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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 

REPORT 

OF THE 

NINETY-SIXTH MEETING 

(NINETY-EIGHTH YEAR) 




GLASGOW— 1928 

SEPTEMBER 5-12 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, W. 1 

1929 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 



The Chakter of the British Association v 

Statutes xii 

Regulations xxvi 

Officers and Council, 1928-29 xxxiii 

Local Officers, Glasgow, 1928 xxxv 

Sections and Sectional Officers, Glasgow, 1928 xxxv 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Pubposes (1831-1928) xxxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1927-28) xlii 

Down House xlvii 

General Meetings, Public Lectures, etc., at Glasgow liv 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Glasgow Meeting) Iv 

General Treasurer's Account (1927-28) Ivii 

Research Committees (1928-29) Ixii 

The Presidential Address : 

Craftsmanship and Science. By Prof. Sir William Bragg 1 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

A.— The Volta Effect. By Prof. A. W. Porter 21 

B. — Phosphorescence, Fluorescence and Chemical Reaction. By 

Prof. E. C. C. Baly 35 

C. — The Palaeozoic Mountain Systems of Europe and America. By 

E. B. Bailey ' 57 

D. — The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. By Prof. Walter 

Garstang 77 

E. — Ancient Geography in Modern Education. By Prof. John L. 

Myres 99 

i. 2 



iv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

F. — Increasing Returns and Economic Progress. By Prof. Allyn 

A. Young " 118 

G. — The Influence of Engineering on Civilization. By Sir William 

Ellis 128 

H. — The Archaeology of Scotland. By Sir George Macdonald 142 

I. — The Relation of Physiology to other Sciences. By Prof. C. 

LovATT Evans 150 

J.— The Mature of Skill. By Prof. T. H. Pear 168 

K. — Sex and Nutrition in the Fungi. By Prof. Dame Helen 

Gwynne-Vaughan 185 

L. — Education : The Next Steps. By Dr. Cyril Norwood 200 

M. — The Live Stock Industry and its Development. By Dr. J. S. 

Gordon 213 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 237 

SECTIONAL Transactions 533 

Discussion on the Teaching oe Geography in Scottish Schools 639 

On Inbreeding in Jersey Cattle. By A. D. Buchanan Smith 640 

Evening Discourse on the Study of Popular Sayings. By Prof. 

E. A. Westermarck 656 

Evening Discourse on the Mystery of Life. By Prof. F. G. Donnan, 

F.R.S 659 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 667 

References to Publications of Communications to the Sections 684 

Appendix to Report on Animal Biology in the School Curriculum . . 689 

Index • • 693 



THE CHARTER 

OF THE 

British Association for the Advancement of Science 



GEORGE THE FIFTH by the Grace of God, 
of Great Britain, Ireland and the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender 
of the Faith, Emperor of India : 

To all to whom these Presents shall come. 
Greeting ! 

TllUbereaS in the year One thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-one a Voluntary Association known as the British 
, Association for the Advancement of Science was formed to 
give a stronger impulse and a more systematic direction to 
scientific inquiry ; to promote the intercourse of those who 
cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire 
with one another and with foreign philosophers ; to obtain 
more general attention for the objects of Science and the 
removal of any disadvantages of a public kind which impede 
its progress : 

Hn& Mbereas the said Voluntary Association hath 
through its duly authorised Officers petitioned Us for a 
Charter of Incorporation such as is in and by these Presents 
granted : 

Htlt) MbereaS We are minded to comply with the 
prayer of such petition : 

IROW, 'Q;berefOre, We, by virtue of Our Royal Pre- 
rogative in that behalf, and of all other powers enabling Us 
so to do of Our Special Grace, certain knowledge, and mere 
motion do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs, and Successors, will, 
grant, direct, appoint, and declare to the said Voluntary 
Association as follows ; — 



Vi CHARTER OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

1. The persons now members of the said Voluntary 
Association and all such persons as shall hereafter become 
members of the Association hereby incorporated shall be 
one Body Corporate and Pohtic by the name of " The 
British Association for the Advancement of Science " and by 
that name shall and may sue and be sued, plead and be 
impleaded in all Courts whether of law or equity either in 
Our United Kingdom or in Our Dominions, Colonies or 
Dependencies and shall have perpetual succession and a 
common seal which may be changed or varied by it at its 
pleasure : 

And We do Hereby Further Grant and Ordain that the 
said British Association for the Advancement of Science 
(hereinafter called " the Association ") shall have and may 
exercise all or any of the powers, rights, authorities, and 
privileges and shall be subject to the duties and obligations 
hereinafter set forth and shall be entitled to the benefit of 
and be subject to the provisions hereinafter contained and 
such provisions shall have effect accordingly. 

2. The Association shall have power to acquire, take 
over and accept by way of gift from the Existing Association 
all the property, stocks, funds, securities and other assets of 
every description now belonging to the Existing Association 
or held in trust for or for the use of the same and to under- 
take, execute and perform any trust or conditions affecting 
any of such property, stocks, funds, securities or other assets 
and to give any trustees in whom the same may be vested a 
valid receipt, discharge and indemnity for and in respect of 
the transfer of the same to the Association. 

3. We do also hereby, for Us, Our Heirs, and Successors, 
license, authorise, and for ever hereafter enable the Associa- 
tion to purchase, take on lease or hire, accept on loan or as 
a gift or otherwise acquire or hold (without any further 
licence in Mortmain) any lands, buildings, easements or 
hereditaments of any tenure and any real or personal 
property of any description whatsoever and to construct, 
provide, maintain, repair and alter any buildings for all or 
any of the purposes of the Association, or for any purpose 
of carrying out the conditions of any trust affecting such 



CHARTER OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. vii 

buildings, but provided as regards any lands, tenements and 
hereditaments within Great Britain or Northern Ireland that 
the whole thereof shall not exceed the annual value of ten 
thousand pounds (to be determined according to the value 
thereof at the time when the same are respectively acquired) 
and so also that all lands, tenements or hereditaments devised 
or bequeathed to or for the benefit of the Association by any 
will or codicil or made over to or for the benefit of the 
Association by way of gift or any means may be accepted 
and held by the Association but only upon the terms that 
if and so far as the holding of the same premises may cause 
the Association to exceed such limit as aforesaid such premises 
shall be sold within one year from the date when the 
Association shall have become entitled thereto in possession. 
And We do hereby also for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, 
give and grant Our licence to any person or persons and 
any body politic or corporate, to assure in perpetuity, or 
to demise to or for the benefit of the Association any lands, 
tenements, or hereditaments whatsoever, so as the same do 
not exceed at any one time the annual value aforesaid. 

4. The objects and purposes of the Association shall be 
as hereinbefore recited as those of the Existing Association 
and for that purpose the Association shall have power — 

(i) To hold meetings of the members of the Association 
or public meetings at such times and in such places in 
Our United Kingdom or in Our Dominions, Colonies or 
Dependencies or elsewhere as the General Committee of the 
Association shall determine for the reading, hearing and 
discussing of scientific lectures or communications, and to 
hold or promote exhibitions of instruments, specimens and 
things and to promote intercourse between persons con- 
cerned or connected with Science. 

(ii) To compile, print, publish, lend, sell or distribute 
reports and proceedings of the Association. 

(iii) To enter into any arrangements with any Depart- 
ment of Our Imperial Government or of the Government 
of any part of Our Dominions or with any local or Muni- 
cipal Authority or any Corporation, Company, Society, 



viii CHARTER OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Association, body or persons whether incorporated or not 
whose objects are similar to any objects of the Association 
for the furtherance of those objects. 

(iv) To make grants of money or otherwise financially 
assist any scientific research or object approved by the 
General Committee or the Council of the Association as 
within the scope of the objects of the Association. 

(v) To accept and take by way of gift and absorb upon 
any terms approved by the General Committee and the 
Council the undertaking and assets of any Society or body 
whether incorporated or not carrying on work similar to any 
work for the time being carried on by the Association and to 
undertake and add to the expressed objects of the Association 
the objects of any other such Society or body. 

(vi) To receive and accept donations, endowments, and 
gifts of money, lands, hereditaments, stocks, funds, shares, 
securities and any other property and assets whatsoever and 
either subject or not subject to any special trusts or con- 
ditions but so that any powers conferred by this paragraph 
shall be subject to the proviso contained in Article 3 of this 
Our Charter, and to improve, manage, develop, sell, 
exchange, lease, let or otherwise dispose of or mortgage or 
otherwise charge or deal with or turn to account all or any 
property of the Association, provided that no disposition of 
any real property situated in Great Britain or Northern 
Ireland shall be made without such consent or approval (if 
any) as may be by law required therefor. 

(vii) To undertake, execute, and perform any trusts or 
conditions aflfecting any real or personal property of any 
description acquired by the Association. 

(viii) To do all such other acts and things as are or may 
be deemed incidental or conducive to the attainment of all 
or any of the purposes of the Association or the exercise of 
all or any of its said powers. 

5. Inasmuch as We have heretofore been Patron of the 
Existing Association We do hereby reserve to Ourselves to 
be the First Patron of the Association after the granting of 
this Our Charter. 



CHARTER OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. ix 

6. There shall be a General Committee of the Association 
being the governing body thereof and exercising such powers 
and consisting of such members with such qualifications as 
the Statutes of the Association shall direct. The first 
General Committee of the Association shall be the General 
Committee of the existing Association. 

7. There shall be a Council of the Association elected by 
the General Committee, being the executive body of the 
Association and exercising such powers and consisting of 
such number of members, to be elected and to hold office 
for such period, as the Statutes of the Association shall 
direct. The first Council of the Association shall be the 
Council of the existing Association. 

8. Of the Members of the said General Committee and 
Council of the Association one shall be the President of the 
Association, one shall be the General Treasurer thereof, and 
two or more shall be the General Secretaries thereof. And 
the said Officers shall be elected by the General Committee 
in such manner, hold office on such terms, and exercise such 
powers as the Statutes of the Association shall direct. And 
the Association shall have such other Officers and Servants 
as the Council of the Association may from time to time 
appoint. 

9. The terms and conditions of membership of the 
Association shall be such as the Statutes of the Association 
shall direct. 

10. The affairs of the Association shall be managed and 
regulated in accordance with the Statutes hereunto scheduled. 
Any of the Statutes may from time to time be altered, added 
to or repealed in manner provided by the Statutes and any 
new Statutes may from time to time be made in the like 
manner. Provided that no new Statute and no alteration 
of or addition to any of the Statutes shall have any force or 
eflTect if it be repugnant to any of the provisions of this Our 
Charter or to the Laws of Our Realm and that no such new 
Statute, alteration, addition or repeal shall take effect until 
the same has been submitted to and approved by the Lords 



X CHARTER OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

of Our Privy Council, of which approval the certificate of 
the Clerk of Our Privy Council shall be sufficient evidence. 

1 1 . The income and property of the Association whence- 
soever derived shall be applied solely towards the promotion 
of the objects of the Association hereinbefore expressed or 
undertaken in addition thereto, and no portion of the said 
income and property shall be paid or transferred by way of 
dividend, bonus or otherwise howsoever by way of profit 
to the members of the Association or any of them, except in 
the case of and as a salaried Officer of the Association, and 
provided that nothing in this Article shall prevent the 
exercise of the powers granted to the Association under 
Article 4 (iv) of this Our Charter. And the debts and 
liabilities of the Association shall at all times be discharged 
by the Association, provided that the liability of the 
members thereof shall not at any time exceed the amount 
of the annual subscription and other sums (if any) due 
from the said members. 

12. The Association shall have power through its 
General Treasurer to invest all moneys and funds of the 
Association which are not immediately required to be 
expended for the purposes thereof and which the Council 
think proper to be invested in such investments as may be 
authorised by the law for the time being in force for the 
investment of trust funds, or to deposit the same with any 
bank, and to grant, continue and pay such salaries, wages, 
pensions, gratuities, superannuation, retiring allowances or 
other sums in recognition of services (whether rendered 
before or after the granting of this Our Charter) as may 
from time to time be sanctioned by the Council. 

13. And We do hereby further declare that if and when 
the Association shall cease to be an Association for the 
purposes aforesaid and the affairs thereof shall have been 
completely wound up and its debts and obligations fully 
discharged this Our Charter shall be absolutely void, but 
that if on the winding up or dissolution of the Association 
there shall remain, after the satisfaction of all its debts. 



CHARTER OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. XI 

liabilities and obligations, any property whatsoever, the sum 
shall not be paid to or distributed among the members of 
the Association or any of them, but shall (subject to any 
special trusts affecting the same) be given and transferred to 
some other society or societies having objects similar to the 
objects of the Association to be determined by the General 
Committee at or before the time of dissolution or in default 
thereof by a Judge of the Chancery Division of Our High 
Court of Justice. 

14. The Council of the Association shall provide for the 
safe custody of the Common Seal thereof which shall never 
be used except by the authority of the Council previously 
given and in the presence of two members of the Council 
who shall sign every instrument to which the Seal is affixed. 

15. And We do hereby for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, 
Grant and Declare that these Our Letters Patent or the 
enrolment or exemplification thereof shall be in all things 
good, firm, valid and effectual according to the true intent 
and meaning of the same and shall be taken, construed and 
adjudged in all Our Courts or elsewhere in the most favour- 
able and beneficial sense and for the best advantage of the 
Association, any mis-recital, non-recital, omission, defect, 
imperfection, matter or thing whatsoever notwithstanding. 

3-n MitnesS whereof We have caused these Our Letters 
to be made Patent. 

MitneSS Ourself at Westminster the twenty-first day 
of April in the year of Our Lord One thousand nine 
hundred and twenty-eight and in the eighteenth year of 
Our Reign. 

3B^ Marrant under The King's Sign Manual. 

Schuster 




SEAL 



THE SCHEDULE 



British Association for the Advancement of Science 



STATUTES 



Chapter I. 

Objects and Constitution. 

Objects. 1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- 

ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in diflferent parts 
of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

Constitution. 2. The Association shall consist of Members and 

Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

Annual 3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or 

Meetings. longer, and at such other times as the General Committee 

may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 
in advance ; and 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association 



the arrangements for these meetings shall 



Constitution. 



Chapter II. 
The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, past 
and present Presidents of the Sections, and 
Recorders of Sections on retirement. 



STATUTES. xiii 

(6) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

o 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and Admission, 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
Genei'al Committee shall be final. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during Meetings. 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 

to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall— Functions, 
(i) Receive and consider the Report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the Report of the Committee 
of Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the Officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Chapter III. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

L The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 

mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 

Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 

Meeting, the President of the Conference of Delegates, the 



XIV 



STATUTES. 



General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, and the Presidents 
of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion. 
Functions. 2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and 

every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 
the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so trans- 
mitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section, for altering 
the title of a Section, or for any other change in the consti- 
tutional forms or statutes of the Association, shall be referred 
to the Committee of Recommendations for their consideration 
and report. 



Chapter IV. 
Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee to conduct research or administer a grant in aid of 
research, and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; 
and the Committee of Recommendations may include such 
recommendation in their Report to the General Committee. 



STATUTES. XV 

2. Every appointaient of a Research Committee shall be Constitution, 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 

at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Research Committees shall have power to add to their 
numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- Proposals by 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes Sectional 

of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

i. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. Tenure. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
ill that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Reseai'ch Committee shall present a Report, Reports. 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 

that at which it was appointed or reappointed, and may in the 
meantime present a Report through a Sectional Organising 
Committee to the Council. Interim Reports, whether in- 
tended for publication or not, must be submitted in writing. 
Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain whether a Report 
has been made by each Research Committee appointed on their 
recommendation, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Gkants. 

has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call ^'?^ Drawn by 

. , Chairman. 

on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 

as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (*) Expire at 
expire at the close of the financial year of the Association gjai^ygar °^"' 
following, to wit, on June 30, or on such other date as the 
General Committee may appoint. The General Treasurer is 
not authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account 
of such grants. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a ('") <^'««'''a*- 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

Chapter V. 

The Council. 
1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of Constitution. 
Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Committee. 



XVI 



STATUTES. 



Functions. 



Elections. 



(i) 



The ex officio Members are — Past Presidents of 
the Association, the President for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents for the ensuing 
Annual Meeting, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the Annual Meetings im mediately- 
past and ensuing. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 
on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same 
time as that of the Officei-s of the Association. 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 
{a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

. longest consecutive period, and 
(6) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 
London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 

Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 



STATUTES. j^^.jj 

(ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
Members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five Members at least, present at the meeting of 
the General Committee, require it to be by ballot. 

Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

\. The President shall assume office on the first day of the ihe Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he shall deliver a Presidential Address, flent. 
He shall resigii office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. Officers. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the The General 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs i'reasurer. 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general The General 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to ' *^*''^ anes. 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 

the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Secretary of the Association shall hold office during 'i'''e 
the pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 

of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 

I !t2H // 



x^•iii .STATUTES. 

be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Secretary shall be charged, subject as aforesaid : 
(i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Audit, 



Kxpenditure. 



Investments. 



Cheques. 



Caveat. 



Chapter VIT. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or his representative, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and shall 
prepare and submit to the General Committee, at the Annual 
Meeting, a balance-sheet of the funds of the Association 
completed to the close of the financial year. 

'1. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 
Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the 
account of the Association, and, with the authority of the 
Council, to invest on behalf of the Association part or all of 
the balance standing at any time to the credit of the Asso- 
ciation in the books of the Association's bankers, in such 
investments as may be authorised for the investment of 
trust funds. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 
his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 

6. No gift, bonus, dividend, or division in money shall be 
made out of the funds of the Association, to or between any 
of its members. 



STATUTKS. 



XIX 



Local Orti- 
cers and 
Commit tee> 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Coniiiiittees shall be formed to assist the General 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General 
Officers and the Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members, and to receive 
subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Conmiittees shall under- Functions 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 

4. The Council, in consultation with the Local Bxecutivt^. 
Committee of the Association for the Annual Meeting, may 
provide evening or other lectures during the meeting, to which 
the public, other than meml.ers of the Association, shall be 
admitted free, and shall appoint lecturers for this purpose, 
having regard to the scientific and educational needs and 
interests of the place of meeting and its neighbourhood. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- XHt) 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time Sbctioss 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

6 ^ 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Sectional 
comjiii'tees 

Constitution 



Co-optation. 



Additional 
Vice-Presi- 
dents. 



BXIiCUTlVE 

Functions, 



Of President 



and of 
Recorder. 



Orgauisiug 
Committee. 



XX STATUTES. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 
(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office, 
(ii) All past Presidents of that Section, 
(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 
Provided always that — 

(ffl) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 
[h) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

1. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on 
l^jehalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 
be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- 
mission, to the Secretary of the Association, of the pi-ogrannne 
of his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the 
Sectional Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, 
reports, or papers appertaining to the proceedings uf his 
Section at the Annual Meeting, and for the correspondence 
and minutes of the Sectional Committee. 

5. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the 
close of the Annual IMeeting, not more than six members of the 
Association who, together with the sectional officers and past 
Presidents of the Section, shall form a Sectional Organising 
Committee from the close of the Annual Meeting until 
the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of the ensuing 
Annual Meeting. 



STATUTES. xxi 

Each Organisinj^ Committee shall hold such meetings as 
are deemed necessary for the organisation of tlie ensuing 
Sectional proceedings, and may at any such meeting resolve 
to present a report to the Council upon any matter of interest 
to the Section, and shall hold a meeting on the first 
day of the Annual Meeting : to nominate members of the 
Sectional Committee, to confirm the Provisional Programme of 
the Section, and to report to the Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt °™™' ^^' 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by any member of the 
Association, or may arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted Reports, 
on its Minutes. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- Recommen - 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa 
tion, by reference to local authorities, public institutions, or 
Departments of His Majesty's Government, or otherwise. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Committee. 

6. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be Publication 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 

to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports of 
Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere than in 
the Annual Report without the express sanction of the Council. 

7. The copyright of addresses and papers ordered by the Copyrisi^hi. 
General Committee to be printed in extem^o in the Annual 



XXn STATUTES. 

Report shall be vested in the authors ; and the copyright 
of the Reports of Research Committees appointed by the 
General Committee shall be vested in the Association. 



Applications. 



Obligations. 



Expulsion. 



Conditions 
and Privileges 
of Member- 
ship. 



Chapter X. 
Admission of 31 embers. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member of the 
British Association ; but the Council is empowered, in the 
event of special circumstances arising, to impose suitable 
conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

The Council shall also have power to refuse any application 
for membership. 

Every person admitted as a Member shall conform to 
the Statutes and Regulations of the Association, and for any 
infringement thereof shall be liable to exclusion by the 
Council, who have also authority, if they think it necessary, 
to withhold from any person the privilege of attending any 
Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of admission already 
is.sued. 

If it shall appear to the Council that it is not desirable that 
a person shall continue to be a Member of the Association, 
the Council shall direct the General Secretaries to ascertain 
whether that person is willing to resign his membership. 

If that person do not, within a time to be fixed by the 
Council, either resign or appeal in writing to the General 
Committee, the Council may declare such person to be no 
longer a Member. Upon the appeal, the General Committee 
may make the like declaration by a majority of two-thirds of 
those present and voting. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

2. All Members, except as hereafter provided, are eligible 
to any office in the Association. 

(i) Every Life Member hereafter admitted shall pay, on 

admission, the sum of Fifteen Pounds. 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of One Pound, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Persons not exceeding twenty-three years of age, 
being students of universities or of any educational 



STATUTES. xxiii 

institution recognised by the Local Executive 
Committee or the General Officers of the Associa- 
tion, may obtain ' Students' Tickets ' for the Annual 
Meeting on payment of 10s. Holders of such 
tickets shall not be entitled to any privilege 
beyond attendance at the Annual Meeting, 
(iv) Transferable tickets, admitting one person tu any 
meeting or function during the Annual Meeting, 
shall be issued at the price of £\ 5s. Holders of 
such tickets shall not be entitled to any pri\ilege 
beyond such admission. No other tickets issued 
by the Association shall be transferable. 

3. Honorary Corresponding Members may be appointed Honorary 

by the General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. 5J,g''jj^°'J,er<,. 
They shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual Annual Sub- 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may scnptions. 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 

year of the Association. 

(i) Evei-y Life Member, whether admitted before or after The Annual 
theadoptionof these Rules,shall be entitled to receive Report. 
gratis,on demand, the Annual Reports of the Associa- 
tion issued in and after the year of admission. 

(ii) Annual Members attending an Annual Meeting 
shall be entitled to obtain the Report of that 
Meeting for an additional payment of lOi-. made 
before or during the Annual Meeting, or of 12s. Gd. 
made after the Annual Meeting within a period 
not extending beyond the close of the financial 
year of the Association. 

Provided that Annual Members who have paid 
the annual subscription of £\ without intermission 
from a date anterior to September 14, 1919, and con- 
tinue to do so, shall be entitled to receive the Annual 
Report, on demand, without further payment. 

(iii) Annual Members who pay the annual subscription 
of ^1, but do not attend the Annual Meeting, shall 
be entitled to receive the Annual Report, on 
demand, without further payment. 

(iv) Holders of Students' or tran.sferable tickets .shall not 
be entitled to receive the Annual Report on the 
terms above stated, 
(v) Subject to any statutory rights, or other considera- 
tions in the discretion of the Council, libraries and 



XXIV STATUTES. 

institutions shall be entitled to purchase the Annual 
Volume at a subscription rate of 12s. Qd. per annum, 
(vi) The publication price of the Annual Report shall be 
determined from time to time by the General 
Committee, 
(vii) Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication may be issued only by direction of the 
Council. 



Chapter XI. 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Affiliated 1, Corresponding Societies shall be constituted as follows : 

Societies, /.^ . o • i ■ i i i i i . •/. • 

(i) Any bociety which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society shall have the right to 
appoint a Delegate to attend the meetings of the 
Conference of Delegates. He shall be or become 
a Member of the Association, and shall be ex officio 
a Member of the General Committee. 
AsBociated ^jj^ ^^^ Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 

the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con 
ference. Such Delegates, provided that they are or 
become Members of the British Association, shall 
have all the rights of Delegates appointed by the 
Affiliated Societies, except that of membership of 
the General Committee. 

Correspond- 2. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- 

Societies nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the 

Committee, General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties. This Committee shall make an Annual Report to the 
Council, and shall suggest such additions or changes in 
the list of Corresponding Societies as they may consider 
desirable. 

Conference 3. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies, being Mem- 

or Delegates, foers of the Association, shall constitute a Conference, of 



STATUTES. XXV 

which the President and other officers shall be appointed 
by the Council, and which shall hold meetings under such 
conditions as the General Committee shall determine. 

Chapter XII. 

Amendments and New Statutes. 

Any alterations in the Statutes, and any amendments 
or new Statutes that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee, and referred forthwith to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations ; and, on the report of that Committee, shall be 
submitted for approval at a further meeting of the General 
Committee. 



REGULATIONS. 

Admission to Membership of the General Committee. 

1. Claims for admission to permauent membership of the General 
Committee must be lodged with the Secretary of the Association at least 
one month before the Annual Meeting, either by claimants themselves or 
by Eecorders on behalf of sectional Organising Committees desiring to 
make recommendations for admission. 

2. Claims for admission as a Temporary Member of the General Com- 
mittee may be sent to the Secretary at any time before or during the 
Annual Meeting. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

3. All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall be forwarded 
by the Recorder to the Secretary of the Association, who shall give 
previous notice of the hours at or before which such proposals must be 
received by him, for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. The Committee of Recommendations shall hold at least one meeting, 
and shall submit a report to the General Committee at the final meeting 
thereof, during the Annual Meeting of the Association. 

Research Committees. 

5. Research Committees shall be composed of Members of the Associa- 
tion, provided that it shall be competent for the General Committee to 
appoint, or for a Research Committee to co-opt, as an assessor or con- 
sultative member, any person, not being a Member of the Association, 
whose assistance may be regarded as of special importance to the research 
undertaken. 

6. The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before the Annual 
Meeting next following the appointment of the Research Committee, 
forward to the General Treasurer a statement of the sums that have been 
received and expended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains unexpended ; 
provided that a Research Committee may, in the first year of its appoint- 
ment only, apply for leave to retain an unexpended balance when or 
before its Report is presented, due reason being given for such application. 

When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 
retain the balance of a former grant, and also to receive a further grant, 
the amount of such further grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, 
together with the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 



REGULATIONS. xxvii 

7. If any payment of travelling expenses be contemplated out of a 
grant to a Research Committee, tlie amount to be so allocated shall be 
stated in the application for such grant, and such payment shall be 
expressly recommended by the Committee of Recommendations and 
approved by the General Committee (or in the event of subsequent 
emergency, by the Council), and shall be confined to railway or other fares. 

8. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money for 
collecting specimens of any description shall include in their Reports 
particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens thus obtained for 
disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any apparatus which may 
have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, and to state 
whether the apparatus is likely to be useful for continuing the research in 
question or for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of the Associa- 
tion, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall be deposited at the 
Office of the Association. 

Nomination of President of the Association by Council. 

9. Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the Council 
at the meeting in February, and the names selected shall be issued with 
the summonses to the Council meeting in March, when the nomination 
shall be made from the names on the list. 

Assistant to the General Treasurer. 

10. The General Treasurer may depute the Secretary or other salaried 
ofiicer to carry on under his direction the routine work of the duties of 
liis ofiice. Such officer shall be charged with the issue of membership 
tickets and such other work as may be delegated to him. 

Travelling Expenses, etc. 

11. The General Treasurer shall be authorised, subject to approval, 
and within limitations defined, by the Council, to defray travelling and 
other expenses of officers as follows : — 

(i) Railway fares and postages incurred by the President and 
General Officers in connection with the Annual Meeting, the 
meetings of the Council, and other meetings involved by the 
discharge of their official duties. 

(ii) Railway fares and subsistence expenses incurred by members of 
the Staff in connection with attendance at the Annual Meeting 
and otherwise in the discharge of their duties. 

(iii) Railway fares incurred by Recorders and Secretaries of Sections 
in connection with the Annual Meeting, and with the preceding 
joint meeting of the Organising Sectional Committees. 



xxviii REGULATIONS. 

(iv) Postages and essential clerical expenses incurred by the 

Recorders (or their sectional secretaries on their behalf) in the 

discharging of their duties, provided that no claim exceeding £5 

under this heading by any Recorder in any one year shall be 

allowed without the express sanction of the Council. 

It shall be competent for the Council, if they think desirable, to 

authorise payments in respect of travelling expenses to Members appointed 

by them to represent the Association at meetings of other bodies, for 

which formal invitation has been received. 

The Sections. 

12. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall not be used 
without sanction for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those 
of the Association. 

13. The Organising Committee of any Section may elect as a member 
of the Sectional Committee for its first meeting any Member of the Associa- 
tion who has intimated his intention of being present at the Annual 
Meeting. 

The Sectional Committee may elect to the committee any Member of 
the Association in attendance at the Annual Meeting. 

14. Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read also in 
any other Section. 

15. No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the Annual 
Report of the Association imless the manuscript has been received by the 
Recorder of the Section before the close of the Annual Meeting. 

Membership. 

16. It shall be competent for the Council to nominate, and for the 
General Committee to elect, any person to honorary membership for 
eminent services to the Association. 

17. It shall be competent for the General Treasurer, or the Secretary 
of the Association duly authorised by him, to issue complimentary 
membership tickets for any one Annual Meeting to : — 

(i) Honorary Corresponding Members attending the Meeting, and 
distinguished men of science from foreign countries or from the 
British Dominions overseas, invited by the Council to attend the 
Meeting as guests, on the nomination of the Organising Sectional 
Committees or otherwise, 
(ii) The local secretaries, local treasurers, and local sectional secre- 
taries for the Meeting, and any other persons resident in the 
locality of the Meeting whose services in connection with the 
local organisation thereof shall, in the opinion of the local 
secretaries after consultation with the Secretary, entitle them to 
honorary membership for the Meeting. 



REGULATIONS. xxix 

The General Treasurer shall bring to the notice of the Council, for 
consideration and action if desirable, any other proposal for the issue of 
complimentary tickets, save as provided in Regulation 17 below. 

18. The Council may before each Annual Meeting (other than meetings 
overseas), with the assent of the local executive committee, invite 
Universities and University Colleges in Great Britain to nominate each 
one or more students in science, not above the standing of B.Sc, as 
•' British Association Exhibitioners." 

Such Exhibitioners shall receive complimentary students' tickets for 
the Annual Meeting and their travelling expenses (fares) incurred in 
attending the Meeting shall be met or assisted out of the funds of the 
Association in accordance with a scale determined by the Council, and the 
Council shall consult with the local executive committee as to the defray- 
ment of their subsistence expenses during the Meeting. The Council shall 
also have power to enter into arrangements with university and other 
authorities respecting the attendance of other selected students whose 
expenses shall not fall upon the funds of the Association. 

19. It shall be competent for the Organising Sectional Committees to 
invite or accept communications at any Annual Meeting from persons not 
already Members of the Association, and the attention of such persons 
(if not entitled to complimentary tickets) shall be called to the terms of 
membership ; but if any such person shall be unable to attend the Meeting 
except on the day on which he is to deliver his communication, the 
Secretary shall have power to issue to him a card of admission to his 
Section for that day. 

20. It shall be competent for the General Treasurer, if desired by the 
local executive committee for any Annual Meeting, to enter into an arrange- 
ment with such committee under which each subscriber of five guineas or 
other agreed sum or upward to any fund raised to defray local expenses of 
the Meeting shall receive a membership ticket for that Meeting, the sum 
of fifteen shillings instead of one pound being payable from the local fund 
to the Association for each such ticket ; and it shall be competent for 
the Council to consider and adopt any proposal by a local executive 
committee for a special fee for such tickets for local members. 

21. An Annual Member subscribing in any year shall receive notices 
of the Annual Meetings in the four succeeding years ; but if during that 
period he shall not have resumed membership his name shall be removed 
from the current membership list to a suspense list. 

Annual Members being Members of the General Committee shall in 
like manner be entitled to receive notices of any special meetings or other 
business of the General Committee during the period of four years after 
the payment of their last subscriptions ; but their names shall thereafter 
be transferred to a suspense list ; provided that if any member whose 



XXX REGULATION.S. 

name has been so transferred shall subsequently resume his subscription, 
he shall continue in membership of the General Committee. 

22. It shall be competent for the Council, on the occasion of an Annual 
Meeting overseas, to require from members proposing to attend such 
meeting an expression of their intention to participate in the scientific 
transactions of the meeting. 

Printed Matter. 

23. Presidents shall be entitled to receive one hundred copies of their 
addresses without charge, and additional copies at the cost of reproduction. 
One hundred copies of reports of Research Committees printed in advance 
of the Annual Meeting shall be provided for use thereat ; additional copies 
at the discretion of the General Officers. Authors of communications 
ordered to be printed in exlniso in the Annual Report shall receive 
twenty-five copies of their communications without charge, and additional 
copies at the cost of reproduction. 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

24. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the list 
of Corresponding Societies. Such application must be addressed to the 
Secretary of the Association on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended it should be considered, and nmst, 
in the case of Societies desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by 
specimens of the publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

25. Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year on or before 
June 1, if requested to do so by the Secretary of the Association, such 
particulars in regard to the Society as may be required for the information 
of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

26. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretary 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member to take part in the 
discussions. 

27. The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to submit 
Resolutions to the Committee of Recommendations for their consideration, 
and for report to the General Committee. 

28. The Sectional Committees of the Association shall be requested to 
transmit to the Secretary for reference to the Conference of Delegates, 
copies of any recommendations to be made to the General Committee 
bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of Corresponding Societies 
is desirable. It shall be competent for the Conference of Delegates to 
invite the authors of such recommendations to attend the meetings of the 



REGULATIONS. j^^^j^j 

Conference in order to give verbal explanations of their objects and of the 
precise way in which they desire these to be carried into effect. 

29. It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the 
Conference, in order that they may be able to bring such recommendations 
adequately before their respective Societies. 

30. The Conference may also discuss propositions regarding the 
promotion of more systematic observation and plans of operation, and of 
greater uniformity in the method of publishing results. 

Amendments to Regulations. 

31. Any alterations in the Regulations, and any amendments or new 
Regulations that may be proposed by the Council or individual Members, 
shall be notified to the General Committee at its first meeting during the 
Annual Meeting, and referred forthwith to the Committee of Recommenda- 
tions ; and, on the report of that Committee, shall be submitted for 
approval at the last meeting of the General Committee. Provided that 
the Council may bring into operation in the interval between Annual 
Meetings any amendment within the scope of its functions, and shall 
report the same to the General Committee at the ensuing Annual Meeting. 



§ritislj |^ssactati0n for live g^bbanr^ment 

0f Sritnct. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1928-29. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, K.B.E., D.Sc, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. 
Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR THE GLASGOW MEETING. 



The Rt. Hon. the Lord Provost of 

Glasgow (Sir David Mason, O.B.E.). 
His Grace the Duke or Montrose, 

C.V.O., C.B. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Home. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, 

D.S.O. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Blythswood, 

K.C.V.O., D.L. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Belhaven and 

Stenton. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Invernairn. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Weir, LL.D. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Maclay, LL.D. 



The Rt. Hon. Sir John Gilmotjr, Bt., 
D.S.O., M.P. 

Sir Donald Macalister, Bt., K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.L., Principal of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow. 

Sir John Maxwell Stirling-Maxwell, 
Bt., D.L., LL.D. 

Sir James Bell, Bt., C.B., D.L., LL.D. 

Sir D. M. Stevenson, Bt., D.L., LL.D. 

Sir Archibald McInnes Shaw, C.B., 
D.L.. LL.D. 

Sir Matthew W. Montgomery, D.L., 
LL.D. 

Prof. F. 0. Bower, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN 

MEETING. 



H.E. the Governor-General. 

The Prime Minister of the Union of 
South Africa. 

The Minister for Education. 

Lt.-Gen. the Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C, 
C.H. 

The Administrator of the Cape 
Province. 

The Administrator of the Natal 
Province. 

The Administpatok of the Orange 
Free State. 

Tlie Administrator of the Transvaal 
Province. 

The Vice-Chancbllor of the Uni- 
versity OF South Africa. 

The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Cape Town. 

The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity OF Stellenbosch. 

The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity OF THE WiTWATERSRAND. 

The Mayor of Johannesburg. 

The Mayor of Cape Town. 

1928 



The Mayor of Pretoria. 

The Principal of the University of 

THE WiTWATERSRAND. 

The President of the Transvaal 

Chamber of Mines. 
The President of the Associated 

Chambers of Commerce. 
The President of the South African 

Federated Chamber of Industries. 
Sir F. Drummond Chaplin, K.O.M.G., 

M.L.A. 
Sir William Dalrymple, Chairman of 

Council, University of the Witwaters- 

rand. 
Hon. J. W. Jagger, M.L.A. 
Prof. J. A. Wilkinson, Chairman of the 

General Committee of the South 

African Association. 
The President of the Associated 

Scientific and Technical Societies 

OF South Africa. 
Ai.PHEUS F. Williams, General Manager, 

De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. 
Acting Chief Justice Jacob de Villiers. 



XXXIV 



OFFICERS AND UOUNCIL. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 

Sir JosiAH Stamp, G.B.R., D.Sc. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Prof. J.L.Myrbs, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.S.A., 1 F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
F.B.A. I 

SECRETARY. 
0. .1. R. HuWABTH, O.B.E., M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. J. H. AsHWOKTH, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe, K.B.E. 

Prof. A. L. Bowley. 

Prof. C. BtniT. 

Prof. E. G. CoKEK, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Dalby, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. H. Dale, Sec. R.S. 

Prof. C. LOVATT l']VANS, F.R.S. 

Sir J. S. Flett, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. 
Sir R. A. Gregory. 

Prof. D.amo Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, 
D.B.E. 



C. T. Heycock, F.R.S. 

A. R. HiNKS, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Col. Sir H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. 

C. G. T. MoRisoN. 

Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. P. NuNN. 

Prof. A. O. Rankin E. 

C. Tate Regan, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. C. Seward, "F.R.S. 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Dr. N. V. SiDGWicK, F.R.S. 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, C.B., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Past-Presidents of the Association, the President for the j'ear, the President and 
Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers 
and Local Secretaries for the Annual Meetings immediately past and ensuing. 



PAST-PRESI DENTS 

the Earl of Balfour, CM. 



Rt. Hon 

F.R.S. 
Sir E. Ray Lankestee, K.C.B., F.R.S, 
Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 
Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons, O.M.. K.C.B. 

F.R.S. 



OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

, I Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., 
I G.B.E., F.R.S. 

I Sir Ernest Rutherford, O.M.,Pres.R.S. 
; Major-Gen. Sir David Bbucb, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 
Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S. 
I H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. H. Turner. F.R.S. 
Dr. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 



Prof. A. Bowlky. 



HON. AUDITORS. 

I Prof. A. W. Kibkaldy. 



XXXV 

LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE GLASGOW MEETING. 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 

Prof. Magnus McLean, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.E. 

Prof. J. Graham Kerr, M.A., F.R.S. 

LOCAL HON. TREASURER AND ACTING SECRETARY. 
Sir John S. Samuel, K.B.E., D.L., F.R.S.E. 



SECTIONAL OFFICERS. 

A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

President.— Ptoi. A. W. Porter, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.—Proi. W. L. Bragg, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. Taylor Jones , Prof. T. M. 

MacRobert : Prof. John Miller ; Prof. James Muir ; Prof. R. A. Sampson, 

F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 

Secretaries.— Ca,Tpt. F. Entwistle ; W. M. H. Greaves ; Prof. E. H. Neville. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. R. A. HousTOUN. 

B.— CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Proi. E. C. C. Baly, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. G. G. Henderson, F.R.S. ; Dr. N. V. Sidqwick, F.R.S. ; 

William Rintoul. 
Recorder. — Prof. C. S. Gibson. 

Secretaries. — Prof. J. C. Drummond ; Dr. E. K. Rideal. 
Local Secretaries. — Prof. F. J. Wilson ; Dr. S. H. Tucker. 

C— GEOLOGY. 

President. — E. B. Bailey, M.C, Leg. d'Hon. 

Vice-Presidents. — Ernest J. Edwards ; Dr. Gertrude Elles ; Sir John Flett, 

K.B.E., F.R.S. ; Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R..'^. : Prof. F. E. Suess : Dr. Herbert 

H. Thomas, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — I. S. Double. 

Secretaries. — H. C. Veesey ; Dr. A. K. Wells. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. G. W. Tyreell. 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. W. Garstang. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. G. P. Bidder ; Prof. J. Graham Keer, F.R.S. ; Prof. L. A. L. 

King. 
Recorder. — Prof. F. Balfoue Beowne. 
Secretary. — G. Leslie Puesee. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. G. S. Carter. 

e 2 



Xxxvi OFFICERS OF SEOTION.S, 1928. 

E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
President. — Prof. J. L. Myees. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. R. N. Rudmose Browm ; Prof. Douglas Johnson ; S. Mayor : 
A. Stevens ; Sir D. M. Stevenson. 

Recorder. — W. H. Baekee. 

Secretary. — R. H. Kinvig. 

Local Secretary. — P. R. Ceowe. 

F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Prof. Aixyn Young. 

Vice-Presidents.- — C. R. Gibson ; Prof. D. H. Macgbegoe ; G. A. Mitchell ; P. D. 
Ridge-Beedle ; Prof. W. R. Scott. 

Recorder. — R. B. Foeeestee. 

Secretaries. — Dr. J. A. Bowie ; Dr. K. G. Fenblon. 

Local Secretary. — J. W. Nisbet. 

G.— ENGINEERING. 
President. — Sir William Ellis, G.B.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. D. Coemack, C.M.G., C.B.E. ; Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson ; 
Prof. A. L. Mellanby. 

Recorder.— Plot. F. C. Lea. 

Secretaries. — Prof. G. Cook ; J. S. Wilson. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. R. M. Beown. 

H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
President. — Sir Geoege Macdonald, K.C.B., F.B.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— rroi. T. H. Bryce, F.R.S. ; Dr. V. Christian ; Prof. F. G. 
Parsons ; Prof. E. Westeemarck. 

Recorder. — E. N. Fallaize. 

Secretary. — L. H. Dudley Buxton. 

Local Secretary. — T. NicoL. 

I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. C. Lovatt Evans, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Proi. E. P. Cathcart, C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Dr. C. G. Douglas, CM G , 
F.R.S. ; Prof. J. J. R. Macleod ; Prof. D. Noel Paton, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. e! 

ROAF. 

Recorder. — Dr. M. H. MacKeith. 
Secretary. — Prof. B. A. McSwiney. 
Local Secretary. — R. C. Gaeey. 

J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

President.— Pioi. T. H. Pear. 

Vice-Presidents.— Br. W.Bb.owi<i ; Dr. J. Drever ; Dr. J. L. McIntyee ; Dr C S 
Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. ' ' " 

Recorder. — Dr. S. Dawson. 

Secretaries. — R. J. Bartlett ; Dr. Maby Collins. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. R. H. Thouless. 



OFFlCERiS OF SECTIONS, 1928. XXXvii 

K.— BOTANY. 

President. — Prof. Dame Helen GwYNNE-VAuaHAN, D.B.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. M. F. Drummond ; Prof. David Ellis ; Prof. F. E. 
Fritsch ; Sir John Stirling -Maxwell, Bt. 

Chairman, Dept. of Forestry. — Rt. Hon. The Earl of Home ; Vice-Chairman. — 
Sir John Stirling-Maxwell, Bt. 

Recorder. — Prof. J. McLean Thompson. 

Secretaries. — Prof. A. W. Borthwiok (Dept. of Forestry) ; Dr. H. S. Holden ; Prof. 

W. Robinson. 
Local Secretaries. — Dr. John Thomson ; T. W. Hamilton (Dept. of Forestry). 

L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
President. — Dr. Cybil Norwood. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Duchess of Atholl, D.B.E. , M.P. ; Dr. William Boyd ; 
George A. Burnett ; John Clark, C.B.E. 

Recorder. — G. D. Dunkerlby. 

Secretaries.— R. E. M. Icely ; E. R. Thomas. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. D. MacGillivray. 

M.— AGRICULTURE. 
President.— Dt. J. S. Gordon, C.B.E. 
Vice-Presidents.— G. G. T. Morison ; Principal W. G. R. Paterson ; Sir David 

Wilson, Bt. 
Recorder. — Prof. G. Scott Robertson. 
Secretary. — Dr. B. A. Keen. 
Local Secretary. — Prof. R. A. Berry. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 
President. — Dr. Vaughan Corvtsh. 



XXXVIU 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



TABLE OF 



Uate of Meetiug 



Where held 



Presidents 



1831, Sept. 27 , 

1832, June 19.. 

1833, June 25 .. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10 .. 

1836, Aug. 22.. 

1837, Sept. 11.. 

1838, Aug. 10 ., 

1839, Aug. 26 ., 

1840, Sept. 17. 

1841, July 20 . 

1842, June 23. 

1843, Aug. 17 . 

1844, Sept. 26. 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10., 

1847, June 23 . 

1848, Aug. 9 . 

1849, Sept. 12 . 
1860. July 21 . 
18B1, July 2.... 

1852, Sept. 1 . 

1853. Sept. 3 . 
1864, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 . 

1856, Aug. 6 . 

1857, Aug. 26 . 

1858, Sept. 22 . 

1859, Sept. 14 . 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 . 

1862, Oct. 1 . 

1863, Aui. 26 . 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 . 

1866, Aug. 22 . 

1867, Sept. 4 . 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18.. 

1870, Sept. 14. 

1871, Aug. 2 . 

1872, Aug. 14. 

1873, Sept. 17. 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15 . 

1878, Aug. 14 . 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1 888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 
18!tO, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1896, Sept. 11 . 
1893, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 . 

1898, Sept 7 

1899, Sept. 13 



York 

O.xford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne.. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymoutli 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

ShefBeld 

Swansea .. 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-ou-Tyne. 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham... 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 



Viscount Milton, D.O.L., F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.K.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 
Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
The Rev. Provost LIoyd.LL.D., F.R.S 
Tbe Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S, 
The Rev. W. Verm .nHarcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S, 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, P.G.S. 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. 
The Rev. 6. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John P. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R. 
Sir Roderick I.Murehison,Bart.,F.R. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. 
TheMarquis of Northampton,Pres.R, 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.,F.R. 
Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S... 
G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S, 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R!s 

William Hopkins, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll. F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S. 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor WiUi3,M.A.,F.R.S, 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The DukeofBuccleuch, K.O.B.,F.R, 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S.' 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S.'" 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Dr. 0. W. Siemens, F.R.S. . 
Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., F.R.S. ..'.'.'.'. 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. [ 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S. " 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S 
The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G..F.R,S 
Sir Douglas Galton. K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Orookes, F.R.S '..',',', 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.E.S. 



Old Life 
Members 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
236 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
330 
120 
281 
296 



New Life 
Members 



65 
169 
28 
160 
36 
10 
18 
3 
12 
9 
8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
36 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 
8 
19 
20 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
\_Continved on p. xl. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



NXXIX 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 













f 


A mniinl 




Sums paid 1 




ow 

Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


received 

for 
Tickets 




on account 1 
of Grants i 


Tear 


Members 


Members 






1 




'or tjcieutiflC' 
Purposes 










1 

~ 1 


353 







1331 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— - 





— 




— 


1832 





— 


— 


— 


— 


900 


— 


1 


— 


1833 





— 


— 


— 


— 


1298 


— 




£20 


1834 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




107 


1835 





— 


— 


— 


— 


1350 


— 




435 


1836 





_ 


— 


— 


— 


1840 


— 




922 12 6 


1837 





— 


— 


1100* 


— 


2400 


— 




932 2 2 


1833 








— 


— 


34 


1438 


_ 




1595 11 


1839 








— 


— 


40 


1353 


_ 




1546 16 4 


1840 


46 


317 


— 


60* 


— 


891 


— 




1235 10 n 


1841 


76 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1316 


— 




1449 17 8 


1842 


71 


186 


— 


160 


— 


— 


— 




1565 10 2 


1843 


46 


190 


9t 


260 


_ 


_ 


— 




981 12 8 


1844 


94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 




831 9 9 


1845 


66 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 




685 16 


1846 


197 


40 


495 


203 


63 


1320 


— 




208 5 4 


1847 


64 


26 


376 


197 


16 


819 


£707 





275 1 8 


1848 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 





159 19 6 


1849 


128 


42 


610 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 





345 18 


1850 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 





391 9 7 


1851 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


2085 





304 6 7 


1852 


66 


67 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 





205 


1853 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1R02 


1882 





380 19 7 


1864 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 





480 16 4 


1855 


104 


48 


412 


316 


9 


1115 


1098 





734 13 9 


1856 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 





507 15 4 


1857 


111 


91 


710 


609 


13 


1698 


1931 





618 18 2 


1858 


126 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 





684 U 1 


1859 


177 


69 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 





766 19 6 


1860 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


16 


3138 


3944 





nil 5 10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 





1293 16 6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 





1608 3 10 


1803 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 





1289 15 8 


1804 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 





1591 7 10 


1865 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 





1750 13 4 


1866 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 





1739 4 


1807 


220 


117 


720 


682 


45J 


2004 


2042 





1940 


1808 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 





1622 


1809 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 





1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 





1472 2 6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 





1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 





1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 





1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 





960 


1875 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 





1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 





1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 





725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 





1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 





731 7 7 


1880 


313 


176 


1230 


614 


24 


2557 


2689 





476 8 1 


1881 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 





1126 1 11 


1882 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 





1083 3 3 


1883 


317 


219 


826 


74 


26 & 60 H.{ 


1777 


1855 





1173 4 


1884 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 





1385 


1885 


428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 





1186 18 


1887 


399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 





1511 5 


1888 


412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 





1417 11 


1889 


368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 





789 16 8 


1890 


341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 





1029 10 


1891 


413 


141 


73:^ 


439 


50 


2070 


20O7 





864 10 


1892 


328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 





907 15 6 


1893 


435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 





683 15 


1894 


290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 





977 16 6 


1895 


383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 





not 6 1 


1896 


286 


125 


1 682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 





, 1059 10 8 


1897 


327 


96 


1 1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 





1212 


1898 


324 


1 68 


548 


120 


27 


1 1403 


1328 





1430 14 3 


1899 



X Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for tbis Meeting 

[ Continued on p. xli. 



xl 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 

Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Riicker, D.Sc, SecJl.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.O.B., F.R.S. 

Prof . E. A. Sohafer, F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

1 Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S \ 

Hon. Sir 0. Parsons, K.O.B.,F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir T. E. Thorpe, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir 0. S. Sherrington, CI.B.E., 
Pres. R.S 

Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S. 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 

H.R.H. The Prince of V.^ales, E.G., 

F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S 

Sir William Bragg, K.B E., F.R.S. ... 


Old Life 
Members 

267 
310 
243 
250 
419 
115 
322 
276 
294 
117 
293 
284 
288 
376 
172 
242 
164 

235 

288 
336 

228 

326 
119 
280 

358 
249 
260 


New Life 
Members 




1900, Sept. 5 

1901, Sept. 11 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept. 9 

1904, Aug. 17 

1905, Aug. 16 

1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 

1908, Sept. 2 

1909, iug. 25 

1910, Aug. 31 

1911, Aug. 30 

1912, Sept. 4 

1913, Sept. 10 

1914, July-Sept.... 

1915, Sept. 7 

1916, Sept. 6 

1917 

1918 

1919, Sept. 9 

1920, Aug. 24 

1921, Sept. 7 

1922, Sept. 6 

1923, Sept. 12 

1924, Aug. 6 

1925, Aug. 26 

1926, Aug. 4 

1927, Aug. 31 

1928, Sept. 5 


Bradford . 


13 

37 
21 
21 
32 
40 
10 
19 
24 
13 
2S 
21 
14 
40 
13 
19 
12 

47 

11 

9 

13 

12 

7 
8 

9 

9 

10 




Glasgow 




Belfast 




Southport 




Oambridge 




South Africa 




York 




Leicester 




Dublin 




Winnipeg 




Sheffield 




Portsmouth 












Australia ... ... 




Manchester 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne . . . 
(No Meeting) 




(No Meeting) 




Bournemouth 




Cardiff 




Edinburgh 




Hull 




Liverpool 

Toronto 




Southampton 




Oxford 




Leeds 




Glasgow 









' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

" Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

' Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association FranQaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, 10s. 

■ Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xli 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 



ow 

Annual i 


New ! 
Annual 


1 

Asso- 
ciates 1 


Ladies 


foreigners 


Total 


Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 

£1801 


Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 


Year 


Members 


Members . 






1 
1 


or Scientific 
Purposes 

61072 10 




297 


46 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1900 


374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 


920 9 11 


1901 


314 


86 


647 


306 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 


319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 


449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 


937' 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 


366 


93 


817 


362 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 


339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 


466 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 


290' 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 


379 


67 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 


349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 


368 


95 


1292 


359 


88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 


480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


2643 


2756 


978 17 1 


1913 


139 


4160» 


639= 


— 


21 


6044" 


4873 1861 16 4« 


1914 


287 


116 


628* 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 


1569 2 8 


1915 


260 


76 


261* 


73 


— 


826 


821 


985 18 10 


1916 




















677 17 2 


1917 






















326 13 3 


1918 


264 


102 


688* 


153 


3 


1482 


1736 


410 


1919 




Annual Membe 


rs 






Old 




Transfer* 


Students' 












Annual 






able 




Hegulat , 
Members 


Meeting 

and 
Beport 


Meetl 
onli 


„g Tickets 


Tickets 












136 


192 


67 


42 


120 


20 


1380 


1272 10 


1251 13 0' 


1920 


133 


410 


1394 


121 


343 


22 


2768 


2599 15 


618 1 10 


1921 


90 


294 


75' 


r 89 


235» 


24 


1730 


1699 5 


772 7 


1922 




Compli- 












mentary. 










123 


38U 143 


( 163 


550 


308' 


3296 


2735 15 


777 18 6' 


1923 


37 


520 186 


; 41 


89 


139 


2818 


3165 19'»1197 5 9 


1924 


97 


264 87 


i 62 


119 


74 


1782 


1630 6 


1231 


1925 


101 


453 


233 


i 169 225 


69 


3722 


3542 


917 1 6 


1926 


84 


334 


148 


7 82 264 


161 


2670 


2414 5 


761 10 


1927 


76 


554 


183 


5 64 201 


74 


3074 


3072 10 


1259 10 


1928 



* Including grants from tlie Caird Fund in tbis and subsequent years. 
' Including Foreign Giiesta, Exhibitioners, and otliers. 

■ Tlie Bournemouth Fund tor Kesearoh, initiated by Sir 0. Parsons, euftbled grants on account of 
scientific purpo.ses to be maintained. 

• Including grants from the Caird Gift for research in rndinaotivity in this and subsequent years 

"'" Subscriptions paid in Canada were .f 5 for Moeting only and other? pro rata ; there was some 
L'ain on exchange. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1927-28. 



I. The Council desires to congratulate the General Committee upon 
the success of the petition to H.M. the King in Council, made on the 
Committee's instruction by the President and General Officers, for the 
grant of a Royal Charter of Incorporation to the Association. The grant 
was approved on March 22, and the Charter was received on April 27. 

The Council conveyed to Mr. A. A. Campbell Swinton its warm thanks 
for his generous donation of £200, covering the costs of the Charter and 
expenses incidental to its acquisition. 

The Council has caused the Association's securities, hitherto in the 
hands of Trustees, namely Major P. A. MacMahon, Sir Arthur Evans, and 
the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, to be transferred to the Association itself. 
The Council commends the generous services of the Trustees to the General 
Committee for an expression of their appreciation. 

The Council has had under consideration those of the former Rules of 
the Association which have not been embodied in the Statutes appended 
as a schedule to the Charter, has amended and added to them, and submits 
them to the General Committee and the Committee of Recommendations 
for consideration and adoption as Regulations supplementary to the 
Statutes. 

II. The Council tendered its grateful thanks to H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales for his gift of a signed portrait as a memento of his presidency. 

III. The President sent to the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Balfour, K.G., O.M., 
F.R.S. (President, 1904), a telegram expressing good wishes, on behalf of 
the Association, on the occasion of Lord Balfour's eightieth birthday. 

IV. The Council has had to deplore the loss by death of the following 
office-bearers and supporters : Dr. C. Chree, Lt.-Col. Allan Cunningham, 
Dr. H. F. Gadow, Dr. D. G. Hogarth, Dr. J. Home, Prof. A. Liversidge, 
Mr. W. C. F. Newton, Sir A. E. Shipley, Sir A. Strahan. 

The Council forwarded to the Linnean Society a message of condolence 
on the death of Dr. Daydon Jackson. 

V. Sir Thomas Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., F.R.S., has been unani- 
mously nominated to fill the office of President of the Association for the 
year 1929-30 (South African Meeting). 

In accordance with the practice usual in connexion with an overseas 
meeting, the Council has appointed a committee, consisting of the President 
and General Officers, Lord Bledisloe, Sir William Bragg, Sir Richard Gregory 
and Sir Thomas Holland (with power to add to their number), to assist 
it in making arrangements for the South African Meeting. The Secretary 
of the Association has visited South Africa to confer with the authorities 
there on the arrangements, and has reported to the Council. The principal 
points in his report, which has been approved and adopted by the Council, 
are as follow : 

He was in consultation with the local executive at Johannesburg, appointed by 
the South African Association for the Advancement of Science (the inviting body) 
to arrange the meeting ; he also met the local Committee at Cape Town, and 
university, municipal, and other authorities at both these cities and at Pretoria. He 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1927 28. xliii 

found everywhere enthusiasm for the visit ; and the list of tliose members of the 
(loticral Committee who indicated in April last the possibility that they would visit 
South Africa gave much satisfaction (and has since been published in the Press). 

The Secretary found cogent reasons for amending the proposed date of the meeting, 
so that it may begin in Cape Town on July 22, 1929 (instead t)f Julj^ 29), and he took 
the responsibility of fixing this (as he was asked to do) on behalf of the Association. 
The Council is satisfied with his reasons for thus anticipating the decision of the 
General Committee, and desires to endorse them. They are : 

(i) A general preference in South Africa for the earlier date, and, in particular, 
the greater convenience of the Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand 
(Johannesburg), where most of the meetings will be held. 

(ii) Opportunity for co-operation with the International Geological Congress at 
Pretoria, July 29- August 7. 

(iii) Opportunity for co-operation with a Government Departmental Agricultural 
Conference, and a Pan-African Agricultural and Veterinary Congress, beginning on 
August 2 in Pretoria, the latter being transferred from Rhodesia to that city in view 
of the Association's visit. 

Expected steamer sailings from England are more convenient with the earlier date. 

The general outline of the Meeting is as follows : 

Cape Town, July 22-July 28-29. Inaugural meeting, July 22, at which it is 
proposed that the president of the South African Association should address the 
meeting first, and that the new president of the British Association should then be 
installed, and reply. Sectional meetings, mornings only, July 23-26. Evening 
discourse, public lectures, excursions, &c. 

Call at Kimberley, July 29-30. 

Johannesburg, July 30-31-August 4. Presidential Address, July 31. Sectional 
Meetings, mornings only, July 31-August 3, and other arrangements as above. 
Pketokia, sectional transactions, &c., as appropriate in connexion with the 
co-operating congresses indicated above ; continuing to August 7. 

After the meetings, extended tours through the Union, to Victoria Falls, Rhodesia, 
Lourengo Marques, &c., as to which members wUl be afforded opportunity to indicate 
their preference. 

It is proposed that in consideration of a grant by the South African Association 
to the British Association of a sum not exceeding £500 and reckoned at £1 per head 
of the number of persons involved, the British Association should admit to membership 
members of the South African Association in good standing down to June 1929, 
entitling them to attend the meeting and receive the report if desired. From 300 to 
400 members are expected under this category, and the arrangement resembles that 
made in 1905. 

The report entered into many details of arrangements, wliich the 
Council, through its committee mentioned above, has already taken in 
hand. Particulars are expected to be available at the Glasgow Meeting. 
It should be added that the Secretary, in making the journey, was the 
guest of the South African Association ; and the Council, in gratefully 
accepting the invitation to him, offered to meet the costs incurred if a 
representative of the local executive should attend the Glasgow Meeting. 

The gratifying intimation has since been received that IVIr. James 
Gray, of Johannesburg, will do so in that capacity. 

An offer has been received from the Rhodes Trustees, and has been 
gratefully accepted by the Council, to make a grant of £200 toward any 
further authoritative investigation at the ruins at Great Zimbabwe under- 
taken in connexion with the South African Meeting. 

A generous invitation has been received from L' Association franyaise 
pour I'Avancement des Sciences, and from the City of Le Havre, for 
members unable to take part in the South African Meeting, to attend that 
of the French association in Le Havre, as was done in 1914. 



xliv REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1927-28. 

VI. Representatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follow : — 

Institute of Chemistry, Jubilee Celebration . Prof. E. C. C. Baly. 

Royal College of Physicians, Tercentenary 

of William Harvey . . . .Sir Charles Sherrington. 

Toronto University, Centenary Celebration . Sir Charles Sherrington. 

International Etruscan Congress . . Dr. Randall-Maclver. 

University College, Nottingham, opening of 
ne.T buildings Prof. J. L. MjTes. 

National Association for the Prevention of 

Tuberculosis, Congress .... Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Meetings convened by the Management 
Research Groups to consider rationalisa- 
tion in industry The President and Secretary. 

On the report concerning the meetings last mentioned, the Council resolved to 
welcome the proposal for management research groups ;i3 a step toward greater 
freedom in the interchange of information with a view to establishing mutual con- 
fidence and encouraging mutual service between enterprises of all kinds v.hich depend 
for their efficiency on the methods and results of scientific investigations. 

VII. The Council, in pursuance of instruction received from the General 
Committee, communicated to the British Science Guild the report of the 
joint committee, with a general approval of the conditions therein suggested 
upon which a union of the Guild with the Association might be 
effected. 

Further action by the Council of the British Science Guild is awaited. 

VIII. Resolutions referred by the General Committee at the Leeds 
Meeting to the Council for consideration, and if desirable, for action, were 
dealt with as follows : 

(a) Information has been requested as to the proposed content of the 
republished reports of the Mathematical Tables Committee in collected 
form, with other tables, with a view to arriving at an estimate of cost. 
A first and provisional estimate has been made, indicating a cost of £350 
for an edition of 1,000 of such a volume as is contemplated, or of £430 for 
an edition of 2,000. (Resolution of Section A.) 

(6) The Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, on being consulted 
as to the publication of the survey of the St. Kilda islands, informed the 
Council of his willingness to undertake the publication, and subsequently 
that publication had taken place. (Resolution of Section E, supplemented 
by Sections C, D, H, K.) 

(c) A resolution inviting the inclusion of geographical work in the 
programme of the proposed Great Barrier Reef Expedition was i -ferred 
to the Great Barrier Reef Committee. The Council is informed that 
expert geographers are included in the staff of the expedition. (Resolution 
of Section E.) 

(d) A letter ' was received from the Scottish Board of Education in 
answer to representations made on the teaching of geography in Scotland 
(Resolution of Section E). 

( ) In regard to the resolution authorising the Council to })ublish a 
new edition of ' Notes and Queries on Anthropology,' the Council has made 
an interim grant of £50 toward incidental expenses of the work of compila- 
tion, and awaits an estimate of the cost of publication. (Resolution of 
Section H.) 

' Fur letter and discussion in Section E, see p. 639. 



REPORT 0¥ THE COUNCIL, 1927-28. xlv 

(/) A resolution dealing with the low percentage of productive forest 
area in Great Britain was adopted with the addition of a reference to the 
rapid depletion of forests in other parts of the Empire, and was com- 
municated to the Empire Forestry Association and the Empire Marketing 
Board. (Resolution of Section K.) 

(g) In regard to resolutions from the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies, dealing with the preservation of British wild 
flora, the Council caused a circular letter to be addressed to 311 education 
authorities in England and Wales, inviting their support in strengthening 
and extending the movement toward this object, and received from some 
fifty of these authorities replies indicative of a realisation of the importance 
of the matter. The Council acknowledges with gratitude information 
placed at its disposal by the Home Ofl&ce, and has remitted further con- 
sideration of the question to the committee nominated by Section K 
(Botany) to deal with it. 

IX. The attention of the Council was drawn to the full account of 
the special sessions on textile subjects at the Leeds Meeting issued as a 
number of the Journal of the Textile Institute, Manchester, and to the 
warm appreciation of the action of^the Council, therein expressed, in 
arranging these sessions. 

X. The Council in its report for 1926-27 recorded its unsatisfactory 
negotiations with Government authorities on the subject of the introduc- 
tion of cinematograph films into this country for scientific purposes and 
not for commercial use. The Council is glad to learn that the difficulty 
encountered has now been overcome by the action of H.M. Government 
in undertaking to accept the certificate of the Royal Society as to films 
stated to be illustrative of scientific investigations. 

XI. The Council has received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His accounts have been audited and are presented 
to the General Committee. 

The Council made the following grants to research committees from 
the income of the Caird Fund : 

Naples Table .. £100 Seismology.. .. £100 

A sum of £10 10s. was voted toward the expenses of the Inquiry into 
the relationship of Technical Education to other forms of Education and 
to Industry and Commerce, upon which the Association was represented 
by Sir Robert Blair. 

The Council has been informed that under the will of the late Lt.-Col. 
Allan Cunningham a legacy will accrue to the Association for the purpose 
of continuing the work of preparing new mathematical tables. 

The Association, like the great majority of scientific societies, has been 
unable to recover income tax previously remitted upon income from 
invested funds. The cases regarded by the Inland Revenue authorities 
as test cases upon the liability of societies to taxation (Geologists' Associa- 
tion ; Midland Counties Institution of Engineers) have been decided 
against the societies by the Special Commissioners and in the High Court 
of Justice. The Council is informed that appeals against these decisions 
have been lodged. 

XII. The Corresponding Societies Committee has been nominated as 
follows : The President of the Association {Chairman ex-officio), Mr. T. 



xlvi 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1927-28. 



Sheppard (V ice-Chairman), the General Treasurer, the General Secretaries, 
Mr. C. 0. Bartrum, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir David Prain, 
Sir John Russell, Mr. M. L. Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney. 

The Council conveyed its congratulations to the Cardiff Naturalists' 
Society on the occasion of the Society's diamond jubilee. 

XIII. The retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize, Prof. J. P. Hill, Sir Thomas Holland, Prof. A. Smithells, Prof. 
T. B. Wood. 

The Council nominates the following new members : Prof. C. Burt, 
Mr. C. G. T. Morison, Sir Josiah Stamp, leaving two vacancies to be filled 
by the General Committee without nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : 



Prof. J. H. Ashworth. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe. 
Prof. A. L. Bowley. 
Prof. C. Burt. 
Prof. E. G. Coker. 
Prof. W. Dalby. 
Dr. H. H. Dale. 
Sir J. S. Flett. 
Sir Henry Fowler. 
Sir R. A. Gregory. 
C. T. Heycock. 
A. R. Hinks. 



Col. Sir H. G. Lyons. 
C. G. T. Morison. 
Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Prof. T. P. Nunn. 
Prof. A. 0. Rankine. 
C. Tate Regan. 
Prof. A. C. Seward. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. N. V. .Sidgwick. 
Dr. G. C. Simpson. 
Sir Josiah Stamp. 



XIV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as 
follows :— ■ 



General Treasurer : 
General Secretaries . 



Sir Josiah Stamp. 

Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. F. E. Smith. 



During its present session the Council has again been deprived of the 
presence of Dr. E. H. Griffiths, General Treasurer, owing to ill-health, but 
it is gratefully recorded that he has not allowed this to deprive the Council 
of his valuable advice and reports on the finances of the Association, which 
have been presented on his behalf by Dr. F. E. Smith as acting treasurer. 
Nevertheless Dr. Griffiths has felt it necessary again to tender his resigna- 
tion, and the Council, with the deepest regret, feels that he cannot again 
be pressed to withdraw it. In accordance with precedent, the Coimcil has 
consulted a committee consisting of the President, General Officers and 
ex-Presidents, in considering the nomination to be made in the room of 
Dr. Griffiths. 

XV. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : Dr. T. F. Chipp, Mr. Thurkill Cooke, Dr. Donald Patton, 
Mr. A. Lennox Stanton. 

XVI. Consultation has taken place with authorities in York as to the 
possibility of holding the Centenary Meeting of the Association there in 
1931. The Council, though appreciating the powerful sentiment which 
would attract the Association to its birthplace on this occasion, cannot but 
foresee difficulties associated mainly with the problem of housing a large 
number of visiting members at places distant from the city. The matter 
will be brought to the consideration of the General Committee at the 
Glasgow Meeting, and a possible alternative will be put forward. 



DOWN HOUSE. 

The following important announcement was made' to the General Com- 
mittee of the Association, meeting in Glasgow on September 5. regarding 
Darwin's home, Down House, in the County of Kent. Mr. George 
Buckston Browne, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 
and of the Society of Antiquaries, London, having acquired the property 
from Prof. Charles Galton Darwin, F.R.S., grandson of the naturalist, 
has transferred its possession to the British Association under the most 
liberal conditions and with an endowment amply sufl&cient for its 
niaintainance and preservation for all time. 

At present Down House serves as a private school. When the tenant's 

lease falls in or is acquired, the donor desires that the property be regarded 

as a gift to the nation and opened to visitors every day of the week between 

the hours of 10 and 6, without charge. He also desires that the Association 

should use Down House and grounds for the benefit of science. The donor 

has also suggested that certain of the rooms — particularly the old ' study,' 

in which the Origin of Species was written — should be furnished, as near 

as may be possible, as they were when Darwin lived in them. The donor 

has already taken steps to secure this end and has obtained the willing 

co-operation and greatest assistance from various members of the Darwin 

family. Indeed, without the generous co-operation of the Darwin family 

the transfer of ownership could not have been effected. The late Mrs. 

Litchfield, the third daughter of Charles Darwin, bequeathed for Down 

House her father's study chair and letter-weighing machine. Thanks also 

to the generosity of other members and friends of the Darwin family — 

Major Leonard Darwin, Prof. Charles G. Darwin, Mrs. Perrero, and Mrs. 

Berkeley Hill, together with acquisitions made by himself, Mr. Buckston 

Browne has already got together the nucleus of a Darwin collection for 

Down. He has commissioned the Hon. John Collier to paint replicas of 

his well-known portraits of Darwin and of Huxley to be hung at Down 

House ; these commissions are already completed. It is hoped that the 

shelves of the old study may be filled with all editions of Darwin's works, 

and that Down House may become a repository of Darwiniana where 

students will have an opportunity of consulting all original documents 

concerning Darwin and his writings. Such an end can be attained only if 

the British Association succeeds in enlisting the sympathetic co-operation 

of all who may be the fortunate owners of articles which were in the 

possession of Darwin or were associated with his life. 

The Donor. 

Mr. George Buckston Browne was born in Manchester in 1850. the only 
son of a well-known medical man — Dr. Henry Browne, physician to the 
Manchester Royal Infirmary and Lecturer on Medicine to the Manchester 
Medical School. Dr. Henry Browne represented the fourth generation of 
a medical dynasty where son had succeeded father, the founder of the 
family having been Dr. Theophilus Browne of Derby who was townsman 

1 By Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 



xlviii DOWN HOUSI'L 

and coutem2)orary of Dr. Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin. 
Mr. Buckston Browne continued the family tradition, representing the 
fifth medical generation. In 1866, at the age of sixteen, he matriculated 
as a student of London University, entered University College, was 
awarded medals in Anatomy, Chemistry and Midwifery, gained the gold 
medal for practical chemistry and the Liston gold medal in surgery. He 
became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1874 and gained in 
open competition the house-surgeoncy to his hospital (University College 
Hospital) where he served imder Sir John Erichsen. He also taught 
anatomy under Prof. Vines Ellis. No one ever trained himself more 
thoroughly for his profession. 

After his term in hospital, Mr. Buckston Browne was invited by Sir 
Henry Thompson, one of the most distinguished and accomplished 
surgeons of the Victorian era, to become assistant and afterwards 
collaborator. In 1884 he began practice on his own account and became 
very closely, and very successfully, engaged in work. Indeed, his 
application to his profession was such that for twenty-seven years, in the 
earlier period of his career, he had neither a free day nor holiday. Mr. 
Buckston Browne has contributed important articles to the literature of 
his profession, but it was his practical ability, unerring insight, and skilled 
hand which gained him his success and the esteem of his colleagues and 
of his patients. In 1926 the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons 
conferred on him the diploma of Fellow in recognition of his services to 
surgery. 

The donor of Down House has had, as his many friends well know, 
not only a successful life but also a very happy one. 

Mr. Buckston Browne's only daughter is the wife of Mr. Hugh Lett, 
C.B.E., Surgeon to the London Hospital, and brother of a distinguished 
artiste, Miss Phyllis Lett. In the Lett family Mr. Buckston Browne 
possesses three charming grand-daughters. 

But since the war death has laid a heavy hand upon his family. In 
1919 he lost his only son, Lt.-Col. George Buckston Browne, who was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Order for action in the field. Lt.-Col. 
Buckston Browne left an only son. He also was struck down in 1924, 
dying from typhoid fever in South Africa. A long line was thus brought 
to a sudden end. In 1926 Mrs. Buckston Browne died, a devoted 
partnership of fifty-two years being thus ended. Mrs. Buckston Browne 
rests in the churchyard of her native village, Sparsholt, Hants. Here her 
husband has endowed an almshouse for aged villagers in her memory. 

The History of Down- House. 

It may not be amiss to recount some of the circumstances which led 
up to the appeal for the preservation of Darwin's home. Some years 
before his death the late Sir Arthur Shipley, Master of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, where Darwin was an undergraduate, wrote to a member of 
the British Association as follows : ' It seems to me that Down House 

■^ On the Ordnance Survey maps the spelling is Downe, but as Darwin always 
wrote Doum without an ' e ' the latter spelling has been adopted. 



DOWN HOUSE. xlix 

ought to be a national possession. Do you know of any means by which 
this can be brought about ? ' On the eve of the Leeds Meeting of the 
British Association on August 31, 1927, the Council of the Association 
considered this matter and empowered the then President (Sir Arthur 
Keith) to make a public appeal at the close of his presidential address to 
the assembled Association. An urgent S.O.S. was sent out with the happy 
result which all now know. It was with as much surprise as satisfaction 
that Sir Arthur Keith learned that the man who answered the call was a 
Fellow of his own College. Indeed, he knew Mr. Buckston Browne as a 
generous benefactor to that College and to the Harveian Society, but was 
unaware of his love for Darwin and for Down. It was later that he 
learned that Darwin's friend Huxley had long ago exerted an abiding 
influence on the donor of Down. 

Darwin's Association with Down House. 

Darwin was born at Shrewsbury, February 12, 1809. Down House 
was purchased for him by his father, Dr. Darwin, and he took up his 
residence there on September 14, 1842. Darwin was then in his thirty- 
fourth year ; three years previoiisly he had married his cousin, Emma 
Wedgewood. His two eldest children, William and Anne, were born in 
London ; the third, Mary, was born and died just after arrival at Down. 
Then followed in 1843 Henrietta, who became Mrs. Litchfield ; in 1845 
George, who became Sir George Darwin, F.R.S., and whose son, Prof. 
Charles Darwin, F.R.S., succeeded to the ownership of Down and is the 
fifth of a succession of father and son who have been elected Fellows of 
the Royal Society — an unique record ; in 1847 Elizabeth was born ; in 
the following year Francis, who became Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. — a 
distinguished botanist and president of the British Association. His son, 
Bernard Darwin, is known to all as an exponent as well as an authority 
on golf. Leonard followed in 1850 — Major Leonard Darwin, scientist, 
philanthropist and the founder and still active supporter of the Eugenics 
Society. Then came Horace, now Sir Horace Darwin, F.R.S. , happily 
still alive. And last number 10, Charles "Waring Darwin, who died in 
childhood. Down was thus the home of a large and happy family, 
perhaps the most gifted family ever born in England. There the great 
naturalist died on April 19, 1882, in his seventy-fourth year. He worked 
continuously at Down for almost forty years. 

In that period he made his first draft of the Origin of Species (1842), he 
wrote his researches on the Zoology of the Beagle, on Coral Reefs, and 
prepared a new edition of a Naturalist's Voyage. Before he settled down 
to work at Barnacles, to which he gave seven years (1847-54), he 
prepared his papers on Volcanic Islands and on the Geology of South 
America. Preparations for the Origin of Species, which did not receive 
its final form until 1858-59, went on continuously from 1842 onwards. 
Then followed his inquiries into Fertilisations of Orchids (1862), Variations 
of Animals and Plants under Domestication (1868), Descent of Man (1871), 
the Expression of the Emotions (1872), Movements and Habits of Climbing 
Plants (1875) ; Insectivorous Plants appeared in the same year ; Cross 
and Self Fertilisation in 1876, and his last work of all, one which was 
begun Boon after he settled at Down, The Formation of Vegetable Mould 
1928 d 



DOWN HOUSE. 



N 




THE 
SANDWALH 



DOWN HOUSE. 




d2 



]ii DOWN HOUSE. 

through the Action of Worms. No single home in the world can show 
such a record. Truly from Down Charles Darwin shook the world and 
gave human thought an impress which will endure for all time. Down 
is a priceless heirloom not only for England but for the civilised world. 
One of the greatest men of all time lived there. 

As to the character of Down House, much is to be learned from the 
account which Sir Francis Darwin has given in his father's biography : — 

' On September 14, 1842, my father left London with his family and 
settled at Down. In the autobiographical chapter his motives for moving 
into the country are briefly given. He speaks of the attendance at 
scientific societies and ordinary social duties as suiting his health so 
" badly that we resolved to live in the country, which we both preferred 
and have never repented of." 

' The choice of Down was rather the result of despair than of actual 
preference ; my father and mother were weary of house-hunting, and the 
attractive points about the place thus seemed to them to counterbalance 
its somewhat more obvious faults. It had at least one desideratum — 
namely, quietness. Indeed, it would have been difiicult to find a more 
retired place so near to London. ... It is a place where newcomers are 
seldom seen, and the names occurring far back in the old church registers 
are still known in the village. 

' The house stands a quarter of a mile from the village, and is built, 
like so many houses of the last century, as near as possible to the road — a 
narrow lane winding away to the Westerham high road. In 1842 it was 
dull and unattractive enough ; a square brick building of three storeys, 
covered with shabby whitewash and hanging tiles. The garden had 
none of the shrubberies or walls that now give shelter ; it was overlooked 
from the lane, and was open, bleak, and desolate. 

' The house was made to look neater by being covered with stucco, 
but the chief improvement effected was the building of a large bow of 
three storeys. This bow became covered with a tangle of creepers, and 
pleasantly varied the south side of the house. The drawing-room, with 
its verandah opening into the garden, as well as the study in which my 
father worked during the later years of his life, were added at subsequent 
dates. 

' Eighteen acres of land were sold with the house, of which twelve acres 
on the south side of the house form a pleasant field, scattered with fair- 
sized oaks and ashes. From this field a strip was cut off and converted 
into a kitchen garden, in which the experimental plot of ground was 
situated, and where the greenhouses were ultimately put up.' 

To fill in some further details of this picture of Down we may also draw 
upon the description given by Mrs. Litchfield, in the life of her mother, 
Mrs. Darwin — {Emma Darwin, privately printed 1904). 

' For some time there had been a growing wish on the part of my 
parents to live in the country. Their health made London undesirable 
in many ways, and they both preferred the freedom and quiet of a country 
life. They decided to buy a country house, but out of prudence resolved 
upon not going beyond a moderate price, and as they also wished to be 
near London, there was a weary search before they found anything at all 
suitable. In her little diary, under July 22, 1842, I find the entry " went 



DOWN HOUSE. liii 

to ' Down,' " and this I think must have been the first sight of her future 
home. It was bought for them by Dr. Darwin for about £2,200, and the 
purchase was quickly completed, for they moved in on September 14, 1842. 
' Down was then ten miles from a station, and the whole neighbourhood 
was intensely rural and quiet, though only sixteen miles from London 

Bridge.' 

The two accompanying plans, the data for which were obtained throug 
the kindness of Major Leonard Darwin, will give a precise idea of the 
extent of the property and of the plan of Darwin's home. Fig. 1 shows 
the arrangement and extent of the grounds ; the figures indicate the 
acreage of each part. Down House is seen to be situated at 565-7 feet O.D. 
The plantation with the sand walk round it— Darwin's ' thinking path '— 
with the dry chalk valley beyond, are depicted ; so, too, are the orchard, 
gardens and hot-houses. In Fig. 2 is given a plan of the ground floor of 
Down House, the dimensions of each room being indicated in feet. It will 
be seen to be a commodious house, and remains just as Darwin lived in 
it. He added a new wing— that which includes the ' New Study and the 
New Drawing Room.' 



dS 



liv GENERAL MEETINGS. PUBLIC LECTURES. &o. 

GENERAL MEETINGS, ETC., IN 
GLASGOW. 

The Inaugural General Meeting was held on Wednesday, September 5, 
1928, at 8.30 p.m., in the St. Andrew's Hall. After the Lord Provost of 
Glasgow and the Principal of the University of Glasgow had welcomed 
the Association, Prof. Sir William Bragg, F.R.S., assumed the Presidency 
of the Association, in succession to Prof. Sir Art,hur Keith, F.R.S., and 
delivered an Address (for which see page 1) on ' Craftsmanship and 
Science.' A vote of thanks was proposed by Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. 

On Thursday evening, September 6, a Reception and Dance were 
given by the Lord Provost and Corporation of the City of Glasgow, in 
the City Chambers. On Monday evening, September 10, a Reception 
was given by the Local Committee in the Kelvinside Art Gallery. 

Evening Discourses. 

Prof. E. A. Westermarck: 'The Study of Popular Sayings.' 
8.30 p.m., September 7, Royal Technical College ; being the Frazer 
Lecture on Social Anthropology (see p. 656). 

Prof. F. G. Donnan, F.R.S. : ' The Mystery of Life.' 8.30 p.m., 
September 11, Royal Technical College (see p. 659). 

Public Lectures. 

The following were delivered under the joint auspices of the British 
Association and the Workers' Educational Association : — 

Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E. : ' The Influence of Money on Civilisation.' 
7 p.m., September 6, The University, Glasgow. 

Mr. D. Ward Cutler: 'Food Chains in Nature.' 7.30 p.m., 
September 6, Public Library, Coatbridge. 

Mr. W. H. O'K Manning : ' The Psychological Study of the Worker's 
Environment.' 7.30 p.m., September 7, Museum Hall, Paisley. 

Mr. A. Rex Knight : ' Psychology in the Workshop.' 7.30 p.m., 
September 7, St. Mungo's Hall, South York Street, Glasgow. 

Prof. Henry Clay : ' Post-War Unemplovment Problems.' 7.30 p.m., 
September 7, Town Hall, Motherwell. 

Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. : ' Our Sun.' 7.30 p.m., September 7, 
The University, Glasgow. 

Prof. 0. H. T. Rishbeth : ' The World's Surface re-made by Man.' 
7.30 p.m., September 10, Co-operative Memorial Hall, King Street, 
Tradeston. 

Concluding General Meeting. 

The Concluding General Meeting was held in the Fore Hall of the 
University on Wednesday, September 12, at 12 noon, when the following 
resolutions were adopted with acclamation : — 

The British Association most warmly thanks the Citizens and Corpora- 
tion of the City of Glasgow, through the Right Honourable the Lord 



CONCLUDING GENERAL MEETING— RESOLUTIONS. Iv 

Provost, for the City's generous hospitality on the occasion of the Meeting 
of the Association in 1928. The Association acknowledges the unremitting 
labour of Sir John Samuel and his able staff, to whose admirable organisa- 
tion the success of the meeting is so largely due ; and the especial gratitude 
of the Association is accorded to Sir John and his colleague Prof. Magnus 
Maclean for having again devoted their time to the work of local organisa- 
tion as they did in 1901. 

The British Association most gratefully acknowledges through the 
Principal the generous co-operation and hospitality of the University of 
Glasgow, on the occasion of the Meeting in 1928. The Association 
especially appreciates the comfort and smooth working of the Meeting 
which have resulted from having the magnificent buildings and resources 
of the University placed unreservedly at its disposal. 

The British Association deeply appreciates the facilities afforded to 
its members to acquaint themselves with the manifold economic, industrial 
and other scientific interests of the city and vicinity of Glasgow, by the 
Royal Technical College, the Clyde Trust, and other public institutions, 
manufacturers and civic authorities, and thanks all these for their kindly 
hospitality. 



RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The following resolutions and recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at Glasgow for consideration and, if 
desirable, for action : — 

From Section E. 

To recommend to Council that the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science call the attention of the Governments and Departments concerned to the 
urgent importance of securing as soon as possible the cohesion of surveys in the East 
African Dependencies, with a view to the early completion of the thirtieth meridian 
arc, which offers the best means of providing the essential unified framework iipon 
which the whole of the surveys of East Africa — geodetic, topographical and geological- — 
may be based without waste of effort. 

From Section E. 

To recommend to Council that the British Association represent to His Majesty's 
Government the desirability of completing as soon as possible the uniform map of 
Africa, published by the Geographical Section (General Staff), on the scale of 
1 : 2,000,000, a maj) which forms the only satisfactory base for various distributional 
studies in Africa ; and further, that on each sheet of the map to be issued in the 
future a diagram be inserted to indicate the I'elative reliability of different areas of 
the map. 

From Section E. 

To call the attention of His Majesty's Government to the need for supplementing 
the periodical revision of Ordnance Survey maps by emergency revisions of areas 
transformed by industrial or urban development, and to suggest that by making 
available, at the cost of reproduction, the data collected by the Ordnance Survey, 
both economy and efficiency would result in the planning and development of such 
areas. 

From Section H. 

That the Council be asked to take cognisance of the present high cott of foreign 
scientific publications with a view to ascertaining whether, or by what means, some 
reduction in cost may be secured. 



Ivi RESOLUTIONS, ETC. 

From Section H. 

That, in view of the urgent need for systematic study of the Australian aboriginal 
languages, the Commonwealth Government of Australia be approached with a view 
to afscertaining the j)ossibility of pressing on with such study before it is too late. 

From Section H. 

That the Government of the Dominion of Canada be asked whether, in view of 
the interest of anthropologists in the available field work of the Anthropological 
Division of the Geological Survey of Canada, it would be possible to expedite the 
official publication of the results. 

From Section H. 

That the financial arrangements authorised after the Leeds Meeting in connection 
with the publication of a new edition of Notes and Queries on Anthropology be 
continued. 

From Section H. 

That the financial arrangements authorised after the Leeds Meeting in connection 
with anthropological research in South Africa be continued. 

From Section J. 

That H.M. Treasury be urged to relieve from key industries duty all apparatus 
intended for employment in research in laboratories in universities and other purely 
educational institutions. 

From Section K. 

That the importance of increased research in the methods of preservation of 
timber be urged, and that a determined effort be made to secure increased funds for 
this purpose. 

From Section L. 

That the Committee of Recommendations urge upon the General Committee and 
the Council the advisability of reprinting sufficient copies of the report on Science 
in School Certificate Examinations to enable the recorder to have available 200 copies 
for distribution to teachers, associations, educational journals and other authorities 
interested in the matter. 

From Section L. 

That the Committee of Recommendations urge on the General Committee and 
he Council of the Association the advisability of adding the words 'and past 
recorders' to Statute IX, 5, immediately following the words 'and past presidents.' 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponduig Societies. 

That it appears desirable that the British Association for the Advancement of 
science should urge His Majesty's Government to stimulate the employment by local 
authorities of the powers already conferred upon them by Parliament for the preserva- 
tion of scenic amenity in town and country. 



BEITISH ASSOCIATION FOK THE ADVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

July 1, 1927, to June 30, 192H. 



NOTE BY THE GENEEAL TEEASUEEE. 

I take this opportunity of calling the attention of Members of the 
British Association to the loss we have sustained by the decisions of 
the Treasury and the judgment of the High Court in regard to the 
non-return of Income Tax. We are thus deprived of one-fifth of the 
income from our Investments. 

I hope that, unless the judgment referred to should be reversed, 
Members of the Association and all workers in Science throughout the 
country will join in an effort to obtain special legislation on this 
matter. 

Our Investments are of two kinds : those made out of the funds 
of the Association and those given us by generous benefactors. It was 
hoped by this means to obtain an annual sum which would be of real 
value for the promotion of research, and at no time was it contemplated 
to devote so considerable a portion of the resulting income as a tribute 
to the national Treasury. 

As regards the past session's Accounts it will be seen that we are 
carrying over a credit balance of £476 5s. Id., and this may appear 
satisfactory. 

It should be remembered, however, that had it not been for 
Sir Alfred Yarrow's generous and timely gift this credit balance would 
have been converted into a deficit. 

By the conditions of that gift, however, we are each year diminishing 
our capital, and it is to be hoped that future benefactors will bear this 
in mind. 

In conclusion I beg to thank the General Committee, the Council 
and the Members of the Association for the consideration they have 
shown me during my tenure of office and to express my regret that 
physical disabihty has made my resignation inevitable. 

E. H. GRIFFITHS. 
July 23, 1928. 



IVlll 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Balance Sheet, 



Corresponding 

Figure? 

June 30, 

1927. 

£ s. d. 



10,640 IS 2 



9,5S2 16 3 



634 
52 



69 
10,000 



10,000 



1,128 12 2 



1S2 1 i 
NU 

Nil 



6,027 



43,317 9 11 



634 16 

80 



LIABILITIES. 

£ «. d. 
To Capital Accounts — 
General Fund — 

As at July 1,1927 10,640 IS 2 

Caird Gift — Radio -Activity Investigation — 
As atJtdy 1,1927 52 3 11 

As per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation iu Value of 
Investments) 
„ Caird Fund — 

As per contra ...... 

(Subject to Depreciation in Value of 
Investments) 
,, Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Balance as at July 1, 1927 .... 

Add Excess of Income over Expenditure 
for year ..... 

As per contra 
Caird Gift — Radio-ActivUy Investigation 
Sir T. Bramwell's Gift for Enquiry into Prime 
Mover.9, 1931 — 
£50 Consols now accumulated to £145 Is. 3(Z., 
as per contra ..... 

Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — as per contra 
Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 
Balance at July 1, 1927 .... 

Less Transferred to Income and Expendi- 
ture Accoimt imder the terms of the Gift 
As per contra 
Life Compositions — 

As at July 1, 1927 

Add Received during year 
As per contra 
Toronto University Presentation Fund — 

Asat July 1, 1927 

Add Refund in respect of third Medal, 1927 
Dividends ..... 



Less Awards given 
As per contra 
Prof. A. W. Scott's Legacy — 

As per contra .... 
Royal Charter Expenses — 

Donation — A. A. Campbell-Swinton 
Less Expenses incurred to date 
As per contra 

Sundry Creditors 

Income and Expenditure Accovmt — 
Balanceat Jvdy 1, 1927 . . ie6,027 

Less Proportion of purchase of 
War Loan (Sir A. Yarrow's 
Gift) last year representing 
accrued interest 



s. d. 



10,692 19 1 



9,582 16 3 



10,000 
300 



1,128 12 
180 


2 



182 1 
17 
8 l.'> 


4 
6 



191 13 

8 15 


10 




200 
152 9 



145 15 7 



Add Excess of Income over Ex- 
penditure for the year 



169 7 





5,857 14 


4 


476 5 


1 



715 1 6 



72 
10,000 



13 8 




9,700 



1,308 12 2 



182 
250 



18 10 




47 19 3 



6,333 19 5 



6,479 15 



£49,032 15 9 



I have examined the foregoing Accounts with the Books and Vouchors and certify the same 
Approved, 

ARTHUR L. BOWLEY,) j-.^uart 
A. W. KIRKALDY, \ Auditor*. 

July 13, 1928. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



lix 



June 30, 1928. 



Corresponding 
B'iarurcs 
June 30, 

1927. 
£ s. d. 



ASSETS. 



10,640 la 



8,5S2 16 3 

634 16 6 
52 3 11 



I 69 3 3 

\10,000 



10,169 7 

l,m 12 2 

1S2 1 i 
Nil 



6,SS7 14 4 
48,317 9 11 



ny 



s. d. 



Invfstmeuts on Capital Accounts — 
General Fund — 

£4,651 10s. 5d. Consolidated 2J percent. Stock 

at cost 3,942 3 3 

£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stock at cost . 3,522 2 6 

£879 14s. Od. £43 Great Indian Peninsula 

Railway ' B ' Annuity at cost . . . 827 15 

£5212s.7d.WarStock(Po9tOfficeIssue)atcost 54 5 2 
£83416s.6(i.4ipercent.ConversionIjoanatcost 835 12 4 
£1,400 War Stock 5 percent. 1929/47 at cost 1,393 16 11 
£84 National Savings Certificates, now £94 7s. 

4* per cent. Conversion Stock, 1940/44 . 62 15 

Cash at Bank . . . . . 54 8 11 



s. d. 



£7,931 19s. lid. Value of Stocks at date, 
£8,188 lis. id. 
C'aird Fund— 

£2,627 Os. lOd. India 3 i percent. Stock at cost 2,400 13 
£2,100 London Midland and Scottish Railway 

Consolidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 

at cost . . . . . . . 

£2,500 Canada 3i per cent. 1930/50 Regis 

tered Stock at cost ...'.. 
£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per 

cent. Preference Stock at cost . 

£.7,116 lis. lOd. Value at date, £7,342 6s. 8(/. 
Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Cash at Bank . . . . . - 

C'aird Cfift — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Sir T. Bramuell's Gift — 

£138 14 11 Self-Accumulating Consolidated 
Stock as per last Balance Sheet 
Add Accumulations to Juno 
6 6 4 30, 1928 



10,692 19 1 



2,190 4 


3 






2,397 1 


6 






2, 594 17 


3 


9,582 16 


3 










715 1 


6 



69 3 
3 10 



£145 1 3 

175 5s. 4d. Value at date, £81 4s. 8d. 
Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

.£10,300 4i per cent. Conversion Loan 
i9,S8S. Value at date, £10,145 10s. 
Sir Alfred Tarroiv's Gift — 

£10,000 5 per cent. War Loan, as per last 

Account 10,169 7 

Less Accrued Dividends now transferred to 
Income and Expenditure Account . . 169 7 



72 13 8 



10,000 



10,000 
iessSaleof Stock vmder the terms of the Gift 300 

Value at date, £9.857 12«. 6d. 

Life Compositions — 

£1,921 12s. lOrf. Local Loans at cost . 1,245 

Value at date, £1,249 Is. 5d. 
Cash at Bank 63 12 



Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
£175 5 per cent. War Stock at cost 
&lT6 10s.7d. Value at date, £177 16s. lid. 
Cash at Bank .... 



178 11 
4 7 



Prof. A, W. Scott's Legacy — 

£326 9s. lOrf. 3i per cent. Conversion Stock at cost 
Value at date, £255 Is. Sd. 
Royal Charter Expenses — 

Cash at Bank ..... 

Revenue Account — 

£2,098 Is. 9(Z. Consolidated 2i per cent. 
Stock at cost ..... 

£4,338 6s. 2d. Conversion 3 J per cent. Stock 
at cost ....... 

£400 5 per cent. War Loan Inscribed Stock at 
cost ...... 

Value at date, £4,970 14s. 8d. 
Simdry Debtors .... 

Cash at Bank ..... 

Cash in Hand ..... 



9,700 

1,308 12 2 

182 18 10 

250 

47 19 3 



1,200 





3,300 





404 16 





380 9 
1,139 1 

55 8 


7 
2 

3 




£49,032 15 9 



to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers and the Investments. 

W. B. KEEN, 

Chartered Accountant. 



Ix 



Corresponding 

Period 
June 30, 

1927. 

£ s. d. 

20 16 8\ 

65 IS 5 

10 
ISO 2 11 
149 11 

30 10 6 
205 2 91 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Income and 

FOE THE Year Ended 



652 12 


S 


1,254 17 





75 





1,566 S 






3,54S 17 S 



661 10 
1,032 2 10 



5,142 10 6 



EXPENDITURE. 



To Heat, Lighting and Pow 

,, Stationery 

,, Rent . 

,, Postages 

„ Travelling Expenses 

,, Exhibitioners 

,, General Expenses . 



Salaries and Wages 
Pension Contribution 
Printing, Binding, etc. 



The Secretary's Travelling Expenses to South 

Africa, recoverable as per contra 
IJr. Klercker's Research Committee, Donation 

per contra ...... 

Grants to Research Committees — 
Quaternary Peats Committee 
Macedonia Committee 
Plymouth Committee 
Derbyshire Caves Committee 
Bronze Implements Committee 
Egyptian Peasants Committee 
Vasoligation Committee 
Zoological Record Committee 
Pigment in Inseota Committee 
Medullary Centres Committee 
Vocational Tests Committee 
Kiltorcan Committee 
Oxfordshire Villages Committee 
Transplant Committee 
Rose Hybrids Committee . 
Ductless Glands Committee 
f.'ritical Sections Committee 
Taxation Committee 
Sex Physiology Committee 
Upland Bog -waters Committee 
Phytogeography of the Balkan Peninsula 

Committee . 
Great Barrier Reef Committee 
Ultra-Violet Light Committee 
Zoological Bibliography Committee 
Absorption Spectra Committee . 
Population Map of Great Britain Committee 

Balance, being Excess of Income over Expendi- 
ture for the year ..... 



£ 


,?. 


rf. 


24 


2 


1 


58 


Ifi 


3 


1 








191 


12 





165 


19 


1 


91 


13 


8 



8. d. 



212 


3 


11 


745 


7 





1,335 


9 


ll 


75 








1.385 


16 


11 









3,541 


12 11 








145 


2 2 








22 





90 












50 












35 












50 












100 





(1 






100 





(1 






10 





(1 






50 












15 





(I 






17 












14 












10 












15 












25 












10 












30 












30 












20 












10 





(1 






22 


1 









50 












iOO 












60 





(1 






1 












10 












25 








1 fliU 


1 



476 5 1 



£5,234 1 2 



£ s. d. 

100 

100 

Nil 



164 11 a 



384 11 8 



EXPENDITURE. 

To Grants Paid — 

Seismology Committee . . . . 

Naples Tables Committee . . . . 

Technical Education Committee . 

,, Balance, being Excess of Income over Expendi- 
ture for the year ..... 



100 

100 
10 10 



Gaird 

£ s. d. 

210 10 
80 5 



= 1 



£290 15 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Expenditure Account 

June 30, 1928. 



Ixi 



Corresponding 
Period 
June 30, 
1927. 
t 8. d. 
16S 10 



1,669 Id 

^^6S 

1-53 i.5 

91 



70 S S 
621 i 6 
463 6 II 
ISl 13 

27 12 11 
3 3 4 



INCOME. 



1,224 S 2 



By Annual Members (Including £60, 1928/20) 
„ Annual Temporary Members (Includiug£362 10s.. 

1928/29) 

„ Annual Members with Report (Including £207, 

1928/29) . . . • • ^ • 

„ Tran.sfcrable Tickets (Including £7 10s., 

1928/29) ■ • 

„ Students' Tickets (Including £14, 1928/29) 
(Total Tickets as above, issued in advance for 
1928/9 Glasgow Meeting, £651) 
„ The Secretary's Travelling Expenses to South 
Africa, recoverable from the South African 
Association, per contra 
,, Donation— Dr. Klercker, per contra 
,, Lift Rent ..... 
„ Interest on Deposits 
,, Sale of Publications 
,, Advertisement Revenue 
,, Income Tax recovered ... 
,, Unexpended Balance of Grants returned 
„ Liverpool Exhibitioners 
,, Dividends — 
i£i35 Consols .... 
I S6 S India 3 per cent. Stock 
! 26 11 6 Greatlndian Peninsula Rly.'B' Annuity 
30 1 2 4 i per cent. Conversion Loan . 
370 16 Ditto, Sir Charles Parsons' Gift 
73 S 9 Zl per cent. Conversion Loan 
\ 43 7 3 Local Loans . 
1 58 12 6 War Stock 
iOO Ditto, Series ' A,' Sir A. Yarrow s Gift 



s. a. 



13.-. 
S6 
26 
30 

370 

130 
.53 
68 

388 





8 
13 

1 
16 
12 
11 
12 






4 
10 
6 




By Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

Proceeds of Sale of £300 War Loan, in accord- 
ance with terms of the Gift .... 
Profit on Sale . . . . . 



300 

7 



£ s. d. 

185 10 

1,508 5 

,523 10 

108 15 

131 



145 2 2 

22 

5 

47 7 6 

705 17 6 

223 15 3 



8 13 5 
22 10 



1,289 15 1 



307 3 



i,U2 10 6 



£5,234 1 2 



Fund. 



INCOME. 

s. d. 

By Dividends — , , 

173 11 I India 3 i per cent. Stock . 
~ " ' " Canada 3 i per cent. Stock - 

London Midland and Scottish Railway Con- 
solidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 
Southern Railway ConsoUdated 5 per cent 
Preference Stock 

290 la 
73 16 S By Income Tax recovered 



364 11 S 



£ s. d. 



70 





67 


4 


SO 






73 
70 


11 









67 


4 







80 








290 15 












£290 15 



Ixii RE.SEARC'H COMMITTEES. 

RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

GLASGOW, 1928. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
xcith researches are indicated in heavy type. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

Seismological Investigations. — Prof. H. H. Turner {Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw 
{Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, 
Sir F. W. Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. H. Lamb, Sir J. 
Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H.M. Macdonald, Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. 
Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, Dr. F. J. W. 
Whipple. £100 (Caird Fimd grant). 

Tides. — Prof. H. Lamb {Chairman), Dr. A. T. Doodson {Secretary), Dr. G. R. 
Goldsbrough, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. J. Proudman, Prof. G. I. Taylor, Prof. 
D'Arcy W. Thompson, Commander H. D. Warburg. 

Annual Tables of Constants and Numerical Data, chemical, physical, and technological . 
— Sir E. Rutherford {Chairman), Prof. A. W. Porter {Secretary), Mr. Alfred 
Egerton. £5. 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Prof. J. W. Nicholson {Chairman}, Dr. J. R. 
Aircy {Secretary). Mr. T. W. Chamidy, Dr. L. J. Comrie, Dr. A. T. Doodson, 
Prof". L. N. G. Filon. Dr. R. A. Fisher, Dr. J. Henderson, Prof. E. W. Hobson, 
Mr. J. 0. Irwin, Profs. Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, and H. M. Macdonald, Dr. 
J. F. Tocher, Dr. J. Wishart. 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — Sir Napier Shaw {Chairman), Mr. C. J. P. 
Cave {Secretary), Prof. S. Chapman, Mr. J. S. Dines, Mr. L. H. G. Dines, Dr. 
G. M. Dobson. Capt. F. Entwistle, Commr. L. G. Garbett, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, 
Col. E. Gold, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Dr. H. Knox-Shaw, Sir J. Larmor, Mr. R. G. K. 
Lempfert, Prof. F. A. Lindemann, Dr. W. Makower, Mr. J. Patterson, Sir J. E. 
Petavel, Dr. L. F. Richardson, Sir A. Schuster, Dr. G. C. Simpson, Prof. H. H. 
Turner, Sir G. T. Walker, Dr. F. J. W. Whipple. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

To consider the possibilities of publishing a compilation of recent materia] on the 
subject of CoUoid Chemistrj'. — Prof. F. G. Domian {Chairman), Dr. W. Clayton 
(Secretary), Mr. E. Hatschek, Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis, Dr. E. K. Rideal, Sir R. 
Robertson. 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. — Prof. I. M. 
Heilbron (Gliairman), Prof. E. C. C. Baly (Secretary), Prof. A. W. Stewart. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks ot England and Wales. — Prof. 
W. W. Watts (Chainrmn), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Dr. H. Bolton, Prof. W. S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. 
E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Prof. V. C. Illiug, Prof. O. T. Jones, Prof. J. E. Marr, Dr. F. J. North, Mr. J. 
Pringle, Dr. T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Dr. F. S. WaUis. 
£25. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geo- 
logical Interest.^Prof. E. J. Garwood (Chairman), Prof. S. H. Reynolds (Secre- 
tary), Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. A. S. Reid, Prof. W. W. Watts, Mr. R. Welch. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 1x111 

To iuveatigate the Quaternary Peats of the British Isles. — Prof. P. F. Kendall {Chair- 
man), Mr. L. H. Tonks {Secretary), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Miss Chandler, Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, Dr. E. Greenly, Prof. J. W. Gregory, Prof. G. Hickling, Mr. J. de W. 
Hinch, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, Mrs. Reid, Dr. K. S. Sandford, Mr. T. Sheppard, 
Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. A. W. Stelfox, Mr. C. B. Travis, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Mr. 
W. B. Wright. £10. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary Rocks of the London Area. To 
tabulate and preserve records of new excavations in that area. — Prof. W. T. 
Gordon {Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge (Secretary), Miss M. C. Crosfield, Prof. 
H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling. £10. 

To consider the opening up of Critical Sections in the Mesozoic Rocks of Yorkshire. — 
Prof. P. F. Kendall {Chairman), Mr. M. Odling {Secretary), Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Mr. F. Petch, Dr. Spath, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. H. C. Versey. 

To assemble information regarding the Distribution of Cleavage in North and Central 
Wales. — Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Chairman), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell and Mr. 
W. H. Wilcockson (Secretaries), Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. I. S. Double, Dr. Gertrude 
Elles, Prof. 0. T. Jones, Dr. E. Greenly, Mr. W. B. R. King, Prof. W. J. Pugh, 
Dr. Bernard Smith, Dr. A. K. Wells, Dr. L. J. Wills. 

SECTIONS C, D, E, K.— GEOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, BOTANY. 

To organise an expedition to investigate the Biology, Geology, and Geography of the 
Australian Great Barrier Reef. — Rt. Hon. Sir M. Nathan (Chairman), Prof. J. 
Stanley Gardiner and Mr. F. A. Potts (Secretaries), Hon. John Huxham 
(Treasurer), Sir Edgeworth David, Prof. W. T. Gordon, Prof. A. C. Seward, and 
Dr. Herbert H. Thomas (from Section G) ; Mr. E. Heron Allen, Dr. E. J. Allen, 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. T. Caiman, Sir Sidney Harmer, 
Dr. C. M. Yonge (from Section D) : Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, Sir G. Lenox 
Conyngham, Mr. F. Debenham, Admiral Douglas, Mi\ A. R. Hinks (from 
Section E) ; Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Dr. Margery Knight, Prof. A. C. Seward 
(from Section K). £200. 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

To aid competent Investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Secretary), Dr. G. P. Bidder, Prof. F. 0. Bower, Prof. 
Munro Fox, Sir W. B. Hardy, Sir Sidney Harmer, Prof.E. W. MacBride. £100 
(Caird Fimd grant). 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Prof. E. B. Poulton (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretfin/), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. T. Caiman, Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, Mr. W.' L. Sclater. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory, Plymouth. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
W. J. Dakin, Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, Prof. S. J. Hickson. £50. 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, for 
the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir Sidney Harmer 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman (Secretary), Prof. E. S. Goodrich, Prof." D. M. S. 
Watson. £50. 

On the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the Parents on the Sex-Ratio of the Offspring. 
— Prof. W. J. Dakin (Chairman), Mrs. Bisbee (Secretary), Prof. Cari-Sannders, 
Miss E. C. Herdman. £10. 

Investigations on Pigment in the Insecta. — Prof. W. Garstang (Chairman), Dr. J. W. 
Heslop Harrison (Secretary), Prof. A. D. Peacock, Prof. E. B. Poulton. £6. 

To consider the po.sition of Animal Biology in the School Curriculum and matters 
relating thereto. — Prof. R. D. Laurie (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. H. W. 
Ballance, Dr. Kathleen E. Carpenter, Prof. W. J. Dakin, Mr. O. H. Latter, Prof. 
E. W. MacBride, Miss M. McNicol, Miss A. J. Prothero. 

A Preliminary Survey of Certain Tropical Lakes in Kenya in 1929. — Prof. J. Stanley 
Gardiner (Chairman), Miss P. M. Jenkin (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Caiman, Prof. J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. J. T. Saunders. £50. 



Ixiv RESEAECH COMMITTEES. 

SECTIONS D, I, K.— ZOOLOGY, PHYSTGLOGY, BOTANY. 

Nomenclature of Cell Structures. — ^Prof. C. Lovatt Evans {Chairman), 

(Secretary), Prof. H. E. Roaf (for Section T), Dr. K. B. Blackburn, 
Dr. Margery Knight (for Section K). 

SECTIONS D. K.— ZOOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To consider the means to be adopted for the establishment of a suitably equipped 
fresh-water biological station. — Prof. F. E. Fritsch {Chairman), Prof. F. Balfour 
Browne {Secretary), Dr. B. M. GrifiSths, Dr. Gumey, Prof. H. S. Holden. 
Dr. W. H. Pearsall, Dr. E. S. Russell, Mr. J. T. Saunders. 

SECTION E,— GEOGRAPHY. 

To report further as to the method of construction and reproduction of a Population 
Map of the British Isles with a view to the census of 1931. — Mr. H. 0. Beckit 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Cossar (Secretary), Mr. J. Bartholomew, Mr. F. Debenham, 
Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr.R.H. Kinvig, Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Prof. 
0. H. T. Rii?hbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Mr. A. Stevens, Col. H. S. L. Winterbotham. 
£50. 

To inquire into the present state of Knowledge of the Human Geography of Tropical 
Africa, and to make recommendations for furtherance and development. — Mr. 
J. McFarlane (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Ogilvie (Secretary), Mr. W. H. Barker. Mr. 
Francis R. Rodd, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Col. H. S. L. Winterbotham. £25. 

SECTIONS E, L.— GEOGRAPHY, EDUCATION. 

To report on the present position of Geographical Teaching in Schools and of Geography 
in the training of teachers ; to formulate suggestions for a syllabus for the teaching 
of geography both to Matriculation Standard and in Advanced Courses and to 
report, as occasion arises, to Council through the Organising Committee of 
Section E upon the practical working of Regulations issued by the Board of 
Education (including Scotland) affecting the position of Geography in Schools 
and Training Colleges. — Prof. T. P. Nxmn (Chairman), Mr. W. H. Barker (Secre- 
tary), Mr. A. B. Archer, Mr. L. Brooks, Mr. C. C. Carter, Mr. J. Cossar, Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, Mr. O. J. R. Howarth, Mr. H. E. M. Icely, Mr. J. McFarlane, Rt. Hon. 
Sii- Halford J. Mackinder, Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. Marion Newbigin, Mr. A. G. 
Ogilvie, Mr. A. Stevens {from Section E) ; Mr. C. E. Browne, Sir R. Gregory, 
Mr. E. R. Thomas, Miss 0. Wright (from Section L). £5. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

To investigate certain aspects of Taxation in relation to the Distribution of Wealth. — 
Sir Josiah Stamp (Chairman), Mr. R. B. Forrester (Secretary), Prof. E. Cannan, 
Prof. H. Clay, Mr. W. H. Coates, Miss L. Grier, Prof. H. M. Hallsworth, Prof. 
D. H. Macgregor, Prof. J. G. Smith, Mr. J. Wedgwood, Sir A. Yarrow, Prof. 
Allyn Young. £25. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

Earth Pressures.— Mr. F. E. Wentworth-Sheilds (Chairman), Dr. J. S. Owens 
(Secretary), Prof. A. Barr, Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. Fulton, 
Prof. P. C. Lea, Mr. R. V. Southwell, Dr. R. E. Stradling, Dr. W. N. Thomas, 
Mr. £. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson. Unexpended balance. 

Electrical Terms and Definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson (Chairman), Prof. F. G. 
Baily and Prof. G. W. 0. Howe (Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Dr. W. H. Eccles, 
Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Dr. F. E. Smith, Prof. L. R. 
Wilberforce, with Dr. A. RusseU and Mr. C. C. Wharton. 

Stresses in overstrained materials. — Sir Henry Fowler (Chairman), Mr. J. G. Docherty 
(Secretary), Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. Wilson. £5. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. IXA' 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres {Chair- 
man), Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour. 

Prof. T. H. Brvce, Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Mr. 0. G. S. 

Crawford, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt. £50 and 

unexpended balance. 
To conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. — 

Sir C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. BaKour (Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. 

0. G. S. Crawford, Sir W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir Arthur Evans, 

Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 
To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), Mr. S. 

Casson (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. M. Thompson. £50. 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments.— Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt (Chairman). Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. C. Fox, Mr. G. Marshall, Prof. J. L. 
Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Rev. Canon Quine. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthro- 
pological Interest.— Mr. E. Torday (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. L. J. P. Gaskin, Mr. E. Heawood, Prof. 
J. L. Myres. 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of Copper used by the Sumerians. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. H. Desch, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Prof. S. Langdon, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir Flinders Petrie, Mr. C. Leonard 
Woolley. £100. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — 

(Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. 
Evans. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

The Investigation of a hill fort site at Llanmelin, near Caerwent.— Dr. Willoughby 
Gardner (Chairman), Dr. Cyril Fox (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Prof. H. J. Rose, Dr. R. Mortimer Wheeler. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. — 
Sir A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Dr. 
R. V. Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Prof. W. J. SoUas, Mr. 
Mark L. Sykes. £10. 

To conduct Anthropological investigations in some Oxfordshire villages. — Mr. H . J . E . 
Peake (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. F. G. Parsons. 

To report on the present state of knowledge of the relation of early Palaeolithic 
Implements to Glacial Deposits.— Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour. Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. M. Burkitt, Prof. 
J. E. Marr. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the explora- 
tion of Caves in the Derbyshire district. — ^Mr. M. Burkitt (Chairman), Mr. G. A. 
Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize, Dr. R. V. Favell, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Dr. L. S. Palmer, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake. £25. 

To investigate processes of Growth in Children, with a view to discovering DifierenceB 
due to Race and Sex, and further to study Racial Differences in Women. — Sir 
A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. H. J. Fleure (Secretary), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, 
Dr. A. Low, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To report on proposals for an Anthropological and Archaeological Bibliography, with 
power to co-operate with other bodies.— Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. W. H. Barker, Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. Dr. D. Randall-Maclver, 
Mr. T. Sheppard. 



Ixvi RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

To report on tlie progress of Anthropological Teaching in the present centurj'. — 

Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, 

Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 
To investigate certain Physical Characters and the Family Histories of Triplet Children. 

— Dr. F. C. Shrubsall(C'Aat»"w?a7j.), Dr. R. A. Fisher (/Secretory), Mies R. M. Fleming, 

Dr. A. Low. 
To conduct explorations on Early Neolithic Sites in Holderness. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake 

(Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. M. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. 

Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Mr. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. H. Ormerod, Dr. L. S. 

Palmer. 
To investigate the antiquity and cultural relations of the Ancient Copper Workings 

in the Katanga and Northern Rhodesia. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E.N. 

Fallaize and Mr. G. A. Wainwright (Secretaries), Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, 

Dr. Randall-Maclver. 
To arrange for the publication of a new edition of ' Notes and Queries on Anthro- 
pology.' — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mrs. 

Robert Aitken, Mr. H. Balfour, Capt. T. A. Joyce, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mrs. Seligman, 

Prof. C. G. Seligman. 
To consider the lines of Investigation which might be undertaken in Archaeological and 

Anthropological Research in South Africa prior to and in view of the meeting of 

the Association in that Dominion in 1929. — Sir H. Miers (Chairman), Dr. D. 

Randall-Maclver (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Prof. J. L. Myres. 
To co-operate with Dr. Klercker's archaeological laboratory in Scania in research. — 

Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. A. LesUe Armstrong (Secretary), Prof. H. J. 

Fleure, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. E. K. Tratman. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The Investigation of the Medullary Centres. — Prof. C. Lovatt Evans (Chairman), 

Dr. J. M. Duncan Scott (Secretary), Dr. H. H. Dale. 
Colour Vision, with particular reference to the classification of Colour-blindness. — 

Sir C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Prof. H. E. Roaf (Secretary), Prof. E. N.daC. 

Andrade, Dr. Mary Collins, Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, Prof. H. Hartridge. 
Ductless Glands, with particular reference to the efiEect of autacoid activities on 

vasomotor reflexes. — Prof. J. Mellanby (Chairman), Prof. Swale Vincent 

(Secretary), Prof. B. A. McSwiney. £30. 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 
Vocational Tests. — Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 

Burt, Mr.F.M.Earle, Dr. Ll.Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof.C. Spearman. 

£50. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 
The effect of Ultra-violet Light on Plants. — Prof. W. Neilson Jones (Chairman), Dr. 

E. M. Delf (Secretary), Prof. V. H. Blackman. £20 and unexpended balance. 
The Chemical Analysis of Upland Bog Waters. — Prof. J. H. Priestley (C^irmaM), Mr. 

A. Malins Smith (Secretary), Dr. B. M. Griffiths, Dr. E. K. Rideal. £10 and 

unexpended balance. 

The Status of a series of naturally occurring British Rose-hybrids. — Prof. J. W. 
Heslop Harrison (Chairman), Dr. Kathleen B. Blackburn (Secretary), Miss A. J. 
Davey. 

Transplant Experiments.— Dr. A. W. Hill (Chairman), Mr. W. B. Turrill (Secretary), 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. A. G. Tansley. £35. 
Breeding Experiments as part of an intensive study of certain species of the British 

Flora.— Sir Daniel Hall (Chairman), Mr. E. Marsden Jones (Secretary), Dr. K. B. 

Blackburn, Prof. R. R. Gates. Mr. W. B. Turrill, Mr. A. J. Wilmott. £50. 
The Ecology of Selected Tributaries of the River Trent, with a view to determining 

the effect of progressive pollution.— Prof. F. E. Fritsch (Chairman), Prof. H. S. 

Holden (Secretary), Miss D. Bexon, Mr. H. Lister. £20. 
The Flora of Northern Rhodesia.— Prof. D. Thoday (Chairman), Dr. J. Bnrtt Davy 

(Secretary), Prof. R. S. Adamson, Prof. J. W. Bews. £25. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. Ixvii 

To consider the organisation of a body to further the protection of British Wild 
Plants.— Dr. A. W. Hill {Chairman), Dr. H. H. Thomas {.'Secretary), Dr. G. C. 
Druce, Prof. J. W. Heslop Harrison, Mr. H. A. Hyde, Prof. F. W. Oliver. Sir D. 
Prain, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Mr. C. E. Salmon, Mr. A. J. Wilmott, Dr. T. \V. 
Woodhead. 

To consider and report on the provision made for Instruction in Botany in courses of 
Biology, and matters related thereto. — Prof. V. H. Blackman (Chairman), Dr. 
E. N. M. Thomas {Secretary), Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Prof. S. Mangham, Mr. J. Sager. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To consider the Educational Training of Boys and Girls in Secondary Schools for over- 
seas life. — Sir J. Ru.ssell (Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne (Secretary), Major A. G. 
Church, Mr. H. W. Cousins, Dr. J. Vargas Eyre, Mr. G. H. Garrad, Rev. Dr. 
H. B. Gray, Sir R. A. Gregory, Mr. O. H. Latter, Miss E. H. McLean, Miss Rita 
Oldham, Mr. G. W. Olive, IVIiss Gladys Pott, Mr. A. A. SomerviUe, Dr. G. K. 
Sutherland, Mrs. Gordon WOson. £10. 

The bearing on School Work of recent views on formal training. — Dr. C. W. Kimmins 
{Chairman), Mr. H. E. M. Icely (Secretary), Prof. R. L. Archer, Prof. Cyril Burt, 
Prof. F. A. Cavenagh, Miss E. R. Conwav, Sir Richard Gregory, Prof. T. P. 
Nunn, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof. G. Thomson. ~ 

Science in School Certificate Examinations : To enquire into the nature and scope 
of the science syllabuses prescribed or accepted by examining authorities in 
England for the First and Second School Certificate Examinations, and to make 
recommendations relating to them ; particularly m regard to their relation to 
Matriculation and other University Entrance Examinations and their suitability 
as essential subjects of instruction in a rightly balanced scheme of education 
designed to create an intelligent interest in the realm of nature and in scientific 
aspects of everyday life. — Sir Richard Gregory (Chairman), Mr. W. H. Cousins and 
Mr. G. D. Dunkerley (Secretaries), Mr. C. E. Browne, Dr. Lilian Clarke, Mr. 
G. F. Daniell, Mr. J. L. Holland, Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, Dr. J. Wickham 
Murray, Prof. T. P. Nunn, Jlr. E. R. Thomas, Dr. H. W. T. Wager, Mrs. U. 
Gordon Wilson, Miss von Wj'ss. £15. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 
Corresponding Societies Committee.— The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr.T. Sheppard {V ice-Chairman), the General Secretaries, the General 
Treasurer, Mr. C. 0. Bartrum, Dr. F. A. Bather. Sir Richard Gregorj-, Sir David 
Prain, Sir John Russell, Mr. Mark L. Sykes, Dr. C. Tierney ; wilh authority to 
co-opt representatives of Scientific Societies in the locality of the Annual Meeting. 



i '11 iMAR 29 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



CRAFTSMANSHIP AND SCIENCE. 



BY 



PROFESSOR SIR WILLIAM BRAGG, K.B.E., D.Sc, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., 
President of the Association. 



Down Uoufe : Errata. 

Page xlvii, line 25, for ' Perrero ' read ' Terrero.' 

Page xlviii, line 11, for ' Vines ' read ' Viner.' 

Page xlix, line 19, for ' Wedgewood ' read ' Wedgwood. 



justification for doing so the fact that in the last few years scientific 
inquiry has advanced at a rate which to all is amazing, and to some is 
even alarming. On the one hand, the application of science to industry 
has become increasingly important and obvious, as was so clearly shown 
by our honoured President of two years ago. Especially at the present 
time when our country is struggling to free itself from distress due partly 
to the war and partly to violent changes in economic conditions is it of 
interest and importance to consider what science is doing and can do to 
accelerate recovery. On the other hand, in the less material realms the 
applications of recent research have aroused wide interest, as may be 
exemplified by the influence on philosophic thought of the new discoveries 
in physical science, or by the effect of last year's remarkable Address from 
this chair. 

I cannot deal in the time allotted to me with all the issues that arc 
suggested by these considerations. I propose to limit myself in a manner 
which my choice of title will suggest, and in speaking of ' craftsmanship 
and science ' to pay attention more particularly to the relations between 
science and the craftsmanship of our own country. I shall not, however, 
1928 B 



%1 MAR 29 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



CRAFTSMANSHIP AND SCIENCE. 



BY 



PROFESSOR SIR WILLIAM BRAGG, K.B.E., D.Sc, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S.. 
President of the Association. 



When, nearly a century ago, the founders of our Association drew up a 
statement of purposes and rules they gave prominence to the words * to 
obtain more general attention for the objects of Science.' Since that 
time we have tried continuously to fulfil our self-imposed task, not, I hope, 
unwisely nor untactfully, nor without success. For this purpose we have 
on many occasions and in many ways endeavoured to describe the 
progress of our researches, and to present the consequences of discoveries 
as they appeared to the discoverers. With your permission, I would like 
this evening to add something to the story. I would claim as my 
justification for doing so the fact that in the last few years scientific 
inquiry has advanced at a rate which to all is amazing, and to some is 
even alarming. On the one hand, the application of science to industry 
has become increasingly important and obvious, as was so clearly shown 
by our honoured President of two years ago. Especially at the present 
time when our country is struggling to free itself from distress due partly 
to the war and partly to violent changes in economic conditions is it of 
interest and importance to consider what science is doing and can do to 
accelerate recovery. On the other hand, in the less material realms the 
applications of recent research have aroused wide interest, as may be 
exemplified by the infiuence on philosophic thought of the new discoveries 
in physical science, or by the effect of last year's remarkable Address from 
this chair. 

I cannot deal in the time allotted to me with all the issues that arc 
suggested by these considerations. I propose to limit myself in a manner 
which my choice of title will suggest, and in speaking of ' craftsmanship 
and science ' to pay attention more particularly to the relations between 
science and the craftsmanship of our own country. I shall not, however, 
1928 B 

k 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

be able to confine myself strictly within these limits because the entrance 
of science into our most material businesses cannot be considered without 
reference to the part that science plays in the whole range of our thoughts 
and actions. 

The term craftsmanship requires definition. I am supposing it to 
mean the skill which is exercised in the production of whatever is wanted 
for human welfare. Imagine an island so cut off from the rest of the 
world that its inhabitants must depend on themselves for the satisfaction 
of all their desires, for their food, even if they have no more to do than 
pick fruit from a tree, for their clothing, for their housing, and other 
material things. They must also find their own means of satisfying less 
material cravings : for if they have intelligence they will look for means of 
studying themselves, their neighbours and the world round about them. 
Their eyes and ears will ask to be used for the satisfaction of a sense of 
beauty in form and colour and sound, and their minds will try to reach 
out beyond what can be seen and heard. It is impossible to proceed to 
the satisfaction of these desires without the handling of materials, and 
craftsmanship begins with the skill exercised in the handling. 

What the islanders succeed in achieving by their craftsmanship may 
justly be described as their wages, they being their own employers. If 
their wages are to be raised they must somehow increase one or more of 
the factors on which their success depends. They must be more diligent 
in the discovery of materials for which a use can be found ; they must 
become better acquainted with the properties of those materials; they must 
develop their constructive skill. If they are too primitive to have 
developed the use of mechanical power they must do everything with 
their own hands, guided by their own intelligence and their own feeling 
for what is beautiful and fitting. At every step enter the qualities that 
go to make craftsmanship, as I would interpret the term. There is 
knowledge of materials, there is imagination, there is technical skill ; 
perseverance is wanted, love of the work itself, sympathy with the use 
that is to be made of it, and with the user. Clearly, on the craftsmanship 
of the islanders will depend whether they have enough food to go round, 
enough clothes to wear, whether they have leisure for anything beyond 
the labour that satisfies their barest necessities. 

And, of course, this isolated group of people will have some 
characteristic estimation of what kind of wages they want. Their energies 
may conceivably be devoted only to the production of things that satisfy 
bodily desires, or they may be bent also on nobler things. I need not 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 3 

consider that point as I am not trying to picture Utopia. All that this 
image is meant to convey is the idea of craftsmanship and its fundamental 
importance. Nor is the account yet complete ; far from it. It is not only 
that the products of craftsmanship are a necessity if the islanders are to 
live at all : craftsmanship has a value in itself. There is in men, more in 
some, less in others, the natural desire to use what faculties they possess. 
It is a fact that love of good work and delight in successful accomplishment 
are powerful motives, and when satisfied are sources of real happiness. 
Of all the motives that sway the world these are among the purest and best. 

The power to produce in plenty what is wanted is, of course, only one 
of the great problems that a community has to consider. There is also 
the endlessly difficult question of distribution, of the manner in which 
each working individual is to receive his share of the wages. The two 
problems cannot be separated entirely : the means directed to the 
solution of one contribute to the solution of the other. But I must not 
attempt too much : science is in the first instance concerned with the 
production problem ; the distribution problem follows. 

Let us extend our image a little ; let our island be discovered and put 
into communication with the outside world. An exchange of craft work 
sets in : the islanders discover new wants that must be satisfied and they 
pay for the necessary imports by exporting what they make themselves. 
But the exports must be made to satisfy the tastes of the outside peoples 
or there will be no trade. So the islanders now find that they must no 
longer consider their own tastes entirely : they must accommodate them- 
selves to a more general conception which is only in part their own. It 
may happen that under the new conditions they become less and less 
self-contained. Some things which are necessary to life, such as food or 
clothing, may become imports, being no longer produced, at any rate in 
sufl&cient quantity, within the island itself. And now the people are very 
firmly tied to the rest of the world; they must give that they may receive, 
and they must please in order that others may be willing to take. We 
may say that their craftsmanship is now judged more critically ; and 
more than ever it becomes fundamental to well-being, even to existence. 
The conclusion I would draw from this very simple little analogy is that a 
•people lives on what it makes or earns and that its success depends on its 
craftsmanship. A people cannot expect to be provided for : it has no 
rights. 

I would ask you presently to consider the difference between the 
craftsmanship of an early civilization and that of our own more com- 

b2 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL I'ADDRESS. 

plicated times. But before doing so, let me say yet one or two words 
about the older forms. 

We have a profound feeling for any example of an old craft, and for 
very good reasons. Among them I do not include the sentimental regret 
that, in some cases, a past time skill seems to have disappeared. We 
may be sorry, but after all it is but a receipt that has been lost and may be 
found again any day, if proper search is made for it. Modern knowledge 
and methods of analysis are at least good for that much. Nor is the 
collector's pride of rarity the worthiest feeling that the old specimen 
inspires. 

Our affection for it, and the reverential care with which we handle it are 
due to the fact that it represents to us the labour of a people, labour into 
which knowledge, imagination, love of beauty, technical skill have all 
entered. The most of what was once used in every-day life has long 
disappeared ; even such more durable things as houses and ships, roads and 
cultivations may have ceased to be. The few objects that survive must be 
taken as examples of what has been lost. And on the showing of the 
student a spirit will emerge from an old vessel as great as that which 
issued when the fisherman of the Arabian Nights unsealed the pot that 
had long been lying at the bottom of the river. It is the spirit of the 
bygone people that takes shape before us. 

The Greek gave exquisite form to his vase and decorated its surface 
with equal art. He copied from the growing things of Nature the adjust- 
ment of lines and surfaces which give the sense of fitness for a purpose. 
The outlines of his vases are so perfectly adjusted that their representation 
in a drawing will not bear alteration by the width of a line. That the 
Greek should with so much skill take lessons from what his perception 
made clear to him, and should with so much care choose his materials and 
mould them to his purpose is what we should expect from a nation that 
shows also in its literature a passion for justice and harmony. The fine 
accuracy of his line is in agreement with his delicate sense of differences 
in thought and words. 

The Roman developed the principle of the arch, and enough remains 
of what he built to show the daring and the power of his work. The 
great arches that spanned his public buildings seem to stand for the. 
Roman rule and law under which the whole world might find shelter and 
be at peace. 

The sword of the Indian workman was gradually brought to its temper 
by an infinite series of local applications of heat alternating with the few 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 5 

blows that could be skilfully given while for a moment it was in the 
workable state. The poverty of the craftsman's appliances, the meagre- 
ness of his little fire and the scantiness of the tools with which he made 
his way bit by bit to his final achievement are in consonance with his life 
of small details ruled by overmastering ideas. 

I need not illustrate further. It is indeed well known to you all that 
the craftsmanship of a people is an expression of the best of its very self. 
It is to the underlying reason that I would draw your attention now. 
The mind of a nation is so expressed because its craftsmanship, interpreted 
in its widest sense, represents its efEorts to live. Under this strong com- 
pulsion the nation produces results which range from pots to poetry, and 
all its products are stamped alike. That which we do ourselves is as 
representative as a Greek vase or a Roman aqueduct or a suit of armour 
from Milan. The craftsmanship of a nation is its very life. Even if we 
consider it only in relation to the production of material things, the state 
of a nation's craftsmanship is an index of its health. 

As a people departs from its primitive condition so also does its 
craftsmanship. I would ask you to consider the nature of the change. 
The elements of craftsmanship in its original form centre round the 
individual. In his brain is the knowledge and imagination, in his hands 
is the skill, and round about him lie the materials and the tools of his 
craft. But as the years go by it becomes impossible that all the knowledge 
and all the technical skill should be found in one person, and all the tools 
be owned by him. The craftsman becomes an association of men, a great 
manufacturing firm, even, we might say, a nation, if all the members of 
the nation contribute through Government intervention and control to 
the maintenance of some industry. Many hands, working in an alliance 
which is often unconscious, are employed in bringing a product to its 
finished form. It is a long step from the simple workshop of the old 
single-handed craftsman to the vast complex factory of modern industry. 

If now we ask ourselves what has brought us to this new kind of 
modern craftsmanship, this dependence on machinery with its wealth ot 
production, its clattering, bustling activity, and its compelling influence 
on the lives of all of us, we find that one simple cause has been continuously 
operative. It is nothing more nor less than the urgent wish of the 
individual to better his own condition : and, in his disinterested moods, the 
condition of his neighbours. The change could never have been prevented. 

When Hargreaves thought that by a mechanical arrangement he could 
manipulate several spinning wheels at one time, and succeeded, so that he 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

had more wages to spend on hia wife and children, he was obeying a 
universal and natural impulse. Hargreaves' neighbours being left behind 
in the competition for wages, pulled his house about his ears. But in the 
end, they, too, found themselves to be turning many spinning wheels 
where formerly they had only handled one. Then they, too, had more 
money to spend. What other turn could things have taken under the 
circumstances ? What happened in this isolated incident is repeated 
again and again in every craft, and in sequence change and change marks 
the road that stretches far from its beginnings. 

Quite apart from all considerations as to whether the new is better or 
worse than the old, more beautiful or less beautiful, whether it calls out 
the best in man as well as the older ways, or whether it fails to do so, 
apart from all comparisons of this kind stands the fact that the change is 
due to natural impulses which will not be gainsaid. The results have to 
be accepted. We cannot put the clock back. We cannot, let us say, 
wipe away the great steelworks of the world and replace them by 
thousands of individuals each with his single anvil and single hammer. 
We cannot replace the great ships of Glasgow by a multitude of little 
sailing boats. The plain truth is that modern craftsmanship with all its 
noise and ugliness is giving food and clothing, warmth and interest to 
millions who otherwise must die. It is ungrateful to find fault except with 
sympathy. Let us try in all possible ways to mend its offences and soften 
its hardships, but in all honesty let us recognise that we live on modern 
craftsmanship in its modern form. We are each and every one of us 
responsible for the present conditions as long as we insist on spending 
money to the best advantage. 

At this point it is convenient to refer to a matter which would be of 
little importance if it did not seem sometimes to put modern craftsmanship 
in a wrong light. We are continually discovering instances of the 
marvellous skill of the craftsman of thousands of years ago. There is 
here, however, no disheartening implication, as has sometimes been 
asserted, that men can no longer do what was once in their power. To 
those who look into what goes on in a factory or a mine, in the field or on 
the sea, there are innumerable instances of beautiful craft work, beautiful 
because of their fitness for their purpose, their balance of design, their 
ingenuity, their history, their growth under human perseverance and 
thought. Every one of us can bring to mind instances of technical skill 
demanding imagination and intelligence as well as manipulative power 
which could be set alongside any instance in history. Let me name only 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 7 

one : could anything surpass the drawing of fibres of quartz, finer by far 
than a human hair, by means of the bow and arrow ? It was a feat to 
imagine that it could be done, to anticipate that when done it would 
fill so perfectly an urgent need in the construction of many important 
instruments, and finally, to do it. 

Now we come to the point at which I would ask you to consider the 
relation of science to the craftsmanship which I have been trying to define. 
I would draw your attention to the manner in which, under the urgent 
drive of self-preservation, the craftsman has called scientific knowledge 
to his aid. Sometimes the moment has been dramatic on account of the 
great need of the occasion and the prompt effectiveness of the reply. 
When, for example, coalmining was at a low ebb because the mines were 
becoming waterlogged and no available power was strong enough to clear 
them, Savery and Newcomen made use of the new discoveries respecting 
the pressures of gases and vapours which Torricelli and Pascal, Papin and 
Hooke, had just been examining and trying to explain. The steam engine 
thus came into being and saved the situation. And when, at a somewhat 
later date, your own citizen, James Watt, by further application of the 
same physical laws, added fresh powers to the engine, the modern steam 
engine came into view, with all its applications to railways and steamships 
and many other marvels of to-day. In 1831 Faraday, in the course of 
certain systematic searchings, found out the way in which one electric 
current could bring another into being, the so-called electromagnetic 
induction. With that single day's work began the whole development of 
electrical engineering in its innumerable forms. I need not increase the 
number of my illustrations. 

More often it happens that scientific knowledge enters with less 
instantaneous and startling effect into the history of a craft. It is only 
when you Come to consider the various details of some modern product of 
craftsmanship that you suddenly realise how closely every detail is con- 
nected with the advance of science, and indeed, Do be more particular, 
with the scientific laboratory. Let us think for a moment of one of those 
magnificent ships for which the Clyde is famous. Let us survey its various 
parts in our minds. Its hull of steel recalls the great forges of Britain, 
and the wealth of research that has been spent in works and metallurgical 
laboratories on the nature and qualities of steels of all kinds, research 
which is still in progress. Within are the engines, turbines perhaps, or 
reciprocating, or it may be internal combustion engines, Diesel or others . 
What a range of inquiry and trial and development lies in every detail, 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

depending always on principles of physical and chemical science, tested 
at every stage by instruments which are a craft in themselves ! You may 
think of the screw and of its design. You picture the curious and most 
efficient thrust-block by which the force of the screw is brought to bear 
upon the ship, and remember that Michell lately designed it on the basis 
of the physical laws of liquids. You look aloft and see the wireless and 
are reminded that this sprang directly from the physical laboratory. 
Your sounding apparatus is based on your own Kelvin's designs ; it may 
be that you have fitted your ship with the wonderful and still more recent 
apparatus for sounding by echo, which enables her to find the depth of 
water, shallow or deep, even when she is travelling at high speed. The 
war forced this adaptation of the laws of acoustics. She is sure to carry 
some form of refrigerating apparatus, and now we are reminded of all the 
investigations into the production of cold by students of science like the 
Frenchmen Cailletet and Pictet, by Onnes in Holland, and by Dewar, 
whom, as befits the occasion, I will call a Scotsman rather than an English- 
man. And so on, from one great feature of the ship to another, and 
presently from detail to detail ; and you find that the whole structure is 
linked by innumerable ties to the research work of the laboratories. 
Craftsmanship in its urgent need has called upon scientific knowledge for 
aid, and the mighty growth is due to the response. Indeed, it is not only 
craftsmanship that has grown, but science itself. 

If you hinder the growth of science in any way you hinder the growth 
of craftsmanship. Now it is an important fact that science advances 
over a wide front, and the various branches of it move on together : not 
absolutely keeping step with each other, but preserving a general line. 
It has been suggested that science might refrain from development in 
some directions or, even as our good friend the Bishop of Eipon said at 
Leeds last year, we might proclaim a ten years' holiday. But you cannot 
prevent interested men from making inquiry. You cannot prevent the 
growth of knowledge, ■'you cannot even make a selection of those points 
of advance which will lead to certain select classes of results. No one 
knows what is over the hill. The vanguard moves on without any thought 
of what is before it. That is why, if the march of science is to be con- 
ducted in an effective and orderly way, were it only for the purposes of 
industry, there must always be'a certain number of laboratories or parts 
of laboratories where scientific research has no immediate thought of 
possible applications. 

If I read modern industrial conditions rightly the closeness of the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 9 

connection between craftsmanship and science may be illustrated in yet 
another way. It is, I think, a fact, and a remarkable fact, that the most 
active of our modern industries are those which are founded on recent 
scientific research. The most notable is, of course, that of electrical 
engineering. The year that sees the celebration of our Association's 
centenary will witness also the ceremonies that commemorate the basic 
experiment of Faraday. It is diJ0&cult to sketch in a few words the great 
edifices that have been built upon the discovery of electromagnetic induc- 
tion. We might look upon it financially and picture, as some of my hearers 
can do, the amount of capital involved in electrical undertakings through- 
out the world, electric lighting, electric transmission of power, cables and 
now wireless, not to mention all the minor uses to which electricity is put. 
The transference of matter, of intelligence, of thought, of sound, even of 
vision, is largely dependent on electromagnetic action. If we are not 
familiar with financial quantities, let us just think for a moment of the 
change in our lives if every electric current ceased to run ; and let us 
realise that the whole mechanism of modern intercourse would fail and 
that populations born to use it would be brought to dire distress. 

Though the electrical engineering industry with all its branches may 
be said to have its source in a single laboratory experiment, yet it has 
grown by the continuous adaptation of fresh streams of knowledge. The 
huge American corporations maintain research laboratories costing 
millions of pounds annually, and find that the financial return justifies 
their policy. The General Electric Company found that a costly research 
into the structure of the electric lamp repaid itself over and over again. 
The very important technical discoveries of Langmuir and Coolidge were 
consequent upon an attempt to find out what happened on the surfaces 
of the glass bulb and of the glowing filament. The point is that the 
electrical industry was not merely launched by a single discovery ; it is 
continually guided, strengthened and extended by unremitting research. 

Consider the very active motor industry. The most important of all 
the problems connected with the internal combustion engine is that of 
the nature of the explosion, the efEects of varying the mixture, the move- 
ment of the gas in the cylinder before the ignition, the actual occurrences 
at the moment of ignition, the movement of the subsequent explosion 
wave. The problems are exceedingly intricate. They have been and are 
the subject of intense research in various laboratories in this country. 
The research is new and the industry is new. The construction of the 
engine depends on the use of alloys_^possessing the most remarkable 



10 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

properties, all of which were practically unknown until recent researches 
of the metallurgists brought them to light. The motor car is connected, 
too, with the laboratories in which chemistry and physics are applied to 
the study of rubber. Here again is a whole story in itself, which would 
tell of the work done on the intricate consequences of various kinds of 
mixings and of treatment, of the vulcanising and of the use of ' fillers.' 
Not many know the story ; they are only aware that motor car tyres last 
longer than was once the case. 

The aeroplane, like the motor car, has become possible because of the 
advent of the internal combustion engine ; but it has a unique feature — 
its element of romance, its motion through the air. The laws of aero- 
dynamics are becoming better known, and with every advance in their 
knowledge the efficiency of the aeroplane increases. Their intricacy is 
gradually resolved, but the process demands, in the first place, mathe- 
matical skill, and in the second the fascinating research that is carried 
on in the wind channels of our laboratories. On this splendid work the 
progress of the aeroplane depends. I saw not long ago in a London 
shop window a coloured print of a flying machine. From across the 
street it might easily have been taken for a drawing of a modern aeroplane ; 
a closer view showed still the same general spread of wings, the same 
whirling screws, the same discharge from the exhaust, a boat not at all 
untrue to modern design, and wheels to bear it when on land. Moreover 
the proportions were quite familiar. Yet the date was 1843. For all 
its resemblance to the modern aeroplane, how far it was from flying not 
only in time but in capacity ! The difference between old and new in 
the form and materials of the wings may not be obvious to the casual 
observer, but in reality a wealth of trial and calculation lies between the 
crude projections of the old invention and the modern machine that flies. 
The turn of a line in the sectional outline of the wing may make the 
difference between success and failure, though it is only one of innumerable 
and equally essential details. The scientific worker grasps the meaning 
of that turn, and the airman tries it out, and that is the combination which 
brings success at last. The point is that the construction of the flying 
machine is a new industry based directly on knowledge recently acquired 
in the laboratories and continually growing under laboratory experiment. 
Everything depends on this careful, well-informed concentration on 
essential details. 

If we enter the chemical province we find that there are thriving 
industries based on recent scientific discovery ; instances at least as 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 11 

remarkable as those possessing a more physical basis. The chemical 
industries are so many and various that even a brief summary is beyond 
me ; yet the whole of them are of comparatively recent origin. Quanti- 
tative chemistry is little more than a century old. And the more modern 
and more vigorous of the chemical industries depend on very recent 
chemical research, as, for example, those which deal with dyes, explosives, 
fertilisers, rubber, artificial silk and many other things. It is the same 
story : the craft is based on science, and in this case very obviously so. 
Chemical industries are based on scientific discovery, and lean on it the 
whole time. 

It is natural to compare the condition of the newer industries with the 
older industries known as basic because they have long constituted by 
far the major portion of the country's industrial effort and are still pre- 
eminent : coal and steel, cotton and wool. In some of these industries 
there is serious depression. What has the fact to do with science and 
scientific research ? 

It is obvious that we cannot say of any industry or craft that its 
condition depends only on scientific knowledge and imagination. The 
difl&culties of the coal trade are due in large part to the powerful cause of 
competition. We had a good start in the knowledge of the existence of 
our coal deposits and in the practice of working them, in the means of 
distributing coal and in methods of making use of it. We reaped our 
harvest. But as time went on other nations gathered way in pursuit of 
us ; they also found coal deposits, they learnt how to work them and could 
even improve on our practice because they could profit by our mistakes 
to a greater extent than we ourselves. They had not so much old 
machinery to scrap. Means of transit were developed in these countries ; 
in fact we helped to develop them, as also the industries that used the 
coal. Such conditions must inevitably have tended to diminish our lead. 
The war acted suddenly and violently in the same direction. It is reason- 
able, though deplorable, that the industry should find itself in diflSculties. 
The situation is not wholly irremediable, though the older conditions can 
never completely return. But at least a partial retrievement is possible, 
and we know that various research organisations, some instituted by the 
State and some due to private enterprise, are grappling with the question 
involved. It is deeply interesting to see in what way the necessary efforts 
are being made, and indeed must be made. 

Now, whatever is done, and in whatever way it is done, the results 
of such endeavour, whether related to the coal or to any other industry, 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

depend on those relations between craftsmanship and science which I 
have been trying to define. I would now consider these relations from 
one or two separate points of view. In the first instance let nie say a 
word concerning the general connection between science and that condition 
in industry which is known as mass production. 

It must always be the aim of an industrial organisation to devise and 
set going one of those systems of manufacture on a large scale with which 
we have become familiar in recent years. With the aid of suitably designed 
macliiuery and methods, great numbers or quantities of some article in 
general demand can be produced at a comparatively small running cost. 
Generally, however, the initial cost is heavy, for the designing of the 
machinery and the planning of the methods call for great experience and 
skill, and they demand much time spent in the acquirement of the necessary 
knowledge and its utilisation in design. Once the process is under way 
it may be possible, and it seems to happen on a sufficiently attractive 
number of occasions, that a smooth and peaceful running of the machinery 
brings in the wished-for returns. But every such phase of production 
comes to a natural end. An improved process is devised, and the new 
displaces the old. Or it may be a factory is set up in another country 
where labourers can be hired more cheaply ; they may be intrinsically 
inferior, but that will not matter if they can be drilled into the mechanical 
process ; and, as long as the machine runs true, the standard will not fall 
below a certain value. The event is in accord with expectation because 
men will always try to improve their productivity by the use of new 
knowledge or more favourable conditions, so that those who fail to recognise 
the principle will be left behind by those who do not. The stereotyping 
of some process can only be fruitful for its allotted time. Mass production 
is in its way splendid, ministering to the necessities and conveniences of 
many who must otherwise have gone without. But, if it is brought to 
8uch a pitch that its processes call for little intelligence in their working, 
then cheap people of little intelligence will be found, in the end, to be in 
charge. 

The relation of science to mass production is therefore both that of 
builder and that of destroyer. Mass productions are temporary lulls in 
the movement of imagination and knowledge. Much skill and thought 
and care may be required to arrange for one of those quiet and profitable 
times ; the machine is set going and for a while goes by itself. But new 
applications of scientific knowledge, new ideas, new processes, new machines 
umst always be in preparation. In the parks the gardeners are always 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 18 

nursing fresh plants to take the place of the old, and preparing them for 
their useful time of flowering. And so we see the meaning of the various 
research organisations which have been set up in the basic industries, 
such as the Fuel Research Board, the Cotton, the Woollen and the Silk 
Research Associations, the research laboratories of the steel masters at 
Sheffield. Much of our hope for the future is built upon their work. 

If craftsmanship, to fulfil its task of providing for the people, must be 
continually improving its processes, then the nation that is to be successful 
must possess the means and the will to improve, and here we come, I 
think, to a notable point. May it not be said that in this country the 
means exist even to a remarkable degree ? Our craftsmen as a whole, 
including all grades, are possessed of qualities, intelligence, skill, accuracy, 
and so on, which make improvement possible. How could our enterprises 
in the past have been so often siiccessful if this had not been so 1 How 
can we be succeeding so well in respect to the new industries of the present 
if the capacity is not there 1 

Should it not, therefore, be our policy to take advantage of our country's 
qualities by continually seeking for fresh industries or fresh adaptations 
of the old ? We should not surely cling unduly to older activities when 
they have reached the stage in which many others have learnt to do them 
with equal efficiency, and when we can go on to something new and, it 
may be, more difficult. We can, of course, bolster up old industries by 
political methods, and I have no wish to decry such methods as always 
incorrect. But clearly the best protection of all is the knowledge and skill 
which can enable us to produce what others must ask us for because they 
cannot so well make it themselves. 

These considerations lead naturally to a second aspect of the relations 
between craftsmanship and science. The improvement of craftsmanship 
depends in large part on the absorption and adaptation of scientific 
discovery. How is the process to be encouraged ? 

We here come to a point which must be emphasised with all possible 
vigour, because its importance is not always realised. Scientific knowledge 
and experience if it is to be of full service must be in direct practical 
contact with the problem that is to be solved. This must be clear to every 
one of us from actual experience. If you have expert knowledge on any 
subject and your advice is asked, your first instinct is, as you all know, 
to ask to be allowed to see for yourself. It is only when all the circum- 
stances are clear to you in their relation to the difiiculty that the solution 
is likely to suggest, itself. And it may take much watching and patient 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

observation before you are successful. It is the combination of actual 
experience witli scientific knowledge that is essential. As the principle is 
so fundamental, I may be allowed to illustrate it by an actual experience : — 

It was in the early years of the war that a body of young scientific 
students from our Universities was assembled for the purpose of testing 
on the battlefield the value of such methods of locating enemy guns as 
were already known. In their mutual discussions and considerations it 
became clear to them that the great desideratum was a method of 
measuring very exactly the time of arrival of the air pulse, due to the dis- 
charge of the gun, at various stations in their own lines. If the relative 
positions of the stations were accurately known it would then become a 
matter of calculation to find the gun position. But the pulse was very 
feeble : how could it be registered ? Various methods were considered, 
and among them was one which no doubt seemed far-fetched and unlikely 
to be successful. A fine wire is made to carry an electric current by which 
it is heated. If it is chilled, for example, by a puft' of cold air, the resistance 
to the passage of the current increases, and this is an effect which can be 
measured if it is large enough. If, then, the hot wire could be made to 
register the arrival of the air pulse from the gim a solution of the problem 
was in hand. No doubt this method occurred to several members of the 
company ; it was certainly turned over in the mind of one of them who 
had had considerable experience of these fine heated wires. They had 
been in use about thirty years, having been employed for the measurement 
of temperature in many circumstances where their peculiar characteristics 
gave them the supremacy over thermometers of the ordinary form. But, 
and this was the important point, was it to be expected that the effect, 
though it must be there, would be big enough to see ? Could the faint 
impulse from a gun miles away produce an obvious chill in a hot wire ? 
On first thoughts it did not seem likely, and the suggestion lay in abeyance. 

But it happened that one summer morning an enemy aeroplane came 
over at daybreak on a patrolKng expedition. The officer of whom 
I have spoken lay awake in his bunk listening to the discharges of the 
anti-aircraft guns and the more distant explosions of their shells. 
Every now and then a faint whistling sound seemed to be connected with 
the louder sounds. The wall of the hut was of felt ; it was in poor 
condition and there were tiny rents close to his head as he lay. The 
gun pulses made a feeble sound as they came through. This set the 
officer thinking : if the pulse was strong enough to make a soimd, it might 
be strong enough to chill a hot wire perceptibly. So the method was 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 15 

proposed to the company as worth trying. It was tried, and proved to 
be a complete success. The sound ranging of the British armies was based 
upon it, with results which have already been described and are fairly 
well known. 

It is clear that the all-important suggestion could only have been made 
by a man who had had scientific training and experience. That is one 
point of the first significance. The second is that it could only have been 
made by such a man actually on the spot. He could not have realised the 
details of the problem if he had been anywhere else. 

It is worth while to consider this last point a little more closely. What 
precisely was the difficulty which could only be resolved by a combination 
of knowledge and of being on the spot ? It was really the difficulty of 
making a true estimation of quantities. It was a question of magnitudes 
and measurements. Anyone possessed of scientific knowledge could have 
said, if asked, that a gun must make an air pulse, and that an air pulse 
would chill a hot wire to an extent which might or might not be 
measurable. But there is all the difference in the world between such 
vague general knowledge on the one hand, and, on the other, the realisation 
that such a method is likely to work and give the desired result. It is the 
difference which so often escapes attention, but everyone of experience 
knows that it is to be reckoned among the essentials. It is so easy to talk 
generalities or to think of them, and so difficult to get down to the details 
which make the effort a success. It may be the last little adjustment of 
magnitudes that turns the scale, and the last step the one that counts. 

Are we, then, in this country, putting our scientific knowledge into the 
position where it is really effective ? I would draw your attention to a 
most interesting and important movement which is attaining a notable 
magnitude. 

A new class of worker is growing up among us consisting of the men 
engaged in research associations and industrial research laboratories 
throughout the country. We must place a high value on their services, 
for they are actually and personally bringing back with them into 
craftsmanship the scientific knowledge which is one of its essentials. They 
bring the interest and the outlook of scientific inquiry into touch with 
both employer and employed, and I cannot but think that they may be to 
some extent the flux that will make them run together. For they can 
speak with the employer as men also trained in University and College, 
exchanging thought with ease and accuracy. And, at the same time, 
they are fellow workers with those in the shops and can bring back there 



16 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

some of the interest and enthusiasm which springs from the understanding 
of purposes and methods. It is to be remembered always that personal 
contact has, on the whole, thanks to the better qualities in human nature, 
a marvellous effect in smoothing out differences. I do not think it is 
unduly optimistic to welcome the growth of this new type of industrial 
worker because it can, being in personal intercourse with both capital 
and labour, supply to each a new outlook on their whole enterprise, 
especially as that outlook is naturally illuminating and suggestive. For, 
after all, this is but going back to first conditions. The primitive craftsman 
has been replaced by separate persons or groups of persons who have slipped 
away from each other almost without our realising the fact. In the most 
recent times the separation has become more obvious and more dangerous, 
and that is why in so many directions efforts are being made to stem it. 
Can it be good that the workman has a part demanding little intelligence, 
merely the capacity to repeat ? Can it be expedient that mere manipula- 
tion should be left in the shop, while design and imagination have gone 
into the drawing office and shut the door behind them ? Can it be right 
that the factory directorate should not be in immediate contact with the 
vast body of scientific knowledge ? 

The present number of industrial research workers is relatively small ; 
it seems likely to increase, however, in proportion to the extent to which 
the province of science is better understood. The better understanding 
I think of as manifesting in the first place in industry itself. I am sure 
that here it is happily on the increase. There is also a broader view to 
be taken. There is a pubUc estimation of the value of any calling which 
affects the numbers and the quality of those who respond. 

I doubt if there is in the first place sufficient appreciation of the interests 
and rewards in the life of a student of industrial research. The pioneers 
have suffered unnecessary restrictions and discouragements, but their 
followers will be in better case. Surely it does not need much imagination 
to realise the splendid side of such work ? The succession of fresh 
difficulties to be overcome, and of new and interesting views into the nature 
of things and ways of the world ; the unforeseen value of results, some- 
times an immediate prize, sometimes the clearing of an obstacle in a 
manufacturing process, never less than the discovery of facts which may 
some day be of use ; the personal association with a living enterprise and 
with the human spirit behind it. And when it is realised that this kind 
of work is wanted badly, that it is really serviceable to the community, 
that there is opportunity for devotion, that it is in touch at once with 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 17 

human needs and with the furthest stretches of thought and imagination, 
it surely takes on to us the final touch of nobility. 

We must remember also that the road of the student of science is still 
none too clear. The very methods of teaching science are a constant 
subject of discussion. I will say no more now than this : that the best 
methods must take time to elaborate, and cannot be expected to have 
arrived at their final form. The difficulty is increased by the fact that 
science itself grows rapidly, and the extent of its application is only now 
revealing itself. That the knowledge of the immensity of nature and the 
study of the natural laws have an educative value is well recognised. That 
science can be used as an educational drill is also known and made use of. 
But there still remains the human side ; the continuous effect of the 
growth of knowledge upon thought and enterprise ; the realisation of the 
immense part that science is playing in modern life and is likely to go 
on playing. Education by scientific instruction is still apt to lack the 
comprehension of the human side, without which the classroom is a 
dull place. 

There are even some who think that science is inhuman. They speak 
or write as if students of modern science would destroy reverence and 
faith. I do not know how that can be said of the student who stands daily 
in the presence of what seems to him to be infinite. Let us look at 
this point a little more closely. 

The growth of knowledge never makes an old craft seem poor and 
negligible. On the contrary it often happens that under new light it grows 
in our interest and respect. Science lives on experiment ; and if a tool 
or a process has gradually taken shape from the experience of centuries, 
science seizes on the results as those of an experiment of special value. 
She is not so foolish as to throw away that in which the slowly gathered 
wisdom of ages is stored. In this she is a conservative of conservatives. 
What is true of a tool or process is true also of those formulae in which 
growing science has tried to describe her discoveries. A new discovery 
seems at first sight to make an old hypothesis or definition become obsolete. 
The words cannot be stretched to cover a wider meaning. By no means, 
however, is that which is old to be thrown away ; it has been the best 
possible attempt to express what was understood at the time when it 
was formed. The new is to be preferred for its better ability to contain 
the results of a wider experience. But in its time it will also be put aside. 
It is by a series of successive steps that we approach the truth : each 
step reached with the help of that which preceded it. 

1028 C 



18 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

Notliing in the progress of science, and more particularly of modern 
science, is so impressive as the growing appreciation of the immensity of 
what awaits discovery, and the contrasted feebleness of our ability to 
put into words even so much as we already dimly apprehend. Let me 
take an example from the world of the physical sciences. There is a 
problem of which the minds of physicists have been full in recent years. 
The nineteenth-century theory of radiation asks us to look on light as a 
series of waves in an all-pervading ether. The theory has been marvel- 
lously successful, and the great advances of nineteenth-century physics 
were largely based upon it. It can satisfy the fundamental test of all 
theories, for it can predict the occurrence of effects which can be tested 
by experiment and found to be correct. There is no question of its truth 
in the ordinary sense. 

In the last twenty or thirty years a vast new field of optical research 
has been opened up, and among the curious things we have found is the 
fact that light has the properties of a stream of very minute particles. 
Only on that hypothesis can many experimental facts be explained. A 
wave theory is of no use in the newer field. How are the two views to be 
reconciled ? How can anything be at once a wave and a particle ? I 
do not believe that I am unjust to any existing thinker if I say that no 
one yet has bridged the gap. Some of you who were present at the 
Liverpool meeting may remember that Bohr — one of the leading physicists 
of the world — doubted if the human mind was yet sufficiently developed 
to the stage in which it would be able to grasp the whole explanation. 
It may be a step forward to say, as we have been saying vaguely for some 
years, that both theories are true, that there are corpuscles and there 
are waves and that the former are actually responsible for the transference 
of energy in light and heat, and for making us see ; while the latter guide 
the former on their way. This is going back to Newton, who expressed 
ideas of this kind in his ' Opticks,' though he was careful to add that they 
were no more than a suggestion. 

We are here face to face with a strange problem. We know that there 
must be a reconcilement of our contradictory experiments ; it is surely 
our conceptions of the truth which are at faidt, though each conception 
seems valid and proved. There must be a truth which is greater than 
any of our descriptions of it. Here is an actual case where the human 
mind is brought face to face with its own defects. What can we do ? 
What do we do ? As physicists we use either hypothesis according to 
the range of experiences that we wish to consider. To repeat a phrase 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 19 

which I employed a few years ago in addressing a University audience 
familiar with lecture time-tables, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays 
we adopt the one hypothesis, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays the 
other. We know that we cannot be seeing clearly and fully in either 
case, but are perfectly content to work and wait for the complete under 
standing. 

And when we look back over the two centuries or so during which 
scientific men have tried systematically to solve the riddle of light, or 
even go further back to the surmisings of philosophers of still older time, 
we see that every conscientious attempt has made some approach to the 
goal. The theories of one time are supplanted by those of a succeeding 
time, and those again yield to something more like the first. But it is 
no idle series of changes, no vagaries of whimsical fashion ; it is growth- 
The older never becomes invalid, and the new respects the old because 
that is the case. 

Surely it is the same in regard to less material affairs. The scientific 
worker is the last man in the world to throw away hastily an old faith or 
convention or to think that discovery must bring contempt on tradition. 

There is a curious parallelism here to a relation between science and 
industry of which I have already spoken. Just as any particular case of 
mass production can be regarded as a temporary condition which the 
growth of knowledge brings about, and in the end supersedes, so also it 
may be said of any law or rule or convention or definition that knowledge 
is both the parent and eventually the destroyer. Time devours his own 
children. Even if a statement retains its outward form, its contents 
change with the meanings attached to its terms : and change moreover 
in different directions when used by different people, so that constant 
re-definition is necessary. How much more is this the case when the 
contents themselves have to be added to. The distinction between truth 
itself and attempts to embody it in words is so constantly forced upon the 
student of science as to give his statements on all matters a characteristic 
form and expression. And this is, I think, one of the reasons why men 
are often needlessly alarmed by the new announcements of science and 
think they are subversive of that which has been proved by time. 

To this consideration I may add yet one more, which may be illustrated 
by the same analogy. Scientific research in the laboratory is based on 
simple relations between cause and effect in the natural world. These 
have at times been adopted, many of us would say wrongly, as the main 
principle of a mechanistic theory of the universe; That relation holds in 

c2 



20 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

our experimental work ; and as long as it does so we avail ourselves of it, 
necessarily and witli right. But just as in the case of research into the 
properties of radiation we use a corpuscular theory or a wave theory 
according to the needs of the moment, the two theories being actually 
incompatible to our minds in their present development, so the use of a 
mechanistic theory in the laboratory does not imply that it represents all 
that the human mind can use or grasp on other occasions, in present or in 
future times. 

The proper employment of scientific research is so necessary to our 
welfare that we cannot afford to allow misconceptions to hinder it ; and 
the worst of all are those which would suppose it to contradict the highest 
aims. Science, as a young friend said to me not long ago, is not setting 
forth to destroy the soul of the nation, but to keep body and soul together. 

And some perhaps might say that in considering science in relation to 
craftsmanship I am pressing the less noble view ; that I am not con- 
sidering knowledge as its own end. It is said that uselessness in science 
is a virtue. The accusation is a little obscure because it may justly be 
said that knowledge is never useless. If I have thought of science in 
relation to craftsmanship it is because I have tried to set out the vast 
importance of what craftsmanship means and stands for. I have not 
forgotten that there are other aspects of the inquiry into the truths of 
Nature. Indeed, I could not carry out the lesser task without con- 
sidering the whole meaning of science. And no clear line can be drawn 
between pure science and applied science : they are but two stages of 
development, two phases which melt into one another, and either loses 
virtue if dissociated from the other. The dual relation is common to 
many human activities and has been expressed in many ways. Long ago 
it was said in terms which in their comprehensiveness include all the 
aspirations of the searcher after knowledge : ' Thou shalt love the Lord 
thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul and with all thy strength ' ; 
and ' Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.' In the old story every 
listener, from whatever country he came, Parthians and Medes, Cretans 
and Arabians, heard the message in his own tongue. A great saying 
speaks to every man in the language which he understands. To the 
student of science the words mean that he is to put his whole heart into 
his work, believing that in some way which he cannot fully comprehend 
it is all worth while, and that every straining to understand his surround- 
ings is right and good ; and, further, that in that way he can learn to be 
of use to his fellow-men. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



THE VOLTA EFFECT. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. ALFRED W. PORTER, D.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Since the last annual Meeting the Association has lost one who on more 
than one occasion took part in the discussions of Section A. We had 
hoped that he would be present also at this meeting. I refer to Hendrik 
Antoon Lorentz, who passed away on February 4, 1928, in his seventy-fifth 
year. Lorentz had long been regarded as one upon whom the mantle of 
Clerk-Maxwell had fallen. For his character as a scientist and as a man 
I may make reference to the columns of ' Nature ' for February 25, 1928. 
From the group of appreciations there recorded I select the following 
quotations : ' For many years Lorentz naturally and by general consent 
took the leading place in every European conference of physicists.' ' His 
name recalls especially the Lorentz transformation, the culminating point 
of one phase of electrodynamical theory and the foundation stone of the 
next.' ' To British investigators Lorentz was ever a most sympathetic 
figure. This was due partly to his mastery of our language, partly to 
his keen admiration of the work of the great English leaders of his time, 
and above all to the transparent kindliness and charm of his character, 
with its strict integrity and the engaging candour with which he always 
admitted and even emphasised such difficulties as he had not been able to 
surmount.' 

We have also to record the regretted death of Dr. Charles Chree on 
August 12 at the age of sixty-eight. Dr. Chree was superintendent of the 
Kew Observatory from 1893 to 1925. He was a leading authority upon 
terrestrial magnetism, atmospheric electricity and related subjects. 

The subject that I have chosen for this address is the Volta eficct. 
Volta's discovery was made towards the end of the eighteenth century 
(1792). One form of experiment is as follows : — 

A zinc rod attached to a copper rod is held in the hand. The copper 
rod is brought into contact with the lower plate of a condensing electro- 
scope, the top plate of which is touched by the other hand. If the con- 
nexions are broken and the top plate is raised the gold leaves diverge with 
negative electricity. This proves that the copper rod was at a negative 
potential, since the zinc was held in the hand and at the potential of the 
earth, that is at zero. If the experiment is repeated, but with the copper 
rod held in the hand and the zinc rod touched to the lower plate, no 
charge appears, there being a rise from the copper to the zinc accompanied 



22 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

by an equal fall from tlie zinc to the lower plate of the electroscope. In 
this description it is tacitly assumed that the hand brings the metal 
touched to its own potential, and that that is the earth (or^zero) potential. 




Volta's own explanation was that there existed in'metals an inherent 
power of separating the two electricities ; that is, that each metal possessed 
what Helmholtz later spoke of as a specific attraction for electricity. 
But an alternative explanation made the effect depend upon the accidental 
circumstance that the rods are in air, that there is incipient or potential 
chemical action, between the air (or moisture in it) and the rods, which 
creates a drop of potential (of different amounts) between the air and each 
rod ; and that consequently when the twin rods are brought together, 
their potentials being equalised by a flow of electricity between them, 
there is still a difference of potential between them and the air. It has 
further to be supposed that the oxidising properties of the fluids on the 
hand are not very different from those of the air, and consequently the 
observed drops of potentials are between the metals and the hands, and 
not between the metals themselves. The two theories are known as the 
contact theory and the chemical theory. 

The subject from the beginning proved to be a very controversial one. 
The time was not ripe in Volta's days properly to discuss it. In its 
more modern form discussion may be said to have begim soon after the 
acceptance of the two principles of thermodynamics in 1850. The 
principle of energy and that of entropy put an entirely new complexion 
upon it. 

Early in the nineteenth century a^second^mode'of obtaining a flow of 
electricity was discovered by Seebeck (1822) which depended on creating 
differences of temperature in a circuit of two metals. This was the 
discovery of the thermoelectric circuit. It was inevitable that the two 
discoveries should become associated with one another, for the thermo- 
electric electromotive force might be simply due to the temperature 
variations of the other. The Seebeck effect is very small. A hundred 
degrees difference of temperature pro^ddes an e.m.f. of the order of 
millivolts at most, while the Volta effect for copper and zinc is of the 
order of one volt. Whether the two phenomena are intimately related 
or otherwise it is necessary to discuss them both. It is convenient to 
give first place in the discussion to the thermoelectric circuit. 

Thermoelectric Circuits. 

Two wires of different materials are joined so as to form a loop with 
the two junctions at different temperatures, Tj and T.^. The elementary 
facts about such a circuit are, in general : — 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 28 

(1) A current flows round the loop (Seebeck efiect). 

(2) Heat is taken in or given out at each junction (the Peltier eSect : 
= nQ). 

(3) Heat is taken in (or given out) at each portion of each wire in 
amount <t per unit charge per unit rise of temperature (the Thomson 
effect). 




I 



Cold -r 

M 



Energy is required to drive the currents ; the electromotive force (E) 
of the complete circuit is the energy required to pass unit charge across 
any section arbitrarily cut across either conductor. The principle of 
energy requires that round the complete loop this shall equal the total 
heat taken in ; or 

/•Ta rTi 

E=7c,-7t,+ a'dT- \a"dT. 

J Ti J Ti 

All the coefficients refer to unit charge. It should be noted that if 
the integration be carried out it will give E as a function of T._, and T^. 

TTj and TTi are the Peltier heat coefficients at the temperatures T.^ and T,. 

a' is the Thomson heat coefficient in one metal and is sufficiently 
defined by the equation ; cr" is the corresponding quantity for the second 
metal. 

There is, of course, nothing in this equation to show how the e.m.f. 
is localised. It is an equation for a complete circuit and for such a circuit 
the equation shows that the total e.m.f. depends only upon the tempera- 
tures of the two junctions. 

Let us now take a second circuit, different only in the fact that the 
higher temperature T.^ is slightly greater. A similar equation holds good 
for it, and the difference between the two equations is 

d'E,=dTZ,+{G,'-a.;')dT, 



The suffix 2 indicates that the symbols denote values corresponding to 
the temperature T.,. This equation is not an equation for one circuit ; 
it connects the properties of two circuits differing only infinitesimally 
in the temperature T.^. 

At first sight the equation has rather an uncanny (i.e. unphysical) 
appearance because all the symbols, except E, refer to the neighbourhood 
of the temperature T.„ while E is the e.m.f. round a complete circuit. 



24 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

One might precipitately come to the conchision that the events at either 

of the junctions were influenced by the events at all other points of the 

circuit. 

It is, however, only the rate of change of E due to changing the 

temperature T., with which we are concerned, and it might more logically 

/'dJ^ \ 
be written ( — ) because T, must be left unchanged. 

\'^,'T2/Tl 

In the same way, by changing T, instead of T^ we may obtain 

in which everything refers to the lower temperature T,. 

Sir Oliver Lodge has always insisted that E is invariably the e.m.f. 
round a complete circuit. This is perfectly correct, but we are only 
concerned with the contribution to its value arising infinitesimally near 

to either of the extreme temperatures of the circuit, and p. „- is thus 

seen to be identical with ^ where V., is the potential-difference at the 

junction whose temperature is T.^. 

We can obtain further information from considerations of entropj'. 
Strictly speaking we are entitled to use the principle of entropy only for 
reversible cycles, while in several respects the circuits we are using may 
be irreversible. Several ways are known by which the irreversibility 
may be diminished to zero in the limit, but no change is thereby made in 
the conclusions which we come to by ignoring the irreversibility altogether 
— which we accordingly do.' 

The entropy change at any part of a cycle is obtained by dividing any 
heat entry by the absolute temperature at which it enters. The sum of 
all the changes must be zero for a complete cycle. 

The two circuits give 

^ T, 



T, + d% T, 



f 



^ -^dT=0 



Ti 



whence ^ f^A+^^-^^- = 
0T2VT2/ T, 

' By increasing the lengths of the wires the conduction of heat along each may be 
indefinitely diminished. By surrounding them with conductors having the same 
temperature as the wire near to it the loss by radiation, &c., can be diminished. A 
reverse e.m.f. can be superimposed (by electromagnetic induction or otherwise) so 
as to reduce the current to zero and thereby diminish the value of the ohmic heat; 
and so on. Ignoring the irreversibility is equivalent to taking for granted that such 
precautions have been taken. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SClKxXCES. 25 

Bv oliminating a.,' — cr," we obtain 

all of which symbols are related to the temperature T.^ (T, being kept 
constant). 

Similarly, by making the change at the lower temperature, 



Also, by eliminating tt., (or tt,) 

All this leads one to realise that ( ^_ | is identical with ^^'^ where 
v., is the loc:l e.m.f. contributed by the junction itself ; and that 

Controversialists may be divided between those who believe that the 
difference of potential (V) at any junction is measured by the heat taken 
in thereat and those who do not consider that this assertion is justified, but 
that it must be replaced by the above equation. It of course does not 
folJoiv that there is any difference between the two assertions in particular 
cases ; it remains to be found out whether there is any difference between 
them or not. 

Though this is so, yet of course it may not be assumed ab initio that 
heat entry and external work done are equal to one another. This is the 
assumption that is actually made by those who write 7r.j--V.,, both being 
expressed in terms of the same units. 

It is instructive to enquire what the relation connecting these quantities 
ie for other phenomena. 

- Example : — It is found that in many cases E is given by a parabolic equation 
which can be written 



E = a(T,-T,) 



rp T, + T, 



whence by keeping Tj constant and differentiating with respect to '£., 

7T3 = aT.,(To-T.,). 

Similarly, by differentiating with respect to Ti, the heat removed at Ti is found 
to be 

_ Ki = aTi(T„-Tj). 

■ Also a/- 02"= aT., 

and O]' — Oi" = aTi. 
Tliese are terminal values onlj' and are consistent with taking 

o' —a" = aT at any intermediate temperature, 
or o' = a'T and a" = a'T 
where a = a'— a". 



26 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The general equation which is applicable in any particular group of 
cases is obtained by applying the principles of energy and entropy to 
reversible transformations. By taking both these quantities as depending 
only upon the state of a system the following equations are obtained : — 

Group I, Case I. — Perfect gas under uniform pressure. 

Heat entry = dH = G,dT -\-pdv. Work done = dW = pdv. 
In this case, at constant temperature, dil = dW. 

Case II. — Any fluid under uniform pressure, 

dR = C,dT+T:% dv; dW^pdv. 

oTjf 

Thus, at constant temperature 

rfH-dW = (T5-Si -p)dv. 

Hence dH^tdW unless Tf ^^ j — p remains zero ; that is, unless 

p=T:f(v) 

where f{v) means any function of the volume alone.^ 

Take the case of steam formed at a constant temperature of 100° C. 
Per gram we have 

AH =540 cal/gram 

, .1650X10'^ ,n 1,1 
^ ^^ 42><iO«"' roughly. 

Hence AH=-t^AW. 
40 

This is an example in which AH is much greater than AW. 
Group II. — Surface tension, a. 

dll=CJT-T^^ dA, dW=—adA. 

For water ^ 4-m^.L at 300'^ Abs. 
CT dT 500 

„ dB. 300 3 

Hence jxij~£n^~i,- 
dW 500 5 • 



Group III. — Magnetism, 



.9/* 



dR=CidT-T^L dl. dW=—}idI. 

aT.i 



■^ Van der Waal's equation is p = — _ 

T^' =^ =■»+ " 
c7l\v v-b ^ ifi 

Hence dH — dW = --dt) at const, temp. 

|;2 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 27 

Group IV.— Electric condensers, 

rfH=C,rfT-T|^ dq. dW=-Ydq. 
di-9 
In neither Group III nor Group IV is dH. = dW. 

These equations are all derived in the same way as for Group I — or 
alternatively they can be written down at once by analogy. Work can 
take various forms, but heat and work are always related in the same 
way thermodynamically. 

Surely a contemplation of these cases should act as a deterrent against 
assuming the equality of heat entry and external work done. 

Only in a particular case of Group I is the heat entry a measure of the 
isothermal work. Hence those who claim that in the thermoelectric 
case 7C is a measure of V must show that the conditions are analogous to 
those of a perfect gas, or at least of a fluid whose characteristic equation 
isp=T/(i'). 

In all the literature on this subject I find no realisation by the 
combatants that both sides might be asserting the same thing. 

Now does electricity behave as a perfect gas when it flows through a 
conductor — through a copper wire, for example ? 

Attempts have been made to calculate the conductivity of a wire by 
assuming that the electrons constitute a perfect gas ; but, as is well 
known, all these attempts have broken down. The answer to the question 
can, however, be found in another way. When Kelvin, in conjunction 
with Joule, wished to find the difference between real gases and the ideal 
gas he passed the gas through a porous plug. If the gas became warmer 
or cooler in passing through (although no heat was admitted) he knew 
that the gas was not perfect. Experimentally, air became cooler and 
hydrogen hotter. The difference of behaviour depends entirely upon the 

value of T^— r for the gas. No heating or cooling would be obtained 

if this expression is zero ; or, writing it in an integral form, if v=Tf{p). 

Now every time that you pass electrons through a conductor you are 
conducting a porous plug experiment. The electrons pass through the 
mesh of atoms like molecules of fluid through a porous solid, and in every 
case warming takes place (the Joulean heat). It is true that in the 
electrical case when conducted adiobatically the temperature goes on 
rising ; i.e. it is never possible to reach the stationary state for which easy 
calculation becomes possible. But in principle the same thermodynamics 
applies to all these phenomena, and the fact that warming occurs is 
sufficient to prove that the electrons do not flow as a perfect gas. 

This being so we are obliged to conclude that the isothermal heat 
entry at a junction between two metals is not equal to the external work 
done at the same junction, i.e. that the Peltier coefficient is not a measure 
of the voltage drop at that junction. 

The Electron considered as a Solute. 

The developments in our knowledge of the electron since 1895 have 
placed the subject on a new footing. When Sir William Thomson (Kelvin) 
first gave an explanation of thermoelectric phenomena he spoke of a as 



28 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

being the specific heat of electricity. There is no clear evidence that he 
used the term in anything but an analogical way. To Maxwell the idea 
of the corporeality of electricity was exceedingly distasteful. He assumed 
that such a phrase as the specific heat of electricity ' was not intended 
by Thomson, and must not be understood by up, to imply that electricity 
either positive or negative is a fluid which can be heated or cooled and 
which has a definite specific heat.' He shelved the question by talking 
of change of entropy instead. Maxwell's conceptions in regard to the 
non-corporeality of electricity almost won the day when Hertzian waves 
were found to be transmitted in free space where no electricity was. But 
the bodily nature of electricity came to be a real thing in the years 
succeeding 1895. Negative electricity was isolated as electrons, while 
positive electricity has not yet been separated from the rest of the atom, 
and may consist of all of the atom which is not electrons. There is now 
no difiiculty in thinking of electricity as a receptacle of energy which may 
be communicated to it in the form of heat ; that is, it has come fully 
within the thermodynamical scheme. The question is, which is the best 
picture that can be given of its position in that scheme ? 

Now, firstly, when an electric current passes across a junction between 
two metals, say copper and zinc, it is quite certain that no detectable 
amount of metal is carried by it across the junction. We are not concerned 
with the formation of brass (as probably Sir Oliver Lodge has already 
said). The only things that pass are the electrons which are responsible 
for conveying the current in each metal. These are tolerably free to move 
under the influence of an electric force. [They are not set free by the 
force, for otherwise Ohm's Law would not hold good.] The copper or 
zinc serves merely as a framework through which their motion occurs. 
The electrons can get across a boundary between the metals, but the 
fact that heat-changes occur thereat is evidence that they may need to be 
helped over — there is a rise (or drop) of potential there, though not of an 
amount equal to the heat entry. It is convenient to think of this 
potential, V, as a pressure arising from electrical forces, or more strictly, 
since V refers to unit charge, a pressure divided by the charge on the 
electron. 

It is clear that thermodynamically we may regard the metal as a 
solution or binary system, the electrons being the solute. The boundary 
between the zinc and copper acts as a semi-permeable membrane, since the 
electrons, and nothing else, can get through it. FitzGerald spoke of the 
free surface of a solution as the most perfect semi-permeable meml;rane, 
but the boundary surface between two metals in regard to electrons runs 
it very close. There is a difference of pressure (or potential) between the 
two sides. This is an osmotic pressure. The electrons can also escape 
to some extent from the sides of the wire ; they have a vapour pressure. 
If the temperature is raised this becomes very conspicuous as thermionic 
emission. The copper also has a vapour pressure, but much smaller. 
We have then to deal with a volatile solute dissolved in a practically 
involatile solvent — at least at moderate temperatures. 

This being so, and thermodynamics being superior to the idiosyncrasies 
of individual mechanisms, we can at once transfer all that we know about 
the thermodynamics of solutions to the thermoelectric circuit. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCTENCES. 
OSMOTIC^CONSIDERATIONS . 



29 



.2 I 



o 



T, 



n § 



o 

02 



Osmotic 
Osmotic pressure at 'Y^ir=Vi='p{' —Vi • 
T, = P,=i),"-i','. 

Heat of dilution at T.2=( '^iTf^' )»,• 




T,= T, 



.'^ 



>.)T,> 



T 

Theemoelectric . 
Potential difference at T.2 = V.. = V,"— V./. 
Ti=V,=V,"-V,'. 

7t2=Heat entry at T.,=To-=^ per 

unit charge. 

/V, 



7ri= 



T,=T,^ 



T, ^ 
unit charge. 



Now although the fact that both cases are sohitions enables oue to 
write down the general expressions for both, it does not follow that there 
ia precise numerical correspondence. Nevertheless it is instructive to 
enquire what is found to be true for ordinary solutions. 

It is found in practice for solutions such as sugar in water that P can, 
with fair accuracy, be represented by a simple equation such as 

P=«RT/(1— «6). 
With this equation the 

Heat of dilution=T^J^=P. 

Hence the heat taken in is nearly equal to the external work done. 
Recent measurements of it have been made by Miss D. Hunter and 
by Perman and Downes, and deviations from this statement have been 
determined. 

On the other hand, in the thermoelectric case 

7r = aT(To-T] 
for many pairs of metals. At temperatures remote from the neutral 
temperature (To) this is of the same form, but in general since 

n9V 



7r=T' 



aT' 



=a(To-T) or V-V2To=KT„T- 



There seems to be nothing in the osmosis of solutions to indicate what 
the value of the integration constant V2T(, may be. 

The second property of solutions is that of vapour pressure or, as it 
is called, thermionic emission. We have two solutions, Zinc + E and 



30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Copper-f-E. Eacli has a vapour pressure for electrons. When equi- 
librium exists between the metals the vapour pressure must be the same 
for both. 

Now there is a theorem which deals with such cases of equilibrium. 
This is Margules' theorem. If [i^ is the molar fraction of the volatile 
component and p the vapour pressure, 

(i.1— -log j9=a symmetrical function of iXi and 1— pt,. 

This theorem is not quite exact, but at temperatures remote from 
the critical value the error is one part in a million or less, and may be dis- 
regarded. A simple case is that for which the right-hand side can be 
written aH-2P(j,,(l— [j.,), and when integrated it gives 

log ^=a log (x,+p(l— (Xjf . 

Po 

An equation of this kind fits exceedingly well many binary mixtures 
(even when both components are volatile), the value of p varying in 
difierent cases from plus three or four to minus six, and a being often 
equal to one. The form of the equation indicates that [3 is the coefficient 
of mutual action between the components. Its value varies neajly 
inversely as the absolute temperature, and since the equation may be 
written 

p=Poliie T 

it is seen to have a close connexion witFBoltzmann's equation. But the 
general form of Margules' equation has, I believe, much wider validity 
than Boltzmann's equation. 

Now when copper and zinc with their electrons are in contact-equi- 
librium with each other they must have the same vapour pressure for 
electrons— i.e. p is the same for both. Hence 

This is an equation for determining the concentrations ([x) of the free 
electrons in copper and zinc respectively. 

Our present knowledge about the numbers of free electrons in metals 
requires that [i^ and [i. be small. Hence approximately 

or 3i-P'=log&. 

Now ^^ — p,. is certainly proportional to the work done in the escape of 
an electron, but we do not know enough about the concentrations (fx) of 
the free electrons in the metals to make any use of this equation, which 
is of such importance in connexion with the properties of ordinary 
solutions. I give it in order to call attention to it as an equation which 
may some day be of use in elucidating the Volta effect. 

More hopeful in giving information is the equation for the latent 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



31 



heat of the solution in terms of the specific heats. For a substance like 
water changing phase 

dTKTJ^ T 
For the electrical case we obtained the equation 

The quantity L I have called the latent heat of dilution. It is con- 
nected, however, with the latent heats of evaporation from the two metals 
at the junction temperature. These latent heats of evaporation are those 
that come into play in thermionic emission. Prof. 0. W. Richardson 
has measured such latent heats, and concludes that they support the 
existence of large thermionically excited voltages. Whatever their 
magnitude it must not be forgotten that tt is a measure of the difierential 
latent heat at a junction and tt is certainly very small.'' 

^ I am accustomed to put the matter thus : 

Assume that the emitted electrons behave as a perfect gas in the vapour state, 
having pressure, volume, and temperature connected thus : 

V 

Now, any latent heat is given by 

L=T:{v.,-v,)^ (Clausius). 

The internal latent heat is 

But Vi (the volume in the solid) is exceedingly small compared with v; hence very 
nearly 

Li T, T d fp\ d I p\ 

T^ = ^ ^ (iT\T j = ^ dT ^""^ \t) ' 
whence, by integration 

or putting p = wRT (re = concentration in the vapour state) 



n = reJ»'^''' 



IT. 

If we consider a second metal in equilibrium with the first 

re' = re„J^^*'' 

But things which are in equilibrium with the same thing are in equilibrium with one 
another ; therefore re = re' and 

Li — Li* is the internal latent heat of dilution. This equation is Kirchhoflf's equation. 
Now though the latent heats may be large their difference is usually a small quantity, 
and it is their difference which is nearly represented by tt. 



32 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The actual measured value for a for copper at 150° C. is about 
2-5 micro-joules per deg. C. per coulomb. Since the electric charge of 
an electron is about 1-57 X 10~''' coulombs, the value of a for an electron 
in copper would be 2-5 X 1-57 X 10"-'' X 10 ergs per deg. C, or 3-9x10-" 
ergs per deg., while the corresponding quantity for a gas molecule is about 
2 X lO""' ergs per deg. The measured value is considerably less than the 
usual molecular value. We know, however, that for some metals it is 
actually negative. This is no doubt due to the fact that, being a negative 
charge, it gives up energy as it goes up potential at constant temperature, 
and consequently less heat is needed to raise it one degree at any given 
temperature. If only the Thomson effect could be reliably measured 
important information could be obtained of clY'dT in each metal. 

Electrolytic Regions. 

I must now pass on to consider electrolytic regions, i.e. voltaic cells. 
Volta's own theory was that the driving force was situated at the metal- 
metal junction. His view was afterwards adopted by Lord Kelvin. 
This is a sjiecially interesting fact because Kelvin was one of the first to 
show that the energy of the current was supplied by the chemical actions 
in the cell. This was afterwards slightly corrected by Helmholtz, who 
showed that strictly E was a measure of the free energy per unit charge 
and not of the total energy.'^ 

We can in fact no more ignore the heat taken in in this case than we 
had a right to ignore the internal work done when dealing with the thermo- 
electric circuit. 

We must be prepared to find that the osmotic conditions in voltaic 
cells are different from those in metals. Consider the circuit of a Daniel) 
cell : Zn—ZnSo^sol"— Membrane— CuSojSol"—Cu— outside circuit— Zn. 

The first difference is that it is not merely electrons that move. What 
happens at the Zinc-Liquid junction ? We are not certain. Physical 
chemists under the influence of Debye are revising their conceptions in 
regard to solutions. The old dissociation theory assumed that positive 
and negative ions moved about quite freely unless appropriate collisions 
occurred, when combination might take place, the amount of combination 
being calculable from the law of mass action. The theory was exceedingly 
useful, but there was an outstanding difficulty in regard to ' strong ' 

■"' For a reversible action d\J = rfH — dW 

= T(/9 - Xrfa; 
or (f{U - Tcp) = - 9rfT - X^dx. 

The quantity U — T9 is the free-energy, F, 9 = entropy, U = internal energy, X a 
' force ' doing work in the ' displacement ' x. 

Hence — dF = X.dx or the work done at constant temperature = decrease of F. 
Now F depends onl\- on the state of the system, hence dY is a perfect differential, 
and we have y^ = — 9, so that 

F = U+ Tl^l 
,)T la; 

or -U = T34(? 

Mt 

The expression for the internal latent heat on p. 31 is an example of this relation. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 33 

electroljrtes. These do not follow the law of mass action. Debye assumes 
complete dissociation, but with electrical attractions between the ions due 
to their positive and negative charges. These forces give rise to what 
may be called potential combination following, however, a different law 
from that of mass action, and the difficulty in regard to ' strong ' electro- 
lytes is removed, though only for dilute solutions. The important fact, 
however, is that some of the zinc goes into the solution, carrying positive 
charges with it. It goes in not merely by evaporation, as in Nernst's 
theory, but it is in part pulled in by the SOj-ions carrying negative 
charges. Again at the copper plate copper is deposited not freely as a 
vapour might condense, but is retarded by the attractions of the SO^- 
ions in the solution. Both plates act as semi-permeable membranes, 
passing selected substances and stopping others. So far as we know, no 
electricity gets through either of these membranes except as a rider on 
an ion. At any rate this must be so as long as Faraday's laws of electrolysis 
hold good. 

On the other hand the membrane (porous pot, &c.) separating the two 
solutions acts as a membrane more nearly of the metallic kind. Electrons 
that were riding on SO^-ions get through, leaving their mounts behind. 
Few membranes will act in precisely this way, and considerable variety 
may therefore exist in the voltage changes at this membrane. It is not 
unlikely that the voltage there may be of the same order as that at the 
outside copper-zinc junction, but of opposite sign ; for in both cases 
electrons alone are passing. If this is so, then the electromotive force 
of a circuit may, at least approximately, be the sum of those arising at 
the metal-liquid junctions. 

From what I have said it will be clear that my opinion is that it is 
still necessary to be cautious and to avoid dogmatism on this question. 
Much more detailed experimental knowledge is required before the electric 
circuit is really understood. The electronic theory in metals still has its 
difficulties, which it is useless to ignore. It is only by recognising the 
difficulties that advance is made. On the other hand the experimental 
difficulties in connexion with the direct measurement of Volta effect are 
also very great, as all who have made experiments on it must know. 

I had hoped to be able to present to you some new experimental 
data. I am not satisfied, however, that I understand the meaning of the 
vagaries that often occur, and I do not mean to publish anything now. 

I wish to say, however, that I am impressed by the excellent and novel 
work that is being done by Millikan and by 0. W. Eichardson on this 
question. 

Both the experiments and the theory are associated with great 
difl&culties. My own opinion is that, though the voltage at the metal- 
metal junction is likely to be much larger than the chemical school 
demanded, there is nothing to justify one in going to the opposite extreme 
and expecting that the whole of the electromotive of a circuit is located 
at that junction. Opposing schools may both take comfort in the thought 
that in some respects they are both right. 

Of course no difficulty is introduced if it is concluded that the contribu- 
tion of an element of the ciicuit to the total e.m.f. is not measured by the 
heat taken in locally thereat. On both sides of the controversy it is well 

1928 D 



34 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

realised that energy may be introduced at one point of a mechanism and 
utilised at another. Transmission of energy along rods and belts and 
across wheels is familiar to everybody ; and though some of the modes 
of transmission may appear curious (e.g. through a belt it is transmitted 
in the opposite direction to that in which the tight part of the belt is 
moving) yet the modus operandi presents no difficulty when it is thoroughly 
analysed. 

The object of this address has been to try to clear up some of the 
causes of dissension. If I have succeeded in making clear any matters 
about which any of you had experienced difficulties, I shall be well 
rewarded. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



PHOSPHORESCENCE, FLUORESCENCE 
AND CHEMICAL REACTION. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. E. C. C. BALY, C.B.E.. M.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECT ON. 



The phenomena associated with chemical reaction, and in particular the 
mechanism of chemical change, form a subject of peculiar interest. The 
story of the development of ideas from the birth of modern chemistry to 
the present day is one which to my mind forms the most attractive chapter 
in the history of our science. It may be that to some of those who earn 
undying fame by the determination of the constitution of most wondrously 
complex molecules, to some of those who go down to posterity as masters 
of synthesis and wizards of organic method, it may be that to these this 
chapter presents an interest that is languid. On the other hand there 
are many to whom it makes a great appeal because the subject matter is 
the fundamental basis of chemical knowledge. I confess my own 
allegiance with the latter, but it is in a very humble spirit that I venture 
to speak upon this subject. I do so not with any confident assurance of 
being able to put forward a theory of chemical reaction which will embrace 
all the known facts and embody all the views that have from time to time 
been enunciated, but rather in the hopes of collecting together a number 
of observations which have been made in fields allied to chemistry and 
appear to be worthy of consideration by those who seek to find an explana- 
tion of the mechanism of chemical reaction. 

The allied fields to which I refer are those of phosphorescence, 
fluorescence and absorption spectra, fields which have been enriched by 
observations of high accuracy. These observations are of special signifi- 
cance in that they are concerned with the physical properties of molecules 
in contradistinction to those of atoms. The phenomena of chemical 
reaction are essentially associated with the absorption and radiation of 
energy, and it thus seems somewhat strange that little attempt has hitherto 
been made in considering the mechanism of reaction to invoke aid from 
the many investigations in these allied fields which obviously deal with 
the energy changes undergone by molecules. It will be my endeavour 
to show that the evidence that has been obtained from the study of 
luminescence and absorption spectra has a very direct bearing on the 
phenomena of chemical reaction,- and that the hypothesis of activated 
molecules which forms the basis of the modern theories of the latter can 
be rigidly tested and examined by the former. 

One of the most important theories brought forward during recent 
years is that known as the radiation hypothesis, which was developed 

d2 



36 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

independently by Perrin and by W. C. McC. Lewis. Briefly stated in an 
elementary way, this theory postulated that molecules in general have 
no chemical reactivity, and that they become reactive after they have 
absorbed energy. In order that a specific reactivity be induced, a definite 
quantity of energy must be supplied to bring each molecule from its 
initial stage to its reactive state, this quantity being called the critical 
increment of energy characteristic of the specific reaction. 

The fundamental basis of the radiation hypothesis was the extension 
of the Einstein photochemical equivalent law to include thermal radiation 
as well. The Einstein law states that in a photochemical reaction the 
absorption of the radiation takes place in the form of quanta, and that 
each molecule requires for its activation one single quantum hv^, where v,, 
is the characteristic absorption frequency of the molecule in the visible 
or ultra-violet region of the spectrum. The conception that a single 
quantum of energy must be absorbed before a molecule can become 
activated was not only extended but also intrinsically modified in the 
radiation hypothesis. W. C. McC. Lewis developed from the Planck 
radiation formula the expression 

(flog;fc/(^T = NAv/RT^ . . . . (1) 

where k is the velocity constant of the reaction and N is the Avogadro 
constant. By treating the problem from the point of view of statistical 
mechanics, J. Rice, following the example of Marcelin, obtained an expres- 
sion which, with a small simplification, may be written 

(ZlogK/(ZT = E/Rr . . . . (2) 

where E is the amount of energy necessary to bring one gram molecule 
of a gas into its reactive state. If the like terms in these expressions be 
equated we have 

E/N = ;iv, 

that is to say the amount of energy that has to be supplied to a single 
molecule to cause it to react is one single quantum of absorbable radiation. 
Although Lewis says that this is simply a statement of the Einstein law 
which is now applied to thermal or infra-red radiation, it is much more 
than that. The Einstein law merely states that in a photochemical 
reaction a molecule absorbs one quantum of radiant energy, Avg, and then 
becomes activated, no assumption being made as to the difference in 
energy content of the initial and reactive states. The radiation hypothesis 
states that the difference in energy content of the initial and reactive 
states, or the critical increment of activation, is a single quantum which 
can be absorbed from infra-red radiation. The critical increment of 
energy characteristic of a reaction is neither expressed nor implied in the 
Einstein law. 

It is a simple matter to calculate the critical increment of a reaction 
from the observed change of the velocity constant with temperature, and 
by dividing this quantity, expressed in ergs, by the product N/(, to obtain 
the critical frequency v. Not only must this frequency be one character- 
istic of the reactant molecules, that is to say one that can be observed by 
absorption spectra measurements, but the radiation hypothesis also 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 37 

demands that exposure of the inactive molecules to radiant energy of 
that frequency should cause the reaction to take place. As a matter of 
experimental fact, molecules in their inactive states do not show any 
evidence of being characterised by frequencies equal to those calculated 
from the critical increments. This in itself is sulficiently significant to 
arrest attention, but when it was proved first by Lindemann and then in 
most elegant fashion by G. N. Lewis that molecules do not react when 
exposed to radiant energy, not only of the calculated frequency but of a 
very large range of infra-red frequencies, it was felt on all sides that the 
radiation hypothesis had been efltectively and completely disproved. 

The situation thus reached is one of considerable interest. There 
exist on the one hand large and increasing numbers of photochemical 
reactions which are obviously stimulated by the absorption of radiant 
energy. If the Planck theory stand fast, the reactant molecules must be 
activated by the absorption of the energy quanta Avo, since it is well 
known that the frequency v^ is characteristic of them. On the other 
hand the radiation hypothesis is based on premises which appear to be 
theoretically sound ; nevertheless it has been proved to be untenable. As 
a result the general consensus of opinion has swung over to activation by 
collision in thermal reactions. It must, however, be confessed that the 
present position is very far from being a satisfactory one. In the case of 
true photochemical reactions it is not possible to believe that activation of 
the reactant molecules is not produced by the direct absorption of radiant 
energy. In the case of thermal reactions the evidence disproves the 
activation by the direct absorption of radiant energy, and activation by 
collision has been substituted. There are, therefore, two accepted methods 
of activation, but the fact remains that these two have as yet not been 
properly married together, the general hope apparently being that any 
offspring will be legitimised when the union has been scientifically 
canonised. 

When the obsequies of the radiation hypothesis had been sung, it was 
felt that the corpse had received decent burial. In sympathy with its 
parents in their bereavement, I venture to point out that this hypothesis 
may be divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with the 
critical increment of energy of a reaction, that is to say the minimum 
quantity of energy, or rather the exact quantity of energy, which is 
required to bring a molecule from its initial state to its reactive state. 
Unless the whole conception of different molecular states be dropped, 
this conception of a critical increment stands on a sure and firm basis. 
The second part of the hypothesis, namely, that the critical increment 
can be absorbed as a single quantum of energy by a reactant molecule, is 
a pure assumption and one that would only be justified by a knowledge 
that the properties of molecules are in this respect identical with those 
of elementary atoms. The uncertainty which attaches itself to this 
assumption impresses me so strongly that I propose to exhume the body 
in order that the cause of death may be more fully investigated. There 
exists a considerable amount of evidence which was not before the court 
and this evidence is worthy of the most serious consideration. 

So far as the phenomena of chemical reaction can help us, our know- 
ledge of the physical properties of molecules, and in particular their 



38 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

change from one to otlier state of energy content, is singularly meagre, 
and it would seem that little more can be gained in this direction even 
by the most intensive study of purely chemical processes. I venture to 
stress this point of view because I believe that the necessary evidence can 
only be gained from sources of information which are independent of the 
processes we wish to explain. Such independent sources of information 
may be found in the phenomena of phosphorescence, fluorescence and 
absorption spectra of compounds. Observations in these three fields are 
sufficiently differentiated from those of chemical reaction to be trusted 
to give evidence which is free from any bias. I myself believe that these 
observations when interpreted on the energy quantum theory constitute 
a mine of information which can render signal service in the quest for a 
comprehensive theory of chemical reaction. 

The term phosphorescence is a broad one and includes both photo- 
luminescence and cathodoluminescence, together with certain subsidiary 
phenomena. The only one of these that can serve our present purpose is 
photoluminescence, since a knowledge is essential of the frequency of the 
activating radiation as well as that of the emitted radiation. It is not 
possible to give here any detailed account of the many observations, 
both qualitative and quantitative, of the phenomenon of photoluminescence, 
but particular attention may be directed to one or two of these which have 
a special significance in the present connection. 

It would perhaps be advisable first to describe very briefly the principal 
facts which have been established. In the first place the molecules of the 
phosphore are brought into a state of higher energy content, or the 
activated state, by the absorption of radiant energy. The phosphorescent 
emission is the radiation of energy during the change of the molecules 
from the activated state to the original state, and this energy is equal in 
amoimt to that gained during the activation. The persistence of the 
phosphorescence, that is to say the period of the time during which the 
luminescence persists, is a measure of the stability of the activated state. 
The more stable is the activated state, the longer is the persistence, and 
vice versa. The intensity of the luminescence is in inverse ratio to the 
persistence. After a definite quantity of energy has been absorbed by 
the phosphore, then in the radiation of that quantity in the form of 
phosphorescence the velocity must affect the persistence and intensity in 
opposite senses. Since the phosphorescent emission is the integration of 
the individual radiation of a number of molecules, the intensity decreases 
with time as the number of molecules in the activated state becomes smaller. 
If the intensity at any time t be measured in relation to the initial intensity 
(t=0) then 

l—^=a-\-bt 

and in the majority of cases n=2. 

The stability of the activated state is determined both by the tem- 
perature and by the concentration of the phosphorogen in solid solution 
in the diluent. The higher is the temperature, the less stable is the activated 
state, and there always exists an upper temperature limit, characteristic 
of every phosphore, above which no phosphorescence can be observed. 
The stability of the activated state is the greatest with a pure substance, 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 39 

and in order to observe phosphorescence at temperatures below the upper 
limit, it is necessary that the phosphorogen be in dilute solid solution in 
some diluent. This was first observed by Lenard and Klatt with their 
alkaline earth sulphide phosphores, and more strongly emphasised by 
Urbain and Bruninghaus in the case of the rare earths. 

The foregoing is a brief account of the characteristics of photo- 
luminescence, and we may now consider in detail one or two of these, 
selecting as the first the relation between the frequencies of the exciting 
radiation and the emitted radiation. In the alkaline earth sulphide 
phosphores the phosphorescent radiation is very often complex in the 
sense that it consists of several separate emission bands. Lenard and 
Klatt, however, satisfied themselves that each emission band is character- 
istic of a single activated state, since each has its own frequency of activa- 
tion and its own upper temperature limit. The relation between the 
absorption band at which activation takes place and the emission band 
after activation is an intimate one, and it has been shown by later work 
on less complex phosphores that the absorption and emission bands have 
structures which are analogous. 

Now Lenard and Klatt established the very important fact that 
phosphorescent emission is not a truly reversible process. It is not in 
any way possible to activate a phosphore by exposing it to radiation of 
the same frequency as that which it emits when it has been activated. 
It is only possible to activate a phosphore by means of radiant energy 
of the same frequency as that of its characteristic absorption band which 
lies on the short wave-length side of the characteristic emission band. 
In short, these investigators proved the complete validity of Stokes' law, 
and as the result of later work on true phosphorescence this law has been 
proved invariably to hold. 

The importance of this may at once be recognised if the facts be stated 
in more scientific phraseology. When an activated phosphore is emitting 
its characteristic luminescence each activated molecule radiates a single 
quantum of energy in passing from the higher energy state to the lower 
energy state, the total luminescence being the sum of all these radiated 
quanta. In the process of activation the change from the lower to the 
higher state is caused by the absorption of that same quantity of energy 
by each molecule, and in view of the radiation as a single quantum it is 
legitimate to assume that it is absorbed as a single quantum, nothing 
being expressed or implied as to the mechanism of the absorption. Each 
molecule, therefore, requires for its activation a critical quantum of energy 
Avj, and the value of Vj may be directly obtained from the measurement 
of the luminescence. The proof given by Lenard and Klatt and by others 
that Stokes' law is valid indicates that it is impossible to activate a 
phosphore by means of radiant energy of the frequency Vj, and that the 
critical quantum of activation cannot be supplied to a molecule by a 
singular absorption process. There exists, therefore, in this respect a 
sharp difterentiation between the physical properties of molecules and 
atoms. 

The lethal dose of criticism which killed the radiation hypothesis was 
based on the experimental proof that molecules are not able to do this 
very same thing, namely, absorb their critical quanta of activation Av, 



40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

at the calculated frequency v^. The radiation hypothesis was killed 
because the assumption of the second part was made in ignorance of what 
molecules can do and cannot do. 

It may be argued that the activated molecular states which are 
responsible for phosphorescence must be essentially different from those 
which function in chemical reaction, because their life periods are enormous 
compared with those of chemical processes. The fact, however, remains 
that in a series of different energy levels the uplift from a lower to a higher 
level cannot be achieved by the absorption of radiant energy of the 
frequency corresponding to the energy difference. The stability of the 
activated states in the field of phosphorescence and its remarkable varia- 
tion with temperature are matters of great importance, but too much 
stress need not be laid upon them at this stage of the argument. A 
possible explanation will be given later. 

It may be pointed out that there is a close similarity between the 
effective methods of activation in the fields of photoluminescence and 
photochemistry. In each the activation is achieved by exposing the 
inactive molecules to radiant energy of a frequency equal to that of a 
characteristic absorption band of the inactive state, and this frequency 
is invariably greater than that calculated from the quantum of activation. 
Stokes' law, therefore, may be said to apply to photochemistry as well as 
to photoluminescence. 

In view of the mechanism of activation which is common to photo- 
luminescence and photochemistry, it is legitimate to inquire into the 
destination of the excess of the energy absorbed over the critical quantum 
of activation. The energy quantum absorbed by a single molecule may 
be denoted by hv^, and the critical quantum of activation by hv^, where 
V(, is greater than v,, and the question is what happens to the energy 
difference expressed by /iVg— /iVj. In the case of photoluminescence there 
is no doubt of the value of hv^, since this may be calculated from the 
observed emission band, and hv„ is also known from measurements of the 
absorption band or activating frequency. The course of events during 
activation may be represented by the diagram shown in fig. 1, where 
energy content is expressed on the ordinates and time on the abscissae. 

The initial level of a molecule is represented by A and the energy level 
of the activated state by the horizontal line C. The difference between 
the two levels is ^v,, and this quantum is radiated when the activated 
molecule returns to its initial state A. When the molecule in its initial 
state absorbs the quantum h\ it is raised to the level B, which is higher 
than the level C. Since the phosphorescent emission is that of the 
quantum hv^, the molecule after being initially raised to the level A must 
immediately fall to the C level with the radiation of the energy h^^—h/i. 
If the initial level A is a definite energy state of the molecule, it is legitimate 
to assume that the energy difference is radiated as a single quantum hv.^. 
It may be suggested that this radiation during activation by light of 
frequency greater than that corresponding to the critical quantum of 
activation is the origin of fluorescence. Apart from any other argument 
it is necessary that the radiation of some energy must accompany the 
activation of a molecule by light if Stokes' law is generally valid, and 
the view now brought forward is that under certain conditions this energy 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 



41 



can be radiated as a single quantum of fluorescence. The really essential 
condition for this to take place is that the molecule can exist for a finite 
period of time at the energy level C. 

In all cases of photoluminescence the criterion exists for the radiation 
of excess energy as a quantum of fluorescence, since the phosphorescent 
emission gives direct evidence for the existence of the molecule in the 
energy level C in fig. 1. Fluorescence, therefore, should always be 
exhibited during the photo-activation of a phosphore. Lenard and Klatt 
in their investigations of photoluminescence recorded the fact that in 
general the intensity of the luminescence showed a sudden and marked 
diminution at the instant the exciting radiation was removed. It will 

B 

^ 



f^i 



kV-hy^^hV. 



T" 



kv, 



JL 



Jj£. 



k 



Fig. 1. 

be remembered that they defined two ' instantaneous ' states, characteristic 
of each emission band, when the luminescence vanished completely at the 
instant the activation was stopped. These two states are determined by 
the temperature, and there lies between them an intermediate state when 
true phosphorescent emission with measurable persistence is observed. 
There is no doubt that in the lower instantaneous state the stability of the 
activated molecules is so great that the phosphorescent emission is too 
small to be observed. There is also no doubt that in the upper instan- 
taneous state, which has a very small temperature range immediately 
below the upper temperature limit, the stability of the activated state is 
so small that the whole of the phosphorescent emission takes place within 
a fraction of second after activation has ceased. In the intermediate 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

region the stability is such that the luminescence can be observed and 
measured without difficulty. 

The sudden and complete disappearance of luminescence in the lower 
instantaneous state when the excitation is stopped must be entirely due 
to fluorescence, since no phosphorescence is visible. The energy of 
activation remains stored up and can only be released by raising the 
temperature. In the intermediate state phosphorescence is always visible 
to a greater or less extent and in consequence the presence of fluorescence 
will be recognised by a sudden fall in intensity at the instant when the 
exciting radiation is cut off. Both these phenomena have been established 
by Lenard and Klatt's work. 

It must be remembered that the one essential criterion for fluorescence 
is the existence with a finite stability of an energy level intermediate 
between the initial level and the super-activated level to which the molecule 
is raised by absorbing the quantum /(V^. It is by no means necessary that 
the stability of the intermediate level be sufficiently great for delayed or 
phosphorescent emission to be visible when the molecule changes from 
this level to its normal level. The conditions for phosphorescence are 
far more restricted and rigid, one of these being that the phosphore must 
be in the solid state. It is, therefore, not surprising that fluorescence is 
of far more frequent occurrence than phosphorescence. 

Attention has already been directed to the close similarity between 
the activation processes in photoluminescence and in photochemistry. 
The principle of fluorescence radiation must also apply to photochemical 
reactions, in all of which the activating quantum is greater than the 
actual energy of activation. The course of events must again be that 
shown in fig. 1, with the simple difference that in photochemistry the 
existence of the molecule in the energy level C will be established by the 
occurrence of a chemical reaction, the critical increment of which is hv^. 
Here again, therefore, the relation should hold that 

where JiWg is the quantum of energy absorbed at the characteristic molecular 
frequency in the ultra-violet, hv^ is the critical increment and v.^ is the 
frequency of the fluorescence. It would seem, therefore, that the 
suggested explanation of fluorescence may be put to a very severe test by 
the quantitative study of photochemical reactions. Some preliminary 
observations have been carried out at Liverpool by Mr. Leathwood and 
these give definite support. The examples selected were not chosen from 
known photochemical reactions ; rather was it considered desirable to 
determine whether photochemical reactions take place under conditions 
when fluorescence is visible and do not take place when fluorescence is not 
visible. Gas reactions have not been investigated owing to the difficulty 
of observation of the fluorescence of gaseous systems. 

Some years ago F. 0. Rice investigated the sulphonation of certain 
phenolic ethers and at the same time he observed the absorption spectra 
of these substances. A typical instance of the phenomena observed is 
given in fig. 2, which shows the absorption spectra of anisole. The 
absorption band A is that exhibited by the ether in alcoholic solution, 
whilst the absorption band B is that exhibited by the ether in solution 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 



43 



in concentrated sulphuric acid. The shift in the absorption band towards 
the longer wave-lengths on change of solvent is very marked. The 
addition of a little (4 eq.) strong sulphuric acid to the alcoholic solution 
makes no measurable difference in the absorption curve, and no sulphona- 
tion takes place in that solution. On the other hand the ether undergoes 
sulphonation in the concentrated sulphuric acid solution, the reaction 
velocity being very slow indeed at 15° and rapid at 50°. 

Now the alcoholic solution of anisole is strongly fluorescent, the 
emission band having the same frequencies as the absorption band B in 
fig. 2, that is to say, the frequency of the fluorescence of the alcoholic 
solution is the same as the frequency of the characteristic absorption band 
of the sulphuric acid solution. The suggestion may at once be made that the 
final activated state produced when the ether in alcoholic solution absorbs 
its characteristic quantum h)^, is that activated state which enters into 



































































1 


































/ 
















A 












c 




/ 


















\A 
























3 








/ 




\ 










-^ 


."^ 






r 


\ 








/ 




\ 
















1 


1 


\ 








f— 




\ 






/ 


















V 


_y 


/ 








\ 
















L 










/ 








V 


^ 1/ 











2.200 24 26 28 3,000 32 34 36 38 4,000 42 34 36 38 4,000 4 2 

WAVE -NUMBERS 
Fig. 2. 

the sulphonic acid reaction. In other words, the irradiation of the alcoholic 
solution, to which a little sulphuric acid has been added, by light of the 
frequencies of the absorption band A should induce the formation of the 
sulphonic acid. This was proved to be the case. The acidified alcoholic 
solution of anisole was irradiated with the light from a quartz mercury 
lamp for 96 hours, after which the solution was diluted with water and 
neutralised with barium hydroxide. After filtration from the insoluble 
barium sulphate, the solution was extracted with ether in order to remove 
any unchanged anisole. None, however, was recovered. On evaporation 
the barium salt of the sulphonic acid was obtained in approximately 
quantitative yield and there was no evidence of the formation of ethyl- 
sulphuric acid. 

In fig. 2 the curve C represents the absorption curve of the sulphuric 
acid solution of anisole after it has been allowed to remain at 50° for a 



44 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

few hours and is the absorption curve of the sulphonic acid. It was 
found that the sulphonic acid prepared photochemically gave an absorption 
spectrum almost identical with that represented by curve C. 

Exactly similar experiments were carried out with para- and ortho- 
nitroanisole, the absorption curves of which in alcoholic and sulphuric 
acid solution are very analogous to those shown in fig. 2. Both of these 
ethers in strong sulphuric acid solution on remaining at 50° react to give 
their sulphonic acids. These nitro compounds, however, differ from the 
parent anisole in the fact that in alcoholic solution they exhibit no trace 
of fluorescence. This suggests that the super-activated states produced 
when they absorb light at their characteristic absorption bands do not 
pass into the activated state required for the sulphonation reaction. 

Acidified solutions of each nitro compound were irradiated by the 
light from the quartz mercury lamp for 96 hours and the solutions were 
treated in exactly the same way as described above in the case of anisole. 
The results were, however, entirely different. The nitro compounds were 
recovered from the ether extract, no barium salt of a sulphonic acid was 
found, and barium- ethylsulphate was obtained in considerable quantities. 

Although no more can be claimed for these observations than that 
they are preliminary, yet the evidence they afford is in, striking agreement 
with that obtained from the photoluminescence phenomena. In the 
photochemical reaction the radiation of the fluorescence quantum Av.^ 
during activation gives an independent proof of the formation of the 
activated state, and also indicates that the critical increment of activation 
of a molecule is numerically equal to hi^—liv.^. In the case of photo- 
luminescence the radiation of the critical increment of activation as a 
single quantum of phosphorescence per molecule indicates that this 
critical increment of activation is in fact a single quantum per molecule. 
It would thus seem that independent evidence has been obtained in 
favour of the first part of the radiation hypothesis, although it has now 
been shown that the supply of the activating quantum to the reactant 
molecule cannot under any circiimstances be achieved by a simple process 
of absorption. 

The theory of fluorescence now advanced may be considered as being 
a reasonable one, but it is advisable, before the main argument is pursued 
further, to examine it in more detail. In the first place the question may 
be asked as to the course of events when phosphorescence is absent and 
no chemical reaction takes place. All that the theory states is that any 
molecule on exposure to radiant energy of its characteristic frequency Vg 
in the visible or ultra-violet region absorbs a single quantum Avo and is 
raised to a high energy level which has a very short life period. This 
super-activated state tends to return to its initial state with the radiation 
of energy numerically equal to lv\)^. Under conditions not yet defined there 
can exist an intermediate level with a finite stability, and then the 
molecule falls from the high level to this intermediate level, and in so 
doing radiates the energy difference between these two levels as a single 
quantum of fluorescence. The intermediate level may be sufiiciently 
stabilised by the conditions to exhibit the phenomenon of phosphorescence 
when the final fall to the initial level takes place, or, alternatively, the 
intermediate level may have a very short life period and may be recognised 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 45 

by virtue of its chemical reactivity. If this intermediate level does not 
exist, then neither fluorescence nor phosphorescence will be exhibited, 
and since optical resonance is unknown with compound molecules, the 
energy numerically equal to /iVg is radiated in the infra-red. If the inter- 
mediate level exists, then fluorescence will be exhibited as the molecules 
fall to that level from the' high level first produced. If the molecule when 
in the intermediate level undergoes no chemical reaction, the critical 
increment of activation of the intermediate level will also be radiated 
when the molecule finally reaches the initial level. It may be noted that 
in all cases of gases and liquids, where phosphorescence never occurs, the 
difference between the frequencies of the activating and fluorescence 
radiations is small. The critical quantum of activation, which is the 
difference between the absorbed and fluorescence quanta corresponds to 
a frequency in the infra-red. 

As already stated, the theory involves the view that the activated 
states responsible for phosphorescence are similar to those which enter 
into chemical reaction, and it might be argued that they must be of 
markedly different type, since the life-periods of the former may be very 
long, whilst those of the latter are known to be very short. Such an 
argument, however, is based on the assumption that it is not possible to 
vary the life-periods of these intermediate states of activation by change 
of conditions. There is no justification for this assumption ; and indeed 
the evidence is against it, since remarkable variations in the life-period 
can be produced by change of temperature alone. For example, Lenard 
and Klatt showed that by raising the temperature the life-period of the 
activated state in a phosphore could be reduced from days or hours down 
to an exceedingly small fraction of a second. Then again von Kowalski 
showed that many substances in alcoholic solution, which only exhibit 
fluorescence at room temperatures, develop marked phosphorescence 
when cooled in liquid air. 

Attention may be directed once again to the absorption spectra 
observations which were recorded in fig. 2 on page 43, and in particular 
it may be noted that the critical increment of the sulphonation reaction 
^Vj, is given by the product of the Planck constant into the difference 
between the central frequencies of the absorption bands shown by the 
anisole in solution in alcohol and in strong sulphuric acid. This follows 
at once from the fact that the fluorescence quantum of the anisole in 
alcoholic solution is equal to the quantum absorbed by the anisole in 
sulphuric acid solution. The conclusion would seem to be obvious that 
the absorption band of the anisole in sulphuric acid solution is that 
characteristic of the activated state which in some way has been stabilised 
by the sulphuric acid. The stabilisation is proved by the fact that no 
measurable sulphonation takes place when the solution is allowed to 
remain at ordinary temperatures. At 50°, however, the sulphonation 
takes place with measurable velocity. 

Two points of interest may be mentioned which arise from this. In 
the first place it would seem that the raising of a molecule from a lower 
to a higher energy level is accompanied by a shift in the characteristic 
absorption band in the visible or ultra-violet region towards the longer 
wave-lengths. This also occurs when phosphores are activated, for the 



46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

absorption bauds of the inactive materials lie in the ultra-violet, and 
those of the activated substances lie in the visible region. 

In the second place it follows that the same super-activated state is 
produced when the inactive molecule absorbs the quantum Avg at its 
characteristic frequency, and when the chemically reactive molecule 
absorbs the quantum /iv., at its characteristic frequency. In this way a 
possible connection with the radiation hypothesis is indicated. W. C. 
McC. Lewis developed a relation whereby the observed heat of a reaction 
may be calculated from the critical increments of activation. As stated 
on page 36 he obtained the expression 

d log A;/RT=N;iv,/RT2 

where hv^ is the critical increment of activation and k is the velocity 
constant. If the reaction be monomolecular and reversible then 

d log F/RT=N/iv„/RT^ 

where hv,j is the critical increment of the resultant of the forward reaction 
and k'- ia the velocity constalnt of the reverse reaction. It follows that 

d log Z/(iT=N7i(v,-v„)/RT2 

where K is the equilibrium constant. Comparing the last expression with 
the van't HofE isochore 

(llogK;OT=:-Q,/RT^ 

Lewis concluded that the heat absorbed per stoichiometric quantity of 
the reactant transformed is given by 

-Q=N/i(v,-vJ, 

that is to say, the heat involved in the reaction is equal to the critical 
increment of the resultant minus the critical increment of the reactant. 

In this argument there is involved the view that in a reversible mono- 
molecular reaction the activated reactant and activated resultant molecules 
are indistinguishable from one another. Applying this to a mono- 
molecular photochemical reaction which is reversible it follows from 
what has gone before that the photochemical quanta may be substituted 
for the critical increments in Lewis' expression. The observed heat of 
the reaction will be given by 

Q=N/Kv,.-Vo) 

where v,. and v^, are the characteristic ultra-violet frequencies of the 
resultant and reactant molecules, respectively. A near approximation 
to a monomolecular photochemical reaction is afforded by the conversion 
of oxygen into ozone, which is reversible. The central wave-lengths of 
the characteristic ultra-violet absorption bands of these two substances 
are very near to 185 [xjjl and 2.50 [i.[j,, respectively, the corresponding 
frequencies being V(,=l-622xlC and v,=l-2 xlO'\ The observed heat 
of reaction will be 

—Mx4-22xW ergs or —36,400 calories. 

This is very near to the accepted heat of formation of ozone. 

It may be concluded from the foregoing that a definite position has 
been reached which is of some interest. The radiation hypothesis states 
that the first stage of a chemical reaction is the activation of each moelcule 



I 



I 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 47 

of the reactaut by the absorption of one quantum of energy, which has 
been called the critical quantum of activation. Evidence gained from the 
experimental investigation of the phenomena of photoluminescence gives 
strong support to the reality of this critical quantum of activation, but 
entirely disposes of the possibility of a molecule gaining this quantum by 
a single absorption process. The photochemical activation of molecules 
has been discussed in the light of the evidence gained from the fields of 
photoluminescence and absorption spectra and the destination of the 
whole of the energy gained by a molecule when it absorbs its photo- 
chemical quantum has been traced. Lastly, the connection between 
the observed heat of a reaction and the critical increments of activation, 
derived by the radiation hypothesis, has been extended to the photo- 
chemical quanta, which is an advantage, since the photochemical fre- 
quencies can be directly observed by spectroscopic methods. It may 
even be considered that the exhumation of the radiation hypothesis has 
been partly justified. 

There is no doubt, however, that this partial justification raises the 
question of thermal reactions in a form which is even more acute than was 
the case at the inception of the radiation hypothesis. The inability of a 
molecule to gain its critical quantum of activation by means of a single 
absorption process has been demonstrated in a far wider field than was 
covered by the experiments of Lindemann and G. N. Lewis, which as a 
matter of fact were devised ad hoc. Unless some mechanism exists whereby 
a molecule can gain its critical quantum of activation from a source of 
infra-red radiation, photochemical activation must be viewed as an 
abnormal event and the exhumed radiation hypothesis must be re-interred 
at once and for all time. It is only fair to ask that the question of thermal 
reaction be approached and discussed entirely without prejudice, and this 
is all the more necessary because it has generally been felt that not a 
single hope remained for the Itypotliesis and men's thoughts have turned 
to activation by collision with a tendency to exclude any other possibility. 

I have been led to re-open this question by some recent observations 
which appear to throw new light on the problem. These observations 
encourage me to suggest a possible mechanism of activation by infra-red 
radiation. Some justification may be found in the fact that it offers an 
explanation of many of the difficulties that have been met with in inter- 
preting the phenomena observed in absorption spectra. 

Mr. Hood at Liverpool has succeeded in determining the temperature 
coefficient of the reaction whereby carbohydrates are photosynthesised 
from carbonic acid in the presence of pure nickel carbonate. The experi- 
mental method consists in the irradiation of a suspension of the carbonate 
in pure water, maintained by a stream of carbon dioxide, by the light from 
an ordinary tungsten filament lamp. The yield of the carbohydrates at 
various temperatures between 5° and 46° has been determined with con- 
siderable accuracy. The investigation only became possible when a 
satisfactory method had been devised for the preparation of pure nickel 
carbonate. The method consists in the electrolysis of pure water, 
saturated with carbon dioxide, with nickel electrodes. The carbonate is 
collected, dried at 100°, and then heated at 140° for thirty minutes. It is 
then powdered and passed through a 100-mesh sieve, after which it is 



48 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



activated by irradiation with white light for 18 hours. The powder must 
be used very soon after it has been activated. 

In fig. 3 is shown the relation between the temperature and the yield, 
and it may be seen to be linear between 5° and 31°. This result is of some 
interest in view of the fact that pure photochemical reactions have a 
temperature coefficient of unity. 

In seeking for an explanation of the temperature coefficient it is- 
necessary to review all the known facts. It has previously been shown that 

1 . Carbonic acid in aqueous solution is not acted on by white light ; • 

2. Carbonic acid when adsorbed on a coloured surface does not react 
in the dark ; 

3. Carbonic acid when adsorbed on a coloured surface and irradiated 
by white light reacts to give carbohydrates. 



0-08 



0-07 



006 
Q 
ui 005 



004 
003 



002 



01 



/__ 

'' ' I I I I \ 



8 12 16 20 2^ 28 32 36 ^0 44 48 



TEMPERATURE °n 
Fig. 3. 

It follows as a necessary conclusion from the facts that the complete 
activation of the carbonic acid must take place in two stages, namely, 
partial activation by adsorption with the formation of a molecular state 
capable of absorbing some rays within the visible spectrum, whereby 
the activation is completed by photochemical means. Furthermore, the 
number of partially activated molecules which are able to enter into the 
final reaction is in linear proportion to the temperature. It is this first 
stage of partial activation which is of interest in our quest, since it is 
evident that the adsorption process alone is not sufficient to bring the 
molecules into a state which enables them to react photochemically under 
the influence of visible light, the supply of heat energy being necessary to 
add the finishing touch to the partial activation. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 49 

There is a striking analogy here with anisole and the other phenolic 
ethers and their nitro derivatives in solution in concentrated sulphuric 
acid which were referred to above. There can be no doubt that the ether 
molecules in the acid solution have gained their critical quanta of activa- 
tion, and yet their activated states must be stabilised in some way, since 
no measurable sulphonation takes place at ordinary temperatures. When 
the solution is warmed at 50° the expected reaction proceeds. This 
stability of the activated states has placed great difficulty in the way of 
explaining many observations of absorption spectra. 

Now it is very probable that there is one factor which is common to 
the two sets of observations, namely the existence of a complex, that is 
to say an adsorption complex of carbonic acid and nickel carbonate in 
the one and an addition complex or solvate of the ether and sulphuric 
acid in the other. If the mechanisin of complex formation be considered 
it would appear that two methods are possible whereby a complex can 
be stabilised. The most usual case is when two components form a 
complex with a loss of energy, and such a complex will only be resolved 
into its components by the supply of energy equal to that lost in its 
formation. As an example of this type of complex the salt of an organic 
base such as aniline may be instanced, this type having a positive heat of 
formation. 

On the other hand it may be suggested that another possibility exists, 
namely the formation of an addition complex of two components, one of 
which yields a definite amount of energy to the other. Such an energy 
transference, so far as external evidence is concerned, will be an isothermal 
process. It may further be suggested that the amount of energy given 
up by the first component to the second component is equal to the critical 
quantum of activation of the second component. Such complexes will 
not be formed between any two molecules, but only between two which 
satisfy the conditions, the criterion being that a molecule of one compound, 
possibly by loss of rotational energy, can give to the molecule of another 
compound, energy equal to the critical quantum of activation of that 
molecule. A complex of this type may be denoted by the symbol A~B*, 
where B has gained its critical quantum of activation at the expense of 
the rotational energy of A. 

Let it be accepted that such complex formation is possible in order 
that the properties of these entities and their probable influence on the 
phenomena under discussion may be critically examined. It may first 
be concluded that, even though the molecule B has become activated, 
the reaction characteristic of the activated state will not take place until 
the energy defect of the molecule A has been restored. In other words 
the activated state of the molecule B has become stabilised. In the 
second place the resolution of the complex into a normal molecule of A 
and an activated molecule of B will be secured by making good the defect 
in the rotational energy of the molecule A. The formation of a free 
molecule of B in the activated state is no longer a process of direct activa- 
tion by radiant energy, which has proved to be impossible, but an increase 
in the rotational energy which, as is known, can be efiected by means of 
infra-red radiation. 

This hypothesis may in the first instance be applied to the phenolic 

192S E 



50 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

ethers, all the relevant facts of which have already been stated. The 
quantitative relation between the absorption bands of these substances 
leaves little or no doubt that each ether in concentrated sulphuric acid 
solution has in some way gained its critical increment of activation, and 
in spite of that fact the ether does not undergo sulphonation at ordinary 
temperatures. It has always been very difficult to understand why this 
activated state is a stable one and why the reaction characteristic of that 
state does not take place unless the solution is warmed. The explanation 
is simple enough on the present hypothesis. The entity present in 
sulphuric acid solution is a complex or solvate of the ether and sulphuric 
acid, in which the ether molecules have gained their critical quanta 
of activation at the expense of the rotational energy of the sulphuric acid 
molecules. The reaction to give the sulphonic acid and water cannot 
take place within that complex, since the photochemical experiments 
prove that the reaction takes place between the activated molecules of 
the ether and free sulphuric acid molecules. The complex molecule, 
therefore, will be stable below a certain temperature. On raising the 
temperature the defect in the rotational energy of the sulphuric acid 
molecules will be made good and the sulphonation will then take place. 

The hypothesis also offers an explanation of the temperature coefficient 
of the photosjTithesis of carbohydrates from carbonic acid, referred to 
above. In this case the complex is the adsorption complex of carbonic 
acid and nickel carbonate, in which the carbonic acid molecule has gained, 
at the expense of the rotational energy of the nickel carbonate molecule, 
its critical quantum of activation to the intermediate level. So long as 
the complex exists the carbonic acid will not undergo reaction when it is 
irradiated by white light, and in consequence no measurable reaction 
takes place at the lower temperatures, even though the carbonic acid 
molecule may be raised by the absorption of light to its higher energy 
level. When the temperature is raised the energy defect of the nickel 
carbonate is made good and the activated carbonic acid molecules are 
set free. Two alternatives exist as regards the final activation of the 
partially activated carbonic acid molecules by their absorbing light. 
Either the partially activated molecule gains its second increment of 
activation by absorption of the photochemical quantum when it exists 
in the complex, in which case the increase in temperature will set free 
the fully activated molecule, or the second increment of activation is 
gained by the absorption of the photochemical quantum at the instant 
the partially activated molecule is set free by the rise in temperature. 
In either case the fully activated molecules react to give activated 
formaldehyde and oxygen, this being mmediately followed by the 
polymerisation of the activated formaldehyde to give the hexoses. The 
evidence is strongly in favour of the first alternative, as will presently be 
explained. 

It must be emphasised that the temperature is a most important 
factor, and there must be for every complex a characteristic temperature 
limit, below which it is completely stable. In the case of the phenolic 
ether complexes with sulphuric acid it happens that this temperature 
lies above 15°, since the sulphuric acid solutions of the ethers undergo no 
measurable change when allowed to remain at that temperature for 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 51 

some weeks or even months. The ether may be quantitatively recovered 
when the solution is poured on to crushed ice. In the case of the adsorp- 
tion complex of nickel carbonate and carbonic acid the characteristic 
temperature limit lies at 1-2°, as shown by the dotted extension of the 
straight line in fig. 3. 

When the temperature is progressively raised above the characteristic 
limit an increasing number of complexes will be resolved in unit time, 
and the reaction velocity will increase. It may be said, therefore, that 
the stability of the complexes progressively decreases as the temperature 
is raised above the temperature limit, and it follows that there must be 
an upper temperature limit above which the complex will have no 
measurable stability, and at this temperature the reaction velocity of a 
simple chemical reaction will reach a maximum and will indeed be 
instantaneous, if such a word can be applied to a process involving the 
mixing together of the reactants. The photosynthesis reaction is 
differentiated by the fact that it consists of two stages, and the tempera- 
ture limits concern only the stability of the adsorption complex character- 
istic of the first stage. 

The hypothesis of complex formation also offers an explanation of 
the phenomena of photoluminescence. There is one outstanding fact in 
connection with the activation of the phosphorogen in a phosphore which 
indicates the presence of a complex of the type we are deabng with. In 
all cases where the activating wave-lengths have been measured, these 
are longer than those which are characteristic of the phosphorogen in the 
free state. This at once leads to the view that each phosphorogen molecule 
has formed a complex with a molecule of the diluent, and within that 
complex the phosphorogen exists at a level of higher energy content than 
the normal. The stability of the complex will be determined by the 
temperature as it can only be resolved into its components by the supply 
of infra-red radiation to make good the defect in the rotational energy of 
the diluent molecule. Even though the phosphorogen component is 
raised to a still higher level by absorption of its characteristic quantum 
at the ultra-violet frequency, the complex will remain in its stable state 
provided that the temperature is below the lower limit characteristic of 
the complex. An instance of an exactly analogous phenomenon is the 
very striking fluorescence of benzaldehyde in concentrated sulphuric acid 
solution. In this case the aldehyde within the complex absorbs and 
radiates energy without its stability being affected. It may therefore be 
suggested that even after the phosphorogen has been raised to a higher 
level of activation than that which it reaches in the actual formation of 
the complex, the new state is no less stable than the complex itself. If 
that be so the whole of the phenomena of photoluminescence which have 
been previously described will find a simple explanation. There will be 
a lower temperature limit below which the activated complex will be 
completely stable, that is to say no phosphorescence will be observed. 
When the temperature is raised above the lower limit the region of partial 
stability will be entered and phosphorescent emission will begin, and 
progressive rise of temperature will progressively increase the number 
of complexes that are resolved and the intensity of the phosphorescence 
will increase. Since there are present a finite number of complexes the 

E 2 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

total persistence of the emission will decrease. At any constant tempera- 
ture between the lower and upper limits the intensity will have a definite 
rate of decay. Just below the upper temperature limit where the stability 
is vanishingly small the persistence will be vanishingly small and the 
intensity will be the maximum. Up to this stage the phenomena will 
be identical with those of a chemical reaction, the criterion of intensity 
of phosphorescence being substituted for the criterion of reaction velocity. 
When the upper temperature limit is passed the complex will no longer 
have any stability and will no longer exist. No phosphorescence or 
fluorescence will be possible, since these depend on the stable existence 
of the complex with its power of retaining the energy which it absorbs 
at its characteristic frequency in the ultra-violet. These phenomena are 
identical with those observed by Lenard and Klatt. 

One further piece of evidence, which has hitherto not been mentioned, 
may now be brought forward. The hypothesis of complete formation 
demands that the defect in the rotational energy of the ' catalyst ' or 
diluent component may be absorbed as infra-red radiation. In all that 
has gone before this defect has been supplied by raising the temperature, 
and the hypothesis cannot be considered as entirely justified unless it 
be proved that resolution of the complexes can be achieved by exposure 
to infra-red radiation. The fact that the most effective method of 
deactivating an activated phosphore and of releasing the whole of its 
phosphorescence is by exposing it to infra-red radiation adds a conclusive 
argument in support of the hypothesis. 

It will be noted that there is a marked difference between the 
phenomena in photoluminescence and chemical reaction at temperatures 
above the upper limit, since in the former phosphorescence is no longer 
possible, and in the latter the reaction velocity is a maximum. This 
difference is due to the fact that a chemical reaction is the result of a 
single process of activation, and when the activated molecules are set 
free by the resolution of their complexes the reaction takes place 
immediately. The phenomenon of photoluminescence is the result of a 
two-stage process of activation, the second stage only taking place so 
long as the complex is in being. When the complex is no longer stable 
the second stage can no longer be achieved. 

It has already been pointed out that in the photosynthesis of carbo- 
hydrates the activation to the high energy level necessary for the chemical 
reaction is effected in two stages, namely, partial activation in the 
absorption complex and completion by absorption of an energy quantum 
at a frequency in the visible spectrum. There is therefore a close analogy 
between this and the activation of a phosphorogen. Since there exists 
in the latter an upper temperature limit above which the second stage of 
activation does not take place, so it is to be expected that there n,ust 
be an upper temperature limit above which no photosynthesis can take 
place. This is actually the case, since, as was shown in fig. 3, there is a 
rapid decrease in the yield of carbohydrates as the temperature is increased 
above 31° and the reaction falls to zero at about 48°. 

This decrease in efficiency is a very remarkable fact, and, as is well 
known, it is observed also in the living leaf. It has long been a source 
of difficulty to plant physiologists and the generally accepted explanation 



B.— CHEmSTRY. 53 

is that of F. F. Blackman, who postulates a second reaction due to an 
enzyme, superimposed on the first. In the laboratory experiments the 
Blackman reaction must obviously be absent, and in spite of this the 
results are remarkably analogous to those found in the living plant. 
The analogy is made still closer by the fact that the linear relation shown 
in fig. 3 gives the temperature coefficient of the laboratory photosynthesis 
between 20° and 30° as 1-54, whereas the value found in the plant is 1-6. 

This, however, is by the way, for the analogy that is particularly 
striking is that between photosynthesis and photoluminescence, both of 
which have been found to have an upper and a lower temperature limit. 

The success that has attended the application of the hypothesis of 
complex formation to three widely differing phenomena justify its 
general application to all thermal chemical reactions. This naturally 
leads to the view that every such reaction depends on the presence of a 
catalyst. There seems little objection to this because it is a fact familiar 
to everyone that chemical reactivity suffers a most remarkable decrease 
as all impurities are removed. It is perhaps a sweeping statement to 
make that no thermal reaction can take place in the complete absence of 
a catalyst, but the fact remains that in every case which has been accurately 
examined the reaction velocity is zero. In inorganic chemistry the most 
effective catalyst is water and H. B. Baker's work on the absence of 
reaction between dry substances is classical. It may be that this power 
of water is connected with its great ionising power towards inorganic 
salts, for it is possible that ionisation itself is the result of a complex 
between solvent and solute. 

In general, it must be remembered that every chemical reaction has 
its own critical increment of energy, and this means that the reactant 
molecules must be raised to a definite energy level which is specific for 
the reaction required. The catalyst molecule must, therefore, be one 
which by forming a complex with the reactant molecule raises it to that 
energy level and no other. The possibility of the same molecules being 
raised to different energy levels has been established by absorption 
spectra, since by the use of different solvents it is possible in the case of 
many compounds to obtain them in different physical states a'^ evidenced 
by different absorption bands. The integral relation has been suggested 
in photochemical reaction, namely 

where 7(v„ is the quantum absorbed at the visible f»r ultra-violet frequency 
characteristic of the reactant molecules in their initial state, /.Vj is the 
critical quantum of activation, and /.Vois a quantum of fluorescence and 
also the quantum absorbed at the characteristic frequency of the activated 
molecule. If this relation be fully confirmed by further work, the 
different molecular states of one compound, proved by absorption spectra 
methods to exist in different solvents, will be directly linked up with the 
different chemically reactive states of that compound. The difficulty in 
postulating a series of catalysts which can induce different reactions of 
the same substance will then disappear. 

We may now turn once again to the radiation hypothesis and take 
stock of the position. The protagonists of this theory, after enunciating 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the principle of a single quantum of activation, took a further step and 
assumed that this quantum /(Vj could be absorbed when the reactant 
molecules in the absence of all catalysts were exposed to radiation of the 
frequency Vj. They had no justification whatever for this assumption 
and it is germane to ask why the fact that no substance showed an 
absorption band at the critical frequency v, was considered to be of no 
great importance. The phenomena of photoluminescence afford very 
convincing evidence of the existence of molecules in different states of 
activation, each with its own critical quantum of activation. They also 
establish the fact that although this critical quantum can be radiated as 
phosphorescence, the molecules cannot absorb it at the critical frequency. 
Although the activated states responsible for phosphorescence are 
characterised in general by their very long life periods, the fact that the 
activation cannot be achieved by a simple absorption process may be 
accepted as a proof of the incorrectness of the assumption made in the 
second part of the radiation hypothesis. This evidence is independent of 
the ad hoc criticism by Lindemann and by G. N. Lewis. At the same 
time the evidence is in favour of the reality of the critical quantum of 
activation, which is the fundamental tenet of the radiation hypothesis. 
An enquiry into the possible methods of activation whereby a reactant 
molecule can gain its critical quantum was made necessary, because the 
theory of activation by collision has not met with complete success, as 
no proper relation with photochemical activation has been established. 

Photoactivation of a molecule results from the absorption of a single 
quantum of energy at a frequency Av^ in the visible or ultra-violet which is 
specifically characteristic of the molecule in its initial state. This 
quantum Av^ is invariably larger than the critical quantum of activation 
/(v,, and this is the explanation of Stokes' law in photoluminescence. The 
difference between the two quanta is radiated during the activation 
process as a single quantum of fluorescence, so that 

The same relation has been found to hold in a photochemical reaction and 
fluorescence is an indication of the formation of an activated state of the 
molecules. In the absence of fluorescence the expected photochemical 
reaction does not occur, and it may be deduced from this that the quantum 
efficiency will approximate to unity (in the absence of the chain 
mechanism) when fluorescence is fully developed, and very small indeed 
or zero in the absence -of any measurable fluorescence. The expression, 
given by W. C. McC. Lewis, for the observed heat of a reaction 

Q_N//(V,-Vj, 

where 7;v,, and /(V^ are the critical quanta of activation of the reactant 
and resultant molecules, respectively, has been extended to photochemical 
reactions. In a monomolecular reaction which is photochemical and 
reversible the observed heat of reaction is given by 

Q=NAK-Vo), 

where Vg and v, are the characteristic ultra-violet frequencies of the 
reactant and resultant molecules, respectively. 



B.— CFIEMISTRY. 55 

A second method of activation has been suggested, namely the forma- 
tion of a complex between a molecule of the reactant and a molecule of 
a catalyst, in which the former has gained its critical quantum of activation 
at the expense of the rotational energy of the latter. Such a complex 
will be stable and will only be resolved into its components when the 
defect in rotational energy of the catalyst molecule has been restored, 
this being possible by the absorption of infra-red radiation. The result 
of this resolution will be the setting free of the reactant molecule in the 
activated state. It follows that the complex will only be stable below a 
certain definite temperature. As the temperature is progressively raised 
the stability will be progressively decreased, until a second temperature 
limit is reached, at which the complex has no stability. At this upper 
temperature the reaction velocity will be a maximum. The observations 
of absorption spectra afford strong support to this hypothesis of complex 
formation. The particular case of the phenolic ethers has been examined 
in detail, and it has been found that in concentrated sulphuric acid solu- 
tions a stable state exists at 15°, in which the ether molecules have received 
their critical quanta of activation. A progressive increase of temperature 
causes a progressive increase in reaction velocity. 

In applying this hypothesis to all thermal reactions it is necessary to 
assume first that no reaction can occur in the absence of a catalyst. This 
assumption seems to be justified by the known effect of the removal of 
all impurities on the reaction velocity. In the second place it is necessary 
that the catalj^st activate the reactant molecule to the energy level required 
and no other. That this is possible is established by absorption spectra 
observations, which show that the same molecules can be raised to different 
energy levels within the complexes formed with different solvents. In 
inorganic chemistry the problem is less complicated, since in the great 
majority of cases only one activated state is indicated ; this activated 
state exists in general within the complexes formed with water. 

In the field of photoluminescence the activation is a two-stage process, 
since phosphorogen molecules are already partially activated in their 
complexes with the molecules of the diluent. The existence of these 
complexes is proved by the absorption frequencies of the phosphorogen, 
which are nearer the longer wave-lengths than those of the same substance 
in the free state. By photo-activation the phosphorogen molecule within 
the complex is raised to a higher energy level, the process being attended 
by the radiation of a quantum of fluorescence. This higher energy state 
is stable since the complex still exists. It follows that there will be a 
temperature limit below which no phosphorescence can take place. As 
the temperature is progressively raised above this limit the intensity of 
the phosphorescence will progressively increase and the persistence will 
progressively decrease. When, by further increase in temperature, the 
region of complete instability is entered, the conditions for the special 
photo-activation no longer exist and all luminescence ceases. Not only 
are the two temperature limits of photoluminescence explained by the 
hypothesis of complex formation, but also the stability of the activated 
states. 

The reaction whereby carbohydrates are photosynthesised from 
carbonic acid may be compared with the photo-activation of a phosphore, 



56 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the initial complex being an adsorption complex of carbonic acid and 
nickel carbonate. There should exist, therefore, a lower temperature 
limit below which the reaction will not take place ; an intermediate 
temperature zone in which the reaction will take place with a definite 
temperature coefficient ; and an upper limit of temperature at which all 
reaction again ceases. These three phenomena have been observed, and 
the photosynthetic and photoluminescent processes proved to be analogous. 
In the one the highly activated molecules undergo chemical reaction, in 
the other they emit their critical quanta of activation as visible radiation. 
It may be claimed that the evidence brought forward from the three 
fields of photoluminescence, absorption spectra and chemical reaction 
constitutes a story that is not without interest. The one dominating 
influence in this story is the critical quantum of activation which has 
found its experimental verification. In laying down the pen of authorship 
I do so in the confident hope that a definite step has been gained towards 
a radiation theory of chemical reaction. 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



THE PALEOZOIC MOUNTAIN SYSTEMS 
OF EUROPE AND AMERICA. 



ADDRESS BY 

E. B. BAILEY, M.C., L^g.d'Hon. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Foreword : Geological time is so long that non-technical readers cannot hope to 

carry in their heads even the main elements of its chronology. The following 
memorandum is supplied for reference in connection with the present address. 

The major time divisions are of very unequal value. They run as follows, 
beginning with the oldest: 

Precimbriai: Primxry or Palaeozoic; Secondary or Mesozoic ; Tertiary or 
Cainozoic ; Quaternary, in which we find ourselves living. 

Palseozoic time is divided, beginning with the oldest, into: Cambrian; Ordo- 
vician ; Silurian; Devonian (including Old Red Sandstone); Carboniferous; Permian. 

Ordovician time is subdivided, beginning with the oldest, into : Arenig ; 
Llandeilo : Caradoc (including Ashgill). 

Silurian time is subdivided, beginning with the oldest, into: Llandovery; 
Tarannon ; Wenlock ; LuQow; Downtotiian. 

Devonian time is subdivided, beginning with the oldest, into: Lower; Middle; 
Upper Devonian. 

Carboniferous time is subdivided, beginning with the oldest, into: Carboniferous 
Limestone: Millstone Grit : Coal Measures. 

In wliat may be called the Bertrand time-classification of folded mountain 
sj'stems : 

Caledonian includes all folded mountains developed in early Palaeozoic times, 
not later than Devonian. The name is derived from Scotland. 

Uercynian in "ludes all foMe I raouatai'is developed in later Palaeozoic ti-nes, that 
is Carboniferous, extending into Permian. The name is derived from the Harz in 
Germany. 

Alpine includes all folded mountains developed in Mesozoic and Tertiary times. 
The name is derived from the Swiss Alps. 

G'^OLOGiSTS attach a deeper and more lasting significance to mountains 
than do geographers. They can dispense with such attributes as mere 
height and form, and can recognise as geological realities mountains that 
no "longer show above the general surface of the ground. There are 
extensive districts in Belgium and France where the mountains of 
yesterday peer up at us through the valley bottoms of to-day ; or where 
these same mountains have been visited only by miners who have sunk 
shafts to them, in search of coal, through ovcrlj-ing formations. 

The mountains to which I am directing your attention are folded 
mountains, a product of lateral compression ; and it is the contorted 
and ruptured condition of their component strata which stamps them 
with their enduring character. We find this character in the relatively 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

modern mountains of Switzerland, combined with elevation. We meet 
witli it in tlie much more ancient and less exalted mountains of our own 
country, combined with unconformity. Such unconformity speaks to us 
of elevation brought low by erosion, coupled in many cases with actual 
subsidence. The evidence, carefully considered, justifies us in restoring 
to the ruined heights an original grandeur comparable to that of their 
proud successors. 

I have just referred to two of the fundamental conceptions involved 
in our subject — lateral compression and unconformity. Their significance 
was early appreciated in the study of the Southern Uplands of Scotland. 
In 1812 James Hall suggested lateral compression as the cause of the 
' convolutions ' of the Silurian strata visible in the coastal cliffs of Berwick- 
shire. He spoke of ' horizontal thrust,' and imitated the observed effect 
by the sideways crumpling of a pile of cloths. As for unconformity, its 
critical discussion represents one of the main achievements of Hall's 
master, James Hutton, Father of Modern Geology. Unconformity is a 
comprehensive word used by geologists to express an erosional gap in the 
stratigraphical sequence. Some unconformities are obscure and debatable ; 
but unconformities that succeed periods of mountain folding furnish most 
impressive spectacles. Hutton long searched the Southern Uplands for a 
contact of the fiat Old Red Sandstone and the steeply folded Silurian 
greywackes. His scientific imagination pictured in advance the relation- 
ship of the two formations, and he felt that its demonstration ' would 
add great lustre ' to his Theory of the Earth. In 1787 he found his 
expectations fully realised in the banks of the River Jed, where horizontal 
Old Red Sandstone covers an eroded surface that truncates the steep 
bedding of underlying greywackes. 

Hutton saw in the Jed exposures a buried mountain chain in process 
of disinterment. The mountain rocks have just been reached by the river, 
and are therefore restricted to the valley bottom ; but they possess an 
inherent quality which will presently lead to a reassertion of something 
of their old predominance in landscape. The compressional forces 
responsible for mountain building tend to indurate the materials upon which 
they operate. They therefore exercise a potent though indirect influence 
upon the development of scenery, wherever and whenever folded mountains 
appear at the surface. Let us always remember that the beauty which 
characterises the mountain exposures of Britain has more to do with 
resurrection than survival. Most, if not all, of the folded mountains of 
our islands have been beneath the sea and covered by unconformable 
deposits at some period since the day of their plication. They owe their 
partial reappearance to subsequent upheaval and denudation. Erosion, 
busy at first, has stripped away much of the comparatively unresistant 
cover ; now it lingers and permits the re-exposed mountain rocks to stand 
for a while as uplands overlooking adjacent plains. 

The same general story holds in countries other than our own. 
Accordingly, certain old mountain areas, such as the Highlands of 
Scotland and the Harz of Germany, were recognised by their inhabitants 
without help from geologists ; but when Suess and his disciples came to 
synthesise mountain chains from exposed fragments, they naturally had 
to supply names for their discoveries. 











H 


o 





-d n 



60 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Two factors are involved in the geological classification of folded 
mountains, namely date and position. One half of the surface of Europe 
has escaped mountain deformation since the dawn of the Cambrian. 
This stable area, which we may call Baltica, has roughly the form of an 
equilateral triangle. Two of its boundaries diverge from South Wales : 
the one follows approximately the Norwegian-Swedish frontier ; the 
other, highly complex in its development, passes south of London and 
Berlin and north of the Crimea and Caucasus. The third side of Baltica 
is furnished by the Urals, but of this I do not propose to speak. 

Let us look a little more closely at Baltica, because it will repay us 
when presently we cross the Atlantic. On the north and west sides of the 
Baltic Sea the prevalent rocks exposed at the surface are Precambrian 
and most of them are crystalline. This part of Baltica, Suess has called 
the Baltic Shield, to convey the idea of a gently convex surface. Its 
immunity from Cambrian and later folding movement is inferred from 
the uniform testimony of its girdle of almost undisturbed Palaeozoic 
outcrops. The rest of Baltica lies cloaked in sediments ranging from 
Cambrian to Tertiary. It has been named the Russian Platform, and its 
western continuation probably extends through Denmark into the English 
Midlands. 

Two Palaeozoic mountain chains meet in South Wales about the western 
angle of Baltica. In 1887 Suess named the older of them Caledonian, 
out of compliment to Scotland. It runs north-east and its folded, cleaved 
and broken rocks appear at the surface in many parts of the British Isles, 
in most of Norway and along much of the Swedish frontier. They 
frequently include marine representatives of the Cambrian, Ordovician 
and Silurian ; but the Devonian, where developed within the Caledonian 
belt of Britain and Scandinavia, and often in adjacent districts, is of 
continental or, in other words, of Old Red Sandstone facies ; and is later 
than the more violent of the mountain disturbances. 

Great Britain is unique in being crossed by both margins of this 
Caledonian Chain. Under the North Sea the old mountains are com- 
pletely submerged, and where they reappear in Scandinavia it is with their 
north-western edge still hidden off the coast of Norway. 

In Shropshire and Radnor, where England and Wales meet, Lower Old 
Red Sandstone follows conformably on Downtonian that forms the top 
of the Silurian ; and the important unconformity of the district s between 
Silurian and Ordovician. It is an unconformity that is rather more 
striking upon a map than in field exposure, for here we stand at the south- 
east margin of the Caledonian Chain, and there has been comparatively 
little folding of Palaeozoic rocks. 

Proceeding north-westwards, we soon enter a mountain element 
characterised by intense post-Silurian unconformity. On the far side 
this element is bounded by an ill-determined north-east line that passes 
close to Girvan and Edinburgh, so that its cross-strike measurement is 
about 180 miles. Eastwards its rocks are hidden beneath comparatively 
undisturbed Carboniferous and later formations that occupy the surface 
from Shropshire to Northumberland. Westwards they delight our eyes in 
Wales, the English Lake District and the Southern Uplands of Scotland. 



C— GEOLOGY. 61 

Silurian is widespread in this mountain element and shares in the 
intense corrugation and frequent cleavage of its Ordovician substratum. 
Lower Old Red Sandstone occurs in Anglesey and the Cheviots and 
between Girvan and Edinburgh, and is markedly later than the major 
deformation of the Silurian. Still, both in Anglesey and near Girvan, 
Lower Old Red Sandstone has suffered pronounced deformation, and in 
the former locality has actually been cleaved. 

Near Girvan we find, in addition to the post-Silurian unconformity, 
another of intra-Ordovician date, sufficiently important to bring Upper 
Llandeilo conglomerates on to Arenig plutonic intrusions. This earlier 
unconformity disappears with amazing rapidity towards the south-east ; 
but north-westwards it increases in scope, while in the same direction the 
post-Silurian unconformity fails. 

The evidence for these propositions lies partly in the Southern Uplands 
and partly in exposures to the north-west. The interpretation of the 
Southern Uplands is one of the miracles of Science. We owe it to Lap- 
worth, an English schoolmaster attracted to Galashiels by the charm of 
Scott's romances. During the seventies of last century Lapworth demon- 
strated that the hitherto despised graptolites furnish an extraordinarily 
sensitive time-scale for Ordovician and Silurian stratigraphy. This led 
him on to the discovery that many of the rock groups that pass with 
broken complication through the tightly compressed steep isoclinal folding 
of the district change profoundly in thickness and character from south- 
east to north-west. The total thickness of the Upper Llandeilo, Caradoc, 
and Llandovery at Moffat in the centre of the Southern Uplands is given 
by Peach and Home as 220 feet, consisting of black graptolitic shale and 
unfossiliferous mudstone. At Girvan, which is only 25 miles to the 
north-west in cross-strike measurement, these same formations are 
reckoned as more than 4,800 feet thick, and their constituents include con- 
spicuous conglomerates, grits, flags, grey shales, shelly beds and one 60-foot 
limestone, in addition to subordinate intercalations of black graptolitic 
shales. Careful examination of many intermediate exposures, afiorded 
by folds one behind another, has allowed the details of this transformation 
to be deciphered. The coarse deposits mark an apj^roach to a coast line 
lying to the north-west, and their material contains much recognisable 
debris of Arenig cherts, lavas and intrusions that must have formed part 
of a land surface in that direction. At each successive period, starting 
with Upper Llandeilo, the coarse sediment pushed farther and farther 
south-eastwards across the sea bottom. In Tarannon times it had reached 
beyond Moffat ; and to find exposures of a complete black graptolitic 
representation of this particular period one has to travel to the English 
Lake District. 

When it is remembered that this variation of facies is combined with 
incessant isoclinal packing and accompanying dislocation, and that the 
grassy Southern Uplands are as devoid of geological features as are the 
Chalk Downs of Sussex, Lapworth's triumph fully exonerates the failure 
of his predecessors. 

From the great thickness of shallow-water marine sediments, deposited 
during Ordovician-Silurian time near the northern edge of the Southern 
Uplands, we may deduce a corresponding long-continued subsidence of 



62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the sea bottom. Subsidence preparatory to mountain upheaval is a widely 
recognised phenomenon, and further instances will be considered in the 
course of this address. Meanwhile let us resume our journey north- 
westwards across the Caledonian Chain. 

According to limited evidence at Lesmahagow in Lanarkshire, on the 
Girvan-Edinburgh line, and at Stonehaven, on the Highland Border, we 
immediately pass into a distinct mountain element characterised by 
absence of post-Silurian unconformity. At both localities, which unfortu- 
nately lie some forty miles apart in cross-strike measurement, the base 
of the Lower Old Red Sandstone is seen to rest conformably on Downtonian. 
At Lesmahagow this Downtonian is followed downwards by Ludlow and 
Wenlock ; and then exposures cease. At Stonehaven the Downtonian, 
2,750 feet thick, reposes with violent unconformity on greatly disturbed 
Cambrian, or possibly Arenig. This Stonehaven unconformity may 
reasonably be regarded as an exaggeration of the intra-Ordovician uncon- 
formity already encountered at Girvan. 

The Cambrian, or perhaps Arenig, rocks at Stonehaven belong to the 
well-known Highland Border series of pillow-lavas, cherts and shales. 
They have become doubly interesting of late years since Peach and 
Campbell and Jehu have made known their fossils. Barrow had previously 
interpreted the Border series as steeply overthrust by the generally 
schistose Dalradian rocks of the Southern Highlands ; and such a view 
seems reasonable in the type section of the North Bsk. On the other 
hand, Gunn has practically demonstrated its superposition on the 
Dalradians in the Island of Arran. Here no sharp line of metamorphic 
difierence has been detected ; but Gregory claims an unconformity based 
on identification of pebbles. 

Having reached the Highland Border we are confronted with many 
difficulties. Following Teall, I am prepared to say that we do not know 
how far the Highland Schists are Precambrian. Most observers, like 
Home, Barrow and Gregory, regard even their metamorphism as Pre- 
cambrian ; but this view was always strongly combated by Peach. 
Whatever their age, the Highland Schists admittedly lie within the 
Caledonian mountain belt, for they are bordered on either side by intensely 
moved Cambrian (perhaps Ordovician) fossiliferous rocks. They also 
received additional elevation a little before and during Lower Old Red 
Sandstone times, as is witnessed by a south-eastern fringe of tilted Lower 
Old Red Sandstone (with Downtonian) conglomerates that remind one 
irresistibly of the nagelfluh of the Swiss Mollasse. Moreover they were 
the site of great volcanoes and of granitic intrusions during Lower Old 
Red Sandstone times in a manner that co-ordinates them with the folded 
Ordovician-Siluriau areas of the South of Scotland and the Wicklow 
Mountains of Ireland. 

I do not propose to occupy this address with a recitation of our Highland 
problems, but venture to touch upon three topics of particular interest. 

(1) Barrow, beginning in 1893, has drawn contours of metamorphic 
intensity across much of the south-eastern Highlands. His has been a 
pioneer's task and has anticipated anything of the kind attempted in 
other countries. To-day it is finding very valuable application in the 
south-western Highlands at the hands of Tilley and Elles. 



C— GEOLOGY. 63 

(2) Clough, Cramptou and Flett have described a wonderful aureole 
of contact-metamorphism partially surrounding the Inchbae augcn- 
gneiss of Ross-shire. The history of the district is as follows : A great 
thickness of sediments accumulated ; a large mass of porphyritic granite 
intruded into these sediments and hornfelsed them for a considerable 
distance from the contact ; the whole, at some later period, became 
involved in conditions of stress and temperature suitable for high-grade 
regional metamorphism ; the unbaked sediments yielded and were altered 
to para-gneisses ; even the porphyritic granite was for the most part 
changed to augen-gneiss ; but the hornfelsed sediments in large measure 
moved en masse without internal deformation, so that, though crystalline, 
they retain to this day many of the minutiae of their original structure, 
such as grains, bedding, ripple marks and suncracks. 

(3) Continuing the work of Clough and Maufe, I have been fortunate 
enough to trace out refolded recumbent folds in several districts of the 
Southern Highlands. These folds are many miles in cross-strike extent, 
and their limbs have suffered inevitable disruption with the production of 
fold-faults or ' slides.' The investigation of these structures was begun 
at Ballachulish and has since proceeded far across the country. The 
available evidence has not in any way been exhausted, and the promise 
of future discoveries is extremely bright, especially towards Banffshire 
where Read is at present working. 

The Caledonian portion of the Scottish Highlands is 120 miles broad 
in the east, but narrows greatly towards the west. Its north-west border 
is furnished by the Moine thrust-zone. It will be convenient to defer 
consideration of this great structure-line until we have taken a brief look 
at the Scandinavian development of the Caledonian Chain, for in many 
respects the Moine thrust-zone and its foreland belong rather to American 
geology than to European. 

The most impressive geological phenomenon in Scandinavia is the 
marginal over-riding of Baltica by the Caledonian mountains. In Britain, 
where the Welsh Border shows the contact of these two structural elements, 
it is a mere matter of foot-hills grading into foreland, it is an affair of 
outposts. True, the Carmel Head Thrust of Anglesey is an important 
structure of post-Llandovery pre-Devonian date — Greenly gives it three 
miles of displacement as a minimum and twenty miles as a probability — 
but this thrust is separated from Baltica by the Welsh zone of folding. In 
Scandinavia the mountains often appear with startling abruptness, thrust 
far out over the edge of Baltica. 

The type district for studying the great Scandinavian overthrust is 
the province of Jamtland. Here comparatively wide exposures of fossili- 
ferous Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian pass north-westwards below the 
over-riding mountains. In the south-eastern part of their outcrop, the 
Cambrian and Ordovician total only about 300 feet in thickness, of which 
the greater part is Orthoceras-limestone of Middle Ordovician age ; and 
the Silurian also is of very moderate dimensions. North-westwards, that 
is towards and under the moimtains, the Cambrian and Ordovician swell 
mightily, and show an accession of sandy material which is reminiscent of 
the north-westward facies-change traced by Lapworth in the Southern 
Uplands of Scotland, although, of course, the position relative to the 
Caledonian margin is very different. 



64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Jamtland Cambrian rests upon crystalline rocks, mainly granite 
or porphyry. To the south of the province, however, there is a great 
development of a fl t-lpng Precambrian formation (sandstone, &c.) called 
Sparagmite, which is of later date than the granite and porphyry and 
is often compared with the Torridonian of the Scottish North-west 
Highlands. 

The Cambro-Silurian succession of the Jamtland foreland is undisturbed 
in the south-eastern part of its exposure. Gradually, north-westwards, 
this tranquillity is replaced by isoclinal folding, small-scale thrusting, and 
intense distributed shearing, unaccompanied by any marked development 
of metamorphic minerals. Above lies the great Scandinavian thrust- 
mass or ' nappe,' the cause and origin of all the trouble. 

The contents of this over-riding ' nappe ' are various ; in the main 
they consist of metamorphosed sediments, which have been somewhat 
provisionally divided into (1) Precambrian, correlated with Sparagmite, 
overlain by (2) early Palaeozoic. In both sets of rocks the metamorphic 
grade increases strongly towards the north-west, but there is good, though 
not undisputed, evidence that much of the crystallisation of the Pre- 
cambrian part of the ' nappe ' is of Precambrian date. An important 
detail, that everybody admits, is the frequent occurrence of recognisable 
scraps of crushed Precambrian granite and porphyry along the actual 
thrust. 

The ' nappe ' lies with broad undulations that make it virtually flat 
over a vast stretch of country. In consequence, erosion has given an 
extremely sinuous eastern margin to the portion that remains connected 
with the ' root region ' to the north-west. Moreover, in front of this 
intricate margin there are great outliers or ' klippes,' the largest of which 
measures 30 by 10 miles ; while behind there are elongated anticlinal 
' windows ' of comparable magnitude, in which we obtain circumscribed 
exposures of the buried foreland. Altogether we are furnished with a 
wonderful opportunity for measuring the distance that the mountain 
region has been driven forward over Baltica. When, in 1888, Tornebohm 
first propounded his overthrust theory of the Scandinavian Chain, he 
mentioned sixty miles as a minimum displacement and compared this 
estimate with the half-mile of overthrusting previously described by 
himself from Dalsland and with Peach and Home's ten miles from the 
North-west Highlands of Scotland. In 1896, by which time he had 
received important help from Hogbom, he was able to demonstrate that 
the Scandinavian thrusting exceeds eighty miles. One is amazed by the 
scale of the phenomenon thus elucidated practically single-handed. 
Tornebohm built upon his own explorations and corrected his own initial 
mistakes. Jamtland as regards area is comparable with Switzerland, but 
in Tornebohm's field of inquiry it occupied merely the position of a 
province. A big man in body and mind, he was faced with a task that 
required exceptional equipment. Hogbom, writing shortly after Torne- 
bohm's death in 1911, recalled ' how sometimes his assistants ran away 
from him because they could not endure the fatigues or follow him when 
with his great strides he rambled over the mountains.' These words read 
strangely like a parable, for to-day Scandinavian geologists have turned 
back to experiment for themselves with all the philosophies of double- 



C— GEOLOGY. 65 

folding and the like. Tornebohm stands out the Giant of the North, of 
such a stature that the generation that has succeeded him has been unable 
to maintain his conquests. 

The interior of the Norwegian mountains must not delay us, \ntally 
interesting though it be. We can only mention that a little west of 
Jamtland lies the great Trondhjem field of folded early Palaeozoic rocks, 
locally eighty miles broad. These rocks have yielded Ordovician and 
Lower Silurian fossils, but differ profoundly in original characters from 
the contemporaneous formations of the Jamtland foreland. They are 
moreover in many instances highly metamorphic, with actinolite, garnet 
and biotite. On this point there seems to be complete agreement among 
Scandinavian geologists. In our own country there is a tendency to 
associate the idea of metamorphic schists with a Precambrian date ; but 
it should be remembered that in the Alps it is well established that 
belemnites and other resistant Mesozoic fossils can be hammered out of 
garnetiferous mica-schist. 

On returning to the North-west Highlands of Scotland, we arrive at the 
opposite margin of the Caledonian Chain to that studied by Tornebohm in 
Jamtland. A British audience knows full well the history of discovery in 
this wonderful region. At an early date Murchison and Geikie recognised 
schists as superimposed on the fossiliferous Durness succession and con- 
sidered them to be a later conformable deposit, metamorphosed in situ. 
Nicol, however, thought that a steep dislocation separated the two sets 
of rocks. Callaway at last, in 1883, realised an ' overthrow ' locally 
' more than a mile in width,' while Lapworth in the same year published 
his in many ways illuminating Secret of the Highlands. It is necessary, in 
common justice, to recall that this paper was merely a preliminary account 
and that subsequent exposition of his views was prevented by a breakdown 
in health caused by the excitement of discovery. In 1884 Peach and 
Home were able to show that the Moine Thrust-mass or ' Nappe ' has 
travelled north-west through a minimum distance of ten miles. Their 
report produced a profound impression, the more so because it was accom- 
panied by a candid recantation on the part of Archibald Geikie, which 
proved as helpful to tectonic science in 1884 as Heim's somewhat com- 
parable letter on the Alps in 1902. 

Peach and Home, it may be added, worked in an atmosphere of 
detachment. Most Alpine geologists of the day, Rothpletz excepted, had 
rather exaggerated the idealisation of thrusts as vanished limbs of overfolds 
— and in this respect they were followed by Lapworth. The generalisation 
is undeniable ; but insistence upon it often leads to artificial presentations 
of comparatively simple phenomena. Peach and Home merely reproduced 
what they saw in Nature, and left it at that. Their lucid and beautifully 
illustrated descriptions, dating from 1884, 1888, and 1907, have, in Suess' 
words, ' rendered our northern mountains transparent.' 

The fossiliferous sediments of Durness, over which the Moine crystalline 
schists are thmst, rest upon a flat-lying Precambrian sandstone formation 
known as the Torridonian, and this in turn upon Lewisian Gneiss. The 
Durness sediments are of Cambrian and probably Lower Ordovician age. 
They are essentially a quartzite-limestone (largely dolomite) succession, 
and in lithological character and fossil content they belong much more 
1»2S P 



66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

nearly to North America than to the rest of Britain. This fact was 
recognised in the fifties of last century by Salter when he described C. W. 
Peach's collections from the Durness Limestone. He had already had the 
good fortune of familiarising himself at first hand with Canadian material. 
There is no chance of unravelling the original relations of the American 
and British facies of the early Palseozoic in Scotland, or even in Norway, 
where Holtedahl has recently recognised the American facies of the early 
Ordovician on the Island of Smolen, west of Trondhjem. Let us 
therefore set sail for America. 

The Atlantic seaboard of North America,' southwards from New- 
foundland, is constituted of Palaeozoic mountains, partially concealed, it 
is true, from New York to the Gulf of Mexico beneath a coastal spread of 
Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. American geologists call their ancient 
mountains the Appalachian System. To European eyes they appear as 
a complex of two systems, rather than as a single system ; but for the 
moment we may let this pass. Beyond the Appalachian Mountains lies 
an enormous interior region, the Laurentia of Suess, that, like Baltica, 
has remained unaffected by folding since late Precambrian days. 
Laurentia, again like Baltica, has two main elements ; a vast exposure 
of Precambrian rocks, the Canadian Shield, recalls at once the Baltic 
Shield ; while the Great Plains, with their cover of Cambrian and later 
formations, correspond with the Russian Platform, and are bounded on 
the south-west by a Mesozoic-Tertiary cordillera. The comparison^ may 
be pushed to matters of detail, for a narrow offshoot of flat Palseozoic 
rocks extends from the Great Plains along the St. Lawrence Lowlands 
to separate the Canadian Shield from the Appalachians, just as a strip of 
flat Palseozoic rocks runs up through Jamtland to separate the Baltic 
Shield from the Scandinavian portion of the Caledonian Chain. 

With so many points of comparison, it is not surprising to find that we 
can go farther still. The age and relations of the portion of the Appalachian 
complex, which borders the St. Lawrence Lowlands, justifies our grouping 
it with the Caledonian System. It was Marcel Bertrand who, in 1887, 
saw that the Appalachian Mountains, as a whole, could be partitioned among 
the two great Palaeozoic systems that, on our side of the water, meet in 
South Wales. In Newfoundland, Canada and northern New England the 
Appalachian Mountains belong to the Caledonian System, in the sense 
that their main movements were completed before the close of the 
Devonian period. We may quote from Young in his Geology and Economic 
Minerals of Canada published by the Canadian Geological Survey in 1926 : 
' Before the close of the Devonian period,' he says, ' the Appalachian and 
Acadian regions were uplifted and the strata folded and faulted, and 

1 Last year I had the privilege of sharing, with my friend Collet, in the Princeton 
Summer School excursion organised by Field, and anything I have to say on American 
Geology is directly or indirectly the result of this experience. 

2 When in Nature, November 5, 1927, 1 developed the idea that ' the North 
American Continent is, broadly speaking, a magnified mirror image of much of 
Europe,' I was unaware how closely I was following 0. Holtedahl in ' Some points of 
Structural Resemblance between Spitsbergen and Great Britain, and between Europe 
and North America,' Aihandl. Norske Videnskeps-Akad., Oslo, I, 1925, No. 4. 




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68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

invaded by granite batholiths ' ; and again : ' The major part of the folding 
and faulting of the Palaeozoic and late Precambrian strata took place 
during the Devonian interval of orogenic disturbances.' 

There is, it must be admitted, a minor, perhaps only an apparent, 
delay in the Caledonian history of Canada as compared with that of 
Britain. In Canada certain important marine limestones that are 
involved in the mountain folding are, according to present-day termino- 
logy, referred to the Lower Devonian ; while the Gaspe Sandstone, that 
seems to play a role comparable with that of our Lower Old Red Sand- 
stone, is generally spoken of as Middle Devonian. Perhaps, as already 
said, this lack of harmony may be only apparent, for the Gaspe Sandstone 
agrees closely in its flora and fish fauna (if we include the Campbellton 
fishes) with our own Lower Old Red Sandstone. Indeed, not many years 
ago, the Gaspe Sandstone was treated by Williams and others as Lower 
Devonian. It was transferred from Lower to Middle by Clarke and Kayser 
on the basis of comparisons between the marine successions of America 
and Rhineland. Possibly we shall some day regain the correlation of the 
Gaspe Sandstone with our ' Lower ' Old Red Sandstone by accepting 
Barrois' transference of our Downtonian from Silurian to Devonian. 

Let us now go back for a moment to 1843, when Logan started the 
Geological Survey of Canada. By this time Hall and his colleagues had 
already determined the main stratigraphical features of the flat-ljdng 
Palaeozoic rocks of Laurentia as exposed in the western portion of New 
York State. The succession there starts with Potsdam Sandstone of 
Upper Cambrian date, and continues upwards through a long quasi-con- 
formable sequence into the Carboniferous of Pennsylvania. Logan had 
no difficulty in applying Hall's classification to the rocks of the St. Lawrence 
Lowlands ; but at the south-eastern margin of these lowlands, along the 
course of the Champlain and St. Lawrence, he saw the familiar Ordovician 
of Laurentia passing beneath folded mountain-rocks, that at first seemed 
unidentifiable, whether on the score of lithology or fossils. Faced with 
this difficulty he was, for several years, content to date the mountain 
formations by the law of superposition. So long as they yielded only a 
few scattered fossils, this seemed quite reasonable. Barrande, looking 
from across the Atlantic, might claim an occasional trilobite as of Cambrian 
date ; but, naturally, local observers could not understand the sanctity 
that Barrande attached to trilobite successions, remembering the theory 
of ' colonies ' which he himself had introduced to account for graptolite 
recurrences. In 1860, however, fossils were rediscovered in abundance 
in the Levis exposures that overlie the top of the Ordovician in the 
neighbourhood of Quebec. Many of these fossils were of Cambrian, 
others of early Ordovician types. The number of forms was so great 
that to apply the theory of ' colonies ' to account for their position would 
have been tantamount to throwing to the winds all faith in palaeontological 
stratigraphy. Accordingly Billings, the Palaeontologist of the Canadian 
Geological Survey, transferred the Levis rocks to a low position in the 
Ordovician, where they remain to this day. 

Billings was working in close touch with Logan, who thoroughly 
appreciated the significance of this stratigraphical revolution. On 
December 31. 1860, Logan addressed a long letter to Barrande, and told 



C— GEOLOGY. 69 

him how he had been forced to recognize a zone, situated on the mountain 
front, where older rocks are habitually overthrust upon younger. His 
knowledge of the country was so thorough that he did not merely indicate 
the position of the postulated thrust near Quebec, but laid down its 
course all along its Canadian outcrop from Lake Champlain to the 
extremity of Gaspe. On this account the Champlain-St. Lawrence thrust- 
zone is often spoken of as the Logan Line. 

Logan was, of course, only applying a familiar principle ; for, in the 
States, thrusts had been described by the brothers Rogers as early as 1842, 
and, in the Alps, by Escher in 184L Still there can be no question that 
Logan's 1860 letter to Barrande furnishes one of the main landmarks of 
tectonic science. 

Almost as soon as Logan recognised the north-westward frontal 
thrusting of the Caledonian Mountains of Canada he realized that it 
followed a much older line of slope, leading down south-eastwards from 
the platform of Laurentia to tne comparative depths of the Caledonian 
sea bottom. He based this conception on the fact that the thrusts often 
bring forward thick developments of fossiliferous Palaeozoic sediments 
that are older than anything in the local unmoved Palaeozoic succession 
of the over-ridden foreland. For instance, near Quebec the thrust-masses 
include thick Lower Ordovician sediments, and very probably Cambrian 
as well, whereas the unmoved Palaeozoic succession commences with Middle 
Ordovician resting directly on Precambrian gneiss. 

Logan gave his theoretical slope a double function. First of all it 
had to act as a boundary to early sedimentation, and then as a guide to 
later thrusting and folding : — 

' The resistance offered by the buttress of gneiss,' said he, ' would not 
only limit the main disturbance ; but it would probably also guide or 
modify, in some degree, the whole series of parallel corrugations, and 
thus act as one of the causes giving a direction to the great Appalachian 
Chain of mountains.' 

There is, however, another aspect of Logan's Slope that has not, I 
think, attracted sufficient attention. This slope, when completely sub- 
merged, seems to have furnished a dividing line between clear-water 
Ordovician limestones (American facies), that grew on its top to the north- 
west, and muds and sands (Caledonian facies), that, creeping from the 
opposite direction, came to rest at its foot. The fossils of the two sets 
of deposits are as distinct as the rocks themselves, and this has led certain 
distinguished palaeontologists to postulate continuous land barriers, or 
isthmuses, separating the two fields of accumulation. On the other hand 
I think it can be established that the limestone of the one field has 
repeatedly landslipped down upon the mud of the other ; in which case 
the division cannot have been an isthmus, but merely a submarine slope. 

The conception of the Logan Slope that I am now about to present is 
a slight modification of Logan's original. Let us picture the slope, not 
as a rigid feature of Precambrian date, eventually obliterated by 
Palaeozoic sedimentation, but as tectonic in origin and intermittently 
renewed by hinged subsidence. Earthquakes connected with the inter- 
mittent renewal were probably responsible for the landslips to which I 
have just alluded. It is well known that most of the major earthquakes 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of to-day originate on submarine slopes, and that important submarine 
landslips precipitated by such earthquakes have been described, for 
instance, in connection with the Tokyo disaster of 1923. Of late years 
Kendall has reawakened British students to the possibility of recognising 
earthquake phenomena in the records of the past. I believe that a story 
of recurrent earthquakes is written in the submarine landslip-deposits of 
the Logan Slope. These deposits show the following characteristics : — 

(1) Through a succession of geological ages (Cambrian to Middle 
Ordovician) they repeatedly occur along a particular tectonic zone. 

(2) They are often interbedded among shales of Caledonian facies, 
whereas their material consists mainly of limestone^ blocks and isolated 
shells of American facies. 

(3) Walcott has shown that in many instances the fossils contained in 
the blocks are identical with the isolated fossils of the matrix ; the deduc- 
tion is that the blocks are often little older than the containing deposit. 

(4) The internal arrangement of the deposits is tumultuous and un- 
bedded. 

(5) Some of these boulders are gigantic. I have seen one 60 feet long 
that has ploughed deep into underlying shale. Other boulders have been 
described 150 feet long. 

Various authors have attempted to explain these deposits as glacial, 
but Ruedemann has stated in regard to an example of Trenton date 
(Middle Ordovician) that ' the action of coast ice may, in the writer's 
judgment, be excluded here on account of the presence of the Trenton 
fossils, including corals, in the matrix.' Ruedemann's judgment may be 
applied on similar grounds to many instances of earlier date. It is abso- 
lutely certain that most of these tumultuous deposits accumulated 
spasmodically during the growth, close at hand, of the great Ordovician 
limestone of Laurentia. Geographical exploration, in keeping with 
chemical physiology, assures us that important limestones are products 
of warm seas. It seems incredible that this Ordovician limestone platform, 
during its life-history, should have been intermittently exposed to the 
ravages of ice-floes, or have become the temporary site of an actual ice- 
sheet. 

If now we cast our minds back to the change of facies that Lapworth 
recogni'^ed in the Southern Uplands of Scotland we find it on the whole 
of more gradual type than that characteristic of Canada. In the Southern 
Upland sea mechanical sediment travelled down a tectonic slope, and 
change of facies depended upon the arrest of coarse material by deep 
water. In the Canadian sea mechanical sediment reached the foot of a 
tectonic slope up which it was unable to climb. In both cases we notice 
subsidence preceding mountain elevation. This has long been a favourite 
idea with tectonists. It had its beginnings in a publication of Hall's on 
the Appalachians, dated 1859. Its subsequent development is due more 
especially to Dana and Haug. 

We must now recross to Europe, there to get in touch with the later of 
the two great Palaeozoic chains that meet in South Wales. In 1887 this 
later chain received a double name from Suess, who distinguished along 
its course a couple of congruent mountain arcs with an inflectional junction 



C— GEOLOGY. 71 

of their fronts (syntaxis) near Valenciennes on the Franco-Belgian border. 
The eastern arc he called Variscan, the western Armorican. The names 
are based on the Latin for the Bavarian town of Hof, Curia Variscorum, 
and for the French province of Brittany, Armorica. The meeting of the 
two arcs near Valenciennes is closely comparable with the meeting of the 
Carpathians and Alps near Vienna. 

The date of the Armorican and Variscan folding varies somewhat 
according to locality, but lies either within, or at latest shortly after the 
close of, the Carboniferous. Bertrand, publishing the same year as 
Suess, classed these mountains on a purely age basis, as part of his 
Hercynian System (called after the Harz). Unfortunately Bertrand's 
name Hercynian was preoccupied ; but I propose to use it in his sense in 
the present description. 

The Hercynian Mountains of Western Europe are on the whole less 
continuously exposed than the Caledonian. The eastern front of the 
Variscan Arc is traceable at the foot of the Sudetes bordering the Upper 
Silesian coalfield that lies north of the Carpathians. From this point it 
is lost sight of for a long stretch, but reappears, from beneath the North 
German Plain, in the Ruhr coalfield of Westphalia. Westwards its 
continuation passes along the Belgian coalfield, where it is very well 
known, partly in surface exposures, partly in mining operations. Across 
the French border it joins the front of the Armorican Arc which has been 
traced, mostly underground, as far as the Pas de Calais coalfield. It is 
still buried south of Dover, but comes to the surface again in the Somerset 
and South Welsh coalfields, and is clearly exposed across the south of 
Ireland. 

The course of this Hercynian front, where hidden, can often be inferred 
from trend lines in some neighbouring exposure of the interior. The main 
gap in the evidence, as a whole, is due to the Mesozoic and Tertiary cover 
that reaches from near Bristol, by the Isle of Wight, the Channel and the 
Paris Basin, onwards to the Juras. There is, however, no doubt that the 
Palaeozoic and older exposures of South Wales, Devonshire, Brittany and 
the Central Plateau, on the one side, belong to the same mountain system 
as those of the Ardennes, the Vosges and the Black Forest on the other. 
In between the mountains are buried, not discontinuous. 

The interior of the European Hercynian Mountains developed earlier 
than their northern periphery. At the close of Dinantian times, that is 
a little earlier than our Millstone Grit, much of the interior region yielded 
freely, for the last time, to mountain deformation ; whereas in the peri- 
pheral belt the main folding took place at some date towards the end of 
Coal Measure times. The contrast between the two portions of the chain 
is particularly striking if we compare the Saar Coalfield, on the south side 
of the Ardennes, with that of Belgium, on the north. The Coal Measures 
at Saar belong to the Hercynian interior region and are violently uncon- 
formable to folded Devonian ; whereas those of Belgium complete a 
conformable sequence extending up from the Devonian, and have shared 
in the corrugation and overthrusting of the latter. This condition of 
affairs reminds us of the two stages in the Caledonian folding of southern 
Scotland, where the date of folding depends upon position with reference 
to the Girvan-Edinburgh Une. 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

A further complication is encountered in the Variscan Arc, if we look 
behind the commencement of Carboniferous time. We then find that 
the frontal line of the Variscan Arc occupies a median position as regards 
a local Caledonian arc that is recognisable in much of Belgium and southern 
Germany. Actually within the breadth of this early arc there is a great 
unconformity between Silurian and Devonian ; whereas in the concavity 
to the south there is conformity, as exemplified in Bohemia. The limits 
of the Belgio-German Caledonian arc are very imperfectly known. It 
may, for instance, connect westwards, through Cornwall, with the main 
Caledonian Chain of Britain and Scandinavia. 

The Franco-Belgio-German coalfield at the northern front of the 
Hercynian Mountains has long provided a favourite theme among 
tectonists. As far back as 1832 Dumont published a map with sections 
elucidating the isoclinal folding, but not the thrusting, of the Li^ge district 
in Belgium. He emphasised that ' one cannot employ dip to establish 
the relative age of primordial rocks.' He understood the position so 
clearly that he defined ' basins ' and ' saddles,' not by the inclination of 
their marginal exposures, but by the downward or upward direction of 
their convexities. Having satisfied himself of the basin arrangement of 
the Coal Measures of his district, he worked outwards into the older rocks, 
and made substantial progress in zoning what we now call the Lower 
Carboniferous and Devonian. The referees who crowned his memoir 
for the Brussels Academy remarked that his work demonstrated violent 
folding with reversal, and that it suggested the effect that would follow 
from ' the gliding of a section of the earth's crust down an inclined plane 
with resultant lateral pressure ' upon the country standing in the way. 
I do not think that any other country can boast of so advanced a tectonic 
study of such early date. 

In 1849 H. D. Rogers was able to point out that the district presented 
' precisely analogous features ... [to those] which had been observed 
[by himself] in the Appalachians.' In 1877 Cornet and Briart, and in 
1879 Gosselet, announced large-scale over-thrusting, the first of the kind 
to be recognised in European Palaeozoic chains. Peach and Home, it 
will be remembered, published on Scotland in 1884, and Tornebohm on 
Scandinavia in 1888. 

A peculiar interest attaches to Gosselet's paper, for Bertrand in 1884 
made it the basis of his famous comparison between Belgium and the 
Alps, and derived from it conceptions of much more extensive thrusting 
in the latter region than had hitherto been imagined. Bertrand's boldness 
has since been justified by Schardt's 1893 interpretation of the Prealps 
and all the marvellous consequences that have flowed therefrom. 

I do not propose to go into detail regarding the marginal northward 
thrusting of the Hercynian Chain. It is of the same type, though not, in 
my opinion, so extensive, as the Caledonian thrusting of Jamtland, 
Scotland and Canada. Of recent years much the most delightful addition 
to our knowledge of the ground has been afforded by Fourmarier's 1905 
interpretation of the Window of Theux, south of Lifege. The frame of 
the ' window ' consists entirely of Cambrian and Lower Devonian, whereas 
the * window ' exposure, some eight miles broad, shows, in addition, every 
group from Middle Devonian to Middle Carboniferous. The boundary of 



C— GEOLOGY. 78 

the Theux outcrops is manifestly a dislocation, and early workers 
explained the local occurrence of the relatively late formations (Middle 
Devonian to Carboniferous) as due to preservation within an incomplete 
cauldron-subsidence. Fourmarier, however, by careful comparison of 
facies showed that the rocks of the surrounding country have travelled 
northwards relatively to those of the Theux exposure. To account for 
this horizontal displacement he necessarily interpreted the boundary 
dislocation at Theux as a low-angled thrust, cut through by erosion. He 
also identified the newly recognised thrust with the Eifel Thrust, well 
known in the country to the north. Before long Fourmarier's views were 
dramatically established by boring. The Carboniferous outcrop at 
Theux is separated by Devonian hills, three miles wide, from the exploited 
coalfield to the north. This separation has been proved to be merely 
superficial. Two deep bores, put down on Fourmarier's advice, pierced 
the Devonian and penetrated far into underlying Carboniferous. No coal 
seam was discovered, but the result was very justly hailed as a signal 
triumph for geology. 

The preparatory hinged subsidence that we have met with in the history 
of the Caledonian Chain, in southern Scotland and again in Canada, re- 
appears in the Hercynian record of western Europe. Broadly speaking, 
the Devonian of the Hercynian Foreland is continental (Old Red Sand- 
stone), while that of the Hercynian Mountains is marine. Two main 
regions can be distinguished in the foreland, an eastern and a western. 
In the eastern. Lower Devonian is generally absent, while Middle and 
Upper Devonian are locally developed — in Belgium and the Baltic, but not 
in Orcadia, the upper division of the Middle Devonian is frankly marine. 
In the western region of the foreland, which includes England, Ireland and 
the south and west of Scotland, Lower and Upper Devonian are widely 
represented, in both cases as Old Red Sandstone, while Middle Devonian is 
unknown. The Devonian of the mountain land is fairly complete and 
predominantly marine, both in the east and the west ; and it seems to 
have derived much detrital material from the north. Evidently this 
marine Devonian gathered on a tectonic slope that, descending south- 
wards to the site of the future mountains, was constantly renewed by 
subsidence. The contrast between the foreland and the mountain region 
is particularly striking along the Franco-Belgian front of the chain. It 
has been exaggerated, as is so often the case, by overthrusting of regions 
previously separate ; but even so the pre-thrusting contrast must have 
been thoroughly noteworthy. The Lower Devonian and the lower part 
of the Middle Devonian of the thrust region sometimes total 17,000 feet, 
while both divisions are absent in the over-ridden foreland to the north. 
The line at which this great mass of sediment fails is known as the Condroz 
Crest, and was familiar to Cornet and Briart when they wrote their cl ssic 
paper of 1877. To-day its course has been followed for 200 miles along 
the strike. I prefer to speak of it, when concerned with its prc-thrust 
character, as the Condroz Slope. 

During Lower Carboniferous times, marine transgression submerged 
the Hercynian Foreland far and wide. A northern continent persisted, 
but its waste was retained along a deltaic belt that stretched through 
southern Scotland and northern Ireland. Accordingly, clear shallow 



74 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

waters covered mucli of tlie foreland, for instance the greater part of 
Belgium, England and Ireland, where it encouraged the growth of 
Carboniferous Limestone. At the same time, the interior Hercynian 
zone, lying to the south, showed signs of mountain development, and 
uplifted portions furnished sand and mud to the contiguous sea. The 
contrast of the limestone facies of the foreland and the mud facies of the 
mountain belt is very reminiscent of what one has already described in 
connection with the Ordovician rocks of Canada. It is almost certain that 
the northward travel of the Hercynian mud was checked by a successor 
of the Condroz Slope leading down from the shallow waters of the sub- 
merged foreland to the foredeep of the growing chain. 

Without attempting to sketch this history even in outline, let us pass 
on to Millstone Grit times, when a slackening in the general subsidence 
of the foreland allowed deltas from the persistent northern continent to 
join with others from the growing southern mountains. They met upon 
the site of the erstwhile Carboniferous Limestone Sea and thereafter 
placed Scotland in frequent communication with contemporary land 
regions in France and Germany. Just at this critical time, as Kidston 
and Traquair have shown, the land flora and estuarine fish fauna of Scotland 
underwent a remarkably sudden alteration ; whereas the fauna of the 
open sea showed no corresponding change. The new flora, that all at 
once appeared in Scotland, is one that has been demonstrated by Potoni6 
and others to have arisen in a normal gradual fashion on the deltas 
fronting the nascent Hercynian Mountains ; and I attribute its abrupt 
introduction into Scotland to migration across the confluent southern 
and northern deltas of the Millstone Grit. The contemporaneous renova- 
tion of the estuarine fish fauna of Scotland can also be explained by the 
meeting of the deltas, since this event made Scottish rivers tributary to 
the general drainage system of western Europe. Hitherto these rivers 
had enjoyed biological isolation through emptying directly into the 
CarboniJFerous Limestone Sea. Henceforward their doors stood open to 
migration from the South. 

There is another aspect of the deltaic apron of the Hercynian Mountains 
which used to appeal insistently to the imagination of Marcel Bertrand. 
This deltaic accumulation gathered in the frontal depression of the growing 
Hercynian Chain, and to-day it furnishes the greatest belt of coalfields in 
the whole of Europe. We know it in Upper Silesia and again in the Ruhr, 
Belgium, North-east France, Dover, Somerset, and South Wales. It is 
also represented in Ireland, but, as everyone knows, widespread denudation 
of Coal Measures is one of the admitted injustices that have been dealt 
out to our sister island. 

Let us now turn to a very interesting feature of tectonics, of which 
there are two independent illustrations along the course of the Hercynian 
Mountains of western Europe : I refer to the crossing of mountain chains. 
In Upper Silesia the front of the Hercynian Chain emerges from beneath 
the Carpathians, while in the British Isles it obliterates for the time being 
the south-westward continuation of the Caledonian Chain. 

Where the Carpathians and Alps have trespassed upon the domain of 
the Hercynian Mountains the latter had already been buried beneath an 
unconformable cover of Mesozoic and Tertiary marine sediments. This 



C— GEOLOGY. 75 

relation is particularly clear in certain anticlinal re-exposures of the old 
mountains furnished by the Alpine massifs of the Aar and Mt. Blanc. 
Where the Hercynian front crosses the Caledonian Chain in Ireland the 
new mountains, at the present level of denudation, consist of Devonian 
and Carboniferous sediments ; and the old mountains can only be seen 
to the north of them, uncovered by denudation along gentle anticlines 
developed in the foreland. In South Wales the crossing of the Caledonian 
Chain by the Hercynian does not proceed very far, for the strike of the 
older structures veers round into approximate parallelism with that of 
the modern chain at the line of mutual contact. It is not known whether 
this curvature is original or superinduced. 

We may recall that the crossing of the two Palaeozoic mountain chains 
of south-west Britain is one of the topics dealt with by De la Beche in 
1846, in the first volume of memoirs published by our Geological Survey. 
' This,' says Suess in his Anilitz der Erde, ' I cannot mention without an 
expression of deep gratitude to the author, now long since dead, since it 
exercised many years ago a decisive influence on my own views as to the 
structure of great mountain ranges.' If I were to continue the quotation 
it would lead on to the subject of granite intrusions in relation to folded 
mountains — but space absolutely forbids touching upon this side of the 
subject. 

For the last time let us take boat across the Atlantic, there to visit 
the American representative of the Hercynian System. We know exactly 
where to go. From New York southwards, the north-west front of the 
Appalachian complex consists of folded and often overthrust Palaeozoic 
eediments that extend upwards into Coal Measures. This belt it was 
that gave the brothers Rogers material for their ever-famous address 
delivered in 1842 before the American Association of Geologists. We 
need only recall how the two brothers demonstrated to a spell-bound 
audience the asymmetry, isoclinal packing, steep thrusts and general 
travel of the Appalachians ; and how their work was immediately recog- 
nised as of international importance. 

It has been said above that Coal Measures are affected by the folding 
of the portion of the Appalachians now under consideration. The last 
great movement seems to have been in the early Permian. Accordingly 
Marcel Bertrand, in 1887, placed this frontal Pennsylvanian belt of the 
Appalachian Complex in his Hercynian System. 

The most interesting peculiarity of the Hercynian System in America 
is ite penetration to Laurentia, to the north-west foreland of the Caledonian 
System. The crossing of the chains, begun in the British Isles, is com- 
pleted in New England. The actual front of the Hercynian Chain cannot 
be mapped with precision in the American part of the zone of crossing, 
because the critical district has been largely denuded of its Carboniferous 
rocks. At the same time important Carboniferous outliers do occur in 
the southern States of New England and are strongly folded ; whereas, it 
will be remembered, the Carboniferous spreads of the maritime provinces 
of Canada are toleralaly undisturbed. The best known of the New England 
outcrops crosses Rhode Island, and its prevailing rocks are conglomerate, 
arkose and slate. There are also a few beds of graphitic coal, the Upper 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Carboniferous age of which is shown by associated plant remains. Though 
folded, cleaved and cut by granite and pegmatite, the Rhode Island 
Carboniferous agrees with that of Canada in being unconformable to the 
Caledonian disturbances. 

Where at last the Hercynian Mountain front steps clear of its Caledonian 
predecessor, one encounters a sedimentary superposition of facies that is 
quite unknown in Europe. In Pennsylvania there is an immense con- 
cordant succession from Cambrian to Carboniferous. In the cores of 
anticlines we find our Durness (Beekmantown) Limestone, because we 
stand on the north-west foreland of the Caledonian Chain. In the hearts 
of synclines we discover Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures (Penn- 
sylvanian) derived from the waste of the growing Hercynian Mountains, 
and we tollow Bertrand in our thoughts to South Wales, the Ruhr and 
Upper Silesia. 

The study that we have made of mountain chains with their folds and 
their thrusts, which individually may be of the order of 100 miles, involves 
a recognition of some type of continental drift. Of late years Wegener 
has developed this idea on a particularly grand scale. He has accounted 
for many recognised correspondences in the geology of the two sides of 
the Atlantic by supposing that the ocean has flowed in between the Old 
World and the New, as the two continental masses, with geological slow- 
ness, drifted asunder. One cannot help feeling that Wegener may perhaps 
be telling us the truth. The available evidence is crude and ambiguous ; 
but it is certainly startling to be confronted on the coasts of Britain and 
America with what read like complementary renderings of a single theme : 
the crossing of Caledonian Mountains by Hercynian. 



SECTION D.-ZOOLOGY. 

THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF 
LARVAL FORMS. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. WALTER GARSTANG, M.A., D.So., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The transformations, or metamorphoses, of animals have always provided 
one of the most fascinating chapters of Descriptive Zoology. Their 
significance in relation to the doctrine of Evolution was a subject of 
animated debate by previous generations of zoologists, and figured largely 
in several Presidential Addresses to Section D, notably in those of the 
late Prof. Milnes Marshall, in relation to the theory of Recapitulation, at 
the Leeds Meeting in 1890, and of the late Prof. Miall, from the standpoint 
of Adaptation, at the Toronto Meeting in 1897. The conclusions arrived 
at by these two distinguished predecessors of mine were by no means 
concordant, and I hope I am not wrong in thinking the time ripe for 
reopening the subject. I propose, however, to take it from a third 
standpoint, distinct from theirs, yet related, which I may broadly define 
as the part played by larval forms in the course of evolution. 

If we take any large class of marine Invertebrates the members of 
which can be seen to have made substantial progress along one or more 
lines of descent, a comparison of their larval forms shows that on the 
whole a larval evolution has taken place more or less parallel to that of 
the adult evolution, but subject to conspicuous deviations. Primitive 
types of larvae are limited to the lower or more primitive sections of the 
class, and secondary larval characters become more and more pronounced 
in the higher and more recent members. In this general statement I am 
thinking of classes like Mollusca and Crustacea, in which the metamorphosis 
is gradual and continuous, and is not subject to sudden and radical changes 
of plan, such as are exhibited for example by Echinoderms and Polyzoa. 

In Mollusca the primitive type of larva is obviously a Trochosphere, 
closely resembling that of Annelids in its pear-shaped body, praeoral 
ciliated ring or prototroch, apical tuft, and absence of special Molluscan 
features such as shell and foot. It is found in each of the main sub-classes 
of Mollusca, except the Cephalopoda, viz. in Chiton (Amphineura), Patella 
and Acmcea (Gastropoda), Dentalium (Scaphopoda), and Nucula and 
Yoldia (Lamellibranchia or Bivalvia). All these are genera which, either 
in Mollusca as a whole, or in their respective sub-classes, retain a distinct 
preponderance of archaic characters — Patella and Acmcea belonging to the 
lowest section of Gastropoda (Zygobranchia, in spite of loss of the original 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

gills !), Nucula and Yoldia to the lowest section of Bivalvia (Proto- 
brancliia). But in the course of their career as free larvse, these 
Molluscan trochospheres all acquire new and divergent features : the 
trochosphere of Chiton lengthens out and develops a dorsal series of 
cuticular, partly calcified, plates ; that of the Limpet acquires a shell 
which is successively plate-like, cap-like, and nautiloid, its body under- 
goes the Gastropod torsion, and it then develops an operculum ; the 
Dentalium trochosphere develops a pair of mantle-folds and a saddle- 
shaped shell, t which becomes tubular by ventral concrescence of its 
edges ; the larval Yoldia acquires a hinged bivalved shell, and both it, 
Dentalium, and Patella, but not Chiton, develop a foot. 




A B B 

Fig. 1. — Larvse of Chiton. 
A, G. marginatus ; B, C. polii. 

It is readily Been that almost all "these characters which the trocho- 
spheres acquire during their pelagic free-swimming career are in the 
direct line towards their respective adult characters. As soon as the 
rudiments of the shell have made their appearance, the larva of Nucula is 
definitely a Bivalve, that of Dentalium a prse-Solenoconch, that of Patella 
a Univalve, and that of Chiton Polyplacophorous. The secondary 
characters which appear are essentially adult characters in the making. 
They have mostly no relation to a pelagic career (e.g. the shell-plates of 
a Chiton larva), and may even be an encumbrance — witness the useless 
digging foot of the Dentalium larva — yet they appear. They can also be 
no heirlooms from pelagic ancestors, since shell and foot speak unequivo- 
cally of the ground— the archi-Mollusk was a benthic, not a pelagic 
animal. These secondary larval characters then are mainly anticipations 
of adult characters. 

But they are not entirely of this nature, for among the examples 
mentioned the larva of the Limpet develops an operculum which is not 
present in the adult stage. The early trochospheres of Dentalium and 
Yoldia also show features which are both absent in the larva of Chiton and 
have no direct relation to their adult characters. Let us examine these 
cases a little more closely. 

The trochosphere of Chiton has a simple prototroch consisting of two 
parallel rows of cells. As its body elongates the rudiments of six shell- 
plates arise behind the prototroch, apparently in metameric order from 
before backwards. During the pelagic career of the larva these plates 
remain cuticular and uncalcified ; but, as growth proceeds and weight 
increases, the larva swims less and less freely, and takes to gliding along 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 79 

the bottom by means of its pedal cilia. Calcification of the plates then 
sets in, again in order from before backwards. Simultaneously the 
creeping sole becomes enlarged by the development of muscles, and these 
effect attachment above to the developing plates. A cephalic plate in 
front of the prototroch, and an anal plate behind, are added, thereby 
completing the typical eight. The prototroch is then absorbed, and the 
adult life begins. The larval history is thus very similar to that of a simple 
Polychsete, although segments, in the strict sense of the term, are absent. 
As in Polychsetes, also, the adult characters are not completed until the 
creature has descended to the bottom. 

I In the case of Dentalium ' the trochosphere starts with a much more 
powerful prototroch of three rows of ciliated cells, and goes much further 
than that of Chiton in its development of adult characters during its free- 
swimming career, for it not only establishes the complete form of its 
tubular shell — which is much more elaborate than that of Chiton — but 
also develops its characteristic digging foot. There is plainly an adaptive 
connection between these two features : development of the additional 
adult characters has been conditioned by the greater ability of the larva 




Fio. 2. — Larvae of Dentalium. 

to carry them. The ciliated prototroch is actually extended over'part 
of the surface of the larval body by means of an internal duplicature of 
the skin behind it, the locomotive girdle projecting freely over the front 
of the body, like a collar over a coat. 

This adaptive modification is carried to an even greater extent in the 
Protobranch Bivalves Nucula and Yoldia? The collar becomes a great 
ciliated cloak or overall, and the duplicature is so deep and precocious 
that the whole post-trochal region is developed under cover of its five 
rows of ciliated cells, the middle three of which bear powerful flagella. 
At the end of the larval period a diminutive adult, fully formed, is de- 
posited on the bottom by disruption of the prototrochal envelope or ' test.' 
Quick-change artistes are obviously not limited to the human species. 

Embryologists are familiar with many other illustrations of this kind 
of development, e.g. the North Sea Pohjgordius, Sifuncidus. It shows by 
easy steps how the more dramatic metamorphosis of Pilidium into a 

' Dentalium, Kowalevsky, Ann. Mvs. HlH. Nat., Marseille, T, 1883. According 
to the earlier account by Lacaze-Duthiers, the young trochosjihere has no less than 
seven ciliated girdles, four of which give rise to the prototroch by a process of concen- 
tration, but their relation to the rows of cells was not described {Ann. Sci. Nat. 
(4) VII. 18.57). 

» Nttcula and Yoldia, Drew, Q.J.Micr. Set., XLIV, 1901. 



80 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Nemertine may have arisen. However, without ranging further afield, 
these few examples may perhaps sufiice to illiistrate several important 
propositions ; 

(1) the larva has a double task to perform, viz. to distribute the species 
and to grow up into the adult ; 

(2) of these tasks the first is essential, and the second subsidiary — to 
be undertaken only so far as the larval resources permit ; 

(3) the performance of the two tasks together requires the maintenance 
of an equilibrium between the locomotive efficiency of the larva and the 
adult weight to be carried ; 

(4) the locomotive adaptation of the larva may proceed on new 
lines, paying no respect to phylogeny, and culminating in some kind of 
metamorphosis ; 

(5) the modification of the larva in this way need not affect the 
organisation of the adult, since the casting of the most hypertrophied of 
ciliated girdles involves only slight processes of subsequent repair. 

When we pass from the more primitive and ancient groups of Mollusca 
to the more modern ones, the larva no longer hatches as a simple 
trochosphere, but is provided with a shell and foot from the first, and the 
simple girdle of cilia which constituted the prototroch is replaced by a 
much more powerful organ, the velum. This applies to all except the 
lowest members of the Azygobranch Gastropodaand to all Filibranch 




Fig. 3. — Larvse of Bivalves. 
A, Yoldia {Protobranch) ; B, Ostrea, and C, Dreissensia (Eulamellibraneha), 

and Eulamellibranch Bivalves. The velum is only a special development 
of the prototroch, but by being stretched out at the edge of an extended 
disk or bi- or tri-lobed frill, the locomotive cilia of the girdle are greatly 
multiplied in number and power. The larva is the familiar Veliger, though 
it would be well to restrict this term to the Gastropod larva, and to 
distinguish the Bivalved form of it by a separate name, e.g. Rotiger, from 
the wheel-like form of its ciliated disk. Both the ciliated arms of the 
Veliger and the disk of the Rotiger can be protruded freely from the 
shell and as easily and completely withdrawn inside it. 

There are of course many Gastropods and Bivalves in which, even 
under marine conditions, the free-swimming larval stage has been 
secondarily reduced in association with a marsupial or incubatory mode 
of development. Under these conditions the velum or ciliated disk never 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 81 

attains its full size and is often arrested in a very vestigial condition. 
Finally, the pelagic stage may be suppressed altogether, and the Whelk 
emerges from the confinement of its brood-chamber as a diminutive 
adult, ready at once to pursue its definitive career. 

The absence of any larval stage throughout the whole class of 
Cephalopoda is doubtless due to the locomotive agility of the adult which 
renders a distributive larval phase unnecessary. Although this explana- 
tion applies to few other cases of suppression, the fact seems from one 
standpoint to furnish the climax of the evolutional sequence we have 
been considering. For the larval phase, like the seed of a plant, is 
essentially distributive, and in the evolution of Mollusca we have to some 
extent seen it shift along the steps of the life-history from a very early, 
simply organised, shell-less stage, the Trochosphere, to an intermediate 
shell-bearing stage, from this to the highly adapted Veliger or Rotiger, 
and finally (if we may here include the Cephalopod and the Whelk) to the 
adult stage itself, the lower stages of development having been successively 
relegated to the embryonic period. Broadly speaking, this sequence 
corresponds with an increase in the yolkiness of the eggs, a very simple 
and widely distributed means of postponing the hatching period to a more 
advanced stage of development. 

It is probably not without significance that this progressive shift 
corresponds with a time-sequence observable in the order of appearance 
of the groups concerned, the groups with free Trochospheres, viz. 
Zygobranch Gastropods and Protobranch Bivalves dating from the 
Lower or Middle Cambrian, while the groups with Veliger and Rotiger 
larvae, the Pectinibranchs, Opisthobranchs, and Eulamellibranchs, appear 
to be unknown before the late Silurian. A curious exception, urgently 
calling for further investigation, is the alleged occurrence of Capulids in 
the Lower Cambrian. 

Although, with fuller knowledge of the facts and of the bionomical 
conditions, it may be possible to explain the cases of reduction or oblitera- 
tion of the larval stage in terms of adaptation, it seems more probable 
that there has been a secular change tending to depreciate the value of 
dispersal as the seas became stocked with an increasing number and 
variety of specialised inhabitants. When the adults have become highly 
adapted to the conditions of a particular kind of terrain {e.g. rock-life) a 
prolonged larval life would be of doubtful advantage which regularly 
carried a large percentage of the larvae away from the rock zone altogether 
and landed them in an area of sand and mud. 

On the other hand we cannot overlook Prof. Tattersalls Littorina,' 
which, not content with all the conventional larval stages, has started a 
new distributional device of its own by setting adrift the egg-case as well, 
remarkably adapted to that end. 

It is with larval origins, however, not suppressions, that I am now 
concerned. To some zoologists this question does not arise, or at least 
presents no serious difficulties. With them larval stages represent fore- 
gone ancestors, and all they have to do is to account for discrepancies. 
As the chain of adult ancestors is drawn out, at each new evolutional 

■'■ Littorina, Tattersall, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1920, 1- 
1928 G 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

advance the former adult is succeeded by a new one, and slips back into 
the ontogeny as a developmental stage. Let me briefly state why I am 
unable any longer to accept this theory. Firstly, it assumes that new 
steps in evolution are first manifested at the end of the ontogeny, i.e. in 
the ordinary course of adult life. I can find little or no evidence which 
supports this proposition, and an overwhelming mass of evidence which 
points against it. An example or two in Mollusca will be brought before 
you for consideration. Yet this assumption has even been used to support 
the theory of the inheritance of functional modifications acquired during 
the active life. Secondly, it is inconsistent with the actual course of 
development, which often preserves ancestral modes of development of 
individual organs, but as often as not introduces difierent organs at periods 
independent of any probable phyletic time-scale. The totality of an 
ontogenetic stage is thus normally different from the tout ensemble of any 
ancestor. Thirdly, it ignores what I regard as the chief outcome of 
modern Genetics. When this subject was last discussed in Section D, 
Mendel's principles had not been heard of, and Galton's Law of Ancestral 
Inheritance was the only generalisation in the field. There was nothing 
then to prevent us from assuming, and much to persuade us, that some- 
how or other the successive stages of growth were the expression of 
successive inheritances. To-day, on the other hand, such a phrase seems 
an anachronism. I feel bound to assume that development is the expres- 
sion of a single inheritance. I take it that, whatever I may think as to 
the resemblance between this ontogenetic stage and that extinct ancestor, 
I may not assume any inheritance of the ancestral stage itself. My boy 
may be like his maternal great-grandfather and his sister like her paternal 
grandmother, but, as the phylogeny has been the same, the ancestral 
stages as such have obviously not been inherited ; and we now know why, 
or rather how, that comes about. 

Viewing development then as the sequential expression of a single 
inheritance, Science confirms Wordsworth's observation of more than a 
century ago (1802) that 

' The Child is father of the Man,' 

and, subject always to the influence of environing conditions, our stages 
of development are ' bound each to each ' by a necessitarian chain of 
progressive differentiations, each stage depending on its predecessor 
and determining its successor. The bearings of this doctrine on the 
problem before us do not appear as yet to have been fully appreciated, 
but squarely faced, they present issues which are of fundamental 
importance. 

We have seen in the life-histories of Dentalium and Yoldia that a 
particular larval organ, the prototroch, can undergo considerable adaptive 
changes with great advantage to the race, and after serving its purpose 
can be absorbed, if small, or cast aside, if large, without leaving even a 
scar. You will note that the unity of the inheritance, and the necessitarian 
sequence, are not broken by this phenomenon. The prototroch is not a 
preliminary stage in the formation of any adult organ. If you regard the 
adult as the final complex resulting from a number of differentiating cell- 
lineages, the prototroch is only a little subsidiary twig near the base, on 



D.— ZOOLOGY. Hli 

which nothing else depends : it can be pruned ofi without injury to the 
rest of the series. 

But we have also seen that the cell-lineages leading to certain adult 
organs may differentiate so quickly as to make the rudiments of these 
organs manifest in the trochosphere of which originally they did not form 
a part. What will happen if these partly differentiated rudiments should 
be capable of useful modification subservient to larval as distinct from 
adult ends ? They will, ex hypothesi, be subject to the unity of the 
inheritance, and if the modification be irreversible, i.e. incapable of 
subsequent rectification, the adult form of the same organ will inevitably 
be affected. Thus some modifications of adult characters may be the 
result of larval mutations. Is there any evidence that such is ever the 
case ? I believe such evidences are widespread, and that it is only the 
dominance of an erroneous hypothesis which has prevented us from 
recognising them before. Let me submit one or two examples in Mollusca 
for your consideration. 

The systematic study of Mollusca has resulted, like that of other 
groups, in the production of a classification based on the principles of 
' adult seriation.' Groups and sub-groups are defined ostensibly by their 
possession of certain combinations of positive characters ; but the real 
basis is the occurrence of gaps, some large and deep, others slight, in the 
series of adults available for examination. As knowledge increases, these 
gaps are often reduced or filled up, and the positive characters defining 
the groups are then altered accordingly. But some gaps in the seriation 
remain obdurate : the more we know the sharper they become. 

The main lines of Molluscan classification have long reached a stable 
condition : the gaps between the main sub-classes have undergone no 
reduction in the time of any of us here, in spite of an immense outpouring 
of new species and genera, trimmings and rearrangements of families and 
orders, recent and fossil, and in spite of a considerable increase in our 
knowledge of their comparative anatomy and embryology. I take the 
following scheme from Prof. Naef's recent and admirable revision' of the 
Morphology of the group (1926), changing it only by omitting a 
problematic group of ancient cone-shells {Hyolithes, Conularia, &c.), 
usually classed as Pteropoda, but which Prof. Naef raises to the rank of 
an order and terms Odontomorpha, apparently to suggest a relationship 
with Dentaliiim. In brackets I have aclded certain synonyms which may 
be more familiar than the primary terms actually adopted. 

MOLLUSCA. 
{Sub-classes and Orders) (Examples) 

1. Amphineuba 

1. Placophora e.g. Chiton 

2. SoLENOGASTRA e.g. Neomenia 

II. CONCHIFERA 

1. Cephalopoda e.g. Nautilus 

2. Heteroneura (==Prorhipidoglo8somorpha) 

i. Gastropoda e.g. Patella 

ii. Scaphopoda (=Solenoconcha) e.g. Dentalium 
iii. BrvALViA (=Lamellibranchia) e.g. Nucula 

^ Spengel's Ergebniase u. Forlschritte, III, 1913, and VI,2, 1926. 

G 2 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The gap between Amphineura and Conchifera is absolute : the shell 
in the former consists of a series of plates (or spicules), in the latter 
of a single plate (calcified from two lateral centres in Bivalvia). No 
Amphineuran, living or fossil, approaches the Conchifera by showing an 
enlargement of one of its plates as the possible predecessor of a single 
shell, and no Conchiferan, living or fossil, approaches the Amphineura by- 
showing any signs of a duplication or segmentation of its shell into 
metameric plates. 

Similarly in Conchifera, whether the Nautiloid or the conical shell be 
regarded as primitive, no Cephalopod shows any signs of a lateral torsion 
approaching the Gastropod twist, and no Gastropod exists with paired gills, 
auricles and kidneys without also displaying a complete torsion of its 
mantle-cavity and shell through 180° from back to front. The same 
peculiarity marks off the Gastropoda absolutely from the Scaphopoda and 
Bivalvia, although in other respects the morphological agreement between 
these three orders is extensive and detailed and their relationship must 
be exceedingly close. 

Now let us turn to the larval history of a primitive Gastropod, say 
Patella' or Trochus,^ and see how this torsion is accomplished. The 




Fig. 4. — Larval Stages of Patella, 

trochosphere develops a cap-like shell upon its back, and swims about 
with it. As the mantle grows more rapidly behind than in front, the 
additions to the shell are also more extensive behind than in front, so 
that, relatively to the newer and broader part, the original ' cap ' is slowly 
and steadily pushed upwards and forwards as the apex of a commencing 
coil. This coil of the larval shell is not quite median in existing forms, 
but there is reason to believe that it was so in the earliest Gastropods, as 
shown by the symmetry of the shells in practically all Gastropods known 
from Cambrian and Ordovician strata (e.g. Cyrtolites, Sinuites, Salpingostoma, 
Bellerophon). Thus the larval shell grows like that of the Pearly Nautilus 
and is at first orientated in the same way : the apex of its coil is directed 
upwards and forwards over the larval head (exogastric), and a gill-chamber 
is developed beneath it behind, corresponding to that of Chiton and 
Nautilus. At this stage the foot projects freely but carries no operculum ; 
and it is easy to see from the arrangement of parts that an operculum on 
the foot would be meaningless. For the head is separated from the gill- 
chamber behind by the whole length of the foot, and, when the body 

° Patella, Patten, Wien Arbeiten, VI, 1886 ; Acmoea, Boutan, Arch. Zool. Exp., 
(3) VII, 1899. 

^ Trochvs, Robert, Arch. Zool. Ea-p., (3) X, 1903 ; and Zoologie Descriptive 
II, 1900, fig. 508. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 85 

contracts, it is the foot, not the head, which can safely withdraw into it, 
leaving the head, the most vital part of the body, exposed to attack. 
This vulnerability of the head in the Nautiloid stage of a Veliger is 
obviously a defect, but it is not long in being remedied. Head and foot 
as a whole rotate round through 180° until their relations to the mantle- 
cavity are exactly reversed. According to Boutan, the whole process of 
torsion is accomplished in Acmcea in two or three minutes, so that, as 
Prof. Naef has pointed out, it is difficult to believe that the change 
is accomplished by ordinary processes of growth alone. A certain 
amount of true twisting by muscular contractions would seem to be 
involved. In Trochus (Robert, 1903), the first of all Azygobranchs, the 
torsion requires six to eight hours. In both forms the shell has already 
begun its Nautiloid exogastric coil before there is any sign of torsion. In 
still less primitive forms (e.g. Paludina), as Miss Drummond ' was one of 
the first to show, the torsion takes longer than in Trochus, and starts at 
a much earlier embryonic stage, before the shell has begun to coil. It is 
thus probable, as Prof. Naef maintains, that the slow achievement of the 
torsion by growth-processes spread over a considerable portion of the 
ontogeny is a secondary modification. 

The immediate effect of the change, when completed, is to bring the 
gill-chamber to the front of the larval body, thus enabling the head, with 
its all-important velum, to be safely withdrawn into it at the first onset 
of danger. The foot lastly develops an operculum on its hinder surface, 
which closes the entrance on contraction. 

In the Limpet this rotation is effected during the free larval life, 
probably as quickly as in Acmcea, its next of kin ; but in Trochus 
and all subsequent types of Gastropods (Azygobranchia) it takes place 
in the embryonic phase, so that the Veliger has already undergone 
torsion before hatching. There can be no two opinions as to the great 
advance in efficiency shown by the new type of larva as compared with 
the old. Unfortunately information about the Nautiloid larva of the 
Limpet and its post-torsional successor is still limited to Patten's observa- 
tions on specimens reared from artificial impregnations, and neither 
Patten nor Boutan say much as to the habits of the larvae. It is also 
difficult to say whether in its retention of a simple prototroch the larva 
of the Limpet is primitive or secondarily simplified, but the curious 
changes and variations which have been described in the structure of 
its prototroch point rather strongly towards the latter conclusion. 
The larva of Acmcea shows signs of even greater redu tion of its proto- 
troch, since the ciliary girdle, though composed of two rows of cells, 
carries only one row of flagella (Boutan). In Fissurella" there can be 
little doubt on this point, for the larva creeps out of its egg-shell, 
instead of swimming, and settles down with the least possible delay to its 
sedentary rock-life, at once proceeding to absorb the prototroch which it 
has never used in the open sea, and casting the operculum which it has 
never used at all. The development of Pleurotomaria may some day 

' Paludina, Drummond, Q.J. Micr. Sci., XLVI, 1892 ; Bcutan, I.e., 1899 : Naef, 
1913, p. 102. 
" Fisaurella, Boutan, Arch. Zool. Exp., (2) III, 1886. 



86 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



reveal the original larval type of a less specialised Zygobranchiate 
Gastropod. 

But the fully developed post-torsional Veliger of au ordinary Azygo- 
branch is thoroughly adapted to an active pelagic career. Its prototroch 
having now grown out into a pair of velar lobes, the larva no longer rotates 
like a trochosphere, but directs its movements up, down, or straight ahead 
on a perfectly even keel. Its velum is so powerful that it can easily 
sustain the added weight of its partly calcified shell. When suddenly 
disturbed it reacts in characteristic fashion : its head and velar lobes are 
immediately withdrawn into the now adjacent gill-cavity, the foot smartly 
follows suit, and the door is automatically closed by its horny operculum. 
Owing to its weight the larva falls vertically downwards in the water the 
moment it stops swimming. As an obscure prae-Georgian poet has some- 
where described it : — 

' The Veliger's a lively tar, the liveliest afloat ; 
A whirling wheel on either side propels his little boat ; 
But when the danger signal warns his bustling submarine, 
He stops the engine, shuts the port, and drops below unseen.' 




A 



B 

Fig. 5.— Veligers of Azygobranchs. 
A, Nassa ; B, Dolium ; C, Opisthobranch. 



Now il 1 have succeeded in my description of the principal points, I 
think you will agree that whatever significance may be attached to the 
twist of its body in an adult Gastropod, there is no doubt about its value 
to the larva. As to the origin of this torsion, all previous attempts to 
explain it have been based on the assumption that it arose during the 
adult life of some early type of Mollusk. I do not propose to go into all 
these theories, instructive as they are, since their divergences merely 
illuj^trate the difficulty of any solution on those lines. Like the asymmetry 
of Amphioxiis and the one-sided preponderance of Echinoderms, the 
torsion has remained a standing puzzle. It has been hardly attempted 
to assign a utilitarian value to the initial and intermediate stages which 
must have been required to effect the change in a series of adult ancestors. 
I will deal later with the further point as to the failure of any of these 
intermediate links to persist. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 87 

In any case I venture to suggest that the torsion of Gastropods arose 
in the first place very much as you see it develop to-day, as a larval 
adaptation, in response to larval needs ; and that it was perpetuated 
because, once accomplished, it was of immediate advantage both to 
larva and adult. It transformed the earlier Nautiloid type of larva into 
the much more effective Veliger ; and the Veliger, settling down to 
resume the benthic life of its sire, foimd no serious obstacle to growth in 
the new arrangement. Lastly, the adult, whose head had previously had 
little or no protection, was now able to withdraw it on disturbance into 
complete safety. I assume that the ancestor had a muscular creeping 
foot, neither so simple as that of Chiton, nor so complex as that of a 
Cephalopod, but definitely suctorial, though capable of progression. 

The only mutation required to start the torsion in the assumed ancestral 
prse-Gastropod larva was an asymmetry in the development of the retractor 
muscles, thus bending the head and foot round during contraction ; but 
it remains for further investigation to show whether or not the rotation 
in Patella and Acmcea is actually determined in this way, as indicated by 
the rapidity of its accomplishment. The ideal muscular arrangements for 
bringing about complete rotation would consist of a right-sided cephalic 
retractor with posterior attachment and a left-sided pedal retractor with 
an attachment in front of the other, the two crossing one another more 
or less at right angles. Patten's figures show that these conditions are 
realised in the prse-torsional stage so far as the right side is concerned 
(see fig. 4, second figure from the right), but unfortunately leave us in 
the dark as to the arrangement of muscles on the left side. It is manifest, 
however, that, owing to the small size of the larval body, any muscular 
disparity between right and left sides in the direction indicated would 
conduce towards a reversal of the relations of head and foot to the mantle- 
cavity at every contraction, while fixation of the organs in the reversed 
position would be a simple matter at this stage of development, when the 
body-muscles are just beginning to be actively differentiated, and their 
connections have yet to be established. Thus, although the theory of a 
larval origin of the Gastropod torsion cannot be established on our present 
data, we can at least claim that rotation may have been accomplished in 
the way suggested, and that the ease and rapidity with which it could be 
achieved contrast favourably with the difficulties besetting any theory 
of progressive torsion through a long series of adult ancestors. In the 
larva the smallest twist would produce a favourable change. 

In his own ingenious theory of 1913 Prof. Naef has suggested a novel 
way out of some of these difficulties. He regards the ancestor of 
Gastropods as a free-swimming Mollusk, not unlike a small Nautilus in 
appearance and habits, but with a more flexible ' neck ' or stalk connecting 
the anterior combination of head and foot (or Kopffuss) with the visceral 
or mantle sac behind ; and he associated the origin of Gastropods with 
a change of habits from swimming to creeping. The Nautiloid position 
of the shell with the coil forwards and the aperture behind is regarded as 
convenient for swimming (Prof. Naef does not note that this is only true 
of backward swimming !), but is assumed to have been incompatible with 
creeping, owing to pressure of the coil on the animal's head and neck. 
A ' correction ' of these arrangements was therefore needed, which has 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been achieved by the actual torsion. The greatest novelty of Prof. Naef's 
theory now comes in. He supposes that the earliest Gastropods and their 
immediate predecessors, owing to the flexibility of their ' necks,' were 
able to twist their shells round, from back to front, or vice versa, at will 
— as freely, he adds, as a bird can turn its head. On this theory the 
difficulty as to intermediate stages disappears. A snail that has under- 
gone torsion has not acquired something entirely new : it has merely 
reversed what may be called the resting attitude of its shell. The power 
of twisting its neck was not entirely lost until the process of reversal was 
completed. By that time, however, the snail had given up swimming 
altogether, no longer needed the Nautilus poise, and had settled down to 
the monotony of a creeping life. As an intermediate stage it is suggested 
that the symmetrical shells of Cambrian snails (e.g. Bellerophon) may have 
rested sideways, i.e. with the spire over the left side of the body and the 
open end over the right — a position from which it would require, as it 
were, only half a pull on the left side to bring the shell back to the Nautilus 
position for swimming, or half a pull on the right side to bring the open 
end forwards into the position most suited to creeping. 

For the rest I ought perhaps to add that Prof. Naef explicitly rejects 
the theory of the Veliger which I have adopted here, viz. that it is a 
Trochosphere transformed by the incorporation of Molluscan characters, 
and regards the Veliger as a ' phylogenetic reminiscence ' of the pelagic 
ancestor of Gastropoda, which was adapted for swimming like a Pteropod 
by means of an expanded and bilobed foot. 

You thus have before you two theories in explanation of the same 
facts, and the only tests by which you can judge between them are the 
degree to which they conform to well-established facts, and their con- 
sistency with the order of events revealed by a wider survey. As I have 
put before you a rival explanation, I may perhaps point out in what 
respects Prof. Naef's theory seems to me to be lacking in cogency : (1) We 
know that the morphological relations, both anatomical and embryo- 
logical, of Gastropods to Scaphopods and Bivalves are much closer than 
to Cephalopods, and we are on sure ground when we conclude that the 
pree-torsional ancestor of Gastropods resembled primitive Scaphopods 
and Bivalves more closely than it resembled any Cephalopod. This is, 
in fact, what Prof. Naef's own classification means. By this test two of 
Prof. Naef's principal assumptions fall to the ground : the adult prse- 
torsional Gastropod did not possess a narrow flexible ' neck,' or the special 
muscles required by his theory, or a highly coiled Nautiloid shell. At the 
point when Gastropods diverged from Scaphopods, and Bivalves, the 
shell can have been little more than a flat plate. The difference between 
the two came in with the assumption of a lateral position of the gills in 
the Scaphopod-Bivalve line and a posterior position in the Gastropod 
line, thus leading to a preponderating lateral growth of mantle and shell 
in the former, and a dominating posterior growth in the latter. This 
entailed an anteriorly directed apex of the shell in prse-torsional Gastropods, 
as in Nautilus, though the resemblance must have been one of simple con- 
vergence, since the separation of the whole stock of Prorhipidoglosso- 
morpha from that of Cephalopoda had taken place at an earlier stage, 
when the shell was presumably still flat. It is apparent from his 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 89 

discussion and diagrams that the tubular shell and elongated body of 
Dentalium have exercised an undue influence upon Prof. Naef's mind as 
furnishing a kind of connecting link between Gastropods and Cephalopods. 
They are, of course, indubitably secondary features. Prof. Naef's com- 
parison between the apical slit in the shell of Dentalium and the marginal 
slit of the lower Gastropods will be dealt with at a later stage. (2) Having 
concluded on these grounds that the common ancestor of Gastropods, 
Scaphopods and Bivalves possessed a flat shell and no narrow waist 
capable of rotation between Kopffuss and visceral dome, it is easy to see 
that the phyletic linkage of this group to still lower forms of Mollusca 
must be with forms of the Placophoran rather than the Cephalopod type. 
I do not mean that the Conchifera do not form a natural assemblage, but 
simply that the first Conchifera must have been essentially Chiton-like 
in organisation except for the simplicity of their shell : the conversion of 
the discoidal shell of the earliest Conchifera into cones, tubes, and spires 
has taken place independently in Cephalopods, Scaphopods, and 
Gastropods, in relation to very different habits of life. 

If these considerations are well based, there can be no presumption in 
favour of a pelagic ancestry of Gastropods, and the attempt I have made 
to explain the evolution of the Veliger larva without regard to such 
' phylogenetic reminiscences ' can be submitted without anxiety as to 
objections on that account. The only pelagic feature of a Veliger is its 
velum, and that, as we have seen, comes down from a Trochosphere, not 
from a pelagic Mollusk. The bilobed origin of the foot in Patella and 
Trochus admits of various alternative explanations. 

It will be noted that Prof. Naef's argument in support of the sudden 
and muscular character of the original process of torsion remains un- 
affected. He constructed his case from the observation of larval behaviour, 
but applied it to the behaviour of hypothetical primaeval adults, which 
could not possibly have behaved like larvae if they had existed. On the 
other hand, if you prolong backwards into the Cambrian the larval 
sequence which is demonstrable to-day, and project into it a con- 
tinuation of the train of modifications in the mode of development of the 
torsion which we have also seen to be operating, step by step, and 
sub-order by sub-order, there appears to be neither speculation nor 
hypothesis in the conclusion that torsion in Gastropods arose as a larval 
mutation : the logic is that of simple mathematical extrapolation, or of 
projecting a curve the equation of which is known. 

Of course I cannot tell whether you consider my proposition reasonable, 
or not, on the evidence I have put before you, and I have sought to base 
it entirely on positive grounds which are open to verification. Let me, 
however, now draw your attention to the secondary or corroborative 
evidence. At the outset of my discussion I remarked on the sharpness of 
the gap which separates Gastropoda from all other groups of Mollusca. 
The one thing, i.e. the only thing of importance, that distinguishes 
Gastropoda from other Conchifera is their torsion, and that is complete 
from the start. Torsion makes the Gastropod, and it appears in the 
systematic sequence as a true saltation. Now if torsion arose in the 
first instance by gradual modifications of adult form, each step fitted to 
some particular combination of external conditions or internal functionings, 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

surely somewhiere over the wide earth we ought to have found a 
Zygobranchiate snail with its torsion incomplete. There are, I believe, 
180 degrees in a half-circle. Allowing 10 degrees as a reasonable range 
for each successive stable position in a series of adult modifications, 
we have eighteen different positions in which some snail or other might 
reasonably be expected to have made a halt in the orthogenetic advance. 

In the Opisthobranchiate MoUusca there is abundant evidence that an 
evolutional process of detorsion has actually occurred. Anus, gill, and 
kidney, at first in their mantle-chamber, have travelled back again along 
the right side of the body, reversing the original order of events. There 
can be no confusion between the stages of retreat and those of advance 
because all of these unwinding snails have come back without certain 
organs of the original left side with which they went forward. Every 
possible stage from complete torsion through partial to complete detorsion 
— far more than the eighteen grades which I assumed — is represented 
to-day by families, genera, and countless species — Actceon, Bulla, Philine, 
Aplysia, Eolis, Doris, &c., not to speak of the Pteropods derived from them. 
Their variety shows us what must have occurred on the forward march 
of the prse-Gastropods if it proceeded by comparable stages ; and although 
many that went forward would certainly fall out in the long lapse of time 
owing to changed conditions, yet there must have been opportunities for 
adaptations capable of preserving the essentials of one or more of these 
eighteen advancing types. We know this from facts. In each minor 
group of primitive snails, possessing clear remains of the original bilateral 
symmetry of gills, auricles, and kidneys, there are genera which have come 
down to us unchanged from Silurian times at least, e.g. Patella and Acmcea, 
Pleurotomaria, Turbo and Trochus ; and scores of other Zygobranchiate 
genera exist which only difier from their Cambrian ancestors in trifling 
details of shell sculpture. Yet not one of these snails falls short of complete 
torsion through 180°. 

It seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that the gap in the adult 
succession between normal symmetrical MoUusca and Gastropoda is due 
to some cause other than natural extinction or the imperfection of the 
' biological record ' to be read in the existing fauna. The gap marks an 
evolutional saltation. The Gastropod accordingly is a ' sport,' and is 
the consequence of a sudden jump in the evolution of the Veliger larva in 
Cambrian, possibly earlier, times. With its ^asceral dome reversed this 
new larva settled down and grew to maturity, the general course of growth 
being unaffected by the change. When its growth fimished, the first 
Gastropod had been created. How far the fiirst Gastropod differed in 
other respects from its predecessor would require a long argument to tell, 
except as regards one character to be dealt with in a moment. There 
could be no trouble over its reproduction, since in Chiton and the Zygo- 
branchs eggs and sperms are shed into the sea. The new characters were 
presumably dominant : the recessives, if any are now left, are apparently 
non-viable. Whether a gene was added, or dropped, I leave to geneticists. 
At this stage I dare say the thought may be crossing the minds of some 
of you that snails always have been queer-looking things, with something 
abnormal about them, and that defiinitely to label them as ' sports ' will 
not seriously disturb any cherished convictions. Even if the abnormality 



D.— Z00L0C4Y. 91 

first appeared in a Veliger, that is merely to say that one larva went 
wrong, whereas most larvae behave properly. Let the Gastropod go into 
the same pen with Darwin's Niata cattle, and its veliger with the abnormal 
embryo that produced the La Plata race — what then ? Stands not 
ScotLmd where it did ? 

Yon will note, however, that Gastropods form no inconsiderable section 
of Mollusca, and that MoUusca constitute one of the nine large phyla into 
which the animal kingdom is di^'ided. A few years ago I brought a case 
very similar to this, but without any touch of abnormality about it, to the 
notice of the Linnean Society, and claimed that the carapace of Crustacea 
was also in the first instance a larval adaptation in some primitive Trilobite. 
If that case holds too, as I firmly believe, and as I hope before long to 
establish in full detail, the whole phylum of Crustacea must be added to 
Gastropoda and the Niata cattle. Last year, at Leeds, I put forward some 
new grounds, now published with fuller details, for the conclusion that 
Appendicularians are not primitive Tunicates, to be acknowledged by 
Ascidian tadpoles as their ancestors, but Doliolids gone astray in their 
development. The larval form in this case has ousted the adult from its 
supremacy in the life-history and has created a free-swimming pelagic 
creature out of originally sessile ancestors. 

In short the Gastropod and its Veliger loom large in this address, not 
as ends in themselves, but as an additional example of a wide-ranging 
phenomenon. The man in the street scoffs at the idleness of the question 
' Did the hen come first, or the egg 1 ' He thinks it one of Nature's 
insoluble mysteries, but admits the priority of the egg when it hatches 
into a monster with two heads or three legs. In a sense I have looked 
around for a convenient monster, have found it in the snail, and now seek 
to show that ' the exception proves the rule.' I stick to snails because 
we are dealing with a problem which requires a certain amount of concen- 
tration, and one point assists another. 

We left the ancestral Veliger creeping on its rock and growing up into 
the first Gastropod, and we are to ask if the new position of its visceral 
dome, twisted round through half a circle, was not attended by some 
inconveniences. Before the torsion the gill-chamber lay behind, as in 
Chiton and Nautilus. It was a more definite chamber than in Chiton, 
but not so big as in Nautilus, and its ca^^ty opened downwards behind 
the foot, not forwards as in Cephalopods, because its wails were not 
specialised to propel the animal backwards through the water. This is 
where bionomics comes in to help morphology. When Prof. Naef treats 
the ancestor of Gastropods as a kind of Nautilus, he is putting the cart 
before the horse, or, more exactly, the specialised condition before the 
unspecialised, the higher before the lower. Before the mantle-cavity of 
Nautilus was used as a locomotive organ, it must have been what it still 
is in Gastropods, a simple shelter for the gills, and a passage for the 
products of anus, kidneys, and gonads. This curious combination of 
cloaca and respiratory chamber, easily explained by its evolution from 
the condition seen in Chiton, implies arrangements for maintaining a 
through circulation of water, as well as for preventing contamination of 
the respiratory water by waste products. In Cephalopods the respiratory 
current is maintained by muscular pulsations, in Gastropods by ciliated 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

tracts, and there can be no question as to which of these methods is 
primitive. Not only is the respiratory mechanism of Nautilus more 
advanced than that of any Gastropod, but its use as a locomotive device is 
also secondary, being but a further elaboration of the breathing movements. 
The inferences we drew from the shells of Mollusca are thus confirmed by 
a consideration of the gill-chambers. It is not Nautilus but Chiton that 
shows us most nearly the form of Gastropod (and indeed Conchiferan) 
ancestors. In Chiton the gill-chamber is hardly established as such : the 
groove between mantle and foot is open at all points, being merely a 
little deeper behind than in front. Water flows in at the sides, bathes 
the gills hanging from the roof, and escapes behind where the anus lies 
between the symmetrical pores of the kidneys, everywhere overhung by 
the projecting mantle-frill. 

And now suddenly these excellent sanitary arrangements have been 
turned round from back to front through the efforts of a pree-Veliger to 
get its head into the hole before its foot (the Lamarckism may be excused !), 
and by the persistence of the larval adaptation. Before the torsion the 
gill-chamber opened freely behind ; after the torsion the free exit of water 
and waste products was impeded by the snail's head and neck. There 
were two possible solutions of this dilemma : either the snail must die, 
and so wipe out the larval mutation altogether — in which event, had it 
happened, there would have been no order of Gastropoda to perplex the 
Zoological student — or a new exit must be provided. The latter alternative 
was followed. Every member of the most primitive section of Gastropods 
to-day, i.e. every snail which possesses paired gills and auricles (Zygobran- 
chia), has in one form or another a slit or a hole piercing mantle and shell 
where these overhang the gill-chamber in front. It is not present in the 
larva ; it does not appear until the larva has settled down to its permanent 
life on the bottom. It is an insignificant notch in the simpler cases, and 
yet it is to the development of this ' breathing hole ' that the survival of 
the whole order of Gastropoda must be ascribed. Bearing in mind the 
direction of the ciliary currents in Chiton — in at the sides, and out at the 
middle — we must picture the young snail with these arrangements, but 
reversed now from back to front, and at the outset of its life on the bottom, 
possibly with one of Dr. Bidder's Torridonian tides swirling over it. Also 
we must recognise the effects of continuing growth and differentiation — 
increase of size and gill-surface, multiplication of muscles between shell 
above and foot-surface beneath, contractions of these muscles pulling the 
shell down on to the animal's neck, increasing metabolism and output 
from rectum and kidneys — all demanding increased ciliary activity, and 
greater outpouring of waste water beneath the middle point of mantle 
and shell. If I could start again as an Experimental Biologist I would 
greatly like to try the effect on a growing epithelium of a continued stream 
of deoxygenated water charged with a suitable quantity of metabolic 
waste. Would it or would it not inhibit growth at the point affected ? 
In any case, whatever the chain of cause and effect, that is what happens 
now in the development of every young Zygobranch at the outset of its 
adult life. Beginning with the intact edge of the larval mantle and shell, 
the mantle grows less and less freely at the middle point where the waste 
water is poured out and grows freely everywhere else, with the resultant 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 



93 



formation of this so-called ' marginal slit,' which of course is also manifested 
by a corresponding gap in the shell. As growth proceeds the viscera 
behind occupy an increasing proportion of the space below the shell, and 
the gill-chamber itself shifts forwards, so that continual readjustment of 
slit to cavity is required. In Emarginula the mantle maintains the slit 
at its edge throughout life. As the mantle extends, the slit extends ; but 
the intact part of the mantle behind also extends, and seals up with a 
secondary deposit the older parts of the slit in the shell. Thus arises a long 
seam in the shell, the so-called ' slit-band,' which marks the track along 
which the slit has travelled. In Fissurella, the Key-hole Limpet, a 
different arrangement prevails : as soon as a slit of sufficient size has been 






Fia. 6. — Post-larval Development of Fissurella. 

produced, the edges of the mantle meet in front of it and fuse, the'mantle 
thus regaining its original integrity. The shell now goes on growing as 
intact as a Limpet's, leaving a hole near the summit which retains com- 
munication with the gill-cavity throughout life, and is enlarged from time 
to time by absorption. In Haliotis the mantle goes on splitting and 
closing throughout life, thus adding to the number of holes instead of 
enlarging the first one. The first and its successors are sealed up, one 
after the other, as the mantle-chamber grows forwards into new 
positions. 

These various arrangements of slit and pores, with numerous inter- 
mediate conditions, are adaptive to minor differences of body-form and 
habits. In some the gills are equal and symmetrical, in others unequal 
and squeezed to one side ; the body may be tall and pyramidal, or flat 
and broad, the shell accordingly conical or spiral, and carried above the 
foot or brought down to the substratum. In all, whether symmetrical 
or asymmetrical, the slit or series of holes lies in the morphological median 
line, between the two gills, and is associated with a persistence of the 
original bilateral arrangement of the inhalant respiratory currents. To 
its presence beyond all doubt the Zygobranchia owe the preservation of 
their original pair of gills in the reversed mantle-chamber. As soon as the 
right gill goes (Azygobranchia) the slit goes too, and a new current, 
oblique in direction, but simple instead of complex, is set up through the 
chamber, water entering in front on the left side, bathing the persistent 
(left) gill, then crossing to the right side to which the anus is diverted, 
alongside the persistent (right) kidney. Entrance and exit are each 
defined by special folds of the mantle-edge, which may be drawn out into 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

long spouts in front and behind. The evolutional changes in the gill- 
cavity are somewhat complicated morphologically, but physiologically 
can be summed up in a single word, sanitation. The various readjust- 
ments amount to a series of experiments in the more efficient separation 
between the respiratory and excretory arrangements, and finally result 
in the substitution of a simple system which cannot go wrong for one so 
intricately balanced that it will only work if its owner keeps perfectly 
still. It is no accident that Zygobranchism is associated with a sedentary 
rock-life, and that Azygobranchism is distinctive of the snails with 
versatile and wandering habits. 

The true Limpets (Docoglossa) of course gained the same end by 
different means, sacrificing first one, then both gills in the mantle-chamber, 
and substituting for them an entirely new system of marginal folds outside 
the primitive gill-chamber altogether. 

From this survey of the facts it seems to be a legitimate inference that 
the reversal of the mantle-chamber did in fact introduce some serious 
difficulties into the adult life of the first Gastropods. Retention of the 
complete ancestral organisation was rendered impossible except by an 
immediate modification of the mantle margin, and even this permitted 
no deviation from a very restricted mode of life. ' Radiation ' into other 
environments requiring greater activity was inhibited by the delicacy of 
the respiratory adjustments, consequent on the partial blocking of the 
branchio-cloacal aperture. Had the torsion taken place by instalments in 
successive generations, some of the modifications which were subsequently 
introduced (with the Azygobranchia) would almost certainly have been 
accomplished en route, and would not have been deferred until the rotation 
was complete. The nature of the earliest post-torsional modifications 
thus corroborates the more direct evidence that torsion was, so to say, 
imposed upon the adult stage, and not primarily developed in its 
interest. 

But the marginal slit has bearings on the general jjroblem which are 
direct as well as corroborative, since it provides us with a test case of 
the origin of a typical adult character. We know from Boutan's account 
of the development of Fissurella that there is not a sign of the slit before 
the sedentary stage is entered upon, and his figures show that an area of 
shell is produced equal to that of the whole embryonic coil before the 
marginal slit begins. This area is a mere trifle compared with the ultimate 
size of the adult shell, but it is enough to show that the slit is a purely 
adult character and arises at the outset of the adult life. 

Now the history of the slit is engraved upon the face of every Zygo- 
branchiate shell, and the date of its commencement in the adult life is 
to be got by following the ' slit-band ' to its source. In every Zygo- 
branchiate living to-day the ' slit-band ' begins, like the hole of Fissurella, 
near the apex of the shell in front of the larval coils. Moreover the 
inscription on the shell is so distinct, and the shell so durable, that it can 
be read on the shells of the earliest Cambrian and Silurian fossils. Here 
also in every case, even in the primaeval Bellerophon, which retains perfect 
bilateral symmetry in its nautiloid coil, the slit-seam runs up from the 
margin of the shell nearly to the apex of the coil. There has accordingly 
been no change from first to last in the period at which the slit develops. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 



In the first Cambrian Gastropods it must have arisen as a marginal notch 
almost immediately after the beginning of the adult life, just as it develops 





Fig. 7. — Shells of Adult Zygobrauchs. 
A, BeUerophon (Cambrian) ; B, Pleurotomaria {Silurian onwards). 

now ; while there is every indication that torsion took place, as it takes 
place now, during the embryonic or larval, and not the adult, stage. 

Prof. Naef has indeed attempted to trace a homology between the 
apical hole of Fissurella and that of Dentalium, which, if it could be 
sustained, would make the slit a pree-torsional instead of a post-torsional 
modification. He even figures the slit as a feature of the shell before, as 
well as after, torsion in his diagrams of this process. There is of course 
a certain correspondence in the position of these two apertures or slits, 
since both are morphologically median and posterior. But whereas the 
hole in Dentalium is simply a remnant of the original gap between the 
paired mantle-flaps of the larva, that of Fissurella is formed post-torsionally 
at the extremity of a free median outgrowth of the mantle which has no 
representative in Dentalium or the Bivalves. Moreover, in Gastropods the 
slit is at right angles to the main mantle-edge : in those Scaphopods which 
possess a slit as well as a hole, this slit, like the hole itself, is merely a 
gap between the mantle-folds themselves. These differences are quite 
sufficient to distinguish the two holes as examples of simple convergence. 

Having now put before you all the salient facts as to the history and 
function of this Zygobranchiate slit, I need scarcely point out to you how 
admirably these facts serve to disentangle the elements of truth and error 
which Haeckel so confused in his ' Biogenetic Law.' Fissurella has an 
apical hole which develops by fusion of the lips of a transitory marginal 
slit. Emarginula retains a marginal slit throughout life. It is a statement 
of simple fact to say in a general way, and with regard to this character, 
that Fissurella goes through an Emarginula-sta.ge in its development. 
But does it follow that the Emarginula-st&ge of Fissurella represents an 
adult ancestral condition ? On this evidence clearly not, for the adult 
ancestral condition, ex hypothesi, is that of Emarginula itself, and 
Emarginula when definitely adult possesses a long ' slit-band ' which is 
completely lacking in Fissurella. Let us condense the facts of the two 
ontogenies symbolically and assume, as is not improbable, that one haa 
been derived from the other. If this assumption is disputed the case for 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

adult recapitulation naturally falls with it. On the Haeckelian hypothesis 
the inheritance runs like this : — 

Emarginula : Egg — Larva — Adult 

I X (with slit) 

Fissurella : Egg — Larva — Neanic stage — New Adult 

(with slit) (with hole) 

Fissurella is regarded as inheriting all that Emarginula has to give, and 
as then adding a new stage to the series. This differs from the previous 
adult stage, but is built up out of a Neanic stage, which is claimed to 
represent the previous adult. 

But we have seen that the complete adult ancestral stage is not 
inherited : the whole of the post-Neanic ontogeny which includes a ' slit- 
band ' is absent from the ontogeny of Fissurella. We must therefore 
distinguish like from unlike, and represent the two ontogenies differently : 

Emarginula : Egg — Larva — Young Adult — Old Adult 

X -i- (with slit) (with slit-band) 

Fissurella : Egg — Larva — Young Adult — Old Adult 

(with slit) (with hole) 

From this analysis it results, so far as this one particular character 
is concerned, that the ontogeny of Fissurella repeats the ontogeny of 
Emarginula up to the Neanic stage of the latter, but no further, and then 
deviates. There is thus no ' compression ' of the whole adult stage of 
Emarginula into the Neanic stage of Fissurella. It is much the same with 
regard to all other characters, with this qualification, that the point at 
which divergence takes place may be quite different for different organs 
(e.g. character of gills, kidneys, &c.). One ontogeny is derivable from 
another, but when modification is introduced, it is not by the addition 
of a new total ' stage ' at the end of the previous life-history, but by 
interstitial changes, so to say, either in individual organs or in parts of 
organs, and usually in quite early stages of growth and differentiation. 

I have claimed that torsion arose in the free-swimming larval stage of 
Gastropod ancestors, and that by so arising it created the order Gastropoda; 
also that the marginal slit arose in an early post-larval creeping stage 
to meet respiratory difficulties then first encountered as a result of the 
mutation. I now claim that the hole of Fissurella arose by a modification 
of the marginal slit at a stage of development scarcely later than that of 
the slit itself, but at a later period in the phyletic history. By this I mean 
that the immediate adult ancestor of Fissurella was to all intents and 
purposes an Emarginula with marginal slit and long slit-band ; and that 
the slit was transformed into a hole very much as it is transformed to-day 
and at the same stage of the life-history. 

We have an irresistible tendency when considering the evolution of 
living things to look for gradual changes — ' By Nature's gradual processes 
be taught ! ' to requote Wordsworth — , but there is no getting over the fact 
that the conversion of a slit into a hole sooner or later involves an act of 
discontinuity, — a mutation. At the critical period in the evolutional 
process one generation had a migrating slit, and the next generation, or 
some individuals in it, changed the slit into a permanent hole. Now in an 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 97 

organism provided with a free mantle wliicli goes on growing through life, 
and preserves a slit margin as long as it grows, the mutation to form a 
hole must be justthe same in later as in earlier stages of the migration, 
and no greater if it occurs at the beginning than if it occurs at the end. 
We never can be present throughout an act of evolution, for the simple 
reason that, until countless generations have passed, the mutation is an 
individual peculiarity, or a local variety, or something not yet sufl&ciently 
widespread to ensure our recognition of its significance. Nature's ' gradual 
processes ' of evolution lie not so much in the absence of mutation as in 
the spreading of a mutation through the community. The nearest approach 
to witnessing such a process in our time has been the observation by 
entomologists of the spreading of melanism in moths. 

In this address I have sought to keep morphological facts clearly 
distinguishable from interpretations, but I have also attempted to show 
that morphological facts require bionomical facts to elucidate their 
significance. On purely morphological grounds I attempted to show that 
we are under no intellectual necessity of concluding that everything new 
must arise late in the life-history, and the development of Fissurella shows 
us that to-day at any rate the marginal slit is converted into a hole at 
the very outset of the adult life. I am well aware of the fact that there 
are many other stable conditions of Zygobrancliiate holes, and that in 
Rimula, for example, the hole, instead of being apical, is halfway between 
the apex and the margin. It therefore furnishes to superficial appearances 
a halfway house between Emarginula and Fissurella, and renders it 
perfectly possible, some would say probable, that the immediate ancestor 
of Fissurella was a Rimula, with a short slit-band, and not Emarginula 
with a long one. I submit that the existence of Rimula makes no difference 
to the problem of recapitulatory development as evidenced by Fissurella. 
There is a stage in the development of Fissurella when its hole is also in 
the middle, and it is commonly claimed that Fissurella on that account 
goes through a Rimula stage after its Emarginula stage. But it is equally 
true of Rimula as of Emarginula, that it possesses something which 
Fissurella at the corresponding stage does not possess, viz. a ' slit-band,' 
BO that any representation of the definitely adult stage of Rimula is absent 
from the life-history of Fissurella as completely as is that of Emarginula 
itself. All that these three genera possess in common is a short transitory 
post-larval stage with a slit and no band, and it is at this stage that the 
slit is converted into a hole in Fissurella. 

Under heredity we cover a multitude of things, and it seems to become 
increasingly clear that half the things which constantly occur in a given 
ontogeny, i.e. half the links in the necessitarian chain, are not pre- 
determined by intrinsic structure so much as dependent on the operation 
of influences from surrounding or adjacent parts of the developing organism. 
At an earlier stage I suggested that the marginal slit itself may have been 
determined originally— and, I now add, may still be determined— by the 
pouring out of a horizontal stream of deoxygenatcd and poisonous water 
against the growing mantle-edge. Suppose now that in the series of 
generations between Emarginula and Fissurella the changing conformation 
of the body, associated with perpetual downgrowth of the mantle-edge 
and elevation of the visceral cone, should have gradually involved a 



1928 



98 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

relative upward movement in tlie direction of the exhalant stream. Here 
without a doubt Rimula may find its real significance as a connecting link. 
The stream is horizontal in Emarginula, oblique in Rimula, vertical in 
Fissurella. The stream would then continue to play upon one point only, 
in Rimula halfway down the old slit-band, in Fissurella at its earliest base. 
So playing, it would keep the slit open at the same spot throughout and 
continue to discharge through the same gap. But the mantle, going on 
with its general growth, would soon prolong the edges of the slit beyond 
the range of any inhibiting influence from the cloacal stream. The edges 
would necessarily meet below it, and would there tend to resume their 
interrupted continxiity. The mutation I have spoken of would thereby 
be accomplished, and its adaptive character would need no separate 
explanation : adaptation itself would have made the hole, and would 
have simultaneously ceased to make a migratory slit. 

There is an old German proverb which needs to be hung over the 
mantelpiece of those of us who have a bent for speculation : Behaupten ist 
nicht beweisen. Nevertheless, if art is long, science is much longer, and 
of all sciences Zoology makes the greatest drafts on time for securing 
synthetic results. By ourselves in this field we can do nothing. We must 
critically assimilate the work of our jiredecessors and co-operate whole- 
heartedly with our colleagues, or v.e plough the sands. I trust that I have 
not misused the presidential opportunity and privilege by this mingled 
play of criticism and suggestion, and that it may help to clarify some of 
our evolutional problems. Even if every conclusion it expresses should 
turn out to be untenable, there are times when it is useful to throw the 
windows of the mind wide open. 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY IN MODERN 

EDUCATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. JOHN L. MYRES, O.B.E., F.B.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



When the Geographical Association met at Oxford last spring it was 
welcomed, by one who knows the University well and has served it long, 
with a retrospect of geographical studies there, of which the theme was 
this : that geography, though in its modern guise it ranked among those 
' new subjects ' which an ancient institution was expected to tolerate, if 
not to embrace, was nevertheless of old standing there, and good repute ; 
and that, while other branches of nineteenth-century science had estab- 
lished themselves in almost aggressive self-sufficiency, as additions — some 
might say accretions — to academic structure, geography had expressed 
itself rather in a modification of the whole point of view from which 
traditional studies were surveyed, and on which humanistic education was 
based. 

Without any disparagement of the systematic training offered to 
those who desire it by the Oxford School of Geography, or of the con- 
spicuous services of its first two directors. Sir Halford Mackinder and the 
late Dr. Herbertson, to geographical teaching in general, it may be claimed, 
I think, that this estimate of the place won for geography in a great 
university is of more than local significance. In the British Association 
(we do well to remember) geography, though not quite one of our original 
sections (as was the history of science), shared Section C with geology 
from 1835 to 1851 ; it was a great geologist. Sir Roderick Murchison, who 
advocatec^ a separate geographical section, and became the first president 
of Section E ; and it was in the friendly shelter of Section E that 
anthropological studies took shape in the next generation, till they 
matured into Section H in 1884. And such co-partnership is in accord 
with the profession of geographers themselves, that their subject is the 
coherent application of the methods and conclusions of other sciences, 
within regional limits, and- — to be quite precise — within certain chrono- 
logical boundaries also. 

It is this claim for geography that it co-ordinates regionally the results 
and conclusions of other sciences in respect to the natural phenomena of 
each and every region, and that, including as it must Man's activities 
among the factors with which it is concerned, it stands in a peculiarly 
intimate relation with history, that brings it under the special notice of 
the art and applied science of education, but at the same time has made 
it so difficult in practice to assign to geographers their proper place and 



H 



100 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

function in educational schemes. And having had now about a genera- 
tion's experience of some aspects of this problem, I am about to submit 
some reflections and a few proposals in regard to those aspects of geo- 
graphical research, and applications of them to educational uses, with 
which I have been personally concerned. They are not those which have 
hitherto received the widest attention, and to some people they may not 
seem of the widest utility or significance. But for this very reason, if I 
succeed in making good any suggestions in this special department, they 
may serve a fortiori to commend more liberal recognition of other geo- 
graphical studies, of which the value and utility are admitted by common 
consent outside the syllabus and the time-table. 

The ' Nest Phase ' in Geographical Teaching. 

We begin to hear rumours about the ' Next Phase in Education,' and 
my colleague in Section L will no doubt tell us just what that means. 
Now whatever else it means — and involves, when it comes to pass — it is 
at all events an occasion for revising old estimates of what is practicable, 
in the light of new notions of what is desired, with the help of immemorial 
ideas of what is desirable because essential to citizenship. And as the 
' Next Phase in Education ' means at all events this — to quote ' Circular 
1397 ' of the Board of Education — that schools are to be reorganised 
' to secure for all pupils a break at eleven, and a fresh start at that age 
on a definitely new stage in education,' it is clearly urgent that those who 
have views as to what geographical training that ' new stage in education ' 
shall offer should express them without delay. 

A generation ago — and perhaps even less — the establishment of a 
' break at eleven ' for all pupils would have meant serious risk that in the 
' new stage ' little would be taught except subjects of obvious and 
immediate utility : — ' science and art ' subjects certainly ; stenography 
probably, but as a ' practical ' alternative to music, or by way of ' physical 
drill ' for the fingers ; modern languages, perhaps, but treated linguistically 
and conversationally, as vehicles of information or ' orders ' rather than 
ideas. That risk is still real ; but I think it is less insistent than it was, 
mainly because the facilities already offered for a high type of secondary 
education to children from all kinds of homes, and still more for retrieving 
omissions through adult classes, and (may we not add ? ) the humanising 
devices of wireless transmission and mechanical record, for disseminating 
first-rate and first-hand guidance and stimulus to lonely souls, and mere 
parents, have gone far to break down obstacles and remove misconceptions 
as to the methods, objects and significance of relatively advanced studies. 
And this is a change of outlook which has conspicuously affected those 
subjects and aspects of education which suffered most severely in the 
past from defective exposition — from ' the second-rate at second-hand,' as 
an Oxford satirist of ' extension ' put it. 

It is, if I am rightly informed, to be one of the principles of the ' Next 
Phase in Education ' that from the age of eleven onwards the programme 
of studies shall be progressively differentiated in accordance with the 
faculties and proficiency of individual pupils. This on the one hand 
should mean that for those whose natural bent is towards handicraft 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 101 

there shall be more liberal recognition of the dignity and potential excellence 
of craftsmanship, with all that is implied in the adaptation of what used 
to be called the ' liberal arts ' to widen appreciation and deepen sensibility 
in the craftsman-to-be, by familiarity with the masterpieces of his own 
and kindred crafts. That the advent of the ' Next Phase ' should have been 
signalled by the establishment of a Koyal Commission on National Museums 
is of good omen in this respect, for there is much room for correlation of 
studies and differentiation of teaching practice here. On the other hand 
we may hope for, and claim, greater freedom of treatment for literary, 
historical and scientific studies alike ; opportunity for fresh combinations 
and closer interlock between related subjects ; less formal class-work 
and mass-distribution of knowledge, but more team-work and ' mutual 
improvement ' (to revive a gracious memory) among the students them- 
selves ; less observance of time-table and syllabus, wider range and more 
spontaneous choice of individual reading. In geography let us hope for 
greater familiarity with the writings of the great travellers, less dependence 
on textbook pemmican. As Mrs. Beeton says of another kind of chicken 
broth, ' the best fresh meat only should be used.' And as main cause 
and (in turn) inevitable effect of all this, let us insist on sincere relaxation 
of the tyranny of external examiners and deliberate confidence in the 
considered estimate of the teacher, as to the results of all this on the 
child. 

In the years before eleven, too, may we hope for changes which in 
fact, if not in name, may do something to obliterate the divergence between 
what have hitherto been only too truly contrasted as ' elementary ' and 
' preparatory ' kinds of education. And herein the mere geographer will, 
I think, demand two things : first, in ' preparatory ' schools, hitherto 
so-called, such recognition of the ' preparatory ' value of geography as 
has already been accorded in many of the best ' elementary ' schools ; in 
particular, correlation between a coherent programme of geographical 
teaching and those literary and historical studies which have in the past 
been one of the best features of ' preparatory ' schools, though at some 
cost to the preparation of their scholars for transference to any but the 
conventional ' public schools.' Secondly, in ' elementary ' schools, which 
will now be indeed ' preparatory ' to the ' new stage of education,' may 
we not ask for careful reapportionment of the principal groups of studies 
and aspects of learning ; elimination of technical elements and wage- 
winning considerations altogether ; and concentration on the rather small 
number of really ' primary ' studies, with the maximum of interplay 
between them all ? For it is at this stage that we have most chance of 
accustoming a child to ' see life whole ' as well as ' steadily ' ; and the 
fewer the compartments into which it is found necessary to disintegrate 
education, the greater the security that nothing really important has 
failed to fall into some one of them. 

Now somewhere within those principal groups of studies which make 
up the programme of education, geography — and ancient geography in 
particular — has its reasonable place ; and the question to which I am 
trying to frame an answer is as to the principles on which that just place 
is to be assigned, and in what working association with other subjects. 
If I digress at this stage into what will seem to some to be platitude, and 



102 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to others rather remote speculation, my reason is that, as long as such 
differences of opinion about it are possible, the subject is not exhausted, 
perhaps not even defined ; though I have no expectation of doing more 
than to make my own point of view intelligible. 

The Place of Geography among Aspects of Learning. 

Geography, as its name indicates, is the systematic description of this 
earth of ours. But description is not an end in itself. The end, to which 
it is the means, is a science of the earth, an understanding and interpreta- 
tion of its meaning. Like all other departments of science, it presumes 
two things : an intelligence to which this significance is interpreted, 
and what I will only describe now as intelligibility of the facts of observa- 
tion in relation with each other. In geographical science the relation of 
these facts with each other is their relation in space ; the geographer 
ascertains, records, compares and interprets distributions, the arrange- 
ment of things on or in relation to the surface of the earth. Geography, 
that is to say, asks two questions in respect of each geographical fact : 
where is it observed? and why just there? 

Obviously, in this general sense, geography is the coequal sister- 
science of history, which studies and interprets the relations of events in 
time. History originally meant (as its name also indicates) the process 
of following or tracking something which has gone before, and left trace 
or trail ; and is applied, like the name geography, to the recorded result 
of such ' following-up.' Like geography, it begins with description and 
proceeds to interpret. But whereas the geographer's observations are 
for the most part verifiable at will— for he can go back to a place and see 
it again — ^the historian is always to this extent behind the times, that he 
can never catch up historical events at all, still less can he have them 
repeated, however closely the new devices of phonograph and photograph 
may simulate such repetition. It is a notable accident of speech that 
' history ' should thus disclaim what ' geography ' achieves, namely, 
direct transcription of the facts which it studies. History is always 
looking for something that is no longer there ; geography has the earth 
ever present, in all its ' young significance.' 

But the philosopher is aware — and the geologist and the meteorologist 
confirm him — that ' you cannot cross the same river twice.' Every 
relation between objects in space is bound up with a relation between 
events in time. Consequently every geographical fact has its historical 
aspect, and every historical fact its geographical aspect. What we group 
together as the ' historical ' sciences, from the most specialised histories 
of human achievements — mathematics or music or morals — ^to the most 
general study of sequences among events — in astronomy or geology — are 
inevitably also ' distributional ' sciences, because all the facts and events 
which they study happen somewhere as well as somewhen. 

All human history, then, is' regional history, and loses value and 
meaning when its geographical aspect is overlooked ; all geography, on 
the other hand, and (most obviously) all human geography, depends 
for its significance on the consideration that it is contemplating, not 
facts only, but events with causes and effects ; processes, of which our 



I 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 103 

map-distributions are momentary cross-sections, needing to be recombined, 
like the microtome-layers of the anatomist or the successive snapshots of 
a film, if their significance is to be recovered as phases of an event. 
Thus we speak of the historical duration of a glacier as an obstacle to 
traffic over a mountain pass ; and of the geographical distribution of 
Greek city states or Parliamentary institutions. 

It was indeed this coalescence of geographical and historical outlook 
and method, late in the eighteenth century, which made possible to 
von Humboldt and Ritter our modern geography, the study of the distribu- 
tion and interrelation of terrestrial processes ; and reacted, through 
Lyell, Darwin, Lubbock and Pitt-Rivers — to give only British names — 
on the humanities, by supplying a method of geographical analysis for 
what are popularly called historical situations. 

No one, I hope, will have been led by any part of this argument to 
suppose any intention to ignore those other aspects of science — of intelli- 
gence exercised on the intelligible around us — which are concerned neither 
with relations in space nor with relations in time, but ultimately and 
sometimes quite obviously with quantities and qualities ; all those 
observations which go to make up the Physical Sciences ; and all con- 
clusions and results of the kind which Aristotle was illustrating when he 
said that ' fire burns here as in Persia '—and he might well have added 
that ' fire burns now as it burned Persepolis or Troy.' In respect to all 
those expressions of hoiv things happen, or Jiow they are composed, the 
historical and distributional sciences stand in the relation of applied 
sciences to the ' pure sciences ' of physics, chemistry and physiology : 
accepting and employing their conceptions and interpretations, like their 
vocabulary and notation, as a gunner employs range-finder and explosive 
to solve his regional problem of making this projectile here hit that target 
over there. This intellectual outlook is quite consistent with the possi- 
bility that any occasion of gunnery may suggest fresh problems to the 
physicist or the chemist, or offer them significant data ; and may even 
do so by reason of local and temporal conditions. It was a sound instinct, 
as well as wholesome criticism of somebody's educational technique, that 
made the schoolboy bring into class a lump of wayside chalk and beg that 
by the method demonstrated yesterday carbon dioxide might now be 
made out of this. 

Similarly, those aspects of science which are concerned with the 
estimation and interpretation of values — with relations, that is, as 
irreducible to quantitative expression as they are to conjunctions of 
region or period, and wherein the notion even of quality parts company 
almost at the outset from anything that has significance for a chemist — 
have nevertheless ultimately this point of contact with geographical and 
historical science, that all the values with which they are concerned are 
values-to-man, and consequently are, as phenomena, characteristic of — 
perhaps even peculiar to — terrestrial life, and to a relatively recent phase 
of it. Indeed, when we speak of these sciences as the Humanities, we 
mark their distributional and historical limitations, even while we 
recognise their high rank among aspects of knowledge and their supreme 
significance to ourselves. 

Now of these three main groups of studies : the Human Sciences and 



104 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the Natural Sciences, in the stricter sense, are alike systematic, and conse- 
quently collateral studies, only touching each other at their margins. 
The remaining group, on the other hand, both in its historical and in its 
distributional aspect, derives its content and its data from any or all of 
the systematic sciences. There is a historical aspect of botanical study, 
for example, the palaeo-botany of fossil plants, linked with the field botany 
and plant physiology of to-day by survivals of archaic forms of plant 
life ; and there is a geographical aspect, the study of plant distributions, 
with its intimate bearing on questions of descent and affinity, and its 
corollary, cecology, which I take to be the special study of co-distributions. 

Similarly, there is a historical aspect of ethics, and aesthetics, and no 
less a geographical aspect, brought latterly to some notoriety by current 
controversies about the ' diffusion ' of ideas, as well as of techniques, 
the latter being but the expression of ideas in the solid, in artefact instead 
of behaviour. 

And throughout these distributional aspects and treatments of the 
data of systematic sciences, both historical and regional considerations 
are ever present, ubiquitous, inextricable from each other. At most we 
may recognise by an obvious paradox that the geographer is concerned 
with distributions which are relatively stable in point of time — land forms, 
vegetation types, lines of communication — and the historian with sequences 
which are relatively stable regionally — the doings of this or that body of 
people more or less permanently sedentary within a- particular complex 
of geographical conditions. The geographer, that is to say, leaves the 
larger history of his land-forms to the historical geologist, of his vegetation 
to the historical botanist, of his lines of communication to the archseologist, 
for demonstration in detail ; and devotes himself to the diverse regional 
combinations which result from their respective distributions, which are 
all inore or less world-wide. The historian similarly leaves the larger 
distribution of these same factors to the student of their world-wide 
occurrences, and concentrates his attention on the sequence of events in 
the ' region ' where those are relatively unchanged in time, and consequently 
compose the permanent regional stage on which the processes of history 
occur. 

But it follows from this, that, in the same way as the geographer fails 
of his duty if he overlooks the fact that, from mountains and the tides to 
town-planning and aviation, he is in fact dealing with distributions which 
are changing, though their rates of change vary almost infinitely, so the 
historian fails to appreciate the significance of historical events if he 
ignores those historically permanent limitations within which all human 
revolutions occur, and to which the most stable of human institutions 
owe nearly all the stability they have. 

To take an elementary instance. Man, it has been truly said, ' does 
not live by bread alone.' Where the lagoons of Ostia and the Via Solaria 
stood in the primitive economy of the city of Rome and in its relations 
with its inland neighbours, and the salt-mines of Hallstatt in the com- 
mercial and cultural relations of the Danubian cultures, there stood 
Alexandria's command of the salt-works in Ptolemaic Egypt, the long 
significance of Palmyra in the history of the Nearer East, and the gabelle 
in the rise and fall of a national monarchy in France ; and it is without 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 105 

surprise that a geographer reads in the newspapers that one of the first 
public acts of the new Nationalist Government in China is to arrange with 
the ' foreign devils ' for the supply of the same ill-distributed but indis- 
pensable element in the daily food of its subjects. After five years of 
anarchy the salt supply must have run rather low. 

That this kind of correlation between historical and geographical 
studies is more widely valued and practised than formerly is shown by 
the large current output of what are generally described as Outlines of 
History or Histories of Civilisation. Of this whole class the characteristics 
are three. The first is the very wide range with which these books attempt 
to deal, in respect both of area and of period. If they do not always 
* survey mankind from China to Peru,' they frequently begin with the 
Ice Age and end with the Great War. They deal, that is, with what 
Mr. Wells elsewhere describes as Mankind in the Making and Mr. Marvin 
as the Living Past or the Unity of Civilisation. Secondly, they are con- 
cerned mainly with social, economic and cultural achievements, originating 
among, and generally affecting, the population of this or that natural 
region as a whole ; and to keep the broad lines of this presentation clear 
they pass over much detail the chronological interest of which made it 
attractive to those earlier historians whose monuments are the eighteenth- 
century Art de verifier les Dates and Clinton's Fasti Hellenici. Thirdly, 
they relegate biographical material to biographies, and the details of 
political history to the special large-scale histories of particular states and 
periods. The focus of human interest has shifted from individuals to 
populations. If they have one defect in common, it is that they not only 
forswear hero-worship, but obliterate leadership as a historical factor. 

Precept and Example : ' Historical and Geographical Instances.' 

I set out to speak about ancient geography in modern education ; 
and if I seem to have spoken about almost anything else hitherto, it is 
with the object of presenting certain considerations in regard to modern 
education, and also to ancient geography, which seem to me fundamental, 
and also so obvious that if I carry general agreement in regard to them, 
what I really wish to submit follows as an easy conclusion. 

We boast, and rightly, that we try to make education practical and 
useful ; that it is a means to an end ; and that its end is the establishment 
of successors to ourselves at least as intelligent, efficient, responsible — 
free, in the old Greek sense of freedom (eleutheria) as ' grown-up-ness ' — 
as we are ourselves ; and, as we severally hope, a great deal more intelligent, 
efficient, responsible and free, than most of our own fellow-citizens. With 
this end in view we expose the pupil-that-is and the citizen-that-is-to-be 
to a graduated sequence of experiences and occasions, selected to give 
appropriate opportunities for that exercise of his natural abilities, that 
almost continuous process of reasonable response to his surroundings, 
which we call life ; which (short of criminal oppression) we cannot prevent 
the growing child from exercising, but which by neglect or mistake or 
mere muddle, which is bred of both, can be, so easily, exercised carelessly, 
perversely, irresponsibly, with results familiar to us all. 

Now those selected sequences of occasions and experiences, which we 



106 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

call educational courses, are of three clearly defined sorts, corresponding 
with the three principal groups of sciences and aspects of all knowledge 
with which I began. If I take them now in reverse order it is because 
I shall only come down to detailed criticisms and proposals in dealing 
with sciences historical and distributional. 

In the first place, then, we train the citizen-to-be in citizenship, which 
I take to be the modern technical term for what a Roman called civilitas, 
and some pioneers of our own Renaissance and Reformation called conse- 
quently civility. For a Roman, a man was civis when he was what in 
Irish cottages is called ' biddable,' apt to ' take notice ' — as advertisements 
to trespassers say — of the fact that he has neighbours like himself, with 
reasonable desires, habits, conveniences, like his own ; and that, in brief, 
a man gets most out of life as he puts most into it, in his doings among 
such neighbours. A man who has the qualities, outlook and will of a 
civis is described as civilis, and also as liber — a more difficult word, probably 
related to the Greek word for ' grown-up-ness ' already mentioned ; so 
that civilitas and libertas were aspects of the same quality of ' citizenship.' 
To propagate these qualities was to ' civilise ' ; and from their exercise 
resulted — and results — ' civilisation.' To elicit them among the spon- 
taneous impulses, efforts, aspirations of younglings who, being bred of 
' civil ' stock, have presumably the root of the matter in them, is the 
primary task of education ; to confront them with elementary social 
facts, in nursery and kindergarten ; to give occasions for estimating values, 
duties and rights, for dealing with situations and problems in which 
they necessarily comport themselves as ' members of a realm of ends,' 
as citizens in a city which grows with their growth. 

What the statutes and bylaws, so to speak, of that adolescent com- 
munity are to be depends, as we know, only partly on political and moral 
principles, and far more largely on custom. But as custom is of necessity 
both regional and temporal, it is to historical and geographical considera- 
tions that we recur when we are challenged to explain our own code, or 
to excuse those inconsistencies in it which are naturally more obvious to 
novices and newcomers from the ' next generation ' than to old-stagers 
and ' men of the world ' like ourselves. For these purposes we have 
recourse to records and traditions, reinforcing or mitigating precept by 
historical illustration ; appealing from abstract to concrete, from morality 
to hero-worship, as ancient teachers have done before us, in parable or 
tragic drama. Of history it is notoriously the besetting sin to moralise 
and become didactic ; and against this tendency it is worth while to 
consider any reasonable precaution. 

Secondly, we have to present analytically the principal factors in the 
processes which make up the pageant of external nature and the methods 
by which they are detected, measured, controlled, and applied to human 
ends. Here, as we have already seen, questions of distribution cannot 
arise : ' fire burns here as in Persia.' But from the moment when pure 
science passes over into any kind of practical application, considerations 
of place and time reappear ; for in wild Nature all processes and all 
material resources are regional ; and it is fundamental in human inter- 
ference with the order of Nature that it displaces things and disarranges 
that order. All agriculture is displacement and replacement of natural 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 107 

vegetation — we remember the cynic's definition of weeds as ' God's plants 
growing where man doesn't want them '— ; all engineering, displacement 
and replacement of the solid earth or its ingredients ; all commerce, 
redistribution of natural resources or our rehandlings of them. At every 
stage, and more insistently and obviously in each higher stage, we are 
called upon to ' think geographically ' ; and most of all when we come 
to the consideration of man's dealings with his finest tool and worst 
obstacle, his fellow-men. To take an instance from current political 
discussion : what do we mean by a ' congested district,' and how do we 
propose to deal with the population of a coalfield where there is no more 
coal ? It is a question, once again, of redistribution, and it arises from 
a fact of redistribution in the past ; for the coal has gone somewhere. 

Thirdly, then, it is our business to train inborn faculties of observation 
and inference to make their own analysis of actual regional circumstances, 
and to present these as the momentary current phase of many interacting 
processes, such as the special sciences are concerned to interpret severally, 
under the limitations of the relatively stable structure of the given portion 
of the earth's surface to which the citizen-to-be has access now ; and 
maybe he will never have the chance to deal with any other. Modern 
geography accordingly adopts increasingly, and almost inevitably, this 
regional method of study and exposition as being at the same time the 
most efficient and the most economical in point of time. It is a method 
which presents close analogies with the use of ' set books ' in the teaching 
of languages. There a brief analytical study of the elements of grammar 
leads directly to the exploration— for to the pupil it is nothing less— of 
the ' fine confused feeding ' of grammatical constructions as they flowed 
from the pen of Ceesar or Xenophon. In the teaching of history it is the 
same. The general equipment of needs, motives and aspirations which 
actuate ordinary people is presumed to be familiar, and a beginning is 
made at once on episodes and periods which exhibit such people working 
out their life-history among the resources and restrictions of a homeland, 
which is in the first instance that of the pupils themselves. 

Ancient Geography of the Homeland. 

Yet even at that elementary stage in which the common aim of all 
concurrent ' courses ' of instruction is to make the child familiar with 
the leading features of the ' homeland,' historical retrospect comes to 
play a part of ever-increasing importance ; if only because in our time 
those very features are being profoundly modified. Artificial, and for 
the most part urban or suburban conditions, are rapidly encroaching on 
what was recently rural. Habitual access to unspoiled countryside, and 
familiarity with country life, become more precarious and diflicult, and 
most of all for small children. Yet what we call ' unspoiled countryside ' 
in most parts of this island is itself in great measure artificial ; the result 
not so much of the centuries of almost unimproved farming, as of those 
two past crises — as revolutionary in their effects on the ' countryside ' as 
anything that followed until the last hundred years— the Saxon Conquest 
with its intense exploitation of the forested lowlands ; and, before that, 
the coming of any kind of agriculture at all, restricted though this earlier 



108 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

exploitation was to the drier, and for tlie most part therefore to the higher- 
lying, districts, oases and natural clearings in the dense overgrowth which 
is now so hard to reconstruct even in a trained imagination. Fortunately 
in our timbered hedgerows, at all events, the principal elements of that 
ancient regime remain accessible to many of us, and English taste in the 
treatment of urban open spaces — for example in the London parks and 
squares — makes this feature in ancient landscape more familiar still. 
Characteristic data, that is, are still available for the reconstruction of 
that ' unspoiled countryside ' for each principal period of national history, 
without which the familiar episodes of King Alfred at Athelney, Hereward 
in the Isle of Ely, the parkland fates of King Edmund and William Rufus 
lose much of their historic value, because they are bereft of their geo- 
graphical setting. 

In many parts of the country, I am gladly aware, I should be preaching 
to the converted if I were to elaborate this kind of correlation between 
ancient geographical conditions and ancient life. Whether the geographer 
or the historian takes the initiative in each instance seems to me to be 
matter of indifference, provided first that the other colleague responds ; 
and provided also that initiative, response and collaboration occur as 
publicly, frankly and naturally as educational good manners allow. Few 
things are so stimulating to a class or a whole schoolful of pupils as to 
realise that the staff too is a team ; that the divisions between aspects 
of knowledge are as arbitrary and artificial as the segregation of children 
into classes ; that learning permeates wherever there is an observant eye 
or an attentive ear ; that information sought and found sinks deepest 
and lasts longest. 

If, then, it be our main object in teaching our national history in our 
schools, to bring up citizens-to-be with some appreciation of historical 
perspective, we cannot forgo that alternative line of approach which 
inquires what the homeland was, before it was made homelike as we 
know it, and what its part has been in shaping the careers and the outlook 
of our people in the past. This, in its simplest illustration, is what I mean 
by the function of ancient geography in modern education ; and it will 
be seen that there is no phase of instruction so ' primary ' or so ' advanced ' 
that it can be regarded as superfluous or inopportune. 

But it would be a very imperfect preparation for citizenship which 
included the history of British people only ; for the appreciation of 
our own literature, or for the right enjoyment of leisure — as Greek 
educators called it — if the mental horizon so lay as to reveal no drama 
before Shakespeare, no epic before Milton, no history before Froissart or 
Clarendon. Great as our national literature is, it owes much of its 
greatness and originality to the fact that it has been so apt to learn ; that 
it has taken into its own texture so much of the best from other great 
literatures, from Israel, from Greece and Rome. With our history it is 
the same. It stands embraced by the history of Europe, and sustained 
on the history of the Mediterranean world and the Nearer East. We 
cannot afford to read it or to teach it by itself. It presumes for its 
interpretation that the world is wider than these islands and older than 
modern history. If we would see life truly we must needs see it 
whole. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 109 

Ancient Geography in 'Classical Studies.' 

Now it happens that these two cultures, each with its characteristic 
ideal of what man's life may come to be, represent supreme achievements 
of humanity within natural regions and regimes strongly contrasted both 
with each other and with those of the British homeland. Greek life and 
all its legacy to us are man's solution of the problem not merely of main- 
taining life under Mediterranean conditions, but of realising to the full 
what life under those conditions might become. We are only beginning 
to know, through the discoveries of Huntington, Antevs, Pettersson, and 
Brooks, among others, how exceptional was the conjunction of physical 
circumstances which made the Mediterranean region itself, and in 
particular the Greek cradlelands round the ^gean Archipelago, unusually 
favourable ground for such an adventure ; and how essential it is to re- 
construct, from all available sources of evidence, that picture of a region 
not only almost unspoiled as yet by man's enterprises, but temporarily 
competent to repair his ravages and postpone his worst derangements of 
its natural regime. Conversely, as our knowledge of the later symptoms 
of decline and disorganisation grows, as we see it pictured in Rostovtseff's 
Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, the fact of a general 
hardening of the physical conditions — for which there appears to be 
sufficient evidence, and full corroboration from the course of events in 
North- Western Europe — goes far to explain the perplexing way in which 
well-considered remedies failed of their effect, and sometimes even 
aggravated that ' distress of nations with perplexity ' which was 
imminent already in the last century of the Roman Republic. Both in 
its adolescence and in its old age — if we may recur to phrases which no 
one here will mistake for arguments— the Greek view of life, and the 
Roman too, which was so profoundly influenced by it, are revealed, as 
we come to know the circumstances, as the philosophy of a glorious adven- 
ture, of experiment in a new phase of exploitation, of co-operation for 
fresh social and political ends, of adjustment of inherited technique and 
behaviour to unexplored conditions and occasions. If ever man conquered 
Nature by stooping to reasoned conformity with Nature's restrictions, it 
was here ; if ever invention was the child of necessity, it was in the strict 
school of Mediterranean and, above all, of ^Egean environment. 

This environment, however, happens to be one which illustrates with 
exceptional facility that interaction of geographical factors which makes 
all natural regions what they are. Partly no doubt for that reason, but 
mainly on account of the special interest and importance of its human 
geography, the Mediterranean region has been long and carefully studied ; 
and is, I think, recognised by many teachers of geography as one of the 
most valuable for analytical study. Further, at almost all periods of 
history subsequent to the ' classical age ' the Mediterranean has had 
considerable historical significance ; and this significance has varied 
widely enough, through the changing relations between the region itself 
and its neighbours, to make the comparative study of its economic and 
political vicissitudes exceptionally instructive. Most important of all, 
though physical conditions have not apparently been quite uniform 
throughout, they do not seem to have ever varied sufficiently to modify 



110 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the fundamental economic relations between man and natural resources, 
or those elementary social units by which the food-quest and other essential 
activities have been carried on. A modern Cretan village is amazingly 
like its Minoan predecessor, at all points where we can compare their 
arrangements and economy. In secluded districts Greek city states have 
preserved their corporate life, and even their constitutional structure, 
from classical to modern times, and more of those communities have 
been first remodelled since their release from Turkish rule than were 
disorganised by Turkish conquest. 

There is therefore, I think, good reason to urge that at whatever 
stage the history of the ' classical ' civilisation is included in the programme 
of education, the regional geography of the Mediterranean basin should 
be its customary counterpart, and that the two courses should be carried 
on with habitual cross-reference to each other. And conversely, when 
the proper moment comes for the study of the Mediterranean basin 
geographically, the history-course should be planned so as to supplement 
it in respect of the more significant achievements of Mediterranean 
peoples, and also to illustrate — what can nowhere else be attempted over 
so long a range of time — those effects of long-continued human occupancy 
which have disfigured some Mediterranean lands beyond repair and 
paralysed the later periods of their history. 

Ancient Geography in ' Simple Bible Teaching.' 
For the earlier periods of history, and for that other great factor of 
our own civilisation which is our inheritance from the Ancient East, the 
difficulties of correlation, which at first sight might appear greater, are in 
fact insignificant. For here we have ready to hand a great textbook 
already in compulsory use ; at the same time great literature and great 
history ; a great classic of Oriental life and its surroundings, and a master- 
piece of English prose ; the historical books of the Hebrew people, in our 
own Authorised Version. With this example before us of what is not 
only practicable but prescribed irresistibly by public opinion as a funda- 
mental element in public education, and with the knowledge we have of 
the profound influence which, in this shape, ancient geography, ancient 
history, and ancient literature alike have had in the formation of our 
national outlook, can anyone fairly say either that ancient geography, 
so conceived and illustrated as the regional aspect of great historical 
events, is without direct utilitarian value in modern life, or that there is 
no room for it in the curriculum of our schools ? 

We all know very well that the Old Testament is sometimes taught more 
as if it were a collection of parables or allegories than as geography, or 
history, or even literature ; but I venture to suggest that it is in proportion 
as we teach it as geography, as well as history and literature, that its value 
as parable or allegory will be most surely appreciated. The more 
impartially and objectively we bring to Hebrew history and literature the 
geographical commentary and illustration which we devote as a matter 
of course to the records of other Great Peoples, the more thoroughly we 
accustom ourselves and our pupils to treat these texts as a current source 
for incidents and illustrations of certain phases of human adventure, the 
more conspicuously do their remarkable qualities, both as history and 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. Ill 

as literature, emerge ; the more surely their contents take their proper 
place, not as legends of an unearthly wonderland, but as contemporary 
record of a peculiar people, confronted, in a region no less remarkable, 
with the most momentous crisis that can befall any people, at a crucial 
period in the growth of the civilisation which is our own. 

If anyone should object that this kind of study is not easy, and propose 
to postpone it until (to borrow a familiar phrase) ' he shall be certified 
that the child shall well endure it,' I would reply that in some people's 
experience neither the Authorised Version nor the classical literatures of 
Greece and Rome are easy reading. Yet I do not find that admitted 
difficulties and even uncertainties of interpretation, or the fairyland 
remoteness of their setting, prevent people from insisting that all children 
shall be confronted with the one, and all whose parents can pay for it with 
the others as well, at a surprisingly early age, and with the deliberate 
conviction that it is (among other things) just this unfamiliarity which 
makes acquaintance with them so salutary. And the lavish way in which 
popular books on Biblical subjects, and places where Biblical teaching goes 
on, are garnished with pictorial reconstructions of Biblical scenes, suggests 
to the mere geographer that the need for what is now suggested has been 
in some measure anticipated by specialists. 

At first sight — or rather, as it has been commonly presented hitherto — 
the homeland and the history of the Hebrew people offer less obvious 
opportunities for this kind of correlation of historical and geographical 
studies. But in two fundamental aspects that people supplies illustra- 
tions of the same interplay of factors, with characteristic — indeed almost 
unique — results. In Hebrew literature we have what is almost wholly 
missing in the Greek instance, an autobiography of an immigrant people 
during the whole momentous process of acclimatisation to regional condi- 
tions strongly contrasted with those out of which the newcomers came. 
Nomad pastoral tribes, compactly organised in one of the most stable of 
all known types of community, and austerely habituated to do without 
almost all the characteristic resources of the ' good land beyond Jordan,' 
a ' land of corn, wine and oil,' ' flowing with milk and honey,' found itself 
intruded. into a sedentary agricultural regime, ancient, attuned to those 
regional surroundings, already composite, and enriched by habitual 
intercourse with highly civilised neighbours and great centres of industry 
and organised experience. Confronted with such novelties and such 
temptations to ' enter in and possess,' how were such people to behave ? 
The story of their experiences is one of the great dramas of the world ; 
and the record of it, in our Authorised Version, one of the supreme 
achievements of English literature. 

That is one aspect of Hebrew history and geography, its domestic 
aspect, as an internal reconciliation of Folk with Place. The other aspect 
to which I have to draw attention is external : the reaction of acclimatised 
Israel to the forces which were shaping the world-history of its times. 
From no single standpoint is it more illuminating to survey and take stock 
of the great civilisations of the Nearer East than from the miniature 
states which centred in Jerusalem and Samaria ; and the fateful separa- 
tion of these from each other is itself an early symptom of the distractions 
which those giant neighbours caused. 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Here too, as in the Mediterranean lands, there is the less need to give 
illustrations in detail, since the last twenty years have completely 
remodelled our equipment for handling these regions and periods in every 
degree of elementary and more advanced treatment. The main results 
of modern Biblical and Oriental scholarship, of geographical exploration 
in the Nearer East and of excavation on ancient sites, are as nearly 
common property as the production of popular handbooks can make any 
form of scholarship. And, thanks mainly to the value rightly assigned 
to these studies in American education, the literature accessible in English 
is now of as high quality as in any other language. It is no longer 
honest to plead ignorance of German as an excuse for shirking a public 
duty. Further, since our own country has incurred the obligations of 
its mandates for Babylonia and Palestine, in addition to its responsibility 
for the security and well-being of Egypt, we cannot plead that the 
geography of these regions lies outside the scope of political duty, or the 
daily needs of every one of us. We may not want to understand those 
countries or their peoples ; but as things stand, we neglect those studies 
at our peril : and, at least, let us provide for our children. 

There is another reason why the human geography of the Nearer 
East and the Mediterranean region has especial value in education, both 
as a separate study and to illustrate by comparison that of the homeland. 
Though the Western Mediterranean has an exceptionally pleasant climate 
for nearly half the year, and the Eastern for several months, large parts 
of the Near East are less fortunate, and some districts have a regime of 
Continental severity. Resources in soil and minerals are even more 
scantily distributed ; natural communications are difficult by land, the 
Mediterranean sailing season is restricted, and the rarity of perennial streams 
precludes inland navigation such as Central and North-Western Europe 
enjoy : it was as natural marvels that Nile and Euphrates were famous. 
Up to a certain point, and in certain highly specialised directions, cultures 
could and did mature in such regimes. Beyond this point, however, the 
attempt to do more imperilled what was won already : the margin of 
safety was never large, and the greater risks were the least well ascertained. 
External enemies came and went ; fainine, local if not general, was never 
far off. In other words, Man and Nature in these regimes were very closely 
matched. Where Nature was locally more bountiful, as in Egypt, or 
Ionia, or Campania, or when regional conditions were more favourable 
for a while, as seems to have happened in the centuries from about 900 to 
250 B.C., and again from about 900 to 1400 a.d., memorable advances in 
well-being were made and maintained for a while in face of relapse into 
austerity. Each however was achieved, like our own industrialism, at 
a terrible cost in ' wasting ' assets, timber and soil in the ancient world, 
fuel and other minerals in the modern, more hopelessly irreplaceable still. 
Here is a ' lesson of history ' only too likely to be overlooked, if it is 
not reinforced as a geography lessun. 

Present Discontents. 

I am well aware that the correlation which I have proposed will be 
regarded as something of a revolution in the teaching of ' classical 
subjects,' and also that there are historical reasons for the methods 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 113 

actually employed. More than fifteen years ago I had occasion to note 
{Geographical Journal, October 1912, p. 358) that certain omissions in the 
list of work submitted to the research department of the Royal 
Geographical Society ' would probably have been avoided if the study 
of geography in the older universities had been more closely associated 
with the historical -studies which figure so largely there,' and that 'the 
present divorce is probably inevitable so long as the study of historical 
and literary subjects is regulated so closely, as it seems to be, by the 
requirements of the Civil Service examination ; and as long as those 
examinations assign to geography the quite unworthy place to which it 
is restricted now.' Since the year 1912 there has indeed been improve- 
ment in detail, but no serious reconsideration of policy. If I may judge 
from experience both of examinations in history and in geography, and 
of informal conference with teachers and taught, what passes for 
' historical geography ' is still one of the weaker aspects of the geographical 
course, while what has been described as ' geographical history ' is hardly 
attempted at all. Questions, rarely set, are still more rarely answered. 
Every examiner, and most teachers, know quite well what that means. 
What a piece of window-dressing is the familiar rubric that ' sketch-maps 
should be added where possible ' ! "What flights of imagination occur, 
what skeletons emerge from their cupboards, when such sketch-maps are 
' attempted ' ! 

In discussions of elementary training we hear a good deal of the 
co-ordination of brain, eye, and hand. Why is it that as we ascend our 
educational ladder this primary necessity seems to be progressively 
ignored in the study of the humanities ? With every allowance for the 
disciplinary value of games — often so highly ' organised ' that their value 
as play or even as recreation begins to be doubtful, and some of us wonder 
why they are not frankly included in the time-table as ' alternatives ' to 
music, carpentering, and natural history — such lack of manual dexterity 
as I have described is a serious defect of scholarly equipment. It is only 
not realised as such, because the chief employers of the ' finished ' output 
of the humanistic courses in our universities are still themselves so 
inexperienced in graphic methods that many of them would have some 
difficulty in understanding a fully illustrated report on any regional 
topic. Statistics in tabular form have a certain impressiveness, and 
persons of vivid imagination claim the ' gift of tongues ' in interpreting 
them ; but what would happen to a speaker in Parliament who illustrated 
his argument with a map ? 

Yet in every other aspect of learning and advanced study, competent 
use of its special symbols and notation is an elementary prerequisite. A 
Grecian who boggled over and O, a mathematician who misused a 
bracket or misread a decimal point, a chemist who confused Mn and Mg, 
a botanist who failed to draw recognisably the structures composing a 
flower, would, I think, have short shrift. But it is amazing how ill- 
equipped are most students of literary or historical subjects when it is 
a question of describing anything otherwise than in grammatical long- 
hand. It is not merely that they are poor draughtsmen ; it is rather that 
they do not do their thinking about regional matters in such fashion that 
geographical symbols can express it. Rome, Athens, Paris, Vienna, York 
are to them abstractions such as Mn and Mg might be to a bookworm 

1928 I 



114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

who ' read chemistry ' in an encyclopaedia, but never handled a test tube. 
And this raises a doubt whether that appearance, and even parade, of 
accuracy in other parts of their work, in chronology or the technique of 
archive-hunting, necessarily presumes that insight into historical processes 
which it is often supposed to imply. So too, at the other extreme, there 
have been both surveyors and big-game hunters who did not do much 
for geography. Yet, considered merely as a test of those qualities of 
co-ordinated craftsmanship, accurate observation, and clear concise state- 
ment of relevant facts, map-making ranks high. As I have had occasion 
to say elsewhere, ' a finished map is a scientific document, but it is also 
a work of art ; to its scientific value, its completeness and accuracy, it 
adds the value which is given by style, the grace, which in a map, as in 
speech or writing, or any art of expression, is perhaps best rendered by its 
old Latin name of eloqiientia ; for it is the grace of speaking out. A map, 
no less than a despatch or a poem, has to give a message, without parade, 
or digression, or confusion ; in the fewest and most unmistakeable symbols, 
which have the merits, and also the defects, of all symbols, and are good 
servants only in trained and sure hands. And what is true of a map, 
the geographical document in its simplest and most purely geographical 
form, is just as true of other geographical work, which is all a more or 
less explicit commentary on maps, in literary form, or hints for the com- 
parison of maps with one another. All work of this kind is a work of art ; 
the geographer puts scientific material into it ; but he puts something 
of himself into it as well ; it is (as we say) his work ; and we are right, 
I think, in taking into account, as geographers, the form into which 
he casts it, the geographical style which is his.' {Geographical Journal, 
October 1912, p. 363.) 

This is one reason why I have concentrated my advocacy of a more 
liberal acknowledgment of the geographical aspect of all historical 
studies, on the special instance of ancient geography ; for it is in those 
compartments of our educational system where ancient history holds the 
most honoured and responsible place, that indifference to geographical 
considerations has lasted longest and most generally. And so long as a 
numerous and influential class of public servants and legislators is recruited 
from those compartments, so long will the geographical aspect of historical 
study continue to be overlooked, merely because the responsible people 
have had little or no personal experience of it. Even so observant a 
traveller and so scholarly a statesman as Lord Curzon, already President 
of the Eoyal Geographical Society, cut short a discussion of the place 
assigned to geography in the Civil Service examinations with the question 
what there was to complain of in the questions actually set. 

But it is useless to encumber existing programmes of university study 
by the addition of formal geography to the subjects already prescribed. 
To this extent there is reason in an objection still occasionally heard", 
that geography is primarily and properly a school-subject, and that 
university teaching may and should assume adequate knowledge of its 
essentials. That indeed might be all very well if it were the fact that 
adequate geographical study had been tlie birthright, rather than the 
good fortune, of candidates for admission to the university, and if 
universities took the same trouble to require this prerequisite as they do 
with subjects in whose indispensability they really believe. And 



i 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 115 

meanwhile the contradictory objection finds voice, that geography is (for 
this or that reason) sO unsuited to school teaching that it is best postponed 
till after leaving school. 

Here again let me begin with the thick end of the wedge, and insist 
that while very considerable progress has been made in primary and 
modern-side-secondary education, in the provision for geographical studies, 
and even for their careful correlation with historical and literary courses, 
it is in the schools with ' classical ' traditions, and a considerable ' classical 
side ' at all events in their upper forms, that geographical teaching most 
lags and is least organically connected with the humanities. 

A Retrospect and a Remedy. 

There are of course, here too, historical reasons for this, and on the 
sound tactical principle of stimulating those with whom one disagrees 
by explaining that they cannot be expected from their antecedents to 
be other than they regrettably are, I propose to look in this direction for 
excuses, and also for a remedy. In difficult country, if a man has taken 
the wrong road it is safest to avoid short cuts, and bring him back to the 
point where he went astray. The right road is often obvious to him then. 

In the early days of the Renascence the scholars themselves were 
mainly of Mediterranean origin, or at least had made acquaintance with 
Mediterranean conditions by pilgrimage to Italian libraries and lecture- 
rooms. Moreover, as long as Venice and Genoa held the seas, even the 
Levant was familiar to Western society at large, in a way which became 
impossible for nearly three centuries, after the evacuation of Rhodes and 
Famagusta. There was therefore little need for interpreters of the classics 
to dwell on the physical surroundings of the ancient world, for in essentials 
they were the same as their own. But when the centres of humanist 
activity shifted beyond the Alps, and the Turk, in his decline, laid more 
jealous hold on Greek lands, empirical knowledge of the Near East faded, 
and classical weather, classical flowers and herbs, and still more those 
classical customs and institutions, such as seasonal warfare, a national 
outdoor drama, and democracy itself, which depended on Mediterranean 
conditions for their realisation, passed, with much else that was incapable 
of realisation on the Atlantic seaboard, from common knowledge into 
academic oblivion. 

The same thing happened elsewhere. Troubadour songs from a land 
where the hawthorn really blooms in May, and it is possible for outlaws 
to disport themselves ' under the greenwood tree ' without the rheumatic 
sequel of our Whit Monday, forged a link between flower and month 
which centuries of the ' jocund spring ' of these islands have failed to 
break. Or, to take a reverse instance, an occasion 

' When shepherds watched their flocks by night, 
All seated on the ground,' 
is still accepted by many as a credible description of Palestine in December. 
What meaning, again, does the normal British citizen attach to that 
graphic time-signal (II Samuel xi. 1) : ' And it came to pass, at the return 
of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle '? — that is how that 
evening is depicted when David first saw Bathsheba. The pendant picture 
is Alcman's phrase about spring in early Greece ' when buds grow green 

i2 



116 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and you cannot eat enough.' Truly the Christian Church had its reasons, 
down there, when it prescribed fasting in Lent. 

It was, then, mainly unavoidable ignorance, imposed by the political 
situation, that paralysed geographical commentary on ancient history and 
literature. But this happened, unfortunately, close to the time when the 
great Dutch scholars of the seventeenth century, and thereafter our own 
Bentley, gave a new birth to linguistic study, and gave also to ' scholarship ' 
the narrower meaning which it has unluckily retained so long. It happened, 
unfortuTiately also, at a moment when the social cleavage which resulted 
in this country from the Civil War, and still more from the behaviour of 
the ' Restored ' in matters of faith and citizenship, c\it English education 
— I cannot speak for Scottish — into two differently conducted halves. 
All that side of the national heritage which descended from the culture 
of Israel remained essentially vernacular, with no bogey of ' compulsory 
Hebrew ' to repel the beginner, until the need to read Hebrew for himself 
overmastered Idm from within. This heritage had been, and remained, 
common to all, though for all alike it was divorced, for the reasons already 
noted, from its geographical context and background. But, in the trans- 
mission of the ' Legacy of Greece ' the Renaissance use of popular transla- 
tions in popular education — the chained copy of North's ' Plutarch ' in 
the village church, alongside the Authorised Version, as you may see it 
at Bicester to-day — gave place to the strict ' classical education ' of the 
public schools and older universities, initiated in the ' preparatory ' 
schools as they arose ; and displaced into the nursery the vernacular 
discipline of an ' authorised ' crib. Formal scholarship became indis- 
pensable prerequisite to study of Mediterranean culture ; history and 
geography, as interpreters of the meaning of great literatures, gave place 
to ' gerund-grinding ' and vain ' repetitions,' as you may hear students 
crooning the Koran in a Moslem university to-day. 

It was more than a century before reaction came : and the new 
renaissance in classical and oriental studies came, like the old, very 
largely from outside. What the discoverers of America and the outer 
Oceans were to the men of 1493, the pioneers in physics, chemistry and 
biology were to the generation of 1793. Herder's Ideen zur Philosophie 
der Geschichte der Menschheit began to appear in 1784 ; it had been preceded 
in 1778 by his Stimmen der Volker in Liedern, the first regional investigation 
of popular literature, and in 1782 by Vom Geist der hebniischen Poesie, 
which inaugurates the scientific study of the ' Legacy of Israel.' Wolf's 
Prolegomena to Homer appeared in the next year, 1795 ; and, speaking 
on Scottish soil, more especially am I bound to commemorate the debt 
both of Wolf and of Herder to Percy's Reliques and Macpherson's Ossian. 
and as an Englishman, Wolf's obligation to Robert Wood's Essay on the 
Original Genius of Homer, the first study of Greek literature on Greek seas, 
and of Biblical institutions in a Bedawin tent at Palmyra. How close 
the beginnings of modern geography lie to this movement in history and 
literature needs hardly to be illustrated. But Alexander von Humboldt 
was, like Wolf , a pupil of old Heyne atGottingen, and close friend of Heyne's 
son-in-law Georg Forster, the naturalist and chronicler of Captain Cook ; 
and it was in the same Gottingen circle a little later (1814-19) that Karl 
Ritter matured his Erdkunde im Verhallnis zur Natur und zur Geschichte 
des Menschen (1817-18), followed by his essay on prehistoric ethnology 



E— GEOGRAPHY. 117 

in 1820 (Vorhalle europaischer VolkergescMchten vor Herodot). In the 
rejuvenation of Prussia it was Hardenberg himself who brought Niebuhr 
from Copenhagen to the Finance Ministry in 1806, and von Stein who 
entrusted mainly to him, under the direction of Karl Wilhelm von 
Humboldt, the reorganisation of classical teaching in the Berlin Uni- 
versity ; and while von Humboldt called in Wolf from Halle, on the 
fame of his revolutionary Prolegomena, Niebuhr, reserving the recreation 
of Roman history for himself, called August Boeckh from Heidelberg in 
1811 as the scholar best fitted to apply ancient experience to the training 
of a modern ci\al service. The response was the Political Economy of 
Athens ; and it was Boeckh's greatest discovery, Karl Otfried Miiller, 
whose Hislorieff of the Greek Peoples and Cities (of which the first 
section appeared in 1816) brought the new geography and the new history 
into partnership. Otfried Miiller in his turn inspired Ernst Curtius to 
his epoch-making monograph on the Peloponnese, which was published 
in the year of our ' Great Exhibition ' ; and before this, thanks mainly to 
George Cornewall Lewis, Niebuhr's Lectures on Roman History, Boeckh's 
Political Economy of Athens, and Miiller's Dorians had been vigorously 
translated into English, and the new leaven was working briskly already 
when George Grote was writing his History of Greece. Of Curtius' 
Peloponnese, ' I have spent my life,' said Boeckh, in admitting the author 
to the Berlin Academy in 1853, ' testing and sifting details, the necessary 
foundation for further research. But you have seen the land itself, the 
frame to the picture.' And the aged Humboldt wrote ' I have read your 
first volume line by line. Your survey of the country is a masterpiece of 
nature painting.' 

Well, after seventy years more, the picture begins to be worthy of the 
frame. Whom will you allow to enjoy it ? It is not finished, nor will it 
ever be. But a man's pupils surely are entitled to a ' private view ' of 
his sketches in the studio of ancient geography. 

We must start, of course, with things as they are ; and if we are not 
satisfied with things as they are — and I hope I may assume that such 
dissatisfaction is normal and usual — we must above all things be careful 
not to make them worse by overloading with ' new ' subjects an already 
congested curriculum. But we are bound, no less, to take every occasion 
of change in departments adjacent to our own, for some reduction of the 
customary gaps, perhaps unavoidable altogether, when knowledge is 
dissected academically into subjects, and courses, and periods of fifty 
minutes nominal. And let me repeat here what I hinted at the outset, 
that by ancient geography, as by ' geographical thinking ' in general, I 
do not mean yet another obstacle to the convenient planning of a time- 
table, but an element in the content of many courses of instruction, and 
above all a point of view, and a fund of illustrative humanising knowledge 
and appreciation, on the part of the teacher. The children are all right — 
that, as teachers, we all know. If we can get the teaching right — which 
in the first place means getting ourselves, the teachers, right — I do not 
very much mind what ancient geography, or any other subject, is called, 
in the syllabus or the time-table. That is why ancient geography is so 
necessary a part of university equipment ; for it is in the universitie 
that we prepare the teachers. 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



INCREASING RETURNS AND 
ECONOMIC PROGRESS. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. ALLYN A. YOUNG, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



My subject, I fear, may appear alarmingly formidable, but I did not 
intend it to be so. The words economic progress, taken by themselves, 
would suggest the pursuit of some philosophy of history, of some way of 
appraising the results of past and possible future changes in forms of 
economic organisation and modes of economic activities. But as I have 
used them, joined to the other half of my title, they are meant merely 
to dispel apprehensions, by suggesting that I do not propose to discuss 
any of those alluring but highly technical questions relating to the precise 
way in which some sort of equilibrium of supply and demand is achieved 
in the market for the products of industries which can increase their 
output without increasing their costs proportionately, or to the possible 
advantages of fostering the development of such industries while putting 
a handicap upon industries whose output can be increased only at the 
expense of a more than proportionate increase of costs. I suspect, indeed, 
that the apparatus which economists have built up for dealing eiiectively 
with the range of questions to which I have just referred may stand in 
the way of a clear view of the more general or elementary aspects of the 
phenomena of increasing returns, such as I wish to comment upon in this 
paper. 

Consider, for example, Alfred Marshall's fruitful distinction between 
the internal productive economies which a particular firm is able to secure 
as the growth of the market permits it to enlarge the scale of its operations 
and the economies external to the indi^^dual firm which show themselves 
only in changes of the organisation of the industry as a whole. This 
distinction has been useful in at least two different ways. In the first 
place it is, or ought to be, a safeguard against the common error of assuming 
that wherever increasing returns operate there is necessarily an effective 
tendency towards monopoly. In the second place it simplifies the analysis 
of the manner in which the prices of commodities produced under condi- 
tions of increasing returns are determined. A representative firm within 
the industry, maintaining its own identity and devoting itself to a given 
range of activities, is made to be the vehicle or medium through which 
the economies achieved by the industry as a whole are transmitted to the 
market and have their effect upon the price of the product. 

The view of the nature of the processes of industrial progress which is 
implied in the distinction between internal and external economies is 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 119 

necessarily a partial view. Certain aspects of those processes are 
illuminated, while, for that very reason, certain other aspects, important 
in relation to other problems, are obscured. This will be clear, I think, if 
we observe that, although the internal economies of some firms producing, 
let us say, materials or appliances may figure as the external economies 
of other firms, not all of the economies which are properly to be called 
external can be accounted for by adding up the internal economies of all 
the separate firms. When we look at the internal economies of a particular 
firm we envisage a condition of comparative stability. Year after year 
the firm, like its competitors, is manufacturing a particular product or 
group of products, or is confining itself to certain definite stages in the 
work of forwarding the products towards their final form. Its operations 
change in the sense that they are progressively adapted to an increasing 
output, but they arc kept within definitely circumscribed bounds. Out 
beyond, in that obscurer field from which it derives its external econoniies, 
changes of another order are occurring. New products are appearing, 
firms are assuming new tasks, and new industries are coming into being. 
In short, change in this external field is qualitative as well as quantitative. 
No analysis of the forces making for economic equilibrium, forces which 
we might say are tangential at any moment of time, will serve to illumine 
this field, for movements away from equilibrium, departures from previous 
trends, are characteristic of it. Not much is to bo gained by probing into 
it to see how increasing returns show themselves in the costs of individual 
firms and in the prices at which they offer their products. _ 

Instead, we have to go back to a simpler and more inclusive view, such 
as some of the older economists took when they contrasted the increasing 
returns which they thought were characteristic of manufacturing industry 
taken as a whole with the diminishing returns which they thought were 
dominant in agriculture because of an increasingly unfavourable pro- 
portioning of labour and land. Most of them were disappointingly vague 
with respect to the origins and the precise nature of the ' improvements ' 
which they counted upon to retard somewhat the operation of the tendency 
towards diminishing returns in agriculture and to secure a progressively 
more eSective use of labour in manufactures. Their opinions appear to 
have rested partly upon an empirical generalisation. Improvements had 
been made, they were still being made, and it might be assumed that they 
would continue to be made. If they had looked back they would have 
seen that there were centuries during which there were few significant 
changes in either agricultural or industrial methods. But they were 
living in an age when men had turned their faces in a new direction and 
when economic progress was not only consciously sought but seemed in 
some way to grow out of the nature of things. Improvements, then, were 
not something to be explained. They were natural phenomena, like the 
precession of the equinoxes. 

There were certain important exceptions, however, to this incurious 
attitude towards what might seem to be one of the most important of all 
economic problems. Senior's positive doctrine is well known, and there 
were others who made note of the circumstance that with the growth of 
population and of markets new opportunities for the division of labour 
appear and new advantages attach to it. In this way, and in this way 



120 • SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

only, were the generally commonplace things which they said about 
' improvements ' related to anything which could properly be called a 
doctrine of increasing returns. They added nothing to Adam Smith's 
famous theorem that the division of labour depends upon the extent of 
the market. That theorem, I have always thought, is one of the most 
illuminating and fruitful generalisations which can be found anywhere in 
the whole literature of economics. In fact, as I am bound to confess, I 
am taking it as the text of this paper, in much the way that some minor 
composer borrows a theme from one of the masters and adds certain 
developments or variations of his own. To-day, of course, we mean by 
the division of labour something much broader in scope than that splitting 
up of occupations and development of specialised crafts which Adam 
Smith mostly had in mind. No one, so far as I know, has tried to enumerate 
all of the different aspects of the division of labour, and I do not propose 
to undertake that task. I shall deal with two related aspects only : the 
growth of indirect or roundabout methods of production and the division 
of labour among industries. 

It appears to be generally agreed that Adam Smith, when he suggested 
that the division of labour leads to inventions because workmen engaged 
in specialised routine operations come to see better ways of accomplishing 
the same results, missed the main point. The important thing, of course, 
is that with the division of labour a group of complex processes is trans- 
formed into a succession of simpler processes, some of which, at least, 
lend themselves to the use of machinery. In the use of machinery and 
the adoption of indirect processes there is a further division of labour, 
the economies of which are again limited by the extent of the market. 
It would be wasteful to make a hammer to drive a single nail ; it would 
be better to use whatever awkward implement lies conveniently at hand. 
It would be wasteful to furnish a factory with an elaborate equipment of 
specially constructed jigs, gauges, lathes, drills, presses and conveyors to 
build a hundred automobiles ; it would be better to rely mostly upon ■tools 
and machines of standard types, so as to make a relatively larger use of 
directly-applied and a relatively smaller use of indirectly-applied labour. 
Mr. Ford's methods would be absurdly uneconomical if his output were 
very small, and would be unprofitable even if his output were what many 
other manufacturers of automobiles would call large. 

Then, of course, there are economies of what might be called a 
secondary order. How far it pays to go in equipping factories with 
special appliances for making hammers or for constructing specialised 
machinery for use in making different parts of automobiles depends again 
upon how many nails are to be driven and Jiow many automobiles can be 
sold. In some instances, I suppose, these secondary economies, though 
real, have only a secondary importance. The derived demands for many 
types of specialised production appliances are inelastic over a fairly large 
range. If the benefits and the costs of using such appliances are spread 
over a relatively large volume of final products, their technical effectiveness 
is a larger factor in determining whether it is profitable to use them than 
any difference which producing them on a large or a small scale would 
commonly make in their costs. In other instances the demand for 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 121 

productive appliances is more ela&tiC; and beyond a certain level of costs 
demand may fail completely. In such circumstances secondary economies 
may become highly important. 

Doubtless, much of what I have said has been familiar and even 
elementary. I shall venture, nevertheless, to put further stress upon two 
points, which may be among those which have a familiar ring, but which 
appear sometimes to be in danger of being forgotten. (Otherwise, 
economists of standing could not have suggested that increasing returns 
may be altogether illusory, or have maintained that where they are 
present they must lead to monopoly.) The first point is that the principal 
economies which manifest themselves in increasing returns are the 
economies of capitalistic or roundabout methods of production. These 
economies, again, are largely identical with the economies of the division 
of labour in its most important modern forms. In fact, these economies 
lie under our eyes, but we may miss them if we try to make of large-scale 
production (in the sense of production by large firms or large industries), as 
contrasted with large production, any more than an incident in the general 
process by which increasing returns are secured and if accordingly we 
look too much at the individual firm or even, as I shall suggest presently, 
at the individual industry. 

The second point is that the economies of roundabout methods, even 
more than the economies of other forms of the division of labour, depend 
upon the extent of the market — and that, of course, is why we discuss 
them under the head of increasing returns. It would hardly be necessary 
to stress this point, if it were not that the economies of large-scale 
operations and of ' mass-production ' are often referred to as though they 
could be had for the taking, by means of a ' rational ' reorganisation of 
industry. Now I grant that at any given time routine and inertia play 
a very large part in the organisation and conduct of industrial operations. 
Eeal leadership is no more common in industrial than in other pursuits. 
New catch-words or slogans like mass-production and rationalisation may 
operate as stimuli ; they may rouse men from routine and lead them to 
scrutinise again the organisation and processes of industry and to try to 
discover particular ways in which they can be bettered. For example, 
no one can doubt that there are genuine economies to be achieved in the 
way of ' simplification and standardisation,' or that the securing of these 
economies requires that certain deeply rooted competitive wastes be 
extirpated. This last requires a definite concerted effort — precisely the 
kind of thing which ordinary competitive motives are often powerless to 
effect, but which might come more easily as the response to the dis- 
semination of a new idea. 

There is a danger, however, that we shall expect too much from these 
' rational ' industrial reforms. Pressed beyond a certain point they become 
the reverse of rational. I have naturally been interested in British 
opinions respecting the reasons for the relatively high productivity (per 
labourer or per hour of labour) of representative American industries. 
The error of those who suggest that the explanation is to be found in the 
relatively high wages which prevail in America is not that they confuse 
cause and effect, but that they hold that what are really only two aspects 
of a single situation are, the one cause, and the other effect. Those who 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

hold that American industry is managed better, that its leaders study its 
problems more intelligently and plan more courageously and more wisely 
can cite no facts in support of their opinion save the differences in the 
results achieved. Allowing for the circumstance that British industry, as 
a whole, has proved to be rather badly adjusted to the new post-war 
economic situation, I know of no facts which prove or even indicate that 
British industry, seen against the background of its own problems and its 
own possibilities, is less efficiently organised or less ably directed than 
American industry or the industry of any other country. 

Sometimes the fact that the average American labourer works with the 
help of a larger supply of power-driven labour-saving machinery than the 
labourer of other countries is cited as evidence of the superior intelligence 
of the average American employer. But this will not do, for, as every 
economist knows, the greater the degree in which labour is productive or 
scarce — the words have the same meaning — the greater is the relative 
economy of using it in such indirect or roundabout ways as are technically 
advantageous, even though such procedure calls for larger advances of 
capital than simpler methods do. 

It is encouraging to find that a fairly large number of commentators 
upon the volume of the American industrial product and the scale of 
American industrial organisation have come to surmise that the extent of 
the American domestic market, unimpeded by tarifE barriers, may have 
something to do with the matter. This opinion seems even to be forced 
upon thoughtful observers by the general character of the facts, whether 
or no the observers think in terms of the economists' conception of 
increasing returns. In certain industries, although by no means in all, 
productive methods are economical and profitable in America which 
would not be profitable elsewhere. The importance of coal and iron and 
other natural resources needs no comment. Taking a country's economic 
endowment as given, however, the most important single factor in deter- 
mining the effectiveness of its industry appears to be the size of the 
market. But just what constitutes a large market ? Not area or popula- 
tion alone, but buying power, the capacity to absorb a large annual output 
of goods. This trite observation, however, at once suggests another 
equally trite, namely, that capacity to buy depends upon capacity to 
produce. In an inclusive view, considering the market not as an outlet 
for the products of a particular industry, and therefore external to that 
industry, but as the outlet for goods in general, the size of the market 
is determined and defined by the volume of production. If this statement 
needs any qualification, it is that the conception of a market in this 
inclusive sense — an aggregate of productive activities, tied together by 
trade — carries with it the notion that there must be some sort of balance, 
that different productive acti\'ities must be proportioned one to another. 

Modified, then, in the light of this broader conception of the market, 
Adam Smith's dictum amounts to the theorem that the division of labour 
depends in large part upon the division of labour. This is more than 
mere tautology. It means, if I read its significance rightly, that the 
counter forces which are continually defeating the forces which make 
for economic equilibrium are more pervasive and more deeply rooted in 
the constitution of the modern economic system than we commonly 



i 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 123 

realise. Not only new or adventitious elements, coming in from the 
outside, but elements which are permanent characteristics of the ways in 
which goods are produced make continuously for change. Every important 
advance in the organisation of production, regardless of whether it is based 
upon anything which, in a narrow or technical sense, would be called a 
new ' invention,' or involves a fresh application of the fruits of scientific 
progress to industry, alters the conditions of industrial activity and 
initiates responses elsewhere in the industrial structure which in turn have 
a further unsettling effect. Thus change becomes progressive and 
propagates itself in a cumulative way. 

The apparatus which economists have built up for the analysis of 
supply and demand in their relations to prices does not seem to be par- 
ticularly helpful for the purposes of an inquiry into these broader aspects 
of increasing returns. In fact, as I have already suggested, reliance upon 
it may divert attention to incidental or partial aspects of a process which 
ought to be seen as a whole. If, nevertheless, one insists upon seeing just 
how far one can get into the problem by using the formulas of supply and 
demand, the simplest way, I suppose, is to begin by inquiring into the 
operations of reciprocal demand when all of the commodities exchanged 
are produced competitively under conditions of increasing returns and 
when the demand for each commodity is elastic, in the special sense 
that a small increase in the supply of any one commodity will be attended 
by an increase in the amounts of other commodities which can be had 
in exchange for it.' Under such conditions an increase in the supply of 
one commodity is an increase in the demand for other commodities, and 
it must be supposed that every increase in demand will evoke an increase 
in supply. The rate at which any one industry grows is conditioned by 
the rate at which other industries grow, but since the elasticities of 
demand and of supply will differ for diff'erent products, some industries 
will grow faster than others. Even with a stationary population and in 
the absence of new discoveries^ in pure or applied science there are no 
limits to the process of expansion except the limits beyond which demand 
is not elastic and returns do not increase. 

If, under these hypothetical conditions, progress were unimpeded and 
frictionless, if it were not dependent in part upon a process of trial and 
error, if the organisation of industry were always such as, in relation to 
the immediate situation, is most economical, the realising of increasing 
returns might be progressive and continuous, although, for technical 
reasons, it could not always proceed at an even rate. But it would remain 
a process requiring time. An industrial dictator, with foresight and 
knowledge, could hasten the pace somewhat, but he could not achieve an 
Aladdin-like transformation of a country's industry, so as to reap the 

' This condition is merely that dyldx and dxidy are both positive, where x and y are 
the amounts of any two commodities exchanged. If the circumstance that commodity 
a is produced under conditions of increasing returns is taken into account as a, factor 
in the elasticity of demand for 6 in terms of a, elasticity of demand and elasticity of 
supply may be looked upon as difiEerent ways of expressing a single functional relation. 
The condition as stated is more rigorous than need be. 

2 As contrasted with such new ways of organising production and such new 
' inventions ' as are merely adaptations of known ways of doijig things, made practicable 
and economical by an enlarged scale of production. 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

fruits of a half-century's ordinary progress in a few years. The obstacles 
are of two sorts. First, the human material which has to be used is 
resistant to change. New trades have to be learnt and new habits have to 
be acquired. There has to be a new geographical distribution of the 
population and established communal groups have to be broken up. 
Second, the accumulation of the necessary capital takes time, even though 
the process of accumulation is largely one of turning part of an increasing 
product into forms which will serve in securing a further increase of product. 
An acceleration of the rate of accumulation encounters increasing costs, 
into which both technical and psychological elements enter. One who 
likes to conceive of all economic processes in terms of tendencies towards 
an equilibrium might even maintain that increasing returns, so far as they 
depend upon the economies of indirect methods of production and the 
size of the market, are offset and negated by their costs, and that under 
such simjjlified conditions as I have dealt with the realising of increasing 
returns would be spread through time in such a way as to secure an 
equilibrium of costs and advantages. This would amount to saying that 
no real economic progress could come through the operation of forces 
engendered within the economic system — a conclusion repugnant to common 
sense. To deal with this point thoroughly would take us too far afield. 
I shall merely observe, first, that the appropriate conception is that of a 
moving equilibrium, and second, that the costs which (under increasing 
returns) grow less rapidly than the product are not the ' costs ' which 
figure in an ' equilibrium of costs and advantages.' 

Moving away from these abstract considerations, so as to get closer to 
the complications of the real situation, account has to be taken, first, of 
various kinds of obstacles. The demand for some products is inelastic, or, 
with an increasing supply, soon becomes so. The producers of such com- 
modities, however, often share in the advantages of the increase of the 
general scale of production in related industries, and so far as they do 
productive resources are released for other uses. Then there are natural 
scarcities, limitations or inelasticities of supply, such as effectively block 
the way to the securing of any important economies in the production of 
some commodities and which impair the effectiveness of the economies 
secured in the production of other commodities. In most fields, moreover, 
progress is not and cannot be continuous. The next important step 
forward is often initially costly, and cannot be taken until a certain 
quantum of prospective advantages has accumulated. 

On the other side of the account are various factors which reinforce the 
influences which make for increasing returns. The discovery of new 
natural resources and of new uses for them and the growth of scientific 
knowledge are probably the most potent of such factors. The causal 
connections between the growth of industry and the progress of science 
run in both directions, but on which side the preponderant influence lies 
no one can say. At any rate, out of better knowledge of the materials 
and forces upon which men can lay their hands there come both new ways 
of producing familiar commodities and new products, and these last have 
a presumptive claim to be regarded as embodying more economical uses 
of productive resources than the uses which they displace. Some weight 
has to be given also to the way in which, with the advance of the scientific 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 125 

spirit, a new kind of interest — which might be described as a scientific 
interest conditioned by an economic interest — is beginning to infiltrate 
into industry. It is a point of controversy, but I venture to maintain that 
under most circumstances, though not in all, and short of the point at 
which diminishing returns, in the Ricardian sense, become important in the 
aggregate, the growth of population still has to be counted a factor making 
for a larger per capita product — although even that cautious statement 
needs to be interpreted and qualified. But just as there may be population 
growth with no increase of the average per capita product, so also, as I 
have tried to suggest, markets may grow and increasing returns may be 
secured while the population remains stationary. 

It is dangerous to assign to any single factor the leading role in that 
continuing economic revolution which has taken the modern world so far 
away from the world of a few hundred years ago. But is there any other 
factor which has a better claim to that role than the persisting search 
for markets ? No other hypothesis so well unites economic history and 
economic theory. The Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century 
has come to be generally regarded, not as a cataclysm brought about by 
certain inspired improvements in industrial technique, but as a series of 
changes related in an orderly way to prior changes in industrial organisa- 
tion and to the enlargement of markets. It is sometimes said, however, 
that wliile in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period industry 
was the servant of commerce, since the rise of ' industrial capitalism ' the 
relation has been reversed, commerce being now merely an agent of industry. 
If this means that the finding of markets is one of the tasks of modern 
industry it is true. If it means that industry imposes its will upon the 
market, that whereas formerly the things which were produced were the 
things which could be sold, now the things which have to be sold are the 
things that are produced, it is not true. 

The great change, I imagine, is in the new importance which the 
potential market has in the planning and management of large industries. 
The difference between the cost per unit of output in an industry or in an 
individual plant properly adapted to a given volume of output and in an 
industry or plant equally well adapted to an output five times as large is 
often much greater than one would infer from looking merely at the 
economies which may accrue as an existing establishment gradually 
extends the scale of its operations. Potential demand, then, in the 
planning of industrial undertakings, has to be balanced against potential 
economies, elasticity of demand against decreasing costs. The search for 
markets is not a matter of disposing of a ' surplus product,' in the Marxian 
sense, but of finding an outlet for a potential product. Nor is it wholly 
a matter of multiplying profits by multipljang sales ; it is partly a matter 
of augmenting profits by reducing costs. 

Although the initial displacement may be considerable and the 
repercussions upon particular industries unfavourable, the enlarging of 
the market for any one commodity, produced under conditions of 
increasing returns, generally has the net effect, as I have tried to show, of 
enlarging the market for other commodities. The business man's 
raercantilistic emphasis upon markets may have a sounder basis than the 
economist who thinks mostly in terms of economic statics is prone to 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

admit. How far ' selling expenses,' for example, are to be counted sheer 
economic waste depends upon their effects upon the aggregate product of 
industry, as distinguished from their efiects upon the fortunes of particular 
undertakings. 

Increasing returns are often spoken of as though they were attached 
always to the growth of ' industries,' and I have not tried to avoid that 
way of speaking of them, although I think that it may be a misleading 
way. The point which I have in mind is something more than a quibble 
about the proper definition of an industry, for it involves a particular 
thesis with respect to the way in which increasing returns are reflected in 
changes in the organisation of industrial activities. Much has been said 
about industrial integration as a concomitant or a natural result of an 
increasing industrial output. It obviously is, under particular conditions, 
though I know of no satisfactory statement of just what those particular 
conditions are. But the opposed process, industrial difierentiation, has 
been and remains the type of change characteristically associated with 
the growth of production. Notable as has been the increase in the com- 
plexity of the apparatus of living, as shown by the increase in the variety 
of goods offered in consumers' markets, the increase in the diversification 
of intermediate products and of industries manufacturing special products 
or groups of products has gone even further. 

The successors of the early printers, it has often been observed, are 
not only the printers of to-day, with their own specialised establishments, 
but also the producers of wood pulp, of various kinds of paper, of inks and 
their different ingredients, of type-metal and of type, the group of industries 
concerned with the technical parts of the producing of illustrations, and 
the manufacturers of specialised tools and machines for use in printing 
and in these various auxiliary industries. The list could be extended, 
both by enumerating other industries which are directly ancillary to the 
present printing trades and by going back to industries which, while 
supplying the industries which supply the printing trades, also supply 
other industries, concerned with preliminary stages in the making of final 
products other than printed books and newspapers. I do not think that 
the printing trades are an exceptional instance, but I shall not give other 
examples, for I do not want this paper to be too much like a primer of 
descriptive economics or an index to the reports of a census of production. 
It is sufficiently obvious, anyhow, that over a large part of the field of 
industry an increasingly intricate nexus of specialised undertakings has 
inserted itself between the producer of raw materials and the consumer 
of the final product. 

With the extension of the division of labour among industries the 
representative firm, like the industry of which it is a part, loses its identity. 
Its internal economies dissolve into the internal and external economies 
of the more highly specialised undertakings which are its successors, and 
are supplemented by new economies. In so far as it is an adjustment to 
a new situation created by the growth of the final products of industry 
the division of labour among industries is a vehicle of increasing returns. 
It is more than a change of form incidental to the full securing of the 
advantages of capitalistic methods of production — -although it is largely 
that — for it has some advantages of its own which are independent of 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 127 

changes in productive technique. For example, it permits of a higher 
degree of specialisation in management, and the advantages of such 
specialisation are doubtless often real, though they may easily be given 
too much weight. Again, it lends itself to a better geographical distribu- 
tion of indixstrial operations, and this advantage is unquestionably both 
real and important. Nearness to the source of supply of a particular raw 
material or to cheap power counts for most in one part of a series of 
industrial processes, nearness to other industries or to cheap transport 
in another part, and nearness to a larger centre of population in yet another. 
A better combination of advantages of location, with a smaller element 
of compromise, can be had by the more specialised industries. But the 
largest advantage secured by the division of labour among industries is 
the fuller realising of the economies of capitalistic or roundabout methods 
of production. This should be sufficiently obvious if we assume, as we 
must, that in most industries there are effective, though elastic, limits to 
the economical size of the individual firm. The output of the individual 
firm is generally a relatively small proportion of the aggregate output of 
an industry. The degree in which it can secure economies by making its 
own operations more roundabout is limited. But certain roundabout 
methods are fairly sure to become feasible and economical when their 
advantages can be spread over the output of the whole industry. These 
potential economies, then, are segregated and achieved by the operations 
of specialised undertakings which, taken together, constitute a new 
industry. It might conceivably be maintained that the scale upon which 
the firms in the new industry are able to operate is the secret of their 
ability to realise economics for industry as a whole, while presumably making 
profits for themselves. This is true in a way, but misleading. The scale 
of their operations (which is only incidentally or under special conditions 
a matter of the size of the individual firm) merely reflects the size of the 
market for the final products of the industry or industries to whose opera- 
tions their own are ancillary. And the principal advantage of large-scale 
operation at this stage is that it again makes methods economical which 
would be uneconomical if their benefits could not be dift'used over a large 
final product. 

In recapitulation of these variations on a theme from Adam Smith 
there are three points to be stressed. First, the mechanism of increasing 
returns is not to be discerned adequately by observing the effects of 
variations in the size of an individual firm or of a particular industry, for 
the progressive division and specialisation of industries is an essential part 
of the process by which increasing returns are realised. What is required 
is that industrial operations be seen as an interrelated whole. Second, 
the securing of increasing returns depends upon the progressive division 
of labour, and the principal economies of the division of labour, in its 
modern forms, are the economies which are to be had by using labour in 
roundabout or indirect ways. Third, the division of labour depends 
upon the extent of the market, but the extent of the market also depends 
upon the division of labour. In this circumstance lies the possibility of 
economic progress, apart from the progress which comes as a result of 
the new knowledge which men are able to gain, whether in the pursuit 
of their economic or of their non-economic interests. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



THE INFLUENCE OF ENGINEERING 
ON CIVILIZATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR WILLIAM ELLIS, G.B.E., D.Eng., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION, 



In choosing the subject for my address I had to decide whether to devote 
my attention to some branch of engineering in which I have been 
actively engaged during my working life, alluding specially to some of 
the technical problems involved, or to treat of engineering in a less 
technical manner so as to interest any hearers or readers of this address 
who may not themselves be actively engaged in the engineering profession. 
Knowing that the Engineering Section would be addressed on technical 
subjects by very distinguished engineers, I have decided to devote my 
address to speaking of the very extensive part which engineering in its 
many branches has taken, and is still taking, in connexion with the 
amenities which are associated so closely with our domestic life, and 
indeed, our happiness. I shall hope in the course of my address to deal 
in some detail with the fact that each branch of engineering has added its 
quota to the comfort of our lives, and I think it may be claimed that no 
other profession has so direct an association with our modern civilization. 
The enormous increase in population during the nineteenth century, 
coupled with the segregation of that population in industrial centres, 
arising out of the extraordinarily rapid development of industry in this 
and other countries during that period, h^s introduced new problems in 
connexion with health and transport, and it has been the task of 
engineering in its many branches to deal with these problems. It must be 
admitted that the great advances made in the knowledge of both medicine 
and surgery have played a very noble part in connexion with improve- 
ments we all welcome- in the health of the population, and in speaking of 
the part which engineering has taken in connexion with public health I 
have no wish to lessen in any way what we all admire and respect, namely, 
the wonderful work of the medical profession in applying for our benefit 
the constantly advancing scientific and practical knowledge. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century main roads did not exist 
in this country to any great extent, and these roads were in a very inferior 
condition. Pack horse transport was still in vogue, and up to 1850 a well- 
organised system of mail coaches was the principal means of passenger 
transport. 

The introduction of railways and of steamers during the first half of 
that century led the way to an enormously increased demand for coal, 



G.— ENGINEERING. 129 

iron and steel, and as the inventions of Sir Henry Bessemer and Sir 
William Siemens for making steel were developed, the necessity was 
evident to engineers and chemists for training schools to deal with the 
physical and technical problems involved in engineering and metallurgy, 
so as to arrive at a far greater accuracy, both in design and construction, 
than had hitherto been considered necessary or possible. I find on 
reading the history of those early pioneers, both in engineering and 
metallurgy, that they had to meet conditions similar to those which exist 
to-day, that is to say, they had to force their ideas on to a rather unwilling 
public in order to get them introduced, and in many cases they did not 
reap the reward of their enterprise. Boulton and Watt had a desperate 
struggle for their existence. Stephenson had great difficulty in even 
getting his engine tried amongst those competing for the Liverpool to 
Manchester railway, and yet was the only successful survivor of the 
trials. To-day the fate of the inventor is little less hard. In many 
cases he finds his invention has been anticipated, and in others there is 
great unwillingness on the part of engineers and metallurgists to adopt the 
ideas because of the risk involved financially in developing the processes. 

We have to admit, however, that the progress of industry depends 
very largely on the enterprise of deep-thinking men who are ahead of the 
times in their ideas. I may quote Dr. Clifton Sorby, F.R.S., as such an 
instance. He introduced by his researches the microscopy of steel, and 
yet it was many years before this became a recognised method of gauging 
the quality of all classes of steel. Another great inventor, whom we all 
respect and are delighted to have still in active work, is Sir Charles Parsons. 
I look back many years to the early eighties when Sir Charles put in years 
of research work in connexion with high speed engines before he success- 
fully produced the steam turbine. Since that time he has devoted a large 
portion of his life to developing improvements both in the design of the 
turbine and the machinery for producing it, which have ultimately 
brought about its world renown, and his eminence in the engineering 
world was suitably recognised two years ago by the award of the Kelvin 
Gold Medal. 

The technical societies in this country in the latter part of the last 
century realised that special attention would have to be devoted to an 
education which would combine a practical knowledge of engineering 
with a course of technical education of a high level. This was also associated 
with a preliminary examination to ensure that their students should have 
a sufficient grounding in general knowledge to enable them to apply 
themselves with success to the more intricate technical problems incident 
to their profession. This action on the part of these institutions has been 
fully rewarded by bringing into existence a body of highly trained 
engineers with special knowledge of the different branches of engineering, 
and, therefore, well able to lead our profession forward in the great 
developments which are still taking place in all branches of engineering. 

Although in this address it would be out of place for me to discuss 
education in detail, I cannot help feeling that the ground to be covered 
in engineering education is now so great that the universities will do well 
to apply education in general engineering problems for the first two years 
of a university course, and allow an honours degree to be taken in one or 

1928 K 



130 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

other of the special branches of engineering. I would urge that with 
the very short terms existing at our universities, in some cases only three 
terms of eight weeks each, it is unreasonable to expect a student to take 
an honours degree in three years if this covers all branches of engineering 
science. The alternative now being considered of meeting the difficulty 
by taking four years for an honours degree is, I think, open to grave 
objection, as it is delaying too long the date at which a young engineer is 
available to take up his first professional appointment and in fact become 
an earner. 

Coming back to my original subject, can we say which branch of 
engineering has most directly been associated with modern civilization ? 
I do not find that any one branch can claim the premier position. It 
depends, of course, very much on what we regard as the greatest essentials 
in life, and I presume we must admit that the greatest happiness of the 
greatest number must be taken as the true gauge. In this case some of 
the luxuries and comforts of modern travel do not hold a primary position, 
much as we appreciate them. Such questions as purity and sufficiency 
of water supply for large cities coupled with a scientific system of drainage, 
are the first essentials of health and comfort, especially in areas with 
large populations. 

I will now turn to the different branches of engineering and illustrate 
as far as I can the benefits which these branches of engineering have 
introduced into the civilization of our present age. In doing so I would 
refer to the definition of engineering given in the Royal Charter of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers on its incorporation in 1828. The centenary 
of the institution has just been celebrated, and all engineers must be 
grateful to the Principal of Edinburgh University, Sir Alfred Ewing, for 
the carefully thought out review of engineering progress in the last century, 
which formed the subject of the James Forrest address at the centenary 
meeting in June. The charter describes engineering as ' a mechanical 
science dealing with the art of directing the great sources of power in 
nature for the use and convenience of man.' The term ' civil engineering ' 
is a comprehensive one embracing all branches of the profession, other 
than military engineering, but I propose to apply the words ' civil 
engineering ' in this address as dealing specially with drainage and 
irrigation works, harbours, docks, reservoirs, &c., dealing with railways 
under the heading of transport. 

The various branches of engineering I propose to allude to shortly in 
detail are as follows : — 

Civil Engineering, as defined above. 

Transport. 

Shipbuilding, including Marine Engineering. 

Mechanical Engineering. 

Mining Engineering. 

Electrical Engineering. 

Civil Engineering. 

The point which appears to me to stand out prominently in this 
branch of the profession is the fact that the structures to be dealt with 
are in many cases of an enormously costly nature, and have to be carried 



G.— ENGINEERING. 131 

out with such careful study and comprehension of the varying problems 
to be dealt with so as to ensure permanent efficiency and safety in the 
future. 

The great reservoirs and harbours of the world may be regarded as the 
cathedrals of engineering. The varjnng natural problems to be dealt 
with involve a very high level of technical education. In the construction 
of reservoirs, docks and harbours, a considerable knowledge of geology 
is essential, and in harbour construction the varying effects of tides which 
have to be studied minutely, have an important influence on the work to 
be undertaken. Throughout the world will be found monuments to the 
skill of the civil engineer and the very existence of the population in our 
large cities in health and comfort is the result of his work, for without an 
ample and reliable supply of water of good quality, both for personal 
and industrial use, and an efficient drainage control, our death-rate would 
indeed be very different from what it is. If we turn for a moment either 
to India with its great barrage enterprise, or Egypt, with the noble Assouan 
and Sennaar dams, truly outstanding works of the civil engineer, we find 
the prosperity of these countries largely resulting from the magnificent 
irrigation works which have been carried out there. Special development 
of produce growing in many countries is only being limited by the fact 
that insufficient irrigation works have so far been carried out. New 
Mexico and Arizona are two great provinces with potentially fertile land 
available for agricultural development, but they are so short of water 
that irrigation is an absolute necessity. 

The large increase in tonnage of ocean-going vessels has resulted in 
the necessity for larger docks and harbour basins, and the development of 
railways all over the world, many of them in difficult moiintainous 
countries, has given the civil engineer a great opportunity in designing 
bridges for carrying this heavy traffic. Many of my audience will 
appreciate the magnitude of the new bridge over Sydney Harbour now 
being constructed by British engineers, and the Forth Bridge still holds 
its own as a masterpiece of British engineering skill and the construction 
was in the hands of a Scotch firm well known in Glasgow. The new high- 
level bridge at Newcastle and the new Mersey tunnel are, I suppose, the 
most interesting civil engineering works at present in progress of con- 
struction in this country, in addition to the considerable dock extensions 
now proceeding at Southampton, whilst in Canada a very noble bridge 
is now being thrown across the St. Lawrence River at Montreal. 



^& 



Transport. 

It may truthfully be said that the development of the potential wealth 
of any country depends mainly on the means of transport, both personal 
and industrial. I would allude especially to the great corn-growing countries 
where the home consumption bears only a small relation to the possible 
production. The knowledge that there is efficient transport both by rail 
and for export by sea is the greatest incentive to the farmers to spend 
money in extensive cultivation with the certainty of a ready market for 
such production. Without mentioning any countries we probably have 
instances in our minds where inefficiency of transport facilities is 

k2 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

absolutely blocking tlie progress of internal wealth in those countries. 
On the other hand, where railways are efficient and harbours well equipped 
with shipping facilities, we find consequent prosperity. 

The comparison of travel to-day, both by land and sea, with my early 
journeys in Europe nearly fifty years ago emphasises in my mind how 
much we are indebted to the engineer, in the way of personal safety and 
comfort and also prompt delivery of our products. A journey in the 
Balkans in the winter of 1881 when sleeping cars and restaurant cars were 
almost unknown, and when the largest vessel sailing from Mediterranean 
ports was in the neighbourhood of 4,000 tons, compares very unfavourably 
in speed and personal comfort with the facilities which are available to-day. 
The comfort and safety of modern travel is to my mind one of the glories 
of modern civilization. The 40,000 to 50,000 tons Atlantic liner, 
embracing as it does almost every class of engineering skill, is not only an 
example of artistic beauty, but is one of the fijiest instances of human 
power combating the forces of nature. To be on one of these vessels 
driving into a gale at twenty knots is an experience never to be forgotten, 
and we are glad to realize what a large share the shipbuilding firms of 
Glasgow have had in the development of these large Atlantic liners. 

Railway transport has also made great progress in all measures affecting 
personal safety and the efficient carrying of our various products. The 
railway engineers have every reason to be proud of their management of 
the complex organisation represented by the great railway systems all 
over the world. We are personally much safer travelling in an express 
train than we are crossing the streets of a great city, and I think we may 
justly be satisfied by the fact that in no country do the railways afford 
more comfortable or more rapid travelling facilities than in our own. The 
railway engineer has still some very interesting problems to face. Heavier 
and more powerful locomotives are the natural outcome of the demand 
for heavier freight trains. The civil engineer of a railway company 
cannot deal with this problem without strengthening bridges and improving 
the condition of the permanent way. All these developments involve 
large capital expenditure, which it is not convenient for many railway 
companies to undertake at the present time. 

The question of the railway companies developing motor services to 
meet the competition of road transport has been the subject of legislation 
during the present year. I think the public acquiesce generally in the 
feeling that as the railway companies pay such a large proportion of the 
rates of the districts through which they have travelling facilities, it is 
only right they should develop road transport in connexion with their 
traffic in view of the serious competition which they have to face. 
Transport by road has undoubtedly been very much facilitated by the 
large sums which the Ministry of Transport has had available for the 
purpose of remaking and generally improving our main roads, and careful 
study has been devoted of late years to the selection of suitable materials 
for this purpose. Consequently in the last ten years there has been an 
immense improvement in the quality and design of our main roads, more 
so than in any previous decade. 

It appears to me that one question which has hardly been touched to 
any eoctent at present is the desirability of increasing very largely the 



G.— ENGINEERING. 133 

number of by-pass roads to divert heavy traffic from passing through 
large towns, and even villages, which are now suffering severely from 
congestion of traffic in their altogether too narrow thoroughfares. 

On looking back a few years to the old system of horse-drawn tramways, 
we must surely be grateful for the benefit accruing to many thousands of 
our working population arising out of the introduction of electric tramways, 
enabling them to live in many cases in much healthier surroundings. 

Naval Architecture. 

This comprises shipbuilding and marine engineering and represents a 
very important part of my subject, dealing, as it does, with the transport 
by sea and lakes of food and materials, and with the comfort and safety 
of the many thousands of passengers travelling to and from this country. 
The wooden vessel in the early part of last century held its own very 
stubbornly against the introduction of iron or steel vessels, and the 
mechanically propelled vessel had to fight very hard to oust the very 
efficient sailing vessels which were then carrying the trade of the world. 
I imagine that some of my audience with artistic tastes will not be willing 
to admit that the beauty of the present type of mechanically propelled 
vessel is comparable with the picturesque five- and six-mast sailing vessels 
which we used to see in our earlier days. This country has undoubtedly 
been the pioneer in the building of large warships and passenger liners, 
also in the development of the very large horse-power therefor. The 
considerable increase in the tonnage of ships brought with it the necessity 
for a corresponding increase in the mechanical appliances in connexion 
with their construction. The trial runs carried out before a new ship is 
taken over by her owners are a severe test of the excellence of workmanship. 
They are a necessary test to ensure that long voyages of five to six weeks 
with machinery running continuously at nearly full power can be under- 
taken without fear of trouble arising from heated bearings or other causes. 
A new ship may be exposed to such rough weather on her first voyage 
that unless her plating and riveting are carried out in a first-rate manner, 
she may arrive in her first port in a damaged condition. Some of us still 
remember during the war how new ships, built in other countries, were 
seriously damaged owing to the workmanship not being of a sufficiently 
good character. The handling of thick plates of large surfaces and the 
riveting of them satisfactorily to the stanchions still remains a laborious 
and trying piece of work for those engaged upon it, although mechanical 
means exist to some extent. Glasgow has taken a leading part providing 
men who in all weathers and under conditions rendered difficult by the 
magnitude of modern vessels, maintain the high level of efiiciency which 
is represented in the manufacture of these large hulls. The vessels of the 
greatest tonnage built on the Clyde have been the Aquitania (46,000 tons) 
and the Lusitania (32,500 tons). Other large vessels built in the British 
Isles have been the Olympic (46,439 tons) and the Mauretania (30,696 
tons). Since the war there has been a lull in the building of liners of large 
tonnage and horse-power caused, no doubt, by financial considerations, 
but it is gratifying to know that two large shipowning companies are at 
the present time contemplating building vessels up to 1,000 feet in length 
with a speed of over twenty knots. 



134 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Shipbuilding is especially interesting inasmuch as it combines in one 
structure the varied efforts of almost every class of artisan dealing with 
both iron and steel and cabinet-making and woodworking generally, in 
addition, of course, to the large and varied amount of mechanical 
engineering. In marine engineering the last fifty years have, indeed, a 
most interesting record of progress, and in very early years such firms as 
Humphreys Tennant, Maudslay, Son & Field, and other firms no longer 
in existence, introduced a measure of precision into mechanical engineering 
probably not then existing in any other branch of the industry. High and 
low pressure triple expansion engines held their own for a considerable 
period, and it was, I suppose, the interesting trials of the Turhinia which 
brought about the first change from this method. It is an interesting 
fact that our fellow-member. Sir Charles Parsons, to whom I have already 
alluded, should live to see such successful development of his patent, and 
a recent paper read by him and his co-workers describes in a very 
interesting manner the gradual developments and changes in design in 
turbines up to the present time. Such developments range from the 
Turhinia, which had a displacement of 44^ tons with 2,100 h.p., to the 
battle cruiser Hood of 41,200 tons and over 150,000 h.p. 

The introduction of geared turbines, so as to arrive at relatively 
efficient speed as between engine revolutions and propeller revolutions, 
has brought about valuable economies and helped the turbine principle 
to maintain its reputation. The development of internal combustion 
engines for marine purposes has made great strides in recent years. 
Various types of these engines are already in active service, and a horse- 
power of 36,000 on four propellers has already been achieved with 
efficiency ; probably the limit has not yet been reached. The use of oil 
instead of coal on board ship, especially for passenger purposes, represents 
many advantages, and anyone who has visited the stokehold of a large 
passenger liner with the hundreds of men stoking with coal must realise 
the immense advantage, both physical and otherwise, which results from 
oil burning directly on the boilers. All inconvenience caused by dust in 
re-coaling is avoided, and the boiler tenting is carried out by young 
mechanical engineers, doing away with all the labour required by coal 
burning. In a vessel of large tonnage the saving in wages and maintenance 
of several hundreds of stokers represents an enormous economy in many 
directions. The question of larger horse-power and/or electrically driven 
ships is one of the problems which marine engineers are at present turning 
their minds to. 

A new development which is now being introduced is the use of con- 
siderably higher steam pressures in boilers. The first application of this 
was the King George V., a boat built last year on the Clyde, and our section 
has been favoured with a paper from Mr. Harold Yarrow dealing with 
some of the problems which have arisen in introducing high pressures. 
As you will have gathered from his paper, these problems are not solely 
those of the engineer who has to build the boilers. They are closely 
associated with steel and metallurgical questions incident to the special 
manufacture of parts of the boilers owing to the much greater strength 
required. Many of my audience, no doubt, have been interested in the 
valuable information we have received from the paper in question. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 135 

The defence of our country depends very largely on the efficiency of 
our warships, and it is impossible to speak too highly of the wonderful 
reliability shown by the vessels of our navy during the late war, thanks 
to the efficient engineering service in our navy, and the determination of 
the various builders in this country to prodiice vessels representing the 
highest standards of engineering efficiency. Our country, I hope, realises 
how much we owe to the engineering branch of the navy for the well-proved 
efficiency and courage of its officers and men of all ranks in the late war. 
I believe that no vessel of our enormous fleet failed in action owing to 
breakdown of machinery, and the conditions under which the engineering 
staff find themselves in active warfare must be a severe strain on their 
courage. The response to the sudden call on the two battle crmsers, 
which had already been on active service for a considerable time, to make 
the voyage at full speed to the Falkland Islands to engage the German 
Fleet, represented an engineering feat of a very high order. 

In the mercantile marine we have great cause for thankfulness in the 
developments which have taken place, resulting in a very much greater 
comfort at sea. These efforts are naturally limited by the sizes of the 
harbours between which the vessels have to trade, but when we come 
to ocean liners the study which naval architecture has given to the produc- 
tion of these great vessels has resulted in our being able to visit different 
parts of the world with a comfort which is equal to that provided by the 
best hotels in any of our great cities. Shipbuilding and marine engineering 
have indeed taken a noble part in assisting the march of civilization and 
adding to our comforts in every possible way. 

I wrote this part of my address on the voyage to New York on the 
46,000-tons liner Aquitania. What a triumph of enterprise to the Cunard 
Company and to the naval architect and marine engineer such a vessel 
represents. I was watching her driving into a north-west gale from the 
boat deck during the day, a magnificent battle between nature's power 
and human skill, a sight which arouses one's admiration for the great 
minds who have raised engineering to so supreme a height and added so 
greatly to the advancement of civilization. 

' What does this wilderness of sea portray ? 
A mighty struggle, constant day by day, 
'Twixt human skill and nature's changing mood. 
The ceaseless roar of North wind's subtle blow. 
The varying power of waves that ever flow. 
Such is man's battle 'gainst this angry flood.' 

Mechanical Engineering. 

It is difficult to regard mechanical engineering literally as a separate 
branch of engineering, for although numerically, I suppose, the mechanical 
engineers exceed the numbers of any other branch, nearly all their duties 
are associated with other types of engineering. 

In connexion with civil engineering all the plant occupied in harbour, 
dock and railway construction is in the hands of the mechanical engineer. 
Also in transport and marine engineering the mechanical engineer is 
largely engaged in the engine building of both locomotives and marine 
engines and other types of auxiliary machinery for these purposes. 



136 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In electrical engineering, although this branch no doubt includes 
engineers without mechanical training, I would venture to say that the 
engineer is in an infinitely stronger position if he has received some training 
first as a mechanical engineer and specialised in electrical engineering 
afterwards. 

A further important branch of the mechanical engineer's work is 
represented by the maintenance of machinery in the large steel works 
throughout the country and in the mills and factories of all descriptions. 
The directors of these companies are largely dependent on the advice of 
the engineer-in-charge in giving consideration to developments and the 
introduction of new types of plant to maintain production on an economic 
basis. 

In mechanical engineering I must include the very important subject 
of machine-tool construction, a branch of engineering which has made 
very great strides and introduced many changes of design to meet new 
requirements in the last thirty years. Mass production on an economical 
basis in many industries has been the direct result of various tool-makers 
being able to produce special tools confined to the production of thousands 
of identical articles of a complicated design. I refer to articles produced 
at a cost of one-tenth to one-twentieth of what would be possible without 
machine tools specially designed for the purpose. 

The introduction of high-speed tool steel enabling far heavier cuts to 
be taken both by lathes and planing machines has rendered obsolete a 
large quantity of machine tools throughout the country, and the intro- 
duction of the electric drive has also brought about great changes in the 
design of machine tools. We hear to-day of some works in other countries 
without a single machine tool at work of pre-war date, a most desirable 
state of things, but one which, unhappily, the economic circumstances in 
this country have rendered impossible up to the present time. In principle 
we have to admit that with our relatively high wages and general charges 
on industry, taxation, etc., it is not economical to continue to use machine 
tools which can be superseded by modern tools doing a greater volume 
of work in a given time, but many firms throughout the country are only 
able to act on this principle gradually owing to financial reasons. 

We hear very strong rumours of the advent of a new type of tool 
steel, if it can be called steel at all, which is going to bring about a greater 
change in output than was represented by the introduction of high-speed 
steel some years ago. If this becomes an accomplished fact it is good 
news for the toolmakers throughout the country, although it may not be 
equally welcomed by the many large firms already equipped at con- 
siderable capital charge with reasonably modern tools. With such keen 
competition, however, and the power of over-production at present existing 
in the country, no firm can afiord to ignore the march of progress and will 
have to recognise the necessity for introducing machine tools of the most 
efficient type even at considerable financial sacrifice. 

May I make a suggestion to the toolmakers in this country ? When 
we are putting down an important new machine tool I find the makers will 
give every possible help in meeting our requirements in design and output, 
but they rarely follow up and ascertain what the real performance of the 
tool has been. To many of them ' no news is good news.' I think this 



G.— ENGINEERING. 137 

is a mistake on their part. How many improvements and modifications, 
probably saving their clients money, could be made if they would 
periodically send the designer or chief draughtsman round to the works 
where these machines are actually at work and ascertain at first hand 
from the foreman and even the workman what criticisms they have to 
make, and accept for careful consideration any suggestions that may be 
put forward based on personal knowledge of the output of the machine. 

Mining Engineering. 

In dealing with this section I propose to confine myself to coal mining, 
so as to shorten what I have to say, and also to be able to apply myself 
more closely to the development of coal mining as affecting civilisation. 

Prior to the introduction of modern means of transport and the 
development of the iron and steel trade, the production of coal in this 
country, both in the aggregate and per colliery, was very small, and, 
consequently, the amount of virgin coal face exposed at any one time in a 
colliery was quite moderate. Therefore, the effusion of gas was not 
sufficiently large as to introduce a serious danger to men working with 
naked lights. Ventilation was carried out by means of a furnace in the 
bottom of the upcast shaft, the draught being sufficient for ventilating the 
moderate area of the workings. Increased production necessitated the 
adoption of mechanical means of ventilation and large fans were installed. 
Science had a large share in making colliery development on a big scale 
possible by the introduction of the Humphry Davy and other safety 
lamps. These warned the miners of the presence of gas and consequent 
danger. The much heavier tonnage prodxxced in a given time necessitated 
the introduction of large horse-power winding engines, and also of wire 
ropes which would be sufficiently pliable to pass over the pulleys and 
headgear, and also be strong enough to carry, not only their own weight 
which in a shaft of 500 yards is not inconsiderable, but, in addition, a 
loaded cage involving a weight of thirty tons or more. 

A sufficient supply of coal at a moderate price is a matter of interest to 
every inhabitant and manufacturer in the country, and, therefore, any 
engineering devices which have been introduced to ensure comfort and 
safety of the miners and at the same time to give us our coal supply for 
manufacturing and domestic purposes at a moderate price, are of interest 
to everyone. Although we unhappily know that colliery explosions 
occasionally occur with very dire results, and regret the many accidents 
to miners arising out of falls of roofs, &c., those of us who are conversant 
with coal mining matters realise how much science and engineering have 
done to lessen the risk under which the miners work. I believe that 
the public feel that one of the great risks is in winding the men up and 
down the shaft each day, and yet the careful supervision of winding 
arrangements, inspection of ropes, and general regulations for the safety 
of the men are such that, so I am informed, it is only one man in forty 
millions who suffers an accident from this portion of the miner's duty. 

The introduction of vertical ropes as guides to the cages, instead of 
wooden or steel guides, affords a safe and smooth running of the cages at 
sixty miles an hour with no more vibration than we experience in 
travelling in an express train at the same speed. Underground haulage 



138 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

has been everywiiere adopted, so tliat tlie use of men for this arduous work, 
and, to a great extent, ponies also, has been abandoned. This under- 
ground haulage is largely carried out by compressed air engines placed 
underground, as in many pits it has not been felt safe to introduce electric 
power for the purpose except in the immediate neighbourhood of the shafts. 
It is true that the electrical engineer has gone a long way in lessening the 
liability to sparking, and in enclosing the motors so as further to lessen 
this risk. We are still left, however, with possible danger caused by the 
cables along the main roads, which however carefully placed are still 
liable to be damaged by unexpected falls of roof, thereby introducing a 
potential danger which is difficult to eliminate. At the coal face the 
engineer up to the present has not been able to do much to lessen the hard 
manual labour of the working miner, but in thin seams, say up to three 
feet thick, where manual work on a solid face would be almost impossible, 
coal-cutting machinery (in which a well-known firm in this city has 
successfully specialised) has been introduced, thereby lessening enormously 
the manual work of the miner. I venture the opinion that the introduction 
of machinery for this purpose has not yet reached its limit. 

I regret that more members of the public do not take the opportunity 
of going underground and seeing the men at work at the coal face. On 
my various visits I always receive a warm welcome from them, and it is 
a real education to see what the engineer has done, and under what con- 
ditions the men work in producing an article on which we so much depend 
for the comfort of our daily life. 

Electrical Engineering. 

This branch of engineering covers a very wide range of subjects and 
affects our social life almost more intimately than any other type of 
engineering, except perhaps the supply of good water and efficient drainage 
installations. It is impossible for me to attempt to cover the whole range 
of subjects embraced in electrical engineering. Telegraphy, telephony, 
wireless, electric lighting, electric heating, electric driving, and electric 
power in their various ranges all enter into and affect the comfort of our 
domestic life. In considering this branch of engineering as a whole I 
find it very difficult fairly to divide the credit for its development between 
the pure scientist and the electrical engineer. The researches and experi- 
ments in the early part of last century on the part of Wheatstone, Faraday, 
and Lord Kelvin, and later, coming to our own time, of Sir Oliver Lodge, 
Senator Marconi, and other eminent scientists, have undoubtedly prepared 
the road to the later applications of electricity for domestic and engineering 
purposes, and no electrical engineer to-day can possibly efficiently carry 
out his duties without a greater knowledge of pure science than may be 
regarded as essential in other branches of engineering. It is interesting 
at this meeting in Glasgow to recall that it was at the British Association 
meeting in this city in 1876 that Graham Bell, in conjunction with Lord 
Kelvin, brought to the Association's notice the telephone, and, further, 
the fact that at the Plymouth meeting of this Association in 1877 I shared 
with many eminent members of the British Association the interesting 
privilege of telephoning from the saloon to the bridge on the excursion 
steamer, with Prof. Graham Bell on board, going to and from the Eddy- 



G.— ENGINEERING. 139 

stone Lighthouse. I allude to this fact because in those days it was 
regarded as a wonderful scientific invention which fascinated the most 
eminent scientific men. Yet to-day we take it all for granted, and hardly 
realise the comfort and convenience that the introduction of the telephone 
has brought into our lives. 

I admit that the introduction of wireless telephony and telegraphy has 
amazed the world to a greater extent than that of the telephone, and it 
is certainly more within the capacity of the pure scientist than of the 
engineer to explain the scientiiic problems involved. I am not going to 
state whether the introduction of wireless broadcasting into our homes 
is an amenity or not, chacim son goiU, but when we turn to the application 
of wireless telegraphy we acce])t without hesitation the benefits it has 
brought into the world. It is impossible to say what number of lives 
have already been saved by boats in distress having been able to secure 
help from other vessels by means of wireless communication. 

The development of electricity as a mechanical driving power was very 
slow up to a certain date. For instance, I went by electric train from 
Berlin to Charlottenburg in the spring of 1882. The running of the railway 
appeared to be quite satisfactory, and yet it was at least ten, and I think 
fifteen, years before any real development took place in the way of electric 
railways or trams, the difficulty, I believe, being in producing satisfactory 
dynamos on an economic basis. The first electric railways in this country, 
so far as I know, were the Liverpool Overhead Railway in February 1893 
and the Liverpool to Southport Railway in April 1904. The practicability 
of electric driving on main lines is still a matter under discussion. The 
only country which has wholeheartedly adopted this system is Switzerland, 
a country which has undoubtedly been influenced by the uncertainty of 
obtaining a uniform supply of coal at reasonable prices, coupled with the 
fact of an efficient and ample supply of water power for their generating 
stations. The Barberine reservoir, which has now been completed, and 
the large reservoir at the Grimsel Hospice now under construction, are 
fine examples of civil engineering work carried out for the purpose of 
developing electric current for the Swiss railways. 

In this country considerable developments are taking place on the 
various main lines, but engineers are at present concentrating on the use 
of electric driving mainly for suburban trafiic, and not at present on main 
line long-distance expresses. It is probable that the great extension of 
high-power installations throughout the country contemplated by the 
electricity commissioners will render possible a more extensive use of 
electric trains on our main lines. 

The application of electricity for driving purposes in the various large 
works in this country made very rapid strides as soon as electrical machinery 
for the purpose was available. I remember showing to a former president 
of this Association, Sir William White, the first set of Belliss and Morcom 
engines we had installed in a works in the Midlands, the various machines 
in these works at that time being driven by steam engines in different shops 
and line shafting. Sir William said to me then, ' Do you realise that 
within ten years every machine in these works will be electrically driven ? 
I think few engineers realised at that time that electric driving would 
replace so rapidly the existing methods. Apart frqm the economy 



140 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

represented by its introduction the change enabled the management to 
register the amount of power used by each type of machine under varying 
loads of service, a circumstance which was impossible with belt-driven 
machines, when the power varied according to the tightness and width of 
the belt. The greater efficiency, however, is really represented by the 
fact that in a large works electricity can be produced in bulk at a central 
power station at a low rate of cost, and the loss in distributing to the 
various departments through high-tension cables and transformers to 
lower voltage in the different sections of the works is insignificant compared 
with the saving represented by a consumption of coal and a cost of mainte- 
nance far below what is possible with direct steam driving. Electricity 
has in some measure been introduced into mining engineering, as I have 
mentioned in the mining section, electric winding engines have been 
adopted with satisfactory results, but as the fuel supply for steam raising 
at the various collieries, especially where coke ovens are installed, is much 
less costly for providing power than in a works without such auxiliary 
facilities, the economy in the use of electric winding versus steam is 
naturally not so great. 

The public, I think, fails to realise that electric lighting for domestic 
purposes, if charged at a reasonable rate, does not represent any real 
charge on the household. It is so clean in its application that, in my 
opinion, the necessity for cleaning and decorating which is avoided in 
many cases represents a greater saving than the amount paid for electric 
light. In addition we have the great advantage that it does not burn 
oxygen, and therefore we have more healthy conditions in our rooms 
compared with any other method of lighting. I feel sure that those who 
have introduced electricity into their houses for the purpose of cooking 
and hot water supply will never go back to the old system of kitchen fire 
for this purpose, owing to the former's efficiency and cleanliness in applica- 
tion. It appears to me that all that is wanted for a much larger use of 
electricity domestically is a reduced charge by the various supplying 
companies and corporations, at least to the level which exists in many of 
our cities already. It is hoped that the work of the electrical commis- 
sioners in installing bigger units of power throughout the country may 
bring down the cost so as to place electricity within the reach of every 
householder. 

Since I roughed out this address it has been my privilege to make a 
journey across America from New York to the Pacific Coast, and return 
through the Rocky Mountains and Canada, and throughout my journey 
I could not help realising how large a share engineering in its broadest 
sense has taken in developing these wide regions. First comes the railway 
as a through communication between east and west for 3,000 miles. 
Gradually settlers come and farming and lumber work commences, their 
progress only being possible with the aid of railway transport. Gradually 
small towns spring up requiring the assistance of engineers for water and 
drainage. In the torrid provinces of New Mexico and Arizona the water 
question is a very serious one, and large irrigation schemes will have to 
be introduced. At Grand Canyon, for instance, the water for household 
and farm use is broughb nearly 200 miles by train in large special wagons. 
Then mineral wealth is discovered, and the mining engineer appears and 



G.— ENGINEERING. 141 

requires his varied plant to be brought by railway from the manufacturing 
centres. In the mountainous parts of the country large hydro-electric 
plants are being developed, thus calling on the electrical engineer for his 
services, and I might quote many other illustrations of a similar nature. 

Yes, ladies and gentlemen, those of us who are spending our lives in 
engineering work may justly be proud of the large share the members of 
our profession are taking in promoting and advancing the civilization of 
the world, and thereby bringing happiness and prosperity to many 
thousands of our fellow-countrymen. 

I realise that within the limits of this address I have only been able 
to touch to a very limited extent on the association of the different branches 
of engineering as affecting our civilization. I hope, however, I have 
said enough to interest my audience in a side of engineering that is not 
often brought out, and that those of us who are actively engaged in 
engineering may earn the respect and confidence of our fellow-citizens. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR GEORGE MACDONALD, K.C.B., F.B.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



When I was invited to preside over the deliberations of an important 
section of tlie British Association, I felt that a great distinction had been 
conferred on me. In the interval my appreciation of the honour has not 
become less high, but my sense of the responsibilities it brings has 
deepened very considerably. It is no light task for an amateur like 
myself to endeavour to fill a place that has been occupied by a long line 
of men eminent in one department or another of the particular branch of 
science with which we are concerned here. Above all, I fear that, in the 
scanty leisure which my daily work allows me, it has been hard — perhaps 
I should frankly say impossible — to find time to concentrate my thoughts 
on the preparation of an address that should be worthy of the tradition 
established by my predecessors in the chair. If that does not excuse the 
discursiveness into which I have been betrayed, it will at least serve to 
explain it. 

Nor is my plea of extenuating circumstances yet exhausted. When 
I promised to speak to you on ' The Archaeology of Scotland,' I contem- 
plated giving you some account of the more recent advances that have 
been made by workers north of the Border. Since I chose my subject 
I have been forestalled by the publication of Mr. Graham Callander's 
paper in the last issue of Archceologia. It would be idle for me to try 
to add anything to that admirably comprehensive and lucid summary, 
and I can do no more than commend it to your careful attention. The 
obvious line of approach being thus barred, I have had to cast about for 
a suitable alternative. In the end one after another of the various possi- 
bilities that presented themselves has been set aside in favour of some- 
thing in the nature of a very general review. To those who are unfamiliar 
with our problems in Scotland it may be of interest to learn a little of their 
extent and character and of how they came to assume their present form, 
while to those upon whom the duty of solving them rests, a backward 
glance at the progress already achieved may perhaps bring a measure of 
encouragement and stimulus. 

The first movement towards an organised study of Scottish antiquities 
dates from the last quarter of the eighteenth century. The Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland was founded in 1780, and with it there came into 
existence what is now the National Museum. The leading spirit in the 
enterprise was David Erskine, eleventh Earl of Buchan. If we may trust 
Sir Walter Scott, who characterised him as ' a person whose immense 
vanity, bordering on insanity, obscured, or rather eclipsed, very con- 
siderable talents,' Lord Buchan was not altogether a promising sponsor 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 143 

for the infant science. But at this distance of time we may forgive his 
eccentricities and honour his memory for the substantial service which 
he rendered to our common cause. In point of fact, it was probably the 
first president's very vanity, so severely stigmatised by Scott, that inspired 
William Smellie to produce his full contemporary ' Account ' of the origin 
of the Society and its Museum with a list, or rather lists, of acquisitions. 
Lord Buchan's speeches and letters, which are there to be found verbatim, 
show plainly how limited was the archaeological horizon of the age of 
Jonathan Oldbuck. 

Thus in his inaugural address, which maps out the field of the new 
Society's activities, he states explicitly that the starting-point must be 
' the period of the Roman attempts to subjugate the northern parts of 
Britain.' The monuments which we call prehistoric but which in those 
days were called Druidical, ' the Cairn, the Mount of Earth, Four Grey 
Stones covered with Moss ' — I am quoting his own words — he attributes 
to the time of Ossian, and Ossian and his heroes he supposes to have lived 
in the reign of Caracalla. It is quite consistent with such a perspective 
that, after a gift of twenty pounds in cash, the first recorded donation to 
the Museum should have been ' a quantity of Roman arms, consisting of 
twenty-three pieces of the heads of hasta and jaculum, twenty pieces of 
the blades, and nine of the handles of the gladius and pugio ; a ring, three 
inches in diameter, fastened to the end of a staple ; and a mass of different 
pieces of these arms, run together by fire, all of brass.' It is not easy to 
realise that the objects masquerading in this classical garb are the contents 
of the well-known Bronze Age hoard which was dredged from the marl 
at the bottom of Duddingston Loch. 

Bronze Age weapons, indeed, are systematically labelled ' Roman ' in 
the ofiicial record. Nor was it only to weapons that the epithet was 
applied. The relics of a Bronze Age interment figure as ' an antient 
sacrificing ax of Roman brass . . . antient Roman cinereal urns . . . and 
pieces of burnt Roman bones.' That is typical. The men of the Stone 
Age fare even worse. Their bones are not, it is true, subjected to the 
indignity of being dubbed ' Roman.' But their relics are sadly to seek 
among the 

' fouth o' auld nick-nackets : 
Rusty airn caps, and jinglin jackets 
Wad haud the Lothians three in tackets 

A towmont gude ; 
And parritch-pats and auld saut-backets 
Before the Flood.' 

One or two perforated axe-heads of stone do appear in the catalogue, but 
they stand cheek by jowl with lusus naturce like ' a chicken, preserved in 
•spirits, having two heads conjoined laterally at the back of the skull.' 
They are entered, too, under the old-fashioned name of ' purgatory 
hammer,' an echo of the popular belief that the purpose of placing such 
objects in graves was to equip the spirit of the dead with an instrument 
which should be sufficiently heavy to ensure a prompt response to his 
knocking at the gate of the after-world. Yet, despite the quaintness of 
these first beginnings, the institution thus cradled has developed, within 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

a century and a half, into one of the finest archaeological collections in 
Europe. The Earl of Buchan and his friends had builded better than they 
knew. 

The story of our National Museum of Antiquities is a parable. It 
reflects the process by which, in every European country, the dilettante 
was transformed into the scholar, the antiquary into the archaeologist. 
There are no general features which can be said to be peculiar to Scotland. 
Honoris et pietatis causa, however, mention must be made of one con- 
spicuous figure. In retrospect Dr. Joseph Anderson towers head and 
shoulders above the whole of his contemporaries. Emphatically a strong 
man, alike in intellect and in character, he was endowed with a rare power 
of accurate observation, a keen sense of the value of evidence, a disciplined 
imagination, and a singular gift of lucid exposition. It is a fortunate thing 
for Scottish archaeology that its early footsteps should have been directed 
by so competent a guide. He was in charge of the National Museum for 
the long period of forty-three years, and the collections as you may see 
them to-day are, in large measure, the fruit of his energy and discriminating 
zeal. But he did much more than merely stimvdate their growth. He 
used them as material for that invaluable compendium of Scottish 
archaeology which he embodied in his successive series of Rhind Lectures. 
The first of these was delivered as long ago as 1879. The intervening 
period has added much to our knowledge, so that, in the light of the 
fresh information now available, the details require to be corrected here 
and there. More frequently they require to be supplemented. Anderson 
lived to see the emergence of Azilian man at Oban' and on Oronsay, as 
well as the first discovery of Tardenoisian flints on this side of the Tweed. 
He died before we had any hint that human beings might have tenanted 
the caves of Sutherland in palaeolithic times. But none of these new 
factors affect in the slightest degree the principles which he enunciated 
so cogently. The lines which he originally laid down have had to be 
produced backwards. Otherwise they remain unchanged. Their perma- 
nence is due to the method of treatment he adopted. To him archaeology 
was an inductive science in the strictest sense of the term. If its 
potentialities were to be fidly realised, it must cut itself ruthlessly adrift 
from history. Here is one of his characteristic utterances : ' Archaeology 
has no dates of its own — gives no periods that can be expressed in chrono- 
logical terms. These belong exclusively to liistory ; and, in point of 
fact, it is impossible to obtain such dates or periods except from record.' 
There are modern writers to whom that may seem a hard saying. Yet, 
on Anderson's view of what archaeology meant, it is fundamentally and 
incontestably true. Listen to his summary of how the materials of his 
science ought to be dealt with : ' (1) By arranging them in groups possessing 
certain characteristics in common ; (2) By determining the special types 
of which these groups are composed ; (3) By determining the geographical^ 
range of each special group ; (4) By determining its relations to other types 
within or beyond its own special area ; and (5) By determining the sequence 
of the types within the geographical area which is the field of study. The 
general outcome of the whole dealing of the archaeologist with his materials 
is thus the contruction of a logical history of the human occupation of 
the area which he subjects to investigation — that is, a history which is not 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 145 

chronological, and can never become so, unless where it touches the 
domain of record, and by this contact acquires an accidental feature which 
is foreign to its character.' Applying this method rigidly, not merely to 
the prehistoric objects in the National Museum and elsewhere, but also 
to the widely scattered structural remains, with many of which he was 
personally acquainted and some of which he had himself excavated, he 
built up, without extraneous aid of any kind, a framework into which 
he was able to fit the whole of his materials in such a way that each 
appeared in its proper sequence and carried its proper significance. 

As might have been expected, it turned out that the pre-history of 
Scotland has much, very much, in common with the pre-history of other 
areas. But it also turned out that the country contains groups of monu- 
ments and classes of archaeological objects, to which no parallel can be 
adduced from any other part of the world. Scotland, in a word, has an 
archaeology of its own. The Scottish brochs, for instance — those strange 
towers of dry-built stone with chambers in the thickness of the wall and 
no opening towards the outside save a very narrow doorway — are peculiar 
to the area. Hardly less characteristic is one of the principal varieties 
of Scottish earth-house. Similarly the so-called ' Pictish ' symbols on the 
sculptured stones stand quite alone, as do the heavy silver chains on 
which they occasionally appear, and the massive bronze armlets and 
carved stone balls of a somewhat earlier age. Finally, as regards the 
archaeological material generally, Scotland enjoys in one important respect 
a distinct advantage over her southern neighbour. Her mediaeval monu- 
ments may always have been relatively few and inconspicuous. Certainly 
her castles and her abbeys and her cathedrals have too often suffered 
grievously from hands that were bent on malicious and wilful destruction. 
But her prehistoric remains are extraordinarily numerous and, ruinous 
as the condition of many of them is, they are not seldom sufficiently well 
preserved to offer a rich field for scientific investigation. 

The first thing needful is a proper survey of the ground. That is 
being carefully, if slowly, carried out by the Ancient Monuments Com- 
mission, who have already dealt with several of the districts that are of 
most interest to the student from the prehistoric point of view. The 
reports on Sutherland, Caithness, Galloway, Skye and the Outer Isles 
have all been published. Orkney and Shetland are under examination 
now. Argyll and Bute, Aberdeen and Kincardine, Peebles and Roxburgh 
will follow in due course. When these have been completed a long step 
forward will have been taken. But something more than a proper survey 
is required. It should be accompanied by systematic and well-directed 
excavation. How much we might expect to learn in this way you may 
gather from Mr. Callander's account of the harvest that has been reaped 
by isolated individual effort. Only in one sector has there as yet been 
any approach to an organised attack, but the results obtained there are 
surely of good omen. Within the last thirty or forty years, thanks to 
the enterprises carried out by the Society of Antiquaries and the Glasgow 
Archaeological Society, the story of the Roman occupation of Scotland 
has been largely rewritten. Much remains to be done. But to those of 
us who can recall the days before 1890, the transformation that has been 
wrought is remarkable. 

1928 J. 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

No doubt the conditions in this particular sector were specially favour- 
able. The Romans are always popular, and it has never been difficult to 
stir up a lively interest in the search for any traces they may have left 
behind them. Again, it has been of immense service to have available for 
comparison and guidance the fruits of the labours of those who were 
simiiltaneously working on analogous problems in England and on the 
Continent. Finally, progress invariably tends to be more rapid when 
there are visible landmarks by which the rate of advance can be reckoned, 
and the Roman period is a period in which archaeology is continually making 
contact with history — in which, indeed, the ultimate test of success is the 
extent to which the two can be blended into one. In the nature of things 
it is impossible that the last of these three advantages should ever be 
enjoyed by students of epochs which cannot by any stretch of imagination 
be brought into connexion with written record. With the remaining two 
it is otherwise. In the first place I believe that public interest would 
respond readily to stimulation — and the case of Traprain Law shows that 
in such matters nothing succeeds like success. In the second, the oppor- 
tunities for comparative study are already considerable, and are multi- 
pl)dng under our very eyes. Only the other day we had the pleasure of 
welcoming to Scotland as our pioneer professor of Prehistoric Archaeology 
a scholar who has won his spurs in the Central European field. Now that 
he has made his home in our midst we may fairly venture to ask him : 
' Are not Forth and Tweed, rivers of Scotland, better than all the waters 
of the Danube ? ' If he can be persuaded to adopt. this point of view, I 
am confident that the happiest results may be anticipated when he has 
had time to organise research and to train the researchers. 

Professor Childe, I understand, has already been exploring Caithness and 
the Orkneys. I am sure that, as he extends the range of his voyages of 
discovery, he will be more and more deeply impressed with what I singled 
out as one of the distinctive features of Scottish archaeology — the richness 
of the prehistoric material that is still available for study. It may be 
worth while glancing at the reasons for this wealth. In all ages the 
distribution of population in a country is determined by economic con- 
siderations. It is obvious that men will elect to dwell in the regions where 
they can most readily obtain the means of subsistence, and it is equally 
obvious that in every country these regions will vary periodically according 
to the stage of civilisation that has been reached. To-day, for instance, 
the English Midlands are blackened by the smoke of innumerable chimneys, 
whereas in Roman times their damp and chilly soil was virtually un- 
tenanted. Our prehistoric forefathers found much of Scotland thickly 
wooded. The forests and the dense undergrowth must indeed have 
rendered it altogether unfit for occupation. Until the use of metal, and 
particularly of iron, had been adequately developed, systematic clearing 
would be impossible. Consequently, as the survey of the Royal Com- 
mission proceeds, it becomes increasingly plain that the prehistoric settlers 
tended to congregate in the areas which, for climatic or geographical 
reasons, were treeless in prehistoric times. But these are precisely the 
areas in which, under modern conditions and judged by modern standards, 
the land is least productive. As more fertile districts were opened up by 
the felling of trees and the draining of marshes, they became less and less 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 147 

worth the trouble of cultivation. Time has, therefore, dealt more tenderly 
with the monuments than would have been the case had they been exposed 
to constant danger from the plough and the pickaxe. Often the only 
damage they have suffered has been through natural decay. 

Thus much for their state of preservation. What about their number ? 
To the uninitiated this must always seem surprising. It has been calcu- 
lated that in Aberdeen and Kincardine alone there are some 200 stone 
circles. These, of course, are of the Bronze Age. Equally worthy of 
note is the abundance of remains belonging to the Early Iron Age. Thus 
the Inventories of the Royal Commission actually register as many as 67 
brochs in Sutherland and no fewer than 145 in Caithness. If the pottery 
and chambered cairns of the Neolithic Period are less spectacular, they 
are hardly less remarkable. In a word, it is not open to doubt that, in 
the days before history began, the North of Scotland and the Western and 
Northern Islands carried a population that was relatively very numerous. 
The contrast with the scene of desolation which they now present is often 
very striking. The stone circle of Callanish in Lewis, for instance — in 
itself almost as impressive as Stonehenge — -is situated in a veritable valley 
of vision. There are seven such circles within four miles of Callanish. 
As the eye turns from these gaunt monuments, rising here and there from 
the silence of the heather-clad hills, and rests for a moment on the 
straggling hamlet by the shore, the words of Isaiah spring to the lips : 
' Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and 
turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof.' 

How can we account for the change ? The solitude of to-day is easy 
enough to understand. It is the density of population in prehistoric times 
that calls for explanation. Various theories have been put forward. 
Only the other day, for example, I saw it seriously suggested that metal 
may have been the lure which attracted prehistoric peoples to the Western 
Isles. The theory has the glamour of romance, but I am afraid that it will 
not do. The Western Isles are not metalliferous and, in any event, we 
have got to reckon with a Neolithic population, who would certainly not 
go in search of something of whose very existence they were unaware. 
I am disposed to believe that the true solution of the problem is much 
simpler and that, as usual in such matters, the key will be provided by 
geography. That means distribution maps. As yet our supply of these 
is far from adequate. Imperfect as it is, however, it may prove sufficient 
for our present purpose, more especially as we can fortify ourselves by 
an appeal to the sister-science of history. 

Nowadays the vast majority of those who invade the Highlands and 
Islands approach them by way of Southern and Central Scotland. I 
have already indicated that in prehistoric times that avenue was barred. 
The Caledonian Forest, which spread far southwards into what we regard 
as the Lowlands, must have been an impenetrable obstacle. The early 
immigrants arrived by sea and reached the mainland via the Western 
Islands. This implies that they came from Ireland, and that it is in 
Ireland that the roots of Scottish prehistoric civilisation must be studied. 
At the moment, however, we are concerned, not with studying the roots, 
but merely with establishing a connexion between them and the full- 
grown plant. In other words, all that is necessary is to satisfy ourselves 

l2 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

as to the set of the current of migration. It is significant that as late as 
the dawn of the historic period it was flowing strongly towards the north 
and east. The Scots themselves were, of course, incomers from Ireland 
and, if we can trust Continental analogies regarding the movement of 
peoples, we may assume that the foundation of the kingdom of Dalriada 
was preceded by a prolonged process of gradual infiltration. I have more 
than a suspicion that the troubles which the Romans experienced, and in 
particular the restlessness which compelled them to abandon the Forth 
and Clyde wall, were in no small measure due to the encouragement which 
the turbulent natives received from the passage of a steady stream of 
reinforcements across the narrows of Stranraer. 

But the case for migration from Ireland in prehistoric times rests upon 
a basis more stable than analogy. Further excavation and an ampler 
supply of distribution-maps are needed to make it complete, particularly 
for the Neolithic Period. The evidence, however, is already considerable 
enough to furnish what may perhaps be accepted as convincing proof. 
Some years ago Mr. A. 0. Curie, in his Rhind Lectures, drew attention to 
the testimony supplied by cup-and-ring markings. Such markings, he 
pointed out, are recorded as occurring in twenty counties — Wigtown, 
Kirkcudbright, Roxburgh, Berwick, Ayr, Bute, Argyll, Dumbarton, 
Lanark, Mid and West Lothian, Peebles, Fife, Clackmannan, Perth, 
Forfar, Ross, Aberdeen, Sutherland and Caithness. The Royal Com- 
mission's survey of North Uist and Benbecula enables us to add Inverness 
to the list. But, for the proper interpretation of the record, Mr. Curie went 
on to say, we must have regard to the number of examples that have been 
noted in each of the various countries. The poverty of the three shires 
that march with England — Berwick a single example, Roxburgh two, 
Dumfries none at all — precludes the idea that the folk responsible for 
these mysterious sculpturings entered Scotland by crossing the Border. 
On the other hand, the area in which the markings are found in greatest 
number and with the greatest variation of device and complexity of design 
is exactly the region that lies over against Ireland — the coastal districts 
of West and South-West Scotland. They abound in Wigtown and 
Kirkcudbright, and are still more common in Argyll. As they are also 
frequent in Ireland, the inference seems plain. 

Cup-and-ring markings, in Scotland at least, must be associated with 
the phase of culture that was distinguished by the use of bronze. To 
discover what happened during the phase that succeeded it we may turn 
to the brochs. At the outset it has to be admitted that the broch was 
not imported from Ireland. There are no brochs in Ireland. The broch 
is a purely Scottish creation, evolved on Scottish soil. Nevertheless it is 
hardly possible to doubt that it was from the shores of Ireland that the 
ancestors of the broch-builders originally came. They certainly did not 
make their way into Scotland across the Border, any more than did the 
men who carved upon the rocks those mysterious cups and rings. There 
are no brochs at all in Dumfries or in Roxburgh. It is true that Berwick, 
Selkirk and Midlothian can boast of one apiece. But that is a paltry 
display compared with Orkney's 70 and Shetland's 75. Nor is it only 
their rarity in the south that is significant. The three sporadic examples 
I have named seem to show the characteristic features of this type of 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 149 

structure already fully developed. And the broch did not spring full-grown 
from the brain of some architectural genius of the prehistoric period : 
it was the outcome of a slow process of evolution. The southern brochs 
can only have been built by intruders from the north. 

We may go further. Seventeen or eighteen years ago, in surveying 
Sutherland and Caithness for the Royal Commission, Mr. Curie noted 
certain points which seemed to him to indicate a gradual improvement 
in the type as one moved inland from the western coast, and he saw in 
this — rightly, as I think — a clue to the drift of the population. His 
deduction has received remarkable confirmation from the Commission's 
recently published survey of Skye and the Outer Isles, as well as from the 
late Dr. Erskine Beveridge's investigations in Tiree. In the insular 
region we find brochs in reasonable abundance — 44 are recorded there by 
the Royal Commission — but we also find numerous specimens of what can 
best be described as the broch in the making. The so-called ' semi- 
brochs ' of Tiree, the ' galleried duns ' of the Hebrides and Skye, all alike 
appear to represent experiments in the architectural form which was 
destined to have its fullest expression on the mainland. As the broch- 
builders moved farther north and then farther east, they carried with 
them the fruits of their ripening experience. 

The facts of early Scottish history and the inferences as to the Bronze 
Age and the Early Iron Age are thus in complete accord. They bear out 
the view^ — ^in itself a priori probable — that for uncounted generations the 
trend of migration was from the direction of Ireland through the islands 
of the west coast to the north of Scotland. We may reasonably assume 
that an exhaustive examination of the chambered cairns, in continuance of 
the work carried out with such marked success by Professor Bryce, would 
give a similar result for the Neolithic Period. But, once the set of the 
current has been determined, it is not difficult to understand why regions, 
where the sheep and the deer now wander at will, should have been thickly 
populated in prehistoric times. Although the causes that prompted the 
movements of peoples in those far-off days are obscure, one of the most 
potent was certainly the demand that would be created for fresh means of 
subsistence when the mouths to be fed were multiplied. At intervals a 
surplus of humanity would be spilled from Ireland. In front there 
stretched but one open road, and that was a cul de sac. For, to those who 
followed this route. Northern Scotland was literally the end of the world. 
Long afterwards, under the pressure of a similar urge, a similar stream 
descended from Scandinavia. But the later immigrants came in stout 
ships, and could at need deflect their course, as they did, to the Faroes, 
to Iceland, even to Greenland. With the earlier wanderers it was different. 
When they had reached Unst, they would scan the horizon in vain for any 
sign of land to tempt their frail craft further. The ocean was an insur- 
mountable barrier. The flow from the south would be brought to a 
standstill on its shore, and the more nearly that limit was approached 
the greater would the congestion of population tend to become. This, 
I think, is the real secret of the abundance of Scotland's prehistoric remains. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE RELATION OF PHYSIOLOGY TO 
OTHER SCIENCES. 

ADDBESS BY 

PROF. C. LOVATT EVANS, D.Sc, M.R.C.S., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Our subject of physiology has developed so rapidly during the last few- 
decades, has taken so definite a place among the sciences, and has such 
intimate relations with other subjects, that its position as a branch of 
natural knowledge is one of some general interest. 

Physiology has a threefold appeal — as the master-key of medicine its 
practical value is self-evident, as a science it has now a distinctive position, 
while its relations to philosophy command the attention of all thoughtful 
men. We will consider it, for convenience sake, from these three stand- 
points. 

From the earliest times, physiological knowledge, whether known by 
that name or not, has had the closest association with medicine. It would 
indeed be difficult to imagine any great advance in the one that was not 
immediately reflected in the other. Their methods, though necessarily 
different, are convergent, their meeting-point being the disclosure of 
normal functions. It is the business of the physician to attend to the 
urgent call of pain and disease, and to use for their relief such information 
as he has at his disposal. As he does so he observes, compares, and draws 
conclusions on the basis of which a theory of the causation of the disorder 
may be built. The clinical observations and deductions drawn from them 
give a basis of rational physiological theory from which we have learnt 
that a state of disease is never a thing in itself, but is always a result of 
a quantitative change in some physiological process, an increase or 
diminution of something that was there to begin with. Reflection upon 
the observed bodily states in, say, a fever, jaundice, diabetes, nephritis, 
or even mental disorders, reveals only overaction or underaction of some 
physiological function as the feature which distinguishes the affected from 
the normal individual. It is perhaps easier to speak of the normal than 
to define it. In the long run, the normal is the description given by a 
majority of individuals of their own build or behaviour. It is abnormal 
to have unequal legs, to be eight feet high, or to believe the earth is flat ; 
but as no two individuals are exactly alike the definition of normality is 
more a matter of a statistical average than of precise definition. 

Disease is a departure from the normal which threatens life or which 
in some way reduces its value. The physician's duty with regard to it is 
a threefold one ; he must diagnose, prognose and treat. In diagnosis and 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 151 

prognosis he relies chiefly on past experience, and must also bring great 
skill and judgment to bear on each particular case. The symptoms of 
disease which enable him to make a diagnosis are very often of an 
adaptative or compensatory nature, and the application of physiology to 
the problems of medicine is often of considerable value from this point of 
view, since it teaches that the mere alleviation of symptoms may be quite 
the wrong way to attack the problem. In cardiac or renal dyspnoea, for 
example, the exaggerated breathing is of an adaptative nature — the 
patient is not ill because of the overbreathing but overbreathes in con- 
sequence of the disease and would possibly succumb if he did not. More 
usually the meaning of symptoms is less clear, and it is the difficidty in 
recognising the underlying causes of disease which makes the practice of 
medicine at once so exquisitely difficult and so fascinating. 

In treatment, too, two important principles arising from actual 
observation receive support from physiological knowledge. One is that 
the consequential alterations which take place in the course of the disease 
are of the nature of adaptations which tend to restore the function to 
normal ; these adaptations take the form of increase or diminution of 
some particular factor, of hypertrophy or atrophy often of some definite 
organ, always of some function — it is, in fact, the Vis medicatrix of the older 
physicians, the underlying principle of expectant treatment. The other 
principle is that nearly all positive measures of treatment, including 
drugs, produce their effects by augmenting or restricting some function or 
other. 

The applied aspects of physiological knowledge concern the related 
subjects of hygiene and preventive medicine, medicine, surgery, and 
veterinary and agricultural sciences in their widest senses. 

Investigations on diet, ventilation, industrial fatigue, and on the 
contraction of and resistance to infections, soundly based on the fundamental 
principles of physiology, have done much to make conditions of life more 
tolerable for the present generations than for their predecessors. Few 
medical students at the present time become acquainted with those severe 
or fatal cases of rickets, scurvy, diabetes or pernicious anaemia which we 
all knew could be seen in the wards of any large hospital twenty years ago, 
and this gift of life and health to the afSicted is the grateful offering of 
physiological research to its respected parent, medicine. 

No aspect of scientific activity is so generally misunderstood as that 
which concerns the making of discoveries, and in matters of medical 
research ignorance is particularly widespread. 

The popular idea seems to be that an investigator sets out with the 
intention of making a particular discovery, such as a new element, or a 
cure for a certain disease, but every scientific worker knows that real 
discovery, as distinct from invention, is never achieved in this way. A 
discovery is the process by which an idea of new relationships is revealed, 
and involves two factors, observation and reflection. The origin may be 
a chance observation which suggests a hitherto unappreciated relation, 
and leads to the formulation of an hypothesis which, if possible, is then 
deliberately tested by experiment. The history of the discovery of 
insulin may be given as an illustration. The fundamental discovery here 
was made by a chance observation that removal of the pancreas produced 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

diabetes ; from that time onwards it was evident that if the missing 
pancreatic function could be replaced a cure would be possible, and it was 
justifiable deliberately to search for some means of doing this. But the 
search was in vain until another new idea came into physiology by reason 
of the discovery of the existence of autacoids. From this point on all 
was clear in theory, and it is no detraction from the merit of subsequent 
work to say that the final happy result depended principally upon 
inventive technique and manipulative skill, and only in a lesser degree 
upon discovery. 

Discoveries are infrequent, in a sense fortuitous, and often dependent 
on rare qualities of intellect as well as on accurate observations, and they 
mostly come out of the fullness of time. 

We all feel great pride in recalling that one of the greatest of all dis- 
coveries, which has recently been celebrated at the tercentenary of the 
publication of William Harvey's famous book " de motu cordis," was made 
in our own country. Here was a genuine revelation that put old facts in 
a new light. It is of interest to reflect that the hospital at which Harvey 
was a physician had been carrying on its work as such for over 500 years 
at the time his discovery was made. What fundamental changes in the 
outlook of the physician and surgeon has that hospital seen during the 
ensuing 300 years in consequence of his revelation ! And what further 
mutations in thought and practice will it have witnessed when Harvey 
stands as a beacon half-way in its eventful history ? For we are privileged 
to live in times pregnant with opportunity for the science of medicine. 

Incidentally it has been claimed, with more audacity than insight, that 
experiments upon living animals serve no useful purpose, and it has even 
been pretended that Harvey had no need for such experiments in the 
classical researches which formed the foundations of physiology and gave 
reason to physic. Yet we have Harvey's own words. . . . ' At length, 
and by using greater and daily diligence, having frequent recourse to 
vivisections, employing a variety of animals for the purpose, and collating 
numerous observations, I thought that I had attained to the truth, that 
I should extricate myself and escape from this labyrinth, and that I had 
discovered what I so much desired, both the motion and the use of the 
heart and arteries.' 

The experimental method, which was revived by Harvey, now forms 
the permanent basis of physiological as of medical knowledge, and in 
spite of all criticisms must obviously remain so. Riolan, in advancing 
against Harvey the criticism that ' it is a mockery to attempt to show the 
circulation in man by the study of brutes,' was, as Gley has recently 
remarked, ' already employing the argument, if it can be called one, 
which is encountered under the pen of the antivivisectionists of all times, 
and which illustrates the diuturnity of ignorance and folly.' 

Let anyone with sufficient acquaintance with physiology try to write 
an account of such of the main facts concerning the functions of the 
heart and of the circulation as are most valuable in medicine, without 
reference to any fact obtained directly or indirectly by animal experimenta- 
tion, and he will find his essay a very sorry one indeed : for no doctor can 
use a stethoscope, feel a pulse, take a blood-pressure, administer a 
hypodermic, give an anaesthetic or a transfusion, perform any modern 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 153 

operations, or indeed take any steps in diagnosis, prognosis or treatment, 
without utilising at every turn knowledge derived from the results of 
animal experimentation and obtainable in no other way. And every 
medical man, even those few who for various reasons prefer the publicity 
of an antivivisection platform to the obscurity to which they are properly 
entitled, knows these things perfectly well, and if he practises, acts upon 
them every day of his life. 

Another useful application of physiological knowledge is that of the 
science of ventilation, including the use of mine rescue apparatus, which 
began to take shape during the eighteenth century in the hands of Stephen 
Hales, while a little later Joseph Black, a professor, be it noted, of medicine 
and chemistry in this ancient University of Glasgow, discovered carbon 
dioxide, and Priestley oxygen. The use of submarines, of oxygen sets 
for aviators and mountaineers, of gas respirators and caissons, and the 
means for the scientific study of industrial fatigue and of athletic per- 
formances, have all descended as practical outcomes of this respiratory 
physiology. 

To take another example in more recent times one may mention 
Joseph Lister, a cherished link between University College, London, and 
the University of Glasgow, that indefatigable experimenter who made as 
valuable contributions to physiological knowledge as to surgery. The 
revolution in surgical technique which we owe to his largely physiological 
investigations is as striking as the changes in the outlook of medicine 
introduced by Harvey. Erichsen, a teacher of Lister, had said not long 
before that operative surgery had reached the limit of its perfection and 
that the surgeon's knife would never safely penetrate such parts as the 
brain, chest or abdomen. 

The subject of pharmacology is very closely connected with physiology 
on the one hand and therapeutics on the other. As a branch of physio- 
logical work it has the highest scientific as well as practical importance ; 
for the study of the mode of action of drugs by providing a means of 
studying the effect of definite chemical alterations in the environment on 
the reactions of the living cells cannot fail to serve as a powerful instrument 
of physiological research. Rational therapeutics, based on the results of 
pharmacological study, also will carry into the wards the spirit of true 
scientific investigation, and the provision of beds in some hospitals for the 
use of the Professor of Therapeutics is an indication that definite progress 
is being made in this direction. Such an advance has not come before 
it is needed. If the medical practitioner is to compete successfully with 
osteopaths, chiropractors and other similar unqualified persons, he is 
most likely to do so by only prescribing treatment with proper scientific 
basis. He should be able to form some opinion with regard to the claims 
of advertisers of remedies who contribute so large a share towards his 
daily mail deliveries, and many of whom would be unable to exist were 
it not for the fact that the average doctor is often as easily deceived with 
their pseudo-scientific puff as any layman. 

If physiology may with pride point to the way in which it has con- 
tributed to the development of medicine, surgery, hygiene, and veterinary 
science, it must with gratitude acknowledge that its inspiration has largely 
come from them too. A clinical friend of mine has written that 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

' physiology can only come to the aid of medicine with becoming modesty, 
and without overweening dogmatism. There is no finality about either, 
but they can co-operate usefully . . .' and I thoroughly agree with him, 
not only because I recognise, as a physiologist, that my subject has been 
nourished largely by the problems of the bedside, but also because I think 
that modesty is the only attitude compatible with the ignorance of all of 
us when we view the handiwork of nature however revealed. 

At this point I would like to digress a little to say a few words about 
the training of medical students in physiology. This has two objects in 
view, first to equip these students with a grasp of physiology such as will 
enable them later on to build a proper rational knowledge of medicine 
and surgery ; second, to encourage them further to advance medical and 
surgical knowledge, and in special cases physiology itself. With certain 
reservations, I do not think that these two objects are at all incompatible 
at the present time. 

A hundred years ago the common portal of entry into the medical 
profession was by a preliminary apprenticeship, begun at the age of 
about fourteen, to a doctor or apothecary, as often as not in the country. 
This lasted for five years, after which it was usual for the student to 
' walk the hospitals ' at some great centre, the chief in London being St. 
Bartholomew's and Guy's Hospitals. Here he could also attend some 
lectures on anatomy (including physiology), botany, medicine, surgery 
and midwifery, and there were also courses of dissections. The require- 
ments of licensing bodies were, however, fragmentary. The College 
of Physicians had no definite curriculum of professional study before 
1845. In Scotland physiology was incorporated, as the ' Institutes of 
Medicine,' with some teaching of general pathology and elementary 
clinical medicine. 

The medical students of Dickens — for example. Bob Sawyer, who 
' eschewed gloves, and looked upon the whole something like a dissipated 
Robinson Crusoe ' — were caricatures of the students of this period. 

There were few medical students in England outside London a century 
ago ; Oxford and Cambridge together averaged six medical graduates a 
year. Edinburgh produced about 100-120. In England it was only the 
handful of University men who received anything like a preliminary 
education before entering hospital. 

A notable step was taken in London with the foundation of University 
College, then called the University of London. In his introductory 
address at the opening of the University in 1827, Sir Charles Bell said : 
' With respect to our students, the defects of their mode of education are 
acknowledged on all hands. They are at once engaged in medical studies 
without adequate preparation of the mind ; that is to say, without having 
acquired the habit of attention to a course of reasoning ; nor are they 
acquainted with those sciences which are really necessary to prepare for 
comprehending the elements of their own profession. But in this place 
this is probably the last time they will be unprepared, for example, for 
such subjects as we must touch to-day. In future, they will come here 
to apply the principles they have acquired in other class rooms to a new 
and more useful science.' 

In the first year 165 students entered the new college, and classes were 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 155 

held in chemistry, zoology, anatomy (and physiology), and on various 
clinical subjects. 

Jumping forward now about forty years to 1867, we find the curriculum 
has expanded very much. First, there came the influence of Liebig and 
chemistry, and by about 1850 or 1860 we find chemistry, mostly inorganic, 
a regular requirement by all licensing bodies. A chemical laboratory was 
first constructed at St. Bartholomew's for instance in 1866. The University 
of London now required at a pre-clinical examination a knowledge of 
chemistry, botany, natural philosophy, anatomy, organic chemistry, 
physiology and materia medica. A contemporary writer gives an account 
of the students of this period from which it appears that the medical 
student has since changed more in appearance than in ways, for he says 
that the principal aim of some of them was preservation of their glossy 
hats and exquisite coat-tails, gloves and sticks, while the throwing of 
paper balls was already an established tradition among them. 

Although lectures on physiology are mentioned at this time, there was 
no separate Chair of Physiology in England until 1874, when Sharpey, who 
had been Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at University College, was 
succeeded by Burdon Sanderson as the first Professor of Physiology. The 
first practical classes in Physiology were held there by a pupil of Sharpey, 
Michael Foster, and consisted of histology, experimental physiology and 
rudimentary physiological chemistry. To quote Foster's own words, 
' What could be done then was very, very little. I had a very small room. 
I had a few microscopes. But I began to carry out the instruction in a 
more systematic manner than had been done before. For instance, I 
made the men prepare the tissues for themselves. That was a new thing 
in histology. And I also made them do for themselves simple experiments 
on muscles and nerves and other tissues in live animals. That, I may say, 
was the beginning of the teaching of practical physiology in England.' 

We realise from these dates that Physiology in Britain had fallen very 
far behind when compared with the Continent, for Ludwig, in Germany, 
who obtained a separate Chair of Physiology in 1865, and Claude Bernard 
in France, had raised the subject to a high level by the time that Physiology 
in England was being reborn, through the activities of Sharpey and his 
pupils Foster and Burdon Sanderson. 

The teaching of physiology is, very properly, largely influenced by 
contemporary research work, and the exact matter taught must, therefore, 
be expected gradually to undergo change as the focus of research interests 
shifts. 

It was only natural that the new English physiology should receive the 
stamp of the men who recreated it, and that histology through Sharpey, 
and nerve-muscle physiology through the influence of Burdon Sanderson, 
should occupy a prominent place. For about thirty years in fact the nerve- 
muscle physiology threatened to eclipse all other branches of experimental 
work, and it was this flight into questions which appeared to be chiefly 
of academic interest which was, I think, largely responsible for the regret- 
table estrangement between the newly liberated science and its parent 
subject of medicine which marked that period of its development, and of 
which traces still linger to this day in some of the more elderly repre- 
sentatives of both subjects. At the present day we must admit that the 



156 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

knowledge gathered by those of our predecessors who worked at the 
physiology of muscle and nerve has proved of great value in directing 
physiological inquiry along scientific lines, from which the science of 
medicine has profited as much as physiology itself. The interesting 
revival of the study of the same subjects by more accurate methods 
within the past few years has further enriched our insight into the 
fundamental phenomena of life and vindicated the opinions of our 
predecessors as to the value of such investigations. 

The development of physiological chemistry, now often called bio- 
chemistry, in this country was largely due to the influence of Prof. W. D. 
Halliburton, whose ' Chemical Physiology and Pathology ' was for many 
years the only comprehensive English textbook on the subject. The 
growing importance of organic chemistry led to its introduction into the 
medical curriculum, in connexion with biological chemistry, and in 
recent years the similar position of physical chemistry has led to its 
inclusion in some form or other in the curriculum of most medical schools. 

Whereas in the sixties the student's chief study was anatomy with 
some botany and chemistry, there have now grown up as special courses 
of instruction, each with its professor or other specialised teacher, courses 
in the preliminary sciences and in anatomy, neurology, histology, 
embryology, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, physiology, experi- 
mental physiology and biochemistry, with pharmacology often thrown 
in as a makeweight to fill up any spare time the student may have left. 
Sometimes even special courses of human physiology are added. Here is 
the great dilemma of the medical curriculum : with all these special 
departments, each urging that its subject is of prime importance in the 
course, how can the poor student rightly direct his steps, and be enabled 
to see the wood for the trees 1 Yet, so great is the expansion in each of 
these subjects, that unless some at least of them are dealt with by specialists 
the student's instruction will unquestionably be obsolete in parts. 

The solution to the difficulty lies, in my opinion, in two directions : 
first in the extensive modification of the present system of examinations, 
and secondly in the exercise of a sympathetic understanding on the part 
of specialist teachers of the difficulties of the student and a proper 
perspective of the relation of his own subject to the requirements of the 
curriculum as a whole. We have a sacred trust : it is the duty of those 
of us who are teachers of physiology to hand on to our successors, not the 
science as we inherited it, but a science which we and our contemporaries 
have ourselves improved and enriched to the best of our ability. 

Out of the multitudinous and tumultuous activities of scientific labour 
new principles gradually emerge, and the truth appears in a constantly 
changing garb. As I have said before, research reflects itself in teaching, 
and it is accordingly necessary that teaching should be reviewed from time 
to time, that new matter be introduced in so far as it is of general 
importance, and old matter rejected as soon as its immediate value 
diminishes. I should very much like, for similar reasons, to see profound 
alterations in the teaching of chemistry, both inorganic and organic, to 
medical students. 

It is. in my opinion, quite impossible, and perhaps undesirable, at the 
present time to frame instruction in physiology so as adequately to equip 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 157 

the ordinary medical student to proceed directly to the prosecution of 
research in any of its branches ; this can only be achieved by a further 
year or two of study of the subject, such as by a science course for an 
honours degree. One of the objects of instruction is to enable the latest 
results of physiological investigation to be utilised in the clinic, and it 
seems to me that one of the best ways for this to be effected is for some 
workers specially trained in physiological methods to enter the staff of 
clinical units where facilities for research work are at hand. The opinion 
was at one time prevalent among many clinicians that if their problems 
required the use of methods similar to those of experimental physiology 
these should be farmed out to a physiologist, and although there are 
cases where this procedure may be followed with advantage, the rich 
harvest which has already been reaped by the importation of physiological 
knowledge and methods into, rather than the export of problems from, the 
clinic, is adequate justification for the former. It is in any case encouraging 
to note the present-day decline of the attitude that experimental investiga- 
tion is work of a lower order, which can be put out like so much washing, 
for the employment of an inferior caste. We at the present day, however 
we may be labelled, are not merely willing to admit, but eager to assert, 
that we cannot recognise fundamentally distinct methods of physiology, 
of psychology, of medicine, of chemistry, or of physics ; we only admit a 
method of experimental inquiry common to all science and slightly modified 
to suit particular cases. 

The close connexion which is now generally admitted between 
physiology and medicine was clearly foreseen by Claude Bernard in 1855. 
Medicine, he said, is a science, and physicians who describe it as an art 
injure it, because ' they exalt a physician's personality by lowering the 
importance of science.' ' True experimenting physicians,' he says, ' should 
be no more perplexed at a patient's bedside than empirical physicians. 
They will make use of all the therapeutic means advised by empiricism ; 
only, instead of using them according to authority and with a confidence 
akin to superstition, they will administer them with that philosophic 
doubt which is appropriate to true experimenters.' And this attitude, 
I venture to think, is the one which is almost universal to-day. 

Scientific Aspects. 

Physiology takes its place as a science in proportion as its data are 
accurate and its principles fall into line with those in the other sciences. 
My great teacher Starling said that science has only one language, that 
of quantity, and but one argument, that of experiment. The qualitative 
observations of one generation tend to become quantitative at a later 
stage of development of a science, and the degree of development of a 
science can indeed to some extent be judged by the extent to which it 
falls into a scheme of the unity of science by giving results which are 
capable of mathematical treatment and of expression in broad general 
principles. 

I recollect that when I first took up the study of chemistry the 
acquaintance of most chemists with any of the branches of mathematics 
was so slight that there was on the market a book on arithmetical chemistry. 
Shortly after that time the progress of physical chemistry on the Continent 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

had become so definite that it came to be considered quite a useful thing 
for a chemist to acquire some knowledge of the higher mathematics, and 
the appearance in Britain of a textbook of higher mathematics for students 
of chemistry and physics rendered great service by introducing the kind 
of mathematics that was likely to be of value in application to these 
subjects. 

What has happened in physics and chemistry may be reasonably 
expected to happen in biology so soon as it is able by improvement in 
the accuracy of its methods, and by progress in the formulation of its 
problems, to employ mathematics with profit in the manipulation of data 
and in the construction of those generalisations which are landmarks of 
progress in all the sciences ; indeed we are, I think, now witnessing the 
commencement of such a phase in the development of our own subject. 
The many facets of physiological inquiry make it incumbent on all of us 
to possess some knowledge of one or more related subjects, and I know 
of no more promising collateral subject which a young physiologist could 
take up at the present time, as an alternative to chemistry or biology, 
than the study of mathematics. But those who do take it up should do 
so for the purposes of utilising it in their own experimental work, not 
merely for the purpose of surveying results obtained by others, and still 
less in order to ' lend an air of verisimilitude to an otherwise bald and 
unconvincing narrative.' Mathematics is a most valuable aid to reasoning, 
and it can be of no real use to physiology except when it leads to clarifica- 
tion of thought both of an author and of his readers.. Under any other 
circumstances its introduction into biological literature is, I think, of 
extreme danger, because of the superstition, common alike to those who 
write and those who read, that anything expressed in mathematical form 
must be accepted as correct without any further question. 

Mathematics and mathematical physics have been of considerable 
use to physiology in increasing the accuracy of its experimental data, 
and this in two ways. First, by bringing the accurate experimental and 
intellectual methods of physics to bear on the construction and use of the 
numerous physical instruments which it employs. It has been said by 
Prof. A. V. Hill that many of the early investigations on muscle were in 
reality studies of the properties of levers, and it is certain that similar 
remarks apply to only too many investigations in which the properties 
of the apparatus used have not been suitably investigated. As illustra- 
tions of the value of mathematical-physical study of apparatus one may 
mention the classical investigations of Frank on hsemodynamical recording 
apparatus, the fundamental treatment of string galvanometers and similar 
instruments by Einthoven, the correction of capillary electrometer records 
by Keith Lucas, and the vast improvements in galvanometer systems 
effected by Downing and Hill. 

Even when the apparatus at the disposal of the physiologist is un- 
exceptionable, however, it is often the fact that, owing to the nature of 
the subject, results are not susceptible of repetition with the same ease and 
certainty as are those of chemical or physical experiments. The variability 
of the results is due in such cases to what are called accidental circum- 
stances, a term which in reality means circumstances over which we have 
no control, owing either to our ignorance of their nature, or else to our 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 159 

inability to alter them. In those cases where further study provides 
methods of more fully understanding and therefore more adequately 
controlling these circumstances, valuable results follow almost at once. 
For instance, certain of the obscure causes of different behaviour under 
particular conditions are inborn, and can be controlled by the use of 
inbred strains of animals such as those of the standard inbred white rats ; 
or again, one may mention the far-reaching results of the observation by 
Pavlov that the utmost care must be exercised when studying the con- 
ditioned reflexes to exclude all stimuli however trivial they may appear, 
except the one under consideration. 

Under the most favourable conditions, however, it has up to the 
present been usual to find a considerable imavoidable margin of 
variation in the results of many physiological experiments. By regarding 
these provisionally as ' chance ' variations, considerable help may be 
obtained by the application of the theory of errors, based on the theory of 
probability. In reality this is an empirical method of which Poiucare 
has said that ' everybody firmly believes in it, because mathematicians 
imagine that it is a fact of observation, and observers that it is a theorem 
of mathematics,' but nevertheless, although it cannot, as seems sometimes 
to be assumed, be used to replace accurate observation, it does enable a 
result to be brought out which might otherwise be obscured by small 
variations beyond our control. Research by such statistical methods 
provides a useful method of investigation, as, for instance, in the study 
of the toxic or other action of drugs, the data of the oestrus cycle, &c. 
An elementary deduction which can be drawn from the consideration 
of these facts is that, where only a few experiments of any kind are 
performed, important conclusions cannot be drawn unless it can 
be shown that the conditions are so controlled, and the accuracy of the 
actual observations so high that the sum of the individual ' chance ' 
variations must be small. Observation of this precaution would, in my 
opinion, reduce the bulk of contemporary physiological literature very 
materially, with a corresponding improvement in its quality. 

Lastly, as a means for evolving generalisations out of experimental 
data, and of bringing these into relation with the generalisations of other 
branches of science, the use of mathematics is incontestable. One need 
only mention as examples the fresh outlook which has been provided for 
further investigation by the exact study of the data relative to the segrega- 
tion and recombination of hereditary factors, the beautiful investigations 
of L. J. Henderson on the equilibria in the blood, the theoretical study 
of the phenomena of excitation, the employment of thermo-dynamics 
and the numerous other applications of physico-chemical theory. 

Certain applications of physics to physiology are quite clear-cut and 
need no further comment ; but in many respects conventional physics 
has for our purposes serious limitations, which the physiologist must try 
to make good by his own investigations. For instance, many hydro- 
dynamical problems of a specialised kind are connected with the study of 
the circulation. The physical theory of the flow of homogeneous liquids 
in wide, rigid, unbranched tubes is fairly well established, though, I under- 
stand, somewhat abstruse. But when we come to study the physical 
aspects of a pulsatile flow of a heterogeneous mixture like blood along 



160 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

tubes whicli are branched and of varying degrees of elasticity, of diameters 
whicb in the same system range from several centimetres down to a few 
microns, and these subject to variations, we can expect little help from 
orthodox physics, which is not in the habit of working with so many 
independent variables. 

It follows that much of our physics, if it is worth calling that, must of 
necessity be empirical for the present. This is not a defect in physiology 
— ^it is a defect in physical knowledge. 

Chemistry and physiology having both originally sprung from the 
art and practice of medicine, it is little matter for surprise that such a 
rich harvest has been reaped by their reunion in the form of biochemistry. 
Although these developments were foreshadowed by the intuition, if not 
by the actual achievements, of the iatro-chemists of the sixteenth century, 
little advance was possible until chemistry had, by separation from medicine, 
established its position as an independent science. So that it was not 
until about 1840 that organic chemistry and biochemistry were able, 
chiefly owing to the inspiration of Liebig, to make rapid progress, at least 
on the Continent. There is probably no branch of chemistry that is 
entirely without interest to physiology, but of course preference must 
always be given to organic and physical chemistry. It is significant that 
at the present time a steadily increasing number of young highly trained 
organic chemists consider it worth their while to turn to biochemistry ; 
their welcome entry into our ranks gives us fresh hope and faith in our 
future, as well as in theirs. Already one can pdint to many achievements 
of the organic chemist applying himself to our problems, the work of 
Fischer on the carbohydrates, purine bodies and proteins and amino- 
acids, the more recent work on adrenaline, the identification of carnosine, 
glutathione, the structure of thyroxine and the natural bases, of which 
histamine threatens to rival or even to eclipse lactic acid in its importance 
to the physiologist. As is usually the case, rapid developments in bio- 
chemistry have followed improvements of technique ; the advances in 
micro-methods of analysis, without which insulin would probably not have 
been discovered, or the constitution of thyroxin made known, have played 
a very important part ; the same applies to the whole subject of physical 
chemistry, much of which, like colloid chemistry and the theories of buffer 
action, has been built up in response to biochemical requirements. Since 
the central problems of biochemistry are dynamical, most of its subject- 
matter must be treated from that standpoint, and here again the debt 
to physical chemistry must be recognised, particularly in regard to 
the study of enzyme action, and more recently of iuterfacial and 
membrane equilibria, of the molecular structure of surfaces, and of the 
phenomena of activation and the thermodynamics of oxidation-reduction 
phenomena. 

Whether a biochemist should be primarily a chemist or a biologist is 
a question which has been much debated in private, though little in public. 
Personally I see no reason why he should not be both. If he must have 
one label, it is better that of the chemist, provided always that the bio- 
chemist works in the closest possible association with the physiologist. 
This is most essential if both are not to be deprived of much valuable 
interchange of ideas and, on a lower plane, of materials and apparatus. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 161 

In fact, I am convinced that within the limits of administrative possibility 
the greater the variety of workers brought together the better the 
resxilts. 

So much for the exact sciences. Their value to physiology is immense. 
They help us to interpret phenomena, but not to predict. In a word 
physiology is something more than biochemistry and biophysics ; it is, 
and will always remain, a biological subject. 

As its nearest neighbour among the biological sciences, zoology should 
have the closest relations with physiology, yet it is curious that during 
several decades, for reasons which need not now be discussed, these two 
subjects were as the poles apart. The newly disinterred subject of com- 
parative physiology, however, bears witness to a returning interest of 
zoologists in the experimental study of function as against mere morpho- 
logical classification, as well as of physiologists in comparative function 
as a valuable means of throwing light on their own special problems. For 
there can surely be no more fruitful means of studying that response to 
altered conditions which we know as structural adaptation, and which 
we consider as only a special case of response to a stimulus, than the study 
by physiological methods of those examples of homology and analogy 
with which zoological science can so abundantly supply us. 

With the science of botany, except in its most general principles, 
physiology has a less direct connexion, though here too the demonstration 
of fundamental points of resemblance in the metabolism of plants and 
animals, and the fact of the mutual dependence of the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms on each other, reminds us that we cannot afford to ignore the 
physiology of any living thing. Nor, in this connexion, should we forget 
that many valuable suggestions have arisen from plant physiology — the 
discovery of the cell, of Brownian movement, of osmotic pressure, and 
the notion of the storage of food materials, for instance. 

The relation of anatomy to physiology can best be understood if we 
recall the fact that when the time was ripe physiology separated ofi from 
anatomy, taking with it all those dynamic problems which concerned 
function, and leaving anatomy literally little but the dry bones. The 
stationary condition of anatomy during the last decades of the nineteenth 
century was similar to that of zoology, and indeed had similar causes, and 
was little relieved by the subsequent incorporation of anthropology and 
embryology. Histology had in most countries remained with anatomy, 
and had for the most part been content, like it, merely to describe the 
structure of preserved dead things. In Britain, it is true, histology had 
until quite recently everywhere remained with physiology, and had 
perhaps fared no better, for although the British, like their Continental 
friends, did * nothing in particular,' they did not do it very well, for we 
must admit that histology had degenerated into a merely descriptive 
subject, supplemented by training in a useful technique, and by the 
identification of specimens. Nevertheless, there were rays of hope, and 
occasional hints, as in Bowman's researches on the kidney, Hardy's study 
of the structure of protoplasm, Langley's investigation of the changes in 
glands during secretion, or more recently Herring's careful study of the 
pituitary body, that the problems of function had not been entirely lost 
sight of, and that the large mass of histological information which had 

1928 M 



162 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been collected iniglit become valuable if only the fundamental question 
as to the reality of the structures described could be settled. 

At the present time some English schools have followed the American 
and Continental practice, and handed histology over to anatomy, and 
though I am personally not at all convinced of the justification of this 
step, yet in view of the indications of quickening in the subject of anatomy 
during the past two decades, it no doubt is best to suspend judgment as 
to the ultimate result of the transfer. The portents of the approach of 
a more live and scientific type of anatomy, of an anatomy of a kind far 
more useful to physiology and to medicine, are many. The study of the 
relations of organs in the living body, of the functional significance of 
structure, the newer experimental histology, as typified by studies with 
ultra-violet illumination, ultra-microscopy, micro-dissection of live cells, 
tissue culture, micro-chemistry and the remarkable development of 
experimental embryology, bring to the physiologist joy and hope, and the 
conviction that the artificial line of demarcation between anatomy and 
physiology will happily soon be a thing of the past. 

The relations of anatomy and physiology to pathology are, or should 
be, as close as those with each other. When the separation of 
physiology from anatomy took place many methods and problems which 
rightly belonged to pathology went with it — such problems of nutrition 
as inanition, rickets, diabetes, ketosis and acidosis, or jaundice, and of 
the circulation as heart-block, fibrillation, and so forth. These and many 
other problems were studied in the physiological laboratory by methods 
which physiology had come jealously to claim as its own ; the dead study 
of anatomy led to a pathology of the dead in preference to that of the 
living, and the euphemism so common in the wards ' when this case 
comes to the pathologist,' meaning ' when this patient is dead,' is significant 
of this state of affairs. Yet it must be quite apparent that pathology and 
medical science can only take as their starting-point the study of the 
normal individual as presented by physiology. 

Instead of this, the experimental side of pathology has up to the 
present been almost entirely directed to the study of bacteriology, which, 
though well enough in its way, is too narrow and superficial, because it 
gives insufficient information as to the relation between bacteria, their 
products and the tissue cells on which either infection or immunity can 
be explained. Now that the subject of physiology is so far advanced, 
the time is ripe, if not overdue, I think, for the pathologist to come into 
his own, and for the subject of experimental pathology, with ramifications 
similar to those of physiology, to attract some of the best brains in the 
world of biological workers. And, if the knowledge of service rendered 
to their fellows be regarded as payment, they will be well paid. 

The subject of psychology was until recently included at the British 
Association as a sub-section of physiology. As a science psychology must 
always retain the closest links with physiology, and I think that in the 
future these links will be strengthened rather than weakened. The 
researches of Pavlov on the conditioned reflexes will undoubtedly 
revolutionise the study of physiological psychology, and I need offer no 
further comment on their scientific excellence, or on the general approval 
they have won, beyond reminding you that they have already been con- 
demned by Mr. Bernard Shaw. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 163 

I have, I hope, said enough to lend emphasis to my principal point, 
which is that the subject of physiology has the most intimate and vital 
contact with all biological subjects, with the fundamental sciences, and 
with medicine. It is, in fact, one of the best possible illustrations of 
Herbert Spencer's idea that ' the sciences are arts to one another.' It 
has often been said that science knows no frontiers and no nationalities. 
If we apply this a little nearer home we shall all look forward to the day 
when departments will merely indicate administrative boundaries and 
not intellectual compartments. In the meantime it is to be hoped that 
increasing numbers of young people specially trained in other sciences 
will think it worth their while to try to understand what physiology is 
and what it is striving for, and that they will come to our aid with their 
own special implements and standpoints. 

Philosophical Position. 

Although the application of those sciences which are called ' exact ' 
is of immense value to physiology, we must be under no misapprehension 
as to their real relation, which is merely that they enable the phenomena 
of life to be described more accurately. They in no way furnish an 
explanation of those phenomena or enable us, without direct reference to 
physiological facts, to forecast them. The so-called exact sciences appear 
to be so because of the simplifications of which they are capable, by reason 
of which problems can readily be formulated and attacked. Disturbing 
conditions can provisionally be ignored or allowed for, and a first approxi- 
mation reached which can be corrected later. In biology this can less 
readily be done. It is the failure to appreciate this elementary fact which 
leads some of those trained only in the methods of the exact sciences into 
the most palpable and unpardonable blunders when they attack biological 
problems. To take a simple illustration, no amount of pure physics, 
chemistry and mathematics would have enabled the intricate and beautiful 
physico-chemical adaptations which have been shown by L. J. Henderson 
to happen in blood, to have been predicted, because these adaptations 
depend, among other things, on the presence of membranes round the 
red cells, fashioned by the living cells and having properties incapable of 
prediction. The investigation of the equilibria themselves, in their 
physiological significance, was a necessary preliminary to the introduction 
of physico-chemical theory. When these phenomena, and deductions 
from them, became known, it was possible for the physical chemist to 
step in, apply the appropriate theories, and thus enable the phenomena 
to be more accurately described in his own language. 

But the fact remains that this description turns entirely on the postu- 
lated physico-chemical properties of the membranes as deduced from 
their actual behaviour under given conditions in what are in reality 
physiological experiments. It brings us no nearer to an explanation, 
perhaps, but it certainly does enable us to link up some of the phenomena 
of life with phenomena in the non-living, and so to describe them in 
terms which we think we understand better, because for some reason 
we regard physics and chemistry as more fundamental sciences than 
biology. Whether they are really more exact, however, is a point which 
might be debated. 

m2 



164 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The process of application of the exact sciences to physiology consists 
in reality of studying the phenomena themselves and then adopting the 
most plausible explanation capable of formulation in terms of the exact 
science. There is no other way. But let us be under no illusion about 
finding final explanations of what life is by this or any other methods. 

The enormously rapid developments of physics in recent years strike 
the uninitiated onlooker dumb with an almost religious awe. Matter 
and energy are as fleeting as time, and the ingenuity of man has spanned 
the mighty extent of the known universe. Matter, energy, time and space 
are in the melting-pot, and out of it will come we know not what of strange 
relations of one to another. Of one thing we may be sure — that no final 
explanation will follow. Lines of separation previously held to be rigid 
will probably fade away, and there will be found to be a continuity between 
matter and energy, between living and non-living, between the conscious 
and the unconscious. But since philosophy cannot arrive at an explana- 
tion of the nature of human understanding, the great mystery of the 
origin, nature and purpose of life will, I think, always remain to tease, 
stimulate or humiliate us. 

Each must decide for himself what view he takes, and as many of our 
religious and philosophical beliefs are no doubt unconscious wish-fulfil- 
ments, I feel that it ultimately amounts to our decisions being dependent 
upon our individual temperaments, or, in other words, on our personal 
physiological make-up. 

It was pointed out long ago by Claude Bernard that all a priori defini- 
tions of life, like those of time, space or matter, are futile, since they 
usually themselves imply the thing defined. Let us take one or two 
famous definitions of life as examples. Bichat in 1818 defined life as 
' the sum total of those functions which resist death.' Here we have 
two opposed ideas, life and death. ' All that lives will die ; all that is 
dead has lived.' For Bichat life is a struggle of the living thing against 
an environment which seeks to destroy it, but it is clear that the idea of 
life as opposed to death is implicit in the defijiition. This idea of an 
internal teleological principle, of entelechy, runs through all biological 
writings back to Aristotle, with whom we believe it to have originated. 
The amoeba which encysts itself does so in order to defy adverse conditions 
in its environment. The ' calculating intelligence ' postulated by Kant 
directs this response. 

Another definition of life which has been much favoured of late is the 
mechanistic one in various forms ; ' life is a special activity of organised 
things.' Here again the definition implies the idea itself. The possession 
and maintenance of a definite structure cannot any longer be held to be 
an outstanding feature of living matter as commonly understood, for 
recent researches in physics show us that, although electrons may come 
and go, the atomic structure of matter is relatively stable, even though 
under particular circumstances mutations may occur. Nevertheless the 
view of life as a mechanism created by and entirely dependent upon its 
environment gained strength owing to the developments in other sciences, 
particularly by reason of the synthesis of organic compounds, the principle 
of the conservation of energy and the introduction of the Darwinian theory 
of evolution. According to this view, a revival of that of Empedocles, 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 165 

teleological manifestations are accidental. As that thoughtful writer 
Hjort remarks, however : ' When we, as human beings, call a thing 
accidental, it only means that we give up the hope of understanding 
it. . . .' 'In the physical sciences those factors are termed accidental 
which we voluntarily disregard in the course of an investigation, or which 
we find we have omitted to notice.' Kant, however, in his Kritik of Judg- 
ment calls the teleological ' the link whereby our understanding can alone 
be supposed to find any agreement between the laws of nature and our 
own power of judgment.' 

Mechanistic interpretations tend in the long run to become arrogant 
and superficial, as vitalistic ones predispose to scientific nihilism. For, 
while it is inconceivable that living things do not obey the laws of nature, 
yet it is equally unthinkable that a chance encounter of physico-chemical 
phenomena can be the explanation of their existence. This being so, how 
can we, in Kant's words, ' arrive at an understanding of nature ' ? 

It seems clearly impossible to harmonise or to decide between these 
opposed views of the nature of life, and I do not think any final conclusion 
to be possible or even necessary. To quote Hjort once more, ' Philosophy 
has no other starting point than a problem, and the current results of 
scientific research ; it never leads to any absolute conclusion. It grows 
with the science of nature, since in reality it comprises the most general 
results of that science and comprises nothing more. It does not explain 
the nature of the human understanding, and provides no means of getting 
behind the understanding itself . . . the existence of which is the first 
and necessary condition for the existence of science at all.' 

Physiologists, in attempting to know what life is, have in my opinion 
attempted too much, and I think that a new standpoint is essential. One 
of the greatest of contemporary thinkers, L. J. Henderson, has recently 
submitted an argument with which I venture humbly to agree. The idea 
of adaptation, urged by Claude Bernard, should be adopted by physiology 
as its basal principle, as the chemist accepts the conservation of matter 
or the physicist the conservation of energy. We need not seek to know 
why it is so : that is the province of the philosopher ; all our experience 
tells us that it is so. It is not a definition of what life is, but a brief state- 
ment of its way, which is valuable, stimulating and true. But we must 
treat the organism and its environment as one if we are to gain a proper 
insight into the adaptations manifested by the former. Life is conserved 
by adaptation, and I venture to think that this conception will be useful 
alike to general biology, to physiology and perhaps most of all to pathology. 
For there is no fact in biology, pathology or therapeutics which may not 
profitably be viewed from this fundamental physiological standpoint. An 
essentially similar standpoint has been reached by Haldane, who says : 
' We can reach no other conclusion than that it is the very conceptions of 
matter and energy, of physical and chemical structure and its changes, 
that are at fault, and that we are in the presence of phenomena where 
these conceptions, so successfully applied in our interpretation of the 
organic world, fail us.' It is the concern of physiology to study the 
normal functions, and here the normal must be regarded as a statistical 
group. For particular purposes it is convenient to consider normals as 
of fixed value ; thus the normal man has a body temperature of 37.5°(.'., 



166 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

a pulse rate of 70, a systolic arterial pressure of 120 mm. Hg, a red cell 
count of 5,000,000 per cubic mm. or an alveolar carbon dioxide pressure 
of 40 mm. Hg, &c., and we can investigate the means by which this 
constancy is reached. But for other purposes it is equally convenient to 
regard each of these in turn as variable, to study its variations and find 
how they are produced. When we do so we find with increasing clearness 
the more deeply the subject is investigated, that the variability and the 
constancy are closely related, the fi^ed value of one thing being due to 
the interplay of the variables of others. Thus the constancy of the alveolar 
00,2 pressure may be regarded as due to the interaction of such variables 
as hydrogen ion concentration of blood, body temperature, ventUation 
rate, oxygen pressure, &c., by which a state of equilibrium is maintained. 

We have in the study of physiology many beautiful examples of this 
closely woven texture of interdependent phenomena. Modify any condi- 
tion concerning any one of them, and you at once set the machinery moving 
in such a way as to counteract what you have done. And this is not what 
life is but what it does, which distinguishes it — it adjusts the organism to 
its environment. 

There is a striking though superficial resemblance between this principle 
of biological adaptation and the principle of Le Chatelier of ' the opposi- 
tion of a reaction to further change ' which is expressed ' when any system 
is in a state of physical or chemical eqmlibrium, a change in one of the 
factors of equilibrium will cause a reverse change within the system.' 

In living things, however, as Donnan has remarked, ' the activities, 
and indeed the very existence, of a living organism depend on its con- 
tinuous utilisation of an environment that is not in thermodynamic 
equilibrium. A living organism is a consumer and transformer of external 
free energy, and environmental equilibrium means non-activity and 
eventual death.' Nevertheless, as Claude Bernard believed, and as 
Henderson has strikingly illustrated, the internal environment is main- 
tained very constant in certain respects, and this constancy is the outcome 
of special activities which characterise life. 

Glancing now towards the future, what may we say represents in a 
few words the trend of modern physiology ? In many ways a great future 
lies before it. Utilising the other sciences as its tools and itself reacting 
powerfully on them, we can confidently predict progress to undreamt-of 
heights, an enormous development of experimental pathology and medicine, 
and far-reaching eSects on economic and sociological conditions. Yet, 
implicit in these very potentialities, there is another and a gloomier side 
to the picture. The rapidly accumulating wealth of detailed knowledge 
and of special technique demands an increased specialisation ; unless 
there is a periodic intellectual stocktaking there must inevitably be a loss 
of perspective and of grasp of great general principles. But how can 
this stocktaking be done ? Can team work ever reach that harmony of 
action which distinguishes the individual ? Any scientific subject is 
capable of indefinite expansion, and with the biological sciences it is hard 
to foresee what the ultimate end of mere expansion can be. How will 
scientific literature develop ? Will there have to be abstracts of abstract 
journals and reviews of reviews ? Will the subdivision of the subject 
necessitate in the long run the creation of lectureships or professorships 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 167 

to deal, for example, with the special physical chemistry of heterogeneous 
equilibria in biological systems, with intermediary metabolism, with the 
problems of hsemodynamics, or growth, or reproduction ? If so, how will 
the results of their special investigations be brought to common ground 
if no great unifying principles come to light ? Can we expect that such 
unifying principles will appear : if they do not, will the progress of science 
be brought to an end by the accumulation of its own products ? 

The establishment of special research professorships, however profitable . 
in isolated cases, cannot in my opinion make good this growing specialisa- 
tion, because it will tend to divorce research and teaching and place the 
teaching professor on a level of real or apparent inferiority. The idolisa- 
tion of research for the sake of the advancement it brings is another of 
the dangers which threaten us. If there is one thing worse than ' a 
mediocrity who does no research ' it is ' a mediocrity who does.' There 
are at the present time a large number of junior research posts available, 
but not enough well-trained people adequately to fill them. This is all 
to the good provided that those who on trial show no aptitude for the 
work can be ruthlessly eliminated. As they often cannot, there are in 
consequence a number of young people who drift from one research scholar- 
ship to another, perhaps not aimlessly, but with no better objective than 
the manufacture of papers designed to justify their employment. The 
hapless editors of each of the swelling tide of journals are coaxed, hood- 
winked and, if necessary, bullied, to ensure that these papers see the light 
of day. In the fullness of time the list of short-time research posts is 
exhausted, and the young investigator must now either turn to some 
entirely different occupation or else, as one of my friends expressed it, 
* subside into a professorial chair ' for which, incidentally, he is probably 
entirely unfitted. The pursuit of science is nowadays, perhaps unfortu- 
nately, a career, and one in which moreover it pays to advertise. Science, 
we are often told, is the cream of civilisation. If we believe this let us 
use all our endeavours to ensure that it be not a whipped cream, specious, 
puffed up with wind, and presenting a fictitious appearance of solidity. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



THE NATURE OF SKILL. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. T. H. PEAR, M.A., B.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Preparing the presidential address to a section in the British Association 
offers special pleasures and perplexities. The subject may be partly 
familiar to many, almost strange to others. Knowledge of this is apt to 
produce in the writer an inner conflict. He tries to be clear to specialists 
in his own subject and to those from other sections. Seeing the two 
stools only too well he falls heavily between them. 

The present theme, ' The Nature of Skill,' is no exception. Most 
persons recognise skill when they see it, yet the terms with which they 
try to analyse it are often lamentably vague and incommunicable. 

The Concept of Skill. 

The word ' skill ' is used in many ways. It is therefore reasonable 
ihat for scientific purposes its connotation shall be slightly limited. The 
following is proposed as a definition : Skill is an integration of well-adjusted 
performances. 

In such a terse statement all the words need explanation and illustra- 
tion. First, it is useful to contrast skills which come within the range of 
this definition with that type of adjustment which ij a collection of mere 
habits. 

The qualification ' mere ' is important. Habit, in some recent writings, 
has included virtues, vices, thought, will, ssnsory discrimination, art, 
intelligence, routine, plasticity, and sensitive response. This is a con- 
comitant (one hopes, not inevitable) of abandoning the word instinct. 

I would suggest that the outstanding feature of habit is its specificity. 
The experimental work upon transfer of training has made a belief in 
general habits untenable. 

The Definition of Habit. 

A habit may be defined as an acquired specific response to a specific 
situation. As soon as we cease to respond specifically, or the situation 
loses its specific character, our behaviour ceases to be habitual. 

Skill is dependent upon habit, but not completely. The present 
suggestion is that, treating the term skill with respect, we should apply it 
only to the higher types of well-adjusted performance. 

A Misuse of the Term ' Skilled.' 

It is undesirable to use the word ' skilled ' to denote, not the workers' 
performance, but the potential work waiting to be done. I am aware that 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 169 

this is customary in industry. Hence this stricture. Its use hampers 
analysis and clouds any presentation of the problems. For since there is 
seldom only one way of doing a skilled job, the events occurring in the 
bodies and minds of different performers will not be alike. 

Possibly, in some metaphysical sense, a job may exist when nobody 
is doing it. Yet, especially since May 1, 1926, there is now little enthusiasm 
for this type of industrial subjective idealism. 

To talk or write ebout the ' skilled job ' rather than the skilled man, 
and about the ' skilled trade ' as if a trade were a unit, encourages un- 
thinking people to believe (a) that work exists when it is not being done, 
and (6) that this non-existent entity ' belongs ' to somebody. Both errors 
are costly and stupid. 

Skill and Low-Grade Collections of Habits. 

Some so-called skills are a fortuitous concourse of habits. And 
many of these are bad. Often no single habit in the number is well 
adapted to the task, and the whole collection is only a makeshift, though 
a makeshift for the whole life of its possessor. Contrast this with the 
higher skills ; integrations, not mere collections of responses, and not 
necessarily of habits only. Then to describe as skill some industrial 
occupations, and some forms of domestic service in England, would be 
flattery. 

One of the first analyses of skill was made by Mr. Frank B. Gilbreth. 
Studying a bricklayer, he found that his eighteen movements in laying a 
brick could be reduced to five. One may conclude, therefore, that the 
original performance which he analysed could be called skilled only in the 
popular sense. 

Skill, Capacity and Ability. 

Skill must be distinguished from capacity and ability. To possess a 
delicately discriminative inner ear and muscles under perfect control is 
to have capacity for musical performance. Obviously, such gifts may 
exist in a person who as yet has shown no musical ability. For he proves 
his ability to do a thing by doing it. Even by failing he does not neces- 
sarily demonstrate his lack of capacity. For if untaught he usually will 
have tried to do it in the wrong way. 

Skill is clearly ability, but ability to do a relatively complicated 
series of actions easily and well. A man who can run need not be skilled 
in running. But if he has learnt to move his legs well, to regulate his 
breathing, to sprint at a particular point or moment, to estimate the time 
in which it is wise to run a particular lap, to adapt himself to different 
tracks, different lengths of race, different classes of competition, and 
different competitors, he possesses skill in running races. 

Skill, therefore, implies discrimination of the situation and graduation 
of the response. But to this should be added what I suggest as the 
essential characteristic of^skill — ^the ability to integrate responses,^ and in 

^ Cf. the description and photographs of the modem skilled high-jumper in Prof. 
A. V. Hill's Living Machinery, London, J 927, pp. 202 and 208. 



170 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the highest skills to substitute, instantaneously if necessary, one type of 
integrated response for another. 

In man, this integration of well-adjusted performances is acquired and 
fused with natural aptitude, the nature of which will be discussed in a 
moment. 

Skill and Reflex Action. 

Those reflex mechanisms which contribute to balance, to the main- 
tenance of posture, and to the efficient co-ordination of action are an 
important basis of skill. In this sphere we honour the famous con- 
tributions of Sherrington, Head, Magnus, and Pavlov, to whose great 
work. Conditioned Reflexes,- we stand too near to see it in perspective. 

Can the physiologist regard skill as entirely an integration of 
conditioned reflexes ? Eventually, perhaps. More than that we cannot 
say. We are warned not to exaggerate their interpretation. 

An impressive fact is that to ensure the certain conditioning of a 
reflex the control of external surroundings must be complete. The 
necessity, for example, of a sound-proof laboratory, of the absence of the 
experimenter, to say nothing of spectators, emphasises the specificity 
both of situation and response. Skill, on the other hand, typically shows 
itself in the rapid adjustment to a changing environment and to unforeseen 
conditions. 

It seems premature to speculate whether the ' conditioned response ' 
formula, valuable as it is, will prove adequate to explain skill as well as 
habit. Yet — to pass from conditioned to unconditioned or ' racial ' reflexes 
— there seems to be no doubt that neuro-rauscular patterns controlling them 
can be inherited. But here the relation of inherited to acquired ability 
is complex and subtle. Such a fundamental activity as walking is affected 
by race, education, dress, profession and transient fashion. Even if we 
confine our consideration to a dominantly reflex event such as the 
assumption and maintenance of posture, it is clear that in ourselves the 
matter may be partly controlled by consciousness. By taking thought 
we can improve balance, assume different types of balance, even plan 
balances in advance. 

Skill and Instinct. 

Comparison of human and animal behaviour has always offered great 
attractions — and risks — to members of the British Association. Yet I 
believe that the present comparison is not difficult. While many animals 
inherit high-grade skills, man does not. Birds inherit skill in nest-building, 
the kingfisher making one type, the swallow another, and moreover, 
selecting different materials. 

At birth, man is spectacularly unskilled. The skills which he sub- 
sequently acquires are almost entirely determined by his social and 
material environment. But he compensates for his start from scratch 
by the number and complexity of the skills which he soon acquires. And 
of these, language, whose raw material is speech-habits, is an amazing 
example. 

» Oxford, 1927, 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 171 

An animal may blend acquired with inherited skill. The song-thrush 
may learn deftly to break snail-shells upon a stone. Yet in animals the 
modification of such inherited skill is relatively small, compared with 
improvements made by man. 

Human instincts (inherited, general responses to general situations, 
characteristic of the species) probably play unimportant r61es in the 
final polished expression of human skill. Yet they may powerfully 
impel a person to strive to acquire a skill against material and human 
obstacles. Tendencies to self-assertion and self-display, pugnacity, 
gregariousness, and desire to win the regard of the opposite sex are such 
forces. Whether they be regarded as integrations of reflexes or instincts 
happens to matter little in the present connexion. 

Skill and Habit. 

That a congeries of habits ought not to be dignified by the name skill 
has already been suggested. Naturally, habits are important components 
of any skill. But in skill worth the name they are of a special kind. 
They ensure adequate adaptation. Moreover, especially if the conditions 
demanding adaptation are complicated and numerous, the habitual 
movements interact so that the whole skilled action is more than the sum 
of its parts. This may be illustrated from lawn tennis. A player may 
acquire useful habits, such as gripping the racket correctly and placing 
his feet and body so as to get his weight behind the drive. But if a return 
has to be made from outside the side-line, the orthodox position of the 
feet and the body must be modified to accelerate the quick assumption of 
another position on the court, and another balance. For the ball has 
usually been placed there to get him out of position for the next return. 

Skill, as distinct from habit, involves the ability to be aware of, and 
to correct, imperfect or faulty adjustment. This is implied, for example, in 
a surgeon's or automobile driver's skill. While skill employs habits, it 
can immediately interfere with, break up or modify any combination of 
them. This makes it easier to study in its lower than in its higher forms. 
But this fact should not encourage students of skill to draw too wide 
conclusions from the observation of its humbler components. It would 
be difficult to infer the properties of alcohol from the most complete and 
rigidly scientific study of charcoal. 

Patterning a Characteristic of Skill. 

The term ' pattern ' has appeared frequently in recent psychological 
writings. But its meanings have been different and not easy to equate. 
It will be used here simply and objectively to mean an arrangement of 
human movements in time and space which shows integrated order. 

Always in theory, and often in practice, such a pattern could be 
recorded, e.g. by Gilbreth's moving, interrupted light fastened to any 
salient part of the body. Such a pattern could be left by the shoes of a 
dancer, if they were suitably treated. The ice and the snow record 
beautifully some movements of the skater and the ski-rimner. But they 
receive a trace only of one part of the body. Usually, however, many 
other parts are simultaneously moving in unison, in harmony, perhaps 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

even in counterpoint. All these spatial and temporal characteristics of 
pattern could be recorded. But equally important would be the delicate 
variations in force, corresponding to accent. 

This integration of the part-actions into wholes usually expresses the 
individuality of the performer. It is unlikely, for example, that the 
separate steps of a dance are ever fused into a whole without being changed. 

Skill and Awareness. 

Unless and until a highly skilled action has become really automatic, 
the performer is aware of its integral character. This awareness, unclear 
though it may be, determines the character of the part-actions. Examples 
are stress, accent and intonation in speech. As the sentence is initiated 
the whole, of which the speaker is aware, determines the parts. To speak 
a foreign language well, one must raise and lower the voice at points quite 
different from those which would receive the stress in one's own tongue. 
To acquire such skill the learner must attend not so much to the single 
words as to the whole sentence. 

This patterning, which dominates corresponding bodily and mental 
events, acts upon reflex, instinctive and habitual mechanisms. When 
it employs habits it usually transmutes them into actions less fixed and 
more adapted to the situation. 

' Knack.' 

A most interesting example of patterning in skill is ' knack.' It would 
be unprofitable to quarrel about the exact meaning to be attached to a 
popular word, but the definition of Mr. Vivian Caulfeild in his book ' How 
to Ski '^ promises to be as useful in theory as it is in practice. 

He defines knack as ' the ability to perform easily a rapid and accurate 
co-ordinated movement of a number of muscles,' and continues : 

If this movement is an unaccustomed one the ability to perform 
it properly is only attainable by long practice. 

The action of throwing, for instance, requires knack. It is this 
which makes it so difficult to learn to throw with the left hand, even 
though one already has the ability to move the left arm with quite 
sufficient strength and speed, and knows not only how the movement 
should be made, but even how it feels, to make it with the other hand. 
Writing is another excellent example of knack. 

In ski-running nothing which can strictly be called knack comes 
into play. In this sport the voluntary muscular movements (as 
distinguished from the involuntary ones used in keeping the balance) 
are neither complicated nor unusual, and, except in jumping, they 
need seldom be rapid. Any difficulty in learning them is due partly 
to the disturbing effect on one's clear-headedness^of^the speed at 
which one is travelling, and partly to the fact that some of the move- 
ments, though simple in themselves, are almost the reverse of those 
one's natural instinct would prompt one to make in the circumstances. 
This difficulty, of course, diminishes with practice, but an effort of 
will goes just as far as, or even farther than, practice towards over- 

» London, 1924, pp. 10-12. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 173 

coming it. Were it not for this difficulty a man who had been told 
the right way to perform the various manoeuvres employed in ski-ing 
might very well do them fairly correctly the first time he tried (as 
many people actually do), while no amount of strength, activity, 
intelligence or confidence would enable him, if right-handed, to throw 
or write properly with his left hand without long practice. 

Knack, therefore, may be regarded as the ability to impose upon one's 
behaviour very rapidly a special well-adapted pattern. 

In throwing a ball, it has been demonstrated^ that a number of 
muscle-groups must co-operate, simultaneously and successively, very 
rapidly. The succession of events which make up the performance is 
suddenly accelerated. The leisured semibreves and minims give place to 
tense semiquavers and demisemiquavers ; the wide folds in the time- 
fabric ruck into pleats. 

The Relatioit of Skill to Natural Aptitude. 

If such analysis of skill be admissible as a foundation for investigation, 
aptitude for a particular form of skill may be regarded as based upon 
well-marked and well-co-ordinated reflexes, instinctive tendencies suitable 
to the task, adapted habits, and the power, or maybe powers, of patterning. 

This power might be partly innate, partly acquired. To produce new 
patterns may be a mark of genius in skill. The loss of patterning-power 
through fear, fatigue, cerebral injury, drugs or unusual physiological 
happenings offers a fascinating series of problems, especially in their 
relation to individual differences. 

Of high-grade skill there are two types : 

(a) Unoriginal. This skill may effect very complex and satisfactory 
adjustment. It characterises some — perhaps most — processes in industry, 
and many in the army and navy, where predictability of action is a sine 
qua lion, and originality may be unpopular, inconvenient or dangerous. 

(b) Skill containing something personal, creative, unique and difficult 
or impossible to copy. 

Psychologically interesting is the adherence of different nations, 
different strata of society, and of the same strata at different times to 
certain patterns in skill. The antagonism of lovers of the original waltz 
to those of the newer kind, and of these latter, one reads, towards those 
of the newest, is as instructive as the pained aloofness and amused in- 
difference in the mutual regard of the two schools of figure-skating. 

The Interference of Skill-Patterns. 

Clumsiness, arising in a formerly skilled action, is sometimes due to 
the interference of a new recently learnt pattern with an older one, to 
which it is partly similar but to which some of its constituents are 
antagonistic. A superlatively skilled person may establish the inde- 
pendent status of the two patterns. But usually, unless such a separation 
be consciously effected, they will interfere. 

An example may be taken from ski-ing. In making a certain 
■ Christiania swing,' at one point the ski-er must lean away from the 

* A. V. Hill, oj). cit., pp. 203 jfif. 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

direction of the turn.^ This is unwelcome to most beginners, as it may- 
involve deliberately leaning down the hill. But it offers unique difficulties 
to any figure-skater who has consciously perfected the habit of leaning 
automatically and invariably towards the turn. It is possible, however, 
consciously to separate, to recognise and to understand the two require- 
ments. Thus a person who skis and skates regularly may effect an 
integration which comprises both turns. 

A master of only one class of movement-patterns, however perfect, 
in a certain sphere of activity may in one sense be less skilled than another 
who disposes of several. Yet the first, because of his excellent expression 
of that one pattern, may be popularly regarded as the more skilled. It 
might be said that his intensive skill is greater, his extensive skill less than 
the other's. 

And here, remembering the complications in any discussion of a related 
subject, intelligence, we may ask : ' Do special skills exist in a person 
alongside a general skill ? ' I have discussed this subject, and researches 
which bear upon it, elsewhere.^ It is too complicated to be developed 
here. But there is reason to believe that though the extensively skilled 
person may be jack of all trades and master of none, his skill in some 
directions might be brought to a higher level by good teaching and 
intelligent learning, events which are becoming commoner every day. 

' Propria ' and ' Accidents ' of Skill. 

(a) In sport. — One may pertinently inquire if some of the features of 
ordinary sport-skills are essential or accidental. Borrowing terms from 
logic, we may inquire if skill has its propria and its accidents. 

He who would answer this should purge himself of local and topical 
prejudices. Many persons assume that skill must consist in the delicate 
co-ordination of hand and eye and in the timing of complex actions to 
coincide with a momentary combination of external events. Both these 
gifts are often indispensable in dealing with a moving ball. But the 
hurling of missiles is not the only skill to which man aspires. Certain 
skills are proudly possessed by the blind. Delicate timing enters hardly 
at all into many kinds of postural skill, and is seldom necessary for 
industrial tasks. So probably those subjects which an Englishman would 
naturally want to study, moving-ball games, should be put late m the 
programme. More may be hoped at present from the study of postural 
skills, depending little upon the athlete's ' eye.' Such are swimming, 
gymnastics, ski-ing, skating, dancing, and eurhythmies. 

Sometimes competition in skill is a proprium, sometimes not.^ The 
most obvious kind of competition is destructive, where A tries to spoil the 
effect of B's skill, or to prevent it, as in boxing, fencing, football and 
hockey. Cricket and tennis involve semi-destructive competition, through 
prohibitions of space. Your cross-court shot may merely amuse your 
opponent, but at least it lived from your racket to the net. 

In many sports the competition is non-destructive. The performances 
may even be successive, with every chance for the competitor to do his 

5 Caulfeild, op. cit., pp. 178 ff. 

6 Skill in Work and Play. London, 1924, pp. 22 ff. 

'' Cf. an article ' Physical Culture in Germany,' Manchester Guardian, July 24, 1928. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 175 

best. And for this reason I believe they will the sooner repay study. 
Smith's six-foot high-jump can never be spoiled by Jones collaring him 
low at the take-off. 

These distinctions may be obvious. But I have never seen them made 
in scientific discussions of skill. A little less obvious, perhaps, is the 
thought that different types of competition are excelled in by persons of 
different temperaments. Too much of the fighter's spirit and too little 
of the artist's and thinker's may lose many games. 

In many skills emotion is an ' accident.' Obviously a player should 
keep his head. But coolness may be but indirectly related to skill. Some 
play better when keyed up, fearing nerves less than stodginess ; some 
wilt at the thought of spectators ; others admit, even seek, the inspiration 
of a friendly and understanding crowd. 

Though emotion as an accidental factor may help or hinder the 
expression of skill, yet in music and acting it may blend with and form an 
integral part of the expression. Actors, for example, sometimes genuinely 
feel the emotion which they are portraying.^ 

To discuss the problem of what is loosely called ' nerve ' in sport is 
impossible here. 

(b) In work. — In industry many skilled actions are performed in 
unvaried conditions, with little or no emotion. Important exceptions 
exist which the public often finds it convenient to forget, as, for example, 
in coal-mining. However, it would not be surprising if the problems of 
skill in industry, complex though many of them are, proved to be easier 
than those of skill in sport. 

Thus far an attempt has been made to filter the general concept of 
skill and to reject irrelevant meanings. In dealhig with industrial skill 
I am indebted to an article by Miss Anna Bezanson.^ She writes : 

Considering the glibness with which workmen are pigeon-holed as 
' skilled,' ' semi-skilled,' and ' labourers ' in many industries, it is 
surprising to find little definition of what constitutes skill or lack of 
skill. Everyone takes it for granted that precisely what he means is 
understood by referring to a workman as possessed of ' skill.' 

We may utilise her collection of ' accidental ' factors in industrial skill. 

(1) Accepting responsibility for many independent decisions. — Though 
arriving at these decisions may involve skill, the acceptance of responsibility 
is due to other factors. When the acceptance is voluntary and congenial, 
these factors are domniating sentiments. In our country the more 
expensive systems of education successfully inculcate such a ready 
acceptance of responsibility. Sometimes, however, their pupils seem 
puzzled by the lack of a similar readiness in those who have been schooled 
more cheaply. Remedies for this will be gladly suggested by the teachers 
concerned. Smaller classes and larger playing fields come early on their 
lists. 

(2) Learning about the capabilities of materials. — This involves the 
ordinary processes of acquiring knowledge. Muscular or kintesthetic 
knowledge can only be obtained by doing. But with the progress of 
science it is every day easier to get from books knowledge which was 

" Cf. W. James's chapter on the Emotions in his Principles of Psychology. 
'■> Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. xxxvi, 1921-2, pp. 626-45. 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

formerly locked up iu the skill, real or alleged, of the professional. Cookery 
supplies many examples. The use of the weighing machine, the clock 
and the thermometer will supersede many rules of thumb. A child who 
has never made tea, but has read that the water poured on it should be 
boiling, knows better than many so-called skilled cooks. 

(3) The possession of judgment and knoioledge coiicermng apparently 
' outside ' jobs may rank a person as skilled in the primary occupation. 
In practice this may be important. Its theoretical meaning is simply 
that other things, including intensity, being equal, the greater the extensity 
of skill the better. 

(4) The ability to transfer knowledge and skill to a different industry and 
to different material.— This raises the question of the relation between 
general and specific training in a pleasingly concrete and useful form. 
Actually it does so twice, once in the realm of knowledge and once in the 
realm of power. This will be discussed separately. 

In industry a relatively new event may simplify the problem. Trans- 
ference of a worker from one type of machine, or even from one type of 
industry, to another may be facilitated by deliberately designing the 
machine with that aim. A simple operation on a certain machine may 
nowadays be a unit in the production of quite different articles. So 
successful transference of skill may reflect credit not on the worker but 
on the machine designer and on the employer, an example of the portentous 
' fractional distillation ' of skill of which more will be said in the joint 
discussion with the Section of Economic Science on Monday morning, 
September 10. 

A special instance of the interrelations between mental abilities (and 
bodily ones) is raised in the consideration of 

(5) Keenness of Perception. — In theory, keenness of perception, which 
means fine sensory discrimination, e.g. of colours and tones, or perceptual 
discrimination, e.g. of shapes or patterns (not, of course, visual only), 
might or might not be linked to superlative skill. The method of correla- 
tion makes it possible to investigate this relationship. Pioneer work has 
already been done by Prof. Carl E. Seashore in the investigation of musical 
talent." But, while it is unlikely that superlative skill will ever be found 
linked to subnormal discrimination, a high correlation between them 
cannot be assumed. And the correlation between sensory discrimination 
and general intelligence, though usually positive, is very low." 

(6) Appreciation of the interrelation of factory processes. — This involves 
intelligence rather than skill. But success in appreciating any relations 
may depend upon the way in which the data have been vouchsafed, and 
the extent to which they are obscured or illuminated by well-meant and 
enthusiastic ' explanation.' Explaining complex matters usually requires 
a skilled explainer. The skilled performer often does it especially badly. 

A General Classification of Skills. 

We may now attempt to classify skills, working upwards from the 

lowest type. 

^o'The Psychology of Musical Talent. Boston, 1919. 

'^i Psychological Tests of Educable Capacity. London, 1924. Cf. T. H. Pear, 
Skill in Work and Play, p. 23. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 177 

(1) Collections of imperfectly adapted responses. — This class includes 
much domestic work, the skill of most labourers and of workers in the 
semi-skilled trades. (It is true that some apparently simple tasks would 
be placed higher in the scale by an expert than by a scientific observer. 
It is equally true that an intensively skilled person may honestly over- 
estimate the absolute difficulty of his special skill.) 

(2) Perfectly adapted responses which do not exhibit personality. — 
Such are the movements on parade of the perfectly drilled soldier. Military 
skill of this kind may be compared with the skill which would result in 
industry if a stereotyped series of actions, however efficient, were rigidly 
prescribed to the worker. Its advantages and defects are clear in military 
organisation. While the engineer, Mr. Frederick W. Taylor, tried to 
prevent ' soldiering ' in the old American sense of that word, i.e. taking 
things easily, his own uimiodified system would have produced soldiermg 
of a modern type. This is recognised by many of his disciples.^' 

(3) Responses resembling habits, but less specific and automatic. — The 
importance and distinctive nature of such responses make one doubt 
the wisdom of classing them with habits. For habitual actions are 
inadequate to the situations which these others meet so very perfectly. 
Such responses are exemplified in sport when rapid, delicately effective 
complex adjustment is made towards the surface upon which the player 
is moving, e.g. wet and dry, hard and grass tennis courts, heavy and light 
football grounds, hard, soft, smooth and bumpy ice, and different hard- 
nesses and elevations of snow-slopes. Such adjustments appear neither 
to the understanding external observer to be mechanical, nor subjectively 
to their performer to be unconscious. 

This adaptation may be effected to conditions both outside and inside 
the body. A performer who is feeling ill, without decreasing control, may 
modify his movements so that less strain is put upon his muscles. A first- 
class automobile driver's adaptive behaviour in traffic makes the average 
motorist look like the bundle of habits which some pessimists declare man 
to be. 

(4) Responses like those in (3), but exhibiting in their totality a pattern 
characteristic of the individual. This pattern may be original or unoriginal. 
A style which appears to the spectator to be unique may have been 
imparted by a teacher, though to it the pupil usually adds some personal 
touches. 

Types (3) and (4) shade into each other, though in (4) an aspect implicit 
in (3) is emphasised. Probably these are in the minds of the protesters 
against the standardisation of industrial tasks. '^ 

(5) Creative Skill. — This is no place to discuss the psychology of 
creative genius. But in this realm two kinds of creation may be dis- 
tinguished. One is unconscious, or nearly so, as when a pioneer declares 
that his work finds its way out of him. Perhaps we may call it the 
artistic kind. The other results from deliberate analysis of earlier attempts, 

" Of. H. S. Person, ' Scientific Management." Report of First Triennial Congress 
of International Association for the Study of Human Relations in Industry, July 1928, 
pp. 29-43 { Javastraat 66, The Hague). 

''■■ Of. R. M. Fox, The Triumphant Machine, London, 1928, and list given in Pear, 
Fitness for Work, pp. 146-7. 

1928 N 



178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

satisfactory to the ordinary person (a host of problems are covered by the 
word ' complacency '") but provoking to the genius. 

Such analysis '' may involve recall in memory (visual, muscular, and 
verbal) of various skilled feats, comparison and discrimination between 
them, selection of their relevant aspects, re-comparison with some aim 
in view, re-combination, and as a result, an unanalysed — perhaps un- 
analysable — polish which fuses the movements into a dazzling new unity. 

This is inventive creation in skill residting from analysis. It is seen 
and will be seen oftener in the world of play and art. It may increase 
in the world of industry, if industry desires and deserves it. 

Intelligence, Intellect and Skill. 

It is necessary to consider the place, in this scheme, of intelligence. 
What is its relation to skill ? 

Writers have observed that it is easier to_^say who is intelligent than 
what is intelligence ; to agree upon what intelligence does than upon 
what it is. It seems possible for our purpose to describe intelligence by 
its fruits. 

Acknowledging the value of certain recent writings which expound a 
different view, I still feel that for practical purposes intelligence may be 
described as the individual's capacity for adaptation to a new situation. 
Summarising Dr. P. B. Ballard's description,'" we may say that 
intelligence is more fully manifested in the higher mental processes than 
in the lower. It is specially employed in situations- which present points 
of novelty, i.e. the solution of problems. It is concerned more with the 
dissection, planning, and rearrangement of the data of experience than 
with the mere reception of impressions. 

None of these assertions conflict with the possibility of a muscular or 
' kinaesthetic ' intelligence.'' 

Intelligence is clearly a capacity, not an ability nor a skill. In 
particular it is not the ability to learn, though the two may be closely 
related. A learner may supplement low intelligence by the skilful use of 
various devices and of good tutors. But to choose the devices, or the 
tutors who supply them, is often a sign of great intelligence, though not 
necessarily in the learner himself. 

It may be useful to summarise the mental powers which operate along- 
side and are often confused with intelligence. It is not habit, knowledge, 
the ease which comes with practice, interest, capacity for taking pains 
or for application.'" 

Skill and Intellect. 

The use to be proposed of the term intellect is less orthodox. Yet 
those who believe that the real meaning of a word necessarily exists in a 
dictionary may be reminded that dictionaries occasionally grow out of date. 

^* Cf. Baup, Complacency, London, 1928. 

*5 It may follow the lines of analytic thinking in general. Cf. Pear, British Journal 
of Psychology, 1921, vol. xi., pp. 72-80. 

'^ The New Examiner, London, pp. 116 ff. 

" Cf. W. F. Dearborn, Intelligence Tests, Boston, 1928, pp. 112 ff. 

18 Reasons for this fairly orthodox view are given in Fitness for Work, pp. 53 j^. 






J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 179 

For Plato, as Prof. Spearman writes, intellect was the permanent mental 
power, intelligence the putting of this power into use. He adds that 
' intellect,' which seems to be deliberately avoided by most writers, has 
always been essentially characterised by the power of abstraction. '" 

Yet the view seems justifiable that ' intellectual,' as used popularly 
nowadays, means ' able to express oneself in words ' (spoken or written). 

If its meaning be narrowed only slightly it would be very useful in 
the present connexion. The successful, deliberate use of any words to 
express oneself would be intellectual. Emitting words merely as speech- 
habits would not. This use, I submit, allows one to characterise a type 
very common in these days of universal reading and writing — the person 
who is definitely classed as intellectual though not necessarily -highly 
intelligent. 

Now many muscular knowledges differ from most other kinds in that 
they have almost no proper language. While it is manifestly possible to 
be intelligent about them, it is less easy to be intellectual. To describe 
skill, one's vocabulary often has to be collected in the grand-stand, the 
newspaper ofl&ce, the study and the laboratory, rather than on the field of 
action. Perhaps because so many persons, skilled in certain directions, 
are inarticulate and almost mute, one tends to consider them as un- 
intellectual. Yet their type of muscular knowledge may possess few 
words, even if they searched for some. Often they would be the last 
persons to make such an effort. 

In some spheres and by some exponents skill is becoming rapidly 
intellectualised. Yet the die-hards may take comfort in the vast tracts 
of untouched desert, both in their skills and in themselvee. 

Let us look at ourselves for a moment through the eyes of one who 
was in but not of our country. In The Return, Joseph Conrad pictures a 
man — 

' whose clear pale face had under its commonplace refinement 

that . . . overbearing brutality which is given by the possession of 
only partly difficult accomplishments ; by excelling in games. . . .' 

May it be that such athletes have overcome only the non-intellectual 
difficulties in their game ? To them it is just an occasion for the gleeful 
exertion of sheer strength, of low cunning, for the permissible indulgence 
of pugnacity and other simple instincts. One has met these men. The 
intellectual challenge, the exhilarating possibility that undreamed-of 
strokes, stances, breaks and swerves may be invented, are neither accepted 
nor comprehended. Yet ten years after an innovation has elbowed itself 
into the game's structure these men will be sternly teaching it. 

To summarise this, a person skilled in work, art or sport, may not be 
intelligent or intellectual. Yet he may show one, two or all these qualities 
in a characteristic personal fusion. The thrice-blessed intelligent, skilled 
intellectual would use his intelligence upon his problems of behaviour. 
In this he would be helped by his intellect {i.e. by his power to recall, to 
select and to employ words) in formulating the problems, and in abstracting 
and expressing the general principles which he discovers or uses in solving 
them. 

" The Abilities of Man, London, 1926, pp. 28 and 33. 

N2 



180 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

When the knowledge which he seeks is available in the words of others, 
his intelligence and intellect will enable him more easily to understand 
and, if necessary, to paraphrase them. If he can visualise pictures, draw 
them (these two gifts not being necessarily interdependent), and abstract 
their salient features into diagrams, he will more easily communicate his 
meaning to certain readers, who in their turn may criticise, destructively 
and constructively. In this way he may bring the general principles 
derived from his special sphere alongside those obtained from other realms 
to which he may not have access. From such confrontations and intelli- 
gent comparisons he may enunciate new principles. These, by means of 
his skill, he can test in his own world of experience. 

More suitable words than ' intellect ' may be found for the mental 
power or group of powers described above. After much consideration 
I think that ' intellect ' seems to do this best. Its adoption, however, 
suggests one disquieting possibility. It might encourage those who 
assume, tacitly or noisily, that conceptual intelligence and abstract thmking 
cannot be appraised or tested except by the use of words and numbers. 
Prof. W. F. Dearborn writes : 

The reason why it has been so difl&cult ' to devise tests of the 
non-verbal or " performance " type which will bring out intellectual 
differences much above the level of the average child of ten or a dozen 

. years, ' may be due to the fact that the verbalist and the scholastic 
have hitherto been the ones chiefly interested in the development of 
intelligence tests, and they have naturally chosen tests in the use of 
which their own intellectual powers will not suffer by comparison.'"' 

He insists upon respect for the intelligence which thinks in terms of 
things rather than with the symbols for things.'^' As an illustration he 
quotes Prof. H. H. Turner's account of the way in which apparent changes 
in the wind's direction, observed in a boat ' putting about ' on a river, 
suggested to Dr. Bradley the cause of the apparent changes in the 
direction of a star's light.^^ 

It is useful to remind readers that abstract thinking is not confined to 
the use of auditory and visual symbols.^'' In so far as intelligence tests 
are limited to them, so far will the intelligence of an important section of 
the population be improperly gauged. For this reason I proj)ose, for 
psychological purposes, the use of the word ' intellect ' in the above- 
described way. It enables us to emphasise the fact that people who can 
do things may or may not be able to analyse and describe their performance. 
It would also remind the mute ones that their silence is not more golden 
than any other silence. 

The Relation between Different Motor Abilities. 

Tests of intelligence give results which correlate highly with each other. 
But there is no justified single concept enabling us to explain why some 

•» Op. cit., pp. 109, 110. 

'^1 Cf. Mr. Aldous Huxley on the academic mind, in Proper Studies, London, 1927. 

^^- E. Freundlich, The Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation. English 
translation by H. L. Brose. Introduction by H. H. Turner. Cambridge, 1920, 
pp. 11, 12. 

'■^ Cf. T. H. Pear, Remembering and Forgetting, London, p. 229. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 181 

persons seem generally clever with their muscles. While there seems 
ample evidence for the existence of general intelligence, the results of 
simple tests for isolated motor performances from which intelligence has 
been excluded, as far as possible, give extremely low or negative correla- 
tions with each other. Moreover, these results do not warrant belief in 
any special connexion of simple motor abilities with intelligence.^^ 

From these results far-reaching deductions have been made by some 
writers. One is that there is no general capacity, no ' motor type ' of 
person. The conclusion concerning vocational tests has been drawn that 
tests for ability in any performance give valid results only when the test- 
performance is identical with that for which the test is being administered. 
They support the ' sample ' as against the ' analogous ' test.''^ 

Yet an alternative explanation of Perrin's and Muscio's findings is 
possible, based upon a suggestion made by Sir Henry Head to the present 
writer. Their tests involve the simplest muscular co-ordinations. Many 
of them were confined to limited parts of the body. From the tests used 
by Muscio, demands upon intelligence were excluded. 

As a consequence, the bodily mechanisms involved may have been 
controlled by relatively low levels of the nervous system. The significance 
of the test-results, therefore, would not exclude the possibility that in 
skilled performances a higher, more complex power might employ and 
co-ordmate the simple mechanisms. 

Another consideration is important. In intelligence tests, that the 
subjects will do their best is (perhaps not quite justifiably) taken for 
granted. Yet it cannot be assumed that the motives urging university 
graduates and undergraduates (the performers in these motor tests) to 
excel in a simple, trivial and often boring motor test are identical with 
those producing keenness in a recognised test of intelligence. For to do 
very badly in several tests generally agreed to measure intelligence would 
cause more shame in university people than proved inability to thread 
needles or to loop wool quickly over pegs. 

The above tests, therefore, being concerned with simple motor abilities, 
are important for the study of skill, rather as suggesting lines of inquiry 
than as affording data. 

Transfer of training between motor abilities. 

Another method of attacking this problem is to re-set it in the well- 
known form of the transfer of training.^'' Subjects are intensively trained 
in some skilled activity xmtil their curves of practice have shown a marked 
rise over a fairly long period. One discovers then if the undoubted ability 
gained in the test-activity has been transferred to apparently related or 
similar performances. "' Many ' controls ' are needed in such an experiment. 

^ F. A. C. Perrin, Jour, of Exp. Psych., 1921, 4, pp. 24-56 ; B. Muscio, British 
Jour, of Psych., 1922, 13, pp. 157-84 ; see also Perrin and Klein, Psychology, London, 
1927, pp. 356j5f. 

*^ This conclusion concerning simple motor dexterity has recently been supported 
by the results of experiments. Cf. J. N. Langdon, Edna M. Yates and T. H. Pear, 
' The Nature of Manual Dexterity and its Relation to Vocational Testing,' Nature- 
May 12, 1928, pp. 773-^. 

^' This technique has not been extensively used in the investigation of skill. 



182 SECTIONAL ADDRESSE.S. 

Recently Dr. C. E. Beeby^' investigated the transfer of ability between 
performances involving one or both hands. Subjects were trained, 
blindfold, to trace with a metal stylus (connected, to record errors, with 
an electric circuit) along strips of metal, shaped in simple geometrical 
forms. An initial positive transfer was found. With further practice 
it gradually diminished. Finally, it passed over into its antithesis, 
interference, or negative transfer. The amount of transfer, both initial 
and final, proved to be the same whether it occurred 

(a) from one hand's performance to that of the other, 

(6) from a double-handed action to one of the single-handed movements 
constituting it, 

(c) from a single-handed to a double-handed action. 

Beeby concluded that the agency of positive transfer was a general 
mental attitude. He found no positive transfer of specific manipulative 
habits. Indeed, nothing but interference occurred between them. This 
interference explains the final negative transfer. 

An extensive investigation into transfer of training in a low-grade 
skill was recently carried out in the Manchester laboratory by J. N. 
Langdon and Edna M. Yates.^" Possibly for the first time in such 
experiments a number of conditions were rigidly observed. These were 
the domination of the learners' motives, the selection of a really skilled 
performance, though a simple one, as the test-activity, the testing of similar 
control subjects in strictly comparable conditions, and the simultaneous 
provision of ' anal)rtic ' tests, i.e. tests of simple powers which appeared to 
be components of the training-activity. 

The operation selected for intensive training was modified from one 
in the driving-chain industry. The subject sits before a small turntable. 
It carries fixed pairs of spindles upon which links have been placed. As 
he brings each of these in turn before him, he removes it from the turn- 
table, dropping the link into a box at his right hand. Simultaneously he 
takes another link from a box at his left and places it upon the pair of 
spindles, reinstating the whole upon the turntable. He then rotates the 
turntable, bringing the next unit into position, and repeats the whole 
operation. 

Thirt.y-two unemployed boys aged sixteen, paid at a high piece-rate, 
were thus trained, each for two weeks. These constituted the ' trained 
group.' Before training, each boy's performance was measured in the 
various tests designed to detect the presence of transfer, if any. 

These had been selected after a careful observational analysis of the 
operation with the links and spindles. Most of them were simple tests 
of manual dexterity, such as inserting matches in holes, filling a box with 
matches, slijaping curtain-rings over a rod, threading links with twine, 
reproducing from memory the angle of an arm-movement, or the force 
with which a recording anvil had been struck by the subject's hammer, 

'^' Unpublished research in the psychological laboratories of University College, 
London, and Manchester University. 

'^^ ' An Experimental Investigation into Transfer of Training in Skilled Per- 
formances,' British Journal of Psychology, 18, 1928, pp. 422-37. This research was 
made possible by financial help from the Industrial Fatigue Research Board and the 
Lewis Scholarship in Applied Psychology. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 183 

static and dynamic steadiness, and — to discover if the training in the 
skilled action had affected more purely ' mental ' functions — tests in 
mental arithmetic and tests involving the rapid and accurate cancellation 
of specified letters in a page of print. 

This series of tests was given on three occasions : (1) before training, 
(2) at the end of the first week, (3) at the end of the fortnight. They may 
be called transfer tests, 1, 2, and 3. 

Identical tests were given, in the same order and at the expiration of 
the same three periods, to twenty-eight similar subjects who meanwhile 
received no training. These were the control group. 

Since the trained group contained thirty-two and the control group 
twenty-eight subjects, statistical treatment is justifiable. In no instance 
was the difference between the trained and the control group, with regard 
to their improvement in transfer test 3 as compared with 1, of such a 
magnitude as to exclude the possibility of its being due to chance factors. 
In some results the brief practice afforded by the test itself was definitely 
shown to have had more effect than the intensive training in an apparently 
analogous performance. 

The experiment supports the view that in such conditions training in 
a low-grade skill is specific rather than general. These manual habits 
did not transfer. 

How may such a clear-cut result be explained ? The following con- 
siderations may be suggested : 

Writers upon transfer of training'^'' who know the experimental 
evidence believe that one of the chief agents of transfer is the formation 
of a sentiment. In the present experiment there was no encouragement 
to form a general sentiment about the acquisition of skill, which might 
spread to other skills. 

The conditions were as unsentimental as might be. The workers 
were never exhorted to do their best. The only encouragement was the 
very real one of immediate personal gain. Conversely, slack work 
automatically caused less pay. This was made known to the learner with 
little delay. The personal influence of the experimenters was as little 
and as unchanged as possible. The workers were paid, and highly paid, 
to transfer. Yet demonstrable transfer did not occur. 

It may be urged that when practice in a skill has hardened it into a 
' habit-unit ' this latter becomes partially dissociated from the rest of the 
personality. Examples might be given of the way in which low-grade 
industrial skills require minimal attention. Transfer, therefore, might 
not be expected between this almost ' insulated ' entity and the rest of 
the personality. Hardening the skill into a series of habits may have 
decreased the possibility of ' ordinary ' transfer. 

Since the test was given three times ; the subjects were not ' saturated 

•^0 Ballard, P. B. The Changing School, London, 1925. Fox, C, Educational 
Psychology, Cambridge, 1927. Pear, T. H., Skill in Work and Play, Chapter V. Perrin, 
F. A. C, and Klein, L. W., Psychology, London, 1927, pp. 280-286. Sandiford, P., 
Educational Psychology, London, 1928, pp. 275-300. Thomson, G. H., Instinct, 
Intelligence and Character, London, 1925. Thomdike, E. L., ' Mental Discipline in 
High School Studies,' Jour, of Educational Psychology, XV., January and February 
1924, pp. 1-22, 83-98. 



184 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES' 

with practice at the second test ; and even at the third, practice was not 
at a maximum, data may be obtained concerning this point by comparing 
the results of the three tests. 

A comment made by Mr. F. C. Bartlett is that, at school or college, 
practice in different activities between which transfer is supposed to occur 
is not acquired in the manner of this experiment. Pupils do not practise 
one task exclusively for days and then turn equally exclusively to another. 
During any one day several different activities (at least dix, but at school 
often many more) are practised successively. This might facilitate the 
transference of attitudes towards the work, ideals, sentiments and 
knowledge of methods applicable to different tasks. 

To examine these hypotheses the experiment described above is being 
continued in a modified form. 

This conception of the isolation of a habit has obvious relationships, 
which cannot be explored here, to that of the conditioned response. 

The evidence seems now to establish that the problem of transfer may 
be divided into two parts : 

(a) Transfer resulting from and due merely to exercise of any particular 
function ; 

(6) transfer resulting from extension of attitudes, sentiments, ideals or 
knowledge of methods, where the particular function trained was the 
vehicle of these mental powers. 

It now seems certain that (a) is rare, and that (b) definitely can occur. 
But in educational institutions, where subjects or parts of subjects are 
taught by different persons, the chances of transfer through common 
applicable methods discovered by the learner himself, or through sentiments, 
is much less. And the automatic occurrence of transfer can ne^er in the 
future be assumed by anyone conversant with the facts. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



SEX AND NUTRITION IN THE FUNGI. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. DAME HELEN GWYNNE-VAUGHAN, D.B.E., D.Sc, LL.D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



I THINK all members of Section K know the unhappy reason which prevents 
us to-day from hearing an address from the President of our choice, and 
I am sure that I may convey to Prof. R. H. Yapp our sincere sympathy 
and regret and our cordial hopes for his speedy recovery. I came into 
the picture because I had been appointed a vice-president, and that, I 
am proud to remember, was largely due to the association of my husband's 
name with the University of Glasgow. 

At the last Glasgow meeting in 1901 the President of the section was 
Prof. Bayley Balfour, whose memorial we shall see unveiled on Saturday. 
He referred to the excellent quarters in which we find ourselves as ' this 
magnificent Botanical Institute ' opened ' a few months ago . . . with 
all the distinction that the presence of our veteran botanist. Sir Joseph 
Hooker . . . could give to the ceremony.' Much has changed in the inter- 
vening twenty-seven years, but not the hospitality of the Department of 
Botany in Glasgow. Some of the changes in botanical outlook are vividly 
brought home to a reader of the presidential address on angiosperms in 
1901, a period when triple fusion was new and pteridosperms were 
unknown. 

My first duty is to refer to the botanical losses of the year. Benjamin 
Daydon Jackson died, as the result of an accident, after sixty years of 
unremitting work on botany ; William Charles Frank Newton was near 
the beginning of his scientific career, but had already done enough to make 
his loss a heavy one. Edward Francis Linton and Robert Miller Christy 
will be remembered for their work on British plants, and Sir Harry 
Johnston for his collections and discoveries overseas. 

Apart from two brilliant addresses on plant pathology by Marshall 
Ward in 1897 and V. H. Blackman in 1924, the fungi have never been 
the subject of a presidential address in Section K. Last year the President 
dealt with the elementary types of holophytic plant life, and traced their 
origin from the pigmented Flagellata ; it is not inappropriate that we 
should turn to-day to saprophytic and parasitic forms. 

These have often been assumed to be derived in small groups from 
diverse phyla of green plants, but increasing knowledge of the fungi has 
emphasised the characters that they have in common, and has shown 
many of their resemblances to the higher algae to be superficial, examples 
of homoplasy rather than homology. There are exceptions to this as to 



186 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

every generalisation. No one would doubt that such saprophytes as the 
Polyblepharidacese are truly algal, and Monoblepharis, though classified 
as a fungus, is possibly allied to the filamentous green plants. 

It may be hazarded that the fungi as a whole have their origin, perhaps 
a common origin, among the Protista, and that they form a line of evolution 
parallel with those of animals and green plants, in some sense comparable 
to both, butMerived from neither. 

Phycomycetes. 

The simplest members of the Phycomycetes show biciliate zoospores, 
the cilia being lateral and oppositely directed ; in Olpidium?- and 
Synchytrium^ sexual reproduction is achieved by the union in pairs of 
zoospores which have been retarded in development by dry conditions, 
while in Monochytrium Stevensianum^ the fusion of naked, uninucleate 
amoebse has been described. 

Very early in the development of the fungi, however, appears a more 
specialised process, and one which has established itself as characteristic 
of the group. In Olpidiopsis^ the individual consists of a single, 
multinucleate protoplast surrounded by a delicate wall ; two such 
coenocytes of different size, if side by side in the same host cell, may fuse, 
the contents of the smaller passing into the larger. Similar union is 
accomplished in Zygwhizidium^ by means of a conjugation tube put out 
by the smaller individual. In Polyphagus^ the individuals are uninucleate ; 
here again the conjugation tube is formed by the smaller cell, but the 
contents of this cell do not pass beyond the end of the tube, and are joined 
there by those of the larger, so that the wall of the zygote is provided by 
the smaller participant, which also develops the tube. 

I have called attention to this case because it emphasises the danger 
of generalisation in respect of the sexual apparatus of the fungi. Apart 
from the retarded zoospores of Olpidium and Synchytrium, the sperms of 
Monoblepharis, and perhaps the oospheres of the Saprolegniacese and 
their allies, gametes are unknown, and we have to consider the association 
of walled gametangia. This renders useless our usual criteria of sexual 
differentiation. The male gamete is defined as the smaller and more 
active, the female as larger and stored with food, but there is nothing in 
our experience of green plants to justify the assumption that the 
antheridium need differ from the female organ either in size or activity. 
Two criteria remain, the superior activity, not of the antheridium, but of 
its contents, corresponding to the activity of the male cells in other plants 
and animals, and the production of the zygote wall, characteristically a 
function of the female cell or its environment. Bearing these characters 
in mind, no difficulty arises among higher forms in distinguishing the 
male and female gametangia. Polyphagus may be regarded as still in 
the experimental stage in this respect. 

Among Oomycetes the contents of the oogonium may form a single, 
multinucleate mass, into which enter numerous antheridial nuclei, or one 
female nucleus only may be selected while the others disintegrate, or 
several uninucleate masses may be formed, as in Saprolegnia, and each 
be separately fertilised. In every case the conjugation tube is antheridial 



K.— BOTANY. 187 

Already among these fungi the development of the contents of the 
oogonium without fertilisation has become common, and information is 
beginning to accumulate as to the physiological conditions which determine 
the appearance of male or female organs or of both. Thus Klebs was 
able to maintain Saprolegnia ferox' in a vegetative condition so long as 
fresh, unaltered nutriment was provided, but sporangia appeared on 
transfer of the mycelium to pure water, and gametangia in the presence 
of staling products, especially when the food supply was sufficiently concen- 
trated to prevent sporangial development. In nutrient solutions poor in 
phosphates parthenogenetic oogonia were obtained, while both Saprolegnia 
ferox and Achlya polyandra^ give rise, on protein substrata, to abundant 
antheridia and oogonia in the presence of calcium phosphate, and to a 
smaller number when provided with phosphates of sodium or potassium. 
In Phytophthora erytkroseptica an increase in the proportion of available 
carbohydrate has been found by Dr. Barnes to limit the formation of 
gametangia, and it is well known that, in nature, the vegetative develop- 
ment and sporangial activity of a number of species takes place on the 
living host, whereas the sexual organs appear when the host is dead and 
the fungus is growing as a saprophyte ; doubtless, under these conditions, 
staling products tend to accumulate. 

In the great majority the mycelia are capable of bearing both male 
and female organs, but Phytophthora Faberi^ and species of Dictyxichus^^ 
have been shown to be dioecious. 

In the Mucorales sexual reproduction has long been known to take 
place by the union of large, multinucleate gametangia. These may be 
similar in form or recognisably male and female, they develop in contact, 
the wall between them is dissolved, and their contents mingle without the 
intervention of a conjugating tube. In many species the gametangia can 
be obtained with ease, and their appearance is clearly associated with a 
suitable provision of food and water. Thus in Sporodinia grandis^^ the 
fertile hyphse are rich in glycogen and their formation is conditioned by 
the presence of carbohydrates as well as by a saturated atmosphere. In 
other members of the alliance, gametangia proved most uncertain in their 
development, and it was not till 1904 that Blakeslee^^ was able to show that 
they appeared only along the line of junction of two separate mycelia. 
There was here a new conception of sexual differentiation ; since the 
gametangia were similar both in size and behaviour, it was impossible 
to describe one as male and the other as female ; yet they, and the mycelia 
which bore them, clearly differed in an essential character, and Blakeslee 
applied to them the arbitrary designations of (-f ) and (— ). In some 
cases a difference of vegetative luxuriance distinguished the two strains, 
in others a (+) or a (— ) strain could only be defined by its capacity to 
produce zygospores with the other. It seemed evident that there existed, 
in effect, both in the sexual organs and in the thalli which bore them, a 
physiological differentiation of sex unaccompanied by morphological 
distinction. To species possessing (+) and (— ) strains Blakeslee applied 
the term heterothallw, using homothallic for those in which zygospores could 
be obtained in single spore culture. 

In Mucor Mueedo^^ the power of conjugation may be inhibited by 
unfavourable conditions, but so far nutritive or other factors have not 



188 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been found which will produce sex intergrades^^ or transform ( — ) into (+) 
or (+) into (— ) mycelia. 

It is, I think, to be regretted that the term heterothallic has recently 
been used to indicate the condition of dioecism in the gametophyte. The 
old sex terms are adequate for this purpose and there is a need, which 
heterothallism admirably fulfils, for a term appropriate to a thallus having 
two or more physiologically distinct but morphologically similar strains, 
whether the difference between them be sexual or no. I propose to employ 
the word in that sense this morning. 

It is a curious point in the Mucorales that, while heterogametangia 
are common, these are never found in correlation with the heterothallic 
condition. In heterothallic forms the two gametangia of a pair may 
differ in size, but both large and small gametangia are borne on the same 
mycelium. There is, perhaps, a faint suggestion here that some factor 
other than sex may be at work in determining the heterothallic condition. 

Basidiomycetes. 

When we turn to the higher fungi, which are characterised by the 
possession of a septate mycelium, we find one of their most striking 
vegetative characters to be a tendency to fusion between the hyphse. A 
branch will grow out, wander a little way, turn and fuse with the parent 
filament again ; it will e^'en do this two or three times at short intervals. 
A hypha will undergo dichotomy, and a cross connection will unite the 
diverging branches. Stranger still, germ tubes from several distinct 
conidia will flow into one another, and the composite mycelium thus 
produced will continue its ordinary development. Presumably the 
stimulus responsible for such unions is nutritive, but there is at present no 
evidence that they are conditioned by general starvation. Certainly they 
complicate the question of what may be regarded as an individual in the 
fungi, since, where mycelial fusions have taken place, nuclei from several 
sources may be intermingled in the same cell. In the smuts, mycelia from 
three or four species have even been described^* as involved in the same 
group of fusions, and in Ascomycetes two species may apparently take 
part^^. 

It is perhaps unfortunate that the suggestion that some of these 
mycelial fusions are sexual was first made in the Hymenomycetes, where 
sexual organs, the ordinary criteria of sex, are wholly lacking. Kniep^® 
from 1915 onwards, and Bensaude^' independently in 1918, described the 
union of two mycelia as a necessary preliminary to the formation of the 
sporophore in certain species, and characterised such a mycelial fusion as 
a sexual act. 

On the germination of the basidiospore in, for example, Coprinus 
fimetarius, a multinucleate filament is put out and grows for a time, dividing 
into uninucleate cells. This is the primary mycelium. All primary 
mycelia are similar in appearance, but they are of two kinds, which, here 
also, are distinguished as (+ ) and ( — ). Should a (+ ) and a ( — ) mycelium 
meet, fusions occur, with the formation of secondary mycelium on which 
sporophores may develop, and which is characterised by the presence of 
clamp-connections. In Covrinus fimetarius oidia are liberated from the 



K.— BOTANY. 189 

primary mycelium, and their germinatiuu among hyphse of opposite strain 
may initiate the secondary condition. 

Even in that incalculable group, the fungi, there are few things more 
curious than the formation of clamp-connections and the method of 
nuclear division which has been described as associated with them. 
The cells of the secondary mycelium are binucleate, one nucleus being 
presumably derived from each of the primary mycelia. Simultaneous 
division of two or more nuclei present in the same cell is almost universal 
in plants, and such a division, with spindles parallel to the long axis 
of the filament — the natural position in the narrow cells of a hypha — 
would readily separate two freshly formed nuclei from their sisters. 
Instead of this, the cell grows out laterally, forming a branch which 
at once bends round and fuses with the cell of origin. One of the 
daughter nuclei, still attached to its spindle, wanders through this 
branch, or clamp-connection, and so rejoins the daughter nucleus of 
the other member of the pair. Both in the main cell and in the clamp, 
walls appear and the division is complete. It would be of interest 
to know either the origin, or the use — if any — of this elaborate procedure ; 
it is not a subject on which I feel able to hazard a guess. Whatever their 
relation to the nuclei, clamp-connections, when present, form a convenient 
means of recognising the secondary mycelium and the associated binucleate 
condition. It may be noted that their occurrence is not universal, 
Coprmus epJiemerus and G. curtis, for example, developing without them in 
mass culture^^. 

In many of the Hymenomycetes the binucleate condition does not 
arise till the formation of the sporophore is well advanced. In mushrooms 
the cap and stem are composed of multinucleate cells, binucleate cells 
appearing first in the gills^^. In Boletus granulatus the cells of the stalk 
are multinucleate, whereas those of the ring and of all parts of the cap 
contain two nuclei-". In other forms, as in Coprinus, the sporophore is 
made up wholly of binucleate cells. There is evidence that in nature, in 
such cases, the sporophore is derived from two spores in heterothallic 
species, and, in homothallic species, from a single spore-^. Where part 
of the sporophore consists of multinucleate cells, the species is presumably 
homothallic, though the possibility is not excluded that several similar 
mycelia may share in the construction of one fructification, or that fusions 
may occur between them. 

Since Kniep's and Bensaude's discovery a very full study has been 
made of heterothallic members of the Basidiomycetes. In some cases the 
primary mycelium, if it does not encounter an appropriate strain, appears 
to remain permanently sterile ; in others it sooner or later produces 
clamp-connections and sporophores. This was observed, for example, in 
Coprinus Rostrupianus,^^ where fifty-six per cent, of the single-spore 
mycelia became spontaneously diploid in the course of six months. 
Similarly Vandendries found that in the wild-fruit bodies of Paneolus 
campanulatus and P. separatus,^^ some of the spores were definitely (+) 
or (— ), but a considerable number gave positive reactions with strains of 
both kinds. Nor is the number of strains limited to two ; in Aleurodiscus 
polygonus^^'^ Coprinus lagopus^^ and other species, four strains are found, 
only the appropriate pairing being fertile. The character of the strains 



190 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

appears to depend in these cases on two sets of allelomorphic factors, 
A, a and B, b. Each spore, and hence each primary mycelium, carries 
a member of either pair, so that they may be AB, Ab, aB or ab. Secondary 
mycelium develops only when the combination AaBb has been achieved. 
In Coprinus lagopus^^ half the basidia carry the four spores AB, Ab, aB and 
ab, while twenty-five per cent, develop two AB and two ab spores, and the 
remainder two Ab and two aB. Tins is what might be expected if the 
characters A, a, B and b are transmitted on mendelian lines, and if the 
allelomorphs A, a and B, b are independently inherited. One cannot but 
admire the delicate and persevering work involved in separately collecting 
and germinating the spores from so minute an object as a basidium, thanks 
to which the mode of transmission of these characters seems to have been 
fully established. 

Their significance, however, is by no means so clear. It is customary 
among the workers in this field, following the analogy of the Mucorales, 
to refer to the distinction between (+) and ( — ), or between AB, Ab, aB 
and ab strains as a sexual difference ; but, if we accept this point of view, 
we must greatly extend our notions of sex. Not only must we accept the 
occurrence of four sexes, but we must assume that sex is variable, male 
or female strains spontaneously becoming hermaphrodite. And even that 
is not sufficient. In a number of species mycelia from all the spores of 
distinct ' sexes ' on one sporophore may be perfectly fertile with those 
from all the spores on another sporophore^®. In other words, mycelia of 
one sex achieve fertile unions not only with mycelia of the opposite sex, 
but with mycelia of the same sex, provided that these are derived from a 
different source. And yet ' sex ' in these fungi is only recognisable as a 
capacity for selective fusion. In plants possessing recognisable sexual 
organs, it might be possible to unravel such a tangle, and we may turn, 
therefore, with special interest, to groups less remote than the Hymeno- 
mycetes from normal sexuality. 

In the smuts it has long been known that the basidiospores or their 
products fuse readily in pairs ; Dangeard,'^' in 1894, first described the 
union of two nuclei in the young brand spore ; later it was realised that 
nuclei first became associated in the paired basidiospores and that the 
intervening mycelium consisted of binucleate cells. In Ustilago anther- 
arum and other species,'^" as in the Hymenomycetes, two or more strains 
may exist, and fusions are not indiscriminate but between cells of opposite 
strain. The formation of strains between which fusion does not occur may 
be induced by cultivation on media rich in albuminous compounds, and, 
conversely, the tendency to fuse may be enhanced by an ample supply of 
oxygen or by scarcity of food. 

In the rusts, thanks to the work of Blackman^' in 1904, Christman^" 
in 1905 and subsequent investigators, we have a pretty full knowledge of 
the morphology of the reproductive apparatus. In the eu forms, which 
possess a complete life cycle, both uredospores — the accessory spores of 
the sporophyte— and teleutospores are produced on a mycelium of 
binucleate cells. Nuclear fusion takes place in the teleutospore cell, which 
is the young basidium, meiosis follows, and four uninucleate basidio- 
spores are shed. The basidiospore, on germination, gives rise to a mycelium, 
the cells of which contain each a single nucleus, and some of them, forming 



K,— BOTANY. 191 

a regular layer, serve as the basal cells, or oogonia, of the secidium. The 
binucleate condition now supervenes ; in some species a vegetative 
nucleus migrates into each basal cell, in others the basal cells unite in 
pairs, and jointly cut ofE a binucleate structure which will form 
secidiospores. 

The secidium may be regarded as a sorus, or group, of spore-producing 
cells, comparable to the sorus which gives rise to the uredo- or teleutospores ; 
it is, however, the product of the gametophyte and the scene of transition 
from the haplo- to the diplophase. 

On the same mycelium of xminucleate cells which bears the young 
secidia appears a fourth type of sorus, the spermogonium or pycnidium, 
consisting of a layer of narrow filaments from the tip of each of which a 
series of small oval cells is budded off. These cells, the spermatia or 
pycnospores, each possess a large, dense nucleus, scanty cytoplasm and 
apparently no reserve material ; they have never been seen to form a 
mycelium, though they can be induced to undergo a form of yeast-like 
budding in solution of honey or sugar, and Professor Robinson informs me 
that he has observed the same thing under natural conditions. As long 
ago as 1882 Rathay^^ called attention to the attractive characters of the 
spermogonia, their scent in many cases, their sugary secretion, and the 
bright colours imparted to the neighbouring host tissue ; he suggested 
that insects were responsible for the distribution of the spermatia. The 
function of the spermatia, however, has long been a puzzle ; as conidia 
they were oddly constructed, as antheridia there seemed little opportumty 
for them to reach the basal cells of the secidium ; in either case they 
appeared to be vestigial. 

A new aspect has recently been given to this problem by two letters 
to ' Nature,' -^^ describing the experiments of J. H. Craigie on Puccinia 
Helianthi and Pwxinia Graminis. In the former species he found that, 
when basidiospores are shed on the leaf of the sunflower, spermogonia 
appear in about eight days. Ten or eleven days after sowing, when 
mycelia from different infections overlap, aecidia are found in fifty per 
cent, of the cases. The remaining infections, whether simple or compound, 
do not produce aecidia for three weeks ; later nearly half of them do so. 
This seems a straightforward case of heterothallism ; the production of 
spore fruits is induced or stimulated by the association of two mycelia 
of presumably different strain, but, as in the Hymenomycetes, fructifica- 
tions may more slowly develop without such encouragement. In his 
second letter Craigie adds a most interesting point ; observing the visits 
of flies to his spermogonia, he was reminded of the old suggestion of their 
function as distributors, and was induced to mix the spermatia from 
several spermogonia and apply the material to his infections. In nearly 
every case aecidia were the result. The inference is drawn that the foreign 
spermatia served as a stimulus to development. Craigie regards the two 
heterothallic strains as of different sex, and the spermatia as conidia. 
It is possible that they play the same part as the oidia of Coprinusjimetanus, 
but unfortunately microscopic details are not available. It will be most 
interesting to know how the spermatium, after landing on the epidermis 
of the leaf, penetrates to the endophytic mycelium of the rust. Such 
knowledge should decide its antheri(fial or conidial function. 



192 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

ASCOMYCETES. 

In the Ascomycetes the sexual apparatus has in many cases been shown 
to be functional, with well differentiated male and female organs. In the 
simpler species, among the Plectascales, the gametangia are similar twisted 
filaments ; in Eremascus albus these fuse,^^ the contents of both passing 
into an enlargement which becomes the ascus directly and gives rise 
internally to eight spores. In Endomyces Magnusii^'^ the gametangia 
differ in size, the contents of the smaller passing into the larger which 
becomes the ascus. In Endomyces Lindneri^^ the product of fusion is not 
an ascus, but buds out one or two short hyphse at the end of each of which 
an ascus is developed. Here we have the beginning of the vegetative 
sporophyte which, in the higher Ascomycetes, forms a considerable mass 
of ascogenous filaments bearing numerous eight-spored asci. In the first 
two divisions of the nucleus of the ascus meiosis occurs, and the ascospores 
give rise, on germination, to the vegetative gametophyte. I do not 
propose to discuss the complicated cytology of this stage, but to accept, 
for my present purpose, the common ground that, in some cases at any 
rate, male nuclei enter the oogonium and sooner or later fuse with the 
female nuclei ; while, in other species, or in the same species under 
different conditions, more or less marked apogamy prevails, so that the 
antheridium may be functionless or missing, the oogonium still giving 
rise to ascogenous hyphse, or the female apparatus also may have dis- 
appeared, the sporophyte being vegetative in origin. 

Proceeding from the simple, intertwined gametangia, we may recognise 
a number of forms in which the female apparatus, or archicarp, is differ- 
entiated into three parts, a stalk, commonly multicellular, an oogonium, 
which may or may not become septate after the fertilisation stage, and a 
trichogyne or conjugation tube, which also, strangely enough, is often 
septate, the septa, at any rate in some cases,^^ having been shown to 
undergo perforation. Evolution seems to have been along two lines : in 
one, characteristic of the Pyrenomycetes, the archicarp remains narrow 
and elongated, and septation is increased ; in the other, common among 
Discomycetes, the oogonium is globose and septa are not developed. 
This type is admirably exemplified by that classical subject of 
investigation, Pyronema confluens. 

Corresponding to the discomycetous type of archicarp, we find a rather 
large, stalked, oblong antheridium ; while, in the higher Pyrenomycetes, 
the antheridium is reduced in size, and at last appears as a small, uni- 
nucleate cell, detached from the end of an antheridial hypha. Such 
antheridia have never been proved to function, and have by many been 
described as conidia. Craigie's work on the spermatia of rusts indicates 
the need of a reinvestigation of such forms. 

In both Pyrenomycetes and Discomycetes dioecious species have been 
reported. Thaxter,^' in 1896, described the development side by side of 
male and female plants of the laboulbeniaceous fungus, Amorphomyces 
FalagricB ; in this species the ascus contains spores of two sizes, and these 
male and female producing spores are shed in pairs. It is one of the 
puzzling aspects, not merely of the fungi, but of plant economy as a whole, 
that elaborate morphological provision for exogamy seems so often to be 
neutralised by the common origin of the sexual elements or of the plants 



J 



K.— BOTANY. 193 

which bear them. The cases of highly specialised entomophily where the 
insect passes from flower to flower on the same inflorescence, and the 
formation of dwarf males from the egg-bearing plant of Oedogonium are 
examples of the same problem. 

Among the Discomycetes Dodge^^ in 1920 reported in Ascoholus 
magnijicus the development of antheridia and oogonia along the line of 
junction of two mycelia. Though the oogonium is globose, the trichogyne 
here is long and septate, and coils round the antheridium ; but details of 
fertilisation are not available, nor has it been finally ascertained that the 
sexual organs originate only on hyphse of different strains. If the latter 
should prove to be the case, simple dioecism is indicated, and this is borne 
out by the fact that, as in the Mucorales, the sexual organs do not appear 
till opposing mycelia have made contact. The same criterion applies in 
the case of Ascoholus carbonarius,^^ where the trichogyne is even longer 
and more richly septate, and the antheridium is described as conidial ; 
apart from the fact that ascocarps arise where two strains meet, nothing is 
known of the dioecism or heterothallism of this form. Ascoholus furfuraceus 
and several other species produce fruits in single spore culture. 

As early as 1914 Egerton*" described in Glomerella cingulata, one 
of the Sphaeriales, a phenomenon which may possibly fall into line with 
more recent observations. In this fungus there are two strains which 
differ in appearance ; that designated as (+) grows rapidly, develops 
white or light grey aerial hyphae and produces a few perithecia which reach 
normal maturity. On the ( — ) strain aerial filaments are scanty, while 
perithecia are numerous, but asci do not ripen in culture except on acidified 
oat agar, and even then are irregular in form. Where the two strains 
meet fertile perithecia are abundant. Moreover, the asci in perithecia 
on a (+) or a ( — ) mycelium produce only corresponding spores, whereas 
those in perithecia along the line of junction have been shown to contain 
spores of both kinds. Here it seems evident, not only that some stimulus 
is conveyed by the association of two mycelia, but, since the (+) and ( — ) 
characters are inherited through the ascus, that a mingling and ultimately 
a fusion of (+) and ( — ) nuclei can take place. The species is remarkable 
for the morphological difference of its (+) and ( — ) strains. 

A more orthodox case of heterothallism — using the term in its simplest 
sense to indicate the presence of two or more kinds of mycelia — was 
described by Derx*^ in 1926 for Penicillium luteum. In this fungus twelve 
mycelia were grown from single ascospores ; perithecia were developed 
only where two appropriate mycelia met, and these mycelia were further 
differentiated by their feebleness or vigour. An energetic mycelium, 
growing alone, gave rise to ascocarps, though without asci, liquefied 
gelatine, and stained the substratum bright orange ; a feeble mycelium 
showed none of these activities. When two vigorous mycelia, one (+) 
and one (— ), were brought into contact, large numbers of perithecia 
appeared ; when two feeble mycelia met the perithecia were but few, 
while one vigorous and one feeble strain gave an intermediate supply. 
Evidently, apart from the (+) and (— ) character, some nutritive factor 
is here at work. 

In Giberella*'^ also, the ascigerous stage of Fusarium moniliforme, and 
in Ophiobolus cariceti,^^ a cause of tahe all or whitehead disease on wheat, 

1928 O 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

fertile perithecia have been reported along the line of junction of two 
strains, but full details are not available. 

In 1926 Shear and Dodge** described a new genus, Neurospora, the 
red bread mould, which they classified among the Hypocreales in the 
neighbourhood of Melanospora. N. tetrasperma has four binucleate spores 
in the ascus ; in N. sitophila each of the eight ascospores contains one 
nucleus. Grown in culture N. tetrasperma readily produced ascocarps, 
while, in N. sitophila, perithecia appeared only at the junction of (+) and 
( — ) mycelia. Further, mycelia from the occasional uninucleate spores of 
Neurospora tetrasperma were heterothallic like those from the spores of 
the eight-spored species. Dodge*^ and his colleague Wilcox,*® who 
studied N. sitophila, concluded that the character distinguishing the 
(+) and (— ) strains was carried by the nuclei and found evidence that 
its distribution took place in the second division in the ascus. Dodge*'' 
succeeded in intermingling the mycelium of N. sitophila with that of the 
heterothallic form of N. tetrasperma, and in obtaining material with some 
of the characters of each. Unfortunately no information is available as 
to the sexual apparatus of these fungi, or of the part it plays, if any, in the 
relation of (+) and (— ) strains. 

This relation is described by Dodge, and by most other workers on 
heterothallism in the Ascomycetes, as in the Basidiomycetes, in terms of 
sexual difference. I have tried to state their facts without theoretical 
implication. 

Lately some work has been in progress in my laboratory at Birkbeck 
College on the coprophilous species, Humaria granulata, in which Prof. 
Blackman and I,** some twenty-two years ago, described the archicarp, 
terminating in a globose oogonium, and giving rise to ascogenous hyphse 
without the intervention of an antheridium. I am not sure, in adducing 
the case of Humaria, whether I am bringing forward that additional 
term which sometimes solves an equation, or only making an insoluble 
equation more complex. 

We found that the mycelia of Humaria, in single spore culture, were of 
two kinds, and that ascocarps developed only along the line of junction of 
(+) and ( — ) infections. So far the case was an ordinary one of hetero- 
thallism, but microscopic examination showed that both (+) and ( — ) 
mycelia bear well-grown female organs, though these produce ascogenous 
hyphse only where (+) and ( — ) strains have met. The contact of the 
mycelia is followed by fusions between their branches, and it is in the 
neighbourhood of such points of union that successful archicarps are 
found. Transverse walls do not at first appear in the archicarp, so that 
little difficulty is presented to the passage of nuclei from both mycelia to 
the oogonium. 

It is impossible to regard as differing in sex these two mycelia 
which both bear normal, though apogamous, female organs ; and it is 
therefore inevitable, in Humaria at any rate, to seek some explanation 
of heterothallism which does not invoke sexual difference. The most 
promising alternative appears to be a difference in nutrition. If we can 
induce Humaria to fruit on synthetic agars, we hope to make a direct 
test of this hypothesis. Meantime there is other work from which indirect 
information can be obtained. 



i 



K.— BOTANY. 195 

The Nutritive Requirements of the Fungi. 

The life-history of a fungus may as a rule be divided into three stages : 
a period of vegetative growth, a conidial phase, and a phase characterised 
by the development of the sexual apparatus. The change from the 
vegetative condition may be influenced by food, light, temperature, 
humidity, aeration or the encounter of mechanical obstacles ; thus 
Sporodinia tends to form gametangia when the air is saturated with 
moisture, while Polyporus,'^^ Lentinus ^^ and Pyronema will initiate their 
fructifications only in the presence of light. Anyone who has grown 
Ascomycetes in culture is accustomed to the appearance of ascocarps 
near the edge of the dish, where free growth of the mycelium is checked, 
and many of these fungi are also encouraged to fruit by a moderate 
increase of temperature. It is possible that both reactions may be 
referred to nutritive causes, since high temperature, by increasing growth, 
uses up the available food, and a mechanical obstacle means that areas 
of unstaled substratum can no longer be invaded. Possibly, also, a 
nutritive cause may be assigned to the production of ascocarps of 
Ascoholus^^ and Aspergillus'' in the presence of bacteria, and to the 
more curious case of Lachnea abundans, communicated to me by Dr. 
Barnes, This species fruits readily when grown on synthetic media with 
scraps of filter paper, but not if the paper is replaced by 0-3 per cent, 
glucose ; in contact with Penicillium glaucum, however, it fruits on the 
latter medium. 

Most fungi are very sensitive to the presence of appropriate carbo- 
hydrates. On substrata rich in carbohydrate Phytophthora erythroseptica 
fails to form gametangia, but Sporodinia grandis will not produce them in 
its absence. Similarly Eurotium herbariorum fruits best on media con- 
taining a large percentage of cane sugar, while other fungi, like Pyronema 
conjluens,^^ P. domesticum and Lachnea abundans show increased vegetative 
development under similar conditions, but remain persistently sterile. 
Some of the coprophilous sordarias fruit in culture only in contact with 
scraps of filter paper or grass ; others are indifferent to such substances. 

The nitrogen relation is more general. The Saprolegniales tend to 
form sexual organs in standing water, when the aquatic population is 
high and the nitrogen content of the pool increased. Ascomycetes need 
some source of nitrogen before gametangia can be formed ; there is 
evidence, ^^ however, that these cannot develop till the substratum is 
almost depleted of nitrogen compounds. The observation that heavy 
nitrogenous manuring prevents the appearance of mushrooms and their 
allies is in harmony with this. Nitrogen compounds are essential, but 
must not be present in excess. 

Information with regard to other food materials is scanty, but phos- 
phates, potassium, magnesium and calcium salts, and, in some cases, a 
trace of iron have been found to be advantageous. The formation of 
staling substances is often important, probably as a means of checking 
vegetative growth ; high concentrations of sugar may have the same 
effect, an osmotic factor being presumably involved. The evidence 
points to specific requirements in a number of forms, and, in all, to the 
need of appropriate food before fructifications can be produced. 

o 2 



196 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Saltation. 

In this, as in other characters, the fungi are capable of marked varia- 
tion. Often the varieties grade into one another ; in some cases they 
are dependent on the content of the substratum and revert to the original 
form when the original food material is supplied ; in some they return 
gradually, even under unchanged conditions, to the character of their 
precursors. Stable variants, however, are common, and their sudden 
origin in species under observation has often been recorded. Barnes,^* 
in Eurotium herbariorum, found that they could be induced by the applica- 
tion of heat to the spores, and Brown,^^ in Fusarium, reported their 
survival on media which combined high concentration with minimal 
staling capacity, so that, growth being long continued, the altered hyphse 
had a chance to develop. 

It is possible that some of these variants may arise in nature as a result 
of conditions which the fungus barely survives, and that some may be due 
to mutations comparable to those of animals and green plants. But 
account must be taken in the higher fungi of the multinucleate character 
of the vegetative cells, and of the occurrence of mycelial fusions which 
bring together unrelated nuclei. We are profoundly ignorant of the 
effect on development of a nucleus surrounded by unfamiliar cytoplasm, 
or of two or more nuclei in an environment to which only some of 
them belong. These problems will demand intensive study before the 
phenomenon of saltation begins to be understood; but it is already 
established that saltation affects both physiological and morphological 
characters, that many saltants are stable, and that their peculiarities are 
inherited. 

Food and Heterothallism. 

How, then, is a nutritive explanation applicable to the heterothallism 
of Humaria ? We know that the production of fructifications is de- 
pendent on appropriate food, and that new strains, differing in their food 
relation, readily arise. Suppose that the (-f ) mycelium be a saltant 
possessing, as an hereditary character, the capacity of rapidly extracting 
from the substratum a food substance. A, essential to ascocarp formation, 
but is lacking, or weak, in the power to accumulate the equally necessary 
material, B. Suppose, similarly, that a ( — ) strain can obtain B, but not 
A. If two (+) or two (— ) strains meet, the nutritive conditions for 
fruiting are not fulfilled, but, if (— ) hyphse fuse with (+) hyphse, all 
requirements are met, and a row of ascocarps is the result. 

In the great mass of work on other heterothallic forms, information is 
available which seems to support this hypothesis. In some of the smuts, 
fusion does not occur if the mycelia have been grown on media rich in albu- 
minous compounds. In Glomerella the ( — ) strain forms fertile spores only on 
an appropriate substratum. Both in the rusts and in the Hymenomycetes 
species occur which can develop fruits from a (+) or a (—) mycelium alone, 
though more slowly than from the combination of both. In such cases, 
the hetero-homothallic forms, each mycelium may be inferred gradually to 
acquire the material which the other can rapidly obtain. 

Again, in the Hymenomycetes, we have species, such as Aleurodiscus 
polygomts and Coprinus lagopus, which are described as quadrisexual. It 



K.— BOTANY. 197 

may be difficult to form a conception of a race with four sexes, but a race 
requiring four or more food substances in preparation for the fruiting 
period is a matter of common experience. Let the four characters, known 
as A, a, B and b, which these fungi have been shown to inherit on mendelian 
lines, represent each the capacity of rapidly extracting from the substratum 
some essential food, and let every spore contain, as it is known to do, 
either A or a and either B or b ; then the requisite food supply is assured 
only when AB and ab, or Ab and aB have pooled resources. In other 
words, for an AB strain the limiting factors are the scarcity of a and b, 
while the development of an ab strain is restricted by poverty in respect 
of A and B. If different sporophores develop a different arrangement of 
limiting factors, the otherwise astonishing fact that mycelia from all the 
spores of one heterothallic sporophore may be fertile with those from 
all the spores of another is readily understood. 

The higher Basidiomycetes are wholly lacking in sexual organs, and 
it is impossible to judge whether the heterothallic condition arose, as in 
Ascomycetes, while these were still extant. A further study of the 
heterothallic rusts may throw light on this interesting question. 

In Ascomycetes account has to be taken of so many peculiar features 
that one hesitates to suggest any correlation between them. To those 
who accept the observation of Harper^^ and his many successors that a 
nuclear fusion in the oogonium is followed by a fusion in the ascus, the 
simultaneous occurrence of heterothallism and sexuality is at least 
suggestive. But in the present state of our knowledge it is no more, 
and the suggestion may lead to another of the blank walls with which the 
study of fungi is beset. Particularly to be desired is the full investigation 
of a heterothallic form in which the entrance of male nuclei into the 
oogonium still occurs. Pyronema confluens and Pyronema domesticum 
are uncompromisingly homothallic, male and female organs and normal 
fruits being found in single spore culture. There is some hope of Ascobolus 
magnificus or Ascobolus carbonarius. 

Since heterothallism occurs in all the main groups of Basidiomycetes 
and Ascomycetes, it may be inferred that its origin is remote, and the 
question arises whether the phenomenon, as elucidated in these fungi, 
bears any relationship to the heterothallism of the Mucorales. In Mucor 
and its allies the branches of (+) and (— ) mycelia grow towards one 
another and become attached, the procedure up to this stage being very 
similar to that in Humana and, I should judge, in the Hymenomycetes 
also. The result of contact, however, is the development of sexual organs 
at the point of union. This differs from Hicmaria, in which only female 
organs are formed, and those on a neighbouring branch ; and from the 
Hymenomycetes, in which sexual organs are not produced. Moreover, 
in the mucors, open communication does not occur between (+) and (— ) 
strains till their gametangia are mature, and, if the distinction between 
them be nutritive, the nutritional deficiencies of each mycel'um must at 
first be supplied by diffusion. It is true that the archicarps of Humaria 
develop up to a point without mycelial fusion, but in Mucor the presence 
of two mycelia is necessary before gametangia appear. As an argument 
for the sexual nature of the (+) and (— ) strains in the Mucorales, Satina 
and Blakeslee" have lately shown that, with the KMnO., and Manilov 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

tests, a distinction can be drawn between (+) and ( — ) strains, the former, 
like the female plants of dioecious angiosperms, being the stronger reducers. 
It may be suggested, as a working hypothesis, that nutritive heterothallism 
arose in the ancestors of the higher fungi after their mycelium had become 
septate, and was made possible by the prevalence of mycelial fusions 
which distinguishes septate forms. 

Sex and Nutrition. 

But, after all, if heterothallism in these fungi is a nutritive phenomenon, 
does it thereby differ from sexual fusion ? Van Rees^^ in 1887 and 
Dangeard^^ in 1899 suggested that syngamy first arose as a process of 
reciprocal cannibalism or autophagy. Gametes were characterised as 
hungry cells which lacked the means to continue their development 
unaided, and were able to do so only when two had pooled their resources. 
Thus we have the facultative gametes of Ulothrix, which function as zoo- 
spores when conditions are good, and the gametes of Synchytrium, which 
are zoospores retarded in development. In Reticularia Lycoperdon, Wilson 
and Cadman®*^ have shown that, after the union of two gametes, three to 
eight similar swarmers are drawn into the mass and coalesce ; their nuclei 
degenerate and they serve as food, but the process in its early stages is 
very like the gametic union. Syngamy may be, in fact, in some of its 
aspects, a form of nutrition, but that is very far from saying that all 
forms of nutrition are syngamy. The fungi, in addition to the wide 
variety of their sexual process and their many saprophytic and parasitic 
means of obtaining food, have given evidence of a special development 
which, partaking of some of the characters of each, may possibly throw 
light on the peculiarities of both, and, in so doing, may provide a clue 
to the significance of the primitive sexual fusion. 

REFERENCES. 

1. Kusano, S., Journ. Col. Ag. Tokyo, iv, 1912. 

2. Curtis, K. M., Phil. Trans., cxx, 1921. 

3. Griggs, R. F., Ohio Nat, x, 1910. 

4. Barrett, J. T., Ann. Bot., xxvi, 1912. 

5. Loewenthal, W., Arch. f. Protistenk., v, 1904-5. 

6. Wager, H., Ann. Bot., xxvii, 1913. 

7. Klebs, G., Jahrb. f. wiss. Bot., xxxiii, 1899 ; Coker, W. C, The Saprolegniaceoe, 

U. of N. Carolina Press, 1923. 

8. Coker, W. C, loc. cit. 

9. Ashby, S. F., Kew Bull, ix, 1922. 

10. Couch, J. N., Ann. Bot., xl, 1926. 

11. Robinson, W., Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, x, 1926. 

12. Blakeslee, A. F., Proc. Am. Acad., xl, 1904. 

13. Blakeslee, A. F., et al., Bot. Gaz., Ixxxiv, 1927. 

14. Kniep, H., Zeit. f. Pilzkunde, v, 1926 ; Dickinson, S., Proc. Roy. Soc, ci, 1927. 

15. Dodge, B. 0., Journ. Ag. Pes., xxxvi, 1928. 

16. Kniep, H., Zeit. f. Bot., vii-ix, 1915-7. 

17. Bensaude, M., Be*, sur la cycle ev. et la sex. chez les Basidiomy cites, Bouloy, Nemours, 

1918. 

18. Vandendries, R., Bull. Soc. R. de Belg., Iviii, 1925. 

19. Hirmer, M., Zeit. f. Bot., xii, 1920. 

20. Levine, M., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xl, 1913. 

21. Brefeld, 0., Untersuchungen,Felix,Leivzig,1887 ; Newton, D. E., Ann. Bot., xl, 

1926. 



K.— BOTANY. 199 

22. Newton, D. E., loc. cit. 

23. Vandendries, R., Bull. Soc. R. de Belg., Ivi, 1923. 

24. Kniep, H., Verh. d. Physik.-Med. Ges. zu Wurzburg, xlvi, 1920. 

25. Hanna, W. F., Ann. Bot., xxxix, 1925. 

26. Kniep, H., Verh. d. Physik.-Med. Ges. zu Wurzburg, xlvii, 1922 ; Brunswik, H., 

K. Goebel's Bot. Abhand., Jena, 1924 ; Newton, D. E., Ann. Bot., xl, 1926 ; 
Vandendries, R., Acad. R. de Belg., ix, 1927. 

27. Dangeard, P. A., Botaniste, iii, 1894. 

28. Kniep, B..,Zeit.f. Bot.,xi, 1919; Zeit.f. Pilzkunde, x, 1926; Dickinson, S.,Proc. 

Roy. Sac, ci, 1927. 

29. Blackman, V. H., Ann. Bot., xviii, 1904. 

30. Christman, A. H., Bot. Gaz., xxxix, 1905. 

31. Rathay, E., Denkschr. d. Wein. Acad., xlvi, 1882. 

32. Craigie, J. H., Nature, July, November, 1927. 

33. Eidam, E., Beitr. z. Biol. d. Pflanzen, iii, 1883. 

34. Guillermond, A., Rev. Gen. de Bot., xxi, 1909. 

35. Mangenot, G., C. R. Soc. Biol, de Paris, Ixxxii, 1919. 

36. Eraser (Gwynne-Vaughan), H. C. I., Ann. Bot., xxvii, 1913. » 

37. Thaxter, R., Mem. Am. Acad., xii, 1896. 

38. Dodge, B. 0., Mycologia, xii, 1920. 

39. Betts, E. M., Am. Journ. Bot., xxxi, 1926. 

40. Egerton, C. W., Am. Journ. Bot., i, 1914. 

41. Derx, H. G., Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, xxxi, 1926. 

42. Wineland, G. 0., Phytopath., xiii, 1923. 

43. Kirby, R. S., Phytopath., xiii, 1923 ; Davis, R. J., Journ. Ag. Res., xxxv, 1927. 

44. Shear, C. L., and Dodge, B. 0., Journ. Ag. Res., xxxiv, 1927. 

45. Dodge, B. 0., Journ. Ag. Res., xxxv, 1927. 

46. Wilcox, M. S., Mycologia, xx, 1928. 

47. Dodge, B. 0., Journ. Ag. Res., xxxvi, 1928. 

48. Blackman, V. H., and Eraser, H. C. I., Proc. Roy. Soc, Ixxvii, 1906. 

49. Buller, A. H. R., Journ. Econ. Biol., i, 1906. 

50. Buller, A. H. R., Ann. Bot-, xix, 1905. 

51. Molliard, M., Bull. Soc. Myc de France, xix, 1903. 

52. Sartory, A., C. R. Soc. Biol, de Paris, Ixxxiii, 1920. 

53. Robinson, W., Ann. Bot., xl, 1926. 

54. Barnes, B., Ann. Bot., xiii, 1928. 

55. Brown, W., Ann. Bot., xl, 1926. 

56. Harper, R. A., Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Ges., xiii, 1895. 

57. Satina, S., and Blakeslee, A. F., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., v, 1925. 

58. Rees, Van, Over oorsprongte, Ac, Amsterdam, .1887. 

59. Dangeard, P. A., Botaniste, vi, 1898-9. 

60. Wilson, M., and Cadman, E. J., Trans. Roy. Soc Ed., Iv, 1928. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



EDUCATION : THE NEXT STEPS. 

ADDRESS BY 

CYRIL NORWOOD, M.A., D.Lit., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The chief advance made in the first quarter of the twentieth century has 
been that the nation as a whole has been converted to belief in the value 
of education. When the century began there were still very many who 
had received little or no schooling in their youth, but had won their way, 
not without a considerable measure of self-satisfaction, to substantial 
positions. That perhaps legitimate pride was based on a certain mis- 
understanding of the values of life, and it involved the fallacy vividly 
exhibited by a certain local millionaire of my acquaintance, who was asked 
to support the movement for the establishment of the local university. 
' University,' he said : ' what do you want with a university ? I left 
school when I was thirteen, and look at me.' Now it was just because 
we were looking at him that we desired the means of higher education to 
be at the command of the community, though at that particular interview 
it was hard to say so. To-day, nearly a generation later, that particular 
type — a type usually of sturdy independence, strong character, and 
material outlook — has largely been gathered to its fathers ; there have 
been twenty-five years of constantly extending further education ; the 
War has taken place. Opposition to education as such, at any rate to 
education after the age of fourteen, is now confined to the National 
Confederation of Employers' Organisations, and to the farmers, both of 
which circles are mostly interested in the continuance of the supply of 
young labour under the conditions to which they have been hitherto 
accustomed. But they represent now a definite minority of the nation, 
which as a whole is unwilling to think of a large mass of its members as 
merely raw material to be utilised in its course from the school to the 
scrap-heap ; it believes that each boy and girl has a right to be trained 
as an individual. There flourishes to-day a living and growing belief in 
the value of human personality ; it dominates all that is best in our 
education, and I believe it will soon be unquestioned in any quarter. 
It must so dominate the general mind if our democracy is to justify itself, 
if, indeed, it is to survive. 

Anyone who studies the growth of our education during the last 
century cannot fail to be impressed by the fact that it has been developed 
to meet needs which made themselves felt in practice, and not to satisfy 
preconceived theories, or a logical perfection. Its history is that of a 
soldiers' battle : it has been the creation of actual combatants, and not 
of a general stafi. As a result it has all the vitality which comes from 



L.— EDUCATION. 201 

springing direct from the national life, so that the life of the schools is 
interwoven with that of the people ; but as a system it is not logical, and 
it is not complete. There have been remarkable and successful achieve- 
ments in some directions, but gaps have been left unfilled in others. It 
has been well said that the landscape of English education is one of peaks 
and valleys rather than that of a uniform tableland. It is our business 
now to think nationally as well as locally, and to apply our minds to the 
filling up of those valleys, some of them deep, which still exist, and it is 
the purpose of this paper to indicate what, in the opinion of one who has 
spent more than twenty-five years in service in one field of our education, 
are the next steps which we should take if we are to move towards the 
creation of a system which is really national, and will provide for all the 
varying and complicated needs of a great nation of the twentieth century. 
Right across the path of advance lies a lion, at the moment only 
apparently asleep, which has already devoured imprudent wayfarers, and 
may devour more : I need not say that I refer to the existing system of 
dual control in elementary education. It is as well to know what is the' 
size of this problem. According to the last published figures, those for 
1926-27, out of 22,629 public elementary schools in England and Wales, 
10,478 were Council Schools and 12,151 were Voluntary Schools ; of these 
12,151 again 10,457 were Church of England, 135 Wesleyan, 1,196 Roman 
Catholic, 12 Jewish, and 351 of other types. Taking it another way, by 
the numbers of children in attendance, there were 4,924,102 in the Council 
Schools and 2,711,244 in the Voluntary. It is therefore a very large 
problem, the solution of which cannot be left to time, as is our national 
way when we are in the presence of a difficulty ; for, while it is true that 
the number of Council Schools tends steadily to increase, and the number 
of Voluntary Schools to dwindle, yet the process is so slow that it would 
take very much more than a century before the Voluntary Schools became 
negligible. The position is this : that the Act of 1902 left the buildings 
of the Voluntary Schools in the possession of the denominations, and the 
religious teaching of the schools under the authority of the school managers, 
who retain also the right to appoint the teacher. Those who to-day have 
to organise the whole of education in any district find themselves hampered 
at every turn by the fact that they do not control all the schools. If, on 
the authority of the Education Act of 1921, they want to take the older 
children from a number of schools and group them for better teaching 
into one, they may find that the non-provided schools will not part with 
the very children for whom the system is designed. They may desire to 
reorganise, re-equip or rebuild a school, and find that the managers may 
very probably not possess the means, and in some cases not the will, to 
bear the expenditure involved. They may be aware, as in some cases 
they are aware, that the buildings to which the children have to go are 
ill-equipped, badly planned, far below the standards of the present day, 
but there is very little which they can in practice do to remedy this state 
of affairs. Even if they are willing to build a totally new school they have 
to face the fact that, without the good will of the managers of the non- 
provided school, they may fail to obtain the attendance of a proportion 
of the children large enough to justify the expenditure. Thus there is at 
present neither simplicity, economy, nor efficiency. On the denominations 



202 . SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

themselves tlie system plainly imposes burdens whicli are in general be- 
yond their means. A settlement of the question is demanded in spite 
of the fact that any attempt at a solution brings the solver up against 
what some would call religious conviction and others sectarian prejudice. 
Nevertheless there is more general good will in the air and a greater spirit 
of reason, and we ought to go forward. I submit that advance can go 
forward on lines which have been proposed, and found pretty general 
support, that the Voluntary schools should be transferred to the local 
authorities, who in return should allow at certain times and on certain 
days facilities of entry. Religious instruction would be given at definite 
periods, during which, if it were desired, certain children could be with- 
drawn for denominational instruction to be provided by the denominations. 
So far as Church of England and Nonconformist schools are concerned, 
I do not believe the withdrawal would in practice prove necessary or 
desirable, for I think that a very strong majority of the nation desires 
that the basis of all our education should be religious and Christian. 
These religious bodies are near enough together to arrive at a concordat 
as to the syllabus of religious instruction which should be followed, and 
the principles of the denomination could well and fitly be taught in the 
Sunday schools. I would submit that the educational enthusiasm and 
beneficence of the denominations could from their own point of view be 
most usefully directed to the provision of a certain number of schools 
for post-primary education and of training colleges for teachers. At any 
rate the scheme which I have thus briefly outlined is not one which 
disturbs the position and functions of teachers on the one hand, or one 
which need create friction between the churches and the local authorities 
on the other. But it does give the local authority effective control over 
buildings and organisation, and that is a necessary condition if further 
advance is to be made. 

That further advance is outlined in the Report on the Education of 
the Adolescent, which has come to be known as the Hadow Report ; since 
its publication it has commanded an unusual amount of support and 
interest. I give my unqualified adherence to the proposals which it 
makes, though I do not agree with the nomenclature which it suggests. 
Primary education should in future be a stage which ends at about the 
age of 11-f, and this for the best of reasons, because at about that age 
childhood closes and the first beginnings of adolescence set in. A second 
stage of education should therefore start at this point, going on for the 
majority to 15 + , for many to 16 + , for some to 18 or 19, this stage being 
regarded as a single whole, designed to meet the needs of the adolescent, 
and therefore containing within itself a considerable variety of type. 
This is not simply a question of adding one year to the course as it exists 
at present ; it means rethinking the whole of our education on a psycho- 
logical basis, and designing the primary course for the years of childhood, 
the post-primary courses for the ensuing years. It means as an ideal that 
all children would go forward after eleven on parallel lines, following the 
course best suited to each. The Hadow Report therefore states in its 
second conclusion that, ' while taking the country as a whole, many more 
children should pass to " secondary " schools in the current sense of the 
term than pass at present, it is necessary that the post-primary grade of 



L.— EDUCATION. 203 

education should include other types of post-primary schools, with 
curricula varying according to both the age up to which the majority of 
pupils will remain at school and the different interests and utilities of the 
pupils to which the bias and objective of each school will normally be 
related.' They envisage, therefore, besides the secondary schools of 
literary and scientific type, selective central schools with a four-year 
course, and a practical trend in the last two, non-selective central schools, 
which may exist either by themselves in some areas, or in other areas 
side by side with the selective schools, and a variety of other arrangements, 
which I think they only insert in their report because they realise that 
there must be a temporary period of makeshifts. Quite rightly, as I 
think, they do not believe that this system, if established, would hamper 
or cripple our already existing secondary schools, for the desire for educa- 
tion, once it is established, grows of itself. Quite rightly they realise 
that the education of adolescence is something wider than that which is 
given through books alone, and the new schools, while they begin with 
their eleven-year-old pupils in much the same way as the secondary 
schools, will always seek to develop the hand and the eye, and in their 
last two years will develop a practical bias. 

There is an immense gap which the promoters of this report seek to 
fill, and only those who have studied facts and figures know how large it 
is, so large, indeed, that it prevents us from making any claim at present 
that we have a system of education which deserves to be called national. 
In any one year the total school population is very slightly above 700,000. 
At the age of 14+ there are at least 300,000 children who are outside the 
system altogether, and receiving no continued instruction ; at the age 
of 15 -f this figure has risen to 520,000. This means that the effort and 
the money which have been devoted to the training of those children 
up to the age of 14 are in very considerable measure wasted ; and though 
I have not time to argue it now, or to advance the evidence, here in this 
gap may be found the reasons for much of the unemployment, and still 
more of the unemployability, which exist within our society to-day. It 
is of the most vital importance that those years of adolescence should be 
safeguarded by all that is of inspiration and of good report. Which of us 
would willingly allow a child of his own to pass to the work of the world 
at this age without further help ? Not one of us. It is not a question 
of the interest of employers, or of the interest of parents ; it is a question 
of the interest of the child, and of the nation, whose main wealth is the 
men and women which it produces. And since, if it were a matter of the 
interest of our own children, we could only answer that question in one 
way, it seems to me a plain matter of social duty to strive to bring it 
about that the same safeguards and help should exist for all, and that we 
shall not continue to neglect a full half of the children who are born into 
our country. 

But before I pass from the region of primary education there are a 
few further points which I should like to make, though I must make them 
briefly. We take our children into school at the age of five, a year earlier 
than any other country, and after a good deal of past blundering we have 
developed in many of our infant schools institutions which seem to me to 
be of peculiar merit. In them the children are active, not passive, happy, 



204 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and not dull : the atmosphere is that which is proper to early childhood, an 
atmosphere of freedom, spontaneity, and joy. I should like to see the 
policy steadily followed of developing and increasing the number of these 
admirable places. I have no doubt, too, that the policy will be steadily 
followed of reducing the size of classes in the primary school. I need not 
labour this, for to this audience it will be obvious that a teacher confronted 
by sixty, seventy or more pupils cannot follow the same methods, or seek 
the same ends, as the teacher who deals with thirty-five. The teacher of 
the large class can seek only discipline and a certain amount of mechanical 
accuracy ; as the numbers fall he can begin to treat his pupils as indi- 
viduals. He can develop those methods, for instance, which I believe are 
admirably suited to the stage of the primary school, which are associated 
with the name of Miss Charlotte Mason, and the Parents' National 
Educational Union. Promising experiments have been made on these 
lines in Gloucestershire, Kent and elsewhere, and during our sessions we 
shall hear more of them. Other experiments also can be tried so long as 
the teacher is not overborne by numbers. But of primary education as 
a whole — and I am speaking of the stage that ends at 11 + , not at 14 — I 
would say that it is no longer the region of the three R's ; it is the region 
of another trinity, the hand, the eye, and the voice. It is the business 
of the primary school to teach the child to see and observe, to make and 
to do, and to speak and to sing. And then the child will be much more 
fit to enter into the great inheritance of the world, with more capacity 
for true happiness, and more capacity for true intelligence. 

In passing from this digression once again to the consideration of 
post-primary and secondary education, it is in place not to omit the 
mention of one other administrative reform, and that is the rearrangement 
of local authorities so that in any given area there should be one authority 
for the whole work of education. At present there are 318 authorities 
for elementary education and 145 for higher education ; the mere mention 
of the fact shows that in many districts it is impossible to organise the 
education as a whole. Clearly the areas should be wide, for to-day 
communities spread over great distances, and their members sleep in 
one place and work in another ; not only in education it is beginning to 
be found that units which are too small do not make for cheapness or 
eflS.ciency. 

To turn to the problems of secondary education proper — by which I 
mean education of boys and girls up to the age of 18 — it is advisable first 
to survey the present position and to see how that position has arisen. 
The public schools and the great day schools of the nineteenth century 
were inspired both in regard to curriculum and method by Oxford and 
Cambridge, and they were largely classical ; a reaction against this undue 
narrowness led to the experiment of the Organised Science Schools of the 
last ten years of that century. These in their turn certainly carried the 
reaction too far, and produced juvenile chemists and physicists without 
culture or general education. In 1907 the Board of Education issued its 
first regulations for secondary schools, and sought something broader 
than either of these two rival institutions ; they established a four-year 
course in which English, geography and history, at least one language 
other than English, mathematics, science, and drawing should be studied, 



L.— EDUCATION. 205 

together with manual work, physical exercises, and, for girls, housewifery. 
As that course has been worked in practice in the last twenty-five years, 
it has been in the main academic in spirit, and the important subjects 
have come to be the native tongue, the foreign language or languages, and 
mathematics and science ; the schools have continued to look to the 
universities, and to the development of those advanced courses which 
lead up to university studies. All this efiort has been directed and 
stabilised, and some would say stereotyped, by the setting up of the 
system of school certificates, for which in England and Wales eight 
university authorities examine. All the secondary schools, therefore, have 
in the main the same outlook, which is primarily that each pupil should 
at the end of the first stage of the course be able to matriculate at a 
university ; the school certificates have been brought into relation with 
the matriculation examinations, and the system is now organised in all 
its details. 

Meantime the number of schools, and the number of pupils at each 
school, have greatly increased. In 1904 in England the number of 
secondary schools for boys, for girls, and for boys and girls together was 
575 ; there are now 1,184 recognised for grant by the Board of Education 
and 305 recognised as efficient, but not eligible for grant. In 1904 the 
number of pupils was 97,698 ; in October 1927 it was 349,430, and if 
you add the 57,655 in the schools not eligible for grant you get a total 
of 400,000 boys and girls who are in England pursuing a course of secondary 
education. Now the reason why I have troubled you with these figures 
is to point out that, while the content of secondary education has not 
changed, and remains academic in spirit and outlook, the number of 
schools has more than doubled, and the number of pupils has increased 
by more than four times. To put it clearly in another way, in the first 
year in which the school certificates examination was held, there were 
14,232 candidates ; for the last one for which figures are available there 
were 54,593, again very nearly an increase of four times. 

The result of pouring all this mass of new material into a single mould 
has produced a slowly increasing volume of protest, but those who protest 
are much more sure in describing the symptoms of the distresses of the 
secondary schools than they are in pointing to their cause or in finding 
the cure. It is said that there is a good deal of overstrain among the 
pupils of the secondary schools, particularly among the girls, and that 
for the average the effort of reaching a satisfactory level in English and 
English subjects, in a foreign language or languages, and in mathematics 
and sciences is too much. That this is so is shown by the fact that when 
the examination was established it was supposed that nearly all would 
be successful at the end of their course in obtaining a school certificate, 
but as a matter of experience less than two out of three have been able 
to do so. It is alleged that the examination hampers the freedom of the 
teacher, who during the whole four years' course can never turn aside to 
browse in the pleasant paths of literature or to pursue interests common 
to himself and his class, but must concentrate the attention of his class 
and himself wholly upon what will pay in the examination room. Great 
schoolmasters of the past are quoted who could never have pursued their 
favourite methods with success under present conditions. It is asserted 



206 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that for many boys, and for still more girls, the present curriculum is 
unsuitable, that they are not all, or indeed comparatively many, of them 
going to the universities, and that they ought not to be sacrificed to the 
interests of the few who do contemplate that course. The question is 
raised whether as a matter of fact this intellectual training of the girl 
ought to be the same as that of the boy, and whether the tyranny of 
imposing the preparatory curriculum of the university upon the girls is 
not even more unreasonable than it is asserted to be in the case of the 
boys. On this point the committee which reported on the differentiation 
of the curricula as between the sexes spoke with an uncertain voice, 
probably because they knew that there were many feminine associations 
ready to tear and devour any committee or any individual who said 
anything which might be taken to imply that women were not the full 
equals of men, and girls of boys. 

The practical outcome of all this is the suggestion that boys and girls 
should be awarded a school certificate even if they omit a foreign language 
entirely, or mathematics and science entirely, so long as they make up 
for it by proficiency in subjects such as music, art, handicraft, housecraft 
and other subjects of more motley character and more dubious claim. 
On this proposal the English teaching profession is divided, the Head- 
masters' Conference and the Assistant Masters' Association being against 
it, the Headmasters' Association doubtfully in favour, and the Head- 
mistresses' Association and the Assistant Mistresses almost as one woman 
in favour also. From this state of affairs one can judge where the shoe 
pinches most, but there is no doubt that it does pinch, and anyone who 
remembers the figures which I have just quoted will quite readily under- 
stand why. There are more boys and girls taking the full secondary 
course to-day than are either fit for it or fitted by it. The malcontents 
are quite right in the criticisms which they level against the system and 
its present results, but they are in my opinion wrong as to the nature of 
the cure and the method by which they would bring it about. 

The standard of secondary education in England is high, and is some- 
thing of which we have a right to be proud. Its methods and objects are 
the fruit of long experience and of the efforts of several generations. The 
boy or girl who has taken a school certificate before the age of sixteen, 
followed an advanced course, or specialisation in a sixth form, to the age 
of 18+, has reached a level attained in few educational systems other 
than our own. I question indeed whether any country is producing boys 
and girls of as high a level of intellectual excellence and training as those 
hundreds who go up every year to compete for scholarships and places 
at Oxford and Cambridge. I believe this to be true of the boys, and it 
is certainly true of the girls. This system is now built on the general 
education of the school certificate and the specialised education of the 
higher certificate, and I hold that it should stand unimpaired, and not be 
tampered with ; for it is far easier to relax a standard than ever to recover 
it. To say that every boy and girl who goes to a secondary school for 
four years should be awarded the same certificate, whatever subjects they 
may have studied and offered, is to say that things which are not equal 
to one another are equal to the same thing ; it is to say that the boy who 
has been successful in English, history, geography, Latin, French, mathe- 



L.— EDUCATION. 207 

matics and science is prima facie the same article as the boy who has been 
successful in English, general elementary science, drawing, handicraft and 
shorthand, or the girl who has offered English, botany, music, drawing and 
needlework. I am not representing either course as better than the 
other ; one may be right for A and the other for B. I hold no brief to 
argue that the high-brow is better than the low-brow, or the blue stocking 
than the flesh-coloured stocking. All that I maintain is that they are 
palpably not the same, that it is illogical therefore to call them the same, 
and that nothing but confusion will result from calling them the same. 
It may be democratic and in accordance with the spirit of the age to 
hold that we are all the same as one another, and ought therefore to be 
labelled with the same labels ; but no man who has taught a class for one 
term can really hold that nature gives any warrant to such nonsense. 
Surely the logical course is to award two kinds of certificate, one which 
shall fulfil the academic conditions and maintain unlowered the existing 
system which causes no difficulty to the boy or girl of average academic 
ability, and the other which shall be a proof that the boy or girl has taken 
at school that course of education which in the particular case was the 
most fitted. 

I would therefore have in any secondary school these two types 
definitely recognised to be different, not superior or inferior, the one to 
the other, but different. It would be recognised at the school-certificate 
stage by the one type sitting for the school certificate awarded as it now 
is, and the other for a general certificate which shall show that they have 
made good use of a good and sensible type of education. If they stay 
at school the one type will continue to go on to the higher certificate, 
again organised as it now is, and the other to a second certificate, which 
shall again test the subjects of a quite unspecialised education, designed 
to meet the individual need in each case. There will then be a good deal 
of variety inside secondary education, and when the central schools 
become more numerous and more organised, and the modern schools 
come into existence in increasing quantity, there will be a good deal of 
variety outside the old secondary schools as well. And when you consider 
the variety which must exist among that more than half-million boys and 
girls with whom we shall have to deal, I think you will agree with me 
that the more variety there is the better. 

Even so my discussion of the problem of the right curriculum for the 
higher forms of the secondary school is not complete. In saying that the 
standard should remain unimpaired, and not be tampered with, I have 
in mind the work of the best boys and girls. But many more than the 
best go on to the universities, and it is right that they should do so ; I 
am not convinced that any of these should attempt specialised study 
before they enter the classes of the university. On the one hand the 
colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, through their open scholarship examina- 
tions, enforce on the schools the attempt to reach a very high standard 
along narrow lines ; some universities, by allowing their intermediate 
examinations to be taken through the higher certificate, confuse the 
courses proper to themselves and to the schools ; some universities admit 
their students too early ; the higher-certificate courses themselves often 
involve specialisation built on a very slender foundation of general 



208 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

knowledge. On tlie other hand many professors and university teachers 
are loud in their condemnation of the state in which their pupils come to 
them, with minds ill-balanced and ill-furnished. I submit that this 
region of the last two years of school is insufficiently explored, and the 
nature of the work that should be done by the average student not thought 
out. I submit further that it is a matter which might well engage the 
attention of all the universities of the country in conference. They have 
perhaps no common mind, but I do not know that they have attempted 
to arrive at one : they have never clearly stated what they want ; they 
have never faced the fact that through their scholarships they make 
extreme specialisation necessary, and through their professors complain 
of the result. I regard the matter as urgent, for as chairman of the 
Secondary Schools Examination Council I know that the curriculum and 
the examinations proper to this later period of school life stand in great 
need of definition, and that in proceeding to the work, which cannot long 
be deferred, we have no clear guidance from the universities as to what 
they really want. 

However, it is not only in the secondary schools that some thinking 
needs to be done about the requirements of the immediate future ; there 
is also some advance that needs to be made after due thought in that 
very complicated field which is known as technical and further education. 
There has just lately been issued the second part of the report of the 
Committee on Education and Industry in England and Wales, to which 
I would commend this audience if they would like to go deeply into the 
matter. In this department of education the next steps which require 
to be taken are all of them steps to secure better contact with other 
branches of the educational system, and with industry and employment. 
Technical education is a field which has been developed all by itself, and 
in isolation from almost everything else. Each part has grown to meet 
a need, and usually a local need. It is cut off from the elementary educa- 
tion which precedes it, for elementary and technical education have been 
controlled by different departments of the Board of Education, and it 
is cut off from the university education, which in the case of the best 
students ought to follow. There is frequently a gap of one, two, or even 
more years between the end of the elementary course and the beginning 
of technical instruction, and that instruction is frequently sterilised by 
the fact that students have to come to it tired, late in the evening, and 
in the centre of cities. Finally, there is need of much fuller contact, of 
more mutual knowledge and sympathy, not only between technical educa- 
tion and industry, but also between all forms of industry and commerce 
and all forms of education. There ought to be a full inquiry into this 
difficult and complicated problem ; educationists ought to know and 
consider more thoroughly what is wanted, and employers ought to take 
much more trouble to find out what is being done. May I quote in this 
connexion a paragraph from the recent report of the Committee on 
Education and Industry with which I thoroughly agree ? ' We do not 
consider,' they say, ' that educational policy should be determined by 
industrial requirements, however legitimate in themselves. What we do 
feel most strongly is that in the interests of the boys and girls, quite as 
much as in the interests of industry, educational policy, and still more 



L.— EDUCATION. 209 

important its application in detail, ought not to be settled without full 
knowledge of occupational conditions, prospects and needs. It cannot 
be said that educational administrators are in as close touch with trade 
and industry as they would wish to be at this important stage in educational 
history. We are therefore forced to two conclusions. In the first place, 
any measures which can be taken to secure the contact which everyone 
desires should be taken with all possible speed, before the educational 
position becomes so solidified that any modifications, however desirable, 
will be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to make. In the second 
place, local authorities and all others concerned should obtain, so far as 
is possible, the views of representatives of trade and industry, employers 
and workers alike, before committing themselves to any reorganisation 
which might have direct or indirect effects on industrial conditions. The 
connexion between school arrangements and circumstances of employ- 
ment are not always apparent at first sight, and too great care cannot he 
expended in investigating the industrial implication of educational changes.' 
There is a large question of very general interest which I can state, 
though I- do not know that I can supply an answer. What is the proper 
part which formal and external examination should play in our educational 
courses ? Examinations at the present time play a very large part. 
In a great many places there is competition and examination for scholar- 
ships and for free places at the secondary schools ; some four years later 
there follows the school certificate, theoretically for all. One or two years 
later follows the higher-certificate examination, and then there are for 
some all the university and professional examinations in prospect. 
Entrance to the public schools is obtained by an examination known as 
the common entrance examination^ which is said in some cases to be 
competitive, but in all cases involves the reaching by the candidate of 
a certain definite standard. Competitive examination admits to the 
Army, Navy, and the Civil Service. The system is so thorough and so 
universal that the victim, if that is the right word, may never be out of 
the shadow of an examination from eleven years old to twenty-three, or 
even later. It is argued, first, that this gives almost inevitably a totally 
wrong view of knowledge, and makes a boy or a girl from school days on feel 
that his or her object is not to study a subject, but to acquire the capacity 
to answer on paper examination questions about it, and that therefore, 
once examinations are over, he or she learns no more. It is argued, 
secondly, that the teacher's freedom is destroyed, since he has to teach 
his subject not in the best way, but in the way which will pay best in the 
examination, and that the more inspiring, original, and fresh he is in 
presentment, the less he is likely to succeed on a mechanical system. 
It is alleged, thirdly, that the system is really unsuccessful, that it picks 
out for honour those who have the examination faculty and can write 
fast and to the point, but that, judging by what happens in after-life, it 
does not really pick the best men and women, and those who will go 
furthest in their study. 

There is a certain amount of truth, but a good deal of unreasonableness 
and lack of practical common sense, in all this attack which is so frequently 
made to-day. My own profession, the schoolmasters, are not inconsistent, 
though the schoolmistresses dispute the palm with them, for they insist 

1928 ? 



210 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

on a certificate to mark the successful completion of all their courses, 
and do not rest until all the subjects which they teach have been brought, 
for instance, within the ambit of the school certificate. The subjects 
which of all others ought to be the most free, and are in my opinion in 
their own interests least examinable — music and art — are, I suppose, the 
means for awarding more certificates by examination than any other, 
and the blame for this I lay largely at the door of my professional brothers 
and sisters. It is not, I think, seriously true that teachers are cramped 
by the examinations ; on the whole examinations follow the school 
curricula, and do not control them ; the teachers, moreover, are well 
represented on the examining authorities, and can make their voices 
heard. It is not possible to say whether a boy or girl knows a subject 
save by asking questions ; these must be the same for all, answered under 
the same conditions in the same time, and that makes a written examina- 
tion necessary. No one suggests that examinations are more than they 
are, a very human and sometimes fallible means of finding out whether 
a candidate knows what he ought to know, and no one in his senses claims 
that they pick out the person who will be ultimately the most successful. 
What is true is that in early years they tend to dull the edge of the desire 
for true knowledge, and that throughout school life there are plenty who 
are quite incapable of showing on paper what they have in their head ; 
they are not fools, though they may be written down as such, but they are 
bad examinees. Moreover, in any system of examination which is more 
or less universal — as is the case with the school certificate — we have to 
think of the dull and of the slow developers, who suffer badly when they 
are crammed and forced to an unnatural level. 

I believe, therefore, though the time is not yet, that the right course 
will be to abolish all external examination for the average boy and girl, 
though leaving it as the avenue to the universities and the professions. 
In the case of the average boy and girl the properly inspected and efi&cient 
school will issue its own certificate that A or B has attended for four or 
six years as the case may be, and has reached a satisfactory level of per- 
formance. The power to make such an award implies a high standard of 
professional honour, and perhaps a higher level of efficiency than yet 
exists, but it would enable the schools to teach a pupil what he could 
learn, to teach him in the right way, and not drive him in the wrong way 
to a wrong standard. The mere size and complication of the examination 
system will tend to break it down. Doubtless 55,000 candidates have sat 
for the school certificate this summer, each doing six, seven, or eight 
papers ; the number of qualified examiners free to undertake the work 
is very limited. In another twenty years there may be 100,000 candi- 
dates, for the Hadow Report asks for a special leaving examination for 
all the pupils at those modern schools which it hopes to see established. 
Certainly the question will become acute, whether so great an effort will 
be repaid by any advantage which can accrue from the issue of tens of 
thousands of certificates each year, certificates which state that the 
holders have in effect reached a very moderate standard of knowledge, 
such as you might expect from an average person of their years. Would 
not the issue of a similar statement by a responsible school have a precisely 
equal value ? 



L.— EDUCATION. 211 

To see the examination system at its worst it should be studied in the 
common entrance examination to the public schools. This examines four 
to five thousand candidates yearly, and is designed to ascertain whether 
those thirteen-year-olds know enough English, scripture, history, geography, 
Latin, French, arithmetic, algebra and geometry to be admitted to the 
bottom form of a public school. Much of the boy's future depends upon 
the result of this examination, for the doors to the schools which he desires 
will remain locked if he does not qualify. The object, therefore, of what 
is a most expensive form of education and of what should be the best, 
carried out as it is with small classes and in good buildings, is to enable 
little boys to answer questions on paper with great rapidity, and to switch 
their small minds with accuracy from Genesis to Ivanhoe, from Henry VIII 
to the causes of rainfall, from quotations to problems, from Latin to 
French, and so on, for two momentous days. The bright boy finds it 
easy, the average boy in many cases, the dull boy in all cases, finds it 
terribly hard. The result on the teaching is remarkable, for there is a 
handbook issued, which commands a large sale and a free use in many 
schools, which has reduced the whole thing to cram by analysis of all 
the past papers. I have in my possession a leaflet which bears the inscrip- 
tion ' To the Preparatory Schools is dedicated this sample of the Common 
Entrance Handbook in the sincere belief that the latter will prove a boon 
to all who possess it.' David and Jonathan, Publishers, 60 pages, price 5s. 
I turn the page and find all the sovereigns of England ranged in order 
according to the frequency of their occurrence in the last thirty- three papers, 
from Victoria, ninety-seven, to Edward V, who has failed to score ; the same 
with English Literature, from Westward Ho ! with fourteen occurrences to 
Eip Van Winkle with one. Idylls of the King, twenty-one, to John 
Gilpin, one ; it is very thorough, for it treats languages and geography 
in the same way. Truly the preface may well say that the handbook 
was written not with a view to publication : it was written to supply a 
need. That need was the necessity of cramming, and not educating — a 
process degrading to the teacher, hurtful to the taught, and a cause for 
hanging the head to all who are responsible for the system which has 
produced this travesty of our art. It is no surprise to learn that there 
are schools where the boys read no authors, but only do examination 
papers ; read no history, but memorise answers about names, and treat 
literature and geography in the same way. I conceive that there is no 
method of reform save the abolition of so indefensible a system, and I 
believe that it is, or ought to be, an educational axiom that there should 
never be any examination of a child under fifteen save by his own teachers. 
If anyone doubts this I would ask him to estimate the improvement of 
elementary education in this country which has taken place since payment 
by results was done away with and the inspector's examination was 
abolished. 

I must draw to a close. Whatever reforms of administration, whatever 
changes of curriculum, whatever increase of expenditure are approved, the 
last word lies with the teachers, and all depends o.n the spirit which 
animates them and the ideals which move them. This country is com- 
mitted to the experiment of unrestricted democracy, ideally the highest 
form of government if the quality of the citizens is good, in practice 

p 2 



212 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

capable of being the worst, where the citizens are uneducated and incapable 
of discerning the true values of life. Everything seems to me to depend 
upon whether the teachers in the next generation rise to the full measure 
of their responsibility and opportunity, whether they carry through every 
part and parcel of our educational system the highest and truest English 
tradition, that education is more than instruction, that character counts 
for more than brains and lives more than learning, that the true basis 
of life is religious, and the only real values spiritual. I would say that 
the main end and aim is to train boys and girls for service to the com- 
munity, and to make clear that their lives can be lived in this spirit, 
whether they are tradesmen or merchants, engineers or manufacturers, 
clergymen or doctors, or followers of any career whatever, and that the 
only life deserving of contempt is the life that contributes nothing, or 
contributes evil, to the common stock. We have a fine traditional method 
to follow, which has been handed down to us from the best of our prede- 
cessors ; we can build our school lives on fellowship and the sense of 
honour, on the team-spirit and not on individualism. We can point our 
pupils forward to the quest of seeking to establish among the citizens of 
this country a more equitable division of the things that matter, not by 
the self-destructive method of class-war, but by the mutual help of classes. 
We can save them from the fallacy that money is the thing that matters 
most, for we can show them that the values of eternal life are among us 
now, and now can be sought. 

There is no nobler calling than that of the teacher, and the hope of 
the future lies in this, that none can escape the teacher's influence. The 
highest education is the gift of personality to personality, where in freedom 
one leads, and others are fired to follow ; and this cannot occur unless 
schools are free and individual, and the teachers within them no less free 
to develop and give the best of which they are capable. Education can 
and must be organised in Whitehall and the county town, but it cannot 
there be given ; it can only pass from living men and women to living 
boys and girls, where each is known to each. This personal relation 
based on freedom is the most precious tradition that has come to us from 
the greatest of the past, and any advance of organisation and extended 
scope would be too dearly bought if it brought into question, or rendered 
impossible, the spontaneity and independence without which no school 
can be great. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



THE LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY AND 
ITS DEVELOPMENT. 

ADDRESS BY 

J. S. GORDON, C.B.B., D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



On looking over the Presidential Addresses delivered since the inauguration 
in 1912 of the Agricultural Section of the British Association, I noted that 
so far the Live Stock industry had not been formally discussed by this 
section. As at the moment those engaged in agriculture are giving far 
more consideration to the development of the live stock branch of the 
industry than at any time previously, and moreover, as Government 
departments have awakened to the necessity for providing State assistance 
for the improvement of our herds and flocks, I came to the conclusion that 
an address on this subject would be not only of interest to the members 
of the Agricultural Section but, through the discussion which I hope will 
follow, might lead to the making of some practical suggestions for the 
further advancement of this, in my opinion, the most important branch of 
British agriculture. 

The Place of Live Stock in Empire Agriculture. 

That the live stock industry occupies a predominant position in our 
agricidtural economy is shown beyond question by oflS^cial statistics. 
I have examined the statistics of agricultural production in a nuiiiber of 
the leading countries of the British Commonwealth, and have divided 
them into two classes : (1) live stock and live stock products, and (2) crops. 
The first class includes cattle, sheep, swine and poultry, together with 
their products, beef, mutton, pork, bacon, milk, butter, cheese, eggs, 
wool, &c., while the second class comprises cereals, potatoes, hay, straw, 
flax, grass seeds, fruit, vegetables, &c. 

In the case of Great Britain and Northern Ireland the census of agri- 
cultural production which was taken in 1925 provides a mass of data for 
comparing the relative importance of crop and live stock production in 
these islands. In England and Wales the estimated value of the agri- 
cultural and horticultural produce consumed by farmers and their families 
and sold ofi farms and other holdings in 1925 was £225,330,000, of which 
no less than £154,650,000, or 68-6 per cent, represented the output of live 
stock and live stock products. In Northern Ireland the value of the 
output of the agricultural industry in 1925 was £15,058,000, of which 
£11,809,000 or 78-4 per cent, consisted of live stock and live stock products. 
In passing I may mention the remarkable fact that in Northern Ireland 
the value of each of the groups comprised under live stock — live stock, 
milk and dairy produce and poultry and eggs — ^exceeded the value of the 



214 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



output of farm crops. The results of the census of production in Scotland 
have not yet been published, but I feel confident that when they are 
available they also will show that the value of the live stock industry 
considerably exceeds that of crops. No statistics as to the total agri- 
cultural output of the Irish Free State are available, but at the time of 
the 1908 Census of Production live stock and live stock products consti- 
tuted 85-7 per cent, of the value of the agricultural output of the whole 
of Ireland. 

In the Year Books of Australia and New Zealand certain figures are 
given showing the estimated value of products in those countries. 
Separate estimates are given for agricultural production (comprising crops 
and fruit), pastoral production (comprising cattle, sheep, wool and hides), 
and for farmyard, dairy and bee production (comprising dairy products, 
pigs and pig products, poultry and bee farming). In Australia during 
the five years 1920-25 the average value of pastoral, farmyard, dairy and 
bee products constituted 60 per cent, of the total, while in 1925-26 it 
amounted to over 64 per cent, of the total. In New Zealand the corre- 
sponding figure for the period 1920-23 was 85 per cent, for live stock and 
live stock products (pastoral, dairy, poultry and bee farming). 

The following table shows the value of the output of (1) live stock and 
live stock products, and (2) crops in the countries mentioned above during 
the most recent years for which particulars are available : — - 







Live Stock and 




Percentage 


Country. 


Year. 


Live Stock 
Products. 


Crops. 


of Live Stock, 
&c., to Total. 


England and Wales 


1925 


£ 
154,650,000 


£ 
70,680,000 


68-6 


Northern Ireland . . 


1925 


11,809,000 


3,249,000 


78-4 


Ireland 


1908 


39,057,000 


6,517,000 


85-7 


Australia . . 


1925-26 


160,488,000 


89,267,000 


64-3 


New Zealand 


1922-23 


53,982,501 


8,365,530 


86-6 



It is not possible to show the value of live stock and crop production 
in other portions of the Empire on account of the absence of the necessary 
statistical data. 

Certain general conclusions may, however, be drawn. In Canada 
figures are available showing the gross agricultural revenue of the 
Dominion. In 1921 approximately 70 per cent, of this revenue was 
derived from crops and 30 per cent, from live stock. These figures are, 
however, not comparable with those already quoted, for no deduction is 
made for crops used for further agricultural production in feeding to stock. 
If the net value of crops after deducting the value of the hay, root crops 
and other fodder crops fed to live stock were shown, the proportion of 
the agricultural revenue attributable to live stock production would be 
considerably increased. At the same time, with her large wheat-growing 
areas, it may be freely admitted that in many parts of Canada the live 
stock industry is probably of secondary importance as compared with 
cereal production. Nevertheless it is not without significance that con- 
siderable attention is being paid to the improvement of the live stock 
of the Dominion. In the eastern provinces, moreover, the production of 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



215 



butter, eggs and bacon is now one of the principal lines of agricultural 
development. 

In the Union of South Africa the live stock industry appears to be on 
the eve of important developments. The 1924 agricultural census showed 
that the numbers of live stock in the Union included over 9,600,000 cattle 
and 32,000,000 sheep. Hitherto the principal agricultural exports have 
been hides and wool. In 1924 the value of the wool exported was 
£15,763,953, while the export of hides and skins was valued at £3,196,959. 
These two items constituted almost 58 per cent, of the total exports of 
South Africa exclusive of diamonds and gold. On the other hand the 
export of meats amounted to only £147,207 in value. South Africa has 
its own peculiar difficulties to overcome, but with the improvement of 
conditions of animal health together with progress in the methods of 
refrigeration and transport there may eventually be great scope for South 
Africa to follow in the steps of other Dominions and develop a trade 
in meat as well as in hides and wool. 

The important position occupied by the live stock industry within the 
British Empire is apparent from the previous outline. The dependence 
of our home population upon foreign meat supplies may be visualised from 
the fact that in 1927 over 700,000 tons of beef and mutton were imported 
from South America alone. It is thus clear that great scope exists for 
the development of the grasslands of the Empire as sources of meat 
supplies competing with both home and foreign producers. Hitherto so 
far as beef is concerned our home farmers have had to face the most 
severe competition from the estancias of South America. It seems 
probable, however, that in the future almost equally severe competition 
may be experienced from the Dominions. 

It is important, therefore, that no effort should be spared to secure the 
adoption of a policy of live stock improvement within these islands which 
will enable us to face with confidence both existing and potential com- 
petition, alike from the Dominions and from foreign countries. 

Let us now consider the position of live stock within the British Isles 
from another aspect. Has our live stock population maintained its 
numbers over a series of years and how does it compare with the acreage 
under tillage for the same period ? 

Tilled Area of British Isles. 

Between 1871 and 1926 the tilled area of the British Isles declined by 
37-1 per cent. The reduction which took place in the different portions 
of these islands is shown by the following figures : — 

Area under Tillage in 1871 and 1926. 





1871. 
Acres. 


1926. 
Acres. 


Reduction. 
Acres. 


Percentage 
FaU. 


England and Wales 

Scotland 

Ireland 


11,876,723 
2,156,954 
3,792,393 

17,826,070 


7,387,335 
1,703,431 
2,126,073 

11,216,839 


4,489,388 

453,523 

1,666,320 


37-8 
210 
43-9 


British Isles 


6,609,231 


371 



216 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



This decline was due to the great reduction in the area devoted to 
wheat and barley, although the fall in the area under root crops has also 
been relatively large. 

Area under Wheat, Barley and Oats in the British Isles 
between 1871 and 1926. 





1871. 
Acres. 


1926. 
Acres. 


Reduction. 
Acres. 


Percentage 
FaU. 


Wheat 

Barley 

Oats 


3,816,345 
2,606,762 
4,351,843 


1,681,480 
1,412,627 
3,771,561 


2,134,865 
1,194,135 

580,282 


55-9 
45-8 
13-33 


10,774,950 


6,865,668 


3,909,282 


36-28 



During this fifty-five year period the area under wheat, oats and barley 
in the British Isles has thus fallen by nearly four million acres. Meanwhile, 
the importation of wheat and wheat flour (expressed by equivalent weight 
of grain) into these islands increased from 2,218,111 tons in 1871 to 
6,638,099 tons in 1924 — -an increase of nearly 200 per cent. During the 
same period imports of barley increased from 428,450 tons to 1,082,817 
tons, an increase of practically 150 per cent. 

Hopes have recently been held out that some improvement in the 
price for cereals may be experienced in the future. . The increasing con- 
sumption of wheat in Eastern countries has been pointed to as 
foreshadowing a considerable increase in future demand, while the rapid 
growth of the population in the United States and in other countries of 
the New World suggests that the exportable surplus of these countries 
will be reduced. This may lead to higher prices with increased production 
at home. On the other hand, the ability of the plant breeder to propagate 
varieties of wheat, which will open up areas of the world's surface at 
present incapable of growing this cereal, has to be considered. The recent 
experience with ' Marquis ' wheat in Canada indicates the potentiality of 
development in this direction. 

Live Stock Population. 

The number of live stock in Great Britain and Ireland shows, by the 
following table, a small increase from 1873 to 1926 : — • 





1873. 


1926. 


Increase or 
Decrease. 


Cattle 

Sheep 

Pigs 


10,111,651 

33,912,155 

3,544,713 


12,064,570 

27,594,688 

3,388,000 


+ 1,952,919 
-6,317,467 
- 156,713 


♦Stock Units 


15,665,187 


16,684,268 


+ 1,019,081 



* These units are cattle units — 7 sheep and 5 pigs being taken as equivalent each 
to one cattle unit. 

It will be seen from the above table that between 1873 and 1926 the 
number of cattle increased by almost 2,000,000. On the other hand the 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



217 



figures show a decrease in the sheep population of over six millions. A 
very large percentage of lambs is, however, sold before the month of June 
each year and consequently escapes enumeration. Formerly this trade 
was insignificant and lambs were kept until more matured when they were 
included in the official statistics, but the production of, and the demand 
for, early lamb has steadily increased since 1900. 

The figures published thirty years ago are, therefore, hardly com- 
parable with those issued now. In other words, the sheep population in 
1926 is greater than the official returns represent, but it would be difl&cult 
to say to what extent the early lamb would increase the total figure. 

The following table, which has been taken from the Report of the 
Agricultural Tribunal of Investigation, contrasts the increases which have 
taken place in the live stock population of the principal European countries. 
In every instance the increases are decided and in some cases, as for 
example, Denmark, Holland and Belgium, most striking : — 

Live Stock Units. 

Germany between 1873 and 1912 shows an increase in stock units of 22 per cent. 

»» )» *» y> ^^ »» 

44 
70 



France ,, 


1883 


„ 1913 


Belgium 


1880 


„ 1912 


Holland 


1873 


„ 1922 


Denmark 


1871 


„ 1922 


Great Britain 






and Ireland ,, 


1873 


„ 1926 



At first sight the above table might appear to suggest that we were 
poor followers. A truer perspective is, however, obtained by considering 
the changes which have taken place in the stock population per 100 acres 
of crops and grassland. 

Per 100 acres of Crops and Grass. 





Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Pigs. 


Stock 
Units. 


France 


1883 


130 


240 


6-5 


17-7 




1913 








16-3 


17-7 


7-7 


20-4 


Germany 


1873 








19-5 


30-9 


8-8 


25-7 




1913 








24-5 


70 


26-6 


30-8 


Belgium 


1880 








28-2 


7-5 


13-2 


311 




1912 








40-9 


4-1 


27-5 


470 


Holland 


1873 








28-7 


18-0 


7-2 


32-7 




1922 








37-6 


12-2 


27-7 


44-9 


Denmark 


1872 








18-7 


27-8 


6-6 


240 




1922 








33-5 


6-0 


25-3 


39-4 


Great 


1873 








19-2 


94-6 


8-0 


34-3 


Britain 


1926 








24-5 


79-2 


7-7 


37-4 



It is evident that our live stock population has been maintained in 
spite of severe overseas competition which has developed since the 
nineties of last century. In 1890, 134,020 tons of beef were imported 
into the United Kingdom in addition to 642,596 live animals which, 
when expressed in their equivalent weight of meat, gave a total import of 
310,734 tons. There was little change in the import of beef throughout 



218 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



the decade ending in 1900, and in that year imports amounted to an 
estimated total of 378,257 tons. By 1913 they had increased to 499,108 
tons, practically the whole of which was imported as dead meat — only 
14,743 live cattle entering our ports in that year. 

In 1926 imports of beef into Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
amounted to 721,358 tons in addition to 79,950 cattle (excluding those 
from the Irish Free State), an increase of over 130 per cent, from 1890. 

In the case of mutton, imports have increased from 95,702 tons in 
1890 to 274,825 tons in 1926, an increase of nearly 190 per cent. 

The position of British Agriculture during the past fifty years may be 
summed up by saying that arable farming has declined greatly in face 
of trans-oceanic competition, while live stock has been maintained in 
the face of almost equally severe competition from the Argentine and the 
New World. 

From the agricultural point of view this indicates that in the British 
Isles live stock is the most important economic factor and has always been 
the farmers' sheet-anchor, enabling them during periods of agricultural 
depression and low prices to pull through until the position improved. 
During the present depression certain branches of live stock have been 
well maintained, so far as prices are concerned, compared with pre-war 
values. I refer chiefly to pigs, sheep, store cattle, dairy products, poultry 
and eggs. If we compare the average increase in value of crops and live 
stock including their products for the period 1922-26 with the period 
1911-13, as shown by the figures published by the Ministries of Agriculture 
in England and Wales and in Northern Ireland, we find that in England 
and Wales there is an excess of fifteen points in favour of live stock and 
live stock products as compared with tillage, the corresponding figure for 
Northern Ireland being twenty-six. 

Index Figures of Prices of Live Stock and Live Stock 
Products and of Crops. 



1911-13=100. 



1922-26. 
Live Stock and Live Stock Products. 


1922-26. 
Crops. 


Product. 


England 
and Wales. 


Northern 
Ireland. 


Product. 


England 
and Wales. 


Northern 
Ireland. 


Eggs . . 
Butter 
Fat Cattle 
Fat Sheep 
Fat Pigs 
Poultry 
Store Cattle . 






170-3 
159-9 
150-6 
183-3 
166-5 
171-6 


164-9 
185-6 
150-1 
184-0 
177-0 

160-5 


Wheat 
Oats 
Potatoes 
Barley 


150-5 
136-5 
180-7 
141-1 


162 

130-9 

139-6 


Average 


.167-0 


170-4 


Average 


152-2 


144-2 



Advantage in favour of 
Live Stock . . 



15 points 26 points 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



219 



The same trend of affairs is to be seen in imported produce. A com- 
parison of the pre-war and post-war prices of Manitoba wheat, Argentine 
beef and New Zealand mutton gives the following figures : — 



Year. 


No. 1 Manitoba 

Wheat per 480 lb. 

Liverpool. 


Argentine Beef 

per 112 lb. 

London. 


New Zealand 
Mutton per 112 lb. 
London. 


1913 


s. d. 
35 11 


s. d. 
37 6 


s. d. 
38 1 


1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 


45 9 
53 6 
62 2 
58 6 


52 

64 6 
71 2 

65 4 


85 1 
82 5 
85 3 
67 7 


Average 1923-26.. 


54 llf 


63 3 


80 1 


Increase over 1913 


19 Of 


25 9 


42 



Per cent, increase in 
price 



53 per cent. 



68 per cent. 



110 per cent. 



The strong tendency during a period of agricultural depression for 
price levels to rule more heavily against crops than stock and stock 
products is not a new feature. It is not without interest and significance 
to notice that, during the agricultural depression which followed the 
Franco-Prussian war of 1870, the Danes altered their whole system of 
agriculture and specialised in dairying, pigs and poultry, because they 
realised that the fall in prices of good animal products was considerably 
less than the fall in cereals. This change to concentration on animal 
products did not, however, reduce the area of land under the plough, but 
rather increased it, as the crops were converted into live stock products 
instead of being exported. Since 1880 th^ cow population, which was 
then 900,000, increased to over 1,300,000 in 1914, and only one-seventh of 
the food consumed by the animals — chiefly foods of the protein- rich class — 
is now imported. The Danes have given practical recognition to the fact 
that arable farming supports more stock than grass farming, and that 
stock farming is the real basis of crop farming. 

Whilst it is generally realised that as civilisation advances there is a 
change in human food from the coarser cereals such as rye and oats to 
maize and wheat, it is important to remember that advances in the 
standard of living are accompanied by increasing consumption and improve- 
ment in the quality of animal products. 

Taking, therefore, a wide view of agricultural production, I am 
confident that as far as the British Isles is concerned the future lies with 
the stock and stock product branch of the industry. I do not for one 
moment envisage a ranching country because I am convinced that by 
concentrating our energies on stock farming we will bring more and not 
less land under the plough. Indeed, I would go so far as to say that we 
cannot hope to remain an arable country if we continue to market our 
cereal crops as such. If, however, we bend our energies in an organised 
manner to the production of stock and stock products, a steady increase 



220 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

in our arable acreage will be the inevitable consequence, and Brifcisli 
agriculture will not only have a future but will be able to provide a steadily 
increasing proportion of our national food requirements. 

Changes in the Live Stock Industry. 

For many years attention was directed mainly to improvement in 
shape or conformity of flesh-producing animals and in the production of 
animals which would carry more flesh, especially upon those parts of the 
body which yielded meat of the highest value. Great attention has also 
of recent years been directed to early maturity and quality in the produc- 
tion of beef, mutton and pork. 

In the case of dairy cattle, high yields of milk and butter-fat were 
the chief aim, and, in poultry, large egg records. 

The change in live stock (cattle, sheep and pigs) during the past thirty 
years is extraordinary, and is directly attributable to the influence of 
pedigree sires in the development of fine quality and early maturing 
animals. 

In the British Isles during the seventies of the last century cattle— 
chiefly 3, 4, 5 and 6 years old — were slaughtered for beef ; from 1890-1910 
it was usually 3 and 4 year olds — the 5 and 6 year old cattle having 
practically disappeared ; and from this period to 1920 the age became 
reduced to 2 and 3 year olds, while now there is a considerable and 
growing demand for beef cattle from 12 to 18 months old. 

Between 1871-75 and 1921-25 the proportion of store and fattening 
cattle in England and Wales under 2 years of age increased from 58-6 per 
cent, to 69 per cent. 

This great alteration in the age at which animals are slaughtered 
is mainly due to the steadily growing demand for small joints of beef which 
has arisen since the Great War, and also to the desire for a rapid turnover. 

Similar changes have taken place with mutton. Formerly the demand 
was for 2 and 3 year old wedders ; now it is almost entirely confined to 
lambs and yearling wedders. 

The demand for small joints of mutton has increased so much during 
recent years that large areas of pasture in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland, which formerly carried 2 and 3 year old wedders are now stocked 
entirely with breeding ewes or 1 year old wedders. Two and three year 
old wedders are almost animals of the past. 

This growing request for small joints of mutton is also influencing 
breeders of commercial sheep in their selection of breeds. In certain 
areas in Great Britain and Northern Ireland Black-Face ewes have become 
extremely popular, even in lowland sheep districts, and are being mated 
with Border Leicester rams, because the joints of the progeny, being small 
and of fine quality, command a higher price per pound than those of the 
larger breeds. 

Thirty years ago pigs were usually 12 months old before they were 
ready for the bacon curers ; to-day they are being killed at from 6 to 7 
months old. 

In the United States of America exactly the same changes have taken 
place. Mr. Edward N. Wentworth, director of Armour's Live Stock 
Bureau, Chicago, writing in the Monthly Letter to Animal Husbandmen, 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



221 



states that ' 1894 practically marked the beginning of the passing of the 
aged range steers, due to the rapid introduction of pure-bred bulls which 
contributed the ability to make market weights and finish at increasingly 
younger ages.' 

Further evidence of this change in the United States of America may 
be found in the data from twenty-nine States in the 1920 and 1925 census. 
This comparison is shown in the following table : — 



Beef Cattle in 29 States. 




Year. 


Breeding 
Cows. 


Other 
Beef Cattle. 


Total 
Beef Cattle. 


Total Slaughter 

in the whole of 

the United States. 


1920 
1925 


4,672,841 
5,663,275 


8,382,972 
7,679,672 


13,055,813 
13,342,947 


13,885,000 
14,705,986 


Increase . . 


21-2% 


-8-4% 


2-2% 


5-9% 



The significance of the foregoing figures is that the older fattening 
cattle decreased by 8-4 per cent., the breeding cows increased by 21-2 per 
cent., and the total number of beef cattle increased by 2-2 per cent., while 
at the same time the total slaughter for the whole of the United States 
increased by 5-9 per cent. 

The decrease in average age really increases the effectiveness of. the 
live stock population. 

Dealing with the change in market ages in the United States, Mr. 
Wentworth records that ' from 1895 up to the war there was some reduction 
in age due to the rapidly increasing use of pure bred sires in the beef-breed- 
ing grounds of the range country. . . . Since 1921 there has been a marked 
reduction in the age of cattle slaughtered if we exclude the dairy type and 
the breeding cows.' It is estimated that the decrease in the average age 
of beef steers at Chicago from 1921 is from 12 to 14 months, although some 
authorities put it as high as 18 months. The reduction in age from 1895 
must, therefore, be somewhere between 18 and 24 months. Pigs will 
average from 4 to 6 months younger than 25 years ago, while sheep 
will average a full year younger. 

Dr. E. J. McFall of the Massachusetts Agricultural College holds the 
view that productivity in cattle, sheep and swine has been greatly 
increased, due to the more rapid rate of turnover resulting from the 
modern practice of marketing lambs instead of sheep, baby beeves instead 
of older steers, increased numbers of calves as veal, and pigs at an age of 
from 6 to 8 months instead of 10 to 14 months, as was characteristic 
twenty-five years ago. 



Market Weight of Live Stock. 

The average weight at which cattle are slaughtered in England and 
Wales is estimated to have decreased by 6 per cent, since 1913 and 
during the last thirty- five years from 10 and 12 cwt. to 8 and 9 cwt. 
In the United States the decrease is from 10 cwt. to between 8 and 
9 cwt.. in the same period. From an economic point of view the most 



222 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



striking feature is that, although the reduction in age is considerable, the 
decrease in weight is comparatively small. This is shown in the following 
table : — 





Age 
35 years ago. 


Age 
at present. 


Estimated 
average 
1 weight 
35 years ago. 


Estimated 
average 1 
weight , 

at present. 


Great Britain 
United States 


3, 4, 5 and 
6 years old. 

4, 6 and 
6 years old. 


1, 2 and 

3 years old. 

2 and 3 

years old. 


' 1,200 lb. 
1,100 lb. 


950 ' 
950 



Dairy Stock. — The improvement in the yields of milk and butter-fat 
in our dairy cattle is equally striking. Less than thirty years ago yields 
of from 600 to 800 gallons of milk were considered high. The average 
yield of milk per cow throughout the British Isles has been estimated at 
or about 450 gallons. To-day an average yield of 1,000 gallons is by no 
means uncommon in many herds, and we find that individual animals 
have given up to 2,000 and 3,000 gallons in one lactation period. This 
has been brought about by improved breeding, better methods of feeding 
and management, and by milk recording. 

Poultry. — In the case of poultry we have improvements on a similar 
scale. The average output per hen was estimated as being under 100 
eggs not many years ago, now there are numerous poultry farms showing 
returns of an average of over 150 eggs per bird, and the egg-laying contests 
held by our Governments and Local Authorities show averages of 180 to 
190 eggs per bird. 

Baby Beef.— The production and demand for baby beef has been 
steadily growing since 1918 in the British Isles and in the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Wentworth in a letter to me on December 21, 1927, says : — 

' It is difficidt also to say just what effect the demand for small joints 
in America had in directing attention to baby beef production. Originally 
I believe it was a by-product of the general trend toward a quick turnover 
in farm finance, but it was unexpectedly intensified by the great changes 
in demand which occurred during and just after the World War. This 
demand first expressed itself so effectively that light-weight cows and thin 
steers brought nearly as much on the market as quality animals. Then 
the beef cattlemen discovered they could compete quite effectively and 
still produce quality animals through baby beeves. I should say that at 
present the demand for small joints is the principal incentive, but originally 
it was the stimulus towards a quick turnover. 

' Our Beef Department estimates that there were about '5 per cent, of 
baby beeves in 1900, about 3 per cent, in 1918, 8 to 10 per cent, in 1920, 
and about 20 per cent, for the current year.' 

The Ministry of Agriculture in Northern Ireland in the years 1923-24 
carried out a series of experiments (devised by Dr. G. S. Robertson) on 
the production of baby beef with animals sired by pedigree beef Shorthorns, 
pedigree Dairy Shorthorns, pedigree Aberdeen Angus and by the ordinary 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 223 

cross-bred bulls of the country. These animals were reared in the ordinary- 
way followed in Northern Ireland, viz. : for the first six weeks they were 
fed on whole milk, and for the next four or five months on separated milk 
with concentrates. During the whole period of their growth they were 
never allowed to lose their calf flesh. The animals were slaughtered 
when from twelve to eighteen months old. The results of these experi- 
ments clearly proved that when animals were well bred, the progeny of a 
good pedigree sire, the production of baby beef was an economic success, 
but when the animals were badly bred it was a complete failure. The 
ill-bred calf simply grew but would not put on flesh. These experiments 
have induced many farmers throughout Northern Ireland to convert their 
calves into baby beef instead of pursuing the ordinary system of producing 
stores, with the result that now special sales of baby beef are being held 
annually in Northern Ireland and are largely attended by cross-Channel 
butchers. 

The lesson which these experiments have taught is that unless the 
breeding stock of the country is improved and graded up to a high 
standard, the progeny will not mature quickly and will never be suitable 
for baby beef production. If the demand for small joints of beef con- 
tinues to grow and becomes permanent, and if we are to hold our own 
against foreign competition, it can be met only by paying far more 
attention to the improvement of our stock than we have done in 
the past or are doing at present, and this will be chiefly through the 
increased use of good pedigree sires. The strongest argument for the 
elimination of inferior sires is that there is a growing demand for a higher 
quality of meat and, therefore, a high standard of breeding and feeding 
is necessary for further development. 

Advantages of Early Maturing Stock. 

In addition to meeting the market demand for small joints, early 
maturity has considerable economic advantages, namely : — 

1. It gives a much quicker turnover, and is of material assistance in 
eliminating intermediate profits. At present in the case of beef three 
types of producers are frequently engaged in the production of the finished 
article : the rearer, who sells at the age of nine to fifteen months to the 
grazier of store cattle, who in turn, after a summer on the grass, sells to 
the arable farmer for stall feeding. 

2. The young animal is the more economical converter of food. The 
older an animal is, the greater is the amount of food required to produce 
1 lb. of live weight gain. Moreover, after a certain weight is reached, 
200-240 lb. in the case of the pig, and probably about 800 lb. in the case 
of the fattening bullock, the daily live weight gain falls. It follows, 
therefore, that as the demand is for small joints and as the consuming 
public is paying higher prices for small carcases, it is greatly to the 
advantage of the stock feeder to finish his animals off at as early an 
age as possible. In this connection may I express the hope that our 
Animal Nutrition Research Stations will soon be able to provide the 
farmer with badly needed data for the several types of farm animals, 
showing the amount of food required at varying weights to produce 1 lb. 
of live and dead weight gain. For pigs the information is available. In 



224 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

tlie case of beef the classic experiments of Lawes and Gilbert and the 
more recent investigations by Haecker at Minnesota on beef production 
are all that the practical stock feeder has to guide him. Both of these 
investigations apply to the production of heavy mature beef and, although 
models of their kind, are of questionable value under modern conditions. 
I have found it impossible to obtain figures showing the daily live weight 
gains for lambs. Most of the experiments carried out by Agricultural 
Colleges on the feeding of sheep relate to the full-grown or nearly mature 
sheep and show daily live weight gains of from only J to | lb. per head per 
day. On my own farm I have been producing early lambs from heavy 
breeds for many years and have made a practice of weighing them every 
week. My experience is that when early lambs and their dams are 
forced with green fodder and concentrates from the birth of the lambs 
until the latter reach a weight of 90 lb., the lambs will gain f to 1 lb. per 
head per day, but that after a weight of 90 lb. has been passed the daily 
live weight gain decreases. 

3. Young animals finished for the butcher realise higher prices per lb. 
than older and heavier animals correspondingly finished. Early maturing 
or baby beef realises at least 6s. more per cwt. live weight than heavy 
beef 10 cwt. or over, and early lamb as a rule from 25 to 50 per cent, more 
than mutton. 

It is sometimes argued that if all flesh-producing animals were 
slaughtered at a much earlier age than at present our live stock population 
would be reduced. This is not so. Experience in the United States of 
America, which has already been quoted, shows that as the age of 
slaughter of the beef cattle on the ranges became less, the number of 
breeding females increased and also the number of cattle slaughtered per 
annum. The same trend of events would be manifest in this country, 
indeed it is beginning, and a rapid extension is badly needed. 

The marketing of our stock at an early age enables the farmer to turn 
out a finished article at a reduced cost of production for which a higher 
price is obtainable and provides him with the only effective means of 
holding his own against the best imported beef and mutton. 

State Aid to the Live Stock Industry. 

Let us now see what is being done in Great Britain, Northern Ireland 
and the Irish Free State towards the improvement of live stock by financial 
assistance from the State. 

Until quite recently all efforts to improve the live stock of the Empire 
were left entirely to private individuals — the breeders of pedigree stock — 
and this small band of enthusiastic workers have left behind them a 
notable monument to their skill and unremitting labours in the formation 
of breeds and in the improvement which they effected in the type and 
quality of pure bred stock. 

It was only at a comparatively recent date that the British Government 
considered the agricultural industry to be of suflicient importance to 
justify the State in making some financial provision for its improvement 
and development. 

The first Parliamentary grant for the special purpose of live stock 
improvement was voted in 1885. This grant was given to Ireland to be 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



225 



administered under the auspices of the Royal Dublin Society who adopted 
the method of subsidising pedigree sires, and thus Ireland^ was the 
pioneer country in the British Empire to undertake live stock improvement 
with the help of a State grant. 

Since 1914, Parliamentary grants for the improvement of live stock 
have been made to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and to the 
Board of Agriculture for Scotland, and each of these Departments put into 
operation schemes somewhat similar to those in Ireland. 

The live stock schemes originally devised by the Royal Dublin Society 
were continued and developed by the Irish Department of Agriculture 
which was established in 1900, and on the formation in 1922 of separate 
Parliaments for Northern Ireland and for the Irish Free State still further 
extensions of the schemes were made by the Agricultural Departments of 
these two Governments. 

The latest published figures for each part of the United Kingdom and 
for the Irish Free State show the total number of breeding stock, the 
total number of bulls and the number of these sires subsidised to be as 
follows : — 





No. of Breeding o„i,„;j;„„^ 
Stock (cows and Bulls. Subsidised 

in-calf heifers). ^ ' 


England and Wales 

Scotland 

Irish Free State . . 
Northern Ireland. . 


2,790,703 88,405 1,287 
460,317 17,578 937 

1,332,591 23,275 2,205 
270,283 4,662 623 



From these figures it will be seen that the proportion of subsidised to 
non-subsidised bulls and the number of breeding stock per subsidised bull 
vary very considerably in the several parts of the British Isles. 





Subsidised. 


Non-subsidised. 


No. of Cows per 
subsidised Bull. 


England and Wales 
Scotland . . 
Irish Free State . . 
Northern Ireland . . 


1 to 69 
1 to 19 
1 to 11 
1 to 7 


2,168 
491 
604 
434 



Turning for a moment to the Dominions — 

In Canada the improvement of live stock is developed chiefly by two 
methods : — 

1. The Live Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture of the 
Dominion Government purchases and loans out pure bred bulls to specially 
organised associations in newly settled districts and in backward sections 
in the older Provinces. This system was commenced in 1913 and 4,692 
bulls had been placed out on loan up to 1926, an average of 361 bulls per 
annum. By this means the value of pedigree sires has been demonstrated 
and farmers have been induced to purchase pure bred sires for their own 
use. 

2. By grading beef cattle, sheep and lambs according to age, quality 
and weight when they are put on the market and by demonstrations and 

1928 Q 



226 SECTIONAL ADDEESSES. 

propaganda, attention is drawn to superior beef and mutton. In tliis 
way a growing demand from the consumer for more tender and juicy 
joints lias been created. This plan has directly assisted breeders to improve 
their stock as considerably higher prices can now be obtained for prime 
beef, mutton or lamb than for coarse joints. The Canadian Government 
is paying special attention to this side of marketing with remarkably 
successful results. The home consumption of meat and eggs per head 
has gone up considerably since this sytem of grading was commenced. 
Thus, in 1916 the consumption of eggs per head was sixteen dozen. In 
1927 it had increased to twenty-eight dozen and all exports had ceased. 

Australia (Queensland) in 1925 adopted a scheme by means of which 
the Department of Agriculture made available to the approved purchaser 
of a pedigree bull a subsidy of 50 per cent, of the cost price, provided the 
subsidy did not exceed £50. 

In South Africa a scheme for the distribution of pedigree bulls to 
farmers in the Transvaal through breed societies came into operation in 
1924. These animals are sold to selected applicants at reduced prices. 
Several of the Agricultural Schools throughout this Dominion have stud 
farms, and young sires raised on these farms are sold and placed out 
under the Department's bull distribution scheme. 

I have already mentioned that in Ireland the first State-aided live 
stock breeding schemes were started over forty years ago, and although the 
value of these schemes was clearly shown in the great improvement in the 
stock of the country both in quality and in the increased prices obtained, 
the results achieved were not anything like what they would have been 
if the widespread use of animals totally unsuitable for breeding purposes 
had been prohibited. The scrub bull not only inflicted serious damage on 
the owners of cows but lowered the reputation and value of Irish live 
stock and to a large extent neutralised the good effect of the live stock 
schemes. 

These were the chief reasons which induced the Governments of 
Northern Ireland in 1922 and of the Irish Free State in 1925 to introduce 
legislation providing that bulls below a certain standard of merit should 
not be used for breeding purposes and that all suitable bulls should be 
licensed. By subsidising pedigree sires we have the means of improving 
and grading up our stock and by permitting the use of none but licensed 
sires we get rid of the inferior animals and prevent them from doing harm. 
This ensures that the improvement is continuous and that much quicker 
results are produced. 

In England and Wales there is only one premium bull to every sixty- 
nine non-premium bulls and there are 2,168 cows to each premium sire, 
whereas in Northern Ireland, where more than half the number of bulls 
are pedigree animals, there is one premium bull to every seven non- 
premium bulls and 434 cows to each premium sire. Yet after forty years' 
experience of the premium scheme we have found it absolutely necessary 
to bring in a licensing system to supplement the former owing to the 
progress of improvement being so comparatively slow. 

Great Britain has the reputation of having the finest pedigree stock 
in the world, and yet probably nowhere else in the British Empire is 
improvement in the cross-bred cattle more urgently needed. It is a 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



227 



strange anoiualy that our pure-bred stock are exported to all parts of 
the Empire and to foreign countries for the improvement of the native 
stock, while at home our own cross-bred stock are in comparison so inferior 
to the pure-bred stock. 

In Canada, United States, Australia and South Africa the elimination 
of the scrub bull has received attention, and these countries in recent 
years have instituted with considerable success campaigns against the 
use of inferior sires. Western Australia introduced legislation which came 
into operation in 1924 to enable their agricultural department to get rid 
of scrub bulls. 

Bull Licensing Act and its Administration. 

The main features of the Live Stock Breeding Act of 1922, which came 
into operation throughout Northern Ireland in January 1924, are : — 

1. The licensing of bulls of the prescribed age, and the prohibition, 
enforced by penalties, of the use of unlicensed bulls. 

2. The granting, as a temporary measure, of permits to owners who 
feed bulls for beef. 

3. A fee of 5s. is charged for a licence for each animal, and the licence 
remains in force during the lifetime of the animal unless revoked or sus- 
pended by the Ministry. 

4. All bulls passed as up to licensing standard are tattooed on the ear 
with a letter and a number. 

5. An owner can appeal against the decision to reject a bull for a 
licence. When such an appeal is lodged the animal is inspected by an 
appeal judge who is a breeder of cattle, and not an official of the Ministry. 
To prevent frivolous appeals a fee of £2 2s. must be lodged. This fee is 
returned to the owner if the appeal is successful. 

6. Inspections are held twice each year — in February and September. 
Appeals. — Since the Act came into operation there have been eighty 

appeals against the decision to reject bulls for licences. In these cases 
the bulls were re-examined as provided in the Act, with the result that 



twenty-five of the bulls were 



Rejections. — The percentage of bulls rejected for licences at each 

into force was as follows : — 



icensed and fifty-five finally rejected. 



inspection since the Act came 

September 1923 

February 1924 
September 1924 

February 1925 
September 1925 

February 1926 
September 1926 

February 1927 
September 1927 

The point of interest in this table is that in the last year the rejections 
were less, although the standard for selection was raised. This is due 
entirely to better-class bulls having been produced. 

q2 



5-7 per cent. 

• 15-4| ,-„ , 
22. K = 1 ' ^2 per cent. 

• 23-0! o„ 

20.A I = 23 per cent. 

20-6 ~^^'^ V^^ cent. 
17-6 1 ~^^'^ T?^^ cent. 



228 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In its administration of the Act Northern Ireland has advisedly 
adopted a cautious and lenient policy. Beginning with the rejection of 
only really low-grade bulls, the Ministry at each subsequent half-yearly 
inspection has gradually raised the qualifying standard of bulls eligible for 
licences. By this method the small farmer is being educated to the 
advantage of using good-class bulls, and consequently it is expected 
that in the near future only those bulls which are up to the standard now 
required for premiums will be licensed. 

Inspections. — Inspections are carried out twice each year, in February 
and September, and in order to convenience farmers and simplify pro- 
cedure, the Six County area of Northern Ireland is mapped out into a 
number of districts in each of which numerous centres are fixed by the 
Ministry for the inspection of bulls. In selecting centres the Ministry 
endeavours to ensure that owners will not have to bring their animals a 
greater distance than three miles. In addition, inspections of bulls are 
carried out at the annual spring bull sales held throughout the Six County 
area. The officers appointed as inspectors are permanent officials of the 
Ministry, and are entirely employed in connection with the Ministry's live- 
stock schemes. The method devised of having local centres instead of 
inspecting animals on owners' premises was adopted in order to reduce 
the cost of inspection. It also enabled the inspectors to compare the bulls 
shown and to keep a much more uniform standard than would be possible 
in a house-to-house inspection. At first it was frequently asserted that 
the administration of such an Act would be extremely expensive, and 
would entail the employment of an army of officials, but this has proved 
to be quite a misapprehension. The Ministry did not increase its staff, 
but carried out the inspections with three of its regular live stock officers, 
who devote about one month each year to this particular work. The fees 
received cover the cost of inspection. 

Assistance to Small Faemers. 

It is common knowledge that the quality of our herds varies greatly 
from district to district, and it is obvious that the operation of a Live Stock 
Breeding Act, such as has been outlined, will bear much more heavily on 
the poorer districts where the cattle are inferior. It is in such districts 
that the largest percentage of bulls is rejected, and if the real objects of 
the Act are to be achieved the State must under such circumstances be 
prepared to give practical assistance. In the poorer districts in Northern 
Ireland, where a large percentage of bulls was rejected for licence, the 
Ministry, through the county committees of agriculture, purchased and 
sold pedigree bulls to approved applicants on reduced terms. These are 
in addition to those animals which were placed out under the ordinary 
premium scheme, where premiums of the value of from £15 to £20 per 
annum are awarded. 

Animals under the reduced price scheme are sold to selected applicants 
at one-third the original cost. The applicant pays the one-third in three 
equal instalments, the first when he gets the bull, the second in the following 
October, and the third in October of the following year. If the owner 
keeps the animal in good condition and complies with the regulations of 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 229 

the scheme, he receives as a premium each year an amount equal to the 
instalment he pays, so that in the end the bull costs him nothing. To 
take an example, if a bull costs say £15, it is sold for £15 to the applicant, 
who pays £5 when he gets possession of the animal in February or March. 
The following October he pays the second instalment of £5 and the third 
is paid in October the next year. 

The owner receives a premium of £5 in October of the year in which 
he purchases the bull, and a second and third premium, each of the value 
of £5, in October of the two following years. 

Loans are also given for the purchase of premium bulls. 

Assistance to Breeders of Pedigree Stock. 

One of the most noteworthy features of the Bull Licensing Act is its 
indirect effect in increasing the demand for pure-bred sires. The supply 
must be forthcoming if progress is to continue and confidence is to be 
promoted. In countries such as England and Scotland, where large 
pedigree herds are maintained and pedigree stock exported, an increased 
demand for pure -bred sires can be quickly met. Pedigree breeders in 
Northern Ireland are as a general rule small farmers with very limited 
herds, and, however willing, they are financially incapable of competing 
for the high-priced pedigree sires. 

In order to overcome this difficulty a scheme has been put into opera- 
tion whereby if three or four breeders of pedigree stock who have between 
them sufficient cows to mate with one bull will co-operate in the purchase 
of a high-class pedigree bull, the Ministry will pay two-thirds of the cost 
up to £500, and will give a loan for two-thirds of the balance to be paid 
ofi in three or more instalments. By this means encouragement is given 
to small breeders of pedigree stock who otherwise could not afford to 
purchase high-class sires. 

Fears not Eealised. 

Breeders of pedigree stock were apprehensive that if a licensing scheme 
were introduced stock sires not up to the standard in appearance would 
be rejected and no attention would be paid to the animal's pedigree. 
Since the Act came into operation no pedigree stock bull has been rejected 
for a licence. A breeder may have a pedigree stock bull of plain shape, 
and perhaps not up to licensing standard, but as this sire may represent 
the best obtainable where the choice was narrowed by such considera- 
tions as a particular pedigree or a special line of blood related to the 
breeder's own herd, the bull is licensed. If, however, the young bulls 
produced by this sire are not up to licensing standard, they will be rejected, 
and the owner will at once get rid of the stock bull, as no breeder of 
pedigree stock will keep a stock bull which is leaving unremunerative 
progeny. 

The fears expressed at one time that the Act would encroach unduly 
on the farmers' liberty of action have likewise proved groundless. In 
actual practice the measure interferes only with the farmer who, by keeping 
an inferior sire, would counteract the efforts of the State and of local 
authorities to improve the live stock of the country. 



230 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Is Further State Aid Eequired ? 

Would it be advisable for the State to devote larger funds than are 
granted at present to the improvement of live stock ? 

My opinion is that, as the money which has already been applied to 
this purpose has proved so reproductive, and as the live stock breeding 
industry is so important to the whole community, it is questionable if 
funds expended in any other way could produce anything like the same 
returns. 

Here I may quote from evidence given in January 1923 by Mr. T. P. 
Gill, who for over twenty years was Permanent Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Dublin. He stated before the Commission on 
Agriculture, appointed by the Irish Free State, that— 

' By the infusion of pure bred blood and better methods of keeping, 
feeding and management, producing an animal which matures more 
quickly, fattens more cheaply and yields more beef and milk, the intrinsic 
value independent of price fluctuations of Irish cattle has been increased 
since the department started in 1900 by about £5 per head. This is 
based on the estimates of the British Salemasters who handle this import 
as well as of the most experienced Irish cattle traders. On the number 
of cattle exported last year, counting the exports only, this would mean 
an increased annual income of approximately £5,000,000 for an expendi- 
ture of £20,000, or a return of 250-fold.' 

If we calculate that the increased value was only £3 per head, it means 
£3,000,000 per annum, or a return of 150-fold. 

Some will think, perhaps, that I have laid too much stress on the 
importance of the pedigree sire in the improvement of stock, but the 
improvement which has taken place in the stock of the Argentine Republic 
gives us food for thought. In 1848 the first Shorthorn bull was imported 
into that country. At that time only native breeds existed, animals 
which from our standard were of very inferior quality and extremely 
slow-growing. The Rural Society founded in 1875 was the chief agency 
in bringing about improvement in the live stock of the Argentine chiefly 
through the importation of pedigree sires and through the shows of live 
stock held by the Society. 

In 1895 native cattle constituted 50 per cent, of the total in the province 
of Buenos Aires. In 1914 this had declined to 3-5 per cent. The cross- 
breds and half-breds increased during this period of twenty years from 
49-2 per cent, to 93-9 per cent., and the pure-bred or pedigree cattle from 
0-6 per cent, to 2-5 per cent. 

Similar progress in the case of sheep has been recorded. In 1895 
native breeds constituted 16-5 per cent, of the total ; in 1914 they had 
fallen to 2-3 per cent. The cross-breds increased during this period from 
83 per cent, to 95-6 per cent., and the pure-breds from 0-5 per cent, to 
2-1 per cent. 

In the other provinces an equally noticeable improvement has been 
efiected. 

Between 1895 and 1922, 41,519 pedigree bulls were exported from the 
British Isles to the Argentine. 

To-day the best quality Argentine chilled beef ranks next to the best 



I 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 231 

home-produced, and in Smithfield Market it commands prices higher 
than some of our own home-produced and considerably higher prices than 
any other imported beef. 

The following figures from the Statist show the prices of home and 
Argentine beef for the year before the war, for 1926 and for 1927 :^ 





Prices per stone of 8 lb. 


Class of Beef. 


January 30, 1914. 


December 2, 1926. December 3, 1927. 


Argentine chilled hind- 
quarters 
Scottish sides 
j English sides 


3s. 8d. to 3s. lOd. 

4s. 6rf. to 5s. 
4s. 2d. to 5s. Id. 


3s. lOd. to 4s. 4:d. 4s. 8d. to 6s. 
6s. 6d. to 7s. id. 6s. 4:d. to 7s. 
4s. 8d. to 5s. Qd. is. to 4s. lOd. 

1 



English sides, it will be observed, have actually fallen in price since 
1914, whilst Argentine chilled beef has risen. The substantial difference 
in favour of English beef over Argentine chilled beef which existed in 
1914 has disappeared. The two principal factors in this revolutionary 
change are the use of pedigree sires and marketing methods. Surely no 
stronger argument could be put forward for the urgent necessity for the 
improvement of the cross-bred cattle of the British Isles. 

Need for Extended Kesearch. 

Although I consider that the pedigree sire is the best foundation for 
the improvement of live stock it is by no means the only way by which 
improvement can be brought about. The changes and improvements 
already mentioned are largely the results of the ability and judgment of 
the breeder himself, but latterly he has been assisted considerably by the 
agricultural scientist, chiefly along four distinct lines of research and 
experiment : 

1. Animal Nutrition. 

2. Animal Diseases. 

3. Animal Breeding. 

4. Marketing. 

Animal Nutrition. — Animal nutrition is of the greatest importance 
from three points of view — 

(a) I am sure that most stock owners will agree that the greatest 
mortality in live stock is due either direct' y or indirectly to imperfect 
nutrition and not to disease- — probably seven out of every ten deaths 
occurring on farms in the British Isles (excluding those caused by 
accidents) are due to imperfect nutrition. 

(b) Owing to early maturity and forcing young animals forward to an 
age when they are ready to be killed, a much more thorough knowledge 
of foods and the science of feeding is necessary than under the old system. 
In the case of cows with high milk yields and of poultry where high egg 
records are being produced such knowledge is specially required. 

(c) The practical farmer as a rule has little or no knowledge of how to 
form well-balanced rations ; indeed he has a very slight knowledge of the 



232 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

composition of foods and of their physiological action. How could it be 
otherwise when we consider that it is only of recent date that attention 
has been given by agricultural scientists to the necessity for balanced 
rations in feeding difierent kinds of stock and how little even they know 
about the digestibility of foods, the proper balance of a ration and the 
action of minerals in relation to health and disease resistance. 

In 1890 the British Government gave Local Authorities (County 
Councils) in Great Britain grants to be used either for reducing rates or 
for agricultural and technical instruction purposes. Many of the County 
Councils from the beginning utilised those funds entirely in developing 
agricultural and technical instruction schemes and in later years all the 
County Councils expended these grants in this way. From 1890 until a 
few years ago practically all the funds made available to Local Authorities 
for the development of agriculture were applied to agricultural education, 
experimental and research work chiefly in connexion with soils, manures 
and crops, comparatively small amounts being devoted to research and 
experimental work on live stock problems. Attention has recently been 
drawn to this fact by Mr. J. R. Campbell, who in his report (November 
1927) on Agricultural Education in Scotland states : 

' Owing no doubt to the greater cost and difficulty in carrying out 
experiments in the rearing and feeding of stock, this side of farming — 
though not wholly neglected — has received comparatively little attention 
in the way of experiments outside the College farms. It is to manuring 
and cropping that lectures and field work have been chiefly directed.' 

While I realise the great advantage to be gained by the application of 
science to soil, fertiliser and crop problems, the chief factor in the British 
Isles is live stock, and it has been to a great extent neglected. It is, as 
I have shown, the chief source of our farmers' income — the hub of the 
wheel — and, so long as the production of live stock is an economic success 
and crops are utilised chiefly by converting them into live stock products, 
more attention should be given to research on live stock problems than to 
the experimental side of soils, manures and crops. 

This position is, however, being rectified, and we have now research 
stations engaged in animal nutrition work at Aberdeen, Cambridge, 
Belfast and Dublin, but the funds available are quite inadequate if this 
work is to be developed on broad lines and is to be of practical assistance 
to the stock breeder in his efforts to overcome many of his difficulties and 
losses. 

Animal Diseases. — I am sure that no one will question the need for 
extended research into the diseases of our farm animals or the necessity 
for protecting our live stock industry against epidemics which annually 
threaten it so seriously. In connexion with the latter I may refer to the 
outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain which have been 
almost continuous since 1919, and which have been the cause of the loss 
of so many stock through slaughter. During the last nine years, 1919-1928, 
no fewer than 162,214 cattle, 114,679 sheep, 71,536 pigs and 256 goats have 
been slaughtered, and the compensation paid to farmers amounted to 
£5,314,000. This does not by any means cover the full value of pedigree 
stock, as only commercial prices are paid in compensation, nor does it 
include the administrative expenses incurred in stamping out _each 



M.— AGRICULTURE, 233 

outbreak of this disease. Moreover, when whole herds of pedigree stock 
are slaughtered, it means in many instances the destruction of the life 
work of breeders — work which can never be replaced — and for this loss 
no sum could ever compensate the breeders or the State. 

Here is a field of research which would justify the State in devoting 
large sums in order to employ the most skilled scientists obtainable to 
ascertain a means of prevention. When we consider the enormous cost 
to the nation and the constant danger of losing our best pedigree herds, 
as well as the possibility of losing our trade in pedigree stock with other 
countries, the justification for further and immediate research in this 
direction is apparent. 

Considerable loss to our agriculturists is caused by naany other animal 
diseases regarding the prevention of which very little is known. Those 
which occur to me as being some of the most important are tuberculosis, 
abortion, infertility or sterility. The first named not only causes loss 
through the death of animals but is a constant source of danger to human 
beings through the consumption of milk from tubercular cows. The latter 
two diseases are widespread in many areas and affect seriously the pro- 
duction of stock. These are only a few of the many animal diseases into 
which research is required and for which adequate funds are urgently 
needed. 

Animal Breeding.— One of the greatest problems which breeders have 
to face in the management of their studs, herds and flocks, is the selection 
of sires. Both amateur breeders and old experienced breeders have the 
same diflEiculty, viz. how to select a prepotent sire. The only way in which 
breeders can determine this at present is by the offspring. This means a 
delay of two years in the case of beef cattle and from three to four years 
in the case of dairy cattle. If, at the end of that time, the sire proves 
unsuitable, the owner may have from two to four crops of calves inferior 
to their parents and, therefore, of no use in improving the herd, and such 
animals have to be sold at an unremunerative price. The owner suffers 
a considerable loss in time as well as money and runs the risk of ruining 
his herd if he retains animals of this blood. 

Owners of small flocks or herds cannot afford to keep more than one 
high-priced sire, and therefore are handicapped much more than those 
who own large herds or flocks. The latter can afford to keep a number 
of sires on trial, mating each with only a few females until each sire is 
proved, instead of risking all the herd with one unproved sire, as has to 
be done in most cases by small breeders. It may be of interest to mention 
that in Scotland most of the herds of pedigree cattle are in the possession 
of tenant farmers, many of whom have only small farms. In Northern 
Ireland there are 682 pedigree herds and the majority of the owners have 
farms under fifty acres. These breeders could not afford to keep more than 
one sire or to pay a very high price for a pedigree sire. 

Money may enable the breeder to procure a high-class sire of a 
fashionable pedigree, but this is no guarantee that the sire will prove to be 
a good stud animal, as it has frequently happened that the progeny of 
high-priced animals turn out unsuitable and are unsaleable, except at 
a low price. Pedigree is a guide, if used properly from a genealogical 
point of view, to trace the family and the line of blood. Experience and 



234 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

judgment also assist the breeder in his selection, but even the most 
experienced breeders and keenest judges often purchase animals which 
turn out quite unsuitable as sires. The individual merits or records of 
the parents are exceedingly important factors, but by no means can you 
rely on these to enable you to select a suitable sire. Luck or chance, up 
to the present, seems to outweigh all the other factors combined in the 
selection of a sire. 

Another problem is how to induce breeders of commercial stock and 
even breeders of pure-bred dairy stock to keep their bulls until such time 
as the value of their progeny can be determined, and then to retain, so 
long as they will produce stock, those sires which are proved to be suitable. 
This question is of the greatest importance in dairy herds, where frequently 
the bull is dead when his daughters are proved to be good yielders of 
milk and butter-fat. Well-bred bulls should be retained until the 
daughters have demonstrated their sire's true value, and, by the exclusive 
use of such pure-bred bulls, a real advance would be made in the breeding 
of dairy stock. 

Many pedigree herds and flocks have made names or high reputations 
simply as the result of having one prepotent sire, and when that sire died 
these herds for years afterwards lost their reputation for high-class stock. 
If the animal geneticists could show us how to diagnose a prepotent sire 
or how to breed animals with this hereditary trait and make breeding more 
of a certainty and less of a gamble, it would encourage and give a stimulus 
to the breeding of high-class animals, which would reach much further 
than any form of State subsidy given directly to breeders of pedigree 
stock, and would be worth millions in money to stock breeders throughout 
the world. 

Makketing and Grading. 

The marketing and grading of animals and their products is a very 
wide subject, and one which could only be dealt with effectively by 
devoting a special paper to it alone. I will, however, touch briefly on 
one or two points. 

In Great Britain until recently practically no attention has been paid 
to the grading for marketing purposes of animals or animal products, and 
those measures which have been taken are entirely voluntary. In Ireland 
voluntary schemes have been in operation since 1900, but with such small 
success that compulsory measures for the grading of eggs were put into 
operation in 1924 by legislation in Northern Ireland, and similar legislation 
for the grading of eggs and dairy products was adopted by the Irish Free 
State. It is anticipated that, in the near future, further legislation will 
be passed in Ireland for the grading of pigs and other products. 

In Canada voluntary measures were tried for many years, but both the 
Government and the farmers in that country were ultimately convinced 
of the necessity for compulsory powers, with the result that laws of the 
most drastic character are now in force in that Dominion insisting upon 
the grading of all animal products, both for export and home consumption. 

New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and many foreign countries also 
have passed similar legislation for certain products. 

These countries are all competitors of ours, and by means of legislation 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 285 

they are enabled to put upon our markets animal products so uniform in 
quality, so even in weight, &c., that they have obtained a reputation for 
a reliable standard article which has won the confidence of the public 
to such an extent that consumers frequently insist upon having certain 
jiroducts from these countries in preference to similar home-produced 
articles. I refer in particular to New Zealand Iamb, New Zealand butter, 
Canadian cheese, Argentine beef, Danish eggs, &c. 

In the case of all chilled and frozen beef and mutton imported into 
Great Britain, the carcases are so graded according to quality and weight 
that a retailer can order his precise requirements from a wholesaler by the 
mere mention of brand, quality and weight, and so regular is the grading 
that a customer can depend on obtaining what he requires without having 
to examine the article. 

In the Argentine beef is graded into three qualities which enables 
them to supply three different markets. The Australian and New Zealand 
mutton and lamb are also divided into three grades, and latterly, owing to 
the demand for small joints, the second-quality lambs of smaller weights 
frequently command a higher price in our market than the heavier first 
quality. 

By not marketing our home produce properly, that is by not grading, 
we are not only receiving inferior prices, but we are losing our position in 
our home markets and are permitting imported produce to secure a 
position which it could never attain if only our home products were of 
high quality, and were placed on the market in a more reliable and uniform 
condition as regards quality, weight, appearance, &c. For fresh home- 
produced supplies of first quality and of the proper weight the demand in 
this country is unlimited, and such supplies will always command prices 
considerably in excess of those for imported animal products. 

While personally I am opposed to placing any unnecessary restriction 
on the liberty of the subject, I must say that, judging from my experience 
of the past twenty-eight years in Ireland, and noting that the Dominions, 
as well as many foreign countries, have had to resort to legislation, I fear 
that it will be found difficult, if not impossible, to secure reform in the 
grading and marketing of United Kingdom animal products through 
voluntary effort alone. 

Conclusion. 

To sum up, I should like to emphasise the supreme importance of the 
live stock side of our agricultural industry, the immense scope for develop- 
ment which exists, and the exceedingly rapid strides which can be made 
in its development by the application of our present knowledge along 
properly organised lines. It is my opinion that we can, if we choose, 
do for stock in the relatively short period of ten to fifteen years what has 
been accomplished for crops from 1840 to the present time. Unless we 
bestir ourselves and organise our efforts we shall find our home markets 
for stock and stock products in the hands of our competitors, who already, 
by purchasing the best of our pedigree sires, are placing on our markets 
products which are superior to the great bulk of our home-produced 
supplies. 

The pressing necessity at the moment is for improvement in our 



236 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

commercial cattle— the great disparity between them and our pedigree 
stock is little short of tragic. I make no apology for submitting to you 
that the means towards this end are : 

(1) The increased use of pedigree sires, and in this direction the State 
can with great advantage to itself provide a powerful stimulus by 
the rapid extension of the premium scheme ; 

(2) The elimination of the scrub bull, which, to my mind, with human 
nature as it is, will only be accomplished in an efiective manner 
by legislative means. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that as progress is made in grading 
up our stock by breeding methods, it is imperative that there should be 
corresponding developments in our knowledge of nutrition, disease 
resistance and elimination, and in animal genetics. Research in these 
branches of agricultural science has in the past been starved. The funds 
devoted to such work are quite inadequate when viewed in the light of 
the importance of the live stock industry, which in England and Wales 
alone is worth, approximately, £154,000,000 per annum. 

In connexion with this work may I stress the necessity for such 
research to apply itself more directly than at present is the case to the 
solution of practical problems. No one realises more than I do the need 
for fundamental research, or, as it is now called, long-range research, but 
the agricultural scientist should be, as his designation implies, essentially 
an applied worker. I venture to think that in setting themselves some of 
the problems which I have sketched they will meet with sufficient really 
fundamental problems to keep them employed for many years to come. 

Finally, I would reiterate the necessity for a comprehensive reorganisa- 
tion of our methods of marketing stock and stock products. If it can be 
accomplished on a voluntary basis so much the better, but I am convinced 
that compulsory legislation will eventually be necessary. Much valuable 
time will be saved by facing this position at once. There is a future, and 
a bright future, for the live stock industry, but only if we are prepared 
to tackle the problems which it presents in a live and organised manner. 
I have endeavoured in this address to summarise my own experience of 
over thirty years of intimate association with animal husbandry, and to 
put before you for consideration how, as the result of that experience, 
I conceive this great national industry can best be developed. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



Seismological Investigations.— Thirty-tJiird* Report of Committee 
(Prof. H. H. Turner, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, Secretary ; Mr. 
C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, Prof. H. 
Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, 
Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, 
Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, and Mr. F. J. W. Whipple). 
[Drawn up by the Chairman except where otherwise mentioned.] 

General. 

We regret to record the death of Mr. W. E. Plummer, Director of the Bidston 
Observatory, who was a member of this Committee from 1900 until his resignation 
owing to failing health last j^ear. He set up at Bidston in 1914 the very earliest 
seismograph of the Mihie-Shaw pattern, replacing a Milne machine which had been 
set up in 1901. 

Dr. H. Jeffreys writes : — Prof. Emil Wiechert, Director of the Geophysical 
Institute of Gottingen, died on 1928 March 19, at the age of 66. He was the first to 
investigate the figure of the Earth on the hypothesis of a rocky shell and a metallic 
core ; he initiated the great Gottingen series of papers, " Ueber Erdbebenwellen " ; 
and he was the inventor of one of the best known seismographs. 

The seismograph basement presented to the University of Oxford by Dr. J. E. 
Crombie has now been completed at the University Observatory, and the two Milne- 
Shaw seismographs will shortly be transferred to it from the basement of the Clarendon 
Laboratory, which has been courteously lent by Prof. Lindemann and his predecessor 
since October 1918. The first instrument (E.W.) was set up there by Mr. J. J. Shaw 
just in time to catch the big Porto Rico earthquake (1918 Oct. Ud. 14h. 14m. 25s. 
epicentre 18-5° N., 67-5° W.). 

The salary of Mr. J. S. Hughes has again been provided, half by Dr. Crombie and 
half by the University ; and it is hoped that this arrangement may be continued at 
least until the next meeting of the Int. Geod. and Geoph. Union in 1930. 

Helpful telegrams have been received, on the occasion of important earthquakes, 
from Fordham, Helwan, Hyderabad and Perth (W. Australia). Oddly enough, what 
was perhaps the biggest shock of the year — the great Mexican earthquake (Oaxaca) 
of 1928 June 17d. 3h. 19m. 13s. — brought scarcely any telegrams at all ; perhaps 
because it was presumed that the usual information through the Press would suffice. 
A large area (extending over nine States) was shaken, but the damage done was less 
than in other similar cases. Possibly the focus was deep-seated. 

The earthquakes in Bulgaria and at Corinth in April last were less intense, 
but caused much damage and naturally attracted much attention. A leader in 
The Times of April 24 contains the following sentences : — 

Yesterday came the news of the destruction of Corinth. In 1858 the city of Old 
Corinth, which had survived the sack by Mummius — who deservedly became the type 
of the armed Philistine — and the ravages of Goths, Normans and Turks, received its 
coup de grdce from the angry earth. . . . New Corinth had low houses and wide 
streets. ... On Sunday their turn came after seventy quiet years. Under the impact 
of a long series of shocks house after house went down till only a few new buildings 
were left standing. 

An earthquake on 1928 Jan. 6d. 19h. 31m. 40s. epicentre 0-2° N., 36-2° E., was 
noteworthy from the fact that two Milne-Shaw pendulums had recently been set up 
at Entebbe (4'G° from the epicentre) by the officers of the Geological Survey of Uganda, 
The instruments were thrown out of action by the violence of the shock, but good 
readings of P were available. 

* The previous report (1927) was incorrectly numbered: it should have been 
given as the thirty-second. 



238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

The value of the Indian and Perth telegrams was most clearly demonstrated on 
the occasion of the shocks under the Indian Ocean in March last. The epicentre 
maj' be estimated provisionally at 1-0° S., 91-0° E., more than 90° from European 
stations. 

The illness of Mr. J. J. Shaw required his absence from England for a much longer 
term than was at first expected ; but happily he was able to return to West Bromwich 
in June and to resume his devoted seismological work. 

Miss E. F. Bellamy, owing to the necessity for a serious operation, was absent from 
Oxford for a number of months, but has been back at work again since May. 



International. 

The International Scientific Summary has been continued as below, though it was 
feared that, owing to the failure of funds, the printing could not at present be carried 
beyond the end of 1924. A timely grant of £150 from the Royal Society has, however, 
cleared otf the debt incurred, and we can go forward once more. Altogether the 
Royal Society has now contributed £375 towards this printing, which could not be 
carried on by means of the international funds provided owing to the fall in the value 
of the franc. It is hoped that the new Statutes to be made in 1931 may restore the 
resources of the Int. Geod. & Geoph. Union to their original magnitude. 

There was a successful meeting of this Union at Prague (1927 September 1-8). 
We heard (in the Seismological Section) a very interesting account from Prof. Imamura 
of the changes in level which precede earthquakes, and suggest some hopes of antici- 
pating them. M. Nikiforov of Leningrad attended as a visitor (since the U.S.S.R. 
has not yet joined the Union) and showed a map of numerous actual and proposed 
stations extending from Leningrad to Vladivostock. It was also pleasant to have 
for the first time a representative from Denmark. Stations are now at work, not 
only at Copenhagen (55° 41' N., 12° 27' E.), equipped with Wiechert, Galitzin, Mihie- 
Shaw and American torsion seismometers, but at Ivigtut in S.W. Greenland 
(61° 12' N., 48° 11' W.) ; and a third will be erected at Scoresby-Sund on theeastcoast 
of Greenland at 70° 29' N., 21° 57' W. 

A large Committee was appointed to deal with the question of revising the tables 
of P, S, and other waves. The former officers were re-elected (President, H. H. 
Turner ; Vice-Presidents, E. Oddone, H. Fielding Reid, J. Galbis ; Secretary, 
E. Rothe) and Prof. Salamon of Prague was also elected a Vice-President. After 
the formal meeting there were two very pleasant excursions, one to the western and 
the other to the eastern parts of Czecho-Slovakia. 

Instrumental. 

Mr. J. J. Shaw wiU make his Instrumental Report at a later date. 

The Superintendent of Kew Observatory writes on July 21 : — 

It is a well-known difficulty in maintaining a seismograph for recording the 
vertical component of the earth's motion that the elasticity of a suspension spring is 
liable to considerable changes when temperature is varying. With the Galitzin 
vertical pendulum a change oif 1° C. in the temperature of the apparatus was sufficient 
to put the instrument out of action. At Strasbourg a spring made of elinvar, an 
alloy with a low-temperature coefficient for elasticity, has been in use for some time. 
We have been able to obtain, from the Acieries d'Imphy, a spring made to the 
specification drawn >ip by Mile Dammann for the Strasbourg installation. After 
preliminary tests at the National Physical Laboratory the spring was taken into use 
on May 22", 1928. The spring is found to yield continually under the load, but the 
effect of such temperature changes as occur from day to day in the seismograph room 
is almost eliminated. 

Arrangements have been made for the transmission from India through the Air 
Ministry of coded messages giving details of important earthquakes recorded at 
Bombay. When a report has been received from Bombay it is broadcast with the 
synoptic weather report of the Meteorological Office. The additional information 
has proved useful in locating earthquakes such as that which occurred in the Indian 
Ocean on March 9. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTlGATIOiNS. 
Bulletins and Tables. 



239 



The International Seismological Summary up to the end of 1924 has been prinffed 
and distributed, and the three months 1925 January-March are in the printer's hands. 
From the Summary for the seven years 1918-1924 a simple list of epicentres and 
times has been prepared which the British Association Council have agreed to publish. 
The Summary itself reaches a rather limited public of those actively engaged in 
seismological observation ; it is hoped that this list of epicentres and times may reach 
and interest a wider public, including geographers and geologists. It seems probable 
that seven years' systematic record of this degree of accuracy, now for the first time 
available, should provide valuable material for systematic discussion. One or two 
points may be mentioned by way of illustration : — 

(a) There is not a single day during the whole seven years on which no earthquake 
was recorded, though there are one or two cases when a shock was recorded at one 
observatory only, and a good many days when shocks were recorded by two observa- 
tories only. 

(6) The foUowhig are the monthly counts of epicentres determined : — 



1918 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


0. 


N 


D. 


24 


37 


25 


27 


23 


33 


25 


37 


52 


31 


26 


32 


1919 


18 


17 


23 


18 


31 


22 


44 


38 


54 


33 


13 


12 


1920 


24 


33 


17 


14 


33 


35 


25 


17 


57 


24 


21 


24 


1921 


22 


15 


24 


17 


33 


20 


19 


16 


27 


26 


23 


16 


1922 


22 


21 


19 


32 


26 


31 


23 


33 


32 


17 


22 


32 


1923 


20 


33 


27 


23 


40 


37 


52 


46 


139 


45 


49 


31 


1924 
Mean 


35 
24 


23 


47 


37 


46 


24 


43 


32 


83 


30 


34 


37 


26 


26 


24 


33 


29 


33 


31 


63 


29 


27 


26 



It will be seen that there is a sudden maximum in September. The effect of 
September 1923 is no doubt exaggerated by the numerous aftershocks of the great 
Tokyo earthquake ; but if we omit 1923 the mean value for September in the six 
other years is 51, still much in excess of other months. So sudden a maximum cannot 
be adequately expressed by harmonic analysis unless we use a great number of terms ; 
but the phases of the first harmonic for the separate years are consistent, viz. : 
245°, 202°, 223", 190", 178°, 232°, 221°. It was shown in the Geoph. Supp. to Monthly 
Notices R.A.S., I, 5 (December 1924) that such ' annual ' variations are subject to slow 
changes which indicate that the period is not accurately one year. 



Deep Focus. 

The h pothesis tliat in some cases the focus of an earthquake may lie -05 or perhaps 
even -10 of the earth's radius below the earth's surface has been maintained in these 
reports and in the International Seismological Summary for some half-dozen jears, 
l)ut only recently has any independent testimony been forthcoming in favour of 
this view, viz. in the (Tokio) Geophysical Magazine, Vol. I, No. 4 there is a paper 
by Mr. K. Wadati on ' Shallow and Deep Earthquakes,' in which he examines 
specially the earthquake of 1926 July fGd. 18h. .54m. 45s. epicentre 35-4° N., 136-4° E., 
finding from observations 7iear the epicentre a depth of 343 km. = -054 of the earth's 
radius. Most of the observations used by Mr. Wadati had not been made accessible 
to us in Oxford until his paper appeared, but we had observations made at more 
distant stations, including some near the Antipodes of the epicentre, and on apply- 
ing the usual treatment to these observations a focal depth of -055 below normal was 
readily deduced, in general confirmation of Mr. Wadati's result. Moreover he 
indicates a number of other cases of deep focus, in all of which, mthout exception, 
the usual reductions give results accordant with his, e.g. : — 

on 1924 April 3d. 2h. 30m. 30s. at 32-0° N., 1390° E. 

1925 April 19d. 15h. 46m. 36s. at 33-0° N., 137-5° E. 
1925 May 27d. 2h. 29m. 54s. at 36-5° N., 1330° E. 



240 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



In some cases Mr. Wadati has suggested or assigned a deep focus when evidence 
accessible to us was insufficient. Thus in the Summary we printed 
1924 June 3d. 2h. 41m. 42s. epicentre 34-0°, 139-5'^ E. (as on 1924 April 12d.). 





A 


A3 


P 


0-C 


S 


0-C 


o 





m. 8. 


s. 


m. s. 




Nagoya . 


2-4 


299 


46 


+ 9 


(1 1) 


- 5 


Osaka 


3-4 


278 


54 


+ 1 


(1 36) 


+ 2 


Kobe . 


3-7 


282 


1 2 


+ 4 


(1 41) 


- 1 


Mizusawa 


5-3 


14 


1 25 


+ 3 


2 23 


- 2 


Ekaterinburg . 


56-2 


320 


— 




el7 4 


-32 


Pulkovo . 


69-8 


330 


elO 55 


-21 


il9 48 


-36 



No suggestion of deep focus was made at the time on this scanty evidence. But 
now that Mr. Wadati has made the suggestion, it is easily seen how it will fit in with 
the negative residuals at Ekaterinburg and Pulkovo. Moreover there is evidence 
of a similar kind for the previous shock on 1924 April 12d. 

A paper has been prepared giving details of the cases (nearly a dozen in all) where 
independent and accordant results have been reached, and it has been sent to 
Mr. Wadati for printing in the Geophysical Magazine if he so wishes. 



i 



CATALOGUE OF EARTHQUAKES 

1918—1924 



Seismology owes a very great debt to the British Association, which has in this 
instance, as in many others, taken an infant science under its fostering care. Under 
the guidance of John Milne a world-wide organisation was started for the use of the 
seismograph when it was a new instrument, and lists of earthquakes (epicentres and 
times) were pubUshed in the Seismology Reports to the British Association up to the 
time of Milne's death in 1913. Other organisations were started, especially the 
splendid Russian network of observatories under Galitzin, and the International 
Seismological Association which had its headquarters at Strassburg ; but the one 
started by MUne and fostered by the British Association was the only one which 
survived the war ; though the Russian network has now been revivified, and a new 
international organisation has since 1922 had its headquarters at Strasbourg in place 
of the one which died with the change of name . Meantime the lists of earthquakes 
disappeared from the Reports to the British Association, being replaced first of all 
by lists in the Shide Bulletins which gave not only the epicentres and times as before, 
but comparisons of the observations with adopted tables. Ultimately the pubUca- 
tion of these collated lists was taken over by the Seismology Section of the Inter- 
national Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and became the International Seismological 
Summary, of which the annual volumes for seven years (1918-1924)have already been 
published, each year in four quarterly parts. 

2. These Summaries are distributed to all the contributing observatories and to 
various libraries, but do not reach a very wide non-seismological public. It seems 
possible that there is such a public (reached, for instance, by the British Association) 
which might be interested to have, apart from the technical details, a simple list of 
all earthquakes which occur, with their epicentres and times, such as Milne used to 
give ; though it is easy to give to-day more information than was possible in the 
early years of instrumental seismology. Accordingly the following catalogue has 
been prepared from the International Seismological Summary. 

3. The first columns give the date of the shock in Greenwich time, the next the 
latitude (North -f. South — ) and longitude (East-f , West—). Then follows a column 
showing the number of stations which have given recognisable observations of the 
shock, thus indicating very roughly which are severe shocks observed at considerable 
distances, and which are only slight and local. But this indication is subject to a 
serious systematic error. It is clear that a shock in Europe, for instance, even though 
slight, may be observed at a number of stations, which cluster round it, while a much 
severer shock in the Antarctic might escape notice altogether. It would be better 
to attempt some indication which is independent of the distribution of observing 
btations ; but this would need a special research for which no time has hitherto been 
available. The work of preparing the Summary has already strained such resources 
as are available for it. However the Summary itself provides an indication of another 
kind. Those shocks for which the preliminary wave P has been observed at a distance 
of at least 80° from the epicentre are undoubtedly in a different class from other 
earthquakes. The same could not be said of observations of the long waves L, or 

1928 » 



242 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

the maximum M, which can be observed at great distances for even small shocks ; 
but a recognisable P is another matter ; and an asterisk in column 4 marks cases 
where P has been observed for A > 80°. But it must be frankly admitted that no 
great precision has been attempted in either of these criteria, for they are in any 
case rough, and to spend time on refinement would be undesirable if not 

impossible. 

4. The column headed ' Former Occasions ' is, it is hoped, an addition of some 
value. It was left an open question for some years whether earthquakes were apt 
to recur at precisely the same epicentre or merely in proximity to it ; and accordingly 
independent determinations of epicentre were made for successive shocks in the 
same neighbourhood. But it gradually became apparent that the hypothesis of exact 
recurrence was often as good as any other, while the convenience of utilising the 
calculations of A and azimuth already made was considerable. Accordingly the 
habit of using old epicentres became gradually established ; and there is this to be 
said in favour of it, that those who doubt the validity of the implied hypothesis may 
be glad to have an easy reference to test cases. They may take such a case as that 
of epicentre 43°-8 N. ll°-2 E. on 1920 Dec. 27d. 16h., and find the reference 
back to 1920 Nov. 13, which again refers back to 1920 Sept. 16, and that (through 
a previous shock on the same day) to Sept. 11, and so backwards for a series of 
thirty-four shocks in all. To test the hypothesis of identity they must of course go 
to the details in the International Summary ; but the present catalogue gives a 
fair idea of the tendency to recurrence. A Ust of a dozen good series is given in the 
Geophysical Supplement to the Mon. Not. R.A.S., vol. ii.. No. 1 (p. 70). 

5. The column ' Minor Ents. ' shows simply the number of observations relegated 
to the notes, as cases where there is not sufficient material to give an epicentre. Many 
of them are records at a single station only, unsupported by any independent observa- 
tion. On some days there are only sporadic observations of this kind, with no serious 
shock ; but no day in the seven years is completely blank, though on 1921 July 14 
there is only one observation. It will be seen that the number of residual observations 
of this kind is given, on days when there are also several considerable shocks, against 
the last shock for that day. 

6. The daggers (t) in column 4 refer to notes collected at the end. Most of these 
show the cases of anomalous focal depth, expressed in fractions of the earth's radius 
and counted from the normal focal depth as reference depth. The great majority of 
shocks come from approximately the same depth below the earth's surface, but whether 
this normal depth is small or large is still somewhat uncertain. Most seismologists 
are of opinion that the normal depth is about 50 km. or 30 miles or -008 radius, and it 
must be admitted that the evidence in favour of some such figure is very strong. On 
the other hand there seem to be cases (such as those on 1918 Sept. 7, 8, 12 ; 
1919 May 6 ; 1922 Feb. 5 ; 1922 Oct. 17 ; 1923 Apr. 23) when there is evidence 
for a focal height of 0-030 or even 0-040 above normal, so that the normal depth 
should be of the order of 0040. The evidence for these cases is not nearly so strong 
as that for the deep foci, down to 0-080 below normal, but it cannot be ignored ; and 
if the normal depth is small some other explanation must be found for such cases 
(suggesting heights above normal). 

7. As regards the cases of depth below normal, the case for them has been much 
strengthened by an entirely independent investigation in Japan by Mr. Wadati, 
published in the (Tokio) Geophysical Magazine, vol. i.. No. 4. Mr. Wadati identifies 
the cases of deep foci in Japan from observations close round the epicentre, and 
macroseismic information ; and his selection is practically identical with that made 
by the observations at greater distances. For details reference must be made to the 
International Seismological Summary. 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1918-1924. 243 

8. Many matters of interest can be obtained from these data, though they cannot 
be treated here. One illustration may be given. In five years out of the seven 
September has many more shocks than other months, and in 1921 and 1922, when 
this pre-eminence is not so marked, it is only eecond to May in 1921, and ties for 
first place with AprU and December in 1922. 

H. H. TUENEB. 

University Observatory, Oxford. 
1928 July 23. 



r2 



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REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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256 



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262 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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CD >-l (M lO O O -* 
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