(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

n V 



I r. 



1 1 J. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 



REPORT 



OF THE 



NINETY-SEVENTH MEETING 

(NINETY-NINTH YEAR) 




SOUTH AFRICA— 1929 

JULY 22— AUGUST 3 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON. W. 1 

1930 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 



FAQE 

Officers and Council, 1929-;)0 v 

Executive Committee for the Meeting in South Africa, 1929 . . vii 

Sectional Officers, South Africa, 1929 viii 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on Account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1929) x 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1928-29) .... xiv 

Resolutions and Recommendations (South African Meeting) . . xxi 

General Treasurer's Account (1928-29) xxiii 

Research Committees (1929-30) xxx 

Narrative of the South African Meeting xxx\i 

The Presidential Address of the South African Association : 

Africa and Science. By Jan H. Hofmeyr 1 

The Presidential Address of the British Association : 

The International Relationship of Minerals. By Sir Thomas H. 

Holland 22 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

A. — Some Problems of Cosmical Physics, solved and unsolved. By 

Lord Rayleigh 38 

B. — The Relation of Organic C!hemistry to Biology. By Prof. G. 

Barger 51 

C. — The Utility of Geological Surveys to Colonies and Protectorates 

of the British Empire. By Sir Albert E. Kitson 64 

JJ.— Adaptation. By Prof. D. M. S. Watson 88 

E.— National Surveys. By Brigadier E. M. Jack U>() 

E. The Public Regulation of Wages in Great Britain. \iy Prof. 

Henry Clay 119 



iv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

G. — Science and Engineering. By Prof. F. C. Lea 138 

H. — South Africa's Contribution to Prehistoric Archaeology. By 

Henry Balfoue 153 

I. — Physiology the Basis of Treatment. By Prof. W. E. Dixon 164 

J. — Experimental Method in Psychology. By F. C. Baetlett . . 187 

K. — Botanical Records of the Rocks. By Prof. A. C. Seward . . 199 

L. — Modern Movements in Education. By Dr. C. W. Eommins. . 217 

M. — Agriculture and the Empire. By Sir Robert B. Greig .... 230 

Reports on the State or Science, etc 244 

Sectional Transactions 310 

Meeting of L' Association Francaise poitb l'Avan cement des 
Sciences, Havre : CJonference of Delegates of Correspond- 
ing Societies 424 

References to Pctblication of Communications to the Sections 427 

Index 431 



gritislj |cssaniiti0n for l^u l^bbanrtrntitl 

of Sriencc. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1929-30. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT-ELECT FOR THE BRISTOL MEETING. 
Prof. F. 0. Bower, Sc.D., D.Sc, LL.TD., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. 



H.E. the Govebnoe-General. 

The Prime Minister of the Union of 
South Africa. 

The Minister for Education. 

Lt.-Gen. the Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C, 
C.H. 

The Administrator of the Cape 
Province. 

The Administrator of the Natal 
Province. 

The Administrator of the Grange 
Free State. 

The Administrator of the Transvaal 
Province. 

The Vice-Chancellob of the Uni- 
versity OF South Africa. 

The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity OF Cape Town. 

The Vice-Chancellob of the Uni- 
versity OF Stellenbosch. 

The Vice-Chancellob of the Uni- 
versity OF the Witwatersrand. 

The Mayor of Johannesburq, 

The Mayor of Cape Town. 



The Mayor of Pbetobia. 

The Principal of the University of 

the Witwatebsband. 
The Peesident of the Tbansvaal 

Chambeb of Mines. 
The Peesident of the Associated 

Chambers of Commeboe. 
The Peesident of the South Afbican 

Fedeeated Chamber of Industries. 
Sir F. Drummond Chaplin, K.C.M.G., 

M.L.A. 
Sir William Dalrymple, Chairman of 

Council, University of the Witwaters- 

rand. 
Hon. J. W. Jagger, M.L.A. 
Prof. J. A. Wilkinson, Chairman of the 

General Committee of the South 

African Asaociation. 
The President of the Associated 

Scientific and Technical Societies 

OF South Africa. 
Ai.pheus F. Williams, General Manager, 

De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. 
Mr. Justice Jacob de Villikrs. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COITNCIL. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS-ELECT FOR THE BRISTOL MEETING. 



The Rt. Hon. the Lobd Mayor of 

Bristol. 
The Sheriff of Bristol. 
His Grace the Duke of Beaufort. 
The Most Honourable the Marquess of 

Bath, Lord Lieutenant of the County 

of Somerset. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Berkeley, 

F.R.S. 
The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

Bristol. 
The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bath 

AND Wells. 
The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Clifton. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Stbachie, P.C. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Wraxall, P.C. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Dulverton. 
Sir Stanley White, Bart. 
Sir Vernon Wills. 
Sir John Swaish, K.B.E. 
Sir William Howell Davies. 



Sir Ernest Cook. 

The Rt. Worshipful the Mayor of 
Bath. 

His Honour Judge Parsons. 

W. J. Baker, M.P. 

C. T. Culvebwell, M.P. 

Dr. Stanley Badock (Pro-Chancellor of 
the University). 

Dr. T. Loveday (Vice-Chancellor of the 
University). 

The Master of the Society of Mer- 
chant Venturers. 

Alderman Edward Robinson. 

Alderman Frank Sheppard. 

The President of the Bristol Chamber 
of Commerce. 

Dr. H. C. Mander. 

Norman Whatley, Headmaster of 
Clifton College. 

Capt. Melvtixe Wills. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 

Sir JoSLiH Stamp, G.B.E., D.Sc. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



Prof. J.L.Myres, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.S.A., 
F.B.A. 



F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
(retired December 1929). 



Acting Gen. Secretary (from December 1929)— Prof. F. J. M. Stratton, D.S.O., M.A. 



SECRETARY. 
O. .T. R. HowABTH, O.B.E., M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 1. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. J. H. AsHWOBTH, F.R.S. 

F. C. Babtlett. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. L. BowLEY. 

Prof. C. Burt. 

Prof. W. Dalby, F.R.S. 

Prof. C. LovATT Evans,' F.R.S. 

Sir John Flett, K.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir Henry Fowlee, K.B.E. 

Sir Richard Gbegoey. 

Prof. Diime Helen Gwy'nne-Vaughan, 

D.B.E. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 



Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir James Henderson. 

A. R. HiNKS, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Col. Sir H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. 

C. G. T. MoBisoN. 

Prof. T. P. NuNN. 

Prof. A. 0. Rankine. 

0. Tate Regan, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. C. Shbubsall. 

Dr. N. V. SiDQWiCK, F.R.S. 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. Thobpe, C.B.E., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Past-Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the President and 
Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers 
and Local Secretaries for the Annual Meetings immediately past and ensuing. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 



Vll 



PAST-PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Rt. Hon. the Earl of Balfoub, CM., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. J. Thomsok, CM., F.R.S. 
Sir E. Sharpey-Sohafer, F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 
Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons, CM., K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrinoton, O M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 



Sir Ernest Rutherford, O.M.,Pres.R.S. 
Major-Gen. Sir David Bruob, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S. 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G.. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, K.B.E., 

F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir E. Sharpey-Sohafer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr, J. G. Garson. 



Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 
Dr. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 



Prof. A. BowLKY. 



HON. AUDITORS. 

I Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy. 



HON. CURATOR OF DOWN HOUSE. 
G. BuCKSTON Browne, F.R.C.S. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

FOR THE MEETING IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

Prof. J. A. Wilkinson, M.A., F.C.S., Johannesburg, Chairman. 

C. Graham Botha, Cape Town. 

Jas. Gray, F.I.C, Johannesburg (Hon. Gen. Treasurer, S.A.A.A.S.). 

Dr. C. F. JuRiTZ, Cape Town (Hon. Gen. Secretary, S.A.A.A.S.). 

H. E. Wood, M.Sc, F.R.A.S., Johannesburg (Hon. Gen. Secretary, S.A.A.A.S.). 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY, SOUTH AFRICAN 
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

H. A. G. Jeffreys, O.B.E. 



I 



LOCAL OFFICERS FOR THE 
BRISTOL MEETING. 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 

Dr. W. LuDFORD Freeman. 
Dr. Bertram H. Rogers. 
Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 



LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 
Frank N. Cowlin. 



VUl 

SECTIONAL OFFICERS. 

A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 
President. — Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. H. Spencee Jones ; Prof. A. Ogg ; H. E. Wood. 
Recorder. — Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 

Secretaries. — W. M. H. Greaves ; Prof. E. H. Neville. 
Local Secretaries. — Dr. J. S. van deb Lingen ; Prof. H. H. Patne. 

B.— CHEMISTRY. 
President. — -Prof. G. Barger, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— PtoL E. C. C. Baly, C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Dr. J. McCrae ; Prof. B. 

DE St. J. van der Riet. 
Recorder. — Prof. C. S. Gibson. 
Secretary. — Prof. F. J. Wilson. 
Local Secretaries. — Prof. J. Smeath Thomas ; Dr. G. J. R. Kbige. 

C— GEOLOGY. 
President. — Sir Albert E. Kitson, C.M.G., C.B.E. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. L. Gill ; Dr. A. L. Hall ; T. N. Leslie ; Dr. A. W. Rogers ; 

Dr. A. L. Dtr Toit ; Prof. A. Young ; Prof. R. B. Young. 
Recorder. — -I. S. Double. 

Secretaries. — H. C. Versey ; Dr. A. K. Wells. 
Local Secretaries. — Dr. P. A. Wagner ; W. P. de Kock. 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 
President.— PtoL D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. C. van Bonde ; Dr. R. Broom, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. E. Duebden ; 

Prof. H. B. Fantham ; Dr. L. Gill. 
Recorder. — G. Leslie Purser. 
Secretary. — Prof. W. M. Tattebsall. 
Local Secretaries. — Prof. L. T. Hogben ; Dr. Annie Pobtee. 

E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
President.— BTiga,Aier E. M. Jack, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. 
Vice-Presidents. — J. J. Bissett ; Prof. J. L. Myres, F.B.A. ; Prof. F. E. Plummer; 

Dr. A. W. Rogers ; Prof. P. Serton ; Lt.-Gen. Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.O.; 

Prof. G. A. Watermeyeb. 
Recorder. — R. H. Kinvig. 
Secretary. — Leonard Brooks. 
Local Secretaries. — J. A. Jamieson • Prof. J. A. Wellington. 

F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
President. — ^Prof. Henry Clay. 
Vice-Presidents. — A. Aiken ; W. H. Clegg ; Prof. R. Leslie ; Sir John Mann, 

K.B.E. 
Recorder. — ^R. B. Forrester. 

Secretaries. — Dr. J. A. Bowie ; Dr. K. G. Fenelon. 
Local Secretaries. — D. M. Goodfellow : Dr. S. H. Fbankbl. 

G.— ENGESTEERING. 
President. — Prof. F. C. Lea. 
Vice-Presidents. — Sir T. Hudson Beabe ; Col. F. R. Collins ; Prof. G. W. O. Howe ; 

Prof. A. E. Snape ; Lt.-Col. R. S. G. Stokes, D.S.O., O.B.E. 
Recorder. — J. S. Wilson. 
Secretary. — Prof. G. Cook. 
Jjocal Secretaries. — Prof. D. McMillan ; Prof. J. W. Walker. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1929. j^ 

H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — Henry Balfouk, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. Radcliffe Beown ; Prof. M. R. Deennan ; Prof. R. A. 

Dart. 
Recorder. — -E. N. Fallaize. 
Secretary. — R. U. Sayce. 
Local Secretaries. — Prof. T. T. Baenard ; Mrs. Hoeenle. 

I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 
Preside7it.—Froi. W. E. Dixon, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. W. C. Gunn ; Dr. L. G. Irvine ; Prof. W. A. Jolly ; A. 

Mavroooedato ; Dr. A. V. Oeenstein. 
Recorder. — Dr. M. H. MacKeith. 
Secretary. — Prof. E. Mellanby', F.R.S. 
Local Secretaries. — T. Lindsay Sandes, O.B.E. ; Dr. E. H. Cluver. 

J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 
President. — F. C. Bartlett. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. J. T. Dunston ; Prof. G. Dawes Hicks ; Dr. C. S. Myers, 

C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Prof. H. A. Reybuen ; Prof. R. W. Wilcocks. 
Recorder. — Dr. S. Dawson. 

Secretaries. — R. J. Baetlett ; Dr. Maey Collins. 
Local Secretaries. — Dr. H. F. Verwoerd ; F. Bettmmee. 

K.— BOTANY. 
President. — Prof. A. C. Sewaed, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Adamson ; Prof. J. W. Bews ; Dr. R. Maeloth ; Prof. C. E. 

Moss ; Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S. ; Miss E. R. Saundees ; Lt.-Gen. Rt. Hon. 

J. C. Smuts, P.C. ; C. Legat (Dept. of Forestry). 
Recorder. — F. T. Brooks. 

Secretaries. — Prof. H. S. Holden ; Dr. H. M. Steven (Dept. of Forestr}'). 
Local Secretaries. — Prof. R. H. Compton ; Prof. C. E. B. Beemekamp ; C. C. 

Robinson (Dept. of Forestry). 

L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
President. — Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 
Vice-Presidents. — Sir John Adamson ; Prof. F. Clarke ; Dr. S. F. N. Gie ; Dr. 

D. F. Malan ; Principal H. R. Raikes. 
Recorder. — G. D. Dunkeeley. 
Secretary. — E. R. Thomas. 
Local Secretaries. — Miss A. M. Malan ; A. M. Robb. 

M.— AGRICULTURE. 
President. — -Sir Robeet B. Geeig. 
Vice-Presidents.— I>T. I. B. Pole Evans, C.M.G. ; Prof. C. W. Mally ; Prof. P. J. 

Du ToiT. 
Recorder. — Prof. G. Scott Robeetson. 
Secretary. — Dr. B. A. Keen. 
Local Secretaries. — Prof. P. A. Van dee Byl : Dr. E. P. Phillips. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 
President. — Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. Tierney. Acting Secretary. — T. Sheppaed. 



ANNUAL MEKTINGS. 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27 .. 

1832, June 19... 

1833, June 25... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22... 

1837, Sept. 11... 

1838, Aug. 10... 

1839, Aug. 26... 
1810, Sept. 17... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10... 

1847, June 23... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 . 

1860, July 21 ... 

1861, July 2 

1862, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ,. 
1865, Sept. 12.. 
1856, Aug. 6 .. 
1867, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14.. 

1860, June 27 .. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, AU2. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18.. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14,. 

1873, Sept. 17.. 

1874, Aug. 19.. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15.. 

1878, Aug. 14.. 

1879, Aug. 20.. 

1880, Aug. 25 .. 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23 .. 

1883, Sept. 19 .. 

1884, Aug. 27 .. 

1885, Sept. 9 ., 

1886, Sept. 1 ., 

1887, Aug. 31. 

1888, Sept. 5 ., 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 ., 

1891, Aug. 19 . 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13 . 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 . 
1893, Sept. 16. 

1897, Aug. 18 . 

1898, Sept. 7 . 

1899, Sept. 13 . 



Where held 



Presidents 



Old Life New Life 
Msmbera Members 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-TjTie 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newoastle-on-Ty ne. . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinbm-gh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea , 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 



Viscount Milton, D.O.L., P.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Haroourt, P.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, P.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W.Hersohel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, P.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, P.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. . . . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WlUis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Sir William G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., P.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., P.R.S 

The Duke ofBuooleuch, K.C.B.,P.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. 6.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S... 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, P.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. .. 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., P.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. .. 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. .. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., P.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, P.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.O.B., P.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., P.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., P.R.S 

Sir P. A. Abel, O.B., P.R.S 

i Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Gelkie, LL.D., P.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, P.R.S, 

The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,P.R.S 

; Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., P.R.S. .. 

j Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. .. 

! Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S 

1 Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S... 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 1 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


236 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


16 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


16 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


26 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


36 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


236 


20 


226 


18 


314 


25 


428 


1 86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


1 14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


1 19 


296 


1 20 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
[ Continved on p. xii. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



/M 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Old 


New 


Annual 


Annual 


Members 


Members 

1 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 


46 




317 


76 


376 


71 


185 


4S 


190 


94 


22 


65 


39 


197 


40 


54 


26 


93 


33 


128 


42 


61 


47 


63 


60 


66 


57 


121 


121 


142 


101 


104 


48 1 


166 


120 


111 


91 


126 


179 


177 


59 


184 


125 


160 


57 


154 


209 


182 


103 


215 


149 


218 


105 


193 


118 


226 


117 


229 


107 


303 


195 


811 


127 


280 


80 


237 


99 


232 


86 


307 


93 


331 


185 


238 


69 


290 


93 


239 


74 


171 


41 


313 


176 


253 


79 


330 


323 


317 


219 


332 


122 


428 


179 


610 


244 


399 


100 


412 


113 


368 


92 


341 


152 


413 


141 


328 


57 


436 


69 


290 


31 


383 


139 i 


286 


125 


327 


96 


324 


68 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies 



9t 
407 
270 
496 
376 
447 
510 
244 
510 
367 
765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1286 
629 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
826 

1053 

1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 

1384 
682 

1051 
548 



11 00* 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
608 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 
493 
609 
679 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 



Foreigners Total 



34 

40 



28 



35 
36 
53 
18 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
16 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
46t 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26(Se60H.$ 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
50 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 
33 
27 



363 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1363 
891 
1316 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1116 
2022 
1698 
2664 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1866 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2657 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2463 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1661 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 
2446 
1403 



Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2616 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 
1664 
2007 
1653 
2176 
1236 
3228 
1398 
2399 
1328 





















Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 



£20 

167 

436 

922 

932 

1595 

1646 

1235 

1449 

1565 

981 

831 

686 

208 

275 

159 

346 

391 

304 

205 

380 

480 

734 

507 

618 

684 

766 

1111 

1293 

1608 

1289 

1591 

1750 

1739 

1940 

1622 

1572 

1472 

1286 

1685 

1151 

960 

1092 

1128 

725 

1080 

731 

476 

1126 

1083 

1173 

1385 

995 

1186 

1511 

1417 

789 

1029 

864 

907 

583 

977 

not 

1059 
1212 
1430 









12 6 

2 2 

11 

16 4 I 

10 11 ; 

17 8 
10 2 

12 8 I 
9 9 I 

16 i 



13 9 



19 6 

5 10 

16 6 

3 10 
16 8 

7 10 

13 4 

4 

; 





2 6 





16 




4 2 
9 7 

16 6 
11 11 

7 7 

8 1 

1 11 
3 3 



11 

16 8 

10 

10 

15 6 

15 6 

15 5 



6 

10 8 



14 2 



1 



Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1846 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1860 
1851 
1862 
1863 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1868 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1866 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 



j; Including Ladien. } Fellows oftheAmerioanAssociationwereadmitted asHon.MemberBforthis Ueeting. 

'[Continued on p. xiii. 



Xll 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 



1900, Sept. 5 .... 

1901, Sept. 11.... 

1902, Sept. 10.... 

1903, Sept. 9 .... 

1904, AuR. 17.... 

1905, Aug. 15.... 

1906, Aug. I .... 

1907, July 31 .... 
19U8, Sept. 2 .... 

1909, Aug. 25.... 

1910, Aug. 31 .... 

1911, Aug. 30.... 

1912, Sept. 4 .... 

1913, Sept. 10 .... 

1914, Jaly-Sept.. 
19)6, Sept. 7 .... 
1916, Sept. 5 . .. 
1917 

1918 

1919, Sept. 9 .... 



1920, Aue. 24 

192!, Sept. 7 

1922, Sept. 6 

1923, Sept. 12 

1924, Aug. 6 

1925, Aug 26 

1926, Aug. 4 

1927, Aug. 31 

1928, Sept 5 , 

1929, July 22 



Where held 



Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham 

Australia 

Manchester 

Newcastle-on Tyne 

(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 

Bournemouth 



Presidents 



Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Backer, D.Sc, SecJt.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., P.R.S, 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., P.R.S. 
Prof. Q. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonnev, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Sohiifer, P.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Evans, P.R.S. 

Hon. Sir 0. Parsons, K.O.B., F.R.S.. 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh . 
Hull 

Liverpool ... 

Toronto 

Southampton 
Oxford 

Leeds 

Glasgow 

South Africa 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.B., F.R.S. 

Sir T. E. Thorpe. O.B., F.R.S 

Sir C. S. Sherrington, G.B.E., 
Pres. R.S 



Sir Ernest Rutherford, P.R.S 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S.... 

Prof. Horace Lamb, FRS 

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., 

F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S 

Sir V\ ilUnm Bragg, K.B.E., F.R.S ., 
Sir Thomas Holland, K. O.S.I 

K.O.I E., P.R.S 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



267 
310 
243 
250 
419 
116 
322 
276 
294 
117 
293 
284 
288 
376 
172 
242 
164 



235 



288 
336 



228 



326 
119 
280 

358 
249 
260 

81 



13 
37 
21 
21 
32 
40 
10 
19 
24 
13 
2t 
21 
14 
40 
13 
19 
12 



47 



11 



13 



12 
7 
8 

9 
9 
10 



' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

' Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

' Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report. 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'AssociHtion Francjaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, 10s. 

' Including Exhibinioners granted tickets without charge. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xni 



Annua 


,11 


\leeti 


ngs- 


-(continued). 












Old 


New 


1 

Asso- 
ciates 








Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 

£1801 


Suma paid 
on account 


1 


Annual 


Annual 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


of Grants 


Year 


Members 


Members 








for Scientiflc 
Purposes 

£11)72 10 


1900 


297 


46 


801 


482 


9 


1916 


374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


204B 


920 9 11 


1901 


3U 


86 


647 


306 


6 


162U 


1644 


947 


1902 


319 


90 


688 


366 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 


449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 


937' 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 


366 


93 


817 


382 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 


339 


61 


669 


361 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 


466 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 


290' 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 


379 


67 


663 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 


349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 


368 


96 


1292 


369 


88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 


480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


264» 


2766 


978 17 I 


1913 


139 


4160' 


639' 


— 


21 


5044= 


4873 


1861 16 4' 


1914 


287 


116 


628* 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 


1569 2 8 


1915 


260 


76 


251* 


73 


— 


826 


821 


985 18 10 


1916 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


677 17 2 


1917 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





326 13 3 


1918 


264 


102 


688* 


163 


3 


1482 


1736 


410 


1919 




Annual Members 








Old 




Transfer- 
able 
Tickets 


Students' 












Annual 






Regular 
Members 


Meeting 
and 


Meetlng 


Tickets 














Report 


only 
















136 


192 


671 


42 


120 


20 


138J 


1272 10 


1251 13 0* 


1920 


133 


410 


1394 


121 


343 


22 


2768 


2699 15 


618 1 10 


1921 


90 


294 


757 


89 


236' 


24 


1730 


1699 5 


772 7 


1922 




Compli- 












mentary. 










123 


380 


1434 


163 


550 


308' 


3296 


2735 15 


777 18 6» 


1923 


37 


620 


1866 


41 


89 


139 


2818 


3165 19"" 


1197 6 9 


1924 


97 


264 


878 


62 


U9 


74 


1782 


1630 6 


1231 


1925 


101 


453 


2338 


169 


225 


69 


3722 


3642 


917 1 6 


1926 


84 


334 


1487 


82 


264 


161 


2670 


2414 5 


761 10 


1927 


76 


654 


1835 


64 


201 


74 


3074 


3072 10 


1259 10 


1928 


34 


177 


1227" 


— 


161 


83 


1764 


1477 16 


1838 2 1 


1929 



• Including grants from the Oiird Fund in this and subsequent years. 
' Includins Foreign Guest«, Exhibitioners, and others. 

' The Bournemouth Fund for ilesearoh, initiated by Sir 0. Parsons, enabled grants on account of 
ecieatific purposes to be maintained. 

• Including grants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 
to 1926. 

'• Subscriptions paid in Canada were $i for Meeting only and others prorata ; ihere was some 
gain on e.ichaiige. 

" Including 450 Members of the South African Association. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29. 



I. Presidency of the Association. — Professor F. 0. Bower, F.R.S., has 
been unanimously nominated to fill tlie office of President of the Association 
for the year 1930-31 (Bristol Meeting). 

II. Obituary. — The Council has had to deplore the loss by death of 
the following office-bearers and supporters : — 

Sir Hugh K. Anderson. 

Mr. Douglas Berridge, till lately Recorder of Section L (Educational Science). 

Prof. R. A. Berry, who rendered valued service to Section M (Agriculture) as Local 
Secretary at the recent Meeting in Glasgow. 

Prof. G. H. Bryan. 

Sir Horace Darwin. 

Sir William Boyd Dawkius. 

Sir George Fordham, who had accepted the presidency of the Conference of Delegates 
of Corresponding Societies at Havre, July, 1929. 

Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher. 

Rev. Dr. H. B. Gray. 

Dr. Alex Hill. 

Prof. Mcaiah Hill. 

H.H. the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar. 

Sir Alexander Kennedy. 

Sir Hercules Read. 

Sir Henry Rew. 

Mr. Mark L. Sykes, till lately a member of the Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee. 

Sir Bertram Windle. 

Prof. R. H. Yapp, whose ill-health prevented his occupation of the chair of 
Section K (Botany) at the Glasgow Meeting. 

Prof. Allyn Young, wiio occupied the chair of Section F (Economics) at Glasgow. 

The Council conveyed to Sir Oliver Lodge an expression of condolence 
on the death of Lady Lodge, and to the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science on the death of its President, Mr. Pv.. H. Cambage. 

III. Representation. — Representatives of the Association have been 
appointed as follow : — 

Folldore Society (50th Anniversary) . Prof. J. L. Myres 

Gesellschaft Deutscher Natmforscher 

(Hamburg Meeting) .... Prof. G. Barger 

National Association for the Prevention of 
, Tuberculosis (Meeting, 1928) . . Dr. J. G. Garson 

Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 

Paris (Centenary Meeting) . . Dr. A. Loir (Havre) 

American Association for the Advancement 

of Science (New York Meeting) . . Prof. H. H. Turner 

King's College, London, Centenary Service 

of Thanksgiving, Westminster Abbey . Dr. F. E. Smith 

With reference to the attendance of Prof. H. H. Turner as the Associa- 
tion's representative at the New York Meeting of the Anierican Association 
for the Advancement of Science, the Council has been favoured by 



RKFOHT OK THK CorNClL. l!»2S-2!). v^V 

Dr. Burton E. Livingston, Permanent Secretary, witli the following extracts 
from the Minutes of his Council, and remarks : — 

Professor Herbert Hall Turner, Savilian professor of astronomy in Oxford 
University, was introduced to the Council as the official representative of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science at this meeting of the American Associa- 
tion. He had been invited to attend the council sessions and to take part in the 
discussions. He presented a letter of greeting from the British Association, which 
the secretary read to the Council. The letter follows : ' The Council of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science through its representative, Professor 
Herbert Hall Turner, F.R.S. (lately a General Secretary of the Association) desires to 
convey to the American Association for the Advancement of Science an expression of 
its cordial good will and every hope for a most successful meeting.' — W. H. Bragg, 
President. The Chairman expressed to Professor Turner the pleasure of the Council 
in having him in attendance at this meeting, saying that the American Association 
was very greatly honoured by having as special delegate from its sister associstion a 
research worker of Professor Turner's eminence and a past general secretary of the 
British Association. Professor Turner responded by expressing his gratification at 
being the official representative of the British Association on this occasion, and added 
an interesting and valuable account of some features of the manner in which prepara- 
tions are made for British Association meetings. He emphasized the excellent results 
obtained by bringing the section secretaries together early in the year for a day or 
two devoted to discussions of plans for the approaching meeting. Professor Turner 
emphasized the fact that these preliminary conferences of section secretaries had 
resulted in specially valuable joint sessions of two or more sections, in which science 
workers in different but related fields are brought together. 

Professor Turner suggested that it miglit be desirable to have arrangements b\- 
which some funds might be used to encourage young workers in science to attend the 
Association meetings, thus bringing them into early contact with the older members. 
He described briefly how this is accomplished in some instances by the British Associa- 
tion. A brief discussion followed, and attention was called to the fact that some of 
the special scientific societies in America have junior or associate membership by which 
students may have the benefit of the meetings without paying the whole of the regular 
dues. This whole question was referred to the Executive Committee with the request 
that it consider the possibilities and report to the Council at a later session. 

Professor Turner . . . presented a message from Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, Secre- 
tary of the British Association, calling attention to the exceedingly high prices 
charged by some European publishers of scientific periodicals, and suggesting 
that the American Association take this under consideration. After considerable 
discussion, this was referred to the Executive Committee. 

The Council expressed to the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
its hearty appreciation of the courtesy of tJiat Association in sending to the New York 
meeting a special official representative . . . and thanked Professor Turner for taking 
part in its deliberations and for delivering an address at one of the general sessions of 
this meeting. 

* * * 

Professor Turner gave a lecture on ' The Scientific Retrospect,' which ^ras very 
well received, at one of our afternoon general sessions. He also introduced Dr. Harlow 
Shapley, who gave a popular lecture, on ' Galaxies outside of the Milky Way,' at the 
last evening session of the meeting. 

I am sure that Professor Turner's visit was very productive and stimulating in 
many ways. 

* * ♦ 

Another matter that I wish to brmg to your attention is indicated by the following 
minute from one of the Council sessions. 

' On recommendation by the Executive Committee the Council requested the 
Permanent Secretary to communicate with the British Association with regard to the 
desirability of forming a joint committee to consider the interrelations of these two 
organisations and their relations with other scientific associations. The Council 
named the President and the Permanent Secretary to represent the American Associa- 
tion in the proposed Committee.' 



xvi REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29. 

The idea of this minute -was suggested by some of those who were official representa- 
tives of the American Association at the last meeting of the British Association. 
Professor Kennelly was particularly interested in the general thought that some 
arrangement might be made by which these two great English-speaking associations 
might operate together when occasion might arise. Our Council and Executive 
Committee did not give very much attention to possible details but instructed me to 
take this matter up with the British Association. I shall be glad to receive suggestions 
from you in this connection. 

IV. South African Meeting. — Preparations for this Meeting have fully 
occupied the executive officers during the year. The South African 
Committee of the Council has held seventeen meetings. It has been 
charged, among other important duties, with the allocation of the funds 
generously furnished by the Government of the Union of South Africa and 
the South African Association for the Advancement of Science, supple- 
mented by a fund raised at home through the instrumentality of Dr. F. E. 
Smith. 

Contributors to this latter fund, whose generosity has been acknowledged 
by the Council, are Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas), 
Sir Otto Beit, the Central Mining and Investment Corporation, Mr. 
T. B. Davis, Mr. F. Dudley Docker, Rt. Hon. Lord Glendyne, Imperial 
Chemical Industries, Ltd., Hon. Henry Mond, Sir John Mullens, the 
Standard Bank of South Africa, the Union Castle Mail Steamship Co., 
Ltd. The thanks of the Council have been conveyed to these generous 
donors. 

These funds have been devoted mainly to grants in aid of travelling 
expenses of officers and other invited members, and a reserve has been 
held to assist the funds of the Association in covering expenses 
connected with the Meeting. 

The Council received from the Rhodes Trustees the generous offer of 
three grants of £70 each to selected students, or junior members of 
staff, from home Universities, to enable them to attend the Meeting, and 
the Committee added thereto three equivalent grants, thus enabling 
the principle (though not the number) of the British Association Exhibi- 
tions awarded in recent years to be maintained. 

The previous offer of the Rhodes Trustees (referred to in the last Report 
of the Council) to make a grant of £250 toward a further authoritative 
investigation of the ruins at Great Zimbabwe or a neighbouring site, was 
supplemented by the Council out of accumulated interest of the Caird 
Fund, so as to provide a total of £1,000. The Council was fortunate in 
securing the services of Miss Gertrude Caton-Thompson to supervise the 
necessary excavation, with the assistance of Miss Norie and Miss Kenyon, 
and desired her to report the results at the Meeting. The co-operation of 
the Southern Rhodesian authorities in allocating sites at Great Zimbabwe 
and Dhlo-Dhlo for Miss Caton-Thompson's investigation is gratefully 
acknowledged. 

Following the Secretary's report of his consultation with the Executive 
in South Africa last year, the Council resolved to exercise its power, so far 
as its South African Committee might judge necessary, of imposing condi- 
tions in respect of membership of the visiting party. At the outset it 
required of new applicants for membership the recommendation of a member 
of the General Committee. Subsequently the visiting party increased to 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29. xvii 

a number in excess of the largest estimate originally formed, and the South 
African Committee found it desirable to limit late entries to practising 
scientific workers invited by the Committee. 

V. Association Frangaise four V Avancement des Sciences. — Following 
upon the cordial invitation received by the General Committee from the 
French Association through Dr. A. Loir, and accepted, for any members of 
the British Association not visiting South Africa to attend the meeting of 
the French Association in July, the Council appointed Sir Henry Lyons as 
its official representative at that meeting and as Chairman of an Organising 
Committee for arrangements in connection with the visit. The Conference 
of Delegates of Corresponding Societies was appointed to take place in 
Havre under the Presidency of Dr. F. A. Bather (vice the late Sir George 
Fordham), with Dr. C. Tierney as Secretary and Mr. T. Sheppard as Acting 
Secretary for the Meeting. 

VI. Centenary Meeting, 1931. — The General Committee having 
expressed the wish that the Centenary Meeting should take place in London, 
the Council is happy to report the receipt of a letter, dated February 26, 
1929, from the Town Clerk of the City of London, in the following terms : — 

I am asked by the Court of Common Council to express the hope that London will 
be selected as the place for the holding of the Centenary Meeting of the British 
Association in 1931. In that event, the Corporation will be happy to give an Enter- 
tainment to the Association — the precise form of vk'hich can be determined later. 

I may add that it is proposed to appoint a Ward Committee to carry out the 
arrangements decided upon. 

Under the authority delegated to it by the General Committee at the 
Glasgow Meeting, the Council gratefully accepted this invitation, and has 
under consideration the venue of the inaugural and other meetings, etc., 
which could not be conveniently accommodated within the City boundaries. 

The Council was represented by Prof. J. L. Myres, with the Secretary 
in attendance, at a meeting of representatives of interested societies 
convened by the Royal Institution to consider the celebration in 1931 
of the centenary of Faraday's discovery of electro-magnetic induction, 
and subsequently, by invitation, appointed Dr. F. E. Smith to represent 
it on a Committee formed to further this object. It is desired that 
this celebration may immediately precede the Centenary Meeting of 
the British Association, and the Council feels that such an arrangement 
would enhance the scientific importance of both occasions. 

In view of the known desire in York, the birthplace of the Association, 
that the Centenary Meeting should take place there, the Council gave 
instructions that the reasons which had led to tho reluctant rejection of this 
proposal should be fully laid before the atithorities in York. They were 
at the same time informed of the alternative suggestion mentioned to the 
General Committee at Glasgow, namely (a) that there should be a week-end 
excursion to York during the Centenary Meeting, (b) that the Annual 
Meeting in 1932 should be held in York (a course to which the authorities 
of Leicester present at the Glasgow Meeting gave assent, expressing their 
willingness to defer their own invitation to the year 1933). The 
authorities in York accepted the above suggestion, and with the con- 
currence of those in Leicester it is now confirmed that the Annual 
Meeting in 1932 will be held in York, and that in 1933 in Leicester. 



xviii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29. 

VII. Suggested Meeting in India. — A suggestion was received as to 
the possibility of a meeting of the Association in India, but the Council 
felt that on the score of season and climate any proposal to hold an ordinary 
meeting there could not be encouraged. The Council however suggested, 
on its part, that the Indian Science Congress or other suitable authority 
might invite the British Association to send a scientific deputation to 
a joint meeting. 

VIII. Down House. — Thanks to the generosity of Mr. G. Buckston 
Browne, the Association now possesses, in custody for the nation, Down 
House, where Darwin thought and worked for forty years, and died in 
1882. Mr. Buckston Browne, besides vesting in the Association the sum 
of £20,000 for the maintenance of the property, has fully restored the house 
(an extensive and urgent work), and has placed the ground floor in a con- 
dition appropriate to exhibition to the public ; in particular, the Old 
Study, where the Origin of Species was written, has been brought as nearly 
as possible to an exact replica of its condition in Darwin's time, with much 
of the original furnishing and copies of, or close approximations to, the 
rest. Under Mr. Buckston Browne's inspiration, members of Darwin's 
family, and others, have liberally given original furniture and other objects 
of interest for preservation in the house. The restoration of the gardens 
and the Sand Walk is also in progress. Thanks again to Mr. Buckston 
Browne, the house is adequately staffed. The Council desired the Secre- 
tary, Mr. Howarth, to occupy the residential portion of the house as 
resident officer, for a period of not less than five years, and he will do so. 
Full consideration will be given to the possibility of applying the estate to 
some direct scientific purpose. 

The personnel of the Down House Committee appointed by the General 
Committee on September 5, 1928, was completed by the nomination of 
Sir Arthur Keith as representative of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

The Council learned with pleasure that the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, at the instance of Prof. H. Fairfield Osborn, 
has appointed a Committee to co-operate with the Association for the 
benefit of the estate : an important collection of letters from Darwin to 
Fritz Muller has already been secured from South America through this 
generous agency. 

With a view to the exemption from rates of premises held for 
' charitable ' purposes, the Association has been registered by the Registrar 
of Friendly Societies as entitled to the benefit of the Scientific Societies 
Act, 1843. 

Down House was formally dedicated to the public access on June 7 
at a meeting attended by many members of the General Committee, 
representatives of Darwin's family, scientific societies with which Darwin 
was connected, and other invited guests. Dr. Joseph Leidy represented 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and has generously presented 
to Down House the bust of Darwin exhibited by Mr. C. L. Hartwell in 
this year's Royal Academy. Prof. E. B. Poulton represented Prof. H. F. 
Osborn and the American Museum of Natural History, Prof. R. Anthony 
represented French science, and Prof. Abe the Japanese Darwin Society. 
The American Ambassador also was represented. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29. xix 

At this meeting, the desire was expressed to nominate Mr. Buckston 
Browne as Hon. Curator of Down House, and this proposal was received 
with acclamation. 

IX. Income Tax. — The Council reported last year that the cases taken 
as test cases upon the liability of scientific Societies to taxation of income 
had been decided against the Societies by the Special Commissioners and 
the High Court ; to these were subsequently added the Court of Appeal, 
and the question was not carried to the House of Lords. The position is 
that the two societies concerned, the Geologists' Association and the 
Midland Counties Institution of Engineers, were adjudged on the facts, as 
found by the Special Commissioners, not to be ' charities ' exempted from 
taxation under the Income Tax Act, 1918. 

The Council caused a further meeting of representatives of affected 
Societies to be summoned, when the following principal considerations 
emerged : — 

(1) No satisfactory definition of a 'charity' applicable to scientific societies 
generally has been found. The eases referred to above were brought as test cases : 
the judgments show that they do not provide a common ' test ' and indicate that no 
individual case can indeed act as such. 

(2) It has been laid down by the judicature that : — 

(a) If a society exists mainly for the purpose of furthering science and incident- 
ally its own members benefit, such society is entitled to exemption. 

(b) If a society exists mainly to benefit its members individually (as in the 
case of conferring professional prestige), while incidentally furthering science, 
such society is not entitled to exemption. 

(3) Some societies definitely fall on the side of non-liability, some on that of 
liability : as to a third category, it is arguable on wliich side they should fall. 

(4) Therefore the case of each society must be separately investigated. 

(5) But in the mutual interest of societies, the meeting recommended community 
of action in order to ensure a pooling of experience, and to that end the officers of the 
British Association offered : — 

(a) To advise societies (so far as lies in their power) as to procedure, and 
(6) To file in the office of the Association records of the results of individual 
societies' appeals and of the grounds of their success or failure, in order that such 
records may be available for consultation and general guidance. 

It became clear that the above statements (3) and (4) correctly 
represented the position from the fact that the Association itself, and certain 
other societies, since the judicial decisions referred to, have been allowed 
remission of tax as heretofore, on a review of their activities by the Inland 
Revenue authorities. Others have not, and consideration of individual 
cases is understood to be in progress. 

The expert assistance of the General Treasurer in this important matter 
has been deeply appreciated. 

X. Resolutions referred by the General Committee at the Glasgow 
Meeting to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, were 
dealt with as follows : — 

(a) Resolutions from Section E (Geography), relating to the completion 
of the thirtieth meridian arc in East Africa, the uniform map of Africa 
(Geographical Section, General Staff, 1 : 2,000,000), and the periodical 
revision of the Ordnance Survey, were referred, with commentaries, to 
the appropriate Government Departments (Colonial Office, War Office, 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries). 

In regard to the first, it is understood that Col. H. St. J. 

62 



XX REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29. 

Winterbotliain, in the course of a tour through the British Empire 
for the purpose of advising the various Governments on survey 
matters, will pay special attention to the question of this meridian 
arc. 

In regard to the publication of the uniform map of Africa, the 
Army Council agreed with the principle of the resolution, and a full 
statement kindly furnished by the Colonial Oj0&ce and that Council 
shows that in regard to a large part of Africa the objects indicated by 
the resolution are in process of realisation. 

The revision of the Ordnance Survey is imderstood to receive 
constant attention subject to the limits imposed by financial con- 
siderations. 

(b) On the question of the high cost of foreign scientific publications, 
the Council was represented at a meeting of the Library Committee of the 
Royal Society dealing with this matter, and also brought it, through 
Prof. H. H. Turner (§ III), to the attention of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. (Resolution of Section H, Anthro- 
pology.) 

(c) The Council is in correspondence with Australian authorities on the 
question of the study of Australian aboriginal languages. It has received 
from the Canadian authorities a sympathetic reply on the question of 
publishing results of field work of the Anthropological Division of the 
Geological Survey of Canada. (Resolutions of Section H, Anthropology.) 

(d) The Council resolved against action upon the resolution relating to 
key industries duty upon scientific apparatus for use in educational 
laboratories. (Resolution of Section J, Psychology.) 

(e) On the question of increased research and expenditure upon the 
preservation of timber, the Council resolved to make no recommendation, 
while willing to forward specific suggestions for researches to the proper 
quarters. (Resolution of Section K, Botany.) 

(/) In regard to the recommendation that past Recorders should be 
ex-officio members of Organising Sectional Committees, the Council 
considers the existing opportunity to include these ex-officers, if desired, by 
appointment is sufficient. (Resolution of Section L, Educational Science.) 

(g) The resolution referring to the preservation of scenic amenity in 
town and country was forwarded to H.M. Secretary of State for Home 
Affairs, together with the address by Dr. Vaughan Cornish and the report 
of the discussion which gave rise to the resolution. (Resolution of the 
Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies.) 

XI. General Treasurer's Account. — The Council has received reports 
from the General Treasurer throughout the year. With the knowledge 
that his account for the year ending June 30, 1929, could not be prepared in 
time for presentation to the General Committee at the South African Meet- 
ing, the Committee has already delegated to the Council the power to 
receive and deal with the account, in November next. 

The Council made grants of £100 each from the income of the Caird 
Fund to the Naples Table Committee and the Seismology Committee. 
Accumulated interest on the fund was allocated toward the cost of the 
excavations at Great Zimbabwe, etc. (§ IV). 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1928-29— RE.SOLUTIONS. xxi 

XII. General Officers. — The General Officers have been nominated by 
the Council as follows : — • 

General Treasurer, Sir Josiah Stamp. 

General Secretaries, Prof. J. L. Mvres and Dr. F. E. Smith. 

XIII. Council Membership. — The retiring Ordinary Members of the 
Council are :— Lord Bledi.sloe, Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. H. H. Dale, Mr. C. T. 
Heycock, Dr. C. S. Myers. 

The Council nominates the following new members : — Sir Daniel Hall, 
Sir James Henderson, Prof. J. F. Thorpe ; leaving two vacancies to be 
filled by the General Committee without nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : — 



Prof. J. H. Ashworth. 

Dr. F. A. Bather. 

Prof. A. L. Bowley. 

Prof. C. Burt. 

Prof. W. Dalby. 

Prof. C. Lovatt Evans. 

Sir John Flett. 

Sir Henry Fowler. 

Sir Richard Gregory. 

Prof. Dame Helen Gwvnne- Vaughan. 

Sir Daniel Hall. 

Sir James Henderson. 



Mr. A. R. Hinks. 
Sir Henrj' Lyons. 
Mr. C. G. T. Morison. 
Prof. T. P. Nunn. 
Prof. A. O. Rankine. 
Mr. C. Tate Regan. 
Prof. A. C. Seward. 
Dr. F. C. ShrubsaU. 
Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 
Dr. G. C. Simpson. 
Prof. J. F. Thorpe. 



XIV. General Committee Membership. — Mr. F. Puryer White has 
been admitted as a member of the General Committee. 

XV. Corresponding Societies Committee. — The Corresponding Societies 
Committee has been nominated as follows : The President of the Associa- 
tion {Chairman ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard (Vice-Chairman), Dr. C. Tierney 
(Secretary), The General Treasurer, the General Secretaries, Mr. C. 0. 
Banrum, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir David Prain, Sir John 
Russell, Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 

XVI. Honorary Members. — The Council has received the thanks of 
the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, Sir Alfred Yarrow, and Mr. G. Buckston 
Browne fc»r their election to honorary membership of the Associatioo by 
the General Committee. 



RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The following resolutions and recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at Johannesburg for consideration 
and, if desirable, for action : — 

From Section A. 

To urge the importance of the establishment, on a suitable site in South Africa, 
of an observatory for the study of terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity. 

The establishment of such an observatory would add very greatlj' to the accuracy 
and value of the magnetic survey of South Africa which is now in progress. The 
Committee desires to call attention, moreover, to the fact that at present there is only 
one magnetic observatorj-, viz. at Helwan, Egypt, and regular observations in South 
Africa are much needed for the study of the Earth's magnetism. 



xxii RESOLUTIONS, ETC. 

From Section C {supported by Section H). 

That the British Association for the Advancement of Science strongly support the 
South African Association for the Advancement of Science in its endeavours to 
preserve Nooitgedacht Farm, near Riverton, as a national monument. The glacial!}' 
striated pavements there, with their rock carvings, are of such interest and importance 
that every effort should be made to preserve them. 

From Section D. 

That the Section is strongly of opinion that some system of temporary exchange 
between the staffs of the Government museums throughout the Empire would be in 
the public interest, and urges the Council to press the matter with the appropriate 
authorities. Alternatively, a system of ' study leave ' similar to that in force in India 
is suggested. 

From Section D. 

That the Section considers that it is of the greatest importance that an inter- 
national biological and oceanographical station should be established in the Malay 
Archipelago, and urges the Council to support the Fourth Pan- Pacific Science Congress 
by every means in its power to make their efforts in this matter effective. 

From Section D. 

That the Section is of opinion that it is very desirable that more adequate facilities 
should be available for marine biological investigation in South Africa, especially in 
the form of more marine laboratory accommodation ; and recommends that the 
matter should receive the careful attention of the appropriate authorities. 

From Section E. 

To recommend that the British Association represent to the South African 
Government the need, when sufficient funds are available, for expediting the 
topographical survey of South Africa, the completion of which appears to be urgently 
required for all scientific and educational purposes. 

From Section H. 

In the Committee of Section H it was resolved to ask the Council of theAssociation 
to represent to the Federal Government of Australia the urgent need for ^rore effective 
measures, before it is too late, to protect the aborigines of AustraUa and prevent their 
extinction. Apart from humanitarian considerations, the Australian natives are 
among the most interesting and the most valuable peoples for scientific study, and, if 
they are allowed to die out. Science wiU lose material that may be of unique importance 
for future investigations in the early history of mankind. 

From Section H. 

To call attention to the destruction of monuments, objects and sites in South 
Africa, of anthropological, archaeological and other interest, which are of permanent 
national value ; and to ask the Council to consider, in conjunction with public bodies 
and scientific societies in South Africa, what provision may best be made for their 
preservation. 

From Section H. 

The Sectional Committee asks that a report of Miss Caton- Thompson's paper 
appear in the Annual Report, and that the Council be desired to consider the full 
publication of her results as a monograph. 



BEITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE AliVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1929. 



Note. — Owing to the early date of the South African Meeting, the 
General Committee authorised the Council to receive and adopt these 
accounts, which could not be presented at the meeting itself. 

The large apparent increase in cost of printing is due in part to the 
special requirements of the South African Meeting, but also to the early 
date of that meeting, which brought into the current year expenditure 
which normally would fall in the year following. 

The absence of Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy's signature as Hon. Auditor was 
due to indisposition, of which the Council learned with great regret. 



I 



XXIV 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Balance Sheet, 



CorrospondiDg 
Figures 
June 30. 

1928. 
£ s. d. 



10,692 19 1 



9,5S2 16 3 



715 1 6 



72 13 8 
10.000 



9,700 
1,308 12 2 



182 18 10 
250 



47 19 3 



e,479 15 



LIABILITIES. 



e. d. £ s. d. 



715 
513 



To Oeneral Fund — 

As at Julv 1,1928 10,692 

Add Prof. A. W. Scott's Legacy as at July 1, 1928 250 

As per contra — 

(Subject to Depreciation in Value of 
Investments) 
Caird Fund — 

As per contra ...... 

(Subject to Depreciation in Value of 
Investments) 
, Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Balance at July 1, 1928 .... 

Less Excess of Expenditure over Income 
tor the year ..... 

As per contra 
Sir F. Bramwell's Gift for Enquiry into Prime 
Movers, 1931— 
£50 Consols now accumulated to £151 12s. 
As per contra ..... 

, Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — as per contra . 
, Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

As per last Account .... 

Less Transferred to Income and Expendi- 
ture Accoimt under the terms of the Gift 
As per contra 
, Life Compositions — 

As per last Account . 

Add Received during year 
As per contra 
, Toronto University Presenlaiioii Fund — 
As per last Account . 
Add Dividends 



Less Awards given 
As per contra 
Prof . AW. Scott's legacy 
South Africa Mectino — 

Sundry Donations in Aid of Expenses 
Less Returnable to the South African 
Association in respect of Grants not pai 



Less Grants in Aid of Travelling Expenses 
As per contra 
Doiim House Endowment Fund^ 
As per contra ...... 

Royal Charter Expenses — 
Balance as per last Account 

Less Further Expenditure .£18 7 4 
,, Unexpended Balance 
transferred to Income 
and Expenditure Account 29 11 11 



19 1 




10,942 19 1 



9,582 16 3 



1 6 

17 8 



201 3 10 



9,700 0, 



310 17 


9 


. 1,308 12 
330 


2 



182 18 
8 15 


10 




191 13 

8 15 


10 




76 7 3 
10,000 



9,389 2 3 



1,638 12 2 



49,032 15 9 



17,560 





182 18 10 


I 245 







17,315 
15,586 10 


"o 

9 


1,728 9 3 
20,000 



47 19 3 



47 19 3 



Revenue Account — 
Sundry Creditors .... 

Do. Do. (Down HoiLse) . 

Income and Expenditure Account — 

Balanceat July 1, 1928 . . £6,333 19 

Less Excess of Expenditure 
over Income for the year 15 11 



1,448 
625 



19 1 

17 1 



As per contra 



2,074 16 2 



6,318 8 4 



8,393 4 6 



Carried forward 



£72,135 13 5 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



XXV 



June 30, 1929. 



Corresponcling! 

Figures 

June 30 , 

1928. 
& a. i. 



10,692 19 1 



S,SS2 IG 3 

7li 1 6 

7-^ 13 S 

to, 000 

9,700 

1,30S 12 2 

182 IS 10 

250 



47 19 3 



42,553 9 



IJF 



ASSETS. 

£ s. d. 
Investments on Capital Accounts — 
General Fund — 

£4,651 10s. Sd. Consolidated 21 percent. Stock 

at cost 3,942 3 3 

£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stock at cost . 3,522 2 6 

£879 14s. 9d. £43 Great Indian Peninsula 

Railway ' B ' Annuity at cost . . . 827 15 

£5212».7d.WarStock(Po3tOfflceIssue)atcost 54 5 2 
£834 16s. 6d.4ipercent.Conver8ionLoanatcost 835 12 4 
£1,400 War Stock 5 percent. 1929/47 at coat 1,393 16 U 
£94 7s. 4i percent. Conversion Stock 1940/44 
at cost . . . . . . . 62 15 

£326 9s. lOd. 3i per cent. Conversion Stock at 
cost . . . . . 250 

Cash at Bank 54 8 11 



d. 



£8,413 13s. (Value of Stocks at date, £8,134 2s. 3d.) 

£2,027 Os. lOd. India 3 i per cent, stock at cost 2,400 13 3 

£2,100 London Midland and Scottish Railway 
Consolidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock 
at cost 2,190 4 3 

£2,500 Canada SJ per cent. 1930/50 Regis- 
tered Stock at cost 2,397 1 6 

£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per 

cent. Preference Stock at cost . . 2,594 17 :t 

£.7,342 6s. 8d. (Value at date, £6,878 4s. 3d.) 
Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift — 

£145 1 3 Self-Accumulating Consolidated 
Stock as per last Balance Sheet 
6 10 9 Add Accumulations to Juno 30, 

1929 



10,942 19 1 



13 8 



£151 12 



3 13 



9,582 Ifi 3 



201 3 10 



76 7 3 



(Value at date, £82 12s. 5d.) 
Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

£10,300 ii per cent. Conversion Loan . 
&10,145 10s. (Value at date, £9,733 10s.) 
Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

£9,700 5 per cent. War Loan (£50 Bonds) 1929/47 
as per last Balance Sheet .... 9,700 
Less Sale of £310 17s. 9d. Stock under terms 



of the Gift 
(Value at date, £9,459 10*. 6d.) 
Life Compositions — 

£2,361 7s. 8d. Local Loans at cost 

(Value at date, £1,464 Is. Id.) 
Cash at Bank .... 

Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
£175 5 per cent. War Stock at cost 
£177 16s. Ud. (Value at date, £176 6s. 
Cash at Bank 



3d.) 



310 17 9 



1,533 12 2 
105 



178 11 i 



10,000 u 



9,389 2 3 



1,638 12 2 



6 



182 18 10 



1,728 9 3 



, Prof. A. W. Scott's Legacy — 

&32S 9s lOd. 3i per cent. Conversion Stock 
South Africa Meeting Fund — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Mr. G. Buckston Browne's Gift in Memory of Darwin, 

Down House, Kent (not valued)— 
Do. Endowment Fund — 
£5,500 India 4i per cent. Stock 1958/68 at cost . 5,001 17 4 
£2,500 Australia 5 per cent. Stock 1945/75 at cost 2,468 19 
£3,000 Fishguard & Rosslare Railway 3i per cent. 

Guaranteed Preference Stock at cost , . 2,139 17 3 
£2,500 New South Wales 5 per cent. 1945/65 

Stock at cost 2.467 7 9 

£2,500 Western Australia 5 per cent. Stock 

1945/75 at cost 2,472 1 6 

£3,340 Great Western Railway 5 per cent. Guar- 
anteed Stock at cost 3,436 7 5 

£2,500 Birkenhead Railway 4 per cent. Consoli- 
dated Stock at cost 2,013 9 9 

(Value at date, £19,247 6s.) 20,000 

Royal Charter Expenses — 

Cash at Bank ..... 



Carried forward 



£63,742 8 U 



XXVI 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Balance Sheet, 



Corresponding 
Figures, 
June 30, 

1928. 
& s. d. 



49,032 15 9 



LIABILITIES— co/i<iKM«/. 



Brought forward 



£ s. d. 
72,135 13 5 



£72,135 13 6 

I have examined the foregoing Accounts with the Books and Vouchers and certify the same 
inspected the Deeds of Down House and the Mortgage on Isleworth House. 
Approved, 

ARTHUR L. BOWLEY, 

Auditor. 
November 1929. 



Down House, 



EXPENDITURE. 



To 





£ s. 


(/. 


£ s. 


d, 


Wages of Gardeners ..... 






126 


6 


Rates, Insurance, etc. .... 






12 9 


3 


Heat, Light and Drainage 






111 3 


9 


Repairs, Renewals and Alterations to Buildings, 










Fences, Paths, etc. ... 






277 6 


7 


House and Garden Equipments 






183 15 


5 


Sundry Expenses ..... 


11 1 


y 






Photographs ...... 


11 2 


.'! 






Printing Booklet ..... 


92 7 


6 


114 11 


n 


Law Costs — 








Collection of Rents ..... 


3 8 


9 






Surrender of Lease 


14 14 





18 2 





Opening Ceremony — 










Catering and Conveyance 






192 


6 




£1,035 9 


11 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



XXVll 



June 30, 


1929 — continued. 








Corresponding 










Figures, 










June 30, 










1928. 


AS'S'ETS— continued. 








& s. d. 




£ 


«. 


d. 


42,553 9 

f 


Brought forward . 
By Revenue Account — 

£2,098 Is. 9d. Consolidated 2 J per cent. 










Stock at cost ..... 


1,200 










£4,338 63. 2d. Conversion 3i per cent. Stock 










at cost ....... 


3,300 










£4U0 5 per cent. War Loan Inscribed Stock at 










cost ....... 


4U4 


16 







&i.070 14'. «<?. Value at date. £4,851 8s. id. 










Second Mortgage on Isleworth House, Or- 










pington 


700 










Down HoiLse Suspense Account — 










Compensation paid to Outgoing 










Tenant £800 










Redemption of Tithe . . 138 7 












938 


7 


Q 




Do. Excess of Expenditure for Upkeep over 






Income for the period as per separate 










Income and Expenditm-e Accoimt 


699 


13 


7 




Sundry Debtors and Payments in Advance . 


410 


5 


10 




Do. (Down House) 


172 


3 


4 




Cash at Bank— General Accoimt £1,739 4 










Z/fss Down House overdraft . 1,184 6 10 












554 


17 


2 




Cash in Hand 


13 


1 


7 


fi 470 7,5 n 










If I'l i if ± tj V 








49,032 15 9 





a 8. d. 
63,742 8 11 



8,393 4 6 



£72,135 13 5 



to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bajikers and the Investments, and have 

W. B. KEEN, 

Chartered Accountant, 



June 30, 1929. 



INCOME. 



By Rents Receivable ...... 

„ Dividends — 

4i per cent. India Stock .... 

Fishguard and Rosslare Railway . 

New South Wales Stock .... 

Great Western Railway Stock 

„ Balance, being excess of Expenditure over Income 



£ s. d. 



61 12 
42 
50 
66 16 



£ s. <t. 
115 8 4 



220 8 
699 13 7 



£1,035 9 11 



XXVlll 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Income and 

FOR THE YkAE EnDED 



Corresponding 

Period 

June 30, 

1928. 

£ s. 



24 2 

58 16 

1 

191 12 

165 19 

91 13 



212 


3 11 


745 

1,335 

75 

1,385 


7 

9 



16 11 



3,541 12 11 

145 2 2 
22 



EXPENDITURE. 



To Heat, Lighting and Power 
„ Stationery . 
,, Rent .... 
„ Postages 

„ Travelling Expenses 
,, Exhibitioners 
,, General Expenses . 



Salaries and Wages 
Pension Contribution 
Printing, Binding, etc. 



£ s. d. 

26 13 7 

94 10 

10 

201 14 6 

438 11 9 

70 19 11 
286 4 6 



s. d. 



1,119 


5 1 


1,439 


9 3 


75 





2,882 


3 



The Secretary's Travelling Expenses to South 

Africa, recoverable per contra 
Dr. Klercker's Research Donation per contra 

Prof. T. T. Barnard for Excavations at Bambata 

Miss Caton-Thompson for Zimbabwe Excavations 

per contra ... ... 

Grants to Research Committees — 

Trent Committee 

Pigment in Inseota Committee 

Sumerians Committee 

School Certificate Committee 

Transplant Committee 

Sex Ratio Committee 

Macedonia Committee 

Quaternary Peats Committee 

British Flora Committee . 

Tables of Constants Committee 

African Lakes Committee . 

Bronze Implements Committee 

Plymouth Table Committee 

Taxation Committee 

Zoological Record Committee 

Great Barrier Reef Committee 

Ductless Glands Committee 

Overseas Training Committee 

Palaeozoic Rocks Committee 

Vocational Tests Conunittee 



Law Costs of Second Mortgage Isleworth House 
Balance, being excess of Income over Expenditure 
for the year ...... 



5,515 14 7 



25 

80 
250 





20 












6 














100 














12 


2 


1 








35 














10 














50 














10 














50 














5 














50 














50 














50 














25 














50 














200 














30 














10 














25 














50 












sles Committee 50 








888 2 
24 10 


1 
2 


worth House 









£6,783 6 10 



£ s. d. 

100 
100 



10 10 
so 5 



EXPENDITURE. 

To Grants Paid — 

Seismology Committee . . 

Naples Tables Committee .... 
Zimbabwe Excavations .... 
Notes and Queries on Anthropology (5th 

Edition .... . 

Technical Education Committee . 

,, Balance being Excess of Income otter Expenditure 
for the year . . .... 



290 15 



s. d. 



Gaird 



£ s. d. 



100 

50 

750 
















50 








950 






£950 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



XXIX 



Expenditure Account 

June 30, 1929. 



Correspond 


ins 
















Period 


















June 30 


> 


INCOME. 














1928. 


















£ s. 


d. 


By Annual Regular Members (Including £61, 1929/30, 


« 


a. 


d. 


£ 


». 


d. 


1S5 10 





and £1, 1930/31) 

,, Annual Temporary Members (Including £408, 








185 








1,50S 5 





l929/30,and£l, 1930/31) .... 
„ AnuualMembers with Report (Including£190 10s 








1,944 








523 10 





1929/30) 








834 








108 15 





„ Transferable Tickets ..... 








71 


5 





131 





„ Students' Tickets (Including £5 10s. for 1929/30) 

(Total Tickets as above, issued in advance for 

1929/30 South African Meeting, £6G5) 

„ T?te Secretary's Travelling Expenses to South 

^Africa, recoverable from the South African 








91 


10 





145 2 


2 


Association per confra .... 










— 




22 





,, Donation — Dr. Klercker, per contra 
„ Donation (Fes. 10,000) per L'Abbe Breuil, for 
Excavations at Bambata .... 
„ Donation — Rhodes Trustees for Zimbabwe Ex- 
cavations, per contra .... 








25 

80 

250 



9 




3 



5 





„ Lift Rent 








5 








47 7 


6 


„ Interest on Deposits ..... 








104 


5 


6 


705 17 


6 


„ Sale of Publications ..... 








568 


4 


1 


223 15 


3 


,, Advertisement Revenue .... 
„ Income Tax recovered — 

Year 1926-27 

Year 1927-28 


298 
303 


18 
1 


7 
11 


241 

602 
37 


2 


16 


9 


8 13 


5 


„ Unexpended Balance of Grants returned 








11 


22 10 





„ Liverpool Exhibitioners .... 
,, Royal Charter Expenses — 

Unexpended Balance transferred 
„ Dividends — 
£135 Consols ...... 


13.5 








22 
29 


10 
11- 




11 






86 8 


India 3 per cent. Stock 


86 


8 















26 13 3 


Greatlndian Peninsula Rly.' B ' Annuity 


26 


15 


2 












30 1 2 


i\ per cent. Conversion Loan . 


34 


6 















370 16 


Ditto, Sir Charles Parsons' Gift 


370 


16 















53 11 10 


Local Loans ..... 


53 


6 


6 












68 12 6 


War Stock 


78 


12 


6 












3S8 


Ditto, Series ' A,' Sir A. Yarrow's Gift 


428 


14 


6 












130 12 4 


Zl per cent. Conversion Loan 


130 


12 


4 








1,289 15 


1 










1,344 


11 







By Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift- 
















Proceeds of Sale of £310 17s. 9d. War Loan, in 


















accordance with terms of the Gift 


310 


17 


9 












Profit on Sale ..... 


4 


2 


3 








307 


3 










315 
16 




8 



10 


„ Interest on Mortgage ..... 












„ Balance, being excess of Expenditure over Income 


















for the year .... . . 








l.T 


11 


1 


5,234 1 


2 


£6,783 


6 


10 



Fund. 

£ 8. d. 
290 15 



S,290 li 



INCOME. 

Bv Dividends — 

India 3 i per cent. Stock . . . . 73 11 

Canada 3 i per cent. Stock . . . . 70 

London Midland and Scottish Railway Consoli- 
dated 4 per cent. Preference Stock . . 67 4 
Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent. 
Preference Stock . . . . . . 80 



s. d. 








d. 



290 l.i 



By Income Tax recovered — 

Year 1920-27 72 13 

Year 1927-28 72 13^ 

„ Balance, being excess of Expenditure over Income 
for the year ....... 



14.-> 7 
513 IT 



£950 U 



XXX RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

SOUTH AFRICA, 1929. 

Grants of money, if a7iy,from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

Seismological Investigations. — Prof. H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw 
{Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, 
Sir F. W. Dyson, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. H. Lamb, Sir J. 
Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H.M. Macdonald, Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. 
Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, Dr. F. J. W. 
Whipple. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Tides.— Prof. H. Lamb (Chairman), Dr. A. T. Doodson (Secretary), Dr. G. R. 
Goldsbrough, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. J. Proudman, Prof. G. I. Taylor, Prof. 
D'Arcy W. Thompson, Commander H. D. Warburg. 

Annual Tables of Constants and Numerical Data, chemical, physical, and technological. 
— Sir E. Rutherford (Chairman), Prof. A. W. Porter (Secretary), Mr. Alfred 
Egerton. £5. 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Prof. J. W. Nicholson (Chairman), Prof. A. 
Lodge (Vice-chairman), Dr. L. J. Comrie (Secretary), Dr. R. A. Fisher (General 
Editor), Dr. J. R. Airey, Dr. A. T. Doodson, Dr. J. Henderson, Mr. J. 0. Irwin, 
Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. E. H. Neville, Dr. A. J. Thompson, Dr. J. E. Tocher, 
Mr. T. Whitwell, Dr. J. Wishart, Dr. Dorothy Wrinch. £30. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

To consider the possibilities of publishing a compilation of recent material on the 
subject of Colloid Chemistry. — Prof. F. G. Dorman (Chairman), Dr. W. Clayton 
(Secretary), Mr. E. Hatschek, Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis, Dr. E. K. Rideal, Sir R. 
Robertson. 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. — Prof. I. M. 
Heilbron (Chairman), Prof. E. C. C. Baly (Secretary), Prof. A. W. Stewart. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — Prof. 
W. W. Watts (Chairman), Prof. W. G. Feamsides (Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Dr. H. Bolton, Prof. W. S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. 
E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Prof. V. C. Illing, Prof. 0. T. Jones, Prof. J. E. Marr, Dr. F. J. North, Mr. J. 
Pringle, Dr. T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Dr. F. S. Wallis. 
£25. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geo- 
logical Interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood (Chairman), Prof. S. H. Reynolds (Secre- 
tary), Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. A. S. Reid, Prof. W. W. Watts, Mr. R. I. Welch. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary Rocks of the London Area. To 
tabulate and preserve records of new excavations in that area. — Prof. W. T. 
Gordon (Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridgo (Secretary), Miss M. C. Crosfield, Prof. 
H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling. £10. 

To consider the openmg up of Critical Sections in the Mesozoic Rocks of Yorkshire. — 
Prof. P. F. Kendall (Chairman), Mr. M. Odling (Secretary), Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Dr. Spath, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. H. C. Versey. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXxi 

To assemble information regarding the Distribution of Cleavage in North and Central 
)^*l^/-T,^''°^- '^^^ ^- ^'earnsides {Chairman), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell and Mr. 
W. H. Wjlcockson (Secretaries), Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. I. S. Double, Dr. Gertrude 
EUes, Prof. 0. T. Jones, Dr. E. Greenly, Mr. W. B. R. King, Prof. W. J. Pueh 
Dr. Bernard Smith, Dr. A. K. Wells, Dr. L. J. Wills. ' 

SECTIONS C, D, E, K.— GEOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, BOTANY. 
To organise an expedition to investigate the Biology, Geology, and Geography of the 
Australian Great Barrier Reef.— Rt. Hon. Sir M. Nathan (Chairman), Prof J 
Stanley Gardiner and Mr. F. A. Potts (Secretaries), Sir Edgeworth David Prof 
W. T. Gordon, Prof. A. C. Seward, and Dr. Herbert H. Thomas (from Section C) '■ 
Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. E. J. Allen, Prof. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. G. P. Bidder' 
Dr. W. T. Caiman, Sir Sidney Harmer, Dr. C. M. Yonge (from Section D) ; Dr! 
R. N. Rudmose Brown, Sir G. Lenox Conyngham, Mr. F. Debenham, Admiral 
Douglas, Mr. A. R. Hinks (from Section E) ; Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Dr Margery 
Knight, Prof. A. C. Seward (from Section K). 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 
To aid competent Investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples.— Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman) 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Secretary), Dr. G. P. Bidder, Prof. F. 0. Bower, Prof' 
Munro Fox, Sir W. B. Hardy, Sir Sidney Harmer, Prof. E. W. MacBride. £100 
(Caird Fund grant). 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication.— Prof. E. B. Poulton (Chairman), Dr F A- 
Bather (Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. T. Caiman, Sir P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, Mr. W. L. Sclater. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory, Plymouth.— Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
H. Graham Cannon, Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, Prof. S. J. Hickson. £50. 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, for 
the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record.— Sir Sidney Harmer 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman (Secretary), Prof. E. S. Goodrich, Prof D M S 
Watson. £50. 

On the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the Parents on the Sex-Ratio of the Ofispring. 
—Prof. J. H. Orton (Chairman), Mrs. Bisbee (Secretary), Prof. Carr-Saunders 
Miss E. C. Herdman. £10. 

Investigations on Pigment in the Insecta.— Prof. W. Garstang (Chairman), Prof. 

J. W. Heslop Harrison (Secretary), Prof. A. D. Peacock, Prof. E. B. Poulton. 
To consider the position of Animal Biology in the School Curriculum and matters 

relating thereto.— Prof. R. D. Laurie (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. H. W. 

Ballance, Dr. Kathleen E. Carpenter, Mr. O. H. Latter, Prof. E. W. MacBride 

Miss M. McNicol, Miss A. J. Prothero, Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 

A Preliminary Survey of Certain Tropical Lakes in Kenya in 1929.— Prof. J. Stanley 
Gardiner (Chairman), Miss P. M. Jenkin (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Caiman, Prof. J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. J. T. Saunders. 

SECTIONS D, I, K.— ZOOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BOTANY. 
Nomenclature of Cell Structures. — Prof. C. Lovatt Evans (Chairman), Prof. H. E. 
Roaf (Secretary) (for Section I), Dr. J. B. Gatenby, Mr. L. A. Harvey (for 
Section D), Dr. K. B. Blackburn, Dr. Margery Knight (for Section K). 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
To report further as to the method of construction and reproduction of a Population 
Map of the British Isles with a view to the census of 1931. — Mr. H. 0. Beckit 
(Chairman), Mr. A. G. Ogilvie (Vice-Chairman), Mr. J. Cossar (Secretary), Mr. J. 
Bartholomew, Mr. F. Debenham, Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. 
R. H. Kinvig, Prof. 0. H. T. Rishbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Mr. A. Stevens, Col. 
H. S. L. Winterbotham. £75. 



xxxii RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

To inquire into the present state of knowledge of the Human Geography of Tropical 
Africa, and to make recommendations for furtherance and development. — Prof. 
P. M. Roxby {Chairman), Mr. A. G. Ogilvie (Secretary), Prof. C. B. Fawcett, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. J. McFarlane, Mr. R. U. Sayce, Col. H. S. L. Winter- 
botham. £50. 

SECTIONS E, L.— GEOGRAPHY, EDUCATION. 

To report on the present position of Geographical Teaching in Schools and of Geography 
in the training of teachers ; to formulate suggestions for a syllabus for the teaching 
of geography both to Matriculation Standard and in Advanced Courses and to 
report, as occasion arises, to Council through the Organising Committee of 
Section E upon the practical working of Regulations issued by the Board of 
Education (including Scotland) affecting the position of Geography in Schools 
and Training Colleges. — Prof. T. P. Nunn (Chairman), Mr. L. Brooks (Secretary), 
Mr. A. B. Archer, Mr. C. C. Carter. Mr. J. Cossar, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. O. J. R. 
Howarth, Mr. H. E. M. Icely, Mr. J. McFarlane, Rt. Hon. Sir Halford J. 
Mackinder, Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. Marion Newbigin, Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Mr. A. 
Stevens (from Section E) ; Mr. C. E. Browne, Sir R. Gregory, Mr. E. R. Thomas, 
Miss 0. Wright (from Section L). - £5. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

To investigate certain aspects of Taxation in relation to the Distribution of Wealth. — 
Sir Josiah Stamp (Chairman), Mr. R. B. Forrester (Secretary), Prof. E. Cannan, 
Prof. H. Clay, Mr. W. H. Coates, Miss L. Grier, Prof. H. M. Hallsworth, Prof. 
D. H. Macgregor, Prof. J. G. Smith, Mr. J. Wedgwood, Sir A. Yarrow. £30. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

Earth Pressures. — Mr. F. E. Wentworth-Sheilds (Chairman), Dr. J. S. Owens 
(Secretary), Prof. A. Barr, Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. Fulton, 
Prof. F. C. Lea, Prof. R. V. Southwell, Dr. R. E. StradUng, Dr. W. N. Thomas, 
Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson. (Unexpended balance.) 

Electrical Terms and Definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson (Chairman), Prof. F. G. 
Baily and Prof. G.W.O. Howe (Secretaries), Prof.W. Cramp, Dr. W. H. Eccles, 
Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Dr. F. E. Smith, Prof. L. R. 
Wilberforce, with Dr. A. Russell and Mr. C. C. Wharton. 

Stresses in overstrained materials. — Sir Henrv Fowler (Chairman), Mr. J. G. Dochertv 
(Secretary), Prof. G. Cook, Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. Wilson. £5. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chair- 
man), Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, 
Prof. T. H. Brvce, Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Mr. 0. G. S. 
Crawford, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt. 

To conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr, 
O. G. S. Crawford, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir Arthur Evans, Prof. J. L. Myres. 

To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), Mr. S. 
Casson (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. M. Thompson. £50. 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments. — Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt (Chairman). Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary). Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. C. Fox, Mr. G. Marshall, Prof. J. L. 
Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Rev. Canon Quine. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthro- 
pological Interest. — Mr. E. Torday (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. L. J. P. Gaskin, Mr. E. Heawood, Prof. 
J. L. Myres. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. xxxiii 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of Copper used by the Sumerians.— 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. G. A. Garfitt {Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. H. Desch, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Prof. S. Langdon, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir Flinders Petrie, Mr. C. Leonard 
Woolley. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Prof. J. L. Myres 
[Chairinan), Mr. L. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. 
Evans. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. £50. 

The Investigation of a hill fort site at Llanmelin, near Caerwent. — Dr. Willoughby 
Gardner (Chairman), Dr. Cyril Fox (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Prof. H. J. Rose, Dr. R. Mortimer Wheeler. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. — 
Sir A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Dt. 
R. V. FaveU, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Prof. W. J. SoUas. 

To conduct Anthropological investigations in some Oxfordshire villages. — Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake (Chairman), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. F. G. Parsons. 

To report on the present state of knowledge of the relation of early Palaeolithic 
Implements to Glacial Deposits. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour. Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. M. C. Burkitt. 
Prof. J. E. Marr. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the explora- 
tion of Caves in the Derbyshire district. — Mr. M. G.B\xrkitt (Chairman), Mr. G.A. 
Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize, Dr. R. V. Favell, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Dr. L. S. Palmer, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Mr. H. J. E . 
Peake. £50. 

To investigate processes of Growth in Children, with a view to discovering Differences 
due to Race and Sex, and further to study Racial Differences in Women.— Sir 
A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. H. J. Fleure (Secretary), Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, 
Dr. A. Low, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To report on proposals for an Anthropological and Archaeological Bibliography, with 
power to co-operate with other bodies. — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. O. G. S. Cravrford, Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Dr. D. Randall-Maclver, Mr. T. Sheppard. 

To report on the progress of Anthropological Teaching in the present century. — 
Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To conduct explorations on Early Neolithic Sites in Holderness. — Mr. H. J.E. Peake 
(Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. 
Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. H. Ormerod, Dr. L. S. 
Palmer. 

To investigate the antiquity and cultural relations of the Ancient Copper Workings 
in the Katanga and Northern Rhodesia. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. E.N. 
Fallaize and Mr. G. A. Wainwright (Secretaries), Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, 
Dr. D. Randall-Maclver, Dr. P. A. Wagner. 

To arrange for the publication of a new edition of ' Notes and Queries on Anthro- 
pology.' — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. E. N. Fallaize (Secretary), Mrs. 
Robert Aitken, Mr. H. Balfour, Capt. T. A. Joyce, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mrs. Seligman, 
Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To consider the lines of Investigation which might be undertaken in Archaeological aiid 
Anthropological Research in South Africa prior to and in view of the meeting of 
the Association in that Dominion in 1929. — Sir H. Miers (Chairman), Dr. D. 
Randall-Maclver (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Prof. J. L. Myres. 

To co-operate with Dr. Klercker's archaeological laboratory in Scania in research. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Prof. J. L. MjTes, Mr. E. K. Tratman. 

1929 C 



xxxiv RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The Investigation of the Medullary Centres. — Prof. C. Lovatt Evans {Chairman), 
Dr. J. M. Duncan Scott (Secretary), Dr. H. H. Dale. 

Colour Vision, with particular reference to the classification of Colour-blindness. — 
Sir C. Sherrington (Chairman), Prof. H. E. Roaf (Secretary), Prof. E. N. da C. 
Andrade, Dr. Mary Collins, Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, Prof. H. Hartridge. 

Ductless Glands, with particular reference to the effect of autacoid activities on 
vasomotor reflexes. — Prof. J. MeUanby (Chairman), Prof. B. A. McSwiney 
(Secretary), Prof. Swale Vincent. £30. 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY, 

Vocational Tests. — Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Mr.F. M.Earle, Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof.C. Spearman. 
£50. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

The effect of Ultra-violet Light on Plants. — ^Prof. W. Neilson Jones (Chairman), Dr. 
E. M. Delf (Secretary). 

The Chemical Analysis of Upland Bog Waters. — Prof. J. H.Priestley (GAoirman), Mr. 
A. Malins Smith (Secretary), Dr. B. M. Griffiths, Dr. E. K. Rideal. (Unexpended 
balance.; 

Transplant Experiments. — Dr. A. W. Hill (Chairman), Mr. W. B. Turrill (Secretary), 
Prof. F. W. Oliver, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. A. G. Tansley. 

Bi'eeding Experiments as part of an intensive study of certain species of the British 
Flora. — Sir Daniel Hall (Clmirman), Mr. E. Marsden Jones (Secretary), Dr. K. B. 
Blackburn, Prof. R. R. Gates, Mr. W. B. Turrill, Mr. A. J. Wilmott. £32 2s. 6d. 
(unexpended balance), . 

The Ecology of Selected Tributaries of the River Trent, with a view to determining 
the effect of progressive pollution. — Prof. F. E. Fritsch (Chairman), Prof. H. S. 
Holden (Secretary), Miss D. Bexon, Mr. H. Lister. £3 16s. 8d. (unexpended 
balance). 

The Flora of Northern Rhodesia. — Prof. D. Thoday (Chairman), Dr. J. Burtt Davy 
(Secretary), Prof. R. S. Adamson, Prof. J. W. Bews. £25. 

To consider the organisation of a body to further the protection of British Wild 
Plants.— Dr. A. W. Hill (Chairman), Dr. H. H. Thomas (Secretary), Dr. G. Claridge 
Druce, Prof. J. W. Heslop Harrison, Mr. H. A. Hyde, Prof. F. W. Oliver, Sir D. 
Prain, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Mr. C. E. Salmon, Mr. A. J. Wilmott, Dr. T. W. 
Woodhead. 

To consider and report on the provision made for Instruction in Botany in courses of 
Biology, and matters related thereto. — Prof. V. H. Blackman (Chairman), Dr. 
E. N. M. Thomas (Secretary), Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Prof. S. Mangham, Mr. J. Sager. 

Mycorrhiza in relation to Forestry. — Mr. F. T. Brooks (Chairman), Dr. M. C. Rayner 
(Secretary), Dr. H. M. Steven. £50. 

Fossil Plants at Fort Gray, near East London. — ^Dr. A. W. Rogers (Chairman), Prof. 
R. S. Adamson (Secretary), Prof. A. C. Seward. £25. 

The Morphology and Systematics of certain South African Liverworts and Ferns. — 
Prof. R. S. Adamson (Chairman), Prof. H. S. Holden (Secretary), Prof. R. H. 
Compton, Mrs. M. R. Levyns, Prof. C. E. Moss, Mr. N. S. PiUans. £12. 

South African Desert Plants. — Dr. I. B. Pole-Evans (Chairman), Prof. C. E. Moss 
(Secretary), Prof. R. S. Adamson. £60. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To consider the Educational Training of Boys and Girls in Secondary Schools for over- 
seas life. — Sir J. RuEsell (Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne (Secretary), Major A. G. 
Church, Mr. H. W. Cousins, Dr. J. Vargas Eyre, Sir R. A. Gregory, Mr. 0. 
H. Latter, Miss E. H. McLean, Miss Rita Oldham, Mi-. G. W. Olive, Miss Gladys 
Pott, Mr. A. A. Somerville, Dr. G. K. Sutherland, Mrs. Gordon Wilson. £10. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXXV 

The bearing on School Work of recent views on formal training. — Dr. C.W. Kimmins 
(Chairman), Mr. H. E. M. Icely (Secretary), Prof. R. L. Archer, Prof. Cyril Burt, 
Prof. F. A. Cavenagh, Miss E. R. Conway, Sir Richard Gregory, Prof. T. P. 
Nunn, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof. G, Thomson, Prof. C. W. Valentine. £10- 

The teaching of General Science in Schools, with special reference to the teaching of 
Biology.— Prof. T. P. Nuim (Chairman), Mr. G. W. OUve (Secretary), Mr. C. E. 
Broome, Dr. LiUan J. Clarke, Mr. G. D. Dunkerley, Mr. S. R. Humby, Dr. E. W. 
Sliann, Mr. E. R. Thomas, Mrs. Gordon Wilson, Miss von Wyss. £10. 

Educational and Documentary Films : To enquire into the production and distribu- 
tion thereof, to consider the use and effects of films on pupils of school age and 
older students, and to co-operate with other bodies which are studying those 
problems. — Sir Richard Gregory (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Holland (Secretary), 
Mr. L. Brooks, Miss E. R. Conway, Mr. G. D. Dunkerley, Dr. B. A. Keen, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. G. W. Olive, Dr, Spearman, Dr. H. 
Hamshaw Thomas. £50. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard ( Vice-Chairman), Dr. C. Tierney (Secretary), the General 
Secretaries, the General Treasurer, Mr. C. O. Bartrum, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir 
Richard Gregory. Sir David Prain, Sir John Russell, Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 



\ 



c'2 



xxxvi NARRATIVE OF 

NARRATIVE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN 

MEETING. 

The invitation to the British Association to hold a meeting in South 
Africa was given by the South African Association for the Advancement 
of Science, with the full support of the Government of the Union of South 
Africa. On July 8, 1926, a deputation from the South African Association 
interviewed the Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa, General the 
Hon. J. B. M. Hertzog. As the result of this interview the following 
cablegram was despatched to the British Association : ' Please convey to 
His Royal Highness [The Prince of Wales], President of British Associa- 
tion, cordial invitation to British Association from President and Council 
of South African Association to visit South Africa in 1929.' 

On September 3, 1927, a cable was despatched from the Leeds Meeting 
of the British Association as follows : ' General Committee British 
Association unanimously and gratefully accepts invitation South Africa, 
1929.' 

The Union Government allocated to the South African Association a 
grant of £10,000, of which £6,000 was transmitted to the British Associa- 
tion for distribution in the form of grants, in aid of travelling expenses, to 
members selected by a committee of the Council, mainly on the nomination 
of the sectional committees. A sum of about £1,300 was allocated by 
the South African Association toward the travelling expenses of the Presi- 
dent of the British Association and certain selected guests, British and 
foreign. A sum of £10,000 was collected in Great Britain as detailed in 
the Report of the Council preceding this narrative (p. xvi), and was 
devoted to further grants in aid of travelling expenses, and to assist in 
covering the extraordinary expenses necessarily falling upon the funds of 
the British Association in connection with a meeting overseas. The 
Rhodes Trustees generously contributed £250 toward the expenses of 
certain university students selected by the Committee of Council to attend 
the meeting. In the Report of the Council referred to above, and in that 
for the preceding year {Report of the British Association, Glasgow Meeting, 
p. xlii), further particulars relating to the preliminary organisation will 
be found. 

The number of visiting members from overseas was 535. They 
travelled for the most part in three ships, the Union Castle Mail SS. Co.'s 
Llandovery Castle, the Blue Funnel SS. Nestor, and the Union Castle R.M.S. 
Windsor Castle, which arrived at Cape Town respectively on July 18, 19, 
and 22. The Inaugural General Meeting in Cape Town was held in the 
City Hall on Monday, July 22, at 4.30 p.m., and was attended by H.E. the 
Governor-General (the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Athlone) and H.R.H. Princess 
Alice, the Hon. the Prime Minister, the Minister for Education (Dr. 
D. F. Malan), Lt.-Gen. the Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, and H.M. the Sultan of 
Zanzibar. Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., F.R.S., was 
inducted into the presidency of the British Association and the chair of 
the meeting by the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, O.M., K.C.B., F.R.S., in 
the unavoidable absence of the retiring president. Sir William Bragg, 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. xxxvii 

K.B.E., F.R.S., from whom a message was read. On taking the chair 
Sir Thomas Holland read the following message from H.R.H. The Prince 
of Wales, K.G., F.R.S., ex-president : — 

I am glad to recall that invitation to British Association to meet in 
South Africa was addressed to me during my presidency. Please express 
to all members my sincere good wishes and hopes for successful outcome 
of your deliberations. (Signed) EDWARD P. 

To this message the following reply was sent : — 

British Association assembled in inaugural session Cape Town gratefully 
acknowledges receipt of Your Royal Highness's message and shares the 
hope that scientific deliberations and experiences during visit will benefit 
permanently both members from overseas and friends in South Africa. 

(Signed) HOLLAND, President. 

Inasmuch as the meeting of the British Association in South Africa 
in 1929 coincided with the twenty-seventh meeting of the South African 
Association for the Advancement of Science, the inaugural address was 
delivered by Mr. Jan H. Hofmeyr, president of the South African Associa- 
tion, on ' Africa and Science ' (see page 1). The meeting of the South 
African Association was thereafter merged in that of the British Association. 

The transactions of the sections are summarised in later pages of this 
report. Sir Ernest Rutherford, O.M., F.R.S., delivered to members of 
the British and South African Associations an evening discourse on ' The 
Structure of the Atom ' in the Cape Technical College on Thursday, 
July 25. Numerous public lectures were provided, both at Cape Town 
and throughout the meeting. By the courtesy of the Broadcasting 
Company Prof. J. L. Myres, General Secretary, and Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, 
Secretary, had been enabled, shortly after their arrival (July 15), to inform 
the South African public as to the objects of the meeting and to summarise 
its course. Among the public lectures arranged in Cape Town were the 
following : — 

July 17 Prof. Douglas Johnson. The Face of the Waters. 

„ 18 Prof. J. L. MyceB. The Discovery of Iron. 

„ 19 Prof. F. E. Lloyd. Plants that Devour Animals ; and Wigglera 

and how they wiggle. 

„ 24 Prof. W. T. Gordon. Attractive Minerak.t 

„ 26 Prof. D'Arcy Thompson, Anatomy from an Engineer's point of view. 

C.B., F.R.S. 

„, 27 Mr. G. Fletcher. Harnessing the Sun's Energy.f 

f Especially for young people. 

A discussion on Science and Industry was initiated in Cape Town under 
the chairmanship of the President, and continued in Johannesburg ; the 
public being admitted. At Cape Town Dr. F. E. Smith, C.B.E., F.R.S., 
Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S., Prof. D'Arcy Thompson, C.B.,,F.R.S., 
and Sir Richard Gregory took part, and a vote of thanks to the speakers 
was proposed by Mr. J. H. Hofmeyr. 

Throughout South Africa members received most generous hospitality 
at the hands both of public authorities and of private individuals. Among 
the entertainments arranged for them at Cape Town special reference may 
be made to the reception by the Trustees and Director of the South African 
Museum (July 22), the ' at home ' given by the Vice-chancellor and 



xxxviii NARRATIVE OF 

Council of the University of Cape Town (July 23), the afternoon tea given 
by the Principal of the Diocesan College, Rondebosch (July 24), the civic 
reception and conversazione in the City Hall (July 24), the ' at home ' 
given by H.M. Astronomer, Dr. Spencer Jones, at the Royal Observatory 
(July 25), and the luncheon given by the Union Government at Groot 
Constantia (July 26). Numerous excursions, general and sectional, gave 
members opportunity to acquaint themselves with the scientific interests, 
scenic beauties, and industrial activities of the Cape Peninsula, In 
connection with the excursion to Stellenbosch (July 27) an ' at home ' 
and luncheon were given by the Vice-chancellor, Council and Senate of 
the University of Stellenbosch. 

Members left Cape Town in two special trains on July 28 and two on 
July 29. Each party spent the day after its departure from Cape Town 
at Kimberley, where they were guests of De Beers Consolidated Mines, 
Ltd. The diamond mines and other features of interest were inspected. 
Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S., lectured on ' Crystals and Atoms ' on July 29. 
Meanwhile, special arrangements had been carried out by certain 
sections. Some of the members interested in geology, anthropology, 
forestry and agriculture had left Cape Town earlier than the main party, 
in order to devote more time to points of special interest en route to 
Transvaal. Section C (Geology), after an early meeting in Johannesburg, 
proceeded to Pretoria for co-operation with the International Geological 
Congress. Section M (Agriculture) held no meetings in Johannesburg, 
but proceeded from Cape Town to Pretoria, some members visiting the 
agricultural college at Potchefstroom en route. At Pretoria the section 
co-operated with the Pan-African Agricultural and Veterinary Congress. 
A forecast of the meeting in Johannesburg was broadcast by the 
Secretary on July 29. 

The two divisions of the main party of visiting members arrived in 
Johannesburg in the mornings of Tuesday and Wednesday, July 30 and 31. 
On the Tuesday evening Dr. F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., F.R.S., delivered 
a public lecture on ' The New Airship R 101 ' in the City Hall. 

The Inaugural General Meeting in Johannesburg was held in the City 
Hall on July 31 at 8.30 p.m., when Sir Thomas Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., 
F.R.S., delivered his presidential address on ' The International Relation- 
ships of Minerals ' (see page 22). The discussion on ' Science and 
Industry ' referred to above was continued on August 2 imder the chair- 
manship of Dr. J. H. Hofmevr, when Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S., 
Prof. G. W. 0. Howe, Sir John Flett, K.B.E., F.R.S., and Prof. A. C. Seward, 
F.R.S., spoke, and a communication by the Hon. H. Mond, in his absence, 
was taken as read. Sir Thomas Holland brought the discussion to a 
conclusion. Miss Caton-Thompson gave a public lecture on ' Zimbabwe ' 
(August 3) and lectures to young people were given by Dr. H. Hamshaw 
Thomas 'on ' The Plants of Past Ages ' (August 1) and by Mr. E. R. Thomas 
on ' What is Matter ? ' Several public lectures were given in municipalities 
neighbouring to Johannesburg, and in Pretoria. Among many entertain- 
ments, the Senate and Council of the Witwatersrand University gave an 
' at home ' on August 1 and an evening reception was given by the Mayor 
and City Councillors on the same day. A native war dance was witnessed 
by the members on August 4. Among the arrangements for excursions. 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. xxxix 

special reference is due to the action of the Chamber of Mines, thanks to 
which members had the opportunity of viewing every stage of the Transvaal 
gold industry, from mining the ore at greatest depths to the recovery of 
the gold and the casting of ingots, and of acquainting themselves with 
the accompanying engineering and physiological problems and labour 
conditions, including the welfare of the native labourers. 

At the concluding general meeting in Johannesburg on Saturday, 
August 3, it was resolved : — 

' That the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
do thank the South African Nation.' 

The President, in introducing the above resolution, made the following 
statement : — 

' The visiting members of the Association feel that by no less compre- 
hensive phrase could they express adequately their gratitude to the 
South African Association for the Advancement of Science, at whose 
invitation they are here in joint session ; to the Government of the Union, 
without whose powerful aid that invitation could not have been given ; 
to all administrative departments, municipal authorities, educational, 
commercial and other institutions which have placed their manifold 
resources at the disposal of members ; to the many citizens of the Union 
who have afforded to the visitors such unstinted and thoughtful hospitality. 

' It is the earnest hope and belief of all who have participated in this 
memorable meeting that the bonds of mutual interest created in 1905 
may prove to have been extended and strengthened during the present 
year and may so continue, to the advancement of science which is the 
object of both the British and the South African Associations.' 

In addition to the President, Sir Robert Falconer and Prof. Gr. Hevesy 
spoke to the resolution, as representing respectively visiting members 
from the Dominions and foreign guests. Dr. J. H. Hofmeyr, President 
of the South African Association, and Prof. J. H. Wilkinson, Chairman of 
the Executive Committee in South Africa for the meeting, replied. 

Tours. 

Members' travels in South Africa were arranged by the Tourist and 
Travel Branch of the South African Railways Administration, which 
offered a series of tours after the meetings in Johannesburg and Pretoria. 
The majority of members, apart from those who travelled independently, 
joined one of the tours known as Nos. 1, 2, 8 and 9. All of these included 
visits to Victoria Falls and Bulawayo ; the first two included the more 
comprehensive routes through Union territory ; while the two last, 
terminating at the port of Beira, were more convenient for those members 
who desired to return home by the east coast of Africa, visiting the colony 
of Kenya en route. 

Tour 1. 

This tour left Johannesburg on August 5 and terminated at Durban 
on August 18. A day was spent at Pretoria, with visits to the Premier 
Diamond Mine, Government House, and the beautiful Union building. 
Two days were devoted to Victoria Falls and one to a call at Bulawayo, 
from which the granite hill-country of the Matoppos, in which is the grave 



Xl NARRATIVE OF 

of Cecil Rhodes, was visited. In the evening the Mayor of Bulawayo 
gave a reception, at which His Excellency the Governor was present, 
and Dr. A. G. Euston delivered a lecture on ' Success in Agriculture and 
what makes for it.' 

After a few hours spent in Johannesburg on the return journey from 

the north the party proceeded to the eastern Transvaal, and viewed the 

orange groves in the neighbourhood of Mataffin and White River, and 

also the tobacco-curing warehouse of the Barberton District Co-operative 

Company at Nelspruit. At White River the members were received by 

the White River Fruit-growers' Co-operative Association and the White 

River Valley Farmers' Association. An evening reception was given, and 

lectures were delivered by Dr. Winifred Brenchley on ' The Work of 

Plant Roots ' and by Prof. A. Findlay on ' Cellulose and its Uses.' At 

Komatipoort members were enabled to see hippopotami in the river, and 

during their passage through the Sabie Game Reserve (Kruger National 

Park) they were fortunate in seeing wild game of several kinds under 

natural conditions. A native dance was witnessed during the evening 

spent at Sabie Bridge. At Tzaneen members left the train in order to 

proceed by road to Magoebaskloof and Duivelskloof . Thereafter the train 

was rejoined, and the next halt was made at Pietersburg (Northern 

Transvaal) where, at a reception in the evening. Dr. C. Tierney lectured on 

' Nature's Secrets ' and Dr. B. A. Keen on ' Cultivation Implements from 

Tree Trunk to Tractor.' 

The party next travelled to Pietermaritzburg, Natal, where they were 
received by the Mayor and leading citizens on Sunday morning, August 18, 
and in the afternoon they proceeded to Durban. Prof. W. H. Eccles, 
F.R.S., returned subsequently to Pietermaritzburg to lecture on 
* Wireless.' 

At Durban a programme of lectures, entertainments and excursions 
was arranged. On August 15, before the arrival of the main party, Mr. 
R. B. Forrester had lectured on ' The Stabilisation of Agricultural Prices.' 
On Monday, August 19, the party was ofl&cially welcomed by the Mayor, 
the bay was viewed from a steamer provided by the South African Railways 
and Harbours Administration, and members lunched with the Mayor at 
the Country Club. Dr. Marion Newbigin lectured to young people on 
' The Mediterranean Lands,' Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S., lectured on 
' The Inside of a Star,' under the auspices of the Natal Astronomical 
Society and the Durban Library Group, and Prof. E. C. C. Baly, C.B.E., 
F.R.S., lectured on ' The Photosynthesis of Carbohydrates,' under the 
auspices of the South African Chemical Institute. On Tuesday, August 19, 
a number of excursions were enjoyed, a civic reception was given in the 
Pavilion, and Sir John Russell, F.R.S., lectured on ' The Conquest of the 
Virgin Lands.' On Wednesday, August 20, there were further excursions, 
and Prof. E. W. Marchant lectured on ' Michael Faraday and his Successors 
and the Electric Age,' under the auspices of the Natal Institute of Engineers. 
Prof. G. W. 0. Howe lectured later (August 26) under the same auspices, 
on ' The Recording and Reproduction of Speech and Music' 

The President, Sir Thomas Holland, was received by the Indian 
community during his stay in Durban. 

On and after Wednesday, August 21, when the first large contingent 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. xli 

left for England, the party broke up. The President presented to the 
Mayor a valedictory address in the following terms : — 

' To His Worship the Mayor, the Corporation, and Citizens of Durban. 

' Those members of the British Association who have enjoyed the 
hospitality of Durban could not leave Africa with last memories happier 
than those inspired by their visit here, though that has been all too short. 
Nor could the applications of science to industry and human welfare be 
better illustrated than in this new city of less than a century's development 
from its foundation to maturity as the third city of South Africa in popula- 
tion, and one of its principal seaports. The excursions kindly arranged 
by the local committee have shown the visitors something of the activities 
of the port, with its graving dock, its busy quays, oil sites and whaling 
station. By visiting the municipal native affairs institutions they have 
been enabled to learn of the sympathetic treatment of native problems, 
and among other places of interest they have seen the fine installation at 
the Congella power station. All these are in effect centres of applied 
science, and for the teaching of science Natal has in its technical college 
an institution worthy of all possible support, and destined, as members 
of the Association hope and believe, to great expansion. 

' The visiting members most warmly thank Durban for their generous 
reception, and wish continued and increasing prosperity for the city and 
the province of Natal.' 

The Secretary of the Association, at the request of the President, 
broadcast from Durban a speech of farewell to South Africa, which was 
relayed to Johannesburg. 

Tour 2. 

This tour, leaving Johannesburg on August 7, followed the same 
route and programme as Tour 1 as far as Victoria Falls, Bulawayo, and 
the return to Johannesburg. Prof. Sir T. Hudson Beare lectured at 
Bulawayo on welfare work in the mining industry. 

The tour proceeded to Matafiin and visited the orange groves and the 
Tomango factory of Messrs. Hall & Sons, and after a few hours at Nelspruit, 
spent two days at Barbertor. The party was welcomed by the Mayor, and a 
reception was held in the town hall. The party visited the co-operative 
cotton ginnery, and attended a reception in the evening. Lectures were 
given by Professor Eeynolds on ' Volcanoes ' and by Mr. G. L. Purser on 
' A Hen's Egg.' On the second day the cotton plant research laboratories 
were visited, after which the party divided, some members going to an 
amianthus mine, and others motoring up 2,500 feet into the Barberton 
Hills and, after a picnic luncheon, visiting a native encampment. A 
lecture was given in the evening by Mr. C. A. Yates on ' The Game 
Reserve,' with lantern slides from photographs he had taken of various 
wild animals at their watering place. 

After seeing the hippopotami at Komatipoort, the tour passed on into 
Portuguese East Africa and spent a night at Louren9o Marques, where, 
by courtesy of the city, members of the British Association were made 
free of the tramway, and taken for a trip by tugboat round the bay. The 



xlii NARRATIVE OF 

tour then turned west, and stayed for an evening in the Kruger National 
Park, witnessing a war dance by a camp fire, and, both from the train and 
on a walk with the forest ranger, seeing a variety of game. The tour was here, 
and as far as Pietersburg, again following a programme similar to that of 
Tour No. 1. 

On August 20 the tour reached Tzaneen, where the members visited 
farms in the morning, and in the afternoon were driven through the moun- 
tain scenery of Magoebaskloof . An entertainment was given for them in the 
evening. The tour then went north to Pietersburg, where the party was 
received by the Mayor, and cars were provided, some of which took 
members to different farms and others to the native school. In the evening 
lectures were given by Miss L. Grier on ' Education and Industry in 
England,' and by Dr. J. H. Arkwright on ' Variations in Bacteria.' 

The next day the party arrived at Bloemfontein, where lectures were 
given at the City Hall on ' The Individuality of the Canadian People ' by 
Sir R. Falconer, and on ' The Geography of some African Plants ' by Mr. 
R. d'O. Good. The Administrator of the Province and the Mayor were 
present. The following day members were driven round the town, and 
went over the new University buildings. 

The tour then proceeded to Port Elizabeth. Here, in the Snake Park, 
the visitors saw the attendant gather up handfuls of adders and other 
poisonous snakes and sling numbers of pythons round his shoulders. 

On August 25 the tour proceeded by the Garden Route to Cape Town. 
A day was spent at Oudtshoorn, where the party walked through the 
Cango Caves and saw their remarkable stalactite and stalagmite formation. 
Tea was given to the members on an ostrich farm, and a reception was 
held in the evening at which the guests were received by the Mayor and 
Mayoress. The next halt was at Knysna, where, after visiting the 
" Heads " sea-view, most of the members drove through a primeval 
forest still inhabited by a herd of elephants. The last day was spent at 
Mossel Bay, where a tug trip round Seal Island was arranged. After an 
impromptu entertainment in the evening, the party returned to the train 
and reached Cape Town on August 29. 

Tour 8. 

A party numbering 105 left Johannesburg on August 3 and proceeded 
via Bulawayo, Victoria Falls, Fort Victoria, Zimbabwe and Salisbury to 
Beira ; thence to Zanzibar, Mombasa and Nairobi, from which centre 
many minor tours were arranged. 

From Bulawayo a journey was made to the Matoppo Hills and the 
grave of Rhodes was visited. Two days were spent at the Victoria Falls 
and three days at Fort Victoria and Zimbabwe. From Fort Victoria visits 
were made to local farms, some asbestos and tungsten mines, the local 
reservoir and power station and other places of interest. At the 
Zimbabwe ruins Miss Caton-Thompson explained the nature of her 
discoveries. 

The members next proceeded to Salisbury, where they were received 
by representatives of the Governor, the Mayor and leading citizens. A 
local committee arranged a number of drives to tobacco and other farms, 
and in the afternoon the Governor invited members to tea at Government 
House. In the evening Sir Richard Gregory delivered a lecture on 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. xjiij 

' Science and Discovery,' which was followed by a banquet attended by 
the Governor and the Mayor. Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., Dr. C. S. 
Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S., and the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, O.M., K.C.B., 
F.R.S., spoke on the work of the Association. 

The next stopping place was Beira, where about eight hours were 
spent, the party embarking in the S.S. Khandalla on the afternoon of 
August 15. The sea voyage to Zanzibar was ideal, the sea being unusually 
calm and the sxmsets remarkably beautiful. Zanzibar was reached on 
August 20 at 7 a.m. ; the party proceeded ashore in Government launches 
and visited the Government Offices, the Museum, the bazaars and local 
markets. A drive of twenty miles through palm and clove plantations 
took the party to an old royal palace where the Sultan held a reception 
and gave an open-air lunch. In addition to the Sultan, the Resident and 
the Sultan's son were present. A second day was spent at Zanzibar, the 
bazaars being the principal centre of attraction. 

Mombasa was reached on Thursday, August 22, the party being received 
by the District Commissioner, the Mayor and a reception committee. A 
lunch was given by the European community at the Mombasa Club, and 
afterwards drives were arranged to places of antiquarian and agricultural 
interest. Seventeen members of the party stayed in Mombasa for three 
days and made a tour of the island. On the return journey Prof. F. C. 
Lea gave a lecture at Mombasa on ' Transport Problems in Kenya,' and 
Prof. W. E. Dixon, F.R.S., lectured on ' Race Degeneration.' 

Nairobi was reached on August 23, members being met by representa- 
tives of the Governor (Sir Edward Grigg), the Director of Agriculture 
(Mr. Holm), Captain Ward and other leading citizens. Throughout Kenya 
free transport was provided by the Government to all members of the 
Association, and in Nairobi either free hotel accommodation or private 
hospitality was provided for all. Ten members of the Association stayed 
at Government House. From Nairobi a number of minor tours were 
arranged, most of which were of several days' duration, and no member 
of the party could possibly partake in all of them. Local places of interest 
such as the Agricultural and Veterinary Research Laboratories, the 
Arboretum, the Rift Valley, the Kikuyu Native Reserve and many cofEee 
and sisal plantations were, however, visited by the majority of the party. 
In Nairobi lectures were given by Prof. E. Mellanby, F.R.S., on 
'Vitamins,' bv Dr. F. E. Smith, C.B., F.R.S., on 'The New Airship 
R. 101,' by Prof. G. H. F. Nuttall, F.R.S., on ' Diseases of Animals,' by 
Sir Richard Gregory on ' Science and Progress,' by Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S., 
on ' Sun and Stars,' by Prof. Lea on ' Transport Conditions in Kenya,' 
and by Prof. J. G. Priestley on ' Vegetative Propagation.' 

Thirty members made a four-days' tour to Nakuru, Kisumu and the 
Kavirondo Native Reserve. ElmenteitaVas' visited, and'the work of the 
East African Archaeological Expedition under Mr. L. S. B. Leakey was 
seen. At Nakuru, Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.B., F.R.S., gave a lecture on 
' Industrial Psychology applied to Agriculture,' and Prof. H. J. Fleure 
lectured on ' Prehistoric Man in Africa.' Mr. G. Fletcher also gave an 
address. 

Fifteen members spent three days visiting Eldoret and Kitale, passing 
over the Nasin Gishu Plateau, where maize, sisal and coffee are extensively 



xliv NARRATIVE OF 

grown. At Eldoret Prof. W. G. Ogg gave a lecture on ' Soils.' A third 
party numbering about thirty made a three-days' tour in a fleet of cars 
to Nyeri and Nanyuki. The slopes of Mount Kenya were of great interest 
to the botanists, as the district has a plentiful supply of camphor, yellow 
wood and bamboo trees. Mr. Home, the District Commissioner, con- 
ducted ten members through sixty miles of the Native Eeserve, and the 
Nyeri Reception Committee gave a dinner to the whole party at the 
Outspan Hotel. At the Rhino Hotel Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., gave a 
lecture on ' Preservation of Natural Flora,' and a lecture on ' Transport ' 
was given by Prof. F. C. Lea. 

A fourth party paid a three-days' visit to Navaisha, Elmenteita and 
Nakuru, and twelve members visited Lake Magadi, passing through the 
Masai Reserve and Game Reserve to the great Soda Lake. 

On August 29 a banquet was given at Nairobi by Councillor Chas. 
Udall (the Mayor) and the Municipal Council to all the members visiting 
Kenya. Lieut.-Colonel Sir Edward Grigg, the Governor, was present. 
Addresses of welcome were given by the Governor and the Mayor, and the 
thanks of the Association for the magnificent reception of its members 
were expressed by the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, O.M., K.C.B., F.R.S., 
Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., and Miss B. R. Saunders. The following 
farewell message was printed in the East African Standard on August 31 : — ■ 

' On the eve of our departure from Nairobi, we members of the first 
party of the British Association desire to express our grateful appreciation 
of the generous hospitality which has been afforded to us on all sides 
during our visit to Kenya Colony. 

' It is not too much to say that in the hearts of every one of us is a 
feeling of regret that we have not been able to remain here for more than 
a few days. All the members of all the local tours are enthusiastic as to 
the wonders they have seen, both natural and as the result of man's 
enterprise and industry. We all feel here, more than in any other territory 
which we have visited since leaving Cape Town, that we are in a character- 
istically British Colony. If there be any other place in the British Empire 
which reminds us of home and our own particular social life more than 
Kenya Colony then to all of us it remains unknown. 

' We have been profoundly impressed by the possibilities of immense 
development afiorded by the natural features, climate and soil of the 
Colony, and it is our fervent hope that the British community which has 
established itself so successfully here will preserve the same type in future 
years so that Kenya Colony may be a pattern of what life overseas has to 
ofEer to the many settlers who will assuredly be attracted to it in increasing 
numbers.' 

The party left Nairobi on August 30 and Mombasa on August 31, and 
proceeded homewards via the Red Sea. A flying visit to Cairo was made 
by thirty members. 

Tour 9. 

This tour left Johannesburg on August 9, and followed the same route 
as Tour 8. 

At Fort Victoria the party divided into two groups, one going direct 
to Zimbabwe, whilst the other remained in Fort Victoria and vice versa, 
two days being spent at each place. 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING. xlv 

At Fort Victoria motors enabled the visitors to reach various farms 
and mines, where they were hospitably received. Two evening lectures 
were given at Fort Victoria, one by Prof. A. F. Barker on ' Some Problems 
relating to Wool,' and one by Mr. J. A. Venn on ' The Economics of 
Farming.' 

One night was spent at Salisbury, where Sir Robert Greig gave a 
lecture on ' Some Agricultural Contrasts." After the lecture the members 
were guests of the municipality and of the Rhodesia Scientific Association 
at a reception supper at the Grand Hotel. 

The train left for Beira next morning, and at the request of the people 
of Umtali was accelerated so as to enable the party to have a short space 
of daylight at that place. Many cars met the train at Umtali and took 
the visitors to the top of Christmas Pass and round the town before 
darkness set in. Then the party was received at the public hall by the 
Mayor and the local scientific society. 

The S.S. Matiana carried the party from Beira to Mombasa, calling 
en route at Dar-es-Salaam, Zanzibar and Tanga. 

Only a few hours were spent at Zanzibar, where the visitors were taken 
ashore by the Sultan's launches. Various British residents showed them 
the town and drove them out into the country to see the coconut and clove 
plantations, and then entertained them to dinner at their houses. 

Mombasa was reached on August 9, and about thirty members of the 
party broke their journey there and remained in Kenya Colony for over 
a fortnight as its guests. The remaining members of Tour 9 — including a 
few who had left the boat at Tanga and travelled by rail round the foot of 
Kilimanjaro to Voi in Kenya Colony^ — made a hurried trip to Nairobi. 
They then rejoined the Matiana, in which they returned to England 
together with the members of Tour 8. 

The thirty members of Tour 9 who stayed in Kenya Colony were 
welcomed and treated most hospitably by both official and private residents, 
and were given unrivalled facilities for seeing as much as possible in the 
time at their disposal. On September 3 Dr. Ethel N. Miles Thomas gave 
a lecture in Nairobi on ' Some Problems of Inheritance,' Sir Daniel Hall 
and Mr. W. G. Ogg on the afternoon of September 10 lectured on ' Soil 
Problems ' at Nairobi, while Prof. H. Bassett lectured on ' Recent Chemical 
Discovery and its Bearing on Industry ' at Nairobi on September 11, 
and at Mombasa on September 14. The evening before leaving Nairobi 
(September 12) the party was entertained to a banquet given at the new 
Stanley Hotel by the Mayor and Municipal Council. Sir Daniel Hall was 
left behind in Nairobi to act as chairman of a commission on Agriculture. 
The main party returned to England on S.S. Durham Cadle. 



It will have been observed that during the tours described above 
many members delivered lectures to local audiences. Such lectures, 
given in response to requests from many towns and institutions, proved 
a special feature of the visit to South Africa ; for, in addition to those 
mentioned, others were given in response to invitations received not only 
by the Association but by individual members, and not only in Cape 
Town and Johannesburg, but in a number of important centres 
additional to those named in preceding paragraphs. 



10 FEB 30 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF 

SCIENCE. 

SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE. 



AFRICA AND SCIENCE. 

ADDRESS BY 

JAN H. HOFMEYR, M.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION, 
ON THE OCCASION OP THE Inattgubal Meeting IN Cape Town, July 22, 1929. 



To-NiGHT I enter upon the consummation of what is at once the highest 
and the least merited distinction which it has been my privilege to receive. 
To those who called me to the office of President of the South African 
Association for the Advancement of Science I tender my sincere thanks. 
I make myself no illusions in respect of the adequacy of my claims to 
that honour on the ground either of scientific attainment or of services 
rendered to the cause of Science, nor would I have our visitors remain for 
a moment without the knowledge that my scientific qualifications for this 
Presidential Chair are of the slightest. They are far less indeed than 
those of that distinguished statesman to whom when he had remarked 
to the great Faraday in relation to an important new discovery in Science, 
' But after all, what is the use of it ? ' the scientist replied, ' Why, Sir, 
there is every probability that you will soon be able to tax it.' The 
Presidency of this Association is an honour the conferment of which upon 
myself has never seemed to fall properly within the scope of my ambitions ; 
it imposes responsibilities for the discharge of which I am all too scantily 
eqmpped ; and I can only seek to justify my election in a manner similar 
to that which Mr. Stanley Baldwin followed when he was chosen to be 
President of the Classical Association in England. I can but say that, 
while it is to the scientist that we look for the advancement and the 
progress of Science, the effectiveness with which his work is brought to 
frmtion does depend in some measure on the interest, the sympathy, and 
the enthusiasm, with which his achievements are followed up by that 
army of plain, ordinary men, in which I gladly count myself a musket 
1929 B 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

bearer. In no other capacity dare I venture to address you. It was 
once said by a literary man of some distinction that the man of science 
appears to be the only man in the world who has something to say, and 
he is the only man who does not know how to say it. There is an obvious 
rejoinder, that the man of letters frequently has nothing to say, but says 
it at great length. I dare not claim to be a man of science. I can only 
hope that I shall not be deemed to-night to have qualified for consideration 
as a man of letters in the sense of that retort. 

The honour which has been conferred upon me is the greater because 
of the special significance which attaches to my year of office. It is the 
year of the keenly anticipated second visit of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science to South Africa, and for that reason my 
first words to-night are, happily, words of welcome. Not merely the 
Association for which I speak, but all South Africa, rejoices in the presence 
of the British Association and its distinguished members. To its parent 
body, which can look back upon all but a century of glorious achievement, 
this stripling Association brings its tribute of respectful admiration and 
goodwill. To the great organisation of scientific men, the history of 
which is the history of the advancement of Science in Britain, which has 
a Presidential Roll adorned by names such as Brewster and Tyndall, 
Huxley and Kelvin, Rayleigh and Lister, this land of ours, mindful of 
its debt to Science, conscious of the gifts that Science can yet bring to it, 
extends the hand of friendship, in gratitude for the honour of this visit, 
and in appreciation of the stimulus to its progress and development 
which must needs attend it. 

We have reason, indeed, to be grateful to the British Association for 
its achievement and its significance. If I might select three distinctive 
features in its record, they would be these. First, its contribution, direct 
and indirect, to those great triumphs of British Science in the nineteenth 
century which are the possession not of an age, nor of a nation, but of all 
time and of every land. Directly it has initiated, correlated, and contri- 
buted towards work of great scientific value ; indirectly it has inspired 
much constructive activity, while its meetings year after year have done 
more than any other single factor to stimulate and hasten the onward 
march of science. 

Next I would dwell on its maintenance of a broad view of the scope 
and function of Science, and, coupled with that, the emphasis laid by it 
on the essential homogeneity of Science conceived thus broadly, and the 
interdependence of its several branches. The Association had no lack 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 3 

of opposition to encounter at its coming to birth. Those who interpreted 
Science primarily in the mediaeval sense as being limited to the sciences 
of introspection had still but scant respect for the claims of the sciences 
of observation. When in the second year of its existence the Association 
visited Oxford, Keble protested vigorously against the University's 
reception of what he called a hodge-podge of philosophers. This hodge- 
podge, be it noted, included Brewster and Dalton and Faraday. But 
the Association did not react into narrowness. It remained true to the 
broad conception of Scientia which was held by its founders, one of whom 
affirmed in striking language at the first meeting, that ' The chief inter- 
preters of nature have always been those who have grasped the widest 
fields of inquiry, who have listened with the most universal curiosity to 
all information, and felt an interest in every question which the one 
great system of nature represents.' The Association has imposed no 
narrow restrictions on the extension of the sphere of its activity ; within 
that ever-widening sphere it has maintained a spirit of co-operation 
between workers in diverse fields which has been worthy of the best 
traditions of Francis Bacon. It has had its reward — in greater efiective- 
ness of work in its own sphere, and in the permeation of the Kingdom of 
Learning with the atmosphere of goodwill. By way of illustration of 
this last point, may I, as one whose first allegiance is to the Classics, 
mention the fact that the roll of twenty-six Presidents of the Classical 
Association of England includes five Fellows of the Royal Society, names 
such as Geikie, Osier, and D'Arcy Thomson, and if it is not too pre- 
sumptuously personal to refer to it, I would add, that when the South 
African Association elected me as its President, it chose one who was 
then President of the Classical Association of South Africa. 

Lastly, I would select as characteristic of the British Association its 
success in maintaining the contacts of Science with the public on the one 
hand and the state on the other. One of the aims which its founders set 
forth was ' to obtain more general attention for the objects of Science ' ; 
they sought to create a body which would make its appeal to the educated 
public as a whole, to fashion an instrument for the interpretation of the 
sometimes highly technical results of scientific investigation to the man in 
the street. They realised that the scientist received much from the 
public, that to the public he must freely give, and that the giving would 
not be without its due reward of new inspiration and renewed enthusiasms. 
There were some who opposed the nascent Association in the fear that 
Science might degrade itself by making too popular an appeal. That 

b2 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

fear has been belied in tbe passing of tte years. The Association has 
kept touch with the public, it has ' demonstrated to all men that Science 
is thinking with them and for them,' it has secured their interest and 
their sympathy, but it has never paid for that achievement the price of 
a lowering of its aims or of its standards. It is its success in this respect 
that has secured for it the prestige which has enabled it time and again 
to stand forth as the ambassador of Science to the state, and so to play 
an important part in initiating and furthering enterprises of great national 
and scientific significance. 

For these reasons and for much else South Africa is proud and happy 
to be able to welcome and do honour to the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science. We welcome it the more heartily because of 
our consciousness of the greatness of our indebtedness to the first visit 
of the Association twenty-four years ago. To that visit, with which there 
will always be linked a name honoured in the history of South Africa, as 
it is in the annals of Science — I refer to Sir David Gill — this country 
still looks back with grateful recollection. It marked the commencement 
of an epoch in our scientific history, the epoch of the consolidation of the 
position of Science in South Africa. 

Let us view the position of Science in our country as it was in 1905. 
On the academic side it is the nakedness of the land that chiefly impresses 
us. South Africa then had but one University, and it was in reality only 
a Board of Examiners for the candidates presented by various Colleges, 
which were all, without exception, inadequately staffed and poorly 
equipped. In the subjects which fell within the scope of the Association, 
as it was defined in 1905, there were in all the Colleges taken together in 
that year only forty-nine workers, thirty-three professors, and sixteen 
others. When it is remembered that this was the total number of 
teachers of all branches of Science spread over seven different institutions, 
all purporting to do University work, it is painfully obvious how little 
time was available for scientific research and investigation. Nor was 
the work done, measured in terms of the number of graduates, very 
impressive. The number of those who in 1905 qualified for degrees in 
Pure and Applied Science was only twenty-seven. Outside of the Colleges 
scientific workers were to be found mainly in Government Departments, 
then still small and inadequately staffed, and working in isolation in the 
four South African Colonies. In most branches the State's scientific 
activities were still in their earliest infancy. The organisation was only 
just commencing to be built up. As part of these activities there fall 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 5 

to be mentioned the two astronomical Observatories at that time in 
operation : the Royal Observatory at Cape Town, then already full of 
years and of honour, and the Johannesburg Observatory which, thanks 
largely to the representations made by this Association of ours, had been 
established a few months before the 1905 meeting. In regard to Scientific 
Societies there is but little to record. There were in existence in 1905 a 
small South African Philosophical Society (now known as the Royal 
Society of South Africa), the Geological Society of South Africa, the Cape 
Society of Engineers, the Chemical Metallurgical and Mining Society, and 
also this Association for the Advancement of Science, which had come 
into existence a bare three years previously. It was, indeed, the day of 
small things, and small also was the achievement which Science in South 
Africa at that date had to its credit. If one leaves out of account the 
work of Sir David Gill and the scientific endeavour which had been put 
into the development of the gold mining industry of the Witwatersrand, 
there is little indeed of permanent significance that remains. 

Against this picture it is appropriate to set the picture of South 
African Science as it will unfold itself to our visitors to-day. They will 
find three vigorous single-College teaching Universities, which have in 
recent years made remarkable progress in the attainment of the standards 
of similar institutions in older lands, and also a federal University with 
six constituent Colleges, which, like the single-College Universities are, 
in human and material equipment and in the output of the results of 
scientific investigation, very far ahead of their predecessors of 1905. 
Against the forty- nine workers of 1905 we can now set 467 — 144 professors 
and 323 others — within the range at present covered by the activities of 
this Association. The twenty-seven graduates of 1905 have increased to 314 
in 1928. To the Scientific Societies of 1905 there have been added, since 
the last visit of the British Association, the South African Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, the South African Institution of Engineers, the 
Cape Chemical Society, the South African Chemical Institute, the Botan- 
ical Society of South Africa, the South African Biological Society, the 
Astronomical Society of South Africa, the South African Geographical 
Society, and the South African Economic Society, and this Association 
of ours has become an active, vigorous, and powerful body, proud of the 
achievements which it already has to its credit, challenging eagerly the 
tasks that await it in the future. The two Observatories of 1905, our 
visitors will find, have increased to six, including the Smithsonian Solar 
Observatory in South- West Africa, and the equipment of these institutions 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

includes four great telescopes, with objectives of 27 inches, 26i inches, 
26 inches, and 24 inches respectively, to which will shortly be added a 
24-inch refractor and a 60-inch reflecting telescope — surely a remarkable 
astronomical equipment for so young a country. The stimulus of the 
1905 visit, in which so many prominent European astronomers partici- 
pated, has indeed borne rich fruit in the advancement of astronomical 
work in South Africa. 

But perhaps our visitors will be impressed not least by the development 
and consohdation of the scientific departments of our Civil Service, by 
the magnificent Institute of Veterinary Research which the state has 
created at Onderstepoort and the effective work which through its 
scientific officers it is doing for the development of South Africa, and 
by the remarkably efficient and well-equipped Institute for Medical 
Research at Johannesburg, the credit of the establishment and main- 
tenance of which falls jointly to the Government and the Mining 
Industry. Significant also of the attitude of the state to Science, and 
full of promise for the future, has been the establishment of a Research 
Grant Board, which advises the Government on the practical measures 
necessary for the encouragement of scientific research in the Union, and 
acts as its agent in the distribution of grants in aid of individual 
investigations. 

Nor have we reason to be ashamed of the positive achievements of 
Science in South Africa during the past quarter of a century. Most 
impressive, perhaps, regarded cumulatively, have been the advances made 
in our knowledge of the diseases of plants, animals, and men, and of the 
methods of preventing them. In 1905 we knew practically nothing of 
the plant diseases of South Africa. In that year the first steps were 
taken towards their scientific investigation. To-day a general survey 
has been completed, most of the important diseases have been worked 
out, and a highly efficient service for combating them is in operation. 
In 1905 also the Transvaal Crown Colony Government voted £1,500 as a 
first instalment towards the establishment of a laboratory for the investi- 
gation of stock diseases. From that has sprung the magnificent body 
of work in veterinary science, which has won world-wide recognition for 
the Onderstepoort Institution which I mentioned a moment ago. More 
recently there has been founded the South African Institute for Medical 
Research, to which is allied the Miners Phthisis Medical Bureau. The 
researches conducted there in the control of pneumonic infection, and 
the advances made in industrial hygiene in the fight against silicosis, have 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 7 

brought great lustre to these two institutions and to South Africa. But 
in other fields also South African scientific workers have won recognition. 
In Geology, Marine Biology, the Mathematical Theory of Determinants, 
the Economics of Gold Production, and along several other lines of 
investigation, important scientific work has been done in South Africa ; 
a succession of discoveries has been made throwing light on the origins 
of the human race ; and applied science has by means of the conquest 
of distance in this far-flung land of ours, and of the construction of 
important irrigation and other engineering works, contributed generously 
to South Africa's progress. It may, perhaps, be taken as a measure of 
the achievement of Science in South Africa in one of its aspects that, 
while in 1906 the value of products of the land exported from South 
Africa amounted to £5,928,000, the corresponding figure for 1927 was 
£27,815,000. 

But if I were asked to select the most broadly significant feature in the 
development of Science in South Africa since 1905, 1 think I would pick 
out what one might describe as its South Africanisation. In 1905 Science 
in South Africa was in large measure exotic. The workers had come almost 
exclusively from other lands. They were only beginning to apply them- 
selves to our South African problems. In many cases they had not yet 
acquired a South African background, nor a South African outlook. In 
the years that have passed South Africa has claimed those workers for 
her own, and they have given themselves to her service. They to whom 
this is the land of their adoption, no less than those to whom it is the 
land of their birth, and whom they have taught and inspired, have made 
it the land of their vigorous and devoted service. _ In its personnel Science 
in South Africa has become essentially South African. And Science has 
given itself with enthusiasm to the problems of South Africa. It has 
emphasised the specific contributions of South Africa to the wider problems 
of Science, it has applied itself to the removal of those obstacles which 
hamper the material development of South Africa, it has taken up vigor- 
ously the study of South African Economics and Sociology and Anthro- 
pology. Perhaps also one may claim that it has brought to bear on 
scientific investigation what we regard as the distinctive features of the 
South African outlook — freshness and breadth of view, receptivity to 
new illuminations, and readiness to see old truths in new settings and 
in the light of their wider bearings. Is it not South Africa that has given 
to Science and the world the conception of Holism ? And there is surely 
no gift more worthily representative of the South African outlook at its 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

best that we could have ofiered. It may indeed be that that very South 
Africanisation of our South African Science of which I have been speaking 
is but another instance of the Holistic principle at work. As I speak of 
the South African outlook in Science, I cannot but refer you with that 
deep appreciation which I know we all feel, to the masterly address which 
four years ago General Smuts delivered from this chair, when he demon- 
strated in so compelling a manner (I quote his own description of the task 
he set himself) ' that there is something valuable and fruitful for Science 
in the South African point of view, that our particular angle of vision 
supphes a real vantage point of attack on some of the great problems 
of Science ; and that, so far from the South African view-point being 
parochial in Science, it may prove helpful and fruitful in many ways to 
workers in the fields of scientific research and investigation.' 

Science in South Africa, then, has made itself truly South African, and 
in doing so it has established itself in the admiration and affection of the 
people of this land. As a nation we are grateful to our scientists for their 
contributions to our intellectual and material progress. The liberal 
policy of the state in supporting scientific effort we heartily endorse, the 
increase in the mental stature and the prestige of the nation which Science 
brings to us we sincerely welcome. We are proud of our South African 
Science, not least because we know that we can regard it as distinctively 
ours. But while our Science has been South Africanised, we can rejoice 
that there is nothing narrow about its South Africanism. Were it other- 
wise, it would have been false to the spirit of Science. In applying itself 
to the problems of South Africa, it has succeeded in attracting the atten- 
tion of the scientific wo;:ld to South Africa. In that address to which I 
have already referred, General Smuts emphasised the fact that recent 
events had drawn the eyes of the world to this land of ours as a rich field 
for scientific investigation. ' The scope for scientific work,' he said, ' in 
this department of knowledge ' (he was referring more especially to Human 
Palaeontology, but his words are of wider applicability) ' is therefore 
immense ; the ground lies literally cumbered with the possibilities of 
great discoveries. . . . Science has in South Africa a splendid field of 
labour ; other nations may well envy us the rich ores of this great " scien- 
tific divide " which is our heritage.' Those words are well worth remember- 
ing. We speak sometimes of our wealth in South Africa — mineral wealth, 
agricultural wealth, potential industrial wealth^but great also is our 
scientific wealth, and great is the debt we owe to South African Science 
for what it has done to reveal that wealth to ourselves and to the world. 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 9 

There, then, in brief outlines, all too imperfectly drawn, is a picture of 
South African Science in 1929. Contrast it with the picture of 1905, and 
you have the measure of the achievement of a great epoch. Science 
consolidated, Science South Africanised, Science recognised as of great 
national value, both in the spiritual and in the material spheres, Science 
drawing to our country the eyes of the world — surely that is no unworthy 
achievement. And as to-night, once again after the lapse of many days, 
our Association makes its report to the parent body, to which it gladly 
pays the tribute of filial reverence, it does so with pride and satisfaction 
in the work of the intervening period, but also with grateful recognition 
of the inspiration which that visit of 1905 brought to South Africa as one 
of the constitutive factors in the progress of the last quarter of a century. 

And now it has been our privilege to welcome this second visit of the 
British Association. Is it strange if we ask ourselves, as we gratefully 
remember the stimulus of 1905, what will be the stimulus of 1929 ? That 
visit had abiding results. What will be the results of this one ? That 
visit inaugurated a new epoch. Are we not justified in believing that once 
again we stand on the threshold of a great advance ? If that be so, what 
are to be the characteristics of the period on which we are now entering, 
what will be its achievement ? In the period that followed the first visit 
of the British Association we South Africanised Science in South Africa. 
Is it too much to hope that in the next we shall Africanise it ? Will not 
this visit perhaps give us the impulse and the inspiration to a bigger and 
a bolder enterprise ? One of the most significant tendencies evidenced 
in South Africa in the last few years has been the growing consciousness 
of our obligations in relation to the Continent of Africa. We have come 
to realise that the position of this European civilisation of ours set upon 
the verge of this great continent is a position of unique strategic import- 
ance, that it presents us with at once an opportunity and a challenge. 
While in the past we thought, as a nation, almost exclusively of our own 
problems and difficulties, we are now ceasing to limit our horizon by 
the Limpopo, we are beginning to envisage the task that awaits us beyond 
our own borders. And in the mind of the nation there is being developed 
a new conception of South Africa, of a South Africa that consciously 
and deliberately seeks to play its part on the African continent, not aiming 
at conquest or domination, but never failing in its readiness to give its 
intellectual and material resources to aid all who are engaged in the task 
of developing this great undeveloped area of the earth's surface, which 
is so full of potentialities for the future welfare of the world. If then 



10 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

South Africa aspires to leadersliip in Africa in other branches of activity, 
why not also in Science ? If the outlook of the nation is broadening, why- 
should not its scientists also begin to think in continents ? If as a people 
we are anxious to make our contribution to Africa, eager to give it of our 
best, rather than to get from it that which will be to our material advantage, 
why should not our Science also become consciously and deUberately 
African in its outlook, its ideals, and the tasks to which it applies itself. 
If Science has consolidated its position in South Africa, as we beUeve it 
has, is it not fitting that, with South Africa as its base, it should enter now 
into the new sphere of opportunity and achievement which stretches 
mightily outwards from its borders ? 

To you, our visitors, I look to give us the stimulus and the encourage- 
ment to that enterprise. You have come to Africa. This great land-mass 
which has reared itself against time's passage, almost since time's beginning, 
and holds inviolate so many of the records of that passage, has challenged 
your attention. You have come to Africa to seek new inspiration for the 
study of the problems that interest you, by seeing them against a different 
background which has for many of you an unaccustomed vastness. But 
while Africa was your goal, you did not think fit to enter it at the point 
nearest to your homes. You steamed down, day after day, skirting the 
long coast -line of this vast expanse of veld and forest, and have entered it 
by its Southern gateway. For a great body of scientists, it is the only 
point of effective entry into Africa. It is by way of this Southern gateway 
that Science itself can most effectively be made to permeate Africa. And 
to you, having so come, to you, the ambassadors of Science, I present — 
Africa. It is Africa and Science, which, I would like to think, are to- 
day met together. Happy indeed should be the fruits of the mating. 

It is to that theme — Africa and Science — that I propose now to mvite 
your attention. What can Africa give to Science ? What can Science 
give to Africa ? Those are the questions to which I would address myself. 
But as I speak, I would ask you all to remember, that it is for the South 
African scientist that the answers to these questions have primary signifi- 
cance. It is for him that they have significance, because for the solution 
of many of the problems of South Africa a greater knowledge of Africa as 
a whole than is at present available is essential, and the extension of that 
knowledge is his personal responsibility. It is for him that they have 
significance because he dwells in a land which is strategically placed for 
attacking the problems of Africa and for drawing forth its hidden resources 
of scientific discovery for the enrichment of Science throughout the world. 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 11 

What then can Africa give to Science ? In reply to that I can do no 
more than suggest some of the lines along which Africa seems to be called 
upon to make a distinctive contribution to Science. 

First there are the related fields of Astronomy and Meteorology. To 
Astronomy I shall but make a passing reference. This continent of Africa, 
more especially the highlands of its interior plateau, with its clear skies 
and its cloudless nights, offers wonderful facilities to the astronomer. As 
proof of the necessity of utilising those facilities, especially with a view to 
the study of the Southern heavens, I need but quote the words used by 
Professor Kapteyn on the occasion of the 1905 visit : ' In all researches 
bearing on the construction of the universe of stars, the investigator is 
hindered by our ignorance of the Southern heavens. Work is accimiulating 
in the North, which is to a great extent useless, until similar work is done 
in the South.' Africa has to its credit considerable achievements in the 
past in the field of astronomical research. The increased equipment 
now available should make it possible to increase greatly the amount of 
systematic work now being done, and to offer important contributions 
to astronomical science. 

But probably of greater importance is the work waiting to be done in 
Meteorology. Few branches of Science have a more direct effect upon the 
welfare of mankind — that is a lesson which we in South Africa should 
have learnt only too well — but in few has less progress been made. And 
in meteorological work Africa is probably the most backward of the 
continents. It is not so long since Dr. Simpson of the London Meteoro- 
logical Office declared that, save from Egypt, his office received practically 
no meteorological information from the great continent of Africa. More- 
over, the backwardness of Meteorology is in large measure due to the 
intricacy of the problems involved, and the necessity of having world- 
wide information made available. The problems of Meteorology are 
emphatically not the problems of one country or of one region. The 
South African meteorologist must see his problems sub specie Africae (the 
seasonal changes in South Africa depend on the northward and southward 
oscillations of the great atmospheric system overlying the continent as a 
whole) ; and quite apart from what he can learn from the rest of Africa, 
the Antarctic regions have much to teach him. But while the develop- 
ment of meteorological research throughout Africa is of supreme economic 
importance for Africa, Africa in its turn has its contributions to make to 
other continents. In particular should we not forget the close inter- 
relation of the meteorological problems of the lands of the Southern hemi- 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

sphere. The central position of Africa in relation to those lands gives not 
only special opportxmities but also special responsibilities for meteoro- 
logical observation and research. For the sake both of South Africa 
and of Science in general I would venture to express the hope that this 
second visit of the British Association will give as powerful a stimulus to 
Meteorology as did the first to Astronomy. 

Next, I would refer to Africa's potential contributions to Geological 
Science. Africa is a continent, portions of which have always had a special 
interest for the geologist because of the great diversity of the geological 
phenomena manifested, and the vast mineral wealth which, as its ancient 
workings so abundantly prove, has attracted man's industry from the very 
earliest times. But in our day the opportunities which it offers to the 
geologist to make contributions to the wider problems of Science are 
coming to be more fully realised than ever before. Of special interest 
in this connection is the light which African Geology, more especially in 
the form of the study of ancient glacial deposits, can throw on the Wegener 
hypothesis of continental drift. In the past our geologists have thought 
mainly of the correlation of our formations with those of Europe. It 
is time that they paid more attention to their possible affiliations with 
those of the continents to east and west of us. If Geology can establish 
the hypothesis that Africa is the mother continent from which India, 
Madagascar, and Australia on the one side and South America on the other 
have been dislodged, it will give a new orientation to many branches of 
scientific activity. For that investigation also Africa occupies a central 
and determinative position in relation to the other continents, such as we 
have noted to be the case in the sphere of Meteorology. There are many 
other geological problems on which Africa can probably shed much light. 
There is, for instance, the constitution of the earth's deeper sub-strata, in 
regard to which, as Dr. Wagner has recently pointed out, the study of the 
volcanic Kimberlite pipes, so numerous throughout Africa south of the 
Equator, and of the xenoliths they contain, including the determination 
of their radium and thorium contents, may be of the greatest significance. 
There is the possibility that the exploitation of Africa's great wealth in 
potentially fossil-bearing rocks of presumably pre-Cambrian age will yet 
yield us remains of living beings more primitive than any yet discovered ; 
there are the great opportunities of study which the African deserts ofier 
in the field of desert Geology and Morphology, and there is the assistance 
which African Geology has rendered to vertebrate and plant Palaeontology, 
and can render to African Anthropology in the investigation of this great 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 13 

museum of human remains and relics, which we call the continent of 
Africa. 

I pass on to Medical Science. I have referred already to the contri- 
butions to the study of the problems of industrial medicine and hygiene 
which the special circumstances of the South African gold mining industry 
have made possible. Those contributions have, we may well hope, but 
prepared the way for advances of a revolutionary character in the early 
detection, prevention, and treatment of all forms of respiratory disease. 
But even greater are the opportunities which the continent of Africa 
offers for the study of tropical diseases, of which it may well be described 
as the homeland. In Africa there have been and necessarily must be 
studied the problems connected with malaria, blackwater fever, sleeping 
sickness, yellow fever, and many other scourges of civilisation, and from 
Africa there may well come hope and healing for mankind. There are 
other problems of Medical Science for the study of which Africa is imiquely 
fitted. There are the physiological questions, important also from the 
political point of view, which bear on the fitness of the white races to 
maintain a healthy existence in tropical surroundings, at high altitudes, 
and in excessive sunlight. For these investigations the diversity of 
conditions prevailing in the various regions of the African continent make 
it a magnificent natural laboratory. There is the elucidation of the 
factors which account for the varying susceptibility of white and coloured 
races to acute infectious diseases, tuberculosis, and certain types of 
malignant disease, together with the light which such elucidation may 
throw on the physical and chemical composition of the human body. 
Lastly, I would mention the exploration of that most interesting border- 
land between Psychiatry and Psychological Science by an analysis of the 
mentality of the diverse African peoples. That investigation has an 
important bearing not only on the limitations and capacities of racial 
intelligence, but also on the methods which the ruling races in Africa 
should follow in seeking to discharge their obligations towards their 
uncivilised and unenhghtened fellow- Africans. 

Closely linked with Medical Science is the study of Animal Biology. 
In some instances the problems of the two branches of Science are to be 
approached along parallel lines ; in others biological investigations are 
fundamental to the growth of Medical Science ; of no less significance is 
that unity which there is in nature, making it possible for the truths of 
Animal Biology to be translated into facts concerning mankind. In the 
African continent there is no lack of opportunity to advance Science by 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

physiological inquiries into animal structure, by the isolation of the 
parasites of human and animal diseases, and by the tracing of the life 
histories more especially of the minuter forms of animal life. ' Nowa- 
days ' in the words of Professor J. A. Thomson, ' the serpent that bites 
man's heel is in nine cases out of ten microscopic' But scarcely less impor- 
tant are the extensive facilities which Africa stiU offers for the study of the 
habits and behaviour of the larger mammals. The naturalistic study of 
these animals, not as stuffed museum species, but in the laboratories of 
their native environment, has received all too scanty attention from the 
scientist, and this is a reproach which African Science, with its rich dowry 
of mammal and primate material, may confidently be expected to remove. 
Nor will this study of animal behaviour, especially of those animals which 
approach nearest to the human type, be without its bearings on our in- 
vestigations of the workings of the human mind. If in this hasty survey 
I may take time to mention one more point within this field, I would 
refer to the results which await the intensified activity of the marine 
biologist and the oceanographer in the as yet all but virgin territory of 
the African coast-Une. This Association of ours has long dreamed of 
an African Marine Biological Station as broad in its conception and 
comparably as useful from the wider scientific and the more narrowly 
economic points of view as those of Plymouth or Naples or "Woods Hole, 
and withal a rallying point for the naturalist, the zoologist, the botanist, 
the geographer, the anatomist, the physiologist, indeed for all those 
workers whose diverse problems meet at the margin of the sea. 

From Animal Biology we pass by an easy transition to Anthropology, 
the study of man himself. And here Africa seems full of splendid promise 
of discovery that may verify Darwin's beUef in the probability that some- 
where in this land-mass was the scene of nat^lre's greatest creative effort. 
It would seem to be not without significance that Africa possesses in 
the chimpanzee and the gorilla those primate types which approach 
most nearly the form and structure of primitive man. To that must 
be added that in the Bushman, Pygmy, and negroid races Africa has at 
least two and possibly three early human stocks which are characteristi- 
cally her own and belong to no other continent. No less striking is the 
fact that in Gibraltar, in Malta, and in Palestine, that is, at each and 
every one of the three portals into Africa from Europe and Asia in 
Pleistocene times, there have been discovered evidences of the presence 
of Neanderthal man. In Africa itself there was found at Broken Hill 
some nine years ago a skull with the most primitive or bestial facial form 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 15 

yet seen, and so closely akin to the Neanderthal stock as to establish 
firmly the expectation of finding further compelling evidence of a long 
continued Neanderthaloid occupation of the African continent. The 
discovery at Taungs on the one hand, which reaches out towards the 
unknown past, and the finds at Boskop and in the Tsitsikama on the 
other, which assist in linking up the period of Rhodesian man with the 
coming of the Bushfolk, open up to us, in conjunction with the afore- 
mentioned facts, a vista of anthropological continuity in Africa such as 
no other continent can offer. The recent investigations in the Great 
Rift Valley, near Elementeita in Kenya, and the fossil discoveries on the 
Springbok Flats, north of Pretoria, have again fixed the attention of the 
anthropologist on Africa. 

Nor are the data presently available restricted to these discoveries. 
The efforts of archaeologists, and the application of improved scientific 
methods in excavation, are giving us stratigraphical evidence of the 
succession of stone cultures which is of the utmost importance. I have 
already mentioned the assistance which Geology can render in this work, 
but there is needed also the co-operation of those who labour in the 
converging fields of Anatomy, Archaeology, Palaeontology, and Compara- 
tive Zoology. That co-operation has already commenced. In the 
investigation of the Vaal River gravels it has yielded important 
results, and we may look forward to its continuance and expansion in 
the years that lie ahead. Of the importance of African Anthropology 
for the understanding of that of Europe there can be no question. "Work 
of importance has already been done in the study of the relations between 
Palaeolithic Art in Europe and Palaeolithic Art in Africa. The significance 
of these comparisons is but emblematic of the importance of similar 
investigations in regard to stone cultures, rock engravings, ancient mining, 
stone circles and ancient ruins, methods of primitive mining and agri- 
culture, tribal organisation, laws and customs, indeed the whole range of 
the hitherto unexplained or partially explained phenomena of living and 
extinct cultures. There is no lack of avenues which the student of 
African Anthropology may follow in the hope of finding at the end of 
them results of supreme value for Science in general. 

I would speak next of the vast field, as yet almost uncharted, of 
phonological and philological study. Here in Africa we have great 
opportunities for the examination of linguistic problems, and some of 
them have bearings which extend far beyond the limits of Africa. One 
thinks first of the opportunities which Africa offers for investigating the 



1(3 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

results of the transplantation of languages, whicli have a long history of 
cultural development behind them, to regions inhabited by primitive 
peoples. Here there are two sets of phenomena, each with its own special 
interest. On the one hand, we have the modification of the languages of 
those European peoples who have established themselves in Africa as 
permanent settled communities, under pressure of the new linguistic 
influences into contact with which they have been brought. Of these 
phenomena the study of Afrikaans ofEers perhaps the best examples to 
be found in the whole field of linguistics — its importance for the student 
of comparative philology is very far from being adequately appreciated. 
On the other hand, we have those cases where European languages have 
come to Africa as the languages not of settled communities, but of officials 
and others like them who are but temporarily domiciled in this continent, 
and leave no descendants behind them to carry on the process of evolu- 
tion of distinctive forms of speech. Here the phenomena which are of 
interest to the student of linguistics are to be found in the wealth of 
deformation and adaptation which the native populations have introduced 
in their endeavours to speak the European languages of their rulers. 
Work such as has been done by Schuchardt in Negro-Portuguese and 
Negro-French opens up a wide area of most attractive investigation. 

But the most important task in the field of African linguistics is the 
actual recording of the native languages of Africa, our backwardness in 
respect of which is a reproach to Science. Such study is, of course, im- 
portant in relation to Africa itself, but of even greater significance for 
my present purpose is its bearing on scientific problems of wider scope. 
In that connection I would suggest two points. We are still only at the 
beginning of the study of Comparative Bantu. That in due course should 
lead to a knowledge of Ur-Bantu. Such a study and such a knowledge 
will necessarily be of importance to the comparative philologist, both 
because of the light shed by the study of one group of languages on the 
study of other groups, and also because it opens the way to the investi- 
gation of the relationship of Bantu to the other African tongues, and 
its place in the general scheme of the languages of the world. But of 
even greater interest is the study of African languages as throwing light 
on the inter-penetrations and interactions of primitive peoples. Language 
is a function of social relationship, and its study is therefore of great 
value for ethnological and historical investigations. May I give one 
instance of what I have in mind ? Two millennia back South- West 
Arabia was the seat of the powerful commercial civilisations of the 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 17 

Mineans, the Sabaeans, and the Himyarites, radiating eastwards to India 
and south-westwards to Africa. The extent of their relationship with 
Africa it has hitherto been most difficult to trace, but linguistic evidence 
may prove to be of great value. Professor Maingard has pointed out to 
me that the Makaranga who live near Zimbabwe call water ' Bahri,' a 
word closely related in form to ' Bahr,' the ' sea ' of the Arabs, although 
the Makaranga themselves are not a sea-board people, and that ' Shava ' 
is their word for ' to sell or barter,' while to the Himyarites ' Saba ' meant 
' to travel for a commercial purpose.' Not less suggestive is the study 
of place-names, and while I do not suggest that I have evidence on which 
any conclusion can be based, I do contend that these investigations may 
prove to be of a most fruitful character. It would be interesting indeed 
to see what evidence linguistics can bring in respect of the relationship 
of South Africa with Madagascar, and also with Polynesia through 
Madagascar, where the tribe once dominant politically, the copper- 
coloured Hova, are ethnologically and linguistically Melanesians amid 
the darker-hued Sakalavas and other negroid tribes. It may even be 
that such studies will conjure up to our minds pictures of great migratory 
movements with Arab dhows and South Sea proas cleaving the waters 
of the Indian Ocean. Only last year a canoe constructed of wood native 
to South-Eastern Asia was found in Algoa Bay. 

And, finally, in this survey of what Africa can give to Science I would 
refer, with the utmost brevity perforce, to Africa as a field, favoured as 
is no other, for the study of all those complicated problems which arise 
from the contact of races of different colours and at diverse stages of 
civilisation. Of those problems, ranging from the investigations of the 
biological factors involved in the conception of race to the practical 
problems of the administration of backward peoples, I need not speak. 
They have come to be part almost of the everyday thinking of most 
civilised men. What I would emphasise is that in Africa, as nowhere 
else, the factors which constitute these problems can be studied both in 
isolation and in varying degrees of complexity of inter-relationship, that 
in Africa we have a great laboratory in which to-day there are going on 
before our eyes experiments which put to the test diverse social and 
political theories as to the relations between white and coloured races, 
that in Africa there are racial problems which demand solution, and the 
solution of which will affect or determine the handling of similar problems 
throughout the world. We hear men speak of the clash of colour, and 
are sometimes told that Africa is the strategic point in that struggle. 
1929 C 



J8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

I think of it rather as the continent which offers the richest opportunities 
to those who woiild investigate racial problems in the true spirit of Science, 
and so discover the solutions, which may yet enable that clash to be 
averted and the threat which it implies to our civilisation to be dispelled. 

I have sought — briefly and all too inadequately — to indicate some 
of the lines along which Africa seems to be able to make a distinctive 
contribution to Science. It remains for me, yet more briefly, to speak 
of Africa's challenge to Science, and to seek to answer the question, What 
can Science give to Africa ? I shall not stop to emphasise the point, that 
the greatness of Africa's potential contributions to Science, the key 
which perhaps she holds to the riddle of human origins, the intriguing 
vistas opened up in the study of her relationship with South America 
and Australasia with its suggestion of past continental continuity, that 
all these and more constitute a challenge to Science to actualise those 
potentialities. Let me seek rather to define the two-fold challenge of 
Africa in another way. Firstly, Africa defies Science to unravel her past. 
Throughout history she has ever been the continent of mystery. She 
was so to that pioneer of geographers, Herodotus, to whom nothing that 
was told him about Africa was so improbable that he decUned to give it 
credence. She was so to the Romans, who regarded Africa as the natural 
home and source of what was strange and novel and unaccustomed. 
She was so to the navigators who did so much to break down the barrier 
wall between the Middle Ages and the Modern World. And though in 
our day the geographical mysteries of Africa have in large measure been 
solved, the work of the prober of her scientific secrets is only beginning. 
Then, secondly, Africa challenges Science to define, to determine, and to 
guide her future. If the great resources of this vast undeveloped conti- 
nent are to be made available for humanity in our own and the succeeding 
generations, Science must make it possible for the man of European race 
to undertake that work of development, by showing him how to protect 
himself, his stock, and his crops against disease, by enabling him to 
conserve and utilise to the greatest extent the soils, the vegetation, and 
the water supplies of the continent, by bringing to bear the resources of 
modern engineering on the exploitation of its wealth, and not least by 
determining the lines along which white and coloured races can best live 
together in harmony and to their common advantage. 

That is the challenge of Africa to civilisation and to Science. It is 
not now thrown out for the first time ; it is not the first time that it will 
have been taken up. It is in Africa that the Greco-Roman civilisation 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 19 

won some of its most glorious triumphs, in Africa that the spade of the 
archaeologist has in our day, by uncovering great Roman towns with noble 
public buildings and efficient irrigation systems, provided impressive 
evidence of the magnitude of the achievement of Roman Imperialism. 
But Rome failed to conquer Africa for civilisation, and left the challenge 
to those who were to follow after. She failed chiefly for two reasons : 
the might of African barbarism and the defiant resistance of African 
nature. We in our day, confronted by the same challenge, still have 
the same enemies, hitherto victorious, to contend against. But we 
meet them with the advantage of having resources at our disposal which 
our Roman predecessors lacked. It is to use those resources efEectively 
that Africa challenges Science. 

In dealing with African barbarism we have weapons such as Rome 
could never dream of, and not the least valuable are those provided 
by the scientific investigation of the native peoples of Africa. The way 
to the solution of the problems presented by African barbarism is to be 
sought in an understanding of the character and mentality of primitive 
peoples, in the exploration of those regions in their social Kfe where are 
to be found the factors that determine their reaction to diverse methods 
of administration. The study of African languages and of African 
Anthropology is therefore fundamental to the development of the 
continent. For that work Africa possesses special advantages, and one 
can but hope that the facilities now being built up in our South African 
Universities will be recognised in Britain and elsewhere, and become an 
important factor in the response of Science to the challenge of Africa. 

Not less formidable is the conquest of African nature, for the achieve- 
ment of which also we in our day are far better placed than were the 
Romans. It is modern Science which gives us that advantage. Three 
great tasks confront Science in the conquest of African nature. First, 
Science must make Africa safe for the white man to live in. I have spoken 
of the opportunities which Africa offers for the study of tropical diseases 
as likely to yield results of significance for Science in general. But 
primarily will those results be of significance for the development of 
Africa ? This part of the challenge of Africa is not lightly to be taken up. 
Africa has taken heavy toll of Science. The recent deaths in Nigeria of 
Stokes, Young, and Noguchi, worthy followers in the tradition of Lazear 
and Myers, are a reaffirmation of the gravity and insistence of that 
challenge. The importance for the cause of civilisation of a successful 
response to that challenge cannot be illustrated better than by the story 

c2 



20 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

of the construction of the Panama Canal. De Lesseps attempted the 
task and failed. For every cubic yard of earth excavated by him a 
human life was sacrificed to yellow fever or malaria. It was the suc- 
cessful attack — some twenty years later — on the death-dealing mosquito, 
under the direction of General Gorgas, that made possible the completion 
of one of the most important engineering enterprises of modern times. 

Secondly, Science must combat the foes which have to be contended 
with in the development of African agriculture. Africa is prodigal 
indeed in the production of insect and other foes to cattle and to crops. 
Science is already making an effective response to this part of the 
challenge. But there is much that remains to be done. And we shall 
be none the worse for the timely realisation by the pohtician and the 
administrator of the contributions which Science can make. All too 
often in the past settlement schemes have been undertaken and ended in 
disaster in areas unhealthy to man, beast, or crops, when, if the scientist 
had first been called in, precautions might have been taken which would 
have averted the calamity. 

Finally, Science must harness the great resources of Africa. And 
here there are suggested to us all the varied contributions which the 
engineer can make in the work of development. Has not the Institution 
of Civil Engineers defined the ideal underlying all engineering activity 
as ' the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use 
and convenience of man ' ? Africa offers abundance of opportunities 
for the reaUsation of that ideal. It is not by working in isolation that 
the engineer will realise it, but rather by co-operation with his colleagues 
in other branches of Science, and by the correlation and co-ordination 
of the essential data which they must do so much to provide. First in 
the order of engineering development come the civil and mining engineers. 
Their tasks are the provision of facilities for communication, for health, 
for the conservation of agricultural assets, for the production of raw 
material, and for the development of mineral resources. In their train 
there follow, with the advent of industrial activity, the mechanical and 
electrical engineers. Their tasks are to make the fullest use of the revolu- 
tion in ideas of transport, including transport by air, which have resulted 
from the perfecting of the internal combustion engine, and to secure the 
maximum advantage possible from cheap production and efficient distri- 
bution of electrical power. The day must come, to give a concrete 
instance, when the Victoria Falls, with their immense water resources, 
will mean much more for Africa than Niagara to-day means for America. 



SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION. 21 

Later still there will be called in the services of the chemical engineer, 
ever engaged in problems of research to ascertain the most advantageous 
processes of converting raw materials into manufactured articles. In all 
these tasks it is the South African engineer who has, under the conditions 
of an undeveloped land, built up a technique and practice suitable to 
African requirements and showing promise of wider applicability, that 
we may well expect to assume a position of leadership and of inspiration. 
These are some of the ways in which Science can respond to the challenge 
of Africa. 

The picture which I set out to portray I have now completed. I have 
tried to suggest something of the magnitude of the rewards which Africa 
has in store for the scientist who has the enterprise to adventure and 
the vision to see. I have sought also to be the medium of the challenge 
presented to Science by Africa's opportunities and needs. It is a vast 
canvas on which I have had to work. On it I have drawn but a few 
sketchy outlines. Yet I hope that the vision stands out clear. I hope 
that I have said enough to convey the power of its inspiration. Not 
least do I hope that you, our visitors, will play a great part, in the time 
that you will spend with us, in filling in some of the details of the picture, 
and in quickening and vitalising its message for the scientists of South 
Africa. It is to them chiefly that it makes its appeal. The development 
of Science in Africa, of Africa by Science — that is the Promised Land that 
beckons them. I believe that they will not be disobedient to the vision. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIP 
OF MINERALS. 

BY 

Sir THOMAS HOLLAND, K.C.S.I., K.C.LE., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



A FEW years ago Members of this Association looked forward annually 
to a generalised statement of the results of their President's own research 
work in science. The rapid specialisation of science, with its consequent 
terminology,, has, however, made it increasingly more difficult in recent 
years for any worker to express himself to his fellow-members. 

Last year at Glasgow most of us expected that the hidden secrets of 
crystals would be revealed by one whose capacity for popular exposition 
accompanies a recognised power for extending the boundaries of science. 
Instead, Sir William Bragg released his store of accumulated thought on 
the relationship of science to craftsmanship in a way which gave each 
specialised worker an opportunity to adjust his sense of relativity and 
proportion. 

If I attempted now to summarise my scattered ideas on the outstanding 
problems of micro-petrology, I might possibly find half-a-dozen members 
charitably disposed to listen, and of them perhaps one might partly agree 
with my theoretical speculations. We have indeed to admit that the 
science of petrology, which vitalised geological thought at the end of the 
last century, has since passed into the chrysalid stage, but, we hope, only 
to emerge as a more perfect imago in the near future. 

Coincident with the excessive degree of specialisation which has 
developed with embarrassing rapidity within the present century, the 
problems of the Great War drew scientific workers from their laboratories 
and forced them to face problems of applied science of wider human 
interest. And the atmosphere of this great mining field' stirs ideas of 
this wider sort — ideas concerning a field of human activity which, in 
recent years, has affected the course of civilised evolution more profoundly 

^ The Witwatersrand. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 23 

than seems to be recognised even by students of mineral economics. 
This must be my excuse for inviting you to consider the special ways 
in which the trend of mineral exploitation since the War has placed a new 
meaning on our international relationships. 

With knowledge of the shortcomings which were felt during the War, 
in variety as well as quantity of metals, it was natural immediately after 
to review our resources, with the object in view of obtaining security for 
the future. But events have since developed rapidly, both in international 
relationships and in mineral technology. The evolution of metallurgy during 
the present century, and the developments in mining on which metallurgy 
depend, have placed new and rigid limitations on a nation's ability to 
undertake and maintain a war ; consequently, the control of the mineral 
industries may be made an insurance for peace. Let us first consider 
briefly how these circumstances have arisen, how each country has passed 
from the stage of being self-contained in variety of essential products to 
the most recent of all developments, the change to large-scale production 
that has tended to the concentration of the mineral and metal industries 
to certain specially favoured regions which will hold the position of 
dominance for several generations to come. 

The names of Isis, Cybele, Demeter and Ceres seem to suggest that the 
ancient theologians in different lands formed the same conception of those 
peculiar conditions in pre-historic times which made it likely that a 
woman — ^tied for long periods to the home-cave — rather than a man, was 
the one who first discovered the possibility of raising grain-crops by sowing 
seed. Whoever it was who first made this discovery was the one who 
diverted the evolution of man along an entirely new branch, and so laid 
the foundation on which our civilisation was subsequently built — the 
beginning of what Rousseau called ' Le premier et plus respectable de 
tous les arts.' 

Compared with this economic application of observational science, the 
later inventions, which seem so important to us — explosives, printing, the 
steam engine — were but minor incidents in the evolution of civilised 
activities. Previous uncertainty regarding the supply of the products of 
the chase, and the dangers which were necessarily attached to the collection 
of berries and edible roots in the jungle, became less important to the 
family-man when it was found possible to raise food-supplies nearer home. 
This discovery was thus not one of merely material advantage ; for it 



24 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

necessarily led to the idea of storage, and so opened up a new mental 
outlook for primitive man. 

But then this new possession of field-crops — the acquisition of 
cultivated real-estate — created fresh cares and new anxieties, which 
contained the germ of future political problems. In addition to the 
previous dangers from nomadic hunters and predatory carnivora, new 
troubles arose from other enemies — herbivorous animals, birds, insects, 
droughts and floods. 

The formation of village-groups for protection, and the development 
later of tribal communities resulted necessarily in the radial extension of 
field ' claims ' — what our modern politicians, with careless disregard for 
geometrical terminology, now call ' spheres of influence ' — always dominated 
by the extending necessities of agriculture, the growing of crops for food 
and then, with the scarcity of skins, for textile materials. 

The mineralogist and the metallurgist were perhaps before the farmer 
among those earliest research workers in applied science ; but they were 
small folk, mere specialists in science. They have obtained a place of 
undue prominence in the minds of our modern students because of the 
adoption of their products for purposes of terminology in our conventional 
time-scale for those ages that preceded history. But this is due merely to 
the durability of implements as index ' fossils,' and is in no sense a certain 
indication of their political and industrial importance. 

And then afterwards, long afterwards — indeed, up to historically 
recent times — national boundaries became extended or were fought for, 
but still mainly because agricultural products in some form were a 
necessity for the maintenance of communal life. When British traders 
first went to India, for instance, they extended their influence first along 
the navigable rivers for the trade in vegetable products which were raised 
on the alluvial lands around ; and so British India, as we call it to-day 
to distinguish the administered areas from the residual native States, is 
now mainly agricultural. Even when the permanent settlement of Bengal 
was made in 1793 no one thought of reserving for the State the underlying 
coal which has since become so surprisingly important. It was the field, 
and the field only, that was considered to be of commercial and political 
importance. 

Agricultural products, therefore, until recently dominated the political 
ambitions of national units. Whether, and to what extent, the possession 
and use of mineral resources may now modify that dominant spirit is the 
principal question to which I wish to invite your attention this evening. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 25 

In the evolution of man, as in the evolution of the animals that occupied 
the world before him, there are no sharply defined, world-wide period 
limits : the pre-agricultural Bushman still survives and lives the life of 
pre-agricultural man in this Union of South Africa. The recognition of 
agriculture as a leading inspiration for acquiring and holding territory has 
been modified occasionally by ' gold rushes ' into lands previously un- 
occupied, bxit they have generally had a temporary, often a relatively 
small, importance. The ' gold fever ' may be what our lighter species of 
newspaper calls ' dramatic,' but a fever is a short item in the life of a 
healthy man ; heat-waves do not make climates. Possibly our school 
children are still told that Australia is noted for its goldfields, but the 
whole of the gold produced there since its discovery in 1851 is less in value 
than that of three years' output of Australian agriculture. 

Even here in South Africa, which produces half the world's supply of 
gold, the value of the metal is still less than that of the pastoral and agri- 
cultural products. It is true that gold and diamonds introduced temporary 
diversions in the political expansion of South Africa, but the dominant 
interests of the Union are still determined by the boer-plaas and the weiveld. 

The adventures of the Spanish conquistadores in the sixteenth century 
and of their enemies, the sea-roving Norse buccaneers, were inspired by 
stories of gold in El Dorado. And yet the whole of the South American 
output of gold, even under its modern development, is almost negligible 
beside the pastoral and agricultural products — wheat, maize, wool, 
tobacco, coffee, cocoa, sugar, meat and hides. The total production of 
gold for the whole continent last year was worth no more than a hundredth 
part of the surplus of agricultural products which the Argentine alone 
could spare for export. Truly there is a substantial difference between 
the bait and the fish, between the sprat and the mackerel. 

The discovery and colonisation of a continent are not the only ways in 
which the lure of gold has often brought results more valuable than the 
metal itself. The efforts of philosophers from the time of the Alexandrian 
Greeks in trying to transmute the base metals into gold resulted in 
accumulating the raw materials with which Paracelsus laid the foundations 
of a new chemistry. 

Metals, we know, have been used since early times for simple imple- 
ments and weapons, but it was not until the industrial revolution in 
Great Britain that the mechanisation of industries led to any considerable 
development of our mineral resources, first slowly and with a limited 
range of products, then on a large scale and with an extended variety. 



26 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

But to distinguish clearly cause from effect is not always simple. We 
were told at school of the remarkable series of inventors who laid the 
foundation of the textile industries in the north of England, and of the 
timely invention of the steam engine ; its application to mine pumping ; 
the successive construction of the steamer and the locomotive ; the pro- 
duction of gas from coal. But the close association of ore, fuel and flux 
made it possible not only to improve machinery, but to increase facilities 
for the transport of raw materials and their products. When Josiah 
Wedgwood obtained his inspiration from the remains of Greek art, then 
being unearthed from the ancient graves of Campania, he first turned to 
account the raw materials of his native county of Staffordshire, and then 
promoted canal and road construction to introduce the china clay from 
Cornwall. 

It is obvious that the growth, if not with equal certainty the origin of 
the industrial revolution was due to the close association of suitable 
minerals in England. It was because non-phosphoric ores were still 
available that, at a later stage, Bessemer was able to give that new impetus 
which increased the lead of the English steel maker ; and so, when 
Thomas and Gilchrist came still later, with their invention of a basic 
process applicable to pig-iron made from phosphoric ores, their invention 
fell on barren soil in Britain. The new process, however, found applica- 
tions elsewhere, and, instead of adding to the stability of the English steel 
industry, it gave the United States the very tonic they required, whilst 
the industrialists of Germany — where political stability had by then been 
established — found the opportunity of developing the enormous phosphoric 
ore deposits of Alsace-Lorraine, which had been borrowed from France 
eight years before. And so it was through the genius of Sidney Gilchrist 
Thomas, and his cousin, Percy Carlyle Gilchrist, that Germany was 
enabled in 1914 to try the fortune of war. 

For the first half-century after the industrial revolution. Great 
Britain was able to raise its own relatively small requirements of iron as 
well as of the other metals that consequently came into wider use — copper, 
zinc, lead and tin. The rapid expansion in steel production which 
followed Bessemer 's announcement of his invention at the Cheltenham 
meeting of the British Association in 1856, brought with it the necessity of 
going further afield for the accessory ores and for further supplies of non- 
phosphoric iron ores. 

The next important step in metallurgical advance came in 1888, when 
Sir Robert Hadfield produced his special manganese-steel ; for this led to 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 27; 

the production of other ferro-alloys, and so extended our requirements in 
commercial quantities of metals which were previously of interest mainly 
in the laboratory — vanadium, tungsten, molybdenum, aluminium, 
chromium, cobalt and nickel. The adoption of alloys, especially the 
ferro-alloys, at the end of the last century opened up a new period in the 
newly established mineral era of the World's history ; for, beside the in- 
crease in the quantity of the commoner base metals which were wanted for 
the growing industries of Great Britain, it was necessary now to look 
further afield for supplies of those metals that had hitharto been regarded 
as rare in quantity and nominal in value. 

The country in which the industrial revolution originated and gathered 
momentum, because of the close association of a few base metals, could no 
longer live on its own raw materials, and never again will do so. Even in 
peace time Great Britain alone consumes twice as much copper and just 
as much lead as the whole Empire produces. Meanwhile, developments 
had occurred elsewhere, notably in Germany, where political stability had 
been secured, and in the United States, where the Thomas-Gilchrist 
process also had stimulated expansion. Thus, by the beginning of the 
twentieth century, the industrial activities of the World had entered a 
new phase, which was characterised, if not yet dominated, by the necessity 
for minerals to maintain the expanding Arts of Peace. 

From this time on no nation could be self-contained ; a new era of 
international dependence was inaugurated, but the extent and the signifi- 
cance of the change was not consciously realised by our public leaders until 
1914, when it was found that the developments of peace had fundamentally 
changed the requirements for war. Indeed, not even the German General 
Staff, with all its methodical thoroughness, had formed what the tacticians 
call a true ' appreciation of the situation.' Two illustrations of short- 
sightedness on both sides are sufficient for the present argument. Up to 
the outbreak of war, although the wolfram deposits of South Burma were 
worked almost entirely by British companies, the whole of the mineral 
went to Germany for the manufacture of the metal, tungsten, which was an 
essential constituent of high-speed tool steel. Sheffield still occupied a 
leading place in the production of this variety of steel, but was dependent 
on Germany for the metal, which the Germans obtained mainly from 
British ore. Under the compulsion of necessity, and without consideration 
of commercial cost, we succeeded before the middle of 1915 in making 
tungsten, whilst Germany, failing to obtain an early and favourable 
decision in war, used up her stocks of imported ore and turned to the 



28 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Norwegian molybdenum for a substitute, until tbis move again was partly 
countered by our purchase of the Norwegian output. Germany then found 
that she wanted ten times more nickel than Central Europe could produce ; 
so she imported her supplies from the Scandinavian countries, and they 
being neutral, obtained nickel from another neutral country, where the 
Canadian ores — the World's main source— had hitherto chiefly been 
smelted and refined. We thus realised, not only our dependence on other 
lands for the essential raw minerals, but we had the mortification of finding 
that, through our own previous shortcomings in the metallurgical industries, 
we were compelled to face lethal munitions made of metal obtained from 
our own ores. 

The political boundaries of the nations, originally delimitated on con- 
siderations dominantly agricultural in origin, have now no natural relation 
to the distribution of their minerals, which are nevertheless essential for 
the maintenance of industries in peace time as well as for the requirements 
of defence. This circumstance, as I hope to show in the sequel, gives a 
special meaning to measures recently designed on supplementary lines in 
Europe and America for the maintenance of international peace, measures 
which, as I also hope to show, can succeed only if the facts of mineral 
distribution become recognised as a controlling feature in future inter- 
national dealings. 

If minerals are essential for the maintenance of our new civilisation, 
they are, according to the testimony of archaeology and history, worth fight- 
ing for ; and if, according to the bad habits which we have inherited from 
our Tertiary ancestors, they are worth fighting for, their effective control 
under our reformed ideas of civilisation should be made an insurance for 
peace. In so attempting to correlate the facts of mineral distribution with 
questions of public policy, there is no danger of introducing matters 
controversial ; everyone here must agree on two things, namely, our 
desire and even hope for international peace, and consequently the 
necessity of surveying the mineral situation as developments in techno- 
logical science change the configuration of the economic world. 

Since the industrial revolution in Great Britain, the increase of 
mechanisation and consequent consumption of metals has been accelerated 
with each decade. It is not necessary to quote the statistical returns 
available for estimating the tp'^~ of this acceleration, for it can be expressed 
in a single sentence which ]ustifies the serious consideration of every 
political economist : during the first quarter of this present century alone, 
the world has exploited and consumed more of its mineral resources than 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 29 

in all its previous history, back to the time when Eolithic man first shaped 
a flint to increase his efficiency as a hunter. 

To save you from the narcotic effect of statistical statements, I will 
limit myself to one illustration of this generalised statement ; for this 
special example not only illustrates the rate of general acceleration in 
exploitation, but introduces an important subsidiary question, namely, 
the way in which activity is becoming pronounced, if not substantially 
limited, to a group of special areas. In the year 1870 the United States 
produced 69,000 tons of steel ; in 1880, IJ million tons ; in 1890, 4J 
millions ; in 1900, 10 millions, and in 1928, 45 millions. 

Figures like these raise questions regarding the future which would 
take us beyond our present thesis. For the present we can assume with 
fair confidence that, taking the world as a whole, the depletion of natural 
stores is not yet alarming, although the rate of acceleration, by reason of 
its local variation, forces into prominence some international problems, 
which will influence, and if effectively tackled will facilitate, the efforts 
to stabilise conditions of international relations. 

I have elsewhere* made estimates of the quantities of metals stored in 
that part of the outer film of the earth's crust which may be regarded as 
reasonably accessible to the miner. The actual figures in billions of tons 
convey no precise mental impression to us, and need not be quoted here, 
but certain of the outstanding conclusions have a bearing on our present 
line of argument. 

The first feature of surprising interest to the man in the street is perhaps 
the relative abundance of those metals with which he is familiar in the 
Arts — copper, lead, tin, zinc and nickel. Nickel, in spite of its price and 
limited use, is twice as abundant as copper, five times as abundant as 
zinc, ten times as abundant as lead, and from fifty to one hundred times 
as abundant as tin. There are, indeed, among the so-called rare metals 
some which are distinctly more abundant than lead, although this is the 
cheapest of the lot in price, and is consumed at the rate of over a million 
tons a year. 

And so one gets at once an indication of two important features. 
Firstly, the miner works only those deposits in which the metal is concen- 
trated sufficiently to make their exploitation a profitable business ; and 
secondly, the metalliferous ores vary greatly in the completeness with 
which they have been concentrated in special places to form workable 

2 Presidential Address, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Tratu. Vol. zxziv. 
1925, p. Ivii. 



30 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

ore-deposits. Nickel-ore, for instance, occurs under conditions which con- 
spicuously hinder its freedom of local concentration ; and consequently 
the wide distribution of the metal and its relative abundance bring little 
comfort to those who are anxious about their supplies of a metal which 
jumps suddenly into importance with every rumour of war. We are safe 
in predicting that we shall never recover for use in the Arts any fraction 
of our total supplies of nickel as large as we shall of most of the others 
which have been mentioned. Indeed, nickel stands apart from the 
others ; for, whilst it is important in peace time and is dangerously 
important during war, yet, under the present state of mining and metal- 
lurgical practice, the deposits in the world worth working for nickel can 
be numbered on the fingers of one hand, and nine-tenths of our supplies 
come from a single district in Canada. 

Before discussing more precisely the significance of this and similar 
facts on the question of international relationships, let us consider for a 
moment the nature of our exploitation methods. Our reference to nickel 
shows that the metalliferous ores vary in their degrees of concentration, 
and, therefore, in their suitability for working ; but, as the result of 
estimates made for a few common metals, we shall not be far from the 
average in assuming that we shall never recover more than about one- 
millionth of the total that lies within workable distance from the surface 
of our accessible dry land. And another conclusion, based on a similar 
group of calculations, shows that our greatest total tonnages are not 
contained in the rich deposits, but in those of low-grade. 

It follows, therefore, that every advance in metallurgical science and 
in mining technology that makes it possible to work our low-grade ores 
adds appreciably to the actuarial value of civilisation ; for our mineral 
resources can be worked once and once only in the history of the World, 
and when our supplies of metalliferous ores approach exhaustion, 
civilisation such as we have now developed during the last century must 
come to an end. When a miner raises a supply of ore in concentrated form 
for the metallurgist, he damages, and so places beyond reach for ever, far 
larger quantities of residual ore than he makes available for use. When a 
metallurgist takes over the product of the miner and separates the refined 
metal for use in the Arts, he also incurs serious losses, although not to the 
same extent. There are thus before both the miner and the metallurgist 
opportunities for extending the actuarial value of civilisation ; and 
because the cost of labour is the principal constituent in the total bill, and 
has recently swamped contemporaneous advances in technology, the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 31 

gradual elimination of manual labour by mecbanisation is obviously the 
most profitable line of research. 

But mechanisation carries with it in general a tendency to limit opera- 
tions to the larger deposits, with the concurrent neglect of those 
propositions which are widely scattered over the earth, and, though 
individually small, represent in the aggregate a serious section of our 
limited resources. And so our operations in mining, with the family of 
industries dependent on minerals, tend more and more to be restricted to 
a few special regions, where work can be done on a large scale. 

So now, with this thumb-nail sketch of the way in which the new 
mineral era is developing, we are free to examine more closely the influence 
which this change in the configuration of the industrial world is likely 
to have on international relationships. 

In the first place, it becomes obvious that no single country, not even 
the United States, is self-contained, whether for the requirements of peace 
or for the necessities of war. Not even the more scattered sections of the 
Earth that are politically united to form the British Empire contain the 
full variety of those minerals that are the essential raw materials of our 
established activities.* Between them these two — the British Empire 
and the United States — produce over two-thirds of the 2,000 million tons 
of mineral that the world now consumes annually. Each of them has 
more than it wants of some minerals ; but, in order to obtain its own 
requirements at economic rates, each finds it necessary to sell its surplus 
output to other nations. Each produces less than it wants of some minerals, 
and so must obtain supplies from other nations to keep its industries alive. 
Each of them is practically devoid of a few but not always the same 

^ For purposes of reference I give a list of minerals, showing how the resources of 
the British Empire, so far as our present information goes, can be relied on. This 
list has been kindly revised by Mr. T. Crook of the Imperial Institute. 

1. Those for which the World now depends mainly on the Empire : — Asbestos, china 
clay, chromite, diamonds, gold, mica, monazite, nickel and strontium. 

2. Those of which we have enough and to spare : — Arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, coal 
fluorspar, fuller's earth, graphite, gypsum, lead, manganese, salt, silver, tin and zinc. 

3. Those in which we could be self-contained if necessary : — Bauxite, barium 
minerals, felspar, iron ore, magnesite, molybdenum, platinum, talc, tungsten and 
vanadium. 

4. Those for which we are now dependent on outside sources : — Antimony, bismuth, 
borates, copper, petroleum, phosphates, potash, pyrites, quicksilver, siilphur and 
radium. 

A corresponding list for the United States was prepared in 1925 by a Committee 
under the chairmanship of Prof. C. K. Leith, and pubhshed under the joint authority 
of the two Mining and Metallurgical Institutions in New York. 



32 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

minerals, which, though relatively small in quantity, are none the less 
essential links in the chain of industrial operations. Even if these two 
could ' pool ' their resources they would still be compelled to obtain from 
other nations the residual few. For it is important to remember that, 
unlike organic substance, it is not possible to make synthetic metals, and 
it never will be ; it is not even possible to make artificial substitutes for 
many essential minerals that are used as such and not merely for their 
metallic constituents. There is no other mineral and no artificial substance 
for instance that can combine the qualities which give to the mineral 
mica its position of importance in the Arts — its fissility in thin sheets, its 
transparency to light and opacity to heat rays, its stability at high 
temperatures, its toughness and the degree of its insulating properties. 
There will never be a synthetic mica. 

Thus the international exchange of minerals is an inevitable con- 
sequence of our new civilisation ; and the cry for freedom of movement, 
for the ' open door ' and for equal opportunity for development comes 
into conflict with the unqualified formula of ' self-determination.' What- 
ever may have been possible before the industrial revolution, when the 
mineral industry merely contributed to the simple wants of agriculture, 
when most national units were self-contained, the formula of ' self- 
determination ' has come too late in the World's history to do good without 
a more than consequent amount of harm. We cannot even live now 
without the free interchange of our minerals for those of other nations ; 
in the name of civilisation we dare not go to war. 

There is one more group of fundamental data to recall before we are 
in a position to point the practical lessons which follow from the newly 
established and prospective mineral situation. I have already referred to 
the way in which economic considerations tend, through large-scale produc- 
tion, to restrict operations to a limited number of specially favoured areas. 
There was a time within my memory when the primitive lohar, a survival 
of the aboriginal inhabitants of India, could be found in every province, 
nearly every district. He collected the granular mineral from the weathered 
outcrops of relatively lean iron-ore bodies, and, by using charcoal as a fuel, 
turned out blooms of malleable iron in a miniature clay furnace, using a 
pair of goat skins to produce the necessary blast. These primitive 
workers also produced small ingots of steel by the carbonisation of wrought 
iron in clay crucibles many centuries before the same process made 
Sheffield famous. 

But with the large-scale production of steel in western countries, 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 33 

attended by the opening of the Suez Canal, cheaper transport by steamers 
and the spread of railways from the coast of India, the lohar has been 
exterminated from all but the most remote parts of the country. His 
history is similar to that of other workers ; the small ore-bodies that he 
used are of no interest to the modern iron-master, and one result therefore 
of the modern movement is the neglect of a large fraction of our total 
resources. We are discussing, however, what is actually happening, not 
what we think should be a less wasteful course of evolution ; natural 
evolution, like ' trial and error ' methods, is always wasteful. 

Primitive workers in various lands have opened up to relatively shallow 
depths rich but small deposits of other ores, and in Eastern countries 
especially, where forms of civilisation extend far back into history, the 
numerous and widespread ' old workings ' have given rise to travellers' 
impressions of great mineral wealth. But low-grade deposits that the 
ancient miner could not utilise are now opened up by mechanica^ 
methods on a large scale ; and, on the other hand, what satisfied the 
primitive metallurgist in abundance would be of little use to the modern 
furnace. 

We have now to revalue the tales of travellers which have had a 
dangerous influence on those who have directed the course of international 
competition : we have to strike out of consideration the integers of the 
primitive worker to whom a great tonnage would form a mere decimal 
point in the modern unit ; we have to realise that our mid- Victorian 
standards of metal production are gone for ever, and that the comforting 
after-war formula of ' back to normal ' is merely a hypnotic drug to conceal 
the uncomfortable, one might say regrettable, dynamic conditions which 
have since developed at a speed that is not sufficiently recognised within 
our Empire. 

It is now misleading to speak of the wide distribution of minerals within 
a country as we could have done some fifteen years ago ; we must now 
rule out the smaller deposits, and so form a new picture composed of 
those concentrations that are on a scale suflS.cient to support modern metal- 
lurgical units. 

For this reason it is necessary to review afresh the resources of the 
undeveloped Far East, which has for many years been regarded as a 
menace to Western industrial dominance. The vague general notion that 
mineral deposits are evenly distributed throughout the Earth's crust has 
fed the impression that the development of China, which is much larger 
than the United States, may yet shift the centie of industrial gravity when 
1929 D 



34 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

her great population becomes awakened and organised by western technical 
science. 

It is true that the people of the East are rapidly adopting the methods 
and using the mechanical facilities of western nations — railways, telegraphs, 
power factories, steel ships and other metal-consuming devices ; but the 
critical investigations made by mining geologists, especially since the war, 
tend, with a striking degree of unanimity towards recognising the remark- 
able circumstances that China, as well as other countries of the Far East, is 
deficient in those essential deposits of minerals on which our mechanised 
form of civilisation is based.* 

When China was still an unknown land it was possible for after-dinner 
speakers to impress non-critical hearers by talk of the ' yellow peril ' and 
the ' challenge of Asia ' ; but these expressions have been used without 
thought of the circumstances that natural resources in minerals now sets 
a rigid limit to power, whether industrial or military. We have known 
for some time of the natural limitations of India, of Japan and of smaller 
political units in the East ; but until very recently we have had insuffi- 
ciently precise data for estimating the quantitative value of the terms 
' vast ' and ' unlimited ' which have been so often applied to China. 
Assuming that China may yet become a homogeneous national unit, or 
even assuming that her resources may become developed by Japanese 
energy, there is very little doubt now that, as an industrial area, the 
country is deficient in those minerals that form the essential basework of 
the modern form that civilisation has definitely taken. 

And the obvious limit in development, as defined by local natural 
resources, can be extended only to a limited degree by the importation of 
raw materials from other areas ; for a country can buy metals only by 
the exchange of other products ; its buying powers are limited by its 
selling powers. Abundant cheap labour, assisted by a semi-tropical 
climate, can produce an exportable surplus of food stuffs only in limited 
parts of the Far East ; even the so-called luxury products, which to our 
early navigators formed the inspiration of what we call geographical 
research, are now obtained elsewhere, and some are being replaced by 
artificial products evolved from the chemical laboratory. 

Exploratory work by mining geologists tends more and more to show 
that the essential mineral products are far from evenly distributed over 

* A comprehensive study of this question with bibUography has recently been 
published by a competent and judicial authority, H. Foster Bain : ' Ores and Industry 
in the Far East," 1927. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 35 

the land areas of the world. Western Europe and North America have 
an undue share of those deposits that can be worked on a large scale, and 
it is the large-scale movement that marks the specialised character of the 
new industrialism. Anglo-Saxon character would have found limited 
scope for its energy but for the fact that nine- tenths of the coal, two-thirds 
of the copper and as much as 98 per cent, of the iron-ore consumed 
by the world come from the countries that border the North Atlantic. 
Dr. Wegener might like to add this fact to the data on which he has 
based his theory of drifting continental fragments. 

The industrial revolution, which began in Great Britain, has always 
been recognised as a dominant phase in western civilisation, but it is now 
assuming a new character. It spread first to the western countries of 
Europe, and developed there because of the favourable conditions of 
mineral resources, but the force of the movement faded out towards the 
Slavic East and the Latin South ; the mechanical industries of Italy are 
based on imported scrap. When the new industries became transplanted 
west of the Atlantic the natural conditions which originally favoured 
Great Britain were found to be reproduced on a larger scale. 

Thus, in these two main areas, separated by the Atlantic Ocean, a 
family of industries based on mineral resources has arisen to dominate the 
world ; for no similar area, so far as our geological information tends to 
show, seems to combine the essential features in any other part of the 
world. Other parts of the world will continue to supply minor accessories ; 
and the isolated basic industries associated with coal and iron will 
supply local needs on a relatively small scale. But political control, 
which follows industrial dominance, must lie with the countries that 
border the North Atlantic. 

It is only in this region that there is any approach to the state of being 
self-contained. And yet since the war there has arisen, first in Europe 
and then by imitation in Asia, a degree of national exclusiveness more 
pronounced than any which marked international relations before 1914. 
Each small political unit has become vaguely conscious of the value of 
minerals, and has shown a tendency to conserve its resources for national 
exploitation on the assumption that they add appreciably to military 
security. 

There is, however, no such thing now as equality of nations in mineral 
resources ; ' self-determination ' and the ' closed door ' are misleading 
guides to the smaller nations. Political control may hamper, but cannot 
stem, the current of the new industrialisation ; commercial and industrial 

d2 



36 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

integrations are stretching across political boundary-lines ; and the 
demand for the interchange of mineral products will be satisfied in spite 
of fiscal barriers. 

It would have been a shock to our members if, before the war, political 
problems were discussed from this Chair, and party politics may always 
be inconsistent with the mental products of culture. But the results of 
science and technology now limit the efEects of national ambitions, and 
therefore dominate the international political atmosphere for good or 
evil. One is justified always in suggesting non-controversial measures 
that tend to good ; and this it is proposed to do very briefly as the direct 
suggestion'of the new configuration of the mining and metallurgical world. 

The League of Nations has accomplished a large measure of inter- 
national understanding in questions of social value ; its influence in fore- 
stalling possible causes of war has raised new hopes ; but fortunately, so 
far, it has not been compelled to use any such instrument of force as a 
blockade, and any such measure that clashed with the vital economic 
considerations of first-class powers would probably cause stresses well 
beyond its elastic limits. The more recent and simpler pact of Paris 
associated with the name of Mr. F. B. Kellogg wants equally an ultimate 
instrument for its practical enforcement. 

It was with this ultimate object in mind that the outline of my argument 
was drafted after the Glasgow meeting last year ; but I am glad to find 
that my views have since been expressed independently. Senator Capper, 
of Kansas, in February last submitted a resolution to the American 
liCgislatare recognising this shortcoming of the simple treaty, and pro- 
posing to supplement its moral obligations by a corollary which, if passed, 
will empower the Government on behalf of the United States to refuse 
munitions to any nation that breaks the multilateral treaty for the 
renunciation of war. 

Senator Capper's resolution, however, still leaves unsolved a residual 
problem of practical importance. Those of us who had the painful duty 
of deciding between civil and military necessities in the Great War, know 
well that there is now but little real difference between the materials 
required to maintain an army on a war footing and those that are essential 
to the necessary activities of the civilian population ; materials essential 
for one purpose can be converted to articles required for the other. Thus, 
if Senator Capper's resolution be adopted by those who have signed the 
Kellogg Treaty, either sympathy for the civil population would be stirred, 
or the armies would be still supplied with many essential munitions : the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 37 

definition of ' conditional contraband ' would still remain as a cause for 
international friction. 

A formula, still simpler but equally efiective, is indicated by this 
review of the new situation arising from the essential use of minerals. It 
is suggested, therefore, as an amendment to Senator Capper's resolution, 
that the simple words ' mineral products ' be substituted for ' arms, 
munitions, implements of war or other articles for use in war.' 

The only two nations that can fight for long on their own natural 
resources are the British Empire and the United States. If they agree 
in refusing to export mineral products to those countries that infringe the 
Kellogg Pact, no war can last very long. As our friends across the Atlantic 
have recently learnt, it is easier to stop exports than to prevent imports : 
the Customs' officer is more effective, less expensive and far less dangerous 
than a blockading fleet. 

The confederation of American States has the advantage of forming a 
compact geographical unit, without inter-State fiscal barriers to hamper 
the interchange of mineral products. The British Empire, in the words 
of Principal Nicholas Murray Butler, ' has passed by natural and splendid 
evolution into the British Commonwealth of Nations ' ; it is composed of 
geographically scattered and independent political units, among which 
freedom of interchange, with due regard to local interests, can be effected 
safely only by more complete knowledge of our rcaources. Next year the 
Empire Congress of Mining and Metallurgy will meet in this city to discuss 
the proposition which I submitted to it at Montreal in 1927 ; and this 
Address must be regarded, therefore, as an introduction to a movement 
which one hopes will supply the necessary data, and so facilitate a working 
agreement between the two great Mineral Powers that alone have the 
avowed desire and the ability to ensure the peace of the world. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



SOME PROBLEMS OF COSMICAL 
PHYSICS, SOLVED AND UNSOLVED. 



ADDRESS BY 

LORD RAYLEIGH, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Of the activities of our section, the Cape has perhaps been more identified 
with astronomy than with any other branch. In the middle of the 
eighteenth century, when exact astronomy of the southern hemisphere 
may be considered to have begun, there were few, if any, other places in 
a considerable southern latitude where an astronomer could work in 
safety with the necessary help of trained artisans. This tradition worthily 
begins with Lacaille (1750-1751). Other landmarks were the foundation 
of the Cape Observatory (1821), the expedition of Sir John Herschel 
(1833-1838), and the forceful and energetic career of Sir David Gill, who 
was the life and soul of our organisation on its visit to South Africa in 
1905. Shortly afterwards he retired, and I then had the privilege of 
friendship with him in London. Indeed I have taken these few facts and 
dates from the copy of his ' History of the Cape Observatory,' which he 
gave me very shortly before his death. Although past his prime at the 
time I knew him, he was still vigorous and keenly interested in scientific 
developments ; though, if one brought anything new to his notice, a 
severe cross-examination as to the validity of the evidence had to be faced. 

It is partly on account of this association of South Africa with 
astronomy that I have chosen to lean as far towards this direction as I 
feel able, and to pass in review some subjects lying on the border-line 
between astronomy and physics. 

After the first period of success in identif jang the origin of the spectral 
lines of the sun and stars with terrestrial materials certain outstanding 
cases remained which were obviously important, but in which the 
identification could not readily be made. 

The first of these cases to yield was that of helium, which was un- 
ravelled while some of the pioneers in astronomical spectroscopy were 
still active. Although in my youth I was privileged to see the discovery 
of helium at close quarters, I shall not go back so far. When we hear of 
the gas being used in millions of cubic feet for inflating large airships, we 
have to realise that its discovery is an old story. 

Kindred to the hjrpothesis of helium, so triumphantly vindicated by 
terrestrial experience, were the hypotheses of nebulium, geocoronium and 
coronium. The problems epitomised by the two former words have now 
been solved, though the solution has taken quite a different turn from 
what was expected by the older generation of astrophysicists. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 89 

The Nebular Spectrum. 

In the nebuloe are spectrum lines which have never been observed 
terrestrially. These are not faint members of otherwise complex spectra, 
such, for instance, as we have in nearly all remaining unidentified lines of 
the solar spectrum, but they stand out, bold and challenging, on a dark 
background, presenting a puzzle that was the more intriguing from its 
apparent simplicity. According to spectroscopic experience, now made 
precise and rational, simple spectra are due to light elements. This, 
taken with the fact that lines known to be due to hydrogen and helium 
accompanied the nebular lines, strongly suggested that they too were 
due to light elements of the class which terrestrially are known as perma- 
nent gases. But the fact remained that no one had succeeded in observing 
them in the laboratory, and as time went on the originally convenient 
resource of relegating them to an unknown element had become less con- 
venient. For the scheme of the elements became definite, and there was 
no room in it for new light elements. This was one of the many cases in 
science where the method of frontal attack has been exhausted in vain. 
More systematic knowledge of spectra in general, and of the spectra of 
the light elements in particular, was wanted before the question could be 
resolved. 

The clue was afforded by the circumstance that important nebular 
lines occur in pairs, obviously associated by their closeness and their 
constant relative intensity in different nebulae and in different parts of 
the same nebula. The consideration of such pairs or multiplets has more 
than once proved an advantageous point of attack on spectroscopic 
problems. It was in this way that Hartley, examining the diffuse triplets 
of magnesium, first established the constancy of frequency intervals, thus 
suggesting for the first time that addition and subtraction of frequencies 
was the proper method of analysing spectra — an idea which appeared at 
that time sufficiently paradoxical. Again, the recognition of the frequency 
intervals of multiplets afforded the clue by which complex spectra such 
as manganese and iron were first unravelled. 

It is found then that the frequency difference of the green pair of lines 
originally discovered by Huggins, and known as N, and N^ is 193 waves per 
centimetre. I. S. Bowen, to whom we owe the final elucidation of this 
enigma, sought for an equal interval in the spectrum of doubly ionised 
oxygen which he was analysing and found it in the interval between the 
low-lying levels designated as TF^ and PPj. 

This is hardly enough in itself to establish the suggested origin ; to do 
that it is necessary to fix, not only the interval between the nebular lines, 
but their position as well. The lines were attributed to intercombination 
between one singlet upper level and two lower levels belonging to a triplet, 
the third being excluded by the rule of inner quantum numbers. To fix 
the differences of the terms concerned it was necessary to connect the singlet 
and triplet levels by an intercombination line observed in the laboratory 
spectrum of doubly ionised oxygen. This was done by A. Fowler, who, 
combining Bowen's laboratory data with his own, was able to get a fairly 
satisfactory check on the observed position of the nebular pair. Practically 
no doubt remains, in view of the fact that other less well-known nebular 



40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

lines can be similarly explained as due to singly ionised nitrogen and 
singly ionised oxygen. 

The identification of these lines was made by ignoring so far as conveni- 
ent the rules of the quantum theory which had been evolved from labora- 
tory experience, and given some theoretical basis by Bohr and his followers. 
These rules forbid certain lines which might occur according to the com- 
bination principle. When a state of excitation of the atom is such that it 
cannot directly pass to a lower state without breaking one of these rules, 
that state is called metastable ; and this is the case which we have in the 
nebular lines. I shall return presently to the consideration of metastable 
states and ' forbidden ' lines. 

The Auroral Spectrum. 

The next cosmical problem I wish to refer to is the long outstanding 
one of the green line of the aurora. This was first seen by A. J. Angstrom 
at Upsala in 1868, and he recorded the observation in one of the supple- 
mentary notes at the end of his great paper in which an extensive scale of 
wave-lengths for the solar spectrum was first established. In this case the 
enigmatic line is even more isolated than in the case of the nebulte, since, 
except in the case of unusually bright auroras, one can see nothing else in 
the spectrum at all. For some years I took every available opportunity 
of looking at this spectrum, and never did so without a deep sense of 
mystery. The origin of the line was not in this case in the depths of space, 
but in our own atmosphere at the distance of a short railway journey from 
the observer. Yet an apparently exhaustive study of the spectra to be 
obtained from terrestrial gases by the combined efforts of very many 
experimenters gave no clue to its origin. 

As is well known, the clue was eventually found by McLennan, who 
was able to produce the line by heavy electric discharges in a mixture of 
oxygen and helium, or, better, oxygen and argon. Oxygen is essential, 
and there is now no doubt that the aurora line is an oxygen line, but the 
function of the inert gas is not very clear, though various more or less 
plausible guesses may be made. To have established that the line is due 
to oxygen is an immense step forward. There is, however, yet more to 
be done, for we do not know how to get the green line alone or with only 
the negative nitrogen bands as we see it in the sky. In the artificial 
spectrum the ordinary oxygen lines and the lines of the inert gas, helium 
or argon as the case may be, are conspicuous. 

The wave-length of the auroral line could not be foreseen or calculated 
from our present knowledge of the arc spectrum of oxygen. In this case 
we have only a single line to deal with, and are thus without the invaluable 
clue afforded in the'case of the nebulse'by the frequency separations of a 
doublet or triplet. There is, however, no difficulty in finding a conjectural 
place for it in the scheme of the oxygen arc spectrum as given by Hund's 
theory. This theory, which may be regarded as a generalisation of all 
our knowledge of line spectra, affords a kind of frame into which we may 
confidently hope to fit new empirical knowledge as it accumulates. 

McLennan, arguing from the fact that nitrogen bands do not appear 
in the spectrum of the night sky, which, however, shows the green line. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 41 

takes the excitation potential as less than ITS volts. This condition 
excludes very many possibilities. Indeed, if we are to be bound by the 
selection rules, it excludes all the possibilities. So, with the example of 
the nebula? before him, McLennan waives these rules, and assigns the 
green line to a transition from one or other of the low-lying metastable 
states which the theory indicates. 

The lowest state of all should be a triplet, and owing to the absence 
of companions to the green line this may very probably be excluded. 

If so, only one alternative remains, and the successful determination 
of the Zeeman effect carried out in McLennan's laboratory is in harmony 
with the choice so arrived at. An independent investigation by L. H. 
Sommer, published immediately afterwards, covered exactly the same 
ground, and led him to the same choice. This is satisfactory so far, but 
the position will be much strengthened and consolidated when we have 
an independent determination of the levels in question, giving the means 
of calculating a theoretical wave-length for comparison with that observed. 
To do this will require a fuller survey of the Schumann region of the arc 
spectrum than has yet been made. For the aurora line we have the experi- 
mental production from oxygen but not the numerical spectroscopic 
relation. For the nebular lines our position is exactly the reverse. 

The origin of the green auroral line has thus been definitely cleared up, 
at all events in so far that it is attributable to the arc spectrum of oxygen. 
There are, however, other features of the auroral spectrum which are still 
obscure. I will limit myself to discussion of one of them — -the red line 
of the aurora. Red auroras are comparatively rare, and when they do 
occur the distribution of colour presents very curious features. In some 
cases the ends of the streamers are tipped with red, while the greater part 
of the length is green. The only reddish aurora which I have been privi- 
leged to observe at my home in the south of England (May 14, 1921) was 
of a different character, the colour ranging rapidly through various shades 
of purple. The light was distributed in irregular patches high up near the 
zenith, though predominantly in the north. At the same time its position 
was highly unstable, and the general impression produced was reminiscent 
of high potential discharges in highly exhausted vacuum tubes. Vegard 
has described cases where the whole sky suddenly turned crimson. He 
has obtained good small-scale spectrograms of the red line, which give the 
position as X6322, which, however, is subject to a probable error of at 
least ±1A°. A determination by V. M. Slipher of the Lowell Observatory 
gave X6320. 

So far as can be judged from the evidence available, no pair of the low- 
lying levels of the oxygen arc scheme which McLennan has discussed in 
connection with the aurora are suitably placed to yield this red line by 
combination. We naturally turn to the consideration of nitrogen spectra, 
whicji, as is well known, are represented in the blue and violet regions of 
the auroral spectrum. 

I described in 1922 a spectrum in which one of the first positive bands 
of nitrogen X6323 was very much intensified relative to the neighbouring 
red bands, which ordinarily are of comparable brightness. This spectrum 
was produced by adding a large excess of helium to the nitrogen afterglow, 
and the source had a visual red colour dominated by this band. In 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

describing this work it was suggested as a possibility that this was the 
origin of the red auroral line, and somewhat similar ideas have been 
revived by McLennan in his recent Bakerian lecture. But there are 
difficulties to be met. Photographically two yellow nitrogen bands come 
in with intensity equal or superior to the red one, and these have no 
counterpart in auroral spectra. Moreover, the wave-length data for the 
red auroral line are far from being accurate enough for an identification 
depending on a single coincidence only. One of the most urgent problems 
in auroral work is an adequate wave-length determination of this red line 
from a large-scale spectrogram. 

CORONIUM. 

A problem which has generally been classed with those we have been 
discussing is that of the lines in the sun's corona, attributed to a hj^pothetical 
coronium. In the light of our present knowledge it is not probable, 
perhaps we may say not possible, that an unknown element coronium 
exists. Attempts have not been wanting to identify these lines with 
known elements. The latest is by Freeman, working in the Ryerson 
Laboratory of Chicago, who seeks to attribute the lines to argon. He 
thinks, for instance, that the strong visual green line, from which the 
conception of coronium arose, may result from two different transitions 
in the argon atom, being in reaJity double. One of his proposed transitions 
would give the fifth line of a possible series, and the other the ninth 
member of an actual series. But none of the earlier members of either of 
these series are seen in the corona, and this seems fatal to the identification 
proposed. We could not assign an observed line at X3771 as Hj (H iota) 
if H , H^ and H^ and the other earlier members of the series were miss- 
ing, yet this would be an analogous case. 

I think we must consider the origin of the strong lines of the corona as 
an unsolved problem. The possibility of their being in reality heads of 
molecular bands must be kept in view. 

Excitation of the Various Spectra. 

We have discussed these cosmical spectra so far chiefly from the 
standpoint of the spectroscopist. It will now be of interest to consider 
the probable mode of excitation of some of them. 

Let us consider first the polar aurora ; • this, as is well known, is closely 
bound up with exceptional conditions of magnetic disturbance, and these 
in turn are conditioned by solar influence. As regards the nature of this 
influence, the theory of Birkeland, elaborated by Stormer, still holds the 
field. The sun was regarded by them as emitting localised streams of 
electrically-charged particles from limited areas of its surface. 

The unrivalled advantages of this theory are that it allows the solar 
action to be emitted in a highly specialised direction, thus accounting for 
the sudden commencements of magnetic storms all over the globe, and 
their tendency to recur after the twenty-seven days of a solar rotation 
have passed : and further, that by the earth's magnetic field the action 
can be got round to the night side of the earth. But this theory in its 
original simplicity has required a good deal of patching, and it is difficult 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 43 

to feel much satisfaction with the special ad hoc hypotheses which have 
had to be introduced into it. 

A stream of particles with a charge of one sign only is open to the 
criticism, first put forward by Schuster, that the stream will dissipate 
itself by electrostatic repulsion, and loses the hard outline which is one of 
the most essential features. Lindemann has proposed to get over the 
difficulty by making the stream neutral on the whole, still consisting, 
however, of charged particles of both signs. Here, however, we lose too 
much of the magnetic flexibility of the stream. Chapman proposes to 
retain a slight excess of charge of one sign, and in this way is able to arrive 
at a tolerable compromise. But one feels that more experimental 
guidance is badly needed before we can venture with confidence into these 
theoretically dark regions. The search for direct evidence might not seem 
at first sight very hopeful, but not long ago a sensational suggestion was 
made bj^ Stormer. His attention was drawn by Hals to echoes heard 
after short-wave (131 metres) wireless signals sent out from Eindhoven in 
Holland. These echoes have been found by Stormer and Hals at long 
intervals up to as much as fifteen seconds after the original reception. 

Now, if we bear in mind that with the velocity of light the longest 
terrestrial distances only give intervals about 1 of a second, it seems 
inevitable that some extra-terrestrial reflector should be looked for. 
Stormer finds this in the corpuscular stream as bent round by the earth's 
magnetic force. Though the boldness of the idea is staggering, it is difficult 
to suggest any alternative view. Stormer states that ' the variability of 
the phenomenon indicated by the observations agrees well with the 
corresponding variability of aurora and the magnetic registrations.' 

T. L. Eckersley has made an observation on electrical disturbances of 
natural origin which he interprets as analogous to Stormer's. A 
click is heard in a telephone attached to a large aerial, which is followed 
at an interval of about three seconds by a ' whistler ' or musical note of 
short duration. Further whistlers follow at intervals of 3-8 seconds, 
each more drawn out than the previous. The musical notes are regarded 
as due to the spreading action of a dispersive medium on an electrical 
impulse. It is only at times of magnetic storm that these phenomena are 
frequent. 

Further development of observations of this kind will be awaited with 
keen interest. 

To return to the nebular spectrum : although the main problem has 
been cleared up in the way described, it would still be an important step 
to imitate the spectrum in the laboratory, not so much to confirm the 
origin of the lines as to get direct information about the conditions under 
which they may be excited. No success has yet been obtained in this 
direction, but it is fairly clear how the attempt should be made. We 
must have conditions capable of exciting the lines of doubly ionised oxygen 
and attempt to work in a large volume at high rarefaction. 

A large volume and high rarefaction (rarity of collisions) is suggested 
by the nebular conditions, and was plausibly held by Bowen to be an 
essential. It must be allowed, however, that such experimental evidence 
as we have at present on passage downwards from metastable states does 
not definitely point in this direction. 



44 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In such attempts what Darwin called ' fool experiments ' and what 
prospectors for oil call ' wild catting,' are not to be discouraged. Indeed, 
many of the most fruitful discoveries are really made in this way. The 
logic is put in afterwards. That is what happened in the case of the 
3-electrode thermionic valve. 

Thanks to the work of Wright, Hubble and others, the source of excita- 
tion in the bright line nebulse no longer appears inexplicable. We have 
the cardinal fact that in nearly all cases stars of early type, capable of 
affording radiations of high frequency, are involved in the nebulse. The 
two or three apparent exceptions, though deserving of the closest scrutiny, 
do not at present seem to have enough weight to upset a generalisation 
which rests on a great number of cases. It is true that we cannot observe 
these short waves, the maximum of intensity in the spectrum being 
hidden from our view by the layer of ozone overhead, which I shall say 
more of presently. But we can confidently infer their existence by 
extrapolating from what we can see, and correcting for what we know of 
atmospheric absorption. The cases of some of the central nuclei of the 
planetary nebulse are specially satisfying from the definite relation 
of the star to the nebula and the adequate character of the star itself. 
W. H. Wright, writing in 1918, before these views had emerged, and 
without any thesis to maintain, expressed himself as follows : — * 

' I cannot but believe that this wonderful richness in ultraviolet light 
which gives the spectra of nebular nuclei their characteristic appearance, 
in spite of the great difference which they exhibit in the matter of bright 
bands, is the dominating peculiarity which must be regarded as the 
distinguishing mark of this group of objects.' 

It has been suggested that the general penetrating cosmic radiation of 
which we have heard so much of late stimulates the nebular spectrum ; 
but upon the facts available this hypothesis hardly seems necessary or 
helpful. 

The Dark Patches in the Nebulae. 

There is another aspect of the diffuse galactic nebulse which remains 
obscure in more senses than one. It is seen to special advantage in such 
objects as the ' trifid ' nebula in Sagittarius. Dark regions are, as it 
were, interlarded with the bright ones in a way which strongly suggests 
that we have to do with complementary aspects of the same phenomenon 
somewhat in the same way that, for instance, the emission of a fluorescent 
body is connected with its absorption. Yet it is very difficult to pursue 
this line of thought into satisfactory detail. The opacity is quite 
unrelated to the emission, and indeed it presents the baffling peculiarity 
of having no peculiarity. For apparently every part of the spectrum 
of the stars lying beyond is obscured in the same ratio. Experimenters 
in the field of optics know how difficult it is to secure a result of this 
kind in the laboratory, particularly when the ultraviolet spectrum has 
to be included. 

Even fairly opaque gases like iodine vapour which are at our disposal 
show markedly selective absorption, and in terrestrial experiment recourse 
is usually had to the partial action of a solid obstruction such as a spinning 

1 Lick Observatory, vol. xiii, p. 252, 1918. 



I 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 45 

sector or a wire gauze not seen in focus. The astronomical equivalent of 
those devices is a swarm of meteorites, and it may be necessary to invoke 
their aid, but the rare gaseous atmosphere required to give the line spectrum 
of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and oxygen cannot be considered to blend 
harmoniously with a swarm of meteorites or to have anything like a comple- 
mentary relation to it , and it is particularly difficult to understand from 
this point of view how it can come about that the bright nebular lines 
are often seen on a profoundly dark background almost or quite free from 
continuous spectrum. 

Comets. 

A kindred problem is that of the luminosity of comets. This has 
been discussed by Zanstra in a recent paper. [M.N., Dec, 1928]. Ho 
takes the view that the Swan bands of carbon are resonance bands excited 
by light from the sun in the visual spectrum, the gases being at an ordinary 
temperature such as prevails at the earth's surface. If these are really 
the conditions, the problem of imitating the comet seems ideally easy 
from the laboratory point of view. The Swan spectrum should appear in 
absorption of suitable carbonaceous gases, contained in a vessel at the 
ordinary temperature ; and it should be observable in lateral emission. 
I cannot help thinking that if nothing more than this was necessary, the 
thing would have been done before now. In the case of the D line sodium, 
treated by Zanstra as quite analogous, it has of course been done long 
ago in the phenomenon described by R. W. Wood, and called resonance 
radiation. 

Metastable States. 

In discussing the nebular and auroral spectra, we encountered the idea of 
' metastable states.' At present this conception is not in a very satisfactory 
condition. The original idea was of a state which did not allow of 
direct transition by emission of radiation to the stable ordinary state. 
Let us compare the level of the atom to the stories of a building and the 
optical electron to a man inside the building. The ordmary state of the 
atom is represented by the man being on the ground floor, and the meta- 
stable state by placing him on the first floor. But the internal architecture 
of our building must be pictured as peculiar. A staircase connects the 
flrst floor with the second floor, and another staircase connects the second 
floor with the ground floor : but there is no connection between the first 
floor and the ground floor except by going up higher and coming down again. 

Such, I say, was the original conception, but facts which have since 
come to light require some revision of it. 

In the nebulfe the electron manages somehow to escape from its prison- 
house, and descend to the level below not by the legitimate route of 
going upstairs and down again, but by illicitly breaking through the 
floor, contrary to the rules of the establishment. 

Abandoning the metaphor, and the attempt to use popular language, 
the selection rule which forbids transitions not involving a change in 
the azimuthal quantum number is violated in all such cases. The 
inner quantum number rule, which requires that the inner quantum 
number should not change from 2 to or from to is also violated 
in one class of cases, and rather meticulously observed in another. 



46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

This rule permits only the pair of green nebular lines in doubly ionised 
oxygen which we have discussed ; and in deference to it only two are 
observed, instead of the three which apart from this might have been 
expected from the triplet ground state. 

Yet we find the blue singlet line X4363 of this ion violating the same rule, 
and the same applies to the analogous case of the aurora line, if we adopt 
McLennan's view of its position in the scheme of the arc spectrum. 

In the case of the mercury spectrum, which lends itself well to experi- 
mental observation and of which much detail is known, we have laboratory 
examples of the violation of this rule, as originally shown by experiments 
of Takamine, Fukuda and other Japanese physicists. The lines were 
originally obtained under conditions where a strong electric field was acting, 
and this was sometimes urged in mitigation for breaking the rule. Again, 
the lines were of low intensity, and this too was thought to be a partial 
excuse. 

Whatever might have been thought of these apologies originally 
their irrelevance was, I think, clearly shown in some experiments of my 
own, in which one of the ' forbidden ' mercury lines was obtained as the 
second strongest line in the entire mercury emission spectrum, in the 
vapour passing through a discharge, but altogether away from the region 
in which the discharge itself was taking place, and consequently in the 
absence of an extraneous electric field. 

In another experiment I was able to obtain the other forbidden line 
as an absorption line in unexcited mercury vapour, and thus apparently 
in the absence of any disturbing conditions. In this experiment the 
quantity of vapour used was very large, about ten million times the amount 
required to bring out the resonance line of mercury in absorption. The 
probability of the transition thus indicated is very low, and for the other 
forbidden line it is apparently still lower. But for all that, as we have 
seen, this forbidden line can be got in considerable intensity in emission. 
The necessary condition in the mercury experiments appears to be a 
large accumulation of mercury atoms in the relevant metastable state, 
so that even with a low probability of transition for the individual 
excited atom a considerable number of transitions occur. 

It has even been proposed to define a metastable state as one with a 
low probability of transition. This takes us far from the original concep- 
tion, and makes ' metastability ' merely a question of degree. Some 
recent results which I hope to bring before the section at a later stage in 
our proceedings seem to indicate that even the normal excited state may 
possibly persist for a much longer time than has hitherto been supposed. 
If this conclusion is accepted, a far-reaching revision of our present 
notions may become necessary. The general softening of outline in our 
picture of atomic events resulting from the substitution of wave groups 
for particles seems likely to afford what is required, and to allow the 
occasional transition downwards from a metastable state. 

Ozone. 

The case of the nebular spectrum affords an illustration of how spectro- 
scopic theory, working on laboratory data gained in the remote ultraviolet 
region, enables us to some extent to turn the difficulties which arise from 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 47 

our inability to examine this region in celestial spectra. The veil of 
atmospheric ozone overhead cuts off the spectra of the sun and stars and 
thus hides much of the ultraviolet, constituting a great obstacle to astro- 
physical research. On the other side of the account we may remember 
that it protects our persons from the harmful ultraviolet rays, and that 
without it we might not be here to conduct research at all. It has been 
suggested by Carlo, R. W. Wood and others that on the view that 
atmospheric ozone is generated by the absorption of short-wave lengths 
in the sun's spectrum, it may be absent in the Arctic during the polar night. 
This possibility has been put to the test by Rosseland, but with negative 
results. It is doubtful whether his station was far enough away from the 
sunlight to make his result absolutely final. But other omens are un- 
favourable. Thus Chalonge has found that the amount of ozone present 
in the night (using the moon as a source) is notably more than by day ; 
and Dobson, Harrison and Lawrence have found that when the meteoro- 
logical conditions are such as to bring air from the Arctic, the ozone content 
goes up, and that this is particularly marked in spring, when the Arctic 
has been without sunlight for months. The point is, however, of great 
interest in itself, and makes the question acute of how the ozone is 
generated. For in view of these facts it seems hard, as Dobson has pointed 
out, to regard it as the product of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. 

No search seems yet to have been made for ozone in the planetary 
atmospheres. In the cases of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn at all events, the 
problem is not at first sight specially difficult. It would not be easy to 
establish a positive result, however, unless the atmospheres of these 
planets possess an ozone stratum at least comparable in effective thickness 
with the terrestrial one. 

Possibility of Unknown Elements of High Atomic Weight. 

Although we are no longer at liberty to postulate unknown light 
elements, we are free up to the present to postulate heavier ones than 
any known terrestrially. Jeans, as is well known, has made use of this 
hypothesis to explain the origin of stellar energy. In common with other 
authorities he provides it by the destruction of matter, with radiation 
of the equivalent quantity of energy (MC^) demanded by the theory of 
relativity. So far there seems to be fairly general agreement. The 
difficulties arise when we come to the question of stability, and here 
agreement is not general. Jeans considers that the source must liberate 
energy at a rate independent of the temperature. I am not qualified, and 
shall not attempt, to discuss this point. The object of postulating un- 
known heavy elements is to endow them with the property of going out 
of existence spontaneously at a rate which is independent of external 
condition, except in so far as ionisation, which involves the removal of 
some of the electrons from the neighbourhood of protons, tends to hinder 
the process. 

In the known radioactive elements we have of course instances of 
unstable forms of matter, and Jeans regards these as transitional ; but 
it must be admitted that substances which undergo spontaneous disin- 
tegration do not at first sight form an altogether satisfactory halfway house 
between those which are quite stable on the one side and those which 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

spontaneously go out of existence on the other. Then we have to explain 
why these heavy atoms are not found on the earth, which, it is generally 
agreed, originally formed part of the same mass as the sun. Jeans 
mentions this difficulty, and gives reasons for thinking that the heavy 
elements would sink to the interior of the mass, so that the earth, formed 
from the exterior part of it, would not contain them. That a vera causa 
is here appealed to cannot be doubted ; but there seem to be some 
difficulties in assuming that it operates with enough precision to secure the 
desired result. 

The list of known elements ends with uranium, and we must notice 
that the occupants of the 92 places up to and including uranium in the 
list, nearly all answer to their proper numbers when the roll is called. 
The only exceptions are 85 and 87. And he would be a rash philosopher 
who attached much importance to these vacant places, which may be 
filled up any day. Roughly speaking, we may say that the elements up 
to uranium are all present, and the higher members assumed to exist in 
the stars are all absent. It is putting a heavy burden on the mechanism 
of gravitational separation to expect it to achieve this result. The 
inventors of ore-dressing machinery would, I should imagine, despair of 
accomplishing anything like it. 

Nature works on a vast scale and with plenty of time at her disposal, 
and it may well be urged that we must be careful of measuring her possible 
achievements by our own. We may ask, however, whether the more 
direct indications available suggest that she has in fact made this separa- 
tion. If there is this cut between the atomic numbers 92 and 93, we 
should expect most of 92 to have gone into limbo in order to ensure the 
whole of 93 having done so. Yet 92 (uranium) is a relatively abundant 
element compared with most, being in fact No. 25 on the list of abundance 
in igneous rocks, according to the estimate of Clark and Washington. 
Again, we happen to be in a position to say that on the earth at least, 
uranium, so far from having sunk to the centre, is concentrated near the 
surface. This is inferred from the known outflow of heat from the earth, 
which is difficult to reconcile with the observed amount of radioactive 
matter near the surface, and impossible to reconcile with the existence of 
a comparable amount in the interior. 

Assuming that uranium exists on the sun as on the earth, then, as 
first pointed out by Lindemann, there are strong grounds for thinking 
that it must be in course of formation there, for the life of uranium is too 
short in comparison with the probable age of the sun to allow us to suppose 
otherwise. Those who remember the early development of radioactivity 
will recall that a parallel argument was successfully used by Rutherford 
to prove that radium must have originated on the earth before the fact 
was directly proved that it is being generated here. Radium (it was 
later shown) is generated from a parent body of higher atomic weight, 
namely uranium. Jeans would regard the origin of uranium itself as 
analogous, and if this analogy is accepted it would require the presence 
of an element of still higher atomic weight, capable of undergoing radio- 
active disintegration, but, it is to be observed, incapable, ex hypothesi, 
of dissolving entirely into radiation. 

No doubt these are very deep waters, and we can hardly expect at 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 49 

present to fathom them. What would really be most helpful would be a 
theory of atomic structure in sufficiently definite agreement with experi- 
ment as regards known elements to enable us to proceed to investigate 
the properties of elements of higher number than 92 with confidence. On 
the general question of whether the evolution of elements has proceeded 
from the simple to the complex, or from the complex to the simple, it does 
not seem to me very much to the purpose to appeal to evolutionary 
doctrine and the analogy of organic evolution, in favour of the former 
alternative. Is it not more to the point that the only cases we can 
observe (radioactive changes and those induced by radioactive bombard- 
ment) are of the latter class ? At present this is a question of scientific 
taste. Perhaps it is not irrelevant to remark that even in organic 
evolution degeneration of organisms sometimes occurs, and I do not 
know whether our biological colleagues are in a position to assert that 
the whole course of organic evolution may not at some future time 
be reversed by a change of conditions. At all events it is something 
to have formulated the more restricted question of whether uranium now 
comes into being on the sun by a synthetic or an analytic process. It 
would seem that this is a well-framed question, and that the answer can 
hardly be either both or neither. 

Conclusion. 

The great success of theoretical investigations in recent times naturally 
leads enterprising spirits to use them not only in interpreting what we know 
or can verify by observation, but to lead us into regions where experiment 
is not available as a check. I believe that this does nothing but good in 
times like ours, when there is no danger of the doctrines even of a master 
being unduly pressed, if the evidence of observed fact turns against them. 
At the same time, we must not expect too much of pure intellect unchecked 
by observation. Theories that do not stand the test of time pass for the most 
part into complete oblivion, and we are apt to forget how appallingly • 
large a mass of wreckage the total of them represents. The next generation 
remembers chiefly those that survive, and does not take full advantage of 
the lesson of how easy it is for an apparently inevitable conclusion to be 
wrong. Unless the argument carries its own verification by some accurate 
and previously unforeseen numerical coincidence, it is hard indeed to tell 
if we are on the right track. 

Though some of the problems we have been discussing have been only 
partially or not at all resolved, yet many possible points of approach are 
opening to our view. 

The attack on Nature's secrets is now conducted along a long line of 
battle. No sooner does the defence show signs of crumbling at any point 
than an eager crowd of combatants, not restrained by any undue respect 
for the traditional modes of scientific thinking, are ready to throw them- 
selves into the breach. The great array of trained workers in pure science 
existing in the modern community is powerfully reinforced by workers in 
applied science, who are backed by the resources of the industrial and 
financial world and hand back to the physical laboratory the devices 
which had their birth there in a form infinitely strengthened in power and 
convenience of application. Thus rearmed with weapons of greater power 
1929 p 



50 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and precision, pure science advances again to the attack of fresh territory, 
and so the process goes on at an ever accelerating rate. How long this 
acceleration is destined to continue it is impossible to say. It shows few 
signs of abating at present. But for all that I for one am not afraid that 
our successors will be able to complain that we have left them no more 
worlds to conquer. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



THE RELATION OF ORGANIC 
CHEMISTRY TO BIOLOGY 

ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOR GE0RC4E BARGER, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Since the British Association fii'st met in South Africa, Afrikaans has 
become an ofHcial language, and I will therefore take as my point of 
departure the Dutch word for chemistry, still commonly used in Holland : 
Scheikunde, the science of separating. The German analogue, ' Scheide- 
kunst,' hardly applies to chemistry as a whole, and is now mainly restricted 
to the separation of gold and silver — ' parting,' as we say. Since the 
purification of a substance is merely the separation of impurities, and 
since purification constitutes no small part of the labours of the chemist, 
whether he be an inorganic, an organic, or a biochemist, it will be seen 
that the Dutch term is really apt ; it is, moreover, an accurate description 
of chemical analysis ; perhaps it will appeal least to those physical 
chemists who are content to leave the purification of their materials to 
the manufacturer. Since, in the last resort, we are dependent on 
naturally occurring materials, which hardly ever occur in a state of 
purity, it follows that the early chemists were even more concerned with 
separating one substance from another than many of us are to-day. 
Progress was at first limited to mineral substances capable of withstanding 
powerful reagents and a high temperature ; much of the old chemistry is 
concerned with the heavy metals. The substances formed in such large 
numbers by living beings are much less stable, and their isolation demands 
a special technique. It is significant that, in spite of their knowledge of 
the smelting of ores, of the manufacture of glass, and of many other arts, 
the ancients failed to distil alcohol. Later, the chemical investigation of 
organic material was apt to consist in destructive distillation, naturally 
adding little to knowledge. Only the more volatile and stable substances 
could be isolated in this fashion. Thus, in 1770, four acids were known, 
formic and acetic, obtained by distillation, succinic and benzoic, obtained 
by sublimation. Oxalates and tartrates were known, but not the free 
acids. By distilling alcohol with strong acids, ether, ethyl nitrate, and 
ethyl chloride had been obtained.^ The wet method of separation, by 
crystallisation from solution, had scarcely been applied to organic 
substances. Nevertheless Marggraf »f Berlin had isolated beet sugar in 
1747 ; this chemist was also the first to purify glucose. 

* I have taken these and some other details from Graebe's Geschichte der 
organischen Chemie. 

e2 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

An important systematic advance was made by C. W. Scheele 
(1742-1786), whose contributions to organic chemistry are almost as 
important as his discovery of oxygen. Scheele was a pharmacist, and 
most of the early chemists were trained as such, or as physicians, from 
the iatro-chemical period onwards. This old connection between 
chemistry and medicine was, however, hardly a biological one. Joseph 
Black's work on fixed air and the mild alkalies indeed originated in 
medicine, from his M.D. dissertation, ' De humore acido a cibis orto et 
magnesia alba,' but the subsequent developments of Black's work were 
not biological in character. Again, although Berzelius was trained as a 
physician, his work had little connection with biology. The use of 
vegetable drugs, however, led pharmacists to examine the constituents 
of plants, and thus the foundations of descriptive biochemistry were laid. 
Scheele investigated a number of organic acids in the wet way. He 
obtained tartaric acid in 1769, and later benzoic acid by boiling gum 
benzoin with lime. He first prepared lactic acid (1780) from sour milk, 
and mucic acid by oxidation of milk sugar. When soon afterwards 
mucic acid was also obtained from gum tragacanth, it became evident 
that one and the same substance may be derived from both animal and 
vegetable sources. Oxalic acid was obtained from the acid potassium 
salt in Oxalis acetosella, and shown to be identical with an oxidation 
product of cane sugar. Scheele also obtained citric, malic, and even 
gallic acid by crystallisation from solution. Of more general biological 
interest is his discovery of uric acid, of glycerol and of hydrocyanic acid ; 
the last (acidum berolinense) by heating potassium ferrocj^anide with 
dilute sulphuric acid. Scheele's discovery that esterification is greatly 
furthered by the presence of mineral acids later became important in 
connection with catalysis, but theoretical speculations were foreign to 
his nature, and he was not greatly concerned with the essential character 
of acids. Such questions appealed more strongly to Lavoisier, who 
improved the nomenclature of organic acids and also investigated alcoholic 
fermentation, a biochemical process which early engaged the attention 
of chemists. 

Of course both Scheele and Lavoisier benefited biology more by dis- 
covering and investigating oxygen than by their contributions to organic 
chemistry. These latter contributions already illustrate two trends in 
organic chemical research. There were those who, like Lavoisier, were 
attracted by theoretical questions. Such were Gay-Lussac, Bunsen, and 
Frankland, who investigated radicles ; Dumas, Gerhardt, and Laurent, 
who evolved the theory of substitution and of types ; Wurtz, Hofmann, 
and Williamson, the forerunners of Kekule in establishing the theory of 
structure, which soon became the common ground of all organic chemists. 
A knowledge of structure gave a great impetus to organic synthesis, 
not only in the laboratory, for theoretical purposes, but also in the factory 
for practical uses ; the manufacture of dyes, of synthetic drugs, of 
explosives became an important industry. The number of known carbon 
compounds grew at an enormous rate. In 1883 some 20,000 were regis- 
tered in Eichter's Lexicon, in 1899 74,000, in 1910 144,000, and the number 
now is probably not much short of a quarter of a million. More than 
half of these are derived from coal tar, and only a small proportion occur 



B.— CHEMISTRY, 53 

in animals and plants. Instead of being the chemistry of organised 
beings, organic chemistry became the chemistry of carbon compounds. 
Until the present century the proportion of chemists who, like Scheele, 
were interested in natural products steadily declined, and biology became 
of little interest to chemists as a whole, but physiologists have more and 
more realised the importance of chemistry for their subject and the 
intermediate subject of biochemistry has rapidly developed. 

The systematic study of natural products, inaugurated by Scheele, 
was at first continued most successfully in France, by Fourcroy, Vauquelin, 
and their pupils. Both were at the Jardin des Plantes, and Vauquelin 
was afterwards at the Faculte de Modecine. Conjointly they discovered 
urea and hippuric acid, Vauquelin allantoin and asparagin. In 1800 
about twenty acids were known, but only one hydrocarbon (ethylene) 
and one alcohol. 

The knowledge of organic substances slowly increased. Braconnot, 
a pharmacist and later director of the botanic garden at Nancy, examined 
plants and discovered substances such as salicin and ellagic acid, of no 
particular importance to physiology, but also obtained glucose from 
cellulose (linen) and ' sucre de gelatine ' or glycine from glue, thus making 
two fundamental observations in biochemistry. KirchhofE, a German 
pharmacist, working at St. Petersburg, had already shown in 1811 that 
glucose is formed from starch, and investigated the process of malting. 
In 1833 Payen and Persoz discovered the first enzyme diastase and in 
1827 a medical practitioner of London, W. Prout, better known to chemists 
in another connection, could say in a paper : ' On the ultimate composi- 
tion of simple alimentary substances ' that they might be arranged in 
three classes, ' the saccharine, the oily, and the albuminous.' 

Thus, quite early, pharmacists and physicians brought organic 
chemistry into close relation with biology, but further advance could not 
take place without the development of organic analysis, by Gay-Lussac 
and Thenard (1810), by Berzelius, Liebig, and others. At first the 
difficulties were enormous. In 1814 Berzelius wrote to BerthoUet : 
' J'ai employe un travail de 12 mois a I'analyse de seulement 14 substances 
vegetales.' But by analysis Gay-Lussac was able to establish the funda- 
mental equation for the fermentation of glucose into alcohol and carbon 
dioxide, and the first systematic advance in biochemistry, also due to 
analysis, was Chevreul's great work on the fats. Chevreul doubtless 
acquired an interest in natural substances from his teacher Vauquelin ; 
he was attracted to the study of fats by the accidental crystallisation of 
a potassium soap from hydrolysed lard. He altogether isolated seven 
fatty acids and discovered cholesterol and cetyl alcohol. In his ' Analyse 
organique,' published in 1824, he already considered as contrary to the 
spirit of science the assumption that animal and vegetable substances 
could not be produced artificially. In that very year, 1824, Wohler 
obtained oxalic acid from cyanogen, the first synthesis of a vital product, 
if we except Scheele's production of cyanides from carbon, potassium 
carbonate, and ammonium chloride. Four years later, in 1828, Wohler's 
synthesis of urea attracted universal attention, and since then much 
labour has been expended on the synthesis of vital products as an ultimate 
proof of their structure. 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Wohler had apparently no connection with medicine or pharmacy, 
but Liebig was a pharmaceutical apprentice for one year, Frankland a 
druggist's assistant, Dumas, Schorlemmer, and even Wilhelmy, who 
investigated the kinetics of sugar hydrolysis, were pharmacists. Gmelin, 
Mitscherlich, Wurtz, and Cannizzaro studied medicine ; even in the 
present century medically qualified professors of general chemistry 
survived (Crum Brown, Emerson Eeynolds). The pharmacists soon 
found a special field of research in alkaloids, essential oils, and other 
products of the materia medica. Within a few years of the recognition 
of the first organic base, morphine, by the German pharmacist Sertiirner, 
a dozen alkaloids had been discovered, mostly in France, by Pelletier 
and Caventou, professors at the Ecole de Pharmacie. It is presumably 
due to this institution, and to the high standard of pharmaceutical 
education in France that the scientific output of French pharmacists has 
been so long maintained. For recent times we may refer to Bourquelot, 
professor at the Ecole de Pharmacie, and to Charles and Georges Tanret, 
father and son, both practical pharmacists, who not only made important 
contributions to our knowledge of drugs but also to that of sugars. In 
Germany contributions of pharmacists to organic chemistry were of less 
importance, compared with the great developments in university research, 
inaugurated by Liebig and fostered by the German states. In Britain 
the state did very little for the universities and nothing for pharmaceutical 
teaching ; although British pharmacists have the exclusive legal right to 
call themselves ' chemists ' the state has not helped them to justify the title. 
At first the British themselves contributed little to organic chemistry ; of 
the pioneers Faraday, Frankland, Perkin, and Williamson, only two were 
teachers. The sojourn of Hofmann in London, from 1845-1865, from the 
age of twenty-seven to that of forty-seven, was of the greatest influence 
on the development of organic chemistry in England, but it did not 
lead to biological applications. Particularly through the inauguration of 
the dye industry, by Hofmann' s pupil, Perkin, and Mansfield, attention 
was directed to practical problems. The determining factor in Hofmann's 
decision to return to Germany as professor at Berlin is stated to have 
been the more idealistic attitude towards science of German students, 
in contrast to the practical sense of his English pupils, who desired 
knowledge of a more utilitarian kind. Germany was not yet industrialised, 
and the insistence on research in her universities favoured ' Natur- 
forschung ' and the study of products of vegetable and animal origin. 
Characteristically, Liebig's practical applications of chemistry to agricul- 
ture seem to have attracted more attention in Britain than in his own 
country. But in physiological chemistry Germany began to lead the 
way, as witnessed by the foundation of Maly's Jahresbericht iiher die 
Fortschritte der Tierchemie (1871) and of Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur 
physiologische Chemie (1877). The latter remained for a generation the 
only journal exclusively devoted to the new border line subject and even 
now is perhaps more largely concerned with organic chemistry than its 
contemporaries . 

German organic chemists investigated not only substances such as 
alkaloids, colouring matters, and terpenes, which are mostly restricted 
to a few species, but systematically studied whole classes of biologically 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 55 

important compounds, in the same way as Chevreul had much earlier 
investigated the fats. Such was Baeyer's work on uric acid and its 
derivatives. Emil Fischer, after a short period of work on triphenylme- 
thane, devoted the labours of a lifetime to the purines, the simpler 
carbohydrates, the proteins, and the tannins. 

As a result of Fischer's work the new science of biochemistry was 
firmly established in the beginning of the present century, and the year 
1906 marked its recognition in three countries, when three new journals 
first appeared : the Biochemische Zeitschrift in Germany, the Biochemical 
Journal in Britain, and the Journal of Biological Chemistry in America ; 
the fijrst named absorbed Hofmeister's Beitrage zur chemischen Phrjsiologie 
und Pathologic, already a competitor of Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift. The 
interest of German organic chemists in substances of general biological 
importance may be further illustrated by Willstatter'swork on chlorophyll, 
carotin, the anthocyanins and enzymes, by Windaus' investigations on 
the sterols, by Wieland's work on the bile acids and by Hans Fischer's 
study of the porphyrins, which recently resulted in the synthesis of 
hsemin. 

British organic chemists appear to be more interested in theoretical 
problems. I find that during the years 1927 and 1928 about 580 papers 
on organic chemistry were pubhshed by the Chemical Society, consti- 
tuting much the largest portion of the Journal. Of these rather less than 
20 per cent, may be said to deal with natural products and were inspired 
largely by W. H. Perkin (himself a pupil of Baeyer) and by Perkin's 
pupil, Robinson. About 45 per cent, of British papers on organic 
chemistry are more or less directly concerned with such theoretical 
questions as stereo-chemistry, the nature of valency, reactivity, tautomer- 
ism, and the remaining 35 per cent, deal with the synthesis of new com- 
pounds devoid of theoretical and biological interest, although occasionally 
having practical importance. German organic chemists seem to be more 
interested in natural products. I estimate that of the organic chemical 
papers in the Berichte for 1928 about 40 per cent, are concerned directly 
or indirectly with such substances. It should not be supposed that 
organic chemical theory is wholly unconnected with biology. Two 
examples out of many will show the contrary. When a protein is 
' racesimed ' as far as possible, by Kossel's method, by leaving it for 
some weeks at 37° in half-normal alkali, it is found that certain amino- 
acids retain their optical activity and these Dakin has assumed to be the 
ones with free carboxyl groups, situated at the ends of chains. The 
others undergo racemisation probably because in their case tautomerism 
is possible : 

— CO . NH . CR'H . CO . NH . CR"H . COOH 

It 

— CO . NH . CR' : COH . NH . CR"H . COOH 

On subsequent acid hydrolysis the amino-acid NHj. CR'H. COOH would 
be racemic, but NH2.CR"H.C00H optically active. Dakin's views were 
first applied by Dudley and Woodman to show a structural difference 
between the caseinogens from cow's milk and sheep's milk, which had 



56 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been considered by some to be identical. Elementary analysis shows 

no difierence : 

C H N S P 

Cow . . . 52-96 705 15-65 0.758 0-847 

Sheep . . . 52-92 7-05 15-60 0771 0809 

and individual amino-acids are obtained in the same amounts after 
hydrolysis. After racemisation, however, Dudley and Woodman found 
the tyrosine from cow's caseinogen to be wholly inactive, that from the 
sheep fully active. In the former animal the tyrosine is probably inside 
the molecule, in the latter it is on the periphery. We are thus able to 
discover differences in the intimate pattern of the molecule. Dakin and 
Dale connected these differences with antigenic specificity. Crystallised 
albumins from the whites of hens' and ducks' eggs are very similar and 
seem to be composed of the same units in equal amounts, but Dakin 
found that three amino-acids, leucine, aspartic acid, and histidine, behave 
differently to alkali in the two molecules, and appear to occupy different 
places. Hen's albumin has some aspartic acid but no leucine or histidine 
on the periphery ; duck's albumin, on the other hand, has no aspartic 
acid, but some leucine and histidine on the outside of the molecule. By 
the very sensitive anaphylactic reaction of the isolated guinea pig's uterus, 
Dale showed that the two proteins are specifically different as antigens. 
Differences in arrangement, even of the same amino-acids, help to differ- 
entiate the proteins of various species. It is on the diversity of the 
proteins that the difference of species is based. 

Another recent example of the application of organic chemical theory 
to biology is due to Stedmau. Having traced the miotic action of 
physostigmine to a urethane grouping, he synthesised a number of ure- 
thanes of simple dimethylamino phenols, e.g. R.NH.CO.O.C6H.4N(CH3)2. 
The physiological activities of the tertiary bases is generally in the 
order ortho and para > meta, but on conversion into quarternary salts the 
ortho and para become less active, the meta more so and the order is 
meta > ortho or para. This recalls the reactivities of disubstituted 
benzene derivatives, which have of late been studied in connection with 
the polarity theory. 

Whilst organic chemists are often eager to investigate the constitution 
of animal and vegetable substances, they are less ready to undertake the 
preUminaries of purification and isolation, and are therefore less apt to 
discover new ones. By esterification and by the use of a high vacuum 
Emil Fischer made the monamino acids amenable to fractional distilla- 
tion, a standard operation of organic chemistry. He discovered several 
new members of the group. But most substances of physiological interest 
require a special technique, on the development of which the biochemist 
may spend much labour. Thus Kossel showed how to separate the 
purine and pyrimidine bases of the cell nucleus, and the important 
diamino-acids, histidine, arginine, and lysine. Hopkins, by his special 
reagent, was able to isolate tryptophane, the parent substance of indigo, 
long after indigo itself was being manufactured synthetically. Dakin 
found that monoamino acids can be extracted from aqueous solution 
by butyl alcohol, and using this new technique and Foreman's method 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 57 

of separating aspartic and glutamic acids by their calcium salts, Dakin 
discovered hydroxyglutamic acid, an entirely unsuspected unit of protein. 
A knowledge of the structure of amino-acids may throw light on how 
other nitrogenous constituents arise, particularly in plants. As an 
example, the most recently discovered amino-acid may be quoted. The 
American bacteriologist Mueller found in casein and other proteins a new 
constituent containing sulphur, quite different from the well-known 
cystine. Dr. Coyne and I have recently established its constitution by 
synthesis. It turns out to be Y'^^^thylthiol-a-amino-n-butyric acid, 
CH3.S.CHo.CH(NH2)COOH, and we named it methionine. The methyl- 
thiol grouping at once indicates that it is the source of methylmercaptan, 
the occurrence of which in putrefaction was known, although not hitherto 
inteUigible. Methionine is evidently also the parent substance of cheiroUn 
occurring in the seeds of the wallflower and of other Cruciferae. Schneider 
had long ago established for this substance the remarkable constitution 
CH3.SO2.CH2.CH2.CH0.N.CS. We now see at once that cheirolin is the 
thiocarbimide of oxidised and decarboxylated methionine. Similarly 
Perkin and Robinson connected the chemistry of harmine and harmahne 
with tryptophane when they showed that the mysterious base C12H10N2, 
which Hopkins and Cole obtained by oxidising tryptophane CiiHi20.^N2 
with ferric chloride, is identical with harman 




This observation not only settled the constitution of the alkaloids in 
question, but also explained the fitful yield of the oxidation product of 
tryptophane, which, after decarboxylation, had condensed with acetalde- 
hyde. Soon afterwards Spath showed that harman itself occurs in nature, 
as the alkaloid aribine, which had been given the erroneous formula 
C23H20N4. It is becoming increasingly evident that many alkaloids arise 
by condensation of amino-acid residues. Mezcaline and other alkaloids 
of Cactaceae are closely connected with phenylalanine and tyrosine, as 
Spath has shown, and the mode of origin of isoquinoline alkaloids from 
aromatic amino-acids has also become clear. Harmine, harmaline, 
physostigmine, and rutaecarpine are all derived from tryptophane, and 
it looks as if the same is true of other alkaloids whose constitution, like 
that of strychnine and of brucine, remains obscure. 

The isolation of some natural substances, of great physiological interest, 
is beset with difficulties because they are present in minute amount and 
have not the convenient solubility relations whichj facilitate the separa- 
tion of the alkaloids. This applies to the hormones present in animal 
tissues. Here the American slaughter-houses provide valuable faciUties, 
and it is significant that adrenaline, thyroxine, and insuUn were first 
crystallised in America, although the constitution of the two former 
hormones was later established in Europe, where also their synthesis was 
effected, that of thyroxine only a few years ago, through the brilhant 
work of Harington. The difficulties of isolating vitamins is still more 
formidable ; in the case of the antineuritic vitamin B, which is almost 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

certainly a fairly simple substance, susceptible to attack by the methods 
of organic chemistry, most progress towards isolation has been achieved 
by selective adsorption and elution, the methods employed by Willstatter 
for enzymes. The discovery by Eosenheim and Windaus that vitamin 
D is formed by the irradiation of ergosterol has suddenly brought into 
prominence a substance which before was but a curiosity, chiefly known 
through the work of the French pharmacist, Tanret. At the same time 
the interest of biochemists in photochemistry has been stimulated, as 
well as in the extensive work of Windaus on the structure of cholesterol, 
which the latter had already shown to be connected with the bile acids, 
largely investigated by Wieland. 

The sudden emergence of ergosterol into prominence does not stand 
alone ; another of Tanret's ergot substances, ergothioneine, at first also 
an isolated curiosity, has acquired more general significance because it 
has been found in mammalian red corpuscles ; it is likely that this will 
ultimately lead to the discovery in proteins of yet another sulphur- 
containing amino-acid, possibly a thiol histidine. Altogether ergot has 
yielded more substances of general biological interest than any other 
single plant. 

The above examples of the relation between biological and organic 
chemical work relate to that division of biochemistry which may be 
termed descriptive. A knowledge of structure is 'also necessary in 
djmamic biochemistry, the study of the transformations which substances 
undergo in the living organism. The recognition of the fats as esters, 
and their behaviour to fat-splitting enzymes, the transformation of starch 
into sugar under the influence of diastase, the end-products of alcoholic 
fermentation, all these were early discoveries in dynamic biochemistry. 
But just as the organic chemist may wish to know the mechanism of a 
reaction, for instance of the Skraup synthesis of quinoline, so the bio^ 
chemist wishes to know the intermediate steps in the transformation of 
say glucose into alcohol. The detection of these stages of metabolism 
is a matter of considerable difficulty, since under normal conditions the 
intermediate substances generally disappear as rapidly as they are formed. 
They have to be trapped by suitable means, as did Neuberg with acetalde- 
hyde in alcoholic fermentation, or the metabolic process may sometimes 
be cut short, by using an isolated organ, such as the surviving liver, or 
the precursor of the intermediate substance may be administered in large 
excess. Very little has been learned in this respect from the higher plants. 
The very process of photosynthesis is still beset with obscurity in spite 
of a plausible hypothesis ; we know next to nothing about transforma- 
tion of carbohydrate into fats, and vice versa, and in particular we are 
ignorant of the stages by which amino-acids are formed in plants from 
nitrates and carbohydrates ; we simply do not know how the proteins of 
living beings originate. Nor have the higher plants given us much in- 
formation of the way in which their fats, carbohydrates, and proteins are 
ultimately broken down. Our knowledge of catabolism is principally 
derived from the animal world. It is found that the breakdown does 
not always occur in the manner in which the organic chemist would expect. 
Thus an organic chemist presented with the problem of transforming 
stearic acid into palmitic might brominate in the alpha position, and 



I 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 59 

break down the corresponding a-hydroxy acid ; or he might do a Hofmann 
degradation on the amide. In either case he would get an acid with 17 
carbon atoms, and have to repeat the degradation in order to obtain 
palmitic acid. Knoop has shown, however, that in the animal organism 
the p-carbon atom is attacked so that the chain is shortened by two 
carbon atoms at a time, an acid with 18 carbon atoms being converted 
.successively into one with 16, 14, 12, etc. In accordance with this 
scheme the principal fatty acids in nature are those with an even number 
of carbon atoms. Knoop established this by feeding to-phenyl fatty 
acids ; those with an even number of methylene groups in the side chain 
were converted into benzoic acid and appeared in the urine as hippuric, 
those with an odd number of methylene groups yielded phenyl acetic 
acid and were excreted as phenaceturic acid. 

Instead of using a resistant phenyl group and the whole animal, fatty 
acids themselves and the isolated liver may be used to establish the same 
result. Embden perfused the ten lowest members of the series of fatty 
acids through a surviving liver and obtained acetone formation only with 
those having an even number of carbon atoms ; they are converted by 
p-oxidation finally to acetoacetic acid, from which acetone results. Dakin 
found in hydrogen peroxide an oxidising agent which closely imitates the 
biochemical method in vitro and at a low temperature ; thus butyric 
acid gives acetoacetic, and the higher fatty acids give methyl ketones, 
with loss of carbon dioxide. 

The same method of oxidation seems to occur in the vegetable kingdom, 
for plants are apt to contain ketones with an even number of carbon 
atoms in addition to a methyl group. Thus methylamyl-, methylheptyl- 
and methylnonyl-ketones of essential oils doubtless result from the 
decarboxylation of p-keto acids, as in Dakin's experiment, with hydrogen 
peroxide. 

The degradation of amino-acids in the body also proceeds contrary to 
the expectations of the organic chemist. If he were asked to bring about 
the degradation by gentle stages he would doubtless first convert the 
a-amino into the a-hydroxy acid. The organism forms the a-keto acid, 
however, as shown by Neubauer and by Knoop. This biochemical result 
suggested to Knoop an interesting and unlooked for synthesis of amino- 
acids in vitro, by reversing the normal breakdown. He shook solutions 
of a-keto acids, containing also ammonia and platinum black, in a 
hydrogen atmosphere when the corresponding amino-acid resulted by 
the reduction of the hypothetical imino compound. 

The transformation of tryptophane into kynurenic acid may be quoted 
as a particular problem of metabolism to which a good deal of organic 
chemistry has been applied. When large amounts of tryptophane, or 
of meat containing this amino acid, are given to dogs they excrete in 
their urine kynurenic-acid, a quinoline derivative 

N=C.COOH 

/ >CH 
f^\ ,|-CH2.CH(NH2)COOH -> ff \ COH 



60 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

and the question is which of the two nitrogen atoms of tryptophane 
survives. Is the pyrrole ring enlarged to a pyridine ring, as when indole 
is treated with chloroform and alkali, or is the pyrrole ring oxidised and 
does the pyridine ring arise from the side chain of tryptophane ? It is 
almost certain that the latter alternative holds good. 

In 1914 Ellinger and Matsuoka synthesised Pr-2. methyltryptophane, 
but could not obtain any methylkynurenic acid from it ; and having 
overlooked their publication, Ewins and I a few years afterwards made 
the same amino-acid, and obtained the same negative result. Later in 
Edinburgh I suggested to Dr. W. Robson the synthesis of a trytophane 
with a methyl group in the benzene nucleus, which would not interfere 
with the oxidation of the pyrrole ring. He synthesised Bz-3. methyl- 
tryptophane and also 6-methyl and 8-methylkynurenic acids, which might 
be expected to be formed from it according to the two rival theories : 

COH 



X\ I II I 

Me I ]| |(CH,CH(NH,)COOH ^ \// \/C.COOH 

Theory 1 ^,-^— "^ N 



NH 



Bz-3. methyltryptophane ^-^ 6-methylkynuremc acid 

Theory n\,^^ 



N=C.COOH 
^^ / >CH 

-COH 



/\. ^ 



S-methylkynurenic acid 

Even this very considerable expenditure of organic chemical effort 
did not absolutely settle the matter, for the Bz methyltryptophane did 
not yield any kynurenic acid either. Robson found, however, that 
6-methylkynurenic acid passes through the body unchanged, whereas 
8-methylkynurenic acid is completely burnt. It is therefore likely that 
it is formed from Bz-3. methyltryptophane as a transitory intermediate 
product, for if 6-methylkynurenic acid were formed, the latter would 
resist oxidation. Robson concluded therefore, that the single nitrogen 
atom of kynurenic acid is the one from the side chain of tryptophane 
{Theory II). Ellinger and Matsuoka, in 1920, after obtaining kynurenic 
acid from indole pyruvic acid, concluded that the pyrrole ring is indeed 
opened up, but that its nitrogen atom ultimately survives in kynurenic 
acid (Theory I). The weakness in the latter's reasoning is that indole 
pyruvic acid might conceivably be converted in the body into tryptophane, 
and may not yield kynurenic acid directly. 

The example of kynurenic acid will serve to show that there is scope 
for the application of organic chemistry to the problems of intermediate 
metabolism, and also the difficulties involved in drawing definite con- 
clusions. 

The first stage in the degradation of fatty acids and of amino-acids 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 61 

seems pretty well established, and analogies in vitro have been found. 
Other problems are more obscure. Why is the benzene nucleus in phenyl- 
alanine oxidised, but not that in benzoic acid ? And what is the mechanism 
in the former case ? Why is p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid easily oxidised, 
and the corresponding lactic acid not ? Why is d-phenylglycine easily 
oxidised and 1-phenylglycine excreted almost unchanged ? Altogether 
the processes by which organic substances are burnt to carbon dioxide 
and water, by atmospheric molecular oxygen, at a low temperature, are 
still very puzzling, although Dakin, Hopkins, Knoop, Warburg, Wieland, 
and others have done much towards their elucidation. In the study of 
the chemical processes, as in that of the chemical constituents of living 
organisms, there is much scope for the application of organic chemistry, 
and in addition, physical chemistry reqixires to be utilised. 

I have endeavoured, by the mention of the above examples, to indicate 
the importance of organic chemistry both to descriptive and dynamic bio- 
chemistry, and thus to physiology. This is its main field of application 
to biological science, but there are others. There is no reason why an 
animal or a plant should be recognised entirely by its morphological 
characters, but systematists, not being chemists, are naturally apt to rely 
on what they can see, rather than what they can test for. It is very 
rarely that chemical characteristics are mentioned, although most floras 
refer to the odour of trimethylamine in the Stinking Goosefoot {Cheno- 
podium vulvaria) and that of sulphide oil in Sisymbrium Alliaria. With 
micro-organisms it is different. The bacteriologist cannot always dis- 
tinguish one bacillus from another merely by looking at it, nor even by 
staining it. He has to grow it in a variety of sugar solutions, and see 
whether it attacks these. In order to differentiate typhoid from para- 
typhoid, he grows them in dulcitol solution, with neutral red, which may 
or may not be changed owing to the production of an organic acid from 
the sugar. In order to encourage an organism to grow, which is normally 
swamped by other species, he may use specific disinfectants, such as 
brilliant green and other dyes. The relation between microbiology and 
organic chemistry is beneficial to both. The list of organic substances 
which can be produced by micro-organisms on an industrial scale, mostly 
from carbohydrates, is a growing one. During the world war the water 
power of Switzerland could temporarily compete with the fermentation 
industry in producing alcohol {via calcium carbide), but later the potato 
reasserted its superiority. The same war period saw the industrial pro- 
duction of glycerol by yeast, and the production of acetone and butyl 
alcohol by bacteria, both from carbohydrates. The peculiar metabolism 
of many micro-organisms still awaits utilisation. 

The group of plants in which chemical constituents have been most 
widely used in classification is that of the Lichens. Lichenologists have 
long used chemical reactions with potassium hydroxide, bleaching powder 
and ferric chloride, for the identification of species and genera, and some 
200 characteristic benzene derivatives have been isolated. In Phanero- 
grams the taxonomic value of the chemical constituents is sUght. Sub- 
stances of obvious metabolic significance may extend throughout a whole 
order ; thus inulin occurs as reserve carbohydrate in all divisions of the 
Compositae. 



^2 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Probably the most extensive attempt to use chemical constituents for 
botanical classification has been made by R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, 
in the case of the Australian genus Eucalyptus with about 200 species : 
the essential oils from well over half of these have been examined. Baker 
and Smith trace a relation between the venation of the mature leaves 
and the composition of their essential oil. The genus is thus divided into 
fairly well-marked groups, and it is possible to suggest the probable con- 
stituents of the oil of a given species by examining the venation of the 
leaves, and, conversely, by chemical investigation of the oil to gain a clue 
to the species. Maiden, the botanical expert on Eucalyptus, has not 
always agreed with the classification of the chemists, but upon occasion 
has discovered morphological differences after a delimitation of species 
had been proposed on chemical grounds. 

Among characteristic plant constituents perhaps most chemical labour 
has been expended in the alkaloids, which are usually restricted to a 
particular order, genus, or species. An increased knowledge of the various 
amino-acids of protein, and a study of many alkaloids has in many cases 
indicated a plausible way in which the alkaloids, particularly those con- 
taining an isoquinoline nucleus, may arise from aromatic amino-acids, 
by decarboxylation and ring formation from the side chain, but we are 
still very much in the dark as to the physiological importance of alkaloids 
to the plant. Nor is it easy to trace a connection between chemical 
structure and botanical classification. Thus, within the same genus 
differently constituted alkaloids may occur, or certain species may contain 
an alkaloid and others not. Some thirty-five species of Cytisus were 
examined by Plugge and Rauwerda ; about half contain cytisine, half 
do not. Yet cytisine occurs in Ulex, Genista, and several other genera 
of Leguminosae. It may even happen that in one and the same species 
the alkaloids change according to the age of the plant. Thus Papaver 
orientale contains during the vegetative period only thebaine, which is 
almost entirely replaced by isothebaine after the death of the aerial parts 
of the plant. Obviously it is very difficult under these circimistances to 
draw conclusions as to a taxonomic relationship. The only wide generalisa- 
tion which seems to me justified is that the large group of isoquinoline 
alkaloids are characteristic of the rather primitive cohort, Ranales, and the 
related order, Papaveraceae. 

The main biological interest of alkaloids is not botanical, in their 
distribution, but pharmacological, in their action. This leads to a mention 
of the great developments in synthetic drugs, due to organic chemistry. 
In particular there.is great scope for the organic chemist in chemotherapy, 
the combating of general infections of the host by synthetic drugs. The 
production of salvarsan which had made such a great change to the treat- 
ment of syphilis and other protozoal diseases and the subsequent intro- 
duction of germanin (or Bayer 205) in the treatment of sleeping sickness 
indicate great possibilities of applying organic chemistry to this particular 
department of medicine, and constitute a link between workers in very 
different fields. 

I have called attention to the many points of contact between organic 
■chemistry and biology in the past and present and if finally I am permitted 
to draw a conclusion it would be an educational one. I hold it to be 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 63 

desirable that biologists should have at least an elementary knowledge 
of organic chemistry, in spite of the difficulties imjjosed by ever-increasing 
specialisation in science. These difficulties are particularly felt in appor- 
tioning the time available for medical education among the many subjects 
of a crowded curriculum, and may to some extent be met by a careful 
consideration of what is really useful. The chemical training of the 
physician (and of the biologist) should not be identical with the preliminary 
training of the professional chemist, although it still is so in many uni- 
versities. In order to save time much elementary chemistry, particularly 
inorganic, must be abandoned, thus making room for those aspects 
of the subject which have biological applications. This differentiation 
between the chemical needs of various groups of students requires special 
courses, and teachers who have a sympathetic understanding of the peculiar 
needs of their students, medical and biological. After writing this sentence, 
I found a similar one in last year's address to Section I at Glasgow, by 
Professor Lovatt Evans. ' The solution to the difficulty [of the medical 
curriculum] lies, in my opinion, in the exercise of a sympathetic under- 
standing on the part of specialist teachers of the difficulties of the student 
and a proper perspective of the relation of his own subject to the require- 
ments of the curriciUum as a whole.' I need hardly say I agree entirely 
with this. I also welcome another sentence from the same address : 
' It is significant that at the present time a steadily increasing number 
of young highly trained organic chemists consider it worth their while 
to turn to biochemistry ; their welcome entry into our ranks gives us 
fresh hope and faith in our future, as well as in theirs.' 

Professor Lovatt Evans also discusses the question, ' much debated in 
private, though little in public,' whether a biochemist should be primarily 
a chemist or a biologist. He sees no reason why the biochemist should 
not be both. I imagine the biochemist cannot be both equally from the 
outset, but he may aspire to be both, or alternatively, biochemists can 
be made both out of chemists and out of biologists. Once more I heartily 
agree with Professor Lovatt Evans when he writes : ' If be must have one 
label, it is better that of the chemist, provided always that the biochemist 
works in the closest possible association with the physiologist. This is 
most essential if both are not to be deprived of much valuable interchange 
of ideas and, on a lower plane, of materials and apparatus. In fact, I am 
convinced that within the limits of administrative possibility, the greater 
the variety of workers brought together the better the results.' 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



THE UTILITY OF GEOLOGICAL 

SURVEYS TO COLONIES 

AND PROTECTORATES OF THE 

BRITISH EMPIRE. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR ALBERT E. KITSON, C.M.G., C.B.E. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The importance and value of a geological survey to a country have long 
been recognised by all progressive nations tbat desire to utilise the mineral 
resources with which Nature has endowed them. But though such value 
is fully appreciated and freely acknowledged by all thoughtful, observant 
people, the nation as a whole has no understanding of it, and no definite 
views on the matter. 

The rapid advance of science, and the application of the wonders of 
science to industry, in practically all divisions of the activities of mankind, 
are incontrovertible facts, and no nation or community under present-day 
conditions can afford to neglect to utilise all the assistance that science can 
give towards increase in production and reduction in cost of the fruits of 
the industries upon which that nation is mainly or largely dependent for 
its existence and advancement. 

Where the question of cost is not an insuperable barrier to its establish- 
ment, a geological survey is formed. As regards our Empire, not only the 
United Kingdom, but the British Dominions — India, Canada, Newfound- 
land, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa — long since established 
such surveys and recognised their value. All these surveys have done most 
valuable work in the determination of the nature, not only of the pure 
geology of their countries, but also of the economic geology, in the form of 
mineral deposits, of the precious metals, base metals, non-metallic minerals 
and rocks, gem-stones, coal, gas, oil, and underground water-supplies. The 
direction and personnel of the Geological Surveys, the maps and reports 
published, the information and assistance given to general industry, pro- 
specting and mining, are recognised to be of the highest order, and to have 
benefited these countries immeasurably more than is yet realised by them. 

In his Presidential Address before this Section of the British Association 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1916, Professor W. S. Boulton said — ' We have 
ceased to hear rumours of Treasury misgivings as to whether the Geological 
Survey can justify, on financial grounds, its continued existence. When 
we call to mind the untold wealth of information and fact in the published 
maps, sections and memoirs, the enormous value of such knowledge to 
mining, civil engineering, agriculture, and education, and indirectly to 
the development of the mineral resources of the whole Empire, and then 



C— GEOLOGY. 65 

reflect that the total annual cost of the Geological Survey of England, 
Wales, Scotland, and Ireland is somewhere near £20,000 — less, that is to 
say, than the salary and fees we have been accustomed to pay every year 
to a single Law Officer of the Crown — we should find it difficult to bear 
patiently with any narrow or short-sighted official view.' 

Granted, then, the value of a Geological Survey to a country already 
well established, and with many lucrative sources of production and wealth, 
how much more so is it to a young country, dependent to a greater or less 
extent for its existence during its infancy or adolescence, upon the financial 
benefactions of its guardian or sponsor ; a country the revenue of which in 
some cases is less than its expenditure ; and the significance of whose 
natural features is scarcely understood, with its mineral resources almost 
unknown and entirely undeveloped. Surely a young country needs to have 
its possible economic mineral importance investigated and determined by 
competent persons specially trained in this respect. Thus, as regards all 
that appertains to geology in all its branches and connections, the trained 
geologist is the person to whom appeal should be made for such purpose. 

For the following information I am indebted to Dr. C. A. Matley : — • 
' The earliest record there is apparently of a geological survey of a 
Colony is that of Trinidad, as shown in the Introductory Notice and 
Appendix of the Report on the Geology of Trinidad, published as 
one of the " Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain," in 1860. 
This says : " The Geological Survey of Trinidad originated with the late 
Sir William Molesworth, who, in 1855, when Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, induced the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury to appoint 
competent Geologists to undertake a general Survey of the Economic 
Geology of Trinidad, and the other West India Colonies." The cost of the 
survey and publication of results were borne by the Home and Local 
Governments. Three Memoirs were published, the first in 1860, on Trinidad, 
the second in 1869, on Jamaica and the adjacent islands of Anguilla and 
Sombrero ; and the third in 1875, on British Guiana. 

' This official geological survey of Jamaica, done between 1859 and 1866, 
was a creditable production of pioneer work. On the scientific side notable 
advances were made in the knowledge of the formations, fossils and tectonics 
of the island. On the economic side valuable information was gained of the 
metalliferous and non-metalliferous resources of Jamaica, and the important 
role played by the various geological formations in controlling the surface 
and underground water-supply.' 

Further valuable work on the geology of the island of Jamaica was 
done by Dr. Matley, from October, 1921, to near the middle of 1924, and 
important economic results obtained by him, specially with regard to 
water-supply, road-stones, and fossiliferous zones of the rocks. 

The Colonies do not seem to have had any more surveys of this kind 
till, through the broad vision and enlightened policy of the Colonial Office, 
Mineral Surveys were established in Southern Nigeria in 1903, Northern 
Nigeria in 1904, Ceylon in 1903, Nyasaland in 1906. These surveys did 
useful work and made important discoveries of mineral deposits. They 
were succeeded by Geological Surveys, with broader interests, as men- 
tioned hereunder. 

The Colonies and Protectorates that now have Geological Surveys in 
1929 ™ 



66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES, 

full operation and doing valuable work are Nigeria, the Gold Coast, and 
Sierra Leone in West Africa ; in Central and East Africa — Uganda and 
Nyasaland, with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and the Mandated Territory 
of Tanganyika ; and the Federated Malay States. Among those which 
have had surveys for certain periods, but which have been varied, sus- 
pended, or concluded, are Jamaica, British Honduras, British Guiana, 
Gambia, Somaliland, Zanzibar, Ceylon, and the Falkland Islands. Geologi- 
cal advice is being given in Ceylon, Palestine, and Somaliland. In those 
now without surveys much useful work was done, and the discontinuance 
of operations was due to various causes. 

The interests of the geologist should be wide, and thus be available in 
various manners for the benefit of the country. His opportunities are 
perhaps greater than those of any other of the professions practised in a 
young country. His travels through many difierent districts enable him 
to see and note much that relates directly not only to his own department, 
but also in some respects to other departments, members of which may be 
unable at the time to make independent examinations, or to those of 
departments not then established. Observations thus made can be com- 
municated to such departments, or published in the Annual Reports of 
his own, for the information of all people interested therein. 

The following remarks of Professor W. W. Watts in his Presidential 
Address — ' Geology in the SerAnice of Man ' — to this Section of the British 
Association at Toronto, in 1924, are appropriate : ' It is because of the 
variety and intensity of observation essential to geological surveying . . . 
that the geologist must necessarily become a physiographer and geographer. 
There is a limit to the perfection of topographic maps and surveys, even 
when, as in the United States, there is close co-operation between the 
Topographic and Geological Surveys ; and it is the duty of the geologist to 
take note of innumerable features which have no delineation, still less 
explanation on such maps. The geologist is probably the only class of 
person who has to traverse large areas with his eyes open, not to one 
class of phenomena only, but to all that can help him to decide questions 
of concealed structure. . . . Nor can he confine himself to the purely 
physiographic aspect of his area. He is led into bypaths . . . and many 
facts with regard to the distribution of animals and plants, and of the 
dwellings, occupations and characteristics of the people, can scarcely 
escape his observation ; neither can he shut his eyes to historic and 
prehistoric facts. Thus a geologist is generally possessed of a store of 
knowledge reaching far beyond the strict bounds of his science.' 

There is a great deal of misconception regarding the fimctions of a 
Geological Survey, using the term geological in its broadest sense. By 
many it is thought to deal with the rocks of a country, to describe them, and 
to show on maps and in reports their divisions, disposition, and distribution ; 
perhaps also to include the economic minerals, such as coal, brown coal, 
lignite, rock-salt, ores of iron, manganese, copper, nickel, zinc and lead ; 
or valuable gem-stones, such as diamonds, rubies, sapphires and opals. 

But there is very little, if any, recognition of the great part that geology 
plays in a most unobtrusive manner in connection with mining, agriculture, 
stock-raising, water-supply, forestry, public works, sanitation, geography, 
and education. The ramifications of geology are great. Its interconnec- 



C— GEOLOGY. 67 

tion^is close in some respects with other sciences, more especially with 
chemistry, zoology, botany, engineering and physics. 

This is not the place to discuss fully these various aspects, but let us 
consider them briefly in their economic relations. 

Chemistry tells us of what constituents any material — organic or in- 
organic — is composed. It shows us also how and under what natural 
conditions changes in the chemical compositions of rocks and minerals have 
taken place, what these changes signify, and their importance or otherwise 
to mankind — the differences between economic minerals which at the sur- 
face have certain characters, but which at varying depths below the surface 
have entirely different ones. 

Palseozoology shows us which remains of the former fauna of a region 
are still preserved in its rock-record, and Palisobotany similarly with respect 
to the flora. These sciences come to the assistance of Geology and reveal 
the true significance of these vestiges of creation that have been preserved. 
They determine their nature and indicate to which section of the geneal- 
ogical tree of life they belong. Thus Palseozoology, with its record of the 
fauna from the Cambrian to the Recent period, shows us the divisions, 
systems, and series of rocks containing certain types of fossils, specially 
those which are characteristic, such as graptolites and trilobites of the 
Palaeozoic division, the great reptiles of the Mesozoic, the mammals of the 
Kainozoic. 

Palseobotany shows that certain types of plants characteristic of the 
Carboniferous system are distinctly associated with strata containing 
seams of black coal ; others, of the Jurassic, with beds of a younger black 
coal ; still others, upward in geological time, of the Cretaceous system or 
the Kainozoic division, with brown coal and lignite, with their remains of 
characteristic plants, or of plants and moUusca. 

Therefore, when strata are found by him with fossils similar to those 
mentioned the geologist knows to what system of rocks they belong, and 
can then, in the case of the plants, hope to find beds of the kind of coal 
usually found occurring with them ; or, conversely, when a bed of coal is 
found he may search the associated beds for fossils to determine the system. 
Thus, it can be seen that a geological training is required to note the 
significance of any such discovery. 

The importance of the remote possessions of a great Empire is dependent 
upon many factors— such as natural resources and their situation, physical 
character of the country, lines of communication and transport, nature of 
climate, soils and water-supply, density and distribution of population, 
character of the peoples, conditions regarding agriculture and pasturage. 
To develop these fully there should be a Government with wide vision and 
foresight, capable and energetic, with a broad outlook on possibilities of 
development, and ready to assist financially and sympathetically all 
proposals that show reasonable prospects of economic success. 

A little consideration will show that a Geological Survey may have an 
important influence upon the material advancement of such a possession — 
a very important one in some cases, and less so in others. 

The extent to which geology is of benefit depends upon the geological 
formations of the country. Some countries have conditions much more 
favourable than others for the possession of natural resources that are of 

f2 



68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES, 

economic value. These may consist of deposits of fuels and ores qi tlie 
metals indispensable for the industrial uses of man under twentieth 
century conditions of life ; or they may be of such minerals as are used by 
mankind for personal adornment and gratification. They may consist of 
materials that are essential for the construction and maintenance of rail- 
ways, roads, bridges, and buildings ; or they may comprise the occurrence 
of valuable supplies of water for domestic and stock purposes. They may 
embrace all these categories, and be really valuable in every material 
sense. 

On the other hand, the colony may be a small one, known to have its 
limitations as regards the possession of geological features unlikely, on 
investigation, to prove the presence of mineral deposits of economic import- 
ance, or to possess inorganic materials and supplies of direct or indirect 
value to a country. Such a country does not require a Geological Survey. 
It is, however, worthy of a careful geological investigation and report, 
which could be made in a comparatively short time, and which might 
possibly prove that the pessimistic surmise of its resources was wrong. 
There are, however, many colonies with vast areas of unknown resources, 
and it is to them specially that the substance of this address applies. 

The Colonies and Protectorates of the British Empire are almost 
without exception in the tropics. Many of them are wholly or partly in 
zones which are blessed with an abundant rainfall, and covered with dense 
forests or low vegetation. Some comprise areas of low rainfall, and, in 
consequence, have seasonally arid conditions, and little vegetation. 

A geological survey of the former is necessarily slow, for the dense 
vegetation and depth of soil efiectually obscure the nature of the under- 
lying rocks and what they contain. In such country much time, labour, 
and expense are necessary to examine carefully the watercourses, by 
cutting and clearing lines along them and through the dense bush between 
them. Nevertheless, it should be remembered that such country may have 
valuable mineral deposits lying hidden within a few yards of any line of 
traverse through the forest, and merely awaiting discovery. In areas of 
low rainfall and scanty vegetation, however, the examination of the country 
is rendered much easier and can be done much more quickly and thoroughly. 

The numerous interests that need to be considered in connection with 
the development of any country, more or less uncivilised, involve the 
establishment of various public departments. Those dealing directly 
with the natural wealth of the country are principally Geological Survey, 
Mining, Agriculture, Veterinary, Water-Supply and Public Works, and 
to a less degree Lands Survey, Forestry, and Public Health. Obviously 
the most important department, so far as relates to the investigation of 
rocks, minerals, fuels, and water-supply, is that of Geological Survey, and 
on its activities a few remarks may be made. 

The interpretation of the geology of a country involves a knowledge 
of the kinds of rocks occurring in it, their division mainly into Sedimentary, 
Metamorphic, and Igneous ; the relation of these to one another, both 
structurally and chronologically ; the separation of these main groups 
into their various divisions, and the nature of the rocks in these divisions, 
with a view to assistance towards a knowledge of what may be of economic 
value among them. 



C— GEOLOGY, 69 

In a young, undeveloped country, with a small revenue and a large 
expenditure, such as is often the case, it behoves one to attach greater 
importance to the economic than to the purely scientific side of geology. 

In his Presidential Address — * Functions of a State Geological Survey ' 
■ — to the Mining and Geological Institute of India, in 1907, Sir Thos. 
Holland says : — ' The official geologist in this country is bound by the 
terms of his appointment to remember that, either directly or indirectly, 
his work should aim in the long run at the development of our mineral 
resources ' ; also that — -' in general, the field-work of the Geological 
Survey ends with what is known as the exploratory stage, as regards 
minerals of economic value : that is, the stage at which sufficient informa- 
tion is obtained to warrant the outlay of money for systematic prospecting 
operations. The official operations normally end with the publication of 
the information available at this stage ; but the Geological Survey still 
takes an interest in the work of prospecting and exploitation.' This 
address deals particularly with the development of Indian metalliferous 
minerals and gives valuable information about the production of ores of 
aluminium (bauxite), iron, manganese, and copper, and the disposal of 
them in competition with similar ores from other countries. 

But before the economic can be properly appraised it is necessary to 
know what relation the scientific has to it. It is, therefore, imperative 
to keep this always in view. Let us consider the great division of 
sedimentary rock-s and compare them with the rocks known in old 
countries, where their characteristics and associations have been thoroughly 
ascertained. 

Geological science has shown that for the sake of convenience 
sedimentary rocks have been placed in various groups, ranging from very 
ancient ones to those at present in a state of formation. Were these 
always present in tiieir natural order of succession the matter would be an 
easy one, but since, in no part of the world, is there anything approaching 
a complete sequence or record — for there have been numberless changes in 
the relation between sea and land — the relative positions in sequence of 
these sediments have to be ascertained by some means. The most 
reliable are the types of fossils they contain. 

Further, the occurrence of subterranean water, as artesian, is dependent 
on the character of the strata and their disposition — that is the association 
of pervious and impervious beds, which are gently folded so as to form 
basins in which the surface water can collect under hydrostatic pressure, 
and be prevented from flowing away until tapped by a bore. 

This information is obtainable only by persons familiar with geology, 
and before any attempt be made to bore for artesian water a geological 
examination is necessary. Blind boring on sites selected by people 
without that knowledge has meant the expenditure of much money, 
labour and time, often without useful results. The same can be said of 
boring for oil and coal. Large sums have been thrown away through boring 
operations at unsuitable places and the continuance of boring into under- 
Ijang rocks devoid of oil and coal. Professor J. W. Gregory records' the 
statement of J. E. Pogue, in ' Economics of Petroleum ' (1921, p. 243), 

' Gregory, J. W. 'The Elements of Economic Geology,' p. 1 (Methuen^ 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that of an extensive series of American oil-well records 85 per cent, of the 
wells sunk in accordance with geological advice proved successful, whereas 
of those sunk at random only 5 per cent, were productive. In his 
Presidential Address to this Section at the Bournemouth meeting in 1919, 
Dr. J. W. Evans, C.B.E., says : — ' The sum total of the funds which have 
been uselessly expended in this country alone in hopeless explorations for 
minerals, in complete disregard of the most obvious geological evidence, 
would have been sufficient to defray many times over the cost of a com- 
plete scientific underground survey.' 

One of many examples of useless boring for water, coal and oil, that 
have come under my own notice may be given. In this case boring for oil 
with a percussion drill was continued for several thousand feet in igneous 
and metamorphic rocks, imderlying petroliferous sediments. My examina- 
tion of the core of the bore showed that material thought to be sandy 
micaceous clay of the petroliferous series, of marine Kainozoic age, was 
really comminuted biotite-schist, of a much older division of rocks, barren 
of oil. Had the core material been submitted to a geologist from time to 
time during the progress of boring its nature would have been recognised 
at once, and the expenditure of several thousand pounds sterling, as well as 
a great deal of time and labour, would have been saved. In this case the 
Kainozoic rocks were fossiliferous, but their lowermost portion consisted 
of material derived from rocks similar to those of the underlying meta- 
morphics, a fact that might be advanced as sufficient to excuse the mistake 
made by the technical men in charge of boring operations. But, since a 
great thickness of fossiliferous rocks had been bored through and then 
material found not only showing no fossils, but possessing sufiicient 
evidence to distinguish it from the sediments that had been bored 
previously, this mistake should not have been made. 

The Directors of the Geological Surveys of several Colonies have 
informed me that many thousands of pounds have been spent fruitlessly 
in boring at unsuitable places in the attempt to get good supplies of 
underground water. 

These failures were not due to incompetent technical management of 
boring operations, but to a lack of geological knowledge of rock structure, 
of the nature of the sediments and rocks bored, the significance of fossils, 
and the correct interpretation of the evidence from the material obtained. 
Under existing conditions regarding the qualifications of boring engineers 
there are limitations to the value of their technical knowledge, unassisted 
by geological training or timely advice. 

Some bedded rocks, as shale, mudstone and clay, when inclined and 
saturated, or nearly so, with water, and under great superincumbent 
pressure, are unstable, and often give much trouble in various engineering 
works, such as dams, and railway and canal cuttings, as for instance the 
Culebra cut, Panama Canal. There are many examples of railway- and 
road-cuttings in which there has been so much sliding of beds that the 
ground on the inslope side has had to be cut back in numerous benches, 
some for upwards of 100 yards. Geological advice, if obtained before 
operations had far advanced, would certainly, in some instances, have 
shown a means of averting trouble by preventing the saturation of unstable 
beds. 



I 



C— GEOLOGY, 71 

Timely geological advice would have been useful in a recent case, in 
connection with the excavation and exposure in a moist atmosphere of 
carbonaceous shales, containing much marcasite— the more easily 
decayable form of iron sulphide — occurring as large nodules or discoidal 
masses. This material swells considerably on decay and induces 
spontaneous combustion. Its use in the reclamation of a low-lying area 
caused settlement of the surface till the marcasite was converted into 
hydrous oxide of iron. 

Functions of a Geological Survey op a Colony. 

In considering this kind of geological survey it should be remembered 
that it diflters greatly from the geological surveys of old countries in the 
mode of operations necessary. 

The fact that it functions in a young, undeveloped and comparatively 
unknown country, probably devoid of detailed maps, and with poor and 
slow means of transport, compels it to adopt methods and undertake 
duties entirely foreign to surveys long established. These surveys are 
able to place at once, on accurate maps, while in the field, the geological 
features of any district that is being examined. The geologist of the 
Colony, however, has not the great benefit of such maps, nor usually 
any reliable maps with good contours, and so, where field mapping in 
detail has to be done, or special areas surveyed, a ground-work map has 
to be made by himself. The collection of all information and the prepara- 
tion of the topographical map involve the expenditure of by far the greater 
portion of the time, labour, and expense of such a survey. This may 
represent upwards of four-fifths of the time in certain types of country, 
the geology of which is not of great variety. When comparing, therefore, 
the character and production of maps and reports of a young colony with 
those of Great Britain, due allowance should be made for these different 
conditions. 

Opinions differ as to how the work is to be commenced. One geologist 
may consider it advisable to make first a series of rapid reconnaissances 
through the various districts, along natural boundaries such as the coast- 
line, large rivers, main paths or roads, railways, if any, or through 
promising belts of country ; then later a series of rapid cross-traverses 
connecting with the first series, and later still numbers of others linking 
the two series in various directions. This method enables him to get, in 
the quickest manner, a general knowledge of the geology of the country as 
a whole. The mapping, in detail, of the geology, in conformance with a 
mathematical scheme of division of the country, can be done later as 
opportunity offers. 

Another geologist may prefer to survey in detail certain areas, such as 
a known mining field, a belt of country, or the main lines of communication, 
leaving outlying districts for later work. 

Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, but these can- 
not be discussed in this address. The particular features of the country 
and the wishes of the Government will determine the system of work. 

The following remarks indicate various activities of a survey of this 
kind. 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Reconnaissances and rapid surveys through the country, noting 
specially the physiography, nature of rocks with their structural features 
(anticlines, synclines, strike, dip, foliation, cleavage, jointing, faults, 
dykes, and reefs), nature, occurrence and testing of minerals in rocks and 
gravels of streams by crushing and panning. Kinds of soils, nature and 
volumes of streams regarding irrigation and water-power, underground 
water supplies, sites for dams and reservoirs, archaeological notes, collection 
of rocks, minerals and concentrates, with general reports on all, and pre- 
liminary special reports on mineral deposits and other interesting features. 

Detailed surveys and reports on particular areas, deposits and 
occurrences, such as mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 

Special reports on the country along routes of proposed railways, 
water-power, sanitation, and other matters. 

Assistance and advice to other Departments on geological matters. 

Surface and underground surveys of mines, with reports, maps, and 
sections. 

Advice to mining companies and prospectors on the examination of 
their mines, areas, and specimens of rocks and minerals. 

Assays, analyses and other determinations of samples of minerals 
collected by the survey, or received from the public, with reports on them. 

Advice to Government regarding operations of prospectors and 
prevention of fraudulent flotation of companies. 

Assistance to educational institutions by information supplied and 
descriptive museum collections. 

Scientific (mainly geological and geographical) reports, with micro- 
scopical and chemical descriptions of rocks, maps and photographs. 

Special examination of minerals in concentrates and reports on them. 

Publication of reports, maps, sections, assays, analyses, &c. 

Formation of a geological museum, mainly of practical geology, with 
descriptions and uses of the materials therein. 

There are numbers of other kinds of geological work that need enlarge- 
ments of the staffs of the Geological Surveys before they can be undertaken, 
such as observations with regard to : — 

Transport of sediment and chemical character of water in streams. 
Inland denudation, and coastal erosion. 
Underground flow of water through rocks. 
Decay of rocks under tropical conditions. 

Museum. — The formation of a Museum of practical geology, such as 
that of the British Geological Survey at Jermyn Street, London, but on a 
much smaller scale, and to have in addition local specimens, is a most 
valuable adjunct to a Survey. It is also of great assistance to all workers 
specially in Geology, Geography, Agriculture and Engineering, and of 
interest to all who have any love for natural history, or wish to understand 
something of the ground they travel over and the materials that cover it. 
A museum of this kind should have small collections of representative 
rocks of the great divisions grouped under (1) mode of origin, such as 
various kinds of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, chemical, seolian ; 
(2) broad general divisions of each of the groups specified in (1) ; (3) a 
etratigraphical table showing the various chronological divisions into 
which sedimentary rocks have been grouped, together with indications 



C— GEOLOGY. 73 

showing the relative chronological position of the numerous igneous rocks 
which are intrusive into them, or interbedded with them, as lava flows 
and tuffs (volcanic ashes) ; (4) typical fossils, characteristic of the main 
divisions of geological time, particularly those which are associated with 
economic minerals, such as coal, brown coal, lignite, oil-shale and mineral 
oil ; (5) typical fuels ; (6) the common metallic and noti-metallic minerals 
(as far as possible these specimens should not be only of the beautiful, 
showy type that are seen in great museums, but also of the weather-beaten 
ones, such as one finds at or near the surface, during the course of 
prospecting for minerals) ; (7) gemstones ; (8) clays, sands, gravels, 
pigments, abrasives, refractories ; (9) building, ornamental and engineering 
stones (with a section illustrating the various kinds of limestone and their 
products) ; (10) a collection showing the natural weathering of rocks ; 
(11) concentrates, and their minerals ; (12) a collection, specially for use 
in agriculture and forestry, and in assistance in the proper determination 
and mode of occurrence of rocks, the nature of which is more or less 
obscure. This should comprise groups of five or six specimens repre- 
senting : — - 

(a) Fresh (undecayed), or non-disintegrating rock ; (b) partially 
decayed, or disintegrating one, showing a crust of decayed rock round a 
<;ore of fresh rock ; (c) completely decayed rock ; (d) subsoil from (c) ; 
(e) soil immediately above the subsoil ; (/) soil mixed with humus. 

A separate small collection of the typical rocks and minerals of the 
colony should also be shown. 

Since many rocks decay into soils which in colour differ greatly from 
the fresh or decaying rocks, it can be seen that a study of examples of this 
kind enables one to form shrewd conclusions regarding the rocks from 
which the soils have been derived, especially in tropical countries where 
decay has been so great — to upwards of 50 feet — that no rock, fresh or 
decaying, can be seen in natural sections, such as low cliffs, channels and 
landslips ; or artificial ones, as railway- and road-cuttings, drains, shafts, 
and pits. Thus the soil can be determined as a sedentary one — derived 
directly from the rock underlying — or one of transport, consisting of 
material usually quite different from a soil derivable from the rocks 
underlying. One useful aid to determination of a sedentary soil is the 
presence of lines of quartz representing disintegrated veins of that mineral. 
To appreciate fully the importance of specimens of this kind it is advisable 
to compare a series of groups of them. 

Accompanying these specimens there should be a diagram of transverse 
sections showing in profile the nature of the weathering from the surface 
soil to the underlying rock at the base, the chemical and physical analyses 
of the soil, the nature of the drainage, &c. 

Photographs and diagrams, showing various aspects and phases of all 
occurrences, with descriptive and explanatory notes, should be put with 
the specimens. 

Gold Coast Method of Kapid Survey in Unmapped Country. 
It may be advisable to describe very briefly the main features of the 
method adopted in the Gold Coast in the rapid examination of country 
possessing no reliable maps. 



74 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Traverses are made, by bicycle mainly, with (a) the prismatic or 
pocket compass, for direction ; {b) cyclometer, or measuring wheel, for 
distance ; (c) aneroid barometer, with thermometer attached, for altitude 
and temperature ; and {d) watch, for time. 

On lea^'ing a camp all four observations are taken, but instead of the 
traverse being tabulated in columns as usual — which method gives no 
graphic idea of the orientation of the traverse — the graphic method is 
used. This shows at once the direction being taken, for the bearing of 
each line is roughly plotted in the field-book, as to direction and length, 
and a continuous traverse obtained, in which, in its relative position, each 
natural feature is placed. The observations embrace features such as 
sites of camps, and prominent landmarks, edges of stream flats and 
banks, water-levels, gullies, tops of rises or ridges or plateaux, edges of 
plateaux or hills, huts, villages, outcrops of rocks, showing dips, strikes, 
characters and any special features. All four observations {a- — d) are taken 
at each of such places, except the occasional omission of that for time 
when stoppages are frequent. But at places where the stoppage is for 
ten minutes or more the time observation also is taken on leaving, for the 
purpose of correction for altitude because of change in air-pressure. 

As far as possible samples of the gravels of all streams, as well as the 
loam beside outcrops of quartz reefs and dykes, and the material from 
road-gutters or paths, are panned, and concentrates of heavy minerals 
obtained. (In certain types of country panning is the most useful aid to 
prospecting, not only in the discovery of gems and stable metallic minerals, 
such as native gold, platinoid minerals, oxides of tin, thorium, titanium, 
iron, chromium, tungsten, and manganese, but also of many rock-forming 
minerals, which indicate the probable character of the rocks at the spot, 
or in the basin of the stream tested.) Specimens of rocks and samples 
of quartz are collected for reference, museum purposes, microscopic 
examination of thin sections, or testing by assay, analysis, or other 
methods. Coal, lignite, limestone, and other economic rocks, brick and 
pottery clays, and pigments are sought ; also fossils, which, if found, are 
used to determine the age of the strata associated with them. 

In addition to the general observations indicated, notes are made of 
the colour, kind, and thickness of soil, the nature of the vegetation, size 
and kind of stream and gravel, and measurement of volume of water — 
when there is opportunity, and if of possible economic value, with regard 
to domestic supplies and possible hydro-electric power and irrigation. 

It will thus be seen that the geologist in a new country, by taking the 
opportunity to make the observations mentioned in the last section is 
helping his colleagues in other departments by collecting evidence of 
probable future value. 

On the completion of several traverses roughly parallel with one 
another, particularly if they have been made across the strike of the 
rocks, a large amount of useful geological and topographical information 
is available. From this a map can be prepared, with possibly a connection 
with some definitely fixed point, and on it all natural features observed 
can be shown, sufiiciently near to accuracy to serve fully the purpose of a 
map to a comparatively small scale. 

To this can be added the geology and mineral occurrences, the various 



I 



C— GEOLOGY. 75 

geological divisions present in the area being shown in their respective 
colours, in agreement with the general scheme adopted for African 
geological surveys. 

It will, therefore, be seen that in a young country which has no 
topographical survey of its own, or one which is only partly surveyed, it is 
imperative that some such method as outlined should be adopted before 
anything approaching a real representation of the features can be shown. 

The only alternative to this is to attempt to describe with a flood of 
words what can be shown graphically as a picture, impressible on the 
visual memory by a brief examination of it. 

It should be clearly understood that such is advocated only in the 
absence of an accurate groundwork of survey, such as that of the Ordnance 
Survey of Great Britain, a map upon which the geologist can at once place 
his geological information with accuracy, and thank Heaven and his 
country that he has such a map available. 

Colonies such as these comprise some which are furnished with all 
Departments, others in which some of the smaller Departments have not 
yet been established. It is to a less advanced and less flourishing one that 
the following remarks specially refer. Such may not have a department 
of Lands Survey or of Water Supply, but it may have a Geological Survey. 
What then happens in the event of a discovery of some important deposit 
of mineral, or the collection of data of value respecting supplies of under- 
ground water, and of streams for the development of hydro-electric power ? 
There is no Lands Survey Department, and no Water Supply Department, 
so there is no one whose special duty it is to make a topographical survey 
of the ground and produce a map therefrom, upon which a concession to 
Government can be obtained, if desired. Therefore the geologist makes 
the survey and the map. Similarly, the information respecting water 
supplies for domestic and stock purposes is collected by him, the streams 
crossed during his various traverses are examined, the volumes measured, 
possible sites for dams noted, and other useful data obtained for possible 
utilisation later of water-power for hydro-electric purposes. This informa- 
tion may not have any immediate value, or when obtained may not be 
regarded as of special interest, but conditions change and events happea 
rapidly in a young progressive country, so that often available information 
of this kind is found to be most opportune and useful. 

There are several instances of the special assistance given by Geological 
Surveys, two of which in the Gold Coast may be mentioned. In 1917, 
on the discovery by that Survey of a large deposit of bauxite of high 
grade, the Government decided to obtain a concession over the deposit 
and surrounding country. The Geological Survey that year consisted 
solely of the Director, and as no Lands Survey Department then existed 
in the Colony he himself surveyed the boundaries and prepared a map 
therefrom, so that the concession could be obtained. He also surveyed in 
detail the area comprised by the deposits and prepared a map of it. 
Similarly, in the case of the large deposits of manganese ore found by the 
Survey. 

It may be specially mentioned here that not only on the economic 
mineral side of geology is a geological survey of value to a colony. It is 
of much assistance to such departments as Agriculture, Forestry, Water 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Supply and Public Works, as indicated previously, but a few remarks 
may be made to show how this is so. 

Agriculture and Forestry. — The growth of plants, whether grasses, 
herbs or trees, is dependent on the chemical and physical properties of the 
soil, on the configuration of the land, and on climatic and other conditions. 
Since plant foods consist largely of certain rock-forming minerals in a 
soluble condition it is necessary to know what is the chemical character of 
the soil. This can be ascertained by analyses of samples collected by 
geologists, for much of the value of the analyses depends upon a careful 
determination of the types of rock forming the base of the subsoil. Where 
such consists wholly of one kind, as granite or dolerite, and the soil is one 
derived directly and wholly from it, a few analyses only are necessary to 
give results which may be generally applicable to the whole area. But this 
is not so with medium-bedded sedimentary rocks, comprising shales, 
mudstones, sandstones, grits and conglomerates, and the chemically- 
formed rocks, such as limestones, when these are of no great thickness. 
The nature of the soil derived from them varies very much and depends 
not only on the kinds of rocks — pervious or impervious — but also on their 
disposition- — flat-bedded or inclined — and whether the ground is flat or 
undulating. For the ascertainment of the character and disposition of all 
these rocks the geologist is essential. 

There is, however, another aspect to be considered. Many soils are 
not sedentary ones — derived directly from the underlying rocks — but 
are soils of transport. The character of the soil, or even the subsoil, often 
bears no genetic relation to the underlying rocks, and where such soil is 
of no great thickness a geological knowledge of the rocks underlying is 
necessary. In connection with irrigation the character of the soil of the 
supply channels needs the attention of the geologist. He should note if 
there is any crust of minerals on the soil, on the evaporation of water. If 
so, these minerals should be analysed to see if they are those injurious to 
plants, when in large proportion, such as certain sodium and magnesium 
salts. This is important in areas with soil derived directly from rocks of 
marine origin, particularly young clays, mudstones and sands deposited 
in brackish lagoons and estuaries. If these minerals be present he may 
be able to devise means by which the proportion of these harmful salts 
when in solution can be steadily reduced by flowing away with the 
water, and not being alternately and continuously precipitated and 
dissolved. 

Water-Sufply. — This question of water supply is one that concerns 
some colonies much more than others, but all are affected to some degree. 
In cases involving the conservation of the water of annual streams, the 
problem is dependent largely upon geological considerations. But where 
underground water is sought, whether of the character of an artesian 
supply, or due to seasonal rains, the problem is a much wider one, and may 
be difficult to settle satisfactorily. For artesian water, not only the 
configuration of the country, but also the disposition and nature of the rocks 
must be known before any conclusion can be formed as to the chances of 
success in obtaining such supplies. This is essentially a work for the 
geologist, and even for him it is quite likely that the evidence available in 
the district may be insufiicient — owing to the absence of natural sections 



C— GEOLOGY. 77 

— and that he may be compelled to wait for the result of boring done at 
spots indicated by him. Therefore, it is advisable that a geological report 
should precede the efforts to obtain permanent water supplies, and not, as 
so frequently happens, be asked for after one or more costly attempts 
have failed. 

There are many examples in the Colonies of great waste of money in 
this manner, one case in which £20,000 was entirely wasted. A boring 
engineer usually has no knowledge of geology, or of the connection between 
stratigraphy and water supply, so he cannot be expected to do more than 
the mechanical part of the work. 

Public Works. — To this department, perhaps, more so than to any 
other, the geological survey can be of assistance, specially with regard to — 

(1) The discovery of rocks, suitable for constructional purposes (such 
as for houses, bridges, drains, macadam), and of limestone, for 
lime, mortar, concrete, cement and house-washes. 

(2) The character of the foundations for bridges, large buildings, 
dams and breakwaters. 

(3) The nature of the rocks in areas where new roads are to be made. 
This is mainly for possible variations of route with reduction of 
expense in construction and maintenance. 

In country without outcrops of wide-spread suitable rocks, the help of 
the geologist is necessary to ascertain if any suitable ones occur as dykes 
or as beds among other folded unsuitable ones. If they do, then he can 
possibly trace their extensions into other localities. 

In tropical climates, such as almost all our Colonies possess, the 
question of suitable road-metal becomes a pressing one. For this 
purpose it is advisable to get, if possible, rocks, such as dolerite, and 
gabbro, that are tough and hard, do not fracture naturally, but on abrasion 
yield a binding material, such as lime and iron, which under the action of 
intermittent saturation and evaporation becomes a cement. 

The case of Jamaica may be cited where Dr. Matley, in the course of 
his geological investigations found many dykes of basic rocks eminently 
suitable for macadam and available for replacement of the limestone^a 
much inferior rock — then being used in the Colony. The attrition of 
limestone is so rapid that it is usually found to be unsuitable for roads 
with heavy traffic, but for light traffic it is excellent. 

The search for limestone is an important duty of the geologist and 
should be continued until su2)plies of good limestone have been obtained, 
or failing that, till it seems quite unlikely that any such rocks exist in the 
country. A good limestone, if properly treated during the burning stage 
should produce good lime, and unless in remote districts under conditions 
of costly transport and burning it should be cheaper to produce it locally 
than to import it at great cost. 

Quartzite, quartz-schist, and hornstone are used largely in some 
countries, but the excessive wear of tyres, the brittleness of the rocks, the 
serious effect of hard sharp-edged particles of dust on the lungs, the non- 
binding character of the material — all are against the use of this type of 
stone, despite the lower cost of excavation and breakage. 

Hydro- Electric Power. — This question may be regarded as quite outside 
the duties of a geologist. A little consideration, however, will show that 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the geologist has a good deal to do with it, especially where the question of 
dam-building and reservoir-formation is concerned. 

For the construction of a dam, and the formation of a reservoir for 
hydro-electric purposes, it is of great importance to know the geology of 
the area and the nature of the rocks, whether soluble (as limestones) or 
insoluble ; porous and brittle, or impervious and firm, and all the variations 
between ; their normal or faulted condition ; their disposition, strike and 
dip, the latter against or with the direction of the current. 

The geologist has to help the engineer not only with regard to the 
suitability of the rocks at the site of the dam, but also in the whole of the 
area to be occupied by the proposed reservoir. As before mentioned, 
where a young colony has no special department and wishes to gather 
information respecting such water-power, it has to get help from another 
department. What more natural than that this should come from the 
geologist 1 

Sanitation . — Under the usual conditions for the disposal of nightsoil by 
burial in depots in the neighbourhood, where there is no proper sewerage 
or sterilisation system, the geological survey is able to help very con- 
siderably in the question of sanitation. 

The glaring lack of consideration of this question, shown not infre- 
■quently, is a menace to the health of the people. There is an example 
known to me where all the nightsoil from a large town was buried on the 
ridge at the head of a valley in permeable soil, a valley in which were 
several wells from which the people were obtaining supplies of drinking 
water. The risk being run by using this water is illustrated by the case 
brought under notice some years ago on the Continent. In this the cause 
of an outbreak of typhoid fever could not be determined until a geologist 
said it was probably due to a nightsoil depot on the side of a ridge, several 
hundred yards distant from a spring on the opposite side of that ridge. 
He was laughed to scorn. But, by pouring water, stained with a permanent 
dye, on the depot he proved that the spring was taking the drainage from 
it. The geologist showed by scientific observation of the strata, that the 
beds were dipping through the ridge from the depot towards the spring. 

All work of this kind should have the inspection of a geologist before 
anjrfching is done ; similarly, the sinking of wells in and near a town should 
be subject to his approval. 

Military Training. — It may seem strange to say that geology can be 
useful to military science, but modern warfare has shown that to be the 
case. Prof. W. W. Watts, in his Presidential Address before this section 
at Toronto in 1924, has brought this clearly before us. He says, ' It will 
be readily admitted that geology has been of conspicuous service in 
connection with military operations in such ways as the siting of camps, 
trenches and dug-outs ; while the minute study of the water-table in 
Northern France during the late war was not only of value in obtaining 
water supplies, but was of conspicuous utility in mining and counter-mining.' 

Something can be said for geology in Africa in this connection. Military 
training and manoeuvres are aided by a knowledge of the nature of the 
soil and underlying rocks, and of water supply. Country embracing all 
types from open to forest-capped plains, rises, hills and valleys, preferably 
in uninhabited or sparsely populated areas, are required for these opera- 



C) 



C— GEOLOGY. 79 

tions. For purposes of domestic water supplies, where the district is 
lacking in surface water, and for indicating the nature of the soil, subsoil 
and underlying rocks for the excavation of trenches, earthworks and other 
purposes, the assistance of the geologist is most desirable, and this fact 
is now thoroughly recognised by military authorities. The supply of 
water that has to be transported long distances means great loss of time 
and opportunity, whereas geological advice can often enable it to be 
obtained on the spot by the sinking of shallow wells. 

Geological Reports. — For the preparation of departmental reports on 
the physical features and geology of a young country— one that is for the 
special use of officials who may not be familiar with scientific or technical 
terms- — it is desirable that language as simple as possible should be used 
in describing the various features. There are many scientific terms that 
are necessary to express what is desired, but it is advisable, when using 
them, to have accompanying explanations in parentheses, or a separate 
glossary, to which reference can be made. Whenever possible, however, 
it is preferable to avoid such terms, which are suitable only for a purely 
scientific report. 

Aerial Survey. — A few words may be said on the use of the aeroplane 
— and hydroplane where suitable — for a knowledge of the broad topo- 
graphical features such as the courses of streams, the nature of the drainage, 
hills, ranges, plains, and lakes of a country, and the assistance given to 
geological determination by that means. It is well known that certain 
rock masses weather with characteristic features. The geologist with 
ground experience of such will soon obtain aerial experience of the 
same, especially if during his flights he takes photographs from various 
angles and altitudes. This is particularly useful for open country where 
no thick forest hides the terrestrial features from view. A recon- 
naissance of this kind yields much valuable physiographic information of 
the country in a small fraction of the time required to traverse the same 
area by terrestrial means. It shows the routes by which the geological 
features can best be ascertained by the usual modes of transport on land. 
These planes also aid greatly in the transport of men and material. 

Geophysical Prospecting. — Modern science has shown that a great deal 
of assistance can now be obtained by mechanical means, based on certain 
physical laws. The methods are the gravimetric, magnetic, seismic, 
acoustic or sonic, and electrical. They have now been tested and improved 
so much that the presence and approximate positions of bodies of certain 
substances below the surface of the ground — and of which there is no visible 
evidence — can be determined by their application. 

These methods involve costly apparatus, high training, much time, 
expense and suitable conditions, both terrestrial and climatic, before they 
can be fully utilised, but of their importance and use there is no question 
of doubt. How far they can be applied to a young countrj' depends upon 
natural conditions and the financial assistance available. 

Examples of Benefits to Colonies from Survey Discoveries. 

In order that a clear impression may be gained of the practical results 
following the activities of these surveys in Colonies a few remarks may 
be made regarding the development of certain mineral deposits dis- 



80 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

covered solely and directly by the Geological and Jlineral Surveys of 
three colonies. As there are definite results with figures available, these 
examples are given. There are also important discoveries by other such 
surveys in other colonies, but they either do not lend themselves definitely 
to being viewed in ' balance-sheet form,' or their deposits have not yet 
been developed. 

Nigeria. — The mineral survey of Southern Nigeria discovered the large, 
black coal field in 1909, surveyed it in detail over the greater portion of 
a length of some 24 miles and width of 10 miles, and prepared a geological- 
topographical map of the country, showing altitudes, outcrops of coal and 
other information. Further work was done later and the coal-bearing 
area extended considerably. Mining operations by Government were 
commenced on the largest seam in 1916, and since then development has 
continued steadily. The total quantity of coal, in round numbers, pro- 
duced from 1916 to March 31, 1928, is 2,210,000 tons, valued at the miiie 
at £1,282,000. 

The annual average over the three years ended March 31, 1928, is : 
coal production, 313,720 tons ; revenue, £148,340 ; expenditure, £82,234 ; 
profit, £66,106. The total net profit to Government to March 31, 1928, 
is £452,559. The mine now employs some 30 Europeans and 2,400 natives. 
The coal is used principally by the Nigerian and Gold Coast Railways,, 
the Nigerian tin mines and by shipping companies. 

The total cost of the geological survey of Nigeria since its inception 
in 1919 to March 31, 1928, is approximately £68,700, and of the mineral 
survey of Southern Nigeria for the period 1903-1913, about £20,000, or 
a total of approximately £88,700. Thus the total profit to the Government 
from this one discovery by a Government geologist is more than five times 
the total cost of the geological and mineral surveys, while the average 
annual profit for the past three years is nearly nine times the average 
annual cost of the geological survey during the same period. 

The surveys also discovered large and valuable deposits of good brown ; 
coal and lignite, some of which will probably be exploited later for the 
distillation of oil, or for sale of the coal in the form of briquettes. Besides 
these discoveries others were made of limestone of good quality in several 
districts, oil-shales, phosphate of lime — of value as a local fertiliser — • 
excellent pottery, tile and brick clays, some lead-zinc-silver deposits, 
ornamental-, engineering- and building-stones. Doubtless some or all of J 
these will be developed later and will prove of great value to the colony. * 

Gold Coast. — The specially important discoveries made by the geological 
survey of the Gold Coast are huge deposits of manganese ore and bauxite 
(aluminium ore), and widespread alluvial deposits of diamonds. 

The manganese deposits were found in 1914 before the Great War, ■ 
but not exploited until 1916, when the vital need for high-grade manganese 
ore caused the development of these deposits. Production of ore com- 
menced in 1916, and the total production to March 31, 1928, is 1,785,643 
tons of high-grade ore, valued at £3,350,706, free on board ship at Sekondi. 
Of this quantity the annual average during the past three years is 364,975 
tons, valued at £656,132. 

The Government Railway Department transports this ore to the sea- 
board at Sekondi, and has received, in round numbers, £550,000 for 



C— GKOLOGY. 81 

freight to March 31, 1928. Besides tliis, the Railway Department has 
obtained large sums for freight on the great quantities of mining machinery, 
building materials and supplies transported from Sekondi to the mine. 

In addition to the profit the Railway Department has made on freight 
of ore and supplies between the port and the mine, the Government gets 
a royalty of five per cent, on the profits of the company that owns the 
deposit. The mining royalty for the year 1927-28 was £10,000. 

During the last three years the average number of Europeans engaged 
on the mine staff was 52, and of natives, 2,000. 

Diamonds were first discovered in February, 1919. These diamonds, 
though small, are of very good quality, and have a ready sale for industrial 
purposes and ieweller)^ 

Since mining operations were commenced in 1921 there has been a large 
progressive increase each year till, for the year ended March 31, 192ft, the 
figures are ; production, 648,343 carats ; value £538,860 ; export duty 
paid, nearly £27,000. The total weight of diamonds produced is 1,824,630 
carats, valued at £1,758,348, on which the Government has received 
roundly £87,900 from the export duty of five per cent, on the total value. 
The annual average for the past three years is : production, 520,572 
carats ; value, £482,157 ; export duty, £24,108 ; mine staff — Europeans, 
21 ; natives, 1,163 ; cost of the Geological Survey, £9,342. The export 
duty received by Government for last year was nearly 2J times the cost of 
the Geological Survey for that year. 

The benefit, therefore, that has accrued to the Gold Coast, directly 
and indirectly, from these two discoveries by the Geological Survey is 
apparent, and it will continue for a long period. 

The Gold Coast has a great potential asset in its huge deposits of high 
grade bauxite- — the total conservatively estimated quantity being upwards 
of 250 million tons. These deposits are not yet developed, owing mainly 
to the high cost of transport of bauxite to a port of shipment. Bauxite is 
an ore of low value and so cannot bear heavy charges for freight, but, with 
extension of railway communication and reduction of freight charges, the 
Colony should see a great development of this particular source of wealth, 
and a further mineral example be added to revenue from Geological Survey 
discoveries. 

The Survey is also responsible for finding many occurrences of alluvial 
gold and some of reef gold, large deposits of iron ore (haematite), and good 
limestone, pottery, tile and brick clays, ornamental and general con- 
structional stones, refractory substances, and smaller occurrences of tin, 
arsenic, molybdenum, copper, and platinum. None of these is as yet 
developed. 

Sierra Leone. — The Geological Survey of this Colony is much younger 
than those of Nigeria and the Gold Coast. The Director has discovered 
large deposits of iron ore (haematite) of good quality, and considerable 
deposits of alluvial platinum and gold — all now being developed — besides 
occurrences of chromite, corimdum, ilmenite, rutile, manganese, and 
graphite, all of them also minerals of economic value. If found on further 
examination to occur in promising quantities these deposits should prove 
to be of commercial value. 

The West African Geological Surveys have no ofiices and laboratories 

1929 a 



82 SECTlOiSIAL ADDRESSES. 

in the Colonies. During the dry and tornado seasons of the year the 
geologists are engaged on geological surveys and examinations of various 
kinds in the Colonies, but during the rainy season field work is suspended 
and the staffs return to England. In these respects their organisation 
differs from that of the other Colonies. The specimens of rocks and con- 
centrates collected are then examined and distributed for various modes 
of treatment, and reports not made or completed on the Coast, as well as 
microscopic examination of thin sections of rocks, are done in London. 
The greater portion of the chemical work, such as assays and analyses, 
devolves upon the Imperial College of Science and Technology and the 
Imperial Institute under special arrangements. 

The field work comprises mainly the geological mapping of areas, 
detailed surface and underground surveys of mining fields, detailed and 
rapid surveys of special areas and deposits, and such other matters as are 
indicated in another section of this address. 

Sudan. — Owing to the geological character of the country the discoveries 
made by the Sudan Geological Survey are of non-metallic substances. 
They comprise valuable limestone deposits and underground water- 
supplies, while great assistance has been given in connection with sites for 
wells, tanks, dams, and buildings, and advice on building materials, 
fireclays, manufacture of salt, and other matters. 

Tanganyika. — The energies of the Tanganyika Geological Survey, a 
young one, have been devoted very largely towards mapping certain areas, 
examining deposits of minerals found in the country, and reporting on 
geological aspects relative to railway location. Besides, much valuable 
advice and assistance have been given in various directions in connection 
with water-supplies. 

Nyasaland. — The Geological and Mineral Surveys discovered large 
deposits of bauxite, and of limestone ; also seams of coal and lignite, 
and deposits of asbestos, graphite, talc, tinstone, silver-lead, iron, 
and several other minerals. Owing to these discoveries a prospecting 
company has been formed with a view to examining the country thoroughly 
for minerals. Valuable work has been done in connection with the dis- 
covery of water-supplies in various districts, and most useful reports 
published. 

Federated Malay States. — The energies of the Federated Malay States 
Survey have been devoted chiefly to the exploration of large areas 
with allimal and lode tin, the determination of the character and age of 
certain intrusive rocks and limestone deposits, reports on mineral deposits, 
advice on road metal, sites for dams and roads, schemes for boring and 
prospecting, assays of ores and minerals. 

As some of the benefits derived by Malaya from geological maps 
and advice given by the Survey may be mentioned the extension of tin- 
bearing country, in which dredging operations are now in progress, and the 
prevention of certain useless schemes proposed for boring for minerals, 
and prospecting for oil and water, thus saving much expense to the 
Government and private interests. As an example of non-acceptance of 
such advice may be cited a case in which nearly £20,000 was lost by a 
syndicate through boring for oil in a raised beach of dead shells, said by a 
tin miner to be an excellent indication of oil. 



C— GEOLOGY. 83 

Uganda. — The operations of this Survey comprise mainly the 
geological mapping of the country. During such work areas likely to 
prove mineral-bearing are noted and mining companies and individual 
prospectors advised to test them. The Survey, has, however, made 
discoveries directly, or through prospectors acting on advice given. In 
one such instance it was proved that owing to earth-movements the 
drainage of a stream had been reversed, and the source of the gold in it 
was found to be down, instead of up, the course of the stream. Another 
interesting discovery, a recent one, which may prove to be valuable, was 
the occurrence, in considerable quantity, of a bismuth-tantalum mineral, 
new to science, in pegmatite. 

A unique adjunct is a branch of seismological research, with a view to 
possible prediction of earthquakes, since Uganda is situated on an unstable 
portion of the earth's crust. 

Ceylon. — The Mineral Survey of Ceylon made numbers of discoveries 
■of valuable minerals, including deposits of limestone, mica, iron 
ore, nionazite, corundum, gemstones, and various rarer minerals with 
radio-active properties, notably one new to science — ^thorianite (thorium 
oxide), which occurs both in gravels of streams and in dykes of pegmatite. 
Occurrences of platinum, and of manganese, chromium, molybdenum and 
copper minerals were noted, and hot saline springs found. 

Jamaica. — Valuable stratigraphical work was done by this Survey 
through its discovery of fossils. By their aid the various zones of the 
strata were revealed, and the nature and occurrence of underground 
supplies of water determined. Numerous dykes and sills of basic rocks, 
from which can be obtained vast quantities of road-metal, much more 
durable than the limestone then being used, were discovered by the 
Survey. 

British Honduras. — The operations of the Mineral Survey embraced 
the geological mapping of the country, and the preparation and publication 
of a useful geological sketch map. Large deposits of limestone were 
discovered, and occurrences of tinstone and molybdenite noted. 

British Guiana. — Following the original survey already mentioned, 
much important work was done and reports published by the late Sir 
John Harrison, describing valuable occurrences of bauxite, diamonds, gold 
and palladium. Other useful reports issued later were by Messrs. H. J. C. 
Connolly and Smith Brace well, on the geology and economic features of 
the gold and diamond fields. 

Gambia. — A rapid geological survey of this small colony has been 
made by Dr. W. G. G. Cooper of the Gold Coast Geological Survey, and a 
■comprehensive report with map, sections and photographs published. 
Many interesting features were noted, and useful information given, 
specially with regard to water-supply and brick and pottery clays. 

Somaliland. — A brief examination by Mr. R. A. Farquharson of a 
portion of this Protectorate resulted in his discovery of seams of black coal 
and lignite, and of occurrences of lead and strontium minerals. Other 
minerals and rocks were noted — among them salt, barite, oil-shale, marble 
and large deposits of gypsum. Many useful remarks were also made 
regarding water-supplies and soil, and a report with sketch map published. 

Zanzibar. — An important report with map, sections and photographs 

q2 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

on the geological survey of these islands, by Mr. G. M. Stockley, has been 
published. Among the economic materials found are clays and limestones 
for building and road purposes, and gypsum — possibly of value for manure 
for the clove plantations. Useful information regarding water-supply 
was obtained and many fossils discovered, which have aided considerably 
in the correlation of the strata with those of the mainland of East Africa. 

Falkland Islands. — A geological survey of these islands was completed 
by Dr. H. A. Baker, and a report with map, sections and plates published. 
This survey extended the work done by geologists who had previously 
examined portions of the islands. Numerous additional fossils were 
discovered, and the close relations confirmed between certain formations 
of the islands and those of South Africa, as had been suggested by previous 
observers. 

It should be stated that the minerals mentioned under the various 
Colonies and Malaya do not embrace all that have been found in them. 
There are many others that were known, and in some cases were being 
mined, before geological and mineralogical surveys were established — such, 
for instance, as alluvial tinstone in Nigeria and the Federated Malay States, 
gold in the Gold Coast, Tanganyika, and Nyasaland, and diamonds in 
British Guiana. The Surveys, however, can fairly claim to have done 
most useful work in these tinfields by their examinations and reports 
before the regions were effectively developed. 

Prospecting Parties, or a Geological Survey— A Comparison. 

The view has been advanced that a Colony without a Geological 
Survey can derive so much benefit from the geological and mineralogical 
results contribiited to it by prospecting parties attached to mining groups 
operating in the country, or independent of them, that a Geological Survey 
is unnecessary. Opinions will differ as to the correctness of this view. If 
that is correct it is so only as long as such mining groups or individuals 
supply this information. But, since it is much more common that such 
mineral results are carefully conserved for their own interests solely, no 
great amount of information would probably be received by the Colony. 
Besides, it is well known that prospecting parties of this kind are looking 
specially for certain kinds of minerals or metals, and the whole of their 
energies are devoted usually to the search, discovery and economic aspect 
of deposits of such minerals. No interest is taken usually in anything 
which has no important structural or economic bearing upon the objects of 
special search. Even respecting those there are possibly aspects of interest 
or value to the country, but not regarded as having any such to the groups. 
Thus much information of value is either not observed or recorded, or lost 
if obtained, and the country does not benefit fully. 

Also, it sometimes happens that the operations of a private prospect- 
ing party are conducted with a view not to the discovery and legitimate 
exploitation of a promising deposit of a useful mineral, but to the successful 
flotation of a company, irrespective of its probable economic value. 

As already indicated, the energies of ordinary prospecting parties of 
companies are not devoted to the search for numerous different minerals, 
so many such are probably passed unnoticed or untested, due to want of 



C— GEOLOGY. 85 

knowledge, or of interest, or of both. Companies that exploit and develop 
their own discoveries, for example, gold or tin, do not usually take any 
active interest in, for instance, copper or lead. The development of such 
deposits to the metal-production stage involves a procedure entirely foreign 
to their activities and practice, and so their energies are directed solely to 
the metals which can be exploited more quickly and less expensively than 
those requiring smelting. 

Further, the records of much of the work done by small mining com- 
panies and independent prospectors are not carefully recorded. Usually 
their operations are continued for only comparatively short times, and 
when discontinued there is often little to show for all the energy, time and 
money expended upon them. 

In cases, however, where prospecting parties are under the direction of 
keen, capable geologists, interested in the numerous aspects of geology, 
and allowed by their principals to publish records of their observations, 
there is no doubt that much of interest and value to pure and economic 
geology will be the result, as has been shown recently in Northern Rhodesia. 
Such observers and the assistance rendered to Geology by them will be 
welcomed by Colonial Geological Surveys. 

Moreover, is the argument valid that a permanent Geological Survey is 
unnecessary because there are in the country large numbers of prospecting 
and mining parties at work ? Can it be said justifiably that an Agricultural 
Department is unnecessary in a country the natives of which are agricultur- 
ists and able to produce many products of the soil that are required for 
their food supply and possibly available for export ? No, else why the 
establishment of such departments, and the great importance attached, 
and deservedly so, to their efforts ? They are there to assist the natives 
to add to their list of products ; to show them the best means to combat 
diseases of plants ; to increase their production ; to introduce improved 
methods of culture, and generally to raise their status as agriculturists. 
Why then should not the same principle and policy be applied to search 
for the rock, mineral and fuel wealth of the country, and if found, and of 
economic value, then to assist in its development ? It seems but reasonable 
to concede the truth of this, and that being done it is time enough to 
consider the suspension or abandonment of the operations of such a survey 
if and when it has proved that the country does not possess such wealth. 
But there should be no time limit set to the proof or otherwise of this 
result. A country difficult to examine because of its natural features 
cannot be certainly expected to yield its mineral secrets, or confess its 
paucity of mineral deposits in the course of a few months, or even years 
of effort. Let it be borne steadfastly in mind that spectacular discoveries 
of valuable mineral deposits are not the only benefits that a geological 
survey can bestow upon a country, however important they may be, and 
however valuable may be their contributions to the revenue and prosperity 
of the country. There are many other ways in which such a survey can 
be of benefit to it, indirectly and directly. It has already been shown 
how this can be done in connection with the extension of railways and 
roads ; the development of hydro-electric power ; the discovery and supply 
of water for pipe-borne supplies for large centres of population ; the 
construction of dams, wells and tanks for the scattered population of 
Hcasonally arid districts, and for the permanent and travelling stock ; the 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

advice to be given respecting the character and distribution of soils ; the 
utilisation of constructional stones ; limestone and its products ; brick and 
pottery clays ; formation of marine breakwaters ; silting and reclamation 
of lagoons and estuaries — a most important work for the future in some 
colonies — and prevention of coastal erosion. 

Now for a consideration of the belief, and the assertion often expressed 
that the ' practical ' man, and he alone, be he miner, prospector, 
water-diviner, or any other ' practical specialist,' and not the geologist, is 
the man who discovers deposits of minerals and supplies of underground 
water. Were we in the eighteenth century instead of the twentieth, with 
its great advance of scientific knowledge, such remarks might perhaps be 
justifiable, but who can honestly say that such is the case in nineteen 
hundred and twenty-nine ? We have evidence on every hand that the 
managements of large industries recognise the value of science and have 
their own laboratory staffs ; mining companies — whether of the precious 
or base metals, non-metallic minerals, coal, oil and gas — have permanent 
or consulting geologists attached to their staffs to advise upon the general 
and special geological conditions — mainly structural, petrological, mineral- 
ogical — and character of the ore-bodies, rocks, seams and wells. That 
being so, it is high time that this legacy from medisevalism was dispelled. 

There is no desire to belittle the value and importance of the so-called 
' practical man,' particularly the prospector with some knowledge of 
geology and the mode of occurrence of ore-deposits. It is well known that 
many valuable mineral deposits have been found by intelligent capable 
prospectors, men of keen observation, close reasoning and long experience, 
who thoroughly deserved their success. Similarly is it known that many 
others were the chance discoveries of novices who made no claim to the 
term of prospector, for with the proverbial ' luck of the beginner ' they had 
been fortunate. All men conversant with the early history of mineral 
fields know numerous instances of this kind. But there are other prospect- 
ors, with more or less experience of searching for one particular kind of 
mineral, frequently gold or tinstone, and possessed of remarkable assurance, 
who, ignorant of the merest rudimentary knowledge of the origin and genetic 
relations of minerals generally, pose as prospectors of minerals of every de- 
scription. They may be entirely ignored so far as their value as prospectors 
is concerned. Nevertheless, the capable prospector, unless possessed 
of a good geological knowledge of the origin, association and distribution 
of minerals, has his limitations, for usually he has restricted his operations 
to some one or two — perhaps more — kinds of minerals, usually gold alone, 
or gold and tinstone, or perhaps copper or diamonds. If he has experience 
of the mode of occurrence of these minerals in several countries under 
different conditions he is usually successful in proving a locality with 
respect to the presence or absence of any or all of these minerals. But 
otherwise, if the modes of occurrence in his new sphere of operations differ 
from those with which he was acquainted previously he may not detect the 
minerals there. 

Two Gold Coast examples of this may be given. One prospector had 
sunk a shallow hole on the side of a hill, apparently for gold, and unearthed 
good manganese ore, but not recognising its identity, and probably 
regarding it as iron slag, apparently took no special notice of it. While 
the Director of the Geological Survey was surveying the Insuta manganese 



C— GEOLOGY. 87 

ore deposit, after his discovery of it, lie found this old hole, and noted that 
the prospector had failed to discover what later proved to be one of the 
largest and richest deposits of manganese ore in the world — one that was 
of great importance to the life of the British nation at a most critical period 
of the Great War, when sufficient supplies of high-grade manganese ore 
were unobtainable for the manufacture of efPective munitions. 

The other example is that of a prospector for gold, who had sunk a 
shaft, over 40 feet deep, through bauxite. He used the shaft constantly 
without knowing, until informed of that fact by the same geologist, that the 
material he had excavated was bauxite. In both cases the want of 
geological knowledge was the cause of the failure of the prospectors to 
recognize what they had excavated. 

To Dr. E. 0. Teale, Tanganyika ; Dr. R. C. Wilson, Nigeria ; Major 
N. R. Junner, M.C., Sierra Leone ; Dr. 6. W. Grabham, Sudan ; Mr. E. J. 
Wayland, Uganda ; Dr. F. Dixey, C.B.E., Nyasaland ; Mr. J. B. Scrivenor, 
Federated Malay States, Directors of the existing Geological Surveys of 
Colonies and Protectorates, and to the Commissioner of Lands and 
Mines, British Guiana, I am indebted for the useful information they have 
kindly supplied regarding the operations of their Surveys. The value of 
the contributions of their Surveys to the well-being and advancement of 
their Colonies is evident from the results obtained. There is no doubt 
that as work progresses in areas not yet explored and detailed surveys are 
made in those already examined cursorily, many more valuable natural 
resources will be discovered by them. 

My thanks are also tendered to Dr. C. A. Matley for the information 
furnished regarding Jamaica, to Mr. L. B. Ower for that respecting British 
Honduras, and to Mr. T. Crook, Principal of the Mineral Resources 
Department of the Imperial Institute, for some of that relating to several 
of the other Surveys. 

In this address an attempt has been made to show the value of 
Geological Surveys to young countries, and the application of scientific 
knowledge and methods, both theoretical and practical, to the discovery 
of the valuable inorganic and organic resources of Nature, as opposed to 
the search for them in a more or less haphazard manner. 

Though Geology has yielded much definite evidence of the genetic 
relations, associations and occurrences of minerals in rocks and lodes, yet 
discoveries from time to time have shown that some minerals have wider 
associations than had been known previously. It becomes necessary, 
therefore, to keep an open mind on many matters, to consider carefully 
all the evidence available, and not to be dogmatic in opinions and con- 
clusions. Geology is not an exact science — therein lies much of its 
fascination — so, in the consideration of some of its aspects, uncertainty, 
imagination, and speculation must be tempered with keen and correct 
observation, sound reasoning and experience. Through the aeons of the 
growth of our earth Nature has continuously added to the mineral secrets 
in her vast realm. Some of these secrets she herself has unveiled to man 
by her ceaseless variation ; others have been revealed by chance through 
the activities of man and animal ; and still others through the application 
of experience and science by man. To-day science plays the predominant 
r61e in these revelations, and is steadily forcing a recognition of this fact 
upon the peoples of the earth, for their common benefit. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



ADAPTATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

Prof. D. M. S. WATSON, M.Sc, F.E.S. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



My predecessors in this chair in choosing the subjects of their addresses 
have set no fashion which helps me to determine on what subject to talk 
to you. Sometimes they have chosen to expound the details of that 
particular field of zoology in which they have themselves worked, sometimes 
they have discussed broad questions involving the fundamental assump- 
tions of zoologists or speculated as to the beginnings of structures or of a 
phylmn. When the section did me the honour to appoint me to this 
position I was naturally tempted to devote an hour to the discussion of 
those early reptiles which come from the Karroo system, animals which 
lie near to the base not only of the mammals but of all the important 
developments of the great class of reptiles. 

But on consideration I decided to make use of my opportunity to 
discuss the significance of adaptation in animals. 

The only great generalisation which has so far come from zoological 
studies is that of Evolution — the conception that the whole variety of 
animal life, and the system of interrelationships which exists between 
animals and their environment, both living and non-living, have arisen 
by gradual change from simpler or, at any rate, different conditions. 

Evolution itself is accepted by zoologists not because it has been ob- 
served to occur or is supported by logically coherent arguments, but 
because it does fit all the facts of Taxonomy, of Palaeontology, and of 
Geographical Distribution, and because no alternative explanation is 
credible. 

But whilst the fact of evolution is accepted by every biologist the mode 
in which it has occurred and the mechanism by which it has been brought 
about are still disputable. 

The only two ' theories of Evolutioii ' which have gained any general 
currency, those of Lamark and of Darwin, rest on a most insecure basis; 
the validity of the assumptions on which they rest has seldom been seriously 
examined, and they do not interest most of the younger zoologists. It 
is because I feel that recent advances in zoology have made possible a 
real investigation of these postulates that I am devoting my address to 
them. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 89 

Both Lamark and Darwin based their theories on the assumption that 
every structure in an animal had a definite use in the animal's daily life or 
at some stage of its life history. They understood by adaptation a change 
in the structure, and by implication also in the habits of an animal which 
rendered it better fitted to its " organic or inorganic conditions of life." 
Thus, for Darwin at any rate, a general increase in the efficiency of an 
animal was an adaptation. But amongst his followers the term came to 
imply a definite structural change of a part or parts by which an animal 
became better suited to some special and characteristic mode of life. 
The adaptation of flowers to ensure fertilisation by definite species of insects 
is a characteristic case. Such definite adaptations can only be shown to 
exist by very long continued observation of the animal under its natural 
conditions of life. In the post-Darwinian literature the suggestion that 
such and such a structure could be used for some definite function is too 
often regarded as evidence that in fact it is actually so used. My 
colleagues amongst the palaeontologists are, I am afraid, offenders in 
this way. 

But even if it can be shown that the structure of an animal is such 
that it is specially fitted for the life which it in fact pursues, it does not 
necessarily follow that this structure has arisen as a definite adaptation to 
such habits. It is always conceivable, and often probable, that after the 
structure had arisen casually the animal possessing it was driven to the 
appropriate mode of life. 

The only cases in which we can be certain that adaptation in this true 
sense has occurred are those, unfortunately rare, in which we can trace in 
fossil material the history of a phylogenetic series, and at the same time 
establish that throughout the period of development of the adaptation its 
members lived under similar conditions. 

It is not unusual for a student of fossils to discuss the habits of an 
extinct animal on the basis of a structural resemblance of its ' adaptive 
features ' with those of a living animal and then to pass on to make use of 
his conclusions as if they were facts in the discussion of an evolutionary 
history or of the mode of origin of a series of sediments. 
, In extreme cases such evidence may be absolutely reliable : no man 
faced with an ichthyosaur so perfectly preserved that the outlines of its 
fins are visible can possibly doubt that it is an aquatic animal, and such a 
conclusion based on structure is supported by the entire absence of 
ichthyosaurs in continental deposits of appropriate ages and their abund- 
ance in marine beds. But if extremes give good evidence, ordinary cases 
are always disputable. For example, there is, so far as I know, not the 
least evidence in the post-cranial skeleton that the hippopotamus is 
aquatic : its limbs show no swimming modification whatsoever, and the 
dorsal position of the eyes would be a small point on which to base assump- 
tions. 

Most paleontologists believe that the dentition of a mammal, and by 
inference also that of a reptile or fish, is highly adaptive, that its character 
will be closely correlated with the animal's food, and that from it the 
habits of an extinct animal can be inferred with safety. 

Here again the extreme cases are justified, the flesh-eating teeth of a 
cat and the grinding battery of the horse are clearly related to diet. 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Crushing dentitions, with the modification of skull and jaw shape and of 
musculature which go with them, seem equally characteristic. I had 
always believed that the horny plates and the jaws of Platypus were 
adapted to hard food, and that that animal possessed them, whilst the 
closely allied Echidna was toothless, because it was aquatic and lived 
in rivers which might be expected to have a rich molluscan fauna which 
could serve as food. But the half-dozen specimens whose stomachs 
I have opened contained no molluscs whatsoever, and seem to have fed 
on insect larvae, the ordinary soft bottom fauna of a stream. I do not 
know whether this is an accideiital occurrence, dependent on a special 
abundance of insects in the Fish river in late spring, or whether it really 
represents the normal food. Nothing but continued observations made 
throughout the year can justify any statements about this case. 

One of the very few animals whose food is adequately known is the 
herring, where the long-continued researches carried out as part of the^ 
international investigation of the North Sea have been based on the 
examination of thousands of stomachs taken throughout the year. 

The mouth of the herring is clearly adapted to plankton, and indeed it 
does commonly live on such a diet. But some herring may be found 
stuffed with specimens of the bottom-living sand-eels, whilst Mr. Ford has 
shown me others which in yoult contained nothing but cheironomus larvae. 
Thus even here, in the case of an animal with a very characteristic type 
of mouth, we should not be completely justified in assuming that w& 
could predict its diet. How much less justified are we in drawing such 
conclusions in the case of less highly modified dentitions ? 

In the face of this uncertainty can we make use of the character of the 
dentition of fossil vertebrates for the determination of the nature of their 
food, and thus by building up phylogenetic series investigate the gradual 
development both of habit and their adaptation ; one without the other 
is valueless. The classical case of the horse is, of course, familiar to 
everyone. From the time of Huxley the story of the gradual increase in 
depth of crown of the molar teeth and in the complexity of the pattern 
formed by the worn edge of the enamel which coats the cusps of the molars 
has been held to show a steady improvement in mechanism which enabled 
the Eqmdse to take advantage of a wide extension of grass land which 
was assumed to have occurred in Meiocene times. 

But this assumption in its ordinary form rests on the basis of an 
inadequate analysis of all the factors involved. 

The modern horses are bigger than those of the Eocene : an ordinary 
hackney weighs about fifty times as much as Eohippus venticolus. 

Thus, omitting from consideration the relatively greater heat loss of 
the smaller animal, which will be of importance only in a temperate 
climate, and also differences in basal metabolic rate resulting from other 
effects of size, the modern horse will wear away in a day fifty times as 
much tooth as its ancestor ; but the surface area of its cheek teeth is only 
about fifteen times as great, so that without a deepening of the tooth crown 
by three and a third times it would have a shorter life. 

Actually, the crown is deepened about thirteen times, so that its 
potential longevity is increased to about four times that of Eohippus on 
the assumption that the abrasive qualities of the food of the two animals 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 91 

have not changed. Dr. Matthew has produced evidence to show that in 
Merychippus, the Mciocene genus of horse, tooth change took place at a 
younger age than it does in modern horses ; the implication being that the 
potential longevity was less than it now is. 

Thus the fact that Equus has proportionately some four times as much 
tooth as Eohippus may mean no more than that it lives longer, and its 
marvellous dentition may not be adaptive in the sense that it is specially 
modified for the trituration of a new type of food. It may represent no 
more than a reaction to the requirements of a large animal. 

Thus in its dentition the horse may show not a definite adaptation to 
a special diet, but such an improvement as enables a large animal to live 
longer than its small ancestor. I believe that most adaptations whose 
history can be traced in fossil material are of a similar kind. The changes 
which go on in the limbs of a horse do unquestionably result in the forma- 
tion of a machine which is more efficient than that of the Eocene animal. 
In this case each leg is designed for rapid motion, the single toe is better 
fitted to stand the great stresses it receives than the three or four of 
earlier form, the interlocking of the third metapodial with three distal 
carpals or tarsals is clearly mechanically sounder than the old one to one 
relationship, and the reduction of the moment of inertia of the limb 
which results from the concentration of its muscles in the proximal half 
is a considerable improvement. How far these adaptations have resulted 
in an increased speed of galloping and how far they were necessary to 
enable an animal of much greater bulk to maintain the same speed we 
do not know, nor, unless a far more precise analysis of the whole 
mechanism prove possible, shall we ever know. 

Whether a change which enables a mammal to become larger and to 
have a greater potential longevity is an adaptation may be disputed. 
Certainly it is very different from the usual conception of a structural 
change fitting an animal for a definite type of life under particular circum- 
stances. 

A large herbivorous animal of no higher speed than a small one suffers 
from certain disadvantages, of which the increased demand for food is 
the most obvious, which tend to offset the advantages it gains by the 
reduction of its surface area proportionately to its weight. It is difficult 
to show that it and its descendants will tend to be preserved by natural 
selection, relatively to somewhat smaller forms. The increased potential 
length of life and of the reproductive period is perhaps balanced by the 
longer immaturity within which it is probable that much of the racial 
mortality occurs. Thus the history of the horse which appears to provide 
an admirable case of steady adaptation of a phyletic line to a definite mode 
of life may perhaps show no more than the internal adaptations which are 
necessary to enable a large animal to function as well as, but no better 
than, its small ancestor. 

There are, however, a few cases where we are, I think, on firmer ground. 
The slow and steady improvements in limb structure which go on in the 
mammal-like reptiles from Lower Permian to Lower Triassic times take 
place in animals which do not exhibit a steady increase in size, which 
indeed cover nearly the same range of sizes at the beginning and end of 
the story. 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

In the earliest of these auimals the upper arm projected at right 
angles to the body, and the forearm lay at right angles to it, nearly parallel 
to the ground. The track was very wide, the stride absurdly short, and 
only one foot could be moved at a time, whilst some of the muscles were 
devoted entirely to the support of the weight of the body, lea\ang the whole 
propulsive force to be supplied by the remainder or rather by such of them 
as were not concerned with returning the limb to the position it occupied 
at the beginning of the stride. From these slow and clumsy ancestors 
we may trace the gradual acquirement of the structure found in Cyno- 
gnathus or in a mammal ; where the arm moves nearly parallel to the princi- 
pal plane of the animal, the stride is greatly lengthened and every muscle 
contributes both to the support of the body and to its propulsion. 

Here we have a case where we can observe an improvement of an 
animal mechanism which definitely enabled an animal to move faster than 
its ancestor. 

But such general improvements in the mechanism of an animal's 
body, which are the only adaptations which can be proved to have 
occurred, differ so greatly in scale and in their general nature from that 
detailed fitting of an animal to some particular niche in its environment 
which Darwin believed to occur, that it is important to investigate whether 
there is any general occurrence of such special relationship of structure and 
habit and whether if it occurs it is rightly to be regarded as of adaptive 
origin. 

It is, I believe, in the first part of such investigation that a good deal 
of the future value of physiological work in zoology lies. 

The physiological work which is at present being conducted by 
zoologists falls under two main heads. It may be concerned with the 
explanation in physico-chemical terms of definite life processes, such as 
fertilisation or cleavage, the activities of cilia or the nature of nuiscular 
activity. Such work is of value to zoology because it increases our know- 
ledge of the cell and all its parts and of the things which may control its 
activities. It will become essential for an understanding of the factors 
which underlie morphogenesis, that is of those factors some of which are 
carried as material bodies in the chromosomes. But it is clear that it will 
be long before even the fundamental phenomenon of cell di^dsion receives 
its explanation ! Nevertheless, the present interest and ultimate value of 
such fundamental researches is certain ; only through them can zoology 
ever hope to approach its ultimate aim, the explanation of the Animal 
Kingdom in terms of chemistry and physics, or the demonstration that 
such explanation can never be adequate. But few zoologists have a suffi- 
ciently wide knowledge of physics and chemistry to go far with them. 

The other type of physiological work is that which, like the classical 
' experimental physiology ' of the medical school, is devoted to an attempt 
to iinderstand the functioning of the different systems of organs and ulti- 
mately of the whole body of an animal. 

I believe that such studies hold out the greatest promise of results of 
any in zoology. We do not laiow even as a first approximate the mode of 
working of the body of any one member of the majority of the phyla of the 
Animal Kingdom. 

We know a good deal about what is called ' Human Physiology,' that 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 93 

is the functioning of dogs and rabbits, with items from the frog. We know 
a little about the heart of a dogfish, and about its haemoglobin, but 
nothing of its respiration or the activities of its nervous system. 

Amongst the Mollusca we know a good deal about the food-collecting 
mechanism and digestive enzymes of Lamellibranchs, and even in some 
cases some details of the activities of the heart and the nature of their 
respiratory pigment. But in no single case do we know even the outlines 
of the whole physiology. 

We do not know how much food is eaten or the relative proportions of 
proteins, fats, &c. We do not know how this food is utilised, how much 
to maintenance, how much to growth, and so on. We have no real know- 
ledge of the function of excretion, we do not know the blood volume, nor 
the output of the heart under any circumstances whatsoever. We do not 
even know the oxygen-carrying power of the blood as a whole, nor the 
total consumption of oxygen and respiratory quotient in any one form. 

Until these things are known, in at least a few individual species of 
each phylum, we shall not be in a position to understand the possibilities 
of adaptation which each fundamental type of morphology holds out and 
the real significance of the fitting of an animal to its environment. 

The reason why such a series of investigations has not yet been carried 
out is clear ; to do so implies a long-continued and perhaps tedious 
research invohang the modification of many different physiological and 
biochemical techniques to enable them to be applied to new material ; 
without holding out the bait of a promise of spectacular results. Far too 
much work in comparative physiology has been no more than the partial 
exploitation of a ' nice preparation ' found perhaps by a casual observation. 

But the ecological relationships of animals to their environments 
present many aspects which are now capable of investigation by simple 
physiological experiment. It would be a matter of extreme interest to 
know something about the amount of water required by two mammals, 
if possible members of different geographical races of the same species, 
or at any rate neighbouring species, one from an arid, the other from a 
more humid environment. To be valuable, such an experiment would 
have to be carried out under carefully controlled conditions of humidity 
and of temperature, and would necessarily involve an investigation of 
the variations in the composition of the urine under different conditions. 
Indeed this and all similar experiments would have to take into account 
that power of adjusting their activities to circumstances which all animals 
possess. 

But water requirements, and their variation imder different conditions 
of humidity, important though they probably are, are only one of the many 
things of which the effects of variations of mean temperature and range of 
temperature, proportion of the year in which the temperature falls 
below some point or exceeds some other, exposure to light, the chemical 
nature of the food supplies, the possible absence or insufficient amount 
of individual elements like phosphorus or iodine, are others which are 
obviously open to relatively simple experiment. 

Only when such researches have been carried on for a number of pairs 
of animals shall we have any real understanding of the significance 
of the differences which separate one geographical race from another. 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

South Africa seems to me the country of all others which could provide 
the subjects for such an investigation. 

But physiological work of the kind which I have siiggested, although it 
will show to what extent there are variations between races and species 
of animals which fit them specially for life under definite physical environ- 
ments, will not in general elucidate those morphological differences which 
alone are recognisable in a museum, and which have commonly been 
assumed to be of an adaptive nature. 

That these structural differences are adaptive even in the sense that, 
no matter imder what circumstances they arose, they do now in fact fit 
each form especially to its circumstances, is for the most part pure assump- 
tion. I do not know a single case in which it has been shown that the 
differences which separate two races of a mammalian species from one 
another have the slightest adaptive significance. 

There is no branch of zoology in which assumption has played a greater 
or evidence a less part than in the study of such presumed adaptations. 

The implication which lies behind any statement that such and such 
a structure is an adaptation, is that under the existing environmental 
conditions an individual possessing it has a greater chance of survival 
than one which has not. 

Mr. G. C. Robson in his book 'The Species Problem,' which includes an 
invaluable summary of a widespread literature, could only refer to some 
eighteen papers in which an attempt was made to show by a definite 
statement of evidence that under natural conditions the death-rate of a 
population of animals is selective, sparing relatively those individuals 
which are distinguished from their fellows by the possession of definite 
structural peculiarities. 

My predecessor. Prof. Weldon, a convinced Darwinian, judged 
rightly when he devoted many years to an investigation of this funda- 
mental postulate of the theory of Natural Selection. A ' selective death- 
rate ' is a term which clearly is only applicable to a population, it has no 
meaning when applied to an individual ; thus any attempt to determine its 
incidence and the extent to which groups of individuals possessing definite 
characters are spared can only be carried out by a statistical method. 
But it is very difficult to discover cases in which it is possible to collect 
the data. Any investigation must show as a preliminary that the popula- 
tion considered is stable and that it is neither added to by immigration nor 
subject to emigration. The character of a sample must be determined, 
and in the nature of the case, if for example the character under investiga- 
tion is the efficiency of a concealing coloration, the sampling error may be 
large and may be in the same direction as the divergence exhibited by 
that sample of the population which have died through some external 
cause. 

Amongst the processes so far investigated only one seems likely to 
provide at all a general method. This is the study by Dr. Schmidt of 
Zoarces. He showed that the unborn young extracted from individuals of 
this fish living at the end of a long fiord did not differ significantly in any 
of the characters he observed, number of fin rays and of vertebrae for 
example, from adults taken some years later which could be regarded as 
having been born in the same season and place. 



D.—ZOOLOGY. 9i) 

It is possible that a stud}' of the history of a single-year class of a 
population of fish living in such an isolated environment as a lake, would 
yield very valuable information on the adaptive significance of some 
determinable variations. It is unfortunate that the extensive migrations 
of herring in the West European waters render the data accumulated by 
Fisheries Investigators unsuitable for the purpose. 

The extraordinary lack of evidence to show that the incidence of 
death under natural conditions is controlled by small differences of the 
kind which separate species from one another or, what is the same thing 
from an observational point of view, by physiological differences correlated 
with such structural features, renders it difficult to appeal to. natural 
selection as the main or indeed an important factor in bringing about the 
evolutionary changes which we know to have occurred. 

It may be important, it may indeed be the principle which overrides all 
others ; but at present its real existence as a phenomenon rests on an 
extremely slender basis. 

The extreme difficulty of obtaining the necessary data for any quanti- 
tative estimation of the efficiency of natural selection makes it seem 
probable that this theory will be re-established, if it be so, by the collapse of 
alternative explanations which are more easily attacked by observation 
And experiment. 

If so, it will present a parallel to the Theory of Evolution itself, a theory 
universally accepted, not because it can be proved by logically coherent 
evidence to be true, but because the only alternative, special creation, is 
clearly incredible. 

The alternative explanations which are put forward of the existence 
of the differences which separate species from species or one geographical 
race from another are in essence three : either the difference is regarded as 
adaptive and its initiation and perfectioning are attributed to a reaction 
of the animal which alters its structure in a favourable manner followed by 
an inheritance of the character so acquired, or, secondly, it is regarded as non- 
adaptive, or only accidentally of value, and held to have arisen by a change 
induced in the course of an individual development by the direct effect of 
some one or more environmental features, such change not necessarily 
being heritable in all cases. The third explanation is that the difference 
between one form and the other has arisen casually, isolation having 
enforced an inbreeding which led to the distribution of genes in different 
proportions in the two stocks. 

The first alternative explanation suft'ers from the defect that the 
■characters in question have not in general been shown to be adaptive, and 
that an inheritance of an acquired character of the kind required has not 
been shown to occur. 

The second explanation, the direct influence of the environment, has 
the immense advantage that it is open to investigation by experimental 
methods, and suggests many attractive lines of work. 

Here again experiments have been few. The most successful is that 

on the induction of melanism in moths by Heslop Harrison and Garrett. 

By feeding caterpillars on food impregnated by salts of manganese or 

lead, these authors, in three independent series of experiments, obtained 

melanic individuals of a character which did not occur in the much larger 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

numbers of controls fed on untreated food, nor under natural conditions 
in the district of origin of the parent individuals. 

Harrison and Garrett attribute the melanism which appeared under 
these conditions to the direct effect of the metallic salts, either on the 
soma or, as is perhaps more probable, on the germ cells. 

They showed by a very adequate series of breeding experiments that 
the melanism which arose in this way is inherited as a simple Mendelian 
recessive. Although these experiments have not yet been repeated by 
other workers, there can be little doubt that their explanation is justified, 
and that they have for the first time brought about by artificial inter- 
ference a new mutation, dependent no doubt on a change in a single 
definite gene. 

But no one will pretend that this mutation in its visible form has 
arisen because it is valuable to the animal. Nor is there any evidence 
that it is correlated with ph)^siological differences which render the animals 
which exhibit it less liable to be killed by feeding on contaminated food. 
There is no published evidence that such food results in a higher 
death-rate than that in the controls. Thus there is at least one case 
where there is very strong evidence that the environment may induce 
the formation of mutations which are heritable. 

It is obvious that such a direct environmental effect, when taken in 
association with the completely established fact of the common occurrence 
of parallel or identical mutations in allied animals, provides a complete 
formal explanation of such facts as that the coat-colour of a race of a 
species of rodent from an arid region will in general be lighter in colour 
than that of a race from a more humid and therefore more thickly vegetated 
area. It is clear that such an explanation does not require that the coat- 
colour has any adaptive significance whatsoever : it is in complete 
contrast with the equally formally complete explanation by natural 
selection. But it has the advantage that it can be submitted to experi- 
mental confirmation. 

The neo-Darwinian would explain this occurrence by assuming that 
the dark-coloured forms were less visible against the moist and therefore 
darker soil of the humid locality than lighter animals would be, and 
would thus escape the attacks of carnivors for a longer period. The light 
forms would escape notice under the bright illumination and glitter of an 
arid and especially a desert country. Such a view assumes without ques- 
tion that the colour of the two groups is heritable, though it makes no 
demands for any particular type of heredity. 

The only experiments which have been made with geographical races 
of mammals are those which Sumner has carried on over many years. 

Sumner began his work by collecting considerable numbers of indi- 
viduals of a certain species of the deer-footed mouse Peromyscus from 
localities in California which present extreme variations in rainfall and 
temperature. He subjected each group to analysis, measuring such 
characters as the length of the tail and hind foot, and estimating the 
. colour-coat by physical methods which alfow of a numerical statement. 

He thus showed that the mice from each locality varied, and that 
the distribution of the variates for each character formed a unimodal 
curve. He investigated by statistical methods the correlation between 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 97 

pairs of the characters with which he worked, showing that for many 
of them the correlation was small. He showed that the curves for different 
subspecies might overlap, so that no one individual could fairly represent 
its race. 

By a series of breeding experiments carried on with caged animals 
Sumner showed that, when allowance was made for certain bodily changes 
clearly caused by the artificial conditions of life, the races bred true in 
the sense that the modes of the curves of variation of the characters con- 
sidered remained stationary. 

The results of crossing individuals selected from different subspecies 
and treating in a biometric manner the offspring resulting from these 
crosses were uniform, in so much as that the fi generation were always 
intermediate in character between the parents, and the range of variation 
they exhibited was less than that of the parent stocks. In later genera- 
tions there was no obvious segregation, and the range of variation increased 
again. 

Sumner at first regarded these results as evidence of a blending inheri- 
tance without any Mendelian character ; but subsequently concluded that 
they could be explained on a multiple factor hypothesis, like that which 
is accepted for Castle's hooded rats. The reduced variability of the fi 
generation is thus accounted for. 

Although as a palaeontologist who has seen the extraordinarily small 
magnitude of the steps which separate successive members of a phyletic 
line I am temperamentally indisposed to do so, I am forced to accept the 
multiple factor hypothesis as an account of the majority of cases of 
blending inheritance. Castle's experiments on hooded rats, carried as 
they have been over very many generations, seem conclusive for that 
particular case. It seems clear, furthermore, that any change in a 
spermatozoon which results in a change in the adult which arises from its 
conjugation with an egg, must be a chemical change ; and chemical 
changes are all particulate, there are no intermediates between a hydrogen 
atom and a methyl group ! 

It follows therefore that the light-coloured mice of the arid interior of 
California differ from those of the coast because in them have been accumu- 
lated a number of genes for light pigmentation, much more sparsely 
present in the dark races. 

Such a differential distribution of genes is of course what is assumed to 
occur under the influence of natural selection. 

It is not perhaps very easy to believe that the direct action of the- 
environment would result in the production of a series of mutations all 
independent, and all in the same direction, yet this assumption is necessary 
for the alternative explanation of direct environmental effect ! 

But Sumner went further, and attempted to investigate the possibility 
of such environmental influences by direct experiment. He transplanted 
a small colony of mice into a very different environment, enclosing them 
in a small netted area and leaving them to breed. The offspring which 
appeared during the course of the experiment showed no tendency to 
approach the local races in their characters. 

This experiment has been criticised because the numbers of individuals 
were small, and because they were unnaturally crowded in a small en- 
1929 H 



98 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

closure, and in other ways ; but it remains unique, the only attempt made 
with mammals to test this vital point. 

Schmidt has, however, conducted a similar experiment with the 
viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparus. This fish, which is a bottom-living 
animal supposed not to migrate extensively, forms a series of local races 
in the North Sea and the Danish waters. These are distinguished from 
one another by statistical differences of the curves representing the varia- 
tion in the number of vertebrae, of fin rays in the pectoral fin, and of 
similar characters. These races appear to be stable. Their distribution in 
some areas such as the Roskilde Fiord shows a gradation along a line 
over which the salinity also changes, but the correlation so suggested 
between this environmental condition and structure breaks down when 
other regions are taken into account. 

There is evidence derived statistically from the nature of the mothers 
that the variations are inherited, and an indication that, as in Peromyscus, 
the differences are not obviously Mendelian. Schmidt carried out trans- 
plantation experiments exactly parallel to those conducted by Sumner, 
and found, just as he did, that no direct environmental efiect of the 
kind required was produced during the few generations he could in- 
vestigate. 

Thus here again we are faced with the fact that an apparent correlation 
of structure with the surrounding physical and chemical conditions exists, 
and that such evidence as there is does not confirm the view that this 
correlation has arisen directly. There remains as the only other alter- 
native the view that the apparent correlation is illusory. 

It may be accepted as a working hypothesis that the variable characters 
which separate one geographical race from another are produced under the 
influence of a number of genes, all independent, and all producing similar 
efiects. As Prof. Karl Pearson pointed out in 1904, the effect of such 
multiple factors will be to produce an apparent blending inheritance ; a 
view now very generally accepted. It follows that, in certain cases at any 
rate, if a small group of individuals phenotypically similar, though geno- 
typically different, differing from the norme of a population, be isolated 
and left to breed freely, they will, when considered as a population, tend 
to vary still more from the original mode in the population from which they 
sprang and that they will do so in the direction in which the original isolated 
group differed. Prof. Pearson has reached the same conclusion from his 
own very different standpoint and has evidence that the expected result 
does actually occur. 

If then we can conceive of circumstances which will bring about such 
isolation in such a way that the individuals so separated are determined 
by an environmental condition, we shall have an explanation of the 
divergence of local races which will account for the appearance in them 
of individuals which lie outside the range of variation actually observed 
in the small samples of the parent races which have been investigated. 

An explanation of this type accounts for some of the peculiarities which 
Sumner has noticed in Peromyscus. For example, the existence side by 
side of very light and very dark individuals in the same spot will present 
no difficulties, and the fact that there is no or very little correlation between 
such characters as colour, hind-foot length, tail length and width of tail 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 99 

stripe will not be so surprising as it is on the theory of direct environmental 
influence. 

But there do remain many obscure points : for example, Sumner in 
his cultures observed the appearance, either as mutations or more probably 
simply by segregation, of certain colour conditions which were inherited 
as simple single-factor Mendelian unit characters. These, a recessive Yellow, 
Albinism, &c., were not seen by him in the large collections of wild mice 
which he made, and as they occurred in comparatively large numbers in 
the cage-bred animals they should have done so. Is their absence due 
to a natural selection ? or, if not, to what is it due ? Thus we come back 
to the question of the existence of adaptation in the sjDecial form which 
is demanded by the Darwinian theory. And for such close and detailed 
correlation of structure with conditions of life we have as yet no evidence 
though much assumption. 

There remains one type of adaptation which is perhaps of greater 
importance than those which we have been considering. 

Perhaps the most striking of all the phenomena of life is the power 
which all animals and plants possess of so regulating their functioning, and 
when necessary their morphology, that their life is continued in equilibrium 
with the conditions under which they find themselves. 

This adaptation is familiar in the automatic regulation of the action 
of the heart of a mammal and of its respiration to increased or decreased 
activity, and in the numberless similar adjustments of physiological 
processes. 

Mr. Pantin tells me that his own experience has shown him that the 
physiological condition of marine animals is different in winter and 
summer, although I believe it has not yet been shown that this variation 
has an adaptive significance. 

How far this adaptation to internal conditions is brought about by 
the same mechanism as adaptation to the environment I do not know. 
In those cases where the body fluid is nothing but sea water, as in 
echinoderms, it does seem evident that to a considerable extent internal 
and external environments are one. 

But how far such physiological adaptations are of the same nature as 
those internal morphological adaptations which alter the relative sizes of 
parts in ways determined by geometrical considerations of squares and 
cubes, and produce analogous modifications in other structural features, 
there is no evidence. What is certain, however, is that these, which are 
the fundamental things in evolution, lie open to experiment. 

Thus the present position of zoology is unsatisfactory ; we know as 
surely as we ever shall that evolution has occurred. But we do not know 
how this evolution has been brought about. The data which we have 
accumulated are inadequate, not in quantity but in their character to 
allow us to determine which, if any, of the proposed explanations is a 
vera causa. 

But it appears that the experimental method rightly used will in the 
end give us, if not the solution of our problem, at least the power of 
analysing it and isolating the various factors which enter into it. 

h2 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



NATIONAL SURVEYS. 

ADDRESS BY 

BRIGADIER E. M. JACK, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



o 



In these days Geography, like other sciences, has become highly specialised, 
and has many branches, each with its particular students. But the 
dictionary will teU you that the original meaning of the word ' geography ' 
is ■ earth-description,' and the fundamental conception of the science of 
geography is this idea of description of the earth's surface, and of the 
location of its various features. It is with this aspect of the science that 
I have been concerned for a good part of my life — the science and art 
of correctly locating and representing the features of the earth's surface 
— in other words, the business of surveying and mapping. I have, there- 
fore, chosen this aspect of geography for the subject of my address, and 
I propose to talk to you about National Surveys. To avoid misunder- 
standing, I should make it clear that in speaking of survey I refer to 
land survey only, not marine survey. I shall first discuss the duties 
and functions for which, arguing from first principles, it appears to me 
that a National Survey ought to be responsible, and certain characteristics 
which I think such a survey should have. I shall then briefly describe 
the work of certain national surveys, both foreign and in the British 
Empire. Finally I shall endeavour to draw such lessons as are possible 
from this review of national surveys for our mutual benefit. 

Every ci^-ilised country — I think without exception — has a National 
Survey ; that is, a Survey Department, or in some cases more than one 
department, controlled by the Government. But when we come to 
inquire into their acti%'ities we find considerable differences in organisation 
and methods and in the actual duties allotted to these departments, and 
it becomes a matter of interest to inquire what are, or should be, the 
characteristics and functions of a National Survey. 

On making such an inquiry one must clearly be mindful of the fact 
that the activities of a Survey Department must depend on the policy 
of the Government ; in other words, that it is for every country to decide 
what survey work, like any other work, it requires. If a country decides, 
for example, after due consideration, that it requires very much less 
survey work done, and maps produced, than a neighbouring coxmtry, 
there is no more to be said by any outsider. At the same time, by studying 
the practice of nations, and by obser\dng the advantages that arise as a 
result of an active survey policy, and the disadvantages that are the 
consequence of a lack of it, one may hope to arrive at a standard whereby 
one may judge of the efficiency of a country in this respect. 

Now let us consider first what survev means — I use the word, of 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 101 

course, for the purpose of this address solely in the geographical sense. 
It will, I think, be generally agreed that one of the main objects of a 
survey is the production of a map. It is not by any means the sole 
object. Much information of the greatest value can be conveyed 
adequately and conveniently without the aid of a map ; such, for example, 
as the positions of trigonometrical points, which can be given by a list 
of co-ordinates, or the values of levels and bench-marks. But the bulk 
of the information obtained by the survey of a country is most con- 
veniently and clearly shown by a map ; and by general consensus of 
opinion the map is the outward and visible sign of survey work — the 
final result and fruition of that work. 

The production of a map consists of a regular series of operations, 
each necessary to the whole ; each preparing the way for the operation 
which follows, and each dependent on that which has gone before. These 
operations are first the establishment of the framework (usually but not 
always done by triangulation) ; next the detail survey on the ground ; 
next the drawing of the map in the office ; and next the reproduction 
and printing of that map. The first stage — the triangulation — produces 
the skeleton of the work. The second stage — the detail survey — provides 
the material for the map, clothes the skeleton, as it were. The third 
stage — the drawing — provides the map in the form we want it ; but as 
it is still in the original, it is available only to the few. It is not till we 
reach the fourth stage, when the drawn map is reproduced and printed, 
that the results of the survey become available to the public for whom 
they are intended. We may say then that the function of a survey 
which is alive to its duties and which is provided with the necessary 
funds is to carry through all these stages of the survey of the country. 
But there is something further. Once a map is published it becomes 
out of date. The face of the country is constantly changing, and if the 
map is to remain a correct representation of the country, it must be kept 
up to date, or revised. We must then add this operation of revision to 
the functions of a properly conducted survey. 

It may appear to you that in specifying these operations of survey 
I am merely reciting the obvious. You may well say, ' But surely no 
Survey Department would fail to carry through all these stages to their 
logical conclusion — no survey would stop at one of these stages, and not 
complete the work.' I can assure you, however, that it is by no means 
uncommon to find that surveys are not completed ; that they do stop 
at one or other of the stages I have mentioned. I can give you many 
examples of this. 

In this very country, in the Union of South Africa, you have an 
immense amount of most valuable triangulation which has been in 
existence for years ; but little mapping has resulted. There has been 
no systematic progression from triangulation to survey, and from survey 
to the published map. In making this statement I should like to make 
it clear that I am not criticising anyone or any department — I am merely 
stating a fact which is common knowledge to those who are interested in 
these matters. Similarly I shall be able to give you examples, in countries 
whose surveys I shall describe to you shortly, of cases where the survey 
has reached the stage of the drawn map and never got any farther ; the 



102 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

map has never been published. And I shall give you other instances 
where the map once published has not been adequately kept up to date. 

In deahng with the functions of a National Survey I have hitherto 
spoken of the production of ' the map.' But there is an infinite variety 
of maps ; and before I go further it will be as well to be clear as to 
exactly what kinds of maps I have in mind. 

Here we are again faced with the fact that every country must decide 
for itself what maps it requires. Because Great Britain publishes maps 
on seven different scales it does not follow that South Africa need do the 
same. The maps required by a country depend on local conditions and 
circumstances. It is clearly impossible to lay down any hard and fast 
rules, but we may perhaps arrive at some general principles. I have 
spoken of there being an infinite variety of maps, but they may be divided 
into different kinds and classes, and for our purpose it will be convenient 
to consider maps under two main headings, namely, cadastral and 
topographical. 

The name ' cadastral ' is derived from the French word ' cadastre,' 
the meaning of which the dictionary gives as a ' register of property.' 
But the French themselves in the ' Recueil des lois et instructions sur les 
contributions directes ' give the meaning of the word as ' a plan from 
which the area of land may be computed and from which its revenue 
may be valued ' ; and it is in this rather broader sense that it is usual 
to define cadastral maps. The essence of a cadastral map is that one 
should be able to calculate areas accurately from it, and to define and 
show property boundaries ; and this implies that such maps must show 
a good deal of detail, and be drawn on a large scale. While cadastral 
maps should, and usually do, show all the detail necessary for the purposes 
mentioned above, it is not uncommon to find that they omit certain other 
details which, though conspicuous on the ground, are not essential for the 
definition of property, etc. 

The purpose of a topographical map, on the other hand, is to show 
the physical features of the country. These may of course be shown on 
any scale, and there is no reason why a cadastral map on the largest 
scale should not at the same time be a complete topographical map. But 
for various reasons — among others, economy and convenience — topo- 
graphical maps are usually on smaller scales, and consequently omit 
certain details which cannot conveniently be shown on such scales, and 
which are not essential to showing the topography of a country. A topo- 
graphical map must show all the general details and physical features 
of the country — rivers, roads, railways, buildings, forests, etc.^ — and it 
must also show the ground forms and general levels adequately. It need 
not necessarily show hedges and fences, and these and similar small details 
are often omitted owing to limitations of scale. A cadastral map, on the 
other hand, must show the small details such as hedges and fences, since 
these so often constitute property boundaries ; but it need not show 
ground forms. 

My own view is that it is the proper function of a National Survey to 
make adequate provision for maps of these two kinds, cadastral and 
topographical, because I consider them of such great importance to any 
Community and any country for the following reasons. 



I 



K— GEOGRAPHY. 103 

One of the first problems that confront any community is the question 
of property, of land division and land tenure. From very early times it 
has been the custom in communities with any degree of civilisation to 
establish proof of ownership of land by a document of some sort, and 
this has usually been accompanied by, or has sometimes consisted solely 
of, a diagram or plan of the property. Each plan or diagram was produced 
solely for the purpose of showing the particular property in question, and 
usually without any reference to adjoining properties. In modern times 
the necessity has become apparent both for ensuring the accuracy of 
such plans, and for co-ordinating them ; that is, for referring all to a 
common basis of fixed points. 

Nearly every country has maps or plans of this sort, as they usually 
form the basis of the system of Land Registry in the country ; and in 
many countries they are the basis of revenue from land taxation. In 
most cases the plans are isolated, in the sense that each represents a 
particular property, or village, or commune, and does not show detail 
outside. In some few cases these plans have been combined into a 
regular series of cadastral maps. 

These cadastral maps or plans are obviously a most important feature 
in the mapping of a country ; and it appears to me that it should be the 
function of the National Survey either to provide such maps or to control 
them. By control I mean that where, as is the case in some countries, 
it is the custom for cadastral plans to be prepared by private enterprise, 
it should be the duty of the National Survey to check such plans, to 
ensure their accuracy, and to see that they are properly related to the 
triangulation of the country ; which is, and should be, the basis of all 
survey work. This system is, as many of you will no doubt know, that 
which is in actual operation in South Africa at the present time, due to 
the provisions of the recent Survey Act. 

I have mentioned the isolated cadastral plan. This form of plan is 
common in the early stages of the development of a country, and is 
perhaps inevitable. But it should be only a temporary stage in the 
evolution of the survey of the country. As soon as it is practicable, it 
appears to me that these individual plans ought to be co-ordinated into 
a regular series of plans or maps ; and that the National Survey ought 
to undertake this work. In other words, the National Survey should be 
responsible for the production of such cadastral maps, in a regular series 
of sheets, as the country requires. 

The importance of these property or cadastral maps and plans will 
probably be readily admitted, since questions of property and land 
tenure appeal directly to most of us. The value of a good topographical 
map may not perhaps be so easily appreciated by those who have managed 
to get on quite well without such a thing. Yet the importance of having 
a good topographical map of a country — especially a country which is in ; 
an early stage of development — can hardly be over-estimated. It is of 
the utmost value to the settler, to engineers of every kind — road, railway 
and irrigation ; to the geologist ; and to the administrator. I will not 
dwell further on this subject at the moment ; but I will return to it when 
I deal more particularly with the survey of South Africa. 

We arrive then at the point that a properly organised Survey 



104 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Department ought to carry through all the survey operations that I have 
mentioned to their logical conclusion, and should produce or control the 
production of an adequate series of cadastral and topographical maps. 
But this does not complete the list of duties for which I think a National 
Survey should be responsible. There is one most important survey 
operation that I have not yet mentioned, and that is the question of 
levels, or vertical control. The triangulation of the country supplies the 
necessary horizontal control, and incidentally gives heights which are 
quite accurate enough for topographical purposes. But for scientific and 
for certain engineering purposes, an accurate system of levels throughout 
the country is a prime necessity. This can only be obtained by precise 
instrumental levelling ; and as this is as much a survey operation as any 
other that I have mentioned it should in my opinion be carried out by 
the National Survey. It is so usually, but in some countries this work 
is done by an independent department ; a procedure which seems to me 
unsound in principle. I include with levelling the allied question of 
determination of mean sea-levels and of tide-gauges. 

There is another question which is so intimately connected with sur- 
vey that it must be mentioned in discussing the functions of a National 
Survey ; and that is the business of registering title deeds to property, 
which is called by various names in different countries — Land Registry, 
Land Survey, Deeds Office, etc. • In some countries the Land Registry 
is a part of the Survey Office ; in some it is independent, but works in 
co-operation and uses the National Survey maps as the basis for its work ; 
in others it is not only independent in conducting its business but makes 
its own maps. Now opinions may differ as to whether the business of 
Land Registry should or should not be part of the National Survey ; 
but there can, I think, be no two opinions as to the fundamental importance 
of the two offices working in the closest conjunction, and on the basis of 
the same maps, which should be those of the National Survey. If such 
co-operation is not practised, the result can only be friction and waste 
of effort. 

This brings me to the last point that I would emphasise in connection 
with the question of National surveys ; or perhaps it would be more 
correct to say to two aspects of the same point. I have dwelt on the 
importance of a survey carrying through to the end all the operations 
of its work ; and this implies that the whole of these survey operations 
from start to finish should be under one and the same control. I do not 
believe, for example, in a survey carrying on its work as far as the drawing 
of the map, and then handing over to someone else to print. The 
dividing Une between drawing and printing is so extremely difficult to 
define that such a procedure is to my mind both unsound and unecono- 
mical. It may be necessary when a survey department is in an early 
stage of organisation and development ; but as soon as it is practicable 
I am sure that it is sound for a survey to take over control of its own 
printing, as of every other stage of its work. 

The second aspect of this point follows logically ; it is that there 
should only be one survey authority in a country, and that the National 
Survey. This is a principle of obvious importance, but which has not 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 103 

always been recognised in the past, and I shall be able to give you instances 
of divided authority, with the usual results of overlapping and waste. 

Let me now recapitulate what appear to me should be the functions 
of a National Survey, and the duties for which I think it should be 
responsible. 

1. The National Survey should be the sole survey authority in the 
country. 

2. It should be under one control in all its operations, from the 
triangulation to the publication and sale of the map, and its revision. 

3. It should be responsible for an accurate network of levels through- 
out the country. 

4. It should produce, or control the production of, all cadastral maps. 

5. It should produce, or control the production of, a good topo- 
graphical map of the whole country. 

6. Maps used for Land Registry or similar Government purposes 
should be the National Survey maps, or directly based on them. 

7. All maps produced by or under the control of the National Survey 
should be reproduced and should be readily available to the public. 

8. Adequate provision should be made for the revision of all maps. 



Let us now take a look at some of the National Surveys of the world, 
and see to what extent they comply with, or differ from, the standard 
which I have laid down. For this purpose I propose to take some half 
a dozen countries in Europe ; Egypt ; The United States ; and then 
various parts of the British Empire ; concluding with Great Britain and 
the Union of South Africa. Time will permit of my dealing with these 
surveys only in the briefest and most general manner ; but I shall try 
to give you a clear idea of their characteristics and functions. 

In making this review there is one thing that strikes one forcibly, and 
that is that very few surveys indeed correspond at all closely with the 
model which I have described as in my opinion desirable for a National 
Survey. It is quite likely in fact that, after hearing about these surveys, 
you may, judging by the actual practice that obtains so largely through- 
out the world, think that I have been putting forward a counsel of per- 
fection — something rather outside practical politics. I shall have some- 
thing to say about that a little later ; and I shall hope to convince you 
that my views on this subject are based on sound reasons, even though 
general practice does not agree with them. 

Taking the surveys of Europe first, we find a strong likeness among 
them. They all, or nearly all, have certain characteristics in common. 
These are, first, that a military department ^ is responsible for all topo- 
graphical mapping in the country ; second, that such cadastral maps as 
exist are produced by an independent department ; third, that it is very 
rare to find cadastral maps published. The view taken generally in 
Europe is that good topographical maps are a prime necessity for military 
purposes, hence the military character of their topographical surveys ; 

* In Germany the military department which was formerly responsible for 
topographical survey has now been replaced by a civil department, under the 
Ministry of the Interior. 



106 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

that cadastral maps have no military value, and are chiefly required for 
revenue purposes ; and that such cadastral maps are documents mainly 
for government use, or for occasional reference by the public, so that 
reproduction and publication are unnecessary. 

As a result of these views we find that, generally speaking, European 
countries have good topographical maps. The commonest scale is 
1 : 100,000 (about |-inch to the mile), but there are variations, as, for 
example in France, which has a 1 ; 80,000. ^ This map (called the General 
Staff Map) is printed in black only, the hills being shown by vertical 
hachures. The 1 : 100,000 maps of other nations are all published in 
colours, and in most cases hills are shown by contours. 

In addition to the general maps referred to above, a good many 
countries have topographical maps on substantially larger scales. For 
example, in Germany a 1 : 25,000 map has been in preparation for a number 
of years, and is nearly completed, while a 1 : 50,000 is in progress. Italy 
has a 1 : 25,000 completed for populous areas, with a 1 : 50,000 for the re- 
mainder of the country. Belgium has a complete 1 : 20,000 and 1 : 40,000 
for the whole country. Holland (which by the way publishes no 1 : 100,000) 
has a 1 : 25,000 and 1 : 50,000. France has begun a 1 : 50,000 map. These 
larger scale topographical maps are all published in colours (though in some 
cases there is also an edition in black only) and the hills are in all cases 
shown by contours. 

All the countries mentioned have also general topographical maps on 
smaller scales, usually 1 : 120,000, published in colours. 

Topographical maps in Europe are kept up to date more or less 
systematically ; but they have not in all cases recovered yet from the 
interference due to the war. 

It is interesting to note that the cadastral maps of Central and 
Western Europe were mostly started in the Napoleonic era. They are 
in all cases in charge of a cadastral or similar office under the Ministry 
of Finance. The usual characteristics of these cadastral plans are as 
follows. They commonly exist in manuscript only, a copy being pre- 
served at each of certain centres (such for example as the headquarters 
of the commune and of the department). Each commune is the subject 
of a separate survey ; they show most land divisions (such as hedges, 
fences, ditches, roads, rivers) but little or no other information. The 
scale is usually 1 : 2,500, but there are variations ; and it is common to 
find ' tableaux d'assemblage ' or index maps, for each commune, on a 
smaller scale such as 1 : 10,000, showing the various ' section plans.' These 
plans are available for inspection, and copies in manuscript can usually 
be obtained on payment. 

In Italy and Germany we come for the first time to the idea of pub- 
lishing the cadastral map. Italy has an old cadastral survey, varying 
very much in quality in different districts ; but in 1886 a new survey was 
ordered, based on the triangulation of the Istituto Geografico. The 
normal scale in this survey is 1 : 2,000. Some of these new cadastral maps 

'^ There is a French 1 : 100,000, but it is not the official military map. It was 
produced by the Ministry of the Interior mainly for the purpose of showing roads 
and railways ; but it has now been taken over by the Service Geographique de 
I'Arm^e. 



i 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 107 

have been printed, but reproduction is not yet general. Judging from 
certain printed specimens seen, the published sheets are of uniform size, 
though the detail of the map is carried only to the boundaries of the 
commune and not to the sheet edge. Visible detail on the ground is 
shown, and every enclosure bears a number. No levels are shown. A 
criticism that we may make on these Italian cadastral plans is that no 
scale is shown on them, nor any reference to conventional signs or ad- 
joining sheets. It is very satisfactory to see this recognition in Italy 
of the desirability of publishing cadastral maps, and the fact that this 
new cadastral survey is based on the general triangulation, and that the 
cadastral maps when available are used as the basis for 1 : 25,000 topo- 
graphical maps, shows a degree of co-ordination and co-operation which 
is not met with often in Europe. 

In Germany cadastral maps are for the most part regularly published 
and put on sale. The scale is usually 1 : 2,500, but varies. Those speci- 
mens that I have seen bear the appearance of being good and accurate 
surveys, and the style of drawing and reproduction is first class. On 
one old Prussian cadastral map I observed that figures denoting the area of 
each enclosure were given ; but on the more modern version of the same 
map only identification numbers are given, and this seems to be the usual 
practice on all the German cadastral sheets seen. 

The practice in Europe with regard to revising cadastral maps varies, 
but generally speaking it would seem that revision is neither systematic 
nor adequate. In France revision has been neglected almost entirely. 
In Italy the law of 1886 ordered that general revision was not to take 
place for thirty years at least, which shows that revision was not considered 
an important matter. In Wurtemburg revision is done by surveyors of 
the Taxing Department, whether adequately or not is not known. In 
Saxony it is done by private surveyors and is said to be unsatisfactory. 

In certain countries in Europe — for example, France and Belgium — 
levelling is regarded as an independent operation and is carried on by 
another department. 

In Europe then the practice seems to be (1) to have two departments, 
one responsible for topographical, the other for cadastral work ; (2) in 
some cases to have a third department responsible for levelling ; (3) to 
keep up to date and publish topographical maps; (4) with certain excep- 
tions to maintain cadastral maps in original only ; (5) to a large extent 
to neglect the revision of cadastral maps. 

The Survey of Egypt has a wide reputation for excellence and efficiency, 
and it is fair to note that its organisation and development are due almost 
entirely to British control and supervision. In Egypt we find one Survey 
Department, responsible for all survey operations, including levelling. 
There is a complete series of topographical maps for the cultivated area 
— an old series on 1 : 50,000 scale, which is being gradually replaced by a 
new series on 1 : 100,000. (The reason for the adoption of the smaller 
scale is that the new series will have separate English and Arabic editions, 
whereas on the old the two languages were combined.) There is also a 
1:25,000 topographical map. There is a complete old series of 1 : 2,500 
cadastral maps, which will gradually be replaced by a new series on half 
the scale (1 : 5,000) with, in addition, 1 : 1,000 M.S. plans, which are not to 



108 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

be published. There are also large scale town maps and street plans on 
1 : 200 scale which are not printed. All maps are revised as occasion serves. 

The Survey of Egypt carries out all first and second order levelling. 
It has, moreover, an excellent equipment for standardisation, scientific 
observations, etc. The Survey prints and publishes its own maps. 

It will be seen that the Survey of Egypt complies closely with the 
standard which I have advocated for a National Survey. 

On the other side of the Atlantic we find two great National Surveys 
which are of immediate interest to us : those of the United States and of 
the Dominion of Canada. 

In the United States we have a country of great extent, but at the 
same time of great wealth ; a country, moreover, which has a reputation 
for efficiency and for being in the forefront of economic progress. It is, 
therefore, of the greatest interest to our inquiry to see what form their 
survey takes, how it is organised, and what is its state of progress. 

We find in the first place that there is no one survey department 
which is responsible for all survey operations. The Coast and Geodetic 
Survey (a bureau of the Department of Commerce) produces coastal 
charts, with such small amount of topographic work along the coast as is 
necessary for these, and does first and second order triangulation, traverse, 
and levelling, and allied scientific work. The Geological Survey (a bureau 
of the Department of the Interior) carries out its own third order control, 
both horizontal and vertical, and produces and publishes topographical 
maps on four scales, besides smaller scale wall maps, etc., and in addition 
to geological and allied work. The Geological Survey is in fact the 
topographical survey of the United States. Such an arrangement seems 
peculiar to us, in Great Britain at any rate, since we have been accus- 
tomed to regard topography and geology as distinct sciences ; but in 
the United States geological and topographical work have from the 
earliest times been carried on together. 

The topographical maps published are on scales of approximately 
J, h, 1 and 2 inches to the mile. The Geological Survey prints and 
publishes its own maps. There is no definite system of revision in 
operation at present, it being considered that completion of the original 
survey is the first duty to be carried out ; but some revision has been 
done in specific cases. 

The General Land Office (Department of the Interior), is charged with 
the cadastral surveys of public lands — i.e. United States territory, except 
the original thirteen States, which presumably do their own surveys. 
Cadastral surveys were started about 1785 ; and consist mainly in survey- 
ing and dividing land into rectangular blocks of six miles square, sub- 
di\'ided into sections of one mile square. The work is complete for most 
of the country and revision is being done in many parts. The plans (or 
' plats ' as they are called) are printed and on sale. It is important, 
however, to note that the main business of this survey is to mark 
divisions on the grovnd : and that the plats are of value only to indicate 
graphically the land sub-divisions and their dimensions, and to give a 
rough idea of their j^hysical features. They show no elevations, and are 
of no value as topographic maps. These plats cannot be considered as 
cadastral plans in the sense that we understand them. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 109 

This office also issues various small scale maps of the whole United 
States, and of various individual states. 

The work of all the above departments is co-ordinated by the Federal 
Board of Surveys and Maps, which is composed of representatives from 
fourteen Federal organisations. The Board acts as an advisory bodj^ and 
has done most useful work in preventing duplication and overlapping and 
in securing uniformity in scales, symbols, etc. 

With Canada we begin our consideration of the surveys of the British 
Empire. The organisation in Canada has this in common with that of 
the neighbouring United States, that there are several Survey Depart- 
ments each responsible for certain branches of work ; with a ' Surveys 
Bureau ' to co-ordinate the work. The situation in Canada is, indeed, 
rather complicated and not easy to follow. At the outset we have to 
recognise the difference between Provincial Lands and Dominion Lands. 
Each province has its own survey organisation, concerned mainly or 
entirely with land or cadastral surveys. The Dominion has an inde- 
pendent organisation, responsible for Dominion Lands. The Dominion 
Survey is divided into three branches : the Geodetic Survey (under a 
Director), the Topographical Survey (under the Surveyor-General), and 
the International Boundary Survey. The work of these branches is 
co-ordinated by a Surveys Bureau, at the head of which is the Director- 
General of Surveys. The Geodetic Survey is responsible for triangulation 
and levelling ; while the Topographical Survey is responsible, besides 
topographical work, for land, control, land classification, and aerial 
surveys. But in addition to these we find the Department of National 
Defence and the Geological Survey, both of which are jjroducing topo- 
graphical maps. The triangulation and levelling work done by the 
Geodetic Survey is of a high order ; while the Topographical Survey are 
producing excellent topographical maps. The scales adopted are one, 
two, and four miles to the inch, according to circumstances, and. it is 
intended eventually to cover the whole country with this National 
Topographic series. 

Besides topographical work, the Topographical Survey carries out 
cadastral work in its Land Surveys branch. These surveys based, like 
those of the United States, on six miles square townships, and similar in 
nature, are being carried on systematically, and an immense amount of 
work has been done. 

It will be remembered that Canada (owing mainly to the late Dr. 
Deville, Surveyor-General) has taken the lead in photographic methods 
of surveying. The country is particularly suitable for this method, and 
the great progress made is due largely to its adoption. 

It may fairly be said that Canada is showing a fine example in carrying 
out systematic surveys of her territories, surveys geodetic, topographical 
and cadastral. At the same time I do not think that the organisation 
of surveys in Canada or in the United States is one to be copied. It is 
fairly obvious, I think, that there has been in the past a great deal of 
independent and unco-ordinated effort in both countries and that the 
present situation, while no doubt working well practically, is a com- 
promise ; and the suggestive and advisory functions of a Board can 
never, in my opinion, take the place of the personal control of a Director. 



110 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Survey of India has deservedly a world-wide reputation. It is 
a highly organised and admirable survey, which in its geodetic and other 
scientific work can bear comparison with any other in the world. On 
the mapping side its activities are, however, confined solely to topo- 
graphical work. The Survey of India produces maps on the scales of 
1-inch, i-inch and J-inch to the mile, as well as various smaller scales. 
Revision of these topographical maps is contemplated, but exists more 
in theory than in practice. The Survey prints and publishes its own maps. 

Cadastral work in India is done on a provincial basis. A native 
official called the patwari of each village is responsible for keeping up to 
date a map of his village, with its property boundaries. In some provinces 
the technical part of these surveys is done under an officer lent by the 
Survey of India. 

Ceylon has a fijst-rate Survey, which is responsible for all operations ; 
and the same applies to the Federated Malay States Survey. Similarly, 
most of the African Colonies and Protectorates have a single survey 
authority, responsible for all survey work in the country. Examples are 
the Gold Coast, Nigeria, and Uganda, in which, although the survey is in 
an early stage and much territory remains to be done, the organisation 
and the programme of work are complete and comprehensive, and often 
include schools of training for natives, and full equipment for reproducing 
and printing their own maps. On the other hand, we get Nyasaland, 
with a ' Lands Officer ' and a negligible staff ; and Northern Rhodesia, 
where a very small staff is wholly occupied with cadastral work, and has 
neither the means nor the opportunity to undertake much-needed 
trigonometrical and topographical work. 

In both Australia and New Zealand a great deal of cadastral work is 
done, in the form of surveys of property and lands, frequently isolated ; 
but in neither country is there, so far as my information goes, any system 
of cadastral survey organised on the lines we have been considering. 

New Zealand has a few topographical maps, mainly of manoeuvre 
areas, produced under the military department. In Australia topo- 
graphical maps are, according to my information, almost completely 
lacking. New South Wales has a triangulation of the highest class, and 
a certain amount exists in other states. Proposals have been made for 
carrying out a geodetic survey of the whole of the States under Federal 
arrangements ; but these proposals contemplated only the establishment 
of first and second order triangulation, and as far as I am aware did not 
even entertain the idea of carrying the work through to the stage of 
mapping. 



I will now give a short account of the Ordnance Survey of Great 
Britain,^ following it with some remarks on the survev situation in the 
Dominion of South Africa. 

The Ordnance Survey began its work as a properly constituted survey 

^ The Ordnance Survey used to be ' of Great Britain and Ireland ' ; but since 
the establishment of the Irish Free State the surveys of that State and of Northern 
Ireland have been independent. The description given applies, however, equally to 
the maps of Ireland as to those of Great Britain. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. Ill 

in 1791 ; it is therefore, to the best of my belief, the oldest organised 
survey in the world. The survey is a singularly complete one. A wide 
range of maps is published, extending from the cadastral maps on the 
1 : 2,500 scale (25 inches to the mile) to the 6-inch, 1-inch, |-inch and 
^-inch to the mile, as well as larger town plans and smaller scale wall 
maps. With the exception of the 25-inch, which does not extend over 
open moorland areas, the whole of the British Isles is completely mapped 
on all these scales, and the sheets of every series are printed, published, 
and on sale. But a possibly more noteworthy feature of the Ordnance 
Survey is that all its maps from the largest to the smallest scale are the 
result of accurate survey rigidly based on the triangulation of the 
country. There is only one survey authority in Great Britain ; and 
every map is based ultimately on the 25-inch map. 

The Ordnance Survey topographical maps of 1-inch to the mile and 
smaller scales are all published in colours. On the ordinary edition of 
the 1-inch, hills are shown by contours, but in certain special sheets 
layer colouring and hill shading are added. On the i-inch and |-inch 
scales layer colouring is used. The 6-inch map is printed in black with 
red contours ; the 25-inch in black only. The characteristics of the 
25-inch — the cadastral map of Great Britain — are that all topographical 
features are shown ; every enclosure is numbered, and the area is given 
in acres and decimals ; all civil division boiindaries are shown, and also 
the positions and heights of bench-marks and spot heights. An interesting 
feature of all Ordnance Survey maps also is that the position and nature 
of aU antiquities are shown ; that is, of ancient ruins, earthworks, barrows, 
tumuli, and other objects of arch<Bological interest. On the 25-inch 
these are shown in great detail ; on other maps according to the 
limitations of scale. There is a regular system of revision for all maps, 
except the town plans which are not now maintained. Large scale maps 
are revised every twenty years ; small scale every fifteen. 

The Ordnance Survey is responsible for levelling, as for all other 
survey operations. There is a complete system of levelling throughout 
the country, with permanently marked bench-marks. 

In England the Land Registry Office is independent of the Ordnance 

ition 
tions 
staff 
)urse 
the 
ffort 
nust 
nge- 
rvey 
istry 



'rief, 

«*uu io ^jfjvifjuoiy ii-n;uixipictc, aa tiiiic u.uca uut auow ui my ueauug Wllh all 

surveys. But it has perhaps served to give a general idea of how surveys 



110 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Survey of India has deservedly a world-wide reputation. It is 
a highly organised and admirable survey, which in its geodetic and other 
scientific work can bear comparison with any other in the world. On 
the mapping side its activities are, however, confined solely to topo- 
graphical work. The Survey of India produces maps on the scales of 
1-inch, |-inch and J-inch to the mile, as well as various smaller scales. 
Revision of these topographical maps is contemplated, but exists more 
in theory than in practice. The Survey prints and publishes its own maps. 

Cadastral work in India is done on a provincial basis. A native 
official called the patwari of each village is responsible for keeping up to 
date a map of his village, with its property boundaries. In some provinces 
the technical part of these surveys is done under an officer lent by the 
Survey of India. 

Ceylon has a first-rate Survey, which is responsible for all operations ; 
and the same applies to the Federated Malay States Survey. Similarly, 
most of the African Colonies and Protectorates have a single survey 
authority, responsible for all survey work in the country. Examples are 
the Gold Coast, Nigeria, and Uganda, in which, although the survey is in 
an early stage and much territory remains to be done, the organisation 
and the programme of work are complete and comprehensive, and often 
include schools of training for natives, and full equipment for reproducing 
and printing their own maps. On the other hand, we get Nyasaland, 
with a ' Lands Officer ' and a negligible staff ; and Northern Rhodesia, 
where a very small staff is wholly occupied with cadastral work, and has 
neither the means nor the opportunity to undertake much-needed 
trigonometrical and topographical work. 

In both Australia and New Zealand a great deal of cadastral work is 
done, in the form of surveys of property and lands, frequently isolated ; 
but in neither country is there, so far as my information goes, any system 
of cadastral survey organised on the lines we have been considering. 

New Zealand has a few topographical maps, mainly of manoeuvre 
areas, produced under the military department. In Australia topo- 
graphical maps are, according to my information, almost completely 
lacking. New South Wales has a triangulation of the highest class, and 
a ce 
carr 
arra 
of fi 

ever Page 110. The statement that topographical maps are 

map almost completely lacking in Australia is misleading. Forty- 

five sheets of a one-inch survey have been published or are 
in course of publication. These cover some 23,000 square 

I miles in the vicinity of the five larger towns, and are of 

Brit good quality. It is regretted that this series was overlooked 

Don when the statement was made. 

3 British Association Report, South Africa 1989. 

the e . . 

Ireland have been independent. The description given applies, however, equally to 

the maps of Ireland as to those of Great Britain. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. Ill 

in 1791 ; it is therefore, to the best of my belief, the oldest organised 
survey in the world. The survey is a singularly complete one. A wide 
range of maps is published, extending from the cadastral maps on the 
1:2,500 scale (25 inches to the mile) to the 6-inch, 1-inch, ^-inch and 
^-inch to the mile, as well as larger town plans and smaller scale wall 
maps. With the exception of the 25-inch, which does not extend over 
open moorland areas, the whole of the British Isles is completely mapped 
on all these scales, and the sheets of every series are printed, published, 
and on sale. But a possibly more noteworthy feature of the Ordnance 
Survey is that all its maps from the largest to the smallest scale are the 
result of accurate survey rigidly based on the triangulation of the 
country. There is only one survey authority in Great Britain ; and 
every map is based ultimately on the 25-inch map. 

The Ordnance Survey topographical maps of 1-inch to the mile and 
smaller scales are all published in colours. On the ordinary edition of 
the 1-inch, hills are shown by contours, but in certain special sheets 
layer colouring and hill shading are added. On the A-inch and |-inch 
scales layer colouring is used. The 6-inch map is printed in black with 
red contours ; the 25-inch in black only. The characteristics of the 
25-inch — the cadastral map of Great Britain — are that all topographical 
features are shown ; every enclosure is numbered, and the area is given 
in acres and decimals ; all civil division boundaries are shown, and also 
the positions and heights of bench-marks and spot heights. An interesting 
feature of all Ordnance Survey maps also is that the position and nature 
of all antiquities are shown ; that is, of ancient ruins, earthworks, barrows, 
tumuli, and other objects of archaeological interest. On the 25-inch 
these are shown in great detail ; on other maps according to the 
limitations of scale. There is a regular system of revision for all maps, 
except the town plans which are not now maintained. Large scale maps 
are revised every twenty years ; small scale every fifteen. 

The Ordnance Survey is responsible for levelling, as for all other 
survey operations. There is a complete system of levelling throughout 
the country, with permanently marked bench-marks. 

In England the Land Registry Office is independent of the Ordnance 
Survey, but the Ordnance Survey maps are used for the registration 
documents. For Land Registry work frequent additions and alterations 
to the map are required, and for this work the Land Registry has a staff 
of surveyors and draftsmen. There was obvious danger that in course 
of time the Land Registry maps might depart considerably from the 
Ordnance Survey original ; and there was further the waste of effort 
entailed by Land Registry surveyors carrying out revisions which must 
eventually be done also by the Ordnance Survey surveyors. Arrange- 
ments have consequently been made now whereby the Ordnance Survey 
will gradually take over the revision work necessary for Land Registry 
purposes. 



This analysis of National Surveys has necessarily been very brief, 
and is obviously incomplete, as time does not allow of my dealing with all 
surveys. But it has perhaps served to give a general idea of how surveys 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

are organised throughout the world. What deductions can we make 
from it ? 

In my statement of the form that I think the ideal National Survey 
should take, I laid great stress on the desirability of unity of control of all 
forms of survey. I said I thought that there should be only one survey 
authority in a country, and that there should be a single control of all 
survey operations from start to finish. Perhaps the chief point that strikes 
one in analysing the organisation of National Surveys is the lack of such 
unity. If we except the Ordnance Survey and the Survey of Egypt, and 
certain British colonial surveys, such unity of control is conspicuous by its 
absence ; and one of the most characteristic features of foreign surveys is 
the almost complete divorce of cadastral from topographical work. They 
seem to be commonly regarded as things apart. The idea of a single 
department responsible for all forms of survey appears to be a British 
idea, as it is only in countries of British nationality or controlled by British 
that it is found. In fact, it might almost seem that in stating what I 
believe to be the sound and ideal form of organisation for a National 
Survey I was merely quoting the practice of the Ordnance Survey. But 
that is not so. I do not argue that the organisation that I advocate is 
right merely because it is that of the Ordnance Survey, but because it 
seems to me absolutely sound and defensible arguing from first principles. 
The British people have an extraordinary faculty for getting practical 
things done, and in the end often done well ; but logical and orderly 
thinking out and arrangement is the last quality I would claim for them as 
a race. Yet it does seem to me that in survey matters the British have 
developed eminently logical and sound ideas and have put them most 
beneficially into practice. 

All surveyors will agree that the idea that there is any essential 
difference between a cadastral and a topographical map is absurd ; the 
difference is merely one of degree and not of kind. It seems therefore 
logical to argue that both should be produced and maintained by the 
surveyor. Indeed one may put it more strongly, for it is obviously wasteful 
to send one party into the field to produce one kind of map, and another to 
produce another kind, when one good map would serve as a basis for all 
kinds. In Europe the so-called cadastral maps are regarded much less as 
maps than as diagrams and documents necessary for the purpose of super- 
vising revenue. They have become to a large extent the documents of a 
financial department. The question obviously arises whether the countries 
in question have suffered from this policy. If the argument that all 
survey should be under one direction is sound, one should be able to show 
that some disadvantage has resulted where this rule has not been followed. 
Can this be shown ? Let us take France as a typical example. 

France has a cadastral survey, on a large scale — usually 1 :2,500 — made on 
the average about a hundred years ago. As far as one can judge — and we 
had opportunities for doing so during the war — this survey, though not based 
on any triangulation, was a reasonably accurate one. It has been left 
practically untouched since. The manuscript plans that one may see on 
application in the Mairie of any commune show the country as it was in 
the time of Napoleon. 

This survey must have cost a lot of money to carry out, and the map 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 113 

when produced must have been of great value to the country. Owing to 
lack of revision the value of that map to the country has steadily deterio- 
rated until now, when it must be widely negligible. I cannot believe that 
if this map had been in charge of a surveyor it would have been allowed to 
deteriorate in this way. I cannot believe that he would not have main- 
tained it and made as accurate a map as possible. I am obviously unable 
to prove this, but I think that all surveyors will agree with me that if a 
surveyor had been made definitely responsible for that map he would have 
looked after it. 

It appears to me, therefore, that France has definitely suffered from 
allowing this once valuable map to remain in charge of a purely fiscal 
department. 

Take the question of publication. To survey and map any country is 
an expensive business ; and it is particularly expensive to carry out a 
cadastral survey, presuming that it is a reasonably accurate survey, on 
account of its large scale and the great amount of detail that has to be 
mapped. Now the cost of reproducing and printing such maps is almost 
infinitesimal compared with the cost of surveying them ; and it seems to 
me a penny wise and pound foolish poUcy to refrain from the small extra 
expense that would be entailed by publication. The maps embody a large 
amount of information of value to the public, and obtained at public 
expense. It seems only reasonable, therefore, that this information should 
be made available to the public. 

Human activities take very similar forms all the world over, though 
there may be superficial difEerences. Since the world began men have 
bought and sold houses, estates, lands ; and a usual accompaniment of 
such sales is a map or plan. In England, where accurate 25-inch plans 
exist for all cultivated and inhabited country, it is easy to obtain such a 
plan. In France, where the once good plans no longer have any value, 
they must be made afresh. Here again I think we may say that France 
has suffered through not carrying through her survey policy to its logical 
conclusion. 

Another point that may be mentioned is the question of military value. 
European countries assumed prior to the Great War that cadastral maps 
were of no military value. As the war went on, the demand grew for maps 
of larger and larger scale. England was no wiser in this respect ; but she 
was much wiser in her survey policy. Had the war occurred in England 
it would have been an easy matter to supply maps of any scale reqmred. 
In France how often must the armies have wished that good, accurate 
large-scale maps were available ! As it was, we had to make those maps 
ourselves. We used the hundred-year-old French cadastrals, and were very 
glad to have them ; but how enormously their value would have been 
enhanced had they been modern, up-to-date maps ! 

The conclusion seems justified that France has suffered definite dis- 
advantages owing to her policy of letting her cadastral maps become mere 
documents of a financial department, and of not carrying out her survey 
to its complete and logical end ; and the same conclusion will apply to 
other countries in a similar situation. 

In the U.S.A. and in Canada division of responsibility of another kind 
used to exist. The disadvantages of such a state of things and the need for 
unity of control was felt, and has been met, as I have related, by the estab- 
1929 I 



114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

lishment of Survey Boards. I believe that the existing system works well 
and without friction, but I believe also that this is due mainly to the 
common sense and goodwill of the men working it, rather than to any 
advantages in the system. 

What is the survey situation in South Africa at present ? In January 
1921 a Survey Commission was appointed, and in July of the same year 
it issued a Report. This was not by any means the first report on survey 
questions in this country that has been made ; nor was this Commission 
the only one that has investigated the subject ; but as it is the latest, and 
the only one on whose recommendations action has been taken, we may 
confine our attention to it. The Report of this Commission is a most 
admirable document ; and if I quote from it my excuse must be that 
Government documents are seldom read except by the few who are pro- 
fessionally and immediately interested. The Commission drew attention 
to the great waste that resulted to the country in the absence of a scientific 
system of carrying out cadastral surveys ; it pointed out the need for 
greater co-ordination and unity of control in survey matters ; and it 
dwelt very strongly and forcibly on the great need for a good topographical 
map of the country. The Commission made a large number of recommen- 
dations, all in the direction of securing greater unity and more reliability 
and scientific precision in the surveys of the country, and of making the 
survey more complete and comprehensive . As a consequence of this Report 
in 1927 a Survey Act was passed, which gave effect to most of the 
recommendations of the Commission, though not to all. 

As a result of this Act, survey in South Africa is unquestionably in a 
very much sounder position than it has ever been before. The present 
organisation is that there is a Director of Trigonometrical Survey, who 
is responsible ' for such trigonometrical, topographical, level, and tide 
surveys . . . etc., as the Minister may direct ' ; while in each province 
there is a Surveyor-General who is responsible for controlling cadastral 
work in his province, and also, be it noted, ' for conducting when required 
by the Minister a general triangulation and topographical survey of any 
portion of the Union.' As a matter of actual fact, the Director of Trigono- 
metrical Survey has been charged with the duty of carrying out a topo- 
graphical survey, and no Surveyor-General of a province has as yet, so far 
as I know, been entrusted with this duty. The Commission recom- 
mended the appointment of a Director-General of Surveys. The Act does 
not carry out this recommendation ; but it establishes a Survey Board ' for 
the purpose of promoting and controlling all matters ' affecting survey ; 
and it empowers the Governor-General, if he think fit, to appoint a Director- 
General of Surveys, to whom the Minister ' may . . . assign the functions 
of the Survey Board.' The Act also establishes a ' Survey Regulations 
Board ' for the purpose of making regulations for survey practice and 
securing uniformity. 

It would seem, therefore, that the Act recognises the need for unity of 
control, but provides it for the present by a ' Survey Board,' which con- 
sists of the four Surveyors-General and the Director of the Trigonometrical 
Survey ; and provides also for the possibility of replacing the Survey 
Board by a Director-General. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 115 

These measures do not go so far as the Survey Commission recom- 
mended ; but they undoubtedly constitute a great step forward in securing 
unity of control and uniformity of practice. 

The situation with regard to cadastral surveys in the Dominion is 
difficult. A vast amount of surveys of farms and properties has been 
done, and exists stored in various archives. It varies largely in quality, 
but includes much most valuable material. But it is most difficult of 
access, and it has long been felt by the thinking surveyors of this country 
that more use should be made of it. The subject has been ably dealt 
with in an article in the Survey Journal for March 1924 by Mr. 
Whittingdale, who argues that it should be collected, co-ordinated, and 
plotted in the form of a regular series of cadastral plans. Whether such a 
work would be practicable I am not competent to say, though it is interest- 
ing to note in the same article that experimental cadastral plans, 
presumably made in the suggested way, have already been constructed in 
the office of the Surveyor-General, Cape Town. But of its desirability I 
have no doubt whatever. It is, to my mind, and as I have attempted to 
show in this paper, a cardinal principle that survey work that is done should 
be published and made available ; otherwise it is largely wasted ; and the 
preparation of a series of uniform cadastral plans of the Dominion should, 
I think, take a high place in the Survey programme. It should not be 
forgotten, of course, that certain compilations of the existing farm surveys 
have been made in the Transvaal, Orange Free State, and Natal, but these 
do not quite meet the want. 

The Survey Commission did not touch on the question of a regular 
cadastral map, but it devoted a substantial part of its Report to the subject 
of topographical survey. South Africa is at present singularly deficient 
in good topographical maps, and there is, I think, little doubt that they 
are a crying need. The need for such a survey has been consistently 
advocated for many years past ; and it is difficult to add anything of value 
to the arguments which have already so often been put forward. My 
excuse for speaking at all on the subject is that public apathy in the matter 
is so great that it is only by constant reiteration that one may entertain a 
faint hope that at some time a little interest may be aroused. 

I am going to give you two short extracts from statements made by 
others which put the question clearly and forcibly. 

The first is by a Director of Irrigation in South Africa, and was quoted 
in the Survey Commission's Report. 

' The need for an accurate topographical contoured survey is felt 
almost daily by services such as irrigation, roads and bridges, railways, 
and agriculture. Hundreds of thousands of pounds would be saved in a 
few years to these services if reasonably accurate topographical maps 
existed.' 

The next is from a statement prepared by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, on the need for expediting the topographic mapping of 
the United States. 

' Topographic maps . . . serve as a base on which most problems 
affecting human activities may be studied and investigated and plans 
made for their solution. The lack of topographical maps in any area 
retards the development of that area and increases the expense of planning 



116 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

public works. The possession of such maps insures the economical 
planning of improvements and reveals possibilities for the development 
of resources that otherwise would remain unknown.' 

The Survey Commission stated that in South Africa a topographical 
survey is particularly necessary from the geographical circumstances of 
the country. It pointed out that, in the absence of waterways, roads 
and railways must be laid down before a country can begin to progress; 
and further that irrigation and conservation of water wiU play a great 
part in the development of the land. It then stated that a necessary 
preliminary to undertaking any schemes of the nature mentioned was a 
knowledge of the topography, and that a good topographical map would 
save enormous sums that are continually being spent in reconnaissance, 
and would obviate a great amount of wasted effort. To this weighty 
statement we might add the enormous value of a good topographical map 
to all who are concerned in the government and administration of the 
country. 

Another reason which makes the need of a topographical map of first 
importance is the question of geological survey. Geological information 
is deprived of a great part of its value until it is correctly plotted on a 
reliable map. Perhaps the best example and proof of this is the case of 
the Geological Survey of the United States. In that rapidly developing 
country it was felt that geological survey must be pushed on as fast as 
possible. The geologists found, however, that they must have good 
topographical maps ; and there being none in existence, they set out to 
make them ; with the result that, as I stated earlier in this paper, the 
Geological Survey of the United States includes the Topographical Survey. 
In South Africa the same considerations apply with peculiar force ; and 
it seems incredible in a country where geological survey and mineral 
development has such possibilities, that the value of a topographical 
map should have been so long ignored. 

Numerous instances could be given of the savings that result from 
the estabhshment of a good topographical survey early in the history of 
a country, and of the losses that are consequent on the lack of such a 
survey. 

Some of the most illuminating examples are those connected with 
railway construction. The Report of the Commission gives two cases 
taken from Nigeria, in the first of which for lack of reliable topographical 
knowledge the Lagos-Kano line was badly laid out, and enormous sums 
of money were subsequently expended on reconstruction to improve the 
line and lessen the running expenses. The waste in such a case, as the 
Report points out, includes not only the cost of the necessary recon- 
struction, but the greatly enhanced cost of running trains on the original 
bad line with its unnecessary curves and gradients. 

In the second case a topographical survey was made before the railway 
was located, and it is stated that the result fully justified all expectations, 
and that the chief engineer was able to report that he was in consequence 
enabled to complete his reconnaissance work in record time and to dis- 
cover routes through difficult forest and hill country that would otherwise 
have been unobtainable. 

When the Uganda railway was constructed the lack of a topographical 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 117 

survey had similar unfortunate results. Forty miles of the line had to 
be reconstructed, at a cost which, for construction alone, would have pro- 
vided an adequate survey of a large portion of Kenya Colony. 

The present situation with regard to topography in the Dominion is 
as follows : There is a good topographical survey (1 : 125,000 scale) of the 
Orange Free State, with an extension for a short way into the Transvaal. 
There is a 1 : 250,000 survey of Basutoland and of the northern part of the 
Cape Province. The latter is classed as a ' reconnaissance ' survey ; it 
is useful, but in Cape Colony at any rate hardly adequate to the needs 
of the Dominion. Of the remainder — about half of the Cape Province, 
almost the whole of Natal and the great bulk of the Transvaal — no topo- 
graphical map exists. It will be seen that a vast amount remains to 
be done in the way of topography. 

It is true that a start has been made with topographical survey of 
the country. The Director of the Trigonometrical Survey has been 
charged with this duty, and a sum of money has been allotted for it. 
The sum seems to an outsider, considering the immense amount of work 
which has to be done, to be extraordinarily small. It is something that 
the principle has been recognised, but no adequate progress will be made 
until a much larger sum is allotted. The question is also bound up to 
a large extent with that of staff. So far as I am aware the Director of 
Trigonometrical Survey has no permanent stafi for field work, and very 
little for work in the office. This is to be regretted. In my view a 
Government Survey ought to have a regular permanent staff ; otherwise 
it is Uable to have fluctuations in the quality and quantity of its work 
which are most undesirable. It may of course be convenient, and usually 
is in the early stages of a survey, to have in addition a certain number 
on a temporary basis. The same observations apply to the staffs of 
the Surveyors-General. In all cases there should in my opinion be a 
stafi of permanent Government employees. All experience goes to 
support this view. The example of Canada may be quoted. Cadastral 
surveys there used to be put out to contract, but this was dropped in 
1915 and I am informed that all surveyors are now Civil Servants. It is 
to be noted that the Survey Commission laid particular stress on this 
point, especially in the case of the trigonometrical and topographical 
surveys. 

The most satisfactory feature in South African survey is perhaps the 
triangulation ; it is all of good quality, and is being pushed on as fast 
as funds will allow ; but there is undoubtedly a great need of extension 
in the second and particularly in the third order triangulation. Some 
levelling has been done, but nothing as yet in the way of closed circuits ; 
so that levels are at present, to use a common expression, hanging in the 
air. All surveyors know that it is impossible to check the accuracy of 
any levelling, and to distribute the errors, until the work has been closed 
on the starting point. 

South Africa has a great survey tradition behind it. Some of the 
greatest survey schemes were started in this country ; some of the finest 
survey work in the world has been done in it ; and some of the best 
surveyors of the Empire have been trained here. South Africa ought 
not to be content to lag behind other nations in this matter. She ought 



118 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



to be in the van, setting an example to others. I would like to see a 
complete and united Survey of South Africa, with its triangulation carried 
all over the country to the third order; with a complete network of 
levels, primary, secondary, and tertiary ; with a good series of topo- 
graphical maps and cadastral maps ; and I would like to see the Survey 
printing and publishing all these maps itself. You may say that this 
means money, and that it is a matter for Parliament. Peoples are in 
the habit of blaming Parliaments ; but I am not at all sure that it is 
always ParUament that is to blame. If the people of South Africa take 
a real interest in this matter, and demand an adequate survey and good 
maps. Parliament will find the money. I commend this ideal to the 
people of South Africa, that they should be determined to have a National 
Survey adequate to their place among the nations, and worthy of their 
history and great traditions. 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



THE PUBLIC REGULATION OF 
WAGES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



ADDRESS BY 

PROF. HENRY CLAY, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A GREAT change has taken place during the last twenty years in the 
methods of negotiating wage-changes. In 1910, when the Labour 
Department of the Board of Trade published the result of an inquiry 
into collective agreements, it was estimated that 2,400,000 workpeople 
worked under conditions specifically regulated by such agreements. The 
report adds — and the addition is important- — that there were a large 
number of other workpeople whose wages, hours of labour, and other 
conditions followed, and were in effect governed by these agreements ; 
but a generous allowance for this addition will still leave the total far 
short of the wage-earning population, which, excluding domestic servants 
as outside the probable field of collective bargaining, numbered about 
thirteen millions. 

Trade unionism was, however, spreading. In 1914 the total member- 
ship, which at the time of the inquiry was 2^ millions, had grown to over 
four millions. It reached a peak of 8^ millions in 1920, and was 
still 4,908,000 in 1927, the latest year for which returns are available. 
More significant in principle than this expansion of an existing instrument 
of control was the direct intervention of the State in the fixing of wages by 
the Trade Boards (Minimum Wage) Act of 1909. Confined at first to 
trades in which wages were ' exceptionally low,' this Act made the 
settlement of minimum rates of wages by a representative joint body 
compulsory, associated with the representatives of the workpeople and 
employers impartial members, who would represent the interest in the 
settlement of the general public and also ensure a decision in case of 
deadlock, and provided for the enforcement of the rates fixed by the 
appropriate Government Department. The scope of this machinery was 
extended after 1918, when an Amending Act substituted for ' exceptionally 
low wages ' the absence of adequate machinery for the effective regulation 
of wages as the differentia of the trades to which the Acts might be 
applied ; and in 1925 it was estimated that a million and a half work- 
people had their wages regulated by Trade Boards. A less revolutionary 
extension of Government activity was the approval given to the Whitley 
scheme of Joint Industrial Councils and assistance in the formation of 
such councils ; as a result of which it was estimated, rather optimistically, 
that three million workpeople were covered in 1925.^ In the same cate- 

' Balfour Committee, Interim Report on Industrial Relations, p. 47. 



120 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

gory may be placed the scheme of Conciliation Coimcils in the railway 
industry, embodied in Part IV of the Railways Act of 1921. Finally, 
temporarily by the Corn Production Act of 1917, and permanently by 
the Agricultural Wages Boards Act of 1924, the benefits, whatever they 
may be, of organised settlement of wage-rates by representative bodies 
were extended to the last great unorganised group, the agricultural 
labourers. It is not possible to compute a figure for a recent year to 
correspond with the 2,400,000 of 1910, because the status of collective 
bargaining in certain important industries is obscure ; but if we add 
together the numbers covered by Trade Boards, Agricultural Wages 
Boards, Joint Industrial Councils, and Unions in certain industries, which, 
like coal and cotton, have adopted none of these forms of organisation, 
we get a total of eight millions out of a wage-earning population, which, 
excluding domestic service, numbers something under fourteen millions. 
When we remember that the influence of an agreement or a determination, 
reached by a representative body, tends to go beyond the limits of the 
membership of the organisations, and even trades, directly represented, 
we may safely conclude that there are few important gaps left in the 
provision for the settlement of wages by collective bargaining in Great 
Britain. 

The precise nature of this change is worth some consideration. It 
was not the introduction for the first time of standardised rates of pay 
in time-work occupations. Even if we leave out of account the con- 
siderable part of the field covered by trade unionism at the beginning of 
the century, it is probable that in most districts, in which an occupation 
was followed by considerable numbers, there were customary rates 
commonly recognised, which the majority of employers observed. These 
rates were not so definite and secure as they became when they were 
embodied in a collective agreement ; but, outside the so-called ' sweated 
trades,' they were a limitation on the freedom of the individual employer 
to vary rates. Immediately, wages were fixed for him rather than by 
him, although ultimately they had to conform to the demand for labour, 
of which he was the channel. Nor was the change an universal substitu- 
tion of collective for individual bargaining about rates. In piece-work 
industries after the change, as before, the vast majority of rates were 
settled by an individual bargain between the workman and the 
employer's representative. The change was a change in the procedure 
by which general changes in wages are effected, in response to general 
changes in the economic conditions of a trade or of industry as a whole, 
and its essence was the extension of collective bargaining for this purpose 
from a part of the field of commercial wage-employment, say a quarter, 
to the whole. 

The effects of collective bargaining are of course not limited to general 
changes in wages. It provides an opportunity of effective appeal against 
grievances of all kinds, which does not exist in its absence, and tends to a 
more definite standardisation of wages and conditions. When first 
introduced it usually brings about a rise in wages ; the Agricultural 
Wages Boards, when first established in 1924, raised weekly wage-rates 
by an average of 3s\ a week, although there was no change in the economic 
conditions of English agriculture to justify any such change, and the 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 121 

first Trade Boards in some cases established minima that were double 
the rate of earnings ruling in important districts before. But the 
significant and essential change was the change in procedure. Wage- 
rates in any case have to be adjusted to changes in the demand for 
different kinds of labour, changes in the purchasing power of money, 
changes in the general prosperity and activity of industry. Before the 
war, outside the organised industries, the adjustment was made by the 
individual action of the employers, who first felt the need ; to-day the 
process of general wage-changes has, we may say, been constitutionalised. 

It is the system resulting from this change that I refer to as ' the 
public regulation of wages.' It is only partially due to the direct inter- 
vention of the State, although the legalising of trade union activity was 
essential to the development of effective collective bargaining without 
the State's direct intervention. Whether, however, wage-changes are 
negotiated by voluntary industrial councils, spontaneous negotiations 
between trade unions and employers' associations, or statutory Trade 
Boards and Agricultural Wages Boards, the result is the same. A change 
cannot be effected without public discussion between representatives ; 
when effected, it applies generally to the trades and occupations repre- 
sented ; it is the outcome of an attempt to allow for all the economic 
factors in the situation, not of an attempt to impose a priori principles of 
social justice upon industry ; it is a procedure for adjusting wages by 
agreement, rather than a policy aimed at over-riding the commercial 
considerations that have determined wages in the past. It is ' public ' 
in the sense that it involves formal discussion by representatives, and 
results in publicly formulated standards ; it is ' regulation,' only in the 
sense that it provides in this way for the formal consideration of the 
factors affecting wages by the representatives of employers and wage- 
earners, and the embodiment of the result in a formal agreement. 

Although I am concerned here only with British experience, I may 
note that the change is not confined to Great Britain. The pioneers of 
this new procedure are the States of the Australasian Dominions, whose 
example influenced Great Britain, in spite of the difference in conditions. 
There the change took the form rather of the substitution of arbitral 
determination of wage-changes than of the extension of collective 
bargaining, and the results are the subject of controversy. There is, 
however, a good deal of evidence to support the view, that there also 
the change was one of procedure only. Arbitration did not, because it 
could not, materially affect the economic factors that ultimately deter- 
mine what wages can be paid ; and the course of wages, as formulated 
by arbitration, was much the same as it would have been — with a time- 
lag and less uniformity — had there been no arbitration. In other words, 
the arbitration authorities interpreted — and interpreted with fair accuracy 
— forces which they could not in any case control.^ 



* Cf. F. C. Beuham in London Essays in Economics (1927), p. 226: "Our 
conclusion is that in the main average real wages have not been fixed much higher 
that! they would in the absence of wage-regulation." Cf. Report of Proceedings of 
the National Conference (1928) : New Zealand, papers by Professors Fisher and 
Belshaw. 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

II. 

The extension of public regulation of wages in this sense from a part 
to the whole of the field of commercial wage-employment could hardly be 
without some effects upon the general industrial situation. In their 
classic study of the effects of collective bargaining Mr. and Mrs. Webb 
lay chief stress upon its influence in increasing the efficiency of industry. 
They draw a sharp distinction between the policy of restricting numbers 
in a trade and that of imposing common rules. Their survey of trade 
unionism showed that the former policy, anti-social and self-defeating, 
was adopted by a smaller and smaller proportion of unions, and was 
becoming more and more difficult of application ; the discarding of any 
attempt to restrict numbers, and the concentration on the policy of im- 
posing standard or minimum rates and conditions, was growing, and was 
the chief characteristic of trade unionism in the expanding industries. 
This policy increased industrial efficiency in two ways, by its reaction 
on the workman and by its reaction on the employer. The workman, 
prevented from securing emplojTnent by accepting a lower rat€ of pay 
than his competitors, was compelled to improve his efficiency, and was 
enabled to do so by the increase in income and security that trade 
unionism usually brought. More important were the reactions on the 
employer. Stopped from taking the easy but dangerous path to lower 
costs of cutting wages, he had to find other means of increasing output 
in relation to wage-payments. Hence trade unionism encouraged an 
increase in the scale of production, a more extensive use of mechanical 
equipment, a more eager search for technical improvements, and, 
generally, the economy of labour. It did not extinguish competition, 
but diverted it from wages to other factors in costs. 

The rapid expansion of the unionised coal, cotton, and engineering 
industries in the decade following the publication of this analysis seemed 
to confirm its soundness. The decline and stagnation of the same 
industries in the last eight years prompts the inquiry whether this 
influence has exhausted its potentialities. The evidence collected by 
the Balfour Committee, while not decisive, points to the conclusion that 
labour-cost in the export industries has risen as much as, and possibly 
more than, wage-rates, which implies that such increase in efficiency as 
these industries have been able to secure has not been more than 
sufficient to compensate for the reduction in hours of work.^ In the 
trades to which Trade Boards were first applied, many instances were 
afforded of improvements effected under the stress of the need to econo- 
mise labour, and in some of them, for instance the clothing industries, 
a marked increase in scale, such as the Webbs' analysis would lead one 
to expect, took place. We should expect the reactions of this kind to 
be greatest in the trades in which wages and conditions had been worst, 
and in the period immediately following the first application of control. 

Whether the influence on efficiency has continued and is general, the 
abnormal condition of British industry makes it difficult to decide. The 
large amount of short time, the increase in other costs, and the financial 

^ Balfour Committee, Further Factors in Industrial ar>d Commercial Efficiency, 
pp. 92 et eeq. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 123 

difficulties which prevent large numbers of firms from installing improve- 
ments, which they would like to install, all obscure the issue. Without, 
however, attempting to decide the larger question, we may note two 
things. 

The first is that the contemporary experience of America shows that 
collective bargaining is not a necessary condition or the only means of 
stimulating an increase in efficiency. Since the pre-war period, while 
British industry with its new equipment of universal collective bargaining 
has at most increased output sufficiently to compensate for the reduction 
in normal hours, manufacturing output per head in America increased 
in the ratio of 105 to 147 between 1919 and 1925. In the same period 
the extent and strength of trade unionism in America declined, except 
in certain industries, in which the unions have departed from the old 
policy of leaving the employers to find ways and means of meeting their 
claims, and have assumed a direct responsibility on behalf of their members 
for reducing labour-costs as a condition of maintaining or increasing 
wage-rates. 

The second note is this. In so far as the extension of collective 
bargaining does stimulate or compel economy in labour — and, if it has 
not done so on any large scale at present, it may do so in the near future 
— it may maintain wages at the expense of increasing unemployment. 
In the great export industries of coal and cotton, for example, demand 
for British production appears to be inelastic, and considerable reductions 
in cost have not resulted in any substantial increase in employment. 
Moreover, much of the employment at present given is given at a loss. 
A reorganisation that made it possible to maintain present wage-rates 
without loss would probably, therefore, involve a reduction in the numbers 
to whom employment could be given. Such an extrusion of unwanted 
labour, as a result of improvements in the technical processes or organisa- 
tion of industry, is a normal incident of economic progress ; and the 
hardship it may involve need be only temporary, provided that the 
expansion of industry as a whole is great enough and rapid enough to 
absorb the extruded labour. When all the industries of the country 
adopt collective bargaining, and all begin to adopt the policy of 
holding up wage-rates, leaving it to the employers to tune up industry 
to the pitch at which such rates can be paid, the numbers of extruded 
workers for whom the new and expanding industries have to find employ- 
ment is likely to be increased, and the rate of expansion of industry as 
a whole becomes a factor of much wider and more pressing interest in 
wage-negotiations than before. 

III. 

Mr. and Mrs. Webb in their rationalisation of trade union policy 
distinguished sharply, as we have seen, between the effects of a policy 
of restriction and those of the policy of regulation. The benefits of trade 
union organisation to society at large, as distinct from the sectional 
interest of the members, accrued only if union policy eschewed restrictive 
practices, and, by concentrating on maintaining and advancing wages 
and conditions, brought about an improvement in industrial efficiency. 

It is obvious that an advance in wages secured by any one class of 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

workpeople, if it is not covered by a corresponding increase in the 
efficiency of the industry in which they are engaged, must be at the 
expense of someone else. The increased efficiency may be due to the 
workpeople or to the employers ; but, if neither of them create a fund 
from which increased wages can be paid, the increase will be paid either 
by consumers or by the co-operating industries that help them to supply 
the consumers. If the increase is merely sufficient to keep pace with 
an advance in the average level of wages, it may represent no more than 
the industry's proportionate share in the general increase of wealth ; if, 
however, it is greater than the average, or in times of wage-reductions, 
the reduction is less than the average, it must involve the diversion to 
the favoured industry of a larger share of society's income. 

Such a diversion may be effected without overt restriction of numbers. 
If a union — or a Trade Board or Arbitration Authority — fix wage-rates 
in an industry at a level which makes it impossible for the industry to 
employ all the workpeople seeking work, and maintain rates at that level, 
it will immediately restrict employment, and ultimately may so dis- 
courage entry to the industry, that the number of workpeople dependent 
on the industry is no greater than can be employed at the rates set. 
The demand for the products of industry, and therefore for labour, ebbs 
and flows with general fluctuations in trade ; a strong union can main- 
tain rates when demand ebbs and advance them when demand rises, 
thus preventing both a fall in rates proportionate to the general decline 
in money incomes in the depression, and an expansion in numbers pro- 
portionate to the general increase in production when trade improves. 
On the other hand, an unorganised industry may suffer a reduction of 
rates when trade declines and an expansion of numbers, on the low level 
of wages so established, when trade improves. 

The mere regulation of wage-rates may, therefore, be restrictive in 
its effects. Such restriction may be legitimate and socially desirable ; 
but it destroys any sharp distinction and opposition between a policy of 
restriction of numbers and a policy of imposing common rules of payment 
and conditions. It makes no difference, for example, to a coloured worker 
in countries of mixed nationality, whether he is excluded from certain 
occupations by a legal colour-bar, or by a legal minimum rate so high that 
no employer would think of paying it to a coloured worker ; it makes no 
difierence to an unemployed building labourer, whether the expansion 
of the building industry, to a point at which he would be absorbed, is 
prevented by apprenticeship regulations, making it impossible for building 
employers to get enough skilled men, or by the establishment of skilled 
rates, that raise the cost of building and restrict the demand for houses. 
It is not even clear that the reactions upon efficiency of the two policies 
are necessarily difierent. If the supply of a certain class of labour is 
restricted, employers will be stimulated to devise labour-saving apphances 
to substitute for it, or some reorganisation to dispense with it, just as 
certainly as if the supply is unrestricted but expensive. One generation 
of architects devised ways of using brickwork in pilasters, cornices, string 
courses, and around openings, because stone-masons made themselves 
scarce and expensive, a later generation used concrete to replace brick- 
work, because bricklayers had become scarce and expensive ; the develop- 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 125 

ment would have taken place whether the impulse came from a scarcity, 
or from a disproportionate rise in the cost, of the necessary skilled labour. 
Trade union control of wages, and the analogous control by pubhc 
wage-fixing authorities, may be most simply regarded as an application 
of monopoly price policy to labour. The monopoly is seldom, if ever, 
complete ; but what monopoly is ? It gives the seller of labour no 
control over the demand for his services ; it merely enables him, so far 
as it is effective, to select the point on the demand curve at which he 
will hold the price, until a general rise in demand absorbs at that price 
all the union members, instead of allowing competition for employment 
always to force wages down to the point at which the whole supply of 
labour is absorbed. It is a policy that can be pursued without causing 
more than temporary unemployment, under two conditions ; first, that 
the wealth of society is steadily growing, so that continually higher wage- 
rates can be paid without causing unemployment: secondly, that it is 
practised only by a minority of the trades in the community. The latter 
condition no longer obtains. 

IV. 

The industries of the country are co-operant agents in the production 
of the commodities and services that industry sells. So long as everybody 
was not organised to attempt it, it was always possible that favoured 
trades, by means of a monopolistic organisation, might secure for them- 
selves a larger share of the final price received for industry's products. 
Marshall illustrated this possibility by a hypothetical case, which has 
recently been illustrated in actual experience, that of plasterers, whose 
services were jointly demanded with other kinds of building and building- 
material labour ; but the possibilities are wider. Mr. Rowe has recently 
shown us that the true rate of advance of wages (average of skilled, 
semi-skilled, and unskilled grades) between 1886 and 1913 was 47 per cent, 
in coal-mining ; as compared with 9 per cent, in the case of railways, 
and an average of about 25 per cent, for the five representative industries 
he studied. Mining is one of the instances Mr. and Mrs. Webb take, 
and the enormous growth of the industry in the period shows that the 
advances that the unions were able to secure certainly did not prevent 
growth. They may also have had some influence upon the efficiency of 
the industry ; but any such increase in efficiency was not latterly sufficient 
to counteract the opposing influence of exhaustion of supplies ; output 
per head in tons declined from 1907 onwards. Now the final price to 
the consumer of coal has to cover not only the getting of the coal, but 
the transport of it, and such transport is an important source of revenue 
to the railways. May it not be that railwaymen would have got more, 
and miners less, of the final price, if the railwaymen had been organised 
and the miners unorganised ? * 

Just before the war the railwaymen completed an effective union 
organisation, which the circumstances of the war and the post-war period 

' South Africa appears to offer the extreme case of a distribution of the final 
pnce of coal in favour of railwaymen. The pit-head price of coal in the Northern 
Transvaal in 1923 was 5s. 3d. per ton, the railway rate per ton per 100 miles 7s. 4d. ; 
miners' wages averaged £45 a year, railwaymens' £117. (Calculated from figures 
given in Union Year Book, No. 7.) 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

tended to favour ; and the pull that they are able to exert upon the 
distribution of the price paid by the consumer for coal is certainly not 
less than that exerted by the miners to-day. And this change is significant 
of the general change in the competitive position of different wage-earning 
groups. All now are organised, or provided by the Government with 
equivalent protection ; all are able to set and hold rates of wages, as 
firmly as the minority of well-organised trades were able to hold them 
before the war. Partial and sporadic monopoUstic organisation has been 
displaced by universal control. Two consequences follow. First, it is 
no longer possible for well-organised trades, merely by virtue of their 
trade union organisation, to secure differential gains at the expense of 
unorganised or ill-organised groups with whom they co-operate ; or, if 
it is still possible, at any rate it is more difficult. In the second place, 
influences upon wages, that were formerly counteracted by trade union 
organisation, have now free play. Organisation and control, having 
been extended generally, no longer differentiate groups, so that their 
influence, if not yet eliminated, is very much reduced. 

From this point of view the intervention of the State, in establishing 
Trade Boards and Agricultural Wages Boards and in other ways, and the 
contemporary extension of unionism to hitherto unorganised trades takes 
on a rather different aspect from that which Mr. and Mrs. "Webb put upon 
it. They represented it rather as an extension to the rest of industry of 
the principle of trade union control and of the benefits that they had 
shown to follow from trade union organisation. This, of course, it was ; 
but it was at the same time a necessary corrective of trade union influence. 
So long as only a part of the field of wage-employment is covered by 
trade union organisation, the benefits secured by trade unionists may in 
part be at the expense of the workpeople in the unorganised part of the 
field ; so far as those benefits are not the return to increased efficiency 
due to union pressure, they will almost certainly be in part at the expense 
of other wage-earners. To prevent this kind of horizontal redistribution, 
it is necessary to put all wage-earners on an equality in respect of 
organisation for wage-bargaining ; it will never be possible to secure 
complete equality in this respect, but the changes of the last twenty 
years have eliminated the obvious inequality, and thereby eliminated a 
great part of the danger. 

Trade union organisation is, however, not the only element of mono- 
poly or other advantage differentiating different occupational groups. 
The extension of union organisation, therefore, or some effective substi- 
tute for it, to the support of wages throughout the whole of industry, 
does not suflSice to put occupations upon an equality. Rather its effect 
is to enhance the influence upon distribution of other factors making 
for inequality, more particularly of those elements of bargaining-advantage, 
that are inherent in the nature of different industries, but were obstructed 
or outweighed in the past by the greater influence of unequal union 
organisation. The second consequence of general control is, therefore, 
the release of influences upon wages which were formerly prevented from 
exercising their full potential effect. In this release is, I think, to be 
found a partial explanation of the changed relations which wages in 
different industries bear to one another since the war. It might have 



F.~ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 127 

been expected, for example, that wages would be high in an industry 
like railway transport, which enjoyed a monopoly and had a relatively 
inelastic demand for labour. In fact, before the war they were low ; 
since then the railwaymen have had the advantage of effective union 
organisation, and their wages have risen disproportionately to others, 
in spite of the invasion of the railways' monopoly by road transport and 
consequent depression of the industry. Another influence is ' shelter ' 
from foreign competition, possibly only a temporary influence, but one 
that has operated throughout the post-war depression. Before the war, 
when they were organised, the ' sheltered ' industries were on a level 
with the ' exposed ' industries, compositors on a level with miners, brick- 
layers with fitters ; to-day they are on a higher level. When they were 
unorganised, they were relatively poorly paid ; to-day the Trade Board 
minimum for certain of them is as high as, or higher than, the standard 
rates of skilled men in engineering and shipbuilding. It is not suggested 
that the public regulation of wages is the sole or chief explanation of 
these divergences ; the differing fortunes of the ' exposed ' and ' sheltered ' 
industries would account for even wider divergences ; but regulation 
may explain why the ' exposed ' industries have not been able to transmit 
to other industries a portion of their losses. Another factor that appears 
from a comparison of wage-movements in different occupations to be 
exercising a greater influence than before the war is the possibility of 
bringing political pressure to bear upon the employer, which the 
employees of public authorities can exploit. More important is the 
share in the advantages of monopoly, or partial restriction of competition, 
which employers have established and workpeople are able to share. 
Thus, in the textile industry the finishing trades are combined and enjoy 
a prosperity which the great spinning and weaving sections allege is 
partly at their expense ; the spokesmen of the finishing trades reply that 
their charges have not risen out of proportion to their costs, and in 
particular their labour-costs, which the relatively high level of wages in 
these trades confirms. 

We may conclude that the extension of trade union or Government 
control over the whole field of commercial wage-employment has cancelled 
an advantage, which the workpeople in the organised trades used to 
possess, and, by so doing, has increased the relative influence which other 
elements of monopoly or bargaining-advantage exercise upon wages. 
The extension would be an almost unqualified improvement, if its effect 
was to confine wage-claims to amounts that could be justified by the 
increased efficiency of industry, to which the control of wages contributed. 
Since, however, there are other conditions, which enable or encourage 
one trade to profit at the expense of others, and since the different con- 
trolling authorities carry on the pre-war trade union tradition of 
considering only the needs and possibilities of their own trade, the general 
extension of control may result in a general attempt to secure more wages 
than can be paid. This suggests a third possible result of the change 
that we must consider.^ 

' The competition between different groups for the national income is not confined 
to industrial wage-earning occupations. Other classes are also affected by it. The 
extension of collective bargaining, therefore, may enable industrial wage-earners as a 



128 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Before tlie war the policy of maintaining wage-rates in spite of 
unemployment could be practised only by the organised minority of 
wage-earners. The majority were unable to resist reductions that were 
needed to maintain employment ; and any workers excluded by the 
policy of the stronger unions could compete for employment in industries 
in which wages were not held above absorption level. To-day there are 
no imorganised industries in this sense ; wages are held up, either by 
trade union or Government support, generally, and workers excluded 
from employment by a general holding up of wage-rates above absorption 
level have no resort except unemployment relief. Before the war, again, 
in the absence of any general unemployment relief, it was impossible to 
maintain wage-rates generally at a level that restricted employment 
throughout industry ; somewhere, usually at many points, wages (in 
relation to efficiency) would be reduced to the level at which expansion 
could take place ; the condition ' in relation to efficiency ' is necessary, 
because in fact expansion took place in the high-wage rather than the 
low-wage industries. Has the extension of collective bargaining destroyed 
this plasticity, this automatic adaptation of wage-rates to opportunities 
of employment ? 

The mere substitution of regular for informal discussion does not by 
itself make it more or less difficult to adjust wage-rates to varying condi- 
tions. The change is one of procedure only ; it should, if it has any effect, 
tend to bring under notice more comprehensively and display more 
accurately the factors that have to be taken into account in finding the 
' right ' wage. If this is taken to be the wage that measures the marginal 
productivity of the number of workers available, it is just as likely that 
the right figure would emerge from the deliberations of a representative 
joint committee or an experienced arbitrator, as from the unco-ordinated 
bargainings of a multitude of isolated individuals. Moreover, as we have 
seen, individual bargaining is usually impracticable. The choice is 
rather between adjustment by discussion between representatives of 
organised bodies of employers and workpeople, and a guerrilla warfare 
waged by individual employers against the combined resistance of un- 
organised, but not necessarily demoralised, workers, fighting for what 
they conceive to be their ' rights.' The largest concessions by wage- 
earners to meet changed economic conditions since the war have been 
made by some of the most strongly unionised trades, such as iron and 
steel, engineering and shipbuilding. It is true that the wage-reductions 

class to secure an increased share of the product of the nation's economic activity at 
the expense of other, still unorganised, classes. In the United Kingdom this 
possibility is of less importance than elsewhere, since wage -earners are so large a part 
of the community ; though there has been some redistribution since 1914 in favour of 
wage-earners as a class at the expense of the rentier class, particularly the land-owning 
section of it. In other countries, where industrial wage-earners alone enjoy the 
advantages of trade union or Government regulation of their remuneration, backed 
up often by Protective tarifis, and there are large numbers in the ' unprotected ' 
classes, particularly in agriculture, the possibility is important. With other influences 
the public regulation of industrial wages helps to account for the world-wide 
divergence of industrial and agricultural prices. Cf. an article by the present writer 
on World Prices and Trade Barriers in The Journal of the Textile Institute, 1928, No. 6. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 129 

in iron and steel have been made automatically under sliding scales based 
on selling prices ; but the willingness of the unions to adopt and adhere 
loyally to such a device is evidence that trade union control of wages is 
quite compatible with extreme plasticity of wages. It is conceivable, 
therefore, that the most complete plasticity might be secured by the 
most complete public control, since complete control would remove the 
fear that a reduction once conceded could never be recovered. 

Again, the change in methods of settlement has not stopped the 
movement of wages. An examination of the Ministry of Labour's record 
shows that wage-changes have been more frequent, ample, and extensive 
than before the war. Mere movement, however, is not decisive. Greater 
frequency of change was to be expected, since change in general economic 
conditions has been more frequent, and because the practice of adjusting 
wage-rates automatically under sliding-scales to changes in the cost of 
living has spread since the war ; greater amplitude was to be expected, 
because economic conditions have been more unsettled ; greater extension, 
because collective bargaining is so much more general. It is the nature 
of the resulting adjustment, rather than the extent of movement, that is 
significant. In the post-war period we do not find that the movement of 
wage-rates adjusts the supplies of different kinds of labour to the demand 
for them. On the contrary, unemployment persists in most industries 
after frequent wage-adjustments. We do not even find a uniform 
adjustment of wage-rates to the varying economic conditions of different 
industries ; while, on the whole, wages are lowest (by pre-war standards) 
in the industries that are most depressed, there are important exceptions, 
relatively high wage-rates co-existing in the chief textile industries and 
elsewhere, with more than average unemployment. There has been a loss 
of responsiveness to changes in commercial conditions ; the inovement 
of wage-rates have failed to establish an equilibrium between the supply 
of and demand for different kinds of labour. 

If we examine the results actually brought about, the generalisation that 
suggests itself is that wage-rates are adjusted to the varying degrees of 
bargaining strength of different groups of wage-earners, in other words, to 
the factors whose influence was formerly obstructed by unequal trade 
imion organisation. The commercial condition of the industry in which 
they are engaged is one factor in determining their strength, but not the 
oidy factor. Thus wage-rates in the ' heavy ' industries reflect the 
depression in those industries and the inability of the unions to exact 
higher rates. But the textile industries, although equally depressed, 
maintain a level of wage-rates that is relatively high ; in cotton, wage- 
rates have been unchanged at about double pre-war rates since 1922, 
partly because the difficulties of the industry are so great that the 
operatives feel that any sacrifice on their part would be imavailing, 
partly because the financial difficulties of a large section of the employers 
have made it impossible for them to face a strike. Similarly the railway 
directors may think that it would pay the companies and the country to 
reduce their charges to the depressed heavy industries, but they cannot 
make further concessions, unless they can reduce their own expenses, in 
which wages are the most important and the most expanded, and, their 
demand for the labour they retain being inelastic, they cannot force a 
1929 IT 



130 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

reduction there. And so with other competitive inequalities. In the 
industries sheltered from foreign competition, the workers have been able 
to exploit the ' shelter.' Where subsidies have been paid the unions 
have secured for their members a share of the subsidy. Where an 
industry or section of an industry enjoys some element of monopoly, 
wage-rates, when compared with wage-rates in the other sections of the 
industry, suggest that the monopoly profits are shared by labour. In 
industry in general, the lower-paid classes of workers, who secured greater 
proportional advances during the war, have so far been able to retain 
their advantages, a power explained by the spread of trade unionism 
among them and Government protection of wage-rates through Trade 
Boards. 

Thus the movement of wage-rates does not bring about an adjustment 
to the capacity of the different industries to pay wages and provide 
employment to the workers seeking employment ; the set of wage-rates 
it results in represents the power and opportunities, often temporary 
and accidental, that organised workers have had of exacting wages, with 
little or no regard to the ultimate demand for labour as shown by the 
extent of unemployment. 

In producing this result the extension of public and collective regula- 
tion of wages has been an influence. By preventing the nibbling at them 
by hard-pressed or unscrupulous employers, that undermines standards 
in unorganised trades, it tends to adjust rates to the capacity of the larger 
and better-organised firms. More important, it opens the door to the 
influence of non-economic factors. The mere fact of publicity, or 
organised discussion, invites appeal to social and ethical standards of 
' fair ' and ' living ' wages, to pseudo-principles such as the sanctity of 
pre-war renl wages, to the unpopularity of reducing rates of wages of the 
lower-paid workers, none of which have any bearing on the capacity of 
industry to pay wages and provide employment. Economists in the 
seclusion of a private circular may state baldly that ' the fundamental 
hindrance to recovery . . . lies in the abnormal relationship between the 
movement of the cost of materials and that of the cost of labour,' ^ but 
directors of large companies, who may be candidates for Parliament, will 
not commit themselves publicly to such unpopular opinions. 

VI. 

The increased element of publicity and public control of wages, there- 
fore, will tend to harden wage-rates in a depression, provided that the 
representatives of the wage-earners really wish to resist reductions. 
Whether they will do so or not, however, will depend on the consequences 
of successful resistance, at which we must glance. Before the war the 
consequence would have been unemployment ; and unemployment 
would have involved, for the small minority of wage-earners covered by 
trade union unemployment insurance a drain on the union funds ; for 
the great mass of wage-earners, who had no such resource, early and 
extreme hardship. It was impossible for the representatives of the 
wage-earners in wage-negotiations to ignore unemployment. 

' London and Cambridge EGonomic Service : Bulletin of October, 1928, p. 3. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCK AND STATISTICS. 131 

To-day things are different. Successful resistance to a reduction may 
still involve unemployment, but unemployment does not involve the 
same certainty or degree of distress. Before the war the provision for 
unemployment relief was partial and inadequate. To-day there is a 
system of unemployment relief that covers all the industries that are 
liable to serious unemployment. Then the spokesmen of the wage- 
earners had to consider the employment situation, because their clients 
would be the chief sufferers, if their wage-policy restricted employment ; 
now, in such a case, they may nevertheless persist in their policy, since 
they are conscious that their clients are not without resources, if all 
cannot be employed at the level of wages exacted. 

It is not that unemployment relief leads to the refusal of available 
work ; the Employment Exchanges provide an adequate check on that 
abuse, were there any general inclination towards it. Nor does the relief, 
as it is administered, impose any insuperable check upon mobility between 
district and district or trade and trade. The Courts of Referees and the 
Umpire, who decide on doubtful claims to benefit and administer the 
provision in the Acts that the applicant shall be ' genuinely seeking 
work ' but unable to obtain ' suitable employment,' while they treat 
each case on its merits, have in general put an interpretation upon 
these terms, that requires the unemployed workman sooner or later to 
accept work outside his own district or trade, if it is available. 

The effect of unemployment relief is indirect. It influences wage- 
rates by disinclining the representatives of the wage-earners to take the 
same account of unemployment as they did before relief was provided. 
Two incidents of the scheme strengthen this tendency. In the first place 
the unemployed are not an undisturbed mass of permanently unemployed 
workpeople, but a body the composition and membership of which is 
constantly changing. Hence a ten per cent, restriction of employment in 
an industry does not involve the relegation to continuous idleness of 
10 per cent, of the workers in the industry, but irregular employment 
for perhaps 30 or 40 per cent. ; the evil of unemployment is diffused, 
and there is a chance that intermittent employment at the higher rate 
will bring in as much as regular employment at a lower rate. In the 
second place the system of organised short-time makes it possible to 
dove-tail periods of wage-earning with periods of unemployment relief. 
Right to benefit under the unemployment insurance scheme does not 
begin the moment a worker falls out of employment, but only when a 
waiting period of a week has elapsed ; any three days of unemployment, 
however, within six consecutive days or two unemployment periods of 
at least three days each separated by a spell of not more than ten weeks' 
work, are treated as continuous unemployment, and a second ' waiting 
period ' is not required. Employers have adapted their engagement of 
labour to these conditions, and thus spread the available employment 
over a larger number of workers than the industry could employ full- 
time, at the same time throwing on the unemployment insurance fund 
the burden of maintaining the surplus labour when it is not in employ- 
ment. Instituted as a device for tiding over a temporary depression, 
this system has been prolonged as year succeeded year of unemploy- 
ment, and has had the effect of substituting intermittent and irregular 

k2 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

employment for regular work in industries in which such conditions were 
formerly rare. 

This comparative disregard of unemployment in wage determinations 
is as distinctive a change from pre-war practice as the extension of col- 
lective bargaining, and much more significant for the problem we are 
now examining. Summing up the practice of trade unions at the 
beginning of the century, Mr. and Mrs. Webb pointed out that the unions 
had ' a rough and ready barometer to guide (them) in this difficult navi- 
gation.' They continued : 

' So long as a trade union, without in any way restricting the numbers 
entering its occupation, finds that its members are fully employed, it 
can scarcely be wrong in maintaining its Common Rules at their existing 
level, and even, after a reasonable interval, in attempting gradually to 
raise them. . . . 

' When the percentage of workmen out of employment begins to rise, 
it is a sign that the demand for their particular commodity has begun 
to slacken . . . although it can in no way be inferred that the slackening 
of demand has been caused by the rise in the level of the Common Rule, 
rather than to any other of the many possible causes, yet this slackening, 
however it is caused, must necessarily check any further advance. For 
assuming the workmen to rely exclusively on the Device of the Common 
Rule, it will not pay them to obtain a rise ... at the cost of diminishing 
their own continuity of employment. To put it concretely, whenever 
the percentage of the unemployed in a particular industry begins to rise 
from the 3 or 5 per cent, characteristic of " good trade," to the 10, 15, or 
even 25 per cent, experienced in " bad trade," there must be a pause in 
the operatives' advance movement.' ^ 

If organised workpeople in this way took unemployment as an index 
of industry's capacity, and adjusted their claims accordingly, imorganised 
workpeople certainly could not do otherwise. Any temporary success 
that the latter might achieve in maintaining or advancing wage-rates, 
where commercial conditions called for a reduction, would have the effect 
of excluding from employment a mass of labour that would press upon 
the restricted openings for employment, and inevitably, in the absence of 
trade union or trade board support, lead to individual concessions and 
the disintegration of wage-standards. 

Hence pre-war industry exhibited a fairly close correlation between 
the movement of wage-rates and employment as measured by the 
(inverted) trade union unemployment percentage curve. There was a 
lag, but, allowing for this, a fairly close adjustment of wage-rates to 
changing commercial conditions. This correlation is not to be observed 
in post-war industry since 1922. In the great upward movement of prices 
from 1914 to 1920 and in the ensuing collapse from 1920 to 1922, wages 
followed other prices ; but since then wages on the average have changed 
very little, while both prices and unemployment have varied considerably. 
If we consider, not the average movement, but the independent and 
divergent changes in wage-rates in separate industries, what we notice 
is not an adjustment of wages to conditions of employment, but, as is 

' Industrial Democracy {\902), pp. 738 et seq. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 133 

pointed out above, an adjustment to the varying capacit)' of different 
groups of workpeople to resist reductions or exact advances. 

This post-war disregard of unemployment in wage negotiations is 
the principal and direct explanation of the loss of plasticity in wage- 
rates. It should be noted, however, that the provision of unemployment 
relief is not the only cause of the change. We have already come across 
another reason for it in connection with the cotton industry. The repre- 
sentatives of the wage-earners, quite rightly in many cases, believe that 
any concession on their part would be unavailing. The post-war de- 
pression in many industries is so much deeper and more widespread that 
any practicable reduction in wage-rates would hardly afEect it. The 
example of the coal industry, in which a substantial reduction in wage- 
rates has been followed by increase in unemployment — and in losses by 
the employing firms— is pointed to as evidence of the futility of wage- 
reductions ; and no attempt is made to gauge the extent to which demand 
is as inelastic for the products of other industries as it has proved to be 
for coal. 

There is an explanation for the wage-earner's attitude in yet another 
change ; wage-rates of direct labour never were the sole determinant of 
costs, and to-day they are probably less important than before the war. 
Loan charges, incurred in the boom and subsequent slump, although in 
process of liquidation, are still proportionately much heavier than before 
the war ; rates and taxes and social insurance contributions are much 
heavier ; indirect costs, which may be due to the level of wages, but not 
of wages in the industry concerned, for transport, financial services, etc., 
are higher ; distributing costs have increased disproportionately. Hence 
the wage-earner, asked for concessions, fears that he is being asked to 
make a sacrifice, not to revive trade, but to lessen the losses, or increase 
the profits, of retailers, banks, loanholders, railways, and co-operating 
industries, that may be more prosperous than his own. The considera- 
tion of wages is purely sectional, industry by industry and trade by trade ; 
the need of industry, so far as wage-adjustments can meet it, is for an 
all-round reduction, which will affect the indirect costs, simultaneously 
with the direct costs, of every industry. No machinery exists for such 
co-ordinated and synchronised adjustment ; on the contrary, the extension 
of collective bargaining has probably intensified and extended the influence 
of this sectional outlook of industry by enabling industries, that before 
the war could not have resisted the pressures imposed by general trade 
depression, to hold up wages. 

The general relations of wage-rates to other prices and to employment 
are also significant of maladjustment. Professor Bowley's new index 
number of wages shows an advance (at the end of 1928) of 94 per cent, 
over the pre-war level, while the cost of living, as measured by the 
Ministry of Labour's index, has risen only 67 per cent., wholesale prices, 
as measured by the Board of Trade index, only 38 per cent, and the 
average price of British exports only 61-8 per cent. Wage-rates on the 
whole have been remarkably stable since 1922, although unemployment, 
as measured by the registrations under the unemployment insurance 
scheme, has fluctuated from over 17 per cent, in 1922 to less than 10 per 
cent, in 1924, rising again to over 12 per cent, in 1925 (to 14-6 per cent. 



134 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

during the coal stoppage), falling to less than 9 per cent, in 1927, and 
rising again to over 12 per cent, in 1928. The chief instance of this 
maladjustment of wages is perhaps to be seen in the maintenance of the 
average level of wage-rates (in spite of a large reduction in the important 
item of miners' wages) since 1924, while other prices were being adjusted 
to the level required by the return to the Gold Standard. Money wages 
have been maintained (which means that real wages have increased about 
8 per cent.), while the prices which British industry received for its 
products, as measured by export prices, were reduced on an average 
14| per cent., and the number of unemployed, comparing 1929 with 1924, 
increased. Comparisons of wage-movements with physical volume of 
output point to the same maladjustment. Real wages increased on an 
average by 12 per cent, between 1907 and 1924 ; a comparison of the 
Censuses of Production of 1907 and 1924 suggests that output per head 
did not increase, or increased only very slightly.^ 

It would appear, therefore, that wage-fixing authorities, acting 
independently of one another and disregarding the general economic 
situation, are maintaining wage-rates at a level at which existing in- 
dustries cannot provide full employment ; the considerations that 
explain their policy will not serve to explain away the unemployment 
that has accompanied it. The outlet for labour thus excluded, which 
was provided before the war by industries in which wages were not 
controlled, no longer exists. There remains for examination the 
possibility that new industries may provide an outlet, industry as a 
whole expanding sufficiently to absorb the excluded labour. 

VII. 

Before the war we had no measure of industrial expansion ; but there 
was no evidence of cumulative unemployment, so that industry must 
have expanded at much the same rate as the growth of population. Since 
192-3 we have had, in the unemployment insurance statistics, a record 
of the directions in which industry is expanding and contracting, which, 
with certain other information, supplies such a measure. It would seem 
that industry has, temporarily at any rate, lost its capacity of expansion. 
In insured industry, which covers about three-quarters of wage-earning 
employment, the expansion of employment has been barely sufficient to 
absorb the diminished increase in the population seeking employment, 
without affording any relief to the mass of unemployment afflicting 
industry. 

In certain directions there is expansion, but a closer examination 
compels us to discount any hopes derived from it. The largest single 
increase in employment has been offered by retail distribution, 360,000 
or 31 per cent, between 1923 and 1928. A part of this may be at the 
expense of the small shop-keeper, who does not come into the insurance 
figures, in which case it, however, represents no net increase of employ- 
ment ; the greater part probably does represent a net increase, but an 
uneconomic increase. The Balfour Committee brought together material 

' A. L. Bowley, A New Index Number of Wages, pp. 4-5. 



F.— ECONOMIC .SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 135 

that suggests that retail distributing costs rose iu greater proportion than 
prices generally between 1914 and 1925 ; ^ since then we have had a 
further great increase in the number of insured persons employed in retail 
distribution. This expansion of the retail margin, coupled with the 
enormous expansion of newspaper advertisement revenue iu the same 
period and the elaboration of competitive selling organisation, has been 
sufficient to neutralise and make of no effect in the final price to the 
domestic consumer of British goods much of the writing down of capital, 
reduction of wages, and economies of re-organisation by which productive 
costs have been reduced. By keeping up the cost of living, while whole- 
sale prices are falling, these costs also make it difficult to ask for any 
reduction in wages. So far then as retail distribution provides additional 
employment bj'' its expansion, it probably does not succeed in compen- 
sating for reduction in industrial employment, which the cost it imposes 
on industry involves. 

The second group of expanding industries is the building, building 
material, and furnishing industries. Together these account for 211,000 
increase in the five years. Here the explanation is partly the demand 
due to interruption of building during the war, partly the large subsidies 
given to encourage building. The war-time arrears have now been made 
up, so that further expansion will be limited to the needs of the increase 
in population and of replacement with the aid of further subsidies. The 
case of the third group is similar. These are industries in which expansion 
has been stimulated by protection, but would have taken place without 
that stimulus, under the more economic stimulus of technical invention ; 
motor manufacture and artificial silk are the chief members of the group. 
It is difiicult to estimate how much of the growth was dependent on 
protection and merely a diversion from unprotected industries ; but the 
aggregate expansion of the two together would not be sufficient to com- 
pensate for half the contraction in coal alone. So far from the expanding 
industries showing any likelihood of replacing permanently the loss in 
employment offered by the older, contracting industries, it would appear 
that they cannot be relied on even to provide continued employment for 
their present complement of workers. The new situation requires, if it 
is not to exaggerate the difficulty of the post-war unemployment problem, 
a more rapid growth of new industries, of expansion in new directions 
than before the war ; actually, the rate of expansion and capacity for 
growth appears to have seriously diminished. 

VIII. 

My object in this review of wages and employment has been to dis- 
cover the consequences of the change in methods of settling wages that 
I described at the outset. I have been led rather wide of my subject 
by the difficulty of distinguishing these consequences from those of other 
contemporary changes that have interacted with it. It remains in 
conclusion to point out that the loss of plasticity, and the adverse effects 

' ' The amount of expenses per £ of sales (in certain representative establishments) 
■was on an average probably 35 per cent, greater than in 1913.' Further Factors, 
p. 117. 



136 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

upon employment that may follow, are not necessary and inevitable 
consequences of the extension of collective settlements, but, in so far as 
they are attributable to it, due rather to an obvious defect in the 
machinery and current practice of collective bargaining than to anything 
inherent in collective bargaining as such. 

The changes that distinguish the post-war wage situation, public 
control of wage-settlements and pubhc relief for unemployment, are 
instances of the operation of the habit, described by Dr. Cannan as 
' proposing remedies for economic pressure without considering the 
question whether that pressure may not be an integral part of the 
existing organisation which cannot be removed without causing disaster 
unless some efficient substitute is provided.' We have interfered with 
the harsh but efiective correctives of wage-demands that restrict employ- 
ment, namely, the loss of income by unemployment and the expansion 
of employment where wages are not held up. Either, therefore, we must 
devise alternative correctives, or we mu.st expect unemployment on a 
large scale from this cause alone. 

It is not likely that any party in industry or politics will propose to 
restore the old correctives. The sufiering caused by unemployment before 
the war, a repetition of which on a greater scale the extension of the 
unemplovment insurance scheme has prevented, was too hard a price to 
pay even for a nice adjustment, which it did not always secure, of wages 
to the demand for labour. Still less likely is it that the extension of 
collective bargaining will be reversed. Its completion was needed, as we 
saw, to prevent the unconscious exploitation of ill-organised and un- 
organised groups of wage-earners by the well-organised minority ; and the 
removal of this inequality points rather to the need of attacking other 
inequalities and elements of monopoly that obstruct an economic 
distribution of the product of industry. 

The defect in the machinery for wage-negotiation to which the present 
unemployment points is the purely sectional character of its deliberations. 
It is no one's business to consider wages as a whole, there is no authority 
charged with the duty of reminding wages boards of their responsibility 
to industry in general. Collective bargaining must fail in securing an 
accurate adjustment of wages to industrial conditions, so long as it is 
confined to negotiations over wages in individual trades and industries. 
If it is to continue, it must be supplemented by some device for ensuring 
that the negotiators in each trade and industry have regard to the effect 
of their determinations upon other trades and industries, and for com- 
pelhng them to contemplate the needs of industry as a whole. The 
' barometer,' by which, according to Mr. and Mrs. Webb, the organised 
industries were guided before the war, the extent of unemployment in 
their own industries, is no longer trusted ; but, even if it were, it would 
be inadequate and misleading, since a trade union might pursue a policy 
that caused unemployment in other trades without causing unemployment 
in its own. 

Moreover, by considering only its own needs and interests, an industry 
might pursue a policy that was restrictive in efiect, though regulative in 
form. If all industries and all trades pursue such a policy — and all now 
have the requisite organisation — and maintain rates of wages that restrict 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 137 

employment, there will be excluded a mass of workers who must either 
be absorbed by new industries, or remain unemployed. If there are new 
industries capable of absorbing them, well and good ; but at the present 
time it would seem that there are not. The index or barometer, therefore, 
to which trade union and arbitration authorities' attention should be 
directed, is not solely, or even principally, unemployment in the industry 
immediately imder consideration, but the rate of expansion of industry 
as a whole. 

A wage-rate is a price, and every price i.s a function of every other 
price in the same field of demand and the same area of supply. The 
fixing of a wage-rate may, therefore, affect the demand-price and supply- 
price of every other kind of labour working for the same market. The 
organic nature of the system of wage-rates was abundantly illustrated 
during the war, when public intervention at one point led to reactions 
that compelled intervention at other points, and finally to the attempt 
to control all wages. It has received a more painful illustration since the 
war in the persistent unemployment and check to expansion that have 
accompanied the purely sectional handUng of wage-problems. The task 
of co-ordinating wage-settlements in different industries, and of securing 
in each the consideration of such apparently remote factors as the 
productivity and rate of expansion of industry as a whole, may be too 
much for the spontaneous democratic machinery by which collective 
settlements are negotiated at present ; but the alternative is almost 
certainly a breakdown of that machinery under the pressure of a growing 
problem of unemployment. 



SECTION G.—ENGINEERING. 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROFESSOR F. C. LEA, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It is not unusual for a President of this Section of the British Association 
to choose for his Address some particular branch of engineering with 
which he has been actively engaged. During the last twenty-five years 
I have been closely associated with Universities in which the training 
of young engineers forms one essential part and research a second, although 
by no means secondary, part of their acti\dty, and it seemed fitting to 
deal in this address with one or other aspect of that experience. So 
much has been said and written upon the subject of the type of training 
that is best for engineers and there are so many diverse opinions of the 
most suitable course to be adopted for the training of this and that type 
of engineer that it appeared presumptuous for me to use this opportunity 
to advance any particular views that I might hold. It seemed in every 
way better to give attention to the second aspect of university work, to 
emphasise the importance of the scientific method and research in engineer- 
ing and in engineering training, illustrating my remarks by reference to 
several branches of engineering and particularly those with which I have 
been most closely associated. Further, it seems desirable that the address 
of a President of a Section shall assist in the primary objects for which 
the Association exists. Sir William Bragg, in his Presidential Address at 
Leeds last year, pointed out that one of the purposes of the founders of 
the Association was ' to obtain a more general attention for the objects 
of science,' and the first general secretary of the Association nearly one 
hundred years ago wrote ' the primary purpose of its annual meetings 
should be the stimulation of interest in science at the various places of 
meeting and through it the provision of funds for carrying on research.' 
A number of early Presidents of the Association emphasised the place 
of science in the intellectual life of the people and the beneficent influence 
of the Association in securing a more general attention to the objects of 
science, and one of them pointed out the importance to the community 
of a body of scientific workers ' free alike from the embarrassments of 
poverty or the temptations of wealth.' In pressing these claims for 
public interest in science they had not in mind the applications of Science 
to the material ends which the engineer has in view, and sometimes 
surprise has been expressed that an Engineering Section should find a 
place in the meetings of the Association ; nevertheless it seems desirable 
to suggest that, as engineering is so closely related to very many of the 
activities of modern life and uses for its purposes the discoveries of nearly 
every branch of science, the aims of the Association are of particular 
importance in relationship to this section. 



I 



G.— KNGINEKRING. 139 

The economic and beneficent importance of the work of the engineer 
is recognised by all, in the provision of safe, reliable, and efficient means 
of transport and in the wonderful harbours and docks which make possible 
the interchange of commodities between the nations and incidentally 
the sharing of your gracious hospitality by so many of us from Great 
Britain ; in the utilisation of sources of energy for doing the work of the 
world ; in the equipment of factories and workshops with machines that 
produce abundantly so that the standard of life is raised ; in supplying to 
communities pure water, and in the disposal of sewage without danger to 
health or to the contamination of rivers and streams ; in making it possible 
to plough the great spaces and gather the abundant harvests with little 
labour ; in the provision of implements to combat the enemies of the fruit 
harvest, and in the construction of dams and reservoirs to store the 
abundant rains for the time of drought so that even the barren places 
shall be fruitful and rejoice. For these achievements of engineering it 
is not difficult to obtain recognition, but it is often overlooked that 
engineering is affecting the intellectual outlook of peoples and by its 
very successes may introduce social and political problems of great 
significance. The development of the steam engine and the invention 
of certain types of machines during the eighteenth century changed the 
industrial life of England and to-day there are social and political 
problems, particularly those incident to distribution and concentration 
of population, that are left as a legacy of the rapid changes in manu- 
facturing conditions and a failure to appreciate at the time the new 
influences that were moulding the life of the nation. During the last 
century the work of the engineer has surely had a very marked influence 
upon the relationships between the nations. Great liners now traverse 
the broad highways of the seas and iron roads cross continents so that 
distant peoples are brought near together and the relationships between 
the nations are irrevocably changing for good or ill. The control of power 
and mechanical skill have made it possible for the spoken and printed 
word to disseminate widely thoughts and opinions, so that the worthy 
and the unworthy have opportunities of influence hitherto impossible. 
If, therefore, it cannot be claimed that engineering has a direct influence 
on the intellectual life of peoples and their political relationships it has 
an indirect influence, the full significance of which it is at present difficult 
to evaluate. A clearer recognition, however, of the factors and influences 
that modern engineering is bringing into the life of the world, and par- 
ticularly their potentialities for good or ill, as well as their effect upon 
the incidence of populations and the social and political problems of the 
future, should not be overlooked, and the hope can be expressed that 
directly and indirectly the contributions of engineering may be used for 
beneficent and not destructive ends. Communities, not engineers, are 
responsible for the use or abuse of the gifts of engineering. 

It is not, however, desired in this address to emphasise the intellectual 
or political influences of engineering but rather to suggest : (1) the vital 
importance of scientific research to engineering, (2) that as in the remark- 
able engineering developments of the last century the scientific method has 
been the key to progress even so it must be in the future, and (3) that there 
are many engineering problems of great interest and importance, not only 



140 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

to engineers but to the general public which can only be solved by 
supplementing experience by direct and indirect attack, using all the aids 
that mathematical and experimental science can give. It is also desired 
to suggest that all the arguments for a public interest in scientific 
research apply with particular force to the work of this section. 

It has been said and with truth that engineering is much older than 
modern science. In Mesopotamia and in Egypt, long before the dawn 
of the Christian era, irrigation and other works of great magnitude were 
carried out. Two thousand years ago the Romans made roads, con- 
structed waterworks and erected bridges that fill us with admiration and 
wonder. The engineer to-day has to guide him the accumulated experi- 
ence of many thousands of years and for a solution to many problems 
with which he is faced he has to fall back upon this accumulated 
experience and to his intuitive ability. For this reason it is sometimes 
argued that, engineering is an art and that it owes little to science. 
Recently an important engineering journal wrote, ' The idea that en- 
gineering is based upon scientific knowledge is both wrongful and harmful, 
as it is generally understood. We had bridges before there was a theory 
of continuous girders and steam engines before there was any theory of 
thermodynamics.' That engineering is an art demanding that creative 
ability and doing associated with art, as distinct from knowing in the 
strict scientific sense, is true and it is also true that there were bridges 
and prime movers before there was any organised theory of structures 
or thermodynamics, but it does not appear true to say that there was any 
possibility of such bridges as the Forth Bridge, the Sydney Harbour 
Bridge, the Zambesi Bridge, and the Hudson River Bridge of 3,500 feet 
span, now in process of construction, before the birth of modern science 
and the scientific method. Neither was there a useful steam engine or 
other great and efiicient prime mover before there came into the intel- 
lectual life of Europe that wonderful renaissance out of which modern 
experimental science was born. The Eastern scholars who came to the 
West after the fall of Constantinople brought amongst their treasures 
the works of Ptolemaic philosophers, in which were described experiments 
with heated air and steam, the reciprocating pump, simple water-wheels 
and many ingenious mechanical devices. For 1500 years Roman and 
Mediaeval Europe had neglected experiment and from Hero to Galileo 
little or no progress was made in the development of structures, machines, 
and prime movers. The revival of the experimental method leading to 
the wonderful conquests of physics and chemistry and in the new attempts 
to co-ordinate the results of experience into a body of theory, assisted by 
the new mathematics, gave to engineering that impetus and assistance 
necessary for the achievement of the last century. 

' Meanwhile let no man look for much progress in the sciences, especially 
in the practical part of them — unless natural philosophy be carried on 
and applied to particular sciences and particular sciences be carried back 
to natural pliilosophy ' wrote Francis Bacon in 1620 (Aphorism LXXX, 
Novum Organum). Twenty-four years after Bacon wrote these words 
Galileo died and in the same year Sir Isaac Newton was born. From 
their joint labours, carried out without any desire of practical usefulness, 
came the principles of mechanics without which, it is surely not too much 



G.— ENGINEERING. 14.1 

to say, much of the progress of the last three centuries would have been 
impossible. Before Savery and Newcomen produced the first successful 
steam engine many experiments on the pressure of the atmosphere, the 
relation between pressure and volume in gases and the production and 
the condensation of steam had been made by Porta, de Caus, Torricelli, 
Papin, Boyle and others ; a group of students had gathered together in 
London, ' inquisitive into natural philosophy,' and from these gatherings 
arose the Royal Society ; also Galvani had discovered voltaic electricity 
with all its potentialities for engineering and the world. Seventy years 
after Savery's first engine was constructed, the greatest step in the 
development of the steam engine was made by James Watt, not surely 
as an invention in the ordinary sense, but as a splendid deduction from 
the quantitative knowledge of the latent heat of steam obtained from 
the epoch-making experiments of Black and Watt, and the earlier work 
of Torricelli, Boyle and others on the pressure of the atmosphere ; with- 
out these prior experiments it seems very doubtful indeed whether Watt's 
great invention of the independent condenser and the air pump would 
have been possible. 

' The invention all admired and each how he 
To be the inventor missed ; so easy it seemed 
Once found, which yet unfound, most would have thought 
Impossible.' 

But though all may have admired, it was by rather a painful process 
that Watt was able to gather the fruits of his achievement. The ex- 
perience of the pioneer engineer has not infrequently been that of the 
servants of an Eastern Caliph, who repressed too great popularity amongst 
his generals by ordering ' if the enterprise succeed let the booty be equally 
divided among my whole army : if its success be doubtful let him lose his 
head.' 

A little more than sixty years after Watt built his first steam engine, 
Michael Faraday, supplementing by his unique genius the experimental 
work of many who preceded him, discovered that a magnet could be 
made to spin round a fixed wire through which a cxirrent of electricity 
was flowing and a wire containing a current could be made to spin round 
a fixed magnet. Without these and other equally fundamental experi- 
ments the wonderful developments of the generation and transmission 
of power which have taken place during the last fifty years, as well as 
the aj^plication of electricity to almost every need of the engineer, would 
have been impossible. 

It is true that Carnot and Clausius came after Watt to perfect thermo- 
dynamic theory, and the modern theories of electricity were not known 
when Siemens made his first dynamos, but experimental and mathe- 
matical science had shown the way to engineering developments of the 
greatest significance to the life of the world. It has already been noticed 
that water-wheels were known and used to raise water 2,000 and more 
years ago, but in the seventeenth century water-wheels were little different 
from those described by Vitruvius in the first century before Christ and 
had efficiencies well below 50 per cent. In the latter part of the eighteenth 
century and the beginning of the nineteenth, organised experiments on 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

the flow of fluids had been carried out, relative velocities, momentum 
and kinetic energy were well understood and the next step was made by 
Poncelet in 1832, who enunciated the guiding principles underlying the 
design of vanes receiving moving fluids, and from that time progress has 
been so remarkable that to-day water turbines of more than 70,000 h.p. 
having efficiencies greater than 80 per cent, are being constructed and 
millions of horse power are being generated by water-power. The brilliant 
achievements in the development of the steam turbine of Sir Charles 
Parsons and others following in his steps are to-day well known. At the 
beginning of the nineteenth century there were probably 10,000 engines 
in England giving a total horse-power of about 200,000. To-day steam 
turbines each capable of developing more than 200,000 h.p. have been 
or are being made for stations in various parts of the world. It seems 
very doubtful if this could have been possible except as a consequence 
of the work of Poncelet and two centuries of scientific experiment. It 
is fifty years ago this year since the first food-carrying ship was fitted 
with refrigerating plant ; if experiment and thermodynamic theory had 
not shown the way a commencement would hardly have been conceivable, 
and the developments of refrigeration, which are of such importance in 
the food supplies of to-day, would hardly have been possible. To many 
other examples of the direct indebtedness of engineering to science 
reference might be made. The rapid developments of high-tension 
distribution of power have been made possible by research in the labora- 
tory. Many attempts had been made to utilise the explosive force of 
gunpowder, hydrogen, and coal gas for power production before the 
modern four-cycle internal combustion engine was developed, but with- 
out success, until it was recognised from thermodynamical considerations 
that compression is essential before ignition. The principles of geo- 
metrical and dynamical similarity based upon strict mathematical 
reasoning have been of the greatest service in the development of ships, 
aeroplanes, and airships. In 1862 a committee of the British Association 
reported that models could not be used to determine the resistance of 
ships. William Froude, however, disagreed with the committee and 
enunciated his well-known principles of similarity and showed how the 
wave-making and frictional resistances could be separated from each 
other and the total resistance of the ship obtained from experiments on 
models. Osborne Reynolds and Raleigh extended the argument to 
fluids having different densities and coefficients of viscosity, and it is tlfus 
possible from experiments in one medium to anticipate the resistance 
and forces acting upon similar models in other fluids. By using Clerk 
Maxwell's elegant principles of reciprocal displacements the forces and 
moments acting in statically indeterminate structures can be determined 
experimentally from models, which cannot be obtained, or only with 
great difficulty, by mathematical analysis. Sir David Brewster, one of 
the founders of the British Association, discovered more than a century 
ago that transparent substances when subjected to stress require double 
refractiVe properties. Taking advantage of this property, Professor 
Coker, uWng the precise aids of optics and mathematics, has from models 
been abile to throw much light upon the nature and magnitude of the 
stresses iln structures and machine elements. The work of Sorby on the 



G.— ENGINEERING. 143 

micro sections of rocks has led to microphotography of metals, which has 
been of the greatest assistance to the metallurgist in the development 
and control of those metals which have played such a revolutionary part 
in modern engineering. Unfortunately, sufficient use is not made by 
engineers of this powerful aid to uniformity of product. In the work- 
shops to-day optical methods are used to make true surfaces, and unskilled 
men use the electric arc and the diffraction grating spectroscope to check 
rapidly the analyses of bars of various alloys, confusion in which may 
lead to disastrous results in engines and machines. Accurate pyrometry 
and uniform distributions of temperature in heating furnaces are essentials 
of success in many branches of engineering using alloj'-s of steel and 
aluminium, cold-worked metals and many other forms of materials. Loss 
and failure are the serious penalties paid for inaccuracy or inability to 
use these aids. The judgment of the craftsman and the old ' rule of 
thumb ' methods, which sufficed until comparatively modern times and 
which, unfortunately, are sometimes practised to-day, are unreliable and 
lead to serious lack of uniformity in production and not infrequently to 
failure where success could have been possible. 

Thus it can be said that the important steps that have been made in 
engineering during the last hundred years and that distinguish this century 
from all preceding ones were commenced and made possible by funda- 
mental discoveries of Science, and it can safely be anticipated that no 
new epoch-making developments in the future will be possible unless 
preceded by new fundamental scientific discoveries. Sufficient energy 
can be transmitted across oceans by directed beams to allow of telephonic 
commxmication. It seems improbable that wireless transmission will be 
possible for the large outputs of power-generating stations, but what the 
future is to reveal cannot be known. In any case the fundamental 
scientific work of Maxwell, Crookes, Hertz, and Fleming was essential 
before even a start could be made. 

At present we depend upon the natural forces of air and water or 
the energy of controllable chemical reactions in boilers, engines, and 
batteries for our sources of power. Visions of engineers controlling sources 
of atomic energy immeasurably more powerful than those available at 
present sometimes come to the hopeful, inspired by the developments of 
experimental and mathematical physics. Rutherford has shattered the 
nucleus of the atom. Dr. Krapitza, in the Cavendish Laboratory at 
Cambridge, has claimed to have reached temperatures of 1,000,000° C, 
and Eddington tells us that in the great power houses of the sun and the 
stars, where the temperatures are, it is estimated, as high as 40,000,000° C, 
the energy of the escaping electrons of the atoms is the source which for 
millions of years has made and will make it possible for the sun and stars 
to radiate energy without appreciable fall in temperature. 

It may be, and until man is more worthy at least it is hoped that ii, 
will be, impossible for atomic energy in large quantities to be obtained 
and controlled. Also it may be equally impossible to obtain energy by 
the synthetic building up of other elements from the fundamental element 
hydrogen, which can be obtained in abundance by the electrolysis of sea- 
water, but whatever the future has to unfold it seems certain that only 
by following the new ways opened by pure science can there be hope of 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

success. Perhaps it may be that not along ttiis path that modern physics 
seems to suggest will the new knowledge come but, as many years ago 
there came the new and wonderful discovery of voltaic electricity while 
Galvani was making experiments with frogs, so in the future a biologist 
or chemist or physicist, working on some subject entirely remote from 
the production of energy, may make discoveries which the Watts and 
Faradays of the future may use to change the life of the world. 

From the point of view, then, of developments in engineering, modern 
communities cannot afford to neglect the encouragement of scientific 
research even in those subjects which at present may seem most remote 
from its activities. Upon almost every section of this association 
engineering lays tribute and in return engineering has given something 
at least to make possible much of the brilliant work associated with other 
sections. The precision of modern engineering made possible the manu- 
facture and control of the great telescopes and other instruments upon 
the accuracy of which the possibility of testing the attraction, predicted 
by Einstein, of the light rays of the stars by the sun depends. The 
latest apparatus by which Michelson repeated the classical experiment 
associated with his name and that of Morley is a triumph of engineering 
skill ; geology owes much to the data supplied by borings and under- 
ground workings, and the work of many other sections has been facilitated 
by the work of the engineer. 

Having, however, recognised the debt of engineering to science for 
the discovery of new principles and new facts which have been used as 
the starting point for new developments, and the dependence of engineer- 
ing upon pure science for any new and important future developments 
only part of the story has been told. In his essay on James Watt, Francis 
Arago wrote in 1834 : ' There are two things to be considered in every 
machine ; on the one hand the moving power and on the other the 
arrangement, more or less complicated, of the moving parts,' and he 
might have added — the difficulty of materials suited to the new purpose. 
He further says that ' those persons devoted to speculative exertions are 
little aware of the distance there is between the project . . . and its 
realisation . . . the enterprise increases in difficulty and in uncertainty 
in proportion as it requires the efforts of more artists and the employment 
of more material elements.' 

In the workshops, in design, in choosing materials, very considerable 
difficulties have to be overcome before success is possible. The principles 
of the independent condenser were clearly grasped by Watt, he tells us, 
as he walked over Glasgow Green, but many years of labour experimenting 
with materials, many ingenious mechanisms were necessary before the 
steam engine was at all perfect, and in every step that has been taken in 
the direction of higher pressures and higher temperatures, new materials, 
new processes, and new ingenious devices have been necessary before 
success could be achieved. Inventive ability aUied with experiments, 
research in the development of new metals for tools and machine elements, 
precise measurement, the perfection of machine shop methods, especially 
the very extraordinary improvements in machine tools encouraged by the 
new tool steels and electric driving and control, have all contributed, and 
wherever success has been sure the methods of science have been followed. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 145 

But though so much has been done in the development of prime 
movers there is perhaps no movement in engineering to-day that is of 
greater interest, not only to engineers but to the general community, 
than the attempts that are being made to considerably increase the 
efficiency of power production from coal and other fuels. The average 
overall thermodynamic efficiency of the public stations distributing 
electrical energy in Great Britain for the year ending March 1928 was 
about 15 per cent. The best station had an efficiency of 21-3 per cent. 
Recently a power unit has been supplied from England to Chicago which 
on test gave an efficiency of 34 per cent. — a remarkable figure. Making 
allowance for boiler losses, efficiencies of from 25 to 35 per cent, ought to 
be possible, therefore, in the future and if only suitable materials can be 
developed to meet the onerous conditions of temperature, corrosion and 
erosion, higher efficiencies than 35 per cent, may be anticipated with steam 
plant. Still higher thermodynamic efficiencies may be expected, as well 
as the chemical riches of the coals preserved, if, as a result of research, 
solid fuel engines or gas turbines can be developed. At the temperature 
of from 400° F. (205° C.) to 600° F. (315° C.) at which boilers and super- 
heaters have until recently worked, mild steels have been found suitable. 
To realise higher efficiencies than at present, much higher temperatures 
will be required, and at contemplated temperatures of 1000° F. (538° C.) 
and upwards carbon steels creep at low stresses. Below a certain stress, 
at a particular temperature, which I have ventured to call ' The Limiting 
Creep Stress,' the creep ceases or becomes so small that it cannot be 
observed in, say, a number of days. This ' Limiting Creep Stress ' is 
evidently the important factor in the problem of high working tem- 
peratures. Experiments indicate that with alloy steels limiting creep 
stresses much higher than those obtained from carbon steels may be 
expected and that alloys of iron, nickel, chromium and with or without 
other alloyed elements, containing as much as 60 per cent, of nickel and 
chromium have considerable strength at high temperatures and also 
resist corrosion and erosion. There is still, however, a very large amount 
of research to be done in which the laboratory and the workshop must 
co-operate, as new workshop technique is required before these alloys can 
be used for specific purposes. 

Research is being undertaken by many manufacturers at great expense 
and the public finally reap the benefit, but it would appear that in a 
matter of such vital concern to industry and the community more rapid 
progress could be made and a much bolder policy pursued if the public 
organisations and the large power distributing companies and authorities 
accepted the responsibility of the provision of funds for research. In the 
Universities much fundamental work can be done if funds are available. 
The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has recognised 
recently the importance of the subject and is assisting industry and the 
National Physical Laboratory to carry out researches on the physical 
properties of metals at high temperatures. The metal problem, asso- 
ciated with the hope of higher efficiencies in heat engines, is also of very 
great importance in connection with ' low temperature ' carbonisation of 
coal and other large-scale chemical engineering processes. 

1929 L 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Structures. 



The indebtedness of structural engineering to mathematics and to 
experimental science has already been suggested, but these powerful aids 
to progress had to be supplemented by the development of new materials 
and by a direct experimental attack before the remarkable achievements 
of recent times were possible. 

In this respect it is well to go back occasionally to the work of William 
Fairbairn, who was president of this section in 1862. He carried out his 
classical experiments during the forties of last century to determine stable 
forms of compression elements for structures, and upon his experiments 
practice followed rather slavishly for more than forty years. The failure 
during erection of the cantilever of the Quebec Bridge dramatically forced 
attention upon the problem of the stability of compression elements. 
Again a series of experiments filled the gap in knowledge and led to 
success. Further work on a large scale, the cost of which can probably 
only be undertaken by public authorities, is desirable. During the last 
twelve years attempts have been made, with considerable success, to 
design all-metal aeroplanes and rigid airships, the compression elements 
and beams of which must of necessity be as light as possible. With a 
fair degree of precision the external forces can be determined by experi- 
ments upon models. The structure of an aeroplane has a certain degree 
of ' statical indeterminateness,' but the forces and the bending moments 
in the elements can be approximately obtained, and what might be 
called the primary stresses can be found with the same degree of approxima- 
tion. Three serious difficulties immediately, however, faced the designers : 
(1) materials of a suitable character and in a suitable form for constructing 
the very light but strong elements, (2) the lack of technical skill and 
suitable machinery for building up the elements, (3) the lack of knowledge 
and the almost insuperable difficulty of determining by analytical methods 
the secondary, and what might be called stresses of even higher orders 
of indeterminateness. The only way was a courageous combination of 
experiment and mathematical investigation. The one without the other 
was useless, but by a combination of the two rapid progress was made, 
and to-day all-metal planes are being constructed of steel or of duralumin 
which are as light, more durable, and stronger than the planes made of 
the best spruce. 

No new fundamental knowledge, such as the splendid contribution 
of Navier or of Euler to the theory of elasticity, has come out of the work, 
but taking these fundamental formulae as faithful guides the experiments 
have led to the developments of forms which, allied to the ingenuity of 
skilful designers, have made it possible to build machines fully equal to 
the very onerous conditions of lightness, strength, and durability imposed 
upon aircraft. Fairbairn and Hopkinson, when experimenting on the 
forms to be adopted for the compression elements of the Britannia Tubular 
Bridge, were faced with almost the same difficulties, but their problem was 
simplified in one respect. They were able to use wrought-iron plates and 
angles sufficiently thick and rivets of sufficient diameter to make it 
unnecessary to consider the instability that may occur in the plates 
between adjoining rivets or in the web of the angles. This is not the 



I 



G.— ENGINEERING. 147 

place, nor is there time, to consider in detail either the early or later 
experiments, but only to refer to them to illustrate how rigidly controlled 
experiments were essential to the development of metal bridges and 
aeroplanes. 

There is still, however, a great deal to be done in connection with 
structures, and the only hope of a satisfactory solution of many problems 
is not simply by accumulating experience, but by combining experience, 
experiment, and mathematical analysis in an endeavour to reduce the 
whole to definitely co-ordinated knowledge. Nearly thirty years ago I was 
privileged to assist with some experimental work on the deflection of 
bridges produced by rapidly moving loads. They were incomplete, but 
they definitely indicated that the assumptions often made by engineers 
as to the effect of rapidly moving loads were not justified. In view of 
the publication in the early part of this year of the report of the Bridge 
Stress Committee, published by the Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, of which perhaps it is only necessary to say that it is worthy 
of its distinguished chairman. Sir Alfred Ewing, and his colleagues, it is 
fitting to particularly refer to this subject of impact on bridges. 

As early as 1849, in the Report of the Royal Commission on the use of 
wrought iron in railway bridges, the subject was discussed and Sir George 
Stokes gave a mathematical solution for a load moving over a girder, 
but this solution was of little value in practice. For eighty years the effect 
of travelling loads has been treated in an empirical illogical manner and 
a number of impact formulae, which the Bridge Stress Committee Report 
shows have no valid foundation, have been rather blindly used by 
engineers. The report shows very clearly that what is important is not 
the fact that the load is appHed suddenly to the structure, but the possi- 
biUty of synchronism or otherwise of the structure with the periodicity 
of unbalanced forces due to the engine or to other causes. Experimental 
data of the vibrations produced in the structure by the various types of 
moving loads have been carefully obtained and methods of analyses 
developed which have made it possible to determine with some degree 
of precision the true impact factors to be applied. Thus a problem of 
real difficulty, in connection with which doubt and uncertainty has 
probably led to expenditure far greater than the necessities of the case 
demand, comes within the possibilities of solution. The carefully conducted 
work of the Committee spread over a few years has given more precise 
guidance for future designers than a hundred years of practice. It may 
quite reasonably be said that practice in the past has led to safety. That 
certainly must always be the first consideration, but undue safety involving 
the use of too much material or even too narrow a margin of safety by 
using materials unsatisfactoril)'' cannot be said to be good engineering, 
and engineers as well as the general public- — for whom engineers are 
trustees — cannot be satisfied until all uncertainties that can be removed 
by careful scientific inquiry give place to more accurate knowledge. The 
only hope of completely solving this all-important problem, as well as the 
equally important problem of the distribution of load through various 
types of floors to the girders of both steel and reinforced concrete structures, 
is by direct large-scale and model experiments and by that type of co- 
operative action of the scientist and practical engineer which has achieved 

L 2 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

such splendid success in connection with the work of the Bridge Stress 
Committee. It is also of interest to note that history has repeated itself 
in that the great contribution which Fairbairn made to structural engineer- 
ing was only possible, as he himself admitted, by the co-operation of the 
practical engineer and the mathematician. 

Aeroplanes and Airships. 

The development of the forms of aeroplanes and rigid airships and the 
determination of the forces acting upon them — lift and drag — and the 
distribution of these forces, is another illustration of the splendid use 
that can be made of the combination of experiment and mathematical 
analysis. Following the fundamental principles of Newtonian Mechanics, 
dynamical laws of similarity have been developed which in combination 
with the wind chambers and the precise measuring devices used for the 
determination of forces and moments acting upon models have made it 
possible to anticipate certain of the forces acting upon machines. Other 
forces could only be estimated from meteorological data obtained from an 
examination of the velocity of upward and downward currents of air 
which a ship or aeroplane may suddenly encounter. Much could be said 
of the many other contributions of ' pure science ' to the successful 
development of the aeroplane. Many of the details and instrumental 
equipment owe much to science, but success could not have been achieved 
if these gifts had not been supplemented by the application of the experi- 
mental method, in which precise measurement has played an important 
part, to the solution of the specific engineering problems associated with 
the engine and the structure. 

Materials. 

Allied to the subject of structures is that of the strength of materials 
and their behaviour under various types of stress. For nearly seventy 
years experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of repeated 
stresses on metals, but the development of high-speed machinery during 
the last twenty years has focussed attention upon this important subject, 
and it is now realised how imperfect is our knowledge. A vast amount 
of experimental data has been accumulated and it has been clearly shown 
that the safe range of stress to which a piece of material can be subjected 
for, let us say, an indefinite number of times, depends in some way, not 
yet clearly defined, upon other and more easily determined physical 
properties. But it is not yet always possible to foretell that some element 
of a locomotive or of an aeroplane engine, or structure, or other machine 
will not fail under the conditions it has to meet in practice. Small dis- 
continuities in the structure of wheel tyres, a surface defect in an axle, a 
wheel gripping very tightly on an axle at one section, surface cracks which 
cannot even be seen by the microscope on a wire used for a rope, or in the 
disc of a steam turbine rotor ; the surface condition of a quenched and 
tempered spring used for a locomotive, an aeroplane engine, or a motor- 
car may lead to failure under the repeated stresses due to the normal 
forces acting upon the element, or due to repeated blows, such as, for 
example, a locomotive experiences whenever it passes over a rail joint, or 



G.— ENGINEERING. 149 

a motor-car along a road. Cam shafts for the stamping mills, used in the 
gold mines in the neighbourhood where we are, frequently fail, and 
engineers and metallurgists are often at a loss to give a reasonable expla- 
nation. The whole problem is bound up, not only with the physical pro- 
perties which statical experiments are capable of testing, but apparently 
in some unknown way with the nature of the crystal structure of a metal ; 
perhaps the stress that produces fracture depends upon the distribution of 
very small quantities of so-called impurities in the space lattice of the 
crystal, or upon the nature and properties of the material forming the 
crystal boundaries, and upon the surface conditions, including hardly per- 
ceptible corrosion, as well as the existence of other discontinuities incidental 
to the manufacture of metals. Some metals appear to fail by slipping on 
the crystal plane, and others by cracks commencing at crystal boundaries, 
or at surface discontinuities. To the metallurgists, engineers must 
unstintingly pay tribute for the splendid work they have done in supplying 
materials to meet the ever growing and exacting needs of modern engineer- 
ing. By the careful scientific control which characterises a modern steel- 
works, thousands of tons of apparently uniform material can be turned out, 
but the engineer does not always use the materials as they should be used, 
and the metallurgist has not always the knowledge required to insure 
perfect reliability under the exacting conditions of service. These, allied 
to the difficulties to which reference has been made, make it imperative 
that in this problem of the reasons for failure of metals under repeated 
stresses and their prevention, the co-operation of engineers, metallurgists, 
physicists, and mathematicians must be enlisted ; experience alone is by 
no means satisfactory. 

Incidental to the failure of materials in service, the recognition of 
synchronism as an important contributing factor, and the assistance given 
by experiment and dynamical theory in anticipating synchronous speeds, 
has been of the greatest service in the design of modern high-speed machines. 
Crank shafts of aeroplane engines and of internal combustion engines 
have been known to fail in a few minutes because designers have failed to 
recognise the possibilities of synchronism.* Such disasters can now be 
avoided in many cases. 

Roads. 

Before concluding, I should like to refer to another subject of interest. 
The rapid developments of road traffic during the last quarter of a century 
has made the road problem one of considerable importance. From the 
point of view of the user and the community, the general policy of road 
construction, the capital expenditure involved, and the cost of upkeep are 
of primary concern. These are dependent upon the materials available 
and the use made of them. Incidental to the problem is that of vibrations 
produced in structures adjoining the road and the probable damage 
accruing from them, but of this there is only time to say that experiment 
is necessary to determine the importance of these vibrations on the 
materials of structures. 

Reference has already been made to the lack of knowledge of the 
effect of blows and stresses due to vibrations in causing failure in metals, 
and the lack of precise knowledge which will make it possible to choose with 
assurance the particular material to meet certain circumstances. The 



150 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

problem of road surfaces is in a large measure one not only of the suitability 
of materials to resist impacts but also of the prevention of impacts. An 
old philosopher, Desagulier, as long ago as 1714, argued with a direct 
simplicity worthy of a scientific man of eminence that a piece of glass 
could be struck many small blows without fracture, but one large enough 
would splinter it in pieces, and that a four-wheel waggon passing over a 
horseshoe might strike such a small blow that little damage would be 
done, whereas a two-wheeled waggon carrying the same load might 
destroy the road surface quickly. The problem might be slightly 
differently stated to-day, but in principle the difficulty is that suggested 
rather quaintly by Desagulier. Many experiments of actual road surfaces 
are being carried out in all parts of the civilised world, but considering 
its economic importance, the cost of upkeep of roads and the inconvenience 
of repeated repairs, it would appear that it would be well worth while, 
even though there may be doubt as to whether any definite and final 
conclusions can be reached in the laboratory, to let carefully but boldly 
conceived laboratory experiments direct the large-scale experiments 
much more than at present. If the history of other engineering develop- 
ments is to repeat itself, only by such a procedure is the solution likely 
to be found. In many branches of engineering, materials and precision 
of finish have brought about remarkable developments and if, by close 
control of processes, plane road surfaces that will reduce blows to a 
minimum can be constructed of materials having a reasohable coefficient 
of friction, a sufficient degree of resilience and abrasive resistance, real 
advances may be expected. Steel, rubber and many other materials 
have been suggested ; it may be that the chemist has by no means said 
the last word on the possibility of synthetic substances that will fill the 
bill, but, however that may be, whether in the direction of new materials 
or in the better use of materials that are available, it seems clear that road- 
making has become of such economic importance to the world that it 
should be removed from the category of ' trial and error ' which for 
centuries has been the method of advance, and all the aids that science can 
give should be enlisted to achieve the desired end. It is not intended 
to suggest that science is not at present assisting. The chemist is con- 
trolling the manufacture of cements, so that products of great reliability 
are available from the various firms manufacturing cements ; tars and 
bitumen and other materials of a mastic character are determined in con- 
sistency and properties by the control of physicists and chemists ; india- 
rubber vulcanised under definite chemical control is being tested in road 
surfaces ; certain substances like silicate of soda have been introduced as 
dressings to concrete ; laboratory tests have been made in connection with 
concrete and other materials, but in the field concrete is not by any means 
made under that rigidity of control necessary for a product of known 
properties to meet particular conditions ; it seems clear that many miles 
of main roads have been made of concrete, suitable perhaps for some 
purposes, but not of the mixture necessary to meet conditions of heavy 
road traffic. But in the direction of research for new materials, as well 
as in the control of the manufacture and of the properties of known 
materials and in the actual carrying out of the work in the field, science 
and the scientific method seem to be the necessary aids for future progress. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 151 

There is another aspect of the subject which is perhaps related more to 
economics than to engineering, but it nevertheless demands a definite 
scientific approach, rather than a policy of drift. I refer to what has 
almost become a contest between road and railway development. At 
home there seems no doubt that thousands of tons of heavy materials are 
carried upon roads, with some element of convenience, it is true, that should 
be carried on rails, at much greater gross cost to the community than if sent 
by rail. The calorific value of the fuel consumed per ton mile and con- 
sumption of other materials is greater for road than for rail transport, and 
the actual damage done to road surfaces and vehicles is much greater for 
the heavy loaded road vehicles than for rail vehicles. True it is that 
flexibility, direct delivery, and many other advantages are claimed for 
road traffic which may far outweigh the disadvantages just referred to, but 
a failure to visualise the problem of internal transport as a whole may lay 
unnecessary burdens upon the community. In the opening out of new 
country that may be the problem in South Africa. I venture to suggest 
that a courageous but, as far as is humanly possible, a ' scientific ' policy of 
development by road and rail should be followed. 

The argument of this address can be summarised into a few sentences. 
New epoch-making developments in engineering depend upon the discovery 
of new facts of science and upon materials and technical processes. The 
only hope of solving many of the problems which face the engineer to-day 
is by carefully organised experiment. Engineering is of such vital 
importance to modern life that not only manufacturers but large users, 
public authorities, and governments must be interested and provide 
funds for research. * 

In Great Britain a good deal of engineering research is being done by 
large firms, by research associations connected with certain industries, 
by the Universities and by the Technical Colleges, the National Physical 
and the Building Research Laboratories, which are under the direction of 
the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. This Department 
also assists research associations by grants, and the Universities by the 
provision of research scholarships and research assistants, but at present 
it seems that sufficient research is not being done, and that not nearly 
enough researchers are being trained to meet the needs. How can the 
demands of the case be met ? 

It would appear that we must look largely to the Universities to train 
researchers. I suggested that I wished to avoid the subject of the training 
of engineers, but one word I wish to say and that is to refer to the necessity 
for the training in the Universities of a considerable number of engineering 
students with the research outlook. Training in strict habits of observa- 
tion and in the investigation of problems theoretically and by experiment 
should form part of the work of all engineering students. Much of the 
theoretical knowledge that a young engineer requires to learn is now to be 
found in excellent textbooks and in current periodicals, and these he should 
be taught to read critically and with understanding, but he should also be 
taught to face all his problems in the spirit of an investigator. Certain 
selected students should be encouraged to remain at the Universities after 
graduation or to return after some experience of actual works to engage 
specifically in research. Engineering needs such men, some to give their 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

whole time to researcli while others carry the spirit of research into the 
ordinary problems of industry and engineering. Employers, public 
authorities, and governments must utilise this research ability, and more 
men should find their way into industry from the research institutions. The 
Universities, however, cannot do this most important work of training 
researchers unless they are adequately equipped and staffed to give 
members of the staff the necessary time for research and to devote them- 
selves to the training of students in research. To this end sufficient 
funds must be provided from private and public sources. 

In the time allotted to this address it has been impossible to do other 
than refer briefly, and perhaps unconvincingly, to the importance of re- 
search in engineering. It has not been possible to refer, nor should it be 
necessary, to the indebtedness of engineering to craft ability, upon which 
success so often depends. One word, however, should be said about the 
desirability of training engineering craftsmen to the appreciation of the 
scientific problems underlying their craft. When this can be done, and 
much more is possible than at present, it leads to an increase in efficiency 
and adaptability, to a greater tolerance and interest in new methods, and 
in the immediate task. It also leads them to appreciate the relationship 
of their problems to the great world of nature, and thus to a widening of 
that interest to which the work of this association is directed. 

The engineer is faced with many unsolved problems. Nevertheless he 
must find immediate, if only approximate and tentative, solutions to many 
of them, and in the solution he often has to deal with many types of men. 
If experimental science and mathematics cannot give him an exact solution 
he must still carry on, and in this way much has been achieved. It is for 
this reason that the engineer has to learn much by actual experience in 
the workshop, in the field, and frequently he becomes impatient of science 
and lays too great emphasis upon experience. Manufacturers wish to see 
returns upon their capital and remuneration for their energy, but as an 
effective guarantee of future progress and in the solution of many problems 
in design, in processes, in materials, as well as in the discovery of new 
methods, it is necessary, as Francis Bacon would to-day remind us, ' to 
apply natural philosophy to particular problems and particular problems 
must be carried back to natural philosophy.' 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



SOUTH AFRICA'S CONTRIBUTION TO 
PREHISTORIC ARCHiEOLOGY. 

ADDRESS BY 

HENRY BALFOUR, M.A., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The interest which is manifested in the study of the early chapters in the 
story of Man's culture development is steadily increasing, not only in 
intensity but also in range, and there are now but few regions which 
remain totally unsearched for traces of early Man and of his material 
activities. Interest becomes more intense as the scattered material is 
found more and more to belong to one huge complex problem, and it is 
realised that each scientifically collected item has a place in the cosmic 
mozaic, and may be the means of illuminating what has hitherto been 
obscure. The ever-increasing geographical range of this interest results 
largely from the discovery that from most parts of the world there may be 
collected data having a bearing upon these problems, and that it is profitable 
to search for traces of early Man in almost any area which has ever been 
habitable. 

The sources of information from which Man's early culture-history 
may be elucidated are mainly twofold. On the one hand there are the 
actual relics of antiquity, which are revealed by the spade of the excavator, 
and whose relative position in the chronological sequence is determined 
by their position in the deposits in which they are found, and by their 
associations. From these the culture timetable must be plotted out. 
On the other hand there are important data to be derived from the study 
of those living races and peoples whose progress has been arrested or 
retarded, and who have persisted in a condition of more or less backward 
culture. From these stagnating populations there is much to be learnt 
of importance to the archaeologist. 

Prehistory may be described as the study of culture-fossils — the remains 
of high antiquity which have been preserved for us, and consist of the less 
perishable objects and materials, such as have successfully resisted the 
ravages of time and its allies of destruction. But, just as the incomplete 
fossil remains of extinct animals can be diagnosed and made ' to live 
again ' by comparative study of recent forms, so, too, may many of the 
gaps in the archaeological record be filled, at least suggestively, by the 
study of the ' unrisen ' peoples who have in so many instances remained 
in their Stone-age, from which they have never emerged unaided. The 
living Stone-age may go far towards illuminating the obscurities of the 
ancient Stone-ages. To achieve the most complete results, in building up 
the story of Man's past, prehistoric archaeology and ethnology must co- 
operate as syndical sciences, each serving to elucidate the other's mysteries. 

Unfortunately, the exceptional opportunities for study which have 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

been offered by recent primitive peoples have largely been neglected, and 
the scientific value of close research into their material culture has usually 
not been recognised until it was already too late to reap the full benefit 
of the harvest. Civilisation has been more concerned with the extermina- 
tion or rapid metamorphosis of primitive peoples and their industries than 
with their scientific investigation ; and it is one of the tragedies of pre- 
history that so much of the invaluable and once accessible material should 
have been allowed to die away unstudied. 

Such a people as the native Tasmanians might have thrown a flood of 
light upon some of the problems of the Middle- and Late-Palaeolithic culture 
phases, had their stone-working technique and their uses of particular 
types of implements been investigated, as they might have been, while 
still being practised under conditions which had persisted throughout many 
millennia. 

The opportunity was missed. Seventy years from the date of the 
first European settlement in Tasmania the indigenous race had been com- 
pletely wiped out, not one survivor remaining ! The very scanty inquiries 
into the habits and industries of this most interesting primitive people, 
conducted before their extermination, must now be supplemented by 
researches following the methods of prehistoric archaeology. The chance 
of studying a living palaeolithic people has passed unutilised, and both 
the ethnologist and the archaeologist are left wondering, with the philan- 
thropist, why such things are allowed to happen. 

This brief reference to the Tasmanian aborigines may seem to be a 
digression from my subject. But, in the history of South African colonisa- 
tion, there may be noted a somewhat similar failure to seize an opportunity 
of investigating fully a living primitive culture which might have thrown 
much light upon culture-details of long- vanished peoples elsewhere. 

The Bushmen and their kindred, although culturally less primitive 
than the Tasmanians, none the less afforded an example of persistence of 
palaeolithic conditions into recent times. Their culture was a purely 
Stone-age culture, and they made and used stone implements of types 
many of which recall forms of implements which prevailed during the 
earlier section of the Late-Paleolithic culture-phase of Western Europe 
and North Africa. The functions of the implements of the ancient series 
have been diagnosed as far as possible, and terms have been assigned to 
them, indicative of their presumed uses ; but this is largely guesswork. 
Some degree of certainty, however, might have been reached had the 
living users of identical types of tools been closely studied, while the 
opportunity lasted, and had the details of manufacture and use of the 
various tool-types been placed on record. 

Again, it is too late for that record ever to be made complete and, 
from an archaeological point of view, enlightening. Dispossessed of their 
old hunting-grounds, the miserable remnant of the once virile and widely 
dispersed Bushman race is rapidly passing away imder environmental 
conditions so altered from those formerly enjoyed, that but little light 
can be thrown by the struggling survivors upon the true characteristics 
of Bushman culture. The old camp-sites, now deserted, must be investi- 
gated archaeologically ; and, in diagnosing the relics discovered, inference 
must take the place of direct observation. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 155 

It is true that valuable material for the study of Bushman culture — their 
habits, traditions, legends, &c. — has been collected and is available, thanks 
to the enlightening researches of William Burchell, Lichtenstein, Baines, 
Miss Lemue, Campbell, Chapman, Dr. Bleek, Orpen, Stow and others 
who collected first-hand data, and the work has been ably followed up by 
Miss Lloyd and Miss Bleek. But information regarding the uses of 
particular types of stone implements and the technique of their manu- 
facture is disappointingly meagre, and valuable clues to diagnosis have 
been denied to us. Even that most striking feature of all, among Bushman 
relics, the rock-paintings and engravings, some of which are of very recent 
date, must be studied archseologically, on similar lines to those pursued 
in the interpretation of the strikingly similar artistic achievements of 
Aurignacian and Madeleinean Man in France and Spain. How greatly 
would the interest of this prehistoric art in Europe have been enhanced 
if only a fuller comprehension of Bushman art had been arrived at by 
direct observation of its processes and functions. The artists have gone ; 
this chapter in art-history is now closed, and there can be no period of 
Renaissance. The modern commentary is appended to the descriptive 
chapter in the form of suggestive footnotes and appendices, offering 
tentative interpretations, of which some are extremely plausible and 
well founded, while others, it must be confessed, are the products of 
imaginations far more vivid than are the colours and the realism of the 
actual paintings discussed. 

At the same time, while we must admit that the ethnological record is 
far weaker than it should be, through lack of scientific observation on the 
part of those pioneers who had opportunities of detailed study, we can 
note with great satisfaction the steady growth in South Africa of a keen 
interest in the archaeological problems with which the country teems. The 
progressive development of local attention to the study of the Stone-age 
in South Africa, the increasing desire for the establishment of a time- 
sequence of culture-phases, coupled with the adoption of more precise 
scientific procedure in research, are features in the intellectual activity of 
the region whose progress towards maturity I have myself to some extent 
been able directly to observe and follow. 

This is my fifth visit to South Africa, and I have thus had opportunity 
of observing successive episodes in the story of the awakening of 
enthusiasm in regard to one of the region's most valuable assets — its 
unlimited wealth in material for the study of prehistory. 

My first visit, in 1899, exactly thirty years ago, revealed to me that, 
although a definite start had been made and collectors were in the field 
seeking for relics of the Stone-age, this pastime was restricted to com- 
paratively few enthusiasts, and the search was of a somewhat desultory 
nature, conducted without strict method or well-defined perspective 
outlook. The work had, indeed, been excellently initiated long previously 
by T. H. Bowker, in 1858, and had been followed up by Dr. Langham Dale, 
E. L. Layard, and E. J. Dunn, about 1868, by John Sanderson, in 1876, 
by J. C. Rickard and W. D. Gooch, in 1880, by Major H. W. Feilden, about 
1881, and by various other pioneers. These had already done much to 
show how rich was the material, and had suggested correlations with the 
ancient industries of early prehistoric Europe. 



156 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

My second and third visits, in 1905 (when the British Association met 
here for the first time) and in 1907, showed me that there were already 
many workers in the field, and that increasing attempts were being made 
to study the finds stratigraphically and to classify them in accordance 
with sequence-dating. Still, the work of correlation was hampered by 
imperfect acquaintance with the results arrived at by European archaeolo- 
gists. This limitation led to some deductions which were hardly justified 
by the facts. 

In 1910 I again found myself in South Africa — by invitation of the 
South African Association. It was at once manifest that there was an 
increasing recognition of the importance of the geological associations of 
the earlier types of stone implements, as a means of establishing their 
relative antiquity and the ordered sequence of their succession. More 
serious attempts were being made to investigate ancient alluvial deposits 
and to record the particular strata from which implements were derived, 
and the depth within the strata. The archaeological collections in the 
various museums were beginning to be grouped and arranged so as to 
tell a definite story — the story of the occupation of South Africa in early 
times by successive waves of immigrants, each wave introducing more or 
less distinctive culture elements. In this way, the museums were not 
only attempting to furnish a summary of local archaeological phenomena 
as interpreted up to date, but they were also oflfering suggestions as to 
the aims and objectives of future field-research, and indicating the nature 
of the problems awaiting solution. It was already abundantly clear that 
the time-honoured aphorism ' Ex Africa semper aliquid novum ' required 
supplementing with a rider to the effect ' non nunquam, saepissime etiam, 
et aliquid antiquum,.' There was abundant stimulus to field-workers. 

This year it is my privilege to renew acquaintance with South Africa, 
whose attractions, be they scenic, zoological, archaeological or ethnological, 
ever draw me with magnetic force. My gratification is extreme. Not 
only have I the longed-for opportunity of revisiting scenes full of interest 
and beauty, but I have an additional source of gratification in the privilege 
of having been invited to preside over that Section of the British Associa- 
tion whose concern it is to aid in revealing the great epic story of human 
progress, both physical and cultural. It is a very great pleasure to note 
the strides which have been taken since my last visit, nearly twenty years 
ago, towards unravelling the local archaeological complex, and to note that 
this pursuit of knowledge is conducted on increasingly methodical and 
scientific lines. 

It is manifest that the vast African area lying to the south of the 
Zambesi holds almost unparalleled wealth of archaeological material. It 
appears as an inexhaustible mine of ancient relics. This is, probably, 
largely due to the successive waves of immigrant peoples having arrived 
in early times from the North. South Africa, though spacious, is a cul de 
sac, a land-terminus beyond which stretches the southern ocean, which 
arrested any further southward dispersal. We must picture the arrival, 
one after the other, of primitive peoples in various stages of culture- 
advancement, and it is natural to assume that the order of their arrival 
in the far south is indicative of their general culture-status. The more 
undeveloped peoples, less capable of defending their rights and of holding 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 157 

their own, yielded to the pressure of the more progressive peoples, before 
whose advance (due probably to similar causes) they gave way, eventually 
being forced down into the cul de sac, whose abundance of game animals, 
no doubt, afforded compensatory attractions, and where they could 
establish and maintain themselves unmolested, until a new immigration 
brought a fresh racial stock into the region and renewed the clash of 
cultures. 

During long ages, this sequence of irruptions of peoples inevitably 
induced a resultant congestion of heterogeneous ethnic elements, the 
weaker units continually giving way to the stronger, who, it may be 
reckoned, partly absorbed and partly exterminated the earlier occupants. 
The existing cultures must, at least, have been influenced and altered 
through contact with the new. Thus it is not difficult to see how, through 
a long sequence of immigrations into a region devoid of outlets, vast 
quantities of the more imperishable culture-relics came to be accumulated 
in South Africa. It is also clear that the inevitable overlapping of cultures, 
coming into enforced contact in this Ultima Thule, tended to result in not 
only fusion but also confusion, and to bring about complex, hybrid 
industries, whose parentage it is the aim of local archaeologists to unravel. 

The process of sorting out the data, and of classifying and evaluating 
the Stone-age cultures represented in South Africa, is now proceeding 
apace, thanks to many keen researchers. Already several new names 
have been at least tentatively adopted for denoting various differentiated 
industries, which have been provisionally assigned their places in the 
chronological series. The earlier attempts, by Gooch and others, to reduce 
the material to some kind of classificatory order, had been followed rather 
more intensively and with varying success by J. P. Johnson and L. Perin- 
guey ; and within the last few years, in addition to numerous important 
papers by various authors in the scientific journals, the Rev. Neville 
Jones has published a very interesting book on the ' Stone Age in Rhodesia ' 
(1926). More recently still, Mr. M. C. Burkitt has dealt ably and 
suggestively with the general subject in his volume on ' South Africa's 
Past in Stone and Paint ' (1928), in which he has summed up the more 
important results so far obtained by field-research, and details the im- 
pressions which he derived from an extensive tour of inspection made at 
the invitation of the University of Cape Town. This volume will, no 
doubt, prove a useful guide to collectors, and an incentive to systematic 
excavation. A basis is suggested upon which scientifically collected 
material may be tabulated. Incidentally, Mr. Burkitt has indicated in no 
uncertain manner how exceedingly abundant is the material and what a 
vast and interesting field of inquiry is open for future research in South 
Africa. 

This valuable archseological mine has as yet been only partially 
exploited, but its potential wealth is unquestioned ; and, although 
prehistoric archaeology must rank as a ' pure ' science, and cannot be 
regarded as one which materially increases the fiiiancial welfare of the 
community, the finds which its pursuit brings to light must be regarded 
as a valuable asset to the country, worthy to be ranked with gold and 
diamonds and other commercially-productive assets. The dividends re- 
sulting from the scientific exploration of the archaeological mine, if not to 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

be declared in £ s. d., are sucli as cannot fail to bring credit to tlie country. 
Kudos in place of casb — a not unworthy alternative ! 

The great scientific importance of this valuable heritage imposes 
certain responsibilities upon the Administration. Organisation in research 
is very desirable, and, although it is undesirable to curb the enthusiasm of 
untrained collectors, who may help very materially, it is to be hoped that, 
as far as possible, the field-work may be conducted under the advice and, 
when possible, the surveillance of properly trained and qualified archaeolo- 
gists, who may ensure that scientific methods will be pursued. This will 
render the finds collected more reliable as evidence, suitable for co- 
ordination, and capable of serving as material for building up the early 
human history of the region. The appointment of a carefully selected 
advisory committee would appear to be a practical measure, and might 
prevent much unprofitable work. A valuable archseological site may so 
easily be spoilt and its interest permanently destroyed by the unmethodical 
fossickings of untrained enthusiasts, who would be better employed if 
they restricted their efforts to collecting surface specimens. Many 
important sites have already been rendered useless for systematic excava- 
tion through unmethodical disturbance of their stratified deposits by 
persons whose sole objective has been the acquisition of objects, and who 
have neglected to record the data which, if carefully noted, would have 
given real interest to their finds. A single site methodically investigated 
has far more value than a dozen unsystematically exploited. 

Surface finds are very frequently of importance to the prehistorian, 
particularly when accurately localised, but it must be remembered that 
their interest is derived and not intrinsic. Their value to science depends 
upon the possibility of comparing them with similar types whose chrono- 
logical horizon has been ascertained with certainty from their position in 
undisturbed stratified deposits. Material, form, technique, patination 
and abrasion, all have their significance when surface finds are collated with 
those of determined provenance. Science makes exacting demands from 
its votaries, and archseological research is no exception. The difficulties 
and complexities involved in investigations of the earlier phases of human 
culture furnish, indeed, one of the chief attractions of this line of research, 
whose results vary in their importance with the degree of care exercised 
in obtaining them. 

When one is engaged in research-work, there is undoubtedly a fascina- 
tion in following up a theory already formulated, and in seeing the newly 
discovered material fitting into the theory and supporting it. But it 
must be admitted that there is danger in this attractive procedure, since 
preconceived ideas tend to restrict and cramp the outlook of the investigator 
and to bias his mind, causing him to overlook evidence which may be of 
considerable significance. At the present time, it is not so much abstract 
theories that are wanted as concrete facts — unassailable facts, ascertained 
by close scrutiny of ancient alluvial deposits upon ancient camping-sites, 
in caves, under rock-shelters and so on. From these in time will be 
established the relative antiquity, sequence-position and characteristics of 
the early industries represented in South Africa ; their geographical 
dispersal, the probable routes of their migrations and their inter- 
relationships. Also the effects of the successive impacts of newly arrived 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 159 

cultures upon those already established in the region will be rendered 
clearer when more detailed and precise data have been secured and can be 
co-ordinated. 

Problems still awaiting solution abound in South Africa and call for 
the onslaught of skilled and unbiassed investigators, who are prepared 
conscientiously to modify and even jettison theories already propounded, 
if new facts call for this sacrifice. Diagnosis gains by being cold-blooded 
and impassive, and is the more sure if the domination of preconceived 
ideas is held in restraint. 

One of the problems in which I am myself keenly interested is that 
afforded by the Stone-age remains which are so abundant along the 
Zambesi and its tributaries in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Falls. 
The first stone implements from that district to be brought to notice were, 
I believe, collected by Mr. A. J. C. Molyneux ; but many others have 
since been obtained on the spot by Dr. Lamplugh, Mr. Franklin White, 
Colonel Feilden and others. In the course of three visits which I have 
paid to the Victoria Falls — in 1905, 1907 and 1910 ; collectively amounting 
to a stay of thirty-seven days — I collected some 1,200-1,300 implements 
and artificial flakes of chalcedony and quartzite. The numerous well- 
defined implements are, with very few exceptions, of pronounced Lower- 
palaeolithic fades, Chellean and Acheulian, and, but for the material of 
which they are made, they might almost as well have been obtained from 
the terrace-gravels of the River Thames or of the Somme. That is to say, 
in form and technique they are absolutely comparable with types which 
characterise the ' River-drift ' cultures of Western Europe. They might 
be taken to indicate a late survival of these culture-phases, which had 
persisted until relatively recent times on the periphery of their dispersal. 
Or they may be regarded as an independent genesis of similar cultures, 
unconnected with the northern series, and evolved in response to similar 
environmental dictates. But evidence of very considerable antiquity is 
afforded by the implements themselves, which are often heavily abraded 
and patinated and frequently very highly glazed.' 

Still more important is the position in which many of the implements 
are discovered. I have found some imbedded at various depths in old 
alluvial deposits along the banks of the Zambesi, and of the Maramba 
and Masui tributaries ; others were associated with or imbedded in thin 
gravel drifts scattered over the bare basalt plateau below the line of the 
Falls. This plateau is the ancient bed of the Zambesi over which the 
river flowed before, by gradual recession of the Falls to their present 
position, the upper portion of the Batoka Gorge had been eroded. 

If we are justified in assuming that the implementiferous gravel- drifts 
distributed over the ancient river-bed and now lying 400-600 feet above 
the present level of the river in the gorge, were deposited there by the 
Zambesi itself, then there is direct evidence not only of antiquity, but of 
extremely high antiquity. Lamplugh, who carefully surveyed the Batoka 
Gorge in 1905, A. E. V. Zealley and several other skilled geologists have 

1 The nature of the peculiar and very intense ' glazing ' in this district has not, 
beUeve, been finally diagnosed. It appears to me likely that it results from 
deposition of silica from' silica- charged water (perhaps spray) which evaporated 
rapidly from the hot, exposed surfaces of the chalcedonic implements. 



160 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

expressed themselves more or less decidedly in favour of this view, which 
certainly coincides with my own impressions. Assuming this impression 
to be correct, it is evident that, since these gravel-drifts, with some of 
their associated artefacts, were deposited upon the ancient river-bed, the 
river has eroded out a channel to a depth of from 400 to 600 feet through 
solid basalt. The great depth of this wonderful gorge affords data for 
estimating the time required for this gigantic work of attrition, while the 
extent of the canyon above the gravel-drifts supplies further measurable 
time-data. 

I Now, such important evidence of Man's antiquity in South Africa 
deserves very careful scrutiny. It is worth while establishing once for all 
and conclusively whether the gravels referred to were laid down by the 
Zambesi itself, and not by lateral spruits. In spite of the prevailing 
geological opinion, one must recollect that Dr. Codrington, and possibly 
some others, did not accept this view, and, while any possible doubt 
remains, further investigation is called for by highly competent geologists, 
who can make an authoritative pronouncement. The problem is one well 
worth solving and I would express the hope that its solution may be an 
objective of geologists, who alone can decide the point at issue, and who 
will, by so doing, earn the gratitude of their colleagues the archaeologists, 
since this problem is the key to several others. 

The detailed geological diagnosis of the implementiferous terrace- 
gravels throughout the South African region would be of great benefit to 
archaeologists, who are endeavouring to group the early stone implement 
types into a time-scale sequence. Some good work has already been 
done, but further research is needed before the succession and inter- 
relationships of the earliest cultures can with confidence be demonstrated. 

One of the most interesting questions for local archaeologists to answer, 
is the true culture-horizon to which the industry of the so-called ' Still 
Bay ' culture should be assigned. It is characterised chiefly by the fine 
and shapely leaf-shaped blades, many of which are flaked all over with 
considerable skill. These form a decidedly specialised group. The 
industry appears to be somewhat local and not to be widely dispersed. It 
was one of the earliest distinctive industries to be noticed, and came into 
prominence as early as 1866, when Dr. Langham Dale collected many 
examples upon the Cape Flats. One wonders, in fact, why Still Bay should 
be regarded as the ' type site ' of this culture, since, by the rules of priority 
in nomenclature, the designation ' Cape Flats ' industry would appear to 
be more appropriate, in recognition of Dr. Dale's pioneering discovery. 
But this is by the way. By some, the dominant implements of this 
industry have been taken, on insufficient evidence it seems to me, to 
indicate a Solutrean phase in South Africa. J. P. Johnson described 
the leaf -shaped blades as ' Solutric,' and L. Peringuey refers to them as 
exhibiting a ' Solutrian /acies,' though there is a non-committal touch in 
his expressed opinion, since the chapter which deals with this industry 
is headed ' The Neolithic ' ! It appears to me that the technique of the 
leaf-shaped Still Bay blades differs considerably from that of the typical 
Solutrean blades of Western Europe, and hardly justifies any confident 
suggestion of affinity. It will be extremely interesting when the exact 
status of the ' Still Bay ' or ' Cape Flats ' culture is established, and when 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 161 

it is known whether it was locally-evolved from a previous indigenous 
culture ; or whether its origin is due to ' mutation,' as a result of culture- 
fusion ; or, again, whether it represents an intrusive culture which had 
been differentiated elsewhere. 

Another intriguing problem has as its focussing point the 'kwe, the 
stone digging-stick weight of the Bushmen. Although this is one of the 
best-known implement-types in South Africa, and one of the most widely 
dispersed, it presents one of the greatest puzzles. Judged by the standard 
of Europe and of most other parts of the archaeological world, the perforated 
stone ball known as 'kwe seems to be out of place in the hands of a people 
whose culture largely suggests palaeolithic affinities. The art of per- 
forating implements of hard stone was, in Europe, a late development, 
and it does not appear to have become prevalent until the later phases of 
the Neolithic period. Hence, there is a suggestion of precociousness 
on the part of the Bushmen, whose general status hardly warranted their 
possessing, or, at any rate, making perforated stone tools. The question 
as to how they came by this technique is one which is not readily answered. 
A possible solution occurred to me many years ago, when I ascertained that 
another people, occupying an area in North-eastern Africa, employ a 
practically identical implement — to wit, a simple digging-stick heavily 
loaded with a perforated stone weight, through which the stick passes. 
These people are the Gallas, an Hamitic people domiciled to the south of 
Abyssinia. Being in a relatively advanced state of culture, their employ- 
ment of perforated stones is not in any way remarkable. But their use 
of this stone-weighted digging tool does suggest the possibility that, in 
the course of their southward drift, some of the Bushman hordes may have 
come into contact with the Gallas, or kindred peoples, and have acquired 
from them a knowledge of this tool, and of the technique involved, and 
have carried with them into the South a borrowed idea which was destined 
to become an anomalous though prominent feature in the so-called 
' Wilton ' industry. That they should have invented the 'kwe for them- 
selves is contrary to analogy, and the fact that an identical appliance, used 
in a similar manner, occurs among a people in the North, at least offers a 
possible explanation of the seeming paradox. 

The existence in South Africa of the 'kive, with its marked neolithic 
facies, is rendered the more striking when we remember that implements 
of distinctively neolithic character are rarities in Africa to the south of 
the Zambesi. Ground stone celts, for example, are of very uncommon 
occurrence, and the same applies to the typical late Stone-age arrow- 
heads,- locally found examples of which probably hardly exceed half a 
dozen in number. Other characteristic neolithic types are conspicuous 
by their absence in the region. In the local sequence of cultures the 
typical late Stone-age appears to be missing, or at least so faintly repre- 
sented that it cannot be regarded as ever having exercised a dominating 
influence. At best the latest purely Stone-age culture definitely repre- 
sented in South Africa suggests a general upper Palaeolithic and Meso- 
lithic level modified by a very slight infiltration of neolithic intrusion, 
and no marked invasion of a people possessed of a culture at all com- 
parable with that of typical Neolithic Man in the north seems to have 
occurred. 

1929 „ 



162 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

When the great succession of invasions of Bantu peoples was inaugu- 
rated, the newcomers were, presumably, already well advanced in their 
Iron-age, and had long since passed out of even the latest phases of the 
Stone-age. Hence, as far as South Africa is concerned, the transition 
from Stone to Iron was remarkably abrupt. There is a marked hiatus 
due to the absence of linking cultures between a late Palaeolithic phase, 
somewhat modified by intrusive ideas, and an already evolved phase of 
Metal. The fact that the later arrivals upon the scene^ — with their superior 
physique and their knowledge of working iron — were vastly superior to 
the peoples whom they overran and succeeded in dominating, must have 
created a sudden and far-reaching change in the general economic develop- 
ment of the region. The imbridged culture hiatus is a wide one, and is 
one of the strilang features in South African history. 

The earlier nomad hunters appear to have been gradually forced into 
their final southern home, and to have remained for a long time in a state 
of partial stagnation, undergoing comparatively little progressive evolu- 
tion. To a considerable degree the industries which were successively 
introduced by them offer analogy to some of the early Stone-age industries 
which have been differentiated and standardised in Europe, and which 
furnish the obvious basis of comparison in prehistoric archaeology. In 
all probability the early cultures of South Africa may, for the most part, 
be regarded as related to and as offshoots from those whose sequence- 
status has been determined in the north. But one cannot expect the 
resemblance between the European and the South African series to be 
very exact, since it is highly improbable that their occurrence in the two 
widely separated regions synchronised. A migrating culture, even the 
most unprogressive, cannot long continue unchanged. It is plastic and 
reacts to new environmental conditions, which create special wants and 
impose modifications. New elements appear in response to new demands, 
and some of the old characteristics vanish as their utility ceases. On the 
periphery of its dispersal an industry is, in fact, liable to show marked 
differentiation from its original prototype. Certain elements in the 
complex persist, and continue to supply evidence of affinity with distant 
cultures ; but the points of divergence are no less interesting, since they 
illustrate the effect of the new environment upon the habits of the people. 
South African archaeology intriguingly suggests culture-afl&nities, far- 
ranging both in time and in space, and illustrates at the same time how 
those affinities have become more or less obscured and attenuated in the 
course of long migration. 

At present the South African problems have to be studied to a great 
extent as a group of isolated phenomena, because a vast area to the north 
remains, archseologically, almost unexplored. Northern Rhodesia, Nyassa- 
land and Tanganyika Territory, when the story of their ancient cultures 
has been fully revealed, should throw a flood of light upon South African 
archaeological peculiarities, by furnishing evidence of the migration-routes 
and of the gradual changes in culture detail resulting from the dispersal 
southward. Further north, in Uganda and Kenya Colony, important and I 
suggestive work has already been carried out by Mr. E. J. Wayland and 
Mr. L. S. B. Leakey, the results of which have an important bearing upon] 
the South African problems. But the full import and significance of 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 163 

the north and south affinities and dissimilarities will be realised when the 
huge intervening area has revealed its archaeological secrets and contri- 
buted its data for a valuable chapter in the story of the wanderings and 
sojournings of migrant peoples in the course of their progress southward. 

In the meantime South Africa may well concentrate upon her local 
prehistoric problems, and proceed with the exploration of her past and 
the disentanglement of her sequence of bygone industries. This work is 
being actively pursued, and, thanks to the enthusiastic labours of Mr. C. 
van Riet Lowe, Mr. A. J. H. Goodwin, Colonel Hardy, Mr. J. Hewitt and 
many other keen researchers, the scattered threads are being gathered in 
and marshalled into orderly groups, and are beginning to be woven together 
into a compact and substantial fabric. That fabric, when completed, will 
be a record, representing the early history of primitive culture in the 
region, as based upon concrete facts. 

Such research into the past is surely worthy of every encouragement 
from the universities, and deserving of Government benediction and even 
financial support. The material appears to be extraordinarily rich, almost 
inexhaustible, in fact, and the deductions drawn from carefully verified 
data in one district can be checked and re-checked by information culled 
in others, so that the final summing-up should prove authoritative and 
highly instructive. 

It is recognition of the fact that this vast heritage of archaeological 
material will prove a national asset of great importance, together with a 
feeling of gratification at the strides which have been made towards 
compelling this ancient bequest to yield a scientific dividend, that has led 
me to devote the address which it has been my privilege to deliver to the 
Section, to reviewing briefly a few of the factors and issues of South African 
archaeology, a theme whose popularity will assuredly grow as people realise 
more and more not only its intrinsic local interest, but also its important 
bearing upon world-wide archaeological phenomena, the study of which 
is steadily revealing the progression of successive culture phases which 
formed, layer upon layer, the foundations upon which were built the 
higher civilisations. 



M 2 



SECTION T.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



PHYSIOLOGY THE BASIS OF 
TREATMENT. 

ADDRESS BY 

PKOF. W. E. DIXON, M.A., M.D., F.E.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The ultimate aim of medicine is the prevention or cure of disease : this 
practical aspect so far dominates all others that it is often referred to as 
the healing art ; indeed, it is difficult to think of medicine apart from 
treatment. 

The term ' physiology ' is usually used to designate the science of 
function, whether it is studied in broad outline and dealing with the 
mechanism of action or as the physico-chemical mechanisms leading up 
to this action. Disease means the unusual functioning of tissues which 
may be the result of accident, hereditary weakness, or parasitic organisms. 
Generally it is wrong to speak of this as malfunctioning : the unusual 
functioning is physiological and perhaps the best for the organism under 
the unusual conditions. The science of medicine then is nothing more 
than trained and organised common sense based on physiology. It is 
still usual to speak of it as an inexact science ; this is obviously wrong 
since medicine uses the same methods as every other science and the 
results of observation are as definite as those of the chemist or physicist, 
although it is true that in the complexity of the problem with which the 
physician may have to deal all the conditions of importance may not be 
known and the results of an investigation though correct for the conditions 
under which it is undertaken may be misleading. 

But it is not with medicine as a whole that I wish to direct your 
attention to-day, but only with that part of physiology which forms the 
basis of treatment. 

When the sciences of physiology and pathology a century ago passed 
from the realms of natural history to deduction and experiment, they 
naturally attracted the more original and eager minds in medicines, and 
the text of the writings of the nineteenth century deals with changes in . 
structure and function. Treatment became neglected, the old shibboleths 
and rituals of treatment which had held sway for centuries were discarded, 
and there was nothing with which to replace them. In the middle of 
the last century S. Skoda and K. Rokitansky (in Austria) perfected a 
system of physical diagnosis which has had a practical bearing on medicine 
ever since. Skoda made many experiments with drugs on the patient 
without any expectation of producing benefit ; the patients were not 
improved and Skoda thought it mattered little how the patient was 
treated. It is right to say, however, that these experiments were 
deficient in many respects according to modern views. At this period 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 165 

the Vieana School held a prominent position in scientific medicine and 
the new doctrine rapidly spread. The physician studied disease in the 
patient : its beginnings, its progress, its effects, and the scars it left, 
as shown at autopsy. Scientific medicine looked askance at treatment ; 
textbooks spent many pages in describing the symptoms, diagnosis, and 
pathology of disease, but two 'or three lines dismissed the treatment : 
and even in our times the ' scientific ' physician is apt to be a diagnos- 
tician rather than a healer. The study of disease as an entity was the 
object aimed at, and a complete case was one which went to autopsy. 
That most admirable and popular textbook of medicine by the late 
Sir William Osier was typical of the textbooks of the time. Dr. Simon 
Flexner once told me that Osier's book, characterised by its almost 
complete lack of indications for treatment, was largely responsible for the 
Rockefeller millions given to medicine. The textbooks of the period 
told with considerable precision what was happening in the body during 
disease and what was likely to happen, but little or nothing on prevention. 
This state of affairs was unavoidable ; there was no specific treatment, 
there was no science of treatment, for such a science could only come into 
existence when physiology and pathology had reached some degree of 
precision. Diagnosis was then and is now far ahead of treatment ; 
diagnosis is often accurate where there is no satisfactory treatment and 
yet diagnosis is only a means to the end. 

The science of treatment or pharmacology is therefore relatively new ; 
it includes knowledge of all kinds dealing with the treatment of disease 
or alleviation of suffering. It is the climax of physiology and pathology, 
devised to subserve a practical end, and forms an important part of the 
great biological topic of the influence of conditions on the living organism. 
Few drugs now exist the mode of action of which is not understood, and 
the goal is not so far distant when it will be possible to introduce into 
the animal economy a factor which will exaggerate or retard the function 
of any tissue or collection of cells in the body, leaving the others unaffected ; 
and most of these results have been obtained by the methods used in 
experimental physiology. 

The first object of science is to ascertain facts : certain facts in 
physiology are relatively easily ascertained, those, for example, which 
involve the behaviour of ferments of isolated cells or of tissues and which 
require well-known chemical or physical methods. Other facts involving 
the physiology of the whole organism are more difficult to interpret, 
though they are the basis of the therapeutic side of medicine. More and 
more is physiology being regarded as the application of physics and 
chemistry to the phenomena of life. It may, of course, be argued, as 
I believe Descartes did first, that the body of a living man is a machine, 
the actions of which are explicable by the known laws of physics and 
chemistry : and that, therefore, the correct way to study physiology is by 
applying these sciences to the cell. I am by no means averse to the vast 
amount of academic research on these lines which is published annually, 
often by workers with little biological knowledge or training, but it surely 
should not precede the more immediate practical aspects of the subject. 
The modern attitude is expressed by a distinguished young biochemist 
who, in reviewing a well-known book on chemo-therapy in 1928, asks 



166 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

' Might not the time and resources spent on chemo-therapeutic research 
be diverted more profitably to the study of chemical and physical 
mechanism ? ' The same attitude is reflected in the awards of Fellow- 
ships and Scholarships for Medical Eesearch. Formerly all the recipients 
were primarily biologists with a medical training : now a medico-biological 
training is unusual. Physiology in the broad sense in which it was used 
by Claude Bernard and Huxley has given place to a new physiology of 
physico-chemical reactions : I might go beyond this and say that phy- 
siology is getting further and further from practical medicine, and this is 
the more regrettable as most of the Chairs in Physiology are connected 
with the Medical Schools and because the science of treatment is largely 
dependent on experimental physiology. Prof. J. S. Haldane clearly had 
this in mind in 1923 when he wrote : ' We may say without serious 
misrepresentation that the official present-day view of physiologists 
is that physiology . . . aims at investigating the physics and chemistry 
of life, and might properly be called biophysics and biochemistry.' 

Biology has lost ground as an educational subject in the last twenty 
years ; yet few, if any, sciences cultivate the powers of observation to 
the same degree. Universities, like London, in which biology was once 
compulsory for all undergraduates reading science, have now made it 
an optional subject for science degrees ; so that it is not surprising to 
find not only the general public but men who have had a scientific 
training living in complete ignorance of the elementary laws which 
govern animal life, including their own. Can it be wondered at that we, 
as a nation, are the prey of the charlatan and food vendor ? Ought not 
all educated people to know enough of biology to understand something 
of its methods and to have grasped its fundamental truths, if it be but to 
protect themselves ? In our education and culture in this respect we fall 
short of many European coimtries and of America. 

No branch of experimental biology has received less consideration in 
Great Britain than that of pharmacology : it is also the most neglected 
branch of medicine, and although the object of medicine is the healing of 
the sick, it is amazing that medical schools in Britain, often equipped 
with all other modern laboratories, lack departments of therapeutics. 
I was once asked at a meeting, by a leading medical man, what has 
pharmacology ever done ? The answer is, of course, that it has formu- 
lated and brought reason and knowledge into treatment of the sick ; so 
much did it impress that great pathologist, Ehrlich, that he left his sera 
and turned his attention to drugs, and with the unlimited resources at 
his disposal gave the world, amongst other drugs, salvarsan : so much did 
it impress the brilliant French chemist, M. Fourneau, that he has confined 
his studies to those of drugs, a study which has resulted in the synthesis 
of many valuable arsenical compounds and dyes. In America many 
centres, including the Rockefeller Institute, have turned to the study of 
drugs ; and Italian pharmacology is doing the same. 

I have heard it said by a leading official of our Ministry of Health, 
speaking to panel practitioners, that they, in the Ministry, do not want 
stereotyped prescribing in treatment. Surely there was never such 
nonsense. If there is a best treatment, let us have it whether it is stereo- 
typed or not. In this respect the British Medical Association has given 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 167 

the profession a lead and shown by the experience of a great number of 
doctors that there is a best way of treating varicose ulcer in which the 
patient gets well quicker than by other ways, an advantage both to the 
patient and to the community who have to keep him whilst he is unfit 
for work. 

The British physician is a skilled diagnostician and is in the forefront 
in all that pertains to this subject. The literature is so extensive that it is 
impossible for the average clinician to do more than this. But how few of 
them do, or perhaps the more correct word is ' can,' occupy the same time 
in the study of recent advances in general therapeutics ? The successful 
physician has, generally speaking, to be content with such references to 
treatment as are to be found in clinical reading. The general physician 
must always be a necessity for diagnosis ; but the details of treatment of 
patients will, I believe, in the future be handed over to those who have 
made a special study of the treatment of that particular group of diseases 
from one of which the patient is suffering. This is already the position 
in tuberculosis. 

But the advent of institutions for experimental therapeutics is upon 
us, though Britain has taken little part in the movement. In this 
connection we welcome the magnificent buildings of the University of 
Capetown, and when the new hospital with its medical school is completed 
I confidently anticipate that adequate accommodation will be provided 
for that important branch of applied physiology, pharmacology, and that 
this will include laboratories of physiology and organic chemistry, which 
must be in close and direct association with the wards. The enormous 
importance of one branch of treatment to Africa, chemo-therapy, I will 
refer to later. 

From what has been said, it is not surprising that British pharmacology 
should be so much behind that of other countries in the production of 
new curative remedies ; practically all come from abroad ; I may mention 
ephedrine for spasmodic asthma, liver extract for pernicious anaemia, 
insulin, the organic arsenicals, the dyes such as 205, the new anaesthetics 
local and general, hypnotics, and many others. 

It has been often stated that the action of remedies may be best 
determined by experimenting with them on healthy men. This is not 
true ; quinine is used to treat malaria, yet not one of the subjective 
symptoms induced in man has the remotest connection with its curative 
properties. The same is true of the use of the iodides in syphilis and 
salicylates in rheumatism. The experiments of Joig and his pupils in 
1825 with camphor, digitalis and other drugs on healthy men added 
nothing of value to pharmacology. Subjective sensations are, it is true, 
produced, which are erroneously attributed to the drug which has been 
taken. The late Dr. Eivers and myself were nearly the dupes of such an 
experiment which I will give in full because it illustrates the imaginary 
sensations and effects produced by S. Hahnemann and his pupils, by 
Perkin with his retractors and by more modern physicians with their 
mystic apparatus. 

Our experiments were made on healthy men under a regular regime 
as regarded sleep, exercise, and diet. The men were practised with the 
use of the ergograph during several weeks at the same hour daily, until 



168 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

their output of work was constant. We found that the administration 
of a dose of caffeine dissolved in water one hour before the experiment 
greatly increased the output of work for that day. This was repeated 
on several occasions, always with the same result, and we naturally 
regarded the effect as due to the caffeine. This, however, was not the 
case : the effect was due to the ritual of taking a drug ; the drug day 
assumed an enhanced importance in the mind of the operator and the 
mental effect sometimes referred to as suggestion was principally respon- 
sible. We had no difficulty in showing that water made bitter with a 
trace of quassia or other simple bitter had a similar effect. 

Few, if any, experiments made on man without the most careful 
controls are of any real value. Properly controlled experiments have 
been made, however, with many substances. Precise experiments, for 
example, have been made both in Germany and America with bromides 
in epilepsy. In these experiments half the epileptics were given potas- 
sium chloride and the other half sodium bromide ; after several weeks' 
use the bromide had decreased the number of attacks, whilst the chloride 
had no distinct action. 

Chemo-Therapy. 

At one time hopes ran high that the chemical structure of the molecule 
might indicate pharmacological action. During the last fifty years many 
laborious researches have been conducted with this object ; to modify 
the molecule that it may conform to some required action. But the 
mystery remains as mighty as ever. It is most probable that subtle 
energy factors binding the molecule — factors not displayed in a formula — 
control the action ; certain it is that drug action is not determined 
directly by chemical combination with body constituents, but rather by 
delicate physical processes such as those of adsorption, solution, and surface 
tension. Chemists have as yet not even determined the requirements of 
the molecule for the production of colour sensation. On the other hand, 
slight alteration of a molecule already complicated and with a known 
action has led to the production of many useful compounds, and not 
infrequently we may foresee the type of action which will occur under 
such special conditions. Considerations of this nature have led to the 
synthesis of the new local anaesthetics, antiseptics, antipyretics, diuretics, 
tropeines and other useful substances. 

But chemistry has taken yet a further step in its assistance given to 
medicine in the development of that branch of science to which the name 
chemo-therapy has been given. Ehrlich noticed that colouring matters 
injected into the living organism had a selective affinity for certain cells, 
and he believed that it might be possible by making use of this property 
to select suitable substances which would destroy the causal agents of 
disease, parasites and microbes, and leave the tissues of the host 
uninfluenced. 

Parasites causing disease in man may be crudely divided into worms, 
protozoa, and bacteria. Chemo-therapy, that is specific therapy of infec- 
tious disease, has had marked success in curing disease due to parasites 
in the first and second of these groups ; these diseases are found mainly 
in the tropics. It has obtained much less success in the third group. 



i 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 169 

Diseases due to protozoa have an especial significance in Africa, and 
it is appropriate that in this meeting some reference should be made to 
that area of tropical Africa occupying more than a million square miles 
in which one form of these, namely, trypanosomes, produce their ravages. 

Disease of man produced by trypanosomes is confined to tropical 
Africa and some of the adjacent islands. But an enormous belt of country 
stretching from Rhodesia northward to the Bahr el Ghazal, and from 
the Cameroons westward to Tanganyika is inhabited to a greater or less 
degree by the infected tsetse fly. Two forms of trypanosomes are known 
to infect man, T. Gamhiense, which is especially common in the neigh- 
bourhood of the two great lakes, Victoria and Tanganyika, and northward 
■of these to the tributaries of the Nile. The other, T. Rhodesiense, is 
mainly found in the country surrounding Lake Nyasa, Portugese East 
Africa, Nyasaland, and Rhodesia : this form is more rapidly fatal than 
T. Gamhiense, and its treatment is less satisfactory. Epidemics may 
occur in different districts from time to time : thus in 1900 an epidemic 
occurred in the Belgian Congo in the neighbourhood of Kisantu, in which 
two-thirds of the population succumbed within ten years. It is probable 
that the population on the northern border of Lake Victoria Nyanza 
had existed for generations without trypanosomes (sleeping sickness), 
although Glossina, the carrier, was plentiful. It then happened that 
some migration of natives, possibly caravan porters from the Congo, 
introduced the trypanosome, and a terrible epidemic of T. Rhodesiense 
swept the country in 1898, spread round the Lake and killed about 
300,000 natives. The natives and their cattle were removed in 1909 and 
the infested district was left to the fly. Dr. Duke points out that the 
Glossina Palpalis had hardly diminished in the succeeding eight years, 
and he regards wild game as a trypanosome reservoir ; he showed in 1911 
that the situtunga serves as a mammalian host for the trypanosome as 
well as man, in the same way as N'gana is carried by many species of 
game ; in this way the fly retains the trypanosome which causes sleeping 
sickness. In Uganda, at any rate, lizards and crocodiles form the chief 
sources of food for G. Palpalis. 

T. Gamhiense is transferred by Glossina Palpalis, T. Brucei by G. 
Morsitans and Pallidipes, and T. Rhodesiense by G. Morsitans. Innumer- 
able other instances might be given of its ravages in the whole of the 
Congo, Cameroons, and other parts of Africa. Besides the human form 
•of the disease, another tsetse fly is responsible for the trypanosomes of 
domestic animals, including horses and cattle, T. Brucei, which produces 
the disease N'gana, so that in infected districts draft animals and dairy 
■cattle cannot exist. 

Trypanosomiasis is one of the most serious of all tropical diseases and 
affects both man and beast ; it is a scourge which renders vast tracts of 
land practically uninhabitable, and which takes its death toll often in 
thousands and occasionally even in hundreds of thousands, and yet it is 
a disease which I believe should be curable if not preventable. The 
problem is one of wide interest and importance — scientific, humanitarian, 
and economic. The members of two groups of chemical substances excel 
all others in their curative value in trypanosomiasis and spirochaetosis ; 
these are the organic arsenical compounds and the dyes. 



170 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The specific action of organic arsenic compounds really begins with 
pome observations of Thomas on the action of atoxyl on trypanosomes. 
Ehrlich had previously discarded this substance because it was without 
direct action on the protozoon, but later he observed, like Levaditi and 
Mesnil, that in infected animals it had a more pronounced action than 
that of any other substance up to then employed. Atoxyl was, however, 
soon discarded as a curative remedy because it caused permanent and 
complete blindness in some cases. Acetyl atoxyl, known as arsacetin, 
which was at one time widely used, had no better fortune, and several 
cases of permanent blindness resulted from its use. Ehrlich' s experiments 
with Hata, in which innumerable arsenical compounds were employed, led 
him to select salvarsan as the best : in this substance the nitrogen and 
arsenic are in the meta position and not in the para as in atoxyl. This 
substance as a treatment of syphilis and other spirochaetal infections 
stands as firmly to-day as it did ten years ago ; it has one drawback, 
it does not influence the condition of the patient if the central nervous 
system is attacked. By introducing CHjOS.ONa in place of one of the 
hydrogens in the amino group a soluble compound is produced which 
has displaced the older salvarsan on account of its ease of administration ; 
nevertheless this neo-salvarsan contains as much as 10 to 20 per cent, of 
unknown impurities. Other substances like tetra-methyl hexamino- 
arsino benzene (Arsalyte Giemsa) have been produced which are also very 
efficient in spirochaetosis. 

It is well known now that none of these compounds act directly on the 
parasite (Ehrlich, Levaditi, Mesnil, and others) like arsenious acid. 






NHj '\ > Ky> NH.CHjOS.ONa 

N.CHj.CONHj OH OH 

Atoxyl Tryparsamide Salvarsan 

(NHj in para position) (NH2 in para position) with solubilising group 

(NHj in meta position) 



It was at one time thought that the action of these arsenicals depended 
on their solubility in lipoid substances and their subsequent oxidation to 
arsenic in the ionic form : but after their administration to animals no 
trace of oxide is found in the body. About 115 mgrms. of atoxyl per 
kilo can be injected into mice, but only about 2 mgrs. per kilo of the 
corresponding oxide for the maximal sub-lethal dose. It is probable that 
the lipoid soluble and inert atoxyl in the pentavalent form is converted 
into the trivalent form which destroys trypanosomes like arsenious acid. 
Fourneau from a great number of experiments with different organic 
arsenicals concludes that their varying constitution as regards the intro- 
duction of different side-chains in the ring, and the varying positions of 
these relatively to one another, is the factor which determines their 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 171 

distribution in the organism, particularly as regards the central nervous 
system. 

The most satisfactory arsenic compound yet discovered for the cure 
of trypanosomiasis is tryparsamide. It is less toxic than atoxyl and has 
a slightly higher therapeutic index ; it has a most marked trypanosidal 
action in animals and has been used with some success in cases of sleeping 
sickness from T. Gambiense. One injection causes the disappearance of 
the parasite from the blood of man, and if the injections are repeated in 
courses, the cure may be complete. Like atoxyl it affects the eye : even 
the smaller therapeutic doses cause visual disturbance, and the risk of 
complete blindness is always present ; perhaps as many as 30 per cent, 
of all patients treated with this drug suffer from some eye lesions. 
Tryparsamide is valuable also in certain forms of syphilis, particularly 
cerebral syphilis : approximately 40 per cent, of the cases of general 
paresis committed to the State Insane Hospitals in Wisconsin, U.S.A., 
were restored to sanity (Loevenhart). This action is probably indirect 
since there is no evidence to show that it is absorbed into the central 
nervous system more than other organic arsenicals. 

All these organic arsenical compounds must be injected in order to 
produce a satisfactory effect ; but one compound, m. amino-p. hydroxyl 
phenyl arsenic acid, acts upon and destroys spirochsetes when taken by 
the mouth (Levaditi) ; it is generally administered as its acetyl derivative 
which is known as stovarsol. Stovarsal has been largely used as a 
preventive to syphilis, but it is now known that it has a remarkable 
curative action in amoebic dysentery like emetine (Valenti), and that in 
cases of benign tertiary malaria it checks the attacks and prevents the 
return of the disease, at all events for many months. 

It was at first thought that, as laboratory animals are so easily infected 
with trypanosomes, it should be an easy matter to determine which 
compounds were likely to be most valuable in the treatment of trypano- 
somiasis ; unfortunately this is not the case, a drug may cure trypano- 
somiasis in one animal and not another and the crucial tests must always 
be made on man. Fourneau's o-hydroxy p. acetyl amino-phenyl arsenic 
acid (270) acts much better on laboratory animals as a cure for trypano- 
somiasis than tryparsamide, but has not proved so satisfactory as trypar- 
samide in the Congo for the treatment of sleeping sickness. Since the 
crucial test with all these compounds must be made in Africa it is obvious 
that the expense and difficulty of continuing such researches is enormous. 

Most of the antimony derivatives corresponding with the organic 
arsenicals have been prepared; for example, that corresponding with 
acetyl-atoxyl, also m. chloro-p-acetyl amino phenyl stibamate of soda 
(Heyden 471) have been extensively employed in Kala-azar and Bilhartzia. 
Speaking generally, they have a more powerful action than tartar emetic 
on such diseases as Bilhartzia, Kala-azar, and Filaria, and to some of 
them, like sodium antimony thioglycollate, the parasites do not become 
readily immune. Unfortunately, the organic compounds of antimony 
have a toxic action on the tissues and are very difficult to administer, so 
that antimony tartrate or stibamine urea (NH2CO.NH.C6H4SbO(OH)2), 
a compound which has recently been prepared pure, are generally 
preferred. 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Dyes. 

Many dye substances have been used in medicine : as they are readily 
adsorbed on to cell surfaces the concentration here is always high and the 
surface properties of such cells are often modified in consequence. One 
general principle which follows from this is that widely different dyes 
often possess properties in common, for example, that of antiseptic ; 
to-day I propose to refer only to one group, the benzidine dyes. 





Benzidine 

Trypan red and trypan blue belong to this group. Trypan blue was 
employed by my colleague, Prof. Nuttall, in piroplasma infections in 
animals, with results that most South Africans are well acquainted with. 
Afridol violet, a derivative of diamino diphenyl urea, and some allied dyes 
have also a powerful action on piroplasma. 

How these substances act is not known, for like the organic arsenicals 
itiey do not kill the parasite in vitro. They have the property, however, 
of being adsorbed to the blepharoplast of the trypanosome ; this adsorp- 
tion is associated with diminished virulence of the parasite in infected 
animals, and after successive inoculations through several animals the 
organ may disappear. This direct action of a drug on a tissue, causing 
ultimately the complete disappearance of that tissue, is so remarkable 
that it is worthy of notice, as it represents the first known action of the 
kind. 

The most valuable member of the afridol-violet group so far produced 
was first made in the Bayer laboratory, but its composition was kept 
secret. It was, however, subsequently synthesised and its formula 
published by Fourneau, but only after long trials and infinite patience. 
The chemo-therapeutic index of this substance has the remarkable figure 
of 200 to 300 ; and as little as 1/32 mgrm. will sometimes cure mice infected 
with trypanosomes. Fourneau has made many allied substances and 
derivatives of ' 205,' he has modified the wings of the molecule by the 
addition of various side-chains, sometimes keeping the wings identical and 
sometimes changing them by joining two different complexes through 
the agency of phosgene. The number of such derivatives is obviously 
legion, and this makes it the more remarkable that he should have 
succeeded in synthesising ' 307,' which at the present time is superior as a 
therapeutic agent to all other dyes in trypanosomiasis. 

NH.CO j-'^ ,/\ CO.NH 

SOgNa I I J CH3 CH3 

NH NH 

SOgNa I X J CO CO 

/ \ SO'aNa 
NH.CO.NH I J 

Bayer ' 205 ' Fourneau ' 307 ' 





I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 173 

This ' 307 ' Las a remarkable action on trypanosomes in laboratory 
animals, being 300 times more effective than atoxyl. Its discovery has 
also opened a new era in therapeutics, since it represents the first chemical 
substance which when administered to man or animals in an infected 
trypanosome district gives a complete immunity to the disease for several 
months : it does not necessarily prevent trypanosome infection, but it 
prevents the effects of the disease. There is much in these experiments 
that suggests that we are on the fringe of a new pathology, and that our 
present crude methods of preparing anti-bodies in the future will be 
replaced by those of the organic and colloid chemist. 

In man ' 205 ' has not done all that was expected of it ; it invariably 
benefits those that show infection and enlargement of glands, that is 
during the early stages of the disease, and its value is also assured even 
when the nervous system is affected. If care is taken in the treatment 
and a series of injections given at not too frequent intervals to prevent 
the parasite acquiring a tolerance, and if the patient is kept under 
observation for a prolonged period of time, the happiest issue may be 
anticipated. ' 307 ' is much less valuable on n'gana in animals. 

I have already referred to the disappointing results of research dealing 
with chemical constitution in its relation to pharmacological action, but 
it may be well to consider whether there is anything in common between 
the various substances noted and their effects on protozoa. It must be 
evident at once that with such widely different substances it cannot be 
the form of the molecule which is important so much as its side-chains or 
physical properties, although a large molecularweight appears to be an 
advantage. Many of the dyes, like flavine, fuchsin, and methyl violet, 
have two amino radicles in the para position, relative to the carbon 
atoms uniting the nuclei. The azo-dyes and the innumerable derivatives 
from them, which have been examined by NicoUe and Mesnil, present no 
common features with those of the triphenyl methane group. Amino 
groups appear to be an important factor, but it is the position of these in 
the rings, even more than the character of the radicle, which determines 
the effect. The study of the complex butterfly-like compounds of sub- 
stituted naphthalenes, such as Fourneau's ' 307,' instead of simplifying our 
conception of the relationship between constitution and action rather 
increases the difficulties. In such compounds slight changes like desul- 
phonation or demethylation entirely alter the therapeutic effect. These 
few examples are sufficient to exemplify the fact that the synthesis of new 
molecules in the hope of conforming with some pre-determined action ia 
as yet far removed from practical science. 

Bacterial Infections. 

Tuberculosis is another problem of vast importance in South Africa, 
not only on account of its prevalence amongst susceptible individuals in 
both the European and native population, but because of its association 
with certain industrial diseases. 

Much the most important industrial disease in South Africa is the 
silicosis produced in the extraction of gold from the conglomerate, both the 
pebbles and the matrix consisting of quartz. The gravity of pneumo- 
coniosis depends largely on superadded tuberculous infection to which the 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

workers have a predisposition, and in this respect crystalline silica Is 
much more harmful than either amorphous silica or carbon. However 
it acts, whether by direct irritation, by its poisonous properties after 
solution, by colloidal action, or because it forms locally a nidus suitable 
for the growth of the tubercle bacillus, will be discussed at a later meeting. 

The report of the Miners' Phthisis Medical Bureau, dealing with the 
years 1914-1926, shows that the incidence of silicosis is increasing. Of 
the average number of 178,000 natives employed on the scheduled mines 
during the year 1925-26, of whom 133,260 were employed underground, 
simple tuberculosis was found to be present in 566, simple silicosis in 231, 
and tuberculosis with silicosis in 446. The large majority of cases of 
compensatable disease among European miners are cases of simple 
silicosis ; among native labourers the great majority are cases of tuber- 
culosis, mostly without silicosis. As compared with European miners the 
incidence of simple silicosis among native labourers is low, which according 
to the report mentioned is mainly due to the migratory habits of the latter, 
as silicosis takes time to show evidence. It may also be noted that besides 
tuberculosis the mortality from Bright' s disease is high in silicosis. 

Workers employed in other dusty trades, such as the preparation of 
asbestos materials, also suffer from pulmonary disability, and Dr. Collis 
found that five deaths from phthisis had occurred in five years amongst 
a staff of less than forty workers employed in a factory where asbestos 
was woven ; asbestos contains about 50 per cent, of silica. The dust 
associated with the process of carding, before its extraction was efficient, 
at one time in England produced a pneumoconiosis resembling that of 
silicosis. 

It is well recognised that a patient suffering from tuberculosis who is 
placed under treatment, will, for a time at least, improve in health, no 
matter what drugs, vaccines or ' specialities ' may be employed. The 
beneficial result is due, in this as in other disease, to efficient nursing, to 
the regulation of food, exercise and sleep, and to light and fresh air. If 
only this effect were clearly recognised the number of ' treatments ' in 
vogue for this common disease might be diminished. The enthusiastic 
physician sometimes begins the new treatment as soon as the patient 
enters his wards, and he is apt to regard the benefits which may follow as 
due to the special treatment. General hygienic measures are of primary 
importance in treatment, and it is not until all the beneficial effects 
which are known to ensue from these have been exhausted that the 
physician has any right to ascribe an effect, beneficial or otherwise, to a 
special treatment. 

Drugs are employed in tuberculosis either with the object of attacking 
and preventing the growth of the tubercle bacillus or other organisms 
with which the disease may be associated, of neutralising poisonous 
toxins, or of removing or relieving symptoms. It is with the first group 
that I am now concerned. Two groups of organic compounds are especially 
remarkable for their chemo-therapeutic action on bacteria. The first 
group has the quinine complex ; quinine is the methyl-ester of cupreine 
and it can be reduced by nascent hydrogen to form hydrocupreine. The 
following table shows the effect of two derivatives of hydrocupreine in 
arresting the growth of certain micro-organisms. 



I, —PHYSIOLOGY. 175 

Ethyl hydrocupreine Iso-octyl hydro- 

(optoquin) cupreine {vuzin) 

Diphtheria bacillus . . . . 1 in 100,000 . . 1 in 750,000 

Pneumococcus .. . .• 1 in 400,000 .. Negligible 

Staphylococcus . . . . 1 in 500 . . 1 in 16,000 

Streptococcus . . . , 1 in 1,000 . . 1 in 80,000 

The action of optoquin on the pneumococcus and of vuzin on bacillus 
diphtheriae is highly specific ; the higher and lower homologues have a 
greatly diminished effect. Many substances destroy bacteria in the test 
tube, but these drugs act in the animal body as well as in the test tube, 
and enough can be given by medicinal doses to animals and men to render 
the blood of these animals bactericidal. 

The second group of drugs which exert a marked action on bacteria 
are certain derivatives of acridine. Trypaflavin was used during the war 
for infected wounds : unlike most antiseptics it acts better in the presence 
of protein, but is not sufficiently selective or specific on micro-organisms 
in the presence of body tissues to be of any real value ; it is easily absorbed 
and readily causes oedema. Rivanol is a more recent derivative of 
acridine. Morgenroth cured streptococcic infections by injections of 
rivanol under the skin. The injections to be efl&cient must be made soon 
after the infection and in the neighbourhood of the inoculated zone ; 
rivanol will not cure a blood infection. Its discovery is, however, a great 
advance over any substance previously available in this group, and we 
can anticipate with some confidence in the near future the introduction 
of other derivatives which will destroy acute infective agents. 

Two other chemical substances are worthy of consideration for the 
remarkable effects accredited to them in the treatment of microbial 
infections. Mercurochrome, a dyestuff, is a combination of mercury 
with dibromo-fluorescein : 



H„OH 



Mercurochrome 




C.H..CO,Na 



After injection it is excreted by the urine and bile, yet neither the 
urine nor bile exhibits bactericidal properties. Nevertheless, clinical 
evidence shows that it exerts a curative effect, especially in the case of 
streptococcic and staphylococcic infections, and these effects have been 
repeated in animal experiments. 

Hexyl Resorcinol is a representative of another group of substances. 
The introduction of an alkyl radical into resorcinol diminishes its toxicity 
to tissues, but increases its bactericidal properties. 



OH 

Alkyl Resorcinol 
'OH 
R 



U. 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Hexyl Resorcinol is represented by the formula C6H3(OH)2C6Hi3. It 
has a phenol coefficient of 72 and it renders the urine in which it is- 
excreted germicidal ; many reports show that it effects remarkable cures 
in cystitis and pyelitis. Unlike me'rcurochrome the action of this 
substance, at least in the urine, may be direct on micro-organisms. 

Attention has already been drawn to the important part played by 
surface tension in the destruction of micro-organisms by drugs : those 
substances in solution which depress surface tension are the more efficient 
germicides because they penetrate better ; they are adsorbed by particles 
in suspension like bacteria, and they diffuse through the cell membrane 
inversely as the surface-tension is lowered. The alkyl derivatives of 
resorcinol all lower surface-tension, but the hexyl derivative most, and its 
bactericidal properties are largely dependent on this factor. In all this 
series of alkyl derivatives of resorcinol the bactericidal power was found 
to be directly inverse to the surface-tension. Frobisher found that using 
a wide range of dilutions the bactericidal efficiency could be precisely 
controlled by manipulating the surface-tension of these solutions by the 
addition of varying amounts of surface-tension depressants which are 
themselves devoid of bactericidal action. Thus Leonard has shown that 
0-1 per cent, hexyl resorcinol with 30 per cent, of glycerine and water 
to 100 is one of the most powerful germicides known and possesses a 
surface-tension of 37 dynes per centimetre. Pathological organisms are 
destroyed by this fluid within 15 seconds. 

The chemo-therapeutic substances which are known to act on bacteria 
are without value in tuberculosis. Thus flavine and its silver salts do not 
influence the tuberculous process in living animals, and the same is true 
of the quinine derivatives which have been prepared so far. The 
destruction of the tubercle bacillus presents two special difficulties : first 
in the fatty and protective envelope surrounding the bacillus, and second 
in the small blood supply to the tuberculous lesion. 

Success, however, has been claimed for several metallic compounds,, 
and I shall confine my remarks to three of these. It is by no means 
clear that the results which have been obtained by administering gold 
salts to tuberculous patients or animals are superior to those given by- 
copper salts which preceded them. ' Krysolgan ' was introduced by 
Feldt ; it prevents the growth of the tubercle bacillus in cultures in 
1 part in 1,000,000. Nevertheless, animal experiments with this sub- 
stance are not promising, though the clinical results published in Feldt's 
monograph in 1923 are certainly both helpful and inspiring. 

Another ' gold ' cure is that recently introduced by Moellgaard. It 
is a double thiosulphate of gold and sodium, Au(S203)2Na3, which, 
although a well-recognised substance, he calls ' sanocrysin.' Like its 
predecessors it retards growth of the tubercle bacillus in glycerinated 
bouillon in such strengths as 1 in 8,000,000, but how serum added to the 
cultures affects its action I have not discovered. Nevertheless, this is a 
very important point, since such chemo-therapeutic substances as exert 
an undoubted action on bacteria invariably act the better in the presence 
of the tissue fluids. Moellgaard assumes that his gold injections destroy 
the tubercle bacillus in vivo, and states that doses which are not poisonous 
to normal animals kill the tuberculous animal by producing a tuberculin 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 177 

shock. This shock begins with an albuminuria and sometimes hsema- 
turia ; it is followed by toxic myocarditis and pulmonary oedema. There 
is, however, no clear evidence to prove that the shock in tuberculous 
animals after an injection of sanocrysin is due to the destruction of 
tubercle bacilli and the setting free of endotoxins, which act as tuberculin 
acts on tuberculous animals. 

Another feature of importance in these experiments is that the cultures 
used were attenuated. The doses necessary to kill were enormous and 
many control animals failed to die or contract severe disease. 

Hoyle and I have recently investigated two new types of gold com- 
pounds in tuberculosis. One of these is a complex aurous salt of 
ethylenethiocarbamide with the formula (Au,2etu)H20, where etu 
represents ethylenethiocarbamide . 

CHj NHv 

CS ' Etu ' 

CH, NH^ 

This compound, prepared by G. T. Morgan, is stable, crystalline and 
colourless at ordinary temperatures. It is soluble in distilled water, 
forming a solution neutral to litmus and with a pH value of about 6-2. 
It was tested for therapeutic effects on both human and bovine types of 
infection. For the former, inoculations were made subcutaneously into 
guinea-pigs with 1-mgm. doses of a virulent human strain. All the 
animals, control and experimental groups, died within a few days of one 
another and all showed characteristic progressive lesions of similar extent. 

It was found that treatment with the gold compound in bovine disease 
in rabbits prolonged life about 50 per cent, when compared with controls. 
We adopted the arbitrary standard that treated animals should survive 
at least two or three times longer than the average length of life of the 
controls before clinical trial should be proceeded with. In view of the 
wide variations in individual susceptibility, and the difficulty that this 
entails in drawing sound positive conclusions from a small series of animals, 
it is absolutely necessary to exercise the utmost caution before arousing 
clinical expectations. 



Gold Succinimide 



The second compound tested by us was a complex gold derivative of 
succinimide, prepared by my colleague, Sir William Pope. This compound 
is non-ionised and the gold is associated in chemical combination in an 
internal organic ring. It is a white, crystalline, stable compound at 
ordinary temperatures, readily soluble in water to a neutral solution. 

This substance was tested for therapeutic effect in experimental bovine 

infections in rabbits. In some animals this treatment was supplemented 

by injections of potassium iodide subcutaneously ; in no case have any 

therapeutic benefits been observed. There has been no increase in the 

1929 jj 




178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

lengths of life of the treated animals, and the type and extent of disease 
at post-mortem examination in treated and control animals has in every 
case up to the present been similar. 

These compounds are interesting because the one delays death and 
the other is entirely without action. They may afford a hint as to the 
lines on which organic chemists should proceed, and perhaps show that 
gold in the ionic form is desirable. 

The Internal Secretions. 

In the last twenty years much evidence has accumulated to show 
that the glands of internal secretion are responsible for the regulation of 
growth, of metabolism, and often for our appearance if not for our very 
character. Exaggeration or diminution in the secretion of one or other 
of the tissues may induce conditions so decided as to be obvious to 
everybody, though the effects produced by minor alterations in the 
co-ordination of the several secretions may not be so evident. Giants 
and dwarfs, unusual pigmentation and anaemia, disproportion in the growth 
of the skeleton, such as enlarged hands and face, bulging deer-like eyes 
or oriental eyes and beards in women are noticeable to everyone ; exces- 
sive fatness or emaciation, a choleric or bucolic temperament cause no 
comment, yet may equally arise in the victim from a want of co-ordination 
in the internal secretion. 

The general outlook and significance of drug therapy was led into 
new channels when it was revealed that the animal body through these 
glands elaborates its own drugs, stores them generally at the seat of 
formation, and doles them out to the tissues to meet the needs of the 
economy. Some of these drugs are of the nature of alkaloids comparable 
with those elaborated by plants. It is a remarkable fact that when 
Nature elaborates a drug in either a plant or an animal, that drug is 
invariably the ideal drug for producing the action for which it is 
characteristic. No drug relieves pain like morphine or produces local 
anaesthesia so well as cocaine ; no drug paralyses the para-sympathetics 
so perfectly as atropine or the motor nerves so effectively as curarine ; 
strychnine supersedes all other drugs in exaggerating spinal reflexes, and 
caffeine in its remarkable power of stimulating the psychical centres of 
the brain. Of the animal drugs, adrenaline has a superlative effect on the 
sympathetic system, pituitary on the uterus, and thyroxin on general 
metabolism. 

The elaboration of the drugs in nature is on biological lines and the 
key always fits the lock : it seems as if Nature always says the last word 
on the particular type of drug she elaborates. Certainly organic chemists 
have up to now done little to improve on her products. 



The Suprarenal Gland. 



The suprarenal gland is composed of two distinct organs. The medulla 
elaborates an alkaloid named adrenaline, the action of which corresponds 
with stimulation of the entire sympathetic system. What exactly its 
functions may be in the animal economy is not certain ; its output under 



i 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 179 

normal conditions is so limited that it can hardly affect the blood-pressure 
and it is not apparently essential for life. There can be little doubt, 
however, that in moments of excitement adrenaline is liberated in large 
amounts and that it is responsible for some of the expressions of the 
emotions. The action of adrenaline under such conditions is to raise the 
blood-pressure by constricting peripheral vessels, to dilate bronchioles, 
to erect the hair, to increase the blood-sugar, to immobilise the alimentary 
canal, and to facilitate the clotting of blood. Cannon has shown that 
cats respond to psychical stimulation, such as may be induced by the 
presence of a dog, after the entire thoracic sympathetic system has been 
removed ; the interpretation must be that in these emotional conditions 
adrenaline is set free in relatively large amounts. 

The expressions of the emotions, such as anger and terror, are to the 
animals an advantage : the easy breathing, the ready clotting of the 
blood, the increased circulation may all have their advantages in a fight. 
The ultimate cause of spasmodic asthma is constriction of the bronchiolar 
muscle ; if during an asthmatic attack the patient is subjected to some 
sudden terror or other pronounced emotion the attack sometimes promptly 
ceases, in a manner exactly simulating the way in which a small injection 
of adrenaline will abort an attack. 

In parts of West Africa the Calabar Bean, Physostigma, was sometimes 
used, in trial by ordeal, to determine the innocence or guilt of persons 
accused of witchcraft or other crimes. A normal person after drinking 
an infusion of this bean promptly vomits and gets rid of the poison. In 
states of emotion, which might well occur in a guilty person, the stomach 
is flaccid and immobile, vomiting does not occur and the poison is absorbed. 
The adrenaline takes some part in this inhibition of vomiting as it stops 
the movements of the stomach. The bean ordinarily induces violent 
contractions of the stomach which cause reflex vomiting. 

Ephedrine is an alkaloid which is obtained from a Chinese plant, 
Ephreda, and which has been used by the Chinese as a medicine from 
time immemorial. It will be seen from the two formulae that it is closely 
related to adrenaline and has an action very similar to it ; but ephedrine 
acts when taken by the mouth, whilst adrenaline is so easily oxidised that 
it is destroyed when administered in this manner ; adrenaline causes 
pulmonary congestion by dilatation of the coronaries : ephedrine has no 
such effect. These are only some of the differences between these two 
closely related alkaloids. 

JSTH.CHj 

CH,.NH.CH3 Ch/ 

I ■ 1 ^CH3 

CH,.OH CH.OH 




Adrenaline [ ] | j Ephedrine 

OH 

Ephedrine has proved of great value in the treatment of spasmodic 
asthma, since oral administration produces prolonged broncho-dilatation. 

n2 



180 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Parathyroids. 

Another striking result from experimental work in the field of internal 
secretion has recently been obtained in the case of the parathyroid glands. 
Many vague and unsatisfactory statements existed in the older literature 
as to the functions of these bodies : but now a potent extract of bovine 
parathyroid glands accurately standardised can be obtained, and precise 
knowledge of the part these glands play in the animal economy has become 
possible. Extracts when injected into a variety of animals raise the 
level of the blood-calcium ; if the injection is made into an animal that 
has been previously parathyroid-ectomised, tetany and the usual fatal 
outcome are prevented. Repeated or very large doses in normal animals 
produce a condition with a definite clinical and biochemical picture — a 
condition of ' hyper-calcsemia,' in which the blood-calcium may rise to 
very high levels and in which a characteristic train of symptoms is found 
with terminal renal failure. Many secondary changes occur, of course, 
in the blood chemistry, but a closely similar if not identical syndrome is 
produced by the simultaneous injection of large amounts of CaClg and 
NaH2P04. 

All this work has shown beyond doubt that the parathyroid glands 
produce a substance which is responsible for controlling the level of 
blood-calcium, and that interference with this function by removal or 
disease of the glands can be overcome by treatment with the potent 
extracts now available. How this substance, manufactured by the glands, 
produces this effect has not been completely elucidated. Much evidence 
suggests that the rise in blood-calcium is independent of any change in 
absorption from the gut or in the rate of excretion : Greenwald in pro- 
longed experiments on dogs, and Hunter and Aub in men, obtained 
indirect evidence to suggest that the rise in blood-calcium and consequent 
increased excretion after the injection of parathyroid hormone was due 
to mobilisation of the element from the bone reserves. 

The Ovary. 
The gonads present the clearest evidence of the influence which a 
tissue may exert on metabolism. I will refer only to the ovary. Virchow 
is reported to have said that all the peculiarities of the body and mind 
of woman, all which in the true woman we admire and revere as womanly, 
are dependent on the ovary. Knauer showed that this organ was intimately 
connected with oestrus and that ovarian grafting could at least partly 
antagonise the effects of spaying. This ovarian action can be produced 
in both sexes. If a portion of an ovary is grafted into a castrated male 
animal the mammary glands and teats hypertrophy, the glands develop 
to the secretory stage and the animal comes to resemble a pregnant 
female : males so grafted become hyperfeminine in appearance. In the 
male the development of the mammary glands is uninterrupted, the 
Graafian follicles mature but do not rupture, and the ovary soon 
degenerates. In the engrafted female, development is slower and, unlike 
the male, shows a rhythm which is associated with the development of 
the Graafian follicle, and in the regressive phase with its rupture and the 
formation of the corpus luteum. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 181 

The ovary does not function till puberty and there is considerable 
evidence to show that this is brought about by some internal stimulus. 
A young ovary grafted into an adult male or female will begin its secretion 
sooner than its age warrants, whilst an adult ovary engrafted into a young 
animal will not function until the animal reaches maturity. This fact 
is of practical importance, since in cases of infantilism it is not necessarily 
the ovaries which are at fault and ovarian transplantation may not 
improve the patient. 

The literature contains plenty of examples of the beneficial effect of 
ovarian transplantation, both in men and animals. For example, a bitch, 
aged 17 years, after an endoperitoneal transplantation showed rejuvena- 
tion, sexual activity, and gave birth to five normal puppies. Bell analyses 
118 cases of ovarian grafting, and states that menstruation was possible 
in 107 cases of these, and occurred in 71. The ovary differs from other 
organs of internal secretion in that it functions in a cyclic manner, and 
it is obvious that extracts made from ovarian tissue may exert a different 
action according to the period of the cycle when they are made. 

Numerous extracts have been prepared from the ovary which are 
reputed to exert one or other type of action. 

' Oestrin ' is the name given to one such substance : it can be made 
from many sources, both animal and vegetable, besides the ovary. Oestrin 
exerts a very definite action in lower animals, but its use in man is so 
variable and disappointing as to make it valueless in practical medicine. 
When it is injected subcutaneously into spayed rats and mice it produces 
typical oestrus with normal sex instincts, and when injected into immature 
animals it induces puberty ; regular injections at fixed intervals will keep 
animals sterile. 

Many experimental observations show that the corpus luteum is 
concerned with the rhythm of the oestrus cycle and with the prevention 
of ovulation. A persistent corpus luteum, both in the case of animals 
and women, produces sterility, a condition which is cured by its removal. 
The presence of fully formed corpora lutea appears to inhibit some ovarian 
secretion, and this condition obtains in animals for a time between the 
heat periods, but more particularly during pregnancy. In women there 
is plenty of pathological evidence to show that functional corpora lutea are 
not present during menstruation. 

If the corpora lutea exert this controlling action on ovarian function, 
then their removal should release the normal ovarian function ; such 
operations during pregnancy are invariably followed by abortion. On 
the other hand, injections of properly prepared corpus luteum prevent 
ovulation ; this has been shown in the case of the hen, the rabbit, and 
the guinea-pig. 

Interstitial Hormone. 

A third active substance distinct from oestrin and corpus luteum is 
elaborated from the ovary and was described by Marshall and myself. 
This substance is water-soluble and thermo-stabile, and can be prepared 
from the ovary at one stage of its cycle only, by maceration with warm 
saline followed by boiling and filtering. The injection of this substance 
into animals causes a secretion of pituitrin, and this in turn renders the 



182 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

uterus supersensitive and highly responsive to other forms of stimu- 
lation. 

The pituitary secretion passes either entirely or mainly into the cerebro- 
spinal fluid. Histological examination has shown that the gland is 
suspended in a bath of cerebro-spinal fluid and has an opening, at least in 
some animals, directly communicating with this fluid. Since the experi- 
ments of Marshall and myself this secretion of pituitary into the cerebro- 
spinal fluid has been confirmed many times, more particularly by 
Trendelenburg, Janassy and Horvath, Miura and Siegert. The reason 
some investigators have failed to find pituitrin in the cerebro-spinal 
fluid is because they have tapped the theca too low in the spinal axis. 
Pituitrin after excretion is rapidly absorbed and never reaches beyond 
the cervical cord. It has been suggested that the secretion of oxytoxic 
substance is not really pituitrin, but some other substance, and to this 
it can only be replied that it exerts every known chemical and physio- 
logical action of posterior lobe extracts. In my Dohme Lectures I gave 
the last piece of evidence in this respect by showing that it also exerts 
the melanophore dilator action on the frog, an effect which, so far as 
I know, is quite specific. Trendelenburg has also described this action. 

The pituitary gland is intimately connected with the phenomenon of 
pregnancy ; statistics show that the size and weight of the gland in men 
and nulliparae are about the same ; in primiparae the weight has increased 
by about 50 per cent, and in multiparse by about 90 per cent., though 
most of the increased weight is due to the anterior lobe. 

The posterior pituitary substance has at least three actions of import- 
ance in medicine : it inhibits the secretion of urine, it has an antagonistic 
action to the insulin effect, and it sensitises and, in larger doses, contracts 
the plain muscle of the uterus. The last action is so profound that it 
overshadows all the other muscular effects, and pituitrin may be said 
to have a true specific action on uterine muscle in rendering it super- 
sensitive to every form of extraneous stimulus. 

Our experiments showed that at one stage only of the ovarian cycle 
was this hormone elaborated, namely, at the stage when the corpora 
lutea are degenerating. So long as the corpora are functioning they 
control the metabolism of the ovary, but when they degenerate control 
is lost and the ovary liberates the specific substance which excites the 
pituitary gland to secrete. This means that extracts of the ovary made 
between the heat periods or during pregnancy are without effect on the 
pituitary gland, but extracts made just before the heat period or just 
before parturition induce secretion of the gland. As the significant action 
of pituitary extract is to sensitise the uterus it is difficult, if not impossible, 
to avoid the conclusion that these two phenomena are closely associated. 

It is well known that substances introduced into the cerebro-spinal 
fluid find their way almost immediately into the blood, and hence it might 
be expected that extracts made from the blood of pregnant rabbits 
obtained at the time of delivery would have a contractile influence on 
the uterus ; this has been found to occur. Similarly blood obtained 
from pregnant women at the time of delivery contracts the guinea-pig's 
uterus to a considerably greater degree than normal blood. Mayer 
collected the cerebro-spinal fluid from women during Csesarean section. 



1.— PHYSIOLOGY. 183 

This fluid he injected subsequently into ten women with deficient labour 
pains. In eight of the women pains were induced, which in four were 
followed by the birth of the child. In another case an intradural injection 
was made, which was followed by labour pains within twenty-four hours. 
Mayer states that the cerebro-spinal fluid contains the active principle 
of the pituitary responsible for the production of uterine contraction. 
Siegert found that pituitrin, which is normally present in the cerebro- 
spinal fluid, diminished in the later months of gestation. 

The interaction of bile salts and pituitary secretion is antagonistic on 
the uterus. Hofbauer shows that there is a steady increase in the bile 
salts in the blood of pregnant women as gestation proceeds. He thinks 
that this factor is responsible for the control of the pituitary secretion 
during pregnancy and that toward the end of labour the pituitrin action 
overshadows the bile-salt action so that labour occurs. 

All these experiments consistently support the view that in the 
presence of fully formed corpora lutea the normal ovarian secretion is 
held in abeyance, and this is the condition for a short part of the time 
between the heat periods, but more particularly during pregnancy. At 
the close of pregnancy, when the corpora lutea are in an advanced stage 
of involution, the normal secretory activity recurs and the pituitary 
gland is excited to secrete more actively. When the threshold stimulus 
of the pituitrin on the uterus is reached the pains of labour set in and 
parturition results. The well-known phenomenon of the growing irrita- 
bility of the uterus in the later stages of pregnancy, which is the typical 
effect of the pituitary action, is explained as being functionally correlated 
with the involution of the corpus luteum. 

It is not suggested that the ovario-pituitary endocrine mechanism is 
the sole factor in producing labour pains. No doubt the foetus itself acts 
as a direct stimulus, and without the foetus the intense muscular con- 
tractions would not occur, but it is also clear that the onset of labour 
cannot easily be accounted for without postulating some further exciting 
cause apart from the foetus and the uterus. 

In conclusion, no romance can be more remarkable than the fact that 
doctors, by using pituitary extract to stimulate the uterus in pregnancy, 
should have adopted the method which Nature herself employs and that 
physiological function is after all a pharmacological action. 

Concluding Remarks. 

Civilisation has been responsible for many new diseases. Our food- 
stuffs in great cities are often preserved and important constituents of 
fresh foods may be lacking. The science of dietetics has assumed an 
enhanced importance lately, which is partly due to the artificial prepara- 
tion of many of our foods. Many experiments have been made in my 
laboratory to show that certain foods given in excess to animals fed on a 
synthetic diet, but containing an ample supply of the recognised vitamins, 
suffer from poisoning sometimes of the most profound and fatal kind. 
The same experiments made on animals living on an ordinary diet show 
that the excess of the ' poisonous ' food is harmless. For example, 
certain preparations of irradiated ergosterol given to rats which are being 



184 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

fed on a synthetic diet act as a poison, but if the rats are fed on bread 
and milk the effect of the ergosterol is negligible. In real life we do not 
live on a completely synthetic diet ; nearly everyone takes some if not 
an abundance of fresh food, so the practical value of this type of experi- 
ment may be over-estimated, though it is of considerable academical 
interest. 

Civilisation has brought bad sanitation in houses, and even our windows 
may be depriving us of fresh air and filtering out certain rays of light, 
bringing its attendant tuberculosis — for tuberculosis is a disease of houses. 
Science is now engaged in endeavouring to remedy the evil effects which 
it has produced. 

Civilisation is associated with wealth, indoor life, luxury, and some- 
times excessive mental exercise. These are conditions which lead to 
exaggerated nervous sensibility, and this is a much commoner feature 
in those engaged in a mental indoor life than in those engaged in an outdoor 
physical life. It is not difiicult then to understand the excessive use of 
tobacco in some of these people, since one effect of tobacco — and perhaps 
its most beneficent effect — is to increase the threshold of sensation in 
those who are supersensitive. When this supersensitiveness reaches 
extreme limits these people are referred to as ' neurotic' They are so 
highly reflex, so easily responsive to external impressions, that the asso- 
ciations set loose by any ordinary stimulus cause such a complexity of 
cerebration that the ordinary affairs of life become a burden ; they are 
not phlegmatic and uninteresting, but are often possessed of quick 
perception, a rapid response, and other higher attributes of mind which 
go to make up high breeding and culture. They easily weary of the strain 
and anxiety involved in the fight for existence, and anything that gives 
relief from their cares and anxieties is seized with avidity. Now it is 
these higher faculties of mind which are most responsive to narcotic 
poisons, which influence these long before those concerned with movement 
and ordinary sensation — so that the supersensitive people under the 
influence of narcotics lose the exaggerated effect of their sensations, 
and become more like normal people ; the everyday trifles and incon- 
veniences of life are no longer exaggerated out of proportion to their 
significance, and life, instead of being oppressive and anxious, becomes 
pleasant and free from worry. Sometimes the very acuity of their 
intellect is their undoing. Perhaps in a few special instances persons 
possessed of such vivid sensations may benefit by a narcotic which limits 
these conflicting impulses by allowing a freer play of some of the higher 
mental faculties ; certainly the records of De Quincey and Coleridge 
suggest such a possibility. Hence it is easy to understand the modern 
tendency in some highly civilised nations to indulge in narcotic drugs 
like morphine, heroine, and cocaine. 

It is another curious fact that it is just these supersensitive people who 
drink the caffeine beverages, like tea and coffee, in excess. Since the 
seventeenth century the use of the caffeine beverages has slowly increased, 
whilst that of beer and allied drinks has slowly diminished. Beer, from 
its essential oils and alcohol, is a soothing beverage ; it depresses the 
higher faculties of mind, it does not exaggerate their activity. Caffeine, 
on the other hand, relieves drowsiness and fatigue by direct stimulation 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 185 

of the brain cells ; it facilitates sensory impressions and the association 
of ideas. In large dose the caffeine beverages induce restlessness and 
nervous excitability, and they may produce disturbed sleep, headache 
and confusion. Few people, no doubt, take caffeine to this extent, but 
most of us take from 2 to 5 grains of caffeine daily, and the effect of this 
continued as a daily ration throughout life is a factor the significance 
of which is unknown. We do know, however, that caffeine increases 
sensitiveness to ordinary physical as well as mental sensations. 

England was once a drunken nation, and the larger towns contained 
such notices as, ' Here you may get drunk for a penny ; dead drunk 
with clean straw for twopence.' Before the revolution the consumption 
of beer alone in England and Wales was 90 gallons a head per annum ; 
now it is about a quarter of this. With this diminution of beer drinking 
is associated a truly enormous increase in tea and coffee drinking. To me 
it seems not unlikely that this substitution of tea for beer is not wholly 
unconnected with the tendency of highly civilised nations to become 
supersensitive and neurotic, for this is the groundwork upon which drug 
addiction is built. 

I have endeavoured to show that all precise knowledge in therapeutics 
is based upon controlled experiments on animals or man, and that the 
elucidation of the action of medicaments by the methods and data of 
experimental physiology is one of the most important steps taken to 
place medicine on a scientific basis. How important this is may be 
gauged from the fact that all fundamental advances in treatment in the 
last thirty years have originated directly or indirectly from experiments 
on animals. 

There can be no doubt then that the future of therapeutics, and 
therefore of medicine as a whole, is intimately connected with physio- 
logy ; there can be no doubt that advance in the practice of medicine 
is dependent on those trained in the methods and fundamental truths 
of physiology, who devote themselves in the ward and biological 
laboratory to investigating how best to prevent or cure disease and so 
relieve suffering. 

Britain for fifty years has every reason to be proud of her progress 
and achievements in physiology ; it is acknowledged that she can show 
records second to none and that her savants have included some of 
the world's greatest investigators. It remains for us to hope that in the 
future she may attain equal success in the associated sciences directly 
concerned with the relief of suffering and cure of disease. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IN 
PSYCHOLOGY. 



ADDRESS BY 

F. C. BAETLETT, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The position whicli Psychology occupies to-day in relation to the other 
biological sciences, both theoretical and applied, is due directly to its 
adoption of experimental method. Yet if the psychologist is asked to 
point out any single unshakable discovery of first-rate psychological 
importance, based directly and wholly upon experiment, his attempts to 
answer the question are always regarded as unsatisfactory. Moreover, it 
is still common to find the most skilled and notable psychologists beginning 
their careers with an enthusiastic and active belief in experimental method 
and, as they develop, receding farther and farther from the laboratory 
and becoming more and more attracted by the claims of systematic 
general theory. Two reasons are assigned by everybody for these facts. 
Bach is valid in itself ; neither is helpful nor reassuring. They are, first, 
that experimental psychology is a recent growth, and second, that all 
psychological problems are discouragingly complex. It would be a bold 
thing to maintain that any method used in scientific investigation is 
fruitful in direct proportion to its age, while the fact that all psychological 
problems are complex is no justification for attacking them by theoretical 
methods which are of all ways the most likely to lead to over-simplification. 
It therefore seems worth while to attempt a survey of the use to which 
experiment has been put in psychology, in order to show what experiment 
has done, is doing, and what there is reasonable ground for believing that 
it yet may do for the advancement of psychological study. Such a survey 
may help to explain the curious fact that the very method which, more 
than anything else, has raised psychology to something like equal status 
with related sciences is still regarded with suspicion, both within and 
without the borders of the subject. 

As everybody knows, the earliest experimentalists in psychology were 
physicists and physiologists, most of them with a strong bent towards 
philosophy in their outlook. They set up a standard which in various 
ways has cramped and confined experimental psychology ever since. 
When a physicist approaches a problem in which he has to state how a 
stimulus affects any kind of response, he is bound to lay the burden of 
explanation upon the stimulus. If this can be simplified, controlled, 
varied determinatively, resulting differences of response can be observed 
and explained. The stimulus also tends to be treated as outside the response 
itself. When the physiologist approaches the same type of problem, his 
emphasis is equally bound to be mainly upon the response side of the 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 187 

relationship. This he perfectly legitimately isolates as far as possible, 
trying to state its characteristics in terms of the functions of the mechanism 
immediately concerned. 

These are precisely the type of problem that the psychologist has most 
often attempted to carry over into his own field. Let us consider one 
point which grew out of the early experimental work on psychophysical 
methods. Fechner believed that all the content of experience, from the 
relatively simple sensation to the most complex reasoning content, was 
definitely measurable. Mainly as a result of his own observations, but 
aided also by the earlier work of Weber, he thought he could demonstrate 
this experimentally by showing that stimulus intensities and sensation 
intensities are related by a definite principle, the value of the unit sensation 
varying with the modality of stimulation. In order to establish the zero 
point for a sensation of given mode, and also the series of just noticeable 
differences piled up from this point by increase of the stimulus, he carried 
out a wonderful and patient series of experiments. He employed and 
somewhat improved Weber's method of ' limits ' ; he developed the 
method of ' mean error,' but he relied mainly upon the method, already 
proposed by Vierordt, of ' right and wrong ' cases. Fundamentally, this 
method consisted in the presentation to an observer of a series of stimulus 
variables, each variable being presented a number of times over together 
with some standard magnitude, the order of presentation of the variables 
being haphazard. Thus for each stimulus variable a number of judgments 
were obtained upon its equality with or difference from the standard. As 
might have been expected, the observer was often doubtful and said so. 
Now, argued Fechner, if these doubtful judgments were resolved by an 
ideal observer, they would in the long run be equally divided on both 
sides of the alternatives which confront him every time he judges under 
these experimental conditions. Consequently, in determining the stimulus 
value which gave a sensation difference threshold, he adopted the plan of 
dividing the doubtful cases equally between ' right ' and ' wrong ' cases. 

This procedure was speedily and acutely criticised by G. E. Miiller. 
Miiller pointed out, among other things, that the judgment in these cases 
is not simply a function of the stimulus on the one hand and of the 
sensitivity of the observer on the other hand. It is determined also by 
the precision of the observer, and this will affect the actual significance of 
the doubtful cases. But he did not go all the way with this notion ; he 
thought that statistical manipulation could give him a measure, both of 
precision and of sensitivity. 

Thus grew up a controversy which has proceeded voluminously ever 
since, though at the moment it seems nearly to have worn itself out. 
Broadly, four plans for dealing with these ' doubtful ' judgments have 
been proposed and followed : 

(a) to divide them equally between ' right ' and ' wrong ' cases ; 

(6) to ignore them ; 

(c) definitely to instruct the observer to ' guess ' when he is 
uncertain and then, if doubt still persists, to lump all cases together 
with ' guesses of greater ' and ' guesses of less ' as constituting an 
area within which stimulus variations have no corresponding sensation 
differences ; 



188 ■ SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

(d) to prohibit the observer from being doubtful. 

Now all these devices ignore the very points which are psychologically 
the most interesting and important. First they tend to treat each 
judgment in the series as equally and independently significant, the 
function of the immediate stimulus. This is certainly wrong. For 
example, Wundt demonstrated long ago that a given judgment may 
express, not the immediate effect of its stimulus, but the cumulative 
result of a series of preceding stimuli and situations no one of which at 
once issues in a characteristic overt response. Again and again the status 
of a pronouncement in a series has been shown to depend on its order of 
presentation within that series. Secondly, no judgment of this type is the 
expression of a simple stimulus-response situation, but of a stimulus- 
attitude-response situation. To demand guesses and to prohibit doubt 
both alike determine an attitude of observation which spreads over the 
whole experimental situation, affecting judgments which are assigned 
certainty just as much as the others. During a few years preceding the war 
a number of extremely interesting experiments were carried out, par- 
ticularly by Dr. Fernberger, upon the effect of ' attitude ' in determining 
judgments obtained by psychophysical methods. For some reason these 
have never been adequately followed up, but they represent what I take 
to be a genuine problem of the experimentalist in psychology. In this 
case the question is : How are the judgments obtained in the various 
psychophysical methods determined ? It is not enough to correlate 
immediate stimulus variations with immediate characters of response, or 
simply to describe the immediate response mechanism that is brought into 
play. When an observer enters into an experimental situation he brings 
with him propensities, tendencies, preformed organised systematic modes 
of response, the preformed cumulative organised effect of a mass of past 
discriminations. The stimulus, the situation that is presented, hits off 
some of these. They appear in him as an ' attitude,' and it is imder the 
active control of this that he makes his responses. Only when we know 
more about how this is set up and about its precise effect upon the responses 
made, can we safely give to the latter the necessary weighting which 
makes their statistical treatment genuinely significant. I think that the 
psychophysical methods, studied from this point of view, will yet yield 
some enormously important results. 

If the physicist in his approach to the stimulus-reaction type of problem 
tends to treat the stimulus regarded objectively as the main point of interest, 
the physiological method of approach is equally bound to concentrate its 
attack upon the immediate functional mechanism. It is of course foolish 
to argue, as is often done, that the physiologist is absolutely confined to a 
study of local response mechanisms, treating it as a matter of indifference 
whether they are in or out of their wider organic setting. But he does 
rightly lay the chief emphasis upon these, and for obvious and just reasons 
shrinks from speculation about central processes until he knows as much as 
can be learned about the peripheral functions and their mode of operation. 
From the earliest days up to the present a great part, perhaps the greatest 
part, of experimental psychology has been concerned with special sense 
reactions. Yet the psychologist has never staked out clearly any mode of 
investigation or characteristic problems which are specially his own in this 



i 



J. -PSYCHOLOGY. 189 

field. In this he has again been over-influenced by the great founders of 
his science. Consider the work of Helmholtz and of Hering on visual 
reactions. The former, with his very predominantly physical outlook, 
laid the burden of explanation always upon what the stimulus and varia- 
tions of the stimulus can do. Only when he got into tremendous difficulties, 
as with simultaneous contrast, did he invoke processes, not directly visual, 
seated in the observer himself ; and then, at once, his explanations 
became confused and unconvincing. Hering, being far more dominantly 
physiological, turned to a study of the immediately functioning mechanism. 
He, however, seemed to set the stage for much so-called psychological 
interpretation in later days, by elaborating a sort of speculative physiology 
in his theory of anabolic process within a local sense organ. When a 
psychologist takes up a problem of special sense reaction, his whole 
training and outlook force him to lay due weight upon the wide variability 
of such response when it takes place in its normal organic setting. If he 
has his eye upon the physiological mechanisms this variability constantly 
forces him back beyond the immediate peripheral functions to more 
central processes. Then, as again and again in the history of the subject, 
he is tempted to draw fanciful diagrams of the brain, laid out neatly into 
all sorts of areas of function ; or, as is perhaps more common nowadays, 
he relapses into wholly speculative physics and physiology of the central 
nervous system. This is only trying wildly to do what the real physicist 
and physiologist are most chary of attempting, except as a kind of game, 
and it is no wonder that many of the more scientific psychologists are some- 
what discouraged, while other people find it difiicult to take the psychologist 
seriously. 

Yet it is not the psychologist's view of the problem, but his handling 
of it, that has been faulty. Suppose we are investigating some specific 
sensory threshold. The response of our observer will be determined by a 
number of groups of factors. There are the physical characters of the 
stimulus : its intensity defined physically, its duration, often its medium 
of conduction to the sense organ concerned, relevant facts of its physical 
and chemical structure. There is the absolute sensitivity of the local 
responding physiological system, though this can never be absolutely 
measured short of cutting it out of its organic setting, which is just what 
the psychologist must not do, though the physiologist certainly may. 
There is the order of presentation of the stimulus in its series, which 
raises problems already touched upon in connexion with the psychophysical 
methods ; and the correlated physiological questions of the state of adapta- 
tion at the moment of the sensory system. Operating over and above and 
through all of these are the tendencies, attitudes, moods, intellectual and 
emotional habits of the observer, the states variously characterised as 
states of confidence, hesitation, doubt, timidity, assertiveness, certainty. 
An image, flashing out suddenly at a given point, may change the whole 
character of a response and of succeeding responses. So may the verbalisa- 
tion or formulation of a judgment. These so-called higher mental 
processes are precisely the psychologist's main concern. They can be 
experimentally set up and controlled to a large extent, while the other 
factors are kept relatively constant. It is our business to show how they 
are set up, and how they then powerfully determine reactions within the 



190 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

special sense field, even in the simplest cases of such reaction. It is of no 
use simply to say that there are these determinants, and then to take 
refuge in a fruitless hypothetical physiology of the central nervous system. 
Perhaps the time may come when the bulk of sense psychology will be 
swallowed up in physiology, but that time has not come yet, and if we 
act as if it has we gain little but deserved suspicion from other scientists. 

Already there are a few experimental studies of special sense problems 
from this point of view. They are less frequent and less thorough than 
they should be, and this is because the psychologist has generally been 
content to follow his more physically and physiologically minded pre- 
decessors, instead of envisaging the problems of sensory reaction for him- 
self. When the psychologist studies a special sense response it is his 
business to try to show how that response, carried out in its normal organic 
setting, is being determined directly by facts other than those of the im- 
mediate sensory mechanisms. Cues other than those of the special sensory 
stimulus are operating through response systems of a higher, or more 
complex, order than those of the directly excited sense. For these response 
systems at present psychological names have to be used, and we have to 
show how they come into play and what they do. 

It should therefore be particularly interesting to turn to the experi- 
mental attack upon the higher mental processes. I propose to take as 
typical the study of the responses called ' remembering ' and ' recog- 
nising.' 

The experimental investigation of memory is dominated by the work 
of one man who is commonly supposed to have been a great benefactor of 
experimental psychology, but who, in spite of his impressive work, seems 
to me to be the errant leader of a very sheep-like flock. In 1885 Hermann 
Ebbinghaus published his new programme for experiments on memory 
processes. Already, since ] 879, he had been studying his own modes of 
recall by methods which were at that time novel. The publication of his 
results settled the direction of flow of the main stream of experiments on 
memorv from that day to this. As everybody now knows, his great innova- 
tion was the use of nonsense syllables for memorising. He claimed for 
these four great advantages over any other type of material : they are 
simple ; they are homogeneous ; they can be indefinitely combined, but 
in all combinations the material remains essentially on the same level ; 
they ' admit of quantitative variation which is adequate and certain.' 

It is fairly easy to show that not one of these four claims is in fact 
sound, but for the present a single, fundamental consideration is enough. 
It is always urged that nonsense syllables are the best material to use 
because they are ' simple.' That appears to mean something like this : 

Suppose we are investigating normal taste and smell reactions. We 
know that generally these two are inextricably combined, so that much 
that we call taste is really smell. However, if we are interested in finding 
out how the end organs of taste react, we can experimentally cut ofi all 
olfactory reactions and see what happens. We then learn something true 
and important about how the end organs of taste behave when they are 
subjected to certain specific conditions. It is more than hazardous to 
assume forthwith that they behave in precisely that manner when the 
olfactory sense is alive and working. But there is no doubt a sense in 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 191 

which we can say that the taste reactions thus experimentally studied 
are 'simpler' than those of normal everyday life. Now take the analogous 
case of remembering. A part of the total process is obviously the initial 
learning. If we use ordinary combinations of meaningful words or forms 
there may be a mass of associations, in some respects peculiar to each 
subject who submits to experiment, set up during this initial period of 
observation. By the use of nonsense syllables we cut off all, or most, 
of these thronging associations, just as in the other cases we cut off the 
olfactory sensations, and so we find out what pure and simple remembering 
can do. 

The argument is feeble. We do not isolate the taste experiences by 
simplifying the stimulus, but by cutting off, through extirpation or tem- 
porary paralysis, those other reactions with which they are normally 
integrated. We can operate on the olfactory nerves in this way if we desire, 
but there are no specific memory nerve endings or nerve centres, or if 
there are we do not know them. Moreover, even if we could do this, the 
experimental psychologist would be untrue to his pretensions if he were 
satisfied with this alone. He pretends to deal with the intact organism. 
Suppose we do simplify enormously our stimuli, or our experimental 
situations and then confront our intact subject with these. All that 
happens is that he is faced by such an odd and unusual state of affairs that 
he is forced to mobilise all his resources and make up some novel reaction 
ad hoc. This is, of course, exactly what happened when the nonsense 
material was used. The early experimenters, being in other ways exceed- 
ingly good psychologists, saw this at once. Their way out was curious. 
They proposed that every subject must have long-continued practice with 
nonsense syllables before any of his results should be allowed to count. 
That is to say, having taken immense precautions to simplify experimental 
material and methods, we must then take equally great precautions to 
simplify, by rendering familiar, the highly artificial and complex response 
which we have thereby set up. The way in which this sort of method 
has run rampant over the whole of the laboratory psychology of the 
higher mental processes is distressing to anybody who wishes to adopt an 
experimental approach to this field of research. It is, perhaps, hardly an 
exaggeration to say that nine-tenths of conventional laboratory psychology 
- — outside of experiments on the special senses — consists largely in showing 
how habits of response may be set up towards odd and out-of-the-way 
situations, and makes little contribution of moment towards the solution 
of any other problem. 

This is the old difficulty in a new form, the exaggerated respect for the 
stimulus or the situation. The psychologist is studjdng the complex 
responses of a highly developed organism and how they are determined. 
They have been called forth to meet the claims of a very unstable and vary- 
ing objective environment. They are no doubt in many ways more stable 
than that environment. But if the environment is violently simplified it 
it is mere superstition to trust that they also get simplified in a correspond- 
ing manner. They become different, but are just as likely to become yet 
more highly complex. Stability of determination, not simplicity of 
structure in objective determining factors, is what we need to make our 
experiments convincing. Stability of determination is compatible with 



192 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

complexity, and even with considerable variation of objective determinants. 
Somehow an experimental method has to be developed which recognises 
this fact. 

I turn for a moment to experimental work on ' recognition ' merely to 
bring out one further point of method. Since very early days an enormous 
amount of work has been done on this topic. It has issued in five or six 
different theories no one of which can claim finality. The diversity of this 
result is due to different causes, but one is perhaps particularly important. 
There is a strong tendency, when any complex response like recognition 
is being studied, to attempt to draw a ring round it and to seek its explana- 
tion within these imposed limits. Thus the explanation of recognition is 
sought in something that happens at the moment of recognition. This is 
surely wrong. An object or event may be recognised or not largely on a 
basis' of how it was reacted to in the prior perception. A sound, for 
example, may be heard : it will not be recognised unless it is so listened 
to that it possesses qualities, characteristics, a setting and a significance. 
To the persistent study of a complex mental response as if its psychological 
explanation must be found inside an imaginary circle that encloses it, 
much of the disrepute into which experimental psychology tends to fall 
may be traced. It is perhaps the last and subtlest form of the outworn 
' faculty ' psychology. 

I said at the beginning that the early experimentalists in psychology 
were physicists and physiologists with a strong bent towards philosophy. 
If in the history of the subject experimental psychologists have shown them- 
selves too submissive to physical and physiological methods, it is even 
more true that they have often pursued philosophical ideals. This 
pursuit is in full cry still. A very brief consideration of current movements 
which originate in the laboratory will illustrate this point. 

There is probably no contemporary movement in psychology which Has 
more profoundly influenced psychological thought in English-speaking 
countries than the so-called Gestalt psychologie. I have, as every experi- 
mental psychologist must have, a very great admiration for the brilliant 
work of Wertheimer, Kohler and Koffka. It has shed much new light on 
old problems, as well as a good deal of old light on new problems. It 
starts specifically from experiments upon visual perception and its primary 
method is that of phenomenological description. When we are presented 
with a perceptual situation what is it that we experience ? The answer is 
inevitable and is one which, from this point of view, has, I think, always 
been given. We cannot describe our experience in this sort of situation 
as a mosaic of tiny bits each corresponding with its isolable part of the 
stimulus or situation. The blue sky which is seen is not, as Kohler says, 
made up of an infinite number of blue sensation units, but is seen as a 
continuous blue expanse. The moving dots and lines, in Wertheimer's 
experiments, are seen, not as stationary points in temporal relations, but 
as a unitary and indivisible movement. Sometimes the experiments are 
more behaviouristic, but still it is the attitude of phenomenalistic de- 
scription that determines their interpretation. The animal that has been 
trained to react positively to a and negatively to b at once reacts positively 
to 6 if a is removed and c is introduced bearing that relation to b which b 
had to a. This must be because the initial reaction was not to a, or to b, 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 193 

and not to a and b and a relation between a and b, but to a total indivisible 
situation only to be described as a-h-in-r elation. Again, an animal is set 
a complex problem and typically achieves the solution suddenly ; for 
what we call the ' correct ' solution is a reaction to the total situation as 
built, or figured, or formed. 

Thus a fundamental psychological question tends to be : ' What is the 
nature and what are the characteristics of these indefeasible forms or 
patterns which stand over against all our reactions, compelling them to be 
as they are ? ' In our answer we can easily slip into the persistent error of 
over-emphasis of the objective side of the situation-response problem. I 
do not say they do this, but in his doctrines of physical Gestalten Kohler 
comes very near it. Or again, looking to the response side, we may try 
to build up inside the responding mechanism a complex sj'^stem, somehow 
corresponding to the integrated phenomenal situation. Then, as in 
Kohler's theories of ionic concentration within the central nervous system, 
we are almost sure to slip into sheer speculative physiology. Finally, the 
phenomenological attitude seems bound to issue in a comprehensive 
theory about the nature of the world as we know it, rather than in a scien- 
tific study of the determination of human response. It is the latter alone 
which is truly amenable to experimental treatment. 

There is another contemporary movement, also originating in Germany, 
much less widely influential in other countries at the moment, but likely to 
attract more and more attention. This springs from the work of Professor 
E. R. Jaensch. It also has a definite experimental basis. Jaensch 
experimentally discovered a type of imagery which seemed to lie some- 
where between the after-sensation on the one hand and the genuine memory 
image on the other. I cannot attempt to describe his extremely keen 
investigation of this eidetic imagery, as he called it. At the moment the 
main point is that he considered it demonstrable that a proneness to eidetic 
imagery is correlated with a number of other reaction tendencies. 
He elaborated a theory of the two-fold division of all human subjects into 
integrate and disintegrate types. The integrate is the artistic, sjmthetic 
type, taking everything as a whole and having an inevitable accompani- 
ment of persistent marked temperamental qualities and tendencies. The 
disintegrate is the scientific, analytic type, tending to split up presented 
situations and to deal with them piecemeal, and he also has his invariable, 
persistent, accompanying temperamental character. Of course the inte- 
grate and the disintegrate in their most marked forms are the extremes of 
a very wide range and pass the one into the other by very small shades of 
difference ; but there remain these two predominant types, by a study and 
understanding of which all the problems of human reaction, in every field 
whatsoever, are to be finally explained. 

Now this view does certainly seem to be biological in bent, and it is being 
explored throughout by experimental study. Moreover, it strives, and, 
I think, successfully, to avoid that artificiality which, as we have seen, 
hangs over conventional laboratory methods for the investigation of the 
higher modes of human response. It rightly treats our problems as 
problems of reaction tendencies, of their deternoination and their grouping. 
But it does seem to be rather in a hurry with its sweeping generalisations. 
Here are some extremely interesting observations on imagery. Why 
1929 o 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

should we hasten to fashion from them a key to all the most diflB.cult 
problems of our science ? It is what the psychologist seems every- 
where prone to do. A departmental investigation is made to carry the 
weight of a comprehensive system. This, it seems to me, is the 
philosophical bias at work. 

In contemporary English psychology there is only one complete and 
world-explaining system of this sort, and that is the system which has 
been developed by the keen and penetrating work of Professor C. Spearman. 
Here again we are invited to begin with experiment, not merely upon 
perceptual processes, not merely upon imagery, not merely upon more 
complex intellectual responses still, but upon any psychological problem 
whatever. Wherever we begin we shall speedily find illustrated the 
working of the few immutable laws upon which all mental structure, and 
it may be the very Universe itself, are built. They stand indeed at the 
portals of our science. Know them and everything is plain ; ignore them 
and all is confused. They are conceived, not as tendencies serving the 
ends of biological adaptation, but after the fashion of physical principles 
of universal scope describing the inevitable structure and frame of 
mental life. 

That Professor Spearman has done more for the development of 
several fields of psychological research than any other living Englishman 
cannot be disputed. His contributions to the development of psychological 
statistics, and his work in the field of the investigation of intelligence must 
give him a permanent place in the history of the subject. Yet the notion 
of experiment mainly as a tool for laying bare and illustrating the 
operation of a few basic and fixed laws must seem to the biologically 
minded investigator very unsatisfying. Having found a scheme which 
seems to set the results of certain experimental investigations in order, 
why should we, with all the wealth and variability of human response as 
our subject, try to fit the same scheme in everywhere ? Surely to do 
this either our scheme must be so broad that its explanatory value in 
relation to particular concrete problems is bound to be very remote, or 
else it must be ruthless in its dealings with fact. In writing some years 
ago of his ' theory of two factors,' Professor Spearman said : ' It would 
seem as if psychologists have now got definitely to accept the Theory of 
Two Factors ; it becomes a Bed of Procrustus into which all our doctrines 
• must somehow be made to fit, even though the so doing may at times 
involve a not unpainful surgical operation upon them.' I admire the 
courage that prompts such a statement, but I find it difficult to square 
this attitude with that scrupulous regard for the immediate facts which 
must mark the experimental biologist. 

No survey, however scrappy, of contemporary movements in 
experimental psychology can be satisfactory without some reference to 
Behaviourism. Of all the movements this is the one which is most _ 
thoroughly experimental, alike in its methods and in its formation of m 
problems. It has laid firm hold on the point of view that experimental M 
psychology is an investigation of the conditions determining high level "i 
biological reactions in animal and man. It is so round in its denunciation 
of philosophy that its excessive readiness to systematise its own principles 
of explanation is amusing. We can see this readiness in the haste with which 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 195 

it has exalted the principle of ' conditioned reflex ' into an all-embracing 
explanation, though many of the problems of human response concern the 
emergence of new effector functions and conditioned reflex has nothing 
to do with this ; and though conditioning at the human level is excessively 
speedier and often far more stable than anything that has ever been 
experimentally observed. We can see it, also, in the Behaviourist's 
dogmatic assertion that the development of consciousness within any tj^e 
of biological response never makes any difference in subsequent response. 
Such dogmatism is only another instance of the experimental psychologist's 
fatal proneness to run beyond his data. It is explicable in the light of a 
study of the origins of Behaviourism, for it was by the adoption of 
Behaviouristic methods alone that the investigation of animal response 
below the human passed from the anecdotal and analogical stage and 
became genuinely a part of biological science. But to push the principles 
involved into the whole of human psychology is just as bad as to carry 
out some departmental investigation into perceiving, or imaging, or thinking, 
or some sensorial function, and then to use the results forthwith as a 
master-key to all the problems of human determination. 

Some of the reasons why experimental psychology has often attracted 
unfavourable criticism and failed to hold its students should now be clear. 
In work on the special senses it has frequently attempted to deal with 
problems that the physicist or the physiologist with their specialised 
training could solve more satisfactorily. In dealing with the higher 
mental processes it has been over-impressed with the necessity of 
standardising objective situations and has constantly proceeded as iif the 
simplification of a stimulus were equivalent to the isolation of a response. 
Persistently it has shown imnecessary readiness to build upon specialised 
investigations wide systems which pretend a finality and universality that 
they do not possess. I believe the time has now come for pushing these 
criticisms vigorously and for attempting to meet them in practice. It 
could hardly have come much earlier. After all, whatever the limitations 
of his outlook, it may fairly be claimed that the experimental psychologist 
has done more than anybody else to keep alive the interest in special sense 
problems. As for the work upon relatively more complex processes a new 
and struggling science was almost bound to imitate methods already fully 
established in other fields and to exploit them as far as they would go. 

By its shortcomings and failures, as well as through its successes, 
experimental psychology has been attaining the rank and outlook of a 
biological science. I will conclude this survey by saying as definitely as 
I can what I take this to mean. 

Experimentalists everywhere are directly concerned with a study of 
the conditions under which the observable results that interest them can be 
shown to occur. In psychology the experimentalist is attempting to find 
out the conditions of the various reactions or modes of conduct that 
make up the lives of animals and human beings. At the human level 
most of these reactions appear to be accompanied and in part determined 
by some form of content : by sensations, images, judgments, trains of 
reasoning. Sometimes the psychological experimenter prefers to put 
his problems directly in terms of these, of how they occur and how, 
when they have occurred, they may, as conditions, influence other forms 

02 



196 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

or instances of content. Whether he deals with these questions or not 
there is one thing that is always held to distinguish his point of view from 
that of related scientists. He is primarily interested in the intact organism 
or the intact mental life. For the most part he cannot cut out partial 
responses, or special forms of content, and consider how they are con- 
ditioned in the absence of all the rest. If he could do this it would be 
foreign to his essential problem to make the attempt. He may, indeed, 
gain help from a study of instances in which certain types of response have 
been lost, leaving still a very complex organism, or mental life, to effect 
a readjustment of what is left. This, however, is clearly a very different 
matter from cutting out the partial response and studying that by itself. 

The tendency to try to treat partial or specific forms or response each 
as much as possible by itself has, as I have indicated, persisted from pre- 
experimental days, and has done much to render experiments in psychology 
often trivial, uninteresting and highly artificial. The organism in which, 
the psychologist is interested does not normally react with one sensory 
modality only, or with emotion untinged by information, or with impulsive 
activity free from interference by non-impulsive factors. All this might 
be unimportant, if by experiment the psychologist could force his subjects 
to adopt such simple modes of reaction. The psychologist would indeed 
be barred from making that direct passage from the laboratory to the 
world at large which he is very fond of making, but that would not be an 
unmixed evil. The situation is, however, more difficult than this. The 
subject of a psychological experiment always retains the possibility of 
making more reactions than the one that is being specifically studied. No 
matter how honest and painstaking both experimenter and subject may 
be, these ' other ' reactions will play their parts in any results obtained. 
To try to shut up a subject to a purely visual or a purely auditory reaction,, 
to pure perceiving, pure remembering, pure imagining and the like is, in 
fact, only to force him to utilise indirect cues so different from those which 
he constantly employs under normal conditions as, in many cases, to make 
his total reaction a genuinely novel one. The reaction has become 
artificial, that is, not merely because the range of its conditions is 
restricted, but because, with as wide a range of conditions imperfectly 
under control as ever, many of these are specific to this special experimental 
situation. The perfecting of objective control does not reduce the subject 
to a single sense, or a single cognitive or emotional process, but, leaving 
him as complex a reactive agent as ever, forces him to make up on the 
spot a type of total reaction fitted to this special environment. 

Holding all this firmly in mind, what conclusions can we draw ? First,, 
it follows that the experimental psychologist must claim that for the 
present, and perhaps for always, he is as much clinician as experimenter. 
He has not merely to arrange conditions and record results. There seems 
to be a notion abroad that there is so much uncharted ground in psychology 
that an investigator can do anything he pleases, and so long as he observes 
everything possible, his results are bound to be significant. This is 
utterly false. His observation is definitely that of a man with a problem, 
and generally also with a personality, in Adew ; and it is by consequence 
almost glaringly selective. He is not alone among experimenters in this 
respect. From a reading of the theory of the matter one might be. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 197 

tempted to suppose that the best experimenter, once the experiment is 
arranged, would be merely a rather complicated and delicate recording and 
calculating device. Those who have a reputation for brilliant experimental 
work in any field singularly fail to impress this character upon the 
intelligent and sympathetic onlooker. Anybody who, by experiment, is 
going to discover anything important about the determination of human 
reactions, must first have developed a certain character of human reaction 
for himself. If this is to be used against him when he claims validity for 
his discoveries, it is a sort of stone he can return with some effect, whoever 
his opponents may be. 

Yet it is extraordinarily important that the experimental psychologist 
should not be exclusively concentrated upon the particular reaction 
which he is specifically studying. Just because it is the intact subject, 
the intact organism, that we are concerned with the conditions of any 
reaction are apt to branch widely. The problem for us, for example, is not 
to find out how the eye sees or the ear hears, but how the animal and man 
do. No doubt we can answer this problem only in an imperfect way, but 
it takes us no nearer perfection to cut the ear or the eye out of the man. 
This is true with increasing force as we go higher in the level of response. 
Indirect cues are neither to be ignored, nor to be cut out, but definitely 
to be studied. 

Secondly, no experimental psychologist must profess, with unvarying 
belief, the dogma of constancy of objective conditions. If, biologically 
speaking, human reactions had been built up to meet a series of unchanging 
environments emphatic insistence upon rigidity of conditions would be 
justifiable. Obviously, they are not so built. So far as the psychologist 
is concerned, many of the most important characters that dominantly set 
the course of our reactions belong directly to the organism with which he 
is dealing, to its immediate and remote past history and to its present 
specific and general state of adaptation. These intra-organic, or intra- 
subjective factors may be more diversified by rigidity than by variation 
of outward circumstance. Of course, I do not argue that the experimental 
psychologist need not be seriously concerned with constancy of experimental 
procedure. He must arrange this as carefully as possible, taking advan- 
tage of whatever may be known as to the order of importance of the 
elements of any complex situation with which he is concerned. But he 
should never hesitate to break this constancy of procedure if his psycho- 
logical judgment or insight assures him that a diversity of outward 
circumstances will best secure a relative stability of attitude in his 
observer. To the experimenter who is not a psychologist this claim may 
appear arbitrary and arrogant. There is, so far as I can see, no help for 
that. 

In the third place, the position which I have stated carries with it that 
the experimental psychologist, at the end of his studies, has to be satisfied 
with indicating trends, directions, proclivities rather than dogmatic laws. 
His phenomena are essentially biological, in process of development, 
displaying no hard and fast boundaries anywhere. He may formulate 
dogmatic laws, and use experiments as imperfect illustrations ; but this 
is the wrong order of things, though it has been by far the commonest and 
is still the easiest. 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Finally there is the question of the relation of the results of specific 
experimentation to the claims of general systematic theorising. It 
should be clear that I am not for one moment for the haphazard experiment 
that has no idea, no broadly formulated problem, behind it. Also I would 
condemn as heartily as anybody that scatter of descriptive results, unco- 
ordinated, unsystematised, which is common in many directions nowadays. 
We must explain our results and not merely collect and exhibit them. Yet 
I would urge that when we have, for example, satisfactorily stated the 
conditions of some particular perceptual reaction, we have no more right 
to pronounce magisterially upon a complex problem of reasoning than a 
physiologist who has studied respiratory functions has to pretend at once 
to clear up the secrets of spinal reflexes. No doubt the physiologist would 
never for a moment attempt to do this, but unfortunately it is not so easy 
to answer for the pretensions of the experimental psychologist in a like 
case. It may even be that all our specific studies will lay bare common 
broad principles of the determination of response. Even so, the broad 
principles are not the explanation of the specific problem, and for whatever 
they may be worth, before we erect them into a comprehensive system we 
must have the specific problems widely and patiently worked out. 

With this outlook of mingled boldness and caution I believe that 
experimental psychology will prove adequate to its task of building up a 
sound scientific study of complex response in animal and man. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



BOTANICAL RECORDS OF THE ROCKS 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EARLY 
GLOSSOPTERIS FLORA. 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. A. C. SEWARD, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Introductory. 
It is reasonable to assume that when my fellow botanists invited me to 
preside over Section K at the South African Meeting they were prepared 
to take the risk of listening to an address which might fail to interest 
students of other branches of Botany than that which makes a special 
appeal to myself. It would be little short of an impertinence for me to 
air my views on problems outside the domain of palseobotany : in these 
days the average man cannot hope to keep in touch with new developments 
within any one of the Natural Sciences unless he is prepared wholly to 
devote himself to reading the contributions of others. For most of us it 
is necessary to choose one of two courses : either to remain comparatively 
ignorant of recent advances in most branches of a subject, and to employ 
such leisure as we can command in concentrating attention upon one small 
portion of a subject with the determination to make contributions to 
knowledge, which in moments of elation may be called original ; or to 
qualify ourselves for the title of botanists by doing our best to develop 
the acquisitive spirit and the ability to assimilate innumerable facts, aims 
familiar to students preparing for a final examination. One may succeed, 
after many years of pleasant labour in a restricted field of work, in 
reaching a stage at which the confidence of youth gives place to a maturer 
and less optimistic frame of mind : the longer we question Nature the 
more difiicult it seems to obtain clues which we are capable of interpreting 
with an assured conviction. It is not that the pleasure of the search 
diminishes : the pleasure persists unimpaired ; but it becomes associated 
as time goes on with a growing sense of ignorance and of doubt. We 
prefer to make suggestions rather than to indulge in prophetic utterances. 
It is not my intention to-day to discuss in detail and in language 
intelligible only to specialists some of the many problems familiar to 
students of ancient floras ; my aim is to touch as lightly as possible on a 
few topics which have stimulated my own imagination, in the hope that I 
may succeed in persuading others that the records of the rocks, meagre 
though they are, are well worthy of attention ; not only on the part of 
professional botanists but of laymen who wish to cultivate a hobby rich 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

in possibilities. In addressing an audience, most of whom are not primarily 
concerned with plants that have been dead for millions of years, it is prefer- 
able to run the risk of disappointing palaeobotanical colleagues by being 
too popular rather than to weary the majority by an over emphasis of 
technical detail. Twenty-six years ago as President of this Section I 
chose an ambitious text and discoursed on ' Floras of the Past : their 
composition and distribution,' a theme which, if adequately treated, would 
occupy more than the whole time allotted to a British Association Meeting. 
To-day, as befits my years, the programme is more modest : it includes a 
brief consideration of the age of the late Palaeozoic Ice Age in South 
Africa and other parts of the great continent of Gondwanaland ; the lack 
of data relating to a critical stage in the evolution of the plant-world, 
represented in the table of contents of earth-history by the passage from 
the Palaeozoic to the Mesozoic era ; a brief reference to the difficult and 
attractive problem of fossil plants as tests of climate ; and the importance 
of extinct plants as aids to the understanding of the distribution of living 
plants over the earth's surface. 

We whose privilege it is to visit South Africa, some of us with pleasant 
recollections of former visits, are not unmindful of the share taken in 
botanical science by our fellow workers in the southern hemisphere. On 
this occasion, at least, I can confidently speak for all the visiting members 
of the Section and assure our hosts of the pleasure it gives us to take part 
in a reunion which symbolises the brotherhood of science and the oneness 
of the aim of all whose lives are mainly devoted to the interpretation of 
Nature. Our interests are diverse and embrace both the present and 
the past ; but we are united by a common bond- — a determination to 
co-operate in the search for the best thing in the world, the discovery of 
truth, which has been defined as the hypothesis which works best. 
Whether we succeed or not, we learn that beyond the material reward, 
which may follow sustained effort, there is a higher reward which comes 
from communing with Nature, a spiritual influence seldom acknowledged, 
though none the less an influence which, if we will respond to it, lifts us to 
a place where the air is pure and the petty prejudices and jealousies of life 
have no place. My excuse, if excuse be needed, for speaking in this strain 
is that we who love Science for its own sake resent the implication that 
those who pry into the secrets of Nature are in danger of developing into 
mere materialists whose vision of the infinite becomes dimmed. 

I take this opportunity of paying a tribute to South African friends to 
whom I am personally indebted : Dr. Rogers, an old friend of Cambridge 
days, has for many years submitted to me specimens for identification — 
by no means always with satisf jdng results ; Mr. Du Toit, who has for- 
tunately fallen a victim to the fascination of ancient floras ; and another 
old friend, Mr. Leslie of Vereeniging, whose kindness and infectious enthusi- 
asm stimulated me many years ago to turn my attention to the records 
preserved in the older beds of the Karroo system. This country is rich 
in documents written ' in the ghostly language of the ancient earth,' and 
there is still a rich harvest to be gathered. The important contributions 
made by Mr. Du Toit in recent years may be quoted as an admirable 
illustration of the kind of research which is needed. I hope one result of 
this meeting will be an increase in the number of geologists and botanists 



K.— BOTANY. 201 

imbued with a determination to co-operate in taking advantage of the 
opportunities, which are theirs, of contributing to a fuller knowledge of 
the evolution of the plant-world than it is possible to obtain from the 
records of the rocks on the other side of the equator. 

It may be helpful as a preliminary to my treatment of certain aspects 
of plant-life in former ages to glance at a table of contents of the geological 
history of the world : we can better appreciate scenes from the past if we 
think of them in relation to their respective places in the sequence of events 
registered in the earth's crust. 

The Eaklier Chapters of the History of the Plant World. 

It is important to remember, especially important when we are trying 
to follow the course of evolution in the organic world, that the rocks which 
have furnished the earliest known remains of plants are separated from 
the oldest known part of the earth's crust by thousands of feet of strata 
and by some hundreds of millions of years. The foundation stones of the 
world in the strict sense are unknown : we are still unable to answer the 
question — ' Whereupon are the foundations thereof laid ? 

The crystalline rocks classed by geologists as Archtean represent in- 
conceivably ancient land-surfaces on which were accumulated vast piles 
of detrital material furnished by agents of erosion, and from time to time 
products of volcanic activity. Plants may have lived on the Archaean, or 
Pre-Cambrian, continents ; they probably did, but as yet we have no 
certain knowledge of them. We may think of an azoic world, or of a 
primeval ocean—' the image of eternity ' — pregnant with the first germs 
of plant-life which in later ages developed into the ancestors of terrestrial 
vegetation, or our imagination may enable us to picture a Pre-Cambrian 
land occupied by colonies of primitive plants simpler than any so far 
discovered in the older Palaeozoic strata. Passing higher in the geological 
series to the marine sediments and associated lavas and volcanic ash in- 
cluded in the Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian systems, we find clear 
evidence of the existence of lime-secreting Algse, the precursors of some 
of the modern reef-forming seaweeds, and, in Silurian strata, a few traces 
of plants which probably lived on dry land. It is true to say that as yet 
we know practically nothing of the terrestrial vegetation of the world before 
the beginning of the Devonian period. The lapse of time represented by 
that portion of the earth's crust comprised within the Pre-Cambrian, 
Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian periods is much longer than the 
duration of all the other geological periods put together. What is the 
story of evolution hidden in the Pre-Cambrian and in the earlier 
Palaeozoic formations ? This is a question which appeals with especial 
force to the imagination : though it is too much to expect that we shall 
«ver discover the earliest links in the chain of life, we may with confidence 
expect to find remains of pre-Devonian terrestrial plants which, I venture 
to think, will surprise us by their relatively high level of organisation. 
The more we know of the older floras, the more difficult it becomes to 
form a clear conception of the course of evolution of the plant-world. 
We are prejudiced in favour of generalised types and primitive ancestral 
forms, but while among the earliest known members of the plant-kingdom 



202 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

there are undoubted examples of structure which may be described as 
more primitive than any we know in the world to-day, we note a surprising 
resemblance in the general plan of construction between the inconceivably 
ancient and the most modern members of the plant-kingdom. Attention has 
been directed by many writers to the recently acquired knowledge of the 
floras that have left well-preserved samples in rocks of the Devonian period : 
we speak of Devonian plants as the oldest known relics of terrestrial 
vegetation ; but we cannot believe that in them we have the first of a 
succession of colonists which spread over the face of the earth. Whether 
they are regarded as the modified descendants of more ancient types, 
which evolved in the sea and subsequently accommodated themselves to 
existence above the tides ; or whether we prefer to think of Devonian 
plants as descendants of Silurian or still older progenitors, the fact remains 
that their ancestry is shrouded in mystery. Stress has been laid on 
certain morphological features presented by members of the older Devonian 
floras ; on the other hand, we must remember that the best-known of these 
extinct plants lived in swamps and under conditions that were favourable 
to their preservation as fossils. We know only in part : our knowledge is 
based largely on a particular kind of plant association, which from the 
nature of its habitat escaped destruction during recurrent geological 
convulsions ; and it is reasonable to assume that there were contemporary 
associations occupying other situations of which we know nothing. Words 
used by the late Prof. Bury in reference to the history of human societies 
are applicable to geological history : — 

' All the epochs of the past are only a few of the front carriages, 
and probably the least wonderful, in the van of an interminable 
procession.' 

A few plants have been recorded from Devonian rocks in South Africa, 
but the records so far obtained from beds below the Karroo system are 
very disappointing. Further research may yield valuable results : it is 
a laborious task to look for fossils in ground that is mostly barren, though 
the search is worth making. It is almost entirely from Devonian rocks of 
the northern hemisphere that our information has been gained : Australia 
has furnished a few specimens, and a few fragmentary remains have been 
described from the Falkland Islands. 

Leaving the Devonian period we pass to the Carboniferous and Permian 
periods, and here there is much to discuss which has a special application 
to South Africa. In the northern hemisphere the rocks of the Carboni- 
ferous system tell a fairly clear story : during the first half of the period 
comparatively deep seas spread over wide areas in North America and 
Europe in which there slowly accumulated masses of calcareous material, 
derived mainly from shells of marine organisms and the framework of 
lime-secreting algae. 

At many localities abundant disjuncta membra of plants have been 
found in sediments deposited in shallow water near the coast-lines, and in 
volcanic ash flung from craters over forest-clad regions beyond the reach 
of the sea. This Lower Carboniferous vegetation, though more varied 
than that of the latter part of the Devonian period, was its direct derivative. 
Identical genera and identical, or at least very closely allied, species have 
been found in North Eastern Greenland, in Spitsbergen, in Europe and 



K.— BOTANY. 203 

North America, in South America and Australia. Dr. Walkom, of Sydney, 
has recently recorded some early Carboniferous plants from New South 
Wales which give additional proof of the striking similarity between the 
Northern and Southern floras. A piece of a Lepidodendron stem, discovered 
several years ago in New South Wales and recently described by Mr. 
Barnard, is indistinguishable in anatomical characters from a species 
originally discovered in the Lower Carboniferous volcanic beds of Southern 
Scotland. Similarly a splendid specimen, from New South Wales, of one 
of the earliest known Ferns, CJepsydropsis, described in an admirable 
paper by Prof. Sahni, of Lucknow, demonstrates the existence in the 
Australian flora of a type closely akin to one which flourished in Europe 
and Siberia. Many other instances of the wide geographical range of 
early Carboniferous plants might be given : it is evident that during the 
first half of the period the vegetation of the world, so far as we can tell, 
was less diversified than it is at the present day. Genera such as Lepidoden- 
dron and allied forms. Aster ocalamites, the earliest, well-defined example of 
an Equisetalean type, Rhacopteris and Clepsydropsis among the Ferns, 
Cardiopteris, which may be a Pteridosperm, were common to both hemi- 
spheres. Here again we lack data from South Africa. Returning to the 
Northern hemisphere we pass from the Lower Carboniferous rocks, many 
of which are marine, to the thick series of Upper Carboniferous sedimentary 
beds and seams of coal rich in remains of still more varied and luxuriant 
floras. Over thousands of square miles a monotonous landscape of swamps, 
occasional sheets of open water, in places the sea near at hand, low hills and 
plateaux clothed with trees ; forests on invmdated marshes, jungles with 
no song of birds, and uninhabited by mammals. Groves of Calamites, 
their strong columns bare below, where branches had been cast off and the 
bark torn by the expansion of the growing wood within, the tapering 
upper parts of the stems hidden by closely set tiers of whorled branches 
bearing star-like clusters of leaves, might suggest to a visitor from the 
modern world comparison with enlarged Equiseta. Trees such as Lepido- 
dendron with forked branches forming a crowded mass of needle-studded 
shoots would at a distance recall some familiar conifers. A greater contrast 
to the ordinary type of forest tree would be presented by the tall bare stems 
of Sigillaria, some unbranched, others with an occasional fork, the arms 
soaring upwards with an elongated cone encased in a tuft of Pine-like 
needles. The handsome Cordaites, with long strap-like leaves similar to 
those of a Yucca, would invite comparison with the Kauri Pine of New 
Zealand. Here and there among the Calamites and Lepidodendra would 
be found Tree Ferns superficially indistinguishable from existing species. 
There were other Ferns much "too small and inconspicuous to attract 
attention on a general view. A member of Section K wandering through 
the forests of the Coal Age would be struck by the abundance and variety 
of plants which to him appeared to be Ferns : some with stems like minia- 
ture Tree Ferns, others of lower growth with fronds borne on creeping 
rhizomes, and possibly some living as epiphytes, their green leaves standing 
out against the more sombre coloured trunks of supporting trees. On 
closer inspection he would discover that most of the supposed ferns bore 
seeds — some small, others larger than hazel nuts — and clusters of in- 
conspicuous spore-capsules filled with pollen. The dominance of these 



204 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

seed-bearing, Fern-like plants, the Pteridosperms, is one of the more 
arresting features of the later Palaeozoic floras. During the latter part of 
the Carboniferous period and the first half of the Permian period the vegeta- 
tion of North America and Europe was more uniform in composition than 
the floras of the old and new world to-day. Far-travelled members of this 
northern vegetation were discovered a short time ago in Sumatra and the 
Malay Peninsula : their geological age is either uppermost Carboniferous 
or Lower Permian. Prof. Halle, of Stockholm, in his scholarly volume on 
the late Palaeozoic floras of Central Shansi, in China, has shown that some 
of the vegetation of the Far East agreed closely with that of North America 
and Europe. The coal seams of China, though probably rather younger 
in age than the richest seams of Europe and America, consist of the altered 
debris of forests which had spread across the world. 

Before leaving the northern hemisphere attention must be called to the 
records of a late Palaeozoic flora scattered over a broad region stretching 
from Northern Russia to the Pacific Coast : this flora consists in part of 
plants generically identical with European and American Permian types 
associated with Glossopteris and other genera characteristic of India and 
the southern hemisphere. For convenience we may speak of this vegeta- 
tion as the Kusnezk Flora, from a Siberian locality where many of the plants 
were found : its age is Permian, possibly Upper Permian. Though 
occupying a territory separated only by a short distance from the Shansi 
region, the Kusnezk flora has little in common with those to the South and 
West : its most striking peculiarity is the presence of Gangamopteris and 
some other types characteristic of the Glossopteris Flora, which presumably, 
as immigrants from the Southern Continent, had found a passage across 
the Tethys Sea. 

The Glossopteris Flora and the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. 

At the stage of geological history we are considering a broad expanse 
of water — the Tethys sea— formed a west and east boundary between the 
northern continent and Gondwanaland. Let us now pass across the Tethys 
and take note of the conditions farther south. In that part of Gondwana- 
land that is now South Africa no undoubted examples of Lower Carboni- 
ferous plants have been found : the lowest beds of the Karroo system, 
which rest on Devonian or Pre-Devonian rocks, consist of glacial deposits 
similar to those which are spread over a wide area in South America, the 
Falkland Islands, India, and Australia. There is proof of a long-continued 
reign of ice-sheets and glaciers. The occurrence of well-preserved im- 
pressions of plants at the base of the old boulder beds at Vereeniging shows 
that some members of the Glossopteris Flora coexisted with the ice. The 
problem which I now propose to discuss is this : at what period did the 
Ice Age begin, and what is the geological age of the first phase of the 
Glossopteris Flora ? As Prof. Suess said : following the events 
chronicled in the Coal Measures of the northern hemisphere, in the south, 
' the outlines of a great continent become disclosed to us, and from the 
closing days of the Carboniferous this remains for a long period one of the 
most prominent features of the earth, Gondwanaland. ' The most important 
of recent contributions to the vexed question of the date of the Gondwana- 
land Ice Age and of the initial stages of the Glossopteris Flora is from 



K.— BOTANY. 205 

Prof. Schuchert, of Yale University^ — ' Review of the late Paleozoic Form- 
ations and Faunas, with special reference to the Ice-Age of Middle 
Permian time ' {Bull, Geol. Soc. America, Vol. 39, pp. 769-886, 1929). 
Though this is hardly a suitable occasion for a full discussion of a con- 
troversial subject, it is not inappropriate that I should ask my audience 
to consider a few of the arguments advanced by the distinguished American 
geologist, also certain pieces of evidence which seem to me worthy of 
attention. Mr. Du Toit is more capable than I am of dealing with some 
of the questions under dispute, and I hope that he also will reply to Prof. 
Schuchert, who believes that both Mr. Du Toit and myself as well as 
certain other authors hold heretical opinions. 

Prof. Schuchert concludes the summary of his views with these 
words : ' It is therefore certain that the widely spread tillites (that is the 
old boulder clays) are of Permian time and in all probability of late Middle 
Permian age. In any event, not even those of Australia can be of Upper 
Carboniferous time.' He bases this very definite pronouncement mainly 
on the fossil animals obtained from marine strata associated with the 
Palaeozoic boulder beds. After referring to views expressed by the late 
Dr. Arber and by myself that ' the lowest beds containing remains of the 
Glossopteris Flora are, in all probability, homotaxial with the Upper 
Carboniferous rocks of the northern hemisphere,' he adds : ' They believe 
that while the cosmopolitan Upper Carboniferous Flora was living in the 
northern hemisphere, the Glossopteris one was in existence south of the 
equator.' My view is that no Upper Carboniferous Flora was in the 
strict sense cosmopolitan. Prof. Schuchert continues : ' This contem- 
poraneity of the very different northern and southern floras can 

not be maintained when the floras are checked into the stratigraphical and 
marine records. We will repeat,' he adds, ' that even though there are in 
none of the continents of the southern hemisphere, other than the west 
coast of South America, any known plant-bearing rocks of Upper Carboni- 
ferous age, yet in this single occurrence there is at hand a small plant 
assemblage of the cosmopolitan Upper Carboniferous Flora.' These South 
American plants were assigned by Mr. Berry to an Upper Carboniferous 
horizon, but both Dr. Gothan and myself believe them to indicate a 
Lower Carboniferous age. The glacial deposits are stated by Prof. 
Schuchert to be one of the finest means of making definite time correlations 
from continent to continent, but in another place he admits that the 
scattered tillites of Gondwanaland, though regarded as the products of 
one glacial age, are not all exactly of the same age. It may well be, he 
adds, ' that the basal moraines in South Eastern Australia are somewhat 
older than those of other continents, as maintained by David and Siiss- 
milch ; but by no possible chance can the Australian tillites be stretched 
into the Upper Carboniferous, nor does it seem possible to place them even 
below the Middle Permian.' Here we have an assertion which challenges 
criticism. It has been said that ' a sweeping, unqualified assertion ends 
all controversy, and sets opinion at rest ' ; but I am sure that Prof. 
Schuchert will agree, that before accepting an assertion as final we should 
satisfy ourselves that it rests on sound foundations. I am indebted to 
my friend Sir Edgeworth David for information on the succession of 
boulder beds and fossil-bearing strata displayed in a section in the Hunter 



206 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

River district of New South Wales : this section gives the sequence of 
events antecendent to and during the existence of the Glossopteris ¥1013,. 
At the base are sediments known as the Burindi series : in some of the 
beds pieces of drifted Lepidodendron stems were found in company with 
marine shells. Resting on the Burindi series is the Wallarobba conglo- 
merate, a mass of pebble beds 1,500 ft. thick, which marks the initial stage 
of a great upheaval and the beginning of a new geological cycle recorded 
in strata included in the Kuttung series. In volcanic material immediately 
above the conglomerate were found petrified stems and petioles of the 
Lower Carboniferous European and Siberian fern Clepsydropsis, stems of 
the Gymnosperm Pitys, a common early Carboniferous type in the northern 
hemisphere, and a petrified Lepidodendron apparently specifically identical 
with a southern Scottish species. The Kuttung series, approximately 
10 000 ft. in thickness, furnish an impressive record of a prolonged period 
of volcanic activity, with recurrent quiescent intervals, when the valleys 
were occupied by glaciers, which have left traces in beds of boulder clay 
and erratics dropped from floating ice. Leaves of Rhacopteris and Cardiop- 
teris and casts of Aster ocalamites, genera characteristic of Lower Carboni- 
ferous floras, bear witness to the spread of vegetation under a relatively 
low temperature and in an atmosphere charged with volcanic dust. A well- 
marked break both in the succession of fossils and in physical conditions 
is registered in the rocks at the summit of the Kuttung series : this un- 
conformity is the expression of a crustal disturbance coincident with the 
appearance of the Glossopteris Flora. The Kuttung series is followed in 
ascending order by a thick glacial deposit : this forms the base of the 
Lower Marine Series which includes marine sediments and lava flows : 
at approximately the middle of the Lower Marine Series were found the 
t)ldest known Australian examples of Gangamopteris, and from a bed near 
the base of the series specimens of the bivalve Eurydesma, a genus recorded 
also from S. Africa and India. Above the Lower Marine series are the 
Greta Coal Measures containing Gangamopteris and other members of the 
Glossopteris Flora ; then follows the Upper Marine series, which includes 
two sets of boulder beds indicative of a return of glacial conditions after a 
long interval. Glosso]}teris and other plants have been obtained from the 
overlying Tomago and Newcastle series ; and finally we come to a 
succession of Triassic sediments known as the Hawkesbury series. 

The problem is to correlate the rocks exposed in the Hunter River 
section with time-equivalents in the northern hemisphere. The beds 
below the Lower Marine series, containing the oldest examples of Gangamop- 
teris, suggest a Lower Carboniferous age. This view is accepted by Prof. 
Schuchert who, however, regards the break between the Kuttung series 
and the overlying Lower Marine series as representing the whole of Upper 
Carboniferous time. He refers the boulder beds and the marine and 
volcanic rocks of the Lower Marine series to the Permian system. Let us 
now turn to Western Australia in search of further evidence afforded by 
marine fossils : there we find a coal-bearing series known as the Collie 
Coal Measures and regarded as the equivalent of the Newcastle series of 
New South Wales. In another area, below the Collie Coal Measures, there 
are glacial deposits resting on the Irwin Coal Measures, the equivalent of 
the Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales. Beneath the Irwin Coal 



K.— BOTANY. 207 

Measures are beds with marine fossils which Sir Edgeworth David states 
indicate a Lower Permian or Upper Carboniferous age. These beds rest on 
marine sediments rich in the shells of a Cejjhalopod, Paralegoceras Jacksoni, 
remotely connected with the living Nautilus : this Cephalopod is inter- 
preted by Dr. Dighton Thomas as evidence of an Upper Carboniferous 
age. 

The evidence furnished by the Australian sections indicates the existence 
of a flora, which in the northern hemisphere is accepted as Lower Carboni- 
ferous, at a stage followed by strata which have furnished the oldest 
members of the Glossopteris Flora. The break in succession at this level, 
between the Kuttung and Lower Marine series, is regarded by Schuchert 
not merely as evidence of shifting of the scenes inaugurating a new type 
of vegetation — the Glossopteris Flora,^ — -but as representing a long interval of 
time during which rocks of Upper Carboniferous age were being deposited 
in the northern hemisphere. It is difficult to believe that events which 
occurred during the latter half of the Carboniferous period are entirely 
lacking in the geological records not only of Australia, but of India and 
South Africa. The more probable view, in my opinion, is that the Lower 
Marine Series and the corresponding strata in Western Australia containing 
Paralegoceras are homotaxial with the Upper Carboniferous system in 
Europe and North America. 

There has been much discussion on evidence relevant to the age of the 
Glacial period and the Glossopteris Flora, derived from the Indian Peninsula 
and from regions farther north. In the Salt Range a boulder bed, believed 
to be the equivalent of the Talchir tillite of the Peninsula, is overlain by 
rocks containing marine fossils including Eurydesma, which, as stated 
later, favours an Upper Carboniferous age. Resting on these beds — the 
Speckled Sandstone- — is the Productus limestone with Permian marine 
fossils. In Kashmir Gatigajnopteris was discovered low down in a thick 
series of beds overlain by strata known as the Zewan series, the lower 
portion of which is probably Lower Permian, if not Upper Carboniferous 
in age. Prof. Schuchert, after mentioning the discovery of Gangamopteris 
and Glossopteris ' in marine strata beneath fossils of the Productus lime- 
stone,' goes on to say that this discovery proves that the Gangamopteris 
Flora is of Upper Permian time.' 

The age of the Productus Limestone is a determining factor in Prof. 
Schuchert's contention, and as the evidence is outside my own province I 
consulted Dr. Dighton Thomas, of the British Museum, who has made a 
special study of the palaeozoological data bearing on the correlation and 
age of the Carboniferous and Permian rocks with particular reference to 
the problems under dispute. Dr. Thomas points out that ' the question 
of the lower limit in age of the Productus Limestone series, and of the 
beds below them as far as the boulder bed, hinges on the means of deter- 
mining the age of the Amb to Virgal series [of the Salt Range].' In his 
letter of April 19, from which he kindly allows me to quote, he goes on to 
say that the best means of settling the age of the Salt Range beds is 

^ For a full discussion of the evidence bearing on the geological age of strata in 
the Salt Range in Kashmir and other districts, reference should be made to two 
Presidential Addresses delivered respectively by Prof. Sahni and Prof. Das-Gupta at 
the Eighth and the Fifteenth Indian Science Congresses. 



208 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

furnished by the Brachiopods, a group which Prof. Schuchert ' practically 
ignores.' ' If the Brachiopods of the Amb beds {i.e. essentially the Lower 
Productus Limestone) are considered, then one of the noticeable features 
is the afl&nities of the fauna to that of the Uralian [Upper Carboniferous] 
and Artinskian [Lower Permian] of the Urals.' The evidence of the 
Brachiopods ' would point to the Amb series being of Lower Permian age 
at the latest, and I cannot agree with Schuchert 's reference of these beds 
to the Upper Permian.' It follows that the underlying Speckled Sand- 
stone, classed by Schuchert as Middle Permian, are ' of high Carboniferous 
age ' : ' hence,' he continues, ' the fauna of their lower part, i.e. Eurydesma 
cordatum, E. globosum, Conularia laevigata, etc., is also of Upper Carboni- 
ferous age.' In the same letter Dr. Thomas quotes the following statement 
by Prof. Schuchert : ' The interregional correlations are made, however, 
not so much from the evolution of the Brachiopods as from that of the 
Ammonites,' and, Dr. Thomas adds — ' But there are no Ammonites in 
the succession under dispute in New South Wales, nor are there any in 
the whole Salt Range Series between the boulder bed and the base of 
the Xenaspis carbonarius zone ; nor in South Africa, nor in South 
America.' In his discussion of the age of the Australian beds, Schuchert 
includes in a list of fossils Agathiceras microtnphalus, which he regards as 
a member of an ammonoid fauna. Dr. Thomas says : ' A few years ago 
I examined together with Dr. Spath the specimens in the British Museum 
sent over as that species. They could equally well be Bellerophontids. 
At the same time Dr, F. W. Whitehouse, of Queensland, examined 
as many specimens as he could in Australia. I do not know if 
he was able to examine the type-specimen, but in a recent letter to me he 
stated that about three-and-a-half years ago he published in Australia 
a note to the effect that the fossil called Agathiceras micromphalus is not 
an ammonoid but a bellerophontid.' Dr. Thomas, in another part of his 
letter, points out that Schuchert does not attempt an analysis of the 
fauna of the Australian Irwin River beds, and adds : ' I am quite con- 
vinced that the glacial beds there are of Upper Carboniferous age and that 
Paralegoceras Jacksoni is of Uralian age too. Nor does he consider the 
tillite of Barreal, Argentina, which Reed has shown to be of Uralian age.'^ 

I have quoted only in part from Dr. Dighton Thomas's letter in the 
hope that he will publish in full his criticisms of Prof. Schuchert 's views. 

In another region, the district of Spiti in the Punjab, some fragmentary 
plant remains including a Rhacopteris, identified by the late Prof. Zeiller 
as Lower Carboniferous, were foxmd in beds assigned to the Po series. 
Above these rocks occur shales with marine fossils, which are regarded as 
homotaxial with the lower part of the Zewan series of Kashmir, and 
probably either Lower Permian or Upper Carboniferous in age. In the 
Peninsula of India the beds which contain relics of the Glossopteris Flora 
and the Talchir tillite are almost entirely of freshwater or terrestrial origin, 
but in 1921 some marine fossils were found in Central India above the 
Talchir boulder bed. Prof. Schuchert, in referring to this important 
discovery, expresses the opinion that the marine beds may be ' of the 
earliest Productus limestone time,' that is in his view Upper Permian. 

1 See Du Toit : A Geological Comparison of S. America with 8. Africa. (Carnegie 
Instit., Washington, 1927.) 



K.— BOTANY. 209 

On the other hand, Dr. Fermor, in his Report published in the Records 
of the Geological Survey of India in 1921, says ' the discovery at Umaria 
provides evidence of the presence of the sea in Carboniferous time over 
a portion of what is now the Rewah State.' Dr. Cowper Reed, who 
described the Umaria fossils, considers that a marine invasion occurred 
' in Permo-Carboniferous times,' and adds that there is a noticeable ad- 
mixture of types possessing affinities with both Carboniferous and Permian 
species. The Umaria beds furnish the only piece of evidence bearing on 
the age of the Talchir tillite, from the Peninsula, based on marine fossils : so 
far as it goes it does not support Prof. Schuchert's contentions that the 
Ice Age and the Glossopteris Flora are of Middle Permian age. 

We now pass to South Africa : as already stated, at Vereeniging im- 
pressions of Gangamo-pteris were found between the base of the Dwyka 
boulder bed and the underlying Pre-Devonian platform. The Dwyka 
shales above the tillite have yielded Eurydesma and a crustacean,^ 
Pygoceplmlus : the latter is believed by Mr. Woods of Cambridge ta 
indicate an Upper Carboniferous horizon. Prof. Schuchert attaches no 
importance to the crustacean. At a higher level is the so-called White 
Band, which, as Mr. Du Toit points out, afiords a valuable connecting link 
between the South American and South African succession of strata. An 
important consideration raised by the South African beds is the occurrence 
at Vereeniging of Glossopteris and Gangamopteris with Lepidodendra, 
Sigillaria, and Psygmophyllu7n , which furnish a strong argument in favour 
of an Upper Carboniferous or at latest a Lower Permian age. An assemb- 
lage of plants such as that discovered by Mr. Leslie at Vereeniging has 
never been found in Middle Permian beds : but Prof. Schuchert definitely 
states that the tillites which occur below the Vereeniging plant beds are not 
older than Middle Permian. A collection of plants recently submitted 
by Dr. Maufe to Mr. John Walton includes species of Glossopteris in 
company with several forms of Sphenophyllum, Pecopteris arborescens and 
other plants : comparison with northern floras indicates an age which is at 
the latest Lower Permian and not improbably near the top of the Upper 
Carboniferous. The evidence furnished by these and other South African 
plant-beds is directly opposed to Prof. Schuchert's view. Time does not 
admit of more than a passing reference to the evidence obtained from 
South America : this has been fully and ably discussed by Mr. Du Toit in 
the volume published by the Carnegie Institution. The discovery by Mr. 
Du Toit of specimens oiCardiopteris in Argentina above a tillite, which lies 
on a glaciated surface, supplies a weighty argument in favour of the 
Carboniferous age of the oldest phase of the Glossopteris Flora. 

This summary, though necessarily very incomplete, may enable us to 
reconstruct in broad outline the closing scenes in the Palaeozoic era on the 
continent of Gondwanaland. We see an enormous land-region comparable 
in its mantle of ice with Greenland at the present day : in some places 
glaciers piled up moraines, and their streams deposited seasonally banded 
mud and sand ; in other places, from the cliffs of an ice-barrier, were de- 
tached icebergs carrying boulders that found a resting place in the mud of 
a sea-floor. In the course of the latest phase of the Palaeozoic era, ice- 
sheets and glaciers spread from the remote south beyond the equator : 
lands that are now tropical were then ice-bound. The world was divided 
1929 p 



210 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

into at least two sharply contrasted regions, a northern region where rank 
vegetation covered thousands of square miles of swamp and low hills, and 
a vast southern continent where another and less luxuriant vegetation 
flourished in proximity to retreating glaciers. 

An argument stressed by Prof. Schuchert in the presentation of his 
case for the Middle Permian age of the Glossopteris Flora and the boulder 
deposit is based on the marine fossils, which in some regions of Gondwana- 
land are associated with the plant-beds. I have endeavoured to show that 
the only piece of evidence furnished by marine fossils available in the Indian 
Peninsula is unfavourable to his view. Moreover, the ParaZegroceras of Western 
Australia and the South African crustacean Pygocephalus, leaving out of 
account data furnished by the remains of other animals, support the 
opinion that the Glossopteris Flora was evolved before the close of the 
Carboniferous period. If the Glossopteris Flora is not older than Middle 
Permian, we are left in complete ignorance of the state of the plant world 
in Gondwanaland during the long interval between Lower Carboniferous 
and Middle Permian time. The Glossopteris Flora, or at least members of it, 
spread from a southern home as far as the province of the Kusnezk Flora 
in Northern Russia and Siberia, where they grew in company with typical 
Permian plants : at a still later date, as Mr. Harris, of Cambridge, has 
recently shown, Glossopteris established itself as a member of the Rhaetic 
Floras of Southern Sweden and Eastern Greenland. If, as is generally 
admitted, the Kusnezk Flora is Permian, possibly Upper Permian in age, 
this is consistent with a considerably earlier age for the Glossopteris- 
bearing beds of Gondwanaland. There can be little doubt that Glossopteris 
had its origin in the South, perhaps on a Palaeozoic Antarctica : it seems 
reasonable to assume that the long journey from the far south across the 
Tethys Sea began before the end of the Carboniferous period and was not 
completed until some time in the Permian period. 

There is another point raised by Prof. Schuchert on which a word may 
be said : he speaks of the Gigantopteris Flora of China as being overlain 
by ' much younger and modified parts of the Gangamopteris VIotsl.' The 
meaning of this is not clear : the flora in China, of which Gigantopteris, with 
its handsome fern-like fronds, was a member, agrees in general character 
with the late Carboniferous or early Permian Flora of North America and 
Europe. So far as I am aware this flora has not been found in China, or 
anywhere else, in direct association with a Gangamopteris Flora. The 
interesting fact is that to the north of China there existed a vegetation 
which included members of the Glossopteris or Gangamopteris Flora, while 
farther south the vegetation was of the European and North American type. 

I have dwelt longer than I intended on certain questions connected 
with the Glossopteris Flora, but the publication of Prof. Schuchert's 
stimulating, and I would add, provocative article, is my excuse. He has 
stated his case clearly, though not convincingly, and has collected a mass 
of material for which many of us are grateful ; he has rendered good 
service by directing attention to a problem which appeals both to geologists 
and to palseobotanists. We are not yet in a position to make positive 
statements on the age of the Glossopteris Flora or on the precise correlation 
of the late Palaeozoic plant beds of Gondwanaland and those north of the 
Tethys Sea. More evidence is needed ; and I venture to hope that Prof. 



K.— BOTANY. 211 

Schuclieit's contribution will stimulate South African geologists to 
obtain additional evidence which will bring us a stage nearer to an 
agreement upon this much-debated question. Meanwhile I am not 
shaken in my opinion that if we could transport ourselves back through 
the ages into a forest of the northern hemisphere in the latter part of the 
Upper Carboniferous period, and thence travel by aeroplane to the land 
that is now South Africa we should find retreating glaciers and a vegetation 
in which Glossopteris and Gangamopteris were prominent plants. 

A Critical Stage in the History of the Plant World. 

There is another exceptionally interesting problem on which more 
light is urgently needed, a problem too formidable to consider in the latter 
half of an address, but attractive enough to mention as a subject worthy 
of attention on the part of South African investigations. It is this : the 
closing stages of the Palaeozoic era in the northern hemisphere were 
marked by widespread crustal displacements ; a geological revolution 
brought into being chains of Palseozoic Alps ; the scenes were shifted ; 
the forests of the Coal period were replaced by a less luxuriant vegetation 
growing under a new set of climatic conditions. Crustal movements are a 
determining factor in the evolution of the plant kingdom : in other words, 
geological revolutions afford an impressive example of the co-ordination of 
the inorganic and organic worlds, a theme which has been elaborated by 
General Smuts in his fascinating book ' Holism and Evolution.' The 
vegetation of the early part of the Permian period, though generally 
similar to that of the latest stage of the Carboniferous period, was relatively 
much poorer in genera and species. The later Permian Floras were still 
poorer, and the records of the early days of the Triassic period point to the 
further development of the arid conditions foreshadowed before the end of 
the Permian age. Later in the Triassic period the vegetation became 
richer as the environment improved, but it was a transformed vegetation 
in comparison with the forests of the Coal Age, a much more modern 
company dominated by a different set of plant communities. There were 
connecting links between the Palaeozoic and the early Mesozoic Floras, 
but in the main the two floras differed widely from one another. The more 
orderly succession of plant-bearing strata in most parts of the southern 
hemisphere justifies the hope that an intensive and comparative study of the 
transitional stage between the earliest and the latest phase of the Glossop- 
teris Flora will furnish valuable data. In this field of work Mr. Du Toit 
has shown the way : may his example be followed. The fragmentary 
documents scattered through the rocks at the boundary between the two 
eras relate to a critical stage in the fortunes of the plant-world : the 
discovery of additional records would be particularly welcome. 

Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate. 

I now propose to intercalate a few words on another question of general 
interest. Nearly forty years ago I wrote an essay on a prescribed text, 
' Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate,' an essay which was mainly a compila- 
tion and not an original contribution. It is unnecessary to remind my 
audience that fossil plants of many different ages frequently occur in 
unexpected and, from some points of view, very inconvenient places, where 

p2 



212 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

they raise problems whicli have so far baffled the ingenuity of students. 
The best examples are from Arctic regions, and there is also the rich 
Jurassic Flora described some years ago by Prof. Halle from the edge of 
the Antarctic region. Prof. Nathorst demonstrated the occurrence on 
Ellesmere Land a few degrees south of lat. 80°N. of an Upper Devonian 
Flora in which species of the fern-like fronds of Archaeopteris are abun- 
dantly represented : it is noteworthy that these fronds — probably the 
foliage of a Pteridosperm — are in no way inferior in size to those of the 
same type discovered in Southern Ireland and Southern Russia. Farther 
south, but still well within the Arctic Circle, the rocks of the desolate and 
mist-shrouded Bear Island, in latitude 75°N., have yielded an unusually 
rich flora which is also Upper Devonian : here, too, well-developed fronds 
and thick stems of various plants bear eloquent testimony to climatic 
conditions entirely foreign to European Arctic regions at the present time. 
The Lower Carboniferous Flora of Spitsbergen compares favourably in the 
dimensions of the Lepidodendra and other trees with floras of the same age 
in Central Europe. From lat. 80°N. on the North Eastern corner of 
Greenland, a few fragmentary remains of widely distributed species mark 
the most northerly outpost of the early Carboniferous floras. Turning to 
the Rhsetic period, the work of Dr. Hartz, of Copenhagen, and the more 
recent and more extended labours of Mr. Harris have given us a thrilling 
picture of an estuary bordered by a luxuriant and varied vegetation, 
which can best be described as a detached arctic outlier of the well-known 
Rhsetic forests of Southern Sweden. Farther east the New Siberian 
Islands (lat. 75°N.) have afforded samples of Triassic and later floras which 
give no sign of the stunting efiects of Arctic conditions. Many Jurassic 
plants are recorded from Franz Josef Land, Spitsbergen, and Northern 
Siberia which include leaves hardly distinguishable from those of the 
Maidenhair tree {Ginkgo biloba), the only surviving genus of a once prolific 
and cosmopolitan group ; also twigs and cones of Conifers, some of which 
appear to be closely allied to the Californian Sequoias ; some recall 
existing Araucarias and other genera, which long ago deserted their 
northern home for southern lands. The best known Arctic Cretaceous 
Flora is that from Western Greenland (lat. 70°N), a flora especially rich iji 
Ferns near of kin to species of Qleiclienia that are now mainly tropical in 
range. Among other Greenland plants are species of Ginkgo ; Conifers 
allied to Sequoia, Cupressus, and other genera ; leaves and fruit difiering 
but little from those of the living Bread-fruit tree, leaves believed to belong 
to a Leguminous plant closely allied to existing species of Dalbergia, species 
of Magnolia, many forms of Plane tree (Platanus), and examples of other 
South temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical families. 

Relics of Tertiary Floras have been found on Sabine Island off the 
East Coast of Greenland on lat. 75°N. , in Grinnell Land still farther north, 
in Spitsbergen, where leaves of Platanus have been found rivalling in the 
spread of the lamina the foliage of existing species on the Adriatic coast, 
and at many other localities within the Arctic Circle. The most striking 
instance from the other end of the world is the Jurassic Flora of Graham 
Land first recorded by Prof. Nathorst and subsequently described in detail 
by Prof. Halle. 

It is superfluous to quote more examples. An important point is that 



K.- -BOTANY. 213 

if we plot on a map of the Arctic regions the distribution of ancient floras, 
it becomes clear that no shifting of the earth's axis, even if this favourite 
device were admissible, would give a satisfactory explanation of the con- 
trast between the past and the present. These facts are well known ; 
but it is time we made a more serious effort to solve the problems which 
they raise. Discarding as inadequate, and as a method wholly displeasing 
to astronomers, an attempt to create geographical environment consistent 
with palseobotanical facts by altering the position of the North Pole, we 
turn to the alternative of rearranging, within the Arctic Circle, the dis- 
tribution of land and sea and the consequential shifting of cold and warm 
oceanic streams. Assuming the permission of geologists to treat the earth's 
crust as a jig-saw puzzle, we appeal to meterologists. Mr. Brooks in his 
book on ' The Evolution of Climate ' suggests a possible rearrangement of 
land and water which, he believes, would go some way towards the 
provision of climatic conditions such as the fossil plants of the Tertiary 
period appear to demand ; but it would seem from a more recent contribu- 
tion by Dr. Simpson, the Head of the British Meteorological Department, 
that we cannot hope to obtain all we need, or nearly all we need, by any 
method of redistribution of land and sea on the assumption of a fixed pole 
and without recourse to Wegener's hypothesis of drifting land areas. We 
are left with two other alternatives : the adoption of Wegener's views or 
some modification of them ; or the possibility that plants are less trust- 
worthy as indices of climates than has generally been supposed. It may 
be that a combination of these two methods of attack is the clue to our 
problem. Let us take the second first : assuming that the ferns to which 
reference has been made flourished on the parallels of latitude where their 
remains have been found, and assuming such amelioration of the present 
arctic conditions by a rearrangement of land and water as meteorologists 
permit, there must have been in the past, as there is to-day, a long and 
relatively dark period of sleep, and a summer no longer than the growing 
season now available for the almost miraculous development of Arctic 
plants. Can we imagine, to take one instance, the Cretaceous Flora of 
Greenland enduring a sunless arctic night more than six months in 
duration ? This raises a question to which no complete answer can be 
given : we lack experimental data. It would be worth while to take 
advantage of modern methods of research and devise means of reproducing 
on a small scale the arctic summer season with continuous illumination 
followed by a longer period of darkness. In considering possibilities we 
must not forget the marked difference in the present position of the tree- 
limit : in some places it dips far below the Arctic Circle, while in others it 
invades much higher latitudes. In Western Greenland on latitude 70°N. 
the willows seldom reach a height of three feet ; on the same latitude in 
Canada and Alaska the White Spruce {Picea canadensis) attains fifty feet 
in sheltered places. 

There is another, and to my mind an important and neglected considera- 
tion ; we are too prone to speak of such a genus as Gleichenia as tropical 
because it happens to be one of the commoner ferns in tropical countries ; 
but, like many other genera characteristic of the warmer parts of the 
world.it includes species which grow vigorously at an altitude of 10-12,000ft. 
where the climate is by no means tropical. Is it not legitimate to 



214 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

suggest that the relation of genera and species to climate to which we are 
accustomed is merely a phase in the history of plants ? A plant that is 
now confined to the tropics may at a much earlier stage of its career have 
been able to live under other conditions. In using plants as thermometers 
of the ages, we accept as an axiom the principle — what is now has always 
been. Our vision is limited by what we see and beyond the horizon we 
see only in imagination. Is it unscientific to express the opinion that we 
may think of plants not only as organisms which have changed in form and 
structure in the course of thousands or millions of years, but as organisms 
which have changed also in their susceptibility to external factors ? There 
is another point, and an obvious one ; instances are common enough of 
species of living genera which exist under conditions sharply contrasted 
with those characteristic of the majority of species of the same genus. 
The Cretaceous and other plants are practically all specifically distinct 
from their living descendants • we are not entitled to attribute to extinct 
and recent alike the same constitutional qualities. 

I suggest that there is a tendency to rate too highly the value of extinct 
plants as guides to climatic conditions, and I would again emphasise the 
desirability of obtaining more definite information than is at present avail- 
able on the effect of continuous light and continuous darkness, under 
suitable temperatures, on plants which do not at present occur in Arctic 
habitats. Even if the foregoing suggestions have any merit, and if we 
have underestimated the capacity of plants to survive Arctic seasons, there 
is still a serious obstacle to surmount before it is possible to imagine, let 
us say, the Rhsetic vegetation of Scoresby Sound and that of Southern 
Sweden flourishing in regions separated from one another by at least ten 
degrees of latitude. It seems impossible to get away from the conviction 
that there must have been in the past as there is now a marked contrast 
between two sets of contemporary plants, one more than 200 miles north 
of the Arctic Circle and the other more than 400 miles south of it. The 
proposal to regard the present land-surface as a portion of the earth's 
crust which has not only changed its form in the course of geological 
history, but as a collection of slabs slowly drifting from place to place is 
no new idea ; but we are indebted to Wegener for the development and 
extension of a theory which in its present form has provided an incentive 
to speculative minds and, it may be, a valuable clue to the solution of 
diverse problems. Wegener speaks of the upper portion of the crust as 
travelling in an easterly and westerly direction ; he also assumes a slight 
movement of the poles. If it is permissible to postulate a drifting of 
fractured slabs of the crust in a north and south direction, we can then think 
of the disunited pieces, now occupying positions more or less remote from one 
another, as the severed portions of a formerly compact region. To take 
a concrete example : the Rhsetic plant beds of Eastern Greenland, now 
remote from those of Sweden, may formerly have been portions of one 
mass well to the south of the Arctic Circle. This may be merely a figment 
of the imagination : on the other hand, some such expedient is almost 
forced upon us if we are to find a solution to the problem presented by the 
records of the rocks. There are, we are told, serious objections to Wegener's 
hypothesis : it is at any rate true that the principle of drifting continents 
has still to be proved tenable. But such evidence of correspondence, both 



K.— BOTANY. 215 

in the succession and nature of the stratified rocks and in the fossil contents, 
as Mr. Du Toit has obtained from a comparative study of the rocks of 
South America and South Africa, or as Mr. Harris is finding in his com- 
parison of the Greenland and Swedish Rhsetic Strata, is arresting enough 
to make us pause before abandoning the principle of continental drift. 

PAL.a;OBOTANY AS A KeY TO THE PRESENT DISTRIBUTION OF PlANTS. 

If time allowed it would be tempting to deal with still another aspect 
of Palseobotany ; the importance of a critical study of the floras which 
immediately preceded the Pleistocene Ice Age. Progress made in recent 
years in the improvement of methods of deciphering the relics of plants of 
other days increases the confidence with which it is possible to recbmmend, 
as a promising field of work, the investigation of Tertiary Floras. There are 
few more fascinating lines of research than those leading to a fuller know- 
ledge of the wanderings of plants over the earth's surface. It is only by 
following the varying fortunes of genera and species during the successive 
stages of the Tertiary period that we can hope to understand or to explain 
the present distribution of plants. Let me give one illustration : the 
work of Mrs. Clement Reid and Miss Chandler, as well as the results ob- 
tained by many other palseobotanists, has brought into relief the destruc- 
tive effects of the conditions which culminated in the last Glacial period. 
We know that the floristic characters now distinguishing European Floras 
from those of North America and China are in no small degree the direct 
consequence of the Ice Age : this caused the elimination from the European 
area of many plants which, had they survived, would give a greater uni- 
formity to the vegetation of the northern hemisphere than there is at 
present. In North America and in Asia the way was open ; the northern 
species were able to migrate far to the South and thus escaped the fate of 
their companions which were unable to cross the barrier of the Alps and 
the Mediterranean Sea. 

The Tertiary Floras were more uniform than the floras of to-day. 
We cannot understand the present distribution of human races if we 
confine attention to the present, nor can we appreciate the significance of 
the geographical distribution of floras and their composition unless we 
consult the herbaria of the rocks. 

Conclusion. 

These are but a few of the promising fields of work open to students of 
ancient floras. I do not wish to be thought an advocate of extreme 
specialisation ; my desire is to see a wider recognition on the part of geolo- 
gists and botanists, whether professionals or amateurs, of the value of 
palseobotanical studies in relation to problems of general interest. The 
layman is often deterred from serious application to any branch of science 
by the length of the road he thinks it will be necessary to travel before 
becoming qualified for research. If it were essential to master a subject 
before attempting to contribute to its advancement by original work, 
none of us could hope to become more than industrious seekers after 
omniscience within a restricted field. Anyone of average intelligence, 
provided he or she has the driving force born of enthusiasm and the 



216 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

faculty of taking pains, is capable of making valuable contributions to 
knowledge in some department of scientific enquiry. Amateurs have 
taken an honourable and productive part in advancing geological and 
botanical knowledge ; they have an advantage over professional teachers 
in that they are free to concentrate their energies where preference leads 
them. Moreover, laymen are more fortunate than professional men of 
Science, who are expected to be able to answer all questions relating to 
the subject they profess, in not being expected to know more than they 
know. To-day the opportunities of making acquaintance with the Natural 
Sciences are much greater than they were a few years ago, but the 
number of men and women who become keen enough to cultivate any 
one subject as a hobby is relatively small. I may be accused of closing 
my address in words more appropriate to the pulpit, but none the less I 
venture to urge upon teachers of science the duty of doing their utmost to 
awaken the souls of their pupils, to introduce them by means of simple 
examples to the joy that is to be found in putting questions to Nature and 
in trying to extract answers. It is of secondary importance whether we 
find answers or not : 

' I question things and do not find 
One that will answer to my mind.' 

It is the passion for the search that matters. Science should be 
taught not so much in preparation for a profession or a business ; it should 
be presented in a form calculated to develop an interest strong enough to 
make a permanent impression on receptive minds. We need helpers in 
the cause of research, and it is for us who are engaged in teaching to make 
clear to those within our sphere of influence the saving grace of a deeply 
rooted interest in life over and above our daily duties, which will serve not 
only as a means of advancing natural knowledge but as a guiding star. 
Facts are the tools with which the man of Science works, but to use them 
to the fullest advantage he must be able to respond to the inspiration which 
comes to him who can look beyond the edge of the world : 

' Father, father ! What do we here 
In this land of unbelief and fear ? 
The land of Dreams is better far. 
Above the light of the morning Star.' 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



MODERN MOVEMENTS IN 
EDUCATION. 

ADDRESS BY 

. C. W. KIMMINS, M.A., D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The meeting of the British Association in South Africa in 1905 was in 
many ways a memorable one. The Education Section was particularly 
fortunate in having as its president a remarkably distinguished scholar, 
Sir Richard Jebb, whose presidential address on ' University Education 
and National Life ' made a profound impression on the crowded audiences 
who heard it at Cape Town and later on at Johannesburg. The papers 
read at this meeting dealt with a great variety of subjects, including ' The 
Teaching of Science,' ' Technical Education in a New Country,' ' The 
Teaching of Modern Languages,' ' Manual Instruction,' ' The Teaching of 
Agriculture,' ' Rural Education,' ' Recent Improvements in the Education 
of Infants,' and the renowned Dr. Murray, of dictionary fame, delighted 
us all with his paper on ' The World of Words.' The English visitors were 
deeply interested in the important papers read by well-known directors 
of education in this country on such subjects as ' Cape Education,' ' Native 
Education,' ' Progress of Education in the Transvaal,' ' Education in the 
Orange River Colony,' ' Education in Rhodesia,' ' Education on the Veldt,' 
and ' The Higher Education of Women in South Africa.' 

The progress in education of recent years has been positively 
bewildering — greater, in fact, than at any period of our history — and it 
occurred to me, in thinking of an appropriate subject on which to address 
you, that it might not be without interest to deal briefly with some of 
the more important movements which have emerged during the interval 
which has elapsed since the former meeting in South Africa. In doing 
this I will avoid matters of local interest and treat only of those of general 
application in educational procedure. 

One of the most significant movements is the change of attitude towards 
the mental development of the very young child. Until comparatively 
recently, the physical condition of the child up to the age of six years was 
the only matter that appeared to need serious attention. Educationists 
and psychologists now, however, at long last, fully realise that the period 
from two to six years of age is far and away the most important of the 
child's life. In other words, there must be a really sound foundation if a 
satisfactory superstructure is to result in the child's development. The 
mental as well as the physical welfare of the young child must receive 
adequate attention. The reliable evidence we possess that many of the 
cases of serious mental trouble in later life may be traced to unwise 



218 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

treatment in early cWldhood is a case in point. During this period of 
active habit formation, when the necessary sublimation of nascent in- 
stinctive impulses is relatively an easy matter, the value of intelligent 
guidance is too obvious to need further mention. 

As if to make up for the neglect of past years of the importance — the 
extraordinary importance — of a fuller knowledge of the beginnings of 
education and the dawn of intelligence of the young child, there has been 
of recent years a concentration of investigation on this period by distin- 
guished experts, which has fully compensated for the lack of adequate 
research in earlier times. The manifest difficulty of discovering by direct 
observation how the very young child approaches and overcomes obstacles 
in the great adventure of becoming acquainted with the nature of his 
strange environment, has to a very considerable extent been aided by 
experiments with the more intelligent animals. 

The classical researches of Kohler in his arduous and remarkably 
successful work, an account of which is given in his fascinating book on 
' The Mentality of Apes,' have cast a flood of light on the learning process. 
The valuable monographs of Prof. Yerkes on ' The Mind of a Gorilla,' in 
which he describes his investigation of the process of learning in this 
animal, confirm and to some extent further elaborate the experiments of 
Kohler. The great value of this type of investigation is that tasks of 
varying difficulty can be given to the animals, such as the improvement on 
repetition, the memory of success in an earlier experiment in attempting 
a more difficult task of the same nature and so on, can be carried out and 
conclusions reached. Obviously, it would be impossible to make a young 
child go through a long series of conditioned experiments, and thus acquire 
a knowledge which can be obtained so readily by experiments with animals. 
When isolated experiments of a like nature were carried out with young 
children, the similarities of response and the means adopted in reaching 
the desired end were very significant. 

The fact that Kofika in his interesting book on ' The Growth of the 
Mind ' — which is an admirable introduction to Child-Psychology — gives 
such prominence to Kohler 's work, is indicative of the value he attaches 
to it. His statement in this connection is of interest : — 

' If chimpanzees are able to solve original problems, not merely by 
chance, but with insight, then the behaviour of these animals ought to 
throw new light upon the nature of insight ; for modes of behaviour that 
have become a matter of course with us adults may be expected to appear 
in a more plastic form in the life of an ape. If the simplest-acts of intelli- 
gence can in this way be brought under scientific experimental observa- 
tion, the results must peld important data for theoretical purposes. 
With adult man, on the contrary, an investigation of the simplest acts 
of intelligence is no longer possible.' 

' Since Kohler's experiments provide us with the kind of information 
we need, we shall find it worth while to examine them in detail. Indeed, 
they furnish us with a significant contribution to the solution of our chief 
problems, namely, the nature of learning in general, and the origin of the 
first problems of achievement in particular.' 

The remarkable difference which exists between the child's world and 
that of the adult presents very serious difficulties in the study of young 



L.— EDUCATION. 219 

children. This has, in the past, given rise to much serious misunder- 
standing as to the real attitude of the child to life. A fertile source of 
this difficulty is to expect a child to adopt the adult position before the 
appropriate time in his mental growth has been reached. Long after 
speech has been acquired, the meaning of a simple expression, in exactly 
the same words, may convey to the mind of the child something entirely 
different from the meaning which it conveys to the mind of the adult. 
Much work in this connection has been carried on in recent years with 
considerable success. Many attempts have been made to summarise the 
main points of difference between the two worlds. An account of an 
effort of considerable merit in this connection is to be found in the final 
chapter of ' The Growth of the Mind ' entitled ' The World of a Child.' 
Something more than a summary, however, is needed in a matter of such 
importance. In the account of the researches of Prof. Jean Piaget and 
his colleagues in the University of Geneva, as the result of many years of 
patient and detailed investigation, we are fortunate in having a fairly 
complete and absorbingly interesting study of this hitherto comparatively 
unworked field. 

It would be difficult to over-estimate the value to the student of early 
child life of the records of these researches in ' Language and Thought of 
the Child,' ' Judgment and Keasoning in the Child,' and the recently 
published volume on ' The Child's Conception of the World.' The 
powerful influence of egocentrism in the young child is well known, and 
the replacement as it wanes by other mental elements is discussed probably 
with a greater clearness and confidence than in any previous attempt in 
this direction. 

The published work of the original investigations of Prof, and Mrs. 
Stern, and that of Prof. Arnold Gesell, are also valuable contributions 
to our knowledge of this period. 

The astounding progress made in the interval of time under review, in 
our knowledge of the pre-school child, must be referred to not only for 
its intrinsic importance, but also because original work at this stage of 
development has had such a beneficent effect in popularising education, 
especially in its social implications. In the school we have a sufficiently 
large number of children for observation, and possibly for experiment. 
We can generalise and compare group with group. But the pre-school 
child is a thing apart, and the nursery is the nearest approach to the class- 
room. On the physical side the pre-school child is within reach of experts. 
The local doctor, the mother and the nurse or other attendant possess, or 
should possess, a fair knowledge of childish ailments. On the mental 
side, however, there is a lamentable deficiency of anything in the nature 
of expert guidance. The general opinion being that this side of the 
child's development can safely be neglected until the child goes to school. 

We have already pointed out the folly of such a generalisation. The 
pre-school period is singularly rich in the opportunity it offers for wise, 
expert assistance. Parents, however, are now beginning to realise how 
remarkably clever their young children are, and what native ability they 
possess of overcoming obstacles which present themselves. The following 
example recorded by a skilled observer is a case in point : — 

' Age two years and twenty-three days. This is an example of thinking 



220 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

out a problem. His mother was using a sewing machine in the dining 
room, and he got into a chair beside her and hindered her by persisting in 
turning the handle. I came in, took him on my knee, and kept him still. 
He got tired of this, clambered down, took my hand and pulled me, saying, 
" Teeune on ze moosical box." I took him to the library to start the 
gramophone. As I opened the door he disengaged himself, and saying 
" By yourself, daddy," bolted back to his mother and the machine. He 
had evidently worked out a way of getting rid of me.' 

This boy of two years and twenty-three days clearly decided that he 
must get rid of his father, who stood between him and the sewing machine, 
in which he was so much interested. He laid a trap for his father, into 
which he fell, and gained his point. 

The period of about three to six years of age is characterised by 
abnormal imaginative power. This is at the stage at which the invisible 
friend or other childish fantasy makes its appearance. At three years of 
age the child fully recognises himself as a separate entity in the environ- 
ment. It took him a long time to recognise that the teddy-bear and the 
golliwog, in whom he confided, had no power of understanding or of 
effective response, and then the visible inanimate was replaced by the 
invisible animate of childish fantasy. 

Prof. Sully, in his ' Essay on Laughter,' gives an interesting account of 
early playing with words. His little daughter, on her third birthday, 
heard her mother say, ' Mr. Fawkes is coming to lunch,' and the child 
said, ' I hope Mrs. Knives will come too.' The statement was criticised, 
as it was thought that at such an early age a child would not consciously 
play with words and make a definite pun, but investigations of sayings of 
young children prove that a love of playing with words frequently enters 
into the child's life with the introduction of new words into his vocabulary. 
He plays with a new word as he would with a toy in the nursery, and this 
serves the very useful purpose of leading him eventually to the true content 
of the word. In the process, however, the misplacing of it in many 
connections gives rise to the quaint sayings which cause so much amuse- 
ment in childish naivete. 

During the imaginative period the child delights in making up stories. 
Many of those which have been recorded exhibit a very remarkable ability 
in this direction. A good example of this is given in a singularly charming 
little book ' Behind the Night-light,' by Nancy Price, whose little girl at 
the age of three years would look into the fire and tell her mother what 
she saw there. The stories were so interesting that they were translated 
into ordinary language — with no additions or changes in content of any 
kind — and published. This faithful record shows not only that the child 
had the power of constructing very interesting narratives of delightful 
originality, but that she also had a dawning sense of humour. 

A careful study of childish naivete affords ample evidence of the very 
considerable ability of the pre-school child. It reveals interesting glimpses 
of the mental make-up, the quaint judgments, the curious application of 
words the true meanings of which are imperfectly understood, and the 
child's sense of justice. In many ways such a study is far more interesting 
than that of the school child whose submission to authority has somewhat 
diminished his originality and standardised his outlook on life. 



L.— EDUCATION. 221 

The greatly increased interest in the mental welfare of the young child 
has naturally resulted in a renewed demand for a better provision of 
institutions, such as nursery schools and kindergartens, concerned with 
the care and education of pre-school children with a range of age of two to 
six years. 

In the Fisher Act of 1918 ample provision was made for the recognition 
and support of nursery schools and classes. This gave great satisfaction 
to all students of early child life and those interested in the welfare of 
little children. Then came the Geddes axe. The increased national 
expenditure involved in the changes adumbrated in the forward movement 
in educational procedure in the various sections of this beneficent Act 
met with considerable opposition on the grounds of financial stringency. 
This veritable Children's Charter came under the ban of the economists, 
and up to the present time there has been no possibility of the full develop- 
ment of the scheme. The power, however, of the adequate fulfilment 
along the necessary lines suggested remains on the Statute Book, and 
the demand for its greater exercise is now becoming insistent. An eSort 
is now being made to make the provision compulsory. The Chief Medical 
Officer of the Board of Education in his valuable annual reports on ' The 
Health of the Child ' consistently urges a move forward in the establish- 
ment of nursery schools. 

The difficulties which have been pointed out of reaching, and of giving 
effective guidance to children at the more plastic and formative pre-school 
period would, to a considerable extent, be removed if the nursery school 
became a recognised constituent in the educational provision of each 
district. In a centre which is fortunate in having a good nursery school 
within its area, the remarkable influence of such an institution is obvious 
to the most casual observer. With such very young children on the roll, 
this type of school comes into far more intimate contact with the home 
than any other agency. The atmosphere of the school permeates the 
home to the very great advantage of the parent as well as of the child. 
In many cases the principal and staff of the nursery school become the 
friends and advisers of the parents in all matters pertaining to the welfare 
of the children. The intelligent mother tries to raise the standard of the 
home to the standard of the school. 

The importance of linking the home with such an institution as a 
nursery school cannot be exaggerated. It is far more important in early 
life than later on. Continuity in the type of experience is essential in 
the successful nurture of the young child. A further advantage of the 
nursery school is that children come into contact with other children of 
the same age. It is a misfortune for a young child to be always in the 
presence of adults. The outlook is so different. A gulf separates, as we 
have seen, the child's world from that of the adult, and to adopt, at too 
early a stage, the adult attitude to life is to rob the child of the priceless 
advantage of his childhood. Children can readily understand children 
and learn far more from each other, and in a more natural way, than from 
an adult source. 

The teacher at the nursery school is, or should be, an expert in the 
management of children. The mother from a poor home, who is concerned 
with the riotous behaviour of her children, is impressed by the quiet 



222 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

joyous atmosphere of the nursery school and, seeing how it is attained, 
may learn her lesson. She discovers that for the riotous conduct in the 
home she is not free from blame, and if she is wise she will change her 
method of treatment. It is useless, however, to blame the parents. 
This point is well put by Prof. Helen WooUey of Columbia University, 
who was formerly director of one of the most famous nursery schools in 
the world, the Merrill-Palmer School, Detroit : ' One cannot expect every 
mother to be an expert in educational methods for children between two 
and five, any more than we expect every mother to be an educational 
expert in methods for children between five and ten years of age. In 
fact, at present the younger period is rather the more difficult, because 
it is not so well understood and not so well standardised as educational 
work for older children.' 

The whole problem of the pre-school child presses for solution. The 
difficulty is that although parenthood is the most important profession in 
the world, there is at present no specific preparation for it and there is no 
immediate prospect of a higher standard of parenthood. Yet it is clear 
that in dealing with the young child there is a distinct need of expert 
guidance. If, however, the home and the nursery school work together 
the problem-children — who eventually may become a burden on the 
State — will rapidly decrease in number. There can be no doubt whatever 
that with a well-organised nursery school system there would be a 
significant advance in the mental, physical and social welfare of the 
children. 

I must mention in passing another movement of which we shall hear 
a great deal in the near future. It is ' The Child Guidance Clinic ' which is 
powerfully supported in America and elsewhere by ' The Commonwealth 
Fund.' The function of the clinic is to look after the interests of mental 
hygiene among children in the area in which it is established. In a fully 
developed clinic the stafi consists of psychiatrists, psychologists and a 
fully-trained body of expert investigators. Under ideal conditions, the 
clinic has an independent existence and aids the various agencies interested 
in the welfare of children within the sphere of its operations. Its main 
objective is to formulate in a scientific way ' the rules of mental health 
and the ways and means by which mental health may be gained or 
increased.' Among its various activities are the following : the study 
of abnormal children, systematic lecture courses for parents, and educating 
teachers in mental hygiene. The purpose of the clinic is not to compete 
with established work but to supplement it where necessary by co-operation. 

Experiments which are being conducted in America on the lines of the 
child guidance clinic, vary in different localities. Experts from several 
countries have reported very favourably on the results of the work of the 
clinics and advise the adoption, frequently in a modified form, of similar 
organisations in the countries they represent. 

Clinics having a similar objective, but with a less ambitious type of 
organisation, have been in operation in England and Scotland for some 
years, and through the generosity of the Commonwealth Fund a child 
guidance clinic on the American plan has recently been started in London. 

The chief value of the clinic lies in remedial work, that is, in repairing 
damage to the mental health of the children caused to a large extent by 



L.— EDUCATION 223 

improper treatment during the pre-school stage. With a fully-organised 
system of nursery schools the production of such maladjustments would 
largely be avoided, and if there happened to be a clinic within reach to 
which any serious difficulty might be referred, the needs of the district 
as regards mental hygiene would be met. Attention given to prevention 
would give far greater promise of ultimate success than the more elaborate 
and costly curative provision. 

Apart from the new attitude to the pre-school child the most important 
movement since 1905 is the coming of the Intelligence Test and its 
incorporation as an essential element in the general scheme of education. 
Probably more research has been carried out in recent years in connection 
with tests for intelligence than in any other department of educational 
activity. Even if only rough approximations could be secured in the 
measurement of native ability, nevertheless, the advantage of such a 
discovery would naturally make a very strong appeal to the minds of 
progressive educationists. The researches of Binet and Simon clearly 
pointed the way to the attainment of a means of estimating innate 
intelligence. As a consequence, the Binet-Simon Scale has been the 
starting point for an enormous amount of original research on a subject 
which was destined to yield a rich harvest to the investigator if a really 
satisfactory working method of testing native ability could be obtained. 

Various Revisions of the Scale have been adopted in difierent countries, 
and improvements have been, and are still being, made. We are as yet 
very far from having reached the ideal form of intelligence test, but 
sufficient has already been done to show by actual experience, in a variety 
of ways, the remarkable value of individual and group tests. 

In 1924, as a result of a very careful investigation by the Consultative 
Committee of the English Board of Education, a Report was published 
with the somewhat repellent title of ' Psychological Tests of Educable 
Capacity.' From many points of view the Report is of considerable 
importance and value. The Committeejconsisted of a body of well-known 
educationists and administrators, but it contained no member who could 
be regarded as a psychologist. The result was that the report was based 
on the evidence of distinguished experts in psychology who came before 
the Committee and who could speak with great authority on the subject of 
intelligence. The conclusions thus formed, by men and women with no 
special bias in favour of intelligence tests, were naturally unprejudiced, 
and the report therefore can be relied upon as a cautious statement of 
the position which is not calculated to over-estimate the value of this 
new factor in the scheme of education. 

The following extracts from the report are of interest : ' What tests 
of " intelligence " measure, therefore, is inborn, all-round, intellectual 
ability, using the word " intellectual " in a loose sense to include practical 
activities as well as theoretical, but to exclude processes of emotion and 
qualities of character.' And after making certain criticisms : ' But, 
with all these necessary reservations, the success and the wide-spread use 
of intelligence tests remain among the most remarkable achievements of 
modern experimental psychology.' The value of the Report is much 
enhanced by an admirable historical sketch of the development of 
psychological tests which was contributed by Professor Cyril Burt. 



224 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

Intelligence tests in connection with school organisation are found to 
be of great value as an additional factor in promoting children from class 
to class. The following is a good illustration : In a London school in a 
particularly poor neighbourhood the children for many years had not 
been successful in obtaining any scholarships in the annual examination 
for the transference of boys and girls from the elementary to secondary 
schools. The departments were under excellent management, and the 
failure to obtain scholarships was ascribed to the poverty of the material 
entering for the examinations. On the promotion of the head mistress 
of the girls' department a teacher was appointed to the headship who, 
apart from her success as a teacher, was keenly interested in intelligence 
tests. She decided that, in placing the children coming up from the 
infants' department, she would be guided not only by the reports received 
of their educational achievement, but also by their native ability as shown 
by intelligence tests. 

The value of this changed method of school organisation was clearly 
shown when the period was reached at which the children promoted in 
this way were old enough to enter for the scholarship examination. They 
gained, for the first time in the history of the school, a fair number of 
scholarships, and this success was repeated from year to year. That this 
remarkable achievement was due in large measure to the improved method 
of classification may be inferred, without hesitation, as the staff of teachers 
was practically the same as in previous years, and no extra strain was 
put upon the children. 

It is evident that, as there is such a wide range of native ability in 
boys and girls of the same age, anything in the nature of a rigid chrono- 
logical basis in school classification must be profoundly unsatisfactory. 
Not only that ; imperfect classification may, and frequently does, inflict 
very serious injury on the misplaced child. The super-normal boy or girl 
placed in classes with children of the same age, but of markedly inferior 
ability, runs a great risk of becoming an exceptionally lazy person, though 
he or she may without the slightest difficulty be at the top of the form or 
class, and be the recipient of wholly unmerited praise. 

In the Begabten Schiden in Germany, where, in the final selection for 
admission, the results are almost entirely based on the intelligence quotients 
of the candidates, one cannot fail to be greatly impressed by the ease with 
which these children, without any undue pressure, can successfully cover 
as much ground in one year as normal children would require at least two 
years to accomplish. In the days to come we shall give far more attention 
to the super-normal child than we do at present. One of the many virtues 
of the Dalton Plan, which is having a profound effect on English and 
American education, is that it makes ample provision for the super-normal 
child. 

In the award of scholarships the intelligence test should play an 
important part. It is not sufficient to judge the candidate entirely by 
his educational achievement, which may simply have been the result of 
very careful preparation. It is necessary also to be assured that his 
native ability is such that he will be able to make good use of the facilities 
available at the place of higher education for the admission to which he 
is a candidate. 



L.— EDUCATION. 225 

A very promising direction in which intelligence tests may render 
invaluable assistance is to be found in vocational guidance. In view of 
the enormous — and ever increasing — expenditure on education, it is 
remarkable that until recently so little attention has been given to the 
successful marketing of the produce of our schools. The ' after-care ' 
agencies — frequently voluntary organ sations — have done excellent service 
in various districts in looking after the interests of children seeking employ- 
ment on leaving school. Their activities have, however, been largely of 
a social order, involving securing information as to the reputation of firms 
employing children and the conditions of labour, the possibilities of 
advancement and so on. The members of such welfare committees often 
keep in touch with the employees and advise the children when difficulties 
occur in connection with their employment, which by friendly co-operation 
can be adjusted. 

The frequent changes of employment, which have such a demoralising 
effect on children, may be diminished to a marked degree in districts 
which are fortunate in possessing a really efficient after-care committee. 
The judgment of the school as to the type of employment for which a 
particular child is suited is also of considerable value. Without under- 
estimating in any way the importance of the beneficent effect resulting 
from the various after-care agencies on the future welfare of the children, 
it is evident that if by intelligence, and specially devised vocational, tests 
a clear statement could be made, on a scientific basis, as to the kind of 
occupation, or group of occupations, in which a child, on leaving school, 
may find the fullest expression for any native ability which he is found 
to possess, it would be of the greatest possible service. 

The much-to-be-desired solution of this very difficult problem, which 
may play an important part in the future happiness of the child, appears 
to be on the high-road to realisation. In 1926 a report was published of 
' A Study in Vocational Guidance by the Industrial Fatigue Research 
Board and the National Institute of Industrial Psychology,' which marks 
an epoch-making advance in the interests of child welfare. The investiga- 
tion was conducted under the direction of Professor Cyril Burt. 

The subjects of the experiment were all the children in a certain 
London borough (fifty-two boys and forty-eight girls), who were due to 
leave school within the next year. Their ages lay between thirteen and 
fourteen. The investigation included Intellectual Capacity (general 
intelligence, specific capacities, educational attainments and special 
interests) and Temperament and Character (emotional, moral and social 
qualities). Physical condition and home conditions were also taken into 
consideration. The children were tested individually for intelligence, 
using a modification of the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale. 

As a result of the experiment, the type of employment considered most 
suitable for each child was suggested. In some cases the advice of the 
investigators was followed, in others not. For a period of two years the 
after-careers of the children were carefully observed from time to time 
in order to discover the success or otherwise of the children in their 
employment. The following statement was made at the conclusion of 
the experiment : — 

' The outcome of the inquiry speaks strongly in favour of the methods 
1929 Q 



226 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

used. The scheme has proved workable, the results unexpectedly 
successful. Of those who entered occupations of the kind recommended, 
over 80 per cent, are satisfied with their work, their prospects and their 
pay. Of those who obtained employment different from the kind advised, 
more than 60 per cent, are dissatisfied, and most of those who are satisfied 
appear to be so because they have exceptionally good employers rather 
than because they like the work. Further, judged by the after-histories 
of the several children, those who accepted the advice given have proved 
more efiicient and successful in their work than those who rejected the 
advice. They are, on the average, in receipt of higher pay ; they have 
generally obtained promotion earlier, and have experienced fewer changes 
of situation.' 

A second experiment is now being carried on by the Institute on a far 
more extensive scale. Six hundred children are being examined and 
advised, and their subsequent careers will be compared with those of a 
' control ' group of an equal number of children to whom the Institute's 
advice has not been given. 

A generous grant from the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust has made 
this second experiment possible. 

The following statement indicates the present position : 

' The Experiment carried out by the National Institute of Industrial 
Psychology in London into the possibility of using psychological tests in 
Vocational Guidance is one of considerable interest and importance. The 
number of young people studied (six hundred) was large enough to enable 
statistical methods to be applied to the analysis of the data collected. 
Moreover, the use of a control group (also six hundred in number) made it 
possible to assess more exactly the value of the vocational guidance offered. 
The main aim of the experiment was to establish a practical procedure of 
vocational guidance for children at school leaving age (i.e. 14).' 

' Information was sought relating to the child's school record and to 
his hobbies and out of school life. This was supplemented by data obtained 
from psychological tests of various kinds. Among the latter may be men- 
tioned tests designed to measure general intelligence, ability in the use of 
language, ability in dealing with practical situations, ability in handling 
machines, in manipulative activities, in computation, in the perception of 
shapes and forms and the like. During the years that have elapsed since 
the children who were advised left school, close touch has been maintained 
with them and much information relating to their occupations and 
changes of work has been collected. So far as it has been analysed up to 
the present the results are very encouraging. Those boys and girls who 
have found work of a kind similar to that recommended have changed 
their employment less frequently than those who have entered work unlike 
that recommended to them. These later results confirm those obtained 
in an earlier experiment carried out by the Industrial Fatigue Research 
Board and the National Institute of Industrial Psychology.' 

This important confirmation of the earlier experiment is of great value. 
In the light of these investigations it is not unreasonable to hope that, in 
days to come, every boy (and girl) on leaving school will have reliable 
information as to the kind of work in which he can most effectively use 
the ability he possesses, with pleasure and satisfaction to himself and to 



I 



L.— EDUCATION. 227 

his employer. In this case the hopeless situation involved in * the square 
peg in the round hole ' will tend to disappear. 

For many years it has been recognised that there has been a con- 
siderable amount of ' marking time ' in elementary schools, from 11 to 
14 years of age. There has also been a strong feeling that adequate 
opportunity has not been given to boys and girls to express themselves in 
practical activities, and that for a large proportion of the children the 
purely academic nature of the curriculum was profoundly unsatisfactory. 
The Hadow Report emphasised this very unsatisfactory state of affairs 
in various departments of educational procedure, and recommended 
drastic changes in many directions. 

The result has been a decision of the Board of Education to bring about 
a thorough re-organisation of the Schools. The scheme is admirably 
described in the Board's Educational pamphlet (No. 60) bearing the title 
' The New Prospect in Education.' It would be difficult to over-estimate 
the importance of this pronouncement which is veritably a message of 
glad tidings for the children, who will derive enormous benefit from the 
more generous outlook on education, and the ampler provision of facilities 
for practical and more interesting work. It marks the first stage in the 
forward movement towards ' secondary education for all.' 

Based upon the famous Hadow Report, the pamphlet gives official 
sanction and encouragement to schemes for which pioneers in education 
have been fighting and pleading for many years. It sounds the death- 
knell of any number of abuses which have had a strangle-hold on the free 
development of a vigorous personality by the less intelligent children of 
our schools. Not only that, the important reforms which are proposed 
are conceded in no carping spirit, but with a generous outlook which does 
infinite credit to a great Government Department. The various points 
are set forth with a definiteness which admits of no misunderstanding ; 
there can be no going back. 

The most important conclusions are the following : 

(1) That primary education should be regarded as ending at about the 
age of 11, and that all children should then go forward to some form of 
post-primary education. 

(2) That this second stage should as far as possible be organised as a 
single whole within which there should be variety of types. 

The varieties of post-primary schools in large centres of population 
will be : (1) The ordinary senior school under a new head teacher with a 
change of curriculum and greater facilities for practical work. (2) The 
junior technical school with a direct leaning to a particular trade or group 
of trades. (3) The central school with a definite bias towards industry or 
commerce. (4) The secondary school with a higher standard of education 
for children who may remain under instruction up to the age of seventeen 
or eighteen years. 

In most districts, the scholarship competitions at eleven years of age 
will, to a large extent, settle the transfer to secondary and central schools. 
Children who are so fortunate as to gain admission to these senior schools, 
with or without money grants in addition to free education, are generally 
those of superior mental ability and they should do well in after life. In 
the secondary school different courses are open to them, some leading to a 

q2 



228 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

university career, others to professional life, or to good positions in 
industry or commerce. In the secondary, central, and junior technical 
schools the break from the primary school is complete. 

Clearly, the most difficult problem in this important scheme of 
re-organisation is the ordinary senior school, which a large proportion of 
the children will attend. The stimulus of a new environment is of peculiar 
value at the age at which the transfer comes. With a new headmaster, 
a separate entity, a group of children within a narrower range of age, 
good practical workrooms, and a large number of fresh interests may 
produce that change of atmosphere which is necessary for complete 
success. 

Much thought and wisdom will be needed from those in authority in 
deciding as to the best kind of senior school for each child. An intimate 
knowledge of the boy or girl, the personal equation, the direction indicated 
by the child's interest, the possession of any special ability and so on, are 
necessary for a decision on which so much depends for the future welfare 
of the scholar. 

In dealing with modern movements in education it is necessary to 
make a passing reference to the great possibilities offered by the cinema 
and the wireless. Experiments in various directions, as we shall see, 
have been, and are still being made to explore methods which may result 
in one, or, still better, both, playing a useful part in modern schemes of 
education. The natural objections raised to purely visual or purely 
auditory instruments in educational procedure may be met within the 
near future by the speaking film or the synchronisation of the normal 
educational film with the loud-speaker, thus eliminating the obvious 
necessity of the film lecturer. 

The comparative failure of the so-called educational film in picture 
houses is largely due to the attempt to satisfy the student, and at the same 
time secure the interest of the larger clientele of the picture palace, the 
popular audience, which is rendered necessary for financial reasons. During 
the sitting of the Cinema Commission an investigation was made of the 
popularity of diSerent types of film among the school children frequenting 
picture palaces. In practically every case the educational film was at 
the bottom of the list. It did not appear possible to meet the claims of 
the two classes of patrons, although praiseworthy attempts were made 
to produce exceptionally good results from the point of view of successful 
production. For educational purposes it is evident that the element of 
popular appeal must be subordinate to the instructional objective. 

On the other hand, a valuable research has been carried out, aided by 
generous subventions by the Carnegie Trust and the National Council of 
Public Morals, to test the efficacy of the moving picture (film) as compared 
with the static picture (lantern slide) for teaching purposes. Prof. Spear- 
man accepted the chairmanship of the committee appointed, and his 
psychological laboratory at University College, London, was fitted up with 
cinema appliances for the conduct of the investigation. Groups of 
children from neighbouring schools were instructed in different subjects 
by meanfi of the lantern and the film respectively. The result was that 
there appeared to be an advantage of about 20 per cent, for the moving 
picture both for immediate and delayed memory tests. 



L.— EDUCATION. 229 

Many schools have recently experimented in using broadcasted material 
as part of the general scheme of instruction with considerable success, 
any initial difficulties having been successfully overcome. It is probable 
that, in the days to come, the employment of the means of instruction 
offered by the cinema and broadcasting, either separately or together, 
will exercise increasingly useful functions in educational processes. 

During the very fertile period of advance through which we have 
passed since our meeting here in 1905 many valuable movements in 
education have come upon the scene. I have only been able to touch 
very lightly and imperfectly on a few of the more important of those 
which have broadened our outlook and have materially increased our 
interest. I have found it very difficult in this brief survey to break away 
frona the absorbing interest one feels in the claims of the young child for 
special attention. My investigations of such interesting subjects as the 
sense of humour and the dreams of English and American children have 
possibly given me an exaggerated estimate of the importance, and of the 
extraordinary delight, of the study of early child life. 

Had time permitted I should like to have dwelt for a short time upon 
the remarkable progress made in recent years in the organisation of adult 
education in connection with the University Extension Movement and 
the beneficent activities of the Workers' Educational Association. But 
I have already gone beyond the normal time limit for a presidential 
address, and I must ask you to forgive the many sins of omission and 
commission. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



AGRICULTURE AND THE EMPIRE. 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR ROBERT B. GRBIG, M.C., LL.D., M.Sc. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In this country, which Kipling has described as ' the last and the largest 
Empire, the map that is half unrolled,' a Pan-African Congress of Agri- 
culture is meeting side by side with the Agriculture Section of the British 
Association, which is an Imperial Body for the advancement of science. 
The Imperial aspect of Agriculture is surely therefore a subject for 
consideration and discussion. 

Membership of an Empire such as ours is, like freedom, a noble thing. 
The mere size of the Empire grips the mind and makes an emotional 
appeal which, when fully realised, is a step towards a unified world. The 
Empire is so widespread and so various that it can accommodate every 
kind of mind or body. A man feeling cramped in Scotland can find 
room in South Africa. He who finds his intellectual horizon limited in 
New Zealand may find his spiritual home in Oxford or in Edinburgh. 
Because the Empire includes so many diverse peoples differing in physical 
and mental attributes, and because it yields such a variety of natural 
products, it offers problems political, social, and industrial, of peculiar 
interest and complexity. It can provide greater facilities than can small 
homogeneous units, for within the Empire is every kind of external 
stimulus that goes to promote mental development and intellectual 
advancement. 

Moreover, its political structure is of peculiar advantage. The free 
nations of the Commonwealth, along with the great non-self-governing 
territories, can meet without difficulty or embarrassment for the discussion 
of common problems. They have a focal point or centre in England from 
which concerted action may, if desired, be taken. When action is taken 
they have the largest outdoor laboratory in the world ; a field for action 
which allows in some part or parts the investigation of problems of almost 
every description. 

But citizenship of the Empire involves responsibilities. The principle 
of trusteeship is admitted. The governments are trustees for rich terri- 
tories covering nearly a quarter of the globe. They are also responsible 
for hundreds of millions of native populations. These native populations 
can rise in the scale of civilisation only according as they may be influenced 
by education, sanitation, law and order. But "these influences can be 
exerted only in proportion to the prosperity of agriculture and industry. 
In our colonial Empire in the past we have concentrated chiefly upon 
administration, and we have reason to be proud of the results. But the 
native populations will judge us in the futm-e not by the excellence of our 
administration but by the means we take to help them to a higher standard 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 231 

of living and to secure for them some of the benefits of civilisation. We, 
then, as citizens, are bound to develop the Empire even for the sake only 
of the native populations. Finally, we are trustees to the world in general 
as custodians of so great a part of the world's wealth. 

The progress of civilisation depends upon science, not science stated 
crudely as chemistry or botany, but the scientific spirit applied to all 
aspects of life. If science is applied to the economics of the Empire, the 
greatest economic asset to which it can be applied is agriculture. From 
the standpoint of area, or wealth, or population employed, agriculture is 
by far the most important activity in the Empire. The true wealth of 
the world, the wealth which determines the standard of living of nations, 
is limited by the capacity to produce cereals, milk, meat, wool, cotton, 
hides, and other prime necessities of life of soil origin ; without a sufficient 
supply of these progress in the art of living is impossible. Agriculture is 
also the one stable industry. Coal seams come to an end, or the discovery 
of new sources of energy changes the values of coal. Advances in physical 
science may, while creating new industries, destroy old ones. The wealth 
of gold and diamond fields depends upon artificial values which might 
disappear if society were constituted on a new basis with a different 
monetary system and different culture. But agricultural wealth, the 
capacity to produce every year the food and clothing without which 
life ends, is and always has been the one great permanent industry, the 
one which is the foundation of all national or indeed of world wealth. 

The Extent of Empire Agriculture. 

The British Dominions, India and the Colonies cover 24 per cent., or 
nearly one-quarter of the globe, and they contain 24 per cent., or 
nearly one-quarter of the world's population. 

Of this immense area no precise measure of the full extent of land in 
agricultural use is available, but the proportion is small. The most 
intensively cultivated of the larger areas is India, the least intensively 
cultivated is Australia. (See Table I.) In the aggregate only 8-7 per 
cent, of the total land surface of Canada, India, the Union of South Africa, 
Australia, and New Zealand is under arable cultivation. Only about one 
acre in every hundred of Australia is under cultivated crops, about two 
and a half acres in Canada, and three acres in South Africa and New 
Zealand respectively. It is difficult to obtain figures indicative of the 
possibilities of the tropical and sub-tropical territories, but the African 
possessions alone are capable of enormously increased production. 

In the nine provinces of Canada the ' possible farmland ' is 358 million 
acres, or about one-quarter of the total land area of the provinces, and 
five and a half times the present total of both arable and pasture. lu 
India, the most intensively cultivated, it is estimated that the cultivable 
waste land is equal to half the present cultivated area, or about 153 
million acres. 

Some evidence of the importance of the grasslands of the Emj)ire is 
obtainable from the numbers of the world's live stock. (See Table II.) 
Of every hundred head of cattle in the world, forty-four graze on Empire 
pastures, and of every hundred sheep, thirty-eight are in the Empire. 
Australia and New Zealand together own approximately as many sheep 



232 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

as the whole of Europe, excluding the United States of Soviet Republics. 
Evidence of what the Empire might do in grassland products is provided 
by the figures of imports of live stock products into Great Britain. The 
British market imports £330,000,000 worth of grassland products annually, 
which is about one-quarter of the imported goods of all descriptions. 
Of these foodstuffs which come from the grass, one-half, or about 
£160,000,000, come from the Empire. 

It is easy to realise the importance of agriculture in Canada or Australia, 
but in an industrial and mineral country such as Great Britain, and in a 
great mineral-producing country such as South Africa, the place of agri- 
culture is apt to be overlooked. (See Table III.) In the three larger 
Dominions and even in Great Britain, agricultural production is more 
valuable than mineral production. It may be astonishing to some to learn 
that Great Britain, including Northern Ireland, produces more agricultural 
wealth than Australia and four times as much as South Africa. When 
the value of minerals is combined with the value of manufactures, even 
then the agriculture of Canada and Australia is more important than 
minerals and manufactures combined. The dependence upon agricultm-e 
for the prosperity of the overseas trade of some of these countries is striking. 
(See Tables IV and V.) Of New Zealand's produce exports, for example, 
89 per cent, are agricultural and only 11 per cent, non-agricultural. The 
produce exports of Australia show 84 per cent, to be agricultural ; while 
from South Africa, only 31 per cent, are agricultural, and from Great 
Britain less than 3 per cent. 

The distribution of the population dependent upon agriculture is best 
shown by such countries as South Africa, India, and Nigeria. In South 
Africa, in spite of its small agricultural and great mineral production, 37 
per cent, of the population are engaged in agriculture and only 5 per cent. 
in mining. In India 72 per cent, are dependent upon agriculture and in 
Nigeria (which is three times the size of Great Britain, and one-third of 
the size of British India), practically the whole population depends on 
agriculture. 

It is obvious that a vast area of the Empire is capable of further pro- 
duction, even if developed only on the present lines with the application I 
of existing knowledge. But if we apply not only the science now at our ; 
disposal but the results of further researches and investigations which are | 
sure to follow, the potentialities become almost incredible. 

Relation of Science to Agriculture. 

Let us come now to the relation of science to agriculture. Agriculture! 
can be regarded as the application of all the sciences to the exploitation ■ 
of the soil. There is scarcely a branch of pure science which may not i 
contribute some knowledge which agriculture can apply. But agriculture 
differs from other industries in which a new discovery may be followed by a 
sudden transformation in methods. Agriculture is old, slow-moving, and 
conservative. The life cycle of animals runs into years, and even in 
cropping a rotation of years must often be followed to get the full effects 
of any change of method. Hence, the results of research are absorbed 
slowly and almost imperceptibly into farming practice. Nevertheless, 
there have been numerous instances when the advance has been so rapid 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



233 



that the farmers applying the knowledge have been within sight of the 
source of the knowledge. 

The case of ' Marquis Wheat ' is well known. This wheat, bred by the 
Canadian Experimental Station at Ottawa, has by its earlier maturity and 
superior cropping powers, not only ousted the older and inferior varieties 
of wheat in millions of acres of Canada and the Northern United States, 
but it has made the cultivation of wheat possible in areas where wheat 
could not be grown before. 

A variety of sugar cane has recently been produced in Java by the 
Dutch Plant Breeders ; one of its ancestors was not a sugar cane at all but 
a wild reed growing in a marsh. Yet this variety partly of reed ancestry 
is greatly superior to any other, giving 15 per cent, to 20 per cent, more 
sugar and resisting local diseases better than any other. Most of the sugar 
fields of Java are now growing it. The sugar production of Java since 
1840 shows the following increase and offers one of the finest examples of 
the effects of the application of science to plant breeding, manuring, and 
cultivation. (Five-year periods — average for each five years). 

1840-45 24 piculs per bouw 

1865-70 50 „ 

1900-05 100 „ 

1920 120 „ 

1925 132 „ 

1928 150 „ 

Comment is superfluous. 

The grasslands of the Empire, as I have shown, support at least 
500,000,000 animals. If all these animals were suited to their environ- 
ment, free from disease and sterility, and sufficiently nourished, their value 
would be far more than doubled or trebled. South Africa, through Sir 
Arnold Theiler and his staff, has already demonstrated to the full part of 
this possibility. In discovering the cause of and the means of combating 
certain insect-borne diseases. Sir Arnold and his associates haye saved the 
Union millions of pounds. Equally spectacular is the biological control of 
noxious weeds, such as the prickly pear in Australia and the blackberry in 
New Zealand. In the field of animal nutrition, it has been discovered that 
diseases may be caused in farm stock by the absence of minute quantities 
of iodine, lime, phosphorus, or Adtamins. The cure of rickets in pigs, and 
styfsiekte and lambsiekte in cattle, by the administration of bone meal and 
salt and other mineral mixtures has already saved hundreds of thousands 
of pounds to stock farmers. The application of the newer conception of 
the balanced ration, which we now have as the result of the studies of 
physiologists and biochemists, is yielding its return in increased production. 
The intensive management of grassland in such great grazing countries 
as Australia, New Zealand, and Great Britain is only beginning, but 
already it is plain that production can be doubled under skilful manage- 
ment. Even the fertiliser or artificial manure, concerning which we know 
more than of almost any other agricultural improvement, has far wider 
fields to conquer than any which it has yet subdued. 

These great achievements give us the assurance that the application of 
pure science to agriculture will yield results of a value many times greater 
than the money expended. 



234 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

The Empire as an Organism. 

If my figures and arguments are accepted, the British Empire must be 
regarded as an amazing organism. Is this organism developing sym- 
metrically, and is it desirable to take thought as to its development ? It 
may be argued that no great thought is needed, that each part of the 
Empire left unfettered in the pursuit of well-being in its own way, will 
eventually provide the best conditions for its inhabitants. But this 
argument totters in face of the Canadian Wheat Pool, which sooner or later 
will compel the wheat-growing parts of the Empire to consider their ways 
and to come to an arrangement whereby the Empire wheat comes under 
some uniform system of organised production and orderly marketing. 
The argument is further confuted by the fact that South Africa has joined 
with Austraha and New Zealand in a great co-operative marketing and 
purchasing agency in London, known as Overseas Farmers' Co-operative 
Federations, Ltd. These straws show the way the wind blows, and makes 
it unnecessary to labour the point, for few will hold that nothing is to be 
gained by co-operation in effort. If that be so, the question that occurs to 
me as an official concerned with agricultural development is, what share, 
and it must be a very large share, can research applied to agriculture take 
in the proper growth and nurture of the organism ? 

In the first place, it is clear that there are large economic problems 
affecting all parts of the Empire which await solution if the Empire is to be 
properly developed. There is, for instance, sterility and abortion in live 
stock. There is the pasture problem. There are insect-borne diseases. 
It is almost hopeless for a single individual or even a single institution to 
attempt the solution of any of these great problems. Each problem has so 
many aspects that team work is needed in the widest sense — not only 
between individuals, but between institutions and between governments. 

In the case of sterility and abortion in cows, for instance, there is here 
first a problem for the bacteriologist and the pathologist, as the micro- 
organism which causes contagious abortion is probably the most important 
factor. There is a nutritional factor, as it is well known that deficiencies in 
the diet cause both sterility and abortion, and may also render the animal 
more susceptible to the invasion of the organism. Moreover, in this as in 
other diseases, there is a problem for the geneticist, to discover to what 
extent, if any, is the tendency inherited, and what may be the correlated 
factors which indicate the susceptibles and the highly resistant strains. 
Finally, if or when the knowledge arrives which makes possible the elimina- 
tion of the disease, the co-operation of the administrator is required to 
frame and execute the regulations recommended by the scientists. 

The most recent development of the work on pastures has been in 
connection with their chemical composition. It has been shown that 
chemical composition, if it takes account of all known food constituents, 
is an indication of the feeding value of pastures, and it has been proved 
independently in various parts of the world that deficiencies of one or 
other nutrients required only in small amounts, are the cause of 
definite diseases. Further, it has been shown that if these deficiencies 
are made good, not only are the diseases prevented, but production 
is increased, and there is reason to believe that susceptibility to disease 
generally is decreased, and what is also of great economic importance. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 235 

animals breed true instead of undergoing the well-known deterioration 
which takes place in improved breeds when put upon poor pastures. The 
better exploitation of the pastures of the Empire is a problem which 
requires, for a complete investigation, the pathologist and bacteriologist 
to deal with the diseases which occur in deficient areas ; the physiologist 
and biochemist to deal with the composition of the pasture and to deter- 
mine to what extent it meets the requirements of the grazing animal. 
There is needed also the work of the plant breeder and the soil chemist for 
the improvement of the pasture as a crop. 

To bring about a concerted and co-operative attack upon such problems 
as these a certain procedure seems desirable, but before suggesting that 
procedure, let me point out that the facilities for co-operation are now 
immeasurably greater than they were even thirty years ago. Rome fell 
from various causes, but no doubt one of its defects was the absence of 
newspapers and telegrams by which the outlying parts of the Empire 
might have been kept in communication in time to avoid or avert some of 
its disasters. We have no such excuse. Communication is easy, transport 
is easy, conference is easy. In many ways Pretoria and London, and 
Ottawa and London are nearer to each other to-day than London and 
Edinburgh were 150 years ago. Moreover, a foundation for action exists 
which did not exist in the nineteenth century. In many parts of the 
Empire and especially in the self-governing Dominions, research has been 
going on in agriculture for a generation or more, and a great body of 
knowledge has been built up, much of which can be applied. 

The Procedure for Empire Research. 

Provided, then, that we have a large enough conception of Empire 
development by research, the procedure should be : 

(a) to outline the problem ; 

(b) to collect all available information concerning it ; 

(c) to make a plan of campaign ; 

(d) to find the money to finance the research ; 

(e) to find the men to do the work. 

To carry out this procedure it so happens that we are in a more favour- 
able position than ever before in the history of the Empire. The urgent 
problems that arose during the war demanded a solution on immediately 
practical lines. Tremendous advances were made in some of the applied 
physical sciences, as a result of the fact that all scientists who could con- 
tribute to the solution of an urgent problem were brought together and 
urged to work in such a way that their energies were focussed on a known 
objective. Following on this war experience, a similar spirit of co- 
operation has been developed in agricultural science. It is interesting to 
trace how this spirit has been stimulated and encouraged. 

In 1925 the British Government set up an Imperial Economic Com- 
mittee, with an annual grant of £1,000,000, for the purpose of encouraging 
trade in Empire products in the United Kingdom. The Imperial Economic 
Committee recommended that the annual grant should be used, first, to 
create in the United Kingdom a voluntary preference for Empire goods, 
and, second, upon research to improve the quality and supply of Empire 



236 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

goods for sale in the United Kingdom. The British Government, after 
consultation with the Dominion Governments, accepted the Report and 
created the Empire Marketing Board, which is the executive body for the 
administration of the funds. The Empire Marketing Board early turned 
its attention to the encouragement of research as the second of its functions. 
Almost simultaneously with the creation of the Empire Marketing 
Board was set up the Committee of Civil Research, consisting of the Prime 
Minister and the Lord President of the Council, with power to set up ad hoc 
sub-committees for any purpose other than military. Here, then, we have 
already two bodies calculated to assist in the procedure which I have out- 
lined. The Committee of Civil Research, flexible enough to inquire into 
and report upon any non- military subject under the sun, and the Empire 
Marketing Board — a body with funds to finance research. 

It was borne in upon those who had inquired into research in the non- 
self-governing Colonies that much good work was lost in pigeon holes, that 
scientists were sometimes engaged on the same problems unknown to 
each other, that overlapping occurred, and that facilities for the exchange 
of information were inadequate. Accordingly, when the Imperial Agri- 
cultural Research Conference was held in London in 1927, influenced as it 
was by the great success which had followed the formation of the Bureaux 
of Entomology and of Mycology, it strongly recommended the creation of 
clearing stations or Information Bureaux for the collection and distri- 
bution of information concerning certain sections of agricultural research. 
The proposal found acceptance with the British and Dominion Govern- 
ments and with the Colonies, and several of these bureaux are now in 
operation. I believe that they will prove of extraordinary value in the 
development of the Empire. They are eight in number for the present. 
How far they may be added to, experience will decide. They are all, by 
the unanimous decision of Empire delegates, situated in Britain. They 
deal with Soils, Animal Nutrition, Animal Genetics, Animal Hygiene, 
Plant Breeding, Animal Parasitology, and Fruit Production. They are 
not research institutions, but in each case they are attached to research 
institutions, and their first directors are the directors of the research 
stations. 

Each bureau will focus the information on the subject — will act as 
a gathering ground for theories and theorists, as an illuminant and 
expositor, and eventually we may hojje, as a finger-post to new and 
profitable roads and by-paths of research. These bm'eaux, to which all 
Governments of the Empire have agreed to contribute, embody the first 
organisation which is Imperially owned and Imperially governed, and 
which has been set up to serve the Empire. 

The Bureau of Soils at Rothamsted, or of Animal Genetics at Edin- 
burgh, is just as much the property of South Africa and Australia as of 
England or Scotland ; and England and Scotland sit on the Executive 
Council as representatives only of their countries. 

It is not , enough, however, to accumulate details. It is foolish to i 
make a list of the stars and remain content with the catalogue. The 
details must be followed by a synthesis to sum up and explain the details, 
and arising out of the synthesis will appear the clues to some problems,! 
the explanation of others, and the broad lines of strategy on which the! 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 237 

research battalions should move. Each Dominion or Colony has its own 
problems peculiar to its conditions, but the fundamentals of science are 
everywhere the same. 

In addition to the researcher, it is then necessary to have other types 
of scientific workers. The research worker is properly and sufficiently 
engrossed by his speciality. He seldom has time for or interest in the 
wider conceptions. His point of view is generally limited by his subject. 
But the application of science is not confined to the research worker. 
The broad results of research can be understood by politicians who can 
set the wheels in motion through their Governments. Scientific men 
are wanted who can see the wood without the trees, who can see the 
possible bearing of unconnected facts, and who can use their imagination 
at long range. Such men, if they use the scientific method, are as truly 
scientific as the researcher himself. 

We have then machinery to deal with three of the five necessities for 
Empire Research. We have the bureaux to collect information. We 
have the Committee of Civil Research to consider the information and 
plan a campaign, and we have the Empire Marketing Board to provide 
the funds. There remain to be considered the men, and the origin of 
the problem. 

As to the men, the great Dominions can and will provide and train their 
own men. The success of South Africa in the production of research 
workers whose reputation is world wide is suflacient evidence of what 
the Dominions can do. The case is different in the Colonies. As a rule, 
the research workers in the Colonies must be recruited from Home or 
Dominion sources and partly trained outside of the Colonies which they 
serve. Much has been written concerning the need for these workers, 
their status, pay, and pension. It is enough to say that the development 
of the tropical and sub-tropical possessions depends upon making the 
career of a colonial research worker as satisfactory as the alternative, less 
interesting, and perhaps more sordid business of making a living. There 
is one aspect of the man power that must not be lost sight of in consider- 
ing Empire research, and that is the desirability of exchange of workers. 
Nothing can be more profitable and stimulating in suitable circumstances 
than change of environment to the research worker. He obtains a new 
lease of scientific life, a wider outlook, a wealth of experience of men and 
methods denied to him as a limpet in an institution. There are diffi- 
culties in the way of exchanging workers on any considerable scale, but 
these difficiilties will decrease as time passes and the temporary exchange 
of work and of workers will prove of far-reaching benefit. 

The Problem. 

I come now to the Alpha and Omega of research — the beginning and 
the end — ' The Problem.' It might be assumed from some of the fore- 
going remarks that, like many an administrator before me, I have been 
erecting a rigid structure into which I propose to fit a flexible and in- 
calculable body. Far from it : wide experience shows that the feet of 
research cannot be crammed into the shoes of regulations. One knows 
where the shoe pinches. 

The facilities I have described arise from the recognition of the value 



238 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

of co-operation in research by Governments, and from the desire for 
co-operation in research on the part of the workers. The structure is 
an arrangement for the assistance of research, not a frame in which to 
fit it. 

The problem which these organisations have been created to help to 
solve may arise in various ways. It would be easy to mention many 
outstanding Imperial problems, but assuming that some individual 
research worker in some corner of the Empire has seen or shed new light 
on some obscure point, what is his happy condition to-day compared 
with twenty years ago ? Through the bureaux or clearing centres of 
information, he can mobilise all the existing knowledge bearing on his 
point. Armed with this knowledge, he sees that the scope of the required 
research is far beyond his individual powers. If he is in one of the 
Dominions he can put his case before the Department of Agriculture or, 
it may be, before the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 
of his Government. The Department can bring together the best brains 
available to consider and report upon the necessary research, or in the 
case of Great Britain and the Colonies, the Committee of Civil Research 
can undertake the inquiry. A plan of campaign is ultimately worked 
out. The Empire Marketing Board is approached and the funds. jointly 
provided by the Board and the Dominion or Colony chiefly concerned. 
The men are then selected, possibly from the whole Empire, and seconded 
for the work, the locus is decided upon and the attack begins. In this 
case the problem has originated through the vision of one individual. 

Take another case, where the problem originates at the other end of 
the scale. Take a simple illustration. Suppose, and this is probably 
true, that the sheep on the hill grazings of Scotland and England have 
diminished by one-third in fifty years. The Agricultural Administrator 
concerned appeals to the Research Institutes. They reply that there 
are probably half a dozen factors contributing to the decrease. Then 
follows the inquiry, the suggested plan of campaign, the funds, the men, 
and the attack. Yet out of such an investigation may arise the 
information which will enable principles of general application to be 
determined regarding sheep and pastures over half the world. Here the 
administrator has set the ball a-roUing. 

But the politician, or to give him a worthier name, the Statesman, 
is not out of the swim. Let us suppose that South Africa wishes to take 
a large share in the supply of chilled beef and mutton to the great industrial 
centres of England. Immediately there arises a problem economical, 
genetical, nutritional, pathological and botanical, which can only be 
solved by the combined operations of a number of scientific and business 
men working together. 

Finally, there is another way in which the problems may arise. That 
is through the deliberations of a long range thinking body not concerned 
with the problems of to-day or even the immediate to-morrow, but with 
research which has no present relation to agricultural practice but which 
may prove a fertile source of lines of investigation ultimately of the first 
importance to agriculture. 

We have then available organisations or machinery capable of doing 
great things for the development of the Empire. Already much has been 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 239 

achieved. The Empire Marketing Board in two and a half years has 
made grants up to the end of 1928 aggregating a million and a half. The 
spread of these grants as seen from the map and table are interesting. A 
tine example of what has already been done in Imperial team work is 
offered by the Grassland Research. 

The headquarters of this research is in Aberdeen and the Chief of 
Staff is Dr. Orr. Under his direction, teams have been investigating the 
mineral deficiencies of pastures in Kenya, in the Falkland Islands, in 
Palestine and in Scotland and England. Arising out of these investiga- 
tions and those of Sir Arnold Theiler, similar campaigns have been started 
in Australia and New Zealand. Here, in the space of only two or three 
years, we have through vision and stafi work an Imperial Investigation 
which promises to increase enormously the output of beef and mutton 
from Imperial grasslands. 

As a result of these pasture researches the workers engaged have 
been in consiiltation with each other and a spontaneous tendency to 
co-operation is bearing fruit. In consequence, the pioneer work of 
Onderstepoort is known and appreciated in Great Britain and elsewhere 
and is being applied successfully. The work of Aston in New Zealand 
on ' Bush sickness ' is being applied in East Africa. The Canadian work 
on the prevention of goitre in grazing animals is a stimulus to work in 
other countries such as Australia and New Zealand where there is believed 
to be a deficiency of iodine in the pastures. If similar developments 
can take place in other lines of research there is a possibility of great 
advances during the lifetime of the present geneiation. 

I hope I have said enough to show that the application of science and 
commonsense to the development of the Empire, and particularly of its 
agriculture, promises rich rewards. 

New Adjustments.- 

As it seems probable that great adjustments will need to be made 
in methods of agriculture, and in the organisation of supplies, it seems 
essential that while we have the time we should think Imperially and 
think ahead. The International Economic Congress at Geneva in 1927 
diagnosed the depressed condition of European agriculture as being due to 
unremunerative prices. The Congress negatived the conclusion that the 
fall in prices was due to any excess of production. It was, on the con- 
trary, of opinion that, relatively to the growth of population, there has 
been no increase in output over that of 1913. With this opinion Sir 
Daniel Hall, as shown by his address at Oxford in 1926, would agree. 

Lord Ernie, the Minister of Agriculture during the war, said recently : 
' The question has already arisen how far it is safe in the world's interests 
to allow the decline of agriculture. Workers once attracted to the towns 
never return. Inevitably, in course of time, whether sooner or later it 
is impossible to predict, nations will be feverishly striving to rehabilitate 
agriculture under the overmastering influence of food shortage.' 

This opinion of Lord Ernie's may be somewhat pessimistic, but local 
famines do occur. In Kenya there was a partial famine this year. 
Famines are recurrent in India, and many thousand people in Ireland 
<lied of famine less than a hundred years ago. 



240 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 

On the other hand, we have Mr. Speyer stating in Nature, January 12, 
1929, with reference to the manufacture of nitrogen fertilisers from the air, 
that if the nitrogen supply which is in prospect by 1931 were applied to 
the main crops of Europe at the rate of -8 cwt. per acre, the population at 
that date would not consume more than half of the extra food which would 
thus be available. We have also Professor Stewart, formerly of the 
Minnesota Agricultural College, asserting that since 1850 machine farming 
developments have released approximately twenty-seven million workers 
from agriculture. He also states that with two-horse machinery forty 
hours of labour were required to grow a crop of maize, but now with modern 
machinery less than four hours of man labour per acre are required. 

Whatever may be the significance of these opinions or the ultimate 
value of these statements, one thing certain is that the development of the 
agricultural resources of the Empire is of the first importance. 

The Opportunity. 

We have the only system of government in the world that can link up 
research in countries with all kinds of soils and climates. We have the 
finest and most varied laboratory in the world. We have the nucleus of 
an organisation and we have the opportunity. 

Within the Empire is the Empire's greatest market for agricultural 
produce and the Empire's greatest source of supply. The development 
of agriculture would have an enormous influence in the development of 
Empire trade. Co-operation in research leads to better understanding 
between the Dominions, the Colonies, and the Mother Country. Con- 
ferences of research workers and administrators lead to the discovery of 
common aims and ideals, as was shown in the Conference of 1927, and the 
pursuit of common aims is one of the most enduring of ties. But the 
scientific man knows no boundaries ; he is one of the few real inter- 
nationahsts in the world to-day ; the knowledge he obtains is subject to 
no tariff, receives no bounty, is freely exchangeable throughout the world. 
As a scientific man — if he is within the British Empire — he may engage in 
the solution of larger problems than probably any other unit can provide. 

And what may be the end of his research ? One may speculate, but 
the end should surely include an orderliness, a co-ordination of parts, and 
a relationship of functions which should make for greater prosperity and 
for greater stabiUty and freedom from temporary over- or under-pro- 
duction of agricultural commodities. It is not suggested that the exchange 
of commodities should be intra-imperial. Even if that were desirable it is 
not possible. The trade of the Empire is shared almost equally between 
the Dominions and foreign countries. (See Table VI.) It is not that the 
Empire may be a self-contained and self-supporting quarter of the globe 
that I make these suggestions. To succeed in such an aim would be to 
end nowhere or to end in destruction. I make these suggestions because 
the nations which make up the British Empire form a pohtical body which 
faces an opportunity open to no other sj^stem of governments in the world. 
This opportunity is the possibility that by taking thought and by organis- 
ing the acquisition and the application of knowledge, the wealth of the 
Empire can be greatly increased, and thereby, and necessarily, the wealth 
of the rest of the world will be increased also. It is a far cry to an organised 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 



241 



Empire, but if the object is worth it, the initial step is to adopt the ' view- 
point ' described by General Smuts. With the view-point and the mental 
field surrounding it come the creative ideas which in the end reahse the 
dream. What I plead for, then, is the ' view-point.' Even in the prosaic 
occupation of agriculture, of the earth earthy, I suggest that the Imperial 
view-point is stimulating and creative. 

The conception of an organised agriculture based upon science should, 
I think, be part of the mental equipment of every statesman and adminis- 
trator. The same vision should inspire every research worker if, in the 
words of the late Lord Morley, he is to weave the strands of knowledge 
into the web of social progress. 

If the vision is keen enough, the conception wide enough, the energy 
enduring, and the courage unfailing, is it not possible that the group of free 
nations which constitute the British Empire may demonstrate the means 
and lead the way to that wider world government to which every generous 
and contemplative mind would look ? 



Table I. 
Land returned as arable in the following countries. 



Country. 1000 acres. 


Percentage of 
Total Area. 


Great Britain . 
Northern Ireland 
Irish Free State 
Canada . 
India (British) 

(Native States) 
Union of South Africa 
Australia 
New Zealand . 










13,500 
1,180 
3,640 

56,400 
300,000 

80,000 
9,400 

22,500 
2,000 


24-0 
35-6 
21-7 

2-4 
45-8 
59-1 

31 
•1-2 

30 



Table II. 
Live Stock of the Empire. 



— 


World Total (1927) 

omitting China and 

a few other areas. 


Empire Total (1925) in- 
eluding Great Britain and 
Mandated Territories. 


Percentage of 
World Total. 


Horses 
Cattle 
Sheep 
Pigs 


102,000,000 
560,000,000 
650,000,000 
205,000,000 


11,000,000 
245,000,000 
245,000,000 

11,000,000 


11 

44 

38 

6 



Sources of Information. 

' International Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics, 1927-28.' 

' Statistical Abstract for the British Overseas Dominions and Protectorates (Cmd. 

3198), 1928.' 

' Agricultural Statistics of the Ministry of Agricultuj-e and Fisheries and of the 

Board of Agriculture for Scotland.' 

1929 « 



242 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES. 



Table III. 
Ratio of Agricultural and Industrial Production. 





Agricultural 
Production. 


Mineral 
Production. 


Value added 

by 

Manufacture. 


Ratio of A 

to 
B plus C. 


A. 


B. 


C. 


Australia (1925-26) 

Canada (1926) 

Union of South Africa 

(1923-24) . 
Great Britain (1924-25) . 


250 
342 

67 
274 


Millions of i 

24i 
49i 

55i 
230 


,'s. 

143 

280 

40^ 
1376 


1 : 0-675 
1: 0-96 

1: 1-43 
1 : 5-9 



Sources of Information. 

' Statesman's Yearbook, 1928.' 

' Canada Yearbook, 1926.' 

' Yearbook of The Union of South Africa, 1926-27.' 

' Agricultural Output of England and Wales, 1925 (Cmd. 2815).' 

' Agricultural Output of Scotland, 1925 (Cmd. 3191).' 



Table IV. 

Extent to which agricultural output of the Empire is absorbed by the population 
of the producing countries. 



Australia (1925-26) 
Canada (1925-26) . 
Union of South Africa 

(1923-24) . 
Great Britain (1924-25) . 



Agricultural 
Production. 



Value of 



Exports as 
, . ,, , I percentages of 

P ■ Production. 



Millions of £'s. 



250 
342 

67 
274 



134 
136 

24 
18-6 



54 
40 

36 
6-8 



Sources of Information. 

As for Table III, and ' Statistical Abstract for the British Overseas Dominions and 
Protectorates (Cmd. 3198), 1928.' 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 

Table V. 
Ratio of Agricultural to non- Agricultural exports. 



243 





Agricultural 
Exports. 


Total of all 

articles of 

domestic 

produce 

exported. 


Percentage 

of 

Agricultural 

Exports to 

Total 

Exports. 


Ratio. 


Agri- 
cultural. 


Non- 
Agri- 
cultural. 


New Zealand (1925) . 
Australia (1925) 
Irish Free State (1925) 
Canada (1926) . 
Union of South Africa 

(1925) . 
British India (1926) . 
British Malaya (1925) 

Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland . 


48-6 
134 

30-1 
133-5 

26-3 

147-8 
87 (Rubber 
only) 

18-6* 


Millions of £'8 

54-5 
159 
43-4 

279-8 

84-5 
250-7 
150 

653 


89 

84 
70 

48 

31 

58 
56 

2-8 


8-1 
5-25 
2-3 
0-9 

0-45 

1-4 

1-3 

0-03 


1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

I 



* Exports of home-produced and of re-exported produce are not clearly 
distinguished. 

Sources of Information. 

' Statistical Abstract for the British Overseas Dominions and Protectorates 
(Cmd. 3198), 1928.' 

' Annual Statement of Trade of the United Kingdom, 1927. ' 



Table VI. 
Distribution of Exports of the Dominions and Colonies. 
Millions of £'« 
Exported from Empire Countries to 

(o) Empire Countries. 

(1) United Kingdom 433-7 

(2) Overseas Dominions 141 -0 
(W Foreign Countries 607-6 



(48i per cent. ) 
(51 i per cent.) 



Total Exports to the World 1182-3 



Distribution of Imports of the Dominions and Colonies. 
Millions of £'s 
Imported into Empire Countries from 

(a) Empire Countries. 

( 1 ) United Kingdom 374 • 7 

(2) Overseas Dominions 147-6 (53 per cent.) 
(6) Foreign Countries 462-7 (47 per cent.) 

Total Imports from the World 985-0 

Source of Information. 

' Statistical Abstract for the British Overseas Dominions and Protectorates 
(Cmd. 3198). 1928.' 

r2 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



Seismological Investiieitions.— Thirty-fourth Report of Committee 
(Professor H. H. Turner, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, Secretary ; 
Mr. G. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir R. T. G-lazebrook, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, Professor H. 
Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Professor A. E. H. Love, Professor H. M. 
Macdonald, Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
Professor H. C. Plummer, Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Professor R. A. 
Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Sir G. T. Walker, and 
Dr. F. J. W. Whipple). [Drawn up by the Chairman except where 
otherwise mentioned."] 

General. 

[Kindly note that this is the 34th report, and that those for 1927 and 1928 should 
have been numbered 32 and 33 instead of 31 and 32. It is drawn up earlier than 
usual (June 21) in view of the South African visit.] 

We recret to record the death of Father Pigot of the Riverview Observatory, 
whose observations have often been of the greatest value in determining epicentres 
near Australia, especially in the days when the other Australian observatories had 
only seismographs of the Milne type, which gave readings of inferior accuracy. Also 
the death of Prof. G. Grablovitz on September 19, 1928, the doj'en of seismology. 
He was for forty-three years director of the R. Osserv. Geodinamico di Casamicciola, 
founded as a consequence of the severe shocks of 1881 and 1883. 

The new buildings at the University Observatory, Oxford, include two rooms in 
which the seismological computations can now be made in comparative comfort, and 
in one of which (the upper) ' The Milne Library ' has been placed. Below them is 
the basement for seismographs presented to the University by Dr. J. E. Crombie, 
and named ' the Crombie Basement.' It contains a massive pier (8 ft. X 4 ft. surface) 
for the two seismographs, which were mounted upon it in October 1928. One of them, 
indeed, was mounted in July, but it was found that the pier had not dried or otherwise 
settled down ; and even in October it was found desirable to allow it further time at 
one end, the E.W. component being meanwhile transferred to a temporary pier on 
the basement floor. The two piers previously used in the Clarendon Basement had 
been erected forty years ago for Prof. C. V. Boys's ' Cavendish Experiment,' and 
had been kindly put at disposal during the years 1918-1928 by Prof. Lindemann. 
On the occasion of their return to the regular use of the laboratory in October 1928 
a small brass plate was mounted on the wall of the basement recording their uses 
for the seismographs, and for the Cavendish Experiment, the history of which was 
recounted by Mr. C. V. Boys on November 23 to an appreciative audience. In the 
course of his lecture he recalled that his observations had on one occasion been inter- 
rupted by the occurrence of an earthquake, viz., that in Roumania on 1893 September 
lOd. 3h.45m. 

An earthquake with date 1928 April 22d. 20h. 13m. 50s., which partly destroyed 
the city of Corinth, was mentioned in the last report. The position of Corinth is 
37°-9 N., 22°-9 E. ; that of the epicentre (according to readings received from Helwan, 
San Fernando, Toledo, Tortosa, Paris and Vienna) is not far from 40''-0 N... 23°-0 E. 
By the kindness of the hydrographer an interesting note has been received of a 
disturbance of the magnetic compass on H.M.S. Argus in 33°38' N., 24°4' E., sailing 
on an easterly course (286° true or N71° W. standard). 

Great care was clearly taken to relate the observed disturbance of 5° to the 
magnetic compasses rather than to the gyrocompasses, but one point is still in doubt, 
viz., whether the disturbance occurred at the time of the earthquake or (perhaps by 
some confusion with local time) two hours previously. Even in the latter case it 
may have been related to the earthquake. Prof. S. Chapman is investigating the 
matter from a magnetic point of view. Whatever may be the final outcome of this 
particular incident, it calls attention to the fact that, in the existence side by side 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 245 

of magnetic and gyrocompasses, we have the means of observing temporary 
disturbances of the former which might previously have passed unnoticed. 

In reporting the incident Commander Faulkner of H.M.S. Argus writes : — 

As both magnetic compasses were deflected similarly, it is doubtful whether a 
vessel not fitted with gyrocompasses would have been aware of the disturbance. 
Unfortunately no azimuths could be taken during the phenomenon. 

It is interesting to remark that the gyrocompasses are now good enough to be 
trusted against the magnetic. In this connection the duration of the perturbation is 
noteworthy. At ' 18-20 G.M.T.' the difference was 5° ; ' after 10 minutes the 
difference . . . began to decrease until at 19-10 G.M.T. the standard compass course 
became normal again — to be followed shortly after by the steering compass.' 

[The times as noted are of course earlier than the earthquake shock : what makes 
the doubt is that they are noted as ' practically coincident with the earthquake which 
destroyed the town of Corinth.'] 



Insfnuuental. 

The stations organised by Milne were equipped with his own simple undamped 
seismograph, which was suitable for pioneer work. As time went on he realised the 
need for damping, and asked Mr. J. J. Shaw to modify the instrument accordingly, 
but he did not Uve to see the successful result. The ' Milne-Shaw ' seismograph is 
the direct successor of the pioneer ' Milne,' and is thus in a special way connected 
with the work of this committee. Mr. Shaw has suppUed (at the cost of construction 
merely) many of these instruments for use in stations scattered over the world, some 
of them in direct touch with this committee, others quite independent of it. The 
work of construction has been carried out at his house (Sunnyside, Birmingham 
Road, West Bromwich) either by himself or directly under his supervision. The 
regrettable serious illness of Mr. Shaw interrupted this devoted work ; and though he 
is now happily restored to health, the arrangements for resuming the work have not 
yet been fuUy recovered. Nevertheless he is able to report as having been recently 
instaUed : Melbourne, one component ; Harvard University, two components ; 
Nizamiah Observatory, Hyderabad, the second component. Other machines have 
been ordered, and the committee is able to hope that Mr. Shaw will find it now possible 
to continue his important work of construction. 

International. 

The Comptes Rendus of the third meeting of the Seismological Section (at Prague, 
1927, September 3-10) have been printed in a volume of 104+ 126 pages, the second 
part containing accounts, reports presented to the Section, bibliography, &c. The 
next meeting of the G. & G. Union has been fixed for 1930, August 18-25, at Stockholm. 

The work of this committee of the British Association was at first not international 
in character, though world-wide. Milne's organisation of stations scattered over the 
world, and armed with his simple pioneer seismograph, was in the first instance 
confined to British stations, which reported to him at Shide. Their observations 
were printed in the Committee's circulars, under the heading of each observatory, and 
the collation of different observations for determining the epicentre and time of 
occurrence was not printed in detail : the results simply were printed (and these for 
considerable earthquakes only) for each year up to 1911. After Milne's death a 
commencement was made of giving details for the ' large earthquakes ' from 1913 
onwards ; smaller ones being gradually added until for the year 1917 the survey began 
to approach completeness. By request of the Seismological Section at its meeting 
in Rome in May 1922 the publication was made international, and the results for 1918 
and following years have appeared as the International Seismological Summary. 
Only a small portion of the whole cost, however, has been provided from international 
funds. The cost of preparation has been borne partly by the B.A. subsidy of £100 a 
year from the Caird Fund, partly by the generosity of Dr. Crombie, partly by the 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, partly by the Royal Society, and 
partly by the University of Oxford. The cost of printing (which might have been 
provided from the international funds if the franc had maintained the value it had 
in 1922) has been in itself larger than the international grant ; but the Royal Society 



246 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ETC. 



has stepped in to meet the deficiency. The printing account to February 1928 is 
given as ' Annexe II bis ' in the Comptes Bendus of the Prague meeting above- 
mentioned, and may be brought up to date as below : — 



Provision. 



Cost of Printing the Summary. 





£ 




£ 


By Section of Seism, as 






1918 


241 


noted in Annexe 


1,064 




1919 




.. 163 


Received May 1928 


81 




1920 




.. 193 


„ 1929 


161 




1921 




.. 146 






1,306 


1922 




.. 200 


To 1927, October 28, from 






1923 




.. 267 


. ; Royal Society (noted). . . 


225 




1924 




.. 238 


From Royal Society 1928, 






1925 




.. 280 


July 20 


150 










375 






1,681 




Balance due 


i 


47 


Total 






:i,728 


£1,728 



Bulletins and Tables. 

The International Seismological Summary is an important part of the work of the 
Committee, as above remarked. In it are collected the readings sent by nearly 
250 stations, a Ust of which (together ^vith a number of stations now obsolete, making 
the total 259) has been printed for circulation to the observatories which receive the 
Summary. 

During the last six and a half years more than eight years of the Summary have 
been pubhshed, and the interval between the occurrence of an earthquake and its 
publication has thus been reduced from about five years to a httle more than three 
years. Whether further reduction can be made seems doubtful, for some stations are 
slow in sending in their records, even after several reminders ; and it is of course 
very desirable to have the details as complete as possible. The following table reviews 
the progress of the work. The date given in the second column is that of the brief 
introduction printed with each number of the Summary, and is very closely the date 
on which the complete MS. for the number was sent to press. The distribution of 
the number when printed is naturally a few months later. The time taken in pre- 
paring each number is thus approximately the interval between the first and second 
columns, and is tabulated in months in the third column. The decrease of this 
interval was fairly rapid for some years, but has now almost ceased. Meantime the 
work has increased, owing to the addition of new stations, and to greater vigilance in 
aU. This increase is indicated roughly by the increase in the number of pages of the 
Summary (for each three months) shown in the fourth column. In 1918 there Avere 
altogether 218 pages, dealt with in about 10-2 months, representing a rate of 242 pages 
in 12 months as shown in the last column. This rate, given for every consecutive 
set of four numbers, has clearly not fallen off ; the increase in the material has been 
even faster than that in the time taken to deal with it, so far as these figures can show. 
They are only a rough guide, hable to be perturbed by exceptional circumstances, 
such, for instance, as the occurrence of the great Japanese earthquakes of 1923, 
September 1-2, and following days, which are largely responsible for the figure 110 
in the fourth column. Many of the pages in this case were descriptive, or in other 
ways did not call for the heavy numerical work represented in the average page. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



247 



Summary for three 


Sent to 


Interval 


No. of Pages 


Rate in Pages 


months ending 


Press on 


in Months. 


of Summary. 


per Year. 


1918 Mar. 31 


1923 Feb. 27 


590 


40 




June 30 


June 11 


59-3 


48 




Sept. 30 


Aug. 8 


58-2 


66 




Dec. 31 


Oct. 23 


57-8 


64 


242 


1919 Mar. 31 


Dec. 21 


66-7 


36 


274 


June 30 


1924 Feb. 1 


550 


48 


333 


Sept. 30 


Apr. 7 


54-2 


56 


304 


Dec. 31 


May 29 


52-9 


32 


288 


1920 Mar. 31 


July 16 


51-5 


50 


324 


June 30 


Aug. 26 


49-8 


50 


328 


Sept. 30 


Nov. 20 


49-7 


52 


294 


Dec. 31 


1925 Jan. 24 


48-8 


48 


305 


1921 Mar. 31 


Mar. 25 


47-8 


48 


308 


June 30 


June 10 


47-2 


44 


247 


Sept. 30 


July 31 


460 


40 


260 


Dec. 31 


Oct. 1 


450 


44 


258 


1922 Mar. 31 


Nov. 23 


43-8 


48 


264 


June 30 


1926 Jan. 26 


42-8 


56 


294 


Sept. 30 


Mar. 24 


41-8 


66 


314 


! Dec. 31 


May 12 


40-4 


64 


360 


1923 Mar. 31 


Aug. 8 


40-3 


68 


342 


June 30 


Oct. 17 


39-6 


64 


342 


Sept. 30 


Dec. 19 


38-6 


110 


415 


Dec. 31 


1927 Feb. 28 


380 


74 


396 


1924 Mar. 31 


June 21 


38-7 


64 


360 


June 30 


Aug. 20 


37-7 


68 


376 


Sept. 30 


Nov. 15 


37-5 


86 


322 


Dec. 31 


1928 Feb. 15 


37-5 


66 


296 


1925 Mar. 31 


June 1 


38-0 


80 


319 


June 30 


Aug. 27 


37-9 


100 


326 


Sept. 30 


Nov. 28 


38-0 


72 


305 


Dec. 31 


1929 Feb. 14 


37-5 


72 


324 


1926 Mar. 31 


1929 Apr. 9 


36-3 


86 


384 



The increase in the work may also be indicated by tbe number of epicentres dealt 
with. Monthly counts of these were given in the last report, but the totals for the 
year were omitted by oversight. For the seven years 1918-1924 they are 372, 323, 
324, 258, 310, 542, 473. [The total 542 for 1923 is unduly exaggerated by the number 
of aftershocks following the great Japanese earthquakes of 1923, September 1-2.] 
The total for 1925 is 481. The monthly totals are :— 



J 


F 


M 


A 


M 


J 


J 


A 


S 





N 


D 


37 


47 


37 


36 


55 


55 


50 


40 


32 


29 


26 


37 



The seven years 1918-24 showed a decided and rather sudden maximum in 
September, even when the exceptional year 1923 was excluded. There is no trace 
of this maximum in 1925. 

Deep Focus. 

It was mentioned in the last report that a paper showing the cases (a dozen or 
more) in which indications of deep focus had been reached independently at Oxford, 
and by Mr. Wadati in Japan, had been sent to him for pubhcation in the Tokio 
Geophysical Magazine, in which his own paper (showing an independent method of 
detecting deep foci) appeared. Nothing, however, has been received or heard in 
reply up to the present, and inquiry is being made as to the fate of the paper. 

The cases of abnormal focal depth determined at Oxford are of course not confined 
to the neighbourhood of Japan like those of Mr. Wadati. They have been given in 
detail in the Summary, and are indicated briefly in the Catalogue of Earthquakes 



248 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 



1918-1924, which the British Association kindly printed in connection with the last 
report. 

The following cases of abnormal focal depth recently added to those may be noted 



Date. 


Epicentre. 


Depth below normal. 


d. 
1925 Jan. 28 


h. 
18 


O 

52-8 N. 174-0 E. 


+ •010 


Jan. 30 


17 


52-8 N. 174-0 E. 


+ -010 


Mar. 1 


2 


48-2 N. 70-8 W. 


+ ■010 


Mar. 8 


11 


350 N. 69-0 E. 


+ -030 


Mar. 15 


13 


10-8 S. 119-5 E. 


+ -015 


Mar. 15 


15 


10-8 S. 119-5 E. 


+ -015 


Mar. 26 


10 


5-4 N. 125-2 E. 


+ -040 


Mar. 29 


21 


7-5 N. 79-0 W. 


+ -010 


Apr. 19 


15 


33-0 N. 137-5 E. 


+ •045 


Apr. 26 


8 


55-0 S. 1450 E. 


--030 


May 14 


7 


36-5 N. 70-5 E. 


+ •020 


May 15 


18 


30-5 N. 138-5 E. 


+ 050 


May 27 


2 


36-5 N. 1.33-0 E. 


+ •050 


June 7 


23 


3-0 N. 80-5 W. 


+ •045 


June 20 


13 


37-0 N. 72-0 E. 


+ •040 


June 23 


16 


00 750 W. 


+ •025 


Sept. 23 


20 


36-5 N. 70-6 E. 


+ •020 


Sept. 29 


17 


18-0 N. 64-0 W. 


+ •005 


Oct. 5 


4 


12-3 N. 85-8 W. 


+ •020 


Oct. 13 


17 


10-2 N. 42-8 W. 


+ -005 


Oct. 20 


9 


27-3 N. 138-6 E. 


+ -050 


Deo. 18 


18 


36-8 N. 69-5 E. 


+ -030 


1926 Jan. 15 


14 


450 N. 143-0 E. 


+ •060 


Feb. 1 


1 


10-6 N. 65-6 W. 


+ •025 


Feb. 7 


2 


3-0 S. 151-5 E. 


+ •040 


Feb. 9 





27-0 S. 59-6 W. 


+ •090 


Feb. 15 


2 


11-7 N. 89-6 W. 


+ ■015 


Mar. 16 


17 


16-0 S. 171-0 W. 


+ •020 


Mar. 25 


19 


11-0 S. 134-0 E. 


+ •020 



i 



I 



The cases of abnormaUy deep focus noticed in the years 1918-0-1926^25 are distri- 
buted as follows. The unit of depth is 0^010 radius of 40 miles. Occasionally the 
depth is estimated to ^005 ; these cases have been assigned half to each of the neigh- 
bouring groups : — 

Distribution of focal depths. (D) 
(Unit of D is 0-010 radius.) 



D= 1 



6 



8 



9 



0=24 


20 


23 


16 


15 


13 


5 


2 


1 


Ci=98 


58 


34 


20 


12 


7 


41 


2^4 


14 


0^=38 


34 


28 


20 


14 


9 


5-3 


2-8 


l-i 


C,= 26 


25 


23 


19 


14^5 


9^6 


53 


2^5 


0-9 



At one time it seemed possible that there were certain critical depths near which 
the foci were hkely to occur ; but ■with the accumulation of more cases this hypothesis 
is not supported. The figures (which are the observations) suggest rather a regular 
faUing-ofI according to some exponential of the focal depth. The three lines below 
it are calculated from the formulae 



log Ci=222-0^23D. 
logC.2=r60-0-018 D-^. 
log C3 =-r41 -0^0020 D-\ 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 249 

Cj fits the observations best, especially for D«= 1 and D= 2. But it is a question 
whether the fit ought to be good at these depths, for there may be many cases of small 
focal depth which have escaped detection owing to insufficiency of observations ; 
and when D=0 the number of cases is certainly very large, though it is not easy to 
give a precise value to it. 

The single case D=9 occurs on 1926, February 9d. Oh. with epicentre 27°-0 S. 
59°*5 W. It is the deepest focus yet determined ; but the evidence for this exceptional 
depth seems good. The epicentre is practically fixed by observations at La Plata, 
Sucre and La Paz, aU within 15° of it ; but nine observatories in Europe (azimuth 43°) 
then require a correction to A of more than 10° ; and two others in N. America 
(azimuth 346°) a correction of 10°. Four Asian stations at distances from 130° to 170° 
receive [P] about 80 sec. early, and fourteen European stations with A from 94° to 117° 
receive [S] about 2 min. too early. AU the evidence hangs together. Moreover, though 
this is actually the greatest depth hitherto required, there are two cases requiring 
0-080, not much less, on 1921 Dec. 18d. 15h. 29m. 24s. at 2°-5 S. 71°0 W., and on 
1922 Sept. 4d. 17h. 4m. 8s. at 9°-0 S. 66°-0 W. It will be seen that all three extreme 
cases occur in S. America. The six cases of 0-070 are as foUows : — - 

Lat. Long. 







d. 


h. 


m. 


s. 


O 


O 


1918 


Apr. 


10 


2 


3 


44 


44-0 N. 


131-0 E. 


1918 


Dec. 


25 


10 


21 


10 


7-0 S. 


1530 E. 


1920 


May 


6 


9 


40 


30 


44-0 N. 


131-0 E. 


1920 


July 


2 


18 


41 


5 


7-0 S. 


153-0 E. 


1922 


Jan. 


17 


3 


50 


24 


2-0 S. 


72-0 W. 


1924 


May 


25 


13 


46 


40 


190 S. 


179-0 E. 



Of these six only one is in S. America, so that the other three cases seem to have 
a quite exceptional character. 

Periodicities. 

Attention has been chiefly directed to the period of approximately 21 minutes. 
Two papers have been published in the Oeophysical Supplement to the R.A.S. Monthly 
Notices ; one (April 1928) presenting the discussion of eleven separate series of repeti- 
tions from the same epicentre, apparently shows that the precise value of the period 
varies with the latitude, being about 21-2 min . near latitude 45° and less than 
21-0 min. in seven other cases ; the second paper (October 1928) deals with the earth- 
quakes recorded in the PhiUppines in the nine years 1918-1926, which consistently 
show a periodicity near 20-993026 min. (given in the paper by an unfortunate oversight 
as 20.993342 min.). The character of the variation is a sharp rise in frequency 
(possibly per saltum) with a subsequent steady fall. 

The total counts for twelve equal subdivisions of the period adopted are as follows, 
starting with the maximum : — 

=150 128 141 123 130 127 132 114 116 106 112 104 

Assuming a uniform slope of 3-4 per term we get 

Ci=142 138 135 
0-Ci=+8 -10 +6 
0-C.3= + 3 -5 +1 

There is a curious feature in the residuals 0— Ci, viz., the alternation of -f- and — 
signs, which makes the mean odd residual +5 and the mean even residual —5. If 
this difference is allowed for as in the line 0— Co, the sum of the squares of the residuals 
is reduced from 461 to 159. But the main feature of the O totals is clearly the drop 
of 3-4 per term. These are totals for nine years, so that for a single year the drop or 
slope would be 3-4/9= -38. In the paper these slopes are calculated for the separate 
years 1918-1926 and found to be 

+ -21, +-20, +-60, +-44, +-44, +-30, +-21, +-42, +-55, 

sho-wlng a mean value +-37 -with a mean departure of +-13. The evidence of the 
nine years is thus satisfactorily consistent. 



132 


128 


125 


122 


119 


115 


112 


109 


105 


-9 


+ 2 


+ 2 


+ 10 


-5 


+ 1 


-6 


+ 3 


-1 


-4 


-3 


+ 7 


+ 3 


+ 2 


-4 


-1 


-2 


+ 4 



250 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

But this valuable series of Philippine records does not begin with 1918 ; it extends 
back at least to 1890, and it was clearly desirable to examine the earlier years to see 
how far they support the evidence of 1918-26. This examination has been made, 
and the results are nearly ready for presentation, though owing to various circum- 
stances the amount of work has been considerable. 

Briefly, the earlier years show the periodicity indicated by 1918-26, with a slight 
change of period which is only reasonable ; but it has been necessary to examine 
another sensibly different periodicity. Further, the years 1890-1903, though not so 
valuable as those which follow, still contribute to the testimony, but require special 
treatment. 

The Interchange of Seismological Information. 

At the beginning of 1929 as the result of negotiations opened by the Director of 
the Meteorological Office, there was an important extension of the system of 
exchange of seismological information by wireless telegraphy. When large earth- 
quakes occur, data collected by the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the United States 
are now added to the meteorological messages broadcast from Arlington. These 
messages are re-broadcast from the Eiffel Tower. To begin -n-ith, the broadcast 
data referred only to the seismograms at two selected stations. Since May the 
positions of the epicentres as determined by the Coast and Geodetic Survey have 
been given as well. 

During the half year, January to June 1929, there were seventeen occasions on 
which details of earthquakes were broadcast from Arlington and picked up at the 
Air Ministry, London. 

Particulars of the code used for the seismological reports can be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Kew Observatory, Richmond, Surrey. 



1 

I 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 251 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables— Report of Committee 

(Prof. J. W. NiCHOLSOX, Chairman ; Dr. J. R. Airey, Secretary ; 

Drs. L. J. CoMRiE and A. T. Doodson ; Prof. L. N. G. Filon, 

Drs. R. A. Fisher and J. Henderson ; Prof. E. W. Hobson ; 

Mr. J. 0. Irwin, Profs. A. Lodge, A. E. H. Love and H. M. 

Macdonald; Drs. A. J. Thompson and J. F. Tocher; Mr. T. 

Whitwell and Dr. J. Wishart). 

(Note. — The Committee of Section A reports that owing to the special circumstances 

of the South African Meeting the full report of the Committee on the Calculation 

of Mathematical Tables could not be received. The following consists of such 

portions of the report as are at present available for publication.) 

NEW TABLES IN COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION. 

The present Report contains Prof. A. Lodge's tables of Harmonic Series, 9 (x), 
which extend over the range x from 00 to 60-3 by 0-1 intervals to sixteen 
places and x from 5000 to 51-00 by 0-01 intervals to ten places with first and 

second differences. This function is equivalent to Y+ j log^ P(l + x), where 

y is Euler's constant, the value of which is given below to twenty decimal places. 

Some other tables have been completed and others are nearing completion, which 

will, in due course, be submitted to the Committee for consideration. These 

include Zonal Harmonics with first derivative, P„ (cos 0) and — P„ (cos 0), 

n from 1 to 20, from 0° to 90° by 5° intervals, to twelve places. 

Gaussian functions G"'((a), n and m from 11 to 20, [l from 0-00 to 1-00 by 0-05 
intervals, eight or nine places. 

Besself unction product, I.^G^ argument x v~, real part Yr(x), imaginary partV„(a;), 
X from 0-00 to 10-00 by 0-02 intervals and higher values of x, with the first 
ten zeros of these functions, six places. 

Bessel functions and first and second derivatives, J^{x), ^ Jvi^), -g^j J. (x)> 

X from 1 to 20, and v from a;— 1 to a;+ 1 by 0- 1 intervals, six, five and four places. 
Bessel functions of imaginary order, Jaii^)- 

THE TABULATION OF THE SUMMATION FUNCTION FOR 

HARMONIC SERIES. 
By Prof. Alfred Lodge. 

in which 9(a;+l)=——+9(a;) 



(1) 



When X is an integer, (f{x)=l + -^+ „+ • • • +-• 

-a-i-H- ■ • • ) 

= 2(l-log,2) (2) 

For small values of x the following formula is available : 



9W=^+Aa-A3xHA,-r^ • • • -^-'^y'~'\^"+^i^{^) + ¥^^:^)-^ ' ' " J ' ^^^' 



252 



where A,. — -; 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 
1 



3' 4:'- 



ad inf.. 



but for general purposes the best formula seems to be 

9W=Y+|log, (x^+x)+:R 

where y=0-57721 56649 01532 86060 . . . 



(4) 



and 4=6 
R 



1 IQ 1^ 

^ '5 525 ' 375^ ' 



the first two terms of which are suiScient for tabulation purposes to seven or more 
decimal places when x exceeds seven. 

The expression for R may also be written in either of the following forms : 

1 1,4 1 , 32 , 

,1 • • • 



R = 



6(a:2 



orR = 



1 



30(x^+x)'^ 315(x2+xf 105(a;2+a;) 
19 43 



; + 



2310(a:-+x)5 



6(a;2+a;+^)^3150(a;'i+xf 6250(a:-2+x)4" 



-6{x^+x+l) 



+ li75+3l50;^"'+")~ 



' U2 



125^6250 



(x^+x)-i+ 



The method adopted for the tabulation was the direct calculation and addition of 
the reciprocals of the successive integers up to a;=61, and the calculation by formulae 
(2)and(l) for the half integers, and the use of (4) for x =50-1 to 50-9 to 16 decimals, 
from which by means of (1) all the other values of the function were tabulated. The 
last place of decimals is necessarily approximate, but I do not think it is anywhere 
more than a unit out. 

The later part of the work was much facilitated by using a wonderful table of 
reciprocals published in 1823, and kindly presented to me by the Rev. J. J. Milne. 

A further check was obtained by independent calculation by (4) of the part 
between a;=10-l and x=10-9. Also ^(O-l) was calculated from (3) and found to agree 
weU with the value already calculated. 

The table could be extended beyond its present limits by means of (1), or it could 
be dispensed with by using the formula (4). 

Interpolations in the present tables could be made by either of the formula given 
below, or by the 'difference' method, which would, however, be very cumbrous in 
some of the earlier portions. 

With a view to filling in a more complete table I have tabulated the function 
between a;=50 and 51 to 001 intervals to 10 decimals. This would be a foundation 
for more detailed tabulation in the other dekads. 

In an Appendix I give the method of obtaining the important formula (4), and 
also allied formulae from which the sums of reciprocals of other odd powers could be 
obtained. 

Interpolation Formula. 

First Method ; <p(a+x) = (l + A)-r(p(a) leads to the series 



<p(a+a:)=q)(a)+-— Y + 



x(\—x) 



x(l— x)(2— a;) 



a+1 2(a+l)(a+2)^3(a+l)(a+2)(a+3) 

Second Method : 9(a)=y+i log a(a+l)+Eo 

cp(a+a;)=Y+-J log (a+x)(a+l+a;)+Ri 



+ .. 



/ , ^ / > ill «+« , , a+l + a;] 
<p(«+ x;- 9(a) = ^ log ^ + log ^^^ [ 



='( 



+ 



1 



c/ 3 



1 



which is practical]}' equal to 



2a+x 2a+2+a;/ ' 3" 

X 



-+i 



2a+x 2a+2+a; 
when X is small compared with a. 



l(2a+xy 
(Ro 



.+ 



-(Ro-Ri) 
1 

(2a.+ 2+xf 

Ri) 



1 



+ . .-(R,-Ri), 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



253 



Values 


„,(i_ i,U(' 1 


X 


-x-f3)+ ■■•^'^^- 


X 


V x+iy V2 x-f 


00 


000 


5-4 


2-35335 90607 855336 


0-1 


015346 07244 904561 


6-5 


2-37012 69953 014658 


0-2 


0-28817 57683 093447 


5-6 


2-38661 90129 874262 


0-3 


0-40802 47760 347333 


5-7 


2-40284 40284 713512 


0-4 


0-51583 11203 164167 


5-8 


2-41881 05320 674308 


0-6 


0-61370 56388 801094 


5-9 


2-43452 66162 332198 


0-6 


0-70326 31176 750092 


60 


2-45 


0-7 


0-78576 35397 750269 


6-1 


2-46523 80515 595792 


0-8 


0-86220 70981" 953944 


6-2 


2-48024 78091 717082 


0-9 


0-93339 98260 655927 


6-3 


2-49503 60005 395190 


10 


1-00 


6-4 


2-50960 90607 855336 


11 


1-06255 16335 813652 


6-5 


2-52397 31491 476196 


1-2 


1-12150 91016 426781 


6-6 


2-53813 41645 025778 


1-3 


1-17725 55452 655025 


6-7 


2-55209 77598 146348 


1-4 


1-23011 68346 021310 


6-8 


2-56586 93555 968426 


1-5 


1-28037 23055 467760 


6-9 


2-57945 41524 651039 


1-6 


1-32826 31176 750092 


70 


2-59285 71428 571429 


1-7 


1-37399 88338 926739 


71 


2-60608 31219 821144 


1-8 


1-41776 26537 509500 


7-2 


2-61913 66980 605971 


1-9 


1-45971 56155 392769 


7-3 


2-63202 23019 093821 


2-0 


1-50 


7-4 


2-64474 41959 206688 


2-1 


1-53874 21097 718414 


7-5 


2-65730 64824 809530 


2-2 


1-57605 45561 881326 


7-6 


2-66971 31118 709988 


2-3 


1-61203 81539 611547 


7-7 


2-68196 78896 847646 


2-4 


1-64678 35012 687977 


7-8 


2-69407 44838 019708 


2-5 


1-68037 23055 467760 


7-9 


2-70603 64309 461165 


2-6 


1-71287 85022 903938 


8-0 


2-71785 71428 571429 


2-7 


1-74436 92042 630443 


8-1 


2-72953 99121 055712 


2-8 


1-77490 55108 938071 


8-2 


2-74108 79175 727922 


2-9 


1-80454 32017 461735 


8-3 


2-75250 42296 202254 


30 


1-83333 33333 333333 


8-4 


2-76379 18149 682878 


31 


1-86132 27549 331317 


8-5 


2-77495 35413 044824 


3-2 


1-88855 45561 881326 


8-6 


2-78599 21816 384407 


3-3 


1-91506 84569 914577 


8-7 


2-79691 04184 203968 


3-4 


1-94090 11483 276212 


8-8 


2-80771 08474 383344 


3-5 


1-96608 65912 610618 


8-9 


2-81839 59815 079143 


3-6 


1-99065 62800 681716 


9-0 


2-82896 82539 682540 


3-7 


2-01463 94745 333146 


9-1 


2-83943 00219 956811 


3-8 


203806 34056 306492 


9-2 


2-84978 35697 467052 


3-9 


2-06095 34581 564299 


9-3 


2-86003 11113 406555 


40 


208333 33333 333333 


9-4 


2-87017 47936 916921 


41 


2-10522 51939 575220 


9-5 


2-88021 66991 992192 


4-2 


2-12664 97942 833707 


9-6 


2-89015 88483 051073 


4-3 


2-14762 65965 263414 


9-7 


2-90000 32019 255514 


4-4 


2-16817 38756 003485 


9-8 


2-90975 16637 648650 


4-5 


2-18830 88134 832840 


9-9 


2-91940 60825 180153 


4-6 


2-20804 75844 159977 


10-0 


2-92896 82539 682540 


4-7 


2-22740 54319 801231 


10-1 


2-93843 99229 857801 


4-8 


2-24639 67389 639825 


10-2 


2-94782 27854 329797 


4-9 


2-26503 50908 094910 


10-3 


i 2-95711 84899 814322 


50 


2-28333 33333 333333 


10-4 


2-96632 86398 455382 


5-1 


2-30130 36253 300709 


10-5 


2-97545 47944 373145 


5-2 


2-31895 74865 910630 


10-6 


2-98449 84709 466168 


5-3 


2-33630 58418 093603 


10-7 


2-99346 11458 507850 



254 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Values ok (l- A.) + (^-^2) + (I'ih) + ' ' ' "^ m/.-contd. 



X 




X 




10-8 


300234 42563 574576 


16-2 


3-39277 36925 482304 


10-9 


301114 92017 840704 


16-3 


3-39874 20884 414000 


110 


3-01987 73448 773449 


16-4 


3-40467 50841 887236 


111 


3-02853 00130 758702 


16-5 


3-41057 30971 302170 


11-2 


303710 84997 186940 


16-6 


3.41643 65372 710434 


11-3 


3-04561 40652 026712 


16-7 


3-42226 58074 523479 


11-4 


3-05404 79380 911523 


16-8 


3-42806 13035 171475 


11-5 


3-06241 13161 764449 


16-9 


3-43382 34144 714491 


11-6 


307070 53674 983409 


170 


3-43955 25226 407579 


11-7 


3-07893 12313 208706 


17-1 


3-44524 90038 221346 


11-8 


3-08709 00190 693220 


17-2 


3-45091 32274 319513 


11-9 


3-09518 28152 294485 


17-3 


3-45654 55566 494924 


120 


3-10321 06782 106782 


17-4 


3-46214 63485 565397 


121 


3-11117 46411 750438 


17-5 


3-46771 59542 730741 


12-2 


3-11907 57128 334481 


17-6 


3-47325 47190 892253 


12-3 


3-12691 48782 108013 


17-7 


3-47876 29825 935909 


12-4 


3-13469 30993 814749 


17-8 


3-48424 10787 980464 


12-5 


314241 13161 764449 


17-9 


3-48968 93362 591586 


12-6 


3-15007 04468 634203 


180 


3-49510 80781 963135 


12-7 


3-15767 13888 011855 


18-1 


3-50049 76226 066650 


12-8 


3-16521 50190 693220 


18-2 


3-50585 82823 770063 


12-9 


317270 21950 744098 


18-3 


3-51119 03653 926618 


130 


3-18013 37551 337551 


18-4 


3-51649 41746 434962 


131 


318751 05190 376392 


18-5 


3-52177 00083 271282 


13-2 


3-19483 32885 910239 


18-6 


3-52701 81599 494403 


13-3 


3-20210 28481 356133 


18-7 


3-53223 89184 224679 


13-4 


3-20931 99650 531166 


18-8 


3-53743 25681 597485 


13-5 


3-21648 53902 505190 


18-9 


3-54259 93891 692116 


13-6 


3-22359 98586 281262 


19-0 


3-54773 96571 436819 


13-7 


3-23066 40895 311125 


19-1 


3-55285 36435 490734 


13-8 


3.23767 87871 852641 


19-2 


3-55794 16157 103396 


13-9 


3-24464 46411 175752 


19-3 


3-56300 38368 952525 


140 


3-25156 23265 623266 


19-4 


3-56804 05663 960735 


141 


3-25843 25048 532420 


19-5 


3-57305 20596 091794 


14-2 


3-26525 58238 022915 


19-6 


3-57803 85681 127056 


14-3 


3-27203 29180 656832 


19-7 


3-58300 03397 422648 


14-4 


3-27876 44094 975611 


19-8 


3-58793 76186 647990 


14-5 


3-28545 09074 918983 


19-9 


3-59285 06454 506186 


14-6 


3-29209 30093 130577 


20-0 


3-59773 96571 436819 


14-7 


3-29869 13004 154663 


20-1 


3-60260 48873 301679 


14-8 


3-30524 63547 528316 


20-2 


3-60744 65662 053891 


14-9 


3-31175 87350 773068 


20-3 


3.61226 49206 390949 


150 


3-31822 89932 289932 


20-4 


3-61706 01742 392108 


151 


3-32465 76704 161559 


20-5 


3-62183 25474 140575 


15-2 


3-33104 52974 865020 


20-6 


3-62658 22574 330940 


15-3 


3-33739 23951 898662 


20-7 


3-63130 95184 862262 


15-4 


3-34369 94744 326260 


20-8 


3-63601 45417 417221 


15-5 


3-34996 70365 241564 


20-9 


3-64069 75354 027717 


15-6 


3-35619 55734 156218 


21-0 


3-64535 87047 627295 


15-7 


3-36238 55679 313898 


21-1 


3-64999 82522 590779 


15-8 


3-36853 74939 933380 


21-2 


3-65461 63775 261438 


15-9 


3-37465 18168 383131 


21-3 


3-65921 32774 466066 


160 


3-38072 89932 289932 


21-4 


3-66378 91462 018276 


161 


3-38676 94716 583919 


21-5 


3-66834 41753 210342 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 255 



X 




X 




21-6 


3-67287 85537 293903 


270 


3-89145 67532 520824 


21-7 


3-67739 24677 949819 


27-1 


3-89508 61229 601116 


21-8 


3-68188 61013 747496 


27-2 


3-89870 23693 928280 


21-9 


3-68635 96358 593927 


27-3 


3-90230 55871 019231 


220 


3-69081 32502 172750 


27-4 


3-90589 58696 210134 


22-1 


3-69524 71210 373584 


27-5 


3-90947 33094 802026 


22-2 


3-69966 14225 711889 


27-6 


3-91303 79982 203840 


22-3 


3-70405 63267 739609 


27-7 


3-91659 00264 072898 


22-4 


3-70843 20033 446847 


27-8 


3-92012 94836 452912 


22-5 


3-71278 86197 654787 


27-9 


3-92365 64585 909563 


22-6 


3-71712 63413 400097 


28-0 


3-92717 10389 663681 


22-7 


3-72144 53312 311053 


28-1 


3-93067 33115 722113 


22-8 


3-72574 57504 975566 


28-2 


3-93416 33623 006295 


22-9 


3-73002 77581 301351 


28-3 


3-93764 12761 478595 


230 


3-73429 151 10' 868402 


28-4 


3-94110 71372 266472 


23- 1 


3-73853 71643 274017 


28-5 


3-94456 10287 784482 


23-2 


3-74276 48708 470509 


28-6 


3-94800 30331 854190 


23-3 


3-74697 47817 095832 


28-7 


3-95143 32319 822027 


23-4 


3-75110 70460 797275 


28-8 


3-95485 17058 675135 


23-5 


3-75534 18112 548404 


28-9 


3-95825 85347 155238 


23-6 


3-75949 92226 959419 


29-0 


3-96165 37975 870577 


23-7 


3-76363 94240 581095 


29-1 


3-96503 75727 405962 


23-8 


3-76776 25572 202457 


29-2 


3-96840 99376 430952 


23-9 


3-77186 87623 142355 


29-3 


3-97177 09689 806240 


240 


3-77595 81777 535069 


29-4 


3-97512 07426 688241 


24] 


3-78003 09402 610117 


29-5 


3-97845 93338 631939 


24-2 


3-78408 71848 966377 


29-6 


3-98178 68169 692028 


24-3 


3-78812 70450 840688 


29-7 


3-98510 32656 522363 


24-4 


3-79215 06526 371045 


29-8 


3-98840 87528 473792 


24-5 


3-79615 81377 854626 


29-9 


3-99170 33507 690355 


24-6 


3-80014 96292 000070 


30-0 


3-99498 71309 203911 


24-7 


3-80412 52540 176237 


30-1 


3-99826 01641 027224 


24-8 


3-80808 51378 654070 


30-2 


4-00152 25204 245522 


24-9 


3-81202 94048 845166 


30-3 


4-00477 42693 106570 


250 


3-81595 81777 535069 


30-4 


400801 54795 109293 


25-1 


3-81987 15777 112109 


30-5 


4-01124 62191 090956 


25-2 


3-82376 97245 791774 


30-6 


4-01446 65555 312943 


25-3 


3-82765 27367 836735 


30-7 


4-01767 65555 545165 


25.4 


3-83152 07313 772620 


30-8 


4-02087 62853 149117 


25-5 


3-83537 38240 599624 


30-9 


4-02406 58103 159611 


25-6 


3-83921 21292 000070 


31-0 


4-02724 51954 365201 


25-7 


3-84303 57598 541995 


31-1 


4-03041 45049 3S7353 


25-8 


3-84684 48277 878876 


31-2 


4-03357 38024 758342 


25-9 


3-85063 94434 945552 


31-3 


4-03672 31510 997944 


260 


3-85441 97162 150453 


31-4 


4-03986 26132 688911 


261 


3-85818 57539 564216 


31-5 


4-04299 22508 551273 


26-2 


3-86193 76635 104751 


31-6 


4-04611 21251 515474 


26-3 


3-86567 55504 718865 


31-7 


4-04922 22968 794376 


26-4 


3-86939 95192 560499 


31-8 


4-05232 28261 954148 


26-5 


3-87310 96731 165662 


31-9 


405541 37726 984062 


26-6 


3-87680 61141 624130 


320 


4-05849 51954 365201 


26-7 


3-88048 89433 747988 


321 


4-06156 71529 138132 


26-8 


3-88415 82606 237085 


32-2 


4-06462 97030 969522 


26-9 


3-88781 41646 841463 


32-3 


4-06768 29034 217758 



256 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Valtjesof(1 — ; ) + (-_ A+ {- — )+ . . . ad inf. — contd. 

V x+lj \2 x+2/ \3 a:+3/ '' 



X 




X 




32-4 


4-07072 68107 997553 


37-8 


4-22269 39624 662992 


32-5 


407376 14816 243581 


37-9 


4-22530 13781 596668 


32-6 


4-07678 69717 773143 


38-0 


4-22790 20132 953503 


32-7 


4-07980 33366 347893 


38-1 


4-23049 59030 454702 


32-8 


4-08281 06310 734636 


38-2 


4-23308 30823 092022 


32-9 


4-08580 89094 765217 


38-3 


4-23566 35857 155947 


330 


4-08879 82257 395504 


38-4 


4-23823 74476 263489 


331 


4-09177 86332 763509 


38-5 


4-24080 47021 385639 


33-2 


4-09476 01850 246631 


38-6 


4-24336 53830 874458 


33-3 


409771 29334 518058 


38-7 


4-24591 95240 489832 


33-4 


4-10066 69305 602344 


38-8 


4-24846 71583 426878 


33-5 


4-10361 22278 930148 


38-9 


4-26100 83190 337028 


33-6 


4-10654 88765 392191 


39-0 


4-25364 30389 363760 


33-7 


4-10947 69271 392403 


39-1 


4-25607 13606 158027 


33-8 


4-11239 64298 900317 


39-2 


4-25859 32863 908349 


33-9 


4-11530 74345 502680 


39-3 


4-26110 88783 364598 


340 


4-11820 99904 454328 


39-4 


4-26361 81582 862474 


341 


4-12110 41464 728319 


39-5 


4-26612 11678 347664 


34-2 


4-12398 99511 065344 


39-6 


4-26861 79083 399711 


34-3 


4-12686 74524 022431 


39-7 


4-27110 84409 255575 


34-4 


4-12973 66980 020948 


39-8 


4-27359 27864 832914 


34-5 


4-13259 77351 393916 


39-9 


4-27607 09756 753069 


34-6 


4-13545 06106 432653 


40-0 


4-27854 30389 363760 


34-7 


4-13829 53709 432749 


40-1 


4-28100 90064 761518 


34-8 


4-14113 20620 739397 


40-2 


4-28346 89082 813821 


34-9 


4-14396 07296 792079 


40-3 


4-28592 27741 180976 


350 


4-14678 14190 168613 


40-4 


4-28837 06335 337722 


35-1 


4-14959 41749 628603 


40-5 


4-29081 26168 594578 


35-2 


4-15239 90420 156253 


40-6 


4-29324 84502 118923 


35-3 


4-15519 60643 002601 


40-7 


4-29667 84654 955820 


35-4 


4-15798 52855 727163 


40-8 


4-29810 25904 048600 


35-5 


4-16076 67492 238987 


40-9 


4-30052 08534 259181 


35-6 


4-16354 04982 837147 


41 


4-30293 32828 388150 


35-7 


4-16630 65754 250676 


41-1 


4-30633 99067 194608 


35-8 


4-16906 50229 677945 


41-2 


4-30774 07529 415763 


35-9 


4-17181 68828 825505 


41-3 


4-31013 68491 786302 


360 


4-17455 91967 946391 


41-4 


4-31262 52229 057628 


361 


4-17729 50059 877911 


41-5 


4-31490 89014 016265 


36-2 


4-18002 33514 078905 


41-6 


4-31728 69117 503638 


36-3 


418274 42736 666513 


41-7 


4-31965 92808 433039 


36-4 


4-18545 78130 452438 


41-8 


4-32202 60353 809365 


36-5 


4-18816 40094 978713 


41-9 


4-32438 72018 746055 


36-6 


4-19086 29026 552994 


42-0 


4-32674 28066 483388 


36-7 


4-19355 45318 283374 


42-1 


4-32909 28758 406010 


36-8 


4-19623 89360 112727 


42-2 


4-33143 74354 060313 


36-9 


4-19891 61538 852605 


42-3 


4-33377 65111 171645 


370 


4-20158 62238 216661 


42-4 


4-33611 01286 661302 


371 


4-20424 91838 853652 


42-5 


i 4-33843 83131 663324 


37-2 


4-20690 50718 379980 


42-6 


4-34076 10901 641097 


37-3 


4-20955 39251 411822 


42-7 


4-34307 84846 903765 


37-4 


4-21219 67809 596823 


42-8 


4-34539 05213 622449 


37-5 


4-21483 06761 645379 


42-9 


4-34769 72261 846288 


37-6 


4-21745 86473 361605 


43-0 


4-34999 86206 018272 


37-7 


4-22007 97307 673294 


43-1 


i 4-35229 47319 890928 

1 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



257 



X 

\ 




X 

48-6 




43-2 


4-35458 55835 541794 


4-47109 19817 121026 


43-3 


4-35687 11993 388735 


48-7 


4-47312 65002 342828 


43-4 


4-35915 16032 205081 


48-8 


4-47515 68880 356153 


43-5 


4-36142 68189 134588 


48-9 


4-47718 31618 549062 


43-6 


4-36369 68699 706234 


49-0 


4-47920 53383 294251 


43-7 


4-36596 17797 848845 


491 


4-48122 34339 957253 


43-8 


4-36822 15715 905554 


49-2 


4-48323 74652 904547 


43-9 


4-37047 62684 648110 


49-3 


4-48524 74485 511587 


440 


4-37272 58933 290999 


49-4 


4-48725 34000 170759 


441 


4-37497 04689 505441 


49-5 


4-48925 53358 299248 


44-2 


4-37721 00179 433197 


49-6 


4-49125 32720 346832 


44-3 


4-37944 45627 700248 


49-7 


4-49324 72245 803593 


44-4 


4-38167 41257 430306 


49-8 


4-49523 72093 207559 


44-5 


4-38389 87290 258183 


49-9 


4-49722 32420 152268 


44-6 


4-38611 83946 343006 


50-0 


4-49920 53383 294251 


44-7 


4-38833 31444 381283 


50-1 


4-50118 35138 360447 


44-8 


4-39054 30001 619840 


50-2 


4-50315 77840 155543 


44-9 


4-39274 79833 868600 


50-3 


4-50512 81642 569241 


45-0 


4-39494 81155 513221 


50-4 


4-50709 46698 583457 


45-1 


4-39714 34179 527614 


50-5 


4-50905 73160 279446 


45-2 


4-39933 39117 486294 


50-6 


4-51101 61178 844856 


45-3 


4-40151 96179 576627 


50-7 


4-51297 10904 580713 


45-4 


4-40370 05574 610923 


50-8 


4-51492 22486 908346 


45-5 


4-40587 67510 038403 


50-9 


4-51686 96074 376237 


45-6 


4-40804 82191 957041 


51-0 


4-51881 31814 666800 


45-7 


4-41021 49825 125266 


51-1 


4-52075 29854 603108 


45-8 


4-41237 70612 973552 


51-2 


4-52268 90340 155543 


45-9 


4-41453 44757 615877 


51-3 


4-52462 13416 448383 


460 


4-41668 72459 861048 


51-4 


4-52654 99227 766336 


461 


4-41883 53919 223926 


51-5 


4-52847 47917 561000 


46-2 


4-42097 89333 936511 


51-6 


4-53039 59628 457259 


46-3 


4-42311 78900 958917 


51-7 


4-53231 34502 259630 


46-4 


4-42525 22815 990233 


51-8 


4-53422 72679 958539 


46-5 


4-42738 21273 479263 


51-9 


4-53613 74301 736545 


46-6 


4-42950 74466 635152 


52-0 


4-53804 39506 974492 


46-7 


4-43162 82587 437900 


521 


4-53994 68434 257619 


46-8 


4-43374 45826 648766 


52-2 


4-54184 61221 381597 


46-9 


4-43585 64373 820568 


52-3 


4-54374 18005 358517 


47-0 


4-43796 38417 307856 


52-4 


4-54563 38922 422825 


47-1 


4-44006 68144 277005 


52-5 


4-54752 24108 037190 


47-2 


4-44216 53740 716172 


52-6 


4-54940 73696 898324 


47-3 


4-44425 95391 445175 


52-7 


4-55128 87822 942742 


47-4 


4-44634 93280 125254 


62-8 


4-55316 66619 352478 


47-5 


4-44843 47589 268737 


52-9 


4-55504 10218 560742 


47-6 


4-45051 58500 248598 


530 


4-55691 18752 257511 


47-7 


4-45259 26193 307920 


531 


4-55877 92351 395095 


47-8 


4-45466 50847 569268 


53-2 


4-56064 31146 193627 


47-9 


4-45673 32641 043950 


53-3 


4-56250 35266 146510 


480 


4-45879 71750 641189 


53-4 


4-56436 04840 025821 


48-1 


4-46085 68352 177213 


53-5 


4-56621 39995 887658 


48-2 


4-46291 22620 384222 


53-6 


4-56806 40861 077428 


48-3 


4-46496 34728 919295 


53 7 


4-56991 07562 235107 


48-4 


4-46701 04850 373188 


53-8 


4-57175 40223 300434 


48-5 


4-46905 33156 279046 


53-9 


4-57359 38975 518070 



1929 



258 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Values of ( 1 — I + I - — — ;, 

x+lj \2 x+2 



+ 



\3 x+ 



+ 3 



+ 



ad inf. — contd. 



X 




X 




540 


4-57543 03937 442696 


57-2 


4.63248 53529 387605 


641 


4-57726 35234 944079 


57-3 


4-63421 


69118 399149 


54-2 


4-57909 32991 212077 


57-4 


4-63594 


54777 013612 


54-3 


4-58091 97328 761611 


57-5 


4-63767 


10608 520687 


54-4 


4-58274 28369 437586 


57-6 


4-63939 


36715 676318 


54-5 


4-58456 26234 419768 


57-7 


4-64111 


33200 706379 


54-6 


4-58637 91044 227611 


57-8 


4-64283 


00165 310308 


54-7 


4-58819 22918 725052 


57-9 


4-64454 


37710 664722 


54-8 


4-59000 21977 125251 


580 


4-64625 45937 426983 | 


54-9 


4-59180 88337 995302 


58-1 


4-64796 


24945 738759 


55-0 


4-59361 22119 260878 


58-2 


4-64966 


74835 229529 


55-1 


4-59541 23438 210866 


58-3 


4-65136 95705 020076 


55-2 


4-59720 92411 501932 


58-4 


4-65306 87653 725941 


55-3 


4-59900 29155 163058 


58-5 


4.65476 50779 460858 


55-4 


4-60079 33784 600041 


58-6 


4-65645 


85179 840141 


55-5 


4-60258 06414 599948 


58-7 


4-65814 


90951 984062 


55-6 


4-60436 47159 335525 


58-8 


4-65983 


68192 521192 


55-7 


4-60614 56132 369576 


58-9 


4-66152 


16997 591716 


55-8 


4-60792 33446 659302 


590 


4-66320 


37462 850712 


55-9 


4-60969 79214 560597 


59-1 


4-66488 


29683 471416 


56.0 


4-61146 93547 832306 


59-2 


4-66655 


93754 148448 


56-1 


4-61323 76557 640457 


59-3 


4-66823 


29769 101020 


56-2 


4-61500 28354 562430 


59-4 


4-66990 


37822 076109 


56-3 


4-61676 49048 591122 


59-5 


4-67157 


18006 351614 


56-4 


4-61852 38749 139048 


59-6 


4-67323 


70414 739470 


56-5 


4-62027 97565 042426 


59-7 


4-67489 


95139 588752 


56-6 


4-62203 25604 565207 


59-8 


4-67655 


92272 788751 


56-7 


4-62378 22975 403086 


59-9 


4-67821 


61905 772017 


56-8 


4.62552 89784 687471 


60-0 


4-67987 


04129 517378 


56-9 


4-62727 26138 989419 


60-1 


4-68152 


19034 552946 


570 


4-62901 32144 323534 


60-2 


4-68317 


06710 959081 


57-1 


4-63075 07906 151840 


60-3 


4-68481 


67248 371335 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 

r=oo 



259 



)=i 



x+r-' 



Expanded portion of the Table. 



X 

5000 


cpix) 


A 


-A'^ 


X 

50-50 


cp(a;) 
4-5090573160 


A 


-A2 


4-4992053383 


1979937 


391 


1960529 


384 


60-01 


4033320 


9546 


392 


50-51 


2533689 


1960145 


384 


5002 


6012866 


9154 


392 


50 52 


4493834 


1959761 


384 


5003 


7992020 


8762 


391 


50-53 


6453595 


9377 


383 


5004 


9970782 


8371 


392 


50-54 


8412972 


8994 


385 


50-05 


4-5001949153 


7979 


391 


50-55 


4-5100371966 


8609 


383 


5006 


3927132 


7588 


392 


50-56 


2330575 


8226 


384 


50-07 


5904720 


7196 


390 


50-57 


4288801 


7842 


382 


50-08 


7881916 


6806 


390 


50-58 


6246643 


7460 


384 


5009 


9858722 


6416 


391 


50-59 


8204103 


7076 


383 


5010 


4-5011835138 


6025 


390 


50-60 


4-5110161179 


6693 


383 


5011 


3811163 


5635 


391 


50-61 


2117872 


6310 


382 


5012 


5786798 


5244 


390 


50-62 


4074182 


5928 


382 


5013 


7762042 


4854 


389 


50-63 


6030110 


5546 


383 


50-14 


9736896 


4465 


390 


50-64 


7985656 


5163 


382 


5015 


4-5021711361 


4075 


390 


50-65 


9940819 


4781 


382 


50-16 


3685436 


3685 


390 


50-66 


4-5121895600 


4399 


382 


50-17 


5659121 


3295 


389 


50-67 


3849999 


4017 


382 


5018 


7632416 


2906 


388 


50-68 


5804016 


3635 


381 


5019 


9605322 


2518 


390 


50-69 


7757651 


3254 


382 


50-20 


4-5031577840 


2128 


388 


50-70 


9710905 


2872 


381 


50-21 


3549968 


1740 


389 


50-71 


4-5131663777 


2491 


382 


50-22 


5521708 


1351 


389 


50-72 


3616268 


2109 


380 


50-23 


7493059 


0962 


388 


50-73 


5568377 


1729 


381 


50-24 


9464021 


0574 


389 


50-74 


7520106 


1348 


381 


50-25 


4-5041434595 


1970185 


388 


50-75 


9471454 


0967 


380 


50-26 


3404780 


1969797 


387 


50-76 


4-5141422421 


0587 


380 


50-27 


5374577 


9410 


388 


50-77 


3373008 


1950207 


381 


50-28 


7343987 


9022 


388 


50-78 


5323215 


1949826 


380 


50-29 


9313009 


8634 


387 


50-79 


7273041 


9446 


380 


50-30 


4-5051281643 


8247 


388 


50-80 


9222487 


9066 


380 


50-31 


3249890 


7859 


387 


50-81 


4-5151171553 


8686 


379 


50-32 


5217749 


7472 


387 


50-82 


3120239 


8307 


380 


50-33 


7185221 


7085 


386 


50-83 


5068546 


7927 


379 


50-34 


9152306 


6699 


388 


50-84 


7016473 


7548 


380 


50-35 


4-5061119005 


6311 


386 


50-85 


8964021 


7168 


379 


50-36 


3085316 


5925 


386 


50-86 


4-5160911189 


6789 


378 


50-37 


5051241 


5539 


386 


50-87 


2857978 


6411 


379 


50-38 


7016780 


5153 


387 


50-88 


4804389 


6032 


379 


50-39 


8981933 


4766 


386 


50-89 


6750421 


5653 


379 


50-40 


4-5070946699 


4380 


386 


50-90 


8696074 


5274 


378 


50-41 


2911079 


3994 


385 


50-91 


4-5170641348 


4896 


377 


50-42 


4875073 


3609 


385 


50-92 


2586244 


4519 


379 


50-43 


6838682 


3224 


386 


50-93 


4530763 


4140 


377 


50-44 


8801906 


2838 


386 


50-94 


6474903 


3763 


378 


50-45 


4-5080764744 


2452 


384 


50-95 


8418666 


3385 


378 


50-46 


2727196 


2068 


385 


50-96 


4-5180362051 


3007 


378 


50-47 


4689264 


1683 


384 


50-97 


2305058 


2629 


377 


50-48 


6650947 


1299 


385 


50-98 


4247687 


2252 


376 


50-49 


4-5088612246 


1960914 


385 


50-99 
51-00 


6189939 
4-5188131815 


1941876 





s2 



260 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



APPENDIX. 

On the connection of the inverse powers of x (x—l) and x (x+ 1 ), toith the sums of the 
inverse odd powers of the successive numbers x, x-\- 1, a;+2, etc. 

x{x—\) X^\ X x^ x^ / 

Changing x into a;+l, which is the same thing as changing the sign of x, 

a;(a;+l) a;* \ x x^ x^ ) 

.-. 1 _ 1 -9/^1 + 1+ \ 

x(x—\) x{x + \) \x^ afi / 

Hence, writing a series of lines in which each is obtained from the preceding by I 
changing x into x+l, and adding, we get finally " 

1 1,1, J • / 

= —.+7 VTZ+ ... ad inf. 



2a; (a;- 1) a? (a; + 1)3 



+ i+.-L..+ . 



3fi (Z+1)5 



+ 



ad inf. 



which 



maybewritten2|,+ 2^4-2^+ • • • 

Also -_l_ = lA + 2+3 \ 

x^x-iyi x*\ x x-' } 

and therefore, by a similar process, 

and, in general, r being a positive integer, 

1 -^rV ^ ,r(r+l)(r+2) y 1 

2a;'' (a:-!)'' -4fa;-2'-i^ 1.2.3 Ax^r^s'^ " 

Hence, by choosing suitable coefficients, the quantities 5 ^' 5 — 



x^ 



any given combination of these, can be expressed as functions of { g in 

x(x — l)' 
series of its powers. 

All this holds whether x is an integer or a fraction, so long as it is positive anJ 
greater than 1 , 



ON CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 261 

To obtain the series of the first inverse powers of successive numbers as a 
function of a; (a; — 1) it is necessary to have recourse to logarithms. 

T-T 1 , x+1 1,1,1, 

Now log — -L^ = -+ — + + . . . 

1, x+2 1,1, 



2 ° X x+l S{x+iy' 



1 , a;+3 1,1, 

, log ' = + + 

2 ^ x+l x+2 3(x+2f 



1 , x+r+l 1,1, 

_ log — ! 1 — = + + . . . 

2 ^ x+r-l x+r 3(a;+rf 

and the sum = 1 log i^+^)(^+''+^) = 1 log (x+r) (x+r+ 1) - _^ log a; (x- J ). 

A X \X — X ) ^ ~ 

Now the limiting value ofl + -+ . . . +- = log r+y 

2 r 

where y = -57721 56649 01532 86060 . . . 

= - log a;(a;— 1) + y' + ^-^ + ''tc. as above, 
where y' becomes y in the limit when r -^ oo . 

Now the limit of ~ log (x+r) (a;+»'+ 1)— log '' is log i, i.e. zero, when r — ^ x . 

and, changing x into x+ 1, 

{'-^iHl-^)+ ■ ■ ■ =-^+^«g*(^+i)+3'2(^+ • • • 

If X is an integer, the left-hand side becomes 1 + ~ + . . . -f - • 

2 X 

We have therefore established this as a fimction of a;(a;+l), 

audl+-+ . . . + is the same function of X (a;— 1). 

2 ar— 1 

This completes the theorem regarding the series of all the odd powers. 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

To find the coefficients of the powers of [z{x — 1)]"' requisite torepresent any 
function A, 2 -\+ A. 51+ • • • + A,.^ -1-^+ . . . 

Letflr denote the coefficient of lx{x — 1)] "''. 

Then the following table will furnish the linear equations giving the values A,, 
etc., in terms of a,, . . . ; and their solutions will determine Oi . . . in 
terms of Ai, . . . 





A, 


A2 


A., 


A4 


A. 


Ae 


a. 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


a-i 




4 


8 


12 


16 


20 


03 






6 


20 


42 


72 


04 








8 


40 


112 


O5 










10 


70 


ae 




... 


... 




... 


12 



The table is to be read vertically. Thus 
2ai = Ai 

2a| + 4a.2 = A.) 

2a I + 8a.2+ 60^5 = Aj 
etc. 



whence 



:A, 



2ai 

402 = Ao — Ai, or, symbolical]}', A A] 
60;, = A..,— 2A2+A1 = A^A,, 
after which the results are not quite so simple. Thus 
203+ 804 = A4— 3A3+3A2— Ai=A-'A, 
1 6a.i + 1 Oo, = A, — 3 A4 + 3A3 — A2 = A'^Aa 
30% + 1 2ae = Ae - 4 A.5 + 6A4 - 4A;, + A.2 = A^ A2 
and beyond this : 

32a;+ 64ae+ 14^7 = A'A, 
64a6+ 98o7+16a8 = A"A:, 
126a,+ 144a„+ 18a,, = A«A,,. 
But ordy the earlier coefficients are as a rule needed. 

The coefficients required for >" — are Oi = -; 02 = - 
_, o, = 0; a2=-; %=- 

3 '^ x^ 5 A x'^ 1 A x'' 



1 
4' 



0.1 = 



6' 



for 



for 



11 
'24' 



77 + 



aj=- 



1 

6' 



1 . 
30" 



5.7.9 



1 
3.5.7' 



32 
2310' 



and if we require the sums of the inverse odd powers, starting at x-\- 1 instead 
of X, the same coefficients are needed, but a; (*+ 1) takes the place of a:(a;— 1), and 
now X may be any positive number. 



ON BIOLOGICAL STATION— OVERSTRAIN KD MATERIALS. 263 



Fresh-Water Biological Station. — Report of the Committee (Prof. 
F. E. Fritsch, Chairman; Prof. F. Balfour Browne, Secretary; 
Dr. B. M. Griffiths, Dr. Gurney, Prof. H. S. Holden, Dr. W. H. 
Pearsall, Dr. B. S. Russell, Mr. J. T. Saunders) appointed to 
consider the means to he adopted for the establishment of a suitably 
equipped Fresh-water Biological Station. 

This Committee has held three meetings for the consideration of the object for 
which it was appointed, and it has decided that the best means for attaining that 
object is the formation of a British Fresh- water Biological Asfsociation. 

Steps have now been taken by those interested in the subject towards the forma- 
tion of such an Association, which, however, is outside the work of this committee, 
which has now completed its work. 



Stresses in Overstrained Materials. — Report of the Committee 
(Sir Henry Fowler, Chctirman; Mr. J. G.'Docherty, Secretary ; 
Prof. G. Cook, Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. Wilson). 

The first meetings of the Committee were devoted to general discussions of the 
problem, and the best method of investigation. 

The following programme of work was finally approved, and is in progress : — 

1. An investigation of the stress- strain relation beyond the yield point, and an 
examination of any work already done on this subject. 

2. A theoretical investigation of the stress and strain distribution beyond the 
clastic hmit or yield point, in bodies of relatively simple geometrical form, e.g. 
simple beams, thick tubes, &c. 

3. Experimental verification of the above examples. 

4. A paper on the effect of overstrain in producing ' triple tensile stress ' or 
' fluid tension ' (i.e. the reverse of fluid pressure), and the effect of such stress in 
producing fracture. 

5. General papers discussing the application of the foregoing theories and experi- 
ments to practical problems in the light of experience. 

The committee have co-opted Prof. G. Cook, D.Sc, and he has expressed his 
willingness to serve. 

The committee ask to be reappointed for another year, as the work is stiU in its 
initial stages. The terms of reference were wide, and much time was spent before 
the above programme was approved. 

No part of the grant has been spent this year, but it is hoped that the grant may 
be continued next year. 



264 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE, ETC. 



Sutnerian Copper. — Second Interim Report of Committee (Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake, Chairman ; Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Secretary ; Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. H. 
Desch, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. S. Langdon, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir 
Flinders Petrie, Mr. C. Leonard Woolley) appointed to report on 
the probable source of the supply of copper used by the Sumerians. 

(By Prof. C. H. Desch, F.R.S., University of Sheffield.) 

The grant made at the Glasgow Meeting has made it possible to employ Mr. E. S. 
Carey on the work of analysis since the beginning of last session. A variety of material 
has been examined, but the bulk of the specimens from Ur have not been received 
in time to include the results in this report. The specimens from Mohenjo-Daro, 
which were analysed numbered 64, most of which were of copper containing no more 
than traces of nickel. Twenty of them, however, contained appreciable quantities 
of nickel, the highest value found being 1-49 per cent., whilst 0-3 per cent, was more 
usual, the proportion thus being similar to that found in specimens from Mesopotamia. 
Nine of the specimens proved to be bronze, with tin ranging from 5-6 to 19-1 per cent., 
those rich in tin containing little or no nickel. The specimens from the 1927 excava- 
tions were richer in nickel than those found in 1920. 

A parcel of specimens from the grave of Queen Shubaid at Ur was received. A 
bronze bowl, of which many fragments were found, contained 8-3 per cent, of tin and 
0-51 per cent, of nickel. Silver fragments from the same source were found to contain 
a small proportion of gold. These specimens show the laminated structure of corroded 
bronze and silver objects very well, and an investigation is in progress, the object of 
which is to determine the mechanism of corrosion, in order to decide as to the extent 
to which analysis of a completely corroded object may be taken as indicating the 
composition of the original metal. This investigation, on which a fuUer report wUl 
be made later, involves the preparation of micro-sections as well as chemical analysis. 

Nickel in quantities ranging from 0-006 to 0-21 per cent, was found in a series of 
six tin bronzes from the 1928 work at Kish, the tin varying from 3 to 13 per cent. 
A small fragment included in the original batch of material received from Miss Bell 
gave tin 3-27 and nickel 0-54 per cent. Small specimens from the First and Third 
Egyptian dynasties from the Ashmolean Museum yielded only traces of tin and nickel. 

Twenty specimens were received from Sir Aurel Stein, mostly from Makran. 
These were of very variable composition, the tin ranging from to 27 per cent., and 
nickel being absent or only present in traces except in one copper specimen, which 
contained no less than 1-77 per cent. 

Among other objects some small rings from Secunderabad, India, have been 
analysed. One, weighing 0-042 gramme, consisted of pure gold, whilst another, 
white in colour, was of electrum, containing 28 per cent, of gold. 

A copper slag from Chrysocamino, Crete, received from Mr. 0. Davies, was free 
from nickel, and completely simOar to Roman copper slag from Sjain. 

A small double axe from Southern Thessaly was too thin to be drilled for analysis 
without spoiling it, so a spectrographic analysis was made by Mr. D. M. Smith, by 
the kindness of Mr. Twyman, of Messrs. Adam Hilger, and of the Non-ferrous Metals 
Research Association. The results showed : — 

per cent. 
0-1 



Arsenic 










0-5 


Bismuth 










0-005 


Iron 










0-16 


Lead 










over 0-5 


Nickel 










0-06 


SUicon 










01 


Tin . 










over 1 



(The spectrographic method unfortunately breaks down for the tin analysis, this 
metal being present in large proportion. It is hoped that this difficulty will be 
overcome.) 



ON KENT'S CAVERN, TORQUAY. 265 

The subject of early iron objects has not been overlooked, the statement having 
been recently repeated that iron was smelted as early as 3000 B.C., in spite of the 
evidence that such early iron objects are of meteoritic origin. Scraps of the well- 
known iron ingot, found in the palace of Khorsatad, were received from Mr. G. A. 
VVainwright.. of Cairo, and were found to contain neither nickel nor manganese. An 
iron fragment included in the batch received from Miss Bell and marked ' not later 
than 600 b.c' also contained no nickel. 

I have been informed by Dr. John Evans that he has recently found copper ores 
containing both nickel and manganese in Sinai. 

I shall be glad if tlie committee may be allowed to retain the unexpended balance 
of the grant. 



Kent's Cavern, Torquay.- — Report of ConimUtce appointed to co-operate 
with the Torquay Natural History Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. 
(Sir A. Keith, Chairman ; Prof. J. L. Myres, Secretary ; Mr. M. C. 
BuRKiTT. Dr. R. V. Favell, Mr. fx. A. Garfitt, Miss D. A. E. Garrod. 
Prof. W. J. Sollas.) 

In the report of last year reasons were given for stopping work in the Vestibule of 
Kent's Cavern, and after due consideration, it was decided to commence this season's 
operations on January 7, in the Wolf's Cave. This is a chamber situated nearly 
north-west of the Vestibule, branching off from the intervening Sloping Chamber, and 
is 100 feet from, and vertically about 20 feet below, the entrances to Kent's Cavern. 

The Wolf's Cave has a continuous western wall, which, as one of the Cavern's main 
walls, extends down the Long Arcade into the interior ; its eastern wall commences 
where the chamber branches off the Sloping Chamber, and from that point to its 
N.W. end is 28 feet. 

At 12 feet from the begioning of the eastern wall the chamber attains its greatest 
width of 14 feet, and there are three passages or openings through the wall into the 
adjoining Cave of Rodentia. The Wolf's Cave was dug into three times before our 
labours began — by Rev. J. McEnery between 1825-9 ; then by the British Association 
under Mr. W. PengeUy, in 1871-2 ; later by Messrs. Powe and Storrs about fifteen 
years ago. A quantity of material excavated had been left in the Cave by the latter, 
and a number of large bone fragments lined the borders of their old trench, and gave 
hope of good finds. 

Since January 7 excavations have been carried out once a week, and after removing 
the disturbed material a trench was dug from wall to wall, inwards, about 20 feet 
long by from 3 to 4 feet deep in undisturbed Cave Earth, in the course of which it has 
been necessary occasionally to remove large blocks of fallen limestone in addition to 
a great quantity of smaller fragments incorporated in the Cave Earth. In this were 
found a number of rounded and angular stones of the Red Grit of the Lower Devonian, 
derived from the Lincombe Hill which dominates the Cavern HiU — many more than 
came to hand in the Vestibule. 

The remains of the old granular stalagmitic floor, broken up by McEnery and by 
Pengellj', stiD adhere to the walls and give the datum line by which to work. Below 
this stalagmitic floor PengeUy excavated 4 feet ; this season's work represents a 
further excavation from 3 to 4 feet deeper. 

So far there have been no further finds of man's handiwork, and experience in 
other parts of the Cavern tends to show that the deeper levels of the Cave Earth 
contain few or none. PengeUy recorded five implements from the first, third, and 
fourth foot levels, but a minute piece of flint was aU that was found. The dearth of 
implements at the lower levels in this chamber and in the Vestibule suggests that 
there was a time during the early Cave Earth period when man was not in the vicinity 
or when the Cavern was unknown to him. 

However, it is proved that a great depth of Cave Earth is stiU in the Cavern, 
and that it contains the usual reUcs of the Cave Fauna. McEnery had observed that 
the bones inhumed beneath the stalagmitic floor of the Wolf's Cave were found jammed 
under the ledges and in the crannies of the waUs, and under faUen rocks. Our 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

experience has corroborated this. Very few coprolites (and these only in the upper 
portion of the Cave Earth) have presented themselves ; also, the small foot-bones 
of the Cave Fauna are equally scarce, but among these one diseased phalanx of bear, 
identified as such by Mr. Ogilvie and confirmed by Sir Arthur Keith, came to hand. 
This difEers remarkably from general experience in the Vestibule where coprolites and 
foot-bones were fairly common. 

In the Wolf's Cave, at these lower levels, horses' teeth exceeded greatly in number 
those of the hyena. In PengeUy's records of the number of teeth of the various 
cave mammals those of the hyena almost invariably stood highest, and in relatively 
diminishing numbers, those of horse, rliinoceros, deer, bear, and mammoth. The 
large bones were usually found ia a very rotten condition. 

The three lower entrances to Kent's Cavern discovered by Pengelly were vertically 
about 18 feet below the south entrance. But excavation is being carried out 20 feet 
below the south entrance and at 100 feet distant from it, so that water entering the 
Cavern, which at one or more times flooded it so severely as to break up the 
Crystalline Stalagmite and parts of the rock-hke Breccia, must have found outlets, 
by very circuitous channels, that are much below the lowest entrances yet discovered. 
The Cave Earth has shown no signs of stratification anywhere. Up to now digging 
has been done from the centre of the Wolf's Cave towards its terminus and downwards, 
but it is proposed in the future to work from the centre towards the Sloping Chamber. 
It is desired to find the Crystalline Floor, if it exists, and the underlying Red Grit 
basement deposit known as the ' Breccia.' 

Thanks are tendered to many persons for their assistance in sorting and digging, 
among whom are the Rev. H. B. Hunt, Rear- Admiral and Mrs. O'Dogherty, Professor 
Hemmy, Messrs. G. C. Spence, and Mrs. Currey, Miss James, and the Misses Dick, 
and special thanks are due to the proprietor of the Cavern (Mr. Powe) for his generous 
aid on all occasions. 

[Sig7ied by the Excavators : — 

F. Beynon ; Abthub H. Ogilvie.] 

Note on Operations outside the Entrance to Kent's Cavern, 1928-9. 

During the winter of 1928-9 the proprietor of the Cavern had occasion to clear 
away a portion of the talus outside the main entrance, for the purpose of erecting a 
kiosk. The soil excavated was used for garden purposes, and to procure this the 
material was put through a sieve. As careful a watch as was possible was given to 
the progress of this excavation, and the proprietor himself watched the work, which 
was done, in the main, by himself. 

The area concerned covered about 10 feet by 10 feet and ultimately a section 
5 feet high was revealed, but nothing came to hand except one or two unidentifiable 
fragments of rather greyish bone, too light in weight to be regarded as of very great 
antiquity. The make-up of the deposit was a mixture of limestone fragments, large 
and small, Avith much dark earth or humus, and the whole appears to be a com- 
paratively recent accumulation brought into position by the ordinary processes of 
denudation of the escarpment and its plateau. 

The excavation did not proceed below the level of the sill of the Cavern entrance. 

[Signed : — H. G. Dowie.] 

The Committee desires to be reappointed without grant. 



ON BREEDING EXPERIMENTS ON PLANTS. 267 



Breeding Experiments on Plants. — Heporl of Committee (Sir Daniel 
Hall, K.C.B., F.E.S., Chairman; Mr. E. M. Marsden-Jones, 
Secretary; Dr. K. B. Blackburn, Prof. K. R. Gates, Dr. W. B. 
TuRRiLL, Mr. A. J. Wilmott) appointed to carry out breeding 
experiments as part of an intensive study of certain species of the 
British Flora. 

Research aided by the grant of £50 made at the 1928 meeting of the Association is 
proceeding with British species of Silene, Centaurea, Saxifraga, Ranunculus and 
Anthyllis. 

Silene. — ^Work is being extended in all directions and will take some seven or eight 
years to complete, at least. A paper (the second of a series) has been published in the 
Kew Bulletin, 1929, p. 33, and another (third of the series) has been sent to press. 

Centaurea. — A great deal of work is in hand and wiU take a good many years to 
complete. It is hoped to write up the first paper at the end of this season's work. 
Last year over 1,000 plants were scored in the breeding ground, and this year about 
1,500 will be ready for scoring and describing. 

Saxifraga. — A preliminary account of genetical and cytological results has appeared 
in Nature. A full account, illustrated, is nearly ready for press, and wUl be sent, 
probably, to the Journal of Genetics as soon as the F3 generation plants have flowered 
and have been scored. Tetraploidy and problems of species hybridization are chiefly 
engaging attention. 

Ranunculus. — A preUminary abstract of cytological discoveries appeared in 
Nature, March, 1929. A fuller paper, illustrated, was sent to the Journal of Oeneiics 
in April. Work has to be continued on the genus for several more years. Problems 
of sex and colour are chiefly engaging attention. 

Anthyllis, — Work is proceeding on colour inheritance and on snb-species hybridiza- 
tion. 

Finance. ^ 

Grant £50. Up to date £17 17s. Qd. has been spent, entirely on wages for labour 
connected with breeding work on the genera mentioned above. Vouchers for this 
amount have been forwarded. 

Leave is requested to retain the unexpended balance to cover part of the expenses 
connected with the carrjong on of the experiments over another year. These are in 
full operation, and the expenditure on labour (for digging, moving, weeding, watering, 
&c.) is increasing. 



268 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Educational Training for Overseas Life.— Report of Committee 
appointed to consider the Educational Training of Boys and Girls in 
Secondary Schools for Overseas Life (Sir John Russell, Chairman ; 
Mr. C. E. Browne, Secretary ; Major A. G. Church, Mr. H. W. 
Cousins, Mr. T. S. Dymond, Dr. Vargas Eyre, Mr. 6. H. Garrad, 
Sir Richard Gregory, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Miss McLean, Miss Rita 
Oldham, Mr. G. W. Olive, Miss Gladys Pott, Mr. A. A. Somerville, 
Dr. G. K. Sutherland, Mrs. Gordon Wilson). 

This Committee was appointed in 1923 under the Chairmansliip of the late Dr. H. B. 
Gray. Its first objective was to ascertain what provision existed in the Secondary 
Schools of Great Britain for the ' Educational Training of boys and girls for Overseas 
life.' The inquiry arose from the observation that, although boj's on leaving school 
were finding it more and more difficult to obtain suitable situations in offices and 
works in the home land, few were found to go overseas. In spite of the tempting 
offers by the Dominion Governments of free land and loans, it was noticed how few 
boys entertained the idea of a career in agricultural occupation, although it was 
evident that considerable numbers of the young men in banks and other offices are 
far better suited, from their character, and physical qualities, for the more vigorous 
and freer fife on the land overseas. 

The replies to a questionnaire sent to over 500 boys' schools and to 150 girls' 
schools supplied the bulk of the information contained in the report issued at Toronto 
in 1924. Inquiries were addressed at the same time to the Board of Education, 
Local Education Authorities and to Directors of Education in the oversea Dominions, 
as well as to various institutions such as the League of Empire, the Public Schools 
Employment Bureau, the Victoria League, and the Overseas Settlement Office. The 
replies received confirmed the idea that in most schools there is to be found a 
percentage of boys and girls whose capacities and interests would be better developed 
through practical studies than by the more academic work of Mathematics and 
Science ; they further indicated a wide-spread opinion amongst headmasters in 
favour of a more practical type of school work for a large proportion of the pupils 
in their schools. 

As a i-esult of these inquiries the Committee came to the following conclusions : — 

1. A demand exists on the part of the Overseas Dominions for boys of the right 
type with an agricultural bias, if not with training, and coincides with the home 
country's need of finding healthy employment within the Empire for a large number 
of her sons. 

2. The public schools, and other large secondary schools of Great Britain send 
into the world every year a considerable number of boys and girls of the right type 
who are better fitted for an open-air than an overcrowded city life. 

3. There has been no serious attempt in the majority of schools to meet this 
demand. Schools have hitherto provided only three avenues for subsequent careers 
— literary, mathematical and scientific — in some places only two. While this is 
sufficient for many boys, it does not provide for the more practical type, so that 
numbers find no outlet for their natural ability in that spirit of enterprise and 
adventure which Dominion life offers. They lack necessary guidance and experience. 

4. The undoubted value of agricultural studies as a means of education has been 
overlooked in the past. Some schools have made with success the experiment of 
adding this new method for educating boys of the practical type. A few acres of land 
worked as a miniature farm, or as a number of experimental garden plots in the 
working of which boys take an active part, have not only been used for studying 
agricultural or horticultural problems but have provided material for working other 
subjects, particularly general science and mathematics. Such work encourages 
reading for a definite purpose, observation of natural phenomena, the keeping of 
records, and adds considerably to the appreciation of geography. 

5. Experience shows that the school curriculum exercises an important influence 
in deciding a boy or girl's career. The school farm, or gardens, and associated studies 
of a practical nature would, therefore, bring to their notice the possibilities of a career 
on the land. It would give them some idea of agricultural activities and sufficient 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 269 

contact with outdoor pursuits to enable them to decide whether they are fitted or 
not for country life. 

6. The extension of such outdoor studies is not prevented by lack of land in many 
cases ; 50 per cent, of the schools replying to the questionnaire have access to 
suitable land, but only 9 per cent, use it. 

7. Development of a school cuiriculum in this practical direction for a section of 
a school needs encouragement because, while it would help to meet the requirements 
of the Empire, it is educational in a very wide sense. 

8. There is need of some organisation to encourage overseas life, to link up the 
secondary schools with those societies which are able to look after the interests of 
prospective settlers overseas. 

9. Whatever agricultural studies are undertaken at a school, it should be 
emphasised that the training is not intended to be technical such as is given in an 
agricultural college, and that they are in no sense to be considered a substitute for a 
definite apprenticeship on a farm, whether in Great Britain, or in one of the Oversea 
Dominions. 

10. Manual training as an educational instrument has not hitherto received 
adequate recognition in the majority of schools. Comparatively few have facilities 
for metal work, and in the majority of these the work is optional, taken during 
out-of-school time, f^en usually in the lower forms only, and seldom co-ordinated 
with other school subjects. 

] 1 . There are a large number of schools eagerly awaiting the production of a 
practical scheme whereby the curriculum of the school can be broadened and rendered 
more adaptable to the demands of the Empire without sacrificing any of its educa- 
tional breadth and efficiency. The chief obstacle to the production of a scheme 
lies in the lack of interest among those to whom such education might be offered. 
Many parents, however, would welcome a development of school activities in the 
direction of more practical studies in workshop, on the land, and in the laboratories, 
but their wishes are inarticulate, and, so long as there is no general expressed desire, 
the need is ignored. Public indifference to this need not only holds up progress, but 
indirectly prevents experiments by those who would like to attempt them. 

The subsequent report for 1925 to 1928 presented fuller evidence of the growth 
of opinion in favour of agricultural and other outdoor studies in schools, together 
with some details of experimental courses that were being tried in this direction 
both at home and abroad. 

In the present report for 1929 the Committee have brought together the chief 
results of their inquiry over the whole period : 

1. In Section, I. the Committee present some of the chief arguments in favour of 
a more practical type of education for a large proportion of pupils in secondary 
schools, stressing particularly the desirability of introducing into schools rural studies 
as a basis of practical knowledge and experience likely to help the pupil in its after 
life (p. 2). 

2. In Section II. are discussed some of the difficulties in the way of introducing 
this type of work, viz. : 

(a) the present examination system which attaches far more marks to book •work 
than to practical work (p. 3). 

(b) the short supply of teachers competent to undertake it (p. 4). 

3. In Section III. are abstracts from reports issued by Departments of Education 
of the Oversea Dominions on the same subject (p. 4). 

4. In Section I V. the general conclusions of the Committee (p. 10). 

5. In Section V. the Committee has collected a number of definite schemes for 
practical work in schools known to be practicable and effective (p. 10). 

SECTION I. 

School Science. 

In the past it has been claimed that physics and chemistry are of fundamental 
importance, and that without some knowledge of these it is impossible to understand 
physiological processes of plant or animal life. Hence the adoption, almost univer- 
sally, of physics and chemistry as the science subjects for the curriculum of boys' 
secondary schools : and, on account of the crowded time table, these have been, for 
the most part, the only science subjects taught in boys' schools. Botany has been 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

the main staple for girls' schools with a modicum — usually a very inadequate one — 
of chemistry (see Report of Special Committee on Science in the School Certificate 
Examination in the Annual Report of the British Association, 1928). 

In the opinion of the Committee physics and chemistry are both, at present, largely 
subordinated to working for examination purposes ; that they have become largely 
technicalities, without any clear objective in the goal aimed at. The Committee feel 
that these studies at their best should be a means to an end, and not an end in them- 
selves ; that a broader view should be taken of the function of school science as a 
preparation for life and service ; that life and action are the dominating features of 
existence, not words, facts, and theories. 

It is admitted that in all schools there is a large proportion of boys and girls whose 
abUity and mental capacity find their best expression in action, in doing and creating 
things, for whom the normal type of school work has little incentive and awakens 
little response, yet who in after life prove eminentl}' capable of sustained effort, 
independent thought, self-reliance, and judgment. The type of school work required 
for these chikh'en does not fit in with the present examination system, and, as the 
belief is still prevalent that capacity can be measured only by the ability to learn 
through literary or mathematical studies, most schools make no provision for them. 
Fortunately there are schools where practical work has been made the basis of a 
good deal of the literary work, and where experience has amply proved the value of 
that system. 

It is with this in mind that the Committee view with satisfaction the movement 
that has been gathering force during recent years to introduce biological studies into 
the curriculum ; they feel that it accords with the policy advocated in Iheir previous 
reports respecting agricultural studies which they believe will introduce, naturally 
and purposefully, most of the biological work that is possible in any ordinary school 
course, as well as much of the physical science necessary. The Science Masters' 
Association has had a small committee working on the same problem in order to 
meet a general request from some of its members for guidance in the teaching of 
agricultural science. 

Rural Studies. 

The original purpose of the Committee led them to investigate the possibility of 
including agriculture in the school curriculum. The evidence they have collected 
has gone far to convince them that rural studies have a much more extended use than 
that of simply preparing boys and girls for overseas Ufe. If properly organised it has 
been shown they possess the highest cultural value, as well as a source of inspiration 
for much of the scientific work possible in schools. 

Much misunderstanding of the claim of agriculture to be considered a proper 
study for school arises from a misconception of its aim. method, and content. Some 
reasons for its inclusion, and the interpretation to be given to the term rural studies 
as applied to schools are briefly stated below. 

A sound education is the thing that matters most for the intending migrant. But 
no education is sound that does not provide some handwork, especially for those who 
can learn better through practical methods. 

The Committee believe that in rural studies schools would possess an educational 
instrument of wide adaptabOity, affording intellectual material of the highest kind 
for the best intelligences, yet providing, through its practical nature, scope for the 
less endowed. They believe that in agricultural work and its associated activities 
the practical boy can bo provided with the most suitable avenue for his energies. 
At the same time they feel that the chief purpose of these studies should be the use 
of environment for intellectual development, of outdoor life and interests for under- 
standing the realities of Ufe, and for inculcating an appreciation of the important 
rdle that agriculture has played, and must continue to play, in the affairs of men ; 
and through related history and geography to use it for promoting an intelligent 
understanding of the growth of civilisation. They, therefore, would stress the 
following aspects of rural studies in support of the claim made for their inclusion in 
the curriculum of country schools at least : 

( 1 ) that the real use to which rural studies may be put is educational ; that the 
farm and garden can supplement the laboratory or workshop for the study of physics, 
chemistry and biology ; and are as necessary to science teaching as the ordinary 
laboratories and their apparatus : 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVKRSEAS LIFE. 271 

(2) that the contact with life which rural studies bring gives purpose and reality 
to school work generally ; they create interest and provide a rational basis for all 
branches of scientific inquiry : 

(3) that these studies provide opportunities for a simple and natural approach 
to the physiological processes of life, and, when correlated with the teaching of 
geography and history, constitute a basis of instiuDtion of far reaching importance : 

(4) that rural studies further supply many opportunities for handwork of a very 
practical type, and so help to bring out latent capacities in this direction, which 
otherwise frequently go undetected and undeveloped. 

Practical Work Essential. 

In diverse ways a considerable body of experience is being gathered, both at home 
and abroad, which should in the near future indicate how these rural studies can be 
utilised to the best advantage in the interests of education generally, how they can 
be adapted to different types of schools, and how developed on a sure foundation 
for the benefit of all concerned. 

One essential feature is the need for practical work on the land, which is as necessary 
to any course of rural studies as practical work in a laboratory is to chemistry. If 
agriculture were adopted as a subject for the First School Certificate Examination, 
it should not be treated as an entirely indoor study ; rural studies without practical 
work out-of-doors lose most of their educational value. It is the contact with things, 
not words, that in this case counts for so much. The opportunity afforded by a 
school farm or garden for bringing most of the science work into close relationship 
with reality is extraordinarily useful. Such work gives purpose and life especially to 

(1) the study of botany through the types of plants cultivated or occurring as 
weeds ; 

(2) the study of insect life — useful and injurious organisms that play such an 
important part in the cropping of the land ; 

(3) the study of elementary physics and chemistry, for school gardens can supply 
much of the material required for these subjects in the earlj' stages. 

The principle of giving to older boys and girls, say, from 15 years upwards the 
opportunity of studying animal life and land cultivation on the scale afforded by 
farm conditions has many claims for serious consideration. 

An examination of the present situation indicates that schools already interested 
in rural problems are attempting to attack the problem along two lines. Some give 
their science a rural bias by making use of farm and garden for illustrations, and 
co-ordinating it with handicraft training by including practice in making things for 
outdoor operations. The bias is also to be found in the history and geography teaching. 
On the other hand, a few schools, with facilities for practical work on a farm, tackle 
more definitely agricultural studies, the pupils taking part in dairying, poultry, 
husbandry, &c. But the number of schools actually doing this is few, and the number 
of pupils taking the agricultural course in these is small. Only a few schools may 
be suitably placed for developing this more technical course. On the other hand, 
there is no doubt, given qualified teachers with an interest in rural studies, the 
majority of the secondary schools in the country could tackle the problem through 
science and handicraft and some other subject. The needs of the home, and the 
many interests of everj'^day lite could be made the subject matter for workshop and 
science class purposes. The Committee feel that while some progress may be made 
in introducing definitely agricultural studies, it is in giving the curriculum a more 
practical bent that any great development must be looked for. 



SECTION II. 

Difficulties in the Way of a General Adoption of Rural Studies 

IN Schools. 

The difficulties that lie in the way of a general adoption of Rural Studies in schools 
seem to be due mainly 

(1) to the conditions and requirements of the present system of the School 
Certificate Examination ; 

(2) to an inadequate supply of properly qualified teachers. 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ETC. 

(1) Examinations. 

The Committee believe that the discouragement of practical studies in schools is 
incident^aUv due to the absence of sufficient provision in our present system of 
examination for a recognition of their value, and for an estimation of their efficiency. 
They are convinced that the existing conditions of external examinations exercise a 
much greater control over curricula and methods of teaching in schools than is 
realised by the community generally; and as that control is all in favour of a bookish 
and academic type of work, it follows that schools have little or no freedom to adopt 
a policy which does not accord with the demands of examiners. 

' The examination system has nov/ acquired such a masterful position in our 
educational world that what it does not encourage it tends to frustrate.' ^ 

Examining bodies generally do not sufficiently grasp the handicap which practical 
work places on candidates for the First School Certificate as compared with the 
simpler order of studies provided for other pupils, requiring only book and paper. 

In connexion with the growing belief in the educational value of practical instruc- 
tion it may be pointed out that at least three of the First School Examinations now 
include Handicraft in Group IV. In addition, the Committee are glad to note that 
the Secondary Schools Examination Council,^ after consultation with the Board of 
Education, have decided that, ' as an experiment, two subjects from Group IV should 
be allowed to count in the examination held in 1929 and 1930 towards the five 
subjects required for a pass in the examination, the present requirements of a pass in 
each of the groups I, II and III being retained.' In the meantime the Council propose 
to explore the question further and to ascertain what subjects in Group IV should be 
allowed permanently to count for a certificate and what their content should be. 
Among subjects usually included in Group IV are : — Art, Music, Handicraft, House- 
craft, and Book-keeping and Shorthand. 

The Committee hope that this report will lead to a reconsideration of requirements 
for the First Schools Certificate Examination that these may be so modified as to 
faU in with reasonable suggestions made to recognise all the educational activities 
of a school course, and especially those abilities of a practical nature exhibited by a 
very considerable section of the school population. Much might be urged in the 
interests of the boys or girls under consideration on the grounds that a capacity for 
doing and thinking in shape, in things, is at least equal to a capacity for memorising 
statements. School teachers are often well aware that these pupils could never pass 
the standard required in Latin or Advanced Mathematics, and yet they are not 
allowed to substitute a practical subject in which they would excel, simply because 
there is no machinery for measuring the quality of such work. Yet as far as their 
future is concerned it would be of incalculable value to them to have every opportunity 
of developing their natural gifts. 

(2) The Supply of Teachers. 

The educational value of rural studies, as in all other subjects, depends largely 
upon the way in which they are organised and presented to the pupils. It cannot, 
therefore, be too strongly urged that teachers are required who not only have 
technical knowledge, but also understanding of, and sympathy with the aspirations 
and possibilities for character-training, that lie behind these studies. 

In common with all new educational developments the difficulty of introduction 
lies in the comparative fewness of teachers who possess the requisite qualifications. 
The slowness of adoption of rural studies is partly due to this, and partly to the 
numerous headmasters and headmistresses who do not appreciate fuUy the educational 
possibilities of practical teaching, and are unwilling to break away from the shackles 
of the traditional curriculum. A change in their attitude is a process that requires 
time, though sympathy on their part would accomplish much. 

A suitable staff is the crux of the whole matter. The teacher required must have 
knowledge of agricultural conditions, he or she must be an enthusiast and someone 
of vision who can arouse the imagination and enthusiasm of boys and girls in their 
charge. To increase the supply Cambridge and other schools of agriculture should 
be approached, and a scheme devised to turn out a larger number of teachers trained 
and qualified for this particular work. 

1 British Association Report on Science in School Certificate Examination, 1928. 
* ' Education in 1928.' Report of the Board of Education. 



ON EDUCATIONAL TEAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 273 

But it is in the schools eventually that such training, in the first place, must be 
looked for, and the vicious circle broken which, through the present academic system 
of the School Certificate Examination, precludes the full development of practical 
ability, and tends to discourage it in those who have it. 



SECTION III. 
Rural Studies in Secondary Schools of the Overseas Dominions. 

The opinion held in the Overseas Dominions on the subject of rural studies 
in schools is in complete accord with the views expressed above. The following 
abstracts are quoted from memoranda sent in response to the Committee's inquiries. 

CANADA. 
Ontario. 

A special committee appointed by the Minister of Education for Ontario, 
consisting of representatives of University Colleges, High Schools, Inspectors, and 
the Department of Education, recommended very drastic alterations in the curriculum 
and public examinations of the High or Secondary Schools of the Province. In his 
report for 1920 the Minister describes the situation as follows : 

' The Agricultural Instruction Act of 1912 provided funds for agricultural education 
in the different provinces, applied first to rural schools only, but later successfully 
to suburban schools. In 1917 the scope of the grant was extended to urban schools. 
This aspect of the work has developed very rapidly, and as a result of such develop- 
ment a new view seems to be gaining ground, to the effect that much good might 
arise in the direction of a better understanding between city and country, and possibly, 
later on, many of the pupils now studying agriculture in the city schools may be led 
to take up their life-work in the country. 

The Teaching Difficulty. — ' The chief difficulty in introducing and in maintaining 
classes in agriculture in secondary schools is lack of qualified teachers. Courses are 
provided at the Ontario Agricultural College, covering two consecutive summers, of 
five weeks each. Because of the fact that agriculture is not yet a regular subject on 
the High School curriculum, summer courses are necessary. In many other respects 
these courses in agriculture for teachers are the most important and far-reaching of 
all the agricultural courses given in Ontario, because through the teachers they have 
much to do with the shaping of the minds of the rising generation in such a way as 
to develop a mental attitude more in harmony with rural conditions. Not only do 
these courses so direct the rural mind at an early age, and thereby produce lasting 
impressions, but they assist materially in showing how the farms may be made more 
productive, and therefore more profitable, thus providing the economic incentive 
necessary for a happy life on the farm. 

' As the High Schools are the real source from which the teachers are derived, the 
influence of these schools is paramount in so far as the supply of suitable teachers 
may be concerned. By the term " High Schools " is meant all Secondary Schools, 
whether they be called Continuation Schools, Collegiate Institutes, High Schools, or 
Private Schools, carrying on High School work. The course taken in the High 
School is largely a determining factor as to whether the student eventually becomes 
a teacher or not, consequently one of the causes of the shortage of teachers has its 
roots in the course of study in the High School. And, because of the dominating 
influence of the University in its requirements for matriculation in the various 
branches of college work leading to a degree, the course of study in High Schools is 
shaped largely by the Universities. The language requirements for matriculation 
make so large demands upon the time of the pupil while in the High School that the 
student finds himself unable, for lack of time and energy, to carrj' on a course which 
includes agriculture or household science.' 

Many of the recommendations were adopted and were in force in 1922. The 
inclusion of agriculture as an optional subject in place of physics and chemistry was 
one interesting feature of the new order. A four-j-ear course of agricultural studies 
was drawn up for the High Schools of Ontario, and any student, if he desired it, given 
credit for this work for entrance to the Universitv, the Normal College or the Ontario 
Agricultural College. 

1929 ™ 



274 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Bbitish Columbia. 

Agricultural Courses in High Schools. 

'The value of agriculture as an educational subject, which develops the mind of 
the student by teacliing him in terms of his everyday surroundings rather than in 
terms of the abstract and remote, is becoming more apparent each year. One-third 
of the present public schools' teaching staff in Langley are graduates of our High 
School Course in Agriculture, and by their ease of adaptation to the needs of the rural 
schools and interesting and practical methods of teaching the course in nature study 
and elementary agriculture have emphasised to a surprising degree the technical 
value of the instruction given in our High School Course. 

' The feeling is growing amongst the people generally that if the education of 
to-day has any relationship whatever to the welfare of the people of to-morrow, 
then agriculture, both educationally and vocationally, is a subject that must not be 
neglected. 

' The teaching of agriculture in " High Schools " is now well established in all the 
Provinces of the Dominion, and is meeting with greater success year after year. 
This is partly due to the fact that better-qualified teachers are being employed than 
formerly, resulting in more efficient instruction, and partly to a better understanding 
of the real nature and value of the work on the part of parents and school authorities. 

' The regular two-year course in agriculture is now carried on in twelve High 
Schools and one Superior School in the Province, the total enrolment for the year 
being 510, an increase of fifty-three over last year. The two-year course in agricul- 
ture is given in Grades X. and XI., and in most cases is preceded by a course of 
general science in Grade IX. This introductory course in science has been found 
advantageous as an introduction to the study of agriculture as well as to other branches 
of science, and is usually taught by an agricultural instructor. 

' The offering of courses in agriculture in city High Schools was looked upon at 
first as a rather doubtful experiment, and no doubt many were ready to regard it as 
rather fantastic and quite inappropriate as a subject of study in such schools. Those, 
of course, who so regarded it were labouring under a wrong impression as to the 
character and purpose of these courses — the impression that only those boys who 
were definitely preparing to go on the land to earn their living could possibly be 
interested in such courses or could hope to be benefited by them. After six years' 
experience in the City of Victoria and three in New Westminster, and an even longer 
period in smaller cities in the Province, there is little room for doubt as to the beneficial 
character of the work in those cities. Spasmodic efforts are made from time to time 
by Boards of Trade and other organisations to promote mutual understanding and 
good-fellowship as between the rural inhabitant and the dweller in the city. This, 
of course, is highly desirable, but in no way can it be as soundly and permanently 
established as by giving to city-bred boys and girls the opportunity to study at first 
hand the essentials of food production and of rural economics. City boys and girls 
have responded in a very satisfactory manner in every case where an opportunity 
was offered them to include the study of agriculture in their elective courses. We 
should have more agricultural specialists in our city High Schools. 

' We must all, however, confess to a certain amount of surprise at the remarkable 
degree of success which has attended the study of agriculture by the girls in our 
various High Schools. In the classroom, in the experimental gardens, and in the 
judging pavilion they have more than held their own, for they have succeeded on 
more than one occasion in carrying off the premier honours in examinations and in 
agricultural judging competitions in which more boys than girls participated. 

' The High School agricultural classes are steadUy growing in size and the work 
is gaining in popularity. Not only is this shown by the increasing number of students 
electing agriculture, but also by increasing interest manifested by the ratepayers 
themselves. It is gratifying to know that even during a period of retrenchment, 
due to poor prices for crops, it was not thought advisable to discontinue the teaching 
of agriculture. This attitude is in a measure due to the realisation that teaching 
through and about the daUy life of the community is sound pedagogy. 

' It has been established by years of observation that even the most promising 
boys who leave the Old Land to go into rural life and work in the Overseas Dominions 
have not always succeeded, and have had to learn, often by disheartening experience, 
many things fundamental to such life and work which they might readily have learned 
in a large measure in Secondary Schools at home, had they been but given the 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 275 

opportunity. Boys of good physique who are mentally keen and of good character 
are the lads for overseas, and these should be given special training. 

' It is a matter of common knowledge that a large percentage of the men and 
women from the Old Land who come to Canada either come directly to the cities or 
soon gravitate in that direction. If this condition is to be changed so that our rural 
districts are to become more largely populated as the result of immigration something 
must be done to develop a genuine interest in agricultural science as applied to the 
various branches of farming amongst young people of the Old Land before they leave 
school or before they arrive in Canada. This can be done either by having these 
young people attend special schools of agriculture for limited periods or by making 
the study of agriculture part of the regular course in Secondary Schools covering 
two or more years. The latter is the method now being followed in some of the 
Provinces in Canada, and particularly in British Columbia. As agriculture itself is 
a great composite science, it follows that almost all branches of so-called pure science 
can and should have some reference to it. This is particularly true of the sciences 
of geology, meteorology, chemistry, physics and biology — sometimes referred to as 
basic sciences in relation to agriculture. To those may now be added rural sociology 
and economics. 

' The mere use of appropriate subject-matter for classroom lessons, however, is 
not sufficient to ensure a real and abiding interest in rural life and occupation. 
Genuine first-hand knowledge and acquaintanceship with soils and soil constituents, 
with cultural methods pertaining to field, orchard, and garden crops, and some actual 
experience in the care and management of poultry and live stock are essential if more 
than a fancied or fictitious interest is to be established. This can all be included in 
a good general course of Secondary School grade in all but the largest cities. 

' It is difficult, even under the most careful instruction, for young people to form a 
correct mental picture of a new country or fully to appreciate the conditions to be 
met with in such a country, not having seen it. It is important, therefore, that every 
effort be made to supply reliable information to all young people relative to the 
British Dominions, and particularly to that particular Dominion to which they may 
purpose going. The all-important subjects which will be of service in this connexion 
are geography, history, and literature. Young people looking towards Canada, for 
instance, as their prospective home should give special attention to Canadian 
geography, to Canadian history, and to the works of Canadian writers both in prose 
and poetry. The use of the stereoptican and moving-picture machine is most 
important in helping to make more real scenes and events relative to the new country. 
Illustrated lectures on the British Dominions overseas delivered here and there in 
Secondary Schools in the Old Land would be of advantage. Magazines and agricul- 
tural papers published overseas should be on file in the larger schools and, if not 
already established, there might well be a central bureau of information, say, in 
London, where all teachers could apply for special information relative to overseas 
topics. 

' Having in mind that the rural problems in the Overseas Dominions are concerned 
•with the welfare of men and women alike, it would be the greatest of folly to attempt 
to plan a special course of instruction for boys who might be looking forward to a 
life in a new country, and not do something similar for girls. Experience in a dozen 
Secondary Schools in British Columbia, where agriculture as an optional subject has 
been taught to boys and girls alike, goes to show that the 'teen-age of girls have done 
quite as well in examinations and also in the practical work undertaken as have the 
boys. The elements of agricultural science as well as a good working knowledge of 
household science for girls are almost essential to successful and contented living in 
rural homes. This does not mean an influx of farmerettes is wanted. It does mean 
that successful rural homes depend to a large extent upon the abUity, training and 
managerial skill of the housewife.' 

Method in Agricultural Studies. 

' The text-book method of instruction in agriculture, which has repeatedly been 
tried in years past in some parts of Canada and which has always failed and must 
always fail, has been ruled out in British Columbia. The principle of direct instruction 
and knowledge at first hand are followed throughout. Every High School offering 
courses in agriculture is equipped with a good working laboratory classroom where 
various lines of laboratory experiments and the direct examination of agricultural 

t2 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, ETC. 

material can be carried on. This is supplemented by having agricultural experiment 
grounds or gardens convenient to the school where various aspects of gardening, 
field husbandry and horticulture are dealt with from year to year, the students 
themselves with their instructor doing practically all the work. Class excursions to 
the best farms in the community in which the school is located, for the purpose of 
observing and discussing the methods followed in the various lines of farm practice, 
are frequently conducted. The individual students carry on a well-regulated scheme 
of home projects in agriculture having direct bearing upon the work taken up at 
school. In some instances the home projects are standardised and conducted under 
rules involving a competition in the production of garden or field crops or the raising 
of young animals or poultry. In such cases the home projects are made the basis of 
organisations now widely known as Boys' and Girls' Agricultural Clubs. In com- 
puting the standing of the students in agriculture at the end of the year, 50 per cent, 
is based upon a uniform provincial examination and 50 per cent, upon term work, 
the latter being determined hj the instructor. 

* Students who elect agriculture for junior matriculation or for the teachers' High 
School Course, and who afterwards complete the Normal Training Course, are granted 
a special diploma in rural science or elementary agriculture. The agricultural option 
has obvious advantages for teachers who afterwards teach in rural or village schools.' 

Main Purpose and Objective. 

' Boys taking the High School course in agriculture are not regarded as prospective 
farmers^ and no special effort is made to induce them to go into farming as their 
life-work. The study of agriculture as conducted in our High Schools is regarded as 
a valuable and almost essential part of a good liberal education. Its interests are 
healthful and its iniiuences positive and beneficial. It calls out personal initiative 
and helps to develop self-reliance and resourcefulness. It gives new interest and new 
meaning to other science studies by affording innumerable examples of science applied. 
It affords one of the best avenues through which to approach the great biological 
secrets and mysteries of plant and animal propagation and the laws of heredity. It 
develops certain skills incidental to scientific experimentation and to approved 
practices in farming and gardening. 

' In all these aspects it is essentially and primarily educational and suitable alike 
to girls and boys, regardless of the particular vocation which each may ultimately 
choose. On the other hand, it may be of great value in setting up new standards 
and new conceptions of the true nature and meaning of agriculture in the minds of 
these young people, as a result of which they may be drawn to choose farming as an 
occupation. 

' When such an educational and scientific basis has been laid for the farmer of 
the future the quality of our rural citizenship will advance, and not till then.' 

Saskatchewan . 

Abstract from a Report of Director of Education. 
Introductory. 

' The field of activity known as Agricultural Education may be roughly divided 
into two sections or divisions, the chief emphasis in the one being placed on subject- 
matter or content, in the other on educational values. The former is frequently 
designated Education in Agriculture, and includes all forms of vocational training in 
agriculture whether conducted in High Schools or College or through extension 
courses. The other, which is quite properly called Education through Agriculture, 
embraces the agricultiire courses in Elementary and High Schools as well as the 
project work carried on by Boys' and Girls' Clubs. 

' Agriculture as a subject of study in the school grades requires no defence. It 
is now almost universally accepted as a regular feature of school routine, although 
frequently found under another name. There is still a difference of opinion as to its 
content — should it be more of the nature-study type, or should it assume the form and 
methods of science ? This problem must ultimately be settled by a consideration 
of the child rather than the subject, and the work must be graded to suit the mental 
possibilities of the pupils.' 



ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OVERSEAS LIFE. 277 

Elementary and Secotidary Schools. 

' (a) A course of nature study is outlined for the lower grades of the Elementary 
Schools, and serves as an introduction to geography ; a more advanced course in 
nature study serves as elementary science in the middle grades. A course in 
agriculture based on nature study is prescribed for the top grades, and is designed 
to provide opportunity for the organisation of the information gained by the pupils 
through direct observation. 

' (6) Agriculture in the High School presents another phase of the problem. What 
should be the nature of such a subject ? Clearly it must cease to be of the nature- 
study type, and assume a more scientific form. After many trials and readjustments 
it has been incorporated as an integral part of the science course of the first two 
years, and is compulsory for all students. In the third year it is an elective subject 
on a par with physics, chemistry, or home economics, i.e. it is merged with chemistry, 
physics, and biology in the first two years, but emerges again in the third year on a 
par with physics and chemistry as an optional subject for examination. 

' Thus we have nature study, which aims to make the fullest use of the environ- 
ment of the pupil, occupying the basic position. And since most of the population 
live on the land, and the rest are directly depende