granite due 
to vertical jointing. 1908. 

7207 (12-25) Marble Cliff, Porthmissen, Alternating limestone and slate (Up. 

2 m. W. of Padstow Devonian). 1912. 

Photographed by E. H. Davison, B.Sc, School of Mines, Camborne. 3x2. 

7208 Pendour Cove, Gurnard's Head, Granite veins cutting greenstone boulder. 

Penzance 1926. 

7209 Cullis' Qu., Ponsanooth . . Vein of pegmatite in granite with selvage 

of aplite. 1926. 

7210 Fistral Bay, Newquay . . Raised Beach with vertical cylindrical 

pipes. 

Photographed by F. Engleheart and presented by E. H. Davison, B.Sc, 
School of Mines, Camborne. P.C. 

7211 Cullis' Qu., Ponsanooth . . Pegmatite vein with aplite margin. 
Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, London, 

w. 12. iyi. 



7212 (17) Fistral Bay, near Newquay . 

7213 (20) Pentire Head . . ' . 

7214 (21) Perranporth 

7215 (22) Bedruthan Steps, N. of New- 

quay 

7216 (23) Holywell . . . . 



Raised beach. 

Differential erosion of vertical Devonians. 

Stages in the production of stacks and 

inlets. 
Dependence of form of sea stacks on dip. 

Sand dunes with marram grass. 



Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by F. \Y. Reader. 1/1. 



7217 (90) Baulk Head, Lizard . 

7218 (91, A) Baulk Head, Lizard 

7219 (87) Gunwalloe, Lizard 

7220 (98) Gunwalloe . 

7221 Mullion . 

7222 Kynance . 

7223 Kynance . 



Manaccan Series (L. Devonian). 1913. 
Manaccan Series (L. Devonian). 1913. 
Folded Manaccan beds. 1913. 
Contorted Veryan sandstone. 1913. 
Cliffs of hornblende schist. 1913. 
Formation of arches by marine erosion 

along joints in serpentine. 1913. 
Serpentine coast. 1913. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



262 

7224 Kynance ..... 

7225 (69) Man of War rocks from Lizard 

lighthouse 

7226 (69, A) Man of War rocks from 

Lizard lighthouse 

7227 E. of Lizard Point 

7228 E. of Lizard Point 

7229 (75) Polpeor, Lizard . 

7230 (74) Polpeor, Lizard . 

7231 Housel Bay, Lizard . 

7232 (67) Cadgwith, Lizard 

7233 (66a) Cadgwith, Lizard, the Devil's 

Frying Pan 

7234 (53) Kennack, Lizard 

7235 (54) Kennack, Lizard 

7236 (55) Kennack, Lizard 

7237 (59) Kennack, Lizard 

7238 (62) Kennack, Lizard 

7239 (36a) Spernic Cove, Lizard 

7240 (33) Carrick Luz, Lizard 

7241 (35) Carrick Luz, Lizard 

7242 (36) Carrick Luz, Lizard 

7243 (28) Chynhall's Point, Coverack . 

7244 (29) Chynhall's Point, Coverack . 

7245 (29a) Chynhall's Point, Coverack 

7246 (30) Chynhall's Point, Coverack . 

7247 (31) Chynhall's Point, Coverack . 

7248 (32) Chynhall's Point, Coverack . 

7249 (32a) Chynhall's Point, Coverack 

7250 (14) Coverack 

7251 (9) Coverack 

7252 (13) Coverack 

7253 (15) Coverack 

7254 (15a) Coverack 

7255 (16) Coverack 

7256 (19) Crousa Down, Coverack 

7257 (20) Crousa Down, Coverack 

7258 (21) Crousa Down, Coverack 

7259 (21a) Crousa Down, Coverack 

7260 (23) Crousa Down, Coverack 

7261 (5) Lowland Point, near Coverack 

7262 (41) Lowland Point, Coverack 

7263 (24) St. Keverne, Lizard . 

7264 (44a) Nare Head 

7265 (38) S.W. of Nare Point 

7266 (45) Dennis Head, S. of Helford 

river 

7267 (80) Kynance .... 

7268 (70) Lizard . 



Serpentine coast. 1913. 

Rocks are formed of Man of War gneiss. 

1913. 
Rocks are formed of Man of War gneiss. 

1913. 
Cliffs of hornblende gneiss. 1913. 
Cliffs of hornblende gneiss. 1913. 
Cove due to erosion along dyke. 1913. 
Contorted hornblende schist. 1913. 
Marine erosion of hornblende schists. 1913. 
Quarry in hornblende schist. 1913. 
Hollow probably produced by collapse of 

roof of cave eroded mainly in serpentine. 

1913. 
Kennack gneiss intrusive in serpentine. 

1913. 
Plexus of Kennack gneiss veins. 1913. 
Bastite serpentine. 1913. 
Block of Kennack gneiss. 1913. 
Brecciated steatitic serpentine. 1913. 
Serpentine coast. 1913. 
Intrusive gabbro mass. 1913. 
Gabbro showing flow foliation. 1913. 
Gabbro showing flow foliation. 1913. 
Serpentine coast. 1913. 
The sea as an eroding agent. 1913. 
The sea as an eroding agent. 1913. 
Fissure weathering of serpentine. 1913. 
Prismatic weathering of serpentine. 1913. 
Prismatic weathering of serpentine. 1913. 
Prismatic weathering of serpentine. 1913. 
Weathered serpentine. 1913. 
Gabbro pegmatite. 1913. 
Gabbro cutting bastite serpentine. 1913. 
Basic dykes cutting serpentine. 1913. 
Basic dykes cutting serpentine. 1913. 
Weathered surface of bastite serpentine. 

1913. 
Residual blocks of gabbro. 1913. 
Residual blocks of gabbro. 1913. 
Pliocene gravel. 1913. 
Pliocene gravel. 1913. 
Pliocene gravel. 1913. 
Broad terrace at foot of cliff is raised 

beach. 1913. 
Raised beach platform from N. 1913. 
Weathering of gabbro producing core- 
boulders or ' niggerheads.' 1913. 
Devonian shales with plant remains 

1913. 
Head resting on Devonian. 1913. 
Portscatho series (Ordovician). 1913. 

Brecciated steatitic serpentine. 1913. 
Pebble of steatitic serpentine. 1913. 






Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

7269 (1-9-3) Little Trevisco, near St. China pit showing sluicing process. 1922. 

Stephens 

7270 (1-18-3) Pen Voose, Lizard . . Kennack Gneiss. 1924. 

7271 (1-18-2) Chynhall's Point, near Gabbro dyke cutting serpentine. 1924. 

Coverack 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS_OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 263 

Cumberland. — Photographed by G. M. Da vies, M.Sc, 104 AvondaU Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7272 (10-9) Roadside, N. of Rosthwaite, Moraine resting on glaciated rock surface. 

Borrowdale 1910. 

Photographed by B. Smith, M.A., Sc.D., H.M. Geological Survey, 28 Jermyn 

Street, London, S.W. 1. 1/4. 

7273 Corney Hall, near Bootle . . Dry valley, a marginal glacial drainage 

channel. 1910. 

7274 Kinmont dry valley, near Bootle . Drainage channel marginal to Irish Sea 

ice. 1910. 

7275 Kinmont Beck valley, E. of Low Preglacial valley in Eskdale granite. 1910, 

Kinmont, near Bootle 

7276 Near Bank, near Bootle . . Glacial ' in and out ' valley. 1910. 

Derbyshire. — Photographed by G. G. Lewis, FAlerslie Road School, 

London, W. 12. 1/4. 

7277 (6) Doveholes, near Tissington . Wide-mouthed cave in Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1925. 

Photographed by R. O., Chellaston, Derby, and presented by B. Smith, 
M.A., Sc.D., H.M. Geological Survey, 28 Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1. 1/2. 

7278 Chellaston alabaster quarry . Pillar of gj psum. 

Devonshire. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Arondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7279 (24-10) Pinhay Bay, looking W. . Lias section with White Lias at base. 

1924. 

7280 (22-1) Path to Samson's Cave, Worm burrows (' fucoids ') in Lester 

Combe Martin series. 1922. 

7281 (22-19) Wild Pear Beach, Combe Overfolded Hangman grits. 1922. 

Martin 

Photographed by J. F. Jackson, F.G.S., 2 St. Thomas's Square, Newport, 

I.W. 1/4. 

7282 (1) Between Pinhay and Charton Landslip. 1927. 

Bays, Seat on 

7283 (2) Between Pinhay and Charton Outflow of water from springs rising in 

Bays, Seaton the landslip. 1927. 

7284 (3) Humble Point, Charton Bay, Surface of nodular Middle Chalk. 1927. 

E. of Seaton 

7285 (4) Humble Point, Charton Bay, Base of Middle Chalk with phosphate 

E. of Seaton nodules on Cenomanian. 1927. 

7286 (5) Humble Point, Charton Bay, Planed off and bored surface of Upper 

Seaton Greensand. 1927. 

7287 (6) Charton Bay, E. of Seaton . Up. Cretaceous unconformable on L. 

Lias and Rhaetic. 1927. 

Photographed by H. Preston, Milton House, Sidmouth. 1/1. 

7288 Salcombe Cliffs, Sidmouth . . Erosion of red Trias Marl. 1926. 

Photographed by W. G. Shannon, D.Sc, Beverley Lodge, Torquay. 1/1. 

7289 Meadfoot, Torquay . . . Shows position of Meadfoot and Daddy 

Hole— Thatcher thrust plane. 1922. 



264 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

7290 Kilmorie Hill, Torquay 



7291 Shannell Cove, Torquay 

7292 Black Head, Torquay 

7293 Hope's Nose, Torquay 

7294 Hope's Nose, Torquay 

7295 Anstey's Cove, Torquay 



Infolded Meadfoot grit and thrust plane. 

1922. 
Folding and inversion of Meadfoot beds. 

1922. 
Dolerite on Up. Devonian thrust over 

schalstein. 1922. 
Raised beach on folded Devonians. 1922. 
Overfolding and thrusting of Devonian 

limestone. 1922. 
Relations of dolerite and Devonians. 

1922. 






Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

7296 (1-1-2) Redgate beach, Torquay . Slickensided fault face, Mid-Devonian. 

1921. 

7297 (1-2-2) Hope's Nose, Torquay . Raised beach on Mid-Devonian Lst. 

1921. 

7298 (1-3-2) Saltern Cove, Paignton . Crush breccia in Devonian Lst. 1921. 

7299 (1-4-1) Hunter's Tor, near Lust- Weathering of granite. 1921. 

leigh 

7300 (1-4-2) Packsaddle Bridge, Lust- Elvan dyke in Culm. 1921. 

leigh 

7301 (1-1-4) West Town, Ide, near Interbedded Permian sandstone and 

Exeter lava. 1921. 

Dorset. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7302 (23-2) Tilly Whim, Swanage . Old workings in Portland Stone. 1923. 

7303 (13-5) Arishmell, near Lulworth, Incipient caves in highly inclined Up. 



7304 

7305 

7306 
7307 



7308 



looking E. 
(23-8) Arishmell and Worberrow 

Bay 
(23-10) Fossil Forest, Lulworth . 

(13-1) Portland . 

(13-2) Portland, N.E. of light- 
house 
(12-8) Bridport, W. cliff 



7309 (12-5) Burton Bradstock 



Chalk. 1913. 
Marine erosion in soft Wealdens after 

breaching of Portland barrier. 
Tufa masses round tree stumps in L. 

Purbeck. 1923. 
A stone quarry. 1913. 
Raised beach overlain by angular rubble. 

1913. 
Fuller's Earth faulted against Bridport 

Sand. 1912. 
Lane section showing Bridport Sand 

passing up into Inferior Oolite. 1912. 






Photographed by J. F. Jackson, F.G. 

I.W. 

7310 (7) Watton Cliff, Bridport . 

7311 (8) Burton Bradstock cliff . 

7312 (9) Burton Bradstock cliff . 

7313 (10) Burton Bradstock cliff . 

7314 (11) Burton Bradstock cliff. 

7315 (12) Burton Bradstock cliff, W. 

end 

7316 (13) Cliffs W. of Watton Cliff, 

Bridport 

7317 (14) The 'Western cliffs' from 

Watton Cliff, Bridport 

7318 (15) The 'Western cliffs' from 

Watton Cliff, Bridport 



S., 2 St. Thomas's Square, Neivport, 
1/4. 

Forest Marble on Fuller's Earth. 1927. 

Inferior Oolite sequence. 1927. 

Inferior Oolite : ' Red Bed ' with ' Snuff- 
box bed ' at base. 1927. 

Weathered surface of ' Snuff-box bed ' 
(Inferior Oolite). 1927. 

' Snuff-box bed ' (Inferior Oolite) in 
section. 1927. 

Bridport Sands. 1927. 

Middle and Upper Lias. 1925, 

Bathonian in foreground faulted against 
Lias of distant cliffs. 1927. 

Succession Middle Lias to Bridport 
Sands. 1927. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 265 

7319 (16) Shore below Thorncombe Lias cliffs, doggers on shore. 1927. 

Beacon, Bridport 

7320 (17) Thorncombe Beacon, Bridport Lias section showing 'Junction bed.' 

1927. 

7321 (18) E. end Thorncombe Beacon, Lias section with 'Junction bed.' 1925. 

Bridport 

7322 (19) Thorncombe Beacon, Brid- ' Junction bed.' 1925. 

port 

7323 (20) Down Cliff, E. of Seatown . Bedding plane with spinalum -zone fossils. 

1927. 

7324 (21) Doghus Cliff, E. of Seatown, Non-sequence in ' Junction-bed.' 1927. 

nr. Bridport 

7325 (22) Thorncombe Beacon, Bridport Non-sequence in ' Junction-bed.' 1925. 

7326 (23) Thorncombe Beacon, Bridport Non-sequence in ' Junction-bed.' 1927. 

7327 (24) Thorncombe Beacon, Bridport Non-sequence in ' Junction-bed.' 1927. 

7328 (25) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. Position of ' Junction-bed.' 1925. 

Bridport 

7329 (26) Watton Cliff, Eypeniouth, nr. Cliff before excavation. 1925. 

Bridport 

7330 (27) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. Cliff after excavation. 1925. 

Bridport 

7331 (28) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. Bathonian faulted against Lias ; fallen 

Bridport blocks of ' Junction-bed.' 1925. 

7332 (29) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. ' Junction-bed ' in situ. 1927. 

Bridport 

7333 (30) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. Blocks of ' Junction-bed ' on shore. 

Bridport 1927. 

7334 (31) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. Full sequence of ' Junction-bed.' 1925. 

Bridport 
7336 (32) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. ' Junction-bed ' in situ. 1925. 
Bridport 

7336 (33) Watton Cliff, E3'pemouth, nr. ' Junction-bed ' showing weathering of 

Bridport lithographic limestone. 1925. 

7337 (34) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. ' Junction-bed ' showing thinning out of 

Bridport layers. 1925. 

7338 (35) Watton Cliff, Eypemouth, nr. ' Junction-bed ' (Watton Bed) in situ. 

Bridport 1925. 

7339 (36) Doghus Cliff, E. of Seatown . Dogger from Middle Lias. 1927. 

7340 (37) Down Cliff, E. of Seatown . Doggers from Middle Lias. 1927. 

Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, London, W. 12. 1/4. 

7341 Portland Bill .... Undercutting by the sea. 

7342 (15) Swanage .... Marine erosion along horizontal bedding 

plane. 

Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, Bristol. P.O. 

7343 (1-21-3) Bacon Hole, Lulworth and Top of Portland and Lower Purbeck in 

Mewp Rocks Mewp rocks, and Up. Purbeck in cliff. 

1925. 

7344 (1-6-3) Waddon, near Portisham . Chert in Portlands. 1922. 

7345 (1-7-1) Sandsfoot Castle, Wev- Blocks of fucoid bed, Sandsfoot grits. 

mouth 1922. 

7346 (1-5-3) Foreshore below White Block of Chloritic Marl with Holasters. 

Nothe 

Essex. — Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, London, 

W. 12. 1/4. 

7347 (19) Dovercourt . . . Submerged Forest. 

7348 (18) Dovercourt . . . Submerged Forest. 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Gloucestershire. — Photographed by G. G. Leavis, Ellerslie Road School, 

London, W. 12. 1/4. 

7349 (10) Bisley, near Stroud . . Passage from solid rock, through subsoil 

to surface soil. 

7350 (9) Robinswood Hill, Gloucester . Outlier of Lias capped by base of Oolite. 

7351 (8) Cleeve Cloud, Cheltenham . Cotteswold escarpment. 

Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, Bristol, 1/4. 

7352 ( 1-20-3) Portwav, Clifton, near foot Dolomite and shale (C 2 ). 1924. 

of Gully 

7353 (1-20-2) Portwav, Clifton (near Concretionary lower surface (Dj). 1924. 

New Zigzag) 

7354 (1-11-2) Portway, between Sea Dolomitic Conglomerate unconformable 

Mills and Shirehampton on O.R.S. 1923. 

7355 (1-5-2) Portway, about J m. E. of Hard sandstone band in Keuper Marl. 

Shirehampton station 1921. 

Photographed by J. W. Tutcher, M.Sc, 57 Berkeley Road, Bishopston, 

Bristol. 1/1. 

7356 Hanham Green, near Hanhani Angulata and Bucklandi beds (L. Lias). 

Abbot 1902. 

Hampshire (Isle of Wight). — Photographed by J. F. Jackson, F.G.S., 
2 St. Thomas's Square, Newport, I.W., and presented by Miss C. Morey. 1/4. 

7357 (193) 8.W. face of Headon Hill . Succession Barton beds to Bembridge 

Limestone. 1926. 

7358 (194) Headon Hill from Alum Bay Barton Sands and Oligocene beds. 1926. 

Pier 

7359 (195) Alum Bay cliffs from the pier Vertical Bagshot and Bracklesham beds. 

1926. 

7360 (196) By pier, Alum Bay . . Marine erosion. 1926. 

7361 (197) By pier, Alum Bay . . Marine erosion. 1926. 

7362 (198) Alum Bay. . . . ' Mud glacier.' 1926. 

7363 (199) Mouth of Shepherd's Chine, Chine formation in Wealden shales. 

Atherfield 1926. 

7364 (200) Cowleaze Chine, Atherfield . Coast erosion and stream diversion. 1926. 

7365 (201) Near Cliff Terrace, Blackgang Wind and rain erosion of Ferruginous 

Sands. 1926. 

7366 (202) Near Cliff Terrace, Blackgang Undercutting by wind-erosion of hard 

sandstone band. 1926. 

7367 (203) Top of Atherfield, High Cliff Wind eroded platform and sand dunes. 

1926. 

7368 (204) Chale Bay from Atherfield Lower Greensand sequence. 1926. 

Point 

7369 (205) Bouldnor Cliff, Hamstead . Upper Hamstead beds. 1926. 

7370 (206) Bouldnor Cliff, Hamstead . Details, Upper Hamstead beds. 1926. 

7371 (207) Bouldnor Cliff, Hamstead . Block from shell-band in Upper Ham- 

stead. 1926. 

7372 (208) Bouldnor Cliff, Hamstead . Part of the great ' mud-glacier.' 1926. 

7373 (209) The Needles, from the sea . Sea-stacks in highly inclined mucronata 

Chalk. 1926. 

7374 (210) Brook Bay and Hanover Cliffs of Wealden marls and site of ' Pine 

Point raft,' 1927. 

7375 (211) Compton Bay . . . Rain channels in soft Ferruginous Sands. 

1927. 

7376 (212) Compton Bay . . . Sequence of strata Wealden to Lower 

Chalk. 1927. 

7377 (213) Compton Bay . . . Junction Upper Greensand and Chloritic 

Marl. 1927. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 
7378 (214) Conipton Bay . 



267 



. Nodule bed at base of Chloritic Marl. 
1927. 

7379 (215) Between Brook Chine and Hazel-nut gravels on Wealden marls. 

Hanover Point 1927. 

Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

7380 High Down and the Needles . Shows the dependence of the shape of 

the Needles on the dip. 

7381 Alum Bay and High Down with Southward decrease in angle of dip. 

the Needles 



Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

7382 (1-10-4) Cowleaze Chine 

7383 (1-10-2) Cowleaze Chine 



Eroded in horizontally lying Wealden 
sandstone and shale. 1923. 

Waterfall at head of Chine showing under- 
cutting of sandstone band in Wealden 
shale. 1923. 



Herefordshire. — Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, 

London, W. 12. 1/4. 

7384 (14) Malvern Hills from British Looking N. to Worcestershire Beacon. 
Camp 



Hertfordshire.- 

7385 (1) Ayot . 

7386 (2) Ayot . 



7387 (3) Ayot . 

7388 (4) Ayot . 

7389 (6) Ayot . 

7390 (7) Letchworth . 

7391 (8) Letchworth . 

7392 (9) Near Letchworth station 

7393 (10) Arlesey 

7394 (11) Arlesey 

7395 (12) Arlesey 



-Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented 
by F. W. Reader, 1/4. 

Pocket of glacial gravel driven into 

disturbed Eocene clay. 1910. 
Reading sands bending down to occupy 

cavity in Chalk. 1910. 
Reading sands. 1910. 
Current bedded Reading sands. 1910. 
Westleton shingle. 1910. 
Gravels piping into Chalk. 1910. 
Gravels capping Chalk. 1910. 
Glacial gravels. 1910. 
. Section of Chalk Marl. 1910. 
. Section of Chalk Marl. 1910. 
. Tottemhoe Stone with over and under- 
lying strata. 1910. 



Kent. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by F. W. 

Reader. 1/4. 



7396 


(1) Rock Pit, Elmstead 


. Blackheath beds. 1914. 


7397 


(2) Rock Pit, Elmstead 


. Blackheath beds. 1914. 


7398 


(3) Rock Pit, Elmstead 


. Blackheath beds. 1914. 


7399 


(4) Rock Pit, Elmstead 


. Blackheath beds. 1914. 


7400 


Norris' Pit, near Erith 


Brickearth on Thanet Sands on Chalk 

1912. 
. Brickearth on Thanet Sands on Chalk 

1912. 
. Cliff of London Clay. 1910. 


7401 


Norris' Pit, near Erith 


7402 


(1) Land's End, Sheppey 


7403 


(2)Sheppey 


Erosion of London Clay cliff. 1910. 


7404 


(3) Sheppey 


. Downwash from London Clay cliff. 1910 


7405 


(4) Land's End, Sheppey . 


. Septaria from London Clay. 1910. 


7406 


(5) Sheppey 


. Sandy top beds of London Clay. 1910 


7407 


(6) Leysdown, Sheppey 


. Shell-beach and low cliff of alluvium 
1910. 



268 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



7408 (7) Leysdown, Sheppey 

7409 (8) Leysdown, Sheppey 

7410 (9) Leysdown, Sheppey 

7411 (1) Peters' Quarries, Wouldham . 

7412 (2) Peters' Quarries, Wouldham . 

7413 (5) Peters' Quarries, Wouldham . 

7414 (6) Tingey's Pit, Wouldham 

7415 (7) Borstal Manor Pit 

7416 (8) Margott's Pit, Burham . 

7417 (9) Blue Bell Hill, Burham . 

7418 (10) Blue Bell Hill, Burham 

7419 (11) Blue Bell Hill, Burham, top 

pit 

7420 (12 a.b.c.) Blue Bell Hill, Burham 

7421 (13) Burham . 

7422 (14) Burham 

7423 (15) Burham . 

7424 Peill's Pit, Bromley South 

7425 Peill's Pit, Bromley South 

7426 Peill's Pit, Bromley South 

7427 Peill's Pit, Bromley South 

7428 Peill's Pit, Bromley South 

7429 Charlton . 

7430 Charlton . 

7431 Charlton . 

7432 Charlton . 

7433 Charlton . 

7434 Howe Hill Pit, Greenhithe 

7435 Howe Hill Pit, Greenhithe 

7436 (1) Bamfield Pit, Swanscombe 

7437 (2) Bamfield Pit, Swanscombe 

7438 (3) Bamfield Pit, Swanscombe 

7439 (4) Bamfield Pit, Swanscombe 

7440 (5) Bamfield Pit, Swanscombe 

7441 (6) Bamfield Pit, Swanscombe 

7442 (7) Baker's Hole, Southfleet 



Outlying patches of alluvium surrounded 

by shell-beach. 1910. 
Shell-beach. 1910. 
Shell-beach (detail). 1910. 
Chalk — chiefly B. cuvieri and H. sub- 



globosus beds. 
Chalk— chiefly B. 

globosus beds. 
Chalk— chiefly B. 

globosus beds. 
Middle Chalk— T. 



cuvieri and H. sub- 
cuvieri and H. sub- 

lata and B. cuvieri 

zones. 
Chalk — upper § M. cor-testudinarium 

zone lower ^ H. planus zone. 
Chalk — mainly H . subglobosus beds. 
Chalk — E. cuvieri and H. subglobosus 

beds. 
Chalk — S. varians zone. 
Chalk — mostly H. planus zone. 

Chalk — H . planus to H. subglobosus beds. 
Chalk — top pit in T. lata and B. cuvieri, 

lower in H. subglobosus beds. 
Chalk — top pit in T. lata and B. cuvieri, 

lower in H. sublogbosus beds. 
Chalk — old pit in S. varians beds. 
Blaekheath pebble beds. 1914. 
Blackheath pebble beds. 1914. 
Blaekheath pebble beds. 1914. 
London Clay. 1914. 
London Clay on Woolwich and Oldhaven 

beds. 1914. 
Blackheath beds on Woolwich beds on 

Thanet Sands on Chalk. 1913. 
Blackheath beds on Woolwich beds on 

Thanet Sands. 1913. 
Blackheath beds on Woolwich beds on 

Thanet Sands. 1913. 
Blackheath pebble bed on Woolwich 

beds on Thanet Sand on Chalk. 1913. 
Thanet Sands. 1913. 
High terrace gravel and loam. 1919. 
High terrace gravel and loam. 1919. 
Middle gravel overlying lower loam of 

the 100-ft. Thames terrace. 1913. 
Chalk pit, overlying strata removed. 

1913. 
Gravels of the 100-ft. Thames terrace 

overlying Chalk. 1913. 
Solution hollows in Chalk filled with 

Pleistocene deposits. 1913. 
Warped Pleistocene deposits in solution 

hollows in Chalk. 1913. 
Gravels of 100-ft. Thames terrace resting 

on Thanet Sand. 1913. 
Coombe deposits. 1913. 



Photographed by E. R. Martin, 114 Southlands Road, Bromley. 4^X3|. 
7443 Elmstead, near Chiselhurst . . Blackheath beds. 1920. 



Photographed by A. S. Reid, M.A., Greenbum, Balfron, Stirlingshire. 

7444 (B.38) Elham Vallev . . . Infilling of Lenham beds in Chalk. 

7445 (B.42) Elham Valley . . . Infilling of Lenham beds in Chalk. 



1/4. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 269 

7446 (B.44) Elham Valley . . . Infilling of Lenhain beds in Chalk. 

7447 (B.45) Elham Valley . . . Infilling of Lenham beds in Chalk. 

Lancashire. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7448 (26-16) Quarry 1 m. S. of Huncoat Accrington mudstone (Coal Measures). 

Station 1926. 

7449 (26-15) Worsaw Knoll, 2 m. N.E. Knoll in Salt Hill Series (S.). 1926. 

of Clitheroe 

7450 (26-14) Black Hill, near Whalley . Current bedding in L. Coal Measures. 

1926. 

7451 (26-13) Harper Clough Qu., near Bedding plane in 3rd grit with Stigmaria 

Rishton impressions. 1926. 

Photographed by J. Ranson, 174 Willows Lane, Accrington. 

7452 (1) Worsaw Knoll, 2 m. N.E. of Knoll in Salt Hill Series (S.). 

Clitheroe 

7453 (2) Whalley banks, near Whalley. Millstones in Lower Millstone Grit. 

7454 (3) Whalley banks, near Whalley . Millstones in Lower Millstone Grit. 

7455 (4) Close Brow Qu., Rishton, near Terminal curvature in Millstone Grit 

Blackburn attributed to N.W. ice-sheet. 

7456 (5) Wiswell Qu., near Whalley . Terminal curvature in Millstone Grit 

accentuated by ' creep.' 

7457 (6) River Calder, near Whalley . Block of glacial conglomerate. 

7458 (7) Close Brow Qu., Rishton, near Haslingden flags. 

Blackburn 

7459 (8) Close Brow Qu., Rishton, near Ripple-marked Haslingden flags. 

Blackburn 

7460 (9) Close Brow Qu., Rishton, near Pitting probably due to worm-borings in 

Blackburn Haslingden flags. 

Middlesex. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7461 (9-1) Harefield, The Great Pit . London Clay on Reading beds on Chalk 

(31. cor-anguinum zone). 1909. 

7462 (9-2) Harefield, The Great Pit . Reading beds on bored surface of Chalk. 

1909. 

Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

. Flints rounded by 24 hours' grinding in 

mill. 1913. 
. London Clay on Upper Reading mottled 

clay. 1913. 
. Reading beds on Chalk. 1913. 
. Current bedded sands at base of Reading 

beds overlain by Reading Clay. 1913. 
. Current bedded sands at base of Reading 

beds. 1913. 
. London Clay. 1913. 
. Woolwich and Reading beds. 1913. 

Norfolk. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7470 (19-27) Beeston Cliff, E. of Sher- Cliff chiefly of Contorted drift, Weybourn 

ingham Crag at base. 1919. 

7471 (26-28) Hunstanton, the cliff . General view of White Chalk, Red Chalk, 

and Carstone. 1926. 

7472 (26-29) Foreshore, Hunstanton . Erosion of Carstone along joints. 1926. 



7463 


(1) Harefield . 


7464 


(2) Harefield . 


7465 
7466 


(3) Harefield . 

(4) Harefield . 


7467 


(5) Harefield . 


7468 
7469 


(6) Harefield . 

(7) Harefield 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

7473 (26-32) Hunstanton, the cliff . White Chalk on Red Chalk on Carstone- 

1926. 

7474 (26-36) Hunstanton, N.E. end of White Chalk on Red Chalk on Carstone. 

cliff 1926. 

7475 (26-33) Ringstead Downs, 1-2 m. Glacial overflow-channel in the Chalk. 

S.E. of Hunstanton 1926. 

Photographed by Sir A. Strahan, Fairfield, Goring, Reading. 1/4. 

7476 Sheringham .... Cliffs of Contorted Drift. 

7477 Trimingham .... Chalk mass in Contorted Drift. 

7478 Trimingham .... Chalk mass in Contorted Drift. 

Northumberland. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale 

Road, South Croydon. 1/4. 

7479 (24-22) Beadnell Point . . Pot-holed bedding plane of Bernician 

Limestone. 1924. 

Shropshire. — Photographed by E. S. Cobbold, All Stretton, Church 
Stretton. 1/4 and 1/2. 

7480 Caer Caradoc, E. side looking S.W. Rhyolite crag. 1/4. 

7481 Caer Caradoc, E. side looking N.E. Rhyolite crag ; the Wrekin in the dis- 

tance. 1/4. 

7482 Caer Caradoc .... Brecciated rhyolite or rhyolite tuff. 

1905. 1/2. 

7483 Caractacus' Cave, Caer Caradoc . Cave eroded along flow-planes of amygda- 

loidal rhyolite. 1905. 1/2. 

Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by"F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

7484 (B) Harley Hill, near Much Wen- Wenlock Limestone, well-bedded, with 

lock clay partings. 

7485 (C) Harley Hill, near Much Wen- Wenlock Limestone. 

lock 

7486 (D) Blakeway Hollow Lane Qu., Jointing in Wenlock Limestone. 

near Much Wenlock 

7487 (E) Blakeway Hollow Lane Qu., Weathering of well-bedded Wenlock 

near Much Wenlock Limestone. 

7488 (F) Blakeway Hollow Lane Qu., Weathering of well-bedded Wenlock 

near Much Wenlock Limestone. 

7489 (G) Blakeway Hollow Lane Qu., Weathering of well-bedded Wenlock 

near Much Wenlock Limestone. 

Somerset. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

7490 Woolston, near Williton . . Upper sandstone on Bunter conglomerate. 

1914. 



7491 Woolston, near Williton 

7492 Woolston, near Williton 

7493 Woolston, near Williton 

7494 Woolston, near Williton 



Trias section — Upper sandstone on con- 
glomerate. 1914. 

Upper sandstone on Bunter conglomerate. 
1914. 

Bunter conglomerate. 1914. 

Bunter conglomerate breaking away 
along joint-planes. 1914. 

Suffolk. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7495 (13-18) Sudbury, pit near the Glacial sand, on Crag, on Thanet Sand, 

cemetery on Upper Chalk. 1913. 

7496 (13-17) Sudbury, sand pit at Alex- Red Crag covered by Glacial gravel. 

andra Brick Works 1913. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



271 



Surrey. — Photographed by G. M. Davie.s, M.Sc, 104 Avondak Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 



7497 (13-13) Tyler's Green, Godstone . 

7498 (13-23) Limpsfield Chart 

7499 (13-31) Welch's Pit, Claygate 

7500 (15-1) Copyhold Farm, E. of Red- 

hill 

7501 (15-29) Kennel Wood, Shirley, near 

Croydon 

7502 (15-31) Kennel Wood, ShirJey, near 

Croydon 



Pit in Folkestone Sand. 1913. 

Cherty Hythe beds. 1913. 

Folded sand and clay (Claygate beds). 

1913. 
Aptian-Fullers' Earth overlain by sand 

and sandstone. 1915. 
Blackheath beds, current bedded sands 

and pebbles. 1915. 
Blackheath beds, sands and pebbles. 

1915. 



Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, London, W. 12. 1/1. 

7503 (12) Bos Hill from Ranmoor Chalk escarpment. 

Common 

Photographed by the late T. W. Eeader 

7504 Chilworth .... 

7505 Chilworth .... 

7506 Chilworth .... 

7507 Hayes Common 

7508 Hayes Common 

7509 Near Hayes Station . 



7510 
7511 
7512 
7513 
7514 
7515 
7516 
7517 

7518 

7519 

7520 
7521 
7522 

7523 
7524 

7525 

7526 
7527 
7528 
7529 
7530 

7531 
7532 
7533 
7534 
7535 



1) Albury, near Shere 

2) Albury, near Shere 

3) Newlands Corner, near Shere 

4) Newlands Corner, near Shere 

5) Newlands Corner, near Shere 
7) Newlands Corner, near Shere 

6) Albury, near Shere 

a) N. of Chobham Place, Chobham 
Common 

b) Rifle Range, Portnall Park, 
Chobham 

1) Brook Street Pit, Hindhead . 

2) Hindhead .... 

3) Hindhead .... 

4) Devil's Punch Bowl, Hindhead 

5) Hindhead .... 

6) Brook Street Pit, Hindhead . 

1) Fairmile Park, Oxshott . 

2) Fairmile Park, Oxshott . 

3) Fairmile Park, Oxshott . 

4) Fairmile Park, Oxshott . 

5) Claygate .... 

6) Claygate .... 

7) Claygate .... 

8) Claygate, Sim's Brickyard 

9) Claygate, Sim's Brickyard 

1) Beddington Brick Works 

2) Beddington Brick Works 



and presented by F. W. Reader. 1/1. 
Roadside section of Folkestone Sands. 

1911. 
Roadside section of Folkestone Sands. 

1911. 
Ironstone veins hi Folkestone Sands. 

1911. 
Blackheath pebble beds. 1916. 
Blackheath pebble beds. 1916. 
Gravel pit filled from bourne which 

appeared after interval of 33 years. 

1916. 
Current bedded Folkestone Sand. 1916. 
Current bedded Folkestone Sand. 1916. 
Clay-with-flints. 1916. 
Clay-with-flints. 1916. 
Clay-with-flints. 1916. 
Clay-with-flints. 1916. 
Chalky Drift with pipes. 1916. 
Up. Bagshot Sands, capped by Plateau 

gravel. 1916. 
L. Bagshot Sands. 1916. 

Passage loams between Ferruginous 

Sands and Atherfield Clay. 1914. 
L. Greensand escarpment. 1914. 
View over the Weald. 1914. 
Hollow perhaps due to cutting back by a 

powerful spring. 1914. 
Atherfield Clay. 1914. 
Lower Ferruginous Sand, on passage 

loam, on Atherfield Clay. 1914. 
Ironstone concretion in Bracklesham 

beds. 1912. 
Bracklesham beds. 1912. 
Bracklesham beds. 1912. 
Lower Bracklesham beds. 1912. 
Claygate beds on London Clay. 1912. 
Folds due to slipping of beds down dip 

slope of syncline. 1912. 
Folds in Claygate beds. 1912. 
Bagshot Sands on Claygate beds. 1912. 
Claygate beds on London Clay. 1912. 
Thanet Sand. 1913. 
Thanet Sand. 1913. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



272 

7536 (3) Beddington Brick Works 

7537 (4) Beddington Brick Works 

7538 (1) Gomshall . 

7539 (2) Gomshall . 

7540 (3) Gomshall . 

7541 (4) Gomshall . 

7542 (5) Gomshall . 

7543 (6) Gomshall . 



Thanet Sand. 1913. 

Thanet Sand. 1913. 

Folkestone beds, ironstained and with 
thin ironstone bands. 

Current bedded Folkestone beds. 

Current bedded Folkstone beds. 

Concretion of ferruginous sand in Folk- 
stone beds. 

Concretion of ferruginous sand in Folk- 
stone beds. 

Chalk escarpment of N. Downs. 



Worcestershire. — Photographed by G. G. Lewis, EUerslie Road School, 

London, W. 12. 1/4. 
7544 (13) E. end of Malvern Tunnel . Faulted Keuper marl. 1925. 



Yorkshire. - 

7545 Penyghent 



-Photographed by C. M. Bradley. 1/4. 
. From Crag Hill, Horton. 



Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 

Croydon. 1/4 

7546 (26-11) Penyghent from above 

Horton-in-Ribblesdale 

7547 (26-19) Near Cracoe . 

7548 (26-18) Near top of Skelterton 

Knoll, Cracoe 



104 Avondale Road, South 



Scarps due to grit bands. 1926. 



Reef-knolls. 1926. 
Diphyphyllum in situ. 



1926. 



Photographed by G. G. Lewis, EUerslie Road School, London, W. 12. 

7549 (16) N. of Filey . . . . Capes and bays. 

7550 (3) Filey Brig .... Differential marine erosion. 



1/4. 



Photographed by J. Hanson, 

7551 (1) Crummack Dale . 

7552 (2) Crummack Dale . 

7553 (3) Norber, near Clapham 

7554 (4) Norber, near Clapham 



7555 (5) Malham Cove 

7556 (6) Malham Cove 

7557 (7) Malham Cove 

7558 (8) Moughton Scar 

7559 (9) Foxley Bank, 

Clitheroe 



174 Willows Lane, Accrington. 
Syncline in Austwick grits, S. limb. 
Syncline in Austwick grits, N. limb. 
Carboniferous Limestone erratic. 
Basement conglomerate of Carboni- 
ferous. 
Rock-fall of winter of 1925. 1926. 
Rock-fall of winter of 1925. 1926. 
Rock-fall of winter of 1925. 1926. 
Grikes in Carboniferous Limestone (D x ). 
3 m. N. of Contorted Carboniferous Limestone. 



Photographed by E. Straker, ' Eastern Morning News,' Hull, under the 
direction of T. Sheppard, M.Sc. 1/1. 

7560 Waxholme, near Withernsea . Effect of coast erosion. 1926. 

7561 Waxholme, near Withernsea . Effect of coast erosion, nearer view. 1926. 

Wales. 

Brecon. — Photographed by G. G. Lewis, EUerslie Road School, London, 

W. 12. 1/4. 

7562 (5) Clydach Valley, Brynmawr . Stream cutting back gorge. 

7563 (7) Under Blorenge, S. of Aber- Mud bog in Cwm. 

gavenny 

Cardigan. — Photographed by J. Challinor, University College, 
Aberystwyth. 1/2 E. 

7564 (1) Clarach Bay, Aberystwyth, Drift on folded Aberystwyth grits. 1921. 

looking S. 



7565 

7566 

7567 

7568 
7569 
7570 

7571 

7572 
7573 

7574 

7575 

7576 

7577 

7578 
7579 
7580 
7581 

7582 

7583 

7584 

7585 

7586 
7587 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST 

2) Cormorant Rock, Aberystwyth 



27,'J 

stack of 



SI) ore platform and sea 
Aberystwyth grits. 192(1. 
A hanging fall. 1922. 

Pot-holes. 1922. 

Storm beach. 1922. 

Submerged forest. 1923. 

Pebble beach of doubtful origin running 

out to sea. 1922. 
Sharp folding giving effect of uncon- 
formity. 1924. 
Denudation along a ' smash plane.' 1926. 
Coincidence of cliff face with bedding 

plane. 1922. 
Shore platform with curved strike, dip 

faults and miniature escarpments. 1922. 
Marine pot-hole formed at base of cliff 

by wave action. 1925. 
Fault plane and marine erosion along iU 

1925. 
Erosion of cliff along bedding plane. 

1922. 
Pitching anticline. 1925. 
Pitching anticline. 1925. 
Pitching anticline. 1925. 
Reversed fault and cave formed along it. 

1925. 
Cubical blocks resulting from erosion 

along bedding and joint planes. 1922. 
Contorted strata hi plan. 1923. 

Erosion of boulder clay cliffs. 1926. 

Erosion of cliffs of boulder clay showing 

banding. 1926. 
Boulder clay pillars. 1926. 
Stacks and cliffs showing bedding and 

jointing. 1926. 

Carnarvon.— Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7588 (20-10) Porthdinllaen, near Morfa Precambrian spilite 

Nevin 

7589 (16-5) Porthdinllaen, near Morfa 

Nevin 

7590 (16-7) Forth Wen, near Morfa 

Nevin 



3) Nant-y-golomen ddu Rheidol 
valley 

4) Rheidol gorge, \ m. S. of Pont 
Erwyd 

5) 1£ m. N. of Borth 

6) 1 m. N. of Borth . 

7) Sam Cymfelyn, Wallog . 

8) N. of Clarach Bay, Aberyst- 
wyth 

9) S. of Clarach Ba}', Aberystwyth 

10) S. of Clarach Bay, Aberyst- 
wyth 

11) S. of Clarach Bay, Aberyst- 
wyth 

12) S. of Clarach Bay, Aberyst- 
wyth 

13) Shore about £ m. N. of 
Aberystwyth 

14) S. of Clarach Bay, Aberyst- 
wyth 

15) Shore J m. N. of Aberystwyth 

16) Shore i m. N. of Aberystwyth 

17) Shore | m. N. of Aberystwyth 

18) Shore N. of Aberystwyth 

19) Shore about 
Aberystwyth 

20) Shore about 
Aberystwyth 

21) Shore about 
Aberystwyth 

22) Shore about 
Aberystwyth 

23) N. of Aberarth . 

24) About £ m. E. of Careg Lydan 



H 


m. 


S. 


of 


2 


m. 


S. 


of 


4 


m. 


s. 


of 


4 


m. 


s. 


of 



Precambrian spilite. 



1920. 
1910. 



Cylindrical concretions of sandy-ironstone 
in Pleistocene-sand. 1916. 



Denbigh. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 



7591 (8 and 9) Vale of Llangollen. 

7592 (10) Castell Dinas Bran (left) and 

Eglwyseg rocks (right), Llan- 
gollen 

7593 ( 14) Dee Valley from Castell Dinas 

Bran, near Llangollen 

7594 (15) Eglwyseg Rocks, Llangollen . 

7595 (16) Eglwyseg Rocks, Llangollen. 

7596 (18) Garth Trevor, near Llangollen 

1927 



Drift-covered Vale and Carb. Limestone 

fault-scarp. 1919. 
The Aqueduct fault passes between the 

two hills. 1919. 

Present and earlier course of the Dee. 

1919. 

Silurian country in foreground, Carb. 

Limestone fault-scarp on right. 1919. 

Fault-scarp of Carb. Limestone. 1919. 

Grit of Cefn-y-fedw sandstone series 

worked for Gannister. 1919. 



274 
7597 

7598 

7599 

7600 

7601 

7602 

7603 

7604 

7605 

7606 

7607 

7608 

7609 

7610 

7611 

7612 

7613 

7614 

7615 

7616 
7617 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC 
(19) Garth Trevor, near Llangollen 



(20) Trevor Rocks, Garth, Llan- 
gollen 

(21) Trevor Rocks, Garth, Llan- 
gollen 

(22) Trevor Rocks, Garth, Llan- 
gollen 

(24) Australia Pit, Trevor . 

(25) Australia Pit, Trevor . 

(26) Australia Pit, Trevor . 

(27) Near Whitehurst Halt and 
Pen-y-Bont 

(28) Pen-y-Bont, terra-cotta brick 
works 

(31) Horseshoe Pass, Llangollen . 

(33) Horseshoe Pass, Llangollen . 

(34) Horseshoe Pass, Llangollen . 

(36) Llangollen, Clogau Slate Qu., 
near Pentre-dwfr. 

(37) Llangollen, Clogau Slate Qu., 
near Pentre-dwfr. 

(38) Llangollen, Clogau Slate Qu., 
near Pentre-dwfr. 

(39) Llangollen, Clogau Slate Qu., 
near Pentre-dwfr. 

(40) Llangollen, Clogau Slate Qu., 
near Pentre-dwfr. 

(46) Pandy, near Glyn Ceiriog 

(47) Glyn Ceiriog 

(49) Near Berwyn station . 

(44) Near Cefn Uchaf, Glyn Ceiriog 



Massive grit near top of sandy 1st. series 
(Carb. Lst.). 

Carb. Lst. ; false-bedded sandy oolite 
underlying massive bed. 1919. 

Carb. Lst. ; false-bedded sandy oolite 
underlying massive bed. 1919. 

Qu. in sandy limestone of Carb. Lst. 
series. 1919. 

Lowest Coal Measures quarried for fire- 
clay and Gannister. 1919. 

Lowest Coal Measures quarried for fire- 
clay and Gannister. 1919. 

Aqueduct Grit, Cefn-y-fedw sandstone. 
1919. 

Dee Valley where river enters post- 
glacial gorge. 1919. 

Etruria or Ruabon marls (Up. Coal 
Measures) capped on left by Glacial 
Drift. 1919. 

Old workings in Pentre-dwfr slates on 
right. 1919. 

Quarries in Pentre-dwfr slates in fore- 
ground. 1919. 

Carb. Lst. escarpment in distance, 
Silurian hills midway. 1919. 

Highly cleaved and inclined L. Ludlow 
slates. 1919. 

Highly cleaved and inclined L. Ludlow 
slates. 1919. 

Highly inclined and cleaved L. Ludlow 
slates. 1919. 

Bedding and jointing in slates. 1919. 

Slates breaking up along bedding planes 
under influence of weathering. 1919. 

Cleaved coarse Pandy ash (Caradocian). 
1919. 

Old Qu. in Pen-y-glog slates (base of 
Wenlock). 1919. 

Highly inclined L. Ludlow beds. 1919. 

Qu. in L. Ludlow shale. 1919. 



Merioneth. — Photographed by G. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, 

South Croydon. 1/4. 

7618 (15-16) Aberdovey, looking W. The ' Roman Road.' 1915. 

down the Dyfi estuary 

7619 (15-15) Aberdovey, looking E. up The ' Roman Road.' 1915. 

the Dyfi estuary 

Photographed by G. G. Lewis, Ellerslie Road School, London, W. 12. 1/4. 

7620 (11) Mawddach Estuary . . Bar or spit across river mouth. 

Channel Isles. 
Alderney. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader, and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

7621 The Casquets, W. of Alderney . These rocks are composed of grits. 1921. 

7622 The Casquets, W. of Alderney . These rocks are composed of grits. 1921. 

Guernsey. — Photographed by H. W. Turner, M.A., The University, 

Bristol P.C. 

7623 (1-8-4) Grand Camp (N. shore of Acid veins in diorite. 1922. 

island) 



ON PALEOZOIC ROCKS. 275 



Palaeozoic Rocks. — Report of Committee (Prof. W. W. Watts, 
Choir man; Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, Secretary; Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. 
Gertrude Elles, Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Prof. V. C. Illing, Prof. 0. T. Jones, Prof. J. E. Marr, Dr. T. F. 
Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman) appointed to excavate 
Critical Sections in the Palceozoic Rocks of England and Wales. 

During the year 1926-7, the work of this Committee has been carried forward in three 
districts — Leintwardine, Herefordshire ; Ravenstonedale, Westmorland ; and the 
Church Stretton area, Shropshire. 

At Leintwardine during the winter, Prof. Hawkins cleared and excavated, inch 
by inch, a column of strata three feet square and twelve feet deep at the classic 
' Starfish Bed Quarry ' on Church Hill. The first results of this work have been 
presented in a paper by Prof. Hawkins, to be published by the Geological Society of 
London. The owner of the property (Mr. C. Boughton Knight) has taken great 
interest in the research, and there are no charges to be defrayed by the Committee. 
Prof. Hawkins hopes to proceed further at a later date. 

At Ravenstonedale, Prof. Garwood and other members of the Committee attempted, 
at Whitsuntide, 1927, to open up the section below the conglomerate exposed in 
Pinskey Gill. A trench was cut in the right bank of the stream west of the road 
bridge, and excavated until it became water-logged some three feet below water- 
level. Red and variegated shales of Carboniferous type were discovered in or under 
the conglomerate, but the mam result was the proving of the conglomerate exposure 
as a buried cbff on the western side of a drift filled ravine which does not exactly 
coincide with the existing stream-course of Pinskey Gill. It is now clear that the 
exact stratigraphical relationships of the red conglomerate with its rhyolite and other 
igneous rock pebbles, to the Spirifer-bea,rmg dolomites and shales and the Silurian 
slates below, cannot, at Pinskey Gill, be proved except by boring. The expenses 
incurred in making the excavation have been mainly defrayed by members attending 
Prof. Garwood's Whitsuntide excursion. 

Mr. E. S. Cobbold writes as follows on his excavations among the Cambrian and 
associated strata in the Cwms Hollow, east of Caradoc, Church Stretton, his seventh 
report on his series of excavations : — 

Seventh Report on Excavations among the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, Shropshire. 

By E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S. 

On p. 118 of the Report of the Committee to the Manchester Meeting (1915) a 
short note is given of a few small trial holes in ' the Lower Ridge of the Cwms.' At 
the reading of a paper by the present writer on the stratigraphy of the Coudey 
Cambrian, it seemed desirable that the junction of the Cambrian quartzite with the 
pre-Cambrian should bo exposed if the permission of the present owner of the land, 
Mr. W. Jarrett, of the Cwms Farm, could be obtained. This he gave very willingly, 
and the writer wishes to acknowledge with cordial thanks his indebtedness to 
Mr, Jarrett. 

Excavation No. 56. The Lower Ridge in the Cwms. 

It will be seen by the section (page 276) that a trench, some 63 feet in length and 
6 feet in maximum depth, was made transverse to the strike of the quartzite. It 
exposed 14 feet of incoherent red sandstone (Torridonian), 25 feet of beds assigned 
to the Wrekin quartzite and 24 feet of the base of the Lower Coniley sandstones. 

The strike of the Lower Cambrian beds is 20° west of north, that of the Torridonian, 
wliich had to be obtained in a subsidiary excavation, was found to be 20° north of 
east, and the two formations are separated by a 6-inch layer or vein of yellowish clay 
that appears to mark a fault hading at a steep angle northwards. 

T 2 



276 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Description of the Section. Length of 

trench occupied. 
h. Rubbly beds of greenish grey sandstone, with clayey partings and 

occasional narrow quartzitic bands . . . . . .13 feet 

g. Glauconitic, coarse-grained quartzite, with a few red grains of 

felsitic material and becoming at the base almost a rotten-stone . 4 feet 
/. Sandstones and shaly beds, with one narrow band of quartzite . 7 feet 
e. Compact, grey quartzite ........ 8 feet 

d. Compact, dark grey quartzite, in several beds . . . .10 feet 

c. Blocks of the same bed but broken into angular fragments, and with 

a few referable to higher beds ...... 7 feet 

b. A layer or vein of yellow clay (the fault) ..... — 

a. Red, incoherent sandstone ....... 14 feet 

Remarks : — The gradual change from quartzite to sandstone is paralleled in 
excavations 4' and 53. ' 2 

The bed g has almost exactly the characters of bed 62 of the latter and portions 
of a z of the former. 

Section of Tkench in the Cwms, Comley. 

±o Ted' 










Wrekin Quartzite. 

STRIKE 



L^ Comley Sandstone. 



The red incoherent sandstone is strictly comparable with some of the beds of the 
Torridonian(?) seen in the brook 300 yards W.S.W. of the excavation, and the strike 
is the same at the two exposures. It seems obvious that though the Cambrian in 
this section is faulted against the Torridonian( ? ), the two formations are uncon- 
formable one to another, but the absolute base of the Cambrian has not yet been 
found. 



Dolgarrog Dam Disaster. — Report of Committee (Dr. E. Greenly, 
Chairman ; Mr. E. Mont ag, Secretary ; Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, 
Mr. I. S. Double, Prof. W. G. Fearnsides) appointed to obtain 
Photographic Records of the Geological Effects of the ' Debacle ' which 
resulted from the recent bursting of a dam at Dolgarrog, North Wales. 

The Dolgarrog disaster, as a result of which part of the small village of Porth-llwyd 
was destroyed, occurred during the evening of November 2, 1925. Situated on the 
western side of the Conway Valley some 6£ miles south of Conway, the village lies at 
the mouth of the gorge of the Afon Porth-llwyd, one of the small streams draining 
from the ridge of Carnedd Llewelyn, Foel Fras, and other mountains. The western 
side of the Conway Valley is hereabouts a steep rock -wall nearly 1,000 feet in height, 
and above it a mature drift-covered upland rises gently for three or four miles to the 
mountains, at the foot of which lies Llyri Eigiau at 1,219 feet above O.D. The 
existence of this lake is determined by a morainic bar which does not lie athwart the 
valley, but is aligned parallel to the ridge, i.e. north and south. The Afon Porth- 
llwyd entered and also left the original lake near its southern end. The lake receives 
the greater part of its water from Cwm Eigiau, the principal eastern cwm of Carnedd 

1 Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1908, Dublin, p. 238 (1909) ; and 1915, Manchester, p. 121 (1916). 

2 Idem 1915, Manchester, p. 118 (1916). 



ON DOLGARROG DAM DISASTER. 



277 



Llewelyn, which lies to the south, but since the Clogwyn-r-Eryr ridge has been 
pierced by a tunnel, the surplus waters of the Afon Dulyn have been added from the 
north. 

The River Course. 

Though the area and level of Llyn Eigiau had, before the disaster, been materially 
altered by the erection of a dam on the morainic ridge, and the stream-course had 
been modified by subsidiary dams and leats, yet certain well-marked topographic 
stages can still be distinguished. 

Stage I. Llyn Eigiau to Pwll-du. — After leaving the lake, the natural level of which 
is 1,219 feet above O.D., the Afon Porth-llwyd meanders over a Drift-covered area 
for two miles down to the farm of Pwll-du, 1,150 feet above O.D. At this point 
rejuvenation of the stream begins, and a leat has been constructed to carry the water 
round a spur of Moel Eilio to Dolgarrog. 

Stage II. Pwll-du to the Low-level Dam. — From Pwll-du the valley deepens and 
cliffs in Boulder Clay appear. Half a mile farther downstream, at 850 feet above 
O.D., the Low-level Dam, 40 feet in height, was constructed to hold up sufficient 
water for one day's supply for the pipe-line to Dolgarrog which begins here. 

Stage III. The Low-level Dam to the lip of the Rhaiadr Porth-llwyd. — For the next 
three-quarters of a mile of its course the river falls some 200 feet to the 650 feet 
contour. But above that, at a height of 750 feet above O.D., the solid rock appears 
in the river bed, and from this point the river flows through a rocky gorge with 
undercut cliffs of Boulder Clay resting on the rock-shelves. 

Stage IV. The Rhaiadr Porth-llwyd. — At the 650 feet level the gradient steepens 
so suddenly that this part of the stream-course may well be termed a lip. In less 
than a quarter of a mile the stream falls over bare rock from 650 feet above O.D. to 
a sloping ledge 350 feet above O.D. From where solid rock first appears (at 750 feet 
above O.D.) to this point, the stream-bed lies in what is apparently an auto- 
brecciated basic lava or intrusion. The sloping ledge is a pre-Boulder Clay 
topographic feature forming the southern bank of a pre-glacial valley which apparently 
deviates somewhat from the present stream-course and runs towards the north-east. 
This valley is filled with glacial debris and contains very large boulders. Intensive 
erosion here has resulted in the undercutting of a cliff of Boulder Drift 100 feet in 
width and 50 feet in height. This cliff now forms the northern wall of the present 
stream-course. 

Stage V. Below the Rhaiadr Porth-llwyd to the Conway. — From the ledge at 350 feet 
O.D. to the floor of the main valley, the stream passes through a post-glacial ravine 
cut in black pyritous shales into which an irregular mass of rhyolite-like rock has 
been intruded. The ravine has steeply cut sides and is noteworthy for the number 
of pot-holes both in its floor and at different levels on its flanks. The end of the 
gorge near to the Conway Valley is cut through black slates overlain by Boulder 
Clay. Thence the stream reaches the main river across an alluvial plain. 

The Effects of the Flood. 

Stage I. — A concrete wall, three-quarters of a mile in length, was constructed on 
the moraine (here overlain by peat) along the eastern side of Llyn Eigiau and the 
level of the lake was raised thereby from 1,219 feet to 1,239 feet above O.D. Special 
precautions were taken to strengthen the wall across the southern outlet of the 
lake, but a shallow saddle crossing the moraine about half a mile to the north of the 
outlet was not specially safeguarded. In the midst of this potential overflow channel 
slight seepage of water had apparently long been in progress, and when the heavy 
rains which preceded the disaster raised the level of Lake Eigiau the seepage increased 
inordinately. With augmented flow, the seepage developed to a well-defined spring 
which, bursting close to the wall, soon enlarged itself to a well, or cauldron, 30 feet in 
width and 20 feet in depth, over which the wall remained standing as a bridge. The 
spring in bursting lifted the peat bed which covers the Boulder Clay and broke it 
into rafts ; these the waters floated forward or cast outwards to strand on the margins 
of the flood near by. 

Around the cauldron of emergence neither peat nor Boulder Clay are in any way 
disturbed, and, notwithstanding that 120 million cubic feet of water flowed forth over 
the moor, there is for the next 100 yards no perceptible water-channel, neither grass 
nor heather being uprooted. A little way below the cart-track the hollow in the 
moorland becomes more evident, and the flood, when it found this, confined itself to 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

a deeper and narrower track. Here, under a very few feet of water, the peat-bed, 
4 to 6 feet in thickness, seems to have floated up and, separating itself from the moraine 
in cakes and strips, often many tens of square yards in extent, allowed the rushing 
waters to uncover and erode the Boulder Clay. Across the 400 yards of moorland, 
as far as the main Afon Porth-llwyd, a new stream-course 50 to 100 feet in width was 
thus defined. The course was deepened generally by some 6 to 10 feet, with one or 
more narrow channels locally incised within it to a depth of 20 feet. The finer debris 
from this new cut was carried forward with the flood, but stones more than six or 
eight inches in diameter were dropped as a delta at the edge of the main valley. Peat 
rafts were also moved a little way, but most of them were detached in masses so large 
and so well loaded with root-clay that the flood could not transport them to any 
great distance. Many rafts of intermediate size were left stranded in the shallows 
before the flood-waters reached the course of the main Afon Porth-llwyd. From the 
confluence of these streams down to Pwll-du the valley is wide, and its gradient is so 
low that the velocity of the waters was never considerable. In this reach the banks 
show no signs of erosion, and even in two pronounced meanders above the farm of 
Pwll-du the stream-bed was not altered. 

Stage II. — Below Pwll-du the banks of Boulder Clay were eroded and undercut 
at each bend of the stream, the flood again becoming heavily charged with small and 
large stones and boidders. When it reached the still waters of the storage-basin 
formed by the Low-level Dam, it spread out and dropped its load of boulders and 
finer material as a fan at the head and over about one-third of the total extent of the 
floor of this sheet of water. 

Stage III. — The Low-level Dam was an earth-dam with a concrete core, concave 
towards the upland area. It was made of the local Boulder Clay with its included 
boulders, and was about 40 feet in height, with a spillway from the leat at the side 
of its southern end, some 4 feet lower. This leat collects waters from the flanks of 
Moel Eilio, below the Pwll-du leat, and brings them into the Low-level storage basin. 
The flood-waters from Llyn Eigiau banked themselves against the dam and increased 
the flooded area very considerably. Eventually they reached such a height that 
water overflowed the dam to a reputed height of two feet, and thus began to erode 
the piled-up Boulder Clay on the downstream side. This overflow in itself was not 
serious, but two feet of water over the dam gave a height of six feet above the by- wash 
or the spillway. The by-wash, though it could not accommodate all the flood, did 
send down a very large quantity of water which, rushing with unaccustomed velocity, 
cut into the toe of the earth-dam. Thus near the southern end of the dam the 
concrete core was probably exposed, and after an interval it broke. A gap 120 feet 
in width was made and a tremendous flood (11 million cubic feet of water) was 
suddenly released. It met the pipe-line mounted on its concrete pillars, buried that 
pipe-line in gravel, and was temporarily checked. The obstruction gave way 
in turn and the flood swept on to the Conway Valley. Sections of the pipe-line went 
with it, and some of the concrete piers were uprooted. Some of the material soon 
became stranded, but some made the whole journey to Dolgarrog, where it now forms 
part of the fan. The flood-water undercut the Boulder Clay on the rocky shelves, and, 
scouring them clean of all movable material, swept out loose supports and allowed 
joint-blocks of solid rock to move forward down the gorge. There is definite evidence 
that some very large blocks of rock were moved even at the top of the gorge. A 
boulder 15 by 15 by 15 feet, lying near the lip, still has dead vegetation attached to 
its under side, hanging head downwards. The boulder is trapped against joint- 
blocks of unmoved rock, and has caught and smashed a slab of slaty ash, which is 
now held beneath it. While it has not actually been proved that any large mass of 
the solid formation was carried to the foot of the gorge at Dolgarrog, this is considered 
possible. As a result of the under-cutting along the stream-course, the gradient has 
been disturbed and the slope locally made steeper than the angle of rest for joint- 
blocks ; thus certain steeply inclined master-joints behind projecting masses have 
been given opportunity to open under gravity. During the flood, boulders fell into 
some of these gaping joints, and these may have acted as wedges. All this is well 
shown at the ' lip,' where evidence of the mighty power of the flood is particularly 
impressive. 

Stage IV. — From the lip downwards, the most noticeable phenomena are the 
effects of the blows struck by the boulders which hit the solid rock in their tumble 
over the waterfall. New fractures, often triangular in form and many square feet 
in area, can be seen on projecting corners and edges all the way down to the slanting 



ON DOLGARROG DAM DISASTER. 



279 




Sketch-map of Llyn Eigiau and Afon Porth-lKvyd, Dolgarrog, showing the ' stages ' 
referred to in the Report. Contours at 50-feet intervals on flanks only of valley 
of Afon Porth-llwyd. 

The cross-hatched part of Llyn Eigiau shows the extent of the lake before the 
upper dam was constructed. It is approximately the present (or post-flood) outline also. 



280 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

ledge. Many pot-holes drilled by the post-glacial pre-flood stream have had the 
down-stream lip battered and destroyed. Along this stage the flood met the bank of 
Boulder Clay infilling the pre-glacial valley and dislodged many very large boulders, 
which it carried through the steep and narrow ravine of Stage V and left upon the 
Dolgafrog fan. Several big erratics like those which are found in the fan below still 
project precariously from the Boulder Clay cliff, and two (of which one is estimated 
to weigh 200 tons) have fallen on to the ledge itself since the disaster. 

Stage V. — In Stage V, although the whole of the surface of the upper parts of the 
gorge have been hammered, it is remarkable how httle effect the battering has had 
on the rhyolite. Only projecting corners have been removed and there is no sign of 
any corrasion. In the narrow (lower) parts of the gorge the pre-flood surface with 
all its pot-holes remains practically unaffected. The black slates, on the other hand, 
gave way along their cleavage-planes, and slabs of moderate size were detached and 
carried forward in considerable volume. At about 250 feet above O.D., a reinforced 
concrete wall 10 feet in height and 6 feet in thickness had been erected to maintain 
a water supply for the village. Of this only a very small part now hangs on the 
southern bank. A view up the valley at this stage shows that the rocks near the 
stream-course have been smoothed, but all the higher parts of the ravine are raw and 
hackled like the face of a quarry from which every loose block has been removed. 

The fan below the termination of the ravine is a wilderness of great stones standing 
at all angles. Many of these consist of the auto-brecciated basic rock which crops 
out across the upper part of the gorge. Practically all have shapes and surfaces like 
those of ice-borne boulders, and a few show pot-holes and smoothed water-channels, 
sufficient to prove that streams of water have flowed over them and to suggest that 
they have formed part of a river-bed. It is the opinion of the Committee that only 
the freshly fractured slate slabs and a few of the angular blocks of the ' lip ' rocks 
were quarried by the flood out of the solid beds. The great majority are ' second- 
hand ' boulders and were scoured by the falling waters from the Drift section on the 
ledge. One of these boulders measures 21 by 21 by 12 feet. It rests upon a smooth 
boulder of hard dolerite 2-1 inches in length and 8 inches in thickness, which it has 
broken into three pieces. At least four others are only slightly inferior to this in 
size and quite a score of others have more than half that bulk. The fan is rudely 
triangular in shape and extends across the former main road, where it is rather over 
700 feet in width, the newly transported debris being there over 10 feet in thickness. 
A rough sorting action can be observed. Near the apex lie the biggest boulders. 
They decrease gradually in size to near the main road, where boulders of 6 to 8 feet 
in diameter are common. The finer material was spread over the alluvial plain in the 
direction of the River Conway. The present level of the fan at its apex is 100 feet 
above O.D. and on the road 26 feet above O.D. Under this large fan lie the remains 
of the wrecked church and of several houses. Over the position where the church 
stood, nearly 50 feet of material, including at least one 100-ton boulder, have been 
accumulated. 

The Committee's task was to obtain photographic records of the geological results 
of the debacle. Forty-three photographs are herewith submitted, most of which 
have been specially taken by Mr. W. H. Wilcockson, M.A., F.G.S., to whom the 
Committee wish to offer sincere and hearty thanks. 



ON VASOLIGATION, ETC. 281 

Vasoligation, Etc. — Report of Committee (Dr. F. A. E. Crew, Chairman : 
Mr. J. T. Cunningham, Secretary ; Professor J. S. Huxley) for 
the experimental Investigation of the Effects of Vasoligation, Crypt- 
orchidism, Grafting, etc., on the Seminal Tubules and Interstitial 
Tissue of the Testes of Mammals. 

The report submitted last year dealt with artificial Cryptorchidism and ligature of 
the vas deferens in the rabbit. The present Report contains some more experiments 
of the same kinds on the rat and cat, but describes chiefly experiments on the ligation 
of the vasa efferentia in tame rats, mostly of the albino variety. 

It was desirable to carry out experiments on the ligature of the vas deferens in 
some animal in which the testis could not be withdrawn into the abdomen by the 
animal, either voluntarily or by reflex action, as in rodents, and the cat was selected 
for the purpose. By this means all doubt whether the result was due to the ligature 
or to the alteration of the normal relations of the testis to the scrotum, in other words 
to a partial or complete, temporary or permanent, dislocation of the testis into the 
abdominal cavity would be eliminated. It is difficult to find in the literature definite 
descriptions of the condition and relations of the inguinal canal in different mammals, 
but it is stated in Quain's Anatomy that the canal is actually closed only in the human 
species, in adaptation to the erect attitude. Dissection of a male cat showed that the 
cavity of the scrotum is connected with the abdominal cavity by a long narrow canal 
lined by peritoneum, and passing beneath the skin over the ventral surface of the 
pelvic girdle. The lumen of the canal was so narrow that only an ordinary seeker or 
probe could be passed through it, and there was no possibility of the testis passing 
into it or through it. There was no muscular layer in the wall of the canal, and very 
little muscle in the wall of the scrotum itself. 

Ligature of the vas deferens in the Cat. 

Urethane was tried as an anaesthetic for cats, but proved very unsuccessful. One 
cat injected with this drug died after the operation without recovering consciousness, 
another died during the operation. A successful operation was carried out by using 
chloroform and ether as anaesthetic. The scrotum on the right side was opened, the 
vas deferens ligatured in two places, and a piece between the ligatures cut out. The 
animal recovered quickly and lived in good health until it was killed with chloroform 
104 days after the operation. The end of the vas next to the operated (right) testis 
was found to be closed, and the spermatic blood vessels uninjured. Abundant active 
sperms were obtained from the cauda epididymis of the left side. Sections of the 
operated (right) testis showed perfectly normal spermatogenesis. 

The post-operative period stated by Bouin and Ancel to be sufficient to produce 
complete degeneration of the seminal tubules after ligature and vasectomy in the 
guinea pig was 102 days. In this experiment on the cat no injurious effect was 
visible after the lapse of 104 days. The epididymis of the operated side, as in similar 
experiments on the rabbit carried out last year, was distended with semen, its diameter 
being twice as great as that of the normal on the unoperated side. The testis and 
epididymis of the operated side showed slight congestion of the blood vessels, having 
a darker colour than the normal from this cause. This experiment confirms the 
evidence of the previous experiments on rabbits, and proves that ligature and 
resection of the vas deferens does not cause degeneration of the seminal tubules with 
cessation of spermatogenesis in the cat within a period of more than three months. 

No further experiments were made on cats, as it was desired to test the effects 
of ligature of the vasa efferentia for comparison. For these experiments, as stated 
above, with one exception, albino rats were used. Complete descriptions of the 
position and relations of the vasa efferentia in the lower mammals have not been 
available until quite recently, but for man they are given in standard text-books of 
anatomy. In most cases (e.g. rabbit and cat) the epididymis and testis are so closely 
attached that the vasa efferentia cannot be distinguished by inspection of the surface, 
and it did not seem possible to pass a ligature round them with certainty. In the rat, 
Miss Gertrude van Wagenen, of the University of California {Anat. Record, Philadelphia, 
Vol. 27, 28, 1894, p. 189), has stated that the ducts are sufficiently discrete to permit 
complete ligation without interfering with the blood supply to the testis. She states 



282 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

that they consist of twelve to twenty thin walled ducts which pass from the head ot 
the testis to the caput epididymis. Observation in the dead animal showed that the 
epididymis is connected to the testis by a membrane about J in. broad, which is 
somewhat thickened where it terminates between the free extremity of the caput and 
the head or anterior end of the testis. It seemed that this was the site of the vasa 
efferentia indicated by Miss de Wagenen, and experiments were made to test the 
effect of ligation of this thickened membrane, while at the same time microscopic 
investigation was made to trace the vasa efferentia completely and certainly. 

In the first experiment the rat was killed three weeks after the operation and 
sections of the testis showed complete disorganisation of the seminal epithelium in 
the tubules. It seemed therefore that this was the actual position of the vasa 
efferentia, but this is not the case. 

The vasa efferentia in the Rat. 

Shortly afterwards the number and course of the vasa in the rat were ascertained 
by two methods, namely, by making cleared preparations of the whole membrane 
containing them, from their origin from the testis to their junction with the caput 
epididymis, and by making serial sections from the anterior end of the caput to the 
portion of the testis containing the rete and the origin of the vasa. The number 
of the vasa at their origin was found to be six, not twelve to twenty, as stated by 
Miss de Wagenen, and at their origin from the rete they are straight. Farther on 
they become more and more convoluted and form a bundle which increases in thick- 
ness, passes dorsal to the epididymis, and joins the caput on its anterior border. The 
inner end of the caput is, in fact, formed by a continuation of the bundle of the vasa 
efferentia which bends back on itself and is continued into the body of the epididymis. 
Where the vasa efferentia join the caput epididymis they are united into a single tube, 
which is continued in a much convoluted but unbranched condition to form the whole 
epididymis. 

It was afterwards found that these observations are in agreement with those of 
Dr. Jacques Benoit, 1 of the Faculty of Medicine of Strasburg. Mr. Cunningham 
also examined the corresponding parts in the mouse where the relations are very 
similar. In the specimen examined, the number of vasa efferentia was only three ; 
Benoit found four or five in the majority of cases, three in two specimens, and six 
in one. 

The vasa efferentia in the rat leave the testis somewhat behind the anterior 
extremity, near the point where the spermatic artery and vein enter it, and they pass 
obliquely forward in the connecting membrane between the epididymis and testis. 
The operation of ligaturing the vasa offered no great difficulty as they were not 
closely connected with the vascular cord formed by the spermatic artery and vein. 

A number of experiments on ligation of the marginal membrane were made in 
order to ascertain whether disorganisation of the seminal epithelium, as in the first 
experiment mentioned above, was a constant result. The following is a list of these 
experiments : — 

Experiments on ligation of marginal membrane. 

Marginal membrane in Rat ligatured on right side only. 

Post-operative 

period. Result. 

1. 21 days. Seminal epithelium disorganised. Weight of normal, left, testis 

2.5 gins., operated right, 1.3 gms. 

2. 14 days. Ligatured testis functional, but larger than the other. In sections 

a few tubules slightly abnormal, but the great majority showed 
normal spermatogenesis. 

3. 7 days. Active spermatozoa in vas deferens of operated side. In sections 

of operated testis normal spermatogenesis, except in a few 
tubules. 

1 Benoit, Dr. Jacques. ' Voies excretrices du testicule chez les Mammiferes. 
Strasburg, Imp. Alsacienne, 1925. 



ON VASOLIGATION, ETC. 283 

Post-operative 

period. Result. 

4. 14 days. Normal spermatogenesis in right testis. 

5. 17 days. Seminal epithelium completely disorganised and reduced in right 

testis. Left, normal. 

6. 20 days. Sperms from right vas deferens dead and motionless. In sections 

very slight signs of abnormality in a few tubules, otherwise 
normal spermatogenesis. 

Marginal membrane ligatured on left side. Right testis detached from scrotum 
and fixed to abdominal wall by ligature passing through gubernaculum. 

Post- operative 

period. Result. 

7. 16 days. Right testis atrophied and degenerate, only about half the size of 

the other, seminal epithelium completely disorganised. Left 
testis functional, the ligature loose. 

Of the first six experiments, leaving out of consideration that in which the other 
testis was removed from the scrotum to the abdomen because in that the ligature 
was found to be loose, there was complete disorganisation of the seminal epithelium 
in two, the first and fifth ; normal spermatogenesis in one, the fourth ; and slight 
traces of disorganisation in a few tubules in three. Careful examination by sections, 
and cleared preparations showed nothing in the marginal membrane but lymphatic 
channels and small blood-vessels. It is probable that the injurious effects of ligature 
of this membrane are due to varying degrees of injury to the tubules of the apex of 
the caput epididymis to which the membrane is attached. 

The following is a list of the experiments in which the true vasa efferentia were- 
ligatured : — 

Experiments on ligation of vasa efferentia. 

Vasa efferentia ligatured on left side, marginal membrane on the right. 
Post-operative 

period. Result. 

1. 6 days. Testis of each side flaccid and reduced in size. In sections,. 

seminal epithelium in both testes disorganised, no spermato- 
genesis. 

Vasa efferentia ligatured on right side only. 

Post-operative 

period. Result. 

2. 14 days. Seminal epithelium completely disorganised. Weight of right. 

testis 1.535 gins., left 2.200 gins. 

3. 14 days. Seminal epithelium completely disorganised. 

4. 7 days. Seminal epithelium completely disorganised, but not so much 

reduced. No spermatogenesis. 

These experiments show that closure of the lumen of the vasa efferentia causes, 
complete disorganisation of the seminal epithelium in seven days, or even in six days, 
assuming that the evidence of the first experiment is valid. In the other three the- 
left testis served as control, and showed perfectly normal spermatogenesis. As there 
was no interference with the blood circulation in the testis, the effect must be due to 
increase of pressure within the tubules. It follows therefore that when the vas 
deferens only is ligatured, the absence of injurious effect is due to the fact that the 
great space contained in the long coiled tube of the epididymis prevents this increase 
of pressure in the seminal tubules, the epididymis acts as a reservoir for the semen 
and becomes greatly distended in consequence. The conclusion is that when the 
distension and pressure increase to a certain point within the epididymis, absorption 
of semen is increased, an equilibrium is reached, and no further rise of pressure occurs. 



284 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Report of Committee 
(Prof. E. B. Poulton, Chairman ; Dr. F. A. Bather, Secretary ; 
Dr. W. T. Calman, Mr. B. Heron- Allen, Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
Mr. W. L. Sclater). 

During the past year inquiries have continued to reach your Committee on various 
points of detail and have been answered by letter and by sending the relevant report. 
In particular the Committee was consulted by the Editor of the Journal of the South- 
Eastern Agricultural College, and he has adopted many of the suggestions made. 

The Committee notes with pleasure the publication, by the Oxford University Press 
in 1925 and 1927, of the World List of Scientific Periodicals (1900-1921), and strongly 
urges that in the making of brief references to literature the contractions used for 
the titles of periodicals should always be those which have been most carefully drawn 
up by Dr. A. W. Pollard and Mr. W. A. Smith, and printed in the second volume of 
that work. Authors and editors should at least make themselves acquainted with the 
rules and principals of abbreviation explained on pp. ix, x of that volume. To 
aid them in so doing, we are permitted, by courtesy of the Council of Management of 
the World List, to reproduce those pages as an Appendix to this report. 

The Committee also welcomes the establishment of a Committee on Bibliography 
by the International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation. In the deliberations of 
the section dealing with the bibliography of the biological sciences Dr. Chalmers 
Mitchell, a member of your Committee, has already taken part. 

Your Committee asks for its reappointment with a grant of £1 for postage of 
this report. 

APPENDIX. 

Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals. 
Reprinted from the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 

Titles of periodicals have been abridged on a plan which, it is hoped, will enable 
users of the Index to reconstruct all of any reasonable length. It will be a great 
satisfaction if for titles using commonly recurring scientific and technical phrasing 
stable abbreviations have been achieved. For less common technical titles this is 
hardly to be expected, but even here, it is hoped, some progress has been made towards 
a consistent usage. 

Prepositions and articles are normally omitted. In English titles capitals are used 
throughout. In other languages nouns have capital, adjectives small, initial letters : 
Bulletin of the] Scientific] Soc[iety of] N[ew] Y[ork]. 
Publications de la] Soc[iete] sci[entifique de 1'] Aisne. 

The conjunction ' and ' (with the corresponding words in other languages) is 
omitted, except in titles consisting only of two nouns connected by ' and ', and where 
it connects broken compounds : 

Coal and Iron. 

land- u[nd] forstwfirtschaftliche] Blfatter]. 

Number is not distinguished (Bl.=Blatt and Blatter) ; nor in English is any 
distinction attempted between substantive and adjectival forms (Sci.= Science, 
Sciences, and Scientific). Where possible, cognate words in all languages are reduced 
to the same form : 

Academy, Academie, Academia ......> Acad. 

Annals, Annales, Annalen, Annali ...... >Ann. 

Science, Scienza, Seiencia .......> Sci. 

Society, Societe, Societa, Sociedad, Sociedade, Societas, Societate, 

Societat ..........> Soc. 

Normally the place of imprint is omitted (except when needed to distinguish 
periodicals with the same title) ; but when the abbreviated form would leave it 
uncertain what was the language of the original, the imprint is added for all except 
the best-known language of those between which confusion could arise, taking the 
order of familiarity as being : (i) English ; (ii) French ; (iii) German ; (iv) Italian or 
Spanish. 



ON ZOOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PUBLICATION. 



285 



So : Progress of Science, London. 
Progres des sciences, Paris. 
Progresso delle scienze, Torino. 
Progres scientifique, Paris. 

Progresso scientifico, Milano. 
Annales de biologie, Paris. 
Annales de chimie, Paris. 
Annalen der Chemie, Berlin. 



>Prog. Sci. (Without imprint.) 

> Prog. Sci. Paris. 

> Prog. Sci. Torino. 

> Prog. sci. (Without imprint, since there 
is no confusion ■with English.) 

> Prog. sci. Milano. 
>Ann. Biol. Paris. 

> Ann. Chim. 

> Ann. Chem. Berl. 

In the Germanic and Scandinavian languages where long compound words occur 
freely the different parts of the compound have been abbreviated as if they were 
distinct. With nouns no hyphen is used between the parts but each part is made to 
begin with a capital letter : 

Entwicklungsmechanik 
Materialpriifungen 
Piskeritidende 
Da.mpfkesseluberwachungsvereine 

Compound adjectives are similarly contracted, but between the parts a hyphen is 
inserted. 

agrikulturekononiisch > agrik.-ekon. 

technischwissenschaftlich > tech.-wiss. 

It is not considered necessary to give a list of the abbreviations, as most of them 
are self-explanatory and reference can be made to the full form. Exception is made of 
the following German forms, some of which differ somewhat from those in common use 



> EntwMech. 

> MatPriif . 
>FiskTid... 

> DampfkUberwVer. 



Bl. 


= Blatt. 


Zbl. 


= Zentralblatt. 


Mschr. 


= Monatsschrif t . 


Mbl. 


=Monatsblatt. 


Mhft, 


=Monatsheft. 


Wschr. 


= Wochenschrif t. 


Wbl. 


=Wochenblatt. 


Schr. 
Z. 


= Sehrift. 
=^Zeitschrift. 


Ztg. 


=Zeitung. 


and of the following place- 


names : 








Aberd. 


= Aberdeen. 


F.M.S. 


= Federated Ma- 


N.Z. 


=New Zealand. 


Afr. 


=Africa. 




lay States. 


Nebr. 


= Nebraska. 


Amer. 


=America. 


Finl. 


= Finland. 


Okla. 


= Oklahoma. 


Amst. 


= Amsterdam. 


Fr. 


=France. 


Ont, 


= Ontario. 


Ariz. 


= Arizona. 


's-Grav 


. = 's-Gra venhage . 


Penn. 


=Pennsylvania. 


Aust. 


=Australia. 


Ind. 


= India. 


Philad. 


= Philadelphia. 


B. Aires. 


= Buenos Aires. 


Ire. 


= Ireland. 


Qd. 


= Queensland. 


B.C. 


= British Colum- 


Ital. 


= Italia. 


R.I. 


=Rhode Island. 




bia. 


Kans. 


= Kansas. 


Rhod. 


= Rhodesia. 


Belg. 


= Belgique. 


Kj>b. 


=Kj(/>benhavn. 


Rio de J. 


=Rio de Janeiro, 


Berl. 


= Berlin. 


Krist. 


=Kiistiania. 


St. Petersb 


'.= Saint Peters- 


Bgham. 


= Birmingham. 


Lond. 


= London. 




burg. 


Brux. 


= Bruxelles. 


Lpool. 


^Liverpool. 


Saskatch. 


= Saskatchewan. 


Buitenz. 


= Buitenzorg. 


Madr. 


=Madrid. 


Scot. 


= Scotland. 


Calif. 


= California. 


Manchr 


.= Manchester. 


Stockh. 


=Stockholm. 


Can. 


= Canada. 


Mass. 


=Massachusetts. 


Tasm. 


= Tasmania. 


Carol. 


= Carolina. 


Mex. 


= Mexico. 


Tex. 


=Texas. 


Colo. 


= Colorado. 


Mich. 


= Michigan. 


Transv. 


— Transvaal. 


Conn. 


= Connecticut. 


Minn. 


= Minnesota. 


Trin. Tob. 


= Trinidad and 


Dak. 


= Dakota. 


Miss. 


= Mississippi. 




Tobago. 


Deuts. 


=Deutschland. 


N.S. 


=Nova Scotia. 


Vict. 


= Victoria. 


Edinb. 


= Edinburgh. 


N.S.W. 


= New South 


Wash. 


=Washington. 


Engl. 


= England. 




Wales. 


Wise. 


= Wisconsin. 


Esp. 


=Espana. 


N.Y. 


=New York. 


Wyom. 


=Wyoming. 



286 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Biological Measurements. — Report of Committee (Prof. J. S. 
Huxley, Chairman; Dr. R. A. Fisher, Secretary; Dr. W. T. Calman, 
Mr. C. Forster-Cooper, Prof. J. W. Nicholson, Dr. E. S. Pearson, 
Mr. 0. W. Richards, Mr. G. C. Robson, Dr. J. F. Tocher) 
appointed to draw up recommendations for the taking and presentation 
of Biological Measurements, and to bring such before persons or bodies 
concerned. 

The Committee held six meetings during 1926 and 1927. Preliminary discussions 
showed that two obstacles ordinarily stood in the way of the satisfactory presentation 
of numerical data in the biological literature. In the first place editors showed a 
natural reluctance to printing extensive data in full detail, especially when every 
advantage had not been taken to arrange such data as compactly as possible ; in the 
second place the methods available for providing a statistical summary, such as is 
essential wherever the original data are not presented in full, are neither sufficiently 
well known nor have been sufficiently standardised by accepted conventions for such 
summaries to have an exact and unambiguous meaning. 

The Committee decided that these obstacles could be overcome by action along 
two lines : (a) by the establishment of centrally placed archives for the reception of 
original biological data, which were too extensive for complete publication, and (6) by 
the preparation of a leaflet for the guidance of contributors to biological journals 
who wish to conform to acceptable modern practice. It is anticipated that this 
leaflet will require periodical revision as need arises. 

Negotiations with the Natural History Museum at South Kensington and with 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh have resulted in the establishment of the required 
archives for the reception of biological data, where they will be available to students, 
and in this sense will have secured effective publication. The thanks of the Com- 
mittee are due to the authorities of these two institutions for undertaking a function 
"which in the opinion of the Committee will be of increasing value to biological science. 

The leaflet prepared by the Committee consists of a foreword illustrating the 
practical needs of modern biological work, followed by four sections (A) on general 
considerations in the planning and execution of research by metrical methods, (B) on 
the methods available for the compact presentation of data, and on the recognised 
methods by which it can be adequately summarised, (C) on the interpretation of 
statistical results and on tests of significance, and (D) giving detailed references to 
text books upon the several types of tests generally required. The leaflet is presented 
as an appendix to this report. 

Seeing that the practical utility both of the archives and of the leaflet will depend 
on their existence becoming known to biological workers, the Committee have cir- 
cularised the editors of the chief biological journals published in Great Britain asking 
for the incorporation of additional clauses in their permanent notices to contributors. 
The Committee are glad to report that a favourable reply has been given by the editors 
of a number of important journals. 



Recommendations of the 
British Association Committee on Biological Measurements. 

Foreword. 

Biology is rapidly becoming more and more of a science in which exact mathe- 
matical methods are required. In all fields accurate measurements or quantitative 
data of some kind are being increasingly employed. On the other hand, such data 
are not infrequently rendered useless, or at least much less useful than they might 
have been, through neglect of simple precautions, either in the making, the recording, 
or the analysis of the data. Bearing these facts in mind, Section D of the British 
Association appointed the present Committee to draw up recommendations upon the 
presentation of biological measurements. 



ON BIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS. 287 

The chief fields in which statistical data, properly taken and analysed, can be of 
great service are perhaps the following : — 

(a) Genetics. — Obviously, here all conclusions based upon ratios are valid only in 
so far as statistically significant. In the early days of Mendelism much confusion 
was brought about through lack of proper statistical treatment. It has, however, 
recently become increasingly realised that a combination of Mendehan and statistical 
(biometric) methods is in many cases necessary for full analysis. In human genetics 
the statistical method is the main available weapon. 

(b) Variation. — Here the achievements of biometrics are too well known to need 
statement or comment. It should be pointed out, . however, that in many cases a 
technically perfect biometric analysis may tell us less than it ought owing to in- 
adequate selection of material. E.g. without experiment, biometric methods cannot 
tell us how much of a given variation range is genotypic, how much phenotypic. 
Only properly directed work on variation can give us much needed information as 
to the differences between different species as regards variability, the reasons for the 
differences, and the bearing of the facts upon evolutionary theory. 

(c) Systematics. — With increased delicacy of systematic determination, measure- 
ments are becoming more and more important as a criterion of the distinctness of 
closely related species, sub-species or races. 

(d) Development. — Only by taking large numbers of measurements will it be 
possible to discover the laws of relative growth of parts. 

(e) Evolution. — As more perfect palaeoirtological series are obtained, accurate 
measurements of absolute and relative sizes of parts may enable us to establish simple 
laws of evolutionary growth and development comparable to those which are being 
obtained by similar methods in ontogeny. 

Naturally the taking of quantitative data constitutes the essence of much of 
physiology ; but we have here been concerned mainly with data which may be called 
statistical. 

It may be as well to begin by enumerating a few of the cases in which neglect of 
simple precautions has made laboriously taken measurements of much less value 
than they might otherwise have been ; for such examples will serve better than 
anything else to convince the working zoologist of the need for improvement. The 
defect may have lain in the failure to take the most suitable measurements, to record 
them adequately when taken, or to analyse them in the most desirable way. 

A. Neglect of Biometric Analysis. (See also No. 2.) 

1. In the preparation of Witherby's 'Handbook of British Birds' (London, 1922) 
considerable numbers of accurate measurements were made both upon the skins 
(usually twelve specimens) and eggs (usually 100 specimens) of a large number of species 
of birds. However, in recording these valuable data only the mean and high and low 
extreme variants were set down (in the case of skins, the mean was omitted). Pre- 
sumably the main purpose of such measurements is to give the systematist help in 
distinguishing between closely related forms (sub-species, races, &c). Even for this 
purpose, however, and especially when the ranges of two forms overlap, this method 
of record is markedly inferior to one giving mean and standard deviation. In 
addition, the recording of standard deviation would have enabled a wholly different 
and very interesting problem to be attacked, namely, the suggestion originally made 
by Darwin ('Origin of Species,' chapter ii) that wide ranging and abundant species 
and genera are more variable than scarce and local ones. 

B. Numbers Inadequate for the Statistical Conclusions Drawn. 

2. Examples of the failure to realise the statistical invalidity of small numbers are 
frequent. jB.gr. Kriiger (1920 and 1924, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 42, 289, and 48, 1) dis- 
tinguishes closely related ' species ' of Humble-bees by means of certain relative 
proportions of parts. Considering, however, that the maximum number of any one 
species measured is 25, and is often below 10, that the ranges frequently overlap, and 
that only mean, maximum and minimum are recorded, it may be doubted whether 
these quantitative results are at all significant. 

3. If data are properly taken and recorded, failure to use suitable analyses can be 
remedied by subsequent workers. Nevertheless, conclusions based on unsatisfactory 
analysis often, as a matter of fact, become generally accepted, and it is then difficult 
to correct the error. The most frequent source of error is failure to discount chance 



288 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

or random sampling. A well-known case of this is afforded by the paper of Pearl 
and Parshley (1913, Biol. Bull. 24, 205), who believed that they had clear evidence 
that in cattle the relation of time of insemination to the cyclical events of oestrus 
influenced the sex-ratio. Later investigation of a larger body of material, however, 
convinced them that their first result had been wholly due to chance (Pearl, 1917, 
Maine Agri. Exp. Station Bull. 261, (3), 130). 

C. Incomplete Record of Adequate Data. 

4. Very often the investigator is so much preoccupied with the solution of a particu- 
lar question that he is content to record his data incompletely, provided that this 
will suffice for his special problem. He fails to remember that complete record may 
make it possible for later investigators to use his original data for the solution of quite 
new problems. A good example of this is afforded by the classical paper of Bateson 
and Brindley (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1892, 285) upon dimorphic organs. The authors were 
concerned to prove that in the beetle Xylotrupes, while the frequency-curve for body- 
length was of normal type, that for cephalic horn-length was bimodal ; but that in 
the stag-beetle Lucanus both body-length and mandible-length showed normal 
frequency distributions. The frequency distributions of these four characters were 
therefore given singly. Since, however, two measurements were taken and recorded 
for each individual, it would have been possible to present not only the information 
immediately required, but also all information bearing on the correlation between 
body-length and appendage-length, by means of two-way tables. This information 
was later required by another investigator : luckily the original data had been pre- 
served, and so new conclusions could be drawn (J. Genetics, 1927, 18, 45). A pre- 
cisely similar failure to record by means of two-way tables is found in the paper 
by Djakonov (J. Genetics, 1925, 15, 201) on the bimodality of forceps-length in male 
earwigs (Forficula). Here again only lucky chance preserved the original data, which 
were then found to yield new results (J. Genetics, 1927, 17, 309). 

5. Frequently not merely are data published in an incomplete way, but owing to 
lack of space or for other reasons are not published at all. The danger of this pro- 
cedure may be illustrated by the benefits accruing from its converse. Haldane 
(J. Genetics, 1920, 10, 47) was able to demonstrate from Nabour's data on heredity in 
the grasshopper Parateltix (J. Genetics, 3, 141, and 7, 1) that two factors which the 
original investigator had thought to segregate independently were in reality linked. 
He expressly states that this would not have been possible if it had not been for 
the exceptional fullness of Nabour's records. 

6. Duncker (1903, Biometrika, 2, 307) re-analysed the figures of Yerkes (1901, Proc. 
Amer. Soc. Arts and Sci. 36, 417), which involved the careful measurement of a number 
of characters on eight hundred Fiddler-Crabs (Gelasimus). Neither author published 
the data in full ; and since they were utilised only for certain special purposes, the 
very fundamental growth-relations between the various organs were not brought out. 
Duncker himself points out that asymmetry of all the organs on the side of the large 
chela increases with absolute body-size, but does not tabulate the figures by size 
classes. It is therefore impossible to arrive at the laws of growth underlying the 
phenomena. Duncker calculates a number of correlation coefficients from which 
he deduces certain conclusions. The conclusions would have been much more firmly 
based, however, if the underlying growth-laws had also been established, as only by 
so doing can we hope to understand the biological, as opposed to the statistical, 
meaning of the coefficients. This therefore represents a failure not only to publish 
the data in full, but also to analyse the data sufficiently fully even for the purpose 
envisaged by the author. 

D. Failure to Choose the Most Suitable Measurements or Conventions. 

7. Sometimes data are less valuable than they should be because the points of refer- 
ence used in making measurements are chosen arbitrarily instead of conforming to 
an accepted standard, or of being chosen with reference to their biological significance. 

An example of the latter procedure is shown by two recent authors (Nomura, 1926, 
and Sasaki, 1926, Sci. Report Tohoku Imp. Univ. 2, 57 and 197) who have made 
elaborate measurements of a number of Molluscan shells, with a view to the analysis 
of relative growth of parts. The results, however, would have been more valuable 
if measurements had been made of the magnitudes needed for determining the mathe- 
matical growth relations of a Molluscan shell, as set forth for instance in D'Arcy 
Thompson's ' Growth and Form ' (Cambridge, 1917), chapters xi and xii. 



ON BIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS. 289 

E. Failure to Make the Most Suitable Biological Analysis. (See also No. 6.) 

8. A further example of failure to analyse data in the best way owing to lack of 
the most suitable preliminary biological method (the statistical method being wholly 
adequate) is afforded by a paper by Pearl, Gowen and Miner (1910, Maine Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Ann. Re}).), who in calculating the influence of bulls on the milk-production 
of their female descendants takes as a measure of the bulls performance : daughter's 
yield minus mother's yield. This clearly gives an undue advantage to bulls mated to 
cows of low milk-yield. The error here has practical consequences, since the market 
value of the bulls would be altered in relation to the verdict of the scientist. 

9. As Klatt (1919, Biol. Zentralb. 39, 406) points out, failure to realise that other 
relations than that of simple proportionality may, and usually do, hold between the 
size of an organ and the size of the whole organism vitiates many discussions as to 
the relative size of organs in different types within one group. The usual plan is to 
express relative organ-size as a percentage of total size. Since, however, a frequent 
relation of organ to body is not y = ax, but y = ax b , this is of no value. Parrot 
(1894, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 7) had arranged a series of birds in a scale according to their 
percentage heart-weights. Klatt, having previously found that the heart-weight (h) 
of warm-blooded vertebrates was related to the body-weight (w) according to the 
exponential formula h = a.w b where a varied considerably, but b was always close 
to 0-83, re-analysed these figures, and was thus enabled to calculate the real relative 
heart-weight, which is given by the size of the fractional constant a in the above 
formula. Thus, for instance, the stork has a moderately low percentage heart-weight, 
but this is due to its large absolute size. When the value of a is calculated by the 
correct method, its true (physiological) relative heart-weight turns out to be one of 
the three highest in the list. 

10. In general, measurements reveal the fact that in many groups there are no 
final fixed proportions of parts (e.g. many Crustacea), and that the only quantitative 
constants which are of value are not percentages but exponents. This is true 
even of certain Mammals (' Monograph of the Voles and Lemmings living and extinct,' 
M. A. C. Hinton, vol. i, 1926). 

D'Arcy Thompson (' Growth and Form,' chapter ii) gives an historical and 
critical account of many similar cases where absolute size must be taken into con- 
sideration in assessing the functional meaning of particular relative sizes of parts. 

A. General Considerations. 

1. Identification. 

The material under investigation should be examined by exact taxonomic methods 
and care should be taken that the series of specimens dealt with are, so far as possible, 
correctly identified. The advice of an expert in the group under consideration should 
be sought if necessary. 

2. Characteristics or the Population Sampled. 

The examination of a sample only supplies direct information respecting the popu- 
lation as sampled by the methods of collection employed, or, in other words, the 
population from which such a sample may be regarded as fairly drawn at random. 
This may often differ materially from : — 

(i) the whole population living at the time of capture, owing, for example, to 
selection of sex, age or size by the methods of capture ; 

(ii) the average population ordinarily living in the same habitat, owing, for 
example, to seasonal or other periodic fluctuations ; and 

(iii) the populations of different habitats in the same region. 

The results of the examination of a sample should therefore be supplemented 
with all possible care by information designed to specify the population sampled, 
even though such specification is undoubtedly often difficult. The aim should be 
that any significant (see Section D) discrepancies between samples obtained by 
different investigators should be assignable to their true causes, whether ago, six, 
local variation, time, season, method of capture, &c. 

These should always be specified where possible, but in every investigation special 
points will need to be considered. 

1927 U 



290 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

3. Conformity to Previous Measurements. 

Whatever other measurements may be made, the value of the work for com- 
parative purposes will often be much increased by the inclusion of measurements 
which are comparable, as strictly as possible, with those taken in the same or related 
species by previous workers. 

It is desirable that some quantitative measurements should always be presented 
with general biological data. Length measurements are the most usual. However, 
a frequent ' failure to record ' is seen in microscopical figures to which no record 
of magnification is appended. For example, in the article on Botifera in the Cam- 
bridge Natural History and in the Encyclopaedia Britannica no magnification is 
given in any of the figures, nor are any measurements given in the text, so that the 
reader (inter alia) will not be told, nor able to find out for himself, the interesting 
biological fact that the Rotifera have the lowest average size and the smallest size- 
range of any considerable Metazoan group. 

The most satisfactory way of giving magnifications is to reproduce with the figure 
some unit of length magnified to the same scale. This obviates the error which 
frequently creeps in when figures from one source are reproduced in another publi- 
cation on a different scale, but without altering the statement as to magnification 
in the legend. 

In addition measurements of weight or volume should be made whenever possible 
as a matter of routine, since they provide the best standard of quantitative comparison 
between differently shaped organisms or organs. 

4. Specification of Precise Conventions. 

It is essential to specify the conventions, including any points of reference adopted, 
by which each measurement is defined. This can often best be done by the aid of a 
diagram. When satisfactory standard terms, conventions or points of reference 
already exist they should be adopted whenever possible. The aim should be to 
ensure that a second observer, working over the identical material, and guided only 
bv such specifications, should normally obtain significantly similar results. 

The state of preservation of the material may often affect the measurements, 
especially in the case of soft parts. Accordingly the method of preservation and the 
degree of contraction or relaxation of the parts should be noted. 

Observations of colour should when possible be referred to one of the standard 
scales in general use, e.g. ' Nomenclature of colours for naturalists,' R. Ridgeway, 
U.S. National Museum, 1912; ' Code des couleurs a Fusage des naturalistes, artistes, 
cornmercants et industriels,' P. Klinksieck, Paris, 1908. 

5. Tests of Significance. 

The critical stages of the statistical examinations of a body of data are reached 
in the application of what are known as tests of significance, (See Section D, 3-8.) 
These are essentially tests whether the difference between two (or the variance among 
several) groups is or is not greater than can with reasonable probability be ascribed 
to the variability found within each group. The ultimate value of the conclusions 
to be drawn from any data depends upon the precision and validity with which such 
tests can be carried out ; consequently it is advisable that investigators, whether or 
not they undertake the work of statistical analysis, should have a general acquaintance 
with the nature of such tests, and, where the case does not seem clear, should seek 
the advice or co-operation of a statistician. 



B. Presentation of Data. 

1. An incomplete specification of a sample is never to be preferred to a complete 
specification, e.g. greatest, least and mean length is an incomplete specification 
(see below). 

2. Single-variate Data. 

For a single measurement a complete specification of a sample may be given by 
recording the number of cases observed to fall in successive intervals of magnitude. 



ON BIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS. 291 

Example : Length of cuckoo's egg (after 0. H. Latter). 
Length class, mm. . . 19-0 19-5 20-0 20-5 21-0 21-5 22-0 22-5 23-0 

Frequency . . .1 3 33 39 156 152 392 288 286 

Length class, mm. . . 23-5 24-0 24-5 25-0 25-5 26-0 26-5 Total 

Frequency ... 100 86 21 12 2 1 1572 

A series of numbers arranged in this way form what is called the frequency distribu- 
tion of the sample. 

The total of 1572 eggs is distributed in 16 length classes, each with a range of 
half a millimetre, each class being specified by its central length. Thus the entry 
under 21-5 mm. indicates that 152 of the eggs measured were judged to lie between 
the precise limits 21-25 and 21-75 mm. The class range need not be equal to the 
unit of measurement, but should be (either one unit or) an integral number of such 
units ; the table above was condensed from a record giving the length to 0-1 mm. 

A fruitful source of bias is avoided, at the time the measurements are actually 
taken, by using length classes bounded by the divisions marked on the measuring 
instrument used, instead of the more common practice of using length classes centred 
on visible divisions, and bounded by imaginary ones. The effect of the latter pro- 
cedure appears to be especially noticeable in micro-measurements. If working with 
length classes of 1 mm. adopt class boundaries of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 mm., &c, with class 
centres at 0-5, 1-5, 2-5 mm., &c. If working with length classes of 0-5 mm. adopt 
class boundaries of 0-0-5, O'5-l-O mm. &c, with class centres at 0-25, 0-75, 1-25 mm., 
&c. 

Measurement groups free from bias, bounded by divisions which can be accurately 

visualised. 
Units Half units 




Groups usually emplo3 T ed, centred on divisions which can be accurately visualised/ 
but bounded by imaginary divisions. 
The use of small units is less important than accuracy of the class boundaries, and 
it is above all essential that these boundaries should be clearly indicated. For 
example, headings such as these are ambiguous : 

Age . . .6 years 7 vears 8 years 

Frequency . . 15 '38 62 

It is impossible to tell whether the 38 individuals were between 7*0 and 8-0, 
or between 6-5 and 7-5 ; the former interpretation adhering to the popular convention 
of age, the latter to the scientific convention of specifying the central measurement 
of each class. 

In the choice of the class interval, which should be uniform throughout, little 
additional information is supplied by a very fine classification ; for material which is 
apparently homogeneous a class interval equal to a quarter of the Standard Deviation 
is sufficiently small ; this will usually be provided for by dividing the material into 
about 20-25 classes. Coarser groupings are by no means valueless. To bring out 
the peculiarities of heterogeneous material finer grouping will sometimes be required. 
Small samples shoidd not be grouped more coarsely than large samples. Extreme 
measurements shoidd never be pooled as, e.g., 'more than 25 mm.'; since in the statis- 
tical treatment the precise determination of these is of particidar importance. 

3. SUMMARY OF SINGLE MEASUREMENT DATA. 

If space does not allow a complete specification of the observations, these may be 
summarised by means of a few quantities calculated from them ; each of these quanti- 
ties is technically termed a statistic. If this course be taken, great care and some 
additional knowledge will be needed to make the summary adequate. For instance, 
the mean and range of the lengths of the individuals of a sample contain only a small 

u2 



Breadth of Egg (Cm.). 
Central Values of 13 Breadth Classes. 



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ON BIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS. 293 

fraction of the information available from the original data, and for this reason, if 
they be recorded alone, needless inaccuracy is introduced. 

For an important class of cases of homogeneous samples, an adequate summary 
may be given by stating two statistics only ; namely, conventional estimates of the 
mean and the variance of the population sampled. 

(a) The arithmetic mean of the measurements, defined as the sum of the measure- 
ments divided by their number. 

(6) An estimate of the variance calculated from the sum of the squares of the 
deviations from the arithmetic mean by dividing it either by (i) the number of indi- 
viduals in the sample, n, or by (ii) one less than this number, n— 1. With large samples 
it is seldom of importance which divisor is