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BRISTOL— 1930 








Officers and Council, 1930-31 v 

Local Officers for the Bristol Meeting, 1930 viii 

Sectional Officers, Bristol, 1930 viii 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1930) x 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1929-30) xiv 

General Meetings in Bristol, etc, xxiv 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Bristol Meeting) xxv 

General Treasurer's Account (1929-30) xxvii 

Research Committees (1930-1931) xxxvi 

The Presidential Address : 

Size and Form in Plants. By Prof. F. 0. Bower 1 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

A. — Theories of Terrestrial Magnetism. By Dr. F. E. Smith 15 

B. — A State Experiment in Chemical Research. By Prof. G. T. 

Morgan 38 

C. — Some Episodes in the Geological History of the Bristol Channel 

Region. By Prof. O. T. Jones 57 

D.— The Taxonomic Outlook in Zoology. By Dr. W. T. Calman . . 82 

E. — The Scope and Aims of Human Geography. By Prof. P. M. 

RoxBY 92 

F. — Rationalisation and Technological Unemployment. By Prof. 

T. E. Gregory 105 

G. — The Interdependence of Science and Engineering with Some 

Examples. By Sir Ernest Moir, Bart 119 




H. — Evolution in Material Culture. By Dr. H. S. Harbison 137 

I.— The Synthetic Activities of the Cell. By Prof. H. S. Raper . . 160 

J. — The Foundations of Child Psychologj^ and their Bearing on 
Some Problems of General Psychologj'. By Prof. C. W. 

Valentine 176 

K. — Present-day Problems in Taxonomic and Economic Botany. 

By Dr. A. W. Hill 191 

L. — A Policy of Higher Education. By The Rt. Hon. Lord Eustace 

Percy 219 

JM. — Veterinary Science and Agriculture. By Dr. P. J. Du ToiT .... 229 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 244 

Sectional Transactions 293 

Discussion on The Validity of the Permian as a System 315 

Discussion on the Relation between Past Pluvial and Glacial 

Periods 371 

Evening Discourse on Wireless Echoes. By Prof. E. V. Appleton 426 

Evening Discourse on the Nitrogen Industry and our Food 

Supply. By Dr. R. E. Slade 4.34 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 441 

References to Publication of Communications to the Sections .... 452 

Index 458 

gritislj l^ssociation for i^t %tibRmtmnxi 

ai Scienrc. 



Prof. F. 0. BowEE, Sc.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



Lt.-Gen. the Rt, Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C, F.R.S. 


The Rt. Hon. the Lokd Mayob of 

The Sheriff of Bristol. 
His Grace the Duke of Beaufort. 
The Most Honourable the Marquess of 

Bath, Lord Lieutenant of the County 

of Somerset. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Berkeley, 

The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bath 

AND Wells. 
The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Clifton. 
Field-Marshal the Rt. Hon. Lord 

Methuen, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Strachie, P.C. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Wraxall, P.C. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Dulverton. 
Sir Stanley White, Bart. 
Sir Vernon Wills, Bart. 
Sir John Swaish, K.B.E. 
Dame Mary Monica- Wills. 

Sir William Howell Da vies. 

Sir Ernest Cook, D.Sc. 

The Rt. Worshipful the Mayor of 

His Honour Judge Parsons. 

W. J. Bakee, M.P. 

C. T. Culverwell, M.P. 

The Rt. Hon. Henry Hobhouse, LL.D. 

Dr. Stanley Badock. 

Hiatt C. Baker. 

Dr. T. LovEDAY (Vice-Chancellor of the 

The Master of the Society of Mer- 
chant Venturers. 

Edward Robinson. 

Alderman Frank Sheppard, C.B.E. 

Dr. T. Howard Butlek. 

Dr. H. C. Mander. 

Sir Philip S. Stott, Bart. 

Norman Whatley, Headmaster of 
Clifton College. 

W. Melville Wills. 




H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., 

F.R.S., ex-president. 
His Grace The Lord Archbishop of 

His Grace The Lord Archbishop of 

The Rt. Hon. J. Ramsay MacDonald, 

The Lord President of the Council. 
The Secretary of State for the 

The Secretary of State for the 

The President of the Board of 

The First Commissioner of Works. 
The High Commissioner for Australia. 
The High Commissioner for Canada. 
The High Commissioner for South 

The High Commissioner for New 

The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of 

The Lord Mayor of York. 
The Chairman of the London County 

The Mayor of Kensington. 
The Mayor of Westminster. 
The Chancellor of the University of 

The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity OF London. 
The Chairman of the British Broad- 
casting Corporation. 
The Chairman of the Port of London 

The President of the Royal Society. 
The President of the British 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Ashfield. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Athlone, 

Governor-General of the Union of 

South Africa, 1929. 

Rt. Hon. Stanley Baldwin, F.R.S. 
The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S., President, 

Sir William Bragg, K.B.E., F.R.S., 

G. BucKSTON Browne, F.R.C.S. 
Major-Gen. Sir David Bruce, F.R.S., 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Buckmaster. 
Sir Frank Dyson, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Sir AJrthur Evans, F.R.S., ex-president. 
Sir Alfred Ewing, F.R.S. 
Sir Ambrose Fleming, F.R.S. 
The Rt. Hon. D. Lloyd George. 
Dr. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 
Sir Robert Hadfield, F.R.S. 
Sir Thomas Holland, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., 

F.R.S., ex-president. 
Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S., ex-president. 
Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S., ex-president. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., ex-president. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Melchett. 
The Rt. Hon. Viscount Novar, 

Governor-General of Australia, 1914. 
Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, O.M., 

K.C.B.. F.R.S., ex-president. 
Prof. E. B. PouLTON, F.R.S. 
Sir David Prain, F.R.S. 
Sir Ernest Rutherford, O.M., Pres. 

R.S., ex-president. 
Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., ex- 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Sir Edward Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S., 

Sir Charles Sherrington, O.M., F.R.S., 

Dr. F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S., ex- 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Wakefield. 
Sir Alfred Yabbow, F.R.S. 

Sir JosiAH Stamp, G.B.E., D.Sc. 


Prof. J.L.Myrbs, O.B.E., D.Sc, D.Litt., 
F.S.A., F.B.A. 

Prof. F. J. M. Stratton,D.S.O., O.B.E, 


* Subject, in a few instances, to acceptance of office. 



O. J. R. HowABTH, O.B.E., M.A.. Burlington House, London, W. L 




F. C. Bartlett. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. L. BowLEY. 

Prof. H. Clay. 

Prof. C. LovATT Evans, F.R.S. 

Sir Henby Fowleb, K.B.E. 

Prof. W. T. GoEDOX. 

Sir RicHAED Gregoey. 

Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 
Sir Daniel Hall. K.C.B.. F.R.S. 
Sir James Henderson. 

A. R. HiNKS, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Ktmmins. 

Col. Sir H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. 

C. G. T. MoRisoN. 

Sir P. Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. O. Rankine. 

Dr. C. Tate Regan. F.R.S. 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Dr. N. V. SiDGwiCK, F.R.S. 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. Thoepe, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Dr. H. T. TizAED, C.B., F.R.S. 


Past-Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the President and 
Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers 
and Local Secretaries for the Annual Meetings immediately past and ensuing. 


Sir J. J. Thomson, CM., F.R.S. 

Sir E. Sharpey-Schaeer, F.R.S. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 

Sir Arthur Schxtsteb, F.R.S. 

Sir Abthtje Evans, F.R.S. 

Hon. Sir C. A. Paesons. O.M., K.C.B., 

Prof. Sir C. S. Sheebinqton, O.M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 

Major-Gen. Sir David Bbuok, K.C.B., 

Prof. HoEACE Lamb, F.R.S. 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, K.B.E., 

Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I.E., 

K.C.S.L, F.R.S. 


Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Gaeson. 

Dr. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. BowxBY. I Prof. A. W. Kibkaldy. 

G. BucKSTON Browne, F.R.C.S. 



Sir Eenest Cook, D.Sc. 

Dr. W. LuDFORD Freeman. | Dr. Bertram H. Rogers. ) Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 

Frank N. Cowlin. M. 0. McAdliffe. 


President.— Dt. F. E. Smith, C.B., C.B.E., Sec.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Dixon, Prof. H. R. Hasse ; Prof. H. H. Hilton ; Prof. J. E. 

Lennard-Jones ; Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. Sheppard ; 

Prof. A. M. Tyndall. 
Recorder. — W. M. H. Greaves. 

Secretaries. — Capt. F. Entwistle ; Dr. Allan Ferguson ; Prof. E. H. Neville. 
Local Secretary. — S. H. Piper. 

President.— Froi. G. T. Morgan, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. G. Babger, F.R.S. ; Sir Ernest Cook ; Prof. F. Francis ; 

Prof. M. Travers. 
Recorder. — Prof. C. S. Gibson. 

Secretaries. — Prof. T. S. Moore ; Prof. F. J. Wilson. 
Local Secretary. — Prof. W. E. Garner. 

President.— Pvoi. 0. T. Jones, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. H. Bolton ; Prof. W. S. Boulton : Prof. J. W. Gregory, 

F.R.S. ; Sir Albert Kitson, C.M.G., C.B.E. ; Prof. S. H. Reynolds ; J. W. 

Recorder. — -I. S. Double. 

Secretaries. — Dr. H. C. Versey ; Dr. A. K. Wells. 
Local Secretary. — H. W. Turner. 

President.— JiT. W. T. Calman, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. D. de Lange ; Prof. F. H. Edgeworth : Dr. W. D. Henderson; 

Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — G. Leslie Purser. 
Secretary. — Prof. W. M. Tattebsall. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. W. D. Henderson. 

President. — Prof. P. M. Roxby'. 
Vice-Presidents.— Brig&di&T E. M. Jack, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. ; W. W. Jervis ; Col. 

E. W. Lennaed : Col. Sir H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. ; Mr. Morton Matthews ; 

C. Powell ; Dr. V. Steffansson. 
Recorder. — R. H. Kinvig. 
Secretaries. — H. King ; A. G. Ogilvie. 
Local Secretary. — O. D. Kendall. 

President. — Prof. T. E. Gregory. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H.Clay ; H.G. Tanner : E. Walls ; W. Hamiltos Whyte. 
Recorder. — R. B. Forrester. 

Secretaries. — Dr. J. A. Bowie ; Dr. K. G. Fenelon. 
Local Secretary. — H. R. Burrows. 

OFi'lCEKS OF SECTIONS, ]9:i0. ix 


President. — Sir Ernest W. Mom, Bt. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. C. Lea; T. A. Peace; H. Faraday Proctor; Prof. 

Andrew Robertson ; W. A. Stanier. 
Recorder. — J. S. Wilson. 
Secretary.— Br. S. J. Davies. 
Local Secretary.— Proi. A. J. S. Pippard. 


President. — Dr. H. S. Harrison. 

Vice-Presidents. — Mrs. D. P. Dobson ; Prof. E. Fawcett ; Dr. G. Parker. 

Recorder. — Miss R. M. Fleming. 

Secretaries. — L. H. Dudley Buxton ; L. W. G. Malcolm. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. S. Bry'an Adams. • 

President.— Proi. H. S. Raper, C.B.E., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. G. A. Bucksiaster ; Dr. C. F. Coombs ; Prof. W. E. Dixon, 

F.R.S. ; Prof. C. Lovatt Evans, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. A. Nixon : Prof. R. J. S. 

Recorder. — Dr. M. H. MacKeith. 
Secretary. — Prof. R. J. Brocklehurst. 
Local Secretary.— Misa M. 0. P. Wiltshire. 


President. — Prof. C. W. Valentine. 

Vice-Presidents.— F. C. Bartlett ; Prof. G. C. Field ; Dr. R. G. Gordon ; Dr. 

R. H. Thouless. 
Recorder. — Dr. Shepherd Dawson. 
Secretary. — Dr. Mary^ Collins. 
Local Secretary. — M. H. Carre. 


President.— Dr. A. W. Hill, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. B. T. P. Barker ; Prof. O. V. Darbishire ; Sir John 

Stirling-Maxwell, Bt. (Chairman, Dept. of Forestry) ; J. W. White. 
Recorder.— Fioi. H. S. Holden. 

Secretaries.— Dr. B. Barnes ; Dr. E. V. Laing (Dept. of Forestry) ; Prof. J. Walton. 
Local Secretary. — Miss I. M. Ropee. 

President. — Rt. Hon. Lord Eustace Percy-, P.C. 
Vice-Presidents.— 3. E. Barton ; Sir Ernest Cook ; Dr. C. W. KraaiiNS : Dr. T. 

LovEDAY ; Miss E. A. Phillips ; Miss C. M. Taylor ; N. Whatley ; Prof. 

Helen M. Wodehouse. 
Recorder. — G. D. Dunkerley'. 
Secretaries. — H. E. M. Icely ; E. R. Thomas. 
Local Secretary. — J. G. Pilley. 


President. — Dr. P. J. du Toit. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. Stanley Badock : Prof. B. T. P. Barker ; Sir Robert 

Greig ; Prof. J. A. Hanley. 
Recorder. — Prof. G. Scott Robertson. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. Crowther. 
Local Secretary. — A. W. Lino. 


President. — Prof. Patrick Abercrombie. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. Tierney. 



Date of Meeting 

1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25....„ 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1860, July 21 

1851, July 2 

18B2, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

186U, June27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, A.US. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

18G9,Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873,Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 


1877,Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 6 .... 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 , 

1899, Sept. 13 

Where held 












Manchester ... 









Ipswich .. 












Newcastle-on-Tvne. . 

Bath ! 






























1 Oxford 

j Ipswich 


1 Toronto 

j Bristol 



Old Life New Life 
Members Members 

Viscount Milton, D.O.L., P.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, P.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, P.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., P.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., P.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lans'downe, P.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, P.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, P.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Hareourt, P.R.S.] 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, P.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, P.R.S 

The Lord Prancis Egerton, P.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, P.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., P.R.S. ... 
Sir John P. W. Herschel, Bart., P.R.S.i 
Sir Roderick I. Murohison, Bart., P.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., P.R.S. ... 
TheMarquis of Northampton, Pres.R.S. 
Tlie Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., P.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., P.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, P.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, P.R.S 

Wilham Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, P.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll. PJl.S 

Prof. 0. G. B.Daubeny, M.D., P.R.S.... 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., P.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., P.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Pairbairn, LL.D., P.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,P.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., P.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., P.R.S. 

WiUiam R. Grove, Q.C., P.R.S 

The Duke of Bucoleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, P.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.O.L., P.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson. LL.D., P.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson. P.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyudall. LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, P.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews. M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., P.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., P.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D.. P.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay. LL.D.. F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., PJl.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, P.R.S. 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.O.B., P.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., P.R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, P.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., P.R.S. 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., P.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, P.R.S, 
The Marquis of Salisburv,K.G..P.R.S, 
Sir Douglas Galton. K.C.B.. PJl.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister. Bart., Pres. R.S. .. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., P.R.S 

Sir W. Orookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.Il.S... 























































































































' Lidies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 

t rickets of Admission to Sections only. 
[ Continued on jj. xii. 













Sums paid 
ou account 
of Grants 




for Scientific 




363 1 







■ \ 







900 1 














— . 



__ ! 






435 J 









922 12 6 








932 2 2 








1695 11 






1546 16 4 








1235 10 11 









1449 17 8 




— , 





1565 10 2 









981 12 8 









831 9 9 









685 16 







1320 I 


208 5 4 









275 1 8 









159 19 6 









345 18 






37 1 



391 9 7 









304 6 7 







876 1 











380 19 7 









480 16 4 









734 13 9 









607 15 4 









618 18 2 









684 11 1 









766 19 6 









1111 6 10 









1293 16 6 









1608 3 10 









1289 15 8 









1591 7 10 









1750 13 4 









1739 4 




































1472 2 6 



























1151 16 


















1092 4 2 









1128 9 7 









725 16 6 









1080 11 11 









731 7 7 






! 24 



476 8 1 




! 516 


i 21 



1126 1 11 




1 952 





1083 3 3 




1 826 





1173 4 




1 1053 





) 1385 




•' 1067 





995 6 




! 1985 





1186 18 









1511 5 



' 1024 





1417 11 









' 789 16 8 









1029 10 









864 10 









907 16 6 









583 15 6 









977 15 5 









1104 6 1 









1059 10 8 


















1430 14 2 


; Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association wereadmitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 

[Contirmed on p. xiii. 



Table of 

Date of Meeting 

1900, Sept. 5 .... 

1901, Sept. 11... 

1902, Sept. 10... 

1903, Sept. 9 ... 

1904, Aus. 17... 

1905, Aug. 15... 

1906, Aug. 1 ..., 

1907, July 31 .... 

1908, Sept. 2 .... 

1909, Aug. 25... 

1910, Aug. 31 ... 

1911, Aug. 30... 

1912, Sept. 4 ... 

1913, Sept. 10 ... 

1914, Jaly-Sept. 

1915, Sept. 7 ... 

1916, Sept. 5 ... 


1919, Sept. 9 ... 

1920, Aug. 24 

1921, Sept. 7 

1922, Sept. 6 

1923, Sept. 12 

1924, Aug. 6 

1925, Aug. 26 

1926, Aug. 4 

1927, Aug. 31 

1928, Sept. 5 , 

1929, July 22 

1930, Sept. 3 

Wbere held 






South Africa 












(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 


Cardiff .... 

tjiverpool ... 





South Africa 



Old Life 


New Life 

Sir WiUiam Turner, D.C.L.. F.R.S. ... 


Prof. A. W. Riicker, D.Sc, SecR.S. ... 



Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 



Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 



Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 



Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S 



Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 



Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. 



Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 



Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Prof . E. A. Schafer. F.R.S 



Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 



Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 



Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 






> Sir Arthur Evans. F.R.S 



Hon. Sir 0. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S . 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., P.U.S. 



Sir T. E. Thorpe, O.B., F.R.S 



Sir C. S. Sherrington, G.B.E., 

Pres. R.S 



Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S 



Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S 



Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 



H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G.. 




Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S 



Sir William Bragg, K.B.E., F.R.S ... 



Sir Thoma.s Holland, K.O.S.I.. 

K.C.I E., F.R.S. 



Prof. F. 0. Bower. F.R.S 



' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

° Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

' Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report. 1914, p. 686. Tbe number.-i include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L' Association Francaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, lOj. 

■ Including Exhibicioners granted tickets without charge. 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 



Sums paid 




Asso- ' 
ciates 1 







on account 
of Grants 





for Scientific 

E1072 10 ' 














920 9 11 


















845 13 2 






121 j 



887 18 11 






16 1 



928 2 2 









882 9 









757 12 10 









1157 18 8 









1014 9 9 









963 17 


















845 7 6 









978 17 1 









1861 16 4" 









1669 2 8 









985 18 10 



677 17 2 






326 13 3 









410 U 


1 Al 

anual Members 



'• Students' 


Regular : m 


-tins , ,^g 
eport ' 


g Tickets 


192 571 





1272 10 

1251 13 0' 



410 1394 





2599 15 

518 1 10 



294 757 






1699 5 

772 7 



38U 1434 





2735 15 

777 18 6' 



520 1866 





3165 19'« 

1197 5 9 



264 878 





1630 5 




453 2338 






917 1 6 



334 1487 





2414 5 

761 10 



564 1835 





3072 10 

1259 10 



177 1227" 




1477 15 

1838 2 1 



310 1617 





24fl 15 

683 6 7 


• Including grants from tlie Caird Fuud in this and subsequent years. 
' Includint; Foreign Guests, Exhibitioners, and others. 

• The Bournemouth Fund for Researoh, initiated by Sir 0. Parsons, enabled grants on account ot 
scientific purpcses to be maintained. 

• Including gi-ants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 

•° Subscriptions paid in Canada were $5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some 
gain on exchange. 

" Including 460 Members of the South African Association. 



. I. — The Council has had to deplore the loss by death of the following 
office-bearers and supporters : — 

Prof. J. O. Arnold. 

Rev. Canon H. J. D. Astley. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Balfour, 

Rev. J. 0. Bevan. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, 

former member of Council. 
Lady Bragg. 
Prof. H. L. Callendar. 
]VIr. G. G. Chisholm. 
Major P. G. Craigie, 

former member of Council. 
Dr. W. G. Duffield. 
Dr. S. Z. de Ferranti. 
Mr. W. Heape. 
Prof. Augustine Henry. 
Col. Sir Thomas Holdich, 

former member of Council. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, 

Major P. A. Macmahon, 

ex-general secretary. 
Mr. E. T. Newton. 
Prof. K. J. P. Orton. 
Prof. W. H. Perkin. 
Prof. W. Robinson, who had accepted the 

Recordership of Section K (Botany) for 

the Bristol Meeting. 
Dr. J. M. Duncan Scott. 
Prof. Sir Baldwin Spencer. 
Mr. A. A. Campbell Swinton, a benefactor 

of the Association. 
Prof. Sir George Thane. 
Prof. H. H. Turner, ex-general secretary. 
Mr. H. W. T. Wager. 
Prof. T. B. Wood. 

The Association was represented at the funeral of Major Macmahon 
by the Astronomer Royal, and at the memorial service for the Earl of 
Balfour by Sir Josiah Stamp, General Treasurer. 


II. — Representatives of the Association 
follows : — 

Cape University College Centenary . 

National Conference for the Preservation 
of the Countryside .... 

North-Western Naturalists' Union : meet- 
ing on proposed formation . 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 
50th Anni versary .... 

Fresh-water Biological Association : meet- 
ing to consider establishment of research 
station ...... 

Technical Committee on Nomenclature 
formed by British Engineering Stan- 
dards Association .... 

Commemoration of the Centenarj' of 
Belgian Independence : Opening of new 
buildings, University of Brussels ; 
Journees Medicales, Institut Pasteur ; 
Congres National des Sciences 

International Zoological Congress, Padua. 

Faraday Centenary Joint Committee 

have been appointed as 

Lady Sherrington, M. I'Abbe 

Dr. Vaughan Cornish 

Prof. F. E. Weiss 

Major P. J. Cowan 

Dr. W. T. Caiman 

Sir James Henderson 

Prof. G. H. F. Nuttall 
Dr. F. A. Bather 
Dr. F. E. Smith, Mr. 0. J. R. 


The Association was represented by Dr. C. W. Kimmins and Prof. 
J. L. Myres at a conference called by the Association of Scientific Workers 
to consider the provision made for the Science Library, South Kensington. 
A committee including Prof. Myres was appointed to consult the Director 
and to approach the President of the Board of Education. 

Resolutions from South African Meeting. 

III. — Resolutions referred by the General Committee at the South 
African Meeting to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for 
action, were dealt with as follows : — 

(a) A resolution from Section A (Mathematical and Physical Sciences), 
dealing with the desirability of an observatory for terrestrial magnetism 
and atmospheric electricity in South Africa, together with a memorandum 
kindly furnished by Prof. A. M. Tyndall, Recorder of the Section, was 
circulated to the appropriate authorities in South Africa through the 
High Commissioner. The Council were informed that the Union Govern- 
ment is considering the matter. 

(6) A resolution from Section C (Geology), supported by Section H 
(Anthropology), on the preservation of Nooitgedacht Farm in view of the 
geological and archaeological interests of this area, was forwarded to the 
South African Association for the Advancement of Science. 

(c) A resolution from Section D (Zoology), on the desirability of 
exchange of members of museum stafis, was considered, together with a 
memorandum kindly furnished by Mr. G. L. Purser, Recorder of the 
Section, by a committee of the Council. The Council adopted this com- 
mittee's report, which was to the effect that actual exchange is not possible 
under present conditions, and that no good purpose would be served by 
calling attention to its desirability. On the other hand, the Committee 
was able to report that good results are obtained by enabling museum 
officers to work in other museums or in the field, and the promulgation 
of this view in appropriate quarters was recommended. This recom- 
mendation has been given effect. 

{d) A resolution from Section D (Zoology), on the desirability of an 
international biological station in the Malay Archipelago, was forwarded 
to leading scientific societies in Holland, to appropriate societies and 
Government departments at home, to the secretary of the Pan-Pacific 
Science Congress, and to Prof. F. A. Went (Utrecht). 

(e) A resolution from Section D (Zoology), on the desirabihty of 
extending marine biological investigation in South Africa, was referred to 
the appropriate authorities, and information has been received that the 
question will receive the careful consideration of the Council and Senate 
of the University of Cape Town. 

(/) A resolution from Section E (Geography), on the desirability of 
expediting the topographical survey of South Africa, was forwarded to 
the appropriate authorities, together with a reference to the address by 
the President of the Section, Brigadier E. M. Jack. A memorandum was 
received from the Director of the Trigonometrical Survey, indicating that 
a beginning had been made with the topographical survey and the training 
of personnel. It was stated that much experimental work would be 
necessary before a more comprehensive programme could be considered. 

xvi REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1929-30. 

(g) On the subject of a resolution from Section H (Anthropology), 
dealing with the protection of Australian aborigines, the Council are in 
communication with appropriate authorities in Australia. 

{h) A resolution from Section H (Anthropology), dealing with the 
preservation of ancient monuments and remains in South Africa, was 
forwarded to the appropriate authorities there, through the High Com- 
missioner, together with a memorandum kindly provided by the President 
of the Section, Mr. H. Balfour. Information was received that the Union 
Government intends to introduce legislation in this connection in the 
near future. 

Zimbabwe Investigation : Publication and Loan Exhibition. 

IV. — The publication of the results of Miss Caton-Thompson's 
investigation of archaeological sites at and near Zimbabwe, in Rhodesia 
(Report 1929, pp. xvi, 368), which was the subject of a recommendation 
from Section H (Anthropology), has been offered to the Clarendon 
Press, Oxford. The book is to be in royal 8vo., fully illustrated, and 
published at 15s., the Council pro\ading a subsidy of £100 from the 
balance of the special fund remaining. 

V. — A Loan Exhibition of Antiqmties from Southern Rhodesia was 
opened from April 7 to the earlier part of June by the kind permission of 
the Trustees of the British Museum, in the Assyrian Basement of the 
Museum. The Exhibition was under the patronage of H.E. the Governor- 
General of the Union of South Africa and H.E. the Governor of Southern 
Rhodesia ; and included objects generously lent from the South African 
Museum at Cape Town, the Rhodesian Museum at Bulawayo, the Queen 
Victoria Memorial Museum at Salisbury, and several private collections ; 
as well as the principal objects found during Miss Caton-Thompson's 
excavation, the air photographs taken by oflBcers of the Air Force of the 
Union, and other photographs kindly lent. The Union Castle S.S. Co. 
generously provided free transport for the exhibits. The expenses of the 
exhibition were met out of the balance of the Association's special fund. 

British Association Medal for South Africa. 

VI. — The Council resolved that a capital sima of £200 be set aside 
from the balance of the Association's special fund for the South African 
Meeting, to provide from the income thereof a research medal and 
premium, to be awarded to a member of the South African Association 
for the Advancement of Science, the age of the recipient not to exceed 
thirty years and the paper giving the results of the research to be read at 
a meeting of the South African Association ; the medal to be called the 
British Association Medal and to be awarded annually subject to the final 
adjudication of the Council. 

The Council of the South African Association, in gratefully accepting 
the above proposal, decided to add to the capital the sum of £275, and 
referred the terms upon which the medal will be granted to a sub- 
committee for consideration. " *> 


Down House. 

VII. — The following report for the year 1929-30 has been received 
from the Down House Committee : — 

The number of visitors to Down House during the year, since but excluding the 
date of the formal opening, June 7, 1929, has been approximately 11,000, a gratifying 
total, having regard especially to the fact that no public advertising has been 
attempted. The South-eastern Union of Scientific Societies, and other societies, 
have organised visits for their members, and further parties are expected durmg the 
present summer. Among others, the Committee understand that a party from the 
International Botanical Congress, meeting at Cambridge, may visit Down in August ; 
the Committee have pleasure in recommending that opportunity should be taken to 
entertain these distinguished visitors. 

Thanks have been tendered on behalf of the Committee to many generous donors 
of objects for preservation in the Memorial Rooms, which have been much enhanced 
thereby in appearance and interest since the opening last year. Mr. Buckston Browne 
himself has added many appropriate gifts, including a showcase in the New Study, 
to contain objects which could not otherwise be exhibited conveniently. 

The Old Study has appropriately the closest resemblance to its appearance in 
Darwin's time ; the furnishing is in great part original, and some of the maps on 
which Darwin worked in connection with the coral reef researches have been framed 
for exhibition here. These maps were received from Cambridge through the 
instrumentality of Prof. A. C. Seward. Mr. Buckston Browne has added much to 
the Donor's Room, while the Old Dining Room contains the portraits and cartoons 
which formerly were in the Council Room of the Association, and also the presidential 
banner of the Prince of Wales, which has been framed for safe keeping. Publications 
of the Association are shown in this room. 

The Committee were especially glad to hear of the recovery of Darwin's letters 
to Miiller in South America, through the good offices of Prof. H. F. Osborn. Prof. 
E. B. Poulton has kindly undertaken the study of these letters previouslj- to their 
being deposited at Down House. 

The Forestry Commission generous!}' permitted an inspector to visit the estate 
and advise the Secretary on the preservation of the timber. 

The gardens require extensive renovation, which is in progress. In particular, 
the adaptation and partial concealment of the foundations of the former school 
buildings, without undue expense, has exercised the ingenuity of the resident staff. 
Certain gifts of plants for the gardens have been received, but more will be welcomed. 
The staff at first included two gardeners ; a third was engaged temporarily with the 
sanction of the Council, who desired the Committee to consider whether (having regard 
to financial considerations) he should be permanently employed. He is still at work, 
and at the moment the Committee can only report that there is more than ample 
work to occupj- the three men, and that this must be so for a long period, if not 
permanently. It would seem that to make and keep the gardens beautiful is a duty 
■which the Association owes both to the memory of Darwin and to the public. The 
general financial position is referred to below. 

In connection with a town-planning scheme for the Bromley rural area, the 
authorities proposed to provide for cutting off, in the future, the greater part of the 
front garden, in order to obliterate a ' blind ' curve in the road. However, they 
received a protest courteously, and proposed as an alternative that, if and when road- 
widening should take place, the Association should undertake to lower the garden 
wall in front of the house, the garden remaining intact, and any widening being 
effected on the other side of the road. This was agreed. There is no immediate 
prospect that the scheme will mature. 

The Association, following upon its incorporation in 1928, received the certificate 
of the Registrar of Friendly Societies as a ' charitable ' society. Possessing this 
certificate, it claimed exemption from rates upon Down House under the Act of 1843 
dealing with the rating of societies' premises. The local assessment committee 
contested this, and summoned the Association for non-payment. It emerged in the 
hearing before the Bromley magistrates that the assessment committee would be 
willing to recognise exemption except in the case of the residential premises occupied 
by the Secretary. It was argued that his residence at Down House was a matter 
rather of convenience than of necessity ; though he himself asserted in evidence that 


xyiii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1929-30. 

so long as his duties continue as at present, his residence in the house might be 
reasonably regarded as essential. The Bench, however, decided against the Associa- 
tion, and the Committee is not of opinion that the case should be carried further. 
The costs of the case have been an unforeseen charge. 

The tenant of one of the cottages on the estate (Homefield), who was seriously in 
arrear with his rent, has now vacated the cottage, giving a promise to pay arrears by 
instalments. Sir Arthur Keith has applied to rent the cottage for his own use, and 
the rest of the Committee cannot but feel deeply sensible of the benefits which may 
accrue from his frequent presence at Down. 

The ' initial ' expenditure from the general funds of the Association upon the 
Down House property — that is to say, repairs outside the house itself, redemption of 
tithe, purchase of land, legal charges, equipment, &c. — has amounted to £2,600, and 
may be estimated in total at £3,000. The estimates of running costs show a deficiency 
on the income from the endowment and other sources — the annual income from 
dividends, rents, &c., may be set down at £1,120, and the expenditure on wages, heat, 
light, water, garden, rates, repairs, &c., at £1,200, making no provision for increase of 
wages, contingencies such as large repairs, or the possibility of adding appropriate 
objects by purchase to the Darwin collection, or any other equipment. The Com- 
mittee, however, cannot but believe that additional financial support will be forth- 
coming, and that the possession of Down House alone goes far to justify the appeal 
for a Centenary Fund for the Association, as contemplated by the Council. 

Centenary Meeting, 1931. 

VIII. His Majesty The King, Patron of the Association, has been 
graciously pleased to signify his approval of the arrangements made by 
the General Committee for the celebration of the Centenary, of the 
Association in London, and of the nomination made by the Council in 
the following paragraph. 

President. — General the Et. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C., has been 
unanimously nominated by the Council to fill the office of President of 
the Association for the year 1931-32 (Centenary Meeting). 

Vice-Presidents. — The foUovs^ing vice-presidents have been 
nominated by the Council. (These nominees, and those composing the 
London Committee following, have not been personally approached.) 

(L.C. signifies members of the London Committee proposed below, § IX.) 

H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, ex-president (L.C). 

The Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Archbishop of York. 

The Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. J. Ramsay Macdonald (li.C). 

The Lord President of the Council (L.C). 

The Secretary of State for the Dominions (L.C). 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies (L.C). 

The President of the Board of Education (L.C). 

The First Commissioner of Works (L.C). 

The High Commissioner for Australia (L.C). 

The High Commissioner for Canada (L.C). 

The High Commissioner for South Africa (L.C). 

The High Commissioner for New Zealand (L.C). 

The Lord Mayor of London (L.C). 

The Lord Mayor of York. 

The Chairman of the London County Council (L.C). 

The Mayor of Kensington (L.C). 

The Mayor of Westminster (L.C). 

The Chancellor of the University of London (L.C). 

The Vice-Chancellor of the University of London (L.C). 

The Chairman of the British Broadcasting Corporation (L.C). 

The Chairman of the Port of London Authority (L.C). 

The President of the Royal Society. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1929-30. xix 

The Presictent of the British Academy. 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong (L.C.). 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Ashfield (L.C.). 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Athlone, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, 

Rt. Hon. Stanley Baldwin (L.C.). 

Sir Otto Beit, Chairman of Finance Committee, Imperial College of Science and 
Technology (L.C.). (Died, Dec. 1930.) 

The Bishop of Birmingham. 

Prof. F. 0. Bower, President, 1930-31 (L.C.). 

Sir William Bragg, Royal Institution, ex-president (L.C.). 

G. Buckston Browne, Hon. Curator of Down House (L.C.). 

Sir David Bruce, ex-president. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Buckmaster, Chairman of Governing Body, Imperial College 
of Science and Technology (L.C.). 

The Rt. Hon. Viscount Bj^ng, Governor-General of Canada, 1924 (L.C.). 

Sir Frank Dyson, Astronomer Royal (L.C.). 

Sir Arthur Evans, ex-president. 

Sir 'Alfred Ewing. 

Sir Ambrose Fleming. 

The Rt. Hon. D. Lloyd George (L.C.). 

Dr. E. H. GriflSths, ex-General Treasurer. 

Sir Robert Hadfield (L.C.). 

Sir Thomas Holland, ex-president. 

Sir Arthur Keith, Royal College of Surgeons, ex-president (L.C.). 

Prof. Horace Lamb, ex-president. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, ex-president. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Melchett (L.C.). 

The Rt. Hon. Viscount Novar, Governor-General of Australia, 1914. 

Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, ex-president (L.C.). 

Prof. E. B. Poulton. 

Sir David Prain (L.C.). 

Sir Ernest Rutherford, ex-president. 

Sir Arthur Schuster, ex-president. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, ex-General Secretary. 

Sir Edward Sharpey-Schafer, ex-president. 

Sir Charles Sherrington, ex-president. 

Dr. F. E. Smith, Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, ex-General Secretary ; 
Sec. R.S. (L.C.). 

Sir J. J. Thomson, ex-president. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Wakefield (L.C.). 

Sir Alfred Yarrow. 

IX. London Committee. — The vice-presidents marked (L.C.) in the 
above list, together with the following, are nominated as a London Com- 
mittee, which, if appointed, the Council propose to summon early in the 
winter, to discuss the general outline and plans for the Centenary Meeting. 

The President and General Officers, ex-officio. 

The Bishop of London. 

The Dean of St. Paul's. 

The Dean of Westminster. 

The Archbishop of Westminster. 

The President of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference. 

The Members of Parliament for — 
The City of London (2). 
Kensington, South. 
Westminster, St. George's. 
University of London. 




The Sheriffs (2) of the City of London. 

The Town Clerk of the City of London. 

The Private Secretary to the Lord Mayor of London. 

The Education Officer of the London County Council. 

The Mayors of 

Battersea. Hackney. St. Marylebone. 

Bermondsey. Hammersmith. St. Pancras. 

Bethnal Green. Hampstead. Shoreditch. 

Camberwell. Holborn. Southwark. 

Chelsea. IsHngton. Stepney. 

Deptford. Lambeth. Stoke Newington. 

Finsbury. Lewisham. Wandsworth. 

Fulham. Paddington. Woolwich. 

Greenwich. Poplar. 

The Town Clerk of Kensington. 
The Town Clerk of Westminster. 

The Chairman of the Metropolitan Water Board. 
The Director of the British Museum. 

The Director of the British Museum (Natural History) (Dr. Tate Regan, memb» 
of Council). 

The Director of the London School of Economics. 

The Director of the Science Museum. 

The Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

The Director of the Imperial Institute. 

The Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

The Director of the Royal College of Art. 

The Director of the Royal College of Music. 

The Directors of Research Departments, Admiralty and Air Ministry. 

The Headmaster, City of London School. 

The Headmaster of Merchant Taylors' School. 

The Headmaster of Westminster School. 

The High Master of St. Paul's School. 

The Masters (or Prime Wardens) of the ' great ' Livery Companies : — ■ 

Mercers. Merchant Taylors. 

Grocers. Haberdashers. 

Drapers, Salters. 

Fishmongers. Ironmongers. 

Goldsmiths. Vintners. 

Skinners. Clothworkers. 

The President of the London Chamber of Commerce. 
The Principal of Bedford College. 
The Principal of Birkbeck College. 
The Principal of East London College. 
The Principal of King's College. 
The Principal of the London Day Training College. 
The Principal of Royal HoUoway College. 
The Principal of the University of London. 
The Principal of Westfield College. 
The Provost of University College. 
The Rector of the Imperial College of Science and Technology. 

Members of the Advisory Council on Scientific and Industrial Research not other- 
wise indicated. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, member of Council. 

Sir William Bull. 

Dr. E. J. Butler. 

Sir Dugald Clerk. 

Prof. W. Dalby, member of Council. 

Dr. H. H. Dale, Sec. R.S. 

Prof. C. Lovatt Evans, member of Council. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1929-30. xxi 

Sir Walter Fletcher, Medical Research Council. 

Sir John Flett, Geological Survey, member of Council. 

Prof. George Forbes. 

Prof. A. Fowler. 

Sir Richard Glazebrook. 

Sir Richard Gregory, member of Council. 

Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, member of Council. 

Sir Daniel Hall, John Innes Horticultural Inst., member of Council. 

Sir Sidney Harmer. 

Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw. 

Sir James Henderson, member of Council. 

A. R. Hinks, Sec. R.G.S., member of Council. 

Sir Henry Lyons, member of Council. 

Sir G. A. K. MarshaU. 

Sir Chalmers Mitchell, Sec. Zoological Soc. 

Prof. G. T. Morgan, Chemical Research Lab., Teddington. 

Prof. Karl Pearson. 

Sir Joseph Petavel, National Physical Lab. 

Prof. A. 0. Rankine, member of Council. 

Sir John Reith, Director-General, B.B.C. 

Dr. A. B. Rendle. 

Sir Robert Robertson, Government Chemist, Sec. Royal Institution. 

Sir Ronald Ross. 

Lord Rothschild. 

Sir Napier Shaw. 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, member of Council. 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, Director, Meteorological Office, member of Council. 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith. 

Prof. A. Smithells. 

Sir Thomas Stanton. 

Prof. J. F. Thorpe, member of Council. 

X. The Council has appointed Committees to consider finance, 
meeting rooms, hospitality and reception, excursions and exhibits, and 
publications in connection with the Centenary Meeting. 

The question of finance is dealt with in a later paragraph of this report. 

After consideration of a number of possible halls for the inaugural 
meeting (and failing the Albert Hall, which will be otherwise occupied), 
the Wesleyan Central Hall and annexes have been booked for this occasion. 
In the event of a very large meeting the use of relaying will be unavoidable. 

The inaugural meeting must necessarily be of an exceptional character, 
as numerous addresses and other messages are to be anticipated, and 
opportunity must be afforded for a number of speakers. After considera- 
tion of various alternatives it is proposed, if the General Committee and 
the President-elect concur, that the inaugural meeting, after the installa- 
tion of the President-elect in the chair, should be devoted mainly to the 
above purposes, the President finally addressing the meeting ; but that 
he should deliver the Presidential Address proper on a separate occasion, 
namely, the final evening of the meeting, Tuesday, September 29. It is 
suggested that this would form a fitting conclusion. The Wesleyan 
Central Hall has been engaged for this date also. 

The requirements of the Association in respect of the Reception Room, 
offices, sectional meeting rooms, &c., will be best met in the institutions 
in and near Exhibition Road, South Kensington, and arrangements are 
in hand accordingly. Applications on behalf of the Council to the 
University of London, the Imperial College of Science and Technology, 

yyji REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1929-30. 

tlie Imperial Institute, the Science Museum, the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, the Royal College of Music, and the Royal Geographical Society 
have met with a generous response. 

A preliminary scheme of excursions has been worked out, and the 
Sections will be informed of it. 

In place of the usual local handbook for the meeting a new edition of 
' The British Association : A Retrospect ' is in preparation for distribution 
to members. 

Sir Alfred Ewing has been appointed ' to prepare a paper . . . dealing 
with the whole question of the prime movers of 1931, and especially with 
the then relation between steam engines and internal combustion engines,' 
under the terms accompanying Sir Frederick Bramwell's gift to the 
Association (1903). 


XI. General Treasurer s Account. — The Council has received reports 
from the General Treasurer throughout the year. His accounts have 
been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 

XII. Centenary Fund. — The Council has sanctioned an appeal for a 
fund, not only to provide for those expenses of the Centenary Meeting 
which in the case of the ordinary annual meeting are met by a local fund, 
but also for the more adequate endowment of the Association, especially 
in consideration of the widening of its activities which has been marked 
during the closing years of its first century. The Council has had under 
review the considerations — 

(a) That the acquisition of Down House has made a considerable capital demand 
upon the Association's funds, and that the existing endowment of the house, generous 
as it is, does not cover all needs (as indicated in the report of the Down House 
Committee) ; 

(b) That the Association, with adequate funds, might and ought to relieve the 
localities where its meetings are held of some of the expenses which now fall upon 
local funds, and the honorarj' local officers of some of their labours ; 

(c) That the Association should not be limited in its choice of meeting- places, 
whether at home or in the Dominions, by questions of expense and the amount of 
support likely to be forthcoming by way of membership ; 

(rf) That the Association should be in a position more effectively to stabilise the 
assistance it renders to research by way of grants, to junior scientific workers to 
attend its meetings, and so forth. 

The total sum for which the Council has considered that appeal should 
be made is £40,000. 

XIII. Cunningham Bequest. — The Association received under the will 
of the late Lt.-Col. Alan Cunningham a bequest of £2,909 for the prepara- 
tion of new tables in the theory of numbers. 

XIV. Lamarck Memorial. — The Council made a contribution of £5 55. 
toward the memorial to Lamarck, for which funds were solicited by the 
Societe Linneenne du Nord de la France. 

General Officers, Council, and General Committee. 

XV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as. 
follows : — 

General Treasurer, Sir Josiah Stamp. 

General Secretaries, Prof. J. L. Myres and Prof. F. J. M. Stratton. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1929^30. xxiii 

The Council, under power delegated to it by the General Committee, 
appointed Prof. Stratton as Acting General Secretary on the retirement 
of Dr. F. B. Smith in December last, and takes pleasure in nominating him 
for confirmation in office. The Council has expressed its warm apprecia- 
tion of the services of Dr. Smith. 

XVI. Council. — The retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are : — 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth, Prof. C. Burt, Prof. W. E. Dalby, Sir John Flett, 
Sir Percy Nunn. 

The Council nominates the following new members : Prof. H. Clay, 
Prof. W. T. Gordon, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, leaving two vacancies to be 
filled by the General Committee without nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : — 

F. C. Bartlett. A. R. Hinks. 

Dr. F. A. Bather. Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 

Prof. A. L. Bowlev. Col. Sir H. G. Lyons. 

Prof. H. Clay. " C. G. T. Morison. 

Prof. C. Lovatt Evans. Prof. A. 0. Rankine. 

Sir Henry Fowler. Dr. C. Tate Regan. 

Prof. W. T. Gordon. Prof. A. C. Seward. 

Sir Richard Gregory. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan. Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon. Dr. G. C. Simpson. 

Sir Daniel Hall. Prof. J. F. Thorpe. 
Sir James Henderson. 

XVII. General Committee. — The following has been admitted as a 
member of the General Committee : Dr. A. Hopwood. 


XVIII. The Royal Emfire Society generously afforded members of the 
Association who had visited South Africa for the meeting in 1929 an 
opportunity of reunion at one of the evening meetings of the Society, 
when Lord Lloyd was in the chair, supported by Sir Thomas Holland, 
and an address was delivered by Sir Richard Gregory. 

XIX. Corresponding Societies Committee. — The Corresponding Societies 
Committee has been nominated as follows : The President of the Associa- 
tion (Chairman ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard (Vice-Chairman), Dr. C. Tierney 
(Secretary), The General Treasurer, the General Secretaries, Mr. C. 0. 
Bartrum, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir Richard Gregory, Sir David Prain, Sir 
John Russell, Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 

XX. Civil Service. — The Council made a representation to H.M. 
Government regretting the absence of representatives of science and 
technology from the Royal Commission on the Civil Service, and through 
a committee is watching the progress of events in this connection with a 
view to further action if desirable. 

XXI. The British Association Rotating Coil for absolute measurement 
of resistance was presented to the national collections at the Science 

XXII. Assistant Secretary of the Association. — The Council has 
appointed Mr. H. Wooldridge to this office for a probationary period 
covering the Bristol and Centenary meetings. 



The Inaugural General Meeting was held on Wednesday, September 3, 
1.930, at 8.30 p.m., in the Colston Hall. After the Lord Mayor of Bristol 
and the Vice-Chancellor of the University had welcomed the Association, 
Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S., assumed the Presidency of the Association, in 
succession to Sir Thomas H. Holland, F.R.S., and delivered an address 
(for which see page 1) on ' Size and Form in Plants.' 

On Thursday evening, September 4, a Reception was given by the 
Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Bristol in the Museum and Art Gallery. 
On Monday, September 8, the Council and Senate of Bristol University 
held a Garden Party at Wills Hall at 4.0 jj.m. At 8.30 p.m. on the same 
day, the President, Council, and Headmaster of Clifton College received 
members at Clifton College. The President and Committee of the 
Zoological Society held an At Home in the Zoological Gardens on Sunday, 
September 7, at 3.0 o'clock. 

Evening Discourses. 

Prof. E. V. Appleton, F.R.S. : ' Wireless Echoes,' 8.0 p.m., 
September 5, Students' Union, Victoria Rooms (see p. .426). 

Dr. R. E. Slade : ' The Nitrogen Industry and Our Food Supply.' 
8.0 p.m.. Students' Union, Victoria Rooms (see p. 434). 

Public Lectures. 

Public lectures were arranged in Bristol and neighbouring towns as 
follows : — 

Sir Daniel Hall, F.R.S. : ' Apples ; the Bearing of Research on 
Improved Production.' 5.15 p.m., September 4, Merchant Venturers' 
Technical College, Bristol. 

Mr. R. A. Pelham : ' Some Aspects of the Colonial Problems in British 
East Africa.' 7.30 p.m., September 4, The Library, Taunton. 

Prof. Winifred Cullis : ' Breathing Under Difficulties.' 8 p.m., Sep- 
tember 5, The Town Hall, Weston-super-Mare. 

Mr. L. S. B. Leakey: 'East Africa.' 3.15 p.m., September 6, The 
Merchant Venturers' College, Bristol. 

Prof. J. G. Smith : ' Speculation and Investment.' 8 p.m., September 
8, The Art Gallery, Cheltenham. 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins : ' The Sense of Humour in Children.' 8 p.m., 
September 8, The Guild Hall, Salisbury. 

Wing-Com. T. R. Cave-Brown-Cave : ' Airship RlOl with Special 
Reference to Machinery.' 7.45 p.m., September 9, The Mechanics' 
Institute, Swindon. 

Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E. : ' The Price Level and Scientific Control.' 
5.30 p.m., September 9, The Banqueting Room, Bath. 

Mr. W. M. H. Greaves : ' The Sun.' 7.30 p.m., September 10, The 
Royal Fort, The University, Bristol. 

Mr. V. E. Nash- Williams : ' Caerwent and the Romanization of South 
Wales.' 8 p.m., September 10, Bingham Library, Cirencester. 


Dr. J. A. Bowie : ' The Rationalisation of Industry.' 8 p.m., 
Sejitember 10, Crypt Grammar School, Gloucester. 

Sir Arthur Keith's lecture on Dr. John Beddoe in Section H {q.v.) was 
also open to the public. 



A special Degree Congregation of the University of Bristol was held 
in the University on Wednesday, September 10, at 11 a.m., when the 
degree of LL.D. (Honoris Causa) was conferred on Prof. F. 0. Bower, 
F.R.S., President of the Association. 

After the ceremony, the President expressed the thanks of the 
Association to the University for the hospitality and facilities afEorded 
for the Meeting. The President and Officers of the Association then 
waited upon the Lord Mayor, members of the Corporation of Bristol, and 
local officers for the Meeting, at the Council House, in order to express 
the thanks of the Association to the City of Bristol. 


The following resolutions and recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at Bristol for consideration and, if 
desirable, for action : — 

From Section A. 

That the attention of the Council be drawn to the desirability of printing the 
volume of tables which has been prepared by the Mathematical Tables Committee. 

That in connection with the above, the attention of the Council be drawn to the 
section of the Report dealing with the Cunningham bequest. 

From Section A. 

That the Council be asked to endorse the resolution following addressed to the 
Board of Visitors of the University of Oxford Observatory, and to urge upon the 
Board of Visitors the desirability of ensuring the continuance of the Seismological 
work carried on hitherto at Oxford under the direction of Prof. Turner. 
Resolution : — 

The Committee of the Section of Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science desire to offer to the Board of 
Visitors of the University of Oxford Observatory their sincere condolence on the loss 
that the Observatory has sustained by the death of Prof. H. H. Turner. The Com- 
mittee further desire to place on record their high appreciation of his long and devoted 
services to the Sciences of Astronomy and Seismology. 

The Committee express the hope that the death of Prof. Turner will involve no 
discontinuity in the Astronomical and Seismological work, of international importance, 
which is so honourably associated with his name, and with that of the Universitj'. 

From Section H. 

In view of the increasingly rapid disappearance of material relating to the 
popular arts and crafts of the British people, the Committee of Section H requests 
Coun,cil to ask His Majesty's Government to put into effect the recommendation of 


the Royal Commission on National Museums and Galleries for the establishment of a 
National Open Air Folk Museum in London. 

The Committee further suggests that the Government might consider the 
possibility of utilising the Royal Botanic Gardens in Regent's Park for this purpose, 
in view of their admirable situation and the proximity of a building (St. John's 
Lodge) suitable for exhibition purposes and offices, providing this can be done without 
interfering with the scientific work already in progress on the site. 

From Section H. 

The Committee of Section H recognises the value of the measures now proposed 
to be taken by the Government of the Australian Commonwealth for the extension 
of territories reserved for the Australian aborigines, and for the unification of the 
protective administrations. The Australian natives are among the most interesting 
and the most valuable peoples for scientific study, and offer opportunities for research 
of unique importance for future investigations in the early history of mankind. The 
Committee, therefore, whOe appreciating the practical difficulties, desires the Council 
to represent to the Commonwealth Government the need of anthropological training 
for the officials charged with native administration, and to urge the adoption of 
every means to prevent the extinction of the aboriginal peoples and the further 
disintegration of native society. 

From Section H. 

The Committee views with alarm the increasing activity of unauthorised persons 
on archaeological sites in South Africa and the Rhodesias. It therefore asks the 
Council to make representations to the Governments concerned urging that permission 
to excavate should be given to trained archaeologists only, after consultation with the 
Directors of the Geological and Archaeological Surveys in the area. 

From Section K. 

That the attention of the Government be called to the limitation of opportunities 
for the growth of experimental plants in London, facilities for this purpose having 
been provided for many years at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, and 
that, whilst welcoming the suggestion of the Committee of Section H that an Open 
Air Folk Museum be established in that locality, the Committee of Section K urge 
the importance of the continued provision for botanical research of part of the 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

That the Council of the British Association be asked to represent to H.M. 
Government the need for the establishment of Nature Reserves in suitable areas in 
connexion with National Parks. 

That the Council be asked to appoint a Committee to take cognisance of proposals 
relating to National Parks by the Government and other authorities and bodies 
concerned, and to advise the Council as to action if desirable. 


July 1, 1929, to June 30, 1930. 

The large excess of income over expenditure (£2,437 8s.) shown in the 
Income and Expenditure Account for the year may be really more than 
offset by various considerations. 

(1) In respect of Down House : — ■ 

(a) A suspense account of £938 7s. is shown as an asset : it represents 
compensation paid to the outgoing tenant in 1928, and redemption of 
tithe, payments made during the previous financial year. It will be 
recommended that these should be written off in future, whether against 
general funds or against any further donation to the Down House funds 
which may be forthcoming. 

(h) The Down House Account shows an excess of expenditure over 
income amounting to £866 10s. 5d. Of this, £482 4s. may be taken as 
non-recurrent ; but it will be seen that the excess of running costs over 
income from Down House funds has been approximately £200, and under 
present financial conditions it appears that Down House must continue to 
involve some such charge upon the general funds of the Association. 

As for non-recurrent expenditure, taking the above-mentioned items 
together and including purchase of land, &c., the non-recurrent expenditure 
from general funds upon Down House has amounted to approximately 
£2,500, and may reach £3,000, inasmuch as not all the work of recondition- 
ing undertaken by the Association (apart from the much more costly work 
upon the house itself, which was carried out by Mr. Buckston Browne) 
has yet been completed or paid for. 

(2) The balance of £1,523 5s. Id. remaining of the fund raised last year 
by Dr. F. E. Smith in aid of extraordinary expenses connected with the 
South African Meeting appears as income in the Income and Expenditure 
Account. Upon this fund the Council has undertaken certain liabilities 
(publication of the results of the Zimbabwe investigations and Zimbabwe 
Loan Exhibition ; foundation of a second South Africa Medal : see 
Report of Council, IV — VI), while any remainder has been considered as 
helping to cover such increased costs connected with the meeting as that 
of printing, as against the inevitable loss of revenue from the reduced 
number of membership subscriptions. 

Office expenses during the past year show a general reduction. Among 
receipts, the apparent reduction of income tax recoverable as compared 
with the figure for last year is accounted for by the fact that last year's 
figure represented two years' repayment. 

A review of the financial position, and a consideration of the require- 
ments of the forthcoming Centenary Meeting and the enhanced responsi- 
bilities and activities of the Association, would a])pear amply to justify 
the Council's sanction of an appeal for a Centenary Fund (Report of Council, 



Balance Sheet, 

June 30, 

& s. d. 

10,942 19 1 

9,682 16 3 

201 3 10 

76 7 3 


9,389 2 3 

1,638 12 2 

182 IS 10 



63,742 S 11 


To General Fund — 

As at July 1, 1929 
As per contra 

(Subject to Depreciation 



Transfer to South 
African Associa- 
tion Medal Fund . 

Printing Subsidy . 

Transfer to Income 
and Expenditure 


1,523 5 1 

Lt.-Col. A. J. C. Cunningham's Bequest — 
For the preparation of New Tables in 
Theory of Numbers 

Add Dividends .... 
As per contra 

South African Association Medal Fund — 
As per contra ..... 

Down House Endowment Fund — 

As per contra ..... 

Revenue Account — 

Sundry Creditors .... 

Do. Do. (Down House) . 

s. d. 

in Value of 

Caird Fund — 

As at Jiily 1, 1929 
As per contra ...... 

(Subject to Depreciation in Value of 


Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Balance as at July 1, 1929 .... 
Add Excess of Income over Expenditure 
for the year ..... 
As per contra - 

Sir F. BranweU's Gift — 

For enquiry into Prime Movers, 1931 — £50 

Consols now accumulated to £158 13s. 3d. 

As per contra ...... 

Sir Charles Parson's Gift — 

As per contra ...... 

Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

As per last Account ..... 
Less Transferred to Income and Expendi- 
ture Account under terms of the Gift 
As per contra 

Life Compositions — 

As per last Account .... 
Add received during year 
As per contra 

Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
As per last Account .... 
Add Dividends .... 

Less Awards given .... 
As per contra * 

South African Meeting — 

Sundry Donations in aid of Expenses 

As per last Account .... 
Add Unexpended balances of Grants in aid 
of Travelling Expenses refunded . 


201 3 10 
163 8 8 


.334 2 


1,638 12 
88 10 


182 18 
8 15 


191 13 
8 15 


1,823 5 1 

1,823 5 1 

2,868 16 4 
74 18 5 

271 19 
203 13 

475 12 

£ s. d. 

10,942 19 1 

9,582 16 3 

364 12 6 

80 4 2 


9,055 y 

1,727 2 2 

182 18 10 

1,728 9 3 
94 15 10 

2,943 14 9 



Carried forward 

£65,079 7 9 



June 30, 1930. 


Jane 30, 

£ s. d. 

10,942 19 1 

9,SS2 16 3 

201 3 10 

76 7 3 


9,389 2 3 

1,638 12 2 

182 IS 10 

1,728 9 3 


By General Fund — £ 

£4,651 10s. 5d. Consolidated 2 J per cent. Stock 

at cost ....... 3,942 

£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stock at cost. . 3,522 

£879 14s. 9d. Great Indian Peninsular Railway 

' B ' Annuity at cost .... 827 

£52 12s. Id. War Stock (Post Office Issue) at 

cost ....... 54 

£834 16s. 6d. 4i per cent. Conversion Stock at 

cost ....... 835 

£1,400 War Stock 5 per cent. 1929/47 at cost 1,393 
£94 7s. Od. 4+ per cent. Conversion Stock 

1940/44 at cost 62 15 

£326 ^s. lOd. 34 per cent. Conversion Stock 

at cost ....... 250 

Cash at Bank 54 8 11 

&S,134 28. 3d. 
Caird Fund — 

£2,627 Os. lOd. India 3* per cent. Stock at cost 
£2,100 London, Midland and Scottish Railway 

Consolidated 4 per cent. Preference Stock at 

cost ....... 

£2,500 Canada 3i per cent. Registered Stock 

1930/50 at cost . . . . • . 

£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per 

cent. Preference Stock at cost . 

(Value of Stocks at date, £8,069 18s. Id.) 

2,400 13 3 

2,190 4 3 

2,397 1 6 

2,594 17 3 

s. d. £ s. d. 

3 3 

2 6 

5 2 

12 4 

16 11 

10,942 19 1 

&6,S7S 4s. 3d. (Value at date, £6,872 9s. lid.) 
Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Sir F. Bramwell's Gift — 

£151 12 Self Accumulating Consolidated 

Stock as per last Balance Sheet. 

7 13 ^dd Accumulations to June 30, 


£158 13 3 


7 3 
16 11 


&S2 12s. Sd. (Value at date, £87 5s. 
Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

£10,300 4i per cent. Conversion Stock at cost 
£9,733 10s. Od. (Value at date, £10,171 5s. Od.) 
Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

£9,389 2s. 3d. 5 per cent. War Loan (£50 

Bonds) as per last Accoimt . . . 9,389 

Less Sale of £334 2s. 3d. Stock under 

terms of the Gift . . . .334 

2 3 
2 3 

&9,459 10s. 6d. (Value at date, £9,349 5s. 9d.) 
Life Compositions — 

£2,550 18s. lid. Local Loans at cost . . 1,653 12 2 

£1,464 Is. Id. (Value at date, £1,645 7s. 2d.) 

Cash at Bank 73 10 

Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
£175 5 per cent. War Stock at cost 
£176 6s. 3d. (Value at date, £180 13s. 9d.) 
Cash at Bank ...... 

South African Meeting Fund — 

Cash at Bank ...... 

Lt.-Col. A. J. C. Cunningham's Bequest — 

£1,488 18s. Od. 2i per cent. Con.solldated Stock 
£300 Port of London 3i per cent. Stock 


£100 Commonwealth of Australia 45 per cent. 


£100 New Zealand 5 per cent. Stock 
£800 India 6 per cent. Stock at cost 
£1,274 4s. lOd. Local Loans 3 per cent, at cost 
Cash at Bank ..... 


11 4 

7 6 







17 11 


6 5 

18 5 

43,742 8 11 

(Value of Stocks at date, £2,843 6s. 6d.) 

Carried forward 

9,582 16 3 

364 12 6 

80 4 2 



1,727 2 2 

182 18 10 

2,943 14 9 

«44,879 7 9 



Balance Sheet, 

June 30, 

£ s. d. 

63,742 S 11 

S,393 4 6 

LIABILITIES— coniinweii. 

Brought forward 

To Income and Expenditure Account — 



Balance at July 1, 1929 
Add Excess of Income over 
Expenditure for the year. 

As per contra 

£6,318 8 4 
2,437 8 

8,755 16 i 

9,231 8 4 

72,13a 13 

£74,310 16 1 

I have examined the foregoing Account with the Books and Vouchers and certify the same 
and the Investments and have inspected the Deeds of Down House and the Mortgage on 


Hon. Auditor.^ 
July 16, 1930. 

t Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, Hon. Auditor, was unavoidably prevented from attending the audit. 


June 30, 1930 —continued. 


June 30, 

£ *. d. 

43,742 8 11 


8,303 4 6 

72,135 13 5 

ASSETS — coTitmued. 

S, a 
Brought forward ...... 

By Sovth .Ifrican Association Medal Fund — ' 

Cash at Bank ...... 

,, Mr. G. Bvckston Brmvne's Gift in memory of 
Darwin — Down House, Kent .... 

„ Do. Endoinnent Fund — 

£5,500 India 4* per cent. Stock 19J8/68 at cost 5,001 17 
£2,500 Australia 5 per cent. Stock 1945/75 at 

cost ..... 2 468 19 

£3,000 Fishguard & Ros-slare Railway 3 J per- 
cent. Guaranteed Preference Stock at cost. 2,139 17 
£2,500 New South Wales o per cent. 1945/65 

Stock at cost ...... 2,467 7 

£2,500 Western Australia 5 per cent. Stock 

1945/75 at cost ..... 2,472 1 

£3,340 Great Western Railway 5 per cent. 

Guaranteed Stock at cost . . . 3,436 7 

£2,500 Birkenhead Railway 4 per cent. Con- 
solidated Stock at cost . . . . 2,013 9 



Not valued. 








£10,247 6s. Od. (Value at date, £18,486 12s. Od.) 
Revenue Account — 
Investments : — 

£2,098 Is. 9d. Consolidated 2i per cent. Stock 

at cost ....... 1,200 

£4,338 6s. 2d. Conversion 3 J per cent.' Stock 

at cost ....... 3,300 

£400 5 per cent. War Loan Inscribed Stock at 

cost 404 16 


&4,S54 Ss. 4d. (Value at date, £4,950 16s. 8d.) 
Second Mortgage on Isleworth House, Orping- 
ton ....... 

Down House Suspense Account — 

As per last Account ..... 

Pm'chase of land adjoining Do-svn House 
Down House — Income and Expenditure Account 
Balance at July 1, 1929 . £699 13 7 

Add Excess of Expenditure 
over Income for the year 
as per separate Income 
and Expenditure Ac- 
count . . . 866 10 5 

4,904 16 



Sundry Debtors and Payments in Advance . 

Do. (Down House) 

Cash at Bank General Ac- 
count .... £2,626 15 6 
Less Do^\-n House — Charges 

on General Fund. . 2,582 17 

Cash in hand ...... 


6 19 


43 18 6 
78 14 11 

9,231 8 4 
£74,310 16 1 

to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers 
Isleworth House. 

W. B. KEEN, 
Chartered Accountant. 



Income and 

FOR THE Year Ended 



June 30, 


£ s. 


















5,515 14 7 




SS8 2 
24 10 


6,783 6 10 

To Heat, Lighting and Power 

Postages . 

Travelling Expenses 
Exhibitioners . 
General Expenses 

Salaries and Wages . 
Pension Contribution 
Printing, Binding, etc. 

Dr. Klercker's Research Committee, Donation per 
contra ........ 

Zimbabwe Loan Exhibition — Catalogue, etc. 
Prof. T. T. Barnard, for excavations at Bambata . 
Miss Caton-Thompson, for Zimbabwe excavations, 
per contra ....... 

Grants to Research Committees — 

Geography in Schools and Training Colleges 
Committee ..... 

Derbyshire Caves Committee 

Mycorrhiza in relation to Forestry Committee 

Uplands Bog Waters Committee . 

Tropical Africa Committee . 

Mathematical Tables Committee . 

Macedonia Committee . 

Formal Training Committee 

General Science in Schools Committee 

Educational Films Committee 

Plymouth Table Committee . 

Taxation Committee 

Zoological Record Committee 

Palaeozoic Rocks Committee 

Vocational Tests Committee 

, Law Costs of Second Mortgage, Isleivorth House 
, Balance being excess of Income over Expenditure 
for the year ..... 

£ s. d. 

20 10 4 

84 3 6 


167 12 10 

118 10 5 

s. d. 

229 18 


621 15 

1,499 1 


1,060 5 




3 10 

3 5 



12 19 

26 3 




1 18 


1 16 








431 1 


2,437 8 

£6,176 16 1 

s. d. 



To Grants paid — 

Seismology Committee .... 

Naples Tables Committee .... 

,, Balance, being excess of Income over Expenditure 
for the year ....... 


s. d. 







s. d. 

8 8 



Expenditure Account 

June 30, 1930. 



June 30, 


£ s. d. 


71 5 
91 10 


SO 9 3 



lot 5 6 

56S 4 1 

241 2 9 

302 6 

37 16 11 

22 10 

29 11 11 

1,344 11 

16 S 10 

IS 11 1 

6,783 6 10 


By Annual Regular Members (including £52, 1930/31) 

,, Annual Temporary Members (including £419, 

1930/31) . . . ... 

,, Annual Members with Report (Including £171, 


„ Transferable Tickets for 1930/31 

„ Students' Tickets (including £10, 1930/31) . 

„ Unexpended balance of Donations in aid of 

Expenses — South African Meeting . 
„ Donation Dr. Klercker for Research, per contra 
„ Do. (Fes. 10,000), per L'Abbe Breuil, for Prof. 
T. T. Barnard's Excavations .... 

„ Do. Rhodes Trustees for Zimbabwe Excavations 
per contra ...... 

„ Zimbabwe Loan Exhibition — Sale of Catalogues 
,, Lift Rent ...... 

„ Interest on Deposit ..... 

„ Sale of Publications .... 

„ Advertisement Revenue .... 

„ Income Tax Recoverable .... 

„ Unexpended Balance of Grants Returned 

„ Liverpool Exhibitioners .... 

„ Royal Charter Expenses — Unexpended Balance 
transferred ...... 

., Dividends — 

i.135 Consols 

86 S India 3 per cent. 

26 75 2 Great Indian Peninsular Railway ' B 

Annuity .... 

34 6 4 J per cent. Conversion Loan 
370 16 Do. Sir C. Parson's Gift . 
53 6 6 Local Loans .... 
78 12 6 War Stock .... 

428 14 6 Do. Series ' A,' Sir A. Yarrow's Gift 
130 12 4 3} per cent. Conversion Loan 

s. d. 


s. d. 

1,252 5 

87 10 

By Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

Proceeds of Sale of £334 2s. 3d. War Loan in 

accordance with the terms of the Gift 
Profit on Sale ...... 

,, Interest on Mortgage ..... 

,, Balance being excess of Expenditure over Income for 

the year ....... 

1,523 5 1 


















86 8 

26 IS 

34 G 

370 16 

56 13 

77 15 

461 2 

130 12 







334 2 

8 15 











290 15 
145 7 

513 17 





By Dividends — 

India 3i per cent. Stock .... 

Canada 3* per cent. Stock .... 

London, Midland & Scottish Railway Con- 
solidated 4 per cent Preference Stock . 

Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent. 
Preference Stock ..... 

„ Income Tax Recoverable ..... 

,, Balance being excess oj Expenditure orcr Income 

for the year ....... 

£ s. d. 

73 11 


67 4 


s. d. 

290 15 
72 13 8 

£363 8 3 

















27 7 














S33 11 


Down House, 


s. rf. 

497 15 5 

1S3 1-5 S 

IS 2 9 

699 13 7 

To Wages of Staff. 
„ Rates, Insurance, etc. 
,, Heat, Light and Drainage 
,, Repairs and Renewals 

House and Garden Sundries 

General Expenses 


Photo Postcards 

Printinij Booklet 

Opcnma Ceremony, Cafcriiiij, etc. 













'J 7 









15 12 

To Balance brought dovvu • , ■ .■ „ • ,• 

House and Garden Equipment, Repairs, Renewals 

and alterations to Buildings, Fences, Paths, 

etc. ......•• 

,, Law Costs — 

Rates Appeal, etc. ..... 

Tithe Redemption ..... 

Purchase of Land . . . . "• 

£1,155 12 1 
201 2 5 

482 i 

121 1(1 
39 13 « 
21 19 19 

183 i 
£866 10 5 



June 30, 1930. 



June 30, 


a; s. rf. 

220 s 
497 li 5 

H33 11 

C99 13 

699 13 


By Rents Receivable ..... 

„ Income Tax Recoverable . . . '. 

,, Donations .....' 

„ Sale of Postcards . . . . 

„ Dividends — 

4 i per cent. India Stock 

Fishguard & Rosslare Railwav 3i per cent 

New South Wales o per cent. Stock '. 
Great Western Railway 5 per cent. Stock 
Australia 5 per cent. Stock, 1945/75 
Western Australia 5 per cent. Stock 
Birkenhead Railway 4 per cent. Stock . 

,, Balance carried doAvii 

By Balance being excess of Expenditure over Income 
for the year ....... 

s. )1. 

194 18 2 


98 8 

133 12 




£ .s. (7. 

8G 10 8 

55 2 

14 17 9 

C 14 7 

790 IS 11 
201 2 5 

£1,155 12 4 

SCO 10 

£866 10 5 



BEISTOL, 1930. 

Ch'ants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. 


Seismological Investigations. — Sir Henry Lyons (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw (Secretary), 
Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. Dyson, Sir 
R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. Wilfred Hall, Dr. H. Jeffreys, Prof. H. Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, 
Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, Prof. E. A. Milne, Dr. A. Crichton 
Mitchell, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, Prof. A. 0. Rankine, Rev. 
J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson, Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, 
Capt. H. Shaw, Dr. F. E. Smith, Mr. R. Stoneley, Sir G. T. Walker, Dr. F. J. W. 
Whipple. £200. (Caird Fund grant.) 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Prof. J. W. Nicholson (Chairman), Dr. L. J. 
Comrie (Secretary), Prof. A. Lodge (Vice-Chairman), Dr. R. A. Fisher (General 
Editor), Dr. J. R. Airey, Dr. A. T. Doodson, Dr. J. Henderson, Mr. J. 0. Irwin, 
Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. E. H. Neville, Dr. A. J. Thompson, Dr. J. F. Tocher, 
Mr. T. Whitwell, Dr. J. Wishart. £65. (Caird Fund grant.) 


Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. — Prof. I. M. 
Heilbron (Chairman), Prof. E. C. C. Baly (Secretary), Prof. A. W. Stewart. 

To Collect and Tabulate all available data on the Parachors of Chemical Compounds 
with a view to their subsequent publication. — Dr. N. V. Sidgwick (Chairman), 
Dr. S. Sugden (Secretary), Dr. N. K. Adams. £10. 


To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — Prof. 
W. W. Watts (Chairman), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, 
Dr. H. Bolton, Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. E. S. Cobbold, Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. 
E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, Prof. E. J. Garwood, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Prof. V. C. lUing, Prof. O. T. Jones, Prof. J. E. Marr, Dr. F. J. North, Mr. J. 
Pringle, Dr. T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, Dr. A. E. Trueman, Dr. F. S. Wallis. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of 
Geological Interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood (Chairman), Prof. S. H. Reynolds 
(Secretary), Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. E. G. W. Elliott, Mr. J. F. Jackson, Mr. J. 
Ranson, Prof. W. W. Watts, Mr. R. J. W^elch. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary and Cretaceous Rocks of the London 
Area. To tabulate and preserve records of new excavations in that area. — Prof. 
W. T. Gordon (Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge (Secretary), Mr. H. C. Berdinner, 
Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Miss M. C. Crosfield, Mr. F. Gosling, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 
Prof. G. Hickling. £15. 

The Stratigraphy and structure of the Palaeozoic Sedimentary Rocks of West Cornwall. 
— (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Davison (Secretary), Mr. H. G. Dines, 

Miss E. M. Lind Hendriks, Mr. S. HaU, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. 


Expedition to investigate the Biology, Geology, and Geography of Lakes Baringo and 
Rudolf, Northern Kenya and Lake Edward, Uganda. — Prof. J. S. Gardiner 
(Chairman), E. B. Worthington and J. T. Saunders (Secretaries), Dr. W. T. 
Caiman, Prof. J. W. Gregory, Prof. R. N. Rudmose Brown, Dr. L. S. B. Leakey. 



To organise an expedition to investigate the Biology, Geology, and Geography of the 
Australian Great Barrier Reef.--Rt. Hon. Sir" U. Nathan (CJiairman), Prof. J. 
Stanley Gardiner and Mr. F. A. Potts (Secretarie-^), Sir Edgeworth David, Prof. 
W. T. Gordon, Prof. A. C. Seward, and Dr. Herbert H. Thomas (from Section C) ; 
Mr. E. Heron Allen. Dr. E. J. Allen, Prof. J. H. Ashwortli, Dr. G. P. Bidder, 
Dr. W. T. Caiman, Sir Sidney Harmer, Dr. C. M. Yonge (from Section D) ; Dr. 
R. N. Rudmose Brown, Sir G. Lenox Conyngham, Mr. F. Debenham, Admiral 
Douglas, Mr. A. R. Hinks (from Section E) ; Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Dr. Margery 
Knight, Prof. A. C. Seward (from Section K). 


Zoological Bibliograpliy and Publication. — Prof. E. B. Poulton (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen. Dr. W. T. Caiman, Sir P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, Mr. W. L. Sclater. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory, Plymoutli. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
H. GJraham Cannon, Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, Prof. S. J. Hickson. £50. 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, for 
the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir Sidney Harmer 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman (Secretary), Prof. E. S. Goodrich, Prof. D. M. S. 
Watson. £50. (Caird Fund grant.) 

On the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the Parents on the Sex-Ratio of the Ofl'spring. 
— Prof. J. H. OrtOD (Chairman), Mrs. Bisbee (Secretary), Prof. Carr-Saunders, 
Miss E. C. Herdman. £5. 

To consider the position of Animal Biology in the School Curriculum and matters 
relating thereto.— Prof. R. D. Laurie" (Chairman and Secretary). Mr. H. W. 
Ballance, Dr. Kathleen E. Carpenter, Mr. O. H. Latter, Prof. E. W. MacBride, 
Miss M. McNicol, Miss A. J. Prothero, Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 

A Preliminary Survey of Certain Tropical Lakes in Kenya in 1929. — Prof. J. Stanley 
Gardiner (Chairman), Miss P. M. Jenkin (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Caiman, Prof. J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. J. T. Saunders. 

To try to arrange for the oKservation and recording of changes in the Flora and Fauna 
of St. Kilda since its evacuation.— Prof. J. Ritchie (Chairman), Prof. F. A. E. 
Crew (Secretary), Dr. A. Bowman, Prof. J. Graham Kerr, Dr. G. H. O'Donoghue. 


To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. E. S. Goodrich (Chairman), 
Prof. J. H. Ashworth (Secretary), Prof. E. W. MacBride, Prof. H. Munro Fox, 
Dr. M. Knight, Prof. J. H. Priestley, Prof. C. Lovatt Evans, Prof. B. A. 
McSwiney. £50. (Caii-d Fund grant.) 

The equipment of a Fresh-water Biological Station at Windermere subject to the 
support of other bodies being forthcoming. — Prof. M. Drummond, Prof. F. E. 
Fritsch, Dr. B. Millard Griffiths, Dr. C. H. O'Donoghue, Mr. J. Omer Cooper, 
Miss P. M. Jenkin. £40. 


To report further as to the method of construction and reproduction of a Population 
Map of Great Britain with a view to the census of 1931.— Brig. H. S. L. Winter- 
botham (Chairman), Mr. J. Cossar (Secretary), Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Mr. J. 
Bartholomew, Mr. H. O. Beckit, Mr. F. Debenham, Plof. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, Mr. H. King, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Brig. E. M. Jack, Prof. O. H. T. 
Rishbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Mr. A. Stevens. £25. 


To inquire into the present state of I\jiowledge of the Human Geography of Tropical 
Africa, and to make recommendations for furtherance and development. — Prof. 
P. M. Roxby {Chairman), Mr. A. G. Ogil\'ie (Secretary), Mr. S. J. K. Baker, 
Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. E. B. Haddon, Mr. J. McFarlane, 
Mr. R. A. Pelham, Mr. R. U. Saj^ce, Col. H. S. L. Winterbotham. £10. 


To report on the present position of Geographical Teaching in Schools , and of Geography 
in the training of teacher.? ; to formulate suggestions for a syllabus for the teaching 
of geography both to Matriculation Standard and in Advanced Courses and to 
report, as occasion arises, to Council through the Organising Committee of 
Section E upon the practical worlsing of Regulations issued by the Board of 
Education (including the Scottish Education Department) affecting the position 
of Geography in Schools and Training Colleges. — Prof. Sir T. P. Nunn (Chairman), 
Mr. L. Brooks (Secretary), Mr. A. B. Archer, Mr. C. C. Carter, Mr. J. Cossar, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. O. J. R. Howarth, Mr. H. E. M. Icely, Mr. J. McFarlane, 
Rt. Hon. Sir Halford J. Mackinder, Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. Marion Newbigin, 
Mr. A. G. Ogilvie, Mr. A. Stevens, Prof. C. B. Fawcett (from Section E) ; Mr. 
C. E. Browne, Sir R. Gregory, Mr. K. R. Thomas, Miss 0. Wright, Prof. Godfrey 
Thomson (Jrom Section L). £i. 


Earth Pressures. — Mr. F. E. Wentworth-Sheilds (Chairman), Dr. J. S. Owens 
(Secretary), Prof. A. Barr, Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. Fulton, 
Prof. F. C. Lea, Prof. R. V. Southwell, Dr. R. E. Stradling, Dr. W. N. Thomas, 
Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson. 

Electrical Terms and Definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson (Chairman), Prof. F. G. 
Baily and Prof. G. W. O. Howe (Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Prof. W. H. Eccles, 
Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Prof. A. E. Kennelly, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Dr. F. E. 
Smith, Prof. L. R. Wilberforce, with Dr. A." Russell. 

Stresses in overstrained materials. — Sir Henrv Fowler (Chairman), Mr. J. G. Docherty 
(Secretary), Prof. G. Cook, Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. Wilson. 


To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres 
(Chairman), Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong. Mr. H. 
Balfour, Prof. T. H. Bryce. Mr. L. H. Diidlev Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe. 
Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, Prof. H. .J. Fleure, Dr. cyil Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt. £50. 
(Caird Fund grant.) 

To excavate Flarly Sites in Macedonia. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), Mr. S. Casson 
(Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Ducl^orth, Mr. M. Thompson. £25. 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments. — Mr. 
G. A. Garfitt (Chairman), Miss M. A. Murrav (Secretary), Mr. A. L. Armstrong, 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. Cyril Fox, Prof. O. T. Jones, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 

To report on the probable sources of the sujiply of Copper used by the Sumerians. — 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Cliairman), Mr. G. A. Garfitt (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. H. Desch, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Prof. S. Langdon, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir Flinders Petrie, Mr. C. Leonard 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Prof. J. L. Myres 
(Chairman), Mr. L. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. 
Evans. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

The Investigation of a hill fort site at Llanmelin, near Caerwent. — Dr. WUIoughby 
Gardner (Chairman), Dr. Cyril Fox (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Prof. H. J. Rose. Dr. R. Mortimer Wheeler. 


To co-operate with the Torquaj' Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's Cavern. — 
Sir A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Mvres (Secretary), Mr. M. C. Biirkitt, Dr. 
R. V. Fa veil, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Prof. W. J. SoUas. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the explora- 
tion of Caves in the Derbyshire district. — Mr. M. C. Burkitt(CAarrman), Mr. G. A. 
Garfitt (Secretarv), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, Mr. E. N. 
Fallaizc, Dr. R-V. Favell, Prof. H. J. Flcure, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. A. C. 
Haddoii. Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Dr. L. S. Palmer, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Mr. H. J. E. 

To investigate processes of Growth in Children, with a view to discovering Differences 
due to Race and Sex, and further to study Racial Differences in Women. — Sir 
A. Keith (Chairman), Prof. H. J. Fleure (Secretary), Mr. I.. H. Dudley Buxton, 
Dr. A. Low, Prof. F. G. Parsons, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To report on the progress of Anthropological Teaching in the present century. — • 
Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
Dr. R. R. Marett, Prof. C. G. Seligman. 

To complete the excavation of the prehistoric depo.sit in the Tabgah caves in Galilee, 
under the supervision of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. — Sir 
Arthur Keith (Chainna>i), Prof. J. L. Mvres (Secretary), Miss D. A. E. Garrod. 

To make a preliminary survey of some reported archasological sites in British Somali- 
Jand. — Dr. A. C. Haddon (Chairman), Mr. R. F. Sayce (Secretary), Prof. J. L. 
Myres. £50. 

To co-operate with Miss Caton-Thompson in her researches in prehistoric sites in the 
Western Desert of Egypt. ^ — Prof. J. L. Mvres (Chairman), Mr. H. J. E. Peake 
(Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour. £85. 


Ductless Glands, with particular reference to the effect of autocoid activities on vaso 
motor reflexes. — Prof. J. Mellanby (Chairman), Prof. B. A. McSwiney (Secretary), 
Prof. Swale Vincent. 

Colour Vision. — Prof. Sir Charles Sherrington (Chairman), Prof. H. E. Roaf (Secretary), 
Dr. Mary Collins, Dr. F. W. Edridge Green, Prof. H. Hartridge, Dr. J. H. Shaxby. 


Vocational Tests. — Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Mr. F. M. Earle. Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof. C. Spearman. 


The Chemical Analj^sis of Upland Bog Waters. — Prof. J. H. Priestley (C^aiVjnaw), Mr. 
A. Malins Smith (Secretary), Dr. B. M. Griffiths, Dr. E. K. Rideal. £8. 

Transplant Experiments. — Dr. A. W. Hill (Chairman). Dr. W. B. Turrill (Secretary), 
Prof. F. W. Oliver, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. A. G. Tansley. £25. 

The Ecology of Selected Tributaries of the River Trent, with a view to determining 
the effect of progressive pollution. — Prof. F. E. Fritsch (Chairman), Prof. H. S. 
Holden (Secretary), Miss D. Bexon, Mr. H. Lister. 

To consider and report on the jirovision made for Instruction in Botany in courses of 
Biology, and matters related thereto. — Prof. V. H. Blackman (Chairman), Dr. 
E. N. M. Thomas (Secretary). Prof. M. Druramond, Prof. F. E. Fritsch, Dr. A. W. 
Hill, Prof. S. Maugham, Mr. J. Sager. 

Mycorrhiza in relation to Forestry. — Mr. F. T. Brooks (Chairman), Dr. M. C. Ravner 
(Secretary), Mr. W. H. Guillebaud. £40. 

Fossil Plants at Fort Gray, near East London. — Dr. A. W. Rogers (Chairman), Prof. 
R. S. Adamson (Secretary), Prof. A. C. Seward. £8 lis. 5d. (I'nexpended 


The Morphology and Systematics of certain South African Liverworts and Ferns. — 
Prof. R. S. Adamson (Chairman), Prof. H. S. Holden (Secretary), Prof. R. H. 
Compton, Mrs. M. R. Levyns, Prof. C. E. Moss, Mr. N. S. Pillans. £9 14s. 
(Unexpended balance.) 

To investigate the effect of conditions on the growth, structure and metabolism of 
Kleinia articulata. — Prof. D. Thodav (Chairman), Mr. N. Woodhead (Secretary), 
Dr. F. F. Blackman. £40. 

To safeguard the interests of botanists with regard to the use of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Regent's Park.— Sir David Prain, Dr. A. W. Hill, Prof. R. R. Gates. 

The Ecology of St. Kilda. — Prof. F. A. E. Crew (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. 
J. R. Matthews, Dr. Lloyd Praeger, Prof. .J. Walton. 


To consider the Educational Training of Boys and Girls in Secondarj- Schools for over- 
seas life. — Sir J. Russell (Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne (Secretary), Major A. G. 
Church, Mr. H. W. Cousins, Dr. J. Vargas Eyre, Sir R. A. Gregory, Mr. O. H. 
Latter, Miss E. H. McLean, Mr. G. W. Olive, Miss Gladys Pott, Mr. A. A. 
Somerville, Dr. G. K. Sutherland, Mrs. Gordon Wilson. £8. 

The teaching of General Science in Schools, with special reference to the teaching of 
Biology.— Prof. Sir T. P. Nunn (Chairma7i). Mr. G. W. Olive (Secretary), Mr. C. E. 
Browne, Dr. Lilian J. Clarke, Mr. G. D. Dunkerley, Mr. S. R. Humby, Dr. E. W. 
Shann, Mr. E. R. Thomas, Mrs. Gordon Wilson, Miss von Wyss. £16. 

Educational and Documentary Films : To enquire into the production and distribu- 
tion thereof, to consider the use and effects of films on pupils of school age and 
older students, and to co-operate with other bodies which are studying those 
problems. — Sir Richard Gregory (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Holland (Secretary), 
Mr. L. Brooks, Miss E. R. Conway, Mr. G. D, Dunkerley, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
Prof. J. L. Myres, Mr. G. W. Olive, Dr. Spearman, Dr. H. Hamshaw Thomas 
(Section K), Dr. F. W. Edridge Green (Section I). £68. 


Corresponding Societies Committee. — The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard ( V ice-Chairman), Dr. C. Tieruey (Secretary), the General 
Secretaries, the General Treasurer, Mr. C. 0. Bartrum, Dr. F. A. Bather, Sir 
Richard Gregory, Sir David Prain, Sir John Russell, Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 

Committee to take cognisance of proposals relating to National Parks by the Govern- 
ment and other authorities and bodies concerned, and to advise the Council as 
to action if desirable. — Prof. P. Abercrombie, Mr. T. Sheppard, Prof. W. M. 
Tattersall and'Dr. C. Tierney (Corres-ponding Societies), 'Pro!. A. H. Cox (Section C), 
Sir Chalmers Mitchell (Section D), Dr. Vaughan Cornish (Section E), Dr. Harrison 
(Section H), Sir D. Prain (Section K). 





PROFESSOR F. 0. BOWER, Sc.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.. 


Two years have passed since the Association last met in Britain. Events 
have happened in that interval which mark the close of the Darwinian 
Epoch. Down House, in which Darwin lived and worked, has been 
bought, restored and endowed by Mr. Buckston Browne and presented by 
him to the Association, who hold it in custody for the Nation. The house 
is now open as a shrine to those who treasure Darwin's memory. They 
may enter the study where the ' Origin of Species ' was penned, or wander 
out to the Sand Walk, and draw such inspiration as those spots may yet 
afford to those who are face to face with problems cognate to his own. 
These years have also severed personal links with Darwin himself. Sir 
William Thiselton-Dyer, who died in December 1928, had been his 
frequent correspondent. It was he who, more than any other, carried 
the evolutionary stimulus forward into the botanical schools of Britain. 
Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, whose portrait by Orpen was a poignant feature 
of last year's Academy, died in August 1929. Not only was he the leading 
Zoologist of his time, but he has left a deep impress on general Morphology ; 
for he was the first to analyse from the evolutionary aspect the degrees 
of * sameness ' of parts, whether in animals or in plants. These two 
octogenarians were among the latest links between Darwin himself and 
living men of science. And so this last^meeting of the Association before 
its centenary next year falls at a nodal point in the personal history of 

Morphology, or the study of Form, was closely interwoven with the 
life's work of Darwin, and — to use his own words — ' it is one of the most 
interesting departments of natural history, and may almost be said to be 
its very soul.' Since the Association has seen fit to choose as this year's 
President a botanist whose work has dealt specially with form in plants, 
1930 B 


the occasion seems apt for considering certain morphological questions 
that present themselves in this eighth decade since the ' Origin of Species ' 
was published. 

The word ' Morphology ' was applied by Goethe in 1817, in a general 
sense, to the study of form. Though a pre-Darwinian, he showed rare 
foresight in insisting that the living form is only momentarily stable, 
never permanent. But years elapsed before that instability of form of 
living things, which he clearly saw, became the very focus of evolutionary 
theory. Even Goethe's prophetic gaze was blurred by the hazy imaginings 
of Idealistic Philosophy. The clarifying mind of Schleiden resolved that 
mist by resort to naked fact. In 1845 he stoutly asserted that the history 
of development is the true foundation for all insight into living form. 
This opened the way for a host of workers, who patiently observed and 
compared the facts of individual development, particularly in plants of 
low organisation. By them the field was prepared for the magic touch 
of Darwin ; and, in the enthusiastic words of Sachs, ' the theory of descent 
had only to accept what genetic morphology had actually brought to view.' 

The effect of that theory should have been to sweep aside all Idealistic 
Morphology based on the higher forms, and to rivet attention upon 
organisms low in the scale. It was the habit of starting comparison from 
the highest state of organisation that was the fundamental error of the 
idealistic nature-philosophers ; even now traces of it still persist. An 
illuminating alternative was presented by that noble passage with which 
the ' Origin of Species ' ends. Speaking of his theory, Darwin wrote : 
' There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having 
been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms, or into one ; 
and that — from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and 
most wonderful have been, and are being evolved.' He forecast from the 
application of his theory that ' our classifications will come to be, as far 
as they can be so made, genealogies ; and they will then truly give what 
may be called the plan of creation.' 

Whether there was only one original form of life or many is still an 
open question. Nevertheless, among the welter of organisms rightly held 
as primitive, the Flagellata may with some degree of reason be named as 
combining in their motile and sedentary stages respectively the animal 
and vegetable characters. They suggest a sort of starting-point from which 
the two kingdoms might have diverged. The probability of their common 
origin is strong ; but the divergence must have been early, each taking 


its own independent course, with increasing size and complexity of the 
individual. In tracing this I would ask your special attention this evening 
to the Kingdom of Plants. 

The first of the laws laid down by Lamarck ^ in his Histoire Naturelle 
as fundamental in the evolution of animals and plants ran thus : ' Life 
by its intrinsic forces tends to increase the volume of every living body, 
and to enlarge its parts up to a limit which it determines itself.' When 
in unicellular organisms, following this law, a certain size has been reached, 
fission follows, and the equal halves separate as new individuals. In 
pluricellular bodies, however, the products of cell-division do not separate, 
but continue a communal life ; and the individual may increase, with 
further division of its cells, to large size and complexity. We may picture 
how, based upon the mobile stage of a Flagellate, the aggregate might 
form an animal body with motility as a leading featiire ; on the other 
hand, based upon the sedentary stage, an immobile plant-body would 
result. The animal, adopting a predatory habit and colourless, might 
progress along lines of dependent nutrition, finding and ingesting food 
already organised ; the sedentary green plant might evolve along lines 
of physiological independence, constructing its own organic supplies. 
Whether or not this be a true picture, the whole organisation of the two 
kingdoms diverged on the basis of nutrition. Herbert Spencer contrasted 
them physiologically, showing how animals are expenders, while plants 
are accumulators ; that the former are limited in their growth by the 
balance of expenditure against nutrition ; in the latter growth is not so 
limited. Thus, the problems that follow on increasing size may be expected 
to work out differently in view of the animal kingdom comprising organisms 
of high expenditure and not self-nourishing, while plants are self-nourishing 

The result of this difference may be illustrated by contrasting some of 
the highest examples of either kingdom ; for instance, the elephant, with 
the trees of the forest through which he roams. On the one hand, the 
relative fewness of the mobile elephants, their less stature and compact 
form, their columnar legs needed to support the barrel-like body, the 
receptacle for ingested food, the economy of external surface and the 
highly developed internal surfaces. On the other hand, the height, 
immobility and large number of the trees, with their massive stems and 

• Lamarck died in 1829, and the Association has contributed to a fund being 
raised for a Memorial by the Linnaen Society of Northern France. 

B 2 


highly complex shoots and roots, so necessary for acquiring food directly 
from the air and soil. We may further contrast the genesis of the indi- 
vidual in either case. In the mammal the parts are formed once for all, 
its embryology being an incident closed early in the individual life ; but 
in the tree embryology may be continued for centuries, and is theoretically 
unlimited, except by death ; during life it has the power of producing 
leaves and branches from every distal bud. The fact is that, though 
certain underlying principles are the same for both kingdoms, the working 
out has been distinct from the first. Hence, the morphology of plants 
must stand on its own feet ; indeed, it has been said with some degree of 
truth that whenever botanists have borrowed their morphological outlook 
from the sister science they have gone wrong. 

The normal development of a multicellular plant starts from the 
fertilised egg, and elaboration, both external and internal, follows on 
increasing size. Polarity, that is the distinction of apex and base, is defined 
in most plants of high organisation by the first cell-cleavage. The apex 
adopts at once the continued development that is its characteristic. 
Branching of various types follows in all but the simplest, to constitute 
the complex shoot, while correlative basal branching gives the root-system 
that fixes the non-motile body in the soil. The scheme of growth and 
branching thus started is theoretically open to unlimited increase, and the 
initiation of new parts is in point of number on a geometrical scale. This 
is suitable enough for organisms able to accumulate material, as plants do ; 
indeed, the elaboration of the vegetative system will enhance its powers 
of self-nutrition, so far as the parts become functional ; but this is never 
fully realised beyond the earlier steps. 

The focus of all such development is the growing point, respectively of 
root or shoot. Anyone who carefully dissects a suitable bud, peeling off 
the successively smaller leaves, may finally see with the naked eye or with 
a simple lens a pearly cone of semi-transparent tissue at the tip of the 
stem. This is the growing point itself, which possesses theoretically 
unlimited formative power. It is like a permanent sector of the original 
embryo that is fed continually from the mature tissues below, and as 
continually forms fresh tissues at the tip. But as the tip advances, 
lateral swellings of the surface appear in due order, which are new leaves 
and buds. Various attempts have been made to link the genesis of these 
outgrowths of the radial shoot with the outer world as regards their 
position and number. But we have it as the latest authoritative statement 


on this point that such a relation does not exist. ' This much is proved,' 
says Prof, von Goebel, that, ' so far as we can see, the question relates to 
conditions of growth and symmetry that arise in the growing point.' 
' All theories as to leaf-position that allotted a passive role to the growing 
point were mistaken, however acute the reasoning that was brought to 
bear thereon ' {Organographie. 3rd Edn., part I, pp. 299-300). This is 
Von Goebel's summing up for external parts. On the other hand, within 
the growing point, and often, though not always, related to the external 
parts, there is a progressive formation of internal conducting tracts, 
continuous from the adult region upwards to the tip. A like reference of 
the origin and disposition of these vascular tracts to the growing point 
itself appears to be equally justified. In fact, the tip possesses the 
initiative for both. 

The complex shoot that results from such initiation is exposed as it 
matures to external conditions which modify its form. Their effect is 
very obvious in the young shoot of the higher plants. As the shoot 
elongates its young tissues are soft and plastic. While in this state its 
form may be influenced by gravity, the incidence of light, mechanical 
contact and other causes which produce reactions of form called ' tropisms.' 
All of these promote the well-being of the whole. The net result becomes 
fixed as the part matures, and its constituent tissues harden. Thus, the 
adult form is the consequence of the primary initiation at the growing 
point, modified by the conditions to which the plant may have been exposed 
during the plastic period. This is a commonplace of the text-books. 
But amid all the careful analysis and experiment that has been devoted 
to the influences which thus affect form, one factor, insistent and un- 
avoidable, has been habitually left out, viz., the influence of size. 
Reference is occasionally made in textbooks to the effect of surface- 
tension in determining the simple form in minute organisms, such as 
•unicellular Algae and Bacteria, and to the deviations from that simple 
form as the size increases, and the influence of surface-tension ceases to 
be dominant. At the other end of the scale of size mathematicians have 
calculated the extreme stature mechanically possible for a tree-trunk 
constructed after the ordinary plan, and of materials of known strength. 
The result is about 300 feet, and this coincides approximately with the 
limit of height of the canopy of a tropical forest. But in point of size 
practically the whole of the vegetable kingdom lies between the microbe 
and the forest tree. Unfortunately, the study of these middle terms, 


from the point of view of change of form as the size increases, has not 
been pursued by botanists with the same perception as zoologists have 
shown in the study of animals. 

At the back of all problems raised by increasing size stands the well- 
known principle of similarity, which applies to all structures, inorganic as 
well as organic. It involves among other consequences that where form 
remains unaltered bulk increases as the cube, but surface only as the 
square of the linear dimensions. But in living organisms it is through the 
limiting surfaces, or ' presentation-surfaces,' as they are called, that 
physiological interchange is effected. Provided a surface be continuous 
and its character uniform, it may be assumed that such interchange will 
be prop.ortional to the area of surface involved. If, then, the form of the 
growing organism or tissue were retained as at first — for instance, a 
simple sphere, oval or cylinder — its surfaces of transit would increase at 
a lower ratio than the bulk which they enclose. There would be with 
increase in size a constantly decreasing proportion of surface to bulk, and 
as constantly an approach to a point of physiological inefficiency. But 
any change from a simpler to a more complex form would tend to uphold 
the proportion of presentation-surface. Thus, the success of a growing 
organism might be promoted by elaboration of form. Naturally, other 
factors than that of size co-operate in determining form. Nevertheless, 
the recognition of such elaborations of form, whether external or internal, 
as do tend in point of fact to maintain a due proportion of surface to bulk 
as growth proceeds, should help to make morphology a rational study. 
The diffuse form habitual for plants, even the origin of leaves themselves, 
becomes intelligible from this point of view. 

In the construction of any ordinary vascular plant there are three of 
these ' presentation-surfaces,' or limiting surfaces of transit, that are of 
prime importance : (i) the outer contour by which it faces the surrounding 
medium ; (ii) the sheath of endodermis which envelops the primary 
conducting tracts ; and (iii) that collective surface by which the dead, 
woody elements face upon the living cells that embed them, through which 
water and solutes pass in or out. Each of these may vary independently 
of the others, and each would be a fitting subject for observation as bearing 
on this problem of size. But as a test case of the relation between size 
and form, it is the collective surface where dead wood faces on living cells 
that will meet our requirements best, for its study can be pursued among 
fossils almost as well as in living plants. The problem is one not merely 


of current physiology of the higher plants, it is one of adaptive progress. 
Accordingly, measurements must be made of the wood of fossils as well as 
of living plants, and of young sporelings as well as of the adult. 

We have seen that plants are essentially accumulators of material. A 
natural consequence of this is that primitive types, endowed with apical 
growth but with no secondary cambium, will enlarge from the base 
upwards. Any sporeling fern shows this. The leaves themselves increase 
in number ; each successive leaf is as a rule larger than the one that came 
before, and the stem that bears them also expands upwards. In fact, it 
takes the form of an inverted cone. To grasp the size-problem for primi- 
tive plants the mind must be rid of the idea of the forest tree, with its 
stem tapering upwards, for that is a state of highly advanced organisation. 
The primitive form of stem is that of an inverted cone, enlarging upwards, 
with a solid core of wood within. A cone standing upon its tip is obviously 
unpractical. Not only is it mechanically unstable, but if the original 
structure be maintained so that the larger region above is structurally 
a mere magnified image of the smaller below, a constantly diminishing 
proportion of presentation-area to bulk must needs follow, in respect of 
all the limiting surfaces. Such stems would all tend to become physio- 
logically insufficient. Our immediate problem is with the woody column. 
How can that due proportion of presentation-surface of the dead wood 
to the living cells, which physiologists hold to be essential, be maintained 
in the expanding stem, so as to meet the increasing requirements of transit 
and distribution of the sap ? 

This is not the place for a recital of the details of elaboration of the 
wood which have been observed and measured. It must suffice to state 
in general terms how primitive woody plants have met the difficulty in 
the absence of cambial thickening. The starting-point is a minute 
cylindrical strand composed of dead tracheids only. Some primitive 
types show nothing more than a conical enlargement of this upwards, 
with the cells more numerous than before. The approach of a locomotive 
at speed along a straight track may visually suggest such increase in size 
without change of form ; successive photographs of it might be compared 
with successive sections of those simple stems enlarging upwards without 
change of plan. The largest examples of this are found in some of the 
early club nmses and ferns, in which there is an enlarging solid woody 
core. • But for want of resource in this and other features they have paid 
the penalty of death. Most plants having this crude structure are known 


only as fossils, and no really large vascular plant lives to-day which 
shows it. Under present conditions it is only where the size is small that 
a simple mass of dead tracheids seems to be ejSective for water-transit. 
Thus we see that simple enlargement without change of form does 
not suffice. 

In more resourceful plants a remedy is found in elaboration of the form 
and constitution of the primary wood. The changes which actually 
appear in it, as the size of the individual or of the race increases, are very 
various, but they all tend towards making the wood a living whole. The 
most efficient state would be that in which each dead woody cell or element 
faces upon one or more living cells, and this structure is approached in 
modern types of wood. In tracing the steps which have led towards it, 
whether in the fossil story or in the individual life of plants, we follow up 
an evolutionary history of high functional import. Actual measurements 
and calculations have shown in living plants the advantage that follows. 
It has been found that changes in the elaboration of form and structure 
of the primary woody column have saved, in specific instances, about 
50 per cent, of the contingent loss in that proportion of presentation- 
surface to living tissue which would have followed if a simple cylindrical 
core had been retained. The structural changes do not, it is true, maintain 
the full original ratio of surface to bulk, but it may well be that saving 
even half of the contingent loss would bridge the acute risk and lead 
to survival. 

The moulding and subdivision of the primary conducting tracts as a 
whole, or of the woody masses which they contain, present the most varied 
features. Their contours often appear arbitrary and even irrational, 
so long as no underlying principle is apprehended. They have presented 
a standing problem to anatomists. But when it is realised that as the 
size increases there is a physiological advantage in any elaboration of 
form whatsoever, a rational explanation is at hand. The variety of the 
forms assumed suggests the common principle underlying them all, which 
is that thereby a due proportion of presentation-surface tends to be 

One of the simplest and most frequent examples of such elaboration 
of form is that of the fluted column, which in transverse section gives the 
familiar stellate figure characteristic of roots. It is also seen in many 
stems, and is described as ' radial.' Where the part is small the woody 
strand is roughly cylindrical, but where larger it often becomes fluted 


with varying number and depth of the flanges. In many instances the 
ratio of their number to the diameter of the whole tract is approximately 
constant. The structure is in fact adjusted to the size. This is so in roots 
generally, in leafy stems and in leafless rhizomes — and a similar size- 
relation is even found in the fluted chloroplasts of certain Algae. In all of 
these an obvious risk following an increase in size tends to be eliminated, 
viz., an undue loss of proportion of surface to bulk. 

The somewhat technical facts thus briefly described may be taken as 
examples of a relation of form to size which is very general. They suggest 
the existence of a * size-factor,' which is effective in determining form. The 
susceptibility to its influence resides in the part that shows the results. 
The internal contours are defined ah initio, instead of coming into existence 
during the course of development, as is the case with the convolutions 
of the mammalian brain. In the stem and roots of vascular plants the 
fully- matured conducting tracts may be traced upwards, with their outlines 
already defined, through successive stages of youth towards the growing 
point, which has been their source. Their form may be seen already 
outlined in its young tissue closely short of the extreme tip. This fact 
suggests that the susceptibility to the size-factor resides in the growing 
point itself, for immediately below it those tracts possess that form which 
will aid their function when they are fully developed. 

Of all the factors that contribute to the determination of form in 
growing organisms there is none so constant and inevitable in its incidence 
as this size-relation. Its operation becomes manifest with the very first 
signs of differentiation of the embryonic tissues. The effects of other 
factors that influence form, such as gravity, light, temperature, contact 
and the rest appear later in point of time. Their influence is liable to 
diminish as the organism reacts to them by curvature or otherwise, and 
to vanish when the reaction is completed. Under experiment they may 
be controlled or even inhibited. But the operation of the size-factor is 
insistent ; it cannot be avoided either under conditions of nature or by 
experiment, though the size itself may be varied under conditions of 
nutrition and the permeability of the presentation-surfaces may not be 
constant, with results as yet unknown. When we reflect that all acquisi- 
tion of nourishment and transit of material in plants of primary construc- 
tion is carried out through limiting surfaces, the essential importance of 
the size-factor is evident, for upon its influence the proportion of each 
presentation-surface itself depends. 


The evidence that size itself is, among other factors, a determinant of 
form rests upon the constancy with which, in an enlarging organism, 
changes of primary form tend to maintain a due area of presentation- 
surface such as active transit demands. That evidence has been derived 
chiefly from the conducting tracts of primary individuals as they enlarge 
conically upwards, and from parts belonging to distinct categories, also 
from comparison of different individuals not necessarily of close alliance. 
Very cogent evidence lies in the variety of the changes of form by which 
the same end is attained. Finally, the converse facts bring conviction 
when, as often happens, a distal diminution of size in stem or leaf is 
accompanied by simplification along lines roughly the converse of those 
that follow increase. All this shows that a real relation exists between 
size and primary form. The term ' size-factor ' has been used to connote 
that influence which affects form in relation to size, but without defining 
it except by its results. Nevertheless, we have seen that its action may 
be located in near proximity to the growing point, or in the embryo itself. 
It has not, however, been found possible to assign to that effect an 
immediate cause. The attitude thus adopted towards an undoubted 
factor seems justified by the broad logic of science, and by the practice of 
its highest votaries. When Newton put together his great physical 
synthesis he pointed out at the close of the Principia that the cause of 
gravitational force was unknown. ' Hitherto I have not been able to 
discover,' he said, ' the cause of these properties of gravity from 
phaenomena, and I frame no hypotheses.' Likewise, in its own more 
restricted field of botanical phenomena, the size-factor may be recognised 
as effective in development, though the immediate cause of its effectiveness 
is still unknown. 

The position thus adopted assumes the shoot to be a unit, not a 
congeries of ' phytons.' The elaboration of its form, whether external or 
internal, would be a function of the increase in size of that unit, and the 
result would tend to maintain the adequacy of the presentation-surfaces. 
This conception of the shoot and of its parts would accord with the views 
of General Smuts, as stated in his remarkable work on ' Holism,' published 
in 1926. Many present here to-day will have heard his Address in Cape 
Town last year, when opening the discussion on ' The Nature of Life.' 
All will value this masterly statement in brief of his theory. I suggest 
that the operation of the size-factor, whether in relation to external leaf- 
development or in the elaboration of internal conducting tracts, illustrates 


that ' measure of self-direction ' ascribed by him to every living organism 
(' Holism,' p. 98). 

The discussion of the problem of size and form in plants, which has 
occupied our attention thus far this evening, raises questions of profound 
significance in the sphere of pure botany. There is, however, another 
interest inherent in the study of plants beyond that of pure science. I 
mean botany as applied to the needs of man. To-day this touches 
human life more closely than ever before. Every meal we eat, many of 
the clothes we wear, timber, rubber, a whole volume in itself ; the drugs, 
narcotics, dyes and scents, and most of that vast tale of accessories that 
ameliorate life, depend for their supply, quality and often for their existence 
upon the skilled work of the botanical expert. He is trained in our 
schools and universities. His experience there is perfected by work on 
farms and plantations, in forests and in factories, often by adventurous 
life abroad. It would be superfluous for me to enter into detail on such 
matters, for happily the director of Kew presides over the botanical 
section, and he can speak with the fullest knowledge on the application of 
botanical science to modern life. 

Government Departments are now linked more closely than ever with 
universities and technical colleges by the golden chain of grants. The 
botanical institutes that have sprung from this joint source are mostly 
focussed at such centres as Kew and South Kensington, Cambridge and 
Oxford, Harpenden and Merton, Long Ashton and Corstorphine, Plymouth 
and Millport, with important outliers such as Dehra Dun in India, the 
Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture in Trinidad, and the Eesearch 
Station at Amani, East Africa ; while similar stations are to be found in 
Canada, at the Cape, in Australia and New Zealand. Their activities are 
as diverse as their position. Agriculture, forestry, plant-breeding and 
distribution, seed-testing, mycology and plant pathology — these are but 
a few of the headings under which Applied Botany is now pursued ; and 
a duly qualified staff is required for each. Kew itself, thanks to the 
foresight of the Empire Marketing Board, is developing ever more and 
more as a co-ordinating centre for the whole Empire. Highly specialised 
study such as this has sprung into existence in the last half-century. As 
regards Britain, its origin may be traccil to the biological laboratory of 
the old Normal School of Science at South Kensington, where biological 
research was revived under Huxley and Thiselton-Dyer. 

The first botanist there trained in pure science who turned the newly 


acquired vision to practical account in the interests of the Empire was 
Marshall Ward. For two years he investigated the cofiee disease that 
had half ruined Ceylon. It is a long step from this individual effort in 
the Bast to the firmly established and efficient Mycological Bureau, 
recently housed at Kew in a new building devoted to the world-wide 
study of the fungal diseases of plants. Such advance along a single line 
of Applied Botany may be taken as an index of the progress from simple 
beginnings in pure botany to that widespread attack now being made 
upon the economic problems that face Imperial Agriculture. The history 
of it thus briefly suggested may be read as a parable, showing how natural 
is the progression from the study of pure science to its practical application. 
For there is no real distinction between pure and applied science. As 
Huxley told us long ago, ' What people call applied science is nothing but 
the application of pure science to particular problems.' 

At the moment there is an unprecedented demand for botanical 
specialists to fill investigational and advisory posts at home and abroad, 
and there is a shortage of applicants. The realisationof this will doubtless 
be transmitted through the universities and colleges to the schools of the 
country and lead to an increased supply. On the other hand, it lies with 
the Government to react as other markets do in taking steps to equalise 
supply and demand. A condition of the success of a specialist will always 
be a thorough foundation upon pure science, and this will be fully realised 
in the selection of candidates. Government, whether at home or in the 
wider Imperial field, can make no better investment than by the engage- 
ment of the best scientific experts available. In respect of botany this 
has been attested by many well-known instances. 

Some reference will naturally be expected here to the remarkable 
Address given by Sir William Crookes in 1898, when the Association last 
met in Bristol. He then forecast that, in view of the increase in unit- 
consumption since 1871 and the low average of acre-yield, ' wheat cannot 
long retain its dominant position among the foodstuffs of the civilised 
world. Should all the wheat-growing countries add to their area to the 
utmost capacity, on the most careful calculation the yield would give us 
only just enough to supply the increase of population among bread-eaters 
till the year 1931. The details of the impending catastrophe,' he remarked, 
' no one can predict, but its general direction is obvious enough.' The 
problem is one of applied botany, with a setting of world economics and a 
core of physical chemistry. After raising the spectre of wheat-shortage 


before the eyes of his audience of 1898, Crookes laid it again by the 
comforting words, ' The future can take care of itself. The artificial 
production of nitrate is clearly within view, and by its aid the land devoted 
to wheat can be brought up to the 30 bushels per acre standard.' We 
who are living within a few months of the fateful year of 1931 are unaware 
of any wheat-shortage. Sir William Crookes' forecast of 1898 as to the 
advance in the production of combined nitrogen has been fully realised. 
Artificial fertilisers are not in view only, but at hand and in mass. More- 
over, the northern limit of successful wheat-culture has been greatly 
extended by the production of new strains with ever shortening period 
between sowing and reaping, while the establishment of new varieties is 
extending the productive area in South and West Australia into regions 
where the rainfall is of short duration, and restricted in amount. The 
future, since 1898, has indeed taken care of itself ; so that, notwithstanding 
the warning of so great a man as Sir William Crookes, the wheat-eating 
public is still able to sleep well at night so far as the wheat-shortage is 
concerned. What better example than this could we desire, not only of 
the importance of aj)plied botany, but as showing also how its advance 
follows on research independently pursued. For the production of 
synthetic nitrogen, which has now become a commercial proposition, and 
the improvement of the strains of wheat by selective breeding along 
Mendelian lines, are both involved in solving this crucial question of food- 
supply. And both owe their origin to advances in pure science. 

In conclusion, we shall all be conscious of the fact that a most distin- 
guished former president of the Association has lately passed away, one 
who more than any man has influenced the policy of government in relation 
to science. I mean Lord Balfour. We recall how in 1904 he, so 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of his Alma Mater, presided over the 
meeting in Cambridge. He was distinguished as a philosopher, great as 
a statesman, and particularly so under the stress of war. He it was who, 
after peace returned, used his rare influence in transforming the war-time 
experiment of a committee of the Privy Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research into a permanent and essential part of modern government. 
But this was not all. His critical, constructive and experienced mind was 
led to formulate a still wider plan. A Cabinet Committee for Civil Research 
was to be established on the lines of the Imperial Defence Committee. He 
designed it so as to bring the whole national administration within the 
range of scientific influence. The Department of Scientific and Industrial 


Research, so wisely kept in being after 1919, now forms part of that larger 
scheme. This department is responsible for making recommendations as 
to the expenditure of funds voted by Parliament for research, especially 
in relation to industry. Thus science is welcomed into the inner circle 
of Imperial administration. This the State owes to Lord Balfour. 

And so, in this hundredth year of its existence, the British Association 
sees research recognised and fostered in the service of the State in a way 
never dreamed of in 1831, when a small body of enthusiasts met at York 
for the advancement of science. But though the individual seeker after 
truth may thus be involved in official harness, as of old an inner voice 
will yet speak to him. He will himself be as near to Nature to-day as he 
was in the simpler days that are gone. 




DR. F. E. SMITH, C.B., C.B.E., Sec.R.S., 


At last year's meeting of the British Association in South Africa, the 
following resolution was passed by Section A : 

' To urge the importance of the establishment, on a suitable site 
in South Africa, of an observatory for the study of terrestrial 
magnetism and atmospheric electricity. 

' The establishment of such an observatory would add very 
greatly to the accuracy and value of the magnetic survey of South 
Africa which is now in progress. The Committee desires to call 
attention, moreover, to the fact that at present there is only one 
magnetic observatory, viz. at Helwan, Egypt, and regular observations 
in South Africa are much needed for the study of the earth's 

This resolution, which was subsequently approved by the Council 
of the Association, states the need for yet another observatory in the 
Southern Hemisphere in order to advance the solution of one of the most 
attractive problems ever presented to the physicist — the problem of 
terrestrial magnetism. 

I would remind you, too, that last year in South Africa we had the 
great pleasure of being welcomed by Dr. Beattie, the Principal of Cape 
Town University, himself a great authority on terrestrial magnetism, and 
who, in this city, at the meeting of the British Association in 1898, 
announced that a magnetic survey of South Africa had been begun. At 
the Bristol meeting of 1898 terrestrial magnetism played a most important 
part. An international conference on the subject was held in affiliation 
with Section A, and Sir Arthur Riicker, then professor of physics at the 
Royal College of Science, who taught me most of the physics I know, was 
president of the conference. 

When that meeting in Bristol was held I was a student of Riicker's, 
and my first real contact with the problem of terrestrial magnetism was 
made by experimenting with a model of Wilde's magnetarium. This was 
a globe 18 inches in diameter, inside which was a smaller globe with wire 
coils round it, the axis of the coils being in general inclined to the axis of 
the outer sphere, which represented the earth. Between the two spheres 
was a spherical shell of wire gauze supporting another coil system. With 


a current in the inner coil system it was easy to produce a symmetrical 
magnetic field about tlie outer sphere, but no true representation of the 
actual magnetic state of the earth could be obtained with currents in the 
two coil systems alone, and Dr. Wilde, after reasoning that the underwater 
portions of the earth were the more susceptible to magnetisation, covered 
with sheet iron those portions of the interior surface of the outer globe 
which corresponded to the oceans. Small sheets of iron were also placed 
on areas occupied by great mountain ranges. The results of experiments 
with this model were certainly interesting, for the general shape of the 
magnetic field of the earth was remarkably well reproduced. The main 
idea was that electric currents circulated in the inner regions of the earth 
which were supposed to be of higher conductivity than the outer crust, 
but in this latter currents of lower intensity also circulated, but their 
distribution was subject to considerable variations by the shielding effect 
of the ocean areas and mountain ranges. It is of interest to note that 
the modern view of the earth's conductivity is that of an outer shell 250 
km. thick of comparatively low conductivity and an inner sphere to 
which a conductivity of about 3"6 X 10'^ C.G.S. units is attributed, the 
magnetic permeability being unity. 

Terrestrial magnetic science has a long history, but much of the data 
on which theories have been based are not very exact. The first concep- 
tion of the earth as a great magnet appears to be due to Gilbert, but it 
was not until Gauss made his analysis in 1838 that the nature of the earth's 
magnetism and its distribution were made clear. Shortly after the work 
of Gauss international co-operation in magnetic work was initiated by 
Humboldt and Gauss and supported by Herschel, Kupffer and Sabine. 
Six observatories were established in Russia under the direction of Kupffer 
and three were established in the United States, another at Simla and one 
at Singapore. Originally it was proposed to carry on the work of these 
observatories for three years, but owing to delays the period was extended 
to six years, and so desirable did it appear to continue this international 
work that a Magnetic Congress was called and held at the Cambridge 
meeting of this Association in 1845. 

The principal question which that conference had to decide was 
whether the combined system of British and foreign co-operation for the 
investigation of magnetic and meteorological phenomena, which had then 
been five years in progress, must be broken up. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that the Congress was not divided on 
this question, and resolved 

' that the cordial co-operation which has hitherto prevailed between 
the British and foreign magnetic and meteorological observatories, 
having produced most important results and being considered by us 
as absolutely essential to the success of the great system of combined 
observation which has been undertaken, it is earnestly recommended 
that the same spirit of co-operation should continue to prevail.' 

The spirit of co-operation which existed then exists still, but I venture 
to ask ' Do we make our plans suflB.ciently well 1 ' 

When data obtained in a small laboratory cannot suffice for the 
elucidation of a problem, and when a chain of laboratories, either in one 


country or distributed over the surface of the earth, is known to be 
essential for its solution, not only is it necessary to maintain the most 
intimate contact between the workers, but it is also necessary to plan 
much of the work as if it were under single control. The International 
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics is the body to which we must look not 
only to co-ordinate the work of the various magnetic observatories but to 
plan lines of attack, and ensure, so far as is practicable, that the 
accumulated results are such as would be obtained under single control. 
While my object to-day is not to put forward any programme for the 
consideration of the International Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics, 
I do make a plea for the adoption by many of the first-class magnetic 
stations of a programme including observations at the same times and with 
similar instruments of great sensitivity. As an illustration of what might be 
done, take the question of the simultaneity of occurrence the world over 
of a large magnetic storm. We know such storms affect the instruments 
of most of the magnetic observatories of the world, and two views have 
been advanced with regard to the time of commencement of such dis- 
turbances ; one that a disturbance occurs simultaneously at all stations, 
and the other that there are time differences of the order of a few minutes. 
A definite answer to the question, ' Are there such time differences and 
what is their magnitude,' could be given within a year or less if a few 
chosen observatories were equipped with precisely similar quick-running 
magnetographs in addition to their slow-running ones, and time was 
automatically recorded on the charts every minute. To eliminate, or 
at least reduce to negligible dimensions, any error due to differences in 
the time bases of reference, wireless time signals should also be auto- 
matically recorded on the charts. Some fifteen years ago I had the task 
of recording the magnetic disturbances due to an electric train system, 
and it was found possible to correlate the magnetic disturbance and the 
starting of an electric train more than a mile away, with an error not 
greater than one second. When one considers the praiseworthy work of 
Bauer and others on vertical earth-air electric currents, it is apparent that 
their labours would have been tremendously simplified and their con- 
clu.sions of much greater value had all the instruments used been precisely 
similar and a definite programme laid down. 

Lest I be misunderstood, I wish to emphasise the undesirability of 
magnetic observatories being all alike and all similarly equipped. Each 
observatory should have its own particular problems and its own special 
methods of attacking them and thus preserve its individuality but, in 
addition, part of the equipment should be of an international type and 
part of the programme should be of a truly international character. 

The early investigators showed that the causes of the earth's 
magnetism and its variations were problems of great complexity, and the 
first line of attack was naturally to accumulate data. For the work done 
no one can fail to have admiration, and particularly I wish to pay tribute 
to the internatioDal work of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and to express regret at the 
destruction by fire of the non-magnetic ship ' Carnegie ' and the loss of 
life caused thereby. The untimely death of Captain Ault, the master^ and 
chief of the scientific personnel, is greatly regretted. 

1930 C 


General Character of Earth's Magnetic Field. 

The fundamental problem of terrestrial magnetism is the cause of the 
earth's magnetism, and a secondary one the cause of the variations. Let 
us consider the facts. Measurements of the intensity, declination and 
inclination of the earth's magnetic field at thousands of stations distributed 
over practically the whole of the earth's surface, show that the magnetic 
field is roughly that of a uniformly magnetised sphere with its axis inclined 
at about 12° to that of the earth's axis of rotation. An analysis of results 
leads to the conclusion that the earth's uniform field is equivalent to that 
produced by a magnetic doublet at the centre of the earth, the magnetic 
moment of the doublet being 8.04 X 10'^' C.G.S. units. If I is the intensity 
of magnetisation of the sphere and r the radius of the earth, the magnetic 

moment is given by- tc/I. 

Examination of the observations shows also that the intensity of 
magnetisation of the earth is slowly changing, and that the earth's 
magnetic field is slowly moving from east to west, the magnetic poles 
performing circular or spiral motions about the geographical poles. In 
addition to this secular change, there are yearly and daily changes, which, 
although fairly constant in character, are changeable in magnitude. 
There are also at times very violent changes in the magnetic elements, 
such changes being known as magnetic storms. 

In an attempt to find the cause of the earth's magnetism, it is natural 
to consider all the possible ways by which the earth can function as a 
magnet, and even if we have to assume knowledge of the constitution of 
the earth's interior, or assume the existence of electric currents, or assume 
some physical state in the earth or in the atmosphere above it, in order to 
account for the phenomena, we must not cast aside such assumptions, 
unless it can be shown that they are imnecessary, and until data are 
obtained which show the premises to be false. 

The first and simplest theory is that the earth is a large permanent 
magnet, due to the magnetisation of the material of which it consists. 
Another hypothesis is that the electric charge on the earth's surface 
produces the magnetic field by its rotation. A third possibility is that 
the earth is an electromagnet, the magnetising currents being either 
outside the earth or within it ; such a system was roughly illustrated by 
Wilde's magnetarium. Other theories postulate the field to be due 
almost entirely to electric currents circulating within the earth or to be 
due to the rotation of the earth. 

Fortunately, very valuable criteria have been given by Gauss and by 
Schuster, the former showing that the main origin of the earth's magnetic 
field is within the earth, and the latter that the cause of the daily variations 
is external to the earth's surface. Any predominant magnetic effect 
due to external causes need not, therefore, be looked for. 

In the first place, it is well to consider the main or permanent field, 
i.e. that part of the magnetic field due to causes within the earth. 

Gauss, in his Memoir on Terrestrial Magnetism, expressed the magnetic 
potential of the surface field of the earth in a series of spherical harmonics. 
Some time afterwards, Everett pointed out that the first term of this 



series corresponds to a uniform magnetisation of the earth, and thus a 
physical interpretation was obtained. In this uniformly magnetised 
sphere the magnetic potential at any point outside the sphere is given by 
H,, r" cos 8/(f where 

d is the distance of the point from the centre ; 

r is the radius of the earth ; 

the angular north polar distance, 
and H, the surface magnetic intensity at the equator. 
The north magnetic pole is situated approximately at 78° N. 69° W., and 
the whole magnetic field rotates with the earth. 

Secular Variation and Possible Cause. 
What do we know of this so-called permanent field ? As already stated, 
sxich variations as occur daily, monthly or suddenly, as in the case of 
magnetic storms, are phenomena to be associated with other terms of the 
Gaussian expansion, and are not to be attributed to changes in the main 
or permanent field. Indeed, our information with regard to changes in 
this field is very limited, and the difficulty that confronts us to explain 
the existence and maintenance of the field is correspondingly great. The 
observed facts are that the declination, inclination and intensity are not 
constant, and over long periods of time their values change appreciably. 
The changes over a comparatively short period are well illustrated by 
the results obtained at Kew Observatory during a period of 50 years. 




Hor. Force. 

























Very long period observations are not so reliable because of the dis- 
similarity of instruments and methods of observation, but it is certain 
that in London the declination has changed slowly from about 11° east in 
1580 to 24° 30' west in 1816, since when it has fallen to about 13° west 
in 1920. Similarly, the inclination has changed from about 72° 0' in 1580 
to 74° 42' in 1720, since when it has gradually changed to about 66° 40' 
in 1920. Examination of the available data leads to the conclusion that 
the magnetic field may be regarded as moving westwards along a parallel 
of latitude at the rate of a few seconds of angle per day, the rate of move- 
ment being such that, if continued for some hundreds of years, the field 
would make a complete revolution round the earth, the motion being 
in the opposite direction to that of the earth's rotation. The secular 
variation may therefore be regarded as caused by change in direction 
of the axis of magnetisation. If outer space is a conducting medium, 
there will be relative motion between the magnetic field of the earth 
and it, and the moving field will induce currents in the outer con- 
ducting medium, and these currents in turn will react and induce other 



currents and associated magnetic phenomena. There will also be 
mechanical reactions, and Schuster showed how these reactions can be 
calculated. It is certain that the induced currents must tend to destroy 
the motion of the inducing field, and that one effect must be to reduce the 
period of rotation. Such a reduction in the period of rotation would result 
even if the magnetic axis coincided with the axis of rotation, but when the 
two axes do not coincide there is another retarding couple acting on the 
magnetic field. A circular movement of the magnetic pole about the axis 
of rotation may be regarded as produced by two radial movements at 
right angles operating from that axis. Such motions of the magnetic 
field will induce currents in the conducting layer, and the reacting 
forces will tend to destroy the movements which produce them, that 
is, the tendency will be to make the two axes coincide. The total 
result is, therefore, to slow down and eventually destroy the rotation of 
the magnetic axis and to reduce the angle of separation of the two axes 
and eventually cause them to coincide. A bird's-eye ^saew of the magnetic 
and geographical poles taken over a long period of time would reveal a 
spiral path for the magnetic pole, the latter drawing nearer and nearer to 
the geographical pole. 

Schuster has calculated the value of the retarding couple for many 
variations of the conductivity of the outer medium. The retarding 
couple is zero when the conductivity is zero or infinitely great, and is a 
maximum when the conductivity is about 2.0x10"", which Schuster 
points out is one which normally would be regarded as being very small, 
as it is about 2.4x10"" that of mercury. The magnitude of the retarding 
couple for such a conductiAaty has been calculated to be such that it 
would take 125 centuries to lengthen the day by one second. Notwith- 
standing the smallness of this, Schuster points out that its existence would 
almost certainly have been detected by astronomers, and a value of the 
conductivity smaller than 5 X 10~" or greater than 1 X 10"'^ is more likely. 

It is, of course, not necessary to assume a large volume of outer space 
to have uniform conductivity to produce such effects. An outer layer 
will suffice, and the conductivity may be uniform or patchy, but the 
reactions will be of the sign indicated. It is certain that the movements 
of the magnetic field are not simple as outlined above but are very 
complex, and that unexpected reversals occur, so that it is not possible 
to predict the conditions even 20 years ahead. The theory advanced 
is, however, still capable of explaining the variations, for any conducting 
layer may not only vary greatly over considerable areas, but there may 
be relative motion between the earth and portions of the layer which 
also varies. • 

Unfortunately, such an explanation of the cause of secular change 
does not help very much in explaining the cause of the field itself, but it. 
is obvious that any complete theory must not only explain such a change 
but must also account for the present difference between the earth's 
magnetic axis and its axis of rotation and the variation in intensity. 

Theory of an Iron Core. 

As is well known, the first idea was that the core of the earth is of 
iron and is magnetised. But, apart from our lack of knowledge of the 


constitution of the earth's interior, the difficulty has to be faced that at 
high temperatures iron loses its magnetic properties, and that increase of 
pressure depresses rather than raises the critical point. As the interior 
of the earth is at a high temperature the theory therefore loses support, 
unless it is assumed that at exceptionally high pressures and temperatures 
there is some restoration of the magnetic properties. 

If the earth is taken to be a uniformly magnetised sphere its magnetic 

moment, as already stated, is given by - Trrl where I is the intensity of 

magnetisation. The effect is that of a magnetic doublet and could be 
produced equally well by a spherical shell of thickness (r — a) in which 
case if a, the thickness of the shell is 10 miles, the intensity of magnetisa- 
tion would be about 50 to produce the magnetic forces observed. In a 
shell of such thickness the temperatures and pressures would not be so 
great as to destroy the magnetic properties of iron. 

While the theory of an iron core or an outer shell permanently 
magnetised has little to support it there is little doubt that the 
irregularities in the earth's field are largely related to the structure of the 
«arth's crust, and large masses of iron and iron ore must play an important 
part in the irregularities which are observed. Geophysical surveys by 
magnetic methods support this view. 

Electric Currents circulating round the Earth. 

The next simplest theory is that the magnetic field is due to electric 
currents circulating round the earth, and this naturally gives rise to the 
question of the seat of origin of the electromotive forces necessary to 
maintain such currents. If the currents are uniform in density throughout 
the volume of the earth the magnitude of this density would be about 
10""* ampere to produce the necessary intensity of magnetisation. If we 
suppose that there was once a source of electromotive force but it has 
long ceased to operate, the currents produced would take a very lono- time 
to die down owing to self-induction. 

In the case of a copper sphere of the size of the earth, Lamb has shown 
that three million years after such currents were generated and the cause 
removed, they would still have one-third of their original intensity. The 
electrical conductivity of the earth is, however, much less than that of 
copper, and if remnant currents are responsible for the earth's present 
magnetism, their value in the past must have been very great, and the 
cause of their origin would still be a mystery. But it is much more 
profitable to look for a possible electromotive force not only to produce 
but permanently to maintain a current system. Such a possible source 
was indicated by Larmor at a meeting of this Section of the British 
Association in 1919. Larmor pointed out that in the case of the sun, 
surface phenomena indicated the existence of a residual internal circula- 
tion mainly in meridian planes. If this circulating conducting material 
cuts a magnetic field which in direction is the same as that of the earth 
circulating currents would be set up in such a direction as to augment the 
magnetic field and eventually a condition of equilibrium would be set up 
between the producing electromotive force and the attenuation effects. 
The system is, in fact, that of a self-exciting dynamo, and the energy of 


the system is obtained at the expense of the energy of the circulating 
conducting material. 

While in the case of the earth any internal circulation of matter in 
meridian planes or near thereto is entirely conjectural, the theory does 
pro^dde not only for the main field but also for the secular variation by 
changing the paths of the circulating currents. 

Eoss Gunn has recently put forward a theory attributing the magnetic 
field to electrical currents set up inside the earth in the high temperature 
regions where the thermal motions are considerable. Gunn suggests that 
the temperature of the inner earth is of the order of 10,000° and as a con- 
sequence the material will be highly ionised and the conductivity corres- 
pondingly great. In the case of the upper atmosphere, Gunn has 
analysed the motions of ions and electrons of long free path spiralling about 
the magnetic lines of force, and in such a case a diamagnetic effect and 
drift currents are produced. An extension of the calculation to the inner 
earth where the free paths are short is made, and it is considered that the 
primary current system of the earth results from the motions imposed 
upon ions having a mean free path of the order 10"' cm., the motion being 
imposed by the internal gravitational electric field at right angles to the 
magnetic field. The currents produced augment the original field in a 
regenerative manner. Gunn is developing this theory of internal ion 

Magnetic Effects Associated with Earth's Rotation. 

If the earth's magnetism were due to an iron core permanently 
magnetised, or to electric currents circulating round the earth, the 
rotation of the earth would play no part in the main or permanent field, 
although, as will be seen later, it may contribute to variations due to 
external causes. 

Let us consider the possible ways a body may, by virtue of its rotation, 
act like a magnet. First, consider the earth as a body carrying a positive 
or negative electric charge. Maxwell first of all suggested the production 
of a current by the motion of an electric charge, and Rowland first demon- 
strated the effect. Ayrton and Perry, over 50 years ago, showed that an 
electric charge residing on the surface of the earth would produce a 
magnetic field by the rotary motion of the earth, but to produce a field of 
the requisite intensity the charge must be very great. If the surface density 
of the charge be p the magnetic force at the equator parallel to the surface is 

H, = -7rp?co 

where w is the angular velocity and r the radius of the earth. If Q is the 
total charge on the surface the horizontal magnetic force may be written 

H, = QW3r = ^ 

where V is the potential In this case it is obvious that any small sphere | 
charged at the same potential and rotating at the same angular velocity 
would produce the same surface field, since the radius of the sphere is not 


If, however, the charge be distributed uniformly throughout the earth 
— and this is necessary for uniform intensity of magnetisation- — the value 
of the horizontal field at the equator is Q<o/5r. It is, however, necessary 
to explain that a field of this intensity would not be detected by an 
observer moAang with and on the earth's surface, for in such case there 
would be no relative motion between such an observer and part of the 
electrostatic charge. However, a field will be detected. The translatory 
motion of the charge would also produce a field, and to determine 
the total effect, i.e. the effect of the earth's rotation on a magnet 
situated on the surface of the earth, Schuster suggested a method some- 
what as follows : Imagine the observer to be stationary in space, then 
the earth, by virtue of the rotation of the charge, will produce a field 
detectable by him. At the equator such a field will produce a horizontal 
force, that is, a force parallel to the earth's surface, of the value Qco/5r, where 
the charge Q is imiformly distributed throughout the volume of the sphere. 
To produce a stationary effect, that is to make that portion of the earth's 
surface near the observer have no relative motion with respect to him, 
let the earth be subjected to a translatory motion equal to the velocity 
of the part considered, but in the opposite direction. Such velocity is wr. 
The translatory motion of the charge Q is equivalent to a current 

t=Qcor/2r, since the charge Q takes the time — to pass a given point. 

The magnetic force produced by the moving charge will be circular in 
shape and at right angles to the line of motion, and at the equator the 
force parallel to the surface will be 

2r^ f * 

hence, the horizontal magnetic force detectable by an observer on the 
earth's surface at the equator is 

5r r 5/ 15 

In this case the value of H is proportional to cor for a given volume 
density, and hence a laboratory experiment would fail to detect such an 

If the charge on the earth be negative, the horizontal force at the 
equator due to rotation is in the direction north to south, and the field 
at the north pole is vertically upwards. By the translatory motion of the 
earth a horizontal field at the equator in the direction south to north is 
produced, and the field at the north pole has no component vertical to 
the surface of the earth. The resultant field, therefore, is such that there 
would be an upward vertical component at the north pole, and a south to 
north horizontal field at the equator. A field of this type does not exist 
in practice, the field of the earth being such that its direction is south 
to north at the equator and vertically downwards at the north pole. 
Moreover, it is not possible to produce by means of a single rotating charge, 
fields of the correct sign both at the pole and the equator, for if we change 
the sign of the charge the resultant fields at pole and equator are also 
changed in sign. 


To overcome the difficulties of a surface charge Sutherland suggested 
an equal but opposite charge concentrated at the Centre of the earth, 
thus neutralising the electrostatic field due to the surface charge but 
not the magnetic effect of the charges in motion. Later, he suggested 
that an inequality in the distribution of the earth's atomic charges 
might be a cause. If all the negative and positive electricity in 
the earth were spread over two concentric spheres slightly different in 
diameter, a combined magnetic field comparable with that of the earth 
could be obtained. In such a case, as the charges are enormously great, 
the difference in radii of the spheres would need to be but exceedingly 
small to produce the desired intensity of field. The difficulties due to 
the external electrostatic field and the magnetic field produced by the 
translatory motion of the earth vanish, since there will be no such fields, 
but, unfortunately, not only would such a field be symmetrical about the 
axis of rotation, but at internal points near the surface the electric field 
would be many millions of volts per centimetre. 

There are a number of variants of this idea of separated charges. 
One is that the rotation of the earth brings about an electric polarisation 
in the atoms perpendicular to the axis of rotation, such polarisation pro- 
ducing a magnetic and also an electrostatic field. The direction of 
magnetisation of the field is not, however, that actually observed on the 
earth, the same difficulty presenting itself as that already considered with 
the charged sphere. 

In 1891, and on several occasions since, Schuster has raised the 
question whether every large rotating mass is not a magnet, and as far 
back as 1891 he put forward the suggestion that the sun had a magnetic 
field associated with it. 

Lord Kelvin in 1892 remarked : ' Considering probabilities and 
possibilities as to the history of the earth from its beginning to the present 
time, I find it unimaginable but that terrestrial magnetism is due to the 
greatness and rotation of the earth. If it is true that terrestrial magnetism 
is a necessary consequence of the magnitude and the rotation of the earth, 
other bodies comparable in these qualities with the earth and comparable 
also with the earth in respect of material and temperature, such as Venus 
and Mars, must be magnets comparable in strength with the terrestrial 
magnet, and they must have poles similar to the earth's north and south 
poles on the north and south sides of their equators because their directions 
of rotation as seen from the north side of the ecliptic are the same as that 
of the earth.' 

This suggestion that every rapidly rotating body produces a magnetic 
field leads to the consideration of the most promising of all such bodies, 
namely the sun, the radius of which is much greater than that of the 
earth, and, moreover, its atmosphere contains vapours which are self- 
luminous and, therefore, give line spectra. The sjjectra produced have 
been examined at the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, and the magnetic 
field of the sun has been revealed by the well-known Zeeman effect. 
Moreover, the intensity of the field has been measured at different 
atmospheric depths, and it has been found that the magnetisation decreases 
rapidly with height of the solar atmosphere. This decrease leads to the 
conclusion that the sun's magnetic field does not pass into outer space to 


an extent comparable with that of the earth, but apart from this restriction 
with regard to outer space, the sun's magnetic field is strikingly similar to 
that of the earth, for its direction of magnetisation is the same and the 
magnetic axis is inclined to the sun's axis of rotation at about 4°. More- 
over, the magnetic axis is not fixed in position relative to the axis of rota- 
tion, but revolves slowly round it, so that, whereas the period of rotation 
of the solar axis is about 31 days, that of the magnetic axis is about 
26 days. The intensity of the field at the poles is about 50 Gauss. 

These observed similarities between the magnetic fields of the earth 
and the sun, especially as the physical conditions are so different, naturally 
lend support to the theory that the magnetisation is brought about by 
rotation, and the fact that the axes of rotation and magnetisation do not 
coincide, while disturbing, may possibly be explained by reasonable 

If rotation of matter is necessary to produce the magnetic fields of the 
earth and the sun, the angular velocity, the radius, and the density must 
be important factors. If the magnetic effect is proportional to Dor" 
where D is the density, the calculated intensity of the sun's field agrees 
with that observed, taking the earth's field as the standard. Unfortunately, 
owing to the square of the radius being involved in the expression for the 
field, an effect proportional to Dcor"^ cannot be tested by experiments in 
the laboratory, as a value of o) necessary to produce a measurable effect 
could not be obtained. A magnetic effect proportional to Dor can be 
and has been tested in the laboratory, but the effect is far too small to 
account for the earth's magnetism. 

There are a number of ways in which small magnetic fields may arise 
in a spherical rotating conductor. For example, centrifugal force may 
result in the free electrons moving towards the surface until equilibrium 
is brought about by the resulting electrostatic forces. As an alternative 
to this, gravity may pull the electrons towards the centre of the sphere 
until again the resulting electrostatic forces restore equilibrium. In the 
first case Swann has shown that the horizontal intensity would change 
sign as an observer travels from the equator to the pole. In the second 
case the magnetic field at the poles would be of the reverse sign to those 
of the earth's field. 

A theory which has been tested by laboratory experiments is one 
depending on gjToscopic action. If the magnetic condition of iron arises 
from the rotation of the electrons in the constituent atoms, the axes of 
rotation should tend to become parallel to the earth's axis of rotation. 
Only a slight change in orientation can be expected because of the forces 
due to adjacent molecules, but the net result must be to cause each 
molecule to contribute a minute magnetic moment parallel to the earth's 
axis of rotation. When a steady state has resulted there will be an angle 6 
between the two axes, and the axis of rotation will prccess, i.e. it will 
trace out a cone. The net result so far as the magnetic effect is concerned 
is to cause each molecule to contribute a minute magnetic moment parallel 
to the earth's axis of rotation. The effect will be proportional to the 
angular velocity and not the radius, so that the effect can easily be tested 
in the laboratory. Barnett first succeeded by laboratory experiments in 
showing that magnetisation was produced by rotation, and that the 


intensity of the field observed was proportional to the angular velocity. 
The direction and general shape of the magnetic field of the earth could 
be accounted for by this gyromagnetic theory, but the intensity of 
magnetisation produced is far too small. The estimated value is about 
10~'' times that of the earth. However, the laboratory conditions are so 
far removed from those of the interior of the earth that the restoring forces 
must be very dissimilar in magnitude, and that these forces are a direct 
factor was shown by Barnett's experiments. At present, however, the 
effect appears to be so very small that other causes must be sought. 

Possible Mobifioation of Laws of Electrodynamics. 

The difficulties confronting such theories as an electrically charged 
earth and the smallness of the gyromagnetic effect, have led to suggestions 
that the field may be due to some departure from the commonly accepted 
laws of electrodynamics. 

In 1894 J. J. Thomson pointed out that if atoms exerted slightly 
different attractions on positive and negative electricity, then a large 
rotating body could produce a magnetic field, and in such case the 
intensity would be proportional to cor^ so that no laboratory experiments 
could confirm or refute the theory. 

H. A. Wilson has considered a case assuming that the electric and 
magnetic effects do not balance in electrically neutral matter. On such 
an assumption the gravitational unit of matter (about 4,000 grams) which 
attracts an equal mass 1 centimetre away with the force of 1 dyne might 
be expected to produce a magnetic field of the same. order of magnitude 
as the electrostatic unity of electricity. Such an assumption leads to a 
correct ratio for the magnetic fields of the earth and sun, but an experiment 
made by Wilson showed that if moving matter produces a magnetic field 
like that due to a moving charge, then the mass equivalent of one electro- 
static unit of charge is not less than 20,000 kilogrammes, and that matter 
having a velocity of pure translation has no appreciable field. It follows 
that if the earth's magnetic field is to be explained by some modification 
of the laws of electrodynamics, the modification must be such as to make 
rotation and not translation the effective motion. 

Swann, who has put forward a theory based on a slight modification 
of the laws of electrodynamics, points out that the ratio of the magnetic 
fields for the earth and sun would be obtained also for an expression of 
the form DcoV^ since the ratio of the values of oi^r* differs inappreciably 
from that of cor. Swann so modifies the equations as to provide for the 
correct value of that part of the earth's field symmetrical about the axis 
of rotation, and the right value for the ratio of the magnetic field of the 
earth to that of the sun is also obtained ; in addition, there is a slow death 
of positive electricity amounting to a disappearance of | per cent, of the 
earth's charge in 10^° years, the corresponding surplus of negative 
electricity thus freed, after building up the necessary electric field, passing 
off continually as the atmospheric electric current by conduction through 
the atmosphere. According to this theory, spheres of such size that they 
may be used in laboratory experiments should give effects which are just 
measurable, and Swann and Longacre have made experiments with a 
copper sphere 10 centimetres in radius rotating at 200 revolutions per 


second, but the results obtained differ very appreciably from those calcu- 
lated on the theory, i.e. an effect proportional to co^r'. 

As theory after theory breaks down when the calculated magnetic 
effects are compared with those actually observed on the earth, we are 
forced to conclude that our knowledge of the cause of the earth's magnetism 
is little more than conjecture, for of the theories put forward all that have 
been put to a practical test have been found wanting in some respect. 
Larmor's theory of internal rotation in a meridianal plane cannot be put 
to a laboratory test, and other theories based on slight departures from 
the accepted laws of electrodynamics are equally difficult to decide in the 
laboratory. It is possible that when we know the cause of terrestrial 
magnetism we shall know also the cause of gravitation. But it may be 
that we shall have to wait for many generations before the results of 
observations may confirm a theory. Swann, in putting forward his 
modifications to the accepted laws of electrodynamics, remarks that the 
positive electricity of the earth would, according to his theory, gradually 
disappear, but the disappearance of one half of 1 per cent, of it would 
take a hundred million million million years, which is rather a long time. 

Vertical Electric Currents. 

There is, however, a possibility that a small portion of the earth's 
magnetic field may be due to vertical electric earth-air currents, which 
can easily be distinguished from currents circulating in the upper 
atmosphere or in regions beyond. If all electric currents are parallel to 
the earth's surface in the form of current sheets or the circuits are such 
that no portion of the earth's surface is included in them, then the line 
integral of the horizontal magnetic force around any closed area on the 
earth must be zero, since no element of current is enclosed by the area. 
If, however, an electric circuit cuts the earth's surface, the resulting 
magnetic intensity may be regarded as due in part to a current sheet 
parallel to the earth's surface and in part to a vertical current. In such 
case the line integral of the horizontal magnetic force taken round a 
closed area will not vanish but be equal to iv: times the enclosed current, 
and from its magnitude and sign the intensity and direction of the earth- 
air electric current within the closed area may be calculated. Gauss 
first applied such a test and found the line integral around a triangular 
area to be zero within the limits of the errors of observation. 

Adolf Schmidt developed the work of Gauss, and on the basis of the 
Neumayer magnetic charts of 1885 found evidence for the existence of 
such earth-air electric currents. Schmidt's first estimate of the magnitude 
of such vertical currents, namely, 0.16 ampere per square kilometre, was 
no doubt excessive, and he concluded that the estimate was erroneous 
because of systematic errors in the charts. 

Riicker chose areas in Great Britain, where the magnetic forces were 
well known, and failed to find any evidence of such vertical currents. 
Dyson and Furner made an examination of data available in 1922, and 
Conclude that although there is some evidence, such currents are not 
indicated with any certainty. On the other hand, Bauer has made 
many calculations, and on all occasions has been forced to conclude that 
Buch vertical currents do exist. In 1896 he computed line integrals, taking 


parallels of latitude as circuits of the earth, the charts used being those 
of Neumayer's. A second investigation was made in 1904, and a third in 
1908, the data used on the latter occasion being obtained from the magnetic 
charts for the United States, and the line integrals calculated for areas 
within the United States. In all cases vertical currents were indicated. 
In 1920 a further investigation was made, and from the results it appears 
that in certain areas there are upward electric currents, and in others 
downward currents, the current density varying from +58x10"'' ampere 
per square kilometre to — 53x10"^ ampere per square kilometre. It 
appears very desirable that a definite answer should be obtained to this 
question of vertical currents, but calculations show that to obtain a 
decision it is necessary for measurements of the most precise kind to be 
made. I have studied the calculations of Bauer, and conclude that, while 
he is justified in his deductions, the data are not sufficiently reliable. The 
values of the horizontal force are not all observed values, and those from 
which they have been deduced have been obtained by many observers, 
by many instruments, and under very varying conditions, so that the 
probable errors are not small. My review leaves me exceedingly doubtful 
of the existence of such currents. 

To illustrate the kind of precision required in the measurements, 
imagine a very large circular area of radius r and assume that a vertical 
current i is distributed uniformly over the area. The horizontal intensity 
produced by such a current at a distance d from the centre of the circle is 
2idjr'. If the current density is 30 X 10"'^ ampere per square kilometre, 
the value of i is 27071 C.G.S. units of current, and the horizontal force 
produced at 100 kilometres from the centre of the area is a little less than 
2y, i.e. 0.00002 C.G.S. unit. The line integral round such an area would 
be considerable, but it is easy to see that if there were no vertical currents 
and measurements for one half of the circle were made with one instrument 
giving correct results while those of the other half were made with a 
second instrument giving values in error on an average of +4y, the 
conclusion drawn would be that vertical currents of the values already 
assumed really existed. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties, there is no doubt that sufficiently 
precise measurements could be made over a carefully chosen area, which 
would enable a definite decision to be reached with respect to such vertical 
currents. The experiments would necessitate not only the use of similar 
types of instruments but the establishment of small temporary stations 
with magnetographs so that simultaneous values of the horizontal force 
could be obtained. 

Variations of the Magnetic Field. 

Usually, when the cause of a large scale phenomenon like the earth's 
magnetism is unknown, it is useless to look for the cause of the variations, ( 
but in the case of terrestrial magnetism this is not so. Schuster showed 
that the variations are not due to the same causes as those which produce 
the main field, but to external causes. Some of the variations are 
periodic in character and appropriate names such as daily, monthly and 
annual variations have been applied, while others of a violent and non- 
recurrent character are called magnetic storms. 


Diurnal Variations. 

The data dealing with diurnal variations are very voluminous, for 
records at Kew Observatory have been taken for many generations. As 
the name indicates, a change in the magnetic elements takes place every 
24 hours ; in the case of Kew, the horizontal force reaches a minimum 
value about 10 or 11 a.m., and a maximum value about 7 p.m., the range 
being about 35y in the summer and 12y in the winter. On the other 
hand, the vertical intensity is a maximum about 10 or 11 a.m., and a 
minimum at 7 p.m., this variation being also less in winter than in 
summer ; thus, an annual variation is superimposed on the daily one. 
It is observed that when the horizontal force increases the vertical force 
diminishes, from which it follows that no general rise or fall in the intensity 
of the earth's main field can explain the variations. The principal portion 
of the variation occurs in the daytime, and the variation apjoears to be 
beyond doubt a function of the sun's position above the horizon. 

Schuster's analysis of the data shows that the daily variation is 
probably due to electric currents in the upper atmosphere, but in addition 
to the magnetic effects of these currents there is an effect due to currents 
induced in the earth by them. These induced currents are naturally in 
the opposite direction to the inducing ones, and hence the magnetic 
effects for the horizontal intensity are additive, while those for the vertical 
force are opposed. 

Balfour Stewart first put forward this theory that the diurnal variations 
are due to electric currents in a conducting medium above the surface of 
the earth, and Schuster and Chapman have done much to develop it. In 
general, the theory attributes the variations to convective motions of 
conducting layers of air across the magnetic field of the earth and hence is 
known as the ' dynamo ' theory. The general form and intensity of such 
a current system can be inferred from an analysis of the variation data. 
Chapman's analysis shows the system in the sunlit hemisphere to consist 
of two closed circuits which (at the equinoxes) may be taken as symmetrical 
with respect to the equator, their foci lying very nearly on the 11 a.m. 
meridian. As the electric currents are supposed to be induced by the 
movement of conducting layers of air in the magnetic field, such currents 
must also be produced near the ground, but the conductivity of the air 
near the ground is so low that their effect may be neglected. In the 
upper regions the movements, while larger, cannot be regarded as 
immeasurably greater than near the earth's surface, and the increase in 
current intensity can only be attributed to an increase in the conductivity, 
a view which Balfour Stewart was forced to adopt, although at the time 
there was little evidence to support it. 

The magnitude of the dynamo effect is dependent on three factors — 
(1) the horizontal movement of the air, (2) the conductivity of the air, 
(3) the intensity of the vertical magnetic field. All these factors vary 
with latitude, and hence it is to be anticipated that the magnitude of the 
variations will also vary with latitude, which is the case. The intensity 
of the field can be calculated with considerable accuracy, but the con- 
ductivity and movements of the upper air are not known, although such 
movements are attributed to thermal effects and hence will be a maximum 


in the daytime. However, Chapman points out that if we assume the 
convective motion of the upper air to be of the same general character as 
at ground level, the current foci should be on the meridian at 1 p.m. or 
2 p.m. instead of 10 a.m. or 11 a.m. as is observed. The conductivity of 
the medium is attributed to ionisation due to the sun, and Chapman is of 
opinion that the total electric conductivity must be of the order 10~^ e.m.u. 
This appears to be rather high, since P.O. Pedersen's analysis of the 
propagation of radio waves leads to a value of only 5.10"''. However, 
more recent observations on the reflection of wireless waves indicate a 
conductivity of the order 10"* as the number of electrons per c.c. in the 
reflecting layer, and for a thick layer a conductivity of the right order is 

Appleton has shown that the height of the ionised layer gradually 
rises after sunset and reaches a maximum value about one hour before 
sunrise, after which a somewhat rapid lowering results. Normally, the 
height at night varies from 90 to 130 kilometres, but occasionally in winter 
heights as great as 250 to 350 kilometres have been measured. Appleton 
suggests that on some nights the ionisation in the lower layer has been 
so much reduced by recombination that penetration by wireless waves is 
possible. In such cases, however, deviation of wireless waves takes place 
at an upper layer which is richer in ionisation. The lower layer is formed 
again at sunrise and deviation by it again results. As the solar influence 
increases ionisation likewise increases, and the outer boundary of the 
lower layer falls, and evidence has been obtained of the formation of yet 
another lower region of ionisation. 

As a first and crude approximation we may, therefore, imagine a 
spherical conducting layer to surround the earth, and in addition a con- 
ducting hemispherical cap over the hemisphere facing the sun, the height 
of this cap being a few hundred kilometres. Neither the complete 
spherical conducting shell nor the hemispherical cap are of uniform con- 
ductivity, and the matter constituting these layers moves with the earth, 
so that ionisation and recombination are always taking place. 

While we have from wireless measurements fairly good evidence of 
the height of the lower conducting layers, our knowledge of the extent 
of the ionisation is not sufficiently good to enable us to do more than 
speculate on the merits of the theories advanced, for in addition to the 
dynamo theory there is one due to Ross Gunn known as the diamagnetic 
layer theory, and a third called the drift current theory. The difierences 
between the theories are best brought out by considering the ionisation 
effects in the hemispherical conducting cap facing the sun. Pederson 
has calculated the number of electrons and ions per cubic centimetre at 
various heights, and he and Ross Gunn have considered the nature and 
magnitude of the conductivity of the upper ionised regions. They have 
shown that the conductivity varies with the direction of the magnetic 
field, the conductivity at right angles to the field being at times very small, 
and under certain conditions it approaches zero, while the conductivity 
in the direction of the field is unaffected by the field's intensity. It is 
pointed out that the transverse conductivity is reduced in the ratio 
N2/(N2+o)^) where N is the number of collisions per second and co is the 
angular velocity of the electrons in their spiral paths round the magnetic 


lines of force. Gunn estimates that at heights as low as 140 kilometres w 
is very great compared with N, so that the conductivity approaches zero 
value. Hence, in layers where the conductivity transverse to the magnetic 
field is very small, such large circulating currents as are necessary for the 
dynamo effect cannot flow, and where there is an apjireciable vertical 
magnetic field there can be but negligible horizontal electric currents. 
In the case considered by Gunn, where a charge in its spiral path can 
execute many revolutions between successive collisions, the spiral motion 
of the charge has the same effect as a small magnet opposed to the field, 
so that the whole hemispherical cap is equivalent to a diamagnetic layer, 
and to this diamagnetism Gunn attributes the diurnal variation. 

There appears to be no doubt that such a diamagnetic effect does exist, 
and that it contributes to the diurnal variations, but it will be shown that 
its magnitude is much too small to explain the whole of the diurnal varia- 

The intensity of magnetisation of the layer may be written — NKT/H 
Avhere N is the number of ions per square centimetre column, K is Boltz- 
mann's constant, H is the intensity of the magnetic field, and T the 
absolute temperature. Since N and T are greater in the daytime than at 
night, it follows that the diamagnetic effect will be greater during the day, 
and greater in summer than in winter. Gunn assumed a height for the 
diamagnetic layer between 150 and 180 kilometres, and assumed an 
absolute temperature of 1,000° K. He further assumed that the number 
of ions per cubic centimetre is proportional to the intensity of the incident 
solar radiation plus a number of residual ions left during the night period, 
but of course these latter take no part in the variation. With such data 
Gunn has calculated the maximum variation of the horizontal force due 
to the diamagnetic effect of the cap, and has got most excellent agreement 
with the observed changes. However, Gunn had to assume a value for N 
which is far greater than that given by Pederson, but as the latter includes 
no figures for the other ionised layers it is not safe to draw too definite 

When the effect of gravity is taken into account, Chapman has 
shown how, with the same value of N, the ionisation in the diamagnetic 
layer contributes far more effectively to the diurnal variation. It is 
shown that the less the contribution made by a charged particle to the 
transverse conductivity (relative to the magnetic field) the greater is the 
mean drift velocity which it experiences, and in the case of the earth's 
magnetic field such drift currents are eastward in direction. There is, in 
fact, a steady drift of electrons and ions in a direction perpendicular to 
the lines of magnetic force and the gravitational field. The drift velocity 
is greatest at the equator, and, if the ionisation is constant, the velocity 
decreases as the pole is approached in the ratio sin 6/(1 + 3 cos^ 9). 
Taking Pederson's value for the number of electrons and ions per cubic 
centimetre, the equatorial current intensity has been calculated by 
Chapman to be 4X 10"' e.m.u., which, however, is only about one-fiftieth 
of the equatorial current intensity required to account for the variations 
observed. However, Pederson's values may be too low. But for the 
same ionisation values the effect is much greater than the diamagnetic 
effect, and this naturally puts the diamagnetic effect into the position of 


being only part of the cause of the diurnal variations. If for a time 
we assume such increase in the ionisation that the drift currents are 
sufficient to produce the variations desired, it must further be shown 
that the circulation of the currents is of the right form to produce the 
effects. It is obvious that a drift current of constant value always east- 
ward would produce a permanent effect but not a variation, and any 
variation in current intensity will tend to produce an accumulation of 
charge. In the case of a diamagnetic cap, since the intensity is greatest 
towards midday we may imagine positive charge teiading to accumulate 
in the p.m. hemisphere and negative in the a.m. hemisphere. But the 
cap is a good conductor in the direction of the magnetic field, and a 
current may pass from high levels to low levels and vice versa by travelling 
in the direction of the field. Below the diamagnetic layer or drift layer 
where the free paths are long there is a lower layer or layers where the 
free paths are short and the conductivity is not so anisotropic, and passage 
from the diamagnetic layer to such layer or layers and vice versa is assumed 
to take place along the magnetic lines of force in this way. In the northern 
part of the sunlit hemisphere the current system will, therefore, be from 
west to east in the diamagnetic layer, then south to north downwards 
along the magnetic lines of force, then east to west in the lower layer, and 
finally north to south downwards to the diamagnetic layer. This, of 
course, is a general rather than a detailed picture. In the southern 
portion of the sunlit hemisphere the current in the drift layer will again 
be west to east, then north to south downwards, east to west in the lower 
conductivity laj'^ers and south to north upwards to the higher layers. 
Such a type of current system may be imagined to result from drift- currents 
or the ' dynamo ' theory. With regard to the relative merits of the three 
theories, an effect of the diamagnetic layer appears certain, but with it is 
associated the drift current effect which is much larger. The diamagnetic 
layer effect must therefore be regarded as secondary in importance. The 
dynamo theory inA'olves motions of the air as well as ionisation, and while 
on the whole the drift current theory appears to be superior, more informa- 
tion is needed on the number and distribution of ions and electrons in the 
upper atmosphere before coming to a final decision. 

The fact that the foci are not on the noon meridian has not been 
satisfactorily explained. Chapman has suggested a combination of the 
drift and dynamo hypotheses as a possible ex})lanation, the dynamo action 
being responsible for the advance of the foci by one hour, but no good 
reason for such advance is known. It is possible, however, that the drift 
current theory may alone be a complete solution. If the earth and its 
atmosphere did not revolve, the ionisation and the drift currents would 
still exist, and the foci of the currents would then be on the central 
meridian. With rotation of the earth and its atmosphere, ionisation 
effects begin at sunrise and soon afterwards a lower conducting layer 
is formed or strengthened. In the sunlit hemisphere we may assume, 
therefore, that the ionisation effects are greater on the p.m. side, and 
the conducti%nty and depth of the layers are also greater on that side. 
In the northern hemisphere it is possible, therefore, that the effective 
S. to N. current on the p.m. side is nearer the meridian than the corre- 
sponding N. to S. current on the a.m. side. Such asymmetry would 



move the focus of the system westward, i.e. towards the a.m. meridian. 
In practice the focus is near the 11 a.m. meridian. 

Another diurnal variation, namely, the lunar variation, is also 
attributed to circulating electric currents, but in this case it appears 
fairly certain that a dynamo effect is the cause, the conducting medium 
being moved by direct tidal action. The results observed are in close 
accordance with the theory. 

Variation due to Solar Eclipse. 

If, as we suppose, the sun's radiation is responsible for the conductivity 
of the upper layers, it follows that the solar diurnal variation is not the 
only magnetic change associated with the sun, for everything that affects 
the radiation will produce corresponding effects in the ionisation of the 
upper atmosphere, and hence changes in the magnetic field. An interesting 
instance is the magnetic effect of an eclipse of the sun. Some effect should 
ob\'iously arise since there is a cancellation of a portion of the solar 
radiation and this will diminish the ionisation effects ; the solar diurnal 
variation should, therefore, suffer a check. Kecent eclipse results are in 
accordance with these views, though before 1900 doubt as to any measurable 
effect being obtained was almost universal. In 1900 special observations 
were made, and there have been others since at a number of stations, 
princii)ally in the United States of America ; the records show that small 
magnetic disturbances do result, the duration being roughly that of an 
eclipse. Analyses of the changes indicate that the cause is external to the 
earth's crust. The effect differs from that of an ordinary magnetic storm 
inasmuch as it begins, progresses and ends gradually, and a definite con- 
clusion to be drawn is that the effect is due to changes in the upper 
atmosphere by the obliteration of the sun's rays due to the moon as an 


Any unevenness in the radiation from the sun as it rotates must also 
affect the conductivity and hence produce variations. Examination of 
magnetic records shows that many variations are related to the sun's 
period and also to sunspot periods, and it appears not improbable that 
there is overlapping of several periods probably intimately connected. 
The results obtained show that with rise and fall of sunspot frequency 
there are corresponding changes in the diurnal variation. Moreover, 
the amplitude of the daily changes rises and falls with the intensity of the 
magnetic disturbance. It follows, therefore, that changes in amplitude 
of the diurnal variation in years of many sunspots is due to the same 
ultimate cause, namely, solar radiation, as that causing magnetic dis- 
turbance, but the existence of a 27-day period does not, as Chree pointed 
out, justify the conclusion that sunspots are the only disturbing sources. 
The same result would be obtained if the intensity were a function of the 
solar longitude and did not vary too ra])idly with time. 

Magnetic storms are marked disturbances of solar origin, and to 

explain these many theories have been advanced, but the facts are not 

easy of explanation. The belief in the connection of solar activity with 

magnetic storms is old, but one of the earliest and most striking declarations 

19.30 D 


was made by the president (Lord Armstrong) of this Association in his 
Presidential Address in 1863. Lord Armstrong said : ' The sympathy 
also which appears to exist between forces operating in the sun and 
magnetic forces belonging to the earth merits a continuance of that close 
attention which it has already received from the British Association, and 
of labours such as General Sabine has, with so much ability and effect, 
devoted to the elucidation of the subject. I may here notice that most 
remarkable phenomenon which was seen by independent observers at 
two difierent places on September 1, 1859. A sudden outburst of light, 
far exceeding the brightness of the sun's surface, was seen to take place 
and sweep like a drifting cloud over a portion of the solar face. This was 
attended with magnetic disturbances of unusual intensity and of exhibi- 
tions of aurora of extraordinary brilliancy. The identical instant at which 
the effusion of light was observed was recorded by an abrupt and strongly 
marked deflection in the self-registering instruments at Kew. The 
phenomena as seen was probably only part of what actually took place, 
for the magnetic storm in the midst of which it occurred commenced 
before and continued after the event.' 

Much progress has been made in our knowledge of the sun and its 
radiations since the pronouncement of Lord Armstrong. One of the first 
theories j)ut forward attributed magnetic storms to the magnetic fields 
produced by streams of charged particles from the sun acting like an 
electric current and producing a direct magnetic effect. Schuster showed 
that such a stream moving between the sun and the earth would move 
in a magnetic field of constantly increasing intensity, and would be subject 
to a retarding force also continually increasing. Schuster considered a 
particular magnetic storm, and showed that on such an assumption the 
passage of the stream from the sun to the earth would take about a year, 
and hence the intimate connection between solar acti^aty and magnetic 
storms would be very far from apparent. 

Lindemann has overcome this difficulty by suggesting solar streams 
which are ionised but. on the whole, neutral. The groups of particles are 
assumed to be projected from the solar prominences, and the gases in 
these are of such high velocity, 10* cm. per sec, that the journey from the 
sun to the earth should be possible in less than two days, without serious 
recombination taking place. Moreover, owing to its neutrality such a 
stream will not tend to spread outwards by the mutual repulsion of its 
constituent particles. 

In a theoretical study of the motion of atoms from the sun, Milne has 
calculated the limiting velocity with which they can pass out of the 
gravitational field of the sun under the influence of radiation pressure, 
and the order of magnitude for such elements as hydrogen is 1.6 X 10* cm. 
per sec. If this value be taken as the average velocity, the particles will 
take about 30 hours to travel from the sun to the earth, and in this connec- 
tion it is of interest to note that, while there is considerable difficulty in j 
determining the maximum activity of solar eruptions and the corre- 
sponding maximum intensity of magnetic storms, yet an interval of] 
30 hours does roughl}' correspond with this difference. 

Lindemann suggested that the negative ions might be lighter than thej 
positive ones and stop at the ujipermost layers of the atmosphere, whilej 


the heavy positive ions would penetrate deeper and be diverted to the 
polar regions by the magnetic field of the earth. 

Maris and Hulbert attribute the increase in ionisation to the action of 
ultra-violet light. They conclude that at heights of 300 to 400 kilometres 
temperatures of 1,000° K are reasonable, and at heights exceeding 400 kilo- 
metres the free paths of the particles are very long, the motions due to 
formal impact considerable, and the ionisation entirely due to the action 
of ultra-violet light. When the activity of the sun increases it is assumed 
that there is a tremendous increase of ultra-violet light ; thus. Maris and 
Hulbert estimate that if one ten-thousandth part of the solar surface 
(temperature 6,000°) were removed and there were exposed regions of 
black body temperature 30,000°, the total ultra-violet energy would be 
increased 10^ times, whereas the solar constant would be increased by 
only 1 per cent. The ejected ions give rise to a magnetic storm, for under 
the influence of gravity in a magnetic field the positive and negative ions 
will move in opposite directions and at right angles to the gravitational 
and magnetic forces, and so produce electric currents, the direction of 
which is roughly in circles corresponding to magnetic lines of latitude. 
Such currents will induce others in the earth, and owing to the rapidity 
of the changes the currents will be nearer the surface of the earth than 
in the case already considered, where the normal diurnal changes are 
comparatively slow. But the general effect of the induced currents will 
be the same, i.e. a greater variation in the horizontal force. Maris and 
Hulbert calculate that a blast of ultra-violet light may thus give rise to 
currents of the order 10® amperes, and a change of magnetic field of the 
order of 0.001 C.G.S. 

Recently, Chapman and Ferraro have suggested that magnetic storms 
are essentially connected with the approach of a neutral ionised stream 
towards the earth, the more important changes in the stream taking place 
in the direction of the sun at a distance equal to a few times the radius 
of the earth. As the stream is a highly conducting body and cuts the 
earth's magnetic field, electric currents are set up in the surface layers, 
and the first stage of the magnetic storm is attributed to the magnetic 
effect of these currents. Retardation of the stream results, and this 
retardation is naturally greatest at that part of the front of the stream in 
direct line with the centre of the earth. On either side the stream will 
advance and partly enclose the earth, and along the sides of the enclosure 
there will be charged layers due to the polarisation of the stream by the 
magnetic field. Across the space on the dark side of the earth it is assumed 
that a westerly current is set up due to charges passing over the space 
between the charged layers. It will be observed that this theory, which 
is being developed, has one distinct feature, inasmuch as the main electric 
current flows at a distance a few radii from the earth. 

Whatever the ultimate action may be of a stream of charged particles 
from the sun, which Maunder, who first suggested such a theory, 
appropriately called a ' hose,' it appears appropriate to consider the 
sunlit hemisphere to be the one first affected by the stream, and to 
associate streams of great intensity with sunspots. It is known that 
sunspots are rare in a zone 5° either side of the equator, and are chiefly 
congregated in two zones, the mean latitude of which is about 20°, As we 



should expect the projection of solar matter to take place radially, we 
should similarly anticipate that when the earth is near the sun's equatorial 
plane the number of magnetic storms would be rare. Such is the case. 
Moreover, when the earth reaches a higher heliographic latitude north or 
south, the probability of the earth being hit by a stream is much greater. 
This is in accordance with observations. This also makes it clear why 
there may be large sunspots without magnetic storms, but we should not 
anticipate magnetic storms without solar disturbances of some kind, which, 
if intense, would probably be associated with spots. > 

Simultaneity of Commencement of Magnetic Storms. 

Bauer concluded from observations made in 1902 and 1903 that 
magnetic storms do not begin precisely at the same moment all over the 
world, the velocity of propagation of the disturbances being in general 
eastwards. On the other hand, Nippoldt had previously concluded that 
the times of commencement of disturbances over the entire region involved 
are not measurably different, and went so far as to suggest that they 
might be of use in determining longitude. Rodes concluded that magnetic 
storms do not begin at precisely the same moment all over the world ; 
abruptly beginning ones which were investigated by him ajjpeared to 
progress more often towards the west with a velocity such that it would 
require about four minutes to encircle the earth at the equator. Rodes 
put forward the hypothesis that the earth may enter a cloud of electrical 
particles projected from the sun, in which case the storm will in general 
be recorded by those situated in the foremost position of the earth's 
translatory motion. It follows that since the orbital velocity of the earth 
is such that it traverses a distance equal to its diameter in about 6^ minutes, 
this also is the total time for the earth to become involved in a cloud. 
At the Madrid meeting of the section on Terrestrial Magnetism and 
Electricity of the International Geodetic and Geophysics Union, it was 
decided that a systematic investigation of sudden commencements of 
magnetic storms be made, and I believe that Prof. Tanakadate is much 
of the same opinion as myself with regard to the necessity for similar 
instruments and the most precise recording of time in order to obtain a 
decisive answer to this question. It should not be difficult to obtain. 

Need for more Precise Data. 

This very hasty sketch of some theories relating to terrestrial magnetism 
reminds me of Dr. Chree's remarks that the deductions from such theories 
are just as hj^pothetical as the theories themselves, and I am very sensible 
that this rapid survey is not only incomplete, but that no theory con- 
sidered is completely satisfactory. Moreover, while fully realising that 
they are vital links in any chain of evidence, I have avoided the companion 
subjects of aurorse, atmospheric electricity and earth currents, because to 
have considered them would have made my address far too long. I do, 
however, wish to emphasise that data of a precise kind are much needed 
to modify existing theories and to produce new ones, and I cannot do 
better than conclude with a remark of Riicker's in this city thirty-two 
years ago. Riicker said : ' If there be any who are inclined to ask whether 
the careful study of terrestrial magnetism has led, or is leading, to any 


definite results, or whether we are not merely adding to the lumber of the 
world by piling up observations from which no deductions are drawn, we 
may answer that, though the fundamental secret of terrestrial magnetism 
is still undiscovered, the science is progressing. . . . But there are special 
and cogent reasons why the science of terrestrial magnetism should be 
cosmopolitan. For those who would unravel the causes of the magnetic 
movements of the compass needle concerted action is essential. They 
cannot, indeed, dispense with individual initiation or with the leadership 
of genius, but I think that all would agree that there is urgent need for 
more perfect organisation, for an authority which can decide not only 
what to do but what to leave undone.' 





PROF. G. T. MORGAN, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S., 


At the Bristol meeting of 1875 my predecessor, Prof. A. G. Vernon 
Harcourt, spoke to this section on the teaching of chemistry, and in the 
course of his very inspiring address he remarked that ' the science of 
chemistry would advance more rapidly if it were possible to organise 
chemists into working parties having each a definite region to explore,' 
and he went on to inquire : ' Is sucJi an organisation in any degree 
possible ? 

I propose this morning to describe the attempt recently made by a 
department of State, namely, the Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, to give effect to Prof. Vernon Harcourt's prophetic vision. 
The answer to his question is in the affirmative. Such an organisation is 
in some degree possible, and has actually become an accomplished fact. 
I must, however, leave for one of my successors in this Chair the further 
inquiry, Can such an organisation become permanent and still retain its 
primary and paramount function of chemical exploration ? 

Origin of the Chemical Research Laboratory. 

The work of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 
began in 1915, and during the ensuing ten years the Department had at 
various times become interested in investigations of a chemical nature, 
such, for example, as (1) large-scale researches on the chlorination of 
methane, (2) large-scale researches on the production of formaldehyde, 
(3) investigations on the production of glycerine, (4) investigations on 
the manufacture of chemical products from fish residues, (5) general 
researches on the corrosion of metals, (6) general researches on high- 
pressure reactions, including the reactions i)etween carbon monoxide and 

These investigations, which were undertaken mainly under the auspices l 
of the Chemistry Co-ordinating Research Board, were carried out by'j 
isolated groups of workers, who were often located in widely separated! 
laboratories. One group studied the corrosion of metals at the Royal 
School of Mines, another examined fish products in the Imperial College 
of Science and Technology, whereas a third experimented on the chlorina- 
tion of methane and on the recovery of formaldehyde from waste liquors 
of wool-scouring at the Royal Naval Cordite Factory in Dorsetshire. 


It soon became evident that some increase in economy and efficiency 
could be attained by bringing together under one roof these scattered 
groups of workers who would receive encouragement and stimulus by 
becoming part of a more centralised scientific organisation. 

A suitable site was chosen on the Bushy Park Estate in close proximity 
to the National Physical Laboratory and the Admiralty Research 
Laboratory, and here in 1924 the building of a chemical laboratory was 
commenced on a plot of land allowing ample scope for future expansion. 

The original plans drawn out by the architects of H.M. Office of Works 
made provision for three laboratory units each of rectangular shape and 
built round four sides of a central courtyard. The front and back of the 
hollow rectangle consist of two two-storey blocks ; the front block designed 
for general and special small scale laboratories with the necessary offices, 
the back block arranged to accommodate workshops, service rooms and 
heating plant. The two sides of the rectangle, which consist of two 
single-storey blocks with saw-toothed roofs, north lighted and with 
a clear head room of about sixteen feet, give adequate space for large- 
scale laboratories. 

These buildings are constructed in steel and brick and so arranged that 
partitions can be readily removed for alterations or extensions. In the 
two-storey blocks the floors and roofs are formed of hollow concrete tubes, 
but in the engineering section of the building, where heavy superloading 
had to be considered, a more rigid type of construction in steel and 
concrete floors was adopted. In the interest of economy, plaster and 
other relatively expensive internal finishings were omitted wherever 
possible, any distemper or paint being applied to flush-pointed brickwork. 
The floors were covered with stout cork carpet, laid directly on the 
cement rendering. 

The laboratories are equipped with specially designed fittings, the 
framing and fronts are of stained British Columbia pine, whereas the bench 
tops and other portions subjected to hard wear are in teak or Iroko wood. 
The internal drainage to laboratory sinks is effected by open stone-ware 
three-quarter circular channels finished with acid-resisting glaze. Wherever 
exposed internally, structural steel and joiners' work are coated with acid- 
resisting paint. The benches of small scale and special laboratories carry 
five services — gas, water, steam, vacuum and compressed air. Each 
room is amply supplied with electric current (D.C.) 

In conformity with the neighbouring buildings of the National Physical 
Laboratory, a simple modern Georgian style was adopted in the design 
of the elevations of the new laboratory. The buildings are faced 
externally with multi-stone sand face bricks, reconstructed Portland 
stone being used sparingly in cornices, string courses and entrance 

The construction of one of these units was started towards the end of 
1924, and when scientific work was commenced in the autumn of 1925 
about one-third of the first unit had been built, although actually only 
one room was ready for occupation. The fitting of the remaining 
laboratories and workshop was, however, rapidly effected, and by the 
end of 1926 the whole of the available space was fully occupied, the staff 
then consisting of the superintendent and ten chemists, with one 


engineering assistant and ten members of the artisan, clerical and 
general stafi. 

The frontage to the half unit was commenced in November 1927 and 
completed for occupation by Easter 1928, and the staff was then increased 
gradually to its present total strength of about sixty. 

Beyond a small addition for stores and workrooms completed in 1929 
there has been no further extension of the building, so that after five years 
rather more than half of the first unit has been erected and put into 
commission. There has been no attempt to force the growth of this 
State laboratory, which is still to be regarded as being at an experimental 

Administration and Control. 

The work of the laboratory is conducted under the guidance of a 
Chemistry Eesearch Board, which has taken over certain functions of the 
older Chemistry Co-ordinating Research Board. This Board is charged 
with the duty of advising the Department on the programme of work to 
be undertaken at the laboratory and of exercising general supervision over 
its execution. 

At the outset executive control was exercised by a part-time director 
of chemical research and a whole-time superintendent, but from 1927 
to the present this responsibility has been vested in a whole-time director. 

Programme of Research. 

At the present time the scientific and technical staffs are occupied on 
six specific items of research prescribed on the advice of the Chemistry 
Research Board, and ' working parties of exploration ' are detailed to 
these mandated researches by the Director. 

Now since these explorations were started at different times and in 
various circumstances, I propose to describe them simply in the order in 
which they have come under my notice. This arrangement is purely 
chronological, and has no bearing whatsoever on any order of merit or 
importance. Moreover, it is essential to success in any research laboratory 
that each researcher should regard his own investigations as the most 
interesting and important in the world. 

When thus arranged, the six mandated researches are as follows : 
synthetic resins, low temperature tar, high-pressure chemistry, corrosion 
of metals, chemotherapy and research on water pollution. In addition to 
these prescribed investigations a certain amount of general research is 
carried out at the discretion of the Director. 

Synthetic Resins. 

The growing importance of synthetic resins in chemical industry is 
gauged by the fact that the world's production of formaldehyde resins 
which was of the order of 9,000 tons in 1921 had increased to 13,000 tons 
in 1926, of which Great Britain was responsible for 16 per cent., as against 
40, 24 and 8 per cent, derived respectively from the United States, Germany 
and France, other countries accounting for the remaining 12 per cent. 
Such resins are employed in the manufacture of moulding powders and 
electrical components. The production by industrially available means 


of resins of high dielectric capacity is a matter of national importance, 
and it was with this objective that an investigation of phenol-formaldehyde 
resins was begun even before the central laboratory was ready for 

In May 1925 a chemist was appointed to work at this problem in the 
University of Birmingham, and attention was directed to formaldehyde 
■condensations with homologues of phenol, namely, the cresols and xylenols. 
Experience soon showed that m-cresol and 1:3: 5-xylenol were especially 
suitable for such condensations, which in the case of the former phenol were 
«xtended to a semi-works scale. 

According to the nature of the catalyst employed, phenol-formaldehyde 
•condensations yield, in general, one or other of two distinct types of resin. 
Alkaline catalysts lead to the production of resins of ' bakelite ' type, 
which, although originally soluble and fusible, yet possess the property of 
moulding under the combined effect of heat and pressure into hard 
insoluble and infusible products constituting by far the more important 
group of phenol-formaldehyde resins. 

Acid catalysts favour the production of resins of ' novolak ' type, 
which, being permanently soluble and fusible, are utilised principally as 
shellac substitutes in lacquers and varnishes. 

Alkaline Condensations. — After successful small-scale tests, alkaline 
condensations of formaldehyde were performed on 24 lb. of m-cresol, 
■carried out under factory conditions in a plant of semi-works scale com- 
prising a jacketed reaction vessel, reflux condensers, washing and storage 
tanks, drying and incorporating vessels and a hydraulic press with heated 

A systematic study of this alkaline condensation revealed the presence 
of several crystalline intermediates which precede the formation of resin. 
The latter was employed in the production of moulded articles and of 
laminated boards for electrical testing. 

Acidic Condensations. — The chemical nature of formaldehyde-phenolic 
resins is still a matter of speculation, but the appearance of crystalline 
intermediates in the early stages of acidic condensations is of interest as 
denoting the course of these reactions. During these researches several 
crystalline intermediate products were isolated for the first time. 


In the foregoing formaldehyde-pheuol condensations, acetone is some- 
times used as a medium, but since in the presence of alkalis this solvent 
condenses with formaldehyde to yield resins, the chemistry of the process 
has been elucidated by a study of the interaction of formaldehyde and the 
ketones under alkaline conditions. As the homologous series is ascended 
the formation of resin decreases. Acetone yields mainly resin and 
small proportions of 7-ketobutanol, CH, • CO • CH., • CH, ■ OH and of the 
tetrahydropyrone formed by dehydration of the tetrahvdric alcohol 
HO • CH, ■ CH,, • CO ■ C(CH,, • OH),. Methyl ethyl ketone gives con- 
siderable proportions of the following mono- and di-hvdric alcohols, 
CH, • CO • CH(CH, ■ OH) ■ CH, and CH, • CO • C(CH,, • OH).;- CH3 with but 
little resin. Diethyl ketone furnishes no resin but leads to similar mono-, 
"di- and tri-hydric alcohols. 


Low Temperature Tar. 

There is at the present time in this country no process of chemical 
industry which is more in the public eye than low temperature carbonisa- 
tion of coal. The matter is of supreme national importance, for the larger 
problems facing this mode of utilising coal are both economic and 
technical and turn on the exploitation to the best advantage of the 
resulting products : smokeless fuel, gas, aqueous liquor and tar. Now 
since any marked appreciation can be expected only in the case of the 
last of these products, it follows that processes tending to an increase in 
the value of the tar are of fundamental interest. 

During the last five years a systematic study of the chemical con- 
stituents of low temperature tar has been in progress in the Teddington 
laboratory and, in our experiments on this material, quantities of the 
order of 40 gallons have been handled in the semi-scale plant. The 
starting materials, supplied by H.M. Fuel Research Station as part of 
the Government's scheme of scientific investigation into the utilisation of 
our national resources of coal, consist of pedigree tars derived from coals 
of definite origin carbonised under carefully controlled and reproducible 

It was soon found that although low temperature tar had been pro- 
duced at carbonising temperatures of about 600°, yet it could not again 
be heated even to comparatively low temperatures — round about 150° — ■ 
without undergoing considerable alterations of a chemical nature. Accord- 
ingly, distillation processes were replaced by milder methods of extraction, 
and the tar was not heated above 120° until its more decomposable 
constituents had been removed. 

A representative tar from a typical bituminous coal (Kinneil coal) was 
heated to 120° to remove light oils and adhering aqueous liquor, and the 
residue extracted by systematic use of solvents to separate it into its 
major constituents : neutral oils and waxes, aromatic hydrocarbons, 
bases, phenols and carboxylic acids. It was then noticed that each of 
these five main groups of products could be separated into two fractions, 
one portion consisting of crystallisable substances conveniently termed 
' crystalloids,' the other portion composed of amorphous resinous materials 
to which the name ' resinoids ' was applied. 

The Crystalloids of Tar. 

Waxes and Neutral Oils. — From the least volatile fractions of neutral 
oils, waxes are obtained melting over a considerable range of temperature, 
and X-ray analysis of the less fusible of these waxes has revealed the 
presence of hydrocarbon chains containing 26, 27 and 29 carbon atoms. 

The neutral oils contain both saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons 
and also oxygenated substances reacting with ferrichloric acid, HFeCl.,. 

Aromatic Hydrocarbons. — Naphthalene, a characteristic major con- 
stituent of high temperature tar, is present in low temperature tar, 
together with p-methylnaphthalene, but only in such small proportions 
that they have to be separated through their picrates. 

The least volatile tar oils after removal of waxes and resins deposit 
on cooling a material analogous to the green grease of high temperature 
tar. This product consists principally of the methyl derivatives of 

B.— chf;mistry. 43 

anthracene, although a small proportion of this hydrocarbon itself may 
possibly be present. Oxidation of various fractions from this product leads 
to 2-methylanthraquinonc, 2 : 6- and 2 : 7-dimcthylanthraquinones and 
2:3: 6-trimethylanthraquinone. The proof of the orientation of methyl 
groups in these anthracene derivatives has involved the synthesis of the 
hydrocarbons and of their quinones [Journ. Chem. Soc, 1929, 2203 and 2551). 

Bases. — The volatile bases of low temperature tar are mainly tertiary 
amines although a small amount of aniline was detected. The following, 
bases were isolated and purified through their crystalline mercurichlorides : 
pyridine, a-picoline, 2 : 4- and 2 : 6-lutidines and symmetrical collidine ; 
quinoline and quinaldiue were isolated as picrates. 

Phenols. — Low temperature tars contain a high proportion of material 
extractable with aqueous caustic soda, but only a portion of this soluble 
extract consists of true phenols, the remainder is composed of non-phenolic 
substances which, however, dissolve in solutions of the alkaline phenolates. 
These non-phenolic materials are recovered from a caustic soda extract 
of the tar either by agitation with an organic solvent such as chloroform, 
or more simply by saturating the alkaline extract with salt. The true 
phenols remaining in the alkaline solution are separated into crystalline 
and resinous portions by solution of the former in light petroleum. 
Further fractionation of the petroleum soluble phenols has led to the 
isolation of the following compounds : phenol, the three cresols and five 
of the six possible xylenols. Bacteriological examination of the phenols 
of low temperature tar has shown that their germicidal value increases 
with rise of boiling point to an optimum fraction boiling at 140-170° under 
5 mm. pressure. Moreover, it has been found that direct chlorination of 
these higher phenols of low temperature tar increases considerably their 
germicidal potency.- 

The Resinoids op Tar. 

With each class of crystalloid in the low temperature tar there is 
present a corresponding resinoid, which constitutes the least volatile 
portion of each major fraction. These products, which are termed 
respectively resinenes (neutral resins), resinamines (basic resins), resinols 
(phenolic resins) and resinoic acids (acidic resins), are obtained as 
amorphous powders after extraction of the corresponding crystalloids 
with petroleum or other suitable solvent. These resinous tar products 
are promising materials for further research from both scientific and 
industrial view points. 

An extension of the solvent method of extraction to other varieties of 
tar from wood, peat, lignite and bituminous coal has revealed the presence 
in each tar of the four classes of resins, although in wood tars the amount 
of resinamines was very small. Coal tars produced by carbonisation 
at high and at intermediate temperatures show considerable variations in 
their resin contents. 

Aqueous Liquors of Coal Carbonisation. 

The aqueous liquors which accompany low temperature tars have been 

extracted systematically with organic solvents in quantities of 30 gallons 

at a time, and in this way phenol, o-cresol, catechol and its two mcthvl 

derivatives resorcinol and quinol, have been isolated, together with a 


new type of resins to which the name resinolic acids has been given, as 
they are intermediate in chemical properties between resinols and resinoic 
acids. Resinolic acids in the presence of ammonia are largely responsible 
for the dark red colour of the aqueous effluents from gasworks. These 
aqueous liquors have also furnished on systematic extraction aniline, 
pyridine and a-picoline, and the series of fatty acids ranging from formic 
to TC-valeric acids. 

High Pressure Chemistry. 

During the past ten years increasing attention has been directed to 
the use of pressure as a means of facilitating the course of chemical 
reactions, and research on high pressure syntheses was started at the 
laboratory in 1926 on the recommendation of the Chemistry Co-ordinating 
Research Board, whose members were impressed by the possibilities 
revealed by the work of Patart in France and of the Badische Anilin und 
Soda Fabrik in Germany. 

The plant required for this investigation was designed and built in 
the laboratory workshop, and the earliest experiments were carried out 
with hand compressors. Subsequently, motor-driven compressors and 
circulators were added to the equipment. This plant was first tried out 
with catalysts of the Patart type (normal or basic zinc chromate) in order 
to gain skill and confidence in the process. It was thus found that on 
passing the mixed gases (1 vol. CO, 2 vols. H.^) at the rate of 30,000 vols, 
per hour, measured at N.T.P. over unit volume of such a catalyst at 380° 
and under 200 atmospheres' pressure the hourly production of methyl 
alcohol was about twice the volume of catalyst space. 

The addition of cobalt chromate or nitrate to the foregoing zinc 
chromate catalyst led to an interesting development, since with the more 
complex catalyst ethyl alcohol and other higher' alcohols made their 
appearance, although methyl alcohol remained the predominant product. 
Small amounts of aldehydes and acids were also detected. By the use of 
mixed cobalt catalysts containing zinc, together with chromium or 
manganese, the following alcohols have been obtained in addition to 
methyl and ethyl alcohols : ?i-propyl, «-butyl, tso-butyl and n-amyl 
alcohols and racemoid 1-methyl-propylcarbinol CH,.CH^.CH(CH.,).CHo.OH. 
So far only primary alcohols have been detected. Aldehydic products have 
been identified as follows : formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propaldehyde, 
w-butaldehyde and also certain aldehydals arising from the condensation 
of the foregoing aldehydes and alcohols. Moreover, the synthetic products 
contain formic, acetic, propionic and M-butyric acids. 

The addition of even small proportions of cobalt to copper-manganese 
oxide catalysts (Audibert type) has a marked effect on the production of, 
ethyl alcohol and its homologues, and a similar result is noticed on] 
replacing the cobalt in these catalysts by iron. Traces of alkali hydroxide! 
promote the formation of higher alcohols, and in this respect potash is' 
more efficacious than lithia. 

Helium from Monazite Sand. 
In addition to their synthetic experiments, the staff engaged on high 
pressure chemistry have brought to completion a research on the extrac- 
tion of helium from the monazite sand conveyed to this country from 


Travancore for the manufacture of thoria and ceria required in the 
incandescent mantle industry. During this manufacture each gram of 
sand evolves 1 c.c. of helium at N.T.P., so that 100 tons of sand would 
discharge into the atmosphere approximately 100,000 litres of the gas. 
Our requirements of this raw material were entirely met through the kind 
assistance of the late Mr. Edmund White, formerly managing director 
of Messrs. Thorium, Limited. 

The gas was liberated by heating the monazite at 1000° in heat- 
resisting steel pots in a stream of carbon dioxide, and the issuing gas was 
passed over cupric oxide at 500° to oxidise hydrogen and carbon monoxide. 
Carbon dioxide was then removed by a(;^ueous caustic soda and the residual 
gas passed over metallic magnesium a t600° in order to remove nitrogen, 
and over metallic calcium at 580° to eliminate the remaining impurities. 
Several hundredweights of sand were thus treated and returned to Messrs. 
Thorium, Limited, who found that they could still employ the heated 
material in their process providing that it was mixed with a certain 
proportion of raw sand. The purified gas containing 99.5 per cent, of 
helium was compressed into storage cylinders. 

Corrosion Research. 

The researches on corrosion were originally started by a committee of 
the Institute of Metals in 1916, and after eight years the more scientific 
developments of these problems were undertaken by the Corrosion Research 
Committee of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, this 
work being pursued in the Metallurgical Department of the Royal School 
of Mines until the workers concerned were transferred to Teddington at 
Easter 1928. 

Corrosion of Immersed Metals. 

Research on the corrosion of immersed metals has been concentrated 
on an attempt to put the theory of this phenomenon on a secure quanti- 
tative foundation. For although earlier work in this country and in the 
United States had furnished a qualitative explanation of corrosive action 
in water or in salt solutions, yet this description of the process postulated 
the influence of more than a dozen factors on the corrosive rates of immersed 
metals. Accordingly, one aim of the present research is to acquire precise 
information as to the interaction of these factors, and another objective is 
to ascertain whether the lack of reproducibility in corrosion experiments 
is inherent in the corrosion process itself or whether it is due to imperfect 
regulation of all variables. Among these factors are purity of materials : 
metal, water, salt and atmosphere, constancy of temperature and pressure, 
and freedom from mechanical agitation. Zinc of a purity of 99.99 per cent., 
distilled water with an electrical conductivity of 0.058 gemmhos at 20° and 
purified oxygen were employed, and all experiments were carried out at 
25° within a temperature range of ±0.02° over long periods of time, 
sometimes for upwards of six months. 

Measurements of oxygen absorbed, corrected for any hydrogen 
evolved, made at frequent intervals during the course of such experiments, 
have enabled one to plot continuous corrosion time curves which are often 
sufficiently smooth and regular to be investigated mathematically. 


The apparatus employed for this purpose is shown among the exhibits 
from the laboratory. Originally designed for zinc, it is now being used 
extensively for work on iron and steel. 

Oxygen passes through water or salt solutions to the immersed metal 
either by diffusion or convection, but the latter mode of transference is 
by far the more effective at more than very shallow depths. Convection 
currents may arise in a salt solution owing to four different causes : 
(1) temperature changes, (2) density changes produced by evaporation at 
the surface layer, (3) density changes produced by differences of oxygen 
concentration, (4) mechanical agitation. The apparatus employed for 
these quantitative experiments is immersed in a thermostat and corrosion 
occurs in a closed space within it, so that the effects of temperature changes 
(1) and evaporation{2) are practically negligible, and special precautions are 
taken to prevent agitation (4). Accordingly, by removing oxygen from 
the neighbourhood of the metal, the corrosion process produces convection 
currents of the third category due to changes in concentration of oxygen. 
The velocity of these convection currents depends on the difference in 
density between the solution saturated with oxygen at the liquid surface 
and the solution next to the metal. Assuming that the latter solution 
contains very little oxygen, the velocity of convection will probably be 
proportional to the solubility of oxygen in the liquid, but the amount of 
oxygen carried by the current is also proportional to its solubility. Hence, 
the rate of corrosion (y) should be proportional to the square of the 
oxygen solubility (x), a relation which is expressible by the equation 
y=kx^. This assumption has been verified for on plotting the observed 
rates of corrosion against oxygen solubility one obtains curves of parabolic 

Hydrogen evolution due to the interaction of water or salt solution 
with metals such as zinc or steel is of greater importance than is generally 
supposed. Determinations of the hydrogen liberated during zinc corrosion 
have shown that a very small amount of impurity has a considerable 
influence on the amount of gas evolved. In N/10,000 potassium chloride 
measurable quantities of hydrogen are obtained from 99.99 per cent, 
zinc, whereas no hydrogen was detected from zinc of spectroscopic purity. 
The proportion of zinc corrosion due to evolution of hydrogen increases 
with concentration of potassium chloride, and with 2N-solutions it 
amounts to 17.4 per cent, of the total corrosion. 

When all the foregoing factors are taken into account, successive 
corrosion experiments exhibit a high degree of reproducibility, and the 
curves indicate that duplicates differ from their mean value by 1 per cent, 
or even less. This constancy indicates that the corrosion of zinc and 
allied metals is not inherently erratic, but is quite a suitable subject for 
physico-chemical investigations. 

Atmospheric Corrosion. 

Investigations of various types of indoor and open-air corrosion and 
of protective oxide films, previously conducted under the auspices of the 
Atmospheric Corrosion Research Committee of the British Non-ferrous 
Metals Research Association, were taken over by the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research in July 1927. This work was con- 


tinued at the Royal School of Mines until April 1928, when the corrosion 
section was transferred to the Chemical Research Laboratory. The more 
outstanding results since obtained are as follows : — • 

Composition of Green Patina on Copper Structures. — Samples of the 
familiar green patina on exposed copper surfaces, obtained from typical 
localities, town, country, marine and urban-marine, were analysed 
completely. Contrary to the general belief, basic copper carbonate was 
found to be not the principal but only a minor constituent of the green 
patina. With the exception of the product from a purely marine atmos- 
phere in which basic copper chloride predominated, the major constituent 
throughout was basic copper sulphate, and excess of basic sulphate over 
basic carbonate was greater in the rural than in the urban samples. Where 
urban and marine conditions coincided, basic sulphate predominated 
greatly over both basic chloride and basic carbonate. 

It has recently been found that these constituents of the green patina 
tend to assume the chemical composition of the corresponding green copper 
minerals. In the limits, the basic copper sulphate of corrosion coincides 
in composition with brochantite, of which the co-ordination formula is 
[Cu {(HO),jCu] JSO4, and the basic copper chloride of corrosion with 
atacamite [Cu -[(HO), CuJ ,] Clj. Basic copper carbonate, on the other 
hand, tends to assume the composition of malachite [Cu 1(H0).^ Cu}] CO,. 
Complete agreement with the composition required by the co-ordination 
theory has been realised in corrosion products after 70 years' exposure and 
upwards. After shorter periods of exposure the basicity of the product 
is in a lower ratio than that of the corresponding minerals. 

The complete analysis of these corrosion products entailed special 
precautions. The carbonates were decomposed by phosphoric acid 
instead of hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and any hydrogen chloride and 
hydrogen sulphide simultaneously set free were eliminated by j9-nitroso- 
dimethylaniline and copper powder respectively. 

Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys.— The growing use of light magnesium 
alloys for motor-car and aircraft work has necessitated increased attention 
to the corrosive properties of these metals. In 1929 a research was begun 
with the object of discovering improved methods of protection and of 
learning more about the nature of the corrosion. More than 500 different 
protective coatings have been produced by chemical means and tested 
for resistance to sea- water sprays. Of these coatings a few are sufficiently 
promising to warrant further study. 

lu 1927 a joint Exploratory Committee of the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Medical Research Council 
decided that there was need for organised research in Chemotherapy, and 
accordingly the Medical Research Council set up a permanent Committee 
to advise them on investigations in this field. To this Committee the 
Department has nominated three chemical members, including the 
Director of Chemical Research, and facilities have been afforded by the 
Department for a staff of three chemists to work on problems based on an 
agreed programme. These chemists have already prepared a considerable 
number of organic compounds of possible utility in chemotherapy, and 


these are being tested systematically under arrangements made by the 
permanent Committee. This work of national importance is a joint 
effort of several groups of chemists working in different laboratories, so 
that a wide and thorough search for greatly needed drugs and therapeutic 
agents is in progress. 

The Teddington contribution to these researches may be classified 
under the two following main headings : — 

1. Analogues of Bayer 205 or Fourneau 309. — -Last year,in his Presidential 
Address to the Physiology Section of the British Association in South 
Africa, Prof. W. E. Dixon referred to the serious ravages produced in that 
continent by sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis), and his admirable 
survey of the position from the view point of chemotherapy renders 
unnecessary any further elaboration of that aspect of the problem in the 
j^resent summary. 

The activity of medicaments of the Bayer 205 or Fourneau 309 type 
may depend more on the aggregate effect of the whole molecule rather 
than on the presence in the molecule of any particular group or arrange- 
ment. In this, as in other cases, there are no definite laws connecting 
therapeutic activity and chemical structure. 

Compounds have been prepared in which the terminal aminonaphthalene- 
disulphonic radicals have been replaced by analogous complexes derived 
from aminocarbazole di- and tri-sulphonic acids or from the disulphonic 
acids of aminofluorene and of aminofluorenone, but so far the effect of 
this substitution has not been encouraging. The possibility of a beneficial 
introduction of arsenic into the fluorene nucleus has, however, been 
considered, and experiment has shown that trypanocidal activity is 
manifested when an arsinic acid radical is present in a fluorene molecule 
in conjunction with an amino-group. 

2. Organic Derivatives of Arsenic and Antimony. — During many 
years organic arsenicals have received much attention, whereas organic 
antimonials have not been subjected to the same careful scrutiny, 
partly owing to the fact that they are more difficult to prepare in 
a state of purity, and partly because the curative results have been less 

Nevertheless, since antimony in organic combination appears to 
possess specific trypanocidal activity and some curative action in kala- 
azar, experiments have been made in the Teddington laboratory on the 
preparation of antimony analogues of the more successful arsenicals. 
Tryparsamide (phenylglycine-amido-jo-arsinic acid) is used extensively in 
treating trypanosomiasis, and its antimony analogue has been under 
examination. In the more stable meta series, phenylglycine-amido-rw- 
stibinic acid and certain allied compounds show a slight trypanocidal 
effect. The antimony analogue of stovarsol (3-acetylamino-i-hydroxy- 
phenyl arsinic acid), or more probably its internal dehydration product, 
has also exhibited some therapeutic activity. 

Concurrently with this study of organic antimonials further experiments 
have been made on organic arsenicals produced by condensing atoxyl 
successively with succinic anhydride, and with a base such as ammonia, 
methylamine, dimethylamine, piperidine, or aniline. Certain of these 
derivatives have also exhibited a definite action on trypanosomes. 


In addition to the preparation of antimonials directly applicable to 
therapeutic tests, our knowledge of the organic chemistry of antimony has 
been extended among aliphatic derivatives by the production of antimony 
analogues of the cacodyl group and in the aromatic series by the synthesis 
of cyclic antimonials analogous to the alkyl- and aryl-carbazoles. 

Water Pollution Research. 

This research originated from a joint request made to the Department 
of Scientific and Industrial Research by the Ministry of Health and the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

During the past two years, experiments have been in progress under 
the auspices of the Water Pollution Research Board on the base-exchange 
method of water softening. One of the objects of this work has been to 
determine the most satisfactory way of carrying out the process, such 
points having been examined as the effect of varying the rate of flow of 
water through the bed of base-exchange material and the quantity, 
concentration and time of contact of the salt solution used in regenerating 
this material. There are two tjipes of base-exchange material in actual 
industrial use, treated minerals and synthetic products prepared by 
interaction of solutions of sodium aluminate and sodium silicate. It 
appears from the result of the Teddington experiments that with treated 
minerals the exchange of bases is confined to the outer surface of the 
particles whereas with the synthetic materials diffusion to the inner 
surfaces or into the mass of the gel is an important factor. This study of 
the base-exchange process has also been extended to the case of waters 
rich in magnesium. 

Disintegration of the base-exchange materials and contamination of 
the softened waters by silica and alumina have been investigated. At the 
rate of flow employed normally in water softening, the silica content of 
the water is not increased seriously and is certainly not greater than that 
often encountered in untreated waters. 

In addition to this practical work a report summarising existing 
knowledge of the base-exchange or zeolite process for water softening has 
been compiled and published. 

General Research. 

Investigation of complex aromatic hydrocarhons.^ln 1926 the Dyestuffs 
Industry Development Committee of the Board of Trade suggested that 
further fundamental research was desirable on the following coal tar 
products : acenaphthene, carbazole, fluorene, perylene and phenanthrene. 
Two of these suggestions were adopted and, with the assistance of two 
chemists, the Director, who is also a member of this Statutory Committee, 
undertook a study of acenaphthene and perylene, the work being continued 
until 1928. During this period considerable progress was made with the 
former hydrocarbon, the nitration of which was studied under anhydrous 
and hydrous conditions. For nitrations, in the absence of water, 
diacetylorthonitric acid and benzoyl nitrate were employed, the latter 
being a reagent discovered originally in 1906 by Prof. Francis of this 
university. Several new nitro derivatives were identified, and 2-amino- 
1930 g 


acenaphthene and 2-acenaphthenol (2-hydroxyacenaphtliene) were pre- 
pared for the first time. 

Higher Fatty Acids. — In order to identify tlie waxes isolated from low 
temperature tar a parallel research was made on the synthesis of individual 
waxes from the higher fatty acids. Those waxes containing an even 
number of carbon atoms were produced electrolytically by Kolbe's classical 
synthesis (1849), whereas their homologues containing odd numbers of 
carbon atoms were prepared by a more modern process due to Griin, 
Ulbrich and Krczil (1926). By these complementary processes individual 
waxes containing 27, 30 and 34 carbon atoms were prepared for com- 
parative purposes. This inquiry necessitated the study of several higher 
fatty acids, including arachidic acid, and in such cases analytical data 
were confirmed by X-ray analyses carried out in the National Physical 

Cyclic systems containing Selenium and Tellurium. — Considerable 
progress has been made in the study of heterocyclic systems containing 
selenium or tellurium atoms. The selenium series has been prepared by a 
general method, the interaction of alkylene bromides and sodium selenide 
in an inert atmosphere. 

/CH.2-Br /CH.2V 

TcHa] < -f Na2Se= rCH,l„< >Se + 2NaBr 

71 = 1, 2, 3, or 4. 

In'this way the cyclic selenohydrocarbons with »i=l, 2, 3 or 4 have been 
obtained for the first time. The five-membered ring, c?/c?oselenobutane 
(tetrahydroselenophen) and its next homologue, c^/cZoselenopentane, are 
formed by the foregoing reaction with considerable facility, but the four- 
and seven-membered rings show signs of instability, and in their production 
complex solid polymerides make their appearance. 

In the tellurium series the corresponding cyclic derivatives are con- 
veniently prepared by the action of aluminium telluride on alkylene 
halides. This process leads to the production of cyclic systems containing 
quadrivalent tellurium. 

rCHo] ■■ 

L -Ifi 

/CHaX /CH., • [CH.,]^ • CHoI /CH.3 

w = 1, 2, or 3. 

From the foregoing complex telluronium iodides the cyclic telluro- 
hydrocarbon is obtained by thermal dissociation under reduced pressure. 
By such means C2/ctotellurobutane and cj/c^otelluropentane have been 
isolated and some evidence was obtained of the existence of a four- 
membered ring. 


Aromatic Selenium and Tellurium Compounds. — Phenol and the cresols 
have been condensed with selenium oxychloride when two types of 
seleniferous products have been distinguished, polar salt-like substances 
(Formula I) and non -polar selenides (Formula II). 

I [(HO . C6H,)3Se] CI •Se(C,He.OH), II 

When the cresols are condensed with basic tellurium chloride the 
following tjrpes were distinguished, all containing quadrivalent tellurium : 
HO . C,H, . TeCl,, (HOC\H,),Tea, (HOC,H,),TeCl. The more soluble of 
such selenium and tellurium compounds have been tested on trypanosomes, 
but so far no evidence of activity has been discerned. 

Studies in the Diphenyl Series. — The o-xenylamine required in the 
synthesis of cyclic antimonials was formerly obtained in a somewhat 
tedious manner by the pyrolysis of diazoaminobenzene. This base has 
now been prepared by a method practicable on a large scale from com- 
mercially obtainable diphenyl. 

o-Xenylamine and its homologues, for example, 4': 5-dimethyl- 
•o-xenylamine, are convenient starting-points for the synthesis of carbazole 
and phenanthridine derivatives. 

Residual Affinity and Co-okdination. 

An experimental study of the effect of various co-ordinated addenda 
on the valencies of copper, silver and gold has been pursued during the 
past five years with the following results. 

Stabilisation of the cupric condition. — In the absence of suitable addenda 
the cupric ion is unstable when in combination with less electronegative 
anions such as iodide, sulphite, thiosulphate, thiocyanate, selenocyanate 
and hypophosphite, but by co-ordinating this metallic ion with 
€thylenediamine (en=NH2.[CHJ,,.NH2) stability is thereby conferred on 
the bivalent condition, and well-defined complex salts of the following 
types are obtained: [Cu, 2en, 2H,0]I.„ [Cu, 2en, R.OH] I,(R = CH, or 
C.,H,), [Cu, 2en]X where X=SO„ S,0„ 8,0^, S,0, or S,0, and [Cu, 2en] Y., 
where Y=CNS, CNSe or H^PO.,. Moreover, the following stable normal 
salts [Cu, 2en] CO,, 2H,0, and [Cu, 2en] (NO,), are obtainable with 
carbonate and nitrite radicals respectively. 

Stabilisation of the cuprous condition. — Even more noteworthy than the 
preceding effect of ethylenediamine is the influence of addenda containing 
sulphur on the stability of the cuprous ion. Cuprous sulphate, an endo- 
thermic compound, decomposes in water with generation of heat and loss 
of half its copper, Cu.^S04+ 5Aq =CuSOj, 5Aq -f Cu, but by co-ordinating 

CH, . NHv^ 
the cuprous ion with ethvlenethiocarbamide, etu = | \CS the 

CH, . NH/ 

univalent condition becomes stabilised even in combination with nitrate, 
sulphate and acetate radicals. The following colourless water-soluble 
salts have been identified : [Cu, 4 etu] NO,., [Cu, 3 etu], SO^ and 
tCu, 3 etu] CH,CO,. 

Co-ordination compounds of silver. — Since the silver ion is generally 
univalent, its co-ordination with ethvlenethiocarbamide or other sulphur 

E 2 


containing addenda does not involve any change of valency. It is, how- 
ever, significant that [Ag, 3 etu] CI is a water-soluble salt which remains 
colourless even after prolonged exposure to light. 

A contribution to the chemistry of bivalent silver has been made by 
co-ordinating its ion with a-a'-dipyridyl (dipy), and the following coloured 
salts have been isolated [Ag, 2 dipyJSaOg (chocolate brown), [Ag, 2 dipy] 
(HSO^)^ (dark brown plates) and [Ag, 3 dipy] (ClOJ., crystallising in well 
defined, lustrous, black, acicular prisms. 

Stabilisation of the aurous condition. — Co-ordination of gold salts with 
ethylenethiocarbamide has the same effect as with copper compounds. 
The fundamental univalency of the metallic ion becomes stabilised so 
that the following complex aurous salts have been identified : [Au, 2 etu]., 
SO,, 2H.,0, [Au, 2 etu] NO,, [Au, 2 etu] CI, H,0 and [Au, 2 etu] Br, H.,0^ 
These compounds are colourless and dissolve in water to practically neutral 
solutions (Pji value about 6"2). Conductivity experiments indicate that 
in dilute aqueous solutions these complex salts are highly ionised so that 
the complex radical [Au, 2 etu]' plays the part of a compound alkali ion. 
The bromide of this series was mentioned last year by Prof. W. E. Dixon 
(he. cit.) as being a compound which had the effect of delaying death 
when administered to animals infected with bovine tuberculosis. 

Chemical Engineering. 

The mainstay of the foregoing investigations are the well-equipped 
workshops manned by five skilled artisans who are engaged on the produc- 
tion and maintenance of the appliances and plant required in the various 
research programmes. Appliances for high-pressure chemistry are a 
speciality of the laboratory workshops, and such plant includes bombs 
and pre-heaters for flow-through experiments with gaseous reagents, and 
autoclaves of various types for reactions with gases, liquids and solids. 
The researches on tar products call for automatic extractors, filter plant 
and stills operating under either ordinary or diminished pressures. 

The State Laboratory and the Scientific Public. 

The twofold primary aim of any State research laboratory should be 
the collection and dispersal of scientific knowledge and information. For 
the former function of collection and discovery of new knowledge the 
exploring parties foreseen by Prof. Vernon Harcourt should supply an i 
adequate means providing that each group proceeds under enlightened 
and inspired leadership. But for the complementary function of dispersal] 
of information a chemical laboratory must depend largely on such well- 
established media of publication as the journals of the leading chemical! 
societies. The greater part of the published research of the Teddingtonf 
laboratory has appeared in the Journals of the Chemical Society and of] 
the Society of Chemical Industry, although a certain proportion has been] 
published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Journal of the Institutej 
of Metals, and Proceedings of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. 
Grateful recognition should be recorded for the generous aid afforded by 
all these learned societies, and special thanks are due to the first two 
mentioned. It is my personal opinion that this mode of dispersing 
chemical knowledge should have priority over its publication in 


official governmental reports. First, because in this way the information 
radiates more rapidly to a wider public ; thus each of the two chemical 
journals just mentioned has more than 5,000 registered readers. Secondly, 
because this form of publication is frequently preceded by a reading and 
discussion of the subject-matter at a scientific meeting, and lastly because 
the financial circumstances of the learned societies compel them to impose 
a limit on the length of communications which is conducive to brevity and 

Relations with other Scientific Institutions. 

Apart from substances of therapeutic interest prepared for the Com- 
mittee on Chemotherapy, numerous other research materials have been 
distributed to colleagues in the universities and research institutions. 
Compressed helium and carbon monoxide have been rendered available 
for scientific workers requiring these gases. Organic derivatives of 
tellurium have been lent to the Cambridge University Chemical Laboratory 
for the purpose of physico-chemical measurements, and to the Birkbeck 
College for the demonstration of the parachor of this element. Com- 
pounds of special chemical interest have been supplied to the Davy 
Faraday Laboratory and to the National Physical Laboratory for the 
X-ray study of their crystal structure. It is a pleasant duty to refer to 
the aid received from the Government Laboratory in respect of micro- 
analyses and in connexion with the work on synthetic resins. 

Eeference has already been made to the close collaboration of the 
laboratory with H. M. Fuel Research Station in regard to the products of 
coal carbonisation. Certain preparations from low temperature tar have 
been submitted to the Cotton and Woollen Research Associations, for 
examination in connexion with the chemical treatment of textile fibres. 

Relations with Chemical Industry. 

The associations of the laboratory with chemical industry have always 
been cordial and are daily becoming increasingly intimate. Prominent 
industrialists either individually or in their corporate capacity as members 
of the Association of British Chemical Manufacturers and allied organisa- 
tions have visited the laboratory and sometimes repeatedly. 

Arising out of these visits and informal conferences, more than a 
hundred samples of the research products of the laboratory have been 
distributed to interested enquirers. 

Members of the scientific staff participate in the work of the Com- 
mittee for the Standardisation of Tar Products Tests, the Bureau of 
Chemical Abstracts, the Corrosion Committee of the Iron and Steel 
Institute, and the Council and various Committees of the Society of 
Chemical Industry. 

Although the laboratory is not a teaching institution in the academic 
sense of the term, yet facilities have been afforded for collaboration in 
research to chemists in training of approved qualifications. The two 
leading metropolitan gas companies have seconded to the laboratory for 
this purpose junior members of their scientific staffs who have worked at 
Teddington for periods ranging from six to eighteen months. The 
subjects so far selected for this collaboration have been high-pressure 
-chemistry and low temperature tar. 


In tlie foregoing description of the activities of the new laboratory I 
have endeavoured to speak as historian rather than as advocate, but if 
any justification is to be included I would take as the two leading points 
of my case : First, the scientific and industrial importance of the researches 
completed and in progress ; secondly, the significant fact that of the 
sixteen members of the laboratory staff who have resigned during the 
five years, fourteen have gone into chemical industry to occupy positions 
of considerable importance and responsibility. The appreciation of 
chemical talent is a valuable function of this State laboratory. 

Anticipations and Current Tendencies. 

Those who feel sufficiently interested in the realisation of Prof. Vernoui 
Harcourt's vision should not fail to visit the exhibit of laboratory products 
now on view in an adjacent room, for these specimens, diagrams, models 
and photographs furnish a record of the researches of this youthful organisa- 
tion which is far more realistic and appealing than any words of mine 
can be. 

Certain of these investigations have an immediate practical objective ; 
others represent the long view. It is, however, impossible to draw a 
definite distinction between these contrasted types. The aim of a State 
laboratory should rather be to encourage a judicious blend of the two. 

The chemical preparations now selected for exhibition as representing 
the work of the first five years are only the more distinctive specimens of 
a much larger collection which is continually being accumulated and 
classified. In a similar orderly manner chemical" knowledge is being 
collected and systematised in the files and card-indexes compiled by 
members of each exploring party. So soon as any particular research is 
sufficiently complete it is contributed to the appropriate learned society. 
Occasionally publication takes the form of patent specifications. By such 
concerted efforts the laboratory must come to be recognised as a store- 
house of chemical information at least for those branches of the science 
which are included in the scope of its researches. 

Is it desirable that this scope should be extended, and if so in what 
directions 1 This is not the occasion to discuss matters of departmental 
policy, but, in my present capacity, I may, like my predecessor of fifty-five 
years ago, indulge in anticipations of how future developments might be 
of advantage to chemical science in general and to British chemistry in 

Inorganic and Mineral Chemistry. 

An eminent authority has recently enquired what has become of 
inorganic chemistry, and this question is frequently repeated. The 
present answer is that, so far as this country is concerned, the subject 
is no longer investigated systematically. British chemists are now 
for the most part content to leave this work of exploration to their 
contemporaries in other lands. Yet the British Empire is endowed 
with mineral resources to an extent unsurpassed by any other nation 
or empire under the sun. It can scarcely be contended that in this 
respect we are rendering an adequate account of our stewardship. 
Although there are a few meritorious exceptions, one may say broadly 
that there is no sustained British attempt to study the rare earths, the less 


common alkalis, or the metals of the platinum group. Such chemical 
curiosities as beryllium, gallium, germanium, indium and thallium rarely 
excite the scientific interest of our investigators. Yet the chemical study 
of the less common elements, and especially of those grouped under the 
disparaging term of ' minor metals,' is a matter of considerable scientific 
importance and one which sooner rather than later is likely to yield results 
of industrial value. If proof of this statement is needed, reference may 
be made to the inert gases which were first noticed in 1894 and subsequently 
foimd by Kamsay and Travers to be five in number. To-day three of 
these gases are employed industrially. 

I have already mentioned low temperature tar which is literally a 
burning question. The great German combination of chemical factories — ■ 
the Interessen Gemeinschaft — have recently filed patents describing the 
catalytic effect of molybdic acid on the hydrogenation under pressure of 
this intractable material. They claim a clear volatile product obtainable 
in good yield and suitable for motor fuel. Further investigation shows 
that this beneficial catalytic influence is peculiar to molybdenum com- 
pounds and is not possessed by analogous compounds of the other metals 
of the sixth periodic family. It certainly pays to study chemically the 
idiosyncrasies of the rarer elements and their derivatives. 

The Organic Chemistry op Vital Products. 

At the Bristol meeting of 1898, Prof. F. R. Japp's presidential address 
to tliis section dealt with the subjects of stereochemistry and vitalism. 
He called attention to Nature's method of preparing single optically 
active substances, and referred to the insufliciency of the mechanical 
explanation of vitalistic phenomena. 

Considerable advances have since been made in our knowledge of the 
fundamental process of photosynthesis, notably as the result of suggestive 
discoveries by Prof. Baly and his collaborators, but nevertheless we still 
have much to learn from Nature in regard to the sjmthesis of carbon 
compounds. This study of the products of the vital activities of animal 
and vegetable organisms was the original province of organic chemistry, 
and to this circumstance the science owes its distinctive name. During 
the last eighty years, however, organic chemists have extended the scope of 
enquiry to many substances which are produced not as the result of vital 
forces, but through the agency of the laboratory arts. 

For instance, the organometallic compounds, which have no counter- 
parts in nature, have received intensive study because of their influence on 
the development of modern chemical theory, their practical application in 
many operations of organic synthesis and their utilisation as drugs, 
weapons of chemical warfare and antidetonants. No objection can be 
urged against the continued investigation of such important artificial 
products providing that naturally occurring organic materials are not 

Prof. Japp's address supplies the philosophic reason for a closer study 
of the products of vital activity, and at present other more mundane 
considerations may be adduced in support of such researches. 

Political and economic forces are bringing into prominence the urgency 
for a mutually advantageous interchange of commodities between the 


constituent nations and colonies of the British Empire, and in this pooling 
of natural resources organic chemistry must play an essential part. Many 
of the natural products of the dominions and dependencies are in need of 
systematic chemical study. 

Animal and vegetable fats have been mentioned by an investigator 
in that field as constituting a neglected chapter of organic chemistry, 
but the phrase is at least as applicable to many other groups of organic 
substances, for example : the essential oils, the natural gums and resins, 
and the numerous products ot fermentation processes. 

By catalytic reductions, involving high temperatures and pressures, 
one obtains from the oxides of carbon many members of the homologous 
series of alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids and esters. Plant life accom- 
plishes similar results under ordinary atmospheric conditions. A com- 
parative study of these two dissimilar sets of processes is clearly 

The importance of imparting to organic chemistry an increasingly 
"biological bias has been illustrated in a convincing manner by my 
immediate predecessor, Prof. Barger, so that anything more than a 
passing reference to this desirable tendency is hardly required of me. 
Perhaps, however, I should add that in stressing the need of more 
systematic research in inorganic and mineral chemistry and in the organic 
chemistry of vital products, I am convinced that the best results will 
only be attained if the problems are attacked with the newest weapons 
which the armoury of modern physics can provide. 

The primary object of such investigations is the collection of accurate 
chemical information, but the workers in these two great fields should be 
stimulated in everypossible way to keep a shrewd look-out for anypractical 
applications of their scientific knowledge. When viewed from this stand- 
point it will be realised that a State experiment in chemical research such 
as I have described provides competent and enterprising investigators 
with favourable opportunities for developing their inventive talent in 
fundamental work of national value and importance. 






Prof. 0. T. JONES, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 


It is manifestly impossible for me, in the time at my disposal on this 
occasion, to deal adequately with all the events and processes which have 
played a part in the shaping of the Bristol Channel and its bordering lands. 
I intend, therefore, to select certain episodes or phases in the geolooical 
record which are in themselves of interest to geologists or have a bearing 
upon the geology and physical features of a wider region than the channel 
and its confines. Those of you who are not acquainted with it already 
may be reminded that a concise summary of the Evolution of the 
Bristol Channel, by Dr. F. J. North, was recently issued by the National 
Museum of Wales. 

The geological history of the region raises many problems that are of 
interest both to geologists and geographers, but much work remains to be 
done before our knowledge is fully adequate to deal with them. The sug- 
gestions which I shall presently make are offered not as ready-made solu- 
tions of these problems, but rather with the idea of stimulating further 
investigations which will, I trust, lead to fuller knowledge. 

As most of you know, the Bristol Channel is bordered in the main by 
various Palaeozoic formations, but towards the east Mesozoic rocks form 
a large part of the coast and lands adjoining it. These strata are masked 
in places by Alluvial Deposits, the largest area of which is that known as 
the Bridgewater Flats. 

The episodes which appear to be the most important to consider in 
relation to the history of the region are (i) the Triassic planation ; (ii) the 
formation of the Mesozoic Cover ; (iii) the Miocene movements ; * (iv) the 
late Cainozoic uplift ; and (v) the Post-Glacial movements. 

I am reluctantly compelled, however, on this occasion to confine mvself 
to the earlier episodes concluding with the Miocene movements. ^ To 
embark upon the more recent history of the region would entail prolonging 
this Address to an extent that would be unwarrantable. 

I regret this the more as it was due to evidence which has come into 
my possession within the last few years regarding one of the most recent 
phases of the history of the region that I was led to choose the story of the 
Bristol Channel as the subject of my Address, though it is not inappropriate 


that I should deal with this subject at a meeting of the British Associatioa 
in the City of Bristol, since the position and prosperity of the City is s» 
intimately dependent upon this great waterway. 

The Triassic Planation. 

Probably no single episode has contributed so materially to the shaping: 
of the surface in this region as the intense erosion which succeeded the Post- 
Carboniferous or Armorican earth movements. Prior to these movements 
there had been a long period of sedimentation, which resulted in the accu- 
mulation of thousands of feet of Carboniferous and Devonian or Old Red 
Sandstone strata over the southern part of the British Isles. Mountain- 
building movements beginning in late-Carboniferous times folded these 
strata into great anticlines and synclines, the axes of which trend nearly 
east and west from South Wales and the west of England to the south- 
west of Ireland. Intense erosion of the uplifted areas followed in the New 
Red Sandstone period, and it is the generally accepted opinion of geologists 
that this erosion which furnished the materials and determined the charac- 
ters of the Permian and Trias (or New Red Sandstone) occurred under arid 
continental conditions. The relation of the New Red Sandstone to the 
Palaeozoic rocks proves that along the axes of greatest upheaval the Car- 
boniferous and Old Red Sandstone formations had been completely 
removed before the close of that era. Indeed, in the neighbourhood of 
Cardiff the underlying Ludlow rocks had been eroded, and New Red 
Sandstone laid down in contact with the Wenlock formation. 

The Palaeozoic rocks are exposed in the core of an anticline which ranges 
nearly east and west from Penylan north of Cardifi through Llandaff 
towards the neighbourhood of Cowbridge. The thickness of the Old Red 
Sandstone in the north flank of this anticline has been estimated at 3,500 
feet. The succeeding Carboniferous Limestone which occurs in both flanks 
of the fold varies in thickness from 880 feet to over 2,000 feet on the north 
side, and reaches on the south a thickness of 2,750 feet. It is, therefore, 
unlikely that less than 2,000 feet of limestones occurred along the axis of 
the anticline. With regard to the Upper Carboniferous, there is some 
uncertainty. Farther west, in the South Wales Basin, the combined 
thickness of the Millstone Grit and Coal Measures is between 7,000 and 
8,000 feet, but towards the east, and especially at the south-east margin 
of the coalfield, these formations are greatly attenuated. We can reason- 
ably assume, however, that about 2,500 feet of Upper Carboniferous strata 
overlay the Limestone. These figures show that at least 8,000 feet of Upper 
Palaeozoic rocks had been removed from the region before the deposition 
of the Keuper division of the New Red Sandstone which rests upon the 
eroded edges of the older rocks. Strahan's estimate^ that a thickness not 
far short of 7,000 feet had been removed from the crest of the anticline 
before the Keuper was laid down is, in my opinion, unduly conservative, 
and it may well have been exceeded by 2,000-3,000 feet. Even the lower 
figure is sufficient, however, to impress upon the mind the effectiveness of 
erosion under the arid climatic conditions that prevailed during the New 
Red Sandstone period. 

' The country around Cardiff, p. 39, Mem. Geol. Survey. 



In the immediate neighbourhood of the Bristol Channel the Keuper 
division only is represented ; the Bunter and Permian rocks which occur 
farther south in Devonshire are wanting, and it is not improbable that 
much of the lower part of the Keuper is also missing. The erosion of the 
uplifted Palaeozoic rocks must have commenced immediately after the 
Armorican folding, and continued until their worn-down remnants were 
covered by the Keuper sediments. It is interesting to speculate what 
became of the material which was removed from the area during the earlier 
stages of the New Red Sandstone. Although it is probable that Triassic 
sediments extend under later Mesozoic strata for about 50 miles eastward 
from the Channel, it is unlikely that either Permian or Bunter is present. 
Farther north the latter formation occurs, however, in great force under 
the Cheshire plain, but is overlapped southward under the Midland Trias 
plain. In Devonshire also, the Bunter is believed to be represented as well 
as certain older red rocks which are attributed to the Permian. 

We must suppose that during these earlier periods the products of 
erosion were either swept northward towards the Cheshire plain, and 
there deposited, or eastward towards East Anglia and the south-east of 
England, whence they were removed by erosion during the later Mesozoic 
period and transported to areas outside the British Isles. On the whole, 
it appears probable that much of it found its way into the great New Red 
Sandstone basin which lay to the north of the east-west ranges of the 
Armorican mountains. The rocks of the Bristol Channel area may then 
have contributed in an important degree to the deposits of the Cheshire 
Plain, the Midlands and the north-east of England. The study of the 
mineral constituents of the New Red Sandstone of those areas may throw 
some light upon this question. It is on the whole improbable that there 
was a drift of materials southward from the Channel region. Those who 
have investigated the New Red deposits of Devon have found evidence 
that the prevailing direction of transport was northward. This is also 
borne out by the finding of pebbles containing marine Upper Devonian 
fossils in the Trias of the Midlands. 

The Triassic rocks of the Vale of Glamorgan consist mainly of a 
Dolomitic conglomerate containing for the most part pebbles of Carboni- 
ferous Limestone and occasional pebbles of other rocks. It rests upon the 
denuded edges of strata ranging from Old Red Sandstone to Pennant 
Sandstone. The underlying surface is somewhat uneven, and in places 
the Trias is banked against scarps and hills of limestone, some of which 
were not submerged until the Lias period. Strahan remarks that ' then, 
as now, the Carboniferous Limestone formed scarps and the Old Red 
Sandstone stood up as rounded hills. '^ At Llanharan, on the north side 
of the Vale, the base of the Keuper at an altitude of about 350 feet is in 
contact with the Pennant Sandstone. Here the Keuper, which consists 
of breccias, ' ends ofi against a steep Pennant scarp and can scarcely have • 
extended many yards beyond.'* At this point the escarpment rises to 
nearly 900 feet on Mynydd y Garth, and there is little doubt that the 
angle at its base in which the Keuper rests is a feature due to Triassic 

^ Strahan. ' The Country around Bridgend,' p. 22. Mem. Geol. Survey. 
' Strahan, op. cit., p. 23. 


erosion, but how far up the slope the Trias may have extended it is 
impossible to say. The thickness of that formation is variable, but even 
after making allowance for a slight rise of the base of the Keuper north- 
ward, it seems hardly likely that the thickness of the formation at that 
point would be sufficient to carry even the youngest beds of the formation 
to the summit of the Pennant scarp. The Triassic feature nearly coincides 
with the existing escarpment along the south side of the coalfield, but east- 
ward of Llanharan the latter crosses the Palaeozoic strata from the 
Pennant Sandstone until ultimately it coincides with the base of a group 
of sandstones and conglomerates forming the upper part of the Old Red 
Sandstone. From the foot of this feature the summit levels of the hills 
slope gently down towards the base of the Trias north of Cardiff, or 
towards the Alluvial flats between Cardiff and Newport, which are believed 
to be underlain by that formation. North-east of Cardiii the main 
escarpment swings, however, in a northerly direction towards Pontypool, 
and its course shows no relation to the trend of the base of the Trias. 
Between Newport and Chepstow there is, however, a sharp rise of ground 
which pursues a slightly undulating course across the Old Red Sandstone 
and Carboniferous Limestone, and thence across another Old Red 
Sandstone area between Chepstow and the southern end of the Forest of 
Dean. This feature stands in sharp contrast to the gently sloping plain 
to the south, and appears to be independent of the nature of the rocks. To 
the south of it the Triassic rocks are never far away, and it is not unlikely 
that here again, as at Llanharan, there is preserved a line of cliffs on the 
Trias plain of denudation, though in all probability somewhat modified 
by subsequent erosion. It may be that only a part of the feature is of 
Triassic origin, the remainder having been developed subsequently by the 
differential erosion of strata of varying resistances. 

Strahan appears to have held the opinion that the main escarpment 
south and east of the coalfield was in existence in Triassic times, and that 
the Trias deposits had covered at least that part of it which is occupied 
by the Carboniferous Limestone. ' The main limestone throughout the 
greater part of its outcrop west of Pontypool shows the red staining 
characteristic of rocks which have been overspread by the Trias. In 
other districts also both in South Wales and elsewhere this alteration of 
limestone into iron-ore shows an obvious connection with the present or 
past distribution of the Trias. We know that the Trias steadily overlaps 
the Old Red and Lower Carboniferous rocks between Newport and Llan- 
trisant, until it comes to rest on Coal Measures, and we may reasonably 
suppose that at no distant date (geologically speaking) it extended over 
all those parts of the limestone where the ore and the red staining occur.'* 

The view implied in the above quotation is that the iron which is 
responsible for the reddening of the limestone and for the development of 
■ iron-ore bodies by the replacement of that rock was obtained from super- 
incumbent iron-charged Triassic sediments. 

A similar view is expressed by Dr. T. F. Sibly in explanation of the 
iron-ore deposits in the Forest of Dean and in South Wales, as the following 
quotation shows^ : — 

* The Geology of the Country around Newport. 2nd ed., p. 23. 
Iron Ores of the Forest of Dean and S. Wales. 2nd ed., 1927, p. 88. 


' The immediate source of iron appears to have been a mantle of 
Triassic (Keuper) deposits, highly charged with Ferric Oxide, which 
overlay the denuded edges of the Carboniferous strata. In South Wales 
the Conglomerates and red marls of the Keuper still cover the ore-field in 
the Carboniferous Limestone at Llanharry, and carry iron-ore in replace- 
ment patches in their basal beds. It cannot be doubted that these red 
rocks originally overspread the whole of the ore-bearing outcrops of the 
Carboniferous Limestone. In the Forest of Dean Triassic deposits do not 
touch the Carboniferous basin, but they occur to within a short distance 
of the southern end at Aylburton, and again in large thickness at no great 
distance to the east at Newnham on Severn. The former extension of 
the Trias over the Carboniferous basin may reasonably be invoked to 
account for the iron-ores by analogy with the condition in South Wales.' 

If this is indeed the explanation of the hsematitic iron-ores of the 
region, and of the reddening of the limestone, it involves a former extension 
of the Trias far beyond its present outcrop, and further it implies that the 
thickness of the deposit was sufficient to allow the formation to climb 
several hundred feet up the face of the escarpment. There are certain 
obvious difficulties in the way of accepting this explanation, and it seems 
to me that it requires further examination. 

The iron-ore deposited around the rock particles of the Trias to which 
that formation owes its colour is in the dehydrated form of Ferric Oxide, 
which is extremely insoluble even in acidic waters. In most cases the 
ore which replaces the limestone is a hydrated Ferric Oxide approximating 
in composition to Gothite. There is no reason to suppose that the coating 
of the particles of the Triassic rocks has been dehydrated since it was 
deposited, so that if the iron-ore has been derived from the Trias this 
almost insoluble substance must have passed into solution and been 

Also there are extensive tracts of Carboniferous Limestone, particularly 
around Chepstow and in the Mendips, which must have been overspread 
by Trias, and in which no ore is developed, though it is true the rocks may 
be red-stained ; near Chepstow especially the Trias still rests on the 

Further, near Llanharry, in the Vale of Glamorgan, the basal beds of 
the Keuper Conglomerate have locally been converted into an iron-ore 
similar to that which occurs in the limestone on which the conglomerate 
rests. It is difficult to suppose that the enrichment was due to iron leached 
out of the upper part of the conglomerate. From the distribution of the 
ore bodies it would appear that they occur mainly near the boundary 
between the limestone and overlying rocks. 

For these reasons it appears to me probable that the ore in the Trias 
and the ore in the limestone were both derived from the same primary 
source, that being probably the abundant pyrite which occurs in the Coal 
Measure rocks of the region in a finely divided form. The destruction of 
the Coal Measure shales, which in all likelihood stood at that time at a 
higher elevation than the surrounding limestone, led to the release of the 
pyrite, which on oxidation gave rise to acidic iron-bearing waters. It was 
probably due to the activity of such waters in passing over the limestone 
and accompanying or subsequent oxidation, that the ore in the limestone 


was formed. Similar waters entering the area in which the Trias was 
deposited would furnish the necessary iron content to those sediments. 

If the only interest of the relation of the escarpment bordering the 
South Wales Coalfield to the former distribution of the Trias, and to 
Triassic erosion, was its bearing upon the mode of origin of the iron-ores 
of the region, I would not have referred to it on this occasion. But a 
much wider question is involved, affecting possibly the origin of the 
physical features of a large part of Wales and the south-west of England. 
If the escarpments bordering the south side of the South Wales Coalfield 
and the Forest of Dean are to be regarded as in great part of Triassic age, 
may not other comparable features in Wales be attributed to the same age 
and conditions of erosion ? 

The former extension of the Trias to the west of the Vale of Glamorgan 
is proved by a small area which occurs near Port Eynon on the south coast 
of Gower. This peninsula is in the main a plateau at an elevation of about 
400 feet, and it is clear that in places at any rate the pre-existing rocks 
had been eroded almost to their present level before the close of the Trias. 
The escarpment which is so prominent on the borders of the Vale of 
Glamorgan is, however, not readily identifiable in Gower, though it may 
be represented there. Still more remarkable evidence comes from South 
Pembrokeshire, where Mr. B. E. L. Dixon has described deposits having 
the aspect of typical Keuper marls which occur in great masses of breccia 
in the Carboniferous Limestone cliffs.® These Gash breccias, as they have 
been called, appear to be masses of limestone which collapsed into sub- 
terranean caves during the Trias (probably Keuper) period. The region 
in which they occur forms at the present time part of an extensive plateau, 
but it is clear that Triassic deposits formerly occurred at some unknown 
distance above the present surface. From the fact that the Gash breccias 
are truncated at the top of the cliff in such a way as to indicate that they 
formerly continued to a higher level, Mr. Dixon is of the opinion that the 
old land surface during the formation of the breccia gashes lay at a con- 
siderable height above the present, and he attributes the deposition of 
the red marls to a slightly later period, possibly following some depression 
of the area. It is clear, however, that the greater part of the denudation 
which removed an enormous thickness of Carboniferous and other rocks 
from that area subsequently to the Armorican folding had already been 
accomplished before the close of the Triassic period. Mr. Dixon remarks 
that although ' the Triassic floor has undergone some later planation this 
has merely touched up the work of the earlier erosion ' {op. cit., p. 162). 

In South Pembrokeshire the plateau rises on the whole northward ; in 
that direction various formations ranging from the Old Ked Sandstone to 
pre-Cambrian gneisses and volcanic rocks occupy its surface. The whole 
plateau appears to form one continuous feature, and it is not improbable 
that, as in the southern part of the county, most of the degradation which 
the greatly folded rocks have suffered occurred as the result of erosion 
during the New Red Sandstone period. 

In North Pembrokeshire certain hill masses, such as the Prescelly 
Range, stand conspicuously above the general level of the plateau, and 

^ The Geology of the Country around Pembroke and Tenby. Mem. Oeol. Survey, 
1921, p. 158. 



farther west, near St. Davids, isolated rocky hills such as Pen Bery, Cam 
Llidi and St. David's Head rise above the surface like islands out of the 
sea. The general correspondence of the present surface with the Triassic 
plain of erosion in various parts of South Wales suggests the possibility 
that the well-defined boundaries of the isolated hills that rise above the 
plateau level may, like the scarps overlooking the Vale of Glamorgan 
farther east, be also of Triassic origin. 

The plateau of South Pembrokeshire is continued northward without 
a. break into the remarkable even surface which truncates the Palaeozoic 
rocks of Central and North Wales. This surface is relieved by occasional 
hill masses which stand conspicuously above its level. These include the 
summits of the mountains composed of Ordovician volcanic rocks which 
range from Cader Idris northward through the Arans and Arenig. The 
Plynlimon mass and a smaller mass near Drygarn belong to the same 
category. Several writers have called attention to the way in which this 
plateau abuts against the mountain masses which rise sharply to a height 
of several hundred feet above its surface. Except for their greater altitude 
above sea level, the relation of these hill masses to the surrounding plateau 
is closely similar in North Wales and in South Wales, so similar, in fact, 
ae to invite the idea that they are of similar origin. W. M. Davis' has 
pointed out that, ' while the theory of marine planation was in vogue, it 
was customary to interpret all evenly truncated uplands — that is, uplands 
whose surface truncates their rock structure — as uplifted plains of marine 
abrasion, more or less dissected since they were uplifted. When the 
efficacy of sub-aerial erosion was recognised it became equally customary 
to interpret truncated uplands as once base-levelled and afterward uplifted 
i)eneplains. If Passarge's views be now accepted, it follows that no 
truncated uplands should, without further inquiry, be treated as having 
been eroded when their region had a lower stand with respect to base- 
level ; the possibility of their having been formed during an earlier arid 
climate as desert plains, without regard to the general base-level of the 
ocean, must be 'considered and excluded before base-levelling and uplift 
can be taken as proved.' 

Passarge, to whose views Davis refers, has given a description of great 
plains which have been eroded under desert conditions. He states^ ' that 
these desert plains are not undulating with low hills, but are true plains 
of great extent, from which the isolated residual mountains rise like 
islands from the sea. The residuals may be low mounds only a few meters 
high, or lofty mountain masses rising several thousand meters above the 
plains. The plain surrounds the steep slope of the mountains with a 
table-like evenness ; there is no transitional belt of piedmont hills, and 
no intermediate slope. . . . The bedding of the rocks is not flat, but 
disturbed ; the plain therefore truncates the rock structures. . . . The 
products of weathering are usually spread as a thin veneer on the plain ; 
the waste does not lie in place on the rocks from which it was weathered, 
but has been drifted about by wind and flood and has gathered in slight 
depressions. The waste veneer increases the smoothness of the plain, 
but the rock surface is also a plain. . . . Neighbouring areas contain 

' ' The Geographical Cycle in an Arid Climate.' Geographical Essays, p. 310. 
•* Quoted from Davis, op. cit. sup. 


extensive deposits of irregular strata whose composition and want of 
fossils indicate their desert origin. . . . Various additional details are given, 
with the conclusion as above quoted ; these rock-floored plains are not 
uplifted peneplains, but are the product of desert erosion unrelated to 
normal base-level in which occasional water action has co-operated with 
more persistent wind action.' 

The great plateau of Wales is not, however, horizontal at the present 
time, nor is the base of the masses, which might be regarded as residual, 
everywhere at the same level. The possible reasons for these difEerences 
will be dealt with later. In other respects, however, the features of the 
region conform to a remarkable degree with Passarge's description. 

When we turn to the Mendip region we find features similar to those 
of the Vale of Glamorgan — clifis eroded in Carboniferous Limestone against 
which the Trias is banked up ; the cliffs were subsequently overwhelmed 
by the sea and covered by Liassic deposits. South of the Channel also 
many of the abrupt slopes around the Quantock Hills and south of Porlock 
and Watchet are in most cases fringed, at no great distance, by Triassic 
deposits, and it is not improbable that some of these steep slopes mark the 
edge of a former desert plain out of which residual hills rose abruptly. As 
in Wales, so in Devon an enormous amount of erosion of the Paleeozoic 
rocks had occurred before the New Eed Sandstone was deposited. 

Whether or not it be the case that the great plateau of Wales is in the 
main the product of erosion under the arid conditions of the New Red 
Sandstone period, it is at least certain that on both sides of the Bristol 
Channel the pre-existing surface was eroded into a broad depression 
bounded by scarps trending generally in the direction of the present 
channel. Against these scarps some depth of Triassic deposits was 
banked up, but how far up the slopes the highest beds of the Trias may 
have reached is at present uncertain. From the fact, however, that the 
products of erosion during the earlier stages of the New Red Sandstone 
were removed from the area to regions more favourable for the accumula- 
tion of deposits, it may be inferred that the level of the surface was then 
relatively higher than the basins of deposition. There is, therefore, no 
evidence of a tectonic basin in the channel region at that period, but only 
of a depression caused by erosion between the uplands which bounded it 
on the north and on the south. 

The Formation of the Mesozoic Cover. 

At the close of the Triassic period there was a general subsidence of 
the British region, and the sea invaded the area of Triassic sedimentation. 
The enormous extent of the Rhaetic formation, considering its small thick- fl 
ness, proves that before the marine invasion that area was almost a dead " 
level plain, and it is probably safe to assume that marine sediments were 
deposited where Triassic rocks are now found, as well as in those areas from 
which the Trias has been removed by subsequent erosion. 

The problem of the former extent of the Mesozoic rocks has exercised 
the minds of many geologists in the past, notably Ramsay, Hull, Strahan 
and Lamplugh. Strahan and Ramsay in particular regarded the problem 
from the point of view of the origin of the drainage systems of England 


and Wales. Some indirect evidence of the probable former extent of those 
formations can be gathered from a study of their lithological characters, 
and more particularly from the variation in their thickness which takes 
place from the outcrop eastward. When Ramsay and Hull investigated 
the problem, the only evidence available was that obtained from the study 
of the rocks at their outcrop, but within recent years it has been supple- 
mented by the information obtained from various deep boreholes which 
have penetrated a part or all of the Mesozoic cover. Much yet remains 
to be done before the evidence afforded by the Mesozoic rocks in regard 
to their former extension can be fully utilised. The work of Buckman, 
Trueman, Richardson and others on the zonal development of the early 
Jurassic rocks points the way to further studies in the same direction. 

In the Vale of Glamorgan the Lias in places follows conformably on the 
Rhaetic ; in other places it overlaps on to the Carbomferous Limestone or 
older rocks, and then assumes a littoral type consisting either of conglomer- 
ates with limestone pebbles or of oolites. It is remarkable, however, that 
no pebbles of Coal Measure rocks occur in the conglomerates, although 
during the Trias the escarpment composed of these strata overlooked the 
area of sedimentation at a distance of only a few miles to the north. No 
evidence of littoral conditions attributable to that escarpment has been 
obtained in the Lias outcrops nearest to it, and Strahan' remarks that 
' the absence of marginal types of limestone (in the northern part of 
the vale) suggests that the shore lay a good deal farther north, though at 
the same time it is hardly probable that the Lias overlapped the Pennant 
scarp.' This conclusion depends, however, on the extent to which the 
upland rose at that time above the base of the escarpment, and upon the 
thickness of the Trias in that region. If the escarpment was no higher 
than the existing feature, then taking into account the rise of the base of 
the Lias along the north side of the Vale, and the probability of some con- 
siderable thickness of Keuper having been removed from that area, it is 
possible that at least some of the Lias deposits would overtop the escarp- 
ment and come to lie upon the rocks within the coalfield. On the other 
side of the Bristol Channel, Woodward observed that although Palseozoic 
rocks rise at present to a great height above the level of the Lias, the latter 
shows no signs of littoral conditions, and he argues that the shore line must 
have been some distance away. This could only have been possible if the 
escarpment against which the Trias terminated was wholly or in great part 
buried beneath that formation. A former extension of the Lias westward 
into the Gower peninsula is indicated by the finding of ' several Liassic 
oysters, allied to Ostrcea irregularis, from stalactites in the Carboniferous 
Limestone at Mumbles.'^" 

In the underlying Rhaetic beds, however, definite changes of lithology 
occur in a westerly direction. The normal shales and limestones of the 
Cardiff district pass, near Bridgend and Pyle at the western end of the Vale 
of Glamorgan, into coarse, impure sandstones, very similar to Millstone 
Grit. In places intercalations of red and mottled marls, only distinguish- 
able from Keuper marls in containing fossils, occur a few feet above the 

^ Mem. Oeol. Survey, ' The Country around Bridgend,' p. 59. 
'" A. E. Trueman, The Liassic Rocks of Glamorgan. Proc. Oeol. Assoc., vol. xxxiii., 
p. 278 (1922). 

1930 F 


base of the formation. These lithological changes suggest that during the 
deposition of the Rhaetic the surface was inclined from west to east. 

In the Vale of Glamorgan, however, only the lower zones of the Lower 
Lias are now preserved. In the absence, in the ascending succession, of 
definite evidence of conditions indicating the proximity of a shore line 
or of shallowing of the area, it can hardly be supposed that no higher 
Liassic strata were deposited. Taking into account the variation in thick- 
ness of the Lias, as proved at the outcrop and in various borings, I believe 
that anything between 600 feet and 1 ,000 feet of that formation maj^ have 
been deposited in the region of the Bristol Channel. 

It is true that the thickness of the formation in Somerset and South 
Gloucestershire is usually less than the lower of these figures, but such 
evidence as exists goes to show that apart from local irregularities the 
thickness increases westward of these places as well as southward and 
northward, and in North Gloucestershire the formation attains a thickness 
of nearly 1,400 feet. The amount of deposit accumulated at any place was 
probably controlled in the main by the amount of subsidence, and not so 
much by interruptions of sedimentation due to upheaval. The unequal 
subsidence during the deposition of the formation has, however, to be 
borne in mind in estimating the deformation that these rocks have suffered 
in subsequent geological periods. 

Although the thickness of the Lias west of the Cotswolds exceeds 
1,000 feet, it appears to fall off rapidly eastwards, and borings in the 
London area, at Ware in Hertfordshire and Culford in Suffolk, all proved 
the absence of the formation on the Palaeozoic floor. Whether the 
formation reached its maximum thickness in the neighbourhood of its 
present outcrop, or continued to increase farther to the west, it is impossible 
to say, but we find that at Frees Heath nearly 70 miles west of the base of 
the formation, the Lower Lias, which is there succeeded by Middle Lias, 
has been proved by boring to exceed 400 feet. 

In view of this considerable development of the Lower Lias at Frees 
Heath, and the presumption of some additional thickness of Middle and 
Upper Lias having been deposited, and in view also of the great develop- 
ment in North Gloucestershire within a few miles of the Falaeozoic rocks, 
and the occurrence of the formation in the north-east of Ireland, it would 
be rash to assert that the Lias did not extend over the Falaeozoic area of 
Wales and the Welsh Borders ; the formation may, indeed, have attained 
a thickness of several hundred feet over that area. If one could be sure 
that the Falaeozoic region remained relatively stable during the deposition 
of the Lias, one would feel little doubt of the extension of the formation 
over it in force, but if Lamplugh was correct in assuming a zone of 
maximum thickness at or near the present outcrop the subsidence of the 
crust in that area might have been complementary to an upward warping 
to the west. In that event the Lias may not only have thinned away very 
rapidly towards the Falaeozoic upland, but even deposits formed at one 
stage may have been removed from the area during a later stage of the 
Liassic period. 

Of the Jurassic formations that intervene between the Lias and the 
Corallian, the predominant member is the Oxford Clay, which was 
probably laid down under much the same physical conditions as the Lias. 



From the Dorset coast to the borders of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire 
these formations attain a thickness of nearly 1,000 feet ; they fall away 
to about half this thickness in Buckinghamshire and Rutlandshire, while 
they are absent in Suffolk. From Lincolnshire to North Yorkshire, 
however, they increase markedly in thickness. Their behaviour is, there- 
fore, similar in general to that of the Lias, except that there does not appear 
to be any obvious reduction in these rocks on the line of prolongation of 
the Mendip region. 

Both at the northern and the southern extremities of the Jurassic 
outcrop all the formations hitherto considered probably conform to the 
principle enunciated by Lamplugh, that the present outcrop coincides 
approximately with the areas where these formations attained their 
maximum thickness. It is doubtful, however, whether this principle 
holds good for the intervening region. 

The curvature in the strike of the Jurassic outcrop between Gloucester- 
shire and Yorkshire is repeated in the base of the Cretaceous, but its 
amount in that formation is even greater. There is no doubt that the 
form of the outcrop is due to post-Cretaceous folding in consequence of 
which the Mesozoic rocks have been arched up along a broad area, extend- 
ing from the Midlands to East Anglia. The less pronounced effect of this 
folding on the Jurassic than on the Cretaceous outcrop is probably to be 
explained by the Jurassic rocks having already acquired a slight easterly 
dip before the deposition of the Cretaceous. 

If we draw a line from the Dorset coast by way of the Cleveland Hills 
to the Yorkshire coast, that line will pass along the outcrop of the Jurassic 
rocks from the south coast to North Gloucestershire, and again near the 
north-east coast. Between these points, however, the base of the Jurassic 
swings away in a great arc to the eastward of the line, and in Lincolnshire 
is more than 40 miles distant. Pari fassu with the divergence of the 
outcrop from the line drawn through its extremities, the combined thick- 
ness of the formations from the top of the Lias to the Oxford Clay 
diminishes progressively towards East Anglia, and so far as I can determine 
it appears that the lines joining points on the northern and on the 
southern part of this arc, where the formations are of equal thickness, are 
roughly parallel to the above-mentioned line. These facts render it 
probable that the line drawn between the Dorset Coast and the Yorkshire 
Coast is an isopachyte, or line of equal thickness in these formations, and 
that other isopachytes corresponding to diminishing thicknesses follow 
eastward until the line of zero thickness is reached under East Anglia. 
Further, it is likely that the trend of the isopachytes gives a clue to the 
general direction of the coastline. The subsequent arching of the Jurassic 
rocks has, however, brought to the surface different isopachytes of these 
formations, and along the crest of the arch the thicker zones have been 
eroded away. If the Jurassic rocks had been upheaved along a N.N.E.- 
S.S.W. line, it is probable that Lamplugh's generalization would have 
held true for the whole extent of their outcrop. Owing, however, to the 
later folding having occurred transversely to the isopachytes, the 
generalization breaks down. It probably holds only when, as frequently 
happens, lines of elevation tend to be parallel to pre-existing shore lines. 
The effects of persistent axes of elevation or non-subsidence, as for instance 



the Market- Wei ghton axis, must not of course be ignored ; but these 
appear to haA^-e been responsible for only minor irregularities in the 
deposition of the strata. 

Most of these formations, with the exception of the Oxford Clay, are 
variable in lithology and are probably of shallow-water origin. The 
Oxford Clay, however, is a formation so uniform over its whole outcrop 
that one would expect it to have occupied a wide area. As with the Lias, 
it seems difficult to believe that it died away before reaching the Palseozoic 
rocks in the west. Slow elevation of the western area may, however, have 
been in progress pari passu with the subsidence of the floor of the 
Jurassic sea, so that deposits laid down at one period may have been 
removed at a later period. It is not impossible, in fact, that the clays of one 
period may have furnished in part the materials for those of a later period. 

Since there are so many doubtful elements in the problem, it would 
be unprofitable to discuss the possibility whether and to Avhat extent the 
higher Jurassic formations encroached on the Palteozoic region to the west. 
Hull, Ramsay, Lamplugh and others have directed attention to the marked 
easterly attenuation of these formations, and particularly of the 
Kimmeridge Clay, all of which behave in a manner similar to the earlier 
Jurassic strata. 

Briefly, although it is probable that at least the great clay formations 
of the Jurassic once extended well over the Palaeozoic areas, it does not 
follow that they maintained their hold over that area until the close of the 
Jurassic era. It is a fact that the Jurassic rocks, particularly in the south- 
west of England and probably elsewhere, had acquired an easterly dip 
before the deposition of the Cretaceous, but whether this happened in 
one episode of movement between the Jurassic and the Cretaceous, or 
whether it is the result of a progressive increase in dip of each Jurassic 
formation due to a succession of uplifts in the west, cannot be determined 
from existing data. A closer study of each of the Jurassic formations on 
the lines of the investigation by Kitchin and Lamplugh on the Mesozoic 
rocks of the Weald, might throw light on this problem and resolve many 
of the existing uncertainties. 

It appears to be the general opinion of geologists who have considered 
this matter that the Cretaceous sea spread widely over the western areas 
of Britain. According to Jukes-Browne's palseogeographic reconstructions, 
none of the Jurassic formations invaded more than the margin of the 
Palaeozoic region, whereas the chalk sea is represented as having covered J 
all but the higher summits ; and if the chalk sea invaded the region it ia\ 
not unlikely that a considerable thickness of deposits would be formed in 
that sea. Jukes-Browne was inclined to regard the residual elevations 
that rise above the Welsh plateau as defining the margin of the Chalk sea 
(Building of the British Isles, p. 335). Although he recognised (p. 334) 
that ' the pre-Cretaceous contours of the country were very different from 
those which it now exhibits, all heights have been greatly reduced by the 
work of sub-aerial agencies during Tertiary times,' he appears to have had 
no suspicion that the relative elevations above sea level of various parts 
of that tract may have been radically different then from what obtains at 

Strahan was led to postulate the former existence of a blanket of 


sediments (probably Upper Cretaceous) over the Palaeozoic rocks in order to 
account for the origin of the South Wales drainage system. His argument 
rests on the complete disregard of the structures of the Palseozoic rocks 
shown by the streams which traverse them, and he therefore assumed that 
the drainage must have originated on a cover of newer rocks and have 
been superimposed upon the older strata as the cover was stripped. Since 
these conditions apply more particularly to the elevated region of the 
coalfield which stands in general considerably higher than the surrounding 
plateau of Central Wales, he implied the extension of the sedimentary 
cover over areas which, according to Jukes-Browne, remained above the 
level of the Cretaceous sea. If, in fact, Strahan's explanation is correct, 
then either the plateau tract of Central Wales must have been covered by 
such a depth of Mesozoic sediments as would allow them to extend also 
over the coalfield region and the Brecon Beacons, or the whole plateau 
of Central Wales and some of its present residual elevations, particularly 
the escarpment of the Brecon Beacons, must have been developed by 
erosion subsequent to the Cretaceous period. There are, however, many 
difficulties in accepting the latter view. 

Once it is granted that the sea may have spread over the Palaeozoic 
area not once but possibly several times during the Mesozoic period, we 
have to recognise the possibility that the great plateau of Wales may have 
been eroded, as Ramsay believed, by marine erosion, and that the margins 
of the elevations which rise above its surface, including among these the 
escarpment of the Brecon Beacons, may be the sites of ancient cliff lines. 

We have thus an alternative explanation to that previously suggested 
for this feature, viz., by marine planation as opposed to desert planation. 
Whichever vievf is adopted, however, it seems to be clear that these 
features do not now stand at the same relative levels as they once did. 
The evidence for this conclusion is dealt with in the next portion of my 

The Post-Cretaceous Movements. 

Various authors have called attention to the important part played 
by the Miocene earth-movements in determining the physical features of 
the south-east of England. In that region these movements have affected 
not only the Mesozoic and early Cainozoic strata, but also the underlying 
Palseozoic rocks, which, having been folded in pre-Triassic times and 
eroded in subsequent periods, form a more or less even floor upon which 
rest the gently inclined Mesozoic strata. The Miocene folding was in the 
main responsible for the anticlines of the Weald and of the Isle of Wight, 
and the complementary synclines of the London and Hampshire Basins. 
Lamplugh has shown, however, that the anticlinal structure exhibited by 
the Cretaceous rocks of the Weald changes gradually in depth, so that the 
structure of the underlying Jurassic rocks is that of a syncline. This 
strange superposition of an anticline in the upper layers upon a syncline 
in the lower layers is explained by the warping of the area during the deposi- 
tion of the Mesozoic sediments. Had it not been for deformation during 
sedimentation, the anticlinal arrangement evident in the surface rocks 
would have persisted downwards, and the Palaeozoic floor would probably 
have been folded in much the same way as the superficial strata. I 


cannot conceive of the Mesozoic and Cainozoic cover being folded unless 
at tlie same time the surface upon which it reposes was affected, and there 
is little doubt that the relative movements of that floor during the Miocene 
folding were of the same type as in the superficial layers, but owing to 
warping during the Jurassic there is now no close correspondence between 
the form of the Palaeozoic floor and the dominant surface features already 

Before proceeding to the inquiry which is the main object of this 
portion of my address, namely the extent to which these movements may 
have influenced the physical features of the Bristol Channel region, I 
wish to refer briefly to some of the characteristics of the Miocene folding 
as exhibited in the South of England and in Northern France. 

Although we habitually speak of the anticline of the Weald and the 
syncline of the London Basin, each of these folds when considered in detail 
is not a simple structure. 

The folding in the Weald was described in some detail by Topley," 
who recognised that the so-called Wealden anticline is a compound 
structure which is made up of ' a number of minor folds traversing the 
district in lines more or less parallel to its general axis of elevation.' 
These axes are described in detail, and the more important ones are 
represented on the map accompanying the volume. No individual fold 
can be traced more than a few miles ; it is well defined at some point on 
its axis, but both to the east and to the west the structure becomes less 
definite and ultimately imperceptible. Where a particular axis ceases to 
be traceable, its place is usually taken by another either to the north or 
to the south. Each anticlinal fold is thus an elongated pericline, the 
structure being most clearly defined in the central region of its traverse, 
near where the change of pitch from an easterly direction to a westerly 
direction takes place. 

The axes of the numerous minor anticlines that go to make up the 
Wealden elevation are thus arranged en echelon. The place of any given 
anticline, say in the east, may be taken farther west by a pair of anticlines, 
one lying to the north and the other to the south, while the actual prolonga- 
tion of the anticlinal axis may coincide with a syncline. 

This is precisely the character of the folding worked out by Mr. W. B. R. 
King in the surface of the marls of the Middle Chalk in Northern France. ^'- 
That author took advantage of the information afforded by a large number 
of bore holes that were put down in the war area in search of water, to 
construct contours representing the surface of the Middle Chalk marls, and 
thus obtained the form to which these originally horizontal strata were 
warped by Post-Cretaceous (probably Miocene) folding. The contoured 
map so obtained is most instructive. To the eastward of Amiens an anti- 
clinal area near Rosieres occupies ihe territory included between the Upper 
Somme and its tributary the River Avre. This pitches eastward on the 
east and westward on the west. If its axis is prolonged, however, for some 
miles to the west it almost coincides with a syncline, the axis of which runs^ 
parallel to the Lower Somme Valley. The anticline has therefore disap- 
peared completely in a westerly direction. 

" Geology of the Weald, pp. 216-42. Mem. Geol. Survey, 

12 Quart. Journ. Oeol. Soc, vol. Ixxvii. (1921), p. 135, and PL III. 


To the northward of it, the axis of Le Catelet with a westerly pitch 
becomes an insignificant structure farther west, and ultimately becomes a 
mere wrinkle on the south flank of another anticline, between Saulty and 
Bapaume, which in its turn disappears both eastward and westward. 
North of Amiens another anticline rises on the line Valheureux-Bernaville, 
which in its turn disappears in both directions ; its continuation to the 
east almost coincides with the syncline between the Le Catelet and 
Rosieres anticlines. 

Finally, in the northern part of the area considered by Mr. King, the 
main axis of elevation is that of the Vimy Ridge which is completely lost 
eastward in a region of indefinite structure between Douai and Cambrai. 

I have no doubt that if any horizon in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of 
the Wealden area were similarly contoured, it would disclose a type of 
folding identical with that of the post-Cretaceous folding in Northern 
France. The study of the Weald and of Northern France reveals the 
major characteristics of the folding to be as follows : — (1) The anticlinal 
axes are impersistent and tend to be arranged en echelon. (2) The 
structures are in general most sharply defined near the points of maximum 
elevation ; in the lower-ljring regions of the folded surface, particularly in 
those areas where the anticlines change their pitch, a simple fold is in 
general replaced by minor wrinkles. 

Mr. King and others have called attention to the general correspondence 
between the folding and the drainage lines of the area, and in particular 
between the trend of the major streams and the main synclinal depressions, 
though Mr. King points out that the courses of the streams do not coincide 
%vith the 5}Ticlinal axes but usually lie somewhat to the north of them. 

Having studied the general characteristics of the movements which 
affected the later Mesozoic rocks of the south-east of England and Northern 
France, let us direct our attention to the folding that has affected the 
earlier Mesozoic rocks of the Bristol Channel region. 

Unfortunately the only formation of that age which reaches the coast- 
line of the Bristol Channel is the Liaa, and even of that formation only the 
lower portion is represented. In general the Lias succeeds conformably 
a thin development of Rhaetic, and this in turn overlies Keuper which 
rests with marked unconformity on the Palaeozoic floor. Although there 
are indications here and there of minor interruptions at the boundary 
between the Keuper and the Rhaetic, the relation of these formations 
as a whole suggests conformity. Over large areas the Lias and Rhaetic 
have been removed by subsequent erosion, leaving the surface occupied by 
Keuper. In view of the relations between the formations it may be 
assumed, however, that wherever Keuper occurs at present it was formerly 
succeeded by Rhaetic and Lias. The converse, however, does not hold. 
There are many places where the Lias or Rhaetic rests directly upon 
the Palaeozoic rocks without the intervention of the Keuper. These are 
areas where the uneven surface of the Palaeozoic floor projected as islands 
out of the Rhaetic or Lias sea, and were only submerged during the depo- 
sition of the later Liassic strata. The regions which lend themselves most 
conveniently for study are the Vale of Glamorgan and the Mendip region. 

Vale of Glamorgan. — In the Vale of Glamorgan the normal succession 
of Lias-Rhaetic-Keuper prevails for some miles west and north of Cardiff. 


Between Cowbridge and Bridgend, however, there are large tracts where 
Lias rests directly upon Old Red Sandstone or Carboniferous Limestone. 
I have attempted to estimate at numerous points the approxiniate present 
level of the Lias-Rhaetic junction, but where the Lias overlaps the Rhaetic 
and comes to rest upon the Palaeozoic rocks it is no longer possible to do so, 
since in all probability there is overlap in the Lias itself, in which case the 
level corresponding to the base of the Lias must be lower than the altitude 
at which that formation rests upon the Palaeozoic. Thus, supposing the 
Lias rests upon the Carboniferous Limestone at a height of 300 feet above 
O.D., and that there is an overlap of 100 feet in the Lias ; the level of the 
plane of the Lias-Rhaetic junction, if no overlap had occurred, would at 
that point be 100 feet lower. 

On the other hand, it may, I think, be assumed that wherever Rhaetic beds 
were deposited they were followed by Lias. We can therefore make an 
estimate of the level of the base of the Lias in j^laces where that formation 
has been removed, but the Rhaetic remains, and a less close approximation 
to the former level can be obtained in places where the Keuper alone 
survives. In the area west of Cowbridge there is too much uncertainty as to 
the amount of overlap in the Lias to make the attempt worth while. Around 
Cowbridge, the Lias-Rhaetic jimction rises in places to over 400 feet, and 
then falls northward to about 100 feet, while southward this junction must 
be well below sea level. In a section drawn northward from the coast 
through the Cowbridge area, the base of the Lias thus rises to a crest line 
near the latter place, and then descends northward about 300 feet. Still 
farther north the Lias has been eroded away, but the Keuper surface rises 
in that direction, and it is certain that before the present northern edge 
of the Mesozoic is reached the base of the Lias must have attained an eleva- 
tion of well over 400 feet. The anticlinal axis can be traced from Cow- 
bridge eastward in the direction of the Leckwith Hills, north-west of Cardiff, 
where the maximum elevation is about 200 feet, but the anticlinal structure 
is not evident in those hills. Westward the continuation of the axis is 
indefinite, but it appears to range towards Bridgend, where the Rhaetic- 
Lias junction stands at over 300 feet. The anticline is probably not a 
simple structure but consists of two, if not of three, short axes lying en 
echelon, each axis going west being situated a little to the north of the 
one to the east. The depressed area to the north runs somewhat indefinitely 
from Llandaff to north of Bridgend, i.e. roughly parallel to the anticline 
and from two to four miles to the northward of it (see Plate I). 

If, by applying the accurate zonal work of Trueman on the Liassic 
rocks of the region more precise determinations were made of the horizon 
of the Lias in contact with the Palaeozoic rocks, it would be possible to 
trace the structures westward in greater detail than can be done with the 
available data. 

The Mendip Region. — In the Mendips the Lias-Rhaetic junction 
reaches a height of at least 850 feet above O.D. south of East Hampshire, 
whence it descends both to the north and to the south. It is true that 
the local base of the Lias attains even greater elevations, but at such 
points the Rhaetic has been overstepped, and it is probable that owing to 
overlap the beds resting on the Palaeozoic rocks are not those of the basal 
zone. A careful survey of the Lias should afford evidence of the extent 

Plate I.] 



'foTE. — Small areas of Palaeozoic rocks appearing in the New Red Sandstone and Jurassic 

Outcrop are omitted. 


of the overlap, and thus lead to a closer estimate of the probable maximum 
height to which the base of the formation ascends. From the central 
Mendips the Lias, resting in general upon Rhaetic, declines somewhat 
rapidly southward to a level of about 500 feet around Wells and Shepton 
Mallet, and must reach the level of the sea three to four miles south of 

At Glastonbury Tor both Middle and Upper Lias overlie the Lower 
Lias, and the same succession is found to the east in the Pennard ridge. 
According to the section given by Woodward the base of the Lias at 
Glastonbury must be about 200 feet below Ordnance Datum, but south- 
wards in the Polden Hills it rises again to between 200 and 300 feet 
above O.D. 

Immediately north of the Mendips the basal plane also descends to 
considerably lower levels, and in the outliers of Lias and Rhaetic west of 
Chew Stoke it stands at approximately 400 feet above O.D. Still farther 
north, however, around the North Hill Carboniferous inlier, the base of 
the Lias rises again to about 600 feet above O.D., thence declining north- 
ward to less than 100 feet along the valley of the River Avon between 
Bristol and Bath. North of that valley there is a gradual rise of the 
base to 200 feet O.D. and in places to 350 feet. On a line of section drawn, 
therefore, from the northern suburbs of Bristol through North Hill, to 
Glastonbury and beyond, we have two well-marked regions of elevation, 
viz. one in the North Hill region and the other in the Central Mendips ; 
and three synclinal depressions, viz. at Glastonbury, between North Hill 
and the Mendips, and in the Avon valley. The difference of elevation 
between the highest and the lowest points amounts to over 1,000 feet, and 
as the junction of the Rhaetic and Lias must have been as nearly as possible 
level at the time of the deposition of these rocks, the difference is a measure 
of the movements which the strata have suffered since they were deposited. 

By using all the data available on the geological maps of the Bristol- 
Mendips region, I have drawn strike lines showing the approximate level 
of the basal plane of the Lias (see Plate II). On this map certain 
structures are immediately apparent ; a well-defined anticlinal fold 
coincides approximately with the crest line of the Mendip range ; north 
of it another anticline in North Hill which apparently continues eastward 
under Dundry Hill. Between these two areas of elevation there is a 
depressed region in which the structure is less clearly defined, though at 
all points the base of the Lias is at a lower level than to the north or 
south. Within it there appear to be two shallow synclines between 
which there is a subsidiary anticline near Farmborough. The small 
synclinal outcrop of Lias near Banwell at the western end of the Mendips 
apparently lies in the westward continuation of this depressed area. 
South of the Mendips the deep Glastonbury syncline with its east-west 
trend is readily detected. 

So far as the evidence goes, the anticlinal areas appear to pitch east 
and west so that they are elongated domes. Unfortunately, the absence 
of the Lias along the west end of the Mendip range renders the course of 
the strike-lines uncertain, but the convergence westward of the Trias 
outcrop and the approach in that direction of the 100 foot strike lines, one 
on the south and the other on the north side of the range, makes it 







'i^ -. ■-- 


^(U^4;«y -^^^IJC!' 


EK piya' 





f, /..v IJ- 


ag on Lower Lias. 

itonbury S3mcline. 

'een 160 feet and 250 feet above O.D. 

tX History of the Bristol Channel Region, Section 0. 

E. Brent Sy Allerti 

Loam Liu mjloop itipplcd ; inclined abiding indkilM liter Uoioioio loili rcillnj nn Loatr Lma. 

- mdlcilei AUoTinm iwKng on Lower Ll»i. — ■ -»_ Indioalia Ibv (ilutanbury lyntfliuo. 

Kom Wiihin tlu ktiteaaUaed b; * dotted ILbb ootb o( Bnilul the bus o[ tbs LIuiMndi d beiirMn 160 Icot and aiH) l«l abun O.D. 

(iflwlfaliiijl Addfoi on Some Bpuodu in Ihe Oeotojtcal Hulory of the BHilol Channtl Rigum. SmUion C, 


probable that the crest of the anticline was lower in the west than near 
the centre. 

Tracing these various folds eastward it is interesting to find that they 
do not continue far in that direction. The North Hill axis cannot be 
traced beyond the latitude of Keyusham, while the Farmborough dome 
appears to break up eastward into two shallow anticlines with an inter- 
vening syncline. The depression between the Farmborough anticline and 
the Mendips is replaced by shallow undulations. 

The Mendip anticline itself is probably a compound fold consisting of 
two domes with their axes not quite in alignment, while there is some 
evidence of a shallow syncline on its northern flank. 

The deep Glastonbury syncline appears at that place to be devoid of 
pitch, judging by the parallelism of the strike lines in its flanks ; eastward 
it is difficult to trace and probably dies away in minor undulations. The 
swing in the strike on its northern flank, near Blackford and Chapel 
AUerton, probably indicates the beginning of a subsidiary anticline and 
of another syncline, with its axis north of the Glastonbury syncline. It 
is probably in this subsidiary basin that the remarkable outlier of Brent 
Knoll occurs, which rises abruptly from the alluvial flats to a height of 
over 400 feet. The base of the Lias in this outlier is probably far below 
sea level. 

The continuation of the Glastonbury syncline westward is indicated by 
a boring at Bason Bridge four miles south of Brent Knoll, where the base 
of the Lias lies at a depth exceeding 487 feet below Ordnance Datum. ^^ 
Between Glastonbury and Bason Bridge there is, therefore, a decided 
pitch along the axis of the syncline. Li the Shapwick boring situated 
between these places the base of the Lias was proved to be more than 235 
feet below O.D.'^ 

Regarding this map as a whole, it is obvious that there has been con- 
siderable post-Liassic folding. More interesting, however, is the type of 
folding which it reveals — that of elongated anticlines and synclines the 
axes of which are impersistent, and tend to replace one another en 
echelon. The character of the folding suggests that it is to be referred 
mainly to one episode of movement ; on a small scale it compares with 
the structures of the Jura Mountains as described by Heim. 

There is a remarkable similarity both in type and in scale between the 
folding in this area and that proved in the marls of the Middle Chalk by 
King (op. cit. sup.). This similarity is sufficiently striking to prompt the 
question whether the characteristic features of the post-Lias folding in 
the Mendips may not be of the same age and origin as the folds of 
presumably Miocene age in the chalk of Northern France. 

It has been shown by Trueman, Cox and others that there were differ- 
ential movements during the deposition of the Lias, leading to increased 
thickness in subsiding areas and diminished thickness or stratigraphical 
and palseontological breaks in areas of uplift or non-subsidence. Among 
the latter the Mendip region is one of the most important, particularly 
in the Middle and Upper Lias. The intra-formational movements resulted, 
however, in much broader folds than those revealed by the present form 

••'' Wells and Springs of Somerset, p. 57. Mem. Oeol. Survey, 1928. 
" Ibid., p. 63. 


of the base of the Lias ; moreover the areas of greatest interruption in 
the succession do not in general coincide with the areas of maximum 

If we examine a geological map of the south of England the effects of 
the Miocene folding on the Cretaceous and later strata leap to the eye, 
and the folds can be readily traced as far as the western limit of the outcrop 
of those rocks. There appears, however, at first sight to be a remarkable 
absence of folding in the Jurassic area west of the Cretaceous boundary, 
as if the folding so evident in the south-east died away in a westerly direc- 
tion. I have never been able to conceive of any reason why the folding 
which has so strongly affected the Mesozoic and Cainozoic strata of the 
south of England should suddenly cease at the western limit of the 
Cretaceous tract. As a matter of fact, if the outcrops of the Jurassic 
formations are carefully examined and due regard paid to the surface 
relief, several shallow folds can be traced through the Upper and still 
farther west the Middle Jurassic outcrops. We have seen, moreover, 
that the Lias rocks have suffered considerable folding since they were 
deposited, but there remains a doubt whether this had occurred before 
or after the Cretaceous. 

There are two possible explanations of the apparent absence of folding 
in the Jurassic outcrops. If a series of rocks which dip, say, to the east, 
is later subjected to folding, along say east and west axes, the effect on 
the outcrops will be less pronounced than if the beds were lying horizontally 
before the folding took place. The Mesozoic rocks from the Dorset coast 
to Wiltshire were obviously tilted eastward and subjected to erosion 
before the deposition of the Cretaceous, since the base of that formation 
oversteps westward and comes to lie in succession upon all the strata 
from the Purbeck to the Keuper. This explains in part why the Jurassic 
formations pursue a less undulating course than the base of the Cretaceous. 
If it were not for the fact that the Mesozoic rocks had acquired an easterly 
dip prior to the deposition of the Cretaceous, I believe that the effect of 
the folds on the outcrops would be just as prominent as it is in the 
younger rocks. 

Another explanation is suggested by the general characters of folded 
regions. Just as there are anticlines and synclines in a direction transverse 
to the axes of folding which are culminating points of the movement, so 
along the axes there are culminating points where the pitch of the folds 
changes over. In the general direction of the fold axes, these regions tend 
to occur at fairly regular intervals, forming, as it were, a succession of 
cols and domes on the folded surface. A close examination of any folded 
area will show that in the neighbourhood of the dome culminations the 
movement is concentrated on one or two axes of uplift, whereas in the 
neighbourhood of the cols it is dispersed over many axes, no one of which 
attains a marked predominance over the others. 

These characters are well illustrated by the folding of the Weald. 
The anticlinal structures which have such a marked effect in the centre of 
the Weald can hardly be recognised in the minor wrinkles that traverse the 
extensive chalk plateau between Winchester and Eangsclere, where the 
only fold of any magnitude is the sharp Kingsclere monocline. Farther 
west, however, several well-marked folds reappear in the Cretaceous, 


along which the Vale of Pewsey, Vale of Warminster, and the Vale of 
Wardour have been eroded. At the western end of the Weald the folds 
pitch in general to the westward, while in the above-mentioned vales the 
pitch is eastward. A change of pitch takes place somewhere in the middle 
of the chalk plateau between Salisbury Plain and the western end of the 
Weald. Just as the folding apjsears to gain in intensity and definition 
as one goes from the western end towards the centre of the Weald, so if 
the movement were continued westward beyond the Cretaceous outcrop 
its effects might be expected to become prominent again in the next region 
of dome culmination somewhere to the west. 

Despite the fact that the Middle and Upper Jurassic outcrops appear 
to be almost devoid of folding transverse to their outcrops, there is a 
remarkable general correspondence between the main folds that traverse 
the base of the Cretaceous and those that affect the base of the Lias farther 

The upfold of the Cretaceous rocks in the Vale of Pewsey, which may 
be regarded as the westerly prolongation in a modified form of the Guildford 
Hogback and the Kingsclere monocline, can in fact be traced in the Jurassic 
rocks ; the axis of the upfold swings in a west-south-westerly direction 
towards Frome. Beyond that place it is prolonged in the anticlinal region 
of the Mendips, and the north-westerly trend of the Mendip fold west of 
Frome is, as it were, a mirror image of the north-easterly trend of the 
fold east of that place. The fold is partly replaced by a strike fault which 
partakes in the swing of the anticlinal axis. 

The Vale of Warminster upfold is less obvious ; it can be recognised, 
however, in the Jurassic rocks round Wanstrow, but it cannot be traced 
into the base of the Lias south of Shepton Mallet, unless it is replaced 
by a strike-fault which runs through the Jurassic outcrops nearly parallel 
with the Mendip fold. The marked anticlinal axis accompanied by a 
strike-fault, which traverses the Vale of Wardour, produces little apparent 
effect in the Middle Jurassic rocks, but in the continuation of the line to 
the west a strong upfold of the Lias is indicated by the strike lines of the 
base of the formation which swing in an east-uorth-easterly direction from 
south of Taunton to Somerton, and thence in a westerly direction to the 
south shore of the Bristol Channel at Watchet and Porlock. The same 
fold is obvious also in the trend of the Middle and Upper Lias from 
Ilminster, through Yeovil, Castle Cary and Glastonbury. 

These correspondences can hardly be accidental, and it is my belief 
that the folding revealed by the differences of level in the base of the Lias 
indicates the continuation into the Bristol Channel region of the Miocene 
folds that traverse the south-east of England. 

It is of interest also to consider the correspondences between the 
synclines of the Bristol Channel region and those farther east. One of 
these is immediately obvious. The extension of the Cretaceous rocks far 
to the westward of the main trend of the outcrop into the Blackdown 
Hills south of Wellington undoubtedly indicates a prolongation of the 
Hampshire basin. It may be observed that the Jurassic rocks exhibit a 
similar though less pronounced deviation to the westward. 

The syncline that intervenes between the upfolds of the Vale of 
Wardour and the Vale of Warminster corresponds in position and direction 


with the well-marked Glastonbury syncline which is continued westward 
to the shores of the Bristol Channel itself,. and we may probably regard it 
as the master structure which has determined the existence of the Channel. 
The London Basin may be prolonged into the tectonic depression between 
North Hill and the Mendips, but I believe that its representative in the 
west is the syncline that extends in a west-north-westerly direction nearly 
along the valley of the Avon west of Bath, and it is not improbable that 
the course of that river was determined, like that of the Thames, by this 
downfold. In the western region the effects of the folding are more 
prominent in the south than in the north, so that the syn^ine of the 
London Basin becomes insignificant westwards and its placeTs taken by 
the Glastonbury syncline, which itself appears to die away eastwards. 
The same thing is found in the reverse direction in comparing the folds 
at the west end of the Weald with those near the centre. The maximum 
uplift on the west was along the Kingsclere fold near the northern margin, 
whereas farther east it was nearer the southern margin along the Battle 
axis of elevation. 

The correspondences between the post-Liassic folding in the south-west 
of England and the Miocene folding of the south-east of England are so 
striking that it appears we may safely accept as a working hypothesis 
that the post-Liassic folding in the former district is in its main character- 
istics also of Miocene age. The precise effects of the folding would, 
however, depend upon the condition of that area at the time when the 
movement occurred. 

I have already given reasons for supposing that the Palfeozoic areas of 
the west were covered by the Cretaceous and possibly by earlier Mesozoic 
formations. It can hardly be supposed, however, that the thickness of 
the Mesozoic cover was as great as in the south-east of England. The 
Palaeozoic floor would, therefore, be nearer the surface of the folded strata 
and its deformation would reflect much more closely that of the strata 
of the cover than does the Palaeozoic floor of the south-east of England. 
Accepting as a provisional hypothesis that the Bristol Channel was 
determined like the London Basin by movements, in the main of Miocene 
age, it is of interest to examine the possible consequences of such movements 
within the Palaeozoic regions that adjoin the Channel to the north and 

The area to the north has been dealt with exhaustively by Strahan. 
to whose conclusions reference has already been made.^* That author 
believed that the rivers of South and Central Wales originated upon a 
surface of Upper Cretaceous sediments which completely blanketed the 
Palaeozoic rocks beneath, and that the direction of the main streams such 
as the Wye, Usk, Rhjraney, Taff, etc., was determined by a tilt of the 
Cretaceous cover to the south-east, i.e. in the same direction as the dip 
of the Chalk outcrop from Wiltshire to the border of the Fens. He called 
attention, however, to aaother system of valleys such as the Neath, Tawe, 
Towy and others which had a south-westerly trend almost parallel to the 
strike of the chalk escarpment. Both systems were assigned to the 
Miocene period. The latter were attributed to movement or renewal of 

i" The Origin of the River Svstem of South Wales. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. Iviii., p. 207. 


movement on certain ' lines of disturbance ' along which the Carboniferous 
and older rocks have been jorofoundly affected. As a result the streams 
along these lines have exerted a trapping influence upon the south- 
easterly streams. 

Not only in the region discussed in detail by Strahan which extends 
from the Vale of Glamorgan to the Vale of Towy, but in other parts of 
South Wales, especially north of the Towy, we find many examples of 
south-easterly streams which have been trapped by others flowing to the 

Apart from these, however, if we look at any map of South Wales we 
shall find that the dominant trend of the main streams such as the 
Loughor, the Lowerj Towy and the Eastern and Western Cleddau is 
either south-westerly or southerly, but so far as is known it does not 
coincide with disturbances, as does that of the Neath, Tawe and others. 
This is also the trend of the Ograore, which is exceptional among the set 
of south-easterly streams in the eastern part of the coalfield. 

In the Towy Valley there are many gaps in the escarpment on the 
south side of the valley that are situated in the direct line of tributaries 
flowing into the Towy from the north-west, and apparently indicate 
diversion of the streams south-westward into the Towy. Still more 
remarkable instances occur along the Cothi, a tributary which enters the 
Towy at Abergwili. The lower part of the Cothi flows nearly due south 
from Brechfa for about eight miles. Above this place its valley trends 
north-eastward for over 20 miles and along its course numerous tributaries 
entering from the north-west have prominent wind-gaps corresponding 
to them, on the south side of the Cothi valley. There can hardly be any 
doubt that these indicate former diversions of the south-easterly flowing 
streams into the Cothi. 

This has proceeded to such an extent that a tributary formerly flowing 
south-east into the Towy 25 miles above where the Cothi now enters has 
been diverted into the valley of the latter. ^^ It is true that the courses of 
both the Towy and the Cothi coincide in large part with belts of dis- 
turbance in the Palaeozoic rocks. It is remarkable, however, in the case 
of the Cothi, that the extension of the drainage along this belt to the 
south-west of Brechfa has been insignificant in comparison with that to the 
north-east. Only one such stream, Nant Pib, two miles west of Brechfa, 
appears to have been diverted. 

While agreeing with many of Strahan's deductions regarding the origin 
of the South Wales drainage system, I am of the opinion that we may be 
dealing with the effects of two distinct movements, one, the earlier, 
which gave a prevailing south-easterly trend to the streams, and the other, 
a later one, to which was due the southerly or south-westerly tilt ; the 
effect of the former predominating in the easterly region of South Wales 
and that of the earlier becoming more marked in the west. The earlier 
movement was in all probability that which occurred between the 
Cretaceous and the Eocene. 

Strahan {op. cit., p. 218) calls attention to the evidence that uplift in 
the west had already commenced when the Eocene was deposited ; he 

"^ 0. T. Jones, The Upper Towy Drainage System. Quart. Journ. Oeol. Soc, 
vol. Ixxx., pp. 568-609. 


infers from it that the limit of the Eocene basin was not far distant [from 
Dorset], and that it seemed scarcely probable that Eocene sediments 
extended over South Wales. The rapid change eastward in the characters- 
of the Eocene strata of the London basin and the Hampshire basin suggests 
that they were deposited off a land area lying to the west. 

There appears to be independent evidence of a tilt in a southerly or 
south-westerly direction in Central Wales. In the northern part of 
Cardiganshire a well-defined ' Coastal Plateau ' slopes gently from about 
400 feet at the coast to about 800-900 feet at its inner edge, where the 
surface rises rapidly to a height of about 1,900 feet in the ' High Plateau.' 
The elevations of Plynlimon, Cader Idris and others to which I have 
preAaously referred stand sharply out of the higher plateau. Farther 
south in Central Wales the Coastal Plateau persists at about the same 
level, but the step between it and the High Plateau diminishes in height, 
since the surface of that plateau declines southwards. In South Cardigan- 
shire, Carmarthenshire and North Pembrokeshire, where the two plateaus 
appear to have become merged into one, the Prescelly Range and other 
hills rise above its surface in the same manner as the hill masses farther 
north. Comparing the features of South-west Wales with those of North 
Central Wales, it would apjaear that the Prescelly range and other 
eminences in Pembrokeshire should be correlated with the summit 
masses of Cader Idris and Plynlimon, and the surrounding plateau with 
the High Plateau of Central Wales. Such a correlation implies that the 
surface of the High Plateau has been warped down in a southerly 
direction, so that it has descended to the level of the Coastal Plateau. 
The mutual relations of the two features suggests that this warping 
had occurred before the latter was eroded. The amount of warping is 
about 1,900 feet in a distance of 80 miles, or about 24 feet per mile on 
the average, but the slope appears to be relatively greater in the south 
than in the north. 

A deformation of this amount would increase profoundly the erosive 
power of any stream that flowed in the direction of the tilt, and I believe 
it affords the most reasonable explanation of the great development of 
the south-westerly flowing streams in parts of South Wales. In the 
eastern part of the Principality, where the valleys traverse the upland 
area of the coalfield which stands well above the surface of the High 
Plateau, the effect of the south-westerly tilt is imperceptible, but it appears 
to become more effective as the level of the upland in which the valleys 
are carved diminishes in height to the south and west. It may be that 
in the eastern region the streams were too deeply incised in the surface 
to suffer diversion when the tilting movement occurred. 

On the assumption that the High Plateau has been warped since its 
formation, its present form indicates that it was domed along a broad 
area extending eastwards from North Central Wales. If the direction of 
this dome is prolonged it meets the axis of elevation that has caused the 
great swing in the strike of the Cretaceous rocks in the Fen country. 
Moreover the transverse watershed in the Midlands that divides the 
southerly streams of the Warwickshire Avon drainage from the northerly 
streams of the Trent system lies approximately on the same line. 

It is not impossible, however, that the present slope of the surface is 


due to movements of more than one age ; thus, the south-westerly tilt 
may have been superposed upon a region which already had a general 
slojie to the south-east. This would accord with the relations of the 
two main directions of the drainage system. 

Rastall attributed the swing of the chalk outcrop to Miocene folding. 
In agreement with this view is the ' Alpine ' trend of the fold and the fact 
that the Eocene beds of the London basin strike for some distance parallel 
to the Cretaceous. 

There is a remarkable correspondence between the trend lines of the 
Palaeozoic plateau in the west and the strike of the newer rocks in the 
east. The south-westerly tilt of the plateau stands in the same relation 
to the east- west trough of the Bristol Channel as the south-easterly tilt 
of the chalk in the Chiltern escarpment to the syncline of the London basin. 
The London basin has a general pitch to the east, whereas the trend lines 
of the plateau north of the Bristol Channel and the trumpet-shaped 
outline of the Bristol Channel which is a consequence of this trend suggest 
a syncline pitching to the west. In brief, the drainage of the western 
region is in its main lines a mirror image of that in the east. 

Let us now turn to the area south of the Channel. The syncline of 
the Hampshire basin is prolonged to the west into the region between the 
Blackdown Hills and the Dorset coast. Still farther west lies the remark- 
able plateau of the central plain of Devon. Just as the streams in the 
Hampshire basin converge towards the centre of the basin before spilling 
over in the Solent, so the main streams of north and central Devon tend 
to collect from north and south in the centre of the plain before spilling 
over by way of the Exe, the Torridge and the Taw. One can hardly doubt 
that the surface of the central plain of Devon is an area where the 
Palseozoic surface has been warped into a syncline which is a continuation 
of the Hampslure basin. 

The Exmoor range which intervenes between the Bristol Channel 
syncline and the central Devon syncline is the analogue in the west of 
the Wealden anticline in the east. If I am justified in my conclusion that 
the central plan of Devon and the Palseozoic upland of Wales have been 
warped into approximately their present form by Miocene folding, it is 
a logical deduction that the present elevation of Exmoor is due not to 
the greater resistance of the rocks in comparison with those to the south, • 
but to the arching up of the surface during the episode of Miocene folding, 
thus causing streams to flow ofE its flanks into the Bristol Channel on the 
one side and the central plain of Devon on the other. 

Some support is given to the correctness of this interpretation of the 
physical features of the western region by consideration of the trend of 
the watershed which crosses England from east to west and divides the 
streams that flow northward into the Bristol Channel or the Thames basin 
from those that tend to flow southward into the English Channel. 

At the eastern end of the Weald the watershed coincides approximately 
with the crest line of the centre of the Weald, with a prolongation along 
the Battle axis where it separates the Rother from the Cuckmere. From 
the centre of the Weald it pursues a meandering course to the Hampshire 
Downs, in one place approaching but not actually reaching the line of 
the Hogback at Guildford. In the Hampshire Downs it swings in a 
1930 G 


north-westerly direction for several miles, then resumes its westerly course 
until it crosses to the north side of the Vale of Pewsey. It appears to 
have been determined locally by the position of the most important fold 
which traverses the chalk outcrop, and as this tends to occur farther north 
in the west than in the east, so the watershed migrates in that direction. 

If, however, we follow from the Vale of Pewsey the water-parting 
between the streams that flow into the Bristol Channel and those that flow 
into the English Channel, we find that it swings in a south-westerly direction 
to the south of Yeovil and then westward along the north flank of the 
Blackdown Hills, and thence along the centre of the Exmoor Range. 
We have seen previously that starting at the Vale of Pewsey and going 
east, the principal axis of folding lies farther and farther south, until we 
reach the Battle axis north of Hastings ; and that going west from that 
Vale the most important of the anticlinal axes lie farther and farther 
south. In the extreme west the anticlinal axis of the Exmoor range is the 
dominant structure. It will be observed that the water-parting behaves 
in a closely similar manner. 

In accordance with the view herein expressed, I regard the Bristol 
Channel as having come into existence as a definite basin by folding 
during the Miocene period, and that the present form of the surface in 
Devon and South Wales owes its origin to warping, during the same 
period, of an ancient surface of erosion. 

It appears to me that the number of correspondences and analogies 
between the physical features and particularly the drainage systems of 
the south-east of England and those of the lands on both sides of the 
Bristol Channel are so many and so close as to rule out mere coincidence, 
and I believe that the only hypothesis which satisfactorily accounts for 
them is the one which I have outlined. Whether the ancient surface was 
eroded under marine or under continental desert conditions is still a 
subject of uncertainty. There is no doubt, however, that the possibility 
of desert denudation having played a leading part in its development has 
a claim to serious consideration. 

As I stated at the beginning of my address, I have had to omit all 
consideration of the later episodes which have given the Bristol Channel 
its present configuration and coastal features. It may appear that in 
the course of this address I have propounded more problems than I have 
solved. It is my earnest hope, however, that I have sufficiently indicated 
the interest and wide bearing of these problems, and that future workers 
will turn to them and apply to their further elucidation the ever-increasing 
knowledge and resources of our Science. 




W. T. CALMAN, D.Sc, F.R.S., 


The selection of a systematic zoologist for the honour of addressing you 
from this chair implies a belief that systematic zoology may have something 
to say that will not be without interest to those whose studies lie in other 
fields. I am not sure how far this belief is generally shared. The anato- 
mist, the physiologist, the field naturalist, the student of one or other of 
the innumerable specialisations of biological science, has always been 
inclined to regard with distaste, if not with contempt, the work of those 
whose business it is to denominate, classify and catalogue the infinite 
variety of living things. The systematist is generally supposed to be 
a narrow specialist, concerned with the trivial and superficial distinctions 
between the members of some narrow group of organisms which he studies 
in the spirit of a stamp collector ; happy when he can describe a new 
species, triumphant if he can find an excuse for giving a fresh name to an 
old one. 

It would be idle to deny the truth that there is in these criticisms, just 
as it would be easy, although unprofitable, to point out that the substance 
of them might be directed against the practice of most other branches of 
research. The specialist, of whatever kind, has a tendency to mistake the 
means for the end, to become fascinated by technique, and to suffer from a 
myopia that blurs his vision of other fields than his own. 

I think, however, that there are some signs of an increasing appreciation 
of the usefulness and even of the scientific value of taxonomy among the 
younger generation of zoologists. More particularly, those who are con- 
cerned with the applications of Zoology to practical affairs are, for the 
most part, although not invariably, aware of the need for exact identification 
of the animals they deal with. They do not always realise the difiiculties 
that may stand in the way of this identification. It is a common experience 
with us at the Natural History Museum to have some mangled fragments 
of an animal brought in by a practical man who expects to be supplied 
with the name of it while he waits. I am afraid that he often goes away 
with a low opinion of our competence. 

It may not be without interest, therefore, if I attempt, in the first 
place, to give some idea of how matters stand with this part of the systema- 
tists' task, the identification and description of the species of living animals. 

When Linnaeus published in 1758 the first volume of the tenth 
edition of his ' Systema Naturae ' he named and described about 4370 


species of animals. If we ask how many are known to-day the diversity 
of answers we get is some indication of the confusion that exists. Some 
years ago, at the request of the late Sir Arthur Shipley, I endeavoured to 
get from my colleagues at the Museum estimates of the numbers of species 
in the various groups with which they were specially conversant. Some 
of the answers obtained were very interesting. With regard to Mammals 
I was told ' anything from 3,000 to 20,000 according to the view you take 
as to what constitutes a species '. For the most part, however, the 
authorities consulted were unwilling to suggest even an approximate 
figure for a very different reason. They told me that great sections of the 
groups with which they were concerned were so imperfectly surveyed that 
it was quite impossible even to guess how many of the supposed species 
that had been described Vould survive reconsideration. 

It may be worth while to consider for a little the second of the two 
obstacles thus indicated as standing in the way of obtaining a census of the 
known species of animals. In the days of Linnaeus it is likely that a very 
experienced zoologist might have been able to recognise at sight any one 
of the four thousand species of animals that were then known, and when the 
expansion of knowledge had made such a feat no longer possible, the 
specialist who confined his studies to one section of the animal kingdom 
could still aspire to a like familiarity with the species of his chosen group. 
With this kind of knowledge it is literally true that, as has been said, a 
systematist recognises a new species by instinct and then proceeds to search 
for the characters that distinguish it. Some of the great zoologists 
who were still working in the British Museum when I entered it more than 
a quarter of a century ago, men like Albert Giinther, Bowdler Sharpe, 
C. 0. Waterhouse and Edgar Smith, had actually an amazing personal 
familiarity with vast sections of the animal kingdom. They had studied 
and digested all that had been written on their subject, and, if they did 
not carry the whole of this knowledge in their memory, they could, wfthout 
searching, put their hand at once on the volume that would help them. 
They had no need of ' Keys ' to help them to run down their species, 
indeed they rather distrusted such aids for they knew how easily they betray 
the heedless. Specialists of this type there must always be, and we may be 
thankful for it. Nothing can altogether replace that instinctive perception 
of affinity that comes from lifelong study. It has often happened that 
men such as those I have named were able, when confronted with new and 
aberrant types of animals, to allot them at once to a place in classification 
which subsequent research served only to confirm. As time goes on, 
however, the extent of ground that can be covered in this fashion by the 
most industrious worker is rapidly diminishing. The torrent of publications 
catalogued in the Zoological Record increases year by year, and the 
specialist, if he is not to be overwhelmed by it, must not allow his curiosity 
to stray beyond the limits of a narrow corner of the field. 

By far the greater part of this literature is written by specialists for 
specialists, and much of it is unintelligible to anyone else. From the time 
of Linnaeus, however, there have not been wanting publications that have 
a different aim. We have monographs, synopses, revisions, of all sorts and 
sizes, attempting to render possible the identification of species without 
demanding a lifetime of study for each special group. The ideal for such 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 85 

monographs would be, I assume, that they should be intelligible to, and 
render possible the determination of species by, any properly trained 
zoologist, even without previous experience in dealing with the particular 
groups of which they treat. 

The Zoological Department of the British Museum may fairly claim to 
have done more towards this re-editing of the Systema Naturae than any 
other institution in the world. The long series of monographs, of which 
the true character is somewhat concealed under the official title of 
' catalogues,' is a monument to the learning and industry of the great 
zoologists who planned and executed them. Though they remain indis- 
pensable to all serious students of the difierent groups, however, they are 
now, for the most part, long out of date, and, vast as is their scope, they 
cover only a fraction of the animal kingdom. 

In 1896 the German Zoological Society began the publication of ' Das 
Tierreich,' afterwards continued by the Prussian Academy, which was 
planned to give nothing less than a revision of all the species of living 
animals. Here again, however, after thirty-four years, only a small part 
of the ground has been covered and already the progress of research has 
rendered many of the earlier parts obsolete. Col. Stephenson tells me that 
Michaelsen's revision of the Oligochseta, published in this series in 1900, 
deals with exactly half the number of species enumerated by the same 
authority in 1928. 

Apart from these attempts at comprehensive revision we have, of 
course, numerous surveys of local faunas on a larger or smaller scale, 
besides monographs of restricted groups, but hardly ever do these fit 
together without leaving gaps, geographical or systematic. 

Take, as an example, the Brachyurous Crustacea or true Crabs. No 
revision of the Brachyura as a whole has been attempted since Henri 
Milne-Edwards' ' Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces,' published nearly a 
century ago. The student who wishes to identify a collection of crabs has 
to begin with local faunas, such as Alcock's invaluable ' Materials for a 
Carcinological Fauna of India,' and Miss Rathbun's monographs of the 
American species ; but for regions that have not been thus studied there is 
no way but to search out and compare the descriptions of species in innumer- 
able obscure publications by writers who had often an imperfect knowledge 
of what had been done elsewhere. The genus Pilumnus is one that is 
abundantly represented in all the warmer seas of the globe. No revision 
of its numerous species has been attempted in recent times. I do not even 
know how the genus is to be defined from neighbouring genera ; and yet 
hardly any report on a collection of tropical crabs does not profess to 
describe at least one new species of the genus. 

Another example from a very different group of animals is given by 
the aberrant Lamellibranch Mollusca forming the family Teredinidse, 
commonly known as ' shipworms.' During the past ten years a great deal 
of attention has been given to these animals in the effort to discover means 
of combating or avoiding their attacks on the timber of harbour works 
and the like. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of the group remains in a state 
of the utmost confusion. There is no agreement as to the limits even of 
the genera, and the inconstancy of the characters that have been used for the 
definition of species is plain to anyone who studies a large collection. 


Only in one species, the long-known and often-studied Teredo navalis ot 
Linnaeus, have we any detailed information as to variability and the 
changes that take place during growth. In these circumstances the 
publication of new specific names, except after prolonged study of ample 
material, cannot be regarded as a serious contribution to knowledge. 
Dr. Bartsch, of Washington, in his ' Monograph of the American Ship- 
worms ' (1922) simplified his task by the assumption that any species found 
on the coasts of the American continent must, of necessity, be different 
from any found elsewhere, and he was thus able to write ' n.sp.' after 
twenty-two out of twenty-nine specific names. It was soon shown, 
however, by other American zoologists, that this assumption was without 
foundation, and that the most destructive species on both the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts of North America was the European Teredo navalis. 

A thorough re\'ision of the taxonomy of the shipworms would be a task 
of much difficulty, but it would be of great scientific interest and it might 
even be of great practical importance. Those who are carrying out 
experiments on the protection of timber, in this country at least, seldom 
trouble to enquire what species they are dealing with or even whether they 
are always dealing with the same one. Professor Barger, for instance, who 
speaks of Teredo as a ' species ' does not seem to think that it matters. 
Perhaps it does not, but it is just possible that it does. We do know 
that different species differ greatly in susceptibility to changes in the 
salinity of the water, and it seems worth while to ask whether they all 
react in exactly the same way to the poisons that the chemists try to admini- 
ster to them. The fact that our knowledge of their specific differences is 
still very incomplete is no reason why the chemists should not avail 
themselves of such knowledge as we have. 

One cause that has encumbered systematic literature with uncounted 
pages of useless writing is the prevalent delusion that it is possible to give 
what is called a ' complete description ' of a species. This phrase is 
apparently intended to denote an enumeration of the visible features of the 
organism so exhaustive as to include not only the characters differentiating 
it from the other species already known but also those that will serve to 
distinguish it from species yet to be discovered. Now a moment's reflection 
will show that a lifetime would not suffice for the ' complete description ' of 
any animal whatsoever, and, on the other hand, a very little experience 
will convince one that it is impossible to predict the kind of characters that 
will distinguish the next new species. Some years ago I found that all the 
specimens of the genus Squilla in the Museum collection from West Africa 
differed in half a dozen constant, and, once they were pointed out, 
conspicuous characters from their nearest congeners. It happened that 
shortly before a German zoologist had given what was intended to be a 
' complete description ' of a Squilla from the same region. His account 
extended to two large quarto pages, and yet it succeeded in avoiding 
mention of every one of the features that proved to be distinctive of the 

If every one who describes a new species were to restrict himself to a 
bare enumeration of the characters in which it differs from all the known 
species of its genus, systematic papers might be vastly diminished in bulk, 
although one suspects that the labour necessary to write them might be 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 87 

correspondingly increased. It may be a counsel of perfection to suggest 
that no one should introduce a new specific name without undertaking at 
least a partial revision of the genus including it, but there are very many 
instances where the multiplication of species might with advantage be 
postponed until we learn something about those that are supposed to be 
' known.' 

The number of described species of animals has been estimated at 
something in the neighbourhood of three-quarters of a million. It is not 
at all improbable that between a quarter and a third of that number would 
be suppressed as synonyms or put aside as ' species inquirendse ' by careful 
monographers and that in many groups the proportion would be far higher. 

The prospect is not one that can be contemplated with any satisfaction. 
The successively expanding volumes of the ' Zoological Record ' give us a 
picture of systematic zoology being smothered under the products of its 
own activity. The confusion will grow steadily worse unless systematists 
come to realise that the mere description of new species is a far less important 
thing than the putting in order of those that are supposed to be already 
known, and until, on the other hand, zoologists in general cease to regard 
taxonomy as a kind of menial drudgery to be done for them by museum 

I have alluded to another obstacle to obtaining an enumeration of the 
animal kingdom in the divergences of opinion as to what constitutes a 
species. I am not sure that these divergences are not sometimes over- 
estimated. I think that it will be found that in most Orders of animals there 
exists a considerable body of species regarding whose limits there is no 
serious difference of opinion among competent systematists ; but alon<Tside 
of these we find in almost every Order, in most families, and even in rnany 
genera, a ' difficult ' residue in wliich the delimitation of specific groups 
sometimes seems to be little more than a matter of personal taste. My 
colleague Mr. Robson has recently brought together a great deal of infor- 
mation on this subject in his book ' The Species Problem,' to which I would 
refer anyone who needs to be comanced how complex the problem really is. 
For our present purpose it is enough to take the empirical fact that the 
majority of animals can, with more or less trouble, be sorted into assem- 
blages or kinds that we call species. We have seen how imperfect and 
confused is the present state of knowledge even as regards the mere 
description and identification of these kinds. 

The business of the systematist, however, does not end with identifi- 
cation. Even identification requires some kind of classification, if it is only 
the classification of the dictionary. Since the time of Linnaeus, or rather 
since the time of John Ray, zoological systematists have believed in the 
existence of a Natural System of -classification which it was their business 
to discover ; since Darwin, it has seemed plain that this Natural System 
must be, in some way, based upon Phylogeny. It is now realised that 
the relation between the two is not always so simple and straightforward 
as it once appeared to be. Dr. Bather, in his presidential address to the 
Geological Society in 1927, discussed the historical and philosophical 
bases of biological classification. He concluded that ' The whole of our 
System, from the great Phyla to the very unit cells is riddled through and 
through with polyphyly and convergence,' and that ' Important thou<^h 


phylogeny is as a subject of study, it is not necessarily tlie most smtable 
basis of classification.' I am not sure that I quite understand what is 
implied by the second of these statements, but I do not suppose that even 
Dr. Bather would be prepared to suggest a system of classification entirely 
divorced from phylogenetic considerations. 

Forty years ago the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the 
major divisions of the animal kingdom was almost universally regarded as 
the chief end of zoological research. To-day, except among palaeontolo- 
gists, one might almost say that the phylogenetic period in the history of 
zoology has come to an end. When one recalls the extravagances of its 
later developments, the derivation of Vertebrates from Arachnids and of 
Echinoderms from Cirripedes, one cannot be surprised that zoologists of 
the modern school take little interest in it. If we accept this attitude, it 
follows that problems of affinity and relationship are not worth worrying 
about. We are told, in so many words, that our business as systematists 
is identification, not classification ; that what we have to do is merely to 
devise some kind of key or card-index that will enable animals to be quickly 
and easily sorted into species. As far as the really scientific branches of 
zoology are concerned an artificial system of classification is as good as, 
and may even be better than, any other. An illustration of this attitude of 
mind is seen in a paper recently issued from Cambridge in which Liihodes 
is replaced, without explanation or discussion, among the Brachyura ; 
which, on the card-index system, is doubtless its appropriate place. 

It is quite true that the categories of the physiologist, the ecologist, the 
geneticist, and so on, often cut across the dividing lines of the most 
natural classification we can devise, but both the divergences and the 
coincidences are worthy of closer consideration than they sometimes 
receive. If there is any truth in the theory of Evolution it is obvious that 
functions and habits have an evolutionary history behind them, but it is no 
less obvious that this history has not been independent of the history of the 
organisms that display them. The details of this history we shall never 
fully know and even its broad outlines may perhaps always remain misty. 
A Natural system of classification expressing even these broad outlines 
may prove to be an unattainable ideal, but each step towards it holds out 
the promise of usefulness in other and possibly remote fields of research. 

A great deal of current work and still more of current speculation in 
zoology seems to me to suffer from this neglect of the taxonomic outlook. 
In the zoology of the later nineteenth century the comparative method was 
still the chief tool of morphology. The relative importance of structural 
characters was measured by the extent of their persistence through larger 
or smaller divisions of the animal kingdom. This point of view tends to 
be lost sight of with the increasing emphasis on the experimental method. 
The systematic zoologist, in listening to the exponents of the modern lines 
of research is apt to be impressed by the little account that is taken of the 
vast variety of animal life. To say this is not to underrate in any way the 
advances that have been made in these lines within the present century or 
the revolutionary changes they have made in our views on many funda- 
mental questions. Physiology, for example, is to-day a vastly different 
science from what it was thirty years ago, partly because the physiological 
laboratory has a more varied fauna than it had then. Nevertheless, the 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 89 

zoologist, conscious of the unending diversity of structure and of habits 
among animals, sees the physiologist's results against a background of 
which the physiologist himself seems to be sometimes forgetful. 

One hesitates to suppose that the students of heredity are really so 
forgetful of this background as they sometimes seem to be. No doubt 
intense specialisation is needed for intense research ; but the Poet of the 
Brealdast Table, laughing gently at the narrow specialism of the Scarabee, 
can hardly have foreseen the day when a university in his own country 
would have upon its teaching staff an officer named in the university 
calendar as a ' Drosophilist.' 

It is possible, however, that the prevailing lack of interest in questions 
of phylogeny may have a deeper significance. Those departments of 
biology that are being most actively studied at the present day are 
preoccupied with the interplay of forces acting here and now. They 
ignore the impressions that time may have left on the material of their 
study. It is as though a crystallographer, studying a pseudomorph, 
should endeavour to explain its form in terms of its chemical composition 
and the forces governing the arrangement of its molecules, without taking 
account of its past history. 

From ignoring anything, it is but a short step to denying its existence, 
and here, it seems, we have already arrived. Some of you may possibly 
have listened to a lecture delivered in London in the early part of last year 
by that very distinguished experimental biologist Dr. Hans Przibram, in 
which he suggested that we might have to consider the possibility that 
every species of metazoan had developed independently of all the others 
from a distinct species of protozoan. The same view was set forth by 
him in a lecture delivered in Paris on the Theory of Apogenesis (Kev. Gen. 
Sci. XI, No. 10, 31 May 1929, p. 293). As the English lecture has not been 
published I will translate as closely as I can from the French one. ' I do 
not think it likely ' he says, ' that a single substance can have given rise to 
a general phylogenetic tree according to the classical diagram representing 
the affinities of species and their distribution in space and time. All the 
facts would be explained more easily by supposing that there existed, at 
the beginning, many organised substances developing side by side into 
species, each of the latter passing through stages more and more advanced 
without actual relationship of descent between the different species.' 

Many authors have believed in a multiplicity of the primordial forms 
of life, but few have suggested an independent origin for grades lower than 
the main phyla. Przibram, with strict logic, has carried the same reasoning 
down to the individual species. Most biologists with whom I have discussed 
the matter refuse to take his suggestion seriously. This, I venture to 
think, is a mistake. Przibram has simply carried to their inevitable 
conclusion certain lines of thought that we meet with everywhere in current 
biological literature ; that conclusion is either one of the most significant 
results of recent biology or it is the reductio ad absurdum of much 
contemporary work. 

Geneticists have made us familiar with the doctrine of the inalterability 
of the gene, with its corollary of evolution by loss of factors, which, by the 
way, seems to differ little from Przibram's Apogenesis. The experi- 
mentalists have proved (if it wanted proving) the plasticity of the pheno- 


type, as, for instance, when Przibram himself shows that the length of a 
rat's tail is a function of the temperature to which the individual and its 
immediate progenitors have been exposed. As for the inheritance of 
impressed modifications, the more unequivocal the experiments devised to 
demonstrate its reality the more clearly do they show it to be of so fugitive 
a kind as to have no significance in evolution. Palaeontologists, as Dr. 
Bather has told us, have proved beyond the possibility of doubt the 
occurrence of parallel and even of convergent evolution, without telling us 
where we are to stop in applying the principle. Many supposed examples 
of adaptation fail to stand closer scrutiny, and therefore the whole idea of 
adaptation is declared to be a subjective illusion. All these results at any 
rate place no obstacles in the way of Prof. Przibram's suggestion. 

It is to be noted that although the theory of Apogenesis is called a 
theory of evolution, it does not deal at all with evolution as that word was 
used by Darwin. It has nothing to say on the origin of species. On 
this question it is no more than a doctrine of special creation at one 
remove. It has no light to throw on classification. If we are to 
abandon belief in community of descent the whole architecture of the 
Systema Naturae becomes meaningless. 

Prof. Przibram claims that ' all the facts would be explained more 
easily ' upon his hypothesis, but there is one point on which he speaks with 
a hesitant voice, and it seems to me a very significant exception. ' We 
cannot decide ' he says, ' whether the differing though related species that 
inhabit islands or isolated territories are descended from a common source 
or result from the accidental separation of species which formerly occupied 
the region together.' 

Let me recall to you the opening words of the ' Origin of Species.' 
' When on board H.M.S. " Beagle " as naturalist, I was much struck with 
certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South 
America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabi- 
tants of that continent.' So Przibram ends where Darwin began. The 
geographical and geological distribution of organisms, which for the one 
are merely the negligible residue of unexplained facts, were for the other 
the very heart and core of the problem he set himself to consider. 

It is worth remembering that among Darwin's other qualifications as an 
interpreter of nature, he was an experienced taxonomist, and before he 
wrote ' The Origin of Species' he had produced one of the finest systematic 
works ever written in his ' Monograph of the Cirripedia.' Those of us who 
were present at the memorable Darwin-Wallace celebration of the Linnean 
Society in 1908 remember how the veteran Alfred Russel Wallace discussed 
' the curious series of correspondences both in mind and in environment ' 
which led Darwin and himself, alone among their contemporaries ' to 
reach identically the same theory,' and how he gave the first place to the 
fact that both he and Darwin began by collecting beetles and thus acquired 
' that intense interest in the mere variety of living things ' which led them 
to speculate upon the ' why ' and the ' how ' of ' this overwhelming and, 
at first sight, purposeless wealth of specific forms among the very humblest 
forms of life.' It might be worth while to inquire whether a training that 
proved useful to Darwin and to Wallace would not be of some value to 
students of zoology even at the present day. 

D.— ZOOLOGY. 91 

My predecessor in this chair told you that ' The present position of 
Zoology is unsatisfactory,' and he found the chief hope for the future in the 
application of the experimental method. He may be right. I am not 
so sure. The experimental method has answered many questions and it 
will answer many more, but there are some questions, and these well worth 
the asking, to which experiment will never find an answer. No one will 
maintain that taxonomy by itself will answer them, but it will often suggest 
where the answer is to be sought for, and it will provide a standpoint from 
which both questions and answers will be seen in a true perspective. 

Finally, I would recall a remark once made in my hearing by a wise old 
naturalist, the late Dr. David Sharp. Someone had been remarking on the 
decline of systematic zoology and predicting the extinction of systematic 
zoologists. Dr. Sharp replied, in effect, ' I have seen many passing 
fashions in zoology, many departments of research becoming popular and 
then falling into neglect ; the one branch that will never fail to attract is 
the systematic one. The aesthetic satisfaction to be derived from contem- 
plating the mere variety of animal forms, and from tracing the order that 
runs through all its diversity, appeals to a very deep instinct in human 
nature. There will always be systematic zoologists.' 






It is only within comparatively recent times that the term ' Human 
Geography ' has been employed even by geographers themselves. To 
the general public it is hardly as yet familiar and, although it has now 
found its way into geographical literature and text-books, its real meaning 
and scope are liable to a more than ordinary degree of misconception. 
Yet to many of us it represents a very vital and important part of geography, 
and the present address is an attempt to review some of its fundamental 
concepts and to estimate its value, actual and potential, as a contribution 
to the study of human societies. 

Its emergence and significance cannot be understood apart from the 
evolution of the modern conception of geography as a whole, but on this 
wider theme I wish to say no more than is essential for my special purpose. 

It is not necessary to remind the present audience that although 
geography has in recent times acquired a new technique and prominence, 
the subject itself is of vast antiquity. It had its beginnings in the first 
efforts of thinkers to understand the world in which they lived, the 
significance and relationship of terrestrial phenomena and the place of 
man in the scheme of things. As such it had an honourable position in 
the Grseco-Roman world and, as conceived by various philosophers of 
the Greek mainland, of Asia Minor and of Alexandria, was essentially a 
philosophical study concerned with a reasoned description and, so far as 
their limited horizon permitted, an interpretation of the Earth, including 
its relations to man. Plato and Aristotle, indeed, were capable of 
singularly facile generalisations about the effects of climate on human 
behaviour, and we are reminded of Demolins' sweeping statements about 
maritime societies by Plato's analysis of the influence of the sea, which he 
tells us ' breeds double-dealing and perfidy ; it spreads a spirit which is 
faithless and friendless over the inner life of a state and over its relations 
with neighbouring states.' But in the main the Greek approach to 
geography was scientific and informed by the same desire for a synthetic 
view of the Earth as of a whole made up of related parts as animates us 
to-day. The same is true of at any rate some of the Arab geographers, 
from whom came the principal contributions to geographical knowledge 
and thought in the long period of the eclipse of the scientific spirit in 
Europe during the Dark and Early Middle Ages. 


The era of the great discoveries, coinciding with the effects of the 
Renaissance in liberating human thought, revolutionised men's conceptions 
of the Earth and was a tremendous stimulus to geographical enquiry, 
but until the nineteenth century speculation about the significance of 
geographical facts in relation to man remained abstract and doctrinaire. 
It came, indeed, principally from philosophers such as Montesquieu rather 
than from geographers themselves, who, handicapped by mediaeval 
traditions, presented their material in arbitrary divisions, so that, as 
Ritter puts it, ' the whole subject of relations was unstudied.' 

It is to Ritter and Humboldt that we owe the real beginnings of human 
geography as an integral and, indeed, from Ritter's standpoint, the 
crowning part of the subject-matter. To appreciate the greatness of 
their work we must realise how critical for the whole future of geography 
was the period in which they lived. It was a period in which great masses 
of new geographical data were being accumulated, but so long as these 
remained unsystematised and unrelated, they tended only to increase the 
inchoate and amorphous character of a subject which was rather a torture 
to the memory than a stimulus to the mind. It was a period, too, in which 
many independent, specialised sciences dealing with particular aspects 
of Earth Lore such as geology and meteorology were rapidly developing, 
so that the domain left to geography itself, according to the prevailing 
conception of its character, was increasingly uncertain. It was Ritter 
and Humboldt who rescued what seemed indeed to be a moribund subject 
and gave it coherence, individuality and an immensely enhanced 
significance. This they did by claiming for it not a distinctive segment 
in the circle of knowledge — which is to destroy its very essence — but a 
distinctive method and objective in the handling of data common to other 
subjects. Ritter gave the keynote to the whole modern development of 
geography when he said (in his Comparative Geography) ' It is to use the 
whole circle of sciences to illustrate its own individuality, not to exhibit 
their peculiarities. It must make them all give a portion, not the whole, 
and yet must keep itself single and clear.' The same note is struck by one 
of the greatest of later builders in the same field, Vidal de la Blache, in 
the notable summary of his conception of geography given at the end of 
a long life mainly devoted to its advancement : ' Nous avons connu long- 
temps la geographic incertaine de son objet et de ses methodes, oscillant 
entre la geologic et I'histoire. Ces temps sont passes. Ce que la 
geographic, en echange du secours qu'elle revolt des autres sciences pent 
apporter au tresor commun, c'est I'aptitude a ne pas morceler ce que la 
nature rassemble, a comprendre la correspondance et la correlation des 
faits, soit dans le milieu terrestre qui les enveloppe tons, soit dans les 
milieux regionaux oii ils se localisent.' Ritter, however, went further 
than to assert the essential principles of co-ordination, relationship and 
interdependence in the building up of the geographical synthesis. 
Geography, he maintained, could only escape disintegration ' by holding 
fast to some central principle ; and that principle is the relation of all 
the phenomena and forms of nature to the human race.' The same 
conception permeates his ErdJcunde, as for example in the passage : 
' Nature refuses to be studied except in the great mutual play of all 
her powers, in the connection of all her manifestations. Only when thus 


studied does she irradiate with life and light all the paths which human 
activity dares to tread . . . Ought it not to repay our trouble for the 
sake of the history of man and of nations to take our stand ... in the 
place of their united activities, and to consider the earth in its real relations 
to man ; ... to trace the course of the simplest as well as the most 
diffused geographical laws in results, some of which are settled and 
permanent, some changing, some living and organic 1 ' And he foresees 
a time when the world of nature as well as of morals and mind shall have 
been so far compassed as to make it possible for the far-seeing among men 
' sending their glance backwards and forwards, to determine from the whole 
of a nation's surroundings what the course of its development is to be, 
and to indicate in advance of history what ways it must take to retain the 
welfare which providence has appointed for every nation whose direction 
is right and whose conformity to law is constant.' It may perhaps be 
said that the main difference of view among modern geographers centres 
in the question whether ' the twofold study of distribution and of the 
correlation of phenomena ' of itself ' assures the place of geography as a 
separate branch of knowledge ' without necessarily involving their relation- 
ship to .human life. 

However this may be, the framework which the great pioneers of the 
early nineteenth century defined for the building up of a geographical 
synthesis, which in Ritter's view culminated in man's relationship to 
the Earth, was sufficiently wide to permit of many converging con- 
tributions. Workers in many fields of geography were henceforth 
guided by the same fundamental principles, and methods, and whether in 
geomorphology, in climatic or human geography, the central object became 
to exhibit the Earth as a whole made up of related and interacting parts. 

Thus, there has been developed by men such as Suess, W. M. Davis 
and de Margerie the outlines of a systematic interpretation of land-forms, 
a reasoned and synthetic view of the earth's surface-features (geo- 
morphology). Similarly, there has evolved through the sifting and 
interpretation of meteorological data a true climatic geography which, 
as I think all who have profited by such an admirable and lucid exposition 
as Kendrew's Climates of the Continents will agree with me, is something 
quite distinct from meteorology, however dependent upon it. Again, the 
study of plant geography, i.e. of plant associations or types of natural 
vegetation in relation to specific types of physical environment, has been 
worked out in considerable detail and in intimate relationship to the 
geography of both climates and soils. So, too, we have a systematic 
geography of animal life. It is no doubt true that some of the workers 
in these contributory fields have been initially trained in the special 
science which supplied the data, i.e. have been in the first instance 
geologists or zoologists, but it is equally remarkable that many of them, 
when once they have acquired the geographical outlook, have changed 
their objective and become primarily interested in placing or interweaving 
their contribution in the geographical synthesis as such. For it is from 
these main sources — ^geomorphology, climatic and biological (plant and 
animal) geography — that we derive the data for building up that syste- 
matic geography of natural environments which is at once the objective 
of ' physical ' geography and the starting-point of human geography. 


Here I venture to maintain that the formulation by my honoured master, 
the late Prof. A. J. Herbertson, of his scheme of the Major Natural Regions 
of the World, whatever criticisms in detail may be directed upon it, repre- 
sents one of the most fruitful and constructive achievements in the develop- 
ment of modern geography, and it was the work of a man who had 
deliberately trained himself for his task by severe discipline in many 
branches of analytical science. 

All these developments have been based upon the firm foundations which 
Ritter and Humboldt laid down, and are examples of the truth of Vidal de 
la Blache's dictum that ' what geography, in exchange for the help which 
it receives from other sciences can bring to the common treasury, is the 
art of not dividing what nature brings together.' The fundamental objec- 
tives of geography are the same to-day as those which the Greek 
philosophers of Asia Minor and Alexandria conceived. There is a 
' Modern Geography ' only in the sense that there has been a restatement 
of its scope and content in the light of all the new knowledge of the earth 
which more specialised branches of inquiry have revealed. It was the 
work of the great pioneers of the nineteenth century to disentangle it from 
these associated subjects and to ascertain the guiding principles through 
which and the means or technique by which contact and relationship 
with them could be most fruitful and helpful in the attainment of the 
ends for which all science stands. This clarification of its scope and 
methods was essential if geography was to, be in a position to seize the 
opportunities for increased usefulness afforded by the conditions of the 
modern world. For the two circumstances which, granted vision and 
understanding on the part of its exponents, have inevitably enhanced the 
significance and value of our subject are surely these : that, on the one 
hand, our more complete knowledge of the earth and of the distribution 
of phenomena over its surface has made it possible to formulate far- 
reaching and valuable generalisations as to their co-ordination and 
relationship for which the material had hitherto been lacking, and, on the 
other, that the rapidly increasing interdependence and inter-sensitiveness 
of the different regions and peoples of the planet have made a synthetic 
view of the world as of a whole made up of inter-related parts — which is 
the prime object of geography — essential to human progress. 

It is against this background of modern geography as a whole that 
the special aims and contributions of that part of it which we call Human 
Geography must be considered. The separate, departmental ' political 
geography ' of the early nineteenth century is for ever discredited. What- 
ever value human geography may have is involved in its association with 
all the rest of the subject-matter. It is on the question of the precise 
nature of the relationship that difference of view arises. If time permitted 
it would be interesting to review the principal contributions to the 
philosophy of human geography which have been made since the time 
of Humboldt and Ritter, but I must be content with indicating what seem 
to me the main tendencies. 

From the ranks of geographers themselves — as distinct from the views 
on the influence of natural conditions on human societies put forward 
from time to time by philosophers and economists such as Feuerbach, 


Engels and Marx, or historians such as Buckle and Meyer — the two chief 
contributions have come from the school of thought associated with the 
name of Ratzel and that associated with the name of Vidal de la Blache. 
Many English students of geography who may not have read the 
Anthropogeographie and the Politische Geographie of Ratzel are yet 
acquainted with the general tendencies and the standpoint of his school 
through the packed pages of Miss E. C. Semple's Influences of Geographical 
Environment, which is based upon his principles, and of the same author's 
American History and its Geographic Conditions, where we see their 
historical application. All, it is to be hoped, have studied Vidal de la 
Blache's conception of human geography as the master himself developed 
it in his incomparable Tableau de la Geographie de la France and in some 
of the great series of regional monographs written by his disciples of the 
French school. 

' Determinism ' and ' Possibilism ' are the respective labels which have 
been attached to the two schools, and although labels, here as elsewhere, 
are liable to mislead, they sufficiently indicate a fundamentally different 
emphasis and attitude between the two in their treatment of the relation- 
ship of human societies to their natural environments. In the first or 
Ratzelian School the main emphasis is undoubtedly on the control of 
human activities by natural conditions, on the limitations which these 
impose, on the permanency of the stage, ' always,' as Ratzel insisted, 
' the same and always situated at the same point in space,' and of the 
influences which it exerts, on the inevitability of particular developments, 
given a certain milieu. This attitude is even more pronounced in the 
works of some of the disciples of that other school of French human 
geographers or, as it is perhaps better to call them, geographical 
sociologists, who drew their inspiration from Le Play's Les Ouvriers 
Europeens, although Le Play himself cannot be identified with all their 
views. Geographical ' determinism ' reaches its culmination in the 
Comment la Route cr'ee le Type Social of Demolins, who maintains that if 
history were to begin all over again it must in all essentials follow the 
same lines, given the same setting of the stage. Apart from the question 
of bias on the compelling power of physical circumstances, a criticism 
which has been levelled, as I think rightly, against the Ratzelian School, 
is that it is excessively dogmatic, and that, notwithstanding the vast 
amount of material which Ratzel himself and many of his disciples have 
sifted and classified with great skill, we are far as yet from having the data 
necessary for many of the big generalisations which they make. 

The same criticism can certainly not be brought against Vidal de la 
Blache and his followers, whose discussions of these issues, while often 
extremely suggestive and illuminating, are rarely dogmatic or final in 
their conclusions or implications. The master himself did indeed deal in 
his larger works with what may justifiably be called ' principles ' of human 
geography, but his teaching was always that the larger generalisations 
could only gradually emerge from a series of detailed and exact regional 
studies, and we shall all admit, I think, that his disciples have been very 
true to his precepts. The conception appears in the approach and particu- 
larly in the form even of the more ambitious work of Brunhes which bears 
the title La Geographie Humaine. It is hardly possible in a few sentences 


to characterise la Blache's concept of human geography, but I find its 
dominant note and one which brings it into salient contrast with the 
Ratzelian School in the following paragraph : — 

' L'etre geographique d'une contree n'est point une chose donnee 
d'avance par la nature, une ofErande du monde inanime ; elle est un 
produit de I'activite de I'homme, conferant reunite a des materiaux qui, 
par eux memes, ne Font point. ... Si une contree est une personne, 
c'est par I'efiort de ceux qui I'habiterent.' The emphasis here and 
throughout his work is not so much on the determinative influence of 
the stage per se, although this is always presented as a vital factor, as on 
the creative power of human groups to adapt themselves to and, within 
limits, to mould the natural environment, to leave their impress upon it 
and thus in the course of generations to transform it and give it a 
personality which is the outcome of the interaction. This personality 
is not constant. It may change with man's use or abuse of his habitat. 

In all this doctrine a certain power of choice is implied, a power of 
choice which must increase with man's knowledge and control of the 
forces of nature. It is Febvre, not himself a member of the Vidal de la 
Blache school, but a friendly and by no means uncritical interpreter of 
it, who in that fascinating and penetrating if somewhat elusive work, A 
Geographical Introduction to History, flings down the gauntlet to geographical 
determinism in the bold challenge ; ' There are no necessities, but every- 
where possibilities ; and man, as master of the possibilities, is the judge 
of their use.' However critical we may be of the validity or at any rate 
the adequacy of this as a general statement, particularly if applied to the 
historical evolution of various types of society, it does at least indicate 
an objective with which the work of human geographers is closely con- 
cerned. Von Engeln tells us in the Preface to his Inheriting the Earth 
that he wrote his book ' not so much to show that human organisation 
and development have been determined by geographic conditions as to 
insist that in the future they should be,' the implication, of course, being 
that man must study far more intimately the nature and possibilities of 
his geographical environment in order to achieve the harmony with it 
which lies within his power. This address is to be followed by a paper on 
the regional planning of a district which includes a great urban complex, 
separated by a belt still mainly rural and agricultural from a still vaster 
but more amorphous industrial area. It will deal with the various schemes 
of zoning, open spaces and land-utilisation by which it is proposed to 
guide, in the interests of the communities as a whole, the economic and 
in a sense also the social geography of a region which, in common with 
many others, has suffered much from thoughtless exploitation in the past. 
This is one of many examples of the present terribly belated movement 
in Great Britain towards orderly regional planning, which is essentially a 
conscious effort in constructive social geography, the attempt to utilise 
all elements in the physical environment for social well-being (as distinct 
from the ruthless exploitation of particular elements, e.g. coal, regard- 
less of the wider social consequences which marked the earlier stages of 
the industrial revolution) and to harmonise the interests of neighbour- 
ing towns and countryside in a common scheme in which each has its 
place. To this movement geographers, I think it may be claimed, have 
1930 H 


already made some contribution, and at any rate it illustrates admirably 
the practical implication of the doctrine : ' There are no necessities, but 
everywhere possibilities ; and man, as master of the possibilities, is 
the judge of their use.' 

With this indication of some dominant tendencies in the setting and 
perspective of human geography, I pass to an attempt to define more 
closely its subject-matter and its different aspects. I believe that in 
essence human geography consists of the study of (a) the adjustment of 
human groups to their physical environment, including the analysis of 
their regional experience and of (6) inter-regional relations as conditioned 
by the several adjustments and geographical orientation of the groups 
living within the respective regions. The term ' adjustment ' I take to 
cover not only the ' control ' which the physical environment exerts on 
their actiAaties, but the use which they make or can make of it. Human 
geography is the study of an interaction rather than of a control. The 
adjustment has distinct but usually closely-related aspects which form 
the main branches of human geography. The relationship between them 
is from the geographer's standpoint as intimate as that between the 
different branches of physical geography. The four principal aspects 
may be distinguished as the racial, economic, social and political. 

The racial aspect implies an adjustment of a different character from 
the others, one over which man has had little control but which he can 
increasingly influence through his better imderstanding of the issues 
involved. I am well aware that in touching on racial geography I am 
treading on dangerous and controversial groimd. Yet I am convinced 
that it is as necessary to find the right relationship between human 
geography and anthropology as it is between physical geography and 
geology, and that racial geography is as significant and essential a part 
of the geographical synthesis as is geomorphology. I think it is true to 
say that racial determinism, i.e. the explanation of characteristics in 
terms of race alone, apart from environmental conditions, is becoming as 
discredited as geographical determinism, the explanation of everything 
in terms of physical environment. Few serious anthropologists to-day 
uphold the conception of race put forward by Gobineau, the Demolins of 
racial determinism : ' Le groupe blanc, residat-il au fond des glaces 
polaires ou sous les rayons de feu de I'Equateur, c'est de ce cote que le 
monde intellectuel inclinerait. C'est la que toutes les idees, toutes les 
tendances, tons les efforts ne manqueraient pas de converger, et il n'y 
aurait pas d'obstacles naturels qui pussent empecher les denrees, les 
produits les plus lointains d'y arriver a traverser les mers, les fleuves et 
les montagnes.' The tendency in anthropology is certainly not in the 
direction of thus appraising racial types, so far as they can be definitely 
distinguished, according to an absolute scale of value or efficiency, but 
relatively to the geographical environments in which they are found. 
Their somatic traits are discussed in terms of regional adaptations and 
the fruitful hypothesis is put forward that so far from racial varieties being 
unchanging and fixed for all time they are continually undergoing slow 
modification and in process of becoming. Now the unit of the geographer's 
study is not race as such any more than it is climate as such, or any other 


physical element. His unit is the place or region. It is this concept — 
and I do not think it can be emphasised too strongly — which gives dis- 
tinctiveness and individuality to his work. With the relationship of 
climate and other physical factors to race in a region, the geographer is 
closely concerned, and there are few more important aspects of his study 
than the composition, actual or potential, of the societies occupying the 
region. In the world of to-day there are many regions of ' closed ' human 
associations, if I may borrow a useful term from plant geography, regions 
such as China or the Mediterranean lands as a whole, where the dominant 
racial type or types in possession are so numerous and well adjusted that 
the entry of any important new racial element is extremely unlikely. But 
there are other regions of ' open ' human associations, at present thinly 
peopled but capable of holding a much larger population, whose racial 
future is uncertain. Such, for example, are Tropical Australia and 
parts of Malaysia, of Africa, even of Asia. Is it possible or desirable for 
the geographer in his study of these regions to confine himself to their 
resources and economic possibilities and not to consider at all, in the 
light of all that he can learn from anthropology, the relative aptitudes 
and adaptability, climatic and otherwise, of various racial groups for 
developing them, and the extent and manner in which co-operation 
between different groups may in certain cases be secured for this end ? 

Take, for example, the highly important pronouncement made by 
General Smuts last autumn in one of his Rhodes' lectures at Oxford. In 
the course of his plea for the advance of native Africa through the 
introduction of a higher civilisation in the form of White settlement, he 
advocated ' a strong forward movement in the policy of settling the high- 
lands of Eastern Africa which stretch in an unbroken belt, hundreds of 
miles broad, from Kenya to South Africa.' It is not for me to express 
an a friori opinion on the wisdom of tliis suggestion, but it raises vitally 
important issues of human geography which certainly ought to be faced 
before such a programme is really adopted. These issues are at once 
racial and economic in character. Do we yet know enough about the 
effects of a high plateau climate in equatorial latitudes on peoples of 
North European stock ? Even if it be granted that satisfactory acclimatis- 
ation of such peoples in the Kenya Highlands can be achieved, are the 
conditions of the plateau belt as a whole intervening between them and 
' temperate ' South Africa sufficiently similar to warrant the prospects of 
an equally good adjustment % The tentative generalisation has been made 
that, from the standpoint of the success of ' White ' plantations, there is 
a vital difference between the 4,500/6,000 feet altitude of the Kenya 
Highlands and other smaller mountainous ' islands ' to the south, and the 
3,500 feet level which seems to characterise most of Tanganyika. Or 
again, what are the prospects of making the ' fly belt ' suitable for white 
settlement ? Or, granted favourable climatic and other physical condi- 
tions, have the economic relations likely to be established between the 
proposed white settlers and the native Bantu tribes been sufficiently 
considered from the point of view of the uses which the two groups, in 
the light of their race characters, antecedents and needs, are likely to 
make of the land ? It is not cartographical surveys alone — -althougli 
these are vital and the basis of all others- — ^which need to be made befurr 


such questions can be answered. Similar questions arise concerning the 
future of Southern Brazil, Malaya, parts of Central and Eastern Asia and 
many other regions where groups with different racial characteristics and 
aptitudes are in competition. The racial aspect is only one of several, 
but the study of racial distributions, based on anthropological material in 
the same sense that geomorphology is based on geological material, seems 
an essential element in the content of human geography. Personally, I 
feel it to be a distinct gain that in at least one university geography should 
be closely associated with anthropology, so long as it is not identified with 
it, just as in others it is more closely associated with economics or history 
or with physical science. Provided that the subject is kept free and 
unfettered, it is an advantage to have contributions from special angles. 
My colleagues will have no more doubt than I have that the field of 
geographical study, however wide, is definite, but I think they will also 
agree with me that a complete school of geography is a remote ideal and 
a complete geographer an almost impossible conception, so that some 
difference of emphasis between the various schools of geography is not 
only permissible but desirable in the interests of the subject. 

It is unnecessary for my present purpose to elaborate what is implied 
in that aspect of man's adjustment whose study forms the subject-matter 
of economic geography. It is of course a fundamental and basic aspect, 
including the geography of production (with agricultural and industrial 
geography as its principal subsections) and the geography of exchange 
(commercial geography in the more technical sense). Partly because it 
is so fundamental and of such obvious utility and partly, no doubt, because 
the material is more easily available and the technique involved in its use 
easier to elaborate, it is this branch of geography which on the whole has 
made most progress in this country during recent years, so that we now 
have a large and growing literature in it, including both comprehensive 
works on its whole field and also detailed regional studies. Here it is no 
less than a duty to pay a tribute to the valuable service rendered by the 
geographical departments of the University of London. This develop- 
ment is as it should be, but yet I am convinced that we run the risk of 
losing the unity and cultural value of geography if we overstress the 
purely economic aspects and make, for example, the distribution, actual 
and potential, of products and manufactures the supreme objective. 
Economic geography serves one of its highest functions if it is closely 
linked with other aspects of human adjustment to physical environment 
which have so far received less attention. Of these, one of the most inter- 
esting and profoundly important is that which, for want of a better term, 
we usually call social geography. This may be broadly defined as the 
analysis of the regional distribution and inter-relation of different forms of 
social organisation arising out of particular modes of life which themselves 
represent a direct response — although we maj^ concede to M. Febvre not 
necessarily the only possible response — to distinctive types of physical 
environment. A classical example of the importance of this aspect is of 
course the age-long conflict between nomadic, patriarchal pastoralists and 
peasant cultivators, socially organised on a territorial basis, along the 
grassland borders of the hot deserts in Africa and Arabia and round the 
edges of the steppe-belt in Euro-Asia. In modern times the problems 


connected with the inter-regional relations of differently organised groups 
in Africa and elsewhere have been greatly complicated by the impact of 
industrial Europe on their lives. Franz Schrader in that very illuminating 
sketch The Foundations of Geography in the Twentieth Century, which 
formed the subject of the first Herbertson Memorial lecture, rightly empha- 
sised the profound disturbance of equilibrium with environment which 
the rapid transformation of man's relations to nature, through the achieve- 
ments of applied science, has inevitably produced. It has particularly 
affected the traditional societies of intertropical Africa, the Monsoon Lands 
and the South Sea Islands whose mode of life and social organisation, once 
established as an adjustment to their milieu, often remained in essentials 
unchanged until they were so suddenly and in some cases so tragically 
drawn into the maelstrom of modern commerce. In the last analysis 
this disturbance is one of the chief causes of world-wide unrest, since 
equilibrium with environmerft is the first essential of happiness for 
human groups. 

One of the greatest needs of our time is to discover what, for each type 
of regional environment or milieu, are the real factors in readjustment 
through which alone the recovery of equilibrium can be attained. What 
is involved is readjustment to all the local conditions of the habitat in 
the light of its new contact with other regions, its new place in the total 
scheme of world relationships. Modern Denmark would seem to be an 
admirable example of a successful readjustment of this kind. Statesman- 
ship in such an Empire as ours is increasingly concerned with the task of 
harmonising the interests of many groups cradled in different environ- 
ments, diverse in race, mode of life and experience, but under the conditions 
of the world to-day increasingly interdependent. Particularly is this 
apparent in the problem of the readjustment of African societies, one of 
the most critical and complex of our time, and one for the solution of 
which Great Britain has incurred heavy responsibilities. Such problems 
are as much geographical in character as those concerned with the regional 
planning of English districts and equally demand detailed surveys by 
investigators capable of analysing the social life and experience of human 
groups in their whole geographical setting, and of appreciating the 
significance of the new elements in their environment. De Preville's 
Les Societes Africaines is a brilliant and well-known example of social 
geography, admirably illustrating its main concepts, and, if a critical 
examination of it often raises doubts as to the validity of some of its big 
conclusions, that only the more emphasises the need for detailed local 
work on these lines, now that material is becoming available. Attention 
may be drawn to the series of papers to be given in a later session of this 
section which will deal with the programme of the subcommittee on the 
Human Geography of Tropical Africa, as an example of the contribution 
which systematic work in social geography may make towards the better 
understanding of these problems. 

The modern tendency in geography to think of the Earth in terms of 
natural as opposed to artificial divisions should not lead to the neglect of 
political geography in the proper sense of the term ; for the function 
of political geography is to study and appraise the significance of politi- 
cal and administrative units in relation to all the major geographical 


groupings, whether physical, ethnographic, social or economic, which affect 
mankind. It is essentially an aspect of adjustment to geographical 
environment, and it is precisely because it is so closely related to other 
aspects of adjustment, which, in the influences that they exert, are often 
conflicting, that equilibrium is so difficult to attain. The study of the 
mode in which geographical conditions have helped to mould the evolution 
of states in the past is of absorbing interest, however complex and difficult. 
The existence of favourable areas of characterisation possessing a con- 
siderable amount of natural protection, such as the English Plain and the 
Central Lowlands of Scotland, within which the social contact of originally 
different racial and social groups was easy, certainly provided the medium 
through which in Western Europe strong nation-states tended to take 
shape. The group consciousness which we call nationality seems to have 
followed rather than preceded the actual formation of such states. 
Nationality arose in relation to environmesit and widened its scope and 
allegiance with the increase of economic and political contact. Thus, 
Kentish and East Anglian patriotism, without entirely disappearing, 
were gradually merged into the larger conception of English patriotism. 
So, too, later, when greater intimacy of contact and realisation of the 
economic advantages of co-operation had furnished the raison d'etre of the 
Union of England and Scotland, and the political unity of the entire 
island had been achieved, English and Scottish patriotism were corres- 
pondingly but only very gradually enlarged. Since the forces promoting 
the contacts and economic interdependence of regions are operating on 
a much bigger scale in the world of to-day then ever before, we might 
expect to see this process of political integration even more strongly 
marked, and the rapid territorial growth of the United States and other 
large political entities can be quoted as examples of it. But in the 
reconstituted Europe of our time we see this process arrested and even 
reversed. It is only 30 years ago that W. Z. Ripley, in his great work 
on The Races of Europe, after discussing the reasons for the extension 
of the Roumanian people over what he terms ' the natural barrier ' of the 
Carpathians into Transylvania, asserted that ' geographical law, more 
powerful than human will, ordains that this latter natural area of 
characterisation — the great plain-basin of Hungary — should be the seat 
of a single political unit. There is no resource but that the Roumanians 
should in Hungary (which then, of course, included Transylvania) accept 
the division from their fellows over the mountains as final for all political 
purposes.' The prophecy has been falsified ; the ' law ' has been broken, 
although at the price of much economic dislocation, and in the arrange- 
ment of the Succession States the unity of the great plain-basin has been 
ignored. 'Nationality, as tested by linguistic and cultural affinities, 
rather than the economic orientation indicated by the physical conditions, 
has been accepted as the main criterion of the new units, although there 
is frequent departure from this principle. The New Europe is admittedly 
a great experiment in political geography. Its success would seem to 
depend on the possibility of reconciling the different factors. The most 
stable political units are undoubtedly those which most correspond to 
geographical realities, but these realities are not wholly limited to con- 
siderations of physical and economic geography. The distribution of 


groups related in culture and language is also a geographical reality. 
The ideal state from the geographical standpoint is one which neither 
divides groups culturally related nor interferes with the flow of trade 
along natural arteries and between regions economically interdependent. 
It may be, although as yet the indications are not very hopeful, that the 
urgent need of Europe for greater economic integration can be reconciled 
with the desire of the small nationality groups for cultural and political 
autonomy. It may be that economic federation or agreement among 
small sovereign states within the framework of the League of Nations will 
prove the only alternative to the ' Super-State ' solution of the problem 
of European political geography propounded by Naumann in his Mittel 
Europa. At any rate, nationality, considered apart from its geographical 
setting, may be a very dangerous conception. 

The problems of political geography in other parts of the world are no 
less interesting and important. Many of the political units of Africa, 
carved out in the course of a hasty scramble for power, are essentially 
arbitrary, and are far from representing natural integrations. It is, 
however, a welcome sign of a new order that in the allocation of the 
Mandates for Togoland and the Cameroons the cultural affinities and 
groupings of the peoples, as well as the physical conditions, were 
specifically recognised. Lord Lugard some time ago called attention to 
the great importance of this aspect in the problem of regional self- 
government in India, and the Simon Commission emphasises its 
significance. Even in our own country we have analogous problems, such, 
for example, as whether the county units, developed in relation to con- 
ditions of physical and human geography which have largely passed away, 
should be replaced or in part superseded by larger administrative entities 
more in harmony with the modern economic regions of the country, a 
subject discussed in a suggestive way by Prof. Fawcett in his Provinces 
of England. 

I havfe tried to indicate the essential character of the principal asj^ects 
of human geography, each of them from the standpoint of the adjustment 
of human groups to their geographical environment. It is permissible 
and desirable to pursue special studies of these various aspects of our 
subject, but they find their fullest fruition when they are brought together 
and inter-related in a full and comprehensive treatment of regions such 
as Cjivic gives in his book La Peninsule Balkanique : Geographie Humaine. 
We can never really appreciate the problems of such countries as India, 
China and Russia until we have a comprehensive interpretation of their 
human ecology, to use the expressive term employed by the American 
geographer Barrows. In the future it is probable that geographical 
specialism in the Universities will be less concerned with aspects (such as 
geomorphology, climate and economic geography) — although this will 
always have its place — and more concerned with regions (the 
Mediterranean, Tropical Africa, the Far East, and so on). The geographer's 
parish must indeed be the world, but it is too large a parish for all parts 
of it to be studied in detail by any one man. He must, if he is entrusted 
with a University department, delegate responsibility for as many regional 
chapels-of-ease as he can find associates and colleagues to work them. 

Of historical geography there is no time, nor is this the occasion to 


speak, except to give it its place in relation to what has been already said. 
Historical geography is essentially human geography in its evolutionary 
aspects. It is concerned with the evolution of the relations of human 
groups to their physical environment and with the development of inter- 
regional relations as conditioned by geographical circumstances. It has 
the same aspects and is permeated by the same concepts as human 
geography. The primary object is not, as has been too often supposed, 
to explain historical events as determined by geographical conditions, but, 
on the other hand, historical geography is far more than history illustrated 
by a few maps. It is the critical study of an interaction and adjustment, 
whether exhibited in the history of settlements, land-utilisation, com- 
mercial and cultural relations or in the evolution and relationship of 
administrative units and states. As such, it is to human geography what 
history in the accepted sense is to politics or, as it is often called, con- 
temporary history, an explanation, so far as it can be given, of how the 
existing position has been reached, the demonstration of the present as a 
phase in the whole process of becoming. It demands, and this is at once 
one of its most difficult and one of its most attractive aspects, the recon- 
struction of the physical setting of the stage in the different phases of 
development. It is, indeed, particularly concerned with tracing that 
' changing expression which the appearance of the earth assumes ' as 
modified by human action in all its manifestations. No study can be more 
truly illuminating, and without some knowledge of it as a background 
the significance of many modern problems of human geography is indeed 
hard to grasp. Between the ' time-line ' of history and the ' space- 
circle ' of geography, to use Brunhes' expression, there can be no arbitrary 
separation without grave loss to both, and there are welcome signs that 
historians and geographers are beginning to understand the basis of their 

We may claim for human geography that, rightly studied, it is a vital 
element in training for national and international citizenship. It can 
enable us ' accurately to imagine the conditions of the great world stage ' 
and the place of the different regions within it. It is a valuable mental 
discipline, calling for an exact sense of proportion in appraising the value 
of many factors and more specifically developing the great quality of 
sympathetic understanding. The point of view and type of outlook which 
it fosters were never more needed than in the present critical stage of human 
development. Yet, not only through its value as an educational instru- 
ment, but also through the programme of constructive work which it 
advocates, can it contribute to the realisation of the ideal of ' unity in 
diversity,' and that seems the only possible ideal for the life of humanity 
on a planet, which, however small applied science may make it,* will 
always retain its infinite variety. 






S. 1. In recent years British economic science has been enriched by the 
incorporation into its phraseology of two new terms of art : an incorpora- 
tion which is significant on more than one ground. One German, the other 
American in origin, their adoption points to the international character of 
the social and economic problems of the age and to the directions whence 
we are accustoming ourselves to find inspiration ; vague and uncertain as 
their content is, their use indicates a shift in the centre of gravity of econo- 
mic discussion, for they relate to problems of production, and their use is 
thus a sign that that preoccupation with distributional problems, beginning 
with Ricardo, but especially characteristic of the last quarter century of 
British economic thought, has taken a new turn. Lastly, the circumstance 
that widespread currency has been given to those new and alien terms in 
connection with the public discussion of the questions to which they relate 
has created an unfortunate impression that the economic life of the world 
is being confronted by novel, vast and mysterious problems, of a kind 
hitherto unknown. The problems involved are indeed of the utmost 
importance, but when their character is analysed, it will be found that they 
derive their importance more from a change of scale than from the novelty 
of their nature. 

S. 2. The phenomena to be discussed are capable, if not of exact, at 
least of fairly definite statement. Throughout the world a conscious 
process of reorganisation is taking place, involving both the structure of 
industry and the methods of production. To this process the name of 
rationalisation has been given. It is many-sided, but among the charac- 
teristic results of the rationalisation process are : a growing control over 
the market, a growing standardisation of process and output, and an 
increasing^ — in some cases, a very largely increasing — output per worker. 
These associated organisational and mechanical changes have, therefore, 
the result of economising the amount of labour directly required per unit 
of output, and — in so far as the distribution of goods over space and time 
is itself rationalised — of involving also a net reduction in the amount of 
labour required to place a unit of output in the hands of the final consumer. 
Given this trend the question arises : will not the opportunity for finding 
employment in industries subject to these processes of change also undergo 
a change 1 In other words, does rationalisation inevitably bring with it 


unemployment due to the technological alterations involved ? If an affir- 
mative answer is given, then part of the existing volume of unemployment 
in Germany, the United States and Great Britain is not due to causes local 
to the area concerned, such as the popular explanations that unemploy- 
ment is due respectively to the Gold Standard or the pressure of Repara- 
tions or the Wall Street slump, nor even to such general factors as the 
present fall in world prices, but must be directly ascribed to the techno- 
logical or structural alterations which are taking place. Undoubtedly, if 
unemployment is resulting from technological changes, the social problem 
of dealing with it is greatly aggravated by the existence of other local and 
general causes of unemployment. But we are not entitled to assume that 
when the local causes making for unemployment have disappeared we shall 
then find ourselves with unemployment reduced to some pre-war ' normal,' 
for there is no reason to suppose that in the immediate future, the rational- 
isation process will come to an end. If rationalisation does cause unem- 
ployment, the post-war ' normal ' may be higher, perhaps considerably 
higher, than the pre-war one. Thus, in the final analysis, we are face to 
face with the curious result that one of the most popular of all remedies 
for unemployment may in itself be one of the causes producing the evil 
for which a remedy is to be found. 

S. 3. The first requisite in attempting to analyse the relationships 
between technical improvements and the volume of unemployment is an 
historical standpoint. The resistance to change is a permanent element 
in human society : no alteration in the structure of society or in its detailed 
economic arrangements can be made without some interference with vested 
interests. All abstract reason may teach that without mechanical inven- 
tion and discovery and without improved organisation, the greater part of 
the world's present population would never have been born : all experience 
may prove that without economy of effort no increase in the standard of 
life is possible — nevertheless, change and improvement may be resisted, 
and upon grounds which deserve serious consideration. The problem, 
from this point of view, is one of the distribution of the gains and the 
sacrifices. No one will expect the farmer to rejoice at so bountiful a crop 
that it does not pay to cart it to market : to appreciate the significance 
of the law of diminishing returns is as important as to understand that the 
practice all round of the principle of restriction of output means lessened 
material welfare. Neither Robinson Crusoe nor a purely Communistic 
State would be distressed by the problem which we have to discuss here. 
Under Crusoe economics, mechanical invention and improved organisation 
would allow of increased consumption or increased leisure, or both, to the 
sole person interested : under a purely communistic regime improved 
organisation and technical progress (assuming them to be possible) would 
increase the national di\adend or diminish the national expenditure of 
energy, or both, without necessarily making things worse for anyone con- 
cerned, for, ex hypothesi, goods would be still shared in common. In the 
Communistic State rationalisation might result in unemployment, but it 
would not mean, what it may mean under a regime of private property, 
a very unequal distribution of the gains and losses from the changes 
taking place — though even in a Communistic State some difference 
would in practice have to be made between the employed and the 


unemployed in order to diminish the attractiveness of leisure to the 

S. 4. The progress of technique has been the characteristic feature of 
the Western World since the eighteenth century, but it was in the early 
years of the Machine Age that the problems arising out of the contemporary 
developments were most fully discussed by economists. For this reason the 
discussion of the problem of Rationalisation by the Classical Economists 
has a direct significance for the present age : the problem of the ' Influence 
of Machinery upon the Condition of the Labouring Classes ' which was 
debated by Ricardo and McCulloch, Chalmers and Babbage and Senior 
is in all essential respects the problem which vexes us to-day. Whatever 
may have been the attitude of the popularisers of economic thought, the 
original thinkers of the time were by no means so intoxicated with the 
progress of technique that they failed to see that it had its drawbacks. 
Ricardo, in his celebrated recantation in the Chapter on Machinery in the 
third edition of the Principles, finally arrived at the conclusion that the 
' substitution of machinery for human labour is often A^ery injurious to the 
interests of the class of labourers .... the same cause which may 
increase the net revenue of the country may at the same time render the 
population redundant, and deteriorate the condition of the labourer,' ' and, 
in summing up his thought, argued roundly that ' the opinion entertained 
by the labouring class, that the employment of machinery is frequently 
detrimental to their interests, is not founded on prejudice and error, but 
is conformable to the correct principles of political economy. ' ' But this 
view, though it can be defended on adequate grounds, was based by Ricardo 
on reasoning which must be regarded as untenable. Charles Babbage, the 
most fervent contemporary apostle of the application of scientific method 
to economic life, discusses the whole issue very admirably in his work ' On 
the Economy of Manufactures.' Whilst reduced prices, consequential upon 
the use of machinery, have a tendency to reabsorb the labour inevitably 
displaced, yet in order to prove ' that the total quantity of labour is not 
diminished by the introduction of machines, we must have recourse to 
some other principle of our nature.' '^ This principle turns out to be the 
influence of the increased power to enjoy upon the desire to enjoy : ' He 
who has habitually worked ten hours a day will employ the half hour saved 
by the new machine in gratifying some other want ; and as each new 
machine adds to these gratifications, new luxuries will open to his view, 
which continued enjoyment will as surely render necessary to his happiness.' 
But this optimistic psychology of wants does not prevent Babbage from 
stressing, (a) the effects of new machinery in redistributing the demand for 
labour, so that ' considerable suffering among the working classes ' results. 

' Principles. MeCuUoch's edn., p. 236. 

'^ Op. cit.,p. 239, cf. this with the utterances of a more modern pessimist : Capitalistic 
rationalisation, in the absence of constantly expanding foreign markets is ' driven back 
upon the home market : and there it defeats itself and creates around it a desolation 
of unemployment and human decay.' Labour ' deprived of its independent source 
of income (cf. Ricardo's " Gross Revenue ") ceases to be effective in the market as a 
buyer, and thus defeats the aim of the reduction in costs which has been achieved.' 
G. D. H. Cole. The Next Ten Years, p. 109. 

■* This and the following citations are taken from the fourth edition of the Economy 
of Manufactures, 1835, paras. 404-407. 


(b) the increased competition which rationalisation sometimes induces 
among the workers, for ' even though the increased demand for the article, 
produced by its diminished price, should speedily give occupation to all who 
were before employed, yet the very diminution of the skill required would 
open a wider field of competition amongst the working classes themselves,' 

(c) the difficulty in deciding whether, when improvements were made, the 
process of displacement should be gradual or immediate : ' the suffering 
which arises from a quick transition is undoubtedly more intense : but it 
is also much less permanent than that which results from the slower 
process : and if the competition is perceived to be perfectly hopeless, the 
workman will at once set himself to learn a new department of his art.' 
In the end Babbage was driven to adopt a very doubting tone : ' That 
machines do not, even at their first introduction, invariably throw human 
labour out of employment, must be admitted ; and it has been maintained, 
by persons very competent to form an opinion on the subject, that they 
never produce that efiect. The solution of this question depends on facts, 
which unfortunately have not yet been collected,' and he makes a powerful 
plea for further statistical information, which after the lapse of a century, 
one is still forced to echo. 

Neither Chalmers, who believed in the doctrine of the Wage Fund, nor 
Senior, who did not, denied that the effect of machinery might be to 
increase unemployment. ' It is not the true Anndication,' argues the 
former, ' that the making of the machines opens so great a source of em- 
ployment, that the making and working of them together take up as many 
hands as did the making of the commodities without the machines ; for, in 
this case, there would be no abridgment of labour, and no advantage to 
master-manufacturers in setting up the machinery. And it is not a sufficient 
vindication, that, when an article is cheapened hf machinery the demand 
for it is so much enlarged, as still, in spite of the abridgment in labour, to 
require as many, if not more, labourers for its preparation as before : for 
this, though true of many, perhaps most trades, is not true of all.''' The 
true defence is that ' the fund, out of which wages come, is left unimpaired.' 
Senior's general position cannot be shortly described, but he does at least 
admit that when the demand is inelastic, emplojntnent declines, though 
this is to him the exception. Citing the case of a screw which ' in the manu- 
facture of corkscrews, performed the work of fifty-nine men,' he argued 
that this example ' is as unfavourable to the effects of machinery as can 
be proposed : for the use of the commodity is supposed to be unable to 
keep up with the increased price of production, and the whole number of 
labourers employed on it is, consequently, diminished. This, however, is 
a very rare occurrence. The usual effect of an increase in the facility of 
providing a commodity is so to increase its consumption as to occasion 
the employment of more, not less, labour than before.' ^ 

The classical school had thus, by the middle of the last century, resolved 
the problem into its constituent parts. Under what conditions will 
rationalisation involve unemployment in (a) a single industry (b) in all 
industries taken together ? Or, is there some inherent ' principle of 

* Pol. Economy, Appendix Note B on Machinery, p. 56. 
•^ Political Economy in Ency. Metropolitana, 1850, p. 166. 



human nature ' upon which reliance can be placed to solve the problem, 
after transitional effects have been overcome ? Those were, and remain, 
the fundamental issues which have to be faced. 

S. 5. Available figures do reveal impressive improvements in production 
in recent years, and gain added significance when placed in juxtaposition 
with figures relating to employment. An increase in per capita and aggre- 
gate output in a single industry accompanied by a decline in the number of 
workers engaged does not, of course, necessarily imj^ly the existence of any 
unemployment at all, since an industry normally loses a certain percentage 
of its workers every year, and if the rate at which new entries take place 
is adjusted to the new technical conditions, the consequences of technical 
improvements can only be judged of indirectly. An increase of aggregate 
and per capita production over industry generally accompanied by growing 
or stable unemployment does, however, suggest that the rate of improvement 
is for the time being so great that over the range of industry covered, the 
chances of employment are diminishing : though unless the unemployment 
returns cover the whole, or a very significant part of the employable 
population, it may still be the case that, indirectly, the effects of rationalisa- 
tion are being offset, in whole or in part, by an increase in the volume of 
employment in the occupations not recorded in the returns. And since 
production figures are biased by the choice of base years, the incidence of 
the trade cycle, changes in the demand for particular commodities and the 
like factors, even the co-existence of increasing aggregate and per capita 
output with increasing or stable unemployment is not by any means a 
completely valid test of the relationship between the elements in the 

The best advertised figures are undoubtedly those relating to the United 
States.* Put into their simplest form, the Census of Production figures 
show that between 1919 and 1927 (the last a year of comparative depression 
of trade), the number of workers in the four main divisions of American 
industry : viz., agriculture, mining, transport and manufacturing, declined 
by 7 per cent., quantitative output increased by 20 per cent., and output 
per worker by 30 per cent, approximately. The figures adduced by Mr. 
Woodlief Thomas carry the same implications with them : they relate to 
a comparison of the years 1918-20 as base with 1924-6.'' 

Index ai beginning of period^lOO. 



Output per 

Agriculture 1924-6 
Mining do. 
Manufactures do. 
Railways do. 
Average do. 










* Some of the material cited below has already been made use of by me in an 
article : Is America Prosperous ? Economica, No. 28, pp. 7-8. 

' Woodlief Thomas — The Economic Significance of the Increased Efficiency of 
American Industry in American Economic Review, Supplem.ent, 1928. 


Accurate unemployment figures for the U.S.A. do not exist : estimates 
exist for 1928 which vary from 1.9 millions to 2.6 millions : one estimate 
for 1927 was 4 millions, whilst another authority gives an estimate which 
varies from 4J millions in 1921 to a minimum of 2 millions in 1927.* 

A census of production does not exist in Germany. The revised index 
of production recently published by the Institut fiir Konjunkturforschung 
(Base 1928=100 ; comprising 31 weighted industrial groups) shows that 
production rose from a figure of 69.5 for 1924 to 101 in 1929. In the 
year of rationalisation, 1925, the index rose to 83.3, fell in the slump of 
1926 to 79 and reached 100 in 1927. ^ Whilst the maximimi number of 
applications per 100 places available reached a peak at the beginning of 
1926 (in the period 1924-9), and the employment situation is marked by 
great seasonal variations, nevertheless a competent German authority 
points out that in 1929 ' fhe rise in unemployment as compared with 
the previous year, practically corresponded to the increase in the number 
of available workers caused by the age distribution of the population. 
In 1929 it was thus no longer possible for industry to absorb this 
increment.' ^ Some interesting figures are cited by the same authority, 
illustrative of the growth of efficiency in particular industries. In the 
Ruhr Coal industry, for instance, the total number of employees declined 
by 10 per cent, between 1913 and 1928, whilst the output per employee 
rose by 26 per cent. In 1929, production per employee rose another 9 per 
cent, up to June, whilst employment fell another two per cent., though 
the monthly figures are clearly affected by seasonal changes. In another 
industry directly competitive with British industry, the facts are even 
more striking : ' The index of labour efficiency in the German machine 
industry, using the first quarter of 1925 as a basis, averaged 142 per cent, 
for 1929, as compared with 133 per cent, for 1928, 142 per cent, for 1927 
and 126 per cent, for 1926.' i" 

Even in the case of Great Britain, which is generally regarded as ha^ang 
lagged somewhat behind in the Rationalisation movement, more than one 
piece of evidence is available which suggests an increasing productivity as 
one of the immediate causes of unemployment. Quite apart from the 
recent speeches of industrial leaders at Company meetings representing 
such diverse products as cement, transport and rubber tyres, the produc- 
tion index of the London and Cambridge Economic Service when placed 
in juxtaposition with the employment figures, reveals a far more rapid 
growth in the former than in the latter. Thus between 1924 and 1929 
the Combined Index of Production rose from 100 to 116.2 : the employed 
population over the same period increased from some 9,500,000 to 
10,020,000 persons, or some 7 per cent., whilst unemplojTnent was greater 
by nearly 4 per cent. No doubt the position in Great Britain is extra- 
ordinarily difficult to weigh, since world factors of any sort unfavourable 
to trade and industry are likely to affect this country to a greater degree 
than more sheltered areas. Nevertheless, the figures do suggest a growing 

' Recent Economic Changes in the U.S., 2 vols. 1929, t'. Vol. II, pp. 469-78. 
^ Germany's Economic Development during the Second Half of the Tear 1929, 
published by the Reichs-Kredit-Gesellschaft, 1930. 
'" Germany's Economic Development, &c., p. 14. 


divergence between the movement of production and the movement of 

S. 6. Whilst the foregoing analysis may be sufficient to establish a 
presumption that in recent years the process of rationalisation has been 
responsible for the creation of part of the existing volume of unemployment, 
in the end one is forced back upon general economic reasoning. Three 
general sets of circumstances have to be examined : the motive of 
rationalisation, the circumstances under which rationalisation takes place, 
and the methods of rationalisation actually adopted. 

(1) The first point is simple. The motive of rationalisation is in all 
cases to reduce costs from the standiJoint of the capitalistic producer : 
it is not the reduction of ' real ' cost or ' social ' cost. It may very well 
be the case that a process which reduces pecuniary costs from the 
capitalistic point of view also reduces ' real ' cost : a new technique may 
involve less actual psychic strain to the worker employed. On the other 
hand, standardisation may involve elements of social loss : a lowering of 
the standard of skill or reduction of the creative and aesthetic element in 
work. It follows from this that whenever wage costs per unit of output 
form a substantial element in the price of the product per unit before 
rationalisation, it will pay the producer to reduce that cost, if necessary, 
by the displacement of labour by mechanical instruments. It does not 
follow that unemployment must ensue, since we have still to take account 
of demand for the product, and of the indirect effects of the economies 
introduced. But unemployment may follow. And from this point of 
view it is important not to overlook the circumstance that the attractive- 
ness of reducing wage costs per unit of output is not an absolute magnitude : 
it is a function of the wage cost itself and of the economies to be realised by 
alternative processes. Now it is at least significant that at the present 
time the rigidity of wage rates is a striking element of the economic 
situation in this country : all other prices are falling but the price of labour 
is not. The same is true of Germany : at least as regards unskilled labour. 
In 1929 ' weekly wages on standard time schedules ' of unskilled labour 
were between 75 per cent, and 80 per cent, above 1913 : the cost of living 
was only about 55 per cent, above the pre-war level. In the United 
States, the check to immigration has given labour something like a quasi- 
monopoly. Under these circumstances, to economise labour as much as 
possible represents merely ordinary business prudence. 

(2) The effect of rationalisation upon the chances of employment 
obviously differs when the striving after economy is the result of a period 
of intense demand for goods and services of all kinds, or when the striving 
after economy represents an attempt to meet the exigencies of falling 
prices, or an unfavourable economic situation generally. The war period 
represents the first alternative, the present moment the second. During 
the War, rationalisation -was forced on because there was an insatiable 
demand for goods at a time when a large proportion of the able-bodied 
workers of the country were absorbed by the Army. At the present 
moment, when industry is suffering from a contraction of the market and 
when, on other grounds, there is already a surplus of labour available, the 
position is obviously different. Again, we are not entitled to assume that 
unemployment must ensue, for we must again deal with the demand side 


before we arrive at a final conclusion, but in general it is at least clear that 
unemployment is more likely to ensue from rationalisation tban was the 
case during the War. 

(3) Lastly, as regards the methods of rationalisation. Here, of course, 
the task of analysis is complicated by the fact that a large variety of 
rationalisation methods can be distinguished, the effects of which on the 
employment situation (even without taking demand conditions into 
account) may be very different. 

(a) So far as so-called ' Financial •Rationalisation ' is concerned : that 
is, the writing down of book values and the consequential cleaning up of 
the balance-sheet position, there is obviously no direct connection with 
the problem of employment at all. 

(6) But financial rationalisation, when it means — as it increasingly 
does — a greater degree of integration of enterprises, does affect the 
employment situation directly. 

When integration involves concentration of particular types of output 
at different works, then, in so far as different degrees and kinds of skill are 
involved, a problem of mobility at once arises, for grades and types of 
labour formerly required at more than one point are now required, perhaps, 
at only one point. The greater the difficulty of getting labour to move, 
the greater the chances that the further consequences of concentration — 
improved processes, eliminating the kind of labour which is difficult to 
obtain by substitution of another kind, or the replacement of labour by 
machinery — may throw a particular kind of labourer out of work 
altogether. At the very best one is then left with the problem of 
reabsorption in another direction. 

(c) Standardisation of types, whether occurring as a result of con- 
centration of output at certain points within an integrated group forming 
part of a wider industry, or whether occurring as a result of deliberate 
agreement by all the producers within an industry, has also a direct 
bearing on the labour situation, in so far as repetition work in and of itself 
encourages the further use of machinery and the substitution of skilled 
by unskilled labour. 

(d) Lastly, we are left with certain rationalisation methods which have 
as their object not the direct cheapening of the product, but control over 
the market, through common sales-organisations of one kind or another. 
Their effect on the employment situation ob\'iously turns on the price 
and sales policy adopted : and they thus involve the question of demand, 
to which we must now turn. 

In considering the relations between rationalisation, the market andj 
unemployment, there is one obvious point which tends to be lost sight of 
in popular discussion. The degree of rationalisation which ' pays ' is not 
an absolute magnitude, but depends on the ' shape of the demand curve.'' 
Thus a complication is introduced through the circumstance that the 
point of optimum economy in production may involve a volume of output 
which, if it is to he sold, reduces the aggregate return below the maximum 
attainable if a smaller volume had been produced and marketed. In 
such a case — which cannot always be foreseen in advance — and given the 
absence of effective competition, the economies in labour cost may be 
eaten up by a rise in the overhead cost, and if there has been a reduction 


in the volume of labour directly employed, there are not necessarily any 
resources available by which that labour can be indirectly absorbed. The 
consumer pays the price which brings the maximum aggregate return. 
Unless this price is lower than the price previously ruling, he cannot 
increase his exjjenditure in other directions. The price need not be lower, 
because, though prime cost may be lower, supplementary cost, for the 
volume actually sold, may be so much higher as to lead to no general 
lowering of cost at all. In other words, rationalisation undertaken on 
technological grounds without taking into account demand conditions 
may not increase the aggregate national dividend and so may create an 
unemployment problem which it cannot solve. And we have no right to 
assume that the race of rationalisers never makes a mistake. 

Returning now to the general problem, we necessarily employ concepts 
which are familiar to all students of economics. 

(o) If the demand for an article has an elasticity greater than unity, 
a reduction in its price results in a more than proportionate increase in 
the quantity demanded. Thus, even in a rationalised industry, in which 
labour cost has been reduced, the greater the elasticity, the greater the 
derived demand for labour, and the greater, therefore, the opportunity 
for reabsorbing labour and of adding to the total quantity of labour 
employed. But how much labour will be needed, depends not only on the 
state of demand, but on the technical conditions in that industry. 

(&) Even if the derived demand for labour in this industry has an 
elasticity of less than unity, yet provided that the demand for the product 
of the industry has an elasticity greater than unity, the indirect derived 
demand for labour may have an elasticity greater than unity. For the 
machinery and other equipment used by the industry has itself to be 
created by means of labour, and, if the output of the industry is expanding, 
it requires an expanding plant. Thus, the increased demand for labour 
in equipment industries which marks the first stages of a rationalisation 
niovement calling for large quantities of new equipment, may continue 
after the first stages have been passed. But too much must not be based 
upon this. For if rationalisation is a continuous process, it will affect not 
only the industries supplying consumers' goods in the narrower sense, but 
also the industries subserving these industries. 

Optimistic interpretations of the rationalisation process will generally 
be found to be based upon the assumption that what is true in some cases 
is necessarily true in all. The demand for certain popular luxuries is no 
doubt highly elastic, but it is equally clear that the demand for agricultural 
products, for example, is not. There is no reason whatever to suppose, 
therefore, that an all-round cheapening of products already available will 
necessarily absorb all the labour unemployed in consequence of technical 
changes, though no doubt that wall be the case to some extent. But to 
what extent is unfortunately unknown. 

S. 7. Nevertheless, is it not legitimate to argue with Babbage in the 
passage already cited that ' as each new machine adds to these gratifica- 
tions, new luxuries will open to his view ' ? or with Professor Robbins,^^ 

" Economic Effects of Hours of Labour, by Prof. L. Robbins (Economic Journal, 
March 1929, p. 25). 

1930 I 


that the elasticity of demand for labour in general is greater than unity ? 
Since rationalisation reduces the quantity of labour required for the pro- 
duction of the existing quantum of material welfare, in other words, will 
it not be possible to add to that volume of material welfare ? Or must we 
argue with Mr. G. D. H. Cole that rationalisation ' might succeed in lower- 
ing substantially the cost of producing each unit of the national output : 
but it would only find itself unable to make use of the great new productive 
power of which it had become the master. For the problem of production 
cannot be solved unless the problem of distribution is solved with it ; and 
the lowering of the unit cost of production, unaccompanied by a pouring 
of fresh purchasing power into the pockets of the consumers, will only 
mean a more determined policy of restricting output and a widening circle 
of unemployment ' ?^^ 

But, in the absence of falling prices due to monetary causes taking place 
coincidentally (which, as we have already had occasion to point out, inten- 
sifies the employment problem) rationalisation involves an increase of the 
monetary purchasing poiver in the hands of the consumer. So long as money 
incomes in general remain the same, the margin between money incomes 
and expenditure goes up, in those cases in which the elasticity of demand 
for products of the rationalised industries is less than unity : or the 
cheapening of the articles results in a larger aggregate consumption of 
them, or, if the articles in question are subject to quasi-monopolistic 
conditions, the same amount is spent on them as before, but profits in the 
industries producing them increase, and larger profits mean additional 
purchasing power in the hands of entrepreneurs. The problem as stated 
by Mr. G. D. H. Cole is not the real problem at all : the real problem is: 
what use will ' consumers ' make of the margin of purchasing power now 
available as a consequence of rationalisation ? 

If the answer to this question is that consumers will devote it to the 
satisfaction of new wants, then it will be true that in the long run rationali- 
sation will not involve unemployment. But the run may be a very long 
one : not only because a transfer problem is involved, but because the 
newer industries themselves will not in all probability require as much 
labour as they might have, had not the whole atmosphere of industry been 
impregnated with the rationalisation spirit. From this point of view, an 
increase in the demand for those personal services which are least affected 
by the progress of mechanical improvement will help to solve the probleni 
more easily than a demand for goods the production of which requires the 
direct application of labour to a smaller extent. The growth of the 
' service industries ' in the United States has been expressly adverted to 
by the very able group of American economists who last year published 
their Survey of the developments of the last decade in the United 

But consumers need not devote their available resources to the satisfac- 
tion of new wants. They may decide to ' hoard ' their savings in the 
technical sense described by Mr. D. H. Robertson in his Banking Policy 
and the Price Level : or, in other words, they may desire to keep more of 

12 The Next Ten Years, <t'C., p. 116. 

'' Recent Economic Changes, Vol. I, p. xvi. 


their resources in a liquid form. If this hoarding takes place on a large 
scale a cumulative pressure is exerted on the price level, and the difficulty 
of absorbing labour is ipso facto increased. In the ceaseless combat waged 
in the human mind between the desire for greater gratification on the one 
hand and the desire for greater security in the shape of holding free 
resources on the other, it is not at all times true that it is the former passion 
which gains the upper hand. At the present moment it would appear as 
if the desire to abstain from additional consumption were more important 
than the critics of current standards of consumption would be prepared to 

However that may be, the problem of transfer that is in any case 
involved is one of sufficient difficulty. Contrary to general opinion, even 
in countries like the United States, with a high degree of labour mobility, 
transfer may involve not only considerable loss to the individual but also 
considerable delay in point of time : as appears from an interesting piece 
of evidence presented by the Brookings Institute of Economics to the 
U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labour in the course of their 
investigation of Unemployment in the United States in 1928-9. ^^ 

S. 8. We have now arrived at the point at which it is necessary to 
apply the foregoing analysis in a more directly practical manner. 

(1) Since the rationalisation movement is international in character, 
and, since it undoubtedly results in most cases in a reduction of cost per 

'^ Summary of Testimony and Report of Institute of Economics of the Brookings 
Institution by Isidor Lubin, documented, p. 500-1 : — 

' An investigation recently made by the Institute of Economics of the Brookings 
Institution reveals that most of the displaced workers have great difficulty in finding 
new lines of employment once they are discharged. A survey of some 800 workers 
in three industrial centres revealed that the newer industries are not absorbing the 
jobless as fast as is usually believed. 

' Almost one-half of the workers who were known to have been discharged by 
certain firms because of curtailment in employment during the year preceding were 
still without jobs when interviewed by Institute of Economics investigators. Of 
those still unemployed over 8 per cent, had been out of work for a year, and about 
one-half had been idle for more than three months. Among those who had succeeded 
in finding work, some had had to search for jobs for over a year before finally being 
placed. More than one-half of those who had found jobs had been in enforced 
idleness for more than three months before finding emploj-ment. Only 10 per cent. 
had been successful in finding new jobs within a month after discharge. 

' The new jobs, moreover, were usually secured at a sacrifice in earnings. Some 
workers, to be sure, were fortunate enough to find employment which paid higher 
wages, as was made evident by the fact that about one-fifth of them were making 
more money on their new jobs than before discharge. Forty-eight per cent, however, 
were receiving lower wages and about one-third were earning just about the same 
amount as they formerly did. 

' And what kind of jobs did these men finally secure ? Trained clothing cutters 
with years of experience had become gasoline station attendants, watchmen in 
warehouses, timekeepers in steel plants, and clerks in meat markets. Rotary press 
operators were pressing clothes in tailor shops. Machinists were selling hosiery for 
mail-order houses. Welding machine operators were mixing salves for patent 
medicine manufacturers. A significant number of men admitted frankly that after 
some months of enforced loafing they had taken to bootlegging. 

' It is e\ddent that a large number of the workers now being displaced from industry 
are being forced into unskilled trades at a sacrifice in earnings and a consequent 
lowering of their standards of living. At the same time they are being made to bear 
the burden of unemployment, for which they are in no way responsible and over 
which they have no control.' 

I 2 


unit of output, no single country engaged in international trade under 
competitive conditions can hope to contract out of its consequences, good 
and bad, except at the expense of its international trade. This is in itself 
a sufficient reason for pushing ahead with rationalisation in this country. 

(2) In the short run, rationalisation is not a remedy for unemployment, 
but, on the contrary, is itself a factor in making for unemplojouent, except 
to the extent that it stimulates demand in the constructional and equijD- 
ment industries. But since a loss of markets due to progressive reductions 
in prices by rationalised industries in other countries also adds to the 
volume of unemployment in this country, the short run evil of unemploy- 
ment in this country changes in character, rather than grows in volume. 
Industries are in part depressed because local costs of production are 
too high and unemployment ensues. Rationalisation reduces costs, but, 
until the lower costs have helped the industries in question to regain their 
market, and expand it, unemplojmient will remain. But unemployment 
resulting from rationalisation is a lesser evil than unemployment resulting 
from relative inefficiency. 

(3) In the long run, since rationalisation effects a lowering of real costs, 
then, given a desire for a rising standard of life, there is no reason to suppose 
that the volume of unemployment will not again fall. But, in the absence 
of any definite knowledge of the elasticities of demand for different pro- 
ducts, we cannot foretell in what directions an increased demand for labour 
will manifest itself. Both American and British experience would seem 
to show that the demand for labour in the existing body of industries is 
likely to shrink, absolutely in relation to the population, relatively in 
relation to the output : whilst every increase in the technical knowledge 
available to industry will make the demand for labour in relation to output 
smaller in the new industries, the rise of which we have every reason to 
suppose (to judge from past experience) will accompany reductions in 
real costs in the existing industries. Thus, the occupied population in the 
future is likely to be less ' industrialised ' than in the immediate past : and 
the growth of trades and occupations outside the narrow concept of 
' industry ' will continue as rationalisation proceeds. 

(4) The most optimistic view of the situation must take into account 
the fact that a grave transfer problem is involved, and that monetary and 
other circumstances having nothing directly to do with the rationalisatior 
problem may accentuate the difficulties of transition. The first and most 
obvious step in the direction of ameliorative measures must therefore be^ 
an increase in the mobility of the working population. 

(5) In estimating the probable duration of unemployment resulting 
from rationalisation, account has to be taken, not only of the state of 
technical knowledge, but of the movement of the population. Since 
rationalisation produces its most striking results when the aggregate 
demand for a product continually increases, a stationary population (and 
the most advanced nations are tending to stationariness of population), 
places a limit to the expansion of output in each of the several directions 
in which the economies of large scale production are most strikingly dis- 
played. At the same time, the decline in the number of new entrants into 
industry, which is to be expected over the next few years, will diminish 
the immediate pressure. But it is quite possible that the normal level of 


unemployment will be higher in the future than in the past : in which case, 
unemployment will cease to serve as an index of material well-being. The 
paradox of a rising standard of life with a higher level of unemployment 
may well be the result of the present tendency in industry. 

(6) On the other hand, there are not wanting examples to show that 
demands for new products and services can be stimulated very quickly, 
provided they are sufficiently cheap : and there is therefore no reason to 
fear that we shall all " starve in the midst of plenty.' What has been true 
of the motor cycle, the motor-car, the gramophone, the radio, artificial 
silk, the cinema, the popular press, books, travel facilities, greyhound 
racing and the rest will surely also be true of the future. No doubt we 
shall have to give up the belief that ' national power ' is to be measured 
by a high percentage of occupied persons in a few ' staple industries ' : but 
just as we no longer think of measuring our " national power ' in terms of 
agricultural output, so we shall gradually see that those countries which 
have the highest standards of life ought to be those employing the largest 
proportion of their populations in the supply of ' luxuries.' All that stands 
in the way are economic and ethical standards no longer appropriate to 
the tendencies at work. 

(7) There is an obvious relationship between the progress of rationalisa- 
tion on the one hand, and the possibilities of a shorter working day and 
higher earnings from labour on the other. The rise in the standard of 
living and the shorter working hours which have characterised the progress 
of industry in the last hundred years were both conditioned by increased 
productivity : though it may be true that unless Labour's demands had 
been made, the spur to further invention and discovery might have been 
in part lacking. But at any given moment a balance must be struck 
between the demand for higher earnings and the demand for more leisure, 
for, if both demands are pushed to such an extreme that, if either were 
granted, the whole benefit of increased productive power would be ex- 
hausted, then the grant of the one excludes the grant of the other : and if 
both were, under these conditions, simultaneously asked for and granted, 
a new disequilibrium of costs and prices would be set up, which would 
inevitably cause a new wave of unemployment until further advances in 
technique and organisation had been achieved. 

A shorter working day and higher wage rates are, of course, frequently 
defended, not on the legitimate ground that society can afford them with 
increasing productive powers, but on the ground that they are direct means 
for reducing unemployment, because they ' spread work ' and stabilise 
' working class purchasing power.' Unless accompanied by increasing 
productivity, however, they are incapable of achieving these results : for 
a shorter working day Avithout a larger output would either involve lower 
wages or rising costs per unit : and rising money wages without increasing 
productivity would also result in disequilibrium. But given increasing 
productive powers, it is possible to lower prices to the consumer and pav 
the same wages as before for a shorter day or, with the same lower cost to 
the consumer, pay a higher wage for the same working day. Growing 
productivity, in fact, gives society a margin to ' play with,' and this 
margin is the source out of which unemployment can be relieved. But 
we have no right to assume that the process works without friction or that 


the fears of the workers are based entirely on ' prejudice and error.' In 
the end, one must rest one's hopes on the known elasticity and responsive- 
ness of capitalistic society : an organisation which was capable of surviving 
the shocks of the war and post-war period is hardly likely to perish because 
it is learning to turn the arts of production to still better use in the future 
than it did during the last one hundred and fifty years. 





Sir ERNEST MOIR, Bart., M.Inst.C.E., M.Am.Soc.C.E., 


Preliminary Statement. 

As President of Section G I feel greatly honoured in addressing you after 
the many able men who have done so in the past. Many of my predecessors 
I have known personally, and it is with hesitation I address you now, in 
view of my knowledge of the giants they were in their various walks of 
life. To name a few. Sir John Fowler, with whom, when little more than 
a boy of twenty, I frequently walked under the shadow of that great 
structure, the Forth Bridge, created in the mind of himself and Sir Benja- 
min Baker, whom I met more frequently and in closer friendship while I 
was in charge of the erection of his masterpiece. When I was twenty-two, 
I was placed by William Arrol in charge of the erection of the first portion 
of the Forth Bridge on its present site. Though Sir William Arrol never 
figured as your President, he was a man of fearless action and great fore- 
sight. He never doubted that any difficulty arising would be overcome, 
and he was never fearful of results and of his powers to succeed. John 
Fowler gave to his partner, Benjamin Baker, full credit for his great 
achievement in the design of the Forth Bridge, that was and is still his 
outstanding work, though many triumphs awaited him in later years. 
The great and lovable Frederick Bramwell, though not technically so 
supreme a master, his mind being rather of the judicial character, as is 
shown in some of his arbitration awards, was another of those who have 
given you masterly addresses. Yet another is Sir John Wolfe Barry, with 
his broad mind and outlook, giving confidence to all who approached him, 
always showing a sense of fair play in his judgments between the companies 
whom he faithfully served, but never allowing them to influence his deter- 
minations between themselves and the contractors when they differed 
about their respective responsibilities for happenings entailing payments. 
This characteristic enabled him to get the work he designed carried out 
more cheaply, since risks were less onerous under him than under many 
others practising during his active career. Next, Sir Douglas and Sir 
Francis Fox were a pair of brothers who left their mark on big undertakings, 
and Douglas was among those who have addressed you metaphorically 
from this rostrum. Alexander Kennedy is now only a memory, but what 
a memory and example he was to us all, and what a delightful and varied 


character he had ! I had the great good fortune to study under him and 
imder Vernon Harcourt, another great personality, for whom I acted as 
demonstrator in his surveying class at University College, London. His 
work was mostly to collect and collate in his books the works of others on 
harbours and docks — very useful work to those who come after. Alexander 
Binnie has also given you a masterly address on the ancient scientific lore 
of the Koman Lucretius, who appears to have known so much more about 
atomic theories and the basis of matter than was known for many genera- 
tions after his time. Among those still living there are many who have 
done honour to the judgment of this Association and whose memory and 
achievements will leave their mark, and whose names will resound down 
the centuries. Prominent among these are Sir Charles Parsons, of turbine 
fame, and Sir Dugald Clark. To follow after such men and do justice in 
your judgment to the theme of the application of science to engineering 
will be a great satisfaction to me, if I can fulfil the requirements, but it is 
with some misgiving, I repeat, that I attempt this task. It will be for 
you to judge whether I have succeeded when I have finished, and I hope 
you will bear with me in shortcomings if I do not live up to the high 
standard set by the men I have mentioned. 

It has been my privilege and good fortune to have worked with and for 
many of those who have presided over Section G on some of the largest 
works during the last forty-eight years. You may gather from this that 
I began very young. Dr. Kirk was one of my early chiefs, the inventor 
of the block model for determining the resistance of ships. He also was 
the designer of the first triple expansion engine that propelled a ship to the 
Antipodes on a fuel consumption of L6 lb. of coal per|h.p. hour, and as 
an apprentice engineer I worked upon her engines, both in the pattern and 
fitting shops. Here was an example of physical aiid mechanical science 
applied to engineering in a very special way, though the scientist may have 
lagged behind the engineer in this case. During my apprenticeship in 
Glasgow, I got in touch with Lord Kelvin, or Sir William Thomson, as 
he was then. I conceived an idea for doing away with the piston rod in 
steam engines, much as is done to-day in the internal combustion engine 
as we all know it in the motor car, while at the same time closing the lower 
end of the cylinder so that a two-stroke scheme could be employed without 
having to put pressure in the crank casing. I made a rough model and 
took it up one evening, after my ten-hour day was finished, to show my 
idea to the famous man. I was told by the butler that Sir William had a 
dinner party, so I hastily said I would call some other time. The butler 
insisted, however, that Sir William would be annoyed if he did not make 
me come in, so in spite of my protests I was ushered into the great scien- 
tist's study, and Sir William came in, having left his guests, and went 
through my idea critically for nearly an hour. I mention this to show 
what a great man Lord Kelvin was, quite apart from his inventive and 
scientific attainments, and kindly actions such as this no doubt encouraged 
every one who came in contact with him. What his dinner guests thought 
about it I do not know, but he did not seem to mind. 

Some branches of engineering are more dependent on exact science 
than are others, but all must admit dependence on all or nearly all 
branches of science. I might say, on the other hand, that science in many 


of its branches has been helped, and urged forward to further investigations 
by the engineer stumbling on ground which science had not till then 
investigated, in the particular manner in which engineering had need. By 
collating results and making them applicable to the future needs of 
engineering, the scientific worker has on many occasions determined 
doubtful jjoints and made the future use of discoveries and inventions by 
engineers and their allied workers possible. Thus, engineering practice and 
engineering inventive imagination and pure science have reacted on one 
another to the advancement of exactly applied knowledge. Simple facts 
and discoveries by scientific research workers have frequently not revealed 
their usefulness until those who apply them to the needs of men have 
tested them and shown their utility, and then the scientific investigator 
has made further advances, and indicated further possibilities in the 
use of the discoveries made either by the laboratory research worker or 
the engineer. My own experience, when dealing with practical civil 
engineering problems, has indicated some examples, and many doubtless 
exist unknown to me. The observation of natural phenomena has played 
a very important part in the advancement of science as applied to industry 
and to engineering problems of all kinds. The constructing engineer has 
not the time to investigate exactly the forces of nature with which he has 
to contend, and he has frequently to cover up his ignorance by the use of 
' factors of safety ' in making his designs, often using larger factors than 
are called for, and at other times not providing the necessary margins he 
thought he had allowed for. This is notably the case in connection with 
bridge designs and stresses arising out of the fatigue of metals and the 
hammer action of moving loads in bridge floor systems, and the efiect of 
plunging rolling stock thereon. Investigations have been carried out 
recently by experiments on a large scale with actual locomotives, the 
results of which have been now collated by Prof. Inglis of Cambridge, into 
some useful formulse, from which computations of possible stresses may 
be foretold. Some types of locomotives have been so bad in this respect 
that but for our old friend, the factor of safety, the structures of many 
bridge floor systems would long since have been destroyed by percussion 
and repeated hammer blows dealt upon them. It was long recognised by 
engineers that the fatigue of metals under stress arising out of (1) the 
range of stress, and (2) its reversal, demanded lower maximum stresses to 
be applied, and the scientist has now so investigated the facts that 
positive data are available and results can be forecast with accuracy and 
certainty. Newton did not evolve the value of ' g ' out of his own mind, 
but by observation its value was ultimately determined to the benefit of 
all who use physical science. I do not know how we should get along 
without ' g ' now, though apples fell long before it was discovered, and it 
would be difficult to think how the influence of the planets upon our tides, 
so important to many branches of civil engineering work, could have been 
foretold but for the practical discoveries of Newton and their ultimate 
scientific consolidation into mathematical formulae. There is still a great 
deal to be discovered in connection with the action of tides and waves and 
their destructive efiect on sea works, many of which fail undoubtedly from 
f.he lack of exact knoAvledge of such action and their reaction on the sea 
.shores where harbours must be built. Just recentlv we have had an 


example of the carrying away of years of work at Antofagasta Harbour, 
Chile, by a series of tidal waves. Yet there is no existing formula extant 
which would have enabled the civil engineer to forecast this appalling 
disaster. The influence of sea action on structures built up of units of 
mass and at varying depths of water is not at the moment governed by 
precise knowledge, and the forms of breakwaters vary the world over. 
There ought surely to be some means of collating data for the guidance of 
civil engineers in the design of marine works, which would save them from 
having to rely alone on the failures or successes of those who have gone 


The influence of air and water-filled voids and the effect they have on 
many matters that affect engineering practice is not, I think, fully realised. 

Their bearing and their influence on design include within their range 
such widely different subjects as the solidity of breakwaters, their cost 
and their resistance to sea action ; the combustion of fuels, both solid 
and liquid, and especially their rapidity of burning, ranging from explosions, 
in the case of propellants and blasting powders, to the corrosion of metals 
by oxidation. The minuteness of particles and the voids which surround 
them turn some innocent substances, such as coal-dust and flour-mill-dust, 
into dangerous explosives, and this is due to the intimate association of 
the air and its contained oxygen with the minute sub-division of their 
' mass when they are powdered by grinding. The economy of fuel, both 
liquid and solid, when burning, is greatly enhanced by its fine sub-division, 
especially if provision for its intimate association with the atmosphere is 
arranged for. Explosion, as compared with combustion, is only a question 
of rapidity of combustion, the other extreme being the slow deterioration 
of metals due to oxidation as exemplified in the rusting of steel and iron 
structures. These examples show what a wide range there is in the 
phenomena that are in some measure attributable to the voids surrounding 
the particles of materials and their more or less intimate association with 

I propose to give some examples later which have occurred in my own 
experience, and which emphasise the question of the importance played 
by voids in engineering work. 

Another aspect of this subject is exemplified in capillary attraction, 
or the capacity of certain mixtures of minute particles either in a loose 
form or in the form of porous solids, which have the power of defjdng the 
action of gravity by raising water. In some cases I have known water 
raised several feet, which seems to me to indicate the existence of a power 
that so far does not seem to me to have been adequately defined and has 
some analogy, I imagine, to the diffusion of gases. This power, possessed 
by some materials, which do not dissolve in water, of acting in an un- 
expected way on contained fluids, when such fluids are free to move by 
gravity to lower levels, is due to something not to my knowledge fully 
explained. I imagine capillary attraction may be analogous to the flow 
of sap in growing vegetation. It might be due, though I have never heard 
it suggested, to changes of temperature that might produce this movement 
of vegetable fluids contrary to gravity. It is certainly not so in very fine 


sands formed of decomposed granites or in the porous structures of bricks 
and some rocks. I have known water rise up within a glass tube H inches 
in diameter filled with fine sand, composed of decomposed granite (the 
lower end of which was immersed in a dish containing i inch of water) 
6 or 7 feet in a few weeks. This, at first glance, might seem of little moment 
from a practical engineering point of view, but when subsoils having this 
characteristic have to be drained, so that trenches may be safely sunk 
therein, the effect of the included water on materials is a serious matter 
in the construction of engineering works. The lubricating effect set up 
by the water produces quicksands out of the very fine particles which, 
when dry, are relatively easy to handle by ordinary trenching methods. 
The included water makes a semi-fluid mass which becomes extraordinarily 
difficult to deal with in works involving excavation because the subsoil 
refuses to give up the water it contains, and will flow through slight 
crevices and under driven piling sunk into it many feet. 

In connection with mixtures of concrete, voids play a very important 
part in the creation of what is practically artificial conglomerate. Further, 
the minimum size and the variety of sizes forming the inert parts of concrete 
mixtures make a great difEerence to the structure arising out of a mixture 
of sand and stone (commonly called ' the aggregate ') with a varying 
amount of cement. It is well known that the size of the cement particles 
themselves make a difference to the necessary hydration, which reunites 
them after their divorcement by heat and subsequent grinding to a very 
fine powder. In the case of airtight or watertight concrete it is a matter 
of great importance that all interstices be filled with cement when it has 
become hydrated. It forms the adhesive matrix between the other 
materials, which economise by dilution and form the greater part of the 

It is well known that an infinite number of different sized perfect 
spheres would ultimately create a mass with no voids at all, if their variety 
of size be carried to an impossible extreme. In many structures it is an 
ideal condition of things to get as near as may be practicable to this state 
of affairs when, as for example, an impervious concrete for dams and tanks 
is desired. 

Doubtless many of you know what is commonly called the sand lime 
brick largely made in Switzerland from glacial moraine in the rivers, where 
stones of many different categories and sizes are brought down by the 
melting ice-fed rivers into the valleys. I have seen excellent bricks made 
in the Aar Valley out of a combination of a large number of different sizes 
down to m.inute particles of crushed stone in which the remaining voids 
were so small that only 2h per cent, of very finely ground lime to form the 
matrix was all that was needed to make what was practically an artificial 
solid stone. I have never heard of any other sand lime brick with such 
a minute amount of lime matrix producing this effect. All this points 
to the necessity of a minute analysis of sizes and shapes of particles to get 
the most economic use of lime or Portland cement in the making of a mass 
of artificial stone. Cement concrete differs only from masonry on general 
broad lines. Masonry, in the form of concrete, can be put in with the 
shovel, whereas hewn block masonry may involve lifting appliances and, 
in any event, very careful handling and setting to produce the desired 


results. It is, for example, much more difficult to make water-tight 
masonry than water-tight concrete, because it is more difl&cult to 
thoroughly fill the voids in the masonry joints with a trowel or by bedding 
the stones in mortar than by mixing the ingredients as in concrete. 

Further, in earthen dams and in earthen railway embankments the 
question of settlement is very largely bound up with the amount of voids 
left in the material when it is tipped. 

During my work in the United States for the British Government 
during the war — -1915-16 — I had an interesting experience arising out of 
the testing of time fuses and the effects of voids thereon. The firm which 
had made many thousands of this particular fuse — it was called a No. 185 
time fuse — had been very accurate in their manufacture up to a point ; 
the timing had been very regular and the percentages of error on proving 
at the range very small. Suddenly, however, the proving guns told 
another story, and the timing of the bursting of the shrapnel was distinctly 
bad. I visited the factory where these fuses were made and went minutely 
into the possible causes of the change, xls to the chemical analysis of 
the powder, which was compressed into the time-burning rings, there 
was no change indicated in this analysis and no change in manufacture 
or in the pressing of it into the time ring. For a time we were all at a 
loss to account for what was happening. I remembered, however, that 
British Navy cordite made in England had holes cast through the blocks 
which go to form propellants for big gun charges. These were carefully 
proportioned to admit of association of the air surrounding such cast 
blocks (by perforation) in order to regulate the speed of combustion. I 
thought there must be something, therefore, changed in the volume of 
the voids and of the contained air arising out of the handling of the powder 
when in transit to the factory. I asked the head of the firm whether he 
had recently changed the method of transport. He said, ' Yes, we have. 
We have been making an addition to our factory, and while this has been 
going on we have had to bring the powder in by motor lorries over 
temporary roads instead of by railway wagon.' ' Well,' I said, ' I think 
this is the secret of the errors in the timing of the fuses you have made, 
for the powder has evidently been brought in over the rough roads made 
of tree trunks (called " corduroy " roads in America), and has been more 
shaken than it had been when delivered by rail ; the voids between the 
particles have been made less in consequence, and the included air is 
therefore less in amount, and contact with the particles of powder and 
the rate of burning is consequently different. This, then, is the possible 
cause of the burning in the time rings being irregular.' 

To make a long story short, this was investigated and found to be the 
case, and when this rough motor transport was eliminated the same 
powder performed its proper function just as exactly as it had done before 
this temporary method of transport was introduced and without any 
change in composition or treatment in the manufacture of the fuses. 

The breakwater I have just been constructing in Valparaiso Harbour, 
Chile, is founded in 187 feet of water upon a sandbank. This bank is 
deposited by suction dredgers from neighbouring foreshores within 
ten miles. It has spread out at its base to over a quarter of a mile in 
width, and the sand, in its passing through this great depth of water, has 


so consolidated itself as it falls upon the bed of the Pacific Ocean, and 
has so filtered out all its lighter particles on its way, that its consolidation 
has become very dense ; so much so that the fluke of an anchor let fall 
upon it does not penetrate into its surface. This sandbank has been 
brought uj) to a depth below water of 63 feet and graded quarried rock 
is sjjread upon its top. Firstly, what is practically quarry rubbish of 
variable sizes weighing about 2 tons per ni^, from which has been picked 
the larger rubble, is spread on the toj) of the sandbank ; then upon this 
quarry rubbish selected rock gradually increasing in dimensions as it 
gets nearer low water (which weighs about 1"7 tons per m^) is placed. 
The quarry rubbish (or what is known in Chile as ' desmontes ') is brought 
up to 66 feet below low water level, and thereon the larger categories of 
rock of 2 cwt. to 1|- tons and from IJ tons to 10 tons in weight to 39 ft. 6 in. 
below low water are placed. This upper layer, containing the larger 
categories, is deposited in excess to allow for settlement. It is levelled 
by divers, and upon this surface are placed blocks weighing 60 tons upon 
a slope of about 70° to the horizontal and at right angles to the axis of 
the breakwater, interlocked on the inclined face throughout their depth, 
so that they can slide down and take up any settlements in the bank on 
which they rest. Before the 60-ton blocks are placed a period of one year 
is allowed to elapse, so that the whole bank can settle. Notwithstanding 
this period of one year the great weight of the superstructure does cause 
further settlement, extending over some months, resulting in a final settle- 
ment of about 3 feet. 

None of the different categories of material appear to have been moved 
by the very heavy storms, locally known as ' northers ' on the western coast 
of South America, neither have any tidal waves disturbed or earthquakes 
moved, as far as we can determine, this enormous bank to any serious 
extent. There is evidence of two earthquakes having occurred before 
the breakwater was completed which caused some relatively small 
disturbance of the sandbank. The rubble was deposited in its various 
categories by hopper barges, and in its passage through the water there 
is little doubt that anything of an earthy nature that might have adhered 
to the rock was washed off it. This has, no doubt, contributed to its 

Valparaiso is the first large breakwater in which a sand foundation has 
been adopted to so large an extent, and there seems to be no doubt that 
in suitable situations, and in a sufficient depth of water, smaller material 
can be used for marine structures than has hitherto been employed. In 
shoal water, or near the low-water level, or where currents exist, sand 
should not be used. Small material may be satisfactory, however, at 
great depths, as evidenced in Valparaiso. Masses of sixty tons are needed 
on the Pacific Coast where, as on any coast, the vertical motion of the 
waves is converted by the shoaling bottom into a horizontal one. If local 
rock strata will not produce quarried rubble of sufficiently large categories, 
which is the case with a great many of the rocky formations on the Pacific 
Coast (due, no doubt, to earthquakes, which are numerous) artificial 
concrete blocks are essential to produce the necessary masses. 

Experience at Dover Harbour, and also at Valparaiso, indicates that 
below a level of forty-five feet, even in structures composed of practically 


vertical sides with the heavy seas beating thereon, nearly at right angles — 
there seems little chance of disturbance of relatively small stones. 

It should be understood, however, in this connection that thought 
must be given to possible currents arising from any cause whatever. It is 
well known that stones of considerable dimensions are carried along our 
London sewers if a velocity of a few feet per second arises. 

Only one small movement of the 60-ton blocks in Valparaiso break- 
water occurred in an exceptionally heavy storm, and that, I think, was 
attributable to an interesting and temporary modification of the top 
courses to assist construction. The movement was very small and, it adds 
to the interest to note, it was not on the sea side but on the sheltered side 
of the breakwater. It was attributable, I think, to the fact that a tem- 
porary longitudinal depression was left in the centre of the structure for 
construction purposes. The pier top has a total width of 45 ft. 6 in. , and only 
the outer rows of blocks in the top course were placed. Thus, a longitu- 
dinal channel protected from the sea in which to transmit the blocks, for 
construction purposes, to the crane at the outer end of the work was pro- 
vided. This depression formed a canal when a heavy swell existed and 
was filled by the sea. None of the joints in the breakwater blocks are 
cemented or filled with grout, therefore voids existed between them, into 
which columns of water flowed. Since water is incompressible, the falling 
masses of green sea on the surface of this filled canal acted like a hydraulic 
ram which transmitted vertical blows from the falling masses of fluid into 
horizontal pressure between the blocks. The blows moved the top courses 
of blocks towards the inside by a few inches but, fortunately, not sufficiently 
to require extensive demolition and replacement to put matters right. Had 
the storm continued for several days it is possible that these voids would 
have caused the partial destruction of the top courses of the breakwater. 
This canal was intended to be filled with mass concrete, and this has now 
been done, and no further trouble can arise from this cause. 

Another and similar case occurred in the old Admiralty Pier at Dover, 
which is faced on both sides with granite blocks. A number of the blocks 
have been forced out at right angles to the axis of the breakwater by what 
was clearly equivalent action. In other words, the stone jointing was not 
full of cement mortar and voids were left. Water accumulated behind the 
inner ends of these poorly jointed blocks, and the force of the hammer 
blows reacting from the almost vertical wall created what amounted to a 
hydraulic ram, and so forced the granite blocks out of the face of the 

The exact action of the sea on structures is waiting the solution of the 
scientist to determine what forces exist and are exerted by moving masses 
of water in great storms. The knowledge of the effect of waves of any 
definite length or height is not determinable with sufficient exactitude by 
any scientific data that I know of. 

I remember while the harbour works were under construction at Dover 
three concrete blocks piled one on top of the other, each averaging about 
thirty-five tons, were standing on the unfinished pier. They rested on 
some timber packings a few inches thick at a level of about 8 ft. above 
high-water mark. During a south-westerly storm in the Channel, they 
were carried across the pier many feet and into the sea on the lee side. 



This could only have resulti'd from some reduction of the frictional resis- 
tances due to compressed air or hydraulic action on the under side of the 
blocks and between them and the pier top where a space or void existed. 
This upward pressure decreased the friction to such an extent that the 
force of the sea was enough to slide the blocks horizontally. It has been 
determined in the north-east coast of Scotland that blows due to sea action 
sometimes amount to from two to three tons per square foot on small 
areas and up to two tons per square foot on large areas. It would appear 
that some sort of ' pressure lubrication ' was produced between the bearing 
surfaces which in mechanical design has not, I think, been developed as 
far as it might be to reduce friction between moving parts. 

One has frequently observed, having poured hot water into a glass and 
turned it upside down on a wet glass shelf, with what small amount of 
force the glass begins to move along the shelf. This reduction of friction 
would appear to be due to the air finding its way under the edge of the 
inverted glass and the movement caused by some small inclination of the 
glass shelf on which it rests. This, I submit, is an indication of what 
happened by sea action to the pile of heavy blocks on the unfinished pier 
at Dover Harbour, 

The only information the civil engineer can rely on at the present 
consists of historic facts which are referred to in difierent publications on 
the subject of constructed or destroyed breakwaters. All these point to 
the ad\'isability of putting the top blocks of any breakwater structure in 
well-cemented joints, and the leaving of no voids, or joints, near the 
upper levels of these structures. 

This is my excuse for giving a long description of experiences which 
have come under my own observation. 

I have said that the effect of voids among rocks deposited for the 
purpose of the defence of harbours and ports against the sea, and the 
cost of the same, are important considerations in connection with sea 
defence works. The rocks are usually deposited free from all quarry 
rubbish and earth arising from the ' overbearing ' which has been re- 
moved ; such deposited rocks usually contain within their volume voids 
to the extent of 42 to 43 per cent. If the whole output of the quarrying 
operations were deposited without special selection, these voids would 
be reduced to 30 to 33 per cent. 

As can be easily understood, these facts have an influence on the cost 
of construction. In this connection, the amount of selection which is 
involved (if a ' limiting minimum ' size of rock masses is demanded), 
though not entering into the question of the volume of the voids, materially 
afiects the cost of the deposited rock embankment as a whole. 

The voids in any mass of irregiilar solid lumps are largely influenced 
(as I have already said) by the uniformity, or otherwise, of the sizes and 
shapes of the lumps of rock of which a rubble breakwater bank is com- 
posed. The cost of a rubble embankment is very much influenced by the 
necessity arising from specified selections of the limiting sizes of its parts. 
The rock strata from which the material is quarried also makes a great 
difierence in the ultimate cost if it cannot be blasted into the categories 
desired. The effect of voids in the mass, especially near high-water level, 
or where the influence of the wind on the sea may result in the inclusion 


of air in the moving masses of water, is to make for the free escape of this 
air and, therefore, for the greater safety of the structure as a whole, though 
the density and weight of the whole mass containing the larger voids will 
be less. 

This, of course, is in some measure a disadvantage so far as its resistance 
to the sea is concerned, and involves large unit masses of rock. In break- 
water design, therefore, as in most things, it is a question of compromise, 
and it is found necessary — 

(n) Either to prevent voids entirely where heavy seas are to be 

encountered near high-water level and to a considerable depth 

below it, by means of rectangular blocks built closely, or — 
{b) To make big irregular masses of artificial rock, such as roughly 

shaped concrete blocks, or — ■ 
(c) To procure such large rough masses of rock from suitable rock 

stratifications at not too great a distance or expense. 
As to greater depths of a breakwater, however, say at 45 to 50 feet 
below the low-water level, where there is no included air possible, the 
matter of voids and sizes of individual portions of the whole mass of the 
breakwater bank is not so important. I have already given some 
instances of the effect of included air between rectangular joints of built 
masonry and also of the movement by sea action of very massive blocks 
stacked a little above high-water level at Dover Harbour. I have also 
roughly described the structure of the great breakwater at Valparaiso in 
187 feet of water where, at the lower levels, sand alone forms the basis 
of the biggest breakwater )-et built. This Valparaiso work is an illustra- 
tion of the varying needs of breakwater construction subject to very 
heavy seas, and is daring and original in its design, and great credit is 
due to the Chilean engineers, Senores Davila and Lira, in their advocacy of 
this novel construction. 

There is another interesting matter to civil engineers in connection 
with voids, which arises when dredging materials by means of suction 
pumping. The ease of movement of the material to be pumped and the 
consequent economy in pumping are largely influenced by the water 
contained in and surrounding the particles it is desired to move and lift 
by suction. Mud or clayey material, for example, will allow the water 
sucked by the powerful pumps to slide over their surfaces, whereas sand 
and even lumps of rock the size of one's head, if surrounded by water- 
filled voids, will be moved with relative ease. 

Bacteriological and Entomological Sciences and their 
Influence on Civil Engineering. 

Some very large and important works could not have been carried out 
without great loss of life but for the discoveries of Sir Ronald Ross, Sir 
Patrick Manson, Bruce and others in connection with the disease- 
carrying powers of certain mosquitoes, and especially the stegomyia and 
anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit yellow fever and malaria. 

In the early days of De Lesseps' effort to build the Panama Canal 
the death-rate was very high indeed, and did more to make the first efforts 
a failure than anything else, unless perhaps finance or economics. I do 


not think Sir Ronald Ross has been recognised by our civil and other 
engineering institutions as much as he should be for his wonderful work 
in this connection. When the American Government undertook the 
construction of the Panama Canal the success of this great scheme probably 
owed more to the science of bacteriology than to civil engineering. The 
only other great difficulty which might have prevented its ultimate 
completion was the question of cost and the sliding in of its sides at the 
Culebra cut, which resulted from the local geological formation. It is a 
magnificent monument to the civil engineer nevertheless, and a great 
credit to those who designed and carried it out, but the science of medicine 
played as great a part, if not greater, than any other science in its 
accomplishment. In, my own experience in the construction of the Port 
of Para in Northern Brazil, I have been much helped by this branch of 
science. While we did not entirely eliminate yellow fever from our staff, 
we did reduce it to a small number of cases and had very few deaths. We 
had also to fight yellow fever in Mexico and Colombia in connection with 
civil engineering works and not without loss among our staffs. My firm 
and the governments for which we worked owe their thanks to the help 
of medical science in the widest sense. There are still some fields to 
conquer in this connection, where we need the bacteriologist and medical 
scientist to aid us. I refer, e.g., to Varugus disease which caused such 
destruction of life in the building of the Central Railway of Peru many 
years ago through the Varugus Valley which was named after the disease 
which existed, and still exists, to the injury of man and the advancement 
of civil engineering enterprise. I was in this valley in 1925, visiting the 
results of a terrible engineering disaster due to unprecedented rains. Rain 
had not fallen in that part of the Andes for thirty-five years, and when 
it did so it washed down the mountain side and buried the railway for 
miles, sweeping away bridges and diverting the river, and causing very 
great damage. The Varugus disease was still there and its causation 
unknown. Great care was taken to move away all the staff at night. This 
precaution was based on the experience of the engineers in charge of the 
work, and special measures were taken by the management under General 
Cooper which were productive of good results, but I was informed by those 
on the spot that they were still having trouble from the disease among 
their men. 

The latest enemy for which the engineer wants the aid of the 
parasitologist and scientific medicine is the disease called ' Bilharziasis,' 
which is causing great trouble in Egypt and preventing the free movement 
of that splendid worker, the fellah, to the upper reaches of the White and 
Blue Niles to assist in the construction of the great dam and canal systems 
which are now engaging the irrigation engineers. The life-history of its 
mobile germ is being followed out, and we must all hope, from a humani- 
tarian as well as an engineering point of view, for an early and successful 
attack on this, I think, the latest enemy of the civil engineer and the 
progress of his work. Black water fever on the west coast of South 
Africa, sleeping sickness and the tsetse fly are three more cases where 
the help of the sciences of medicine and bacteriology are in\'ited to assist 
the pioneer engineer in parts of the world requiring transport facilities. 

The civil engineer has been the means of helping himself and his fellows 
1930 K 


in one special case, that of working in liigli pressurs air, whicli has involved 
serious injury in the past to the men employed in very important work. 
In this case, while death and injury occurred in a very high percentage 
only a few years ago, the dangers have now been much reduced, thanks 
to the civil engineer. Air under pressure is required in the sinking of 
bridge foundation cylinders and in the driving of subaqueous tunnels, 
and the resulting illness is commonly called caisson disease, diver's palsy 
or ' bends,' the latter name being due to the bodily distortions of the 
sufferers. This in its essence is a mechanical disease, and for this reason 
the medical profession did not advance far in ascertaining its cause. It 
was the civil engineer who through bitter experience and long-continued 
observation, found a cure. Chance gave me, forty-eight years ago, while 
at the Forth Bridge, the opportunity to study this disease during the 
sinking of the caissons which were being built and sunk under air pressure. 
At a later date the appalling death rate under the much higher pressures 
and much worse conditions that attended the construction of the Hudson 
Tunnel, New York, necessitated something being done to amehorate the 
life of those who worked for me, and to make it possible to get the men 
to face the dangers of carrying on the construction of this, the first 
subaqueous tunnel built in the United States. The work had been 
commenced many years before, and much pain and many deaths had 
occurred, but without any cure having been discovered. Many months 
of continuous observation on these undertakings enabled me to ascertain 
certain facts and to devise a scheme of treatment — ^the use of recompres- 
sion in a medical airlock — which is now always adopted on undertakings 
where compressed air is being employed, and with great success. These 
experiences also led me to discover contributory causes not realised up 
to that time, namely, among others, the necessity for much purer air 
than is required in workings at atmospheric pressure, and further the 
benefits arising from stage decompression. I had mules continuously 
under air pressure for many months, and they did not suffer at all from 
this long immersion but, like human beings, they suffered badly on passing 
through the air locks when coming out and getting back to normal atmo- 
spheric pressure. By simple re-immersion in high air pressure and by 
very slow decompression treatment, which is a very gradual withdrawal 
of the pressure while still keeping the air pure, I was able to reduce the 
death rate among the men at the Hudson Tunnel in 1890-2 from 25 per 
cent, per annum to 1|. In the Blackwall Tunnel in 1893 there were no 
deaths at all during the whole course of the works. Since those days 
Prof. Haldane, Prof. Sir Leonard Hill and Captain Damant, to mention 
the chief workers in this field, have carried the work of regulated decom- 
pression further and brought the rough discoveries I made and introduced 
to a more exact scientific basis ; and much greater depths of immersion 
involving higher air pressures are now possible and safe by means of stage 
decompression. Here is a case where the civil engineer has helped the 
science of medicine — a return for some of the benefits received from the 
bacteriologist and medical man. 

During my investigations I tried to ascertain the actual blood pressures 
in the human body but so far these have never been taken. Only com- 
parative, not actual, pressures can be taken, but I feel sure there is a great 


deal to learn from a more complete knowledge of the effect of varying 
bl9od pressure, esj)ecially in its influence on the brain and spinal column. 
Also from the purely hydraulic and mechanical point of view including 
the possible distention and contraction of the veins and arteries due to 
the reaction on the muscles of their structures, where fluid pressures may 
vary within them and between wide limits. Engineers and medical men 
should work together on some of these things, with both bacteriologist 
and entomologist. Already the entomologist and chemist combine for 
the destruction of wood-destrojing insects — ^the death-watch beetle, the 
pine ' bug,' the white ant and the toredo, fresh-water shrimp, dry rot — 
for the preservation of timber. The treatment of sewage is another 
matter where the bacteriologist has helped the civil engineer. 

As influencing the health of workers, another question is the possible 
electrolitic action in the decay of teeth by the mixtures of metals in the 
stoppings. This appears to me wanting investigation. The currents set 
up are no doubt very small, but they may go on for years. Here the 
pure physicist might come in, if not the electrical engineer. 

Economics ofJEngineeeing Construction. 

The economics of engineering construction naturally divide them- 
selves into several categories. The first of these arises out of the purpose 
of the engineering works or enterprises. If we take Great Britain as our 
example, we have public health requirements, including water supply, 
sewerage, lighting, national road-making, and transport services. These 
are works in which the financial requirements are based and provided for 
on the credit of the community using them, issued and financed by the 
Government or Municipality through the investing public, arranged 
generally by some financial house and, from that house, allotted to the 
investor by means of a public issue, or they may be provided out of 
revenue by an Act of Parliament. These are among the easiest financial 
operations, especially when the borrowing is done by the Central Govern- 
ment, which commands the highest form of credit. 

Another category involves enterprises that are to be financed on the 
basis of possible earnings and includes the public utilities not yet socialised, 
such as railways, docks, privately owned harbours, gas and electrical 
undertakings, and the bulk of the transport facilities, with the exception 
of roads and bridges. Since the abolition of the tolls, the latter have been 
undertaken, like works in the sanitary and health categories by the 
governmental, county, or other trusts or public bodies. 

Finance for profit-earning enterjsrises is arranged through loans by 
issuing houses which as a rule are fully underwritten. Public issues are 
made and they have until quite recently been an easy matter. The 
experience of the common stock holder in this connection has nob been 
always encouraging, and it often happens that his holdings are overborne 
by preference stocks and debenture issues, with the result that many 
investments, which in my youth were looked upon as beyond suspicion, 
have fallen heavily in capital value as well as in earning power. This 
state of things has naturally reacted on the extent of engineering enterprise 
and has in some measure reduced the training-ground for engineers and 



contractors at home, and therefore lessened the chance of Britain securing 
foreign or Dominion work in competition with the world. Naturally, a 
densely populated country, which for years has been providing itself with 
all sorts of facilities for transport, health and comfort, must sooner or 
later have been fully provided with the facilities envisaged in the categories 
above indicated. There seems little doubt that railway building and the 
great mass of engineering work that it involves has nearly reached 
saturation point in these islands although there is still much to be done 

The next category that interests the constructive engineer, and makes 
for his employment, from the financial point of view is the needs of manu- 
facturing and industrial undertakings. These comprise too many 
categories to attempt to classify them all. It takes, however, a greater 
faith and more enterprising spirit to raise money for this kind of work 
than it does for anything I have mentioned before, and, as a consequence, 
the financing of factories and ancillary works, immense chemical industries, 
shipbuilding yards, collieries, coal handling and loading devices, private 
harbours and gas works, with the greater financial risks that they involve 
and the greater probability of obsolescence as well as more rapid deprecia- 
tion, requires higher rates of interest and provision of larger sinking funds 
to procure the necessary money. 

One could enlarge on these lines, but I would prefer to deal with the 
questions of finance and economics connected with large civil engineering 
enterprises abroad and mostly undertaken for foreign governments. 
These are generally guaranteed financially by such governments and/or 
secured on monopolies under their control, and the effect upon those 
who act as financiers and contractors in connection with them needs 
careful consideration. 

After the security has been provided and the finance arranged for, the 
contractor may possibly have to take his payments in scrip. Estimates 
for foreign work involve questions of exchange, values of local untrained 
labour and its efficiency in countries abroad, and other matters 
entailing considerable risk and requiring a knowledge of the science of 

The financing of the works of construction by the contractor may 
involve deposited guarantees, and will also require money for piirchase 
and transport of plant and machinery, the engagement of staff with a 
knowledge of foreign languages, agreements as to supplies of material 
and pro\^sion of housing. 

Many foreign governments demand large deposits in advance as 
guarantees of good faith, and undertakings by banking institutions as to 
the financial capacity and technical ability of those who offer for the 
work of construction. 

Our British joint stock banking system does not lend itself to the 
provision of such requirements and guarantees, although there is some 
welcome evidence that this may be altered shortly, as intimated recently 
in the press. 

Foreign contractors, on the other hand, do not have these difficulties 
to face to the same extent. The German, French and American banking 
houses especially have entered into this sort of business for years, and no 


doubt they share in the profits which arise, and also take some of the 
risks of losses with the contracting firm. 

The responsibilities thrown upon a contractor who has made the 
arrangements indicated above vary considerably according to the accuracy 
or otherwise of his estimate based on the information given to him or 
otherwise obtained, and the amount of cover he provides for risks that 
are not taken by the employing government or company or scheduled 
by those who advised them. As examples, there are political risks arising 
from revolutions or wars threatened or actual, climatic risks including 
risks of sea action and possible destruction of the work, in some cases 
even the risks of design — risks arising out of exchange and depreciation 
of currencies in the country in which the contractor is working — risks of 
labour disturbances and variations of wage rates either in the country 
in which he works or arising out of, e.g., a coal strike in England if he is 
dependent for supplies of fuel from this country ; risks arising from the 
capital required and the interest on such capital ; risks of diseases among 
the staff, either from the nature of the work or the climatic conditions, 
which may be so bad that the labour required is very difficult, or perhaps 
non-existent. The available means of access of transport are also 
important as well as the provision of food and other supplies. Apart 
from these, in some cases the contractor takes earthquake risks, those 
of inundation from rivers in irrigation works, the risks of the strata of 
the foundations on which heavy structures have to be placed, risks of 
the borings and data handed to him on which to make up his tender 
being accurate or not. Further, if it is a sea work upon which he is 
engaged and an immense rubble dam for the base of a breakwater is 
required, there is the risk of settlement into the sea bed which is nearly 
always thrown upon the contractor, and sometimes that has involved him 
in very great loss. Penalties for non-completion in time fall upon the 
contractor, but generally with fair provisions for extensions for unavoidable 
causes and force majeure. The amount of water to be pumped in deep 
excavations or in the strata through which tunnels are driven is generally 
his responsibility, and settlements, due to pumping in the surrounding 
areas, if pumping in fact causes settlement in the subsoil (which often 
happens) is generally another heavy responsibility. 

Over and above all this, the efficiency of his supervisory staff and of 
all his local employees in a foreign country far from his base are matters 
he has got to take into account in dealing with his valuation of the works. 
Nor must the consideration of the solvency of the employer be left out 
of his reckoning. The estimation of the cost of getting suitable raw 
materials for the structure for which he makes a price depends, for example, 
among other matters, upon the suitability of rock arising from local 
stratifications giving, in the case of a breakwater, the large category 
rubble which goes to build up such banks. 

Then if he takes, as he often does in South America, payments in 
bonds or Government securities, he has to run the risk of a fall in the 
values of the medium by which he is paid. 

I have not even now covered the whole of the possibilities of loss 
which assail the constructor of large engineering undertakings, either at 
home or abroad, and for which, after he has assessed to the best of his 


ability their values and the contingencies arising from them, he must 
make allowance first in the unit prices of the work he is called upon to 
do, and finally in the gross amount arrived at through the detailed 
computations. None of the foregoing suggestions are academic. They 
have all occurred more or less in my forty-five years' experience of doing 
work for public bodies, governments and private companies in connection 
with my firm at home and abroad. 

There are some risks it clearly would be better for the employing 
authority to assume rather than he should place them on the contractor. 
I refer, of course, to those which cannot be attributed to the incapacity or 
neglect of the contractor himself. For example, taking the risks arising 
from sea action, unfavourable foundations, uncertain geology, excessive 
amounts of water necessitating heavy pumping, risks arising out of, or due 
to war, and the adverse influence war or revolutions have upon commodity 
and labour prices : these are not things that with any amount of acumen 
on the part of the contractor can be provided for. If he adds to his estimate of 
cost sufficient to cover fully such possibilities, his estimates would probably 
be unduly high, and in that case the employing authority may have to pay 
for these risks not only what is in his estimate to cover them but on charges 
and profits upon these amoimts in addition. Clearly it would be better 
for the employer, be it government, municipality or otherwise, to guarantee 
that the borings taken and other data given are correct, that the water 
pumped shall be paid for at so much per million gallons raised so njany 
units in height, that should there be a cataclysm, either an earthquake or 
a sweeping away of the structure by unusual and heavy storms, quite 
uninsurable, then those things should be at the cost of the employing 
authority. In any event when the work is completed the employer gets 
the benefit of the overcoming of such risks and dangers and difficulties, 
therefore clearly he ought to pay for them and would be wise to pay only 
the nett cost. If he takes the responsibility for them on his own shoulders 
it will be cheaper for him rather than if the contractor includes sufficient to 
cover them in the prices for the work with profit added thereto. On the 
other hand, if the contractor has not allowed for and cannot face the loss, 
the employer will have to make a new bargain with some other contractor 
at much higher prices. The same may be said of the consequences 
arising from epidemics which again cannot be controlled by the 
contractor, although with proper sanitary organisation he may reduce 
them considerably. 

The values of all raw materials required for construction might be fixed 
with advantage to everybody, to be increased or reduced according to 
what they actually cost and according to the rates of exchange. It is 
almost impossible, for instance, for a contractor doing work in South 
America to ensure any specific price for coal or for cement and timber if 
required in large quantities over a period of many years, except with 
considerable margins. Clearly cheaper offers would be given for construc- 
tive works if a number of these risks were excluded, and no profits were 
attached or sums added to the tender prices to cover possible and indeter- 
minate risks. 

It might be thought, after this recital of the large risks contractors have 
to take, that they would of necessity come to grief sooner or later. That 


more do not reflects in a large measure their capacity to assess what these 
things mean, and their knowledge of the science of Economics. It is also 
well known that some, at least, die wealthy. 

Few contracts are now entered into on what was the old-fashioned 
" lump sum " basis, where the contractor undertook to produce something 
that the employer considered he required and demanded to the satisfaction 
of himself and his engineer, whether, in fact, the drawings indicated the 
whole of what was thought to be wanted. The " lump sum " had to 
provide any finished result that was implied in the documents or specifi- 
cation, or that might arise out of the requirements of the specification, in 
spite of any possible error of judgment in the design or in the description 
of the physical characteristics or geology of the country in which the work 
was carried out. '"'•- "•• bi ?* ■• < 11 • "\ 

Apart from the " lump sum " system, when all these risks have been 
considered and, as already stated, an estimate has been made of the actual 
values of labour and material based on knowledge of what such material 
could be got for in the locality where the work is to be done, there has to 
be added something for the uncertainties and contingencies that I have 
described, as well as for profit. The capital requirements for construction 
purposes vary according to the place and the character of the work. For a 
large engineering contract where big deposits are not called for, the capital 
required may easily run up to 15 per cent., of the gross cost. In other 
words, the maximum peak that may be reached before the earnings from 
work done (less retentions held by the Government or company) may be 
easily 15 per cent, above the receipts at that time, and possibly on a five 
years' job, between three and four years may elapse, the time varying 
according to the margin for profit, if such accrues before the contract 
receipts cross the line of expenditures. In diagrammatic form one has to 
compute what the interest will be on the average capital for the time before 
such desired result is achieved. Thereafter capital, instead of having to be 
found, should begin to flow into the coffers of the contractor, and therefore 
be on the credit side. The initial expenditure being as I have indicated 
anything from, say, 12 to 15 per cent, of the gross cost of the work at a 
maximum peak, has got to be financed, either out of capital accumulated 
or by advance by some financial institution, and often a good deal of profit 
is sacrificed owing to the necessity of procuring these advances. If a con- 
tracting firm has three or four large contracts running at once, it may easily 
have to find either out of its own resources, or by borrowing, a sum ap- 
proaching a million sterling. One contract may lose while another one 
gains, but with all the risks I have enumerated, and there are others which 
are not covered even by my long list, losses are often very heavy indeed. 
If these are not " shouted from the house-tops " but are borne with a grim 
determination and a mental " tightening of the belt," it is because con- 
tractors as a whole are a stoical people who prefer to keep their losses to 
themselves. I do not wish to discourage the young from venturing on the 
path that leads with hard work and luck to the summits that the successful 
contractor rises to, for the joys of fighting with nature and dealing success- 
fully with the subtlety of man are the very breath of those who really give 
their life to this kind of work, and the pity of it is, in view of the confidence 
they have to show in themselves and others as well as in science and in 


nature, that the success they achieve in their adventuring, is sometimes 
far short of what they deserve. 

My own great chief and partner, Lord Cowdray, was one of those who 
faced with great courage what might come, and never failed to complete 
anything he undertook, however severely he was called upon on some 
occasions to back his judgment and make good where nature or man had 
failed him. It may seem harsh to think or say, that he suffered more 
from man than he did from nature, but, whatever the obstacle, he 
ultimately triumphed to an unusual degree and he deserved to, for his 
courage was phenomenal. No risk ever seemed to daunt him, and if after 
taking every precaution that forethought could suggest, the allowances 
he made were not sufficient, he faced the music without complaining. 

I am the first contracting civil engineer who has been honoured by the 
British Association and, therefore, I have thought that you would expect 
me to include some remarks on things I am specially conversant with, 
and this must be my excuse for having gone into so much detail on the 
economics of engineering construction. 

It is obvious I have not attempted to deal with the influence which 
many sciences have upon engineering in its widest sense. It would appear 
unseemly, however, not to pay tribute to those sciences without which 
engineering cannot exist, the chief among them being physical and 
mechanical sciences and applied mathematics and all that those titles 
mean. They are subjects which have been enlarged upon before in 
addresses by your Past-Presidents and dealt with far more ably than 
I should feel it possible for me to do. 

Another science that must not be forgotten in its connection with the 
raw materials that so largely enter into all engineering structural works 
is chemistry, the discoveries in connection with which have meant so 
much to the engineer. 

Science, however, is being split up into so many different categories 
that there are a great number to which the acknowledgments of engineers 
should be accorded, and I am afraid there are many of this ever-growing 
group to which I have not paid sufficient, if any, tribute. My excuse 
must be lack of time to do them justice and not lack of appreciation of 
their helpfulness. 

I have attempted to indicate the interdependence of the engineer on 
the science of the physiologist, the bacteriologist, the economist and the 
all-important science of finance, all of which enable the engineer to carry 
out his destiny by entering new paths and opening up, by the aid of 
railways and roads, vast areas to enable them to be made fruitful and 
suitable habitations for his fellows. 






The systematic study, and the systematic teaching, of the material side 
of human culture receive less than their due share of attention in this 
country. Anthropology has established a footing in several of our 
Universities, but the need for students to enter on the study of material 
culture by the material means of laboratory courses is scarcely yet 
appreciated. The subject is passing through a phase from which the 
biological sciences long ago emerged, books, lectures, demonstrations, and 
Museum specimens in cases, being the chief sources of supply of informa- 
tion. Sooner or later there must be organised a system by the aid of 
which the student is not only encouraged to see, and sometimes touch, 
the human products that are under his consideration, but is induced to 
handle, measure, draw, and as far as possible dissect, such of the main 
types of simple artefacts as can be spared from their more spectacular 
Museum duties ; and also to carry out some of the methods and processes 
which he now learns by hearsay or by reading. The hands must come 
to the aid of the eyes and ears. Until he has done practical work of this 
kind, he is not even able to make the best use of the specimens he views 
through the windows of Museum cases. It is now well known that 
ordinary glass denies a passage to some of the more active of the sun's 
rays, but it is not so fully understood that the light of knowledge is also 
much enfeebled by its filtering action. 

Another requisite for the furthering of the study of material culture, 
and of Anthropology in general, in this country, is the provision of a 
worthy setting for the unrivalled ethnographical collections which have 
been so long marooned in Bloomsbury. If the proper study of mankind 
is man, it is wrong to make a hole-and-corner business of it, especially in 
the centre of a Commonwealth which boasts of a never-setting sun. 
Ethnographically speaking, the sun has not yet risen, but it may be that 
the gleams of light in the recent Report of the Royal Commission on 
National Museums convey some promise of a dawn. However this may 
be, the founding of a National Museum of Ethnography would not only 
remove a grievous reproach to our scientific standing as a nation, and to 
our claim to be an instructed governing people, but would have important 
reactions upon the status and teaching of anthropology in this country, 
with increasing benefits to colonial and other administrative services, and 
to the alien races whose destinies they seek to guide. Whilst successive 


Governments delay, collections and enthusiasts are lost, and yet another 
British opportunity becomes acclimatised elsewhere. It is not yet too 
late, but soon it will be. 

That our specialists in the study of material culture are few in number 
because of a lack of chances and incentives, can scarcely be doubted. 
This leads in turn to inadequate descriptive and comparative work, and 
to a partial neglect of those problems of analysis and synthesis to which 
so much attention is given by American and Continental anthropologists. 
A training in the dissection of animals is perhaps conducive to a leaning 
towards analysis rather than synthesis, but at the same time it is the 
evolutionary problems that offer most attractions to one who is 
biologically-minded. In what I have to say to-day, I am trying to 
express conclusions that have developed in my own mind in the course of 
many years of contact with the material products of backward peoples, 
as well as with the theories and views of those whose artefacts and 
formulae have reached a more bewildering complexity. If any psychologists 
are present my apologies are due to them, and I can only hope that they 
will be induced to demonstrate my errors by focussing their brighter light 
upon the human mental processes which I have tried to explore a little 
further by my own candle-power. 

Objective and Subjective Pkoblems. 
Some features of the evolutionary aspects of human material culture 
have received occasional attention since relatively early times, but no 
systematic treatment of the subject was attempted until Lane-Fox 
Pitt-Rivers did so much to establish the analogies that link the evolution 
of living organisms with that of human artefacts. My immediate, as 
well as remote, predecessor in this chair, Mr. Henry Balfour, in his 
Presidential Address in 1904, gave a summary of the methods and con- 
clusions of Pitt-Rivers, together with an account of his own attitude 
towards some of the problems that emerge from the study of the develop- 
ment of artefacts. Since the date of that address, the question of the 
occurrence, or frequency of occurrence, of independent evolution, has 
become so much more insistent, that it seems worth while to re-examine 
in some detail the nature of the subjective processes that lead to discovery 
and invention, and of the objective outcome of these processes. In the 
course of his address, Mr. Balfour expressed the view that independent 
evolution should only be accepted as an explanation of similarity after an 
exhaustive enquiry into the possibilities of transmission ; he did not, 
however, seek to put independent evolution out of court, since he said 
' Polygenesis in his inventions may probably be regarded as testimony in 
favour of the monogenesis of man.' Prof. Elliot Smith, in his address to 
this section in 1912 (and elsewhere still more forcibly) lays great stress 
upon the essential conservatism of the human mind, and upon the fact 
that ' for the vast majority of mankind almost the sum total of their 
mental activities consists of imitation or acquiring and using the common 
stock of knowledge.' Others both here and abroad have taken up similar 
positions, but there still remain many whose attitude towards independent 
evolution is tolerant and even generous, and it is to these that the mis- 
leading term ' evolutionists ' may be supposed to apply. Whether the 


term is the antithesis of ' diffusionist ' is not clear, since both are ill-defined, 
and at times it would appear that the relationship is one of antipathy 
rather than antithesis. On the other hand, it is sometimes hopefully 
said that we are all difEusionists nowadays ; but there are differences, and 
many wish to put at least the New World out of bounds. 

Even though it seems unlikely that anything that is really new can 
be brought iMo this discussion, it is only by enquiring into detail that a 
better understanding is attainable. Whilst I am myself convinced, rightly 
or wrongly, that the part played by independent evolution in human 
material culture has been negligible, it is in no way my aim to prove that 
it has not occurred. Indeed, I see many reasons why in certain simple 
types of cases it may have occurred, though proof is difl&cult or even 
unattainable. My object is rather to enquire whether an analysis of 
discovery and invention, as manifested in human material affairs, will 
enable us to fortify our faith by more and better reasons. For, as 
Nordenskiold has lately pointed out, faith plays a large part in the con- 
troversy over independent evolution, even though one side or the other 
claims to have more reason in its faith — itself a mixture of reason and 

Avoiding controversial topics for the moment, we may begin by 
touching on some simple points in relation to man's material culture, and 
so pave the way to more debatable conclusions. 

By the aid of methods, often dependent upon extraneous means, man 
employs materials for the achievement of results, many but by no means 
all of which persist as artefacts or other products. These objective cate- 
gories call for further definition, and for some sub-division, since it is 
obvious on inspection that they are not homogeneous. 

As regards materials, food stands alone, since it is the only material 
substance that man has always had to seek, and since the need of it 
persists as the ultimate incitement to all his drudgeries, as well as to some 
of his enjoyments. From the beginning, and earlier still, he has known 
how to forage for a living, and the discoveries he has made of new kinds 
of food stand upon a difierent footing from those concerning substances 
he does not eat. If one natural food was not available others must be 
found at all costs, and the lower the grade of culture the less fastidious 
the food-collector. It was a question of finding, rather than of finding 
out, and true discovery only came into play when methods were adopted 
of facilitating, stimulating, and controlling the natural processes of growth 
and reproduction of food-yielding organisms. In man's use of inorganic 
raw materials, on the other hand, he had from the beginning to discover 
not only the properties of the materials, but also the uses he could make 
of them, as well as the methods and means by which they could be made 
more serviceable. He tested and discovered foods by stress of need, and 
he knew what he could do with them, but this guiding pressure failed him 
when it came to sticks and stones, whose virtues lay at first outside his 
interests. He did not bring his mind to bear upon them, being under no 
compulsion, and it was only the obtrusive that attracted him. Some 
materials he could obtain ready for use, when he had discovered what 
their uses were, but others were of no value, or were in effect non-existent, 
until they had been separated, extracted or prepared. To get out of the 


blind alley of the Stone Age he had, for example, to make discoveries and 
evolve methods, relating to materials that only entered his environment 
on his own unpremeditated invitation. Metal made its first impression 
as a fascinating luxury, from which evolved a need. 

Methods, like materials, are far older than man, and in so far as they 
make calls on bodily and mental powers alone, they may be called pure 
methods. But progress has depended upon the development of reinforced 
methods, involving the use of extraneous means. Methods are man's 
ways, and his means are tools and other artefacts, but it is not entirely 
true to say that he discovers his ways and invents his means, since he 
may discover his means as well as his ways. 

Substance is the static warp, and method the dynamic woof, of man's 
material culture, whilst the products may be looked on as the fabrics, 
though these are not always tangible. Amongst the more obvious of those 
which are material in their nature are artefacts of all kinds, but it is clear 
that such products are themselves the means to further ends. These 
further ends are material in the case of implements, less immediately 
material in that of houses or canoes, and non-material in the case of 
shrines or musical instruments, which satisfy demands of social and 
individual mentality. And it is here that we find our objective point of 
view overlapping the subjective — oiir material products require for their 
explanation some understanding of such aims and ends as lie outside the 
field of primary material needs. As soon as we get beyond the study of 
the instinctive quest of food and self-protection, and pass to that of the 
aims of the human artificer, we realise that aims and ends as well as ways 
and means, are products of evolution. Man did very well before he was 
a man at all, and no one has given any reason why he ceased to be an 
ape. We may appeal to natural selection, to the inheritance of acquired 
characters, to orthogenesis, and though our belief in the ascent of man 
remains unshakeable, since the proofs are overwhelming, the reason why 
an ape-man became an artisan continues to elude us. To say that it was 
due to action and reaction between a developing brain, aided by versatile 
hands, and an environment which expanded as knowledge grew, is not an 
explanation but a statement. But if we cannot say why it happened, 
and why we have reached a point at which man aims at creating new 
needs, to the overcrowding of his artificial environment, we can at least 
attempt to understand something of the way in which natural man became 
unnatural, and eventually fell into the ways of civilisation. 

The Distorting Mirror of the Present. 

Our attitude towards the problems that arise in the study of origin 
and development depends very largely upon the extent to which we 
ascribe to man a power of foresight enabling him to overrun the limits of 
environmental suggestion. If we assume that his progress has been based 
upon his opportunist reactions to such suggestion, we secure a standpoint 
from which to take a retrospective view of human progress. The %'isibility 
is not too good, and the details that are fundamental are often but obscurely 
seen, partly because the field of view is not only restricted by our ignorance, 
but is overshadowed by our knowledge. We can see too little of the past 
• and too much of the present. 


In all our attempts to gain an understanding of the progress of early 
man, we are, in fact, heavily handicapped by the training and experience 
which mould our thoughts from our earliest years. As children we 
acquire knowledge and ' general ideas ' concerning materials, methods, 
and results, which make it impossible for us to picture the real character 
of the mental states of primitive man, and of the founders of the early 
civilisations. We leave our cradles to turn a tap or push a button that 
effects a miracle, and our minds are never quite the same again. We 
learn also that man has evolved, that his culture has evolved, and that 
there is good reason to suppose that progress will continue for an indefinite 
period. As Bury has shown, however, it was not until the latter half of 
the nineteenth century that the ' idea of human progress ' received 
acceptance, though it had been in process of evolution for some centuries. 
It was not familiar to the Greeks and Romans, nor, we may assume, to 
the peoples of Mesopotamia and Egypt. It is difficult to assess the 
importance of the general idea of progress as an incentive in the detailed 
development of discoveries and inventions, though we may be sure that 
it is very far from being negligible. But if our own opportunism is inspired 
by a vision of an almost unlimited field of progress, the culture of ancient 
times was based on an opportunism sufficient for the day. Foresight is a 
cultivated aptitude, not a human instinct. The men who began the 
growing of grain did not look forward to feeding a multitude — population 
increased with the food supply, and cornfields were enlarged to feed the 
growing numbers. The idea of a multitude of men evolved with the 
multitude itself. The plough was not invented as a means of more 
efficient tillage, but was the result of the discovery that a pick or a hoe 
could be dragged through light soil so as to prepare a seed bed more 
rapidly than could be done by pecking up the soil ; the implement got a 
new start in life by a change in the method of use, and it was improved 
as a result of discoveries arising out of its manufacture and employment, 
aided later by the adoption of modifications suggested by other con- 
temporary devices or appliances. At no stage was there a premonitory 
vision of a method of agriculture, or a type of plough, having an origin' 
in a mental conception cut off from its roots in the state of knowledge of 
the place and time. That kind of unconditioned foresight does not happen 
even nowadays, and we may assume it never will. It is only on the basis 
of his actual knowledge that man can reason and deduce, and though 
modern scientific learning may enable us to make predictions with some 
certainty, the result of experiment is either a confirmation of theory or 
it is a surprise — a true discovery ; and the part played by chance in 
thrusting discoveries on man is well known to all of us. We differ from 
our forerunners in the fact that our receptivity and enterprise are fostered 
by the idea of progress, and are nourished through an organised system 
of traps and snares which provide discoveries and ideas for domestication 
and consumption. This is directional research, but real discoveries that 
are outside the range of existing theory are apt to bring about an oppor- 
tunist change of direction by a revelation of new aims and possibilities. 
That is to say, we may be systematic and forethoughtful in our use of 
existing knowledge, and in our quest for new, but true discoveries reveal 
us as the opportunists men have always been. The modern discoverer or 


inventor appears, but only appears, to be able to look far ahead of the 
knowledge of his day, and the speed and scope of modern progress give a 
false impression of human powers in general. 

It is not only our material equipment that is artificial, but our social 
and our moral codes, always excepting those minimum requirements that 
enable family, if not other groups, to hold together, since these are as 
instinctive in the species as is the quest for food itself. Our artefacts, 
material and immaterial alike, have emerged from the interaction between 
mind and matter, and between mind and mind ; they were not devised 
beforehand for material or social ends, but arose out of the rough-and- 
tumble of an environment that grew as knowledge grew and artefacts 
accumulated. Aims and ends evolved with the discovery and invention 
of ways and means. The artificial environment has expanded with the 
progress of civilisation, but the human brain has not undergone a like 
inflation ; nor, as far as can be seen, has the human mind undergone a 
change in its essential characters. It is still unable to form preconceptions 
of artefacts and processes that cannot be built up in the mind's eye, on 
paper or in practice, by combining facts, methods and principles that are 
known, with the aid also of discoveries arrived at by experience and 
experiment. Only as man became capable of transmitting his knowledge 
to his offspring, by precept as well as by practice, could he create a cul- 
tural continuity extending over many generations. Only when his speech 
became intelligible did his reminiscences acquire posthumous value, whilst 
hieroglyphs and alphabets served to make the future still more dependent 
on the past. 

Viewed from any standpoint, it is clear that we have to make a big 
allowance for our own sophistication, when we are trying to explore the 
origins and growth of discoveries and inventions, and neglect of this 
precaution is not infrequent. In the case of pottery, for example, it is 
sometimes maintained that the plasticity of clay is so obtrusive, and its 
hardening by heat so easily made manifest, as to place the ceramic art 
amongst those human industries that may have been developed more 
than once, if not over and over again. The two essential properties of 
clay are obvious enough, given the conditions for its accidental hardening 
by fire, and both may have been discovered at various periods. Looking 
backward it seems evident to us that an early discoverer, looking forward, 
could have deduced from these two properties of clay the advantages of 
modelling this plastic stuff into the forms of vessels, and baking them to 
hardness. Some may think that the deduction was an easy one, but the 
ease is purely retrospective. The potter was not a product of predestina- 
tion. The conventional theory of the origin of pottery through the 
plastering of clay on the walls of baskets may or may not be acceptable, 
but it is in any case a recognition of the need that is felt to bridge the 
gap between the discoveries of two properties of clay and the production 
of an earthenware pot. The discoveries were essential, but it is only in 
the light of our own knowledge that pottery appears to have been an 
inevitable result. In man's potential arts and crafts first steps must 
have been last steps far oftener than not, and many beginnings came to 
an end before they got a start. The first step or the next step may be 
within the range of vision, but the next but one is always out of sight — 
foresight is not farsight. 


To take another instance of the hasty reasoning which credits ancient 
man with anticipatory conceptions that in ourselves are due to knowledge, 
it is sometimes suggested that there is no improbability in the idea of the 
multiple origin of the pyramid, since the observation that piles of loose 
materials readily assumed a conical form must have been frequently made. 
To this it may be answered that pyramids are not small, are not made of 
.loose materials, and are not conical in form, but this is only a small part 
of the relevant reply. The affiliation is indeed inconceivable, since the 
evolution of a pyramid depended not only upon many material factors, 
but also upon a number of social and religious sequences. Pyramids 
were not preconceived as being more pleasing to the gods, and more 
elevating to the human soul, than any other geometrical monstrosity ; 
nor were they built out of mere Euclidean bravado. For such structures, 
even in their various modifications of material, form, and function, to 
appear independently in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, Cambodia, Java, and 
America, would have called for parallel networks of coincidences rather 
than for parallel chains. In any case we may disregard the pile of sand as 
a likely foundation for such structures, though it may be that we must put 
a mountain in its place. 

A third example is that of the practice of mummification, and, as in the 
case of the last, it is one which has been dealt with faithfully by Prof. 
Elliot Smith. The assumption is often made that mummification 
originated in more than one part of the world, as a result of the observation 
that under conditions of aridity the bodies of the dead suffered desiccation 
instead of decay ; and that this observation readily led to the evolution of 
processes of preservation by artificial means. That this is merely an 
assumption is obvious. Whatever may have been the course of events 
that led man to a belief in a future life, and however widely spread the 
notion of the attachment of the spirit, for a longer or a shorter period, to 
the corpse, it cannot be argued that a belief in the resurrection of the 
physical body formed part of the original structure of the immaterial 
artefact we call theology. However great the affection of the living for 
their dead, in one way or another the body had to be disposed of. An 
easily-discovered and very early method was that of putting it out of 
sight by covering it up, eventually by burying it, and this was perhaps 
the first definite funeral custom to be established. Instinct might have 
taken man as far as this. That under certain conditions the body, buried 
or unburied, did not entirely lose its human semblance, was in itself no 
inducement to the consfervation of the dried remains. A shrunken body 
was of no more value than a skeleton, and new views of man's place in 
nature, and in supernature, had to be evolved before the preservation of 
the body became a means to an end. Whatever may have been the 
conditions imder which this end or aim appeared, the main determining 
causes were not those of the natural environment — though this was no 
doubt an essential factor — ^but of the artificial, and they did not arise out 
of the ' psychic unity ' of man. For the idea to originate in two or more 
regions independently, there must have been coincidences in social and 
religious sequences, as well as in the natural environment. For the 
independent evolution of artificial preservation out of natural desiccation, 
there would be needed further coincidences in the growth of the idea of 


preventing the decay of animal or human flesh, and of the means and 
methods of prevention ; and finally, in so far as there is agreement in 
different parts of the world in the technique of preparing the body for the 
embalming process, there must be assumed still more coincidences, some 
of them significantly trivial. Whatever the ultimate decision, there is 
clearly no justification for the a priori assumption that man, directed by 
his common faculties, naturally and inevitably deduced the means and 
methods of mummification from the bare fact of desiccation. He made 
his way by a zig-zag opportunist route to an end which only came in 
view when he got near to it, and such routes do not run parallel one with 
another to the same destination. 

Man's Common Faculties. 

The question as to the nature and importance of the common faculties 
of the human mind — the components of the psychic unity — is one which 
demands more attention than it has yet received from anthropologists, 
Bastian notwithstanding. This is especially the case in relation to the 
subject of independent evolution. For our purposes it would not only be 
needful to isolate the common faculties, but also to identify those which 
have a bearing on the progress of discovery and invention. Here we 
should meet with the primary and well-known difficulty of distinguishing 
between an inborn human faculty, and a traditional or inculcated mode of 
thought — an acquired type of reaction. Assuming we had progressed so 
far in the comparative psychology of Homo sapiens, we should still be 
left with the problem of determining which — if any — of the common 
faculties are directive in their nature. It is not a question of deciding 
which faculties are permissive, enabling man to react in a similar way to 
similar external stimuli, but of determining which of them give him the 
power, whoever and wherever he may be, to over-ride deflecting influences. 
Two environments may be similar, but only when they are the same are 
they identical, and our broad generalisations as to the cultural effect of 
surroundings such as deserts, mountains, forests, river-valleys, have a 
bearing upon the general mode of life they encourage or permit, and 
therefore upon a portion of the field which is open to the discoverer and 
inventor, but they ignore the differences in the details of any two environ- 
ments of one general character ; and it is discrepancies in detail that 
produce divergencies in end-results. The human mind is very prone to 
skid on trifles. Moreover, even on the assumption that two similar natural 
environments are so nearly identical as to lead to similar reactions, under 
the guidance of the common faculties of the human mind, there still 
remains the most important factor of them all — that of the artificial 
environment, in gross and in detail, which formed the starting point of 
two peoples whose artefacts and general culture are compared. Taking 
all these difficulties into account, we see that the common faculties of man, 
if they are to be powerful enough to keep his independent lines of progress 
parallel, must be of an initiating and controlling character. If they are 
of such a character, history should reveal a wealth of instances of their 
power to keep man steadily progressing on his course, in all grades and 
aspects of his culture. But history has no such tale to tell, since it is merely 
a story of one provisional expedient following on another — or, to use a 


word invented by the Poet Laureate, Odtaa. It seems evident that from 
our present point of view the common faculties of man are recessive rather 
than dominant. 

That there are mental faculties common to all men is undoubted, and 
it was in part by the exercise of such faculties that man secured advance- 
ment. Of the evolution of the human brain we begin to know a little, 
but we are not able to draw a line of demarcation between the innate and 
the acquired powers of its cells and tracts. In both mind and body we 
inherit potentialities which only unfold under certain conditions. For the 
development of the body we may define what are normal conditions, and 
they must not depart too widely from natural conditions, but for that of 
the mind the conditions may be almost wholly artificial. Heredity 
provides the aptitudes, but the grist is delivered through the sense-organs, 
and whilst the brain is a natural growth, the mind is a cultural construction. 
Human thought is compilation — a rehash of the past in the present, with a 
short-sighted eye on the future — and no satisfactory record has ever been 
made of the mind of a man whose sole knowledge had been acquired 
without the tuition of his fellow-men, savage or civilised. 

If it is difficult to identify the common faculties of which we are in 
search, by enquiring into the mind as we know it, we may ask whether we 
are entitled to assume that the only such faculties to be efiective are those 
which had survival value in the final overshadowing by Homo sapiens, not 
only of his more distant ape-like kin, but of those nearer Hominoid relations 
whose remains have come to light in recent years ; whether, that is to 
say, the instincts and aptitudes of Neanthropic man which ensured his 
predominance, were identical with those which have led us into rivalry 
with nature. 

The brain of Later Palaeolithic man appears to have been like our own 
in all essentials, and a Cro-Magnon born to-day might become a skilled 
mechanic or an able bishop. But man had no more need to become a 
mechanic than he had to practise as a theologian, though he drifted into 
both professions. If the mental faculties that had survival value in the 
prevailing of our species were also those that were active in the initiation 
and pursuit of cultiiral advance beyond its needs, we are perhaps led to 
the conclusion that by far the greater part of human culture, material and 
immaterial alike, is an afterthought of evolution — an embroidering of the 
fabric. Man was given the means to earn a livelihood, and found himself 
commanding and inventing luxuries. In producing a new and cunning 
big-brained animal with hands, nature overshot her mark, and we are 
struggling with the consequences. 

Time will not permit of more than a glance at this complex subject, 
and indeed it is one for the psychologist to unravel. Perhaps he has 
already done so, and I have overlooked it. The essence of my contention 
— and, of course, not mine alone — is that there are no common faculties 
of the human mind that are capable of overruling the vagaries of environ- 
mental and historical compulsions, and of directing man's progress in 
discovery and invention, in various times and places, along lines that are 
parallel. Beginning with the primary discoveries of early man, applied 
for material purposes, the prevailing outcome of his independent and 
opportunist reactions to the results of his oM'n interference with natural 
1930 L 


materials and phenomena, lias been divergence and not parallelism. If 
amongst some people progress has been notable, in others there has been 
degeneration or stagnation. The non-progressive and self-obstructive 
common tendency of man has been emphasised by various anthropologists, 
but by none more insistently than by Prof. Elliot Smith, who has done so 
much to make us think again. Whatever may be our emotional reactions 
to the theory of the origin and spread of civilisation maintained by him 
and Dr. Perry — and what seems too good to be true is not for that reason 
false— it has helped to bring about a big change in the general attitude 
towards the problems of the evolution of culture, and light, as well as 
smoke and heat, is emerging from the controversy. 

Discovery and Invention. 

Having given brief consideration to some subjective problems, we may 
now return to the objective standpoint, and endeavour to distinguish 
and define the human achievements which we call discoveries and 

It is obvious that discovery lies at the root of all man's material 
activities, since he must know something of the everyday behaviour of 
material substances before he can apply or adapt natural objects to his 
purposes. Discovery may result in the development of activities in which 
method remains the essential and controlling factor, as in agriculture and 
the domestication of animals, and we may then call the resulting system 
of techniques a discovery-complex ; or it may initiate and further the 
development of artefacts, which we may provisionally call inventions. 
Perhaps few would be disposed to call an agricultural system an invention, 
and the same applies to techniques of metallurgy or weaving. If these 
arts are called discovery-complexes, what term may be applied to the 
products, such as bronze and woven cloth ? Iron is an element, extracted 
from its ores, and man has not yet reached the stage of inventing elements. 
Bronze is an alloy of two elements, owing its first production to a series of 
discoveries, and we can scarcely call it an invention. We may perhaps 
best get out of the difl&culty by using the term discovery-product for all 
artificially extracted, prepared, and compounded materials which have no 
significant form imposed upon them, but are merely the raw materials for 
the future production of shaped artefacts. 

We may apply the term invention, for general purposes,, to all shaped 
or constructed artefacts, in spite of the fact that many simple types, such 
as hand-axes and clay pots, are in reality products of discovery rather 
than invention. 

If, as just suggested, woven cloth is classed with bronze and other 
discovery-products, it has to be recognised that textiles and other fabrics 
are in some respects intermediate between discovery-products and 
inventions. Although they possess characters of construction independent 
of those of the artefacts of which they are components, their origin and 
development present problems differing from those of the evolution of 
tools and appliances with which the idea of invention is commonly 

The application of the term ' an invention ' to any and every shaped 
or constructed artefact can only be justified on the grounds of expediency, 


and it must be understood that the concession is not meant to embody a 
definition of invention as distinct from discovery, in the relation of these 
words to the subjective workings of the human mind, or even to the 
objective results. It would, indeed, be better to discard the word 
invention altogether, in any scientific treatment of the subject, since its 
edge has been blunted by common use and misuse. The word discovery 
also suffers from the same defect, since it is used in reference to identifica- 
tions and localisations which are due to the application of deductive 
methods, as well as to trivial incidents of daily life. 

After allowing for such inconsistencies of usage, a main cause of the 
difl&culties that have always stood in the way of attempts that have been 
made to distinguish sharply between discovery and invention, is the failure 
to separate the subjective from the objective content of the words, and 
to this point we may give some attention. 

The word discovery, in its bearing on material culture, relates only to 
the subjective appreciation of the properties or reactions of material 
substances or bodies, and it does not necessarily carry the implication of 
an objective exploitation of the knowledge gained. Only when the 
knowledge is applied to a useful purpose, more or less directly, for the 
ijiitiation or development of a method or an artefact, does the discovery 
play a practical part. We may say, therefore, that a discovery is a 
subjective event, which may in many cases be utilised in an objective 
application, and that it is these applied discoveries alone that are factors 
in human progress. It is therefore necessary to qualify the word dis- 
covery and speak of an applied discovery, before we can obtain an objec- 
tive as well as a subjective term. If we attemjit to treat the word 
invention in the same way, and speak of applied invention as the 
objective aspect of invention, we realise at once that we are doing 
violence to our conception of the meaning of the word.^ The word 
invention, in fact, unlike discovery, covers both subjective and objective 
meanings, and a failure to appreciate this inequality is the cause 
of misunderstanding. Moreover, whilst it is easy to distinguish between a 
discovery and an applied discovery as being subjective and objective 
respectively, I know of no attempt to make a corresponding distinction 
between the subjective and objective aspects of invention. At the 
moment we need not pursue this question further, since it will arise again 
at a later stage. 

Applied Discoveries. 

It is clear that material progress began with discoveries relating to 
materials, objects, and phenomena, of natural or chance occurrence, and 
that the initial value of such discoveries lay in their immediate practical 
use. It may have been the behaviour of stones he handled that first 
aroused man's interest in them, but the utility of indi\adual stones as 
implements was more important to him than the properties which made 
them useful. His generalisation was unconscious, or even instinctive, since 
animals discover, though man alone invents. The making of discoveries 
was not the result of a conscious search for means or methods to achieve 

' The application of an invention such as the plough, to the purpose ior which 
it was made, is clearly not comparable with the application of a discovery, such 
as that of the fusibility of copper, to the production of artefacts. 



an end, though such of them as helped towards the immediate procuring of 
food found a ready application. Upon the discoveries which arose out of 
observation of simple natural phenomena, and of superficial properties of 
natural materials, were built up knowledge and experience which led man 
further and further away from his initial steps, until he was making 
discoveries about materials which owed their character or composition to 
his development of methods of treatment ; they were, in a practical sense, 
his own creation, and until he had created them he could not learn their 
properties and uses. Man had no need of metals before he had discovered 
them, and until then they did not exist even in his imagination. 

If we seek to trace the course of events that led to the use of bronze 
for tools and weapons, we see at once that not only were there many 
discoveries involved, but that these discoveries must have followed in a 
certain sequence. Our picturing of the course of evolution from hammered 
native copper to core-cast bronze must be in part speculative, but in the 
foreshortening perspective of time, and in the light of our own knowledge, 
we are more likely to see the chain of events as having fewer links than it 
actually had, rather than more. This is true even if we avoid the error 
of supposing that when a harder and more amenable ' copper ' began to 
make its appearance, there was a rapid development of the idea of a still 
better bronze, together with definite conceptions of an ideal product. In 
so far as some samples of the new alloy showed themselves as more service- 
able than others, there was a directional efiort towards repetition — man's 
primary ambition — and when it was found that the presence of an 
' impurity ' in the copper ore was an ameliorating cause, there was a basis 
for experimental quantitative smelting, which wa§ of the nature of 
directional research ; but it was a dim foreshadowing of the corresponding 
process in our own day, not because the mind of man was differently 
endowed, but because it was differently equipped and trained. 

The building-up of any discovery-complex, such as agriculture or 
metal-working, is clearly dependent upon single discoveries, following on 
each other, and some of them could only emerge at the end of a long 
sequence. Irrigation was not a starting point, nor was the smelting of 
copper ore. The cire perdue process of casting bronze may be taken as 
another instance. If we assert the origin of this process independently 
in two parts of the world, the rashness of the assertion will be proportional 
to the extent of initial metallurgical knowledge common to the two regions. 
If in both regions a complete ignorance of metal was the starting-point, 
the discovery of the cire perdue process independently is far less credible 
than if knowledge of bronze, and of methods of casting it, prevailed in 
the two regions. This is obvious, and is often overlooked. 

That some discoveries are more " difficult ' than others is agreed, but 
it is perhaps not so clearly realised that the difficulties are of more than 
one kind. The discovery of the phenomenon of the development of heat 
by the compression of air led to the production of the fire-piston in South- 
East Asia, perhaps or probably in independence of the European appliance. 
The phenomenon was no less natural in its ultimate nature than that of 
the production of sparks from iron pyrites b)^ percussion, but it was not 
so easily produced by chance, and it was not so easily reproduced by 
experiment. It was not only a difficult discovery, but it was also difficult 
in its ajjpreciation and its application. The independent production of 


the fire-piston under experimental scientific conditions in Europe — and at 
present the available evidence seems to justify a provisional acceptance 
of this view — has no bearing on the general question of independent 
invention, since the significance of this is in relation to its occurrence under 
comparable cultural conditions. 

Contrasting with difficult discoveries are those easy and easily applied 
discoveries, such as the flaking of stone and the cutting of wood, which 
occurred so early in the history of man as to be outside the range of con- 
troversy. Still more easy were the discoveries of new food-plants, though 
these are scarcely comparable with the type of discovery with which we 
are concerned. The baby who samples coal is pursuing knowledge and 
making discoveries, by the ancestral method of trial and error, and no 
instinct saves it from unpleasantness. It seems possible, however, that 
this readiness to explore the dietetic values of unfamiliar substances — 
which must often have been a condition of survival, if sometimes of 
survival of the prudent — lies at the root of the habit of substituting one 
material for another in human arts and crafts. At all events, it must have 
helped to form the mind of man before he was human. It may perhaps 
be accepted as one of our elusive common tendencies, even though it helps 
towards diversity rather than coincidence in discovery and invention. 

In this discussion of discovery-complexes we have got no further than 
the recognition that they are systems of methods, which must have 
developed in a certain sequence, even though we cannot confidently 
reconstruct such sequences in detail. In many cases, moreover, not one 
but several sequences may be identified, a fresh start arising out of new 
discoveries. The casting of copper, for example, did not emerge directly 
from the method of percussion, but if the metal had never been hammered 
into the form of implements, we may safely assume that casting would 
only have been discovered and exploited, if at all, as a result of knowledge 
of a method of casting some other metal. 

It is thus a further complication of the problem, that one process may 
owe its origin, in part at least, to a transfer of method from one substance 
to another, or to the influence of knowledge acquired in relation to another 
substance. It may be, for example, that the casting of copper implements 
was in part an outcome of the knowledge of the behaviour of waxes and 
fats, melted and allowed to cool. This process of transfer of ideas in 
technique is analogous with that factor of hybridisation in the evolution 
of artefacts for which I have proposed the term cross-mutation, and of 
which more will be said later. 

The general conclusion to which we are forced by our consideration 
of the nature and results of discovery, is that there are no absolute criteria 
by means of which we can decide what part may have been played by 
independent discoveries in the production of similarities in human culture. 
We are safe in assuming that simple primary discoveries, such as that of 
the plasticity of clay, or the malleability of copper and gold, may or must 
have been made more than once, but we are equally safe in assuming that, 
with every step beyond the first, an independent repetition of the same 
sequence becomes more and more unlikely, and also that the more difficult 
a single discovery and the more difficult its application, the less likelv is 
its fruitful repetition. It would be no great coincidence if in our own day 
a. European and an American independently produced a similar mixture 


or alloy of iron with another metal, since they would in efEect be carrying on 
a joint research with a common starting-point, and with the knowledge 
that others had succeeded in researches of a like nature. But a belief in 
the independent origin of bronze in the Old World and the New, in pre- 
historic times, would seem to depend upon a faith in coincidence. The 
discoveries of the nature and uses of copper, followed much later by the 
production of bronze, turned out to be a critical event in the history of 
man in the Old World, as we see on looking backward, but to those con- 
cerned it was at first merely a matter of a glittering material for ornaments, 
and later of slightly more efficient tools and weapons than those of stone. 
Eventually new types were evolved, of still greater efficiency, but these 
were not within the range of vision of the early metal-workers. There 
was no environmental compulsion, and economic inducement only came 
into play after the essential steps had been taken. It was as a malleable 
stone that copper acquired an importance which made the discovery of 
its fusibility a great event. The early metal-worker was not pushed along 
the path of progress ; he did not know it was a path, and there were no sign- 
posts to prevent him from straying from his course, nor had he any vision 
of a metallurgical paradise, such as we inhabit. He was just as likely to 
take the wrong turn as the right one, and never strike the route again — 
he had no idea of where he was going, nor of any particular reason for 
getting there. His desire to repeat or imitate a successful achievement 
was conditioned by the appearance of new and better results arising out 
of the chances of empiricism, and there is no evidence of any other directive 
faculty or tendency. That bronze was ever produced at all is sufficiently 
surprising, and if the evolutionary sequence in the Old "World was mirrored 
in the New, our wonderment is more than doubled. 

I do not suggest that the sole factor in any case of assumed independent 
evolution of technique must be coincidence, or that coincidence on a small 
scale is unlikely, but I would argue that coincidence must have played a 
predominant part, and that the further we get away from simple cases 
and short sequences the bigger the draft on coincidence, until it becomes 
of incredible magnitude. But incredulity is not enough, unless it rests 
upon a knowledge of what it is that is incredible, and detailed analysis 
alone can supply this knowledge. It must be remembered, also, that 
discovery-complexes may depend very greatly for their development upon 
the evolution of artificial means or inventions. As examples may be cited 
the plough in agriculture, the kiln in pottery-making, and the loom in 
weaving. Although there are many things the hand can do unaided, there^ 
are others that it cannot do at all, and yet others that are better done 
by the help of tools or mechanisms. The analysis of discovery-complexes 
must therefore be made with reference to the inventions that have aided 
the process of evolution, or have rendered it possible, and it must be borne 
in mind that there are all grades of dependence upon artificial aids, simple , 
or complex. Whilst distinguishing methods from means, that is to say, 
the means must not be disregarded, even though they are the objects of 
especial study as inventions, to which we may now turn. 


The general recognition of the gradual character of the evolution of 
human artefacts — so obvious even under modern conditions — makes it 


unnecessary to dwell upon it. There are, however, no accepted definitions 
of the kinds of developmental changes or modifications, viewed either 
objectively or subjectively. If the initial steps in the evolution of simple 
artefacts are due to discovery alone, as already suggested, we have to 
decide in what way such steps differ from those which can be called 
inventive, if difference there is ; and also to enquire into the nature of 
any other factors that may play a part in evolution. Moreover, if we call 
all artefacts inventions, there is no term left for single inventive steps. If, 
for example, the outrigger-canoe or the Chinese repeating crossbow is an 
invention, what distinctive term can we ajjply to the steps by which it hag 
evolved, assuming these can be identified as due to individual discoveries, 
or to true inventions, whatever these may be ? There is also the possi- 
bility- — or the certainty — that changes may occur which are due neither 
to discovery nor invention, but to some slower and more gradual process. 
If we are to have a clear understanding of the evolution of human artefacts 
these points need clearing up, if only on a basis of hypothesis. I have put 
forward elsewhere some tentative proposals, and although I must not 
recapitulate in detail, it is necessary to cover some of the ground again. 

If we begin with implements which were amongst the first to achieve 
an individuality of their own, those made of stone are for many reasons 
the most convenient for our purpose. We can scarcely doubt that accident, 
perhaps often repeated, led to the intentional breaking of stones for the 
production of edged or pointed implements, which gradually evolved into 
standardised forms. To summarise a sequence of events that arose out 
of more than one discovery, we may say that the first artificially-shaped 
stone implement was due to the application of a discovery, and since the 
artificial shaping was a definite and decisive step, it may be called a 
mutation. Since also it was the first intentional conversion of a particular 
kind of natural object or material into a kind of artefact, it was a primary 
mutation. From such a mutation, perhaps occurring more than once, 
developed the many forms of stone implements with which we are familiar. 
A mutation of this or any other type is an abrupt and discontinuous step, 
contrasting with changes which are trivial in character, and which produce 
their effect by a process of summation. For these the name of variations 
is appropriate. 

In the shaping of the early types everyone agrees that forms such as 
hand-axes and ' ovates ' were not preconceived as models to be aimed at ; 
they must have been the end results of a gradual process of change, in 
which the shapes emerged through an opportunist selection and imitation 
of those which were most convenient and effective. This was in effect a 
process of variation, casual at first but later becoming more selective and 

Simple stone implements are thus to be traced to a primary muta- 
tion, a sudden jump, followed by variation, a gradual process. They 
were in most cases made for hammering or crushing, for cutting, or for 
piercing, three functional duties which lie at the root of a large part of 
man's coercion of materials. They were evolved, not invented to serve 
specific purposes. Similarly, beginning with a primary mutation in each 
case, the fighting-stick became the club, with its immense variety of form ; 
the digging-stick became the spade, and perhaps the spear, with its 
derivative the arrow ; the pick became the hoe and finally the plough ; 


the hollow reed became the blow-tube. Even before the more evolved 
implements of these classes had got beyond their one-piece character, 
however, other factors than variation sometimes intervened. That is to 
say, whilst the field of variation is that of form, it is not in exclusive posses- 
sion of this field. For the moment we may pursue the subject of form 
itself a little further, leaving factors on one side. 

The stone hand-axe of Palaeolithic type is found in many parts of the 
Old World, and although it has considerable range of form, it is sufficiently 
standardised to be regarded as a type. Along with it, but of later origin, 
are often found derived forms with an edge all round, which eventually 
appear as the fully-evolved sharp-rimmed ovate. It is a significant and 
perhaps curious fact that the general tendency of archaeologists appears 
to be towards a tacit or expressed assumption that the presence of these 
two types, in regions as far apart as Western Europe, Egypt, South Africa 
and India, is due not to any common faculty of the himian mind, nor to 
any directional pressure of human needs, but to a spread of people who 
had, as it happened, evolved the two implements in question. And yet 
they are simple types. 

Similarly, when flakes having the characters of Mousterian points, or 
implements resembling Aurignacian gravers, are found in Eastern Africa, 
there appears to be no widespread desire to claim them as examples of 
the manner in which man independently arrives at similar types of imple- 
ments through the working of his psychic unity. On the contrary, the 
immediate result is theory and speculation as to how and when Mousterian 
and Aurignacian man respectively reached the regions in which the imple- 
ments are found. Not all archaeologists take up this position without 
reserve, but there is no doubt that there is a general, if sometimes only 
provisional, adoption of the diffusionist and historical point of view. At 
the back of this must lie the belief that a similarity of form in flint imple- 
ments afiords, at least in some cases, and to many archaeologists, sufficient 
grounds for theories of human spread. We must recognise, however, that 
in the case of stone implements the belief is usually based on something 
more than a single coincidence in type-form. There may be two types 
(such as the hand-axe and the ovate) occurring together, or more than 
two, and the improbabihty of independent evolution increases very greatly 
with each type added. This is true even when the artefacts are simple, 
but the weight of the argument from numbers is still greater when the 
artefacts are more varied and more complex ; those who employ it in the 
case of stone implements in the Old World cannot logically deny its 
relevance to the occurrence of such appliances as spindles, looms, blow- 
tubes, pjnramids, plank-boats and many other things, in the Old World 
and the New. 

A point of considerable importance in the comparison of stone imple- 
ments lies in the fact that it is not form alone that is invoked to prove 
identity. No other types of artefacts are subjected to such fervid con- 
centration as are these, and a typical Mousterian ' point,' for example, 
must have an outline that does not fall outside a certain range of variation ; 
it should be unchipped, or only slightly chipped, on the bulbar face, and 
it should show facets on the striking platform. There is involved in the 
definition an intermingling of characters of form, with others which are 
the outcome of method or technique, whereas a digging-stick, a paddle 


and many other one-piece implements, are defined by form alone. Stone 
implements are, in fact, often judged by the technique of their workmanship 
as well as by their general form, and the passion they inspire sometimes 
leads to an excess of typological zeal which makes classification an end 
rather than a means. But flint is wilful as well as hard, and the hand of 
the flint worker was often forced. He knew the form he aimed at and the 
flaking-angle he preferred, but he could not keep his material under 
absolute control, and some so-called types are flint-made as much as 

Most of our difficulties in the search for criteria of form, in relation to 
independent evolution, arise out of the problems of separating the 
functional from the incidental and conventional. A digging-stick must 
have a point or a flattened end to penetrate the soil ; a paddle must have 
a blade ; a sword must have a hilt which can be grasped. But a digging- 
stick need not have a foot-rest ; a paddle need not have a crutch-handle ; 
a sword need not have a hand-guard. We can say that, speaking 
generally, a foot-rest on a digging-stick has a greater functional value than 
a crutch-handle on a paddle, but it is impossible to determine whether 
one of these is more likely than the other to give us instances of independent 
evolution. The questions as to how and why such features first appeared 
cannot be answered with any certainty. But if we consider features that 
are functionally meaningless, or unimportant, we are more often justified 
in the assumption that they are probably due to variation, and are less 
likely to be duplicated independently. As a matter of well-known fact, 
there are innumerable simple characters of form which are so typical of 
certain regions that they are diagnostic of the place of origin. Knobbed 
clubs, for example, are not uncommon, but the knob flattened distally 
and proximally is found only on African clubs, and in these ' knobkerries ' 
the knob is also situated laterally to the axis of the weapon. The form of 
the knob itself is sufficient for determination, and this is true of the knobs, 
or heads, of many wooden clubs from the Pacific ; whilst if we consider 
the whole form of a club from any part of the world, it is rarely indeed 
that there is any doubt as to provenance. There has been independent 
evolution, not always variational, but it has led to divergence and not to 
similarity. It is largely upon this result of independent evolution in 
producing characteristic features of form, that we are able to assign a 
place of origin to a wooden club, or other one-piece artefact, that lacks 

On the other hand, there are certain types of clubs from Fiji, Tonga, 
and Samoa, that approach each other so closely as to present some 
difficulty except to the expert ; but this is due to the recent intercourse 
that has taken place between the groups. Such facts as these are in direct 
opposition to the view that similarity of form is not to be trusted as evidence 
of diffusion. That similarities may occur through coincidence is not to be 
doubted, and perhaps this is the case, for example, with the broad 
Andamanese bow and an East African type which approaches it rather 
closely. It may be that the two forms had a common origin, but it is also 
possible that they were derived independently from broad bamboo bow- 
staves, the central narrowing for a grip, and the thinning out of the two 
ends, being features that they have in common with other bow-staves. 
In estimating the chances for and against independent origin in any 


instance, it is essential to make allowance on the one hand for functional 
necessities, and on the other for the compulsion of material. The more 
coercive have been the influences of these two kinds, the more necessary 
is it to seek for minor difierences which have been produced by the free 
action of variation. 

This brief discussion of the significance of form, as distinct from 
construction, leads us only to the conclusion that there are no criteria 
of an absolute character which can be applied to decide a case for 
or against independent evolution ; only by close comparison and , 
analysis of every case on its own merits can we justify our faith. It 
remains true, however, that there is overwhelming evidence to prove 
that the normal result of independent variation in form is diversity 
and not similarity. 

A factor in material evolution which is usually recognised, but perhaps 
also usually underestimated, is substitution or translation. We may note 
in passing that substitution may be dictated by scarcity or absence of a 
material that has been commonly employed, or by a chance discovery 
that one material may be advantageously substituted for another, or that 
it may occur as a result of search for better materials. The first two 
reasons are clearly those which must have predominated in early days, 
whilst the last became operative only under conditions of experimental 
research — conditions which no doubt prevailed in some degree whenever 
well-fed communities developed wealth and leisure. Prosperity, not need, 
is the mother of invention, or at least the fairy god-mother. From our 
point of view the importance of substitution lay in its power as a factor 
in discovery and invention through the opportunist reaction of man to 
the ideas that came to him unsought. In employing a new material for 
old purposes, it is clear that the preliminary step would be a recognition 
of sufficient similarity to suggest the possibility of substitution. The 
endeavour to treat the new material in the same way as the old would 
inevitably in many cases lead to the discovery that it reacted in a different 
way, and a new line of evolution was opened up. This is sufiiciently 
obvious in perhaps the most important of all substitutions — that of 
metal for stone. The result was not merely the production of better tools 
and weapons, but an expansion of man's knowledge which gave him a 
new insight into the possibilities of the raw materials of his environment. 
It is not too much to say that substitution has been a fundamental factor 
in discovery and invention from the earliest times, but it must be 
emphasised that coincidence in a particular substitution cannot be claimed 
as independent invention. 

If a primary mutation was due to one or more discoveries made in 
relation to the behaviour of natural objects or materials, it is not un- 
reasonable to suppose that similar discoveries concerning artefacts may 
have led to other mutations. As a hypothetical case let us consider the 
origin of the bamboo spear-thrower of New Guinea, which has a socket 
for the spear in place of the peg that is present on almost all other spear- 
throwers. We may suppose that this implement was derived from the 
ordinary type made of wood, such as is in common use in Australia, and 
that the first change was that of translation into bamboo. The carved 
or attached peg for the spear was at first retained, but during the manu- 
facture or use of the appliance it would be easy for the discovery to be 


made that the bamboo rod readily supplied a natural socket, which would 
serve in place of the peg for effecting the discharge of the spear. Then 
followed the intentional construction of spear-throwers with socket 
instead of peg, and we may call the step- — which may or may not be regarded 
as a progressive step — a free-mutation. If it happened as the result of a 
discovery, as suggested, it was free from any influences from other 
implements or mechanisms. It is impossible to be sure that no such 
outside influence was at work, but the step being decisive and discontinuous 
it was at any rate a mutational step, and not variational. We may 
assume with some degree of probability that free-mutation initiated the 
provision of the foot-rest on the digging-stick, a grip or handle on the 
stone knife, the detaching head of the spear to produce the harpoon, the 
sling-hafting of the flail, and that it was concerned in the origin of other 
types of hafting, as well as in the modifications of components to adapt or 
improve them for combination in a constructed artefact. Primary 
mutation, followed by variations which led to change in form, stimulated 
by discoveries in relation to method, and often influenced by substitution, 
led to other discoveries which could be ajjplied for the improvement of the 
form or construction of artefacts, and these applied discoveries may be 
called free-mutations. In this way there were produced many implements 
of a simple character, some having form alone, others showing construction 
and often mechanism. 

So far we have identified no inventive foresight of a kind that would 
lead directly to the subjective preconception of a new or improved type 
of implement, differing in any important res^ject from what had gone 
before. We know, however, that in our own times the inventor designs 
his products in advance. This is not to say that at some stage in the 
evolution of material culture there was a sudden change in the mentality 
of man. Discovery and imitation lay at the root of all his methods, 
initiated all his artefacts, and led to the appearance of free-mutations, but 
when he had established a variety of artefacts that had construction as 
well as form, he began that process of transfer and adaptation of structural 
and mechanical characters for which I have suggested the term cross- 
mutation. These, like the other mutations already defined, were abrupt 
and discontinuous changes which could not have arisen gradually by 
variation, but, unlike other mutations, they owed their origin to a combina- 
tion of features, or an application of ' principles,' which had evolved in 
independence. The process corresponds to what Mr. Henry Balfour has 
laid great stress upon as hybridisation. It is a process involving foresight, 
in predicting the possibility of combination, and ingenuity in effecting it. 
A cross-mutation is a true invention, a product of the inventive faculty, 
unaffected by discovery in its first conception, though the inventor 
nowadays may need to make discoveries in relation to materials and 
methods before he can test the viability of his inventive forecast. Through 
it all runs the opportunist thread that may be plainly seen in the historical 
retrospect. Combinations for inventive purposes can only occur to the 
mind in an artificial environment in which the two (or more) elements 
of the combination are at hand, and these may have been evolved in 
entirely different artefacts or contexts. 

Accepting these arguments as valid, an invention proper — as distinct 
from our loose application of the term to shaped and constructed artefacts 


in general — may be defined as a single mutational step which owes its 
origin not to discovery, but to a combining of structures or devices already 
in existence. The result is objectively a structural combination, which is 
preceded subjectively by the action of the mind in recognising the advan- 
tages and the possibilities of the hybridisation, and in thinking out the 
method of efiecting it. 

We may now inquire whether we are any nearer to the establishment 
of criteria of independent evolution in respect of artefacts — whether 
coincidence through mutation is more or less likely to occur than 
coincidence through variation in form. Except in so far as variation is 
limited by the form and nature of materials employed, and by the 
functional eflaciency of the completed artefact, it has a very wide range, 
and it may give rise to features that are functionally meaningless, or even 
detrimental. Mutations, on the other hand, are much more closely deter- 
mined by functional considerations ; they result, as we have just noted, 
either from chance discovery that a modification of a particular kind is 
advantageous (free-mutations) or from a prediction that a modification 
by transfer and combination may be of value (cross- mutations). Useless 
mutations are much less likely to survive, even if hit upon, than are 
useless variations. 

It is one of the provinces of variation to add to the efiectiveness of 
characters which have appeared as a result of mutation, but it may also 
develop characters in such a direction as to lead towards, or away from, 
another mutation. The variational development of the push-quern into 
the saddle-quern was clearly away from any line of evolution that could 
lead to the mutational step, or steps, that produced the rotary quern. 
Variations and mutations react upon each other, but the process is not 
one which leads to parallelism or convergence. 

As regards mutational criteria, it is evident that the occurrence of 
free-mutations depends upon the state of development of the artefact in 
which they appear. They may be primarily due to some feature of 
construction or material which gives rise to a chance suggestion for 
improvement, or this may arise through substitution, and their adoption 
may depend upon a variety of social as well as material conditions. In 
the case of cross-mutations there can only be a combination of features 
or devices if these are present in the same region at the same time ; and 
where the case is one of simple adaptational transfer, there must be present 
in the appliance that profits by the mutation some feature of structure 
or working which suggests the possibility. 

In a further treatment of the subject of inventions it would have been 
desirable to discuss such factors as change of function, change in method 
of use, and numerical mutation, but sufficient has been said to indicate the 
analytical method of approach. 

If we take into account all the factors involved in the development 
of artefacts, even in simple cases, independent evolution involves 
coincidences, few or many. It is also clear that the further the artefact 
from the primary mutation which began it, that is to say, the longer the 
series of variational and mutational changes that has been undergone, 
the bigger the draft on coincidence. Nevertheless we are still unable to 
point to definite mutational criteria, and to say that it is impossible that 
some particular mutation — and especially a primary mutation — should 


have occurred more than once. But a primary mutation is only a first 
step. As in the case of discovery-complexes and discovery-products, it is 
necessary to consider each case on its merits, and endeavour to identify 
all the links in the evolutionary chain, or at least to determine whether 
there are few or many. 

The general case against identity or similarity by independent evolution 
is, however, overwhelming, as is very widely admitted at the present day, 
but to a large extent it is based on cumulative circumstantial evidence, 
since there are grave difficulties in finding proofs that leave no loophole 
for the defence. This is especially true in relation to the question of New 
World origins. The American dread of Old World entanglements has 
given rise to an anthropological Monroe doctrine, and there are many who 
are prepared to postulate independent evolution in America on a scale 
which might give pause to the most patriotic evolutionist. No agreement 
on the general question can be reached whilst divergent views are held on 
this particular issue, and although the actual proofs of diffusion across the 
Pacific must come from other sources — or, as some think, have already 
come- — I may be permitted to close this address with a brief contribution 
to the discussion. 


The constituent elements of the material culture of the American 
Indians reveal, as is well known, many correspondences with Old World 
products of discovery and invention. Even in its highest grades, however, 
the general level was never as high as that of Egypt and Mesopotamia 
before 3000 B.C., and in many respects it was much lower. Taking a few 
culture-traits in detail, we may note that there was cereal culture with 
irrigation, but without the plough ; corn-grinding with the push-quern 
but without the rotary quern ; pottery-making with the use of manu- 
factured moulds, but without the wheel ; decoration with slips and 
paints but no mineral glazes ; metal-working without iron. Considering 
tools and weapons only, we find that in stone, copper, or bronze, most of 
the important types of the Old World down to Chalcolithic times and 
later, were represented, and that all the chief methods of hafting were 
employed. But the hoe never became the plough ; the pestle and mortar 
did not develop the mechanical devices found especially in Asia ; the free 
bow and the sinew-backed bow were used, but not the highly-developed 
composite bow or the crossbow ; the dagger never became the bronze 
sword ; all the Asiatic methods of making the blow-tube were known, 
with the exception of that of boring out a solid rod of hard wood ; the 
sledge and the travois never ran on wheels. 

These are cases in which agreement with the Old World occurs up to a 
point and then breaks down. There are, of course, many other corres- 
pondences (and not in material culture alone) which are more or less 
precise, and some of them are especially reminiscent of Eastern Asia. 
The blow-tube has already been mentioned, but to this we may add cotton 
cultivation, tie-dyeing, gauze-weaving, mosaic-work, tripod sujiports for 
pottery, slat armour, and quipus. Some of these are not restricted in 
their distribution in the Old World, and to them we may add plank-boats, 
the loom, pan pipes, flageolets, steelyards and scales, and the cire perdue 
process of casting bronze. 

Amongst those who believe in the independent development of 


American culture, there is some difierence of opinion as to the equipment 
of the original immigrants, coming across, it is supposed, from North-East 
Asia. The chief items mentioned by Kroeber (in 1923), for example, are 
the dog, bow, harpoon, fire-drill, woven and twined basketry, perhaps the 
spear-thrower, stone implements and the beginning of the grinding of 
stone ; as perhaps introduced later from Asia, he mentions the skin-boat, 
sinew-backed bow, tailored skin-clothing, coiled basketry. It will be 
realised that for such a meagre initial outfit to expand into the complexity 
of the higher Amerind cultures, there must have prevailed a degree of 
opportunism and inventiveness comparable with that of the peoples of the 
Old World ; and that for the results to be so closely similar, the ' common 
faculties ' of man must have been in good working order. 

In his recent Huxley Lecture, Nordenskiold discussed this question 
of the inventiveness of the American Indian from a standpoint which did 
not exclude the possibility of outside influence. He was, in fact, in 
search of cases in which the evidence of indigenous origin seemed worthy 
of acceptance. It is not possible here to discuss the culture-traits he 
regards as American in origin and development, by far the most important 
of which are agriculture, pottery-making, and bronze-working, but it must 
be observed that in the main the case he unintentionally makes is that of 
the won-inventiveness of the American Indian, with regard to tools and 
other artefacts. Those which he accepts as indigenous in the New World 
are mainly either of simple types, very little removed from their beginnings, 
or are the results of substitution and other factors in which invention is 
not involved. We may exclude as irrelevant the discoveries of native 
food-plants, 'for reasons already given. 

The idea of the progressiveness of the American Indian depends in 
reality upon the assumption that from the hunting and food-gathering 
culture of the first immigrants there were developed, without extraneous 
assistance, the high cultures of Mexico, Central America, and Peru. As 
we have just noted, however, his apparent progress, whilst advancing, on 
this assumption, more or less parallel with that of the Old World in 
numerous culture-traits, stopped abruptly at many points which were in 
the Old World over- run. He missed mutations that were essential to 
further parallelism, but by dint of discovery, substitution, and variation, 
he was led to the production of those superficial differences that characterise 
many American inventions and discovery-complexes. There was little 
that he did better than it was done elsewhere, and much that he never did 
at all. If on his own account he made the discoveries leading to such 
achievements as agriculture, bronze-working, pottery-making, and if he 
invented the hoe, the push-quern, the pestle and mortar, the loom, the 
corbelled arch, and much else, how was it that his genius failed him when 
it might have carried him still further along the lines determined by his 
' common faculties ' ? Why was it that it was always he, and not his 
Old World rival, who fell behind in the race ? Why is it, also, that there 
is so much in the higher, as well as the lower, American cultures that 
compel comparison with Eastern Asia, and not with, let us say. Neolithic 
or Bronze Age Western Europe 1 It would seem that we have to choose 
between explaining and explaining away, or, more precisely, between 
diffusion and the common faculties of man. 

Without venturing further into this side of the question, there is one 



final point on which I may touch. It is customary for those who argue 
against the theory of post-Neolithic outside contacts with America, to 
direct their shafts against the view that the cultural influences came by 
the stepping-stones of the Pacific Islands. It is generally admitted that 
the Pacific has been colonised by more than one stream of immigrants 
from Asia, but that cultural influences of any importance reached America 
by this route is probably allowed by few. For my own part, although I 
would not exclude the possibility of some slight infiltration through 
Oceania, I would look to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and its islands, 
as the immediate source of sporadic incursions, extending over centuries, 
which added at intervals immigrants allied in physical and mental type. 
and possessed of cultures increasingly advanced, to the original stock of 
the New World. Knowledge of ' God's own country ' lying to the east- 
ward, began in North-East Asia, and may well have extended southward 
with the centuries. The further south the adventurers came from, the 
later the intrusive culture, and the higher its level. The more recent 
southern immigrants, perhaps possessed of ocean-going vessels, may 
have struck straight across to the New World they already knew of, or 
they may have coasted northwards along the shores and islands of Asia, 
and made a shorter crossing. They chose their landing places in the 
warmer latitudes such as they were accustomed to, leaving the northern 
coasts to the earlier and more hardy navigators who had preceded them. 
There is much technological and other evidence to support this view, but 
it cannot even be outlined in this address. 

This is my last digression, and it is made to emphasise my strong 
belief that the culture of the American Indian is a derived culture, in all 
essentials, and that an explanation is to be sought in frequent contact 
with Asia, from the time of the first immigrants down to an uncertain 
period, but perhaps continuing into the early centuries of the Christian 
era, as Prof. Elliot Smith contends. We are only at the beginning of the 
study of possible or probable early relationships between Asia and 
America, and until we have a much more detailed knowledge of the 
archaeology of both these continents, we must make the best of such 
material as there is, and of such lines of argument as may be valid or 


To conclude, the views and arguments I have put forward may seem 
moderate to some, extreme to others, and I claim no more for them 
than that they may help to a better understanding of the mode of evolu- 
tion of man's material culture, and to a fuller appreciation of the large 
assumptions upon which is based the belief in the frequency of independent 
evolution. Whatever may be our individual position in the diffusionist 
controversy, we must all admit, I think, that man has always and every- 
where an environmental mind, and that he can only move forward on 
prolongations of the lines that can be seen by looking backward. ' One 
thing leads to another ' is man's ancestral motto. 





PROF. H. S. RAPER, C.B.E., F.R.S., 


It has long been the custom to divide the chemical transformations which 
occur in living animals into anabolic and catabolic. The anabolic are 
associated with those processes of restitution which occur after functional 
activity and the catabolic with those accompanying the functional activity 
itself. This distinction must not be taken to imply that they are inde- 
pendent. In certain instances we know that the reverse is true. Hence 
the synthesis of one substance may require the concurrent degradation of 

A review of present-day knowledge of chemical processes in the cell 
reveals the undoubted fact that physiologists have been more successful 
in investigating the phenomena of catabolism and chemical degradation 
in the cell than the processes of synthesis, although during life they may 
and do occur together. This might be expected. Catabolic processes may 
persist long after the cell has ceased to possess those fundamental proper- 
ties which we associate with life. They may be demonstrated in cells 
which have been submitted to mechanical injury so as to destroy their 
structure or after various methods of treatment have been applied to 
extract the cell contents. Their investigation has thus proved relatively 
simple because restrictions as to experimental method have not been severe. 
But the anabolic processes of the cell are essentially those which occur only 
during life. To study them successfully demands that the cells in which 
they are taking place must be kept alive during the investigation. This 
in itself implies that the range within which the factors determining their 
progress or cessation can operate is probably as restricted as the conditions 
determining the life of the cell itself. It is not surprising then that with 
such severe limitations we have learned up to the present a great deal more 
about degradation than synthesis in the cell. Nevertheless, the synthetic 
activities of the cell have a fascination which in itself makes an attempt 
to discuss them attractive. And I must confess that it was partly for that 
reason that I chose the subject of this address. It was also my good 
fortune before proceeding to the study of physiology to pass through a 
school of chemistry and this may explain in part my predilection for the 
synthetic processes of living organisms. The chemist, if I am not mis- 
taken, is more proud of his achievements in the synthetic field than in the 


analytic. There is more artistry about them. They are examples of the 
creative instinct by means of which man from the earliest days has striven 
to conquer Nature. But there is another reason for my choice of the 
subject. A little more than a hundred years ago the first synthesis of a 
product of animal life from inorganic matter — the production of urea from 
ammonium cyanate — was described by Wohler. It seemed to me, there- 
fore, an appropriate time to consider the bearing of the achievements of 
organic chemical synthesis on our understanding of synthetic processes in 
the living animal. 

Wohler's discovery did not bear immediate fruit. It required the 
genius of Kekule with his hypothesis of the tetravalency of carbon and the 
mode of linking of carbon atoms to point the way to a rational method 
of illustrating the structure of carbon compounds, an organ of thought as 
valuable as language itself. 

Once the structure of compounds could be pictured objectively it 
became possible to build them up from others of known structure. How 
aptly this exemplifies the dependence of progress on man's ability to 
illustrate his conceptions pictorially ! Kekule's hypothesis came thirty 
years after Wohler's synthesis, but from that time on we have seen and 
acclaimed the discovery of the structure, in many instances confirmed by 
synthesis, of a large number of organic substances which are produced by 
living organisms. This discovery of the structure of products of cellular 
activity is of prime importance to the physiologist. Structure is the point 
from which we must always start when trying to find out how any particu- 
lar substance is made in the cell. For this contribution to the solution of 
our problems of synthesis, if for no other, we owe organic chemistry a great 
debt. But the methods used by the chemist in synthetic processes have 
usually been such as could have no place in the living cell with its extreme 
sensitiveness to conditions such as temperature, reaction of the environ- 
ment and osmotic pressure, to mention only the more obvious ones. The 
use of high temperatures to bring about activation of the reacting sub- 
stances is inadmissible. Activation in the living cell must be achieved 
by other means. Acids and bases, except in such strength as will bring 
about only small changes in hydrion concentration, cannot be employed. 
All reactions must take place in an aqueous medium. With these and 
other limitations it can readily be appreciated that a few only of the usual 
processes of organic synthesis can be considered as operative in the cell. 

It is not possible within the scope of this address to consider all the 
aspects of synthetic activity which are found in living organisms. Each 
one presents almost a distinct problem. I propose, therefore, to deal only 
with the animal cell, since its range of synthetic activity is narrower than 
that of vegetable cells and has been more closely studied, and only with 
the synthesis of a few substances which exemplify certain general problems. 

Unlike the Chemist, the animal cell has a very limited choice of raw 
materials from which synthesis must start. These are the components of 
the common foodstuffs. When they have undergone the preliminary pro- 
cesses of digestion they provide in all about thirty substances which may 
be regarded as available for the building up of new compounds by the cell. 
They consist of about twenty amino-acids, two purine bases, three pyri- 
midine bases, three hexoses, glycerol and higher fatty acids. It is true 

1930 M 


that there may be other, hitherto undiscovered components of foodstuffs, 
which are important as raw material for synthesis in the animal cell, but 
they can be but few in number and present in small amount. Given this 
list of raw materials can we in every instance indicate which is the likely 
starting point for the synthesis of substances whose constitution is known 
or partly known ? This question must still be answered in the negative 
for such well-known products as cholesterol and the unconjugated acids of 
bile. It is possible that the experiments of Channon who demonstrated 
that addition of spinacene to the diet of rats caused the cholesterol content 
of the liver to increase to double its usual amount may afford a clue to the 
origin of this substance, but it is difficult to conceive of spinacene being 
the raw material for this synthesis in the herbivorous animal. As for the 
bile acids, we are in complete ignorance of the substance or substances 
from which they are built up. Although closely allied in structure to 
cholesterol it is clear from the careful experiments of Enderlen, Thann- 
hauser and Jenke, who failed to observe any increase in the production of 
bile acids in dogs after long periods in which cholesterol was added to the 
diet, that they are not produced from this substance. 

With the purine bases, which are components of nuclear material and 
therefore present in all cells, this question of indicating the probable raw 
material for their synthesis must also be answered in the negative, but 
with less emphasis than in the case of cholesterol and the bile acids. The 
amino-acid histidine, which contains a five-membered ring similar to that 
found in the purine bases, is their most likely precursor on structural 
grounds. But we have as yet no experimental evidence that indicates 
clearly their origin from this amino-acid in the body. ■ Until this has been 
proved it is perhaps useless to speculate as to the chemical processes 
involved in the transformation. The synthesis of cholesterol, that of the 
bile acids and of purine bases are therefore still problems in the purely 
chemical sense. When the chemist has indicated their likely solution it 
will be the task of physiology to find out the mechanism by which the cell 
brings about the necessary chemical processes. 

An example of a synthetic product which bears a fairly close structural 
relationship to two of the amino acids which are found in proteins is 
adrenaline. These two amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine have 
practically the same carbon skeleton as adrenaline. Either of them might 
give rise to adrenaline by successive oxidation, methylation of the amino 
group and loss of carbon dioxide. That a part of the necessary oxidation 
process can be brought about by means of an oxidising enzyme has already 
been demonstrated. This enzyme, tyrosinase, will oxidise tyrosine to 
3:4-dihydroxyphenylalaniue. It is therefore conceivable that the first 
stage of the synthesis from tyrosine occurs in this way in the cell. The 
enzyme does not attack phenylalanine so that this seems less likely as a 
precursor than tyrosine although there is evidence that in other respects 
the metabolism of these two amino acids is closely related. In N-methyl- 
tyrosine we have an amino acid which is more nearly related to adrenaline 
than tyrosine, since in both the amino group is methylated. By the 
introduction of two atoms of oxygen in the appropriate positions and loss 
of carbon dioxide it should give rise to adrenaline. It is of considerable 
interest that on oxidation with tyrosinase a small amount of pressor 



substance is obtained. It is not possible to say as yet whether this is 
adrenaline. The amount produced represents only a small proportion of 
the reaction products, but it brings nearer the possibility that a methylated 
tyrosine by simple oxidation under the influence of an enzyme might give 
rise to adrenaline by the following scheme of reactions : — 




N-methyltyroaine 3 : 4 quinone of N-methylphenylalanine 



If, however, we consider how we may find out whether a process of this 
kind, operating in the cells of the adrenal gland under specific conditions, 
gives rise to adrenaline, many difficulties appear. One method of approach 
would be to find the conditions under which a production of adrenaline by 
the medullary cells of the gland occurs and then under these conditions 
determine whether introduction of tyrosine or possible intermediate pro- 
ducts in the synthesis leads to an increased formation. But these condi- 
tions are not as yet defined. Attempts have been made by exposing the 
glands freshly removed from the body to solutions of tyrosine but no 
production of adrenaline has been demonstrated. Neither is there any 
evidence that the cells of the gland can either oxidise tyrosine in the same 
way that the enzyme tyrosinase does, or methylate it. The possibility has 
to be borne in mind also that even if tyrosine be the mother substance of 
adrenaline the processes requisite to produce adrenaline from it may not all 
take place in the adrenal gland. In that case the efiect of hypothetical 
intermediate products on adrenaline formation would have to be tried. But 
methods of this kind are relatively crude. If they fail it does not neces- 
sarily mean that the hypothesis as to the gross chemical mechanism is 
wrong. When we remember that the oxidation of one substance may 
only take place if another is reduced ; that a reaction taking place in one 
compound may only be possible when some other reaction takes place 
along side it, in other words, that in the living cell there is a continuous 
and complex interplay of chemical reactions ; then it is not surprising 
that the discovery of the mechanisms by which adrenaline is formed, 
although a simple problem at first sight, is probably in reality very com- 

The case of thyroxine is comparable with that of adrenaline. Thyroxine 
is a relatively simple chemical substance which could conceivably be 
produced by the oxidation of diiodotyrosine. The last named compound 
has recently been shown to be present in the thyroid gland and this makes 
the presumption that it is the mother substance of thyroxine all the 

M 2 


stronger. Yet it has not been demonstrated either in vitro or in vivo that 
thyroxine may be produced from diiodotyrosine. 

These two instances of adrenaline and thyroxine show that even when 
there is a reasonable presumption that we know the raw material from 
which the synthesis in the cell starts and the chemical processes concerned 
the proof that our hypotheses are correct is far from simple. 

We may now pass on to consider a process in which the raw material 
is known with certainty but the chemical reactions by which the synthesis 
takes place are relatively obscure. I refer to the production of fat from 
carbohydrate. Lawes and Gilbert in their classical experiments at 
Rothamsted on the fattening of farm stock, showed indubitably that 
animals can produce fat from starch. It has been confirmed since by 
others. Since the starch is converted into glucose in the alimentary canal 
prior to absorption we may consider glucose as the starting point of the 

It involves the production from hexose units of straight carbon chains 
of 16, 18 and 20 or more carbon atoms such as are found in the naturally- 
occurring, higher fatty acids. The carbon atoms are present in even 
numbers and the carbon chains may be completely saturated or partly 
unsaturated. Any series of reactions which is put forward to explain 
this synthesis must therefore take into account these elementary facts if 
no others. The origin from carbohydrate at first sight suggests the coup- 
ling of hexose units end to end although this would only suffice to explain 
the production of acids containing multiples of six carbon atoms such as 
stearic and oleic acids. Such a scheme was put forward many years ago 
by Emil Fischer but has not found general acceptance. Apart from the 
difficulty of explaining the production of acids that do not have eighteen 
but some other even number of carbon atoms, it has never yet been shown 
that hexose molecules unite end to end using any of the usual methods 
which bring about the condensation of aldehydes. It is therefore impro- 
bable from the purely chemical point of view. 

A more likely chemical explanation of the origin of the fatty acids is 
that they are built up, two carbon atoms at a time from some simple, 
reactive substance which is first produced by degradation of glucose. 
Acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid have both been suggested as probable 
participants in a reaction of this kind, the former condensing with itself, 
as in the well known aldol condensation, the latter either with acetaldehyde 
or with some higher aldehyde containing an even number of carbon atoms 
produced in the earlier stages of the reaction. By both of these methods 
it has been shown that in vitro aldehydes with an even number of carbon 
atoms in a straight chain can be built up step by step and these by oxida- 
tion can be readily converted into the corresponding fatty acids. Un- 
saturated linkages in the chain may be produced by either method so that 
this requirement in the hypothetical synthetic method is also satisfied. 
Further, the condensation takes place in weakly alkaline solution or under 
the catalytic influence of certain organic bases, so that drastic treatment 
is not necessary to bring about the reaction. So far this evidence for the 
mechanism of synthesis of the fatty acids is purely chemical and the 
grounds on which it can be put forward are largely chemical ones. Is 
there any physiological support for this scheme ? Studies of the synthesis 


of fat in animals have yielded very little so far. It was observed many 
years ago by Leathes that the fat in the liver of some animals might 
increase in amount if the organ were kept warm and mider sterile condi- 
tions for a few days after its removal from the body. The addition of 
glycogen or glucose does not however have any effect on this increase in 
fat content. The process appears to be determined by something other 
than a mere excess of carbohydrate, but what this is is not known. It is 
however known that acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid, the intermediates 
postulated in the hypothesis just mentioned, can be produced in the body. 
Neuberg and Gottschalk detected acetaldehyde as a product of decarboxy- 
lation of pyruvic acid in the liver and recently Hahn, Fischbach and 
Haarmann have shown that under anaerobic conditions pyruvic acid may 
be produced in muscle from lactic acid. But there the question rests for 
the present so far as higher animals are concerned. When we know what 
the conditions are which set the process of fat synthesis going, and when 
we are able to reproduce them at will in animals, it may be possible to 
determine what are the intermediate substances concerned. 

More success has been achieved by a study of the formation of fatty 
acids in microorganisms, some of which possess this faculty in a remarkable 
degree. Bacteria which form butyric acid from glucose have been found 
to produce in addition both lactic acid and acetaldehyde. These same 
bacteria will also produce butyric acid from pyruvic aldol though not from 
aldehyde ammonia, aldol or pyruvic acid itself. Neuberg and Arinstein, 
who investigated this type of fermentation, conclude that pyruvic aldol 
is the precursor of the butyric acid when it is formed from carbohydrate. 
This does not negative its production from acetaldehyde, since the addition 
of sulphites to the fermenting liquid causes a fixation of acetaldehyde and 
inhibits the production of butyric acid, thus suggesting that acetaldehyde 
takes some part in the process. But it has also been shown that in this 
so-called butyric fermentation fatty acids containing an even number of 
oarbon atoms higher in the series than butyric are formed, namely, hexoic 
and octoic acids. This makes it appear probable that the processes 
by which these lower members of the series of fatty acids are formed 
in bacterial fermentation may be the same as those by which higher 
members of the series are formed in animals. The production of fat 
is a process which is common to a great variety of living organisms 
both simple and complex, animal and vegetable. It is not unlikely 
therefore to be carried out by the same series of chemical reactions 
wherever it is found. 

The intensive study during the last few years of the processes of alco- 
holic fermentation and the chemical events which occur in muscular con- 
traction has revealed such close similarities that we are becoming forced 
to accept the view that certain fundamental activities of the living cell, 
whether animal or vegetable, may be carried out by an almost identical 
mechanism. It may therefore be that we shall eventually discover the 
reactions responsible for the synthesis of fat in animals by investigating 
the processes by which it occurs in vegetable forms, such as bacteria or 
moulds. Before leaving the subject of fat synthesis it is worth while to 
point out the economy of the suggested process of synthesis from lactic 
acid by way of acetaldehyde. It is a good illustration of the kind of serial 


reactions which one expects to find in syntheses in the cell and involves 
only the loss of water and carbon dioxide. 

(1) CH3 • CHOH • COOH -> CH3 • CO • COOH+Hj 

(2) CHs • CO • COOH ->- CH., • CHO+CO.2 
(3)2CH3CHO -> CHs-CHtCH-CHO+HaO 

(4) CH3 • CH : CH • CHO+ Ha -> CH3 • CH2 • CH.j • CHO 

(5) CH3 • CH2 • CH2 • CHO+ -^ CHs • CH2 • CH2 ■ COOH. 

Repetition of reactions (3) and (4) would produce aldehydes corres- 
ponding to the higher fatty acids, and only one atom of oxygen is required 
for the final oxidation of the aldehyde. All the hydrogen required for the 
reduction of the unsaturated aldehydes would be supplied by the dehydro- 
genation of lactic to pyruvic acid. But even if these reactions turn out 
to be the right ones the problems still remain as to how they are accurately 
controlled within the cell. Some of the substances concerned in them are 
difiusible and very reactive, and we should have to explain how diffusion 
away from the site of reaction is prevented. To overcome difiicidties of 
this kind it is becoming common to invoke the intervention of surface 
forces. There is, however, not much experimental evidence as yet which 
helps us to explain by such intervention the mechanism of synthetic pro- 
cesses even of such a simple kind as the reversal of an enzyme action. 

Freundlich in his Liversidge Lecture to the Chemical Society last year 
described experiments on the influence of charcoal in modifying the velocity 
of certain reactions. Bromoethylamine is converted by caustic soda into 
dimethyleneimine. The amine is more strongly adsorbed than the imine 
and therefore the conversion should be slower in the presence of charcoal 
than in homogeneous solution. Experiment verifies this. Further, di- 
methyleneimine is converted into bromoethylamine hydrobromide iia 
presence of hydrobromic acid. Because the bromoethylamine hydro- 
bromide is more strongly adsorbed than the dimethyleneimine the conver- 
sion should be more rapid in the presence of charcoal than in homogeneous 
solution. This also was shown to be true. In addition it was demon- 
strated that the change of the amine into the imine in neutral solution 
stops earlier when charcoal is present than when it is absent. The equili- 
brium obtained in homogeneous solution is thus disturbed in the sense that 
the formation of capillary active substances {i.e. those more highly 
adsorbed) is favoured. It follows from this that the stability of a substance 
on a surface may be greater than in homogeneous solution under similar 
conditions. It must be borne in mind, however, that in these experiments 
very large quantities of charcoal were used compared with the amounts 
of the substances whose equilibria were being studied. So much so that in 
the reaction in alkaline solution the bromoethylamine was practically 
completely adsorbed and the reaction was taking place entirely on the 
charcoal surface. Can one postulate such conditions during the continuous 
synthesis of substances in the cell, glycogen from glucose for example ? It 
seems to me that to explain the rapid accumulation of synthetic products 
such as fat or glycogen which we observe in cells something more than 
a shift in the equilibrium of the reactions due to surface forces is neces- 
sary. Such a condition favouring synthesis could only operate for a time 
until the surface became saturated. We must therefore postulate some 


additional mechanism whereby the synthesised product is removed from the 
sphere of action, for if it diffused off the surface again it would be subject 
to the equilibrium conditions which are present in the solution. It may 
be that the arrangements in the cell are such that only small amounts of the 
substrate are dealt with at a time so that complete synthesis is achieved 
and the synthetic product removed. This implies that the synthetic 
activity takes place in cycles due possibly to cyclic changes in the activity 
of the active surface or to a mechanism whereby only as much substrate 
for the synthesis is admitted to the sphere of action as can be dealt with 
without saturating the active surface. It is difficult to translate experi- 
ments such as those described by Freundlich to explain synthesis in the 
living cell without additional mechanisms such as these. 

We have also to consider how the synthetic product is dealt with in 
the cell so as to protect it from the disruptive agencies which exist there. 
Arrangements for this purpose must be present since we know that sub- 
stances may accumulate in cells which contain enzymes that hydrolyse 
them. For example, fat and lipase co-exist in the liver cell and also glyco- 
gen and amylase. The phenomena of autolysis illustrate this same fact 
too. Whatever these arrangements are they appear in certain instances 
to be closely associated with the life of the cell, for after death they cease 
to operate and the synthetic product is again broken down. However 
difficult it is to form a conception of them it may be necessary to do so 
since they must form a part of any system which is put forward to explain 
synthesis as a result of the intervention of surface phenomena. 

We may now consider two syntheses in which there is little or no doubt 
about the raw materials or some of the chemical reactions involved. These 
are the production of glycogen and of proteins. 

Glycogen was first isolated in 1857 by Claude Bernard and a little later 
was analysed by Kekule, who showed that it had the empirical formula 
CfiHioO,,. It is only recently that its probable structure has been deter- 
mined. Last year, Haworth, Hirst and Webb succeeded in preparing 
trimethyl glycogen and proved that on hydrolysis it gives rise to 2.3.6. 
trimethyl glucose. This observation supported by similar work by Karrer 
indicates that glycogen is constituted like starch on the basis of continuous 
maltose units, or what amounts to the same thing, a conjugated chain of 
a-glucose units. 

It has also been proved that when glycogen breaks down in the liver 
it gives rise to glucose. Lohmann and also Barbour have succeeded in 
obtaining glycerol extracts of liver and muscle which hydrolyse it, but the 
product appears to be a trisaccharide and not glucose. No enzyme which 
by itself hydrolyses glycogen to glucose has yet been obtained from animal 
tissues. It is of interest that pancreatic and salivary amylase produce 
isomaltose from glycogen. These results suggest that there may be some 
configurational difference between glycogen and starch which accounts for 
their difference in behaviour with diastatic enzymes. Be that as it may, 
it appears natural to assume that the synthesis of glycogen from glucose 
in the cell is brought about by the simple reversal of a hydrolysis which 
may be catalysed by enzymes under appropriate conditions. These 
conditions have, however, not yet been realised in vitro. The much simpler 
synthesis by enzyme action of disaccharides from bexoses — the first 


example being tliab of isomaltose from glucose by Croft Hill — has so 
far been seldom achieved. Barbour in the experiment just referred to 
was unable to demonstrate any synthesis of glycogen from the trisaccharide 
produced by the muscle enzyme even in highly concentrated solutions. 

This failure to obtain evidence of the synthesis of glycogen from the 
products of its hydrolysis makes it legitimate to consider whether we are 
right in adopting the orthodox view that the synthesis of glycogen from 
glucose in the living cell is brought about by a reversal of action of the 
enzyme or enzymes which hydrolyse it. 

Besides the facts about the constitution of glycogen and the nature of 
its hydrolytic products that have already been mentioned, there are others 
which merit consideration in any discussion of its mode of synthesis in the 
body. When an animal is fed liberally with glucose or fructose it converts 
a part of them into glycogen in the liver. The evidence for this is indubit- 
able. It implies, therefore, either a conversion of fructose into glucose 
before the condensation to glycogen occurs or a conversion of both into 
some common form of hexose which then undergoes the condensation. 
Further, there is a considerable amount of accredited evidence that many 
substances not belonging to the sugar group can be converted into glucose 
in the animal body. Such substances therefore, must be regarded as 
potential glycogen formers. Several amino-acids such as alanine, glutamic 
acid, aspartic acid, glycine and serine come into this category. Then it is 
well known that glycogen can be formed from the trioses glyceric aldehyde 
and dihydroxyacetone as well as from methyl glyoxal and lactic acid, 
which are easily derived from them in vitro. In addition, glycerol and 
glycolaldehyde can give rise to glucose in the diabetic animal though the 
evidence in favour of the latter is not very convincing. It is easy to 
understand from the work of Emil Fischer on the synthesis of hexoses 
from glycerose how glycerol and the two trioses could give rise to a hexose 
in the body. It is also possible that methyl glyoxal by condensation and 
hydration could be converted into a hexose and that lactic acid, which has 
been shown by Dakin and Dudley to be capable of conversion into methyl 
glyoxal in vitro, could also undergo the same change. But the production 
of glucose from amino-acids is not explicable so easily except in the case 
of alanine and perhaps aspartic acid, and we must assume that in the 
process of catabolism which they undergo intermediate substances are 
produced which can. condense to a hexose. Our knowledge of the metabolic 
changes which the amino-acids undergo suffices in some instances to offer 
a reasonable explanation of this on chemical grounds, but not in all. 
Whatever these processes may be which eventually result in the production 
of a hexose from such diverse substances, the most remarkable thing about 
them to my mind is that the hexose is always d-glucose. We have no 
satisfactory explanation for this striking stereochemical performance, but 
the facts suggest two possibilities. Either the condensation of the two — ■ 
or three — carbon units to a hexose is brought about under such specific 
conditions of strain that only the (Z-glucose configuration can result, much 
as coins must be minted in a definite mould to become currency, or the 
hexose produced by these various condensations is a labile form which 
condenses to glycogen and is in turn hydrolysed to glucose. But to 
produce this hypothetical labile form of hexose or to bring about its 

1.— PHYSIOLOGY. 169 

condensation to glycogen would probably require such conditions of speci- 
ficity that this second hypothesis seems unnecessary. 

The view that any substance that produces glucose in the body may 
also give rise to glycogen is supported .by good experimental evidence. 
Several of the glucose-formers that have been already mentioned are able 
to produce glycogen in the isolated, perfused liver, particularly in the liver 
of the tortoise. But the difficulties of this kind of experiment are con- 
siderable and the conditions for success are not completely understood. 
It is, however, essential that the liver cells be alive and adequately supplied 
with oxygen. It has also been demonstrated that insulin plays some 
part in enabling this synthesis to be brought about ; but exactly how it 
enters into the process is not known. 

Much more exact studies of the synthesis of glycogen in the animal cell 
than are possible with liver have been made with frog's muscle. Fletcher 
and Hopkins, in their well-known experiments on the production of lactic 
acid by muscle, showed that in undamaged muscle and in the presence of 
oxygen the lactic acid which is produced during the contraction process 
disappears. Meyerhof proved later that the disappearing lactic acid was 
largely reconverted into glycogen. Assuming that the oxygen which is 
necessary for this process is used in oxidising a part of the lactic acid, we 
get the relation that of four parts of lactic acid produced in the muscle, 
one is oxidised and three are utilised for the resynthesis of glycogen. 
Under more ideal experimental conditions and using thermal data, Hartree 
and Hill calculated that the ratio of lactic acid resynthesised to lactic acid 
oxidised is about four to one. The chemical mechanism of this synthesis 
is unknown. Under conditions in which muscle produces glycogen from 
lactic acid, Meyerhof was unable to observe such a synthesis from a series 
of substances including, among others, glyceric acid, glyceric aldehyde, 
dihydroxyacetone, alanine, glycollic acid, glycolaldehyde and acetalde- 
hyde. The only substance discovered to behave like lactic acid was pyruvic 
acid, and Meyerhof has expressed the view that this is due to its preliminary 
reduction to lactic acid. We have thus no evidence of the intermediate 
substances between lactic acid and glycogen in this synthesis. On the 
other hand, we have the very positive evidence that it occurs only in the 
presence of oxygen. Although this suggests that a coupled reaction is 
concerned involving the utilisation for synthesis of energy provided by 
oxidation, no satisfactory picture of an oxidative reaction of lactic acid 
which would result in the production of glycogen, water and carbon dioxide 
has been put forward. 

A consideration of all the data which have been acciimulated regarding 
the synthesis of glycogen makes it probable that more than the mere 
reversal of enzyme action is concerned. It is certain that the cells in which 
it occurs must be supplied with oxygen. Fletcher and Hopkins also showed 
with muscle that its structure must be maintained and with liver the syn- 
thesis certainly only takes place in the intact organ. Do not these facts 
point to the conclusion that it is only the living cell that can bring about 
this synthesis ? And if this be so, cannot we go further and suggest that 
the substances from which glycogen are produced or bodies derived from 
them must first become bound up with, or at some stage form an integral 
part of the living structure before they are converted into glycogen. The 


evidence at least suggests that some such conception of the process may not 
be far from the truth. 

We may now pass to the consideration of the synthesis of proteins. 
In the early part of this century, due largely to the elegant methods intro- 
duced by Emil Fischer, rapid advances were made in our knowledge of the 
structure of proteins. These advances led to a picture of protein structure 
which has become generally accepted, namely, that the protein molecule 
is formed by the union of amino-acids through an amide linkage. It is, 
however, unlikely that this is the only bond of union between the amino- 
acid units. If it were, the widely different physical and chemical proper- 
ties which are met with in the proteins would have to be explained largely 
on the basis of their amino-acid content. The differences in composition 
which they exhibit do not seem to be sufficiently great to warrant this 
assumption. The insolubility of the keratins, for instance, although 
accounted for in part by the high proportion of cystine they contain, this 
being a very insoluble amino-acid, is possibly also due to the presence of 
other modes of union of the constituent amino-acids in addition to the 
amide linkage. Similarly, the varying degree of liability, the phenomena 
of denaturation, and the physicochemical behaviour of different proteins 
are difficult to explain solely on a basis of differences in their components. 
There is much therefore still to be learnt about the actual structure of the 
protein molecule. 

The investigation of the structure of proteins which are closely allied 
in origin, composition and general chemical behaviour by immunological 
and in part by chemical methods, has taught us how intricate the 
mechanism must be by which they are built up. The facts brought out 
by the classical work of Dakin and Dale on the albumen of the duck's and 
hen's egg serve to exemplify this. The only chemical difference that could 
be shown between these two j)roteins was concerned with the disposition 
in the molecule of some of the leucine, aspartic acid and histidine, which 
resulted in different degrees of racemisation of these amino-acids when the 
respective albumens were treated with caustic soda. 

But when used as antigens in the anaphylactic reaction they were 
markedly specific. These results indicate that the stereochemical structure 
of the molecule is different in proteins which are very similar both in 
general chemical properties and in biological origin. They suggest that 
the protein molecule produced by a particular type of cell is always built 
up in a distinctive and, so far as we can determine, an unvarying pattern. 
We may deduce from this that although the general method of protein 
synthesis, that is to say, the mechanism by which amino-acids are joined 
up, may be the same in all cells, yet there must be arrangements in the cell 
which enable only one particular, final pattern, to result from the synthesis. 

What are the methods by which the amino-acids are caused to combine ? 
Those used by the organic chemist in the synthesis of polypeptides can 
have no place in the living cell although they have been of great assistance 
in helping to reveal the general structure of proteins. The use of proteo- 
lytic enzymes in an attempt to bring about synthesis under conditions 
which have been partially successful with other substances has often been 
tried and nearly as often has failed. Two examples of protein synthesis 
by enzyme action have been described. The most acceptable of these is 



Taylor's production of a protamine by a glycerol extract of clam liver from 
the products of its complete hydrolysis. 

But, so far as I am aware, this is an isolated observation which has 
not been extended or repeated with other protamines. The other is the 
preparation of so-called plasteins from the products of the partial hydro- 
lysis of certain proteins by pepsin. A comprehensive review of the subject 
of plastein formation by Wasteneys and Borsook, who have themselves made 
notable contributions to this problem, has led them to the belief that in 
this phenomenon we have a true resynthesis of protein from some of the 
more complex of its hydrolytic products. Apparently only certain of 
these yield plastein on treatment in highly concentrated solution with 
pepsin under appropriate conditions, and the distinctive feature in them 
which makes plastein formation possible has not yet been discovered. It 
seems probable that it is both a property of certain proteoses and of pepsin 
that enables the synthesis to occur, and some evidence for this view is 
provided by the observation of Wasteneys and Borsook that the formation 
of bodies similar to plastein is brought about when benzene and some other 
substances are emulsified in a peptic digest of egg albumen. The plasteins 
obtained in this way have different physical properties from those obtained 
by the action of pepsin on similar digests. Wasteneys and Borsook suggest 
that this may incficate how differences in composition of the proteins 
synthesised by the organism are produced, certain proteose substrates 
being specifically adsorbed on particular surfaces in the cell and then 
undergoing reaction to form the synthetic product. Even if this be 
accepted as a possible explanation it still leaves many questions regarding 
protein synthesis unanswered, and not the least difficult of these is the 
problem of how the separate amino-acids are brought together to form the 
specific proteose substrates which one must postulate as combining — and 
in a definite order — to produce the particular protein which is characteristic 
of the cell which synthesises it. One of the great difficulties in accounting 
for the synthesis of protein by a reversal of enzyme action is that this 
synthesis only takes jslace, so far as we can observe, in a cell which is living. 

The process by which the substance of the cell is increased, the building 
up of protoplasm, is one which must be closely allied to protein synthesis, 
since the material we call protoplasm is constituted for the greater part of 
amino-acids, united, so far as can be ascertained, by the same sort of 
linkage that we find in proteins. The protoplasm of the dead cell responds 
to all the tests by which we identify protein, it is subject to the action of 
hydrolytic agents in the same way and yields identical products when 

Ought we not therefore to look for some of the mechanisms of protein 
synthesis in the processes which operate M^hen the living cell grows, and 
can we by any stretch of imagination account for this by a reversal of the 
action of one or more hydrolytic enzymes ? 

It appears inconceivably difl&cult to do so. The extreme specificity 
of the reaction which necessitates that at a given phase of the synthesis 
one particular amino-acid and that one alone can be added as the next 
link in the molecule, requires such a multiplicity of enz^nnes and such a 
remarkable degree of control of their action as to be almost outside the 
range of probability. When we remember, however, that one of the prime 


attributes of life is that it is a dynamic condition, it does become possible 
to form a conception of protein synthesis in relation to that fact. The 
experiments of Willstatter and others have shown that to some extent the 
specificity of enzymes is accounted for by the ' carrier ' with which they 
are associated. It is not inconceivable that a catalyst capable of bringing 
about the union of amino-acids in the living cell and ultimately fashioning 
its protoplasm may be attached to or associated with a ' carrier ' which, 
instead of having a fixed configuration, as with the enzymes that we can 
extract from the dead cell, has one which is continually varying, this 
dynamic state being characteristic of the living material of the cell. 

If, further, we could assume that the variations in the configuration of 
the carrier were cyclic, always going through a definite series of phases, 
it might be possible to account for the fact that at any particular phase 
of the cycle the configuration would be such as to favour the synthetic 
union of one particular amino-acid rather than any other because of its 
spatial arrangement. The assumption of cyclic changes in simple or 
complex living organisms is not new in Physiology, and it is not unlikely 
that they occur in parts even of the cell itself. The phenomena of mitosis 
are a somewhat gross illustration of such cyclic events. 

It is perhaps difficult to justify speculations of this kind, but it appears 
to me that it is at least useful as an intellectual exercise to try and arrive 
at some conception, founded on what little experimental evidence we at 
present possess, of a possible mechanism which would account for the 
reproduction time after time of the intricate pattern of the protein of a 
particular type of cell. 

Whatever be the mechanism of protein synthesis there is another fact 
concerning it which is of interest, and that is that the cell to maintain itself 
must apparently contain a certain concentration of amino-acids. If these 
are not supplied in the animal's food then the animal supplies them by 
maintaining its more important tissues at the expense of others. This 
would suggest that the conditions for nitrogeneous equilibrium which we 
find in the whole animal have their replica in each cell, but the concentra- 
tion of amino-acids required to maintain the equilibrium is not the same 
for all. Hence an amino-acid deficiency such as occurs in protein starva- 
tion leads to autolysis of some tissues before others. The equilibrium 
conditions appear to be set at difierent levels. The fact that certain 
amino-acids are more necessary than others in providing for this balance 
may be partly due to their special importance in the protoplasm of those 
cells which are the first to break down when protein food is withdrawn or 
an inadequate protein is fed. 

The possibility that protein synthesis is associated with some part of 
the cell which is undergoing cyclic changes, and is thus alive, raises the 
interesting question of the site of this and possibly other syntheses, such 
as those of fat and glycogen. Are all parts of the cell, that is to say, both 
nucleus and protoplasm, to be regarded as alive in the sense I have 
indicated, and therefore to be considered as regions in which syntheses 
depending on life can be brought about ? 

It is necessary not to confuse the terms irritability and life. It is true 
that what we term irritability is usually taken to imply that the tissue 
which shows it is living, but taking the nerve fibre as an example, it would 

1.— PHYSIOLOGY. 173 

appear that the niaiutenance, for a time at least, of the irritability of proto- 
plasm and its restoration when it has disappeared — but not irreversibly — 
does not require the presence of the nucleus. It may require oxygen or 
the presence of certain ions, but this may merely mean that the labile 
state of the protoplasm has been uspet by the products of the cell's activity, 
and removal of these will restore it to its irritable condition. 

We have no evidence that irritability as a manifestation of what we 
call life is more than the possession of extremely labile structures, sensitive 
to minute environmental changes. The nucleus, on the other hand, is 
essential to the continuous life of the cell and its growth. It appears also 
to determine very largely the magnitude of the respiratory processes 
which occur in it at rest, though not necessarily the excessive respiration 
observed in the recovery from functional activity. Can we therefore go 
so far as to say that the nucleus is the seat of those synthetic activities of 
the cell which appear to depend on its living character rather than on its 
irritability, or have we to regard the protoplasm as equally li\'ing so that 
it is able to reproduce itself and in addition bring about such syntheses 
as those of fat and glycogen ? 

There is something to be said in favour of the idea that the protoplasm 
is not living in the sense in which the nucleus is, and therefore is less likely 
to be the seat of certain synthetic processes. It is, I think, quite a tenable 
view that protoplasm is made up, largely but not entirely of combinations 
of amino-acids such as we find in the proteins, and that it is synthesised 
by the necleus to serve special as well as certain general requirements. 
These special requirements must and do vary greatly with each type of 

Consider the mammalian erythroblast. The principal substance in its 
protoplasm is the protein hsemoglobin. It is doubtful whether this cell 
exists except to produce haemoglobin. When it has matured the nucleus 
degenerates and disappears leaving the red blood corpuscle. Along with 
this the respiratory activity of the cell practically disappears too, and there 
is not much discoverable in it except haemoglobin. It is certainly now 
not living in the sense in which its progenitor, the erythroblast, was. Is 
it not reasonable to suggest, therefore, that the production of haemoglobin 
as the erythroblast grows and matures is a function of the nucleus and not 
of the protoplasm of this cell ? All semblance of further synthesis of 
haemoglobin certainly disappears when the nucleus goes. The adoption of 
such a view does not imply that having produced the protoplasm of a cell 
the nucleus has nothing more to do with it. We know that in some 
indefinable way the nucleus in most cells controls the structure of the 
protoplasm and maintains its lability, but we have no knowledge as yet 
of the mechanism by which this is brought about. 

In emphasizing the great similarity between the growth of protoplasm 
and the sjTithesis of proteins, other examples in addition to that of haemo- 
globin come to mind. The cells of the Malpighian layer of the epidermis 
have to produce the protein which eventually becomes the keratin of the 
stratum corneum. This would appear to be one of their chief functions. 
When it is done the cell dies and the nucleus becomes functionless. The 
production of collagen by cells of the connective tissue and of milk pro- 
teins by the cells of the mammary gland are instances of the continuous 


synthesis of proteins whicli are not labile like the protoplasna of, say, the 
muscle or nerve cell. Their formation, however, may be due to the opera- 
tion of the same general process. They are certainly non-irritable and 
non-living. It is difficult to imagine that while in the cell they possess the 
power of reproduction but lose it once they have been cast out. 

If we accept the possibility that the nucleus of the cell may be the 
site of protein synthesis it is legitimate to consider whether the substances 
which appear in the protoplasm as discrete particles or masses such as 
glycogen or fat are produced in the nucleus or only in the protoplasm. 
We have no evidence as to this. The fact that they first appear as visible 
objects in the protoplasm is not evidence that they were produced there, 
and it has already been pointed out that their synthesis is apparently only 
possible in cells which are alive. They may be synthesised in the nucleus 
and stored in the protoplasm. Their disappearance from time to time 
may be conditioned by the liberation of enzymes from the nucleus to 
hydrolyse them. Such a view would do away with some of the difficulties 
which we experience in attempting to explain why substrates may be 
present in cells which, judged by their behaviour after death, appear to 
contain enzymes that hydrolyse them. The protoplasm, instead of pro- 
ducing such reserve materials, may serve as a convenient storehouse for 
them until the appropriate stimulus for their breakdown arrives. 

One property of proteins, which may account in a general way for 
the presence of protein-like structure in protoplasm, is their buffering 
power. The nucleus is probably the most labile part of the cell. The 
chemical reactions proceeding in it may demand an euArironment that has 
to be finely controlled as regards changes in reaction or the concentration 
of certain ions. The protoplasm may thus serve as a protective layer 
between the nucleus and the external world, guarding it from changes 
which would otherwise terminate its existence. The known properties of 
the proteins, both chemical and physical, may be useful to this end, to 
which they are almost ideally suited. 

Even if we can accept as possible the unorthodox view that the nucleus 
is the only living part of the cell, and is therefore the only part that can 
bring about syntheses which depend upon life, it does not solve our diffi- 
culties in explaining how they are achieved. It merely narrows down the 
possible sites in the cell in which they occur. The nucleus itself is a 
complex structure, and we have as yet few experimental methods for 
elucidating it. Most biologists would, I think, agree that the cell has 
arisen by a process of evolution from something simpler and eventually 
from non-living materials. It cannot have come as a ' bolt from the 
blue.' If we regard the nucleus as the only living part of the cell, then we 
may justly regard the protoplasm as something that has been acquired 
or developed in the process of evolution and is now necessary to its exis- 
tence. We do not know definitely, however, of nuclear material which is 
living and devoid of its protoplasmic envelope unless such an arrangement 
is present in the bacteria. But the investigation of filterable viruses has 
given an indication • that material possessing the prime attribute of life, 
namely, the power of reproducing itself, exists, possibly in simpler forms 
than we find in the smallest visible organisms. 

If we agree that the cell has evolved from something simpler, then we 


might expect to find such elementary forms of life coexisting with it did 
we but know how to look for them. The filterable viruses may represent 
such forms, and their chemical characters may resemble those that we 
find in the nucleus of the cell. The ability to synthesise protein may be 
a property which living material only acquired at a late stage of its evolu- 
tion, and that property may be one which in the process of time has come 
to be essential for the maintenance of the complex structure of the nucleus 
as we see it to-day. 

I have dwelt for a time on these problems of synthesis in relation to the 
structure of the cell because, however speculative they appear to be in the 
present state of knowledge, it seems to me that it is necessary to get some 
picture of them. Progress in synthetic chemistry has been intimately 
associated with the ability to represent objectively the structure of sub- 
stances and the changes which take place when they are undergoing 
reaction. We know much about the manifold chemical activities of the 
cell, but, until we can by deductive methods get some picture of its organi- 
sation, the problems which I have attempted to sketch briefly in this 
address will not be solved. 

The view has sometimes been expressed that it is the task of physiology 
to study the reactions of the whole animal because the whole animal is the 
unit. That is perfectly true if our object be only to describe and account 
for animal behaviour. But there is just as truly a cellular physiology in 
which the cell is the unit. Until we can analyse and understand the 
beha\aour of the cell we cannot expect fully to explain the reactions of 
the whole animal. 

In stressing therefore the importance of studying the activities of the 
cell as such for the progress of our science, I feel that I am not at variance 
with some of my predecessors in this office. Like them, I have attempted 
to indicate the lines upon which progress may come in our endeavour to 
elucidate some of the problems to which I have referred. 

Classical organic chemistry with all its achievements of synthesis 
cannot yet claim to rival the synthetic activities of the cell. That it will 
ever do so as regards the synthesis of our main foodstuffs, the proteins, 
carbohydrates and fats, cannot be foreseen. Both from the chemical and 
economic points of view the signs at present are not very hopeful. The 
synthetic breakfast table is a myth and likely to remain one. Man has, 
so far, not learnt from Nature the mechanisms of syntheses that she 
uses and on which his existence depends, so that the tilling of the soil and 
reaping of the harvest must for long remain his most vitally important 






The values of the study of the early years of childhood I take to be at 
least three. 

First, there is the fascinating interest it has for those who love children 
or who marvel at the wonder of a developing mind ; and this is motive 
enough for the genuine scientist. The importance of child psychology as 
a foundation for a science of education is also obvious. But for the ' pure ' 
science of psychology, to use the current term, it also has wider values. 

Most important, perhaps, is the fact that the most reliable evidence 
as to what is genuinely innate in human nature must be found in the 
study of human infancy. Even McDougall's brilliant contribution to the 
study of human instincts does not, I think, supply altogether satisfactory 
criteria of the innate impulses,^ valuable as they are as first suggestions. 
For the fact that a similar impulse is displayed in (apparently) instinctive 
activities of higher animals does not prove that in man that impulse is 
instinctive or innate. McDougall himself only claims that it afEords 
strong presumption. Nor does the possibility of morbid exaggeration of 
an impulse give us a satisfactory clue, for many actions exaggerated to an 
abnormal degree owe at least their specific nature to experience, as the 
study of the unconscious has shown. 

The spontaneous occurrence of a new type of activity in the infant, 
of such a nature that it could not have been learned through experience, 
affords, I would maintain, the only certain proof of the genuine innateness 
of an impulse — unless some activity developing later can satisfy that 
criterion. Thus the foundations of child psychology are also some of the 
main foundations of human psychology as a whole. 

A further value of the study of infancy lies in the fact that the ele- 
mentary functions may be observed in greater isolation than they can be 
later. The instinctive impulses are seen in their crudest form, less 
cumbered than they are later by accretions from experience. Elementary 
cognitive processes, too, appear in their simpler forms and may be studied 
in their origins. The slow building up of ideas is impressed upon us. 
Thus twelve months elapsed (from nearly two years of age to nearly three 

^ Social Psychology, 9th edition, p. 49. 


years) from the time one of my infants correctly used the number two to 
the time when he could apprehend three as a group, and in another case the 
interval was eighteen months — so far is the truth from the supposed 
idea of a sudden development of a ' faculty of number.' 

A third value of the study of infant psychology is that it counteracts 
the tendency to interpret later childhood too much on the lines of adult 
experience, just as the study of childhood is a valuable check on over- 
rationalising our interpretation of adult behaviour. 

Three recent developments have emphasised the importance of the 
study of the earliest years of life. The first is the assertion by the psycho- 
analytic school that the first four or five years of life are the most important 
in the fixing of character. Freud holds that ' the little human being is 
frequently a finished product in his fourth or fifth year.'- Adler goes so 
far as to say that ' one can determine how a child stands in relation to 
life a few months after his birth.'* 

It is not my wish to underestimate the importance of the first few 
years of life, but rather to stress it. It seems, however, impossible to state, 
on the evidence we have before us, that the first four to five years of life 
are more important than, say, the years of adolescence. What exactly is 
meant by the assertion if it is made ? It is rather like saying that the 
safety of a house-roof depends more upon the foundations than it does 
on the stability of the walls of the first or second stories. 

The Freudians have certainly shown that in many cases the experiences 
of the earliest years may continue to exert a profound influence on the 
life and character of the child when he grows up, though he may have 
forgotten those experiences. It may also be admitted that if bad social 
relationships — say with parents — are set up in the first few years, that 
relationship may be fixated so that the parents' efforts later to change 
them may be futile. 

What is not proved, as it seems to me, is that if a child suffers from an 
injurious social environment, or erratic and foolish discipline till, say, five 
or six, but enjoys a favourable environment thereafter, he is necessarily 
more handicapped than a child who has a satisfactory environment till 
that age, and then comes under wrong discipline or vicious influences 
continuing through the unstable and suggestible period of adolescence. 

In any case it seems unnecessary to make extreme statements about 
the absolute fixation of character by the age of five or six. It is enough 
for our purposes if we admit that this early period is probably far more 
important for future development than was at one time thought. 

The second recent development in psychological thought which has 
emphasised this view is that of the Behaviourist school. Take, for 
example. Dr. J. B. Watson's assertion that there are few genuine innate 
tendencies in man and the suggestion that any infant, if taken in hand 
early enough, can be ' conditioned ' into almost any type of character. 
This assertion as to- absence of instincts can undoubtedly, as I hope to 
show later, be combated by evidence from early childhood. Yet the 
readiness with which special treatment can rouse specific fears in an infant 

2 Introductory Lectures in Psychoanalysis, 1921, p. 298. 

•'' Understanding Human Nature (translated by W. B. Wolfed, p. 42. 

1930 N 



of one or two years is a further evidence of the sensitivity of this period 
to environmental influence. 

Most of those psychologists who, unlike Watson, believe that man 
possesses many innate tendencies, are still uncertain as to what precisely 
they are. ' We do not know,' says Thorndike, ' what situations originally 
provoke smiling, laughing, crying, frowning, etc' If the problem is to be 
answered, it can only be by daily observation of children from birth, and 
I shall suggest later some answers to this particular query of Thorndike, 
especially in relation to laughter and imitation. 

A third influence that is proving a powerful stimulant to infant 
psychology is the attempt to press back the testing of intelligence earlier 
than three years, the lowest age for which Binet tried to devise tests. The 
valuable pioneer work done by Dr. Arnold Gesell has provided tests which 
are suitable for infants of nine, six and even four months, and has afforded 
some evidence of their correlation with normal mental development.* 
Dr. Gesell claims that it can be shown that one month or two of 
retardation shown at, say, six months of age, suggests a year or two of 
retardation at six years of age ; and that mental deficiency may be 
detectable at a very low age by appropriate tests. 

The definite relation of such tests to later estimated intelligence needs 
to be demonstrated further ; and no doubt, as I shall show later, some of 
Gesell's individual tests for given ages will need to be modified or aban- 
doned. For this, the daily study of infants in the home environment 
is again necessary. Such study suggests that some tests are too dependent 
on the mood of the moment to be reliable clinical tests. 

In using Gesell's tests I have also found enormous individual variations 
in the suitability of different tests for a particular child at a given age. 
Thus, a child of, say, twelve months would be able to do some of Gesell's 
tests for two-year olds and yet fail in some of those for its own age. 
Nevertheless, on the whole a fairly steady I.Q. may work out even when 
only selections of the tests are used, as is shown in the graph below. Here 
is the performance on Gesell's tests of a child whose I.Q., tested by Binet 
tests later at ages 2 ; 9, 3 ; 4 and 3 ; 9 worked out on the average at 1.5. 
Her I.Q. by Gesell tests is as follows : — 

I.Q. by Gesell Tests. 

it 3 months I.Q. 



of tests tried . . 

.. 26 

^ „ „ .. 


.. 14 

^ SJ ,, ,, about 


.. 38 

* 1 yr. 4 mths. ,, ,, 


.. 9 

2 >j 3 ,, ,, ,, 


.. 14 

2 J) 9 ,, ,, ,, 


.. 14 

Average I.Q. . . 


* See The Mental Groivth of the pre-School Child. 

* The child was troubled with teething at this time, which probably lowered her 

^ The tests at 1; 4 were only nine in number, and confined to tests prescribed for 
1 ; 6. Hence they are ignored in calculating the average I.Q. 



Graph A. 

Showing Mental Age of a Child from Three Months 

By Geaell and Binet Tests. 


V 1 


I/) \ 

1 1 

1 1 1 


1 1 


>i< ' ' 

*- \ 

1 1 1 

1 ! 1 


1 1 


(0 \ 

" to X 


O) \ 

s. X 


V \ 


«W \ 





\ ^ 

u> \ ro 
— \ 1) 

CD \ >- 

^ X-k 

K \ 



^ \ 







o \ 

. \> 


\ \ 

«^\ \ > 

o\ \ «^ 





'«' \ 












1 1 1 

1 1 1 

1 1 1 




O tv ^ _ 00 IT) (N 

<o m in m ^j- 't ^ 

a^ lO m o 
tn ro CO m 

Tt — CO in <N (ji ic 

^. (N — — — 

CO o 

SHlNOm Nl 39V. lVlN3n 



The prognostic value of early observations is, however, more remark- 
able, I think, if we confine ourselves to some fairly specific capacity. Let 
us take the development of speech. In the case of several of my children, 
I made observations from the first days on the making of sounds and 
beginnings of speech. When spontaneous ' cooing ' first revealed itself, 
I tested carefully for the first appearance of ' responsive cooing,' i.e. cooing 
in response to cooing. 

The next graph shows various stages in the development of speech in 
three of my children and the ages at which they revealed the particular 
accomplishment. The lowest (i.e. youngest) line is that of Y who first 
showed sjDontaneous cooing at the age of four weeks. The second lowest 
line is that of B, who showed spontaneous cooing at the age of just under 
five weeks ; the third line is that of A, who did not show it till seven 
weeks and is behind the others in all the other speech phenomena — 
practising new noises, first understanding of a simple word of command, 
onomatopoeic noises, imitation of word-sounds, use of negative, two word 
sentences and so on.' 

This may be a mere coincidence, or rather three series of coincidences. 
But it does not stand alone. Apart from the evidence afforded by Gesell, 
there are other functions in which I was able to trace similar parallel 
developments though not as detailed, and some early suggestions of clues 
to later type of temperament. Thus, I noted within the first three 
months of life that one of my boys was definitely more active in reflex 
responses than the other and generally less placid : and throughout 
boyhood he continued the more mobile, more excitable of the two. 

Undoubtedly many similar examples are needed for confirmation ; 
but if these phenomena are more than coincidences, we may well have, 
some day, not merely means of prophesying the future general intelligence 
of a child when it is six months of age, at least with a high degree of 
probability, but also of getting at this early age a fair idea of its future 
capacity for linguistic development, manipulative skill, and possibly even 
of its characteristic temperament, and so on. 

I wish to emphasise the fact that we are still in the position of the 
mental testers of older children, say, 25 to 30 years ago. The main work 
is still the testing of tests. Excellent, for example, as Dr. Gesell's general 
lists of tests are, I am sure he claims no finality for them. Some of them 
are, I have suggested, too dependent on the passing mood of the child to 
be reliable for general clinical purposes at one or two sittings, though 
they may be used successfully if applied frequently by a psychologically 
trained parent in the home. 

Even reflexes are not so reliable as tests as they might seem. This 
point may be illustrated by the facts gained from some experimental 
tests of the eye-blink reflex in response to a sudden loud noise, made on 
one of my little girls at six months. First, standardising the stimulus 
(a stone falling on a tin tray from a height of 3 feet) is essential, as is the 
leaving of time interval enough to avoid fatigue of the reflex. The 

' I have not comparative records of all the various new speech developments. 
There may be material in my records for more, though the above were not^ of course, 
specially selected. As language becomes more and more expressive of complex 
thought processes, the lines of B and Y intermingle. 




Graph B. 

lUuslraiing prognostic suggestiveness of early tests for the development 

of speech. 

Speech Development of Three Children. 

I. Responsive ' cooing.' 

II. Practising new noises. 

III. Doing one or two things at command. 

IV. Onomatopoeic sounds. 
V. Imitating word sounds. 

Key to Graph. 

VI. Negative spoken as refusal. 
VII. Two words used together (possessive). 
VIII. Two word sentence. 
IX. Three word sentence. 
X. Asking name of everything. 


remarkable fact emerged that, at this stage, with exactly the same 
stimulus, the eye-blink reflex may occur for a few times and then cease, 
and then recur again : it may occur nearly every time in about a dozen 
tests one day and in only one or two or even not at all on another day, 
and so on with no apparent cause of variation. The common definition 
of a reflex as the ' invariable response,' etc., is misleading : and the testing 
two or three times of this reflex in a strange child at this age, quite 

Further general daily observation and testing of this and other reflexes 
in my children suggested most decidedly that reflexes are affected by the 
general condition of the infant at the moment ; that a reflex may appear 
for a time and then vanish (as the walking reflex at four weeks) ; and that 
the dividing line between the so-called reflexes (at least the sensation- 
reflexes) and instincts is hard to draw, not because all instincts are merely 
reflexes (as ordinarily understood), but because what have been called 
mere mechanical reflexes are more complex than supposed, less inevitable,' 
more capable of improvement with practice, more the reaction of the 
whole mechanism, and otherwise more similar to instincts. 

I have already contended that the occasional testing or study, at a 
given age, of a group of children, needs to be checked by day-by-day 
observations on the same child in the home environment. It is such study 
which convinces me of the importance of the influence of general ' tone,' 
condition or mood on performance. Dr. Gesell says that fatigue does not 
affect the result of tests much, and that even illness does not ' completely 
mask ' the stage of development. This, I think, is only true if we refer 
to well-established reflexes or habits and responses ; it does not hold of 
nascent functions that is functions during the period when they are just 
beginning to appear. I have noted frequently that new appearances 
may only take place, for the nascent period, under favourable circum- 
stances. This applies to higher functions such as elementary thought 
processes, the use of number, and so on, as well as to such phenomena as 
imitation, laughter, and some reflexes ; but one only fully realises this 
if one tests daily for some new function, somewhat earlier than it has ever 
been found by others. 

Daily observations and a knowledge of the influence of varying 
circumstances on the child are still more important when we study the 
more complex problems of instincts. How far, for example, are fears 
dependent on innate disposition, and how far on suggestion or experience ? 

There is little doubt that the divergence of reports as to whether there 
are innate fears of animals, of furs, of the dark and so on, is due partly 
to differences of conditions under which the observations are made. If 
an infant in the mother's arms is less likely to show the eyeblink reflex 
at the bang of a door than if it be alone in a cot, the full fear reaction is 
still more likely to be affected by favourable or unfavourable conditions. 
The principle of summation of stimuli holds in the sphere of instinctive 
responses. In some experiments on the fear of animals intended to test 
Watson's theory that such fears are ' all due to experience and association,' 

8 A detailed account of this experiment is given in my article Reflexes in Early 
Childhood : Their Development, Variability, Evanescence, Inhibition and Eelation to 
Instincts. Brit. Journ. of Medical Psych., vol. vii., 1927. 


I put before my little girl of twelve montlis a creeping woolly caterpillar, at 
which she gazed with apparently anxious fascination but without protest. 
I then blew behind her a whistle which had previously caused not the 
slightest fear, even when blown suddenly behind her. With the added 
slight disturbance, at once the lurking fear of the caterpillar seemed to 
spring into full activity, and she screamed and shrank from it. 

Turning definitely to this question of Fear, I would point out that the 
innate basis of some fears of animals is by no means disproved by J. B. 
Watson's experiments, in which he produced in infants of eleven months 
fear reactions towards white rats, which had not been feared before, by 
striking a steel bar loudly behind the infants when they tried to touch 
the rats. For we must allow for the period of maturing, and the maturing 
of some of these fears of animals seems to take place only towards the end 
of the second year.® 

The attributing of the fear of, say, dogs (which may suddenly appear, 
even when a child has constantly seen and heard and played with dogs) 
to some unpleasant experience is quite unsatisfactory in view of the way 
in which severe hurt will often fail in the same child to set up fear of, say, 
climbing. And the explanation that fears of animals or the dark are 
merely due to suggestion is faced by the fact that in these directions 
suggestion works with such amazing facility, whereas suggestion to 
children that they will ' catch their death of cold ' if they play in the rain, 
or suffer violent pains if they eat a new, attractive looking fruit, often fails 
miserably. And neither experience or suggestion can account for the 
horror of the uncanny — of strange masks or horrid faces. Finally, I had 
ample evidence of a love of ' playing ' with the fear stimulus, which I 
have seen lead children to ask over and over again for a game of ' lions ' 
which has previously ended and again ends in tears and shrieks of fear. 
This love of playing with fear suggests a deep innate tendency, craving 
for stimulus denied it in our civilised life. 

Let us consider another topic, important as a foundation of child 
psychology, namely Imitation. Here again the testing of children by a 
stranger, even if the child is in the mother's arms, is quite inadequate 
as a clue to the strength of the tendency to imitation, or as a test of the 
stage of development of the child. Prolonged experiments with one of 
my children showed very clearly the importance of the imitatee. Some- 
times, for example, the child, at twelve months and two years, would 
imitate nearly everything done by the father (if only the father or other 
member of the family were present) but sometimes no one but the mother 
would be imitated. 

There are extreme differences of opinion as to whether there is such 
a thing as a primary innate disposition to imitate, apart from any ulterior 
ends served by the action itself. Thorndike criticises Stout and Kirk- 
patrick for asserting its existence. Watson supports him. Drever finds 
his view incredible. Baldwin asserts that imitation ' is the controlling 
impulse.' Kofika says that animals and children only imitate what they 

" I have dealt more fully with the development of fear in a paper on ' The Innate 
Bases of Fear ' in The Journal of Genetic Psychology, September 1930. 


What are the facts ? Here no ordinary observations of what may be 
occasional coincidences is enough. Observations, indeed, of the first 
twelve months did quite convince me that primary purposeless imitations 
are constantly taking place ; but to make sure I planned two series, of 
about fifty tests in all, on my little girl (Y) of twelve months. The actions 
done in front of her, usually by myself or her mother, were all of a type we 
thought she could perform ; but we and others tried to think of actions 
she would not be likely to do, and they were included in the tests. Yet 
in the first series at twelve months, of thirty-seven tests there was imitation 
in thirty-one, and in the six failures there was, with one exception, a good 
reason for non-imitation, as that the child was playing with a toy, or that 
the action, like shaking the head, had come to mean something to the 
child, which she did not mean at the moment. 

The actions included many which could not possibly be ' under- 
stood,' and which served no ulterior purpose, e.g. puffing as though 
smoking, opening the mouth wide, airing a garment by the fire, and various 
physical exercises. 

A similar proportion of actions was imitated in a series of twenty-eight 
tests at two years of age. Y may have been exceptionally imitative. But a 
colleague who is thoroughly familiar with the methods and difficulties 
of experimental psychology gave his boy the same tests at twenty-two 
months, and found almost identical results. 

It would take far too long to expound fully the psychology of imitation 
suggested by these observations and experiments, but I may mention one 
incident which gives, I believe, a clue to primary imitation in infancy. To 
see if a very simple action was imitated at twelve months I held my mouth 
open wide in front of my daughter Y. She showed signs of great annoy- 
ance, banging her hand to and fro at my mouth. Then her own mouth 
opened wide. Again when I opened my mouth she showed dislike, and 
even a suggestion of fear, and crawled away from me, but as she came round 
the back of a chair I noticed that she was crawling along with her mouth 
held wide open. 

No one formula, I think, can cover all types of imitation at this stage : 
but there does reveal itself a general tendency to imitate actions which 
engross the attention for the moment, in the absence of competing sources 
of interest. 

Another problem of general psychology, on which the study of infancy 
throws a light, is that of the causes of Laughter, as to which such varied 
theories have been held. 

Those theories of laughter which are based on a study of wit and 
humour, fail to allow for the very basic origins of laughter. Again, theories 
have generally erred in being far too simple. The careful observation of 
the earliest occasions of laughter suggest that the causes are very varied. 
I give here the various causes in the order in which they appeared in the 
case of my boy B. 

(i) The first clear laugh I noted in my children was that of B (whom 
I watched especially for laughter development) at the age of thirty-nine 
days — a laugh of delight at being put into position to take food. Several 
other observations showed that the getting of food or anticipation of it 
was the earliest cause of laughter, as Dearborn also noted in his daughter. 


(Yerkes noted that his chimpanzee would frequently laugh in response to 
favourite foods.) 

(ii) The next occurrence of laughter was in response to laughter of 
mother or father at ten weeks, followed by laughter even at a smile 
(eighteen weeks). 

(iii) The third occurrence was caused by tickling, also at ten weeks. 

(iv) The fourth type is laughter at the sight of a bright or pleasing 
object (twelve weeks). 

(v) Next we come to laughter at a simple shock or surprise (eighteen 
weeks). Thus B laughed (three times) when I tore a newspaper — a sound 
which had previously caused an apparent start of fear. By this age (four 
months) laughter was very frequent. (Gesell found that 85 per cent, of 
the babies he tested could laugh at the age of four months.) 

(vi) Mere repetition of a stimulus, or our imitating actions of B seemed 
to be enough to cause laughter at about six months. The comic efEect of 
mere repetition remains long in operation ; a comedian says ' Now we 
shan't be long,' and no one takes any notice. He says it again and people 
smile ; again, and there is a roar of laughter. It is the six-months-old 
baby reaction. 

(vii) The next cause of laughter in B (seven months) was the unfamiliar 
and unusual in the midst of the familiar — a ' shock ' of a mere intellectual 
surprise, e.g. my falsetto voice, or the sight of his mother in a paper cocked 

(viii) At seven months there were also suggestions of laughter at mere 
recognition, but of this I was not certain. 

(ix) Between eight months and twelve months another cause of 
laughter appeared — the successful accomplishment of some new activity, 
e.g. standing alone. 

(x) The sight of the mild discomfiture of another is a well-known cause 
of laughter. McDougall, indeed, bases his theory of laughter on this 
phenomenon, suggesting that we laugh in order to avoid the contrary 
feeling of sympathy which would prove too exhausting if too frequently 

It is notable that as many as eight or nine different causes of laughter 
were observed in B before anything of the nature of this last type was 
seen. Only in the seventeenth month did I note laughter of this type in B, 
who gave loud roars of laughter when his mother tumbled down a grass 
bank. It must be admitted, however, that occasions on which B would 
have an opportunity of seeing such slight discomfiture of others were rare. 
Possibly, therefore, the date of this type of laughter response should be 
considerably earlier. A sufficient number of examples of earlier kinds 
of laughter have, however, been given to indicate how very varied the 
original causes of laughter are and how the earliest appearances depend 
on the joj^ul satisfaction of elementary needs. 

The fundamental nature of thought processes is another problem on 
which I believe the study of early child psychology will ultimately throw 
a flood of light. The intimate association of thought with language enables 
one to obtain material with relative ease. Far more difficult, however, is 
the interpretation of the words spoken by the child. We must throughout 


guard against two dangerous fallacies. First, the assumption that 
thought only develops when the corresponding word is used ; the second 
that a word used by the child must necessarily have to some extent the 
same content of meaning as when used by the adult. In spite of these 
two great difficulties of interpretation, however, it is possible to make 
with some considerable degree of confidence inferences about the thought 
processes of the child when certain types of language are used in given 
circumstances, or when language spoken by the adult is obviously 
interpreted correctly by the child, as shown by his actions. 

As an illustration of the contribution child psychology can make to the 
psychology of thought, let us take the much disputed question as to 
whether thought can take place without words. 

On one point at least the observation of infants is conclusive — elements 
of a complex thought process can certainly function without the corres- 
ponding word being expressed. Take, for example, the many prepositions 
which at first are omitted but implied : ' Baby go (on) daddy knee.' (2 ; 1). 
' Mummy hat (on) floor ' (1 ; 10|). ' That too big (for) B., not too big 
(for) Daddy.' (2 ; 4). The functioning of the element without the word is 
still more clearly revealed during the period, which I definitely noted, in 
which the child sometimes used a given preposition and sometimes 
omitted it. 

At a still earlier age, in a sentence such as ' Mummy, door ' for ' Mummy 
open the door ' an activity is evidently thought of when only two names 
of things are actually expressed in language. It is conceivable, of coiirse, 
that the missing word appears as an auditory image. But the apparent 
absence of time interval is against this, though here is a point worthy of 
exact determination. 

The great influence of feeling on the beginnings of concept formation 
is demonstrated by observations on the transference of the first names 
learned. Thus, two of my boys, both at the age of nine months, began 
to apply the first learned name ' Dadda ' to toys and play generally, no 
doubt because of the fact that their father when with them was usually 
romping with them. Father was merely the play person — for a period, 
alas, all too brief. Similarly, Stern notes that his boy applied the name 
Beban (for Bow-wow) not only to dogs but to all things which interested 
him specially — animals, pictures, and his own shadow. 

Light is thrown on the loquacity of some adults by the facts, frequently 
observed in children, first that they love to babble long before their talk 
can have any definite meaning, even for them ; and later, that they love 
to repeat words and use words before they understand them. They will 
fit them into sentences when they are extremely out of place, or repeat 
them sometimes like so many nonsense syllables, though they may 
reproduce the sound of the words with great accuracy. I have to report 
that I noted this more decidedly in my two little girls than in the boys : 
but in one of them it has already helped to bring about a constant 
experimentation with the use of new and partly apprehended words 
which has resulted in a much richer active vocabulary than either of her 
brothers had at the same age, though at times it has led to a quaint half 
misusage, as when she said that she had a ' confidential ' feeling that a 
certain thing was not going to happen. The ' verbalism ' which Binet 


noted as characteristic of his daughter Armande, may thus be detected as 
early as the third year. 

Perhaps the strongest impression left by the careful study of thought 
in little children is the astonishingly early appearance of the elementary 
thought processes. Time was when it was asserted that science could 
not be taught to boys below the age of fifteen because inductive reasoning 
was not possible before then. About a dozen years ago Dr. Cyril Burt 
caused some surprise by showing that all the varied elementary processes 
of reasoning can be traced in children's thought at the age of nine. I 
venture to state that all or very nearly all the elementary thought pro- 
cesses may occur by about the age of three, at least in children of 
intelligence quotients of about 1.3 to 1.5, and taking as our clue to 
elementary thought processes Spearman's classification of relations. 

Certainly it is important that one should be carefully on the look out 
for these elementary thought processes. They occur sporadically. 
Like all mental developments in young children, they may appear one 
day and then apparently disappear and not function even when the 
situation demands it for some days or weeks. And they no doubt need 
favourable surroundings, such as a happy home and sympathetic parents 
or brothers and sisters, if they are to show themselves. It is the lack of 
observation under such specially favourable surroundings to which I 
attribute the extraordinarily late date at which Piaget, in spite of his 
most valuable investigations, places some appearances of thought pro- 
cesses, which I shall explicitly refer to later. 

Suppose we take first, as fundamental elements of thought processes. 
Spearman's classification of relations, and enquire when these are first 
apprehended or ' educed.' Undoubtedly, as Spearman says, relations 
may be apprehended before they can be expressed in language ; but we 
will confine ourselves to the earliest appearance of language in which 
these relations are implied. 

The possessive noun (e.g. ' Daddy's hat,' ' Mummy's hat ') occurs 
at 1 ; 4, and probably implies a relation of attribution. 

The correct use of ' in ' and ' on ' at 2 ; 1 and 2 ; 2 reveals the education 
of the spatial relation, and sentences in which it is omitted but implied 
occur some months earlier. 

' With ' (I brush my hair with Daddy's brush) as indicating a medium 
or tool is used correctly at 2 ; 3 and reveals a relation of agency — for which 
I cannot find a true equivalent in Spearman's list. 

Perhaps the most surprising example of the grasp of a relation at a 
very early age was a sentence by B at 2 ; 4. ' 'At too big (for) B, not too 
big (for) Daddy.' Here is surely the first glimmering of an idea of 

The beginnings of a grasp of a causal relation occurs already at 3 ; 8. 
Thus ' What makes the water come again ? ' (asked when I forked the 
garden path to let the puddles of water escape.) Cf. ' What keeps the 
sky up ? ' asked by a boy of 3 ; 7, and again at 4 ; 1 ' Why doesn't the 
ink run out when you hold up a fountain pen ? ' (See ' Scientific 
Interests of a Boy,' Forum of Education, 928, p. 21.) 

That these examples of relations are not just fortuitous usings of words 
the child has heard spoken by adults is indicated by the fact that the 


appearance of one of these relations in thought is so often accompanied 
by a great delight in the new discovery, so that for some days or weeks 
a child will constantly be asking ' Why,' or practising the possessive 
relation by calling many things ' Daddy's hat, Mummy's coat, baby's 
pram,' etc. The earliest grasping of the causal relation no doubt has 
reference to living agency, and sometimes ' why ' and ' 'cos ' do not refer 
to causes at all, but to purposes. But the idea of causal relation in 
reference to physical things may possibly occur as early as 2 ; 11, when B 
asked why we saw our reflections in a train window. 

The relation of attribution is implied in the correct application of 
adjectives to nouns ; this can be confidently inferred only when the 
conjunction is so unusual that one can be sure that the words were not 
previously connected in speech by anyone in the hearing of the child. Tliis 
I observed before two years. 

The relation of likeness must be grasped considerably before 2 ; 3, when 
it was apprehended between complex fundamentals : thus ' Y's car do 
like Daddy's car.' ' Daddy do like B does.' 

I had evidence in various matters that new mental processes most 
readily arise when practical and spontaneous interests are aroused rather 
than in the course of formal tests. But the difficult part-whole relationship 
was ripe in Y at 3; 8, not only when she used ' part of ' correctly, but when 
it was tested by the question : ' What is a part of me ? ' and she replied 
' You could have only your eyes.' 

The relation of evidence is perhaps the last to appear — at least to be 
clearly revealed in explicit language. But it was evident in Y's conversa- 
tion at 3 ; 2 when taking care of a baby guest : 

Y : ' I'm a big girl.' Father : ' No, you are a little girl.' 

Y : 'I look after the little girl. Well, then, I'm a big girl.' 
Further notes make it clear that evidence may be explicitly referred 

to as such at the age of 3+. 

Thus we have all the possible relations apprehended by about three 
years of age. Now Piaget says that before the age of 7 or 8 ' the child 
is perhaps incapable — whether in narrative, argument, or in any of his 
relations with other people — of differentiating between the various types 
of possible relations (cause, consequence or logical justification) and of 
handling them to good effect.'^" Undoubtedly up to that age the child 
continues to make many errors in his use of these relations, as Piaget 
clearly shows. What the study of much younger children reveals is that a 
grasp of relations begins to appear at a much earlier age. 

Other statements of Piaget appear positively fantastic when one 
examines the records of infant development. Thus he speaks of the 
' universal tendency of the child to avoid relations ' — though at two a child 
may be positively obsessed with the causal relation as its repeated ' Why's ' 

Again Piaget states that the child under seven is ' still ego-centric and 
feels no desire to communicate with others or to understand them.'^^ My 
notes reveal that the desire to communicate appears at least about the age 

1" Judgment and Reasoning in the Child, p. 19. 
11 Language and Thought of the Child, p. 126. 


of two, and as often as one might expect a child of that age to imagine 
it had something to report which a god-like parent did not already know. 
I note, for example, at 2 ; 2 that Y repeated something ' over and over 
again in louder tones till I said " Yes," and so often in the last few months.' 
Nor is it merely the boasting report of what a child has done. For example, 
my wife and I were once met, on return home, by an excited little maid 
of 3 ; who reported to us, with rapid and dramatic speech, a new fact 
just learned from a young brother, namely that when we died we should 
be made into birds and fly up into the sky. The impulse to communicate 
may even become explicitly conscious before four years. Thus I heard one 
of my youngsters of 3 ; 10 shouting out, ' Mummy, I've got something to 
tell you.' 

Reciprocal relationships are undoubtedly hard for the child to grasp. 
Children of nine tested by Piaget showed that they were not clear 
as to the reciprocity of the brother-brother relationship. Yet it is 
wrong to suppose that the little child before even five or six cannot 
in any sense adopt the point of view of another. For example, I noted 
that when Y at 2 ; 8, sitting opposite to me, wanted me to see a picture 
in her book, she carefully turned it round so that I saw the picture right 
side up. And before four years, the reciprocity of the brother-brother 
relationship apparently begins to be grasped (though it has lapses), and 
the sentence ' I'm my own nurse to-day ' (3 ; 9) involves a similar grasp 
of reciprocity. 

Inference from general propositions, at least explicit inference, may 
not appear at this very early stage, though general statements involving a 
grouping of individual known facts are made before three, e.g. ' Everybody's 
here '■ — correctly stated, as to the family of seven, at the age of 2 ; 9 ; and 
a general proposition may be explicitly referred to as a reason : thus, ' Do 
you love Daddy ? ' ' Yes.' ' Do you love H ? ' ' Yes.' ' Why ? ' 
' 'Cos I love everybody.' Also the absence in a drawing of a general trait 
common to all members of a class {e.g. the trunk of elephants) may lead 
to the refusal to apply the name {e.g. ' Is that an elephant ? ' ' No.' 
' Why ? ' ' 'Cos it hasn't got a trunk ' 3 ; 5). 

Thus we have at three years at least the beginnings of induction and 

Lastly, can a little child assume, for a time at least, a hypothesis it 
knows to be false ? Piaget found children of eight and nine would not do 
so. In the Binet absurdity test about the man who said, ' If I ever kill 
myself, I won't do it on Friday, because Friday is unlucky,' Piaget said 
that the children, even of nine and ten, ' refused to admit the hypothesis. '^^ 
Now, undoubtedly, in such tests, children are attracted first by the, to them, 
most glaring absurdity. My boy of seven, for example, when asked what 
was absurd about it, said ' The man would not want to kill himself ' — 
quite right from the child's point of view. 

But certainly it is not true to suggest that children can never posit 
suppositions they know to be false, or that, until eight or ten, they cannot 
assume a ' detachment from the view of the moment.' Thus, at 3 ; 5 
one of my little girls asked her mother to jump over the sofa. The 

'^ Judgment and Reasoning in the Child, p. 65. 


mother objected that she was too old, which brought the remark, ' //you 
were a little girl you could.' And again, about the same age, she said 
' 7/ mummy died, I'd be alone with my daddy.' 

Here are further examples of a type of thought-process taking place 
when working in a familiar medium, at an age some six or seven years 
before the age at which it still fails sometimes to function efiectively. The 
fact is that it is a mistake to attempt to make sweeping generalisations 
as to what takes place in childhood and what in adults. All the kinds 
of errors which are thought particularly characteristic of children occur 
in adult thought, frequently in some adults, less frequently in others. I 
have found graduate students who, like Piaget's nine-year-olds, will 
refuse to posit an incredible hypothesis for the sake of testing the formal 
accuracy of a syllogism. And even a Fellow of the Royal Society may 
base a generalisation about educational methods on his own experience 
when a boy and that of one or two children at the present day. 

What does seem to be especially true of the child of, say, three years, 
is that these various types of thought process do occur only very 
sporadically at first : hence again the necessity of careful daily observation 
if the first appearances are to be noted. 

I have tried to exemplify the way in which the study of the first three 
or four years of life is necessary for the foundation of child psychology and 
the fact that it may have important contributions to make to general 
psychology. It must be admitted that the field of infant psychology is 
still largely unexplored and that the method and technique are still 
greatly in need of improvement. When they are more perfected I venture 
to predict a rich harvest from this relatively neglected ground. 





ARTHUR W. HILL, C.M.G., Sc.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 


The honour of having been invited by the Council of the British Association 
to preside over the deliberations of Section K this year in this historic 
city was of no small personal pleasure to me, more especially since the 
first meeting of the Association I ever attended was the Bristol meeting 
of the year 1898, the second time the Association met in this city. At that 
meeting you will remember our distinguished botanical guide, philosopher 
and friend. Emeritus Professor F. 0. Bower, our President at this third 
meeting at Bristol, was then president of Section K. 

It is interesting to recall the fact that when the British Association 
first met at Bristol, in the year 1836, John Stephens Henslow, that 
fine botanical naturalist, presided over Section D. ' There are few men 
of this century,' as the late Sir William Thiselton-Dyer, the first president 
of this section, pointed out in his address at Ipswich in 1895, ' who have 
indirectly more influenced the current of human thought. For in great 
measure I think it will not be contested that we owe Darwin to him.' 

In recalling Henslow's name in his historic connection with our meeting 
here this year, it is fitting to remember in passing what he did for the 
teaching of Natural Science in Cambridge, for up to the time he was 
appointed professor of botany, in the year 1825, Natural History was 
utterly disregarded at the university, and his predecessor in the Chair of 
Botany had not delivered any lectures for some thirty years ! 

Henslow's teaching methods are worthy of study even to-day, when 
we are rather prone to lose interest in the broader lines of our subject and 
to shut ourselves apart, owing to the many specialist problems with which 
we are confronted. Henslow realised the value of practical methods, and 
that Botany, from the stimulus it gave to ' the strengthening of the 
observant faculties and expanding the reasoning powers,' was a subject 
not only of intense interest but also a means to a liberal education. 

As the present head of our great national institution for the study of 
Botany both pure and applied, Taxonomic and Economic, I look, some- 
what with sorrow, it must be admitted, for young men who have been 
adequately trained to use their observant faculties with regard to the 
living plants, and to \'isualise the many problems which are opem'ng up, 
and are already open, awaiting the men of vision and wide outlook ready 


to come forward in the keen spirit of adventure and to undertake their 

Our university students, I sometimes think, are apt to believe that 
salvation can only come through the brass tube of a microscope ! Yet to 
a keen observer with the naked eye or a hand lens, in collaboration, no 
doubt, with the microscope, for some cognate genetical or structural 
question, there are problems as fascinating and of as much, if not of more, 
general importance than the detailed anatomical structure of some obscure 
though doubtless very interesting specimen. 

The passing reference I have made to John Stephens Henslow some- 
what naturally causes me to refer to two other great teachers, who, alas, 
are no longer with us, William Turner Thiselton-Dyer and Harold Wager. 
To Dyer, who died just before Christmas 1928, our section largely owes its 
foundation, but in thinking of him with Henslow and Wager, it is particu- 
larly as a teacher that I would recall his services to Botany. His associa- 
tion with Huxley in the memorable course of Elementary Biology at South 
Kensington, and his own courses in Botany in 1874 and the following year, 
assisted by Prof. S. H. Vines (who celebrated his eightieth birthday at the 
close of last year), again revolutionised botanical teaching in this country. 
Nor must we forget all he did towards securing the preservation of the 
Chelsea Physic Garden, and what the successful issue of his labours has 
meant for the furtherance of botanical teaching in London. 

The death of Harold Wager on November 17 last year — president of 
our section at the South African meeting in 1905 — is a very great loss to 
Biology. Not only was he a most skilful manipulator and, like Henslow, 
used always the simplest and most ingeniously contrived appliances, but 
he had the real temperament of the naturalist with keen powers of observa- 
tion. Problems open to solution by scientific experiment were constantly 
perceived by him, which hitherto had been neglected, unseen by scientists 
lacking his inquiring mind and keen powers of observation. 

Wager's influence among the amateur naturalists and professional 
teachers was outstanding. His unremitting scientific labours were a daily 
accompaniment to the conscientious fulfilment of his duties as an inspector 
of schools. The teacher of biology in the school, prone to follow the easier 
path of instruction through text- book and diagram, was constantly being 
reminded, through contact with Wagei, of the wide gap that may exist 
between the formal description and the actual object to be examined. 
Just as the amateur naturalist, finding in Wager a kindred spirit, was led 
by his example to take more pains and extend the range of his scientific 
technique, so the professional teacher was encouraged to put aside mere 
repetition of second-hand facts, to observe for himself, to become, in fact, 
' a Naturalist,' and thus to develop a new enthusiasm which rapidly 
communicated itself to his pupils.^ 

May the infectious enthusiasm which he communicated long remain 
amongst us. 

Henslow and Wager, I think, must have had much in common ; both 
realised the importance of strengthening the observant faculties, and 
I have referred especially to these two pre-eminent naturalists, since the 

* See the obituary notice in Nature, December 21, 1929. 

K.— BOTANY. 193 

methods they pursued and realised to be so essential, are exactly those 
which are required to-day for dealing with the problems of Systematic 
Botany and its many associated studies. 

Henslow, Dyer and Wager were, undoubtedly, outstanding types of 
men who possessed the gifts which we look for in our students, the love of 
experiment, keen powers of observation and reasoning, accompanied by a 
wide outlook, including the ability to see the full scope of a problem and its 
possibilities in both the pure and applied lines of research. 

This brief consideration of the work and contributions of these three 
pioneers in our science brings me to the subject which I have selected for 
my address — Some of the Present-day Problems in Systematic and 
Economic Botany. Not that I feel very competent to address a learned 
botanical audience, since so much of my time is occupied with matters of 
administration of a large establishment and with correspondence on every 
sort of botanical subject with the Dominions and the Colonies, and with 
our botanical colleagues throughout the world ; yet I have had the 
temerity to do so, because one's range over the subject is so wide that I 
am brought in touch, perhaps more than most professional botanists, 
with so many interesting and unexpected developments and side issues, 
which entail investigation and research in the domains of Systematic 
and Economic Botany, Physiology, Genetics, Ecology and Plant 

In the realm of Systematic Botany I suppose our most important 
problem is still that of the ' species.' Though botanists hold several 
views on this fundamental question they nevertheless continue in their 
work of species-describing, and the recently issued seventh supplement 
of the Index Kewensis, with its some 33,000 new specific names and new 
combinations, shows there is no diminution in this field of their very 
necessary activities. I, with many of my colleagues at Kew and else- 
where, must plead guilty to adding to the labours of our pundits in 

It is, I think, hardly necessary to point out that Systematic or 
Taxonomic Botany is, like other branches of our science, in a healthy 
state of growth and development. In dealing with the study of the 
vegetation of the earth it is essential in the first place to be able to catalogue 
and describe our material, which may often be far from perfect. Herbarium 
specimens, as they have been received since early times, have been duly 
named and arranged, and very often the Taxonomist has had only a single 
specimen on which to base his studies. 

In this way our Herbaria have become respositories of ' type speci- 
mens ' of the utmost historical value, and from the study of these specimens 
all our earlier and well-known floras have been written ; to give a few 
instances, from Kew only, I may refer to the ' Flora Capensis ' and the 
' Flora of Tropical Africa,' more especially the earlier volumes, the ' Flora 
of British India ' and the ' Flora Australiensis.' 

With the increase of our knowledge of the vegetation of the world, 

due to the larger numbers of people interested in botanical work and to 

more extended and more careful exploration, plants hitherto unknown 

are constantly being brought to light. As before, these are deposited in 

1930 n 


our Herbaria and described, and our knowledge of tbe geographical range 
of species and the composition of the genera has been greatly extended. 
But this, it now appears, is only the beginning of the enterprise, as may 
be gathered from a study of the developments that are taking place with 
regard to the floras of those countries or regions which are capable of 
being subjected to a more intensive type of survey. 

In the case of any region or country, the first thing to be done is to 
assemble the material, to put it in order and assign names to the ' species, ' 
that is, the definitely distinct assemblages of very closely related plants ; 
but we are realising now, I think, that such work is rather of a preliminary 
and tentative nature, and cannot be regarded as in any way final. It is 
only when we are able to make an intensive study of the vegetation of a 
given area, and undertake a critical examination of a wide range of 
specimens, which appear to fall within the bounds of what may have been 
described as a ' species,' that we can feel justified either in accepting the 
original definition and description or, on the other hand, in forming an 
entirely new conception, which may result in the original ' species ' being 
regarded as a ' habitat form,' a ' variety ' or a ' genotype ' or a member 
of a compound species. 

Taxonomic workers, more especially in the past, have tended to fall 
into one of two categories, for to some a ' species ' has covered a wide range 
of forms grouped around a mean type, while others have taken a more 
restricted view and their species have represented far smaller and more 
sharply defined classificatory units. Both methods have been of value ; 
the broader view has had its advantage very often in relation to questions 
of geographical distribution, while the narrower one has caused us to 
inquire into questions relating to the origin of species themselves and the 
significance of so-called ' varieties.' They have also had their drawbacks, 
since in the one case many matters relating to the influence of habitat, 
general conditions, &c., have not been fully appreciated, while in the other 
the possibilities of hybridisation, segregation and adaptation have usually 
received little or no recognition. 

The intensive study of the flora of a region, or of particular genera, 
such, for instance, as Rubus, Taraxacum or Hieracium, has led in some 
cases, I feel, to the adoption of a very narrow, or I might call it a 
' parochial,' outlook, which has tended to detract from the importance of 
Taxonomic work in the eyes of the younger botanists entering on the paths 
of a botanical career from our universities. To them, and to many others, 
the sole aim and occupation of the ' local ' systematist has seemed to be 
to browse along a hedgerow in order to find a somewhat dubious ' new 
species,' and then with no small pride to prepare and publish its descrip- 
tion. In the past, in somewhat petty work of this character, no attempt 
was made to study effects of light and shade or other environmental 
conditions, or to make cultural experiments to test the validity or otherwise 
of the find. I believe it is now properly recognised that such short cuts 
to transitory glory are a hindrance rather than a help to the progress of 
Systematic Botany, and that the many problems which arise when a flora 
comes to be studied critically and intensively, can only be solved by means 
of experiment. Such experiments may involve controlled cultivation, 
genetical research and very careful tabulation of statistics before full light 

K.— BOTANY. 195 

can be shed on the true nature of what may have been regarded as a large 
' compound-species ' or a host of small, closely-allied ' micro-species.' 

Until I had the opportunity of visiting New Zealand I was not very 
greatly exercised about the problems underlying the species question, and 
was content, like others, to describe a new species without any particular 
qualms from a single specimen. 

The extraordinary prevalence of hybridisation, however, in the New 
Zealand flora, seen under the able guidance of Dr. Leonard Cockayne and 
Dr. H. H. Allan, quickly made me realise how rash it would be to think 
of describing any New Zealand plant as belonging to a new species with 
only a single specimen before one. 

Later, when on Rainbow Mountain, I found the erect shTuhhy Gaultheria 
oppositifoUa, with its dry calyx and dry fruit, passing imperceptibly through 
an infinite number of intermediate forms into the prostrate alternate- 
leaved G. depressa (or G. antipoda), with red or white fleshy calyx-segments 
enclosing the fruit, it became clear that the question of 'species,' 
'Linneons,' ' Jordanons,' and the rest, was a burning one, requiring the 
collaboration of the Systematic Botanist, the Ecologist and the Geneticist 
for its solution. 

Here, then, is a large and vital problem which, to my mind, very greatly 
widens the interest and importance of our Herbarium studies, since 
problems relating to the possible hybrid origin of the plants we are dealing 
with demand careful study in the field, with visits to the countries where 
the plants are native. 

I am reminded, from what I saw in New Zealand of the ' hybrid 
swarms ' in Gaultheria, Nothofagus, Myrtus, Veronica (Hebe), and many 
other genera, of that remarkable Malvaceous genus Nototriche,^ native of 
the Andes of South America. At the summit of the pass leading from 
Peru into Bolivia I collected, at an altitude of about 14,500 feet, some five 
quite distinct ' species,' growing close together under apparently identical 
conditions of soil. They were easily separable by their leaf and floral 
characters, but I wondered then, and I wonder now, why there were these 
five distinct forms in this small area, when apparently any one of them 
was good enough and perfectly adapted for the perpetuation of the genus ! 

Dr. Lotsy, I feel sure, would regard them as hybrids or of hybrid origin, 
and, unless we feel inclined to assume that Nature has evolved this multi- 
plicity of forms for pure pleasure — a sort of botanical experiment in 
permutations and combinations— it is difficult to lay aside the view that 
hybridisation, in this genus and possibly in many other genera, has played 
a prominent part in the development of the multitude of described ' species ' 
we see around us. 

These tiny prostrate plants were many years old with deep tap roots, 
and they would be well-nigh impossible subjects for experiment, like so 
many of the remarkable South African examples to which Dr. Lotsy has 
so forcibly drawn our attention. 

Then again the visitor to Australia cannot fail to be impressed by the 
multitude of ' species ' in the genus Eucalyptus. The study of the literature 
is no less bewildering than is the study of the living trees, and we must, 

2 A. W. Hill in Trans. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), ser. II, vol. vii. 1909. 



I think, believe with the late Prof. Anstruther Lawson, that hybridisation 
has played an important part in the production of many of the closely 
similar forms, which may or may not breed true, and which are so great 
a puzzle to the botanist. 

In addition to questions relating to possible hybridisation, we are now 
also recognising the importance of soil factors in connection with our 
conceptions of species. To me it has always been fascinating, when 
wandering in the Alps or elsewhere, to note the changes in the vegetation 
when passing from one geological formation to another, more especially 
when, as is so often the case, it is a question of the presence or absence 
of lime. Near Mont Cenis, for instance, the line of demarcation between 
Gentiana lutea and G. purpurea is as sharp as if a dividing fence were 
present, and there are equally striking changes with other plants near 
Le Lautaret, where there are marked changes in the underlying rocks. 
Examples will readily occur to you, and in all such cases we are dealing 
with definite and well-marked species, but we may be permitted to speculate 
whether the allied species, now found restricted to certain types of soil, 
may not, in times long past, have diverged from a common ancestor. 

It is when we come to more subtle cases, to some of which I shall 
refer later, where owing perhaps to a change of soil a physiological difference 
can be detected, without any obvious corresponding morphological change, 
that our interest becomes acutely aroused, and we realise the depth of our 
ignorance. Physiological varieties of this nature can sometimes be 
assumed to be due to the nature of the soil, and in the case of certain 
plants restricted to the Serpentine rocks, some well-marked morphological 
characters can also be recognised. 

A somewhat parallel case, though of a different order, is afforded by the 
common Mistletoe, Viscum album. 

Tubeuf , you will remember, in his monograph on the Mistletoe,'* gives 
an account of the races or varieties of Viscum album, which are definitely 
associated with particular host plants. Much has been written about 
these ' forms,' and they have even been given definite specific names 
(e.g. Viscum austriacum, Viscum laxum), but for this there does not seem 
adequate reason. Three definite physiological races, however, are clearly 
marked, (1) the form which is found on deciduous trees, (2) that associated 
with the Silver Fir, Abies pectinata and other species of Abies, and (3) the 
form parasitic on Pinus sylvestris, P. Laricio and P. montana. 

The races are so far distinct that seeds of the ' Pine form,' for instance, 
will not grow on the apple or fir, and vice versa. Physiologically, therefore, 
they are distinct, though morphologically they cannot be separated. A 
case like this suggests that we may be witnessing the advent of three 
species from one, and that eventually morphological differences may also 
become evident. 

The vegetation of South Africa supplies some Taxonomic physiological 
problems of a like nature, which up to the present have not been satis- 
factorily solved by the Systematic Botanist. These relate to the difficulty 
of differentiating between two or more forms of the same species which, 
though distinct physiologically, cannot be separated on any structural 

s ' Monographic der Mistel,' Karl Freiherr von Tubeuf (1923), pp. 661-672. 

K.— BOTANY. 197 

characters. Several such physiological strains are now known in South 
African species of the genera Pentzia and Salsola. There are two 
strains (physiological varieties) of Salsola glabrescens Burtt Davy, which 
grow side by side. One of these plants, with purplish-red young twigs, is 
closely grazed, while the other, in which the young twigs always appear 
to be pale-coloured, remains untouched by cattle or sheep until there is 
nothing else to eat. The selective feeding of the animals when grazing 
on a pasture bearing these two forms is very remarkable. Carefully 
collected dried specimens of these two plants, with flowers and fruit, have 
been critically examined at Kew, but apart from the colour of the young 
stems of the living plants, no single character can be found by which one 
form can satisfactorily be separated from the other. In the fresh condition 
the only distinction between typical specimens of the two forms mentioned, 
and also in two forms of another species of Salsola, is that of the stem- 
colour, and neither form possesses any odour that can be detected. It 
would be of great interest, therefore, could we discover how the animals 
are able to distinguish the palatable from the unpalatable form, since we 
might then become as acute as they appear to be in appreciating the 
significance of fine distinctions. 

Certain South African species of the genus Pentzia afford another 
interesting case of the superior discriminating power of animals over 

The Pentzias in question are strongly scented. It was noticed that 
sheep and caterpillars were feeding on a large stretch of country covered 
by these plants, and that some of them were being eaten while others 
were avoided. Representative specimens of all those that were being 
eaten and of those that were avoided were collected by our present Assis- 
tant for South Africa and brought to Kew for critical examination. No 
specific difference between the different ' types ' could be detected during 
a preliminary examination in the field, though they could be recognised 
one from another by their external appearance. 

Detailed field notes of each specimen were made on the spot for use in 
the herbarium investigation, since it was found that some of the plants 
were greedily devoured, some were most carefully avoided, while others 
were usually left untouched ; when, however, the latter were grazed, as 
sometimes happened, unmistakable symptoms of nervous depression were 
produced in the animals. 

On Taxonomic grounds we must regard all three forms as being 
members of one and the same species, since no morphological difference of 
any value can be detected between them. 

Then again there are puzzling problems connected with the character 
of certain species on different types of soil, for it has been noticed in South 
Africa that, while a species may be a useful pasture plant on, say, a red 
loamy soil, yet when the same species, growing on tufaceous limestone, is 
eaten by stock a heavy mortality may result. Here, then, is another 
interesting problem in the domain of applied botany and soil chemistry, 
which, like the cases mentioned earlier, may also fall into the domain of 
Taxonomic Botany. 

It is also very remarkable that the Indian Lac insect {Coccus lacca) 
has drawn our attention to the existence of two physiological forms of 


Schleichera trijuga (Sapindacese), and to two forms of Butea frondosa 
(Leguminosee), upon one of which it feeds while the other it does not 
touch ; yet the Botanist is unable to separate them in either case ! 

These are all matters of great scientific interest in relation to questions 
concerning the possible origin of new species, but when, owing to some 
environmental change, a species which is valuable for grazing purposes on 
one type of soil is found on another type of soil to be definitely poisonous, 
the question assumes a wider interest and comes within the range both of 
the Taxonomic and the Economic Botanist. It may be in cases like these 
that we are witnessing the inception or the incidence of 'new ' species, 
from the physiological standpoint, on a parallel with the morphologically 
distinct forms which have been shown to arije in the course of hybridisation. 

The Taxonomist of the present day, I nave attempted briefly to point 
out, is faced by many problems connected with the nature of his units 
and how they are bounded. He realises that ' the making of many 
" species " is a weariness to the flesh,' and that, especially when it is done 
with a narrow outlook, it is a hindrance rather than a help to progress. 
Further, Taxonomic work pursued in a narrow and unenlightened manner 
undoubtedly has tended to divert possible adherents from our ranks. 

Taxonomy, I think it is fair to say has, until recently, failed to arouse 
the interest of the younger botanists mainly because it has not been put 
before them in an attractive manner, for the intimate inter-relation- 
ship of this branch of botany with ecology, genetics and cytology 
has not been properly emphasised. Traditional Taxonomy, as I have 
hinted, has until recently appeared to be a specialised and somewhat 
narrow occupation, and its disciples, with good reason, have often been 
regarded as born and not made. This tradition is by no means dead, 
with the result that botanical Taxonomy is apt to be thought of as a 
subject which is, dare I say, like golf has been sometimes considered, a 
pastime for those beyond middle age ! Nor are its adherents always con- 
sidered to be of the same intellectual calibre as their brother botanists 
who are engaged in what are regarded as the higher lines of research 
pursued in botanical laboratories. If this is so — and I believe there is 
some truth in the statement — it is, I feel sure, simply because the great 
importance of Taxonomy and its far-reaching interests have not been 
adequately presented or realised. 

As it is so desirable that the importance and value of Taxonomic work 
in its widest sense should be better appreciated in our schools and uni- 
versities, I think it is worth while to say something as to what is now 
implied by Taxonomy in the light of modern developments, in the hope 
that Taxonomy, combined with Ecology, may again occupy a prominent 
place in the studies of our developing botanists. 

It is true, of course, that the Taxonomist must know his plants and 
must be able, with careful training, to use to the full his powers of observa- 
tion and deduction, so that he can appreciate small differences, weigh 
evidence, and draw up descriptions in comparison with allied species, &c. ; 
but he will not go very far if he stops there. 

I have mentioned how unsatisfactory it is to work on single isolated 
specimens — though often, unfortunately, this may in some cases be all 

K.— BOTANY. 199 

the material at our command — since isolated specimens, detached from 
their environment, do not allow the Taxonomist to judge to what extent 
a species may be plastic. 

It may well be that the single specimen is not truly typical, for it may 
be of the nature of a habitat form, which Cockayne terms an ' Epharmone ' 
— the ' phenotype ' of Turesson — or, on the other hand, it may be a ' geno- 
type,' that is, a ' Jordanon ' according to Cockayne, and represent one of 
a group of such units which can be linked together in a ' compound 
species ' ; or, again, it may be one of a ' hybrid swarm ' or a segregate 
resulting from hybridisation. 

That we are appreciating now the problems surrounding every species 
which we are able to examine critically, through studying it in the field and if 
need be under cultivation, is a healthy sign ; for it is, I think, clear that the 
Taxonomist, in undertaking experimental and field studies, will be able to 
throw much light on the ' origin of species,' and on the meaning and import- 
ance of the so-called ' variations ' which such experimental study reveals. 

This seeking after truth by means of experiment is not exactly a new 
development, though it may be claimed that the conception and planning, 
during the past few years, of new lines of inquiry has raised the status of 
these experiments to the definite plane of research. 

It will be recalled that isolated experiments to test the persistence of 
individual forms, varieties or species have been made from time to time 
since Linnseus' day, but it is only in recent years that they have been 
carried out under careful control. 

The classical experiments of Gaston Bonnier are well known. I may 
remind you that Bonnier cloned herbaceous perennial plants ; half of an 
individual was grown in a lowland garden, while the other half was planted 
in a high mountain garden in the Western Alps or in the Pyrenees.* 

His results were striking and full of interest. Fifty-eight of the species 
with which he experimented were able to maintain themselves at the 
higher altitudes, and underwent changes which caused them closely to 
resemble indigenous Alpine plants. Remarkable as his results un- 
doubtedly were, it is unfortunate that they appear to have been conducted 
without sufficient control, and also that he did not work with a much 
larger number of individuals of the same species. We also lack the full 
details of his experiments, nor are there any herbarium specimens as 
evidence of the changes described, which would serve as records of these 
interesting experiments. It is therefore much to be hoped that his work 
may be repeated in France or Switzerland in the light of modern require- 
ments, since in England it is hardly possible to carry out experiments of 
this character with regard to effects of altitude. Daniel,* working on 
Asphodelus luteus, transplanted portions of plants growing at Rennes to 
a seaside garden at Erquy. Such striking changes were brought about 
by this transplant experiment that he described the derived forms as a 
distinct species, A. luteioides. 

F. Krasan* has also published papers recording the direct influence of 
the environment on plant characters. 

* See Rev. Gen. Bot. (1920), XXXII. 305. 

= Rev. Oen. Bot. (1921), XXXIII. 225, 316, 357, 420. 

6 Flora, XCVIII. 389 (1908). 


It is when we come to the work of Turesson in Sweden, and the experi- 
ments conducted by Clements and by Hall in America, that the importance 
of transplant work to Taxonomists, Geneticists and Ecologists can be fully 
understood. Turesson's experiments' have been conducted with great care, 
and are of far greater value than any previous transplant work. He 
collected wild material from habitats studied by himself in Scandinavia 
and other parts of Europe, and worked with a large number of common, 
widely distributed and ' polymorphic ' species. He has been able to prove 
that considerable hereditary potential variation exists within these species, 
and has shown that the naturally occurring variations can be grouped 
into different types confined to definite habitats. Turesson's experiments 
indicate clearly that there may be a close parallelism between mere 
phenotypic modifications (fluctuations of some) and heritable variation. 
It is only by experiment, however, that a decision can be reached as to 
whether a given variation has a gene basis or not ; for it is only when its 
genetical nature is known that the admission of any variation as a distinct 
species or variety should be entertained from the Taxonomic point of view. 

It is because Turesson has used so large a number of plants of each 
species in his experiments, that his contributions to the subject of ' race 
ecology,' or ' gene-ecology ' as he terms it, are of so much value. As far 
as methods are concerned he has placed this line of work on a sound basis. 
As to his nomenclature, however, there may be some divisions of opinion 
into which I need not enter, as it is a matter which mainly concerns the 
experimental ecologist. 

The value of Turesson's work, speaking generally, may be said to be 
that he has been able to come to conclusions as to the different types of 
variation shown by the plant he has observed, both growing wild and under 
cultivation, and has been able to demonstrate that in some cases they are 
of a heritable nature, while in others they are merely fluctuations. 

The species problem, therefore, in the light of Turesson's experiments, 
which are borne out by what I shall have to say about our own transplant 
experiments, is definitely becoming an ecologico-genetical problem. 

These new lines of research, which bring together Ecology, Genetics 
and Taxonomy, and are yielding results of value to botanists working on 
these three lines, are now being actively pursued at Potterne, in Wiltshire, 
and at Kew along somewhat different lines. 

As I consider them likely to lead to results of considerable importance, 
I think it will be useful to give a short account of the experiments now in 
progress. During a visit to the United States, in connection with the 
International Congress of Plant Sciences at Ithaca in 1926, the transplant 
experiments that were being undertaken by Prof. H. M. Hall in California 
were studied. These are being carried out with cloned plants of several 
genera, and at different altitudes like those of Gaston Bonnier, and it seemed 
desirable to attempt experiments on somewhat similar lines in England. 
As, however, experimental cultivation at different altitudes in the British 
Isles would not be likely to afford results of any great value, it was decided 
by the Committee appointed by the Ecological Society, who were keenly 
interested in the proposal, to carry out experiments in growing certain 

' See papers in ' Hereditas,' from vol. iii. 1922, onwards. 

K.— BOTANY. 201 

plants, of known genetical constitution, on four different types of soil 
under precisely similar climatic conditions in one spot. 

Thanks to the kindness and keen interest of Mr. E. M. Marsden-Jones, 
now an honorary associate on the staff of the Koyal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, the experiments are being made by him in his garden at Potterne, near 
Devizes, in co-operation with Dr. W. B. Turrill. Four large raised beds, 
37 feet by 10 feet, enclosed by old railway sleepers, have been made side 
by side, and each has been filled with a distinct type of soil — clay, chalky 
clay, calcareous sand and non-calcareous sand. Sets of the plants under 
investigation are also being grown on the natural upper greensand soil 
at Potterne and on the light sandy Kew soil in the Herbarium garden 

On each type of soil twenty-five individuals of each of six species are 
now being grown, all being of known genetic origin. Climatic conditions 
are being recorded throughout each year, and full records of all features 
connected with the growth and behaviour of all the plants on the different 
soils are being kept. 

This is now the fourth year of the experiment, but it is the first year 
in which six different approved plants have been under cultivation. 

A full report of the work up to October of last year has just been 
published in the ' Journal of Ecology,' and the following summary is 
abridged from the annual report of Kew activities during the past year.* 

The species transplanted are Centaiirea nemoralis Jord., Silene vulgaris 
Garcke, S. maritima L., Anihyllis vulneraria L., and Plantago major L., 
while during this year Fragaria vesca L. has been added. 

It is interesting to find that the most obvious changes are taking place 
in Silene vulgaris, S. maritima and Plantago major. 

Centaur ea nemoralis has shown little change, but the general tone is 
better on the clays than on the sands, though flowering commenced first 
on the latter. The mean number of stems per plant was higher on the 
clays than on the sands. 

In Anthyllis vulneraria morphological changes of a qualitative nature 
have not occurred, but some interesting facts regarding selection have 
been obtained ; unfortunately a high death rate has occurred on the sand 
and on Potterne soil. Edaphic factors are obviously important in causing 
the known natural limitation of this species, and these should be con- 
sidered when it is proposed to cultivate Anthyllis as a forage plant. The 
transplant results suggest that on suitable land it would be a valuable 
and relatively persistent crop. 

Plantago major has proved exceedingly plastic, even within five months 
last year, and even more so this year. The original plant was a dwarf 
form, and this habit has been very nearly retained on the sand and to a 
less degree on the calcareous sand, but it has become markedly luxuriant 
on the clay and somewhat less so on the chalky clay. 

Some plants of Silene vulgaris on the calcareous sand have developed 
a markedly ' strict ' habit, similar to that which has been many times 
observed in individuals among wild populations, and this may be found to 
have a genetical basis. On the calcareous sand the foliage has developed 

* See Journal of Ecology, August 1930. Kew Bulletin, Appendix 1, 1930, pp. 45-47. 


a lighter-green colour, on the clay a more yellowish-green colour, and on 
the chalky clay a more blue-green colour than in the parent. Secondary 
growth has occurred especially on the sand. General tone was best on 
the clay and worst on the calcareous sand. 

In Silene maritima there was a marked though irregular tendency for 
the plants on the sand to change to plants with smaller leaves, and with 
more anthocyanin and a flatter habit than in the parent. On the 
calcareous sand the leaves were narrower and smaller, the plants were 
flattened, and the calyces more red than in tJie parent. On both clays 
there was little change from the parent. General tone was best on the 
chalky clay and worst on the clay. 

To sum up : Ceniaurea nemoralis does not at present appear to be 
plastic, but will survive under a wide range of edaphic conditions ; Silene 
vulgaris is slowly plastic under certain edaphic conditions ; S. maritima 
is decidedly more plastic than its congener ; Anihyllis vulneraria is not 
plastic, and is not capable of survival under a wide range of edaphic 
conditions, and Plantago major is exceedingly plastic* 

It is obvious that the experiments, to be of real value, must be con- 
tinued for a long period of years. The making of soils from raw materials 
can be slowly followed in the beds, and it is hoped that periodic analyses 
will yield useful pedological data. 

In Centaurea, Silene vulgaris, S. maritima and Antliyllis genetical 
research is being continued which involves the use of lines from which 
the transplant materials originated, and this work is being correlated with 
field, laboratory and herbarium studies. 

Apart from actual changes in the plants and from stages in soil-making, 
many interesting biological facts are noticeable. Since the plants are 
grown in the absence of competition, mass or individual differences must, 
on the whole, be due to edaphic factors. Plants, however, are individuals, 
and the history of a given individual is never exactly like that of any 
other. ' Accidents ' also happen to individuals, and therefore records 
must as a rule be of a statistical nature with the limitations of this method. 

Though the Kew-Potterne transplant experiments may be regarded as 
being only in their infancy, it is already evident that the experiments 
are yielding information of great value in the domains of Taxonomy, 
Ecology and Genetics. These results are of all the more value owing to 
the careful records which are being kept for each individual plant, whose 
history can be traced from the commencement, and may also be studied 
in the extensive series of herbarium specimens which are being preserved 
at Kew. 

In addition to what the Taxonomist is seeking to discover from this 
intensive study of plants by means of ' transplant experiments,' he is also 
anxious to elucidate the problems associated vnth. certain ' critical ' British 
and European genera, such as Silene, Centaurea, Rubus, Taraxacum and 
Hieracium, in which the ' British ' botanist or his Continental homologue 
have described a multiplicity of species. In the case of Taraxacum and 
Hieracium, the normal occurrence of parthenogenesis must surely entirely 
modify our conception of so-called ' species ' in these genera, and make us 

" These records were made before the September droBght of 1929. 

K.— BOTANY. 203 

realise that they would both repay carefully arranged cultural and 
cytological research. 

In the case of Rubus also it seems likely that carefully controlled experi- 
ments would possibly reveal the fact that habitat or hybridisation, rather 
than a ' fixed ' type, was the raison d'etre of several ' species ' now immor- 
talised in the Index Kewensis. Whatever research may reveal in these 
genera, it has been shown in Centaurea,^" as the result of careful genetical 
experiments, that at least three described ' species ' are of hybrid nature 
or origin, for exact counterparts of Centaurea jutigens Gugl., C. pratensis 
Thmll. and C. Drucei C. E. Britt., have been artificially produced by 
Marsden- Jones and Turrill at Potterne, and have been proved either to be 
hybrids or segregates from hybrids. It is evident also that some half- 
dozen other ' species ' of Centaurea will have to be similarly reduced in 
the course of the next year or two, when the experimental investigations 
have been completed. From this work, and from similar experiments with 
Silene maritima and S. vulgaris, ^'^ it seems evident that hybridisation is 
common in the wild flora of Britain, and that ' hybrid swarms ' occur, 
comparable to those to which Lotsy has called attention in South Africa, 
and Cockayne and Allan have demonstrated so clearly in the New Zealand 

In dealing with intra-specific variation within a polymorphic ' Linneon,' 
such as Silene maritima, Marsden-Jones and Turrill have wisely refrained 
from coining a number of new names, but have attempted to formulate a 
scheme comparable with chemical symbolism, which should prove of con- 
siderable assistance to botanists who are confronted with similar difficulties 
in other groups of plants showing similar polymorphism. 

An important development, arising out of the more intensive study of 
wild species and possible hybrids and the associated genetical work and 
controlled cultivation, which is so pregnant of far-reaching results, is the 
need of greatly extended Herbarium records and field notes. For genetical 
work to be of permanent value it is essential that ample material of the 
parent plants and their oft'spring should be preserved for reference, and in 
the case of assumed wild hybrids, representative specimens of the parents 
and of all the linking forms are required. 

I am glad to say that at Kew we have now established special ' herbaria ' 
for genetical specimens and for hybrids, where specimens forming as 
complete a set as possible are kept together, apart from the General 
Herbarium collection. ^^ At present it is fairly rich in certain groups of 
New Zealand hybrids, thanks to the kindness of Dr. Cockayne and his 
associates in the Dominion. We also have a very full set of specimens 
from the plants which are being used in our transplant experiments, 
which exhibit clearly all the changes which so far have been recorded. 
There is also a good series of mounted sheets showing the hybrid forms of 
Centaurea, Silene, Saxifraga potternensis, &c., which have been produced 
under controlled experimental conditions, together with a collection of 
similar ' forms ' which have been discovered in the wild condition. 

'" See Gardeners' Chronicle, March 15, 1930, p. 210. 

>i Kew Bulletin, 1929, pp. 145-175. 

^2 See Kew Bulletin, Appendix I. 1929, p. 42 ; 1930, p. 40. 


In addition we are getting together a collection of specimens showing 
certain plants in all stages of their development, when growing wild under 
very different soil and climatic conditions, all of which should be of great 
value in careful ecological work. 

I may also mention here, as a further development of our herbarium 
activities, which is proving of great practical value, that we have formed 
a collection of fruits and seeds, which it is hoped in course of time will 
be as comprehensive and complete as is the collection of the vegetative and 
floral specimens in the General Herbarium. The value of this collection 
to Mrs. Clement Reid and Miss Chandler in connection with their study 
of recent fossil fruits and seeds has quickly been recognised. It has also 
proved of great value for identifying samples of weed seeds, seeds accused 
of poisoning stock, seeds used for adulteration purposes, and those used 
as drugs. It is clear that the study of the seeds and their markings &c., 
of all the species of a large genus, may also enable botanists to arrive at 
some important deductions when making critical revisions. 

These special herbarium collections, together with the ' Herbarium 
garden ' recently established at Kew, are, I think, very important develop- 
ments for our Taxonomic and Economic studies. 

In the Herbarium garden,^^ foj. instance, many plants of botanical 
interest — ' weeds,' perchance, to the ordinary gardener^can be grown, 
and their development studied in detail. While from these plants 
herbarium specimens can be prepared and preserved, showing not only 
all stages in development, but also the character of the root system, 
particulars which are usually so sadly lacking in specimens collected, 
often in haste, in the course of some excursion or expedition. 

So much, then, for some of the modern developments and opportunities 
in the domain of Taxonomic botany. Now let me turn to somewhat 
similar problems which have recently been brought to our notice on the 
Economic side. Very often it will seem that the matters to which I shall 
refer belong rather to the domain of plant physiology, but since those to 
which I propose to draw your attention are mainly concerned with plants 
of economic importance they do, therefore, actually come within the 
purview of what we generally consider to belong to the realms of Economic 

In the first place I would draw your attention to the interesting 
observations made by Dr. A. B. Stout and others on the flower behaviour 
of Avocados,^* Persea gratissima Gaert. (Lauracese). These afford an 
excellent example of the assistance that the botanist can render to the 
grower and of the practical application of a remarkable botanical phe- 
nomenon of great scientific interest. 

The Avocado Pear bears hermaphrodite flowers, but they exhibit a 
daily rhythmic alternation of sexes reaching maturity for the entire plant. 
This synchronous dichogamy apparently reaches a perfection of physio- 
logical regulation to ensure cross-pollination, unknown in any other group 
of plants. 

13 See Kew Bulletin, Appendix I. 1930, p. 44. 

1^ ' Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden,' A. B. Stout, vol. vii. p. 145 (1927). 

K.— BOTANY. 205 

All the flowers that may be open at any one time, on trees of the same 
clonal variety, are in either the female or the male condition. If the trees 
belong to one of the varieties placed in ' Class A ' by Stout, of which the 
Taylor variety is taken as an example, the flowers when they first open 
in the morning are found to be functioning as females with a receptive 
stigma, but the anthers are not yet mature. 

About midday these female flowers close, for none but flowers in the 
female state are open on the trees, and another set of flowers then opens 
in the early afternoon, normally without any overlapping, so that there 
are never on any tree of ' Class A ' flowers in th^ male and flowers in the 
female condition open at one and the same time. These afternoon flowers 
are found to be in the male condition with the stigma withered ; the 
anthers are in an upright position, with their valves open and shedding 
their pollen. 

Careful investigation of trees of ' Class A ' has shown that the flowers, 
when they first open, function as females for some four hours in the 
forenoon ; they then close about midday, remain closed all night and all 
the following morning, and reopen on the afternoon of the second day in 
the male condition. Self-pollination of individual flowers is thus rendered 
impossible by this sex-alternation, and since there is normally a definite 
time interval, about midday, when no flowers on trees of the same ' Class ' 
are open, cross-pollination on the same tree or between different trees of 
the same clonal variety can rarely occur. 

This rhythmic phenomenon is all the more remarkable because there 
is an entire reversal of the process just described in other clonal varieties 
and individual seedlings, which Stout places in his ' Class B.' 

In trees belonging to ' Class B ' the flowers are in the male condition 
when those of ' Class A ' have their stigmas receptive, and sltb female when 
the pollen of ' Class A ' trees is being shed. These reciprocating changes 
in sex thus provide the opportunity for mutual cross-pollination between 
the trees of ' Class A ' and those of ' Class B.' 

The practical application of this discovery hardly needs pointing 
out, but it is clear that an orchard planted with trees of only one variety 
is not likely to yield a rich harvest of fruit ! That the right selection 
of the varieties for interplanting can now be made, the grower has to 
thank the botanist, since it is now possible for him to obtain a maximum 
yield of fruit from his plantation. 

I was interested to learn recently from a former Director of Agriculture, 
Bermuda, that they could never get Avocados to fruit in the Bermudas. 
Prizes were ofiered and cultivation devices, spraying, &c., were tried, all 
to no purpose. Evidently they were growing trees of only one clonal 
variety, and had they known of the sex-alternation they would have been 
able at an earlier stage to develop a profitable industry. 

The scientific research which has revealed and elucidated the natural 
phenomenon exhibited by the Avocado, the full significance of which is 
a matter of so much conseqixence in the practice of husbandry, is an 
interesting example of hidden possibilities being brought to light by 
scientific research ; and suggests comparison with some of the economic 
problems in the botanical direction, where a demand is made on the 
scientific worker to produce some economic plant, of a type suited to the 


requirements of some particular district, in order tliat it may be capable 
of commercial exploitation. In the one case the botanist reveals to the 
commercial grower the secret which will give him success ; in the other 
the commercial grower insists on the botanist providing him with the 
type of plant he requires in order to make an enterprise successful. Two 
somewhat different aspects of the relations between pure and applied 
botany. A few examples of the latter type of problem are worthy of 
bringing to your notice, as they relate to such important crops as pistachio 
nuts, limes and bananas. 

Pistachio nuts are grown as a crop in California, and the problem facing 
the plant breeder, if he is to satisfy the grower, is to produce varieties 
bearing nuts which crack naturally. If varieties are produced, the nuts 
of which have to be cracked by hand, they are of no value commercially, 
however good the nuts may be in size or flavour, since the labour cost 
involved in cracking by hand in the United States is prohibitive if the 
nuts are to be sold at a profit ! 

Fortunately scientific research has now produced the desired article, 
and those who delight in pistachio ices, &c., can rest assured that they 
are coloured and flavoured by the genuine article and not by some synthetic 

Limes, again, the staple industry of Dominica, present a curious and 
difficult problem. The wither- tip disease has made it imperative to carry 
out experiments with the object of producing races or varieties immune 
to the disease. 

There seems, fortunately, good prospect of success attending these 
efforts, so far, at any rate, as the production of an immune type is con- 
cerned. Dominica, however, is very hiUy, and the lime bushes are grown 
on such steep hillsides that hand-picking of the fruit would be very costly, 
and in some cases well-nigh impossible. The lime of commerce, as 
is well known, has the usefiil habit of shedding its fruit when ripe, 
so that the Dominican peasant merely has to go and collect the fruit 
under the trees or bushes. The problem before the plant-breeder 
working on limes, therefore, is to produce a lime which not only is 
immune to disease, but which will also shed its fruit when ripe. Unless 
this second essential can be attained the new variety is of little or no 
commercial value. 

The banana problem, connected with the attempt to produce a strain 
immune to Panama disease, is also hampered by a somewhat similar 
economic question. In this case it is necessary that the fruits should be 
incurved, so that in each ' hand ' the apices of the bananas curve inwards 
towards the stem. In this way the bunches can be easily handled without 
injury to the fruit, and also there is the further practical advantage — 
they take up the minimum of space on board ship — -two practical 
points which make all the difference between success and failure in a 
commercial enterprise — but matters which may baffle the ingenuity of 
the botanist and geneticist for many a long day before a satisfactory 
solution, i.e. the successful combining of the two desired characters, can 
be attained. 

Dr. Walter T. Swingle, Principal Physiologist of the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, has been writing to me recently about the remarkable 

K.— BOTANY. 207 

researches on the pollination of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) 
which he and Mr. Roy "VV. Nixon* ^ have been conducting. 

' Each species of Phcenix,' he writes in his last letter of May 22, ' seems 
to have determined its peculiar action in ripening the fruit of the date 
palm. The most amazing thing is that the pollen of the huge Canary 
Island palm used on the date palm produces a small, peculiarly pointed 
seed, quite different from the ordinary date seed, and small or medium- 
sized fruit that ripens late, whereas the tiny palm commonly called 
P. Roebelinii, which has the smallest seeds of any wild form of Phoenix 
known, when used to pollinate the true date palm, causes the formation 
of large seeds, usually with a curious sunken area about the germ pore 
and makes large dates which ripen extremely late, nearly two months 
later than the ordinary crop. Preliminary tests of Phoenix sylvestris, from 
India, seem to give medium-sized seeds and medium to large-sized dates, 
ripening earlier.' 

The economic importance and scientific interest of these discoveries 
need no comment. 

Systematic botanists in the past have, I think, been rather too apt to 
regard the ' species ' they have described as fairly definite units, recognising 
and recording from time to time ' varieties,' but, as I have said earlier, 
frequently without sufficient material to enable them to say what such 
varieties really represent, or how constant and definite they may be. In 
some cases they may be the so-called ' Jordanons,' while in others, no 
doubt, as we are beginning more fully to realise, they are the resultants 
of hybridisation. For the majority of plants the occurrence of such 
' varietal ' forms appears to be of little more than purely scientific interest, 
and they may be passed by with only a casual comment. 

When, however, almost any plant comes into the limelight of Applied 
Botany and is found to be of some economic value, then the importance 
and significance of varietal differences at once becomes apparent. A few 
cases may be cited in illustration : — 

Para rubber (Hevea hrasiliensis) is considered to be a good botanical 
species, but a careful examination of the trees now being grown in planta- 
tions in the East reveals a number of forms, very similar as regards their 
morphological characters, but showing marked physiological differences, 
especially with regard to the yield of latex. 

The planter, therefore, who has the good fortune to own a plantation 
of high-yielding trees is in a favourable position compared with a neighbour 
whose trees may only yield the minimum quantity of latex. Here again 
the problem is one for the geneticist to solve, or it may rather prove to 
come within the province of the horticulturist and involve budding, with 
the selection of suitable stocks and scions, as is being done in Ceylon, 
Java and elsewhere, on lines similar to those adopted in relation to com- 
parable problems with apples, pears and plums at home, which are being 

'5 Swingle, Walter T. ' Metaxenia in the Date Palm,' in Jonrn. of Heredity, 
Vol. xix, No. 6 (1928), pp. 257-268. Roy W. Nixon, ' The Direct Effect of PoUen on 
the Fruit of the Date Palm,' in the Journ. Agric. Research, Vol. xxxvi.. No. 2 (1928), 
pp. 97-128 ; and ' Immediate Influence of Pollen,* in Journ. of Heredity, Vol. xix. 
No. 6 (1928), pp. 241-255. 


studied so successfully at East Mailing, Long Ashton and Merton ; or 
with cacao, which is engaging the attention of botanists and agriculturists 
in Trinidad, Ceylon and the Gold Coast. 

A similar problem, where the systematic botanist requires the assistance 
of his economic colleague, has recently been investigated in Australia by 
Messrs. Penfold and Morrison of the Technological Museum, Sydney.^* 
This concerns the oil yielded by Eucalyptus dives Schseur. 

E. dives is a species easy of botanical determination, and is of economic 
value for its oil, which has a piperitone content of about 45-50 per cent. 
which is used for the manufacture of thymol and menthol. The recently 
increased demand for synthetic thymol and menthol has led to fresh areas 
being exploited, and oil has been obtained yielding only 5-15 per cent, of 
piperitone — morphologically, however, the trees were true E. dives — while 
some other trees, which Australian botanists referred unhesitatingly to 
this species, contain oil with under 5 per cent, piperitone and 45-75 per 
cent, cineol. It might be thought that ecological conditions are concerned 
in these striking difierences — for a typical form and three distinct physio- 
logical varieties have been recognised by their oil characters — but near 
Goulbourn, N.S. Wales, the type form with 40-50 per cent, piperitone has 
been found growing alongside the variety B, containing only 10-20 per 
cent, piperitone with 25-50 per cent, cineol. The latter form is of no 
commercial importance, and it was because oils with a low percentage of 
piperitone were coming to the distillers, who therefore supposed the oil had 
been adulterated, that these physiological varieties came to be detected. ^^ 

Here, then, is an interesting piece of investigation which brings the 
botanist into alliance with the chemist. 

A similar problem exists with regard to camphor, where, as is well 
known, two, and perhaps more, physiological varieties exist in the species 
Cinnamonium C amphora, which botanists are unable to separate. In the 
one case solid camphor is yielded on distillation, in the other camphor 
oil ; and it is even stated by the Japanese authorities in Formosa that 
from one side of the stem of a tree solid camphor may be obtained, while 
the other side yields only oil. Whether this be true or not, it is the fact 
that the valuable economic tree is that which yields solid camphor, and 
that in our Colonies, especially in Mauritius, practically all the trees 
are oil-yielders, and therefore well-nigh valueless. 

Since this is a matter of considerable economic importance, it has seemed 
desirable to test whether climatic or other conditions in any way influence 
the character of the product, and in the hope of solving the question layers 

1^ The Occurrence of a number of Varieties of Eiicalyptus dives as determined by- 
Analyses of the Essential Oils, Part I, 1927, Part II, 1928— A. R. Penfold and F. R. 
Morrison, Journ. dh Royal Society, N.S.W., Vol. Ixi. and IxLi. 

1' Messrs. Penfold and Morrison consider that the varieties, between which there 
are intermediate forms, may be classed as follows : — 

1. E. dives, Type . Piperitone 40-50 per cent., Phellandrene 40 per cent. 

2. Var. A . . Piperitone 6-15 per cent., Phellandrene 60-80 per cent. 

3. Var. B. . . Piperitone 10-20 per cent., Cineol 25-50 per cent., together 

with Phellandrene. 

4. Var. C. . . Cineol 45-75 per cent., Piperitone under 5 per cent., Phel- 

landrene absent or present in small quantity only. 
Only the Type and Variety C are of commercial importance. 

K.— BOTANY. ■ 209 

of authentic camphor-jaelding plants from Ceylon have been sent to 
Mauritius, and layers of oil-yielding plants have been sent from Mauritius 
to Ceylon. 

It is hoped that the experiment may furnish some interesting results, 
and may also possibly enable us also to formulate some conclusions as to 
the significance of the physiological varieties of Eucalyptus dives. In the 
latter, known as the broad-leaf peppermint, the proportions of various 
constituents appear to vary somewhat in some of the varieties depending 
on the time of year at which material was collected for examination. ^^ 

I may, perhaps, be allowed to refer to one more instance drawn from 
the realms of the economic side of Systematic Botany, which, as in the 
cases to which I have alluded, may prove to be of profound importance. 

'* See Penfold and Morrison in Journ. <fc Proc. R.S., N.S. Wales, vol. xlii (1928), 
p. 74. Similar instances were noted at Tumbarumba. A sample of oil distilled from 
the leaves and terminal branchlets selected from a clump of seven trees was found to 
contain a small quantity of phellandrene, thus rendering an otherwise excellent oil 
valueless for medicinal purposes. Moreover, the crushed leaves yielded the excellent 
aroma of cineol-terpineol-citral. 

The medicinal oils for internal use contain as principal constituent a colourless 
liquid with a camphoraceous odour called cineol or eucalyptol, and the well-known 
curative properties of such oils for colds, influenza, &c., are generally attributed to 
this body. . . . 

Such medicinal oils must be free from the terpene phellandrene, as this is considered 
to affect the heart if present in any quantity. Phellandrene, however, is a very 
valuable oil for industrial purposes, and forms the principal component, or occurs in 
considerable quantity in the industrial oil group, such as E. phellandra, E. dives and 
E. radiaia. 

It was, therefore, very difficult to account for the adverse report. After a special 
search the trees were located, and were found to be botanically identical. The first 
six trees examined proved to be E. dives, var. ' C ' ; the seventh tree, however, yielded 
an oil rich in phellandrene (piperitone and piperitol could also be detected, but very 
little cineol), and was approximately the variety ' B.' It is a remarkable fact that if 
the leaves of the first six trees only had been distilled the oil would have been very 
favourably reported upon, but owing to the inclusion of the leaves from the seventh 
tree, phellandrene was present in the oil, which resulted in its being condemned. 

Again at Mannus Hill it is recorded that on one side of the road a number of trees 
of the ' Type ' were growing distributed in a grove of trees composed of the varieties 
' B ' and ' C,' whilst on the other side, trees of the ' B ' variety were distributed through 
a belt mainly consisting of variety ' C.' On crushing the leaves of one tree the piperi- 
tone-phellandrene odour was pronounced, while crushed leaves of a tree only three 
feet away exhaled the refreshing aroma of cineol with a little citral. 

Messrs. Penfold and Morrison have examined large areas of E. dives in New South 
Wales and Victoria and have shown that in one locality one variety appears to pre- 

They give the following particulars in Journ. tt- Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S. Wales, vol. 
Ixiii, part iii (1929), p. 84: — 

1. In the Braid wood district the 'Type' prevails, with small quantities of 
variety 'A.' 

2. Near Goulburn the ' Type ' with variety ' B ' are found. 

3. In the Tumbarumba district variety ' C ' is the predominating form, with very 
little of the 'Type.' 

4. WhUe in Victoria very large areas of variety ' A ' are growing in conjunction 
with the 'Type.' 

A similar condition of affairs is also recorded for Eucalyptus piperita, in Notes on 
Eucalyptus piperita and its essential oils with special reference to their piperitone 
content. Part I, A. R. Penfold and F. R. Morrison in Journ. <l- Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S. 
Wales, vol. Iviii, 1924, where two marked, physiological varieties have been detected 
by chemical methods. 

1930 • p 


The Tung oil trees, Aleurites Fordii and A. montana, whose seed yields 
a very valuable drying oil, are now being introduced through Kew and the 
Imperial Institute to all suitable Dominions and Colonies. In these trees 
the flowers are borne in clusters, and each flower-cluster usually consists 
of a large number of male flowers surrounding a single female flower. It 
was noticed some years ago that certain trees under cultivation in America 
bore two or three female flowers in each cluster or inflorescence. Selected 
seed from this ' multiple-cluster ' type appears to transmit this charac- 
teristic, and trees showing this favourable variation may thus be expected 
to crop more heavily, and yield more oil, than trees with only one female 
flower in the cluster. 

Trees of A. Fordii planted in New South Wales are proving very variable 
in their fruit yield, and Mr. Penfold informs me that the }aeld of fruit per 
tree varies from 25-362 ; unfortunately we do not yet know whether the 
higher-yielding trees are of the ' multiple-cluster ' type or whether 
they are only ' high-yielders ' of the normal form. 

The problem, therefore, which may arise is analogous to that which 
confronts us with Para rubber in the matter of latex- yield ; with Cacao 
as regards permanent poor-yielders and permanent heavy-yielders ; or 
with Cavendish Bananas in the Canary Islands, some forms of which peld 
bunches of fruit from suckers only 13 months old, while in other cases 30 
months elapse before the fruits are ripened. Cases such as these, and 
there are many others of a like nature, afiord an apt illustration that 
Economic and Systematic Botany can pro^^de romances, possibly of more 
scientific interest to the botanist than to the commercial planter, but of so 
great material importance to the latter that the botanist looks to the man 
of affairs for the financial assistance to help him to discover their solution. 

Comparable with what has been described for Eucalyptus dives is the 
case of the Indian grass Cymho'pogon Martiyiii Stapf. Two forms of this 
grass are recognised, which grow on adjoining parts of the hills of the 
Bombay Presidency and other parts of India. One form, ' Motia,' jrields 
an oil with an average Geraniol content of 91.3 per cent., and prefers the 
drier hillsides — the other, ' Sofia,' with an average of 42.7 per cent, of 
Geraniol in the oil, occurs in the moister localities. In some parts these 
two physiological varieties grow in contiguous areas and tend to intermix 
where they grow close together. They can be recognised by the differences 
in smell, but beyond a slight difference in the pose of the leaves they cannot 
be separated by any definable botanical characters. From the Economic 
point of view the essential difference between the two types of oil is that 
' Sofia,' or ' ginger-grass ' oil, contains a strong-smelling substance called 
i-carvon, which is not present in ' Motia ' or ' Palmarosa ' oil ; this latter 
oil is the one which is considered of superior quality and commands a 
higher price in the markets. 

The trees which peld Balsam of Peru and Balsam of Tolu afford a 
somewhat similar problem. These are regarded as varieties of Myroxylon 
halsainum (L.) Harms, or Toluifera balsamum L., the only recognisable 
difference so far found between them being the structure of the resin cells 
of the cotyledons in the two cases. ^^ 

19 See Harms, NotizbUUt des Kgl. Bot. Gard., No. 43 (1908), p. 94. 

K.— BOTANY. 211 

While on the question of essential oils I may refer in passing to that 
peculiar and elusive subject, the loss of scent of the common Musk, 
Minmlus moschatus Dougl. I fear there must be some here who have 
never smelt musk, but I well remember its characteristic odour and how 
it was grown in pots in almost every cottage in the country, as it was 
reputed to keep away flies. As some of you will recollect, musk quite 
suddenly lost its scent a few years before the war, and apparently, though 
unfortunately we have no exact records, the loss of scent was universaL 
Despite repeated efforts no scented musk has since been found, though 
often reported, nor can I get material or seed from Western N. America — ■ 
the home of the plant — with any trace of the characteristic scent. The 
plant was introduced to cultivation by David Douglas in 1826, and as far 
as we know all the wild native plants had the characteristic scent."" What 
has happened ? Is the musk plant now grown exactly the same as the old 
scented plant, and if so why did all the plants in cultivation as well as 
those growing wild in British Columbia, almost simultaneously as it would 
seem, lose their scent. Is this to be regarded as a sudden and universal 
mutation, and if we assume this, how much nearer are we to an explana- 
tion ? It would seem a problem worthy of the attention of the ecologist 
and chemist to attempt, by cultivating the plant in different soils and under 
diverse conditions, to try and regain the musk scent. 

When we turn our attention to cultivated plants, the innumerable 
forms and varieties that have arisen in the course of cultivation are almost 
bewildering. I need only instance such plants as maize, the ground nut 
[Arachis hypogcea), Voandzeia or Ricinus. the castor oil, whose seeds 
furnish so remarkable a series of colour and pattern-forms and sizes, 
constant for each of the many cultivated races. 

Or again, I may remind you of the various races or 'cultiforms ' derived 
from Brassica oleracea ; cultivation during long ages has resulted in our 
cabbages, brussel-sprouts, kohl-rabi, cauliflowers and various types of kale. 
Other striking examples of mutations which have appeared in cultivation, 
without any possibility of inter-specific hybridisation, are afforded by 
such well-known ' garden ' plants as Cyclamen persicum (C. indicum), 
Primula obconica, P. malacoides, P. effusa and our own primrose, P. veris. 
Not only have the plants under cultivation quickly become more robust 
and the size of flowers greatly enlarged, but marked changes have taken 
place in the colour and form of the flowers, while fimbriation of the corolla 
segments and doubling of the flowers has also taken place in the course 
of a few years. In cyclamen and in the primrose remarkable crestings 

-" Mr. W. B. Anderson of Victoria, British Columbia, who is an authority on the 
British Columbian flora, informs me, in a letter received in July through the Lieut. - 
Governor, that he noticed the loss of scent in the native musk plants in British 
Columbia a good many years ago, before he was aware of what had happened in 
Great Britain. Years ago at Millstream, where Musk was indigenous, all the plants 
were scented. Many years later at Comox, where it grows abundantly, a scented plant 
could not be found. Since then Mr. Anderson has failed to find scented musk plants 
anywhere in British Columbia. The Millstream locality was far away from any habita- 
tion and the scented plants could not have been introduced and were as stronglj- 
scented as those growing elsewhere. It seems clear, therefore, that the remarkable 
phenomenon noticed in Great Britain also occurred in British Columbia, the native 
home of Mimulus moschatus, since very careful search for many years has failed to 
reveal any scented plants where formerly they were abundant. 



on the corolla segments have also been developed. With regard to 
doubling, it is of interest to notice that in P. malacoides and in P. effusa 
this has taken place within some four years after their introduction. 
Nuclear changes to the tetraploid condition have been found in some of 
these ' improved ' forms, notably in P. sinensis and P. malacoides, while 
P. ohconica has also become tetraploid, but there is no obvious difference 
between diploid and tetraploid plants.'^' If we invoke ' mutation ' we do 
not seem to have advanced much further along the road, nor does intra- 
specific hybridisation throw much light as to the commencement of varia- 
tion, though it may be effective when we have reached some well-marked 
varietal forms. It has been suggested that the effect of cultivation — i.e. 
good living and good feeding — has in some way broken down the constitu- 
tion of the plant and given rise to a tendency to vary, but we have no 
definite evidence in support of this view ; in all such cases we should like 
to know whether such variations occur among the plants as they grow 
wild and which may have escaped observation. If this is so, as those 
most competent to judge consider probable, we must assume that the 
observation of variants under cultivation is due to the fact that horti- 
culturists are always on the look-out for small varietal differences, which 
as soon as they are noticed are selected and encouraged. 

The explanation of this tendency to vary, displayed by plants whether 
under cultivation or in nature, should possibly be sought in the realms of 
chemistry rather than of cytology — we have seen something of the remark- 
able capabilities of the plant cell as a chemical laboratory in the case of 
Eucalyptus dives and other plants, and it may be that very small additions 
to, or deviations from, the normal food supply of the plant, as we know, 
for instance, in connection with the researches carried out with boron and 
manganese, or with our own transplant experiments with Plantago major, 
may so disturb the composition of the cytoplasm that the whole internal 
economy of the plant is upset and it becomes ' jilastic' As a result, since 
the germ-plasm also is affected by the stimulus, the observant cultivator 
is able to take full advantage of his opj^ortunity, and by careful selection 
can develop and encourage the production of new and distinct forms. 

We now know from Prof. Goodspeed's recent work on the effect of 
X-rays on the sexual cells of Nicotiana ^^ that these rays bring about some 
striking changes in the germ-plasm, and we look forward presently to 
hearing some further particulars from him on his interesting work. 

In all these matters we are still largely in the land of theory, but I 
think we may say that in our strivings towards the truth we are catching 
here and there flashes, which encourage us to proceed in our search for 
the light which will enlighten our darkness. 

^' This has been worked out by Mr. Philp at the John Innes Horticultural] 
Institution. | 

'^- See Goodspeed, Prof. T. H., ' The Effect of X-rays and Radium on species of | 
the genus Nicotiana,' in Journ. of Heredity, Vol. xx, No. 6, June 1929, pp. 243-259 ; , 
' Cytological and other features of variant plants produced from X-rayed sex cells of 
Nicotiana tabacum,'' Bot. Gaz. Ixxxvii, No. 5, June 1929, p. 563, and ' Occurrence of i 
Triploid and Tetrapoid Individuals in X-ray Progenies of Nicotiana tabacum,' in Univ. 
Calif. Publ. i., Botany, Vol. ii, No. 17, pp. 299-308, 1930. See also MuUer, H. J. ' The 
Problem of Genie Modification,' Zeitschr. fiir Indukt. Abstam. und Vererb., Supple- 
ment-band I, 1928, p. 234. 

K.— BOTANY. 213 

At present our definite knowledge is fragmentary ; we may, if we like, 
compare it to a few pieces of a ' jig-saw ' puzzle. We have discovered a 
few of the pieces, whose import we do not fully understand, and if we 
could find some of the missing ones they would help us to visualise the 
picture. It is for us to try and collect more of the pieces and arrange 
them as far as may be possible ; some undoubtedly fit together, but we 
do not yet appear to be in a position to make a guess as to what the 
completed picture may reveal. 

You will, I think, have realised that the subjects I have discussed in 
the course of my address have been based largely on my experiences 
accumulated during my term of office at Kew, and on the opportunities 
I have enjoyed, both at home and in various parts of the Empire, of seeing 
the practical results of our eiTorts in the directions of Taxonomic and 
Economic Botany in all their wide and diverse applications. 

The opportunity of visiting our Overseas domains, especially when one 
is in the responsible position of being ' Botanical Adviser to the Secretaries 
of State for the Dominions and Colonies,' is of immense value, not only 
because one is thus able to get into personal contact with the botanists, 
as well as with those working in allied branches, such as agriculture and 
forestry, but also because one is able to study on the spot the jiroblems and 
difficulties which present themselves to our Overseas colleagues, and so 
visualise the directions in which help from the National Botanical Centre 
or from other institutions can be of the greatest assistance. 

Until recently the information required at Kew could only be gleaned 
either through correspondence, official reports, or from discussions with 
Governors, Directors of Agriculture or the botanists on their staffs when 
on leave in England. 

In earlier times this sufficed fairly well, and as is well known, was 
fruitful of many important results, especially during the directorship of 
Sir William Thiselton-Dyer. 

With the growth of scientific activity in all parts of our Tropical Empire 
and with the necessary development of large and important agricultural 
and forestry departments out of the original botanic stations, the problems 
have become so many and so diverse that they could not properly be 
envisaged, nor could adequate advice be given, by anyone rooted to 

Thanks to the far-sighted wisdom of the Empire Marketing Board a 
great change, as you know, has been effected in the last few years, and 
with the grant given by the Board to Kew it is now possible for the Director 
or one of his superior officers to visit, on invitation, any part of the Empire 
where their presence may be required. 

Further, a sum was set aside by the Board to allow Botanical Collectors 
to be sent overseas to study the vegetation of some parts of the Empire, or 
to collect specimens in some foreign country which might be of economic 
value for introducing to one of our own Colonies ; thus restoring to Kew 
the privilege enjoyed in the days of Sir Joseph Banks and Sir William 
Hooker, which led to the introduction of so many plants of scientific and 
economic value both to the Colonies and to Kew. 


The result of this grant has been that on the invitation of the Govern- 
ments of Australia, New Zealand, the Straits Settlements and Federated 
Malay States and Ceylon, I was given the opi^ortunity of visiting these 
countries during the winter and spring of 1927-8. A visit was also paid 
to Java. At the same time an invitation was received from the Govern- 
ment of the Union of South Africa, which has now been accepted. 

The Assistant Director has visited Cyprus and the Sudan. 

Mr. H. C. Sampson, the Economic Botanist appointed under the Empire 
Marketing Board scheme, has undertaken missions, at the request of the 
respective Governments, to British Guiana and the West Indies, British 
Honduras, the four West African Dependencies, in connection with the 
Agricultural Conference held in the Gold Coast last year, and he has 
recently returned from a visit to the Bahamas. 

The Keeper of the Herbarium was also enabled, last year, to visit the 
various Botanical Institutions in South and East Africa, with which Kew 
is in intimate correspondence, after attending the meetings of the British 

Botanical collectors have been sent to Majorca to obtain graft material 
of almonds suitable for Cyprus ; to the Malay States, Java, Siam, Burma, 
and Ceylon, to collect wild stocks and cultiA^ated races of bananas to be 
sent ultimately, after being detained in quarantine at Kew, to the Imperial 
College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, in connection with the research 
being undertaken there on the Panama disease. 

Another collector, our present Curator, was sent to the East to study 
tropical vegetation and bring back collections of useful and interesting 
plants for distribution and to enrich the Kew collections ; another, Mr. 
J. Hutchinson, was sent to South Africa to make carefiil studies of the 
flora, and by his collections to widen our knowledge of the types and 
associations of the vegetation, and he is now engaged on a similar under- 
taking in Rhodesia on the invitation of General the Right Hon. J. C. 
Smuts, whom we all look forward to greeting very heartily as President 
of the Association next year. 

Other collecting enterprises on the part of Kew have been undertaken 
in the Solomon Islands, and on the British-Italian Somaliland Boundary, 
in connection with the recent joint Boundary Commission, whence 
Mr. C. L. Collenette has recently returned with a rich and remarkably 
interesting harvest of material accompanied by ecological information of 
very great value. 

Dr. J. M. Cowan, now Assistant to the Regius Keeper, Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Edinburgh, who has been a member of the Kew staS for a time, 
went to Iraq and Persia last year. This was a joint undertaking arranged 
between Kew and the John Innes Horticultural Institution, Merton, and 
some very interesting living plants of horticultural and economic impor- 
tance were brought home, and also a large collection of dried specimens 
for the Herbarium. Mr. N. Y. Sandwith, a member of the Herbarium 
stafi, accompanied the Oxford University Expedition to British Guiana, 
and by his careful and intensive collecting has added very greatly to our 
knowledge of the forest flora of the Colony. 

While to complete the story of our major enterprises in this direction, 
you will be interested to learn that a member of my staff, Mr. Milne- 

K.— BOTANV^. 215 

Redhead, is now at work in Northern Rhodesia on the Aerial Survey that 
is being undertaken to make a careful study of the vegetation on ecological 
lines, as a guide to the future development of the country. 

This brief summary of the activities of Kew will suffice to show that 
we are living in an era of progress and development and that we are alive 
to the opportunities offered of widening our outlook and our interests in 
the domains of Taxonomic and Economic Botany. As I have hinted 
earlier, our studies in Taxonomic Botany to be living and of practical 
value need to be transported from time to time from the Herbarium to the 
field. In this way only can we realise fully the extent and character of 
variations, the effects of soils and climates and the prevalence and signifi- 
cance of jjhysiological races. 

By the widening of our horizon through travel and by means of vegeta- 
tional studies in the field, I feel myself on sure ground in maintaining that 
we are thereby more efficient, more enlightened and more useful Taxono- 
mists, both in the pure and applied directions, than if our studies were 
strictly confined to the examination of the dried and mounted specimens 
in a herbarium. 

I have attempted to put before you some of the modern problems and 
some of the recent advances in the realms of Taxonomic and Economic 
Botany, and have indicated how intimately they are connected with ques- 
tions of Plant Physiology, Ecology and Genetics, while in many of the 
problems it is necessary to call upon the chemist for assistance. I hope 
I may also have succeeded in demonstrating that Taxonomic and Econo- 
mic Botany, with the new opportunities, provide fields for investigation 
and research worthy of the attention of the best intellects among our 
rising generation of students of Natural History. The proper pursuit of 
these studies in the light of modern developments, demands investigation 
by experimental methods, as well as the examination of dried specimens, 
to which full powers of observation and deduction must be brought to bear. 
Added to this there is the stimulus of romance and the possibility of travel, 
which make the enterprise worthy of the undertaking. The picture which 
opens out before us is no new one, for in essentials it is the same as that 
which stimulated and inspired Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, Asa Gray 
the De Candolles, and other great pioneers in our science. 

Yet vast and enthralling as is the prospect we seem somewhat to have 
failed to attract a sufficiency of able recruits. If this is so then we must 
needs look for the reason. We may, and in fact I think we are apt to say, 
like the ' Children sitting in the market-place,' ' We have piped unto you 
and ye have not danced ' ; but with whom does the fault lie ? May it not 
be, as regards Taxonomic Botany, that we have piped on a wrong note, 
that ' we have ' in fact ' mourned ' in a minor key, and have failed to pitch 
out tune on the high note of enterprise and endeavour ? 

If I am not mistaken, and I gather Thiselton-Dyer^^ would have agreed 
with me, our ' tune ' has been marred to our hearers by what I may call 
our vexatious and often discordant ' Variations on an original theme.' 
Need I say I refer to the millstone of nomenclature, which encumbers and 

* ^ Brit. Assn., Ipswich, 1895, Address to Botanical Section, p. 11. 


weighs down the neck of the systematic botanist. The theme itself, 
' Taxonomic Botany ' in its widest sense, is full of charm and interest, but 
it has been so obscured that many have failed to be attracted by the 
grandeur and harmonies of its melody. It is to be hoped that as a result 
of our recent International Conference at Cambridge, many of our nomen- 
clatorial troubles will have been laid to rest, and that we shall now be able 
to pursue our studies unhampered, being satisfied that the maximum of 
stability with the minimum amount of change, compatible with progress, 
is now assured. 

Much of our failure to attract disciples is due, I fear, to the misplaced 
activities of those, whom I might call our Taxonomic ' Scribes and Phari- 
sees,' who have burdened us with ' burdens grievous to be borne,' and 
have thereby tended to substitute the shadow for the substance. 

Be that as it may, though times have changed and circumstances have 
altered, the spirit of investigation and the interest in Natural History and 
Natural Phenomena is, I believe, as much in evidence as ever it has been, 
and it is for us to point the way and bring the labourers into the vineyard. 

It is by no means easy to say how this can be done. There have been 
in the past many who have devoted their lives to scientific research, of 
whom we are justly proud; to whom material gain counted little and 
whose ' curiosity ' may be said to ' have got the better of their intelligence,' 
for they consecrated themselves wholly to the search for knowledge. 

In these more straitened days, however, not only do we need to be 
aflame with the same consuming fire, but we have to find the fuel to main- 
tain it so that it may always burn brightly. 

To put the matter more directly, we are hampered to-day in our pursuit 
of scientific research by the all important and interdependent problems 
of recruitment and remuneration. 

With regard to recruitment, and naturally I am speaking only with 
regard to Botanical Science, are we fully satisfied with the efiorts, laudable 
as they are, that are being made in our schools and universities, for training 
the rising generation in Biological Science ? 

A good deal has been said recently about the advantages and disad- 
vantages of early specialisation in Science in the schools, at the expense 
of a more ' liberal ' education. We realise that the last years at school 
are the time for laying the foundations of a sound education, and it is 
certainly a debatable matter whether the now prevalent severe competition, 
I might almost say scramble, for scholarships at the universities among 
the schools of all types throughout the country, is not after all detrimental 
to the recruitment of those who should develop into the scientific natural- 
ists for whom we are waiting to solve the problems that confront us both 
at home and overseas. 

There is no question that the scientific training now given in many of 
our Public and Secondary Schools is of a very high order, and that it is 
given with the greatest devotion and most splendid enthusiasm. But 
nevertheless may we not, through force of circumstances which have crept 
in almost unnoticed, owing to competition between school and school,' 
be unduly forcing the pace and producing a superficial scientific precocity 
in our youth which will not stand the strain ? 

In the case of training for a medical career I understand that in at 

K.— BOTANY. 217 

least one of our public schools there is a special ' M.B.' Class for preparing 
boys to take the first M.B. before they leave school. This seems to be an 
entirely wrong principle and may result in the cramming in of knowledge, 
or rather of facts, which are not likely to be retained by a mind that is not 
sufiiciently mature. 

Science should not be looked upon as a task, but as a guiding tendency, 
for it is only by regarding it in this way that we can expect to produce the 
men with a true interest in and enthusiasm for scientific research. 

The flowering stage, so to speak, has been achieved before the roots and 
leaves have developed sufficiently to bear the fruit, and our young plants, 
raised from seed which may have fallen on stony places, will be found 
prematurely to wither away. By some, and I expect by many teachers 
of Biology, I shall be thought hopelessly out-of-date and old-fashioned, 
but after all one has had the opportunity of seeing the gradual growth and 
development of the present scholarship system. 

Then again there is a danger of the groundings of science being 
neglected at the universities, since there is a tendency to assume that 
the standard of school science teaching is that of the scholarship holder. 
There are, however, many who turn to science, after they have had the 
good fortune of receiving a classical education, and I could quote the 
names of more than one distinguished botanist who only discovered 
their natural inclination and aptitude was towards Science after they had 
entered the university. 

I am somewhat encouraged in what I have ventured to say by the 
following statement made early this year by one of our prominent science 
masters, in which I fully concur : — ' Any policy which tends to push Bio- 
logy back into the earlier years as a special subject, endangers both the 
ultimate value of the Biology itself and the education of the boy.' 

There is no need here for me to emphasise the need for recruits at the 
present time, this has been done on more than one occasion recently by 
scientific authorities representing difierent branches of Biological Science. 
But there is still need to point out that the services which science can render, 
and for which there is so great a demand, cannot be obtained without 
making due provision for the cost. 

For the training of men to carry out scientific work in the Colonies 
valuable provision is now made by the giving of post-graduate Scholarships 
tenable at the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, following 
on the lines of the similar scheme initiated by the Empire Cotton Growing 
Corporation, thanks to the wide vision of Sir James Currie. 

The fact that we need more scientific research workers at home and also 
more posts, adequately endowed for them to occupy, I hope I have made 
evident, and it is significant that this fact is beginning to be realised by 
some of our big industries and leading firms. Nevertheless, I feel I cannot 
do better than quote, in concluding my address, a passage from the very 
interesting book ' The English Tradition of Education,' by the late Master 
of my old School, Marlborough College, Dr. Cyril Norwood, now Head 
Master of Harrow, and formerly the distinguished Head Master of Bristol 
•Grammar School. Speaking of ' Things that may be,' Dr. Norwood 
points out : — 

' Agriculture and production in the Dominions, and particularly in the 


tropical dependencies, require the services of many trained biologists, 
botanists and zoologists, but they are not to be had. Their work is to 
apply modern scientific knowledge to the production and protection of 
crops, and it offers a career of great utility to the community, and some 
profit. There is no one who is directing the nation's education to meet 
the nation's need in such directions ; we wait always till the gap is there, 
and the want is felt, and trust to the slow operation of the laws of supply 
and demand. Meantime wrong crops may continue to be planted, and 
removable pests play havoc. There would again appear to be somewhere 
a lack of the sense of the value of knowledge. 

' We need in this age the scientific expert, the man who knows, in every 
branch of activity, and we need to have it driven into the inner conscious- 
ness of everybody that to such a person we must in all cases first turn, 
that knowledge is always to be sought and had, and knowledge used. We 
need the employer who has imagination, not the man who thinks that the 
services of an expert can always be bought for a pittance, if you happen 
to need him, but the man who realises that every business to-day, if it is 
to be great, requires its General Staff of experts, men possessed of know- 
ledge and capable of research, and that success will go to those who follow 
the paths which these indicate, and not to those who follow tradition, and 
ascribe their decreasing returns to every cause save their own failure to 
appreciate the uses of knowledge.' 






My audience will, I hope, forgive me if at the outset I indulge in some 

Education is not schooling. To approach the problem of higher 
education from the administrative point of view, to start by planning a 
school system and a school curriculum, is to begin at the wrong end. The 
only assumption that the educational administrator has any right to make 
is that, up to the age of eighteen, a boy or a girl should never be out of 
touch with educational opportunities, and that it is the duty of all public- 
spirited citizens to co-operate in providing such opportunities. What 
the opportunities should be must depend, not upon any preconceived 
assumptions as to the best and most efficient school system, but on the 
needs of the individual boy or girl, as expressed in their demand, or the 
demand of their parents or employers, for a particular kind of education. 
Our first business is to discover that demand and to make it conscious and 
articulate. When we have done that, the educational administrator can 
come in to satisfy it. 

The first step towards discovering what is the demand for education is 
to realise the difference between elementary and higher education. Up to 
a certain point in a child's life he must be compelled to take what he is 
given. This is the stage of elementary education. The good teacher will 
make elementary instruction attractive, but he must avoid like poison 
the sloppy idea, into which teachers were in danger of falling a few years 
ago, that the soundness of elementary education is to be measured by its 
attractiveness. In some degree elementary education must always be 
forcible feeding. Then comes a transition stage between elementary and 
higher education when the pupil needs in a special degree the discipline 
of a good school, but when he is beginning to be a responsible person with 
a conscious bent of mind and intelligent preferences, to which the wise 
teacher, not to speak of the wise parent, must attach full value. Last 
comes the stage of higher education, when forcible feeding becomes 
impossible and school discipline fades into the background. In that stage 
the lifeblood of education is the attraction exercised by the free teacher 
over the free pupil, the willing recognition by the pupil of the teacher's 
intellectual authority. 

These stages run into each other. They vary in length according to 
the individual. Personality defies all attempts at rigid classification. 
But, broadly speaking, every boy or girl must progress from each of these 
stages to the next, and if he cannot do so at a full-time school it is a sign 


that full-time schooling does not meet his needs. There is a tendency- 
to-day to assume that full-time schooling up to sixteen must be good for 
everyone, and that all we require is a sufficient variety of schools and 
curricula. But no one has the least right to make so sweeping an 
assumption. The more we can vary schools and curricula the better, 
but at any given moment we must assert that a pupil who fails to progress 
in this way at the school or schools which are in practice available to him 
had better leave school. If at the age when he ought to be showing 
intelligent preferences he continues to require forcible feeding, he had 
better be moved for a time to an atmosphere where he can become 
conscious of intellectual hunger. If at the age when he ought to be 
responding to the attraction of a teacher's intellectual authority, he 
continues to require the discipline of compulsion, he had better be handed 
over for a time to the discipline of the factory. Observe that I say, for 
a time ; I will return to that point in a moment. Higher education cannot 
work by compulsion ; if it is forced to do so it will destroy the soul of the 
society which sets it to perform so uncongenial a task. 

At present our attitude towards higher education is vitiated by three 
unhealthy influences. The first is the superstitious reverence for full-time 
schooling which we owe to a hereditary governing class. When at about 
the time of the Reformation the lay servant of the king succeeded the 
ecclesiastical official in the government of the country, the grammar 
school, which had been the selective recruiting agent of the ecclesiastic, 
was gradually expanded into the routine training-ground for all the sons of 
all the king's servants. Through this parade ground they all passed, with, 
on the whole, astonishingly good results ; but any public school man could 
draw up a deplorably long list of the misfits of which he had personal 
knowledge among his contemporaries. The number of these misfits is, 
I think, growing as the old hierarchical social system of the nation crumbles. 
The public school boy of to-day surely tends to weary of school at an 
earlier age than did his father, and an increasing number of ' upper ' and 
' middle ' class parents must experience an uncomfortable feeling that, 
after all, this or that one among their sons might have developed much 
stronger intellectual appetites if he had gone through a workshop 
apprenti'ieship at a comparatively early age. Yet this is the moment 
we choose for compelling all parents to burn incense to this aristocratic 
idol of indiscriminate full-time schooling. 

The second unhealthy influence is a corollary of this superstition : the 
assumption that all education must take the form of a continuous school 
and university life, that if a boy leaves school he abandons definitely all 
hope of pursuing any connected course of education. Hence we have 
despised the idea of part-time education, as if such education were merely 
a sop thrown to the imfortunate orphans of our civilisation in part com- 
pensation for their lack of full-time schooling. Nothing could be further 
from the truth, as we can see if we glance at the Danish folk school, at the 
German educational system, or even at our own technical colleges. The 
truth is, on the contrary, that our secondary schools and universities 
should be paralleled, throughout their length, by courses of part-time 
education, and that opportunities should be provided for all students, 
according to their needs, to change from one to the other at any stage. 


The idea that the value and continuity of education depends upon the 
number of hours spent in school has no basis except the bureaucratic love 
of a tidy system. May one dare to say, in passing, that the chief danger 
of a State system of education is that the teaching profession is already 
peculiarly susceptible to the morbus of bureaucracy without the additional 
risk of infection arising out of continual contact with civil servants ? 

The third unhealthy influence, to which we are particularly exposed 
at the present moment, is the unnatural connection between the ideal of 
popular education and the idea of statutory compulsion. Compulsion is 
a necessary ingredient in elementary education, and at that stage, therefore, 
statutory compulsion has a certain justification, not only in expediency, 
but in reason. It is at any rate not out of harmony with the atmosphere 
of the elementary school. The same may be said of the transition stage, 
though here, if carried beyond a certain age, it should be mitigated by 
exemptions. But compulsion is utterly alien to the whole conception of 
higher education, and no sound system of higher education can ever be 
based upon the expedient of statutory compulsion. For the same reason, 
the principle, so dear to many of our fellow citizens, of ' no public money 
without public control ' may be applied with some show of reason to 
elementary education, but is wholly out of place in higher education. 

At this moment we are in imminent danger of pushing up the methods 
of elementary education into the sphere of higher education. If we do 
this, we fail to secure higher education, by whatever name we call our 
schools, and we merely keep children in an elementary atmosphere beyond 
the age at which they should be entering the atmosphere of higher 
education. We have now reached, or more than reached, the point at 
which we can no longer work upwards from the elementary school, with 
our old tools of statutory compulsion and public control. We must begin 
rather to work downwards from the University, introducing more and 
more into our education, whether given in full-time schools or part-time 
classes, the influence of those standards of academic freedom and 
intellectual authority which it is the peculiar function of the Universities 
to maintain. 

In working downwards from the university, however, we must be 
careful not to confuse two quite distinct meanings of the phrase ' higher 
education.' In the sense in which I have been using that phrase, and 
shall continue to use it, it means the guidance required by all normal boys 
and girls at a certain stage in their mental development through which 
they all pass. The guidance they require is almost infinitely varied, 
according to their bent of mind and the work they are going to do in life, 
and this higher education must therefore be selective in the sense of being 
discriminatory. But the phrase ' higher education ' also means either 
advanced studies for which only a minority are fit, or a certain refinement 
and tempering of the powers of the mind which is not generally necessary 
for salvation, and may even be harmful to many minds. Not all metals 
can be ground to a fine edge, not all tools need to be ; and to keep a 
fine edge on a fish knife is a positive waste of metal. This is the higher 
education of the universities themselves, and it must be selective in the 
sense of being given only to a comparatively small number of selected 
students. Confusion between these two meanings of the same phrase 


leads either, as in America, to the degradation of university education or, 
as in England, to the treatment of secondary education as if it were 
primarily a preparatory training for the university. This is, and must 
continue to be, the primary function of some schools with which the name 
' secondary ' has become specially identified ; but secondary education in 
its wider sense is not a special training but a general need. That does not 
make it any the less higher education, and university influence is required 
throughout its whole range, not because universities are highly select 
institutions, but because universities, whose business it is as teaching 
bodies to educate grown-up men and women, are, on the whole, the best 
guides to the teaching of boys and girls who are growing up. 

I will not repeat here what I have said elsewhere as to the administrative 
steps which the universities should take, as teaching bodies, to make their 
influence felt in the right way, or as to the need for a close alliance between 
universities and technical colleges as the joint guardians of the standards 
of higher education. Universities, however, are not only teaching bodies ; 
and this, therefore, is not the only reason why university influence is 
essential to any policy of higher education. There is another reason, 
even more important at the present moment. However wisely we may 
organise higher education, our success or failure will depend on the extent 
to which universities, colleges, schools and classes respond to a demand 
which can only come to them from outside. This is the point I am 
particularly concerned to emphasise to-day. Because higher education 
is the meeting between the free pupil and the free teacher, the teacher must 
know what the pupil demands and what will attract him ; and the 
universities and technical colleges are in a special sense the mediators 
between the schools and the outside demand which the schools must satisfy. 

Let me try to explain what I mean. Many people feel keenly the need 
for greater variety and inventiveness in our schools, but they seem to rely 
upon teachers to originate new forms of education out of the mere study 
of the pupil's mind. This is to regard education merely as a kind of 
spiritual dietetics, as if the teacher's only problem was to give the pupil 
the food best suited to his mental constitution. But it is wrong, though at 
one time it was fashionable, to regard mental health as an end in itself ; 
it is a far higher ideal of education to regard knowledge as an end in 
itself, and to realise that the teacher's highest function is to pass on to his 
pupil the knowledge that is the birthright of each succeeding generation. 
The study of Einstein may be a less healthy mental food than the study of 
Newton, but the teacher must pass on to his pupil the physics of the 
present, not of the past. It is the new knowledge that makes the new 
learning ; it is in evolving appropriate methods of teaching new things 
that the teacher changes and varies education. The motive force of 
innovation in education must come, therefore, from the discoverer of 
new knowledge, whether his discovery be a new continent, a dead language, 
a new gas, a new bacillus, or a new machine. But the discoverer does not, 
as a rule, transmit this motive force directly to the teacher ; he transmits 
it through other men who make it their business to synthesize new know- 
ledge, to suggest the principles of a new physiology or to assemble new 
machines into a new factory unit. It is these men who act, or should act, 
directly upon the teacher and if, in an age of growing knowledge, fresh 


syntheses and changing industrial organisation, education remains static, 
it is not because the teacher lacks originality but because he lacks touch 
with those who are the real originators. 

The organic defect in our higher education is that, like our government, 
it is not harnessed to the life of the society it claims to serve, to the new 
power and the new opportunities which society is constantly generating 
from new knowledge. This lack of touch is most clearly seen in our 
traditional attitude towards industry. The ' upper classes,' though deeply 
affected by changing economic conditions, still think in terms of the 
' liberal professions." The choice before their sons, in their view, is either 
to enter a " liberal profession ' in order to serve the community and make 
a career, or to ' go into business ' in order to make money. The ' working 
classes,' imitating as best they can this aristocratic superstition, assume 
that their sons must as a rule submit to the drudgery of industry, but their 
great ambition is that as many as possible should escape from this bondage 
and become teachers, civil servants or trade union organisers. This is 
still the atmosphere of both the public school and the secondary school. 
The idea that industry may be made to offer the most adventurous of 
careers, that it is the chief, and indeed the only direct, agent of social 
welfare, and that the liberal professions, including government administra- 
tion, have at best only the secondary job of diverting some of the wealth 
produced by industry into particular channels of social welfare which 
might otherwise run dry — all this is an unfamiliar conception of society 
to many teachers and to most parents. The key to a new policy of higher 
education is to make it a familiar conception. 

Now, the synthesis of new knowledge is pre-eminently the function of 
universities. Universities, indeed, have played, and should play, a large 
part in discovery itself ; but all discoveries, whether made within their 
walls or not, come back to them for formulation and assimilation into the 
general body of human knowledge. Hitherto the universities have 
performed this function mainly in the field of the humanities and pure 
science, but in recent years they have been called on increasingly to 
perform it also in the realm of applied science and technology. In this 
latter field their function of synthesis and interpretation is, or ought to be, 
shared by the technical colleges, particularly in that part of the field 
which relates to factory organisation and commercial practice. It may, 
at first sight, seem absurd to include factory organisation and commercial 
practice among the syntheses of knowledge for wliich universities are 
partly responsible, but the fact remains that applied science is never 
really applied until it is embodied in the most efficient factory unit 
possible, and the most intelligent methods possible of selling goods in the 
manufacture of which the latest discoveries of science have been used. 
The Appointments Board of a great University, rightly understood, is a 
recognition of this fact, for it embodies the acceptance by the University 
of the responsibility for supplying to commerce and industry men trained 
for the practical requirements of manufacturing and trading firms. It is 
in these practical ways, as well as through the more purely academic 
formulation and assimilation of new knowledge, that a university interprets 
the outside demand for education both to its own teachers and to teachers 
in all schools of higher education, and it is essential to the soundness of 


all teaching and gmdance both in schools and universities that this 
interpretation should be up to date. 

But we must carry this line of thought a step further. When the 
university professor or research student synthesizes a number of dis- 
coveries in physics or biology, he is not merely digesting information 
received and passing it on to those who will have to teach it ; he is also, 
by his very synthesis, profoundly influencing the direction of further 
exploration and discovery. Synthesis and discovery react upon each 
other. It should be the same with the more practical syntheses of 
industrial practice. Universities and technical colleges should not confine 
themselves to receiving information as to the type of organisation, both of 
men and machines, adopted in the most up-to-date factories, and trans- 
lating that information into a course of training for the men required by 
such a factory. They should also make a deliberate effort to ensure, so far 
as possible, that such courses of training react upon industrial practice, 
and that those responsible for such courses are accepted by industry, not 
only as subservient trainers but as intelligent ad^'isers. It is perhaps in 
this respect that the relations between American universities and American. 
in fl us try differ most markedly from the relations which prevail ixi this 
country ; and our industry suffers in co)isequence. For instance, education 
and industrial practice are at complete cross purposes in this country in 
their treatment of technologists. Industry demands highly trained 
technologists and the universities supply them, only to find that the road 
to management in industry does not lie through the technical but through 
the commercial side. The best imiversity men consequently find that 
their technical qualifications are rather a handicap to their career, and 
tend to pass over to the commercial side at the first opportunity. There 
can be little doubt that our industrial practice in this respect is wrong ; 
it is certainly at variance with the practice in every other great industrial 
country. It is this sort of maladjustment to outside demand which 
makes all the difference between good and bad education, and where it 
exists it cannot be corrected by any initiative or originality in the school- 
master. It can only be corrected by a persistent effort on the part of 
universities and technical colleges to come to terms with the outside 
demand represented by industrial and commercial firms, and a readiness 
on the part of those firms to take a reasonable amount of educational 

I should, perhaps, apologise for having spent so unconscionable a time 
in packing-up for my journey to a policy of higher education. But it has 
seemed to me necessary to insist, even to the point of weariness, that such 
a policy cannot be evolved by educators or politicians out of their inner 
consciousness, out of any study by the teacher of adolescent psychology, 
or out of any theorising by the politician about the rights of children or 
parents. A policy of higher education must be built up in response to the 
outside demand of the workaday world, that ' fair field full of folk, the 
rich and the poor, each working and wandering as the world requires,' 
where men are adding to the sum of human knowledge and human 
activities. And I have wished, too, to point out that, in interpreting that 
demand, universities and technical colleges will not be engaging in some 
new and irksome ' serving of tables,' incongruous with their apostolic 


functions, but will on the contrary be merely fulfilling their traditional 
function of synthesizing research into doctrine and keeping new learning 
up to date with new knowledge. 

And now, let us endeavour briefly to interpret this outside demand 
and suggest the lines of a policy. 

The most important fact about it is that it is a demand for mental 
keenness rather than for physical skill. Broadly speaking, industry is 
approaching its apotheosis of mechanisation and requires the mind that 
can marshal machines and can grasp the social purpose of cheap mass 
production even in the dull routine of repetition work. A generalisation 
like this is, indeed, no sooner made than it must be qualified. There are 
signs in some directions that we are reacting away from the machine. 
The world is probably less content, for instance, with machine-made 
furniture to-day than it was twenty years ago, and the craft element is 
increasingly coming back into that industry. The cheap jewellery 
industry of Birmingham is suffering, not so much from a decline in demand, 
as from the competition of better taste and greater and more highly 
organised skill in France and other continental countries. But, while 
some industries may depend upon craftsmanship, the number of industries 
which rely on purely mechanical skill acquired at an early age is to-day 
very small. The textile industries constitute one of the very few 
exceptions, and it is surely an extraordinary reflection on our social 
intelligence, that, so far as I know, we should have hitherto failed to make 
any serious scientific study of the extent to which early apprenticeship is 
really necessary to efficient production in a cotton or woollen mill equipped 
with the most modern machinery. But, for our present purpose, we must 
take the demand as we find it. 

This demand for mental keenness means, for most occupations, longer 
schooling, and schooling directed primarily to the training of the mind. 
One danger of our present school policy is, I think, that we are tending to 
fall between two stools. Impressed as we rightly are with the need for 
training of hand and eye in education, we are putting more and more 
emphasis on ' practical ' instruction for older children in full-time schools, 
and we are trying to give this education at the carpentry bench. In this 
we are, perhaps, inclined to make the same mistake as has been made in the 
' arts and crafts ' movement. It is our business to make terms with the 
machine, not to attempt to promote an ineffective reaction against it by 
reviving the craft spirit of a past age. The reason why we are being called 
on to keep children longer in school is not that the boy who is going to be 
a manual worker, skilled or unskilled, ought to be kept out of the labour 
market until he is fifteen or sixteen, but that the demand for manual labour, 
skilled or unskilled, including juvenile labour, is declining every day and 
is giving place to a demand for labour involving at least some measure of 
abstract thinking and planning. To a very considerable extent — to what 
extent it is one of the main duties of our educators to work out in detail — 
this training of the mind should, no doubt, be carried out in actual contact 
with the material things upon which the pupil's mind will have to work, 
but these material things are not hand tools but machine tools. The type 
of small full-time school to which we are accustomed in this country, and 
which most of us think infinitely superior to the vast polytechnic-high 
1930 Q 


school of the United States, cannot provide machine shops within its own 
walls. That fact puts a definite limitation on the function which it should 
seek to perform and the full-time school should, therefore, not attempt, 
as it is attempting at present, to cover the whole ground of adolescent 
education. Its justification lies in the mental training it can give, and it 
should beware of ineffective compromises with the needs of boys who 
still require physical rather than mental training. 

In my view, therefore, our first aim in higher education should be to 
develop part-time education in technical schools and continuation classes 
for all children over the age of fourteen. The reason for this is not that 
part-time schooling is better than full-timp schooling for the mass of our 
r)opulation. The experience of the United States seems to indicate that 
in the coming machine age, full-time schooling will, under the influence of 
industry itself, more and more supersede part-time schooling. The reason 
is rather that we are in a stage of transition when purely manual labour, 
and therefore juvenile labour, is still required in many industries which 
will increasingly eliminate it in the future as they reorganise themselves, 
but when almost all industries desire that their young employees should 
remain in touch with education in some form. In these circumstances, we 
should not run the risk of starting the full-time schools of the future on 
wrong lines, by forcing them to assimilate a mass of pupils who would 
stay on at school with no clear object either in their own mind or in the 
mind of their future employers. The various types of full-time schools 
should, on the contrary, be given an opportunity to detach themselves, 
as it were, from the background of popular education, to define the kind 
of mental training they seek to offer and then to draw away from the great 
reservoir of part-time education an increasing number of pupils who need 
that kind of training. Moreover, the adequate development of part-time 
technical education is of the first importance because, if American 
experience again is any guide, many pupils in full-time schools will, in the 
future, have to combine their mental training with a considerable amount 
of practice in the machine shop, and this they will only be able to do if 
they have at their disposal technical colleges equipped to receive them for 
a certain number of hours in the week along with pupils attending part- 
time classes. The part-time technical school or college must, in fact, 
increasingly occupy the position of a central focus for a large range of 
full-time schools, who will be grouped round them for ' practical ' 
instruction purposes. 

Parenthetically be it remarked, this is, of course, an urban conception 
of education. The rural problem is, in many respects, a different one 
with which I have no time to deal to-day ; but, here too, it is to be hoped 
that we shall see a development of agricultural colleges occupying much 
the same position as the Danish folk school — the more so because full-time 
education will never play so large a part in the life of an agricultural as of 
an industrial community, however much the mechanisation of agriculture 
may be developed in the future. 

I know that these views will be distasteful to a large number of people 
who, fixing their eyes on the idea of a comprehensive reorganisation of 
full-time schools associated with the Hadow Report, have no thought to 
spare for what they regard as the pis alter of part-time education. They 


will find it strange that an ex-Minister, who has himself urged the 
importance of this reorganisation and who believes that industry is 
rapidly coming to demand longer full-time schooling and higher mental 
training, should turn aside from this simple and neat conception of 
adolescent education in order to plunge into the disordered tangle of 
part-time continuation schools. To these critics I would reply that, 
however important the recommendations of the Hadow Report may be, 
nothing could be more disastrous than prematurely to confine the changing 
demands of industry and the adventurous tastes of the growing boy within 
the limits of any nicely-ordered school system. The small full-time 
school of the English tradition is an inelastic institution, tending constantly 
to conform, at best, to one of two or three types. The great advantage of 
the part-time technical school at the present moment is its elasticity, its 
ability to conform easily and tentatively to the demand of different 
industries, its power of reacting directly upon that demand, guiding it, 
modifying it and developing it. 

Consequently we ought, I think, to expand the Hadow ideal of four- 
year courses of full-time schooling for all children from eleven to fifteen, 
into the wider ideal of five-year courses for all children from eleven to 
sixteen, beginning for the first three years in full-time schools but com- 
pleted in the last two years either in full-time schools or in part-time 
schools according to the pupil's needs. We should seek to ensure 
attendance at the last two years of such courses, not by compulsion, but 
by attraction and by arrangements with employers. A boy over fourteen 
may legitimately be required by the State to show that he is either at work 
or at school. That is a principle which in one form or another is as old 
as the reign of Elizabeth, and as new as modern American policy ; but 
that should be the limit of compulsion. The full-time school should, at 
every stage, work in with the technical school, so that the five-year 
course is really a continuous one. We shall thus secure, through close 
co-operation between two distinct institutions, the same result as is 
secured in America through the rather amorphous polytechnic-high 
school, without destroying the individuality of our full-time schools. 

This should be the foundation and first storey of our policy of higher 
education. If we want a name for this first storey, better than our 
present phraseology of senior, central and technical schools, we might 
consider the general name of junior high schools, full-time and part-time. 
From this first storey will rise side by side our traditional type of secondary 
school and our senior technical courses, bringing the pupil up to the 
college stage of higher education, whether in the technical college or the 

I need not continue further. My object has been not to sketch a new 
structure of higher education, but rather to suggest that we should look 
at our existing structure with new eyes and be prepared to make additions 
to it, not according to some preconceived plan, but according to the 
demands of a changing world. In order to do that our educators must 
look at it from outside, not from inside. They must go out into the 
highways and byways of our industrial life and mark how meaningless and 
reinote appears much of our educational architecture to the puzzled gaze 
of the ordinary man and woman at work in the world. My metaphor 

Q 2 


tempts me to an ecclesiastical analogy. The old English village knows 
and understands the old English parish church ; it fits into the landscape ; 
it is a familiar part of the local life. So with the elementary school ; it 
has grown into, because for sixty years and more it has grown up with, 
the social life of the masses of the people. The old English town knows, too, 
and understands its larger churches and its cathedral ; here and throughout 
Europe the towers and spires of the Middle Ages soar above the huddle of 
roofs below them and yet seem a natural part of the picture. So with our 
universities and our grammar and secondary schools, old and new ; 
England understands them and can labour intelligently to fit them to 
serve the needs of each succeeding generation. But what of the new 
and staring churches of many of our great industrial cities, built as it 
were to order and seeming often to intrude an alien air of middle-class 
respectability into crowded streets and bustling business centres ? These 
are like too much of our modern educational legislation and administration, 
fine, pretentious, roomy, expensive, but representing, not what the man 
in the street needs, but what other people think he ought to need. Those 
who labour in these new structures, the teachers like the parsons, are 
doing a tremendous work, but they are doing it under a severe handicap. 
Let us resolve in future to plan our education, not on any mere past 
experience or on any analogies with aristocratic traditions, but in response 
to a growing demand which we may indeed seek to guide but which it 
must be our main task to interpret and to satisfy. 




P. J. DU TOIT, B.A., Dr. Phil., Dr. Med. Vet., 


The mere fact that I have travelled more than 6,000 miles to come and 
deliver this address here to-day, is perhaps sufficient excuse for me to 
make a few personal remarks before embarking on the task which I have 
set myself. When I received the cable from the Secretary of the British 
Association stating that the Council invited me to become President of 
Section M for this year, the feeling of bewilderment which I experienced 
was only partly dispelled by the feeling of deep gratitude for the great 
honour that had befallen me. I accepted the invitation without 
sufficiently contemplating the consequences, but I did so with a firm belief 
in the old German saying : 

' Wem Gott gibt ein Amt, 
Dem gibt Er auch Verstand.' 

The honour which has been conferred upon me is not only personal. 
In asking me to be President of this Section you have honoured, not an 
individual, but a country ; on behalf of South Africa, therefore, I tender 
my sincere thanks to you. I realise that it is not customary for the 
British Association to go beyond the shores of these islands for Sectional 
Presidents (nor is there any need to do so !) This year you made an 
exception, and I regard it as a great compliment to the country of my 

I am further very sensible of the honour you have done my profession 
by calling me to this high office. It is the first time that a veterinarian 
has occupied this chair, and the sincere thanks of myself and my colleagues 
are due to you for this signal honour. 

A year ago this Association met in South Africa and many of you then 
had an opportunity of getting acquainted with the country, its problems 
and its people. Agriculturally you saw a country which is rapidly dis- 
carding the patriarchal and primitive methods of yesterday for the 
scientific methods of to-day. You saw our many problems and the 
necessity of applying all available scientific knowledge to their solution. 
You saw a people anxious to learn from tne old parent countries in Europe 
or the countries across the Atlantic. Our thirst for knowledge was partly 
satisfied by your visit last year, and I wish to give you the assurance now 
that that visit has been of inestimable and lasting value to South Africa 


in that it stimulated unprecedented interest in scientific work and 
scientific workers. 

Not the least among the problems which you saw were those connected 
with stock farming. It is doubtful whether any country in the world has 
more problems confronting the stock owner than South Africa. Most of 
the stock diseases present in European countries are also to be found in 
the temperate climate of South Africa and, in addition, the majority of 
the diseases of tropical Africa thrive within its borders. 

It is perhaps for this reason that Veterinary Science has made such 
rapid strides in South Africa. The need for scientific research was first 
brought home to farmer and statesman alike when rinderpest invaded 
South Africa 35 years ago and killed off ahnost the entire cattle population ; 
and the ravages of Horsesickness, Bluetongue, Heartwater, Nagana and 
scores of other diseases further emphasised the necessity of scientific 
research. Fortunately for South Airica (and perhaps for Veterinary 
Science) the right men were forthcoming to undertake this research and 
to-day, although many problems still await solution, the position of the 
stock-owner in South Africa is by no means hopeless. 

The prominent position which Veterinary Research occupies in the 
scientific life of South Africa to-day, and the valuable practical results 
which have been obtained in this field of work, have encouraged me to 
choose as the subject of my address : the role which Veterinary Science 
plays in the agricultural development of a country. For obvious reasons 
my remarks will be confined almost exclusively to the Live Stock side of 
Agriculture in the wider sense. And for equally obvious reasons most 
of my examples will be quoted from Soiith Africa. 

In his brilliant presidential address to this Section in 1928, Dr. J. S. 
Gordon directed attention to the supreme importance of the live stock 
industry in the agricultural economy of every unit of the British Common- 
wealth of Nations. He came to the conclusion that the best means to 
improve this industry was the increased use of pedigree sires and the 
elimination of scrub bulls. He also emphasised the need for further 
research along the following lines : (1) Animal Nutrition, (2) Animal^ 
Diseases, (3) Animal Breeding, and (4) Marketing. Now all these subjects, 
with the possible exception of Marketing, fall within the scope of the- 
veterinarian, and I shall attempt to show how modern veterinary science 
is actually advancing knowledge along each of these lines. 

But before dealing with these specific problems, it is necessary to saj 
a few words about the development which has taken place in veterinary- 
science itself. Looking back over the last 140 years, we see that we have 
indeed travelled a long way since the first Veterinary College in Britain 
was established in London in 1791 with the object of placing ' the study- 
of Farriery upon rational and scientific principles.' The gulf which 
divides the modern veterinarian and the eighteenth-century farrier is at 
least as wide as that dividing the modern surgeon and the eighteenth- 
century barber. 

During the earlier half of the nineteenth century very little progress 
was recorded in Veterinary Science. In regard to the origin of disease 
much ignorance and superstition prevailed. The ' miasmatic theory ' was 
called upon to explain the spread of epidemic and epizootic diseases.. 


Indeed, it seemed as if little progress had been made since the fourth 
century after Christ when the Greek writer, Chiron, maintained that 
glanders and similar diseases were caused by the ' pestiferous hot southerly 
wind from Africa.' 

However, great strides were made during the latter haU of the nine- 
teenth century. The work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch cleared up 
the aetiology of some of the most important infectious diseases. And the 
later researches of David Bruce, Adolphe Laveran, Theobald Smith and 
others, added further brilliant chapters to our knowledge. 

Since the beginning of the present century the growth of Veterinary 
Science has been phenomenal. In every branch of this science there have 
been remarkable developments. Indeed, it may be said that a New 
Veterinary Science has arisen unobserved by the general public. A quarter 
of a century ago the veterinarian was looked upon as a moderately useful 
though obscure member of the community, whereas to-day he is regarded 
as an essential factor in the economic machine of the State. A generation 
ago the value of a veterinarian was judged by his ability to cure a lame 
horse or an ailing dog ; to-day the veterinary profession is judged by 
the measure of success which attends their efforts to keep their country 
free of epizootic diseases. Formerly the work of the veterinarian was 
individual, to-day it is national. 

In this transformation of Veterinary Science the British Dominions and 
Colonies played no unimportant part. The veterinarians who had 
migrated to those countries and taken with them the stock of knowledge 
which they had obtained at the European veterinary schools, found 
themselves confronted with new problems which required solution. 
Research work on a large scale became necessary. Novel methods of 
attacking disease had to be devised. The farmer soon came to realise 
that his very existence depended on the protective measures devised and 
enforced by the veterinary staffs. 

I propose in the short time at my disposal this morning to review 
briefly some of the most notable achievements of Veterinary Science in 
recent years, and to indicate how the work of the veterinarian has become 
interrelated with that of workers in other branches of science. 

It will be convenient to divide our subject into sections and to quote 
a few examples from each of these. 

Let me begin with the largest and most important field of work of the 
veterinarian, viz. : — 

A. Animal Diseases. 

And let me group this subject according to the aetiology of the various 
diseases : 

1. Trypanosomiases. 

Probably no other single group of disease-producing organisms has 
retarded the agricultural development of the continent of Africa more 
than that of the trypanosomes. If the cattle population of Africa be 
estimated at about 40 million head, it is quite safe to say that this number 
could easily be doubled if the danger of trypanosome infection were 
removed. In Nigeria, for instance, only a portion of the drier Northern 
Provinces is suitable for cattle ranching ; the much more fertile Southern 


Provinces are practically devoid of cattle on account ot the ravages of 
Trypanosomiasis. Similar conditions obtain in almost every territory in 
Africa (except the extreme south). The soil is fertile, grazing is plentiful, 
the climatic conditions are favourable, but the presence of tsetse flies and 
trypanosomes renders cattle farming impossible. 

Fortunately, we can record considerable progress in this field of work 
during recent years. The problem has been attacked along two lines 
mainly. A direct attack has been launched against the parasite by means 
of drug treatment ; and an indirect attack on the disease has been made 
through a campaign against the transmitter, the tsetse fly. It may be 
stated at once that the third line of attack, namely, the immunisation of 
animals against infection, has not yielded very promising results. 

In regard to drug treatment, a tribute should be paid to the early 
pioneers, especially Livingstone, who found that Arsenic had a marked 
effect on trypanosomes in the blood of animals. Untiring efforts on the 
part of later investigators (Ehrlich and many others) have brought to 
light a large number of active preparations, notably Arsenic and Antimony 
compounds and various dyestuffs. Still more recently further drugs have 
been added to the list, and these promise to give the stock farmer in 
infected areas a practical means of combating the disease and keeping his 
animals in good health and condition in spite of repeated infection. 
Among these drugs special mention should be made of tryparsamide, 
Bayer 205 (Germanin, Naganol) and Antimosan. Th-e two former have 
also given excellent results in the treatment of human sleeping sickness, 
and the last-named which has quite recently been tried on a fairly 
extensive scale at Onderstepoort by Parkin, and in Tanganyika Territory 
by Hornby, has proved to be more effective in the treatment of Trypanosoma 
congolense infection than any drug previously used ; at the same time the 
simple (subcutaneous) administration of this drug renders it more 
practical than those preparations which have to be given intravenously. 

In all this work the veterinarian has kept in close touch with the 
medical man, on the one hand, and the synthetic chemist on the other. 

In the campaign against the tsetse fly the basis of co-operation has had 
to be broader still. Entomologists, botanists, ecologists, medical men and J 
veterinarians have all combined to study this problem. Time and space 
prevent me from discussing in detail the progress which has been made it 
this work. But attention should be directed to the very valuable 
investigations carried out in Tanganyika Territory by Swynnerton anc' 
his co-workers. The volume of our knowledge of the life-history anc 
habits of the various species of tsetse flies is being added to year by year^ 
but the rate of progress is not commensurate with the importance of the 
problem. Governments must realise that the tsetse fly is holding up the 
advancement and civilisation of Africa. Money and men should be made 
available for this work, however ' theoretical ' it may appear. It is the 
study of precisely these * academic ' aspects of the bionomics of the tsetse 
fly, which will probably ultimately lead to the solution of the trypanosome 
problem. > ' ■' 

Only a few words need be added about those trypanosome infections 
which are carried mechanically hy ordinary hiting flies. The most important 
of these is ' Surra ' in India and other countries. Great advance has beeu 


made since September 1880, exactly 50 years ago, when Evans, the 
' Inspecting Veterinary Surgeon ' of the Government of Madras, was sent 
to the Punjab to investigate this disease, and when he succeeded, in a 
remarkably short time, in discovering its cause. Since then much work 
has been done, especially by Nieschulz in the Dutch East Indies, on the 
transmission of this disease, and good progress has also been made in 
regard to the drug treatment. 

It is with great satisfaction that the fact can be recorded that this 
veteran of science, Griffith Evans, the discoverer of the first pathogenic 
trypanosoma, is still alive to-day, with more than four score years and ten 
to his credit, and is able to watch, from his home in Bangor, the progress 
which has been made in this field of work. 

One further trypanosome disease should be mentioned here, namely, 
Dourine. Known for about 150 years, this disease has been responsible 
for very heavy economic losses to horse breeders in Europe and other 
countries. With the aid of modern methods the disease was eradicated 
from most of the closely settled and well organised Western European 
states. But in the vast open spaces of Canada and other countries, its 
eradication proved to be a much more difficult problem. It was only 
when Watson in Canada succeeded in perfecting a delicate diagnostic test 
for the detection of the infection, that the eradication of the disease could 
be attempted seriously, and the results of the subsequent campaign in 
Canada have been entirely satisfactory. It should be added that Watson's 
success has stimulated further research into the problem of diagnosing 
other trypanosome infections by serological methods. A fair amount of 
success has attended these efforts and quite recently Robinson at 
Onderstepoort has reported further progress in the serological diagnosis 
of Trypanosoma congolense infection. 

2. Piroplasnioses. 

Under this heading are included diseases like Redwater or Texas Fever 
of cattle, Biliary Fever of dogs and horses, ' Gallsickness ' or Anaplasmosis 
and East Coast Fever of cattle. 

Their aetiology was completely obscure until Theobald Smith and 
Kilborne in America, in a series of brilliant researches extending over the 
years 1888 to 1892, succeeded in elucidating the nature of the first-named 
disease. Not only did these investigators discover the causal organism in 
the blood of infected cattle, but they also proved that the disease was 
transmitted by ticks and that the infection passed through the egg of the 
tick from one generation to the next. All this was completely new to 
Science ; it was the first time that the transmission of a mammalian 
disease through an invertebrate host had been proved experimentally. 
This contribution to science by two veterinarians is worthy of special note. 

Theobald Smith, like Griffith Evans, is still able to-day to watch the 
progress of the work which he initiated many years ago. In the case of 
' Redwater ' great advances can be recorded. The direct method of 
attack is eminently satisfactory, thanks to the discoverj^ by Nuttall and 
Hadwen in 1909 that the drug Trypanblue has a specific action on the 
parasite of Redwater of cattle and Biliary fever of dogs. The treatment 


is so successful that tlie disease has lost much of its terror since the 
discovery of the value of this drug. 

In some of the other ' piroplasmoses ' (in the wider sense of the term), 
no such simple treatment is available. As a matter of fact, in the case 
of Anaplasmosis and East Coast Fever of cattle, no satisfactory method 
of treatment is known. In these cases, therefore, prevention should be 
aimed at. 

Various methods of preventive inoculation against Anaplasmosis have 
been advocated. In South Africa Theiler, who originally described the 
parasite {Anaplasma marginale) causing Anaplasmosis, found a second 
species or variety {Anaplasma centrale) which differed from the first, not 
only in regard to its relative position in the red blood corpuscle, but also 
as regards its virulence. It was found that the injection of blood con- 
taining Anaplasma centrale invariably produced a mild infection, even in 
imported cattle, but that this infection conferred sufficient immunity to 
protect animals against the fatal Anaplasma marginale infection. This 
method of immunisation has been practised in South Africa for nearly 
twenty years and has been the means of saving thousands of animals. 
The Anaplasma centrale strain has also been sent to other countries where 
the same method has been used with good results. 

Of the diseases mentioned in this section, East Coast Fever is the most 
formidable because of the very high mortality attending it. This disease 
must have cost South Africa several million pounds since its first appearance 
nearly 30 years ago. The loss to the country has been partly direct 
through the death of many thousands ot animals, partly indirect through 
the costly organisation which it is necessary to maintain to fight the 

It is impossible in this brief review to discuss the methods employed 
in the eradication of East Coast Fever, or the many practical difficulties 
encountered in this campaign. For our purpose it is sufficient to state 
that the dipping of cattle in an arsenical bath has proved to be a very 
valuable aid in the fight against East Coast Fever or any other tick-borne 

In South Africa dipping has been practised since the beginning of this 
century, and has now become an integral portion of the daily routine of 
farming. No up-to-date stock farm can be found to-day without at least 
one dipping tank. The dip was originally intended chiefly as a weapon in 
the fight against tick-borne diseases, but to-day it is largely used merely 
to keep the cattle free of ectoparasites, quite apart from the fact that some 
of these parasites may be carriers of disease. The necessity of keeping 
cattle free of ticks is obvious to anyone who has lived in a tropical or 
semi-tropical tick-infested country. As an illustration, the fact may be 
mentioned that on the Natal Coast, before the days of dipping, it was rare 
to see a cow with more than one or two teats intact, and it was impossible 
to raise more than about 30 per cent, of the calves ; whereas to-day, 
thanks to the dipping tank, all the udders and teats of the cows are 
healthy and it is nothing unusual to raise 95 per cent, or more of the calf 
crop. Even if all the tick-borne diseases should now disappear, the 
majority of farmers in South Africa would continue to dip their animals 


The extent to which dipping is practised to-day may be gauged by the 
fact that there were in the Union of South Africa in 1929 more than 
13,500 dipping tanks. If we assume that the average dipping interval is 
eight days (the actual intervals are three, five, seven or fourteen days), and 
that the average number of animals that pass through a tank on a dipping 
day is 200 (frequently the number is as high as 4,000), we find (calculating 
on this very conservative basis) that about 120,000,000 cattle passed 
through the dipping tanks last year. 

Returning now to the campaign against East Coast fever, it may be 
said that by means of carefully controlled dipping and hand-dressing of 
cattle, combined with quarantine restrictions, and slaughter of infected 
herds in the case of isolated outbreaks, it has been possible to keep the 
disease well under control. The hope seems justified that the disease will 
be eradicated completely from South Africa and Rhodesia before many 
years have passed. That this would be a great boon to the cattle industry 
of these two countries needs no further emphasis. 

In the United States of America, where Texas fever (Redwater) is the 
only serious tick-borne disease, an attempt is being made to eradicate the 
transmitter, Boophilus annulatus, completely by means of dipping. Large 
areas have already been cleared of these ticks, and the economic advantages 
to which these areas are entitled after being declared tick free more than 
compensate for the expenses incurred. 

3. Virus Diseases. 

The vast sums of money which have been spent in this country during 
the last few years on the eradication of Foot and Mouth disease should 
convince even the layman of the importance of this group of diseases. 

In the olden days it was Rinderpest which caused the severest losses. 
It has been calculated that the losses in Europe during the eighteenth 
century amounted to 200 million head of cattle. The disease made its 
appearance in England in 1865. A Royal Commission was appointed and 
its report is of value to this day. Later on, improved methods of 
eradication and prevention were evolved, and to-day most countries are 
free of Rinderpest. However, in the Far East and in Central Africa the 
disease is still prevalent, and causes very serious losses. 

Two recent outbreaks of Rinderpest, one in Belgium in 1920, and the 
other in Australia in 1923, both of which were eradicated completely 
within a few months, have again shown how far Veterinary Science has 
advanced during the last century and how much a country owes to an 
efficient Veterinary Service. 

South Africa has been free of the two diseases just named for many 
years. But there are several other virus diseases which play a very 
important role. Among these ' Horsesickness ' and ' Bluetongue ' of sheep 
are perhaps the most important. An extensive study of the former 
di.sease by Theiler and his co-workers has yielded some very valuable 
results, but the problem of Horsesickness cannot be said to be solved. At 
present a method of immunisation with hyperimmune serum and virus 
is practised, and this method has given excellent results in mules. About 
4,000 mules are immunised annually, and it has been stated that if the 


Onderstepoort Laboratory had produced nothing else except this method 
of immunising mules, its existence would have been justified. 

In horses the method has not been quite so satisfactory. A method of 
immunisation of horses which would be safer, simpler, cheaper and more 
reliable than the present method, would be of inestimable value to stock 
farmers right throughout Africa. Recent work at Onderstepoort with a 
formalised vaccine (by Du Toit and Alexander), seems to justify the hope 
that such a method will be found. The work was inspired by the brilliant 
researches of Dunkin and Laidlaw in England on another virus disease, 
Distemper of dogs. 

The second important virus disease of South Africa is Bluetongue of 
sheep. The disease is of great economic importance and would have been 
a very serious hindrance to the sheep farmer had it not been for the fact 
that Theiler discovered a simple method of vaccination by means of which 
the losses from the disease can be reduced to a negligible quantity. Every 
year two to three million doses of this vaccine are issued to the farmers, 
and the ultimate saving to the country must be enormous. 

Another African disease, ' Heartwater ' of cattle, sheep and goats, 
should be mentioned here. Formerly this disease was classified as a virus 
disease, but a few years ago Cowdry, working at Onderstepoort, found that 
it was caused by a Rickettsia. It is possible that this discovery may give 
us a clue to a successful method of combating this serious disease. In the 
meantime, all that can be done is to dip the animals to eradicate the tick 
which transmits the disease. 

Of the many other virus diseases of animals only one more need be 
referred to here, namely Rabies. This most dreaded of all human and 
animal diseases has been eradicated from many countries, and is being 
kept out by strict quarantine measures. In 1918 the disease was intro- 
duced into England with a dog which had been smuggled in in an aeroplane. 
Strict measures were put into force and in a comparatively short space of 
time the disease was stamped out completely. Methods of preventive 
inoculation of dogs in countries where the eradication of the disease is very 
difficult, have been tried on a large scale. The results have, on the whole, 
been very good, but it is too early to predict the future scope of these 

Before leaving this group, it is necessary to point out that virus 
diseases are not confined to our domestic animals, but are encountered in 
human beings, on the one hand, and in the lower animals (e.g. insects) and 
in plants, on the other. Co-operation between medical men, veterinarians 
and plant pathologists, therefore, becomes imperative. The subject is 
claiming the attention of many scientific workers and great developments 
may confidently be expected in the future. 

4. Bacterial Diseases. 

Of the host of bacterial diseases only a few need be mentioned here. 

The deadly glanders which was known before the time of Christ and 
which, 25 years ago, still caused severe losses amongst horses, and con- 
stantly threatened the human population, has now been practically 
eradicated from all civilised countries, thanks to the accuracy of the 
diagnostic tests which are used to identify the disease. 


Another disease which at one time was responsible for very serious 
losses and which has now practically disappeared, is Pleuro-pneumonia 
(Lungsickness) of cattle. In the year 1860 about 187,000 head of cattle 
are stated to have died in Great Britain of this disease ; and the mortality 
in other European countries at that time was correspondingly high. 
Towards the end of last century the disease was stamped out in Britain 
and to-day the greater part of Europe is free of the disease. It may be 
added that South Africa, in spite of the fact that neighbouring countries 
are still infected, has been free of Lungsickness since 1915. 

Anthrax is almost universal in its occurrence, but it is much more 
formidable in the tropics and sub-tropics than in the colder countries of 
Europe. In the latter countries it appears in sporadic cases, whereas in 
the former it behaves like any epizootic disease. For this reason its 
suppression in these countries becomes a matter of great urgency. The 
problem has been tackled on a big scale in Australia and South Africa by 
means of preventive inoculation. In the former country the disease has 
nearly been stamped out, and in South Africa the campaign is carried on 
with great vigour. The excellent results obtained with the spore vaccine, 
now employed, promise complete success. 

The position in the warm countries in regard to Quarter Evil {Black 
Quarter) is much the same as with Anthrax. The disease appears almost 
in epizootic form and preventive inoculation on a large scale becomes 
necessary. Very satisfactory results have been obtained in South Africa 
both with a germ-free filtrate and with a formalised vaccine. 

Only one other bacterial disease can be mentioned here, namely. 
Tuberculosis. In 1901, Robert Koch, who about 20 years previously had 
discovered the cause of the disease, startled the scientific world by 
announcing to a Tuberculosis Congress in London that human tuberculosis 
and bovine tuberculosis were two distinct diseases which were not com- 
municable from the one species to the other. Unfortunately, this statement 
proved to be wrong. We know to-day that human beings do contract 
bovine tuberculosis, and for this reason most civilised countries adopt 
measures for the suppression of the disease in cattle. The United States 
and Canada are leading the world in this respect and have spent millions 
of pounds in compensation for the destruction of tuberculous reactors. 
Denmark, Germany, England and other countries are also doing 
much and have achieved a large measure of success in their efforts 
to supply to the population milk and beef free of tubercle bacilli. 
But very much remains to be done. In human beings the mortality 
from tuberculosis is still high in all countries, and a considerable 
percentage of the deaths must be ascribed to the bovine strain of the 
organism. The disease in cattle can be stamped out provided enough 
money is made available. 

Recently great interest has been shown in the attenuated strain of 
tubercle bacilli produced by Calmette and Guerin of the Pasteur Institute. 
Experiments in which it is attempted to immunise children and young 
animals, with this strain, are in progress throughout the world. It is 
sincerely hoped that all this work will prove that the method of Calmette 
and Guerin has given us yet another weapon against this insidious 


5. Internal Metazoan Parasites. 

The only group that need be mentioned in this brief survey are the 
Worms. These parasites have become more and more important and to-day 
they actually constitute the ' limiting factor ' in successful sheep farming 
in many parts of the world. This subject forms a highly specialised 
science of its own, the science of Helminthology ; in which many notable 
successes have been achieved in recent years. It is almost unnecessary 
to add that this subject demands the close co-operation of zoologists, 
medical men and veterinarians. 

Amongst the Trematodes the LiverfluJces and Schistosomes of sheep and 
cattle deserve special mention. The latter group is not of very great 
economic importance, but is of great interest because of the close relation- 
ship between the disease in animals and Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia disease) 
in man. Le Roux of Onderstepoort has shown recently (1929) how the 
campaign against the human disease can benefit from further study of the 
animal disease. This is particularly true of the method of treatment with 
tartar emetic and other modern drugs. 

Liverfluke disease of sheep and cattle is a very serious problem in many 
countries in different parts of the world. In Germany, Noller has 
organised what may be termed a national campaign against these parasites, 
and has achieved a large measure of success. Various preparations have 
proved to be very efficacious in the treatment of infected am'mals, and the 
application of modern principles of hygiene has reduced the incidence of 
the snails which act as intermediate host of both groups of worms just 

Generally speaking, the Nematodes or round worms are far more serious 
than either the Trematodes or Cestodes (tape worms). In many countries 
where sheep farming is conducted on an extensive scale, the infection with 
various nematode worms seriously threatens the industry. One or two 
examples may be mentioned. 

The ordinary stomach worm of sheep {Hcemonchus contortus) is world- 
wide in its distribution and is the cause of very severe losses. Better 
farming methods will undoubtedly improve the position, but in the 
meantime farmers look to the veterinarian to rid their sheep of these deadly 
parasites. Various chemicals have been tried with varying degrees of 
success, but perhaps nowhere has the success been so marked as in South 
Africa, where, as a result of the researches of Theiler, Veglia, Green and 
others, a method of treatment was recommended which has proved the 
salvation of many sheep farmers. The method consists of the accurate 
dosage of a mixture of arsenite of soda and copper sulphate ; and the 
extent to which this method has been applied may be gauged from the 
fact that at present some 25 million doses of the mixture are issued annually 
from Onderstepoort. The method is not perfect, but it has certainly been 
a great factor in making sheep farming a success where otherwise it would 
have been a dismal failure. 

There are many other nematodes which threaten the sheep industry. 
CEsophagostomum columbianum and various species of Trichostrotigylus are 
amongst the most important in South Africa. Treatment in these cases 
is not simple, but it is hoped that the work now proceeding at Onderstepoort 


(Monnig and Le Roux) and in many other parts of the world (notably in 
the United States of America) will yield practical results. 

One further fact must be emphasised here. The menace of worm 
infection has become so great that no sheep farmer can hope to be 
successful if he disregards the teaching of modern science. Overstocking 
of farms must be prevented at all costs ; marshes must be drained or the 
sheep kept away from them ; the sheep must be treated regularly 
according to the best methods known. If these precautions are adopted, 
the parasites can be kept in check and profitable sheep farming will 
become possible ; if the advice is ignored, then the financial loss to the 
farmer will be the smaller the sooner he gives up farming. 

The great value of hygienic methods in farming has been proved in the 
case of Ascaris infection of pigs. Some years ago the pig breeding industry 
was seriously threatened by this parasite ; whereas to-day, thanks to the 
researches of Ransom and others, the infection can be eliminated com- 

6. External Parasites. 

The two most important groups of ecto-parasites, the ticks and the 
tsetse flies have already been referred to. 

A further very important group are the mites. These minute parasites 
are responsible for the diseases known as scab or mange in animals, and 
have caused untold losses. In the fight against these diseases, the 
British Dominions have had very signal success. Australia and New 
Zealand have eradicated sheep scab completely, Canada is practically 
free of it, and in South Africa, where the presence of a large native popula- 
tion owning a very inferior class of sheep has made the campaign 
particularly difficult, the incidence of the disease has been reduced to 
infinitesimal proportions, and complete eradication within a short time is 
hoped for. 

Another very important ecto-parasite of sheep is the so-called Blowfly. 
The trouble is caused by these flies depositing their eggs in the wool of 
sheep, especially in the soiled and moist parts, and by the resulting maggots 
causing serious damage to the wool and the sheep itself. The pest has 
assumed alarming proportions in Australia and is becoming more and more 
important in other countries, including South Africa. Determined efforts 
are being made to combat the pest and valuable progress has been 
achieved. In this research entomologists and veterinarians are working 
hand in hand. 

7. Diseases due to Poisonous Plants. 

That certain plants are poisonous and may have fatal effects when 
consumed by animals has probably been known for centuries. However, 
it is only during recent years that plants have been studied which produce 
diseases comparable with epizootic diseases. In this field of research 
South African workers have been prominent. 

One of the most remarkable of these diseases is that known in South 
Africa as ' Gousiekte ' (rapid disease) of sheep, which was studied some 
years ago by Theiler, Du Toit and Mitchell. The cause of the disease was 
shown to be the plant Vangueria pygmcea. The remarkable nature of this 
disease may best be illustrated by the following incident : A farmer 


brought a flock of 1,760 sheep on to a farm where this plant was known 
to be present, and left them there for less than 24 hours. They were then 
removed to a clean farm and for about six weeks nothing happened. 
Thereupon the sheep suddenly started dying and within a few weeks 
1,047 sheep had died. This strange occurrence is explained as follows : 
the poison contained in the plant acts on the heart muscle causing a 
myocarditis with subsequent dilatation of the ventricles. As soon as the 
process has reached a certain stage the animal dies of ' heart failure.' To 
the casual observer the disease presents all the characteristics of an infec- 
tious disease ; in the case quoted above it certainly seemed as if the disease 
had ' spread ' rapidly among the flock. 

The elucidation of the cause of the disease was of great practical 
importance inasmuch as it enabled the farmer to enclose that portion of 
his farm where the poisonous plant grew, and to keep his sheep away 
from it. 

Other no less remarkable diseases were studied by Theiler and his 

A disease called ' Geeldikkop ' (yellow thick head) in sheep was shown 
by Theiler (1928) to be due to a plant Trihulus terrestris, although more 
recent work by Quin, Steyn and others at Onderstepoort has shown that 
there are other factors to be considered in the causation of this disease. 

' Vomiting disease ' of sheep was studied by Du Toit (1928) and proved 
to be caused by Geigeria spp. The disease may produce very severe losses 
in certain years, especially after droughts, when the plant is very wide- 

Many other instances could be cited of diseases which assume great 
economic importance and which have been traced to poisonous plants. 
One final example may suffice to demonstrate the peculiar behaviour of 
some plant poisons. A disease of horses known as ' Jaagsiekte ' was 
proved by Theiler (1918) to be due to Crotalaria dura. When the plant is 
fed to horses it produces, after a long ' incubation period,' a fever and 
certain characteristic changes in the lungs. On the other hand, if the 
same plant is fed to cattle it produces equally definite changes in 
the liver. 

The study of poisonous plants is now being actively pursued in various 
countries, and further interesting developments may be expected. It is 
obvious that the co-operation of botanists is essential for the success of .' 
this work. 

8. Deficiency Diseases. 

Lack of time prevents me from referring in any detail to this interesting 
group of diseases. 

The great importance of the vitamins in the nutrition of human beinga 
is so well known that it need not be stressed here. In the case of the! 
common domestic animals (except perhaps the pig, the dog and the fowl) 
the vitamins seem to be of far less importance than in human beings. 

On the other hand, mineral deficiencies are, generally speaking, much 
more important in animals than in human beings. The reason for this is 
not far to seek : animals, in most cases, derive their nourishment directly 
from the products of the soil in a limited area ; and if the soil should be 


deficient in any mineral, that deficiency will be reflected in the diet of the 

In recent years it has been found that large portions of the earth's 
surface are deficient in some mineral or other which is essential for the 
normal health and growth of animals. This subject was discussed by 
Dr. J. B. Orr, himself a pioneer in this field of work, in his presidential 
address to this Section five years ago. 

In South Africa as well as in other African territories and in Australia 
the most serious deficiency is that of Phosphorus. Theiler and his co- 
workers have investigated the ill effects of this deficiency on cattle very 
fully. They have shown that cattle grazing on phosphorus-deficient 
pastures develops a depraved appetite for bones and other carcase debris, 
and this may lead to the ingestion of toxic material with fatal results 
(' lamsiekte ' in South Africa) ; further, that such cattle remain stunted 
in growth, are late in maturing, are frequently unfertile, produce very 
little milk, and are very susceptible to various diseases. By the addition 
of a small daily ration of phosphorus to the diet, they were able to bring 
about an almost miraculous improvement in the condition of the animals. 

As a result of the general feeding of phosphorus compounds in the 
deficient areas of South Africa, the disease ' lamsiekte,' which a dozen 
years ago caused enormous losses, has practically disappeared and cattle 
farming in those areas has again become profitable. The significant fact 
may be recorded here that the village of Vryburg in Bechuanaland, where 
ten years ago milk was very scarce, to-day owns a creamery which 
handles a larger volume of cream than any other creamery in South 

In other countries, where other deficiencies occur, equally striking 
results have been obtained. Attention need only be directed to the work 
of Aston in New Zealand on iron deficiency, and the recent brilliant 
researches of Orr and his co-workers at the Rowett Research Institute on 
the whole problem of mineral deficiencies. 

B. Other Veterinary Problems. 

At the beginning of this paper mention was made of Dr. Gordon's 
presidential address in which the need for further research into problems 
of animal diseases, animal nutrition and animal breeding was emphasized. 

In regard to animal diseases the examples quoted in the preceding 
section show that considerable advance has been made during the years 
that lie immediately behind us. Many diseases have been conquered, but 
many others still await solution. Meanwhile these diseases cause enormous 
losses and even threaten the adequate supply of the world's markets with 
meat and other animal products. 

Problems in connection with the niitrition of animals are now receiving 
attention in many countries. The vast importance of correct feeding can 
be illustrated best by referring again to the phosphorus deficiency which 
exists in the pastures of South Africa and other countries. The astounding 
results which have been achieved with the addition of a small quantity 
of phosphorus compounds to the ration of the animals promise to 
revolutionize the beef and dairy industries in those countries. 

Animal breeding also presents problems of great importance and these 


are intimately bound up with the problems of disease and nutrition. In 
South Africa, as in other countries, there is a constant cry for the replace- 
ment of the scrub bull by pedigree sires. This demand would be met to a 
far greater extent, were it not for the fact that in many parts of the country 
pedigree bulls cannot live because of disease or nutritional difficulties. In 
some of the best ranching areas diseases like Heartwater, Piroplasmosis 
and Anaplasmosis render the introduction of susceptible animals quite 
impracticable, unless adequate measures for their protection be adopted. 
And, similarly, the deficient state of the pastures in other areas nullifies 
all efforts at the improvement of stock, unless the diet be supplemented. 

It is pleasing to be able to record progress along both of these lines. 
In South Africa control over the diseases mentioned above is gradually 
improving and, in regard to the deficient areas, recent investigations by 
Du Toit and Bisschop have shown that the grading up of native stock can 
be carried out with complete success provided the deficient mineral is 
supplied. Both beef cattle and dairy cattle have been bred on the 
extremely deficient veld of Bechuanaland without any signs of deteriora- 
tion, and the cost of the supplementary ration has been negligible in 
comparison with the material advantage derived from such feeding. 

Gratifying though the success which has been achieved may be, the 
need for further research on live stock problems has never been greater 
than it is to-day. The development of enormous areas in the British 
Dominions and Colonies is entirely dependent on the progress of research. 
With the aid of further scientific measures, these new countries could 
absorb a very much larger population than they now harbour. , The 
danger of over-population will not make itself felt for generations, nor need 
the danger of over-production be contemplated seriously. The shortage 
which has been predicted in the British beef market will have to be met 
by the Dominions and Colonies. The same applies to the mutton market. 
And in regard to wool it seems certain that the existing depression is 
temporary and that, as soon as the present fashions alter, regrettable 
though such a change may be from other points of view, the wool trade will 
be restored to its previous healthy state. 

The prosperity of a very large percentage of the population, both 
European and Native, in the Dominions and Colonies depends on the live 
stock industry (breeding of pedigree stock ; beef, mutton or pork pro- 
duction ; dairy farming, wool or mohair production ; skin and hide trade ; 
poultry farming, &c.). These farmers look to the Veterinary Service of 
their countries more and more for assistance and protection. Without 
this assistance profitable stock farming, especially in the tropical and 
sub-tropical countries, is impossible. The assistance, if it is to be effective, 
must be based on the latest achievements of scientific research. Rule-of- 
thumb methods will not suffice. There are fundamental problems which 
can only be studied at specially equipped institutes ; and this is now being 
done. But, in addition, each country has its own particular problems 
which it must solve for itself at its own research institutions. • Wise 
governments will support these institutions liberally. Money thus spent 
will repay itself a hundredfold. 

In a humble way South Africa has proved the wisdom of maintaining 
an adequate veterinary research service. At Onderstepoort the Govern- 


raent, twenty-one years ago established what must be regarded as a fairly 
large Research Institute, if the size of the population be taken into con- 
sideration. This Institute, under the brilliant directorship of Sir Arnold 
Theiler, soon proved to be not a liability but a valuable asset to the 
country. The results obtained in any one of its various sections would 
probably have justified the maintenance of the entire Institution. 

At the beginning of this paper it was said that the Dominions and 
Colonies have played an important part in the recent growth and develop- 
ment of modern veterinary science. The quality of the research work 
produced by veterinarians in these countries has been of such high order 
that it soon placed Veterinary Science (which not many years ago was 
regarded as the Cinderella of sciences) abreast of the other sciences. As 
a matter of fact, in South Africa it can be said, without disparagement to 
any other group of workers, that, in research. Veterinary Science occupies 
a very high if not the leading position. This has had a wholesome influence 
on the science itself and on the type of worker who was recruited in its 
service. The stigma of inferiority which for so long was attached to the 
veterinarian has disappeared. To-day, Veterinary Science is looked upon 
as a field of work which offers almost unlimited scope for research and 
which, in its practical application, may bring untold material benefit to a 

Now that the British Association for the Advancement of Science has 
honoured the Veterinary Profession by calling one of its members to the 
chair of a Section, the hope may be expressed that, in future, in this 
august gathering also, Veterinary Science may continue to occupy a place 
commensurate with its scientific achievements and with the role which it 
seems destined to play in the development of the British Empire. 




Seismological Investigations. — Thirty-Jifth Report of Committee 
(Prof. H. H. Turner, Clmirman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, Secretary ; Mr. 
C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Dr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Sir E. T. Glazebrook, Dr. Harold Jeffreys, Prof. H. 
Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Prof. A. E. H. Love, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, 
Dr. A. Crichton Mitchell, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Prof. H. C. Plummer, 
Prof. A. 0. Rankine, Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson, 
Sir A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Capt. H. Shaw, Mr. R. Stoneley, 
Sir G. T. Walker, and Dr. F. J. W. Whipple). [Drawn up by the 
Chairman except where otherwise mentioned.^ 


The ' Crombie Basement ' and the new rooms generally at the University Observatory, 
Oxford, have greatly increased the facility and comfort of the seismological work 
done there. But the massive pier, built for the seismographs, has not yet settled 
down. Changes of weather affect it seriously, as shown by the behaviour of the 
N.S. component mounted upon it. The E.W. component, mounted in one corner of 
the basement on a small pier placed directly on the floor, is much less subject to 
disturbance. Fortunately no important earthquake has as yet been unrecorded 
because of these troubles. In passing, it may be remarked that attention was recently 
called to the value of notes made at Irkutsk stating clearly when a seismograph was 
out of action, and thus explaining the absence of readings which might reasonably be 
expected for an earthquake not far away. These notes were found of great help in 
selecting the position of an epicentre which might otherwise have seemed to be 
excluded as unlikely. It is hoped that the practice of making such notes may be 
generally adopted. 

(Notes by Mr. J. J. Shaw) 

A new station has been established by Durham University at the Durham 
Observatory, in the building formerly occupied by the almucantar. A Milne-Shaw 
seismograph was lent in the first instance in order to test the suitability of the site ; 
and as satisfactory results were obtained the work was put on a permanent footing. 

A promising method of forecasting weather from the microseismic movements of 
the ground is being developed in India by Dr. Banerji, of the Colaba Observatory, 
in Bombay ; and the Government has ordered four seismographs for these experi- 
ments. One has already been despatched, two are on the point of completion, and 
the fourth will follow later. 

Two other machines, also for India, are on order for the Jammu and Kashmir 
Governments ; and one for the University of Liverpool for instructional purposes in 
the Department of Geology. 

During the year electric illumination was fitted to the Oxford seismographs in 
place of gas, and the results have been excellent. 

A project for installing a seismograph in South Georgia or the Falklands, as 
mentioned below, was considered but abandoned as probably unprofitable. 


The International Geodetic and Geophysical Union is to meet at Stockholm 
August 14-23. A memorandum has been prepared drawing attention to the very 
unsatisfactory financial position of the Section of Seismology (largely owing to the 
fall in value of the franc in which contributions to the Union have been paid) and 
urging that a considerable increase should be made in the grant to the Section in 
order that the cost of the International Seismological Summary may be completely 
defrayed as regards printing, and, so far as possible, as regards the preparation. 


Copies of the circular were supplied to the members of our national committee on 
Geodesy and Geophysics, and a sympathetic motion in support was passed. The 
printing account up to and including the cost of the I.S. Summary for 1925 was given 
in the last Report. The cost of printing in 1926 was much greater than its predecessors, 
amounting to £382 as against £280 in 1925. The increase may be partly due to 
temporary causes, but it would be unwise to make this assumption, in the present 
state of our knowledge ; certainly it is in part due to the increase in the number of 
observing stations which send their readings for collation ; and as the science pro- 
gresses it will almost certainly be necessary to give details additional to those at 
present given, which may be regarded as an irreducible minimum. Hence the printing 
bill is not likely to become smaller. In response to an appeal in May 1929, the Royal 
Society kindly made an additional grant of £150 to meet the deficit on the printing 
account, with an intimation that it must be the last. They have contributed £525 
in all during the last four or five years. 

The work of preparing the Summary for printing has hitherto not received any 
aid from the funds allotted to the Seismology Section ; it has been subsidised by the 
British Association, by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, by the 
Royal Society, by the University of Oxford, and especially by Dr. Crombie, without 
whose constant generosity the work must have come to an end long ago. 

Bulletins and Tables. 

The International Seismological Summary for 1926 has been printed and circulated, 
and the first quarter of 1927, which will be the tenth year of the Summary(1918-1927), 
is in the press. The work of preparing and printing the Summary has increased so 
steadily as to balance any gain due to experience and to ihe use of computations for 
previous epicentres, so that the idea of revising years previous to 1918 (especially 
1916 to 1912, for which much new material has come to hand since the pubhcation 
of the partial results in the Bulletins of this Committee), long contemplated, has not 
yet been carried into effect. Nor has it been possible to do much in the way of 
discussion of results, though the following may be mentioned : — 

(a) The shock of 1926 Oct. 3d. 19h. at 50°-5 S. 161°-0 E. provided a large number 
of observations of [P], the longitudinal wave which goes right through the earth's 
liquid nucleus and arrives at stations near the anticentre, many of which in this -^ase 
were in Europe. The results showed that the empirical formula adopted in March 
1922 is substantially correct except for stations not very far from the epicentre 
(say A = 120°) where it seems to require correction. But if so, Gutenberg's values, 
calculated from theory, would also require correction. Our empirical formula (using 
a simple parabolic curve) agrees well with Gutenberg, except that his theory introduces 
a slight discontinuity at A = 146°. 

(6) The same shock (1926 Oct. 3d.) provided a number of L observations, which 
were mainly suited by the velocity 1° in 0-405 min., or 4-57 km. /sec, though they 
were apparently divisible ir:;o several groups with different starting-points, and 
some of them were not L waves at all. The details are given in the Sjimtnary for 
1926, October-December. But on trying this speed for other shocks it was found 
quite unsuitable, except in a few cases. For the great majority the speed is represented 
by 1° in 0-477 min., or 3-88 km. /sees. This seems to suggest that in the majority of 
cases the waves noted as L by observers are Rayleigh waves, while in some special 
cases they are chiefly Love waves. The details are not yet quite ready for publication. 

(c) A number of cases of Gutenberg's S PcS, denoted by [S], and of Gutenberg's 
ScPcPcS, denoted for convenience by S, have been noted in'the Summary for certain 
earthquakes, and found to give residuals from his curves which are satisfactorily small. 

Deep Focus. 

The paper sent to Mr. Wadati has now appeared in the Tokio Geophysical Magazine 
and was also printed in the I.S. Summary, while its fate was still in doubt. The 
cases of deep focus were collected by Miss Bellamy in card catalogue form, and also 
plotted on a map, when it was found that they had a definite local distribution. A 
rough diagram of this arrangement was prepared for the I.S. Summary for 1927, 
J.F.M., and is reproduced with this report. The epicentres are confined to a com- 
paratively small portion of the earth's surface and arranged approximately in an oval 




curve, with centre on the earth's equator. Is this an old scar representing the detach- 
ment of the moon from the earth ? The suggestion that the moon came from the 
Pacific has been made at various times, and the occurrence of many epicentres round 
the shores of the Pacific lent some support to the idea. Previously, however, there 
was nothing very definite about the arrangement when we consider earthquakes in 
general. But the deep focus earthquakes offer a more definite suggestion. Sir James 
Jeans has kindly offered to re-examine the theoretical possibilities in this connection. 

Some Recent Shocks. 

There was a considerable earthquake near New Zealand, ' the worst since 1855,' 
on 1929 June 16d. 22h. 47m. 10s., followed by another on 1929 June 27d. 13h. 47m. Os. ; 
a provisional estimate of the epicentre of the first a.s 43° N. 173° E. was sent to The. 
Times on June 18. Fifteen deaths occurred as a result of the first shock, a heavy death 
roll for Wellington, which has lost only seven lives in all the other earthquakes since 
1848. According to The Times correspondent, ' Westport was like a town that had 
been bombarded, and in Greymouth not a building has escaped.' 

On the same day as the second N.Z. shock there was an earthquake in South 
Georgia. A rough estimate of the epicentre as near the South Orkneys was sent to 
The Times on June 28, but the corrected estimate came in a letter from Lt.-Comm. 
J. M. Chaplin, E.N., dated 1929, Sept. 5, from Grytviken, S. Georgia, kindly com- 
mumcated to us by the Secretary of the ' Discovery ' Committee as follows, in 
accordance with a suggestion made by the Hydrographer (Admiral Douglas) : 

' On [1929] June the 27th, at XII-51-30 G.M.T., a violent earth tremor was felt 
lasting three minutes and of such intensity as to make lamps swing and glass objects 
on the laboratory shelves to rattle violently ; this is the only earthquake which had 
ever been felt here as far as can be ascertained, up to that time, although of course 
further south in the [S.] Shetlands they are quite common. A further shock at about 
2 a.m. on the 26th July was noticed in the whaling station. This, however, did not 
disturb anyone, and was not recorded in my establishment.' 

The incident led to a correspondence on the possibility of establishing a seismograph 
in connection with the ' Discovery ' expedition, on S. Georgia or the Falkland Islands, 
and to a visit to Oxford (on 1930 Feb. 18) by Mr. D. Dilwyn John, one of the officers 
of the expedition, for full consideration of the matter. But it was decided that, 
though information from that neighbourhood would be of great value, the conditions 
did not allow of the proper care of a seismograph. 

There was a slight earthquake shock in England on 1929 July 2d. 20h. 30m., felt 
in Gloucester and the Forest of Dean, but no damage was done. The following note 
by Mr. R. J. R. Ward, of Denmead, Kettering Road, Northampton, was kindly sent 
by the B.B.C. to the Meteorological Office, and forwarded by the Superintendent of 
the Kew Observatory : — • 

' Tuesday, July 2, between 9.15 and 9.35, during Sir Walford Davies' talk and 
very nearly towards the end of same (by the way, I was switched on to London direct) 
the set took on a most awful rumbling sound, entirely blocking out any speech or 
music that was on at the time. It lasted fully 20-30 seconds, and I was just going 
to turn off, thinking it might have caught an electrical discharge, as it was very 
thundery round about, when the speech or music was resumed in the normal. I 
took no more notice until I heard next evening of earthquake shocks from Gloucester 
region at the exact time.' 

Dr. Whipple adds that ' the time fits in quite nicely.' 

On 1929 Nov. 18d. 20h. 31m. 40s. there was a shock near Newfoundland which 
broke a number of cables. As yet the epicentre is somewhat uncertain ; Strasbourg 
gave 46° N. 54° W. ; a preliminary determination at Oxford assigned the position 
47°-5 N. 58°-0 W., agreeing with that of the U.S. Coast and Geod. Survey ; but a 
letter from Ottawa dated Jan. 11, 1930, gives 43°-5 N. 57°-3W., and cables were broken 
a good deal further south still (as well as further north). The Telegraph Construction 
and Maintenance Company have very kindly supplied information ; and Commander 
Robinson, R.N., of the Eastern Telegraph Company, says that ' the most serious 
damage occurred in an area between about latitudes 44° N. and 45° N. and longitudes 
55° W. and 57° W., and that in an area further south round 40° N. and 53°-5 W. a 
cable was broken about Nov. 19d. lOh.' There was, however, no aftershock at this 
time, and though there were aftershocks at Nov. 18d. 23h. and 19d. 2h. they were very 


slight compared with the main shock. The Hydrographer kindly forwarded the 
following telegram from the Commercial Cable Company : — 

No appreciable change in charted depths along line S. 42^ E. from lat. 44°-45 N., 
long. 56°-09 W. to lat. 43°-58 N. long. 55°-05 W. 

A small earthquake on 1930 Jan. 22d. 20h. 44m. 403. is the subject of an interesting 
note by Gutenberg and Landsberg (Beitr. zur Geoph., 26.2.1930) who put the epicentre 
at 50° 6' N. 8° 8' E., and trace a probable connection with the shock of 1846 July 29, 
the epicentre of which was determined macroseismically ; possibly also with older 
shocks back to 1619. 

On 1930 May 5d. 13h. 45m. 50s. there was a destructive earthquake in Burma 
which cost some hundreds of lives in Pegu and Rangoon, and damaged many buildings, 
including the famous Shwehmawdaw Pagoda (a shrine of great sanctity said to contain 
two hairs of Buddha). In the Rangoon Times of May 7 we read : — 

' It appears that the first shock in Pegu created but little apprehension, and it was 
only when the fatal second came and houses toppled over like skittles that terror 
seized the inhabitants. The collapse of the cinema was the most hideous disaster of 
an appalling visitation.' 

As yet we have no seismographical information to hand enabling us to interpret 
this reference to a preliminary feeble shock. 

The earthquake started a destructive fire, and this was followed by a huge seismic 
wave which overwhelmed the city of Pegu, an ancient seaport whose history goes back 
to 537 A.D. The epicentre may be put provisionally at 17° N. 95° E. 

On the following day. May 6d. 22h. 34m. 10s., there was a severe earthquake in 
Persia, with a reported death roll of 3,000 ; epicentre about 38°-5 N. 45°-0 E., near 
the town of Tabriz, which suffered severely. 

On July 2 there were a number of shocks near CTauhati in Assam, the severest 
being at 21h. 3m. 30s. ; epicentre about 25°-0 N. 90°-0 E. Thirty-five railway bridges 
were destroyed on the Bengal-Dooars railwaj'. 


We are indebted to Messrs. Thom of the Patricroft Canal Works (near Manchester) 
for responding to a request made by Mr. A. E. Mourant of the Manchester Geological 
Survey Office, that certain explosions which they were contemplating in the course of 
their work should be made as far as possible available for seismographic experiments, 
especially by being made at specified times. Mr. Mourant took a good deal of trouble 
with the details ; and thanks are also due to the Astronomer Royal and to the B.B.C. 
for arrangements in connection with time signals. At Stonyhurst the speed of regis- 
tration was temporarily trebled, and the sensitivity of the seismograph nearly doubled 
(acting on suggestions made by Mr. J. J. Shaw), in order to see whether such a seismo- 
graph could give information of value, without calUng portable seismographs into 
action. Two explosions of 30 and 40 lbs. of dynamite were made on Feb. 21 after 
some delay owing to fog, which made it undesirable to transport the explosive by car 
for fear of accident. Stonyhurst (13^ miles away) got records described as ' almost 
comparable in amplitude with the records of the Jersey earthquakes, and showing 
two clearly separated phases ' : but they were puzzUngly late by about 30 sec. Later 
explosions made it doubtful indeed whether they were directly connected with the 
explosion itself ; and Mr. Mourant concludes that we cannot look to our ordinary 
seismographs to provide information of value. To utilise the explosions, portable 
seismographs with much higher magnification should be brought into action. 

Kew Obsekvatoky, Richmond, Suerey. 

The following report has been communicated by the Superintendent, Dr. F. J.W. 
Whipple : — 

During the year 1929 the tabulation of microseisms was extended, the amplitudes 
and periods recorded by the N. component seismograph being tabulated eight times 
a day instead of four times. Analj'sis of the results indicates that there is no definite 
type of diurnal variation of microseismic activity at Kew. This is contrary to 
experience in some other parts of the world. 

A paper by Dr. Whipple on ' The Great Siberian Meteor and the Waves, Seismic 
and Aerial, which it produced ' has been published by the Royal Meteorological Society. 
The great meteor fell on June 30, 1908, but it is only recently that its importance has 


been realised. The shock of the impact of the meteorites on the earth was registered 
as an earthquake, not only at Irkutsk, Tashkent and Tiflis, but as far away as Jena. 
On the other hand human beings were much less affected by the earth movements 
than by the waves of pressure in the atmosphere. There is no other known instance 
of an earthquake produced bj' the action of a meteor, as indeed there is no record in 
historic times of a meteor devastating an area of hundreds of square miles, of a meteor 
producing airwaves which could travel a quarter of the way round the globe or of 
a meteor transforming the sky and prolonging twilight in middle latitudes right 
through the night. 

The seismic effects of the meteor have been discussed also by E. Tams {Zeitschrift 
der OeseUschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1929, pp. 143-5). Tarns found that the 
seismic waves had been registered at Hamburg, and estimated that the movement 
of the ground north and south had had an amplitude of about Ifx. He states also 
that the vertical oscillations recorded at Jena on the Straubel seismograph had an 
amplitude of 2-3jji. From these new data it may be deduced* that the energy of the 
aerial waves was about 5,000 times that of the seismic ones. 

The Broadcasting of Seismological Information. 

The practice has been continued of broadcasting information with regard to large 
earthquakes registered at Kew Observatory. Reports are communicated to the 
Meteorological Office, Air Ministry, and are broadcast from Kidbrooke at 14h. or 
19h. G.M.T. with the meteorological data which are normall}' being sent out at those 
hours. By special arrangement similar reports of earthquakes registered at Bombay 
are communicated to London and are also broadcast from Kidbrooke at the first 

The reports for Strasbourg (broadcast from Eiflfel Tower), from Helwan (broadcast 
from Cairo), and from selected American stations (broadcast from Arlington) are 
received at the Air Ministry. Persons wishing to have such reports communicated to 
them regularly should apply to the Director of the Meteorological Office. 

During the year ended March 31, 1930, reports of earthquakes registered at Kew 
Observatory were broadcast on twenty-two occasions. In five cases the estimated 
position of the epicentre was stated. In the same period Bombay reports were broad- 
cast on eleven occasions. Messages were received from America through the Air 
Ministry on thirteen occasions. 
July 'l 8, 1930. 

* The seismic waves were large enough to be recorded at Hamburg for two minutes. 
No doubt sufficiently sensitive apparatus would have sho-nn a disturbance lasting 
much longer. Considering the distance, about 50°, the long wave phase of the earth- 
quake might be expected to last about 40 minutes. Remembering that the energy 
depends upon the square of the amplitude, an estimate of the total energy as 10 times 
that passing in the two minutes of greatest disturbance appears reasonable. The 
expression given by Jeffreys for the total energy crossing a small circle at distance A 
from the origin of an earthquake is equivalent to 


In this expression R is the radius of the earth, p is the mean density of surface 
rocks (3 gm./c.c), a is the amplitude of the horizontal motion, V and T are the velocity 
and period of the waves. 

Substituting a= V'2x 10-^ cm., V=3x 10= cm./sec, T = 15 sec. and ^=120 sec, 
we find 6x lO^* ergs for the energy passing in two minutes and 6x 10"' ergs for the 

The energy of the air waves was previously found to be of the order 3 x lO^" ergs — 
Q.J. Met. Sac., 56 (1930), 300. 

F. J. W. W. 



Calculation of Mathematical Tables,— Report of Committee 
(Prof. J. W. Nicholson, Chairman ; Prof. A. Lodge, Vice-Chairman ; 
Dr. L. J. CoMRiB, Secretary ; Dr. R. A. Fisher, General Editor ; 
Drs. J. R. AiREY, A. T. Doodson and J. Henderson, Mr. J. 0. 
Irwin, Profs. A. E. H. Love and E. H. Neville, Drs. A. J. Thompson 
and J. F. Tocher, Mr. T. Whitwell and Dr. J. Wishart). 

General Activity. — Nine meetings of the Committee have been held, in London. 
The resignation by Dr. J. R. Airey of the office of Secretary, which he had held for 
twelve years, was received with much regret. Dr. D. M. Wrinch, who was unable to 
attend meetings, has resigned. 

The grant of £30 has been expended as follows : — 

Confluent Hypergeometric functions . . . . . . . . . . £10 

Interpolation of Bessel functions J^ and J^ . . . . . . . . 8 

Preparation of copy for proposed volume . . . . . . . . 5 

Calculation of Hermite functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Clerical and postal expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Volume prepared. — A volume containing the following tabular matter, with even 
dififerences unless otherwise stated, has now been prepared for the printer. 

Circular functions, without differences : — - Pages 

Sine and cosine 0-0 (0-1) 50-0 to 15 decimals 

0-000 (0-001) 1-600 to 11 decimals 
I^TiTT to 15 decimals, w=l (1) 100 .. 
Hyperbolic functions, without differences : — • 

Sinh TTX and cosh Tra; 0-00 (0-01) 4-00 to 15 decimals 

„ „ 0-0000 (0-0001) 00100 to 15 decimals 

Sinh a; and cosh a; 0-0 (0-1) 10-0 to 15 decimals .. 

Sine and cosine integrals : — ■ 

0-0 (0-1) 20-0 (0-2) 40-0 to 10 decimals 

Exponential integral, -15-0 (0-1) 15-0 to 11 decimals . . 
Integral of logarithmic factorial function 0-00 (0-01) 1-00 to 10 decimals 
Factorial or IT function, 0-00 (0-01) 1-00 to 12 decimals 
Derivatives of logarithmic factorial function, i.e. di-, tri- and tetragamma 
0-00 (0-01) 1-00 and 10-0 (0-1) 60-0, all to 12 decimals 

Integrals of probability integral Hh„ (x), without differences: — 
x=-1-0 (0-1) vanishing, w=0 (1) 11 j 
a;=-5-0 (0-1) vanishing, n=12 (1) 15 I to 10 decimals 
a;=-2-5 (0-1) vanishing, w=16 (1) 21 | 

together with differential coefficients of probability function : — 
a;=-7-0 (0-1) vanishing, w=l (1) 7, for use to 10 decimals 

Total .. 









The accompanying introductory matter for the various tables will bring the 
volume up to about 100 pages. It has been ascertained that the cost of printing 
tabular matter will be approximately £2 a page, and that the cost of the volume will 
be about £200. The Committee desires that provision should be made for publication 
at an early date. 

Elliptic Function Tables. — The following extract is from the Report of the Com- 
mittee on Mathematical Tables for the year 1873, written by J. W. L. Glaisher : — 

' The Account of the Tabulation of the Elliptic Functions. — In September 
1872 it was resolved to undertake the systematic tabulation of the Elliptic 
Functions (inverse to the Elliptic Integrals), or, more strictly, of the Jacobian 
Theta Functions which form their numerators and denominators. 

The formulae are : — 

The tables when completed will give 0, Oj, 62, 63, and their logarithms to 
eight decimals for 


= 1°, 2°, . . . 90°, jfc=sin 1°, sin 2°, . . . sin 90° 

The tables are thus of double entry, and contain eight tabular results for each 
of 8,100 arguments, viz. 64,800 tabular results. 


For the performance of the calculation of and 6^ (6, being deduced 
from 0) 8,500 forms were printed and bound up into 15 books (550 in each, with 
a few over). Each book, therefore, contains forms for the calculation of six 
nineties, viz. from /i;=sin a° (say), x=0°, to A;=sin (a°-f 5°), a;=90°. Similar 
forms for the calculation of 0i and 02 were printed and bound up into 15 other 

The work has been in active progress since the beginning of October 1872, 
and eight computers have been engaged from that time to the present, under 
the superintendence of Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and the Reporter. 

It is intended that the tables, which will be completed, it is hoped, by February 
1874, shall form a separate work, and that they shall be preceded by an intro- 
duction, in which all the members of the Committee will take part — an account 
of the application of the functions in mathematics generally being undertaken 
by Professor Cayley, of their application in the theory of numbers by Professor 
H. J. S. Smith, and of their use in physics by Sir W. Thomson and Professor 
Stokes, while the account of the method of calculation, &c., will be written by 
the Reporter. 

The magnitude of the numerical work performed has not often been exceeded 
since the original calculation of logarithms by Briggs and Vlacq, 1617-1628 ; 
and it is believed that the value of the tables will be great. 

After the circular and logarithmic functions there are no transcendants more 
widely used in analysis than the Elliptic Functions ; and the tables will not 
only render the subjects in which they occur more complete, but will also, to a 
great extent, render available for practical purposes a vast and fertile region of 
analysis. Apart from their interest and utility in a mathematical point of view, 
one of the most valuable uses of numerical tables is that they connect mathematics 
and physics, and enable the extension of the former to bear fruit practically in 
aiding the advance of the latter.' 

The only subsequent references to these tables are to be found in the Reports 
of the Association in the Recommendations of the General Committee, in which 
sums totalling £809 were granted, of which apparently £259 was for computing and 
£550 for printing, and in the Treasurer's Reports, from which it appears that the 
grants were actually drawn. The tables were never published ; the reason for this 
was never made public, although verbal statements have been handed down to the 
efiEect that the tables contained systematic errors. 

The fact that the grants for printing were actually drawn may be taken as proof 
that the tables were set in type. Contemporary confirmation is afforded by a review 
of Cayley's Elementary Treatise on Elliptic Functions, by C. W. Merrifield in Nature, 
Vol. XV, p. 252 (Jan. 18, 1877). ' The arithmetical work is quite rightly omitted. 
That will find a much better place in the hand-book or introduction which will 
doubtless accompany or follow the great tables of elliptic functions now being printed 
for the British Association.' 

The existence of the manuscript volumes was brought to the notice of the Com- 
mittee by Prof. G. N. Watson after the death of Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher in December, 
1928. An appfication to the Trustees of Dr. Glaisher's estate resulted in the 30 
volumes being handed to the Committee. 

The tables have been examined by Drs. R. A. Fisher and J. R. Airey. It appears 
that no systematic error can be detected, although owing to the method of com- 
putation the 10th decimal is subject to somewhat large errors. The tables could 
be used for the publication of an 8-figure table, and the Committee sets the publication 
of such a table in the forefront of its future programme. 

Cunningham Bequest. — -By the will of Lieut. -Col. A. J. C. Cunningham, R.E., who 
died on February 8, 1928, one-twelfth of the residue of his estate was left to the 
British Association, Mathematical Subsection, ' for preparing new mathematical 
tables in the theory of numbers.' The amount of the bequest is about £3,000. 

The Committee is faced with a question of considerable difficulty in interpreting 
the terms of the bequest. In order that their future recommendations as to publica- 
tion of tables may be framed in the most suitable form it is highly desirable that they 
should have a plain and explicit ruling from an independent authority on the inter- 
pretation of the phrase ' new mathematical tables in the theory of numbers,' in its 
relation to its context in the will. Great diversity of opinions is evidently possible as 
to the connotation of an}' term denoting a branch of mathematics, the conventional 


applications of which may be largely a matter of historical accident, and it is of 
practical consequence to the work of the Committee whether a broader or narrower 
connotation be adopted. The following resolution was carried at a meeting on 
June 16, 1930. ' That the Committee of Section A be requested to take the necessary 
steps to obtain for the use of the Tables Committee an explicit statement as to the 
interpretation to be adopted for the terms of the Cunningham Bequest, to which 
they will be prepared to adhere in recommending the> application of funds.' 

Future Programme. — In addition to the volume now ready for the printer, the 
Committee has in view the following volumes : — 

(a) Elliptic functions, based on the tables computed by the late J. W. L. Glaisher. 
These would occupy at least 200 pages and cost £400 to print. The checking (by 
differencing) of the functions and the preparation of the printer's copy would have to 
be provided for. 

(b) Bessel functions. For over 40 years the Committee has, from time to time, 
produced tables of Bessel functions, which are scattered throughout the Reports. 
The greater part of the grants made since 1890 has been spent on these functions. It 
is highly desirable that a volume of tables on a unified plan should be produced. 
Much work still remains to be done, and the volume would probably occupy about 
300 pages. The work of interpolating Meissel's table of Jq and J^ from interval 0-01 
to interval 0-001 has been begun, under the superintendence of Dr. L. J. Comrie. 

(c) Confluent Hypergeometric Function. A number of tables of this function 
were published in the Reports for 1926 and 1927, but a much more extensive tabulation 
is necessary to make the function really useful. The tabulation presents peculiar 
difficulties, which are now being investigated by Dr. A. J. Thompson. 

The Committee, although unable to anticipate the interpretation of the terms of 
the Cunningham Bequest, expresses the hope that provision will be made for this 

Emden's Equation. — A request has been received from Sir Arthur Eddington for 
the tabulation of solutions of Emden's equation 

(Pu , 2 du , „ 

— + — -\- u" = 
dz' zdz 

•ioT various values of n. This request is supported by Sir James Jeans and Prof. E. A. 
Milne, as the equation is one of great importance in astrophysics. Certain preliminary 
investigations of method and cost have been made by Drs. J. R. Airey and L. F. 
Richardson, and the Committee asks for a special grant of £25 to enable the calculation 
to be undertaken. 

The Committee wish to add to their number the name of Dr. L. F. Richardson. 

Reajjpointment. — The Committee desires to be reappointed, with a grant of £50 
for general purposes. 



Photographs of Geological Interest.. — Twenty-fifth Report of 
the Committee (Professors E. J. Garwood, Chairman, and S. H. 
Reynolds, Secretary ; Messrs. E. G. W. Elliott, J. F. Jackson 
and J. Ranson, Prof. W. W. Watts and Mr. R. J. Welch). 

In the present report 141 photographs are listed, bringing the number in the collection 
to 8,287. Of these 39 are from the Reader collection of negatives, which has now 
been completely worked through ; 1,133 photographs in all have been added to the 
collection from this source. 

The Committee greatly regret having to record the death of one of their members, 
Mr. A. S. Reid, whose Scottish photographs, particularly of the Isle of Eigg, are of 
exceptional interest and excellence. 

Mr. C. V. Crook having retired from H.M. Geological Survey, has resigned member- 
ship of the Committee, but Mr. E. G. W. EUiott, who succeeds him as librarian, has 
Idndly consented to take his place on the Committee. Prof. A. Morley Davies, Mr. 
F. Gossling, Miss M. S. Johnston and Dr. L. J. Wills have kindly helped with the 
description of photographs included in the present list. 

In addition to the Reader photographs the present series includes an excellent 
series by Mr. J. F. Jackson from the Isle of Wight, the landslip of the autumn of 1928 
being particularly well illustrated. Dr. T. Franklin Sibly contributes photographs 
illustrating features in the courses of some of the rivers of South Wales, Dr. A. E. 
Trueman views of the Swansea raised beach, Mr. J. F. N. Green a set from Islay, and 
the Hon. Sec. sets from Torquay, Snowdon and the South London district. Mr. A. 0. 
Rowden sends photographs of Lundy Island, Dr. F. S. Wallis and Mr. E. D. Evens 
of the Hestercombe Syenite, Mr. L. N. Wheaton of the Raised Beach at Hope's Nose, 
Torquay, and Mr. W. F. Chubb a fine view of the Severn Bore. 

Three sets of geological photographs, numbering respectively 22, 25 and 23 subjects 
have been published by the Committee, and are obtainable through the Hon. Sec. 
at rates which he will quote on application. Fourth and fifth sets numbering 25 photo- 
graphs apiece will probably be obtainable before the end of the year. Application 
should be made to the Hon. Sec. for information concerning these new issues. 

The Reader negatives being the property of the Committee, prints (;J-plate) may 
be obtained through the Hon. Sec. at 4rf. each, lantern slides at Is. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed. 

Twenty-fifth List of Geological Photographs. 
From July 1, 1928, to August 1, 1930. 

List of the geological photographs received and registered by the Secretary of 
the Committee since the publication of the last report. 

Contributors are asked to affix the registered numbers, as given below, to their 
negatives, for convenience of future reference. Their own numbers are added in 
order to enable them to do so. Copies of photographs desired can, in most instances, 
be obtained from the photographer direct. The cost at which copies may be obtained 
depends on the size of the print and on local circumstances over which the Committee 
have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any photograph included in this 
list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications for permission to reproduce 
them, should be addressed to the photographers direct. 

Copies of photographs should be sent, unmounted, to 

Professor S. H. Reynolds, 

The University, Bristol, 

accompanied by descriptions written on a form prepared for the purpose, copies of 
which may be obtained from him. 

The size of the photographs is indicated, as follows : — 

L=Lantern size. 1/1= Whole plate. 

l/4=Quarter-plate. 10/8= 10 inches by 8. 

1/2= Half-plate. 12/10=12 inches by 10, &c. 

P.C.=post card. E signifies Enlargement. 




Bedfordshire. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8146 Shenley Hill, Leighton Buzzard . Cretaceous Section. 1908. 

8147 Shenley Hill, Leighton Buzzard . Lower Greensand capped by Gault and 

Boulder Clay. 1908. 

8148 Shenley Hill, Leighton Buzzard . Lower Greensand capped by Gault and 

Boulder Clay. 1908. 

Buckinghamshire. — Photographed by the late T . W. Reader and presented 

by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8149 Locke's pit, Hartwell . . Hartwell Clay capped by Alluvium. 1912. 

8150 Bliss's pit, Stewkley . . . Kimeridge CHay with septaria. 1914. 

8151 Bliss's pit, Stewkley . . . Septaria with cone-in-cone structure in 

Kimeridge Clay. 1914. 

8152 Littleworth brickfield. Wing . Glacial gravels overlain by Boulder Clay. 


8153 Littleworth, Wing . . . Boulder Clay on Gault on Kimeridge 

Clay. 1914. 

Devonshire. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 

University, Bristol. 3| X 2 J. 

8154 Saltern Cove, near Paignton . Block of Permian breccia. 1930. 

8155 Saltern Cove, near Paignton . Block of Permian breccia. 1930. 

8156 Saltern Cove, near Paignton . Permian breccias on Devonian. 1930. 

8157 Saltern Cove, near Paignton . Cleaved tu£E band in Devonian, 1930. 

Photographed by L. N. Wheaton, 27 Bolton Street, Brixham. 

8158 Between Broadsands and Elbury Disturbed Devonians. 1928. 

Cove, nr. Brixham 

8159 Hope's Nose, Torquay . . Raised beach on Devonian. 1928. 

8160 Hope's Nose, Torquay . . Raised beach on Devonian. 1928. 

Photographed by A. 0. Rowden, 15 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter. 

8161 Lundy Island, Gannet's rock . Granite coast. 1926. 

8162 Lundy Island — St. James' stone. Erosion among joint planes of well 

jointed granite. 1926. 

8163 Lundy Island, near landing place . Sea-cave in slate. 1926. 

8164 Hartland Quay . . . Marine erosion of highly inclined 

Devonian. 1929. 

Dorset. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8165 King's Pit, Bradford Abbas . Fuller's Earth and top limestones of 

Inferior Oolite. 1911. 

8166 Bothenhampton, Bridport . . Weathered slab of Forest Marble. 1914. 

8167 Bothenhampton, Bridport . . Weathered slab of Forest Marble. 1914. 

8168 Durdle Promontory, Lulworth, Ripple-marked Cypris freestone. 1910. 

E. side 

8169 Montacute . . . Yeovil Sands. 1911. 


Photographed by Surrey Flying Services. 1/2. 

8 1 70 Lulworth Cove from the air. 

Photographed by Q. M. Davies, M.Sc, 104 Avondale Road, South Croydon. 

8171 (29.6) West Bay and East Cliff, Cliff of Bridport Sand. 1929. 


8172 (29.4) South of Bothenhampton . Quarry in Forest Marble. 1929. 

8173 (29.5) Burton Cliff, mouth of R. Cliffs of Bridport Sand and fallen blocks. 

Brude and E. cliff, Bridport 1929. 

Essex. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8174 Albert Docks .... General view of excavations. 1913. 

8175 Albert Docks .... Large tree trunks from the Alluvium. 


8176 Albert Docks .... Clay filling a wash-out in the peat. 1913. 

8177 Albert Docks .... Peat overlying alluvial clay. 1913. 

8178 Albert Docks .... Alluvial clay with much drifted wood. 


8179 Albert Docks .... General section ; made ground, on peat, 

on alluvial clay, on gravel. 1913. 

Gloucestershire. — Photographed by W. F. Chubb, Highgrove, 25 Midland 

Road., Gloucester. 1/4. 

8180 Severn, near Gloucester . . The Bore, September 4. 1921. 

Hampshire (Isle op Wight). — Photographed by J. F. Jackson, F.G.S., 
4 Linden Road, Newport, I.W., and presented by Miss C. Morey. 1/4. 

8181 (221) Yaverland Cliff, N. of San- Ostrea distorta limestone in Wealden 

down shale. 1928. 

8182 (222) S. end of Redcliff, Sandown Weathering of Lower Greensand. 1928. 

8183 (223) Coast section; Redcliff to Sequence, Wealden to Chalk. 1928. 


8184 (224) Bembridge Ledge, White- Marine erosion of limestone and clay. 

cliff Bay 1928. 

8185 (225) St. Catherine's Point, Niton Sequence, Upper Greensand to Chalk 

Marl. 1928. 

8186 (226) St. Catherine's Point, Niton Details of Chloritic Marl. 1928. 

8187 (227) Woody Point, St. Lawrence Weathered surface of conglomerate bed 

at base of Chloritic Marl. 1928. 

8188 (228) Ventnor, between the Es- Block showing section from Upper 

planade and Steephill cascade Greensand to Chalk Marl. 1928. 

8189 (229) Windy Corner, Gore Cliff . Road blocked by rock-fall of July 26, 

1928. 1928. 

8190 (230) Windy Corner, Gore Cliff . Near view of great rock-fall of Sep- 

tember 22, 1928. 1928. 

8191 (231) Windy Corner, Gore Cliff . Near view of the rock-fall from the Niton 

side. 1928. 

8192 (232) Windy Corner, Gore Cliff . General view of the fall of September 22, 

1928. 1928. 

8193 (233) Windy Corner, Gore Chff . Lakelet at foot of landslip of September 

20-22, 1928. 1928. 

8194 (234) Windy Corner, Gore Cliff . Slipped masses and striated surface of 

Gault. 1928. 

8195 (235) Windy Corner, Gore Cliff . Destruction of road by landslip of 

September 20-22, 1928. 1928. 

8196 (236) Below Windv Corner, Gore Mass of fallen material and lakelet. 1928. 



8197 (237) Undercliff below Windy Detail of landslip of September 20-22, 

Corner, Gore aifif 1928. 1928. 

8198 (238) UndercliflE at Windy Corner Cracks due to movements of September 

20-22, 1928. 1928. 

8199 (239) Undercliff below Windy Pressure ridge in grassland due to the 

Corner landslip. 1928. 

8200 (240) Shore at Rocken End . Shore forced up by pressure of landslip 

of September 20-22, 1928. 1928. 

8201 (241) Shore at Rocken End . Details of shore forced up by pressure of 

landslip. 1928. 

8202 (242) Chale Bay and Blackgang Tongue of slipped material pushing out 

blufi seen from Rocken End into Chale Bay. 1928. 

Photographed hy S. H. Keynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

8203 E. of Brook Point . . . Foundering down of clifi. 1929. 

8204 The Crackers, Atherfield . . Concretions in Ferruginous Sands. 1929. 

Herftordshire. — Photogiaphed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8205 Mimm's Hall brook, Warrengate, Peat and clay in gravel. 1908. 

Potter's Bar 

Kent. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented hy 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8206 Stone Court Chalk Pit, Stone near Drift-filled channel in Chalk. 1919. 


8207 Greenhithe (New globe pit). . Pipe of brickearth in gravel. 1912. 

Photographed hy S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

8208 (28.58) Heme Bay . . . London Clay on Oldhaven Beds. 1928. 

8209 (28.57) Heme Bay . . . London Clay on Oldhaven Beds. 1928. 

8210 (28.60) E. of Heme Bay . . Fossils in Thanet Sands. 1928. 

8211 (28.59) W. of Reculvers . . Section London Clay to base of Woolwich 

Beds. 1928. 

8212 (28.61) E. of Reculvers . . Woolwich Beds on Thanet Sands. 1928. 

8213 (28.62) Reculvers . . . Groynes. 1928. 

8214 (28.41) Plumstead, Tuff and Blackheath Beds on Woolwich Beds on 

Hoar's Pit Thanet Sand, on Chalk. 1928. 

8215 Plumstead, TufE and Hoar's Blackheath Beds on Woolwich Beds. 

Pit 1928. 

8216 (28.43) Plumstead, Tuff and Blackheath Beds on Woolwich Beds. 

Hoar's Pit 1928. 

8217 (28.42) TufE and Hoar's Pit . Base of Thanet Sand on Clialk. 1928. 

8218 (28.52) Southborough Pit . . Tunbridge Wells Sand on Wadhurst 

Clay. 1928. 

8219 (28.55) Tunbridge Wells Common Weathering of Tunbridge Wells Sand- 

stone. 1928. 

Leicestershire. — Photographed hy the late T. W. Reader and presented 

'by F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8220 Harby, near Belvoir . . . Quarry in Marlstone. 1908. 

8221 Harby, near Belvoir . . . Quarry in Marlstone. 1908. 


Middlesex. — Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8222 N. London Ballast Co.'s pit, Low level terrace gravel of Lea Valley. 

Edmonton 1914. 

8223 N. London Ballast Co.'s Pit, ' Washout ' in Lea Valley gravels. 1914. 


8224 N. London Ballast Co.'s Pit, Section of Lea Valley gravel. 1914. 


8225 Hedge Lane, near Edmonton . Lower Terrace gravels. 1914. 

8226 Southgate Council Gravel Pit, Middle and Lower Terrace Gravels, 

Edmonton 1914. 

Somerset. —Photographed by E. D. Evens and presented by F. S. Wallis, 

D.Sc. 8ix5i(enl.). 

8227 Hestercombe, near Taunton . Diorite intrusive in Morte Slates. 1929. 

8228 Hestercombe, near Taunton . Diorite. 1929. 

SVB.B.EY. —Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The University, 

Bristol. 1/4. 

8229 Parkwood Fuller's Earth Pit, Section of Sandeate Beds. 1928. 


8230 Parkwood Fuller's Earth Pit, Section of Saudeate Beds. 1928. 


8231 (28.54) S.Merstham Nursery Pit. Sandy Gault on Folkestone Beds. 1928. 

Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by F. W. Reader. 1/4 

8232 St. Catherine's, Godalming . Lane in Lower Greensand. 

BvssEX.— Photographed by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8233 Waterloo Rocks, Tunbridge Wells Weathering of massive Tunbridge Wells 

Sandstone. 1909. 

8234 Waterloo Rocks, Tunbridge Wells Weathering of massive Tunbridge Wells 

Sandstone. 1909. 

8235 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells . Honeycomb weathering of Upper Tun- 

bridge Wells Sandstone. 1909. 

8236 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells . Vertical joints enlarged by weathering in 

Upper Tunbridge Wells Sandstone. 

8237 Cliff at East Groyne, Hastings . Wealden section — Wadhurst Clay to 

Pairlight Clay. 1907. 

8238 Cliff at East Groyne, Hastings . Wealden section — Wadhurst Clay to 

Fairlight Clay. 1907. 

8239 Near Hastings .... Bedding and jointing in Ashdown Sand. 


8240 Bucks Hole, near Hastings. . Wadhurst Clay overlying Ashdown Sand. 


8241 Hastings Slab of Hastings Sand with scales of 

Lepidotus. 1909. 

Yorkshire. — Photographed by the late W. H. Banks, Hergestcroft, Kington, 

Herefordshire. 1/2. 

8242 Gordale Scar, near Malham . Ravine in horizontal Carboniferous Lime- 

stone. 1889. 
1930 g 



Brecon. — Photographed by T. Franklin Sibly, D.Sc, LL.D., Vice- 
chancellor's Lodge, Reading. 1/2-pl. enl. 

8243 Porth-yr-ogof .... Entrance to the underground channel of 

the Mellte. 1914. 

8244 Near Porth-yr-ogof . . . The Mellte emerging from its under- 

ground channel. 1914. 

8245 Upper Clun-gwyn fall . . Waterfall over fault-scarp. 1914. 

Carnarvonshire. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 

University, Bristol. 1/4. 

8246 Snowdon, S. slopes of Lliwedd . Cleaved rhyolite tuff. 1930. 

8247 Snowdon, Lliwedd from the Wat- Precipice of rhyolite tuff. 1930. 

kin track 

8248 Snowdon, Lliwedd from the Wat- Composed of cleaved tuffs of the Lower 

kin track Rhj'olitic series. 1930. 

8249 Snowdon summit and Glaslyn . Crags formed of the Bedded Pyroclastic 

series. 1930. 

8250 Snowdon summit . . . Crags formed of Bedded Pyroclastic 

series. 1930. 

8251 Snowdon summit from the N. . Tuffs with interbedded rhyolites and thin 

dolerite sills. 1930. 

8252 Snowdon, Crib Goch . . . Formed of rhyolite and tuff capped by 

acid intrusion. 1930. 

8253 Snowdon, Bwlch Goch, above Banded acid intrusion. 1930. 


8254 Snowdon, near Rhyd-ddu . . Quarry in Llandeilo slate. 1930. 

8255 Beddgelert, near Rhyd-ddu . Nodular base of Snowdon rhyolites. 


8256 Snowdon, distant view of Cwm Moraine barrier. 1930. 

Clogwyn du'r Arddu 

8257 Snowdon, Clogwyn du'r Arddu . Moraine-dammed lake. 1930. 

8258 Snowdon, Llyn du'r Arddu. . 1930. 

8259 Snowdon, Cwm Clogwyn du'r Lower Rhyolitic series with interbedded 

Arddu linestone. 1930. 

8260 Snowdon, Af on Trewennydd . Dolerite scree. 1930. 

8261 Tryfan from Capel Curig road . Formed of rhyolite of the Capel Curig 

series. 1930. 

8262 Capel Curig, near Royal Hotel . ?Strain-slip fracture or jointing in grit 

block. 1930. 

8263 View from above waterfall Llyn Bwlch-y-Cywion ' granite ' intrusion. 

Ogwen 1930. 

8264 Llyn Idwal, Nant Ffrancon . . Moraines. 1930. 

8265 Llyn Idwal and Craig ddu . . Ice-worn rock and silting up of Llyn. 


Denbigh. — Photographed 'by the late T. W. Reader and presented by 

F. W. Reader. 1/4. 

8266 Pen-y-bont, near Cefn . . Ruabon Marls. 1919. 

8267 Oernant, near Pentre dwfr, Llan- Slate quarry. 1919. 


8268 Near Horseshoe Pass, Llangollen . Distant view of Carboniferous Limestone 

escarpment. 1919. 

Glamorgan. — Photographed by A. E. Trueman, D.Sc, F.G.S., University 
College of Wales, Swansea. 1/4. 

8269 Swansea Bay, about 500 yards E. Submerged Forest looking E . 1929. 

of Black Pill 


8270 Swansea Bay, about 500 vards E. Submerged Forest looking S. 1929. 

of Black Pill 

8271 Swansea Bay, about 500 yards E. Submerged Forest looking N. 1929. 

of Black Pill 

Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

8272 Caswell Bay, Gower . . . C-beds. 1927. 

8273 Caswell Bay, Gower . . . Jointing in S-bcds. 1927. 

8274 Mumbles, Gower . . . Pseudobreccia. 1927. 

8275 Broadslade Bay, Mumbles . . ' Stylolite.' 1927. 

8276 Caswell road quarry . . . ' Stylolite.' 1930. 

8277 (6.27) Oystermouth, Gower . ' Black Lias ' quarry. 1927. 


Argyll. — Photographed by J. F. N. Green, B.A., 51 Alexandra Grove, 

N. 12. 1/4. 

8278 (a) S. of Ardnoe Point, near Squeezed concretions in calcareous flaggy 

Crinan sandstone. 1923. 

8279 'b) Beannan Dubh, Islay . . Escarpment of bedded conglomeratic 

arkose. 1923. 

8280 (c) Point E. of Bonahaven Bay, Worm burrows in flaggy dolomitic sand- 

Islay stone. 1925. 

8281 (d) N. of Rudha Buidhe, Islay . Bowmore flags. 1923. 

8282 (e) S. of Tamhanacbd, Islay . Overfold in calcareous passage beds. 



Dublin. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The University, 

Bristol. 1/4. 

8283 Portraine ..... Disturbed Ashgillian. 1928. 

8284 Portraine . . . . . Contorted Ashgillian limestone. 1928. 

8285 Portraine ..... Crushed Ashgillian limestone. 1928. 

8286 Portraine. .... Crushed Ashgillian limestone. 1928. 

8287 Portraine. .... Crushed Ashgillian limestone. 1928. 

S 2 


Animal Biology in the School Curriculum.— i^e^jorf of Committee 

(Prof. R. D. Laurie, Chairman and Secretary ; Mr. H. W. Ballance, 

Dr. Kathleen E. Carpenter, Prof. W. J. Dakin, Mr. 0. H. Latter, 

Prof. E. W. MacBride, Miss M. McNicoL, Miss A. J. Prothero and 

Prof. W. M. Tattersall) appointed to consider and report upon the 

position of Animal Biology in the School Curriculum and matters related 


The Committee reports that it is continuing its investigations on the lines of the 

scheme adopted in its Report to the Glasgow Meeting in 1928. It proposes to present 

at some future date a report covering a series of years from 1929 onwards, but desires 

to put certain matters on record now. 

1 . The general demand for, and interest in, Biology as a subject of educational value 
continues to grow. The matter is engaging the attention of the Board of Education. 
A Committee of the Economic Advisory Council has been appointed ' to consider the 
obstacles which stand in the way of the education and supply of biologists for work 
in this country and overseas, and to submit recommendations for the removal of such 
obstacles.' The Association of British Zoologists has published a Report of its Sub- 
committee on the Teaching of Biology in Schools, adopted January 11, 1930, in which 
it holds that it is essential to insist that the education of every school chUd of either 
sex ' should include a course of general biology lasting for at least two years ' ; it 
suggests that the series of animal forms studied should include Amoeba, Hydra, 
Earthworm, an Insect, and Frog, and adds that ' the list of animals is not to be 
regarded as a mere series of types, but as material exemplifying the problems of life.' 
The British Social Hygiene Council is pressing for the teaching of Biology in the 
Schools and has made representations to the Board of Education to that effect. In 
the Council's Twelfth Annual Report, 1927, it is demanded that ' greater attention 
should be given to the biological sciences in educational systems ' as being ' in fact, 
a fundamental necessity to any real improvement in the general standard of personal 
and public health.' Biology is taking an increasingly prominent place in the activities 
of Summer Schools. Overseas also the movement is gaining strength. A strong 
movement is on foot, organised by the British Social Hygiene Council and backed by 
an Advisory Committee of the Colonial Office towards the introduction of Biology 
as an important part of the educational system of India and of the Crown Colonies. 
The position in the South African Schools was given some attention at the meeting 
of the British Association in South Africa last year, and Prof. H. B. Fantham's 
publications in the South African Journal of Science call for attention. The following 
publications of value to educationists interested in the school teaching of Biology are 
additional to those given in the 1928 Report : — 

Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools. Report on the Conditions 

of Science Teaching in Oxfordshire. Compiled by a Committee of the Oxford- 
shire branch of the Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary 

Schools, 1929. 
Association of British Zoologists. Report of a Sub -committee on the Teaching of 

Biology in Schools. Adopted by the Association, January 11, 1930. Obtainable 

from Prof. Frank BaKour- Browne, Hon. Secretary of the Association of British 

Zoologists, Winscombe Court, Winscombe, Somerset. 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report on Animal Biology 

in the School Curriculum. Bound in Rept. Brit. Ass. for 1928. London, 1929. 

Obtainable also separately as Reprint No. 24, from the Office of the Association, 

Burlington House, London, W. 1. 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report on Science in School 

Certificate Examinations. Bound in Rept. Brit. Ass. for 1928. London, 1929. 

Obtainable also separately as Reprint No. 23, from the Office of the Association, 

Burlington House, London, W. 1. 
Fantham, H. B. The Teaching of Biology in High Schools. South African Journal 

of Science, vol. xxvi, Johannesburg, December, 1929. 
Pinsent, A. The Teaching of Science and the Training of Science Teachers. Forum 

of Education, vol. vi. No. 3. November, 1928. 
Rasmussen, Vilhelm. Nature Study in the School. Gyldendal, Copenhagen ; 

Brentano's Ltd., 31 Gower Street, London, W.C. 1. Reprinted 1929. First 

published in Denmark in 1909. (A pioneer book dealing with Nature Study 




Science Masters' Association. General Science : introduction, outline of a course, 
suggested practical work, and specimen papers. Compiled by a Committee of 
the Science Masters' Association. Murray, 1924. 1/1 post free. Obtainable 
from Canon T. J. Kirkland, King's School, Ely. 
Wyss, C. von. The Teaching of Nature Study. Black. 1927. 3/6. 
Some further references will be found in The Teaching of the Life Sciences published 
by the Friends' Guild of Teachers in 1927 (undated) and obtainable from the Secretary 
of the Guild, Bootham School, York, 7d. post free. 

2. Biology, Botany and Zoology Syllabuses in School-leaving and Matriculation 

(o) First Certificate and Matriculation. 

Since the 1928 Report syllabuses in Biology have been provided for the 
First School Certificate Examination by Bristol, by the Cambridge Local 
Examinations Syndicate, and by the London Matriculation Board. The 
Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board is thus the only examining 
body which has not as yet provided a syllabus in Biology at the School 
Certificate stage, though the Committee understands that a Committee of the 
Board has the matter under consideration at the present time ; it has, however, 
in recent years examined a few schools on their own syllabuses. 
{b) Higher Certificate. 

Durham remains the only examining body without a syllabus. 


{a) First Certificate and Matriculation. 

For First School Certificate provision remains as in the 1928 Report, that 
is to say, ' Syllabuses are provided by Durham, London and Cambridge 
Local Examinations Syndicate ; in the case of the latter under the title 
' Natural History of Animals.' A few schools ofier their own syllabuses 
for the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board.' 

(6) At the Higher Certificate level a syllabus has been provided by Durham which 
first examined candidates in 1929. All examining bodies therefore now 
provide syllabuses at this stage. 

As indicated in the 1928 Report, syllabuses are provided at both stages by all 
examining bodies. 

3. The substitution of Biology for Botany is continuing steadily in the schools, a6 
appeared would probably be the case from the figures given in the 1928 Report. 
To make this clear Table XI of that Report is repeated here and brought to date by 
the addition of the percentages for 1928 and 1929. 

(Footnote : The actual figures for the various Examination Boards have been 
collected and may be obtained from the Chairman of the Committee, Dept. of Zoology, 
University College of Wales, Aberystwyth.) 

Relative Numbers of Entries in England and Wales for Botany, Biology and Zoology 

respectively, expiressed in percentages. 

School Certificate oe Matriculation. 


























































Higher Certificate. 























































4 The number of candidates, boys and girls together, presenting biological 
subjects (Botany, Zoology, Biology, and the increasingly popular schemes of General 
Science including Biology) expressed as a percentage of the total number of entrants 
for all subjects has remained at about the same figure of 25 per cent, during the last 
twelve years, the total entrants having risen from 33,563 in 1918 to 80,388 in 1929. 
It would appear that the great majority of these biological candidates are girls. 

5 The Committee is not able to give figures indicating the number of boys taking 
the biological subjects at the First School Certificate stage, but it is known to be an 
almost negligible quantity. It would appear likely, however, from cases of schools 
known to members of the Committee as introducing Biology now for the first time, 
that a slow movement may be commencing towards its more liberal introduction into 
the boys' schools. 

6. Recommendations. 

la) It was urged in the 1928 Report that Biology should be included as a funda- 
mental subject in the curriculum of all schools. The Committee re-affirm this 

recommendation. . ■ t. j- i.- v, jj 

(b) The four School Certificate and Matriculation Examination Bodies which did 
not provide syllabuses in Biology were invited in the 1928 Report to consider 
the desirability of doing so. The subject now is recognised by all the 
examination bodies at this stage, and a syllabus provided by all except the 
Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board, which nevertheless 
examines a few schools on their own syllabuses. At the Higher stage Durham 
remains the only Examining Body which does not provide a syllabus. The 
Committee invites the University to consider the provision of one. 

(c) Attention was called in the 1928 Report to the shortage, particularly among 
men, of teachers with biological training. The Committee calls attention to 
the fact that the position has not materially altered. , tt • 

td) It was submitted in the 1928 Report that there was need in the Universities 
for the provision of schemes of study related more definitely to the needs of 
science students intending to become teachers. It was suggested that there 
should be a more general recognition of General schemes of study as alternative 
to the present Special schemes as a path to a good degree. One way of meeting 
the situation would be by the institution of General Honours as has already 
been done by the Universities of London, Manchester, Leeds and Reading ; 
another would be by instituting General and Special schemes in either of which 
Honours would be awarded to the better candidates. Suggestions along some 
such lines are, the Committee understands, the subject of discussion at present 
at several of the other Universities. The provision of such courses as 
alternative paths to a good degree would, the Committee feels, help most 
materially towards the introduction of Biology into the Boys' Schools. 

7. Books suggested for School Libraries. 

The following are supplementary to the list given in the 1928 Report. It must 
be clearly realised, however, that the list is a selection only and that, notoriously, the 
same book does not appeal with equal force to difierent people. 

Atkinson, George Francis.—' First Studies of Plant Life.' Edited by E. M. Wood. 
(Ginn. 4/6.) 


Berks, Robert. — •' Garden Science : a three years' course of practical science based 

on experiments in garden, field, and classroom.' (Nelson. 2/-.) 
Blomefield, Leonard. — ' A Naturalist's Calendar.' Second edition, edited by 

Francis Darwin. (Cambridge University Press. 1922. 3/6.) 
Borradaile, L. A. — ' The Animal and its Environment.' (Oxford University 

Press. 1923. 18/-.) 
Dell, J. A. — ' Animals in the Making.' (Bell's Natural Science Series. 2/6.) 
' The Gateways of Knowledge.' (Cambridge Nature Study Series, Cambridge 

University Press. 1912. 3/6.) 
Godwin, H. — ' Plant Biology, an outline of the principles underlying plant activity 

and structure.' (Cambridge University Press. 1930. 8/6.) 
Green, E., and E. A. Potter. — ' Biology by Discovery.' (Modern Science Series, 

Dent. 1929. 5/-.) 
Green, J. J. — ' A First Book of Rural Science.' (First Books of Science. 

Macmillan. 2/6.) 
Holmyard, E. J. — ' Biology for Beginners.' (Modern Science Series, Dent. 

1930. 2/-.) 
Locy, W. A.—' The Growth of Biology.' (Bell. 1925. 16/-.) 
Maris, K.E. — ' Introductory Science for Botany Students.' (Murray. 1928. 3/-.) 
Nicholson, E. M.— ' How Birds Live.' (Williams & Norgate. 2nd Ed. 1929. 

Shuttleworth, Margaret A. — ' The Wonders of the Human Body.' (London 

University Press. New and Revised Edition, 1928. 2/6.) (Suitable for 

Upper III.) 
Thomson, A. Landsborough. — ' Problems of Bird Migration.' (Witherby. 

1921. 18/-.) 
Walker, Norman. — ' An Introduction to Practical Biology : a course of work 

based chiefly upon the plant and arranged for use without special apparatus 

in either the classroom or the home.' (Pitman. 1926. 5/-.) 
Wayside and Woodland Series (Warne) : — 

Coward, T. A. — ' Life of the Wayside and Woodland : When, Where and 
What to Observe and Collect.' (7/6.) 

Russell, F. S., and C. M. Yonge. — 'The Seas : our knowledge of Life in the 
Seas and how it is gained.' (1928. 12/6.) 

Smith, B. Webster. — ' The World in the Past : a popular account of what it 
was like and what it contained.' (1926. 10/6.) 
Wells, H. G., Julian Huxley and G. P. Wells. 'The Science of Life.' 

(Amalgamated Press. 1930. Vol. I, 19/- ; Vol. II, 19/- ; Vol. Ill, 20/3.) 
Whipple, A. H. — ' The Teaching of Hygiene : illustrated by Simple Experiments.' 

(Gill. 1928. 1/6.) 
Wyss, C. von. — ' Living Creatures : Studies of Animal and Plant Life.' (Black. 

1927. 12/6.) 

8. Supply of Trained Biologists for posts at home and overseas. 

There has been now for some time a shortage of trained biologists for vacancies 
overseas. It is on grounds of general education and culture and as a background for 
citizenship, that the Committee is most concerned to press for the introduction of 
Biology into all schools as a subject to be taken by all scholars. But with Biology 
so recognised the supply of Biological experts required for posts at home and overseas 
would be forthcoming. 


Stresses in Overstrained Materials. — Report of Committee (Sir Henry 
Fowler, Chairman ; Mr. J. G. Docherty, Secretary ; Prof. G. Cook, 
Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. Wilson). 

The following interim report is submitted. 

The programme of work set out in the report for 1929 has been commenced. 

An investigation of the stress-strain relation up to and beyond the yield point 
is being carried out in the Engineering Laboratory of the Royal Naval College, 
Greenwich, by Mr. J. G. Docherty and Mr. F. W. Thome, but the tests are not 
yet complete. It is hoped to publish the results soon. 

Professor G. Cook, in the Engineering Department, King's College, London, is 
investigating [a) the efiect of non-uniform stress produced by torsion, flexure, and 
internal pressure, on the initial yield point in mild steel, (b) the stress diistribution in 
the initial stages of plastic strain for these cases. It is hoped that the results of these 
experiments will be published in the autumn. 

It is hoped that a full report of these experiments, and also the other papers 
proposed in the 1929 Report, will be presented along with the report for 1931. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed for another year. 

£arth Pressures. — Fifth Interim Report of Committee (Mr. F. E. 
Wentworth-Shields, Chairman ; Dr. J. S. Owens, Secretary ; 
Prof. A. Baer, Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. 
Fulton, Prof. F. C. Lea, Prof. R. V. Southwell, Dr. R. E. 
Stradling, Dr. W. N. Thomas, Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson). 

Since its last report the Earth Pressures Committee has met once, viz., on May 29, 
1930, at the Building Research Station at Garston, Watford, by the kind invitation 
of Dr. Stradling, to see the research work which is being carried out there by Prof. 
C. F. Jenkin, whose report is attached, and who explained to the Committee the 
nature of the research and the apparatus he was using. Those present were impressed 
with the fact that the investigation of the actual pressure and resistance of clay is 
very much more complex than previous investigations have led us to suppose, and 
indeed that the same maj' be said about sand. Professor Jenkin is on his guard 
against the many factors, which may lead to quite wrong conclusions in this kind of 
research, and although the results of any research cannot be foretold, it seems likely 
that his work will lead to information and practical results. The Committee recom- 
mend that his and their work be carried on for a further period. 

Progress Report on Earth Pressure Experiments. 

Since my last report my apparatus has all been moved to the Building Research 
Station, Watford. Considerable delay has occurred in building my new laboratory, 
but it is now complete and I have started working in it. 

In August last I visited the large research laboratory, Berlin, known as 
Versuchsanstalt fiir Wasser und Schififsbau (Testing Station for Water and Ship- 
building). This estabUshment is carrying out regular tests of soils encountered in 
connection with the new dock works at Bremerhaven. The soil samples are packed 
in air-tight cases to ensure against loss of moisture on the joiu-ney. Briefly, the 
following tests are carried out : 

The moisture content is determined by drying. 

The grain size is determined by sieving, and in the case of finer grains, by water 

The specific gravity is determined by removing the air with carbon tetra- 
chloride, and then measuring the volume with water. 

The proportion of carbonate of lime is determined by measuring the CO 
given off when the grains are treated with sulphuric acid. 

The nature of the grains is determined by microscopic examination. 
The acidity is determined by measuring with an electric bridge, giving the 
hydrogen-ion content. 


In addition to these tests, another is carried out, which is no doubt the important 
one from an engineer's point of view, to ascertain the shearing strength of the soil. 
This is effected by means of a machine designed by Prof. Terzaghi (a description is 
given in Krey's Erddruck und Erdwiderstand, pubUshed by W. Ernst & Sohn of Berlin). 
The soil is not tested exactly as it arrives, but it is diluted with excess of water and 
then put in a thin layer between sand-filtering discs under a known load. The 
water is thus squeezed out until a stable condition is reached, which takes about a 
fortnight. It is considered that the clay then contains the maximum amount of water 
possible under that particular load. The load usually selected is that to which it is 
subjected in situ, but the clay is sometimes tested after having been subjected to 
other selected loads, and therefore contains more water, or less, as the case may be. 
It is important to note that the shearing strength obtained represents the result of 
combined cohesion and friction. 

While my new laboratory was being built I concentrated on the solution of 
problems presented by a very simple model of sand. As I have previously stated, I 
believe that sand pressures are essentially connected with the packing of the grains. 
It appeared to be worth while to investigate the pressure of ideal sand made up in 
uniform spheres. Rough experiments with HofiEmann steel balls showed that they 
behaved very like sand. The mathematical solution of the equiUbrium of steel balls 
in three dimensions appeared to be very difficult, so the two-dimensional problems 
were attacked. The spheres (in two dimensions) can be replaced by cylinders and a 
model was made with about 100 discs 1 in. dia. by J in. thick. These can be pOed 
on edge and their motion examined as they slip. 

The results of the mathematical investigation of the forces between the discs 
proved to be most interesting. This simple two-dimensional model will reproduce 
all the phenomena of ' arching.' The arching over a hole in the bottom of the bin is 
reproduced. The arching which supports sand in a silo (or vertical tube ) is reproduced. 
The arching which is used in the latest Swedish method of building retaining walls, 
anchored back at the top, is reproduced. The model shows all these actions and 
the graphical solution of the forces gives numerical results. 

I regard arching as the most fundamental property of sand and, therefore, the 
model appears to be valuable. 

The next problem was to find out how to use the model : how to apply the results 
to real problems. One use of the model has akeady been found, which may be of 
great importance. The model shows that there are limits which cannot be passed by 
arching ; thus no arching can occur over a hole in the bottom of a box unless the 
depth of sand is greater than a certain proportion of the diameter of the hole. This 
appears reasonable. The same reasoning shows that sideways arching cannot occur 
in sand if the depth of sand is small compared with the width. This at once indicates 
how accurate measurements may be made on sand pressures — i.e. how arching may 
be eliminated — viz. , by keeping the width of the wall on which the pressure is measured 
large compared with its depth. All previous experiments have, I believe, been made 
with approximately cubical boxes, and attempts have been made to avoid arching 
by using larger and larger models. The solution appears to lie in the proportions, 
not in the size of the model. 

A measuring apparatus was at once put in hand on these lines and is now nearly 
completed. PreUminary experiments show that it acts satisfactorily, so far as can 
be judged at present. The apparatus is designed to measure the force on a wall 
(vertical or battered) and to give the horizontal and vertical components and the point 
of application : in other words, to give the resultant force in magnitude, position and 
direction. The ' wall ' is about two feet long and three inches deep. 

Since I reported to the Committee the fact that sand would bear loads proportioned 
to the aibe of the dimension of the bearing surface (not square), Mr. Oscar Faber has 
repeated my experiments with rather more accurate apparatus and has confirmed my 

The clay experiments are held up at present till the new 3 -ton testing machine, 
now nearly ready, is available. 

I should welcome a visit from the Committee to see my calculations and new 


C. F. Jenkin. 


Notes and Queries on Anthropology. — Report of Committee (Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, Chairman ; Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Secretary ; Mrs. 
Robert Aitken, Mr. H. Balfour, Capt. T. A. Joyce, Prof. J. L. 
Myres, Mrs. Seligman, Prof. C. G. Seligman). 

The four previous editions of Notes and Queries on Anthropology were published 
respectively in 1874, 1892, 1899, and 1912. The present Fifth Edition, 1929, follows 
the general lines of the last edition, but a re-arrangement was deemed necessary and 
little of the old wording has been retained ; owing to recent investigations, the 
section dealing with Social Anthropology, of which Magic and Religion now form an 
integral part, had to be entirely re-written. The General Committee appointed at 
the Oxford Meeting of the British Association, 1926, to compile this edition delegated 
the writing of various sections to five Sub-Committees and in addition to the members 
of these a number of specialists in different departments of Anthropology have aided 
the Committee by their advice and criticism and in writing on certain subjects. The 
names of all these have been acknowledged in the book and we would like to take 
this opportunity to thank them for their willingness to help and for their valued 
co-operation. It was found in 1928 that it was necessary to engage an Assistant 
Editor and we were fortunate in obtaining the services of Mr. L. J. P. Gaskin, then 
Librarian to the Royal Anthropological Institute, who did his work with zeal and 
entirely to the satisfaction of the Committee. The book is published by the Royal 
Anthropological Institute at the price of 6s. 

Kent's Cavern. — Report of Committee appointed to co-operate ivith the 
Torquay Natural History Society in investigating .Kent's Cavern (Sir 
A. Keith, Chairman ; Prof. J. L. Myres, Secretary ; Mr. M. C. 
BuRKiTT, Dr. R. V. Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, 
Prof. W. J. Sollas). 

The Committee has received from the excavators the following report : — 

Excavations have been continued in the ' Wolf's Cave,' and along the foot of the 
'Sloping Chamber,' from October 1929 to the end of May 1930. The heavy rains 
of January caused considerable interference in the work. Last year's trench was 
extended to 60 feet in length, and deepened to 7 feet below the upper or ' granular 
stalagmite ' floor, except at a point near the entrance to the ' Wolf's Cave,' where 
bedrock was reached. 

Previous explorers had dumped their tip all along the trench, and it is doubtful if 
some of the finds were in their original position. These include a quartzite pebble of 
the Budleigh Salterton Pebble Bed type, four inches long, which had apparently been 
used as a hammer-stone ; three flints of no very definite character, but showing signs 
of utilisation ; and an interesting bone implement, shaped to a much-worn and 
polished point, suggesting its use as an awl or borer. All of these tools were found 
in the ' Sloping Chamber.' 

The fauna continues to be entirely of the usual Late Pleistocene type, with Horse 
still predominating over Hyena, followed, at some distance, and in numerical order, 
by Rhinoceros, Stag, Mammoth, C. Megaceros, Bear, Bos, and Wolf. A few remains 
of microtine fauna have not yet been under expert examination. 

The deposit, although not easily distinguishable from the cave-earth elsewhere 
found immediately below the ' granular stalagmite ' floor, contained a considerable 
number of rolled and sub-angular pieces of grit from the Lincombe Hill ; a test 
sample, upon washing, revealing a residue consisting as to two-thirds of this rock as 
against only one-third from the limestone. Occasional small pieces of concreted 
grit, and of a crystalline stalagmite, presented themselves, but neither the corres- 
ponding earthy deposit, called by Pengelly the ' breccia,' nor its covering floor of 
' crystalline [stalagmite,' has presented itself in situ. Nevertheless, the com- 
position of the deposit points to a mixture of material of different ages, and the 
absence of the ' middle ' or ' crystalline stalagmite ' floor renders such a mixture by 
no means surprising. 


In the course of deepening the deposit in the ' Bear's Den,' in order to give head- 
room for the passage under an archvvaj', the proprietor of the cavern reached the base 
of the concreted ' breccia,' and revealed below it a fine silt apparently identical with 
the silt at the base of the deposits in the ' Gallery,' referred to in the Committee's 
report for 1928. A sample of this deposit led to the discovery of a bone, probably 
of fox. 

It is intended to deepen the trench throughout the ' Wolf's Cave ' and the 
' Sloping Chamber,' from end to end, during next season's work. — (Signed) F. Beynon. 
A. H. Ogilvie. 

The Committee asks to be re-appointed with a grant of £10 to meet the cost of 
unskilled labour for removing debris after examination. 

Sumerian Copper. — Reports of Committee (Mr. H. J. E. Peake, 
Chairman ; Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Secretary ; Mr. H. J. Balfour, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley-Buxton, Prof. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. H. Desch, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. S. Langdon, Mr. E. Mackay, Sir Flinders 
Petrie, Mr. C. Leonard Woolley) appointed to report on the probable 
source of the supply of copper used by the Sumerians. 

(By Prof. C. H. Desch, F.R.S., University of Sheffield.) 

Third Interim Report. 

The grant from the Association has made it possible to continue the employment 
of Mr. E. S. Carey during a part of the session, and many specimens have been 
analysed. Further, the writer has been engaged on a metallographic examination 
of such specimens as consist largely of uncorroded metal, with a view to determining 
the nature of the metallurgical processes employed in their production, and also of 
corroded specimens, as part of a study of the process of corrosion in the soil. This 
question is of some archseological importance, as it may happen that one constituent 
of an alloy is removed by corrosion more rapidly than another, so that the analysis 
of a highly corroded object may not give the same ratio of constituents as the original 
alloy. These investigations will be reported on separately. In the analyses which 
follow, the composition of highly corroded objects has been calculated back to the 
unoxidised metal. 

Some fragments from El Obeid were received from the British Museum, described 
as probably of the first dynasty, but not earlier. A nail and a lion fragment proved 
to be of practically pure copper, with no tin, the nickel content being 0-109 per cent, 
and trace respectivelj'. A plate from the same source, but probably of later date, 
contained 7-95 per cent, of tin and a trace of lead, but was free from nickel. 

The following specimens from Ur were received from Mr. Woolley, being of the 
first dynasty date or earlier. 

Spear. U 11,886 . 
Axe. No number . 
. Nail with hole. U 12,229 
Rim of bowl. No number 
?Nail. U 12,672 . 
Knife. U 11,436 (Sargonid period) . 
Bowl. No number. (Date uncertain) 

A further consignment consisted of five numbered 

1. Plates and nail. Sumerian. (Hall) 

2. Pot and lamp. Sumerian. (Woolley) . 

3. Trowel. Sumerian. (Woolley) . 

4. Bowl. Possibly Sumerian. (Woolley) 

5. Fragments. Probably post-Sumerian. (W.). 

Tin. Nickel. 



151 Ml 


1-45 0-34 

tr. 0-35 


8-80 0-27 



14-3 010 

specimens from 

the Brit 

Tin. Nickel. 










Specimens 1 to 4 are therefore coppier, whilst 5 is bronze, apparently produced 
from copper from a different source. 

The iinds at Ur during the excavations of the last season include a spear head 
from the stratum just above the flood deposit, described as the earliest metal object 
80 far found in the work. This has proved on analysis to be of copper, with no more 
than traces of foreign elements. In the later deposits objects of both bronze and 
copper have been found, but have not yet been analysed. Mr. Woolley is of opinion 
that the finding of hammered copper axes of later date than the cast axes of bronze, 
and to some extent imitating them in design, is evidence of a failure of the supply 
of tin between 3200 and 2700 B.C. This clue appears to be worth following up. 
So far, the source of the tin used in the making of these bronzes remains unknown. 

In view of the suggested connection between Sumerian and South African metals, 
a series of specimens was obtained from Mr. H. B. Maufe, of the Geological Survey of 
Rhodesia. Three metallic objects were examined : — 

Copper. Iron. Nickel. Tin. Lead. 
1. Native copper. Falcon mine, ChiUmanzi 

district 97-50 0-35 tr. 

4. Partly smelted furnace product ; same 

source 6-45 25-79 0-37 tr. 

8. Native copper. Silverside mine, Lomagundi 

district 98-01 tr. tr. 

Specimens 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 were ores, both pyritic and carbonate. None of these 
proved to contain more than minute quantities of nickel. They do not, therefore, 
enter into consideration as possible sources of Sumerian copper. The furnace product 
4 is interesting, the ratio of nickel to copper being very high. In this respect it 
resembles some of the South African alloys which have been described previously, 
apparently made by the mixing of ores of copper and nickel. No information as to 
its probable date is available. 

Mr. W. E. Collins also supplied a fragment of an ingot of copper found on Athlone 
Farm, near Buiduva, S. Rhodesia, together with remains of crucibles. This proved 
to be copper containing only traces of tin, iron and nickel. The date of these workings 
is unknown. 

A large spear head from Zimbabwe, lent by the South African Museum, was 
composed of bronze with 12-26 per cent, of tin, with only traces of iron and lead, and 
no nickel. Many analyses of South African objects, bearing on this question, have 
been published by Prof. G. H. Stanley (S. African Journal of Science, 1929, 26, 732). 

On account of the connection between Indian and Sumerian metals alreadj' recorded 
it has been thought worth while to analyse two fragments of ancient celts from Burma 
sent by Mr. T. 0. Morris. Both of these are cast material. No. 1, from Gyogya 
Village, Thayetmyo district, contained 1-02 per cent, tin and a trace of iron, with 
no lead or nickel. The other, from Thaminthal Village, Lower Chindwin district, 
contained 2-77 per cent, tin, a trace of lead and no nickel. 

The opportunity has been taken to analyse a number of Chinese bronzes of dates 
varying from the Chow to the T'ang periods. These are tin bronzes, most of which 
contain relatively high percentages of lead. They are mostly free from nickel, and 
appear to be derived from entirely different sources from the Sumerian material. 

Although there have been several recent papers on the subject, the cause of the 
passage from copper to bronze remains completely obscure. The analysis of the 
early bronzes offers no support for the suggestion that they were obtained accidentally 
by smelting minerals which contain both copper and tin. Such minerals are always 
of a complex character, and would not give rise to such pure alloys as the early bronzes 
are found to be. It would appear, therefore, that these bronzes have been made 
by mixing oxide ores of copper and tin, which must have been done deliberately. It 
would be desirable to obtain further specimens of ores from various parts of Asia 
within the possible range of Sumerian trade, in order to throw some light on this 


Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Report of Committee 
(Prof. J. L. Myres, Chairman ; Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Secretary ; 
Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, Prof. T. H. Bryce, 
Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Mr. 0. G. S. 
Crawford, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. G. A. Garfitt). 

Since last year all the remaining specimens from England and Wales in the Ashmolean 
Museum have been sketched and entered on cards, as well as a number of recent 
accessions to other museums, a number in private collections and some offered for 
sale by Messrs. Sotheby. A large series of sketches of early bronze implements in the 
Copenhagen Museum, made by Mr. Clark, have also been placed on cards. 

The specimens in this country from sites in England and Wales are now completely 
dealt with, except for the late Bronze Age hoards in the British Museum, a few in 
Yorkshire museums, and some in private hands. Fresh discoveries are, however, being 
made from time to time. 

Of the balance of £39 14s. \Qd., a sum of £24 165. Qd. has been paid to Miss Chitty 
for work done during the year, leaving a balance of £14 18s. 4d. ; a further sum of 
£8 OS. will shortly be due to her, when the available balance will be £6 13s. Ad. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed with balance in hand and a fresh grant of 
£50 ; which, it is estimated, will provide for recording the British Museum hoards 
above mentioned. 

South African Archseology, etc .—Report of Committee appointed to 
consider the lines of investigation which might be undertaken in Archce- 
ological and Anthropological Research in South Africa prior to and in 
view of the meeting of the Association in that Dominion in 1929 
(Sir H. A. Miers, Chairman ; Dr. D. Randall-MacIver, Secretary ; 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Prof. J. L. Myres). 

The excavations of Miss Caton-Thompson and her party at Zimbabwe Ruins were 
completed in the summer of 1929, and a preliminary summary of the results was 
presented to the Anthropological Section at Johannesburg. Two large parties of 
members of the Association visited the site in August. In accordance with agree- 
ment, the trenches were filled, and the stability of neighbouring walls assured, under 
the supervision of the resident Curator of Ruins, and to his satisfaction, before the 
first rains ; and the portable antiquities were put in his charge, pending the 
provision of a permanent museum-building by the Government of Southern Rhodesia. 

The more important objects from these excavations were shown in the Zimbabwe 
Loan Exhibition at the British Museum (see Eeport of Council), and returned to the 
site ; all expenses of transport being generously borne by the Government of 
Southern Rhodesia. 

Miss Caton-Thompson's account of her excavations is ready for printing, and will 
be published shortly by the Clarendon Press. 

The Committee desires to express its appreciation of the willing and generous 
assistance rendered by everyone concerned, to Miss Caton-Thompson and her party, 
throughout these excavations and the numerous journeys incidental to them in 
Southern Rhodesia. 


Vocational Tests. — Re/port of Committee (Dr. C. S. Myers, Chairman ; 
Dr. G. H. Miles, Secretary ; Prof. C. Burt, Mr. F. M. Earle, Dr. 
L. C. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear, Prof. C. Spearman). 

A. Introduction. 

In the Report of last year it was suggested that the general absence of correlation 
between ' motor ' tests might be partly due to ( 1 ) the low reliability of the tests 
employed, (2) the disturbing effects of ' practice ' and ' fatigue,' and (3) the disturbing 
influence of other ' abilities ' which the tests employed to measure ' motor ' functions 
are not devised to measure, but which nevertheless may affect the scores. It was 
further suggested that this absence of correlation might also be accounted for by the 
specific nature of the movements commonly involved in the tests, and that when 
such relatively simple and specific movements were combined into the more complex 
operations employed in assembling work these operations might exhibit a much 
closer relationship than do their simpler components. 

In the present report it is impossible to do more than describe, briefly, the general 
lines along which work has been carried out in the light of these suggestions and to 
indicate the main conclusions. 

B. The Main Problems. 

The following are the main problems with regard to which the experiments have 
been planned. 

1. The problem of Accuracy. How far does each of the tests employed in the 
research afford a reliable measure of ' ability ' ? 

2. The nature of the Abilities involved. How are the abilities measured by the 
various assembling tests related to one another and to other abilities, in particular 
to ' general intelligence ' and to ' mechanical aptitude ' ? 

3. The effect of Practice, Improvability. (i) How far can we predict from the 
scores made initially at the various assembling tests the ability which an individual 
may attain after practice ? (ii) What is the character of the practice curve ? (iii) How 
far does practice at one operation influence ability at another ? 

4. The nature of the mental 2''>'ocesses involved iti Assembling, (i) What are the 
processes operative at first ? (ii) How do these change as practice continues ? 

C. General Plan. 

The assembly operations were divided into two classes, viz. (i) operations in which 
the subject is first required to think out hoiv to put together the parts of the object 
he is called upon to assemble, and (ii) operations in which the mode of assembling is 
already known and where therefore the subject has only to perform the actual 
assembling. These have been termed, provisionally, ' intelligent assembling,' and 
' routine assembling,' respectively. 

The principal tests employed have been tests of these two types of assembling, 
together with tests of ' general intelligence ' and tests of ' mechanical aptitude.' 
Spearman's ' tetrad- difference ' criterion has been employed to determine the presence 
of factors involved in these different groups of tests. 

The tests have been chosen so as to include a variety of movements, both in type 
and in complexity ; and the subjects include an ' adult ' group of men and women, 
an elementary school-boy group, and an elementary school-girl group. An 
investigation of ' age ' and ' sex ' differences is thus made possible. A ' backward ' 
class of school girls has also been tested (for details see later). 

To investigate the influence of early practice on ' reliability,' each of the routine 
tests was repeated several times (usually five — each ' test ' itself consisting of, usually, 
ten repetitions of the operation to be tested), and the intercorrelations of these trials 
were calculated. 

To investigate the effects of more prolonged practice, the subjects were then 
divided into (a) two (or, in the case of the adult subjects, four) practising groups, 
who practised certain of the routine operations daily, and (2) a control group who 
' rested ' while this practice was in progress. On the termination of practice both 
' practisers ' and ' controls ' were re-tested on all routine tests. The practice period 


consisted of a fortnight's daily practice with the omission of Saturdays and Sundays 
in the case of adults, and of a daily practice on the five school days of the week in 
the case of school boys. 

The resulting data offer the opportunity of (i) tracing the ' reliability ' of each test 
through the various stages of practice, (ii) investigating how the relations between 
the several tests practised by the same group may change with practice, (iii) ascertaining 
how the rate of improvement, as shown by the practice curves, may vary from one 
subject to another and from one test to another, and (iv) determining how far 
improvement in one test may ' carry over ' to another test. 

In the output records of the subject throughout his practice period there is a 
more comprehensive measure of ' ability ' than a simple sitting is likely to yield. The 
scores obtained at the mental tests (' general intelligence ' and ' mechanical aptitude ') 
render possible a comparison with ' ability ' and ' improvability ' at the assembling 
tests, and give the means of ascertaining how far these tests are dependent on mental 
factors and how far on more purely ' motor ' factors. 

To throw light on the mental processes involved in assembling work, introspections 
were made by the adult subjects who were supplied with a list of points upon which 
information was especially sought. The tests were also practised by the flTiter. 

The adult subjects undertook the tests voluntarily and no special incentive was 
offered. The general conditions at the schools were such as to lead us to believe that 
every effort was being made by the school children to do their best at the tests. 
Nevertheless, in case interest might flag during the practice period a monetary incentive 
was given, based on (i) the subject's total score, (ii) the number of times the subject 
beat his own best previous record, and (iii) the number of times his section beat a 
rival section into which the practising group was divided. The addition of a monetary 
and competitive incentive to those already operative establishes conditions approxi- 
mating to those obtaining in industrial work. 

D. Data Collected. 
Tests : Briefly enumerated, they were : 

(1) Intelligent Assembling. 

(a) Porcelain Test. In this the subject was required to assemble, without previous 
knowledge, the various parts attached to the interior porcelain portion of an ordinary 
electric lampholder. 

(h) Container Test. Here the metal exterior into which the above-mentioned 
porcelain fits was required to be assembled without previous knowledge. 

(c) Wiring Test. This was done after the subject had learnt how to assemble the 
above-mentioned parts. In it he was required to ' wire up ' the electric lampholder — 
i.e. attach it properly to the end of a wire, the other end of which was inaccessible. 

(2) Routine Assembling. These tests employed the various parts of the lamp- 
holder as follows — 

(a) Screw Test. The insertion of ten small screws into ten metallic blocks, with 
the fingers, constituted one ' trial.' A ' test ' consisted of five such trials. 

(6) Porcelain Test. Assembling the parts of the porcelain interior (cf. la) of the 
lampholder — repeated five times with adults, fifteen times with school groups. 

(c) Container Test. Assembling the parts of the container (cf. 16) — repeated five 
times with adults, fifty with children. 

(d) Wedges Test. Assembling the two wooden wedges into the top of the lamp 
holder — repeated five times with adidts, fiftj' times in groups of ten, with school 

(e) Wiring Test. Wiring up the lampholder (cf. \c) — repeated five times with 
adults, fifty with children. 

U-J) Stripping Tests. These employed the same material as the five routine 
assembling tests : but here the subject was required to take apart the pieces previously 
assembled, under similar and standard conditions as for assembling. 

(3) General Intelligence. All subjects took a comprehensive test of general 
intelligence of one hour's duration, a different test being used for adults and for school 
children respectively. 

(4) Mechanical Aptitude. The school groups took two ' mechanical ' tests, viz. 
(a) the ' models ' type, and (6) the ' mechanical explanation ' type. A " star ' puzzle. 


in which a star shaped piece of metal had to be disengaged from a pair of ' horse- 
shoes,' was also introduced in the boys' groups. 

(5) School Examination Records were obtained for the boys and girls. In the latter 
case it was possible to divide these into (a) ability at English, (6) ability at other 
classroom subjects, and (c) ability at handwork. 
Subjects : 

(a) An adult group numbering forty-seven subjects drawn from members of the 
staff of the National Institute of Industrial Psychology and of the City of London 
College, and from senior students at the College. Thirty of these, divided into four 
groups, were ' practising ' subjects, taking first all the tests, then practising one of 
the routine tests (both the ' assembling ' and the ' stripping ' variety) which differed 
with the group, and finally being re-tested on all of the routine assembling tests. 
The practice was carried out daily under test conditions for a period of a fortnight, 
omitting Saturdays and Sundays. The remaining seventeen acted as ' controls,' 
taking initial and final test only. 

(6) A schoolboy group consisting of the top two classes of a Tottenham elementary 
school, numbering seventy boys. Thirty-eight of these were ' practisers,' divided into 
two groups of eighteen and twenty respectively. Each group practised two of the 
assembling tests (both ' assembling ' and ' stripping ' in each) daily for five con- 
secutive school days ; they were given all the tests before practice and were re-tested 
on the unpractised routine tests after the practice. The remaining thirty-two acted 
as controls. 

(c) Schoolgirl groups drawn from the top two classes of a London elementary 
school and from a backward class of girls of similar age in the same school. These 
took the initial tests only. They total fifty-nine ' normals ' and twenty-two 
' backwards.' 

E. Chief Conclusions. 

The following conclusions emerge clearly from a preliminary examination of the 
results of the investigation. 

I. Relating to accuracy of measurement in Routine Assembling. 

(a) A single ' trial,' i.e. the assembling of a single object, such as one ' container' 
or one ' porcelain,' affords some indication of ' ability,' as shown by its correlation 
with other single trials at the same operation. Its ' reliability,' however, although 
tending to be ' significant ' (about thrice its probable error) is so low (about -3) as 
to render it entirely untnistworthy as a measure. When the scores made at several 
trials are added together a much more reliable measure is obtained. Thus on adding 
together the five trials made by adults at the same routine test (' porcelains,' 
' containers,' ' wiring '), the reliability rises to over .70. Similarly, the 'reliability ' 
of ten trials at the screwing test is, for screwing in, .63 and for unscrewing, .66 ; and 
that of the ' wedges ' rises from .18 for a single trial to .52 for the sum of five trials. 

(6) If the measure must be confined to a single trial, it is much more reliable to 
choose the best, or next best, or third best, &c., trial, than to choose the first, or 
second, or third, &c., trial. The best, next best, <L-c., trials are almost as reliable as the 
sum of all five trials, and there is little to choose between them on this score. 

(c) It follows from the foregoing observation that the disturbing influence of 
random errors on the reliability of a short test of the kind here referred to is greater 
than that exerted by systematic factors, such as practice or fatigue incurred during 
the sitting- — and this in spite of the fact that such factors were discernible in the 

(d) The reliability of these routine tests depends upon the number of repetitions 
included within the measure rather than on the length of time required for each repetition. 
Thus the ' reliability ' of a single trial at the ' porcelain ' test, occupying several 
minutes, is lower than that of the sum of ten trials at the ' screw ' test, occupying a 
few seconds. When, however, we take as our measure the sum of ten trials at 
porcelain assembling the reliability rises to a somewhat higher figure than that of the 
screws (.86 as against .63) — and s imil arly for the other more complex assembling 

(e) If we include the same number of repetitions in our measures of ' ability,' the 
routine assembling tests possess much the same degree of ' reliability ' when employed 
with adults as with children. 

(/) The more prolonged period of practice has no clearly marked influence on 


• reliability ' — the coefficient differing little from day to day during the practice 

II. Relating to accuracy of measurement in intelligent assembling. • 

(a) The average inter-correlation of the three ' intelligent ' assembling tests is 
.33 for the boys and .38 for the girls. 

(b) The two tests of ' mechanical aptitude ' correlate .72 (boys) and .59 (girls) 
with one another, and yield correlation coefficients of similar magnitude when com- 
pared with themselves by determining the correlation between the pool of 'odd' 
sub-tests with that of 'even' sub-tests. It is shown later that these involve the 
same ' mechanical ' factor as that in the intelligent assembling tests. 

III. Relating to Influence of Practice on Ability. 

(a) The general influence of practice is to draw individuals closer together with 
respect to ' ability. ' 

(b) There is a well-marked tendency for individuals to inaintain, during practice, 
the rank order with which they begin. 

(c) Generally speaking, those weaker at assembling (routine) exhibit greater 
variability from daj' to day, i.e. their practice, curves are less smooth. 

(d) They also eflect more improvement during the period of practice, whether 
this be measured ' absolutely ' or in relation to their ' ability.' 

(e) There is a small positive correlation between ' general intelligence ' and 
' ability. ' 

(/) The correlation between ' general intelligence ' and ' improvability ' is, if anything, 
-negative. This does not mean that, given equal initial ability, those who are less 
intelligent will tend, on this account, to impro