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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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^, I A 



101, 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 

REPORT 

* OF THE 

ANNUAL MEETING, 1933 

(103rd YEAR) 




LEICESTER 

SEPTEMBER 6-13 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE. LONDON, IV. 1 

1933 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Officers and Council, 1933-34 v 

Sectional Officers, Leicester Meeting, 1933 ix 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendainces, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes (1831-1933) xii 

Installation of the President xvi 

Narrative of the Leicester Meeting xvii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1932-33). . xix 

General Treasurer's Account (1932-33) xxiv 

Research Committees (1933-34) xxxviii 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Leicester Meeting) xliv 

The Presidential Address : 

Some Chemical Aspects of Life. By Sir Frederick Gowland 

Hopkins, Pres.R.S i 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

Seasonal Weather and its Prediction. By Prof. Sir Gilbert 

Walker, C.S.L, F.R.S 25 

Natural Colouring Matters and their Analogues. By Prof. R. 

Robinson, F.R.S 45 

A Correlation of Structures in the Coalfields of the Midland 

Province. By Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S 57 

The Mechanical View of Life. By Dr. J. Gray, F.R.S 81 

Geography as Mental Equipment. By the Rt. Hon. Lord 

Meston, K.C.S.I 93 

The Gold Standard. By Prof. J. H. Jones 109 

Some Experiences in Mechanical Engineering. By R, W. Allen, 

C.B.E 129 

What is Tradition ? By the Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan 145 

The Activity of Nerve Cells. By Prof. E. D. Adrian, F.R.S.. . 163 



iv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Status of Psychology as an Empirical Science. By Prof. F. 

AvELiNG 171 

The Types of Entrance Mechanisms of the Traps of Utricularia. 

By Prof. F. E. Lloyd 183 

The Development of the National System of Education. By 

J. L. Holland 219 

Chemistry and Agriculture. By Dr. A. Lauder 243 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 265 

Sectional Transactions 427 

Evening Discourses 578 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 589 

On Plant Growth Hormones (Auxin-a and Auxin-6). By Prof. 

Dr. F. Kogl 600 

References to Publication of Communications to the Sections 610 

APPENDIX. 
A Scientific Survey of Leicester and District i-ioo 

Index loi 

Publications of the British Association (At end) 



pjrittsb ^!3sanati0n for the |.bbanrement 

oi Srientc. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1933-34. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



PRESIDENT, 1933. 
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, D.Sc, Sc.D., LL.D., Pres.R.S. 



PRESIDENT, 1934. 

Sir William Bate Hardy, F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR THE LEICESTER MEETING. 



The Lord Lieutenant of Leicester- 
shire (Sir Arthur Hazlerigg, Bt., 
JP). 

The Rt. Worshipful the Lord Mayor 
OF Leicester (Councillor Arthur 
Hawkes, J. p.). 

The Lord Bishop of Leicester (The 
Rt. Rev. C. C. B. Bardsley, D.D.). 

The High Sheriff of Leicestershire 
(John H. Corah). 

His Grace the Duke of Rutland. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl Ferrers, F.S. A. 

The Visitor of University College, 
Leicester (Prof. Gilbert Murray, 
M.A., LL.D., D.Litt.. F.B.A.). 



The Principal of University Col- 
lege, Leicester (F. L. Atten- 
borough, m.a.). 

The President of the Leicester 
Literary and Philosophical 
Society (H. Percy Gee, J. P.). 

Col. C. J. Bond, C.M.G., F.R.C.S. 

Councillor Astley V. Clarke, M.A., 
M.D., D.L., J.P. 

Major E. G. Gillilan. 

Lt.-Col. R. E. Martin, C.M.G., M.A., 
D.L. 

Alderman Sir Jonathan North, D.L., 
J.P. 

The Rev. Bernard Uffen, A.T.S. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT FOR 
The Hon. the Lord Provost of 

Aberdeen (Henry Alexander, 

J.R, M.A.). 
The Principal and Vice-Chancellor 

OF THE University of Aberdeen 

(Sir George Adam Smith, D.D., 

LL.D., Litt.D., F.B.A.). 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of 
Aberdeen and Temair, P.C, 
G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., K.T. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Caithness, 
C.B.E., LL.D., D.L. 

The Rt. Hon. the Viscount Arbuth- 
nott. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Meston, K.C.S.I., 
LL.D. 

Sir Thomas Jaffrey, Bart., LL.D. 
Sir Robert Williams, Bart., D.L., 
JP- 



THE ABERDEEN MEETING, 1934. 
Sir Godfrey P. Collins, K.B.E., 

C.M.G., M.P. 
Sir Arthur Keith, LL.D., D.Sc, 

F.R.S, 
Sir George Abercromby, Bart., D.S.O. 
Prof. Sir John Marnoch, K.C.V.O., 

D.L. 
Sir Ashley W. Mackintosh, K.C.V.O., 

LL.D. 
Sir Alexander Macewen. 
James R. Rust, LL.D. 
Charles Murray, C.M.G., LL.D. 
Prof. H. M. Macdonald, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. R. MACLEOD, D.Sc, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. A. MacWilliam, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. B. Orr, D.S.O. , D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. W. Reid, LL.D. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Sir JosiAH Stamp, G.B.E., D.Sc, F.B.A. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Prof. F. J. M. Stratton, D.S.O., ! Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., D.Sc. 
O.B.E., M.A. I F.R.S. 

SECRETARY. 
O. J. R. Howarth, O.B.E., Ph.D. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

H. WOOLDRIDGE, B.Sc. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. F. Aveling. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. N. RuDMOSE Brown. 

Prof. F. Balfour Browne. 

Sir Henry Dale, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Drever. 

Dr. A. Ferguson. 

Prof. R. B. Forrester. 

Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. 

Prof. W. T. Gordon. 

Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan 

G.B.E. 
Dr. H. S. Harrison. 

Prof. F. E. 



Sir James Henderson. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe. 

Dr. C. W. KiMMiNS. 

Sir P. Chalmers Mitchell, C.B.E., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. C. Tate Regan. F.R.S. 
Sir John Russell, O.B.E., F.R.S. 
Dr. N. V. SiDGWicK, F.R.S. 
Dr. G. C. Simpson, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. F. Thorpe, C.B.E., F.R.S. 
H. T. Tizard, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Tyndall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. A. Venn. 
Weiss, F.R.S. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL vii 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Past Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the President 
and Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present General 
Treasurers and General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries 
for the Annual Meetings immediately past and ensuing. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. H.R.H. The Prince of Walks, K.G. 

Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. 1 D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 



Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., 

G.B.E.. F.R.S. 
Prof. The Rt. Hon. Lord Rutherford 

OF Nelson, O.M., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Horace Lamb, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, O.M. 

K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I.E. 

K.C.S.I., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. 
Gen. The Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C. 

C.H., F.R.S. 



Sir Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Sir E. Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. I Sir F. E. Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E., Sec. 

Dr. D. H. ScoTT, F.R.S. I R.S. 

Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. 

HON. AUDITORS. 

Prof. A. L. BowLEY. | Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. 

HON. CURATOR OF DOWN HOUSE. 
Sir BucKSTON Browne, F.R.C.S., F.S..\. 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE LEICESTER MEETING. 

CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL GENERAL COMMITTER. 
Alderman Sir Jonathan North. D.L., J. P. 

CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
Col. C. J. Bond, C.M.G., F.R.C.S. 



LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 
F. P. Armitage, C.B.E.,M.A. 
Colin D. B. Ellis. M.C, M.A. 



LOCAL GENERAL SECRETARY. 
H. PuRT, A.C.I.S. 



LOCAL HON. TREASURERS. 
H. A. Pritchard. I C. T. A. Sadd, J.P. 



viii OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 

EQUIPMENT OFFICER. I TRANSPORT OFFICER. 

J. O. Thompson. I J. M. Kirkwood. 

CHAIRMEN OF SUB-COMMITTEES. 

Finance - - - - H. Percy Gee, J. P. 

Publications - - - T. Kingdom, M.A. 

Hospitality, _ _ _ Astley V. Clarke, M.D., D.L., J.P. 

Membership' ■" 

Entertainments - - Alderman Charles Squire. 

Excursions - - - w. Keay, F.R.I. B. A., M.Inst.C.E. 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE ABERDEEN MEETING. 

CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
The Hon. the Lord Provost of Aberdeen (Henry Alexander, M.A.). 

VICE-CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen 

(Sir George Adam Smith, M.A., D.D., LL.D., D.Litt., F.B.A.). 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. i LOCAL GENERAL SECRETARY. 

Lt.-CoL Edward W. Watt, T.D.,M.A. \ d b. Gunn, M.B.E., M.A., LL.B. 
Prof. H. M. Macdonald, O.B.E., 
M.A., F.R.S. 



LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 
Marianus Lunan, J.P. 



LOCAL TREASURER. 
R. G. Duthte. J. P., F.I.M.T. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1933 is 



SECTIONAL OFFICERS. 

A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

President.— Sir G. T. Walker, C.S.L, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. L. Brose, Prof. E. H. Neville, Prof. J. J. Nolan 

Prof. A. O. Rankine, O.B.E., W. Taylor, O.B.E. 
Recorder. — Dr. Allan Ferguson. 

Secretaries. — M. G. Bennett, Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S., Dr. R. O. Redman, 
Dr. D. M. Wrinch. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. L. G. H. Huxley. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 

President. — -Prof. R. Robinson, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong, F.R.S., S. F. Burford, Prof. T. M. 
LowRY, C.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. W. H. Mills, F.R.S., Prof. J. C. Philip, O.B.E., 
F.R.S.. Dr. F. L. Pyman, F.R.S., Rt. Hon. Lord Trent. 

Recorder. — Prof. T. S. Moore. 

Secretaries. — Prof. J. E. Coates, Dr. J. M. Gulland. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. L. Hunter. 



C— GEOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E. , F.R.S., Prof. W. S. Boulton, 

W. Keay, Dr. E. E. Lowe, Dr. Bernard Smith, F.R.S., Prof. H. H. 

Swinnerton, Prof. L. J. Wills. 
Recorder. — Dr. A. K. Wells. 

Secretaries. — B. Hilton Barrett, Dr. H. C. Versey. 
Local Secretary. — H. H. Gregory. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. J. Gray, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Col. C. J. Bond, C.M.G., Dr. E. E. Lowe, Dr. Th. Mortensf.n, 

Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — G. L. Purser. 
Secretary. — Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 
Local Secretary. — Mrs. Hunter. 

E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Rt. Hon. Lord Meston, K.C.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. P. W. Bryan, Prof. F. Debenham, Prof. H. J. Fleure. 

Sir Edward A. Gait, K.C.S.I., CLE., Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., H. H. 

Pe.ach. 

Recorder. — H. King. 

Secretaries. — J. N. L. Baker, Dr. R. O. Buchanan. 

Local Secretary. — Miss G. M. Sarson. 



X OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1933 

F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
President. — Prof. J. H. Jones. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. R. B. Forrester, Prof. H. M. Hallsworth. C.B.E., 

R. F. Harrod, a. Radford, R. V. Rodwell, Prof. J. G. Smith. 
Recorder. — Dr. K. G. Fenelon. 
Secretaries. — Dr. J. A. Bowie, Dr. P. Ford. 
Local Secretary. — H. A. Silverman. 

A Department of Industrial Co-operation — Chairman, Dr. J. A. Bowie ; Secretary, 
R. J. Mackay — arranged a special programme in connection with this and 
other Sections. 

G.— ENGINEERING. 
President. — R. W. Allen, C.B.E. 
Vice-Presidents. — Lt.-Col. E. Kitson Clark, L. W. Kershaw, W. Taylor, 

O.B.E., Prof. Miles Walker, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — J. S. Wilson. 

Secretaries. — Dr. S. J. Davies, J. E. Montgomrey. 
Local Secretary. — T. Stanford Griffin. 

H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
President. — Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan. 
Vice-Presidents. — M. C. Burkitt, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Dr. Cyril Fox, 

Prof. R. RuGGLES Gates, F.R.S., Dr. Margaret A. Murray. 
Recorder. — Miss R. M. Fleming. 
Secretaries. — Dr. S. Bryan Adams, Prof. C. Daryll Forde [acting), V. E. 

Nash-Williams. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. N. I. Spriggs. 

I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. E. D. Adrian, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Col. C. J. Bond, C.M.G., Sir Henry Dale, C.B.E., Sec.R.S., 
Prof. H. Hartridge, F.R.S., Prof. H. E. Roaf, Prof. R. Robison, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. R. J. Brocklehurst. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. J. W. Roughton. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. R. McD. Cairns. 

J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. F. Aveling. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Shepherd Dawson, Prof. Beatrice Edgell, E. Farmer, 

Dr. Ll. Wynn Jones, Prof. K. Lewin, Prof. E. C. Tolman. 
Recorder. — Dr. Mary Collins. 
Secretary. — Dr. S. J. F. Philpott. 
Local Secretary. — Mrs. N. M. Barnes. 

K.— BOTANY. 
President. — Prof. F. E. Lloyd. 

Vice-Presidents. — Maj. the Hon. Richard Coke, Prof. J. H. Priestley, Dr. 

E. N. Miles Thomas. 
Recorder. — Prof. H. S. Holden. 

Secretaries. — Dr. B. Barnes, Dr. E. V. Laing, Miss L. I. Scott. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. E. J. B. Bish. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1933 xi 

L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
President. — J. L. Holland. 
Vice-Presidents. — Principal F. L. Attenborough, W. M. Heller, Principal 

H. Stewart, C.M.G. 
Recorder. — G. D. Dunkerley. 

Secretaries. — S. R. Humby, Miss Helen Masters. 
Local Secretary. — W. A. Brockington, C.B.E. 

M.— AGRICULTURE. 
President. — Dr. A. Lauder. 
Vice-Presidents.— Aid. P. F. Astill, J. M. Caie, Dr. T. Milburn, Alfred 

Turner, Prof. R. G. White. 
Recorder. — Dr. E. M. Crowther. 
Secretary. — W. Godden. 
Local Secretary. — T. Hacking. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

President. — Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Tierney. 

Local Secretary.- — W. K. Bedingfield. , 



Xll 



ANNUAL iMEETINGS 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



Where held 



Presidents 



1831 
1832 

1833 
1834 
i835: 
1836 
1837 
1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

i847: 

I 

l849: 

1850, 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854^ 

1855 

1856 

1857, 

1858 

1859 

i860, 
I86I 
1862 
1863 

1864 
1865 
1866, 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
I87I 
1872 

1873 
1874, 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 

IS79 
1880 
I88I 
1882 
1883 
1884, 
1885 
1886 
1887. 
I88S 
1889 
1890 
I89I 
I 

1893 
1894 

i8t)5 
1896, 
1897 
1898 
1899 



, Sept. 
, June 

■ June 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
. Aug. 
. Aug. 
, Sept. 

.July 

, June 

> Aug. 
, Sept. 
1 June 
, Sept. 
, June 
. Aug. 
, Sept. 

■ July 
, July 
, Sept. 
1 Sept. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 
', Aug. 
. Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 
, June 
, Sept. 
, Oct. : 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
■, Aug. 
, Aug. 
. Aug. 
, Aug. 
, Aug. 

■ Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 

> Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 
, Aug. 
, Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Aag. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 

■ Aug. 
, Sept. 
, Sept. 



27 ' York 

19 ... Oxford 

25 ...Cambridge 

8 , Edinburgh 

10 Dublin 

22 i Bristol 

II Liverpool 

10 Newcastle-on-Tyne 

26 Birmingham 

17 1 Glasgow 

20 i Plymouth 

23 1 Manchester. 

17. 



Cork., 

York 

Cambridge .... 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham . 

Edinburgh .... 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham . 

Dublin 

Leeds 

14 ' Aberdeen 

27 ...: Oxford 

4 j Manchester 



Cambridge 
Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ! 

Norwich ' 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh ' 

14 1 Brighton 



17.. 
19.. 
25.. 

6 .. 
15.. 
14.. 
20.. 
25.. 

31 •• 
23.. 
19.. 
27-. 
9 ■■ 
I .. 

31 ■■ 

5 •■ 

II.. 

3 •■ 

19.. 

3 •■ 

13 

8 .. 

II.. 

16.. 

18.. 

7 .. 
13.. 



Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Pl>Tiiouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardief 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 



Viscount Milton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. , F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S. ... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., F.R.S 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
The Marquis of Northampton , Pres. R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

WiUiam Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Eari of Harrowbft F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubenev, M.D., F.R.S. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A., F.R.S. .. 

WiUiam Fairbaim, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. . 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson. F.R.S 

Prof. J. TyndaU, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsav, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. ... 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W, Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec. R.S. ... 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


e.-! 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


i8 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


II 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


J3 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

[Continued on p. xiv. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 

ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Xlll 





Old 
Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Forei^ers 


Total 


Amo\int 
received 

for 
Tickets 


Sums paid 
on account 
of Grants 


Year 




Members 


Members 








for Scientific 
Purposes 






— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


353 


— 




— 


i8ii 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


1832 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


900 


— 




— 


1833 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1293 


— 




iza 


1834 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




167 


1835 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1350 


— 




435 


1836 




— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


1840 


— 




922 12 6 


1837 




— 


— 


— 


iioo" 


— 


2400 


— 




932 2 2 


1838 




— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 




1595 11 


1839 




— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


1353 


— 




1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 


— 


6o» 


— 


891 


— 




1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331" 


28 


1315 


— 




1449 17 8 


1842 




n 


185 


— 


160 


— 




— 




1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 




981 12 8 


1S44 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 




831 9 9 


1S45 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 




685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


■ — 




208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


375 


197 


15 


819 


!joy 





275 I 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 





159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


124I 


1085 





345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 





391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


II08 


1085 





304 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 





205 


1853 




121 


121 


763 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 





380 19 7 


1854 




142 


lOI 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 





480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


I115 


1098 





734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 





507 15 4 


1857 




III 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 





618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 





684 II I 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 





766 19 6 


i860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 





iiii 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


I161 


1089 





1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 





1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


II19 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 





1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 





1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


II 


2303 


2469 





1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


n8 


I163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 





1739 4 


1867 




226 


"7 


720 


682 


45t 


2004 


2042 





1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 





1622 


1869 




303 


195 


I103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 





1572 


1870 




3" 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 





1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 





1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


60 1 


II 


1983 


2120 





1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 





1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 





960 


1875 




33' 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 





1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


II 


1229 


1268 





1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 





725 16 6 


1878 


[ 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 





loSo II II 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 





731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 





476 8 I 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 





1126 I II 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 





1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.5 


1777 


1855 





1173 4 


1884 




33? 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 





1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 





995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 





1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 





1511 5 


l888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 





1417 II 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 





789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 





1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 





864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 





907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 





583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 





977 15 5 


1895 




3R3 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 





II04 6 I 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 





1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 





1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 





1430 14 2 


1899 



X IncludingLadies. § Fehows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 

h [Continued on p. xv. 



XIV 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 



1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 

1905. 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916, 
1917 
1918 
1 9 19. 



Sept. 5 ... 
Sept. II... 
Sept. 10... 
Sept. 9 ... 
Aug. 17... 
Aug. 15... 
Aug. I ... 
July 31 ... 
Sept. 2 ... 
Aug. 25... 
Aug. 31... 
Aug. 30... 
Sept. 4 ... 
Sept. 10... 
Tuly-Sept 
Sept. 7 ... 
Sept. 5 ••• 

Sept. 9 ... 



1920, Aug. 24 

1921, Sept. 7 

1922, Sept. 6 

1923, Sept. 12 

1924, Aug. 6 

1925, Aug. 26 

1926, Aug. 4 . 

1927, Aug. 31 

1928, Sept. 5 

1929, July 22 

1930, Sept. 3 

1931, Sept. 23 

1932, Aug. 31 

1933, Sept. 6 



Where held 



Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham 

Australia 

Manchester 

Newcastle-on-1 yne 

(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 

Bournemouth 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh ... 
Hull 

Liverpool . . . 

Toronto 

Southampton 
Oxford 

Leeds 

Glasgow 

South Africa 

Bristol 

London 

York 

Leicester . . . 



Presidents 



Sir William Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. A. W. Rlicker, D.Sc, Sec. R.S. 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. E.RavLankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. F,. A. Schafer, F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

I Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S 

Hon. Sir C. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S. .. 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

SirT. E. Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S 

SirC. S. Sherrington, G.B.E., Pres. R.S 



Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., 

F.R.S , 

Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S , 

Sir William Bragg, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Thomas Holland, K.C.S.L, 

K.C.I.E., F.R.S 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S 

Gen. the Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C, 

C H K R ^ 
Sir Alfred Ewi'ng," K.C.'b.'," F.'r.'s.' '. '. '. 
Sir F. Gowland Hopkins, Pres. R.S. 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 


376 


40 


172 


13 


242 


19 


164 


12 


235 


47 


288 


II 


336 


9 


228 


13 


326 


12 


119 


7 


280 


8 


358 


9 


249 


9 


260 


10 


81 


I 


221 


5 


487 


14 


206 


I 


185 


37 



' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

' Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

' Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in Older to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association Franfaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, los. 

• Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



XV 





Annual Meetings- 


—(continued). 




























Amoun 




Sums paid 






Old 
Annual 


New 

Annual 


Asso- 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


receivec 

for 
Tickets 




on account 
of Grants 


Year 




Members 


Members 


ciates 










for Scientific 
Purposes 






297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


£1801 





£1072 10 


1900 




374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 





920 9 II 


1901 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 





947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 





845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 





887 i8 II 


1904 




937' 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 





928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 





882 9 


1906 




339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 





757 12 10 


1907 




465 


112 


1166 


222 


«4 


2297 


2317 





1157 18 8 


1908 




290' 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 





1014 9 9 


1909 




379 


57 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 





963 17 


1910 




349 


61 


414 


81 


H 


1241 


1176 





922 


1911 




368 


95 


1292 


359 


88 


2504 


2349 





845 7 6 


1912 




480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


2643 


2756 





978 17 I 


1913 




139 


4l6o» 


539' 




21 


5044' 


4873 





1861 16 4« 


1914 




287 


116 


628' 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 





1569 2 8 


1915 




250 


76 


251* 


73 


— 


826 


821 





985 18 10 


1916 












— 


— 


— 




677 17 2 


1917 










— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




326 13 3 


1918 




254 


102 


688* 


153 


3 


1482 


1736 





410 


1919 




Old 
Annual 


Annual Members 










Transfer- 
able 
Tickets 


Students' 






















Regular 
Members 


Meeting 
and 


Meeting 
only 


Tickets 


















Report 




















136 


192 


571 


42 


120 


20 


1380 


1272 10 





1251 13 0' 


1920 




133 


410 


1394 


121 


343. 


22 


2768 


2599 15 





518 I 10 


1921 




90 


294 


757 


89 


235* 


24 


1730 


1699 5 





772 7 


1922 




Compli- 














mentary' 














123 


380 


1434 


163 


550 


308 


3296 


2735 15 





777 18 6> 


1923 




37 


520 


1866 


41 


89 


139 


2818 


3165 19 


0'" 


"97 5 9 


1924 




97 


264 


878 


62 


119 


74 


1782 


1630 5 





1231 


1925 




lOI 


453 


2338 


169 


225 


69 


3722 


3542 





917 I 6 


1926 




84 


334 


1487 


82 


264 


161 


2670 


2414 5 





761 10 


1927 




76 


554 


1835 


64 


201 


74 


3074 


3072 10 





1259 ID 


1928 




24 


177 


1227" 


— 


161 


83 


1754 


1477 15 





1838 2 I 


1929 




68 


310 


I617 


97 


267 


54 


2639 


2481 15 





683 5 7 


1930 




78 


656 


2994 


157 


454 


449 


5702'* 


4792 10 





1146 7 6 


1931 




44 


226 


1 1 63 


45 


214 


125 


2024 


1724 5 





1183 13 II 


1932 




39 


235 


1468 


82 


147 


74 


2268 


2428 2 





412 19 11" 


1933 



• Including grants from the Caird Fund in this and subsequent years. 
' Including Foreign Guests, Exhibitioners, and others. 

• The Bournemouth Fund for Research, initiated by Sir C. Parsons, enabled grants on account of 
scientific purposes to be maintained. 

• Including grants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 
to 1926. 

" Subscriptions paid in Canada were $5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some gain 
on exchange. 

" Including 450 Members of the South African Association. 

" Including 413 tickets for certain meetings, issued at 5s. to London County Council school-teachers. 

" For nine months ending March 31, 1933. 



INSTALLATION OF THE PRESIDENT 

January 6, 1933. 



On Friday, January 6, 1933, at Birkbeck College, London, on the 
occasion of the joint meeting of Organising Sectional Committees, 
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Pres. R.S., was installed in the 
Presidency of the Association in succession to Sir Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir Alfred Ewing said that under the new statute of the Association, 
which came into effect a year ago, the President came into office in 
January and held it throughout the year. It was an excellent rule, for 
it educated the President in the work of the Association and its various 
committees before his chief duty fell to be performed at the Annual 
Meeting in the autumn. There was no need for him to say how fortunate 
the Association was in securing Sir Frederick Hopkins as President — a 
man already so pre-eminent as to be President of the Royal Society. 
Last year it had been, so to speak, the turn of that part of science which 
dealt with the constitution of non-living matter and with purely 
mechanical processes, which can certainly kill, but cannot make alive. 
Now they turned, perhaps with relief and greater hope, to the still more 
difficult science of Hfe — of whose fascinating problems no one could 
speak with more authority and clearer discernment than Sir Frederick 
Hopkins. One felt certain that in his hands the Association would lose 
nothing of the public attention and interest its great annual conference 
continued to command. More than ever, he believed, the public wished 
to know about the advances of science — partly because these were now 
confessedly tentative and incomplete, and partly also because they might 
provide some guidance in the urgent perplexities of our social affairs. 

It seemed not unlikely, and probably it was desirable, that in future 
meetings of the Association scientists would make a more conscious 
effort to relate their studies to social problems. Science was now playing 
so large a part in human life, both for good and for evil, that they could 
not logically stand aloof : they were bound to recognise the immense 
consequence of discovery and invention, not only on man's philosophy 
but on his habits of living and his relations to his fellows. Science 
had brought new powers, and with them new dangers — grave dangers 
of which the community were scarcely yet aware. It was clearly the duty 
of science to point these out. The first step towards escape from these 
dangers was to have them fully realised. 



NARRATIVE OF THE LEICESTER 



MEETING. 



On Wednesday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m. the Inaugural General Meeting 
was held in the De Montfort Hall, when the Rt. Worshipful the Lord 
Mayor of Leicester (Councillor Arthur Hawkes, J. P.) welcomed the 
Association to Leicester, and the President of the Association, Sir 
Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Pres. R.S., delivered an Address (for which 
see p. i), entitled Some Chemical Aspects of Life. 

On Friday, September 8, in the Great Hall of Wyggeston Boys' School, 
lat 8.15 P.M., Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E., General Treasurer of the 
Association, delivered an Evening Discourse entitled Must Science ruin 
Economic Progress? (for an abstract of which see p. 578). 

On Monday, September 11, in the Lancaster Hall, at 8.15 p.m.. Prof. 
Jocelyn F. Thorpe, C.B.E., F.R.S., delivered an Evening Discourse, 
with cinematograph and illustrations and experiments, entitled The 
Work of the Safety in Mines Research Board (for an abstract of which 
see p. 584). 



Public Lectures were given by Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E., on Tuesday, 
September 5, on Transport for a Century, and by Prof. Julian Huxley, 
on Saturday, September 9, on Ants and Men. 



The Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of the City of Leicester 
(Councillor Arthur Hawkes, J.P., and Mrs. Hawkes) entertained 
members of the Association at a Reception in the De Montfort Hall on 
Thursday evening, September 7. 

The President (His Grace the Duke of Rutland), the Chairman 
(Sir Jonathan North), the Principal and Members of the College Council 
of University College, Leicester, entertained members of the Association 
at a Garden Party in the grounds of University College on Monday 
afternoon, September 11. 

The President (Mr. H. Percy Gee, J.P.) and Council of the Leicester 
Literary and Philosophical Society entertained members of the Association 
at a Reception in the City Art Gallery and Museum on Tuesday evening, 
September 12. 

Numerous other institutions and works in the city and neighbourhood 
afforded facilities and entertainment to members during the meeting. 

An exhibition indicating the value of planning in connection with 
modern problems in town and country was held under the joint auspices 
of the Council for the Preservation of Rural England, the University 
College, Leicester, and Section E (Geography) of the Association, and 
helped to illustrate papers read in the Section. 



xviii NARRATIVE OF THE LEICESTER MEETING 

An exhibition of machinery, scientific instruments, and electrical 
instruments was held in connection with Section G (Engineering), and 
consisted of products of firms in Leicester and Leicestershire. 



A special service was held in the Cathedral on Sunday, September lo, 

when officers and other members of the Association accompanied the 

Lord Mayor (Councillor Arthur Hawkes) and the City Council in state 

from the Town Hall. The preacher was the Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

Carlisle (whose sermon was published in the Church Times, September 15). 

An official Free Church service and other special services were held. 
****** 

On Saturday, September 9, general excursions took place to Charnwood 
Forest ; Stanton Ironworks, Holwell ; Kenilworth and Warwick ; 
Stratford-on-Avon (where one party witnessed a performance of Macbeth 
at the Memorial Theatre) ; Belvoir Castle (by kind permission of the 
Duke of Rutland). Among other excursions and visits, those devoted 
to the interests of special Sections are mentioned among the Sectional 
Transactions in later pages. 



At the final meeting of the General Committee, on Tuesday, 
September 12, it was resolved : 

That the British Association most warmly thanks the City and County 
of Leicester for their hospitable reception. It deeply appreciates the 
unsparing efforts of the Lord Mayor and Corporation, and of the Local 
Officers and Committees, in making arrangements for the convenience 
of the meetings and for the comfort of visiting members, as also the judicious 
choice and admirable organisation of the excursions. The thanks of the 
Association are further due to the many institutions, works, and individuals 
in the City and neighbourhood for their generous aid in securing the success 
of the Meeting ; and the support of the citizens of Leicester who have 
joined the Association as members is very gratefully recognised. 

On Wednesday, September 13, the President and General Secretaries 
and certain other members waited upon the Lord Mayor (Councillor 
Arthur Hawkes) at the Town Hall, in order to take formal leave of him 
and other local officers for the Meeting. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCfL, 1932-33. 



Obituary. 



I. — The Council has had to deplore the loss by death of the following 
office-bearers and supporters : — 

Dr. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. 

G. R. Carline 

A. Chasten Chapman, F.R.S. 

Sir Dugald Clerk, K.B.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Craib 



CLE. 



Dr. J. E. Crombie 

Prof. J. C. Fields, F.R.S. 

Sir Walter Fletcher, K.B.E., 

F.R.S. 
Bernard Hobson 

Sir Everard im Thurn, K.C.M.G. 
C.B. 
Dr. J. E. Crombie's and Mr. Bernard Hobson's benefactions to the 
Association are referred to in a later paragraph. 



Sir Philip Magnus 

Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G. 

Sir Ronald Ross, K.C 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Rev. Dr. A. H. Sayce 
Lt.-Col. J. Stephenson, 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Arthur Thomson 
Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S 
A. Silva White 
Dr. A. Wilmore 



B. 



Representation. 

II. — Representatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follows : — 



Sixth International Congress on Scientific 
Management ..... 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, annual meeting, 

1932-33 

University of London : laying of founda- 
tion stone of new buildings 

Royal Society of Teachers, conference on 
research ...... 

Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, cen- 
tenary ...... 

Board of Trade Discussion on Conference 
of International Bureau of Weights 
and Measures ..... 



Mr. R. J. Mackay 

Prof. W. F. G. Swann 

The President 

Mr. J. L. Holland 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, 
C.B., F.R.S. 



Dr. Ezer 
F.R.S. 



Griffiths, 



Resolutions. 

III. — Resolutions referred by the General Committee to the Council 
for consideration, and, if desirable, for action were dealt with as follows. 
The resolutions will be found in the Report for 1932, pp. xliii-xliv. 

(a) The recommendation from Section C (Geology) concerning the 
photography of certain special topographical features in north-east 
Yorkshire and elsewhere was referred to the Air Ministry, but this 
authority was unable to take the action desired. 



XX REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1932-33 

(b) Following upon recommendations from Sections E (Geography) 
and M (Agriculture), a deputation waited upon the Ministry of Agri- 
culture, and was assured that as far as possible the publication of 
Agricultural Statistics, Parts i and 2, should be expedited, and the needs 
of students in agricultural geography should be met. 

(c) The attention of the Home Office and the Ministry of Transport 
was called to the resolution from Section G (Engineering) concerning 
the desirability of action against noises caused by motor vehicles. 

(d) The Council conveyed to the Museums Association their approval 
of the system of interchange of specimens in museums, and expressed 
the hope that the system would be extended. (Resolution of Section 
H, Anthropology.) 

(e) A recommendation that the final report of the Colour Vision 
Committee should be communicated to the Ministry of Transport, 
in so far as it referred to the shape of traffic lights, was adopted. The 
report was communicated accordingly, and certain information was 
supplied to the Ministry at its request. 

The Council forwarded the following resolution to H.M. Secretary of 
State for the Colonies : — 

The Council of the British Association have noted with great interest 
the highly important archfeological and geological discoveries made in the 
Kendu-Homa area of Kenya Colony, and the promise they give that even 
more valuable results will be obtained there in the future. The Council 
therefore express the strong hope that it may be possible to reserve the 
superficial deposits of this area (which at a minimum may be taken as a 
strip two miles in width from the shore, from Kendu Point to Homa 
Point, on Lake Victoria, a distance of 12 miles) for excavation only by 
qualified scientific investigators. 

Down House. 

IV. — The following report for the year 1932-33 has been received from 
the Down House Committee : — 

The number of visitors to Down House during the year ending June 6, 
1933, has been 7,022, compared with 7,638 in 1931-32, and 5,210 in 1930- 
31. The decrease during the present as compared with last year is 
accounted for by the fact that last year included the Association's centenary 
week, when a large number of members visited the house. 

Among recent acquisitions reference should be made to the barometer 
used by Darwin on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, which has been placed 
at Down House by the Royal Society on loan. It has been restored to 
working order by Messrs. Negretti & Zambra, with the kind advice of the 
Meteorological Office. 

Darwin's dining-room table has been added to the collection by purchase. 

The Old Study was copied as nearly as possible, and with great success, 
as one of the rooms of scientific men exhibited at the Ideal Home Exhibition 
this year. 

The Committee have acknowledged with deep gratitude a gift of £150 
a year for five years from the Pilgrim Trust to the funds of the Association 
in respect of its trusteeship under Sir Buckston Browne's gift of Down 
House. The preliminary steps which led to the making of this gift were 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1932-33 



XXI 



taken by Sir Alfred Ewing during the year of his presidency of the 
Association. 

The following financial statement shows income on account of Down 
House, and current expenditure, for the financial year ending March 31, 
1933. compared with that for the year ending June 30, 1932. The overlap 
between the two years is accounted for by the recent change of dates for 
the Association's financial year. 

The figure for income from the Endowment Fund during the past year 
is in a measure deceptive as certain dividends have been paid gross, which 
previously were paid less tax to be subsequently reclaimed ; so that this 
year includes both a gross payment and a refund on the preceding year. 
The gross amount of interest and dividends for a full year is £994 10s. 

Income 

By Dividends on endowment fund 
,, Income tax recovered . 
,, Rents. .... 

„ Donations .... 
,, Sale of Postcards and Catalogues 
,, Balance, being excess of expenditure (run 
ning costs), as below, over income 



I93I-3; 


J 


1932-33 


£ s. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


741 4 


5 


776 16 3 


223 IS 


2 


253 5 7 


137 





138 


9 19 


I 


7 4 4 


33 16 


7 


24 17 


150 13 


2 


40 7 iij 


£1,296 8 


5 


1,240 II I J 



Expenditure (running costs) 



To Wages and National Insurance 
„ Rates, Land Tax, Insurances 
„ Coal, Coke, etc. .... 
„ Water ..... 

,, Lighting and Drainage Plants (including 

petrol and oil) .... 
,, Repairs and Renewals . 
„ Garden Materials 
,, Household Requisites . 
,, Transport and Carriage 
„ Auditors ..... 
,, Postcards and Catalogues (printing) 
,, Postages, Telephone, Stationery, etc. 

* Approx. 



193 


1-3 


2 


19: 


2-33 


£ 


5. 


d. 


£ 


5. d. 


840 


10 


II 


807 


2 10 


72 


4 





64 


10 II 


125 


16 


2 


104 


9 9 


14 


10 


6 


15 


6 8 


s 

50 


12 


I 


69 


17 6 


41 


I 


6 


39 


8 7 


47 


7 


2 


58 


10 9 


16 


5 


6 


16 


19 3l 


4 


4 


6 


5 


5 2 


33 


10 





22 


10 10 


44 


6 


II 


9 


0* 


5 


19 


2 


27 


8 10 


£1,296 


8 


5 


1,240 


II xi 



' Capital ' Expenditure, 1932-33 



Improvement of drainage system 

,, ,, stokehole . 

Radiator alterations 



£ s. 


d 


36 15 





12 14 


6 


16 





£65 9 


6 


b 2 





xxii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1932-33 

In connection with so-called ' capital ' expenditure by the Association 
upon Down House, detailed in last year's report, the statement was then 
made that the works of restoration, etc., included under this heading 
were within sight of completion. They have now been completed, and 
the ' capital ' expenditure account has been closed at the total sum of 
£3,292 15s. 2<i., including catalogues in stock £110 (£119 less approximate 
cost of catalogues sold, £g). 

The Council have granted a lease of the cottage of Homefield to Sir 
Arthur and Lady Keith or the survivor of them, and have authorised 
Sir Arthur Keith to make agreed improvements in the property and 
structural additions to the cottage at his own charges. They have also 
granted an annual tenancy of a piece of land about three-quarters of an 
acre in extent to the Royal College of Surgeons. 



Finance. 

V. — The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His accounts have been audited and are presented 
to the General Committee. As the General Committee last year adopted 
a proposal that the financial year of the Association should run from 
April I to March 3 1 , the present audited accounts cover a period of nine 
months after June 20, 1932, the close of the last financial year under the 
former plan. A pro forma account of expenditure and income for the 
year as from April i, 1932, has therefore been added. 

Expenditure from Lt.-Col. Alan Cunningham's bequest for the 
preparation of new mathematical tables in the theory of numbers has 
been made or sanctioned as follows : — Purchase of calculating machine ; 
preparation of tables of ideal numbers (Dr. E. L. Ince) ; publication of 
Factor Table to 100,000. 

The Council have been informed that the Seismology Committee of 
the Association is a prospective beneficiary in the sum of ;Ci,ooo under 
the will of Dr. J. E. Crombie. 

They have also been informed that the Association is a beneficiary 
in the sum of ;£i,ooo under the will of Mr. Bernard Hobson, ' to be 
invested and the proceeds annually devoted to the promoting of definite 
geological research, the trust fund to be called the Bernard Hobson Fund.' 
The Council propose that they should administer this fund, that it shall 
be competent for the Committee of Section C (Geology) to recommend 
grants as a charge upon the fund, and that grants may be made from it 
in response to special applications arising in the course of any year. 

The Council recommend that a sum not exceeding £400 should be 
allocated to grants to Research Committees from general funds for the 
ensuing year. 



President (1934), General Officers, Council and Committees. 

VI. — The Council nominate as President of the Association for the 
year 1934 (Aberdeen Meeting) Sir William Bate Hardy, F.R.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1932-33 xxiii 

VII. — The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as 
follows : — 

General Treasurer, Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E. 

General Secretaries, Prof. F. J. M. Stratton, O.B.E., Prof. P. G. H. 
Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S. 

VIII. — Council. — The retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are : 
Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. , Mr. A. R. Hinks, C.B.E., F.R.S., Sir 
Henry Lyons, F.R.S., Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., Prof. A. C. Seward, 
F.R.S. 

The Council have nominated as new members Dr. F. Aveling, Prof. 
R. N. Rudmose Brown, Prof. F. Balfour Browne, leaving two vacancies 
to be filled by the General Committee without nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of Ordinary Members is as follows : — 



Dr. F. Aveling 

Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. N. Rudmose Brown 

Prof. F. Balfour Browne 

SirHenryDale,C.B.E.,Sec.R.S. 

Prof. J. Drever 

Dr. A. Ferguson 

Prof. R. B. Forrester 

Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E, 

Prof. W. T. Gordon 

Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne- 

Vaughan, G.B.E. 
Dr. H. S. Harrison 



Sir James Henderson 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins 

Sir P. Chalmers Mitchell, C.B.E 

F.R.S. 
Dr. C. Tate Regan, F.R.S. 
Sir John Russell, O.B.E., F.R.S. 
Dr. N. V. Sidgwick, F.R.S. 
Dr. G. C. Simpson, C.B., F.R.S, 
Prof. J. F. Thorpe, C.B.E., F.R.S. 
H.T.Tizard,C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Tyndall, F.R.S. 
Prof. F.E.Weiss, F.R.S. 



IX. — General Committee. — Dr. R. E. Gibbs, Dr. C. C. Hurst, Capt. 
W. N. McClean, Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, Dr. Edgar Stedman, Mrs. Ellen 
Stedman, and Mr. H. E. Wimperis, C.B.E. , have been admitted as members 
of the General Committee. 

X. — Corresponding Societies Committee. — The Corresponding Societies 
Committee has been nominated as follows : — The President of the 
Association {Chairman ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard {Vice- Chairman), 
Dr. C. Tierney {Secretary), the General Treasurer, the General Secre- 
taries, Mr. C. O. Bartrum, Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S., Sir Richard 
Gregory, F.R.S., Mr. J. V. Pearman, Sir David Prain, F.R.S., Sir 
John Russell, F.R.S., Prof. W.M. Tattersall. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1932-33. 

The General Committee at the York Meeting last year adopted the 
Council's proposal that the financial year of the Association should 
run from April i to March 31, instead of from July i to June 30 as 
heretofore. The audited accounts herewith, therefore, cover a period 
of nine months only, from July i, 1932 (the previous accounts having 
been completed to June 30 of that year), to March 31, 1933. The 
usual figures for comparison with the preceding year are omitted 
from these accounts. 

The auditors have furnished the following notes : 

Members' Subscriptions (Annual) are mainly in respect of sales of tickets 
at the York Meeting, 1932. Preliminary programmes for the ensuing 
meeting are not issued until April ; therefore the advance sale of 
tickets does not materially affect the present account. 

Advertisements are chiefly on printed matter for the Meeting (programmes, 
&c.). At the date of the accounts these are not completed. The 
revenue shown in the nine months accounts is, therefore, practically 
nil. 

Dividends credited in the accounts are the actual amounts received, some 
being in respect of six months, some nine months and others twelve 
months. The dividends credited to General Income and Expenditure 
Account are on balance short by £21 os. 6d. In the case of the Caird 
Income and Expenditure Account, the majority of the dividends are 
for twelve months, and on balance there is an actual excess of ;^46 igs. ^d. 
This also applies to Down House, where the amount of excess is 
£31 6s. 3d. 

Income Tax Recovered credited in accounts is the actual amount received 
and is for twelve months. 

Dividends received Gross. — During the period certain dividends (on 
Government Stocks) were received gross instead of net. The 
additional amounts included in the accounts, which would in a normal 
way be included in Income Tax Recovered in the following year, 
amount to : 

General Income and Expenditure Account . ^128 6 4 
Caird Income and Expenditure Account . . 11 9 10 

Cunningham Bequest . . . . . 899 

Down House Income and Expenditure Account 30 18 9 

Bonus on Conversion of War Stocks credited in the accounts is non- 
recurring. 

Donations to Centenary Fund credited in the accounts, £62 its. 6d., are 
also non-recurring. 

Yarrow Fund Realisation. The amount credited to Income and Expendi- 
ture Account, ;£i56, is not according to scale. It is normally at the 
rate of approximately ;^340 p. a. 

General Expenses includes £100 for special accountants' fees in connection 
with the Centenary Meeting, 1931. 

Grants. — The amount included in the accounts is in respect of grants 
actually paid. The further grants which have been authorised but 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



sxv 



not yet claimed amount to ;^i52 os. id. on General Account, and ;fioo 
Caird Fund. These are noted on the accounts. The majority of 
these grants will, it is expected, be claimed before August 31 next. 

In order to afford a clearer idea of the past year's working, a pro 
forma account of expenditure and income on general funds for the 
year ending March 31, in the simplest form, is appended to the audited 
accounts. The comparative figures there given are the averages 
(with slight adjustments) used by the Council when considering their 
report on finance to the General Committee last year. 

Some of the above remarks by the auditors apply to this pro forma 
account equally. On the side of expenditure, general expenses are 
higher than the average, owing mainly to the non-recurrent special 
accountants' fees referred to. It is hoped that the excess of expenditure 
over income on account of Down House will not recur, thanks to the 
generous gift of the Pilgrim Trustees to which reference is made in 
the report of the Council. The reduction of printing costs anticipated 
in last year's Report of the Council is taking effect ; on the other hand 
no material reduction in the increased costs of postage can be expected 
under present conditions. On the side of income, reference has been 
made above to non-recurrent items, and to the fact that the full normal 
realisation of capital from the Yarrow Fund (which was heavily drawn 
upon in connection with the Centenary Meeting in 1931) has not been 
given effect. The receipts from sale of publications have fallen, owing 
in part to the reductions of prices authorised last year. The growth 
of advertisement revenue, under the existing conditions of depression, 
cannot be expected to continue. The receipts from membership 
subscriptions were much below the average of the preceding ten years. 

Nevertheless, after taking into consideration all the items in the 
account which are either abnormal or non-recurrent, it is estimated 
that, omitting those items, the account would have been approximately 
balanced, even if there had been charged upon it a full year's 
transfer of ^^500 to the Contingency Fund. But if the position 
appears so far satisfactory, it must be emphasised that the Association 
is still restricted in its activities by insufficient funds : it has always to 
be remembered that the Yarrow Fund is a wasting asset ; and the 
Association is in no position (without trenching further upon its capital) 
to meet all the applications for assistance of important researches and 
other scientific activities which are brought before it every year. The 
expansion of the Association's membership and the strengthening of its 
financial foundations should be the object of all those who would 
further its interests. 

JosiAH C. Stamp, 

General Treasurer. 



XXVI 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Balance Sheet, 



LIABILITIES. 

To General Fund— £ s. d. £ t. d. 

As at July i, 1932 

As per contra 10,942 19 I 

(Subject to depreciation in value o£ Investments) 

„ Caird Fund — 

As at July i, 1932 

As per contra 9.582 16 3 

(Subject to depreciation in value of Investments) 

,, Caird Fund Revenue Account — 

Balance at July i, 1932 192 o o 

Less Excess of Expenditure over Income for the nine 

months 33 I4 

as per contra 158 18 8 

(Contingent liability for grants authorised at York Meeting, 
1932, but not yet claimed, £100) 

„ Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

As per contra 10,000 o o 

„ Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

As per last Account ....... 6,298 14 8 

Less Transferred to Income and Expenditure Account 

under terms of the Gift 156 o o 

as per contra 6,142 14 8 

„ Life Compositions — 

As per last Account 2,087 a a 

Add received during year 37 10 o 

2,124 12 2 
Less Transferred to Income and Expenditure Account 45 o o 

as per contra 2,079 '* * 

„ Toronto University Presentation Fund — 

As per last Account 182 18 10 

Add Dividends 4 7 6 

Bonus on Conversion . . . . . . • i 15 o 

189 I 4 

Less Awards given 626 

as per contra 182 18 10 

„ Lt.-Col. A. J. C. Cunningham's Bequest — 

For the preparation of New Tables in the Theory of 
Numbers. 

As per last Account 3.007 19 o 

Add— 

Income Tax recovered for 12 months ended June 30, 

1032 32 3 10 

Dividends 78 7 5 

3. "8 in 3 

Less Grant made 150 o o 

as per contra 2,968 10 3 

To Down House Endowment Fund — 

Ai per contra 20,000 o 

Carried forward . £62,058 9 11 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXVll 



March 31, 1933. 



ASSETS. 

By General Fund — 

Investments as per Schedule (p. xxxiv) 
Cash at Bank . ' . 



Caird Fund — 

Investments as per Schedule (p. xxxiv) 



£ s. d. £ s. d. 

10,888 10 2 
54 8 II 



10,94a 19 I 



9,582 16 3 



„ Caird Fund Revenue A ccount- 
Cash at Bank . . 



158 18 8 



„ Sir Charles Parsons' Gift — 

Investment as per Schedule (p. xxxiv) 

„ Sir A If red Yarrow's Gift — 

Investment as per Schedule (p. xxxiv) , 



10,000 o o 



6,142 14 8 



„ Life Compositions — 

Investments as per Schedule (p. xxxiv) 



2,079 12 2 



„ Toronto University Presentation Fund — 

Investments as per Schedule (p. xxxv) . . . 178 ii 4 

Cash at Bank 4 7 6 

182 18 10 

„ Lt.-Col. A. J. C. Cunningham's Bequest — 

Investments as per Schedule (p. xxxv) . . . 2,702 19 2 

Cash at Bank 265 11 i 

2,968 10 3 

„ Sir Buckston Browne's Gift in memory of Darwin — Down House, 

Kent ......... Not valued. 

Do, Endowment Fund — 

InvestmenU as per Schedule (p. xxxv 20,000 o 

Carried forward . . £62,058 9 11 



xxviii GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Balance Sheet, 



L.IABIL,ITIES— continued. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 
Brought forward ......... 62,058 9 11 

To REVENUE ACCOUNT— 

Sundry Creditors . . . . . . . 119 6 4 

Do. Do. (Down House) . . . . . 22 16 11 

,, Income and Expenditure Account — 

Balance at July i, 1932 .... 7fi\y 4 5 

Less Unexpended Grant in aid 
of Expenses, 1929 (South 
African Meeting), not re- 
coverable . . . • 74 5 o 

Less Excess of Expenditure 
over Income for the nine 
months .... 184 2 (. 



258 7 6 



6,758 16 II 

Contingency Fund 375 o o 

7.276 

(Contingent liability for grants authorised at York Meeting, 



1932, but not yet claimed, £152 os. id.) £69,334 10 i 



I have examined the foregoing Account with the Books and Vouchers and certify 
the Investments, and have inspected the Deeds of Down House and the Mortgage on 

Approved. 

w w"w^-^°""^''''l Auditors. 
W. W. Watts ) 

1933- 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT xxix 



March 31, 1933 — continued. 



a>*T » ASSKTS— continued. 

i s. d. £ s. d. 

Brought forward 62,058 9 11 

By REVENUE ACCOUNT— 

Investments as per Schedule (p. XXXV) . . TfTT'T- • 5.^04 16 o 
„ Down House Suspense Account — 

As per last Account ....... 938 7 o 

Purchase of Land adjoining Down House .... 275 o o 

Stock of Catalogues at Down House ..... no o o 

Sundry Debtors and Payments in advance . . . 70 6 i 

Do. (Down House) . . . . . . 20 11 9 

Cash at Bank ........ 204. 3 6 

Do. in Hand . . . . . . 52 15 10 



7,276 



£69,334 10 I 



the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers and 
Isleworth House. 



W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 



XXX 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Income and 

For the Nine Months 



EXPENDITURE. 

i J. i. 

To Heat, Lighting and Power 2351 

,, Stationery . . . . . . . . . . 46 '3 3 

„ Rent 15 o 

,, Postages. 135 12 8 

„ Travelling Expenses ........ 166 18 2 

„ Exhibitioners . . . . . . . . . . 53 5 6 

„ General Expenses ......... 323 17 5 

750 7 I 

„ Salaries and Wages 1.474 16 9 

„ Pension Contribution (i year) . . . . . . . 75 o o 

„ Printing, Binding, etc. 943 9 3 

,, Grants to Research Committees: — 

Film Committee ......... 200 

General Science in School . . . . . . . 151911 

Biology of a Tropical River in British Guiana . . . 2000 

(Grants authorised at the York Meeting, 1932, but not yet claimed 
amount to £152 os. id.) 

To Balance, being excess of Income over Expenditure for the nine 
months .......... 



s. d. 



3.243 13 I 



37 19 " 



179 19 7 



£3,461 12 7 



Contingency Fund 

Amount allocated in accordance with Council Minute, i.e. 
£500 p. a.. Proportion for nine months . . . . 



375 o o 

£375 o o 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXI 



Expenditure Account 

Ended March 31, 1933 



INCOME. 



i I. d. 



By Annual Regular Members, including £11 for 1933/4 

„ Annual Temporary Members, including £22 is. for 1933/4 

,, Annual Members with Report, including £18 los. for 1933/4. 

,, Transferable Tickets ........ 

„ Students' Tickets ......... 

„ Life Compositions, Amount transferred ..... 

,, Sale of Publications ......... 

,, Advertisement Revenue ........ 

„ Income Tax recovered for 12 months ended 30 June, 1932 

„ Unexpended Balance of Grants, returned ..... 

„ Ijverpool Exhibitioners ........ 

,, Dividends : — 

Consols 2 J per cent. Stock . . . . . . . 116 o i 

India 3 per cent. Stock . . . . . . . 74 5 o 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity . . . 26 10 11 
4J per cent. Conversion Loan . . . . . . 48 18 6 

Ditto Sir Charles Parsons' Gift 393 15 o 

3 per cent. Local Loans . . . . . . . 60 16 8 

3 J per cent. War Loan . . . . . . . 37 11 3 

Ditto Ditto (Series A), Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift . 157 9 4 

3j per cent. Conversion Loan . . . . . . 81 12 8 

„ Sir Alfred Yarrow's Gift — 

Amount transferred ........ 

Bonus on Conversion of War Stock — Sir A. Yarrow's Gift . 62 19 8 
Do. Do. Other . . . . 18 10 6 

„ Interest on Mortgage . . ■ ..... 
„ Sundry Donations : Centenary Fund 

By Balance brought down ........ 

„ Down House Income and Expenditure Account — Balance, being 
Excess of Income over Expenditure for the nine months 
transferred ......... 

„ Balance transferred to Balance Sheet ..... 



i 


». 


d. 


go 


13 





922 


17 





213 


10 





4' 


10 





93 


10 





45 








402 


8 


10 


4 


4 


I 


28S 


7 


9 


16 


5 


10 



996 19 5 
156 o o 



81 10 
17 10 
62 16 



£3,461 12 7 



179 19 7 



10 17 ri 
184 2 6 



£375 



XXXll 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Gaird Fund, Income 

For the Nine Months 



s. d. 



EXPENDITURE. 

To Grants paid— .;{ I/O. j'.' T 

Seismology Committee 
Zoological Record Committee 
Derbyshire Caves Committee 
Plymouth Table Committee 
Athlit Caves Investigation . 
Freshwater Biological Station Committee 

(Grants authorised at the York Meeting, 1932, but not yet claimed 
amount to £100) 



00 





50 





50 





50 





75 





50 






375 



£375 o o 



Down House Income 

For the Nine Months 



EXPENDITURE. . ■ ^^ ,\,„ 

■ £ I. 

To Wages of Staff (net) 607 i 

„ Rates, Insurance, etc. ........ 49 9 

„ Coal, Coke, etc. ........ 

„ Lighting and Drainage (including oil and petrol) . 

„ Water 

,, Repairs and Renewals ....... 

„ Garden Material, etc. ....... 

,, Household Requisites, etc. ...... 

,, Transport and Carriage ....... 

,, Accountants' Fees ........ 

„ Printing, Postages, Telephone, Stationery, etc. . 

To Balance carried down ....... 



To Repairs and alterations to Buildings, etc. . . 
„ Balance, being Excess of Income over Expenditure for the nine months 



s. d. 



95 


3 


54 


3 


II 9 


4 


28 9 


4 


41 14 


I 


9 16 


6 


I 2 


II 


22 10 


10 


19 II 


8 



940 
76 


5 5 
7 5 


£1,016 


12 10 


65 
10 


9 6 
17 II 


£76 


7 5 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXlll 



and Expenditure Account 

Ended March 31, 1933 



INCOME. 

By Dividends — 

India 3J per cent. Stock ....... 

Canada 3J per cent. Stock . . . . 

London, Midland & Scottish Railway Consolidated 4 per cent. 
Preference Stock ........ 

Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent. Preference Stock . 

,, Income Tax recovered for 12 months ended 30th June 1932. 

,, Balance, being excess of Expenditure over Income for 9 months . 



Note — 
Balance at i July 1932 
Less Excess of Expenditure as above . 



£ s. d. 



i s. a. 



Balance at date as per Balance Sheet 



63 4 

65 12 

47 5 
75 


I 

6 





:^ 

251 I 

90 17 

33 I 


7 

I 
4 








£375 





192 

33 I 



4 






158 18 


8 





and Expenditure Account 

Ended March 31, 1933 



INCOME. 



By Rents Receivable 

,, Income Tax recovered for the 12 months ended June 30, 1932 
,, Dividends — 

4i per cent. India Stock .... 

Fishguard & Rosslare Railway si pcr cent. Stock 

New South Wales 5 per cent. Stock 

Great Western Railway 5 per cent. Stock 

Australia 5 per cent. Stock 1945/75 

Western Australia 5 per cent. Stock 

Birkenhead Railway 4 per cent. Stock . 



Donations 

Sale of Postcards, etc. 



By Balance brought down 



i s- d. £ s. d. 

103 10 o 
253 5 7 



123 15 
78 15 
46 17 

125 5 
93 15 
93 15 
75 



.1 : 



637 

5 

17 



£1,016 


12 


10 


76 


7 


5 


£76 


7 


5 



XXZIV 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Schedules of Investments, etc. 



Genfral Funds — 

£4,651 los. sd. Consolidated 2^ per cent. Stock at cost . 
£3,600 India 3 per cent. Stock at cost ..... 
£879 14s. qd. Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity at cost 
£52 I2S. 7d. War Stock (Post Of5ce Issue) at cost . 
£834 i6s. 6d. 4i per cent. Conversion Stock at cost 
£1,400 War Stock 3^ per cent, at cost ..... 
£94 7s. 4J per cent. Conversion Stock at cost 
£326 gs. lod. 3} per cent. Conversion Stock at cost 

(Value at date, £10,311 6s, Sd.) 



s. d. 





3.942 3 


3 




3.522 2 


6 




827 15 







54 5 


2 




835 12 


4 




1,393 16 


II 




62 15 







250 





£10,888 10 


2 



Caird Fund — 

£2,627 OS. lod. India 3} per cent. Stock at cost ..... 2,400 13 3 

£2,100 London Midland & Scottish Railway Consolidated 4 per cent. 

Preference Stock at cost ......... 2,190 4 3 

£2,500 Canada 3J per cent. Registered Stock 1930/50 at cost . . . 2,397 i 6 

£2,000 Southern Railway Consolidated 5 per cent. Preference Stock at cost 2,594 i7 3 



(Value at date, £7,159 7s. iid.) 



£9,582 16 3 



Sir Ouirles Parsons' Gift— 

£10,300 4J per cent. Conversion Stock at cost 

(Value at date, £11,458 15s.) 



£io,ooo o o 



Sir Alfred Yafroui's Gift — 

£6,142 14s. Sd. 3} per cent. War Loan 

(Value at date, £6,219 io<- 4<'-) 



. £6,142 14 8 



Life Compositions — 

£2,949 I2J. 4d. Local Loans at cost 
£156 3J per cent. War Loan 



(Value at date, £2,783 2S. 2d.] 



. 1,923 12 2 
156 o o 

£2,079 12 2 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXV 



Schedules of Investments, etc. — continued 



Toronto University Presentation Fund — 
f 175 3} per cent. War Loan at cost 
(Value at date, £177 3s. 9^.) 



£ 
178 



I. d. 
" 4 



Lt.-Col. A . J. Cunningham's Bequest — 

£1,187 6s. lod. Consolidated Stock 2} per cent. . 

£300 Port of London 3* per cent. Stock 1949/99 • 

£100 Commonwealth of Australia 4I per cent. Stock 

£100 New Zealand 5 per. cent Stock 

j^Soo India 6 per cent. Stock at cost 

£1,274 4*- lod. Local Loans 3 per cent. Stock at cost 

(Value at date, £3,359 i8j. 7d.) 











653 





9 










216 
















93 
















103 
















801 


12 













836 


6 


S 


12 


■702 


19 


2 



Down House Endowment Fund — 

£5,500 India ^\ per cent. Stock 1958/68 at cost 

£2,500 Australia 5 per cent. 1945/75 at cost ...... 

£3,000 Fishguard and Rosslare Railway 3} per cent. Guaranteed Preference 
Stock at cost .......... 

£2,500 New South Wales 5 per cent. Stock 1945/65 at cost 
£2,500 Western Australia 5 per cent. Stock 1945/75 at cost 
£3,340 Great Western Railway 5 per cent. Guaranteed Stock at cost 
£2,500 Birkenhead Railway 4 per cent. Consolidated Stock at cost . 



5,001 


17 


4 


2,(68 


19 





2,139 


17 


3 


2,467 


7 


9 


2,472 


I 


6 


3.436 


7 


5 


2,013 


9 


9 



(Value at date, £22,540 6s.) 



£20,000 o o 



Revenue Account — 

£2,098 IS. gd. Consolidated 2 J per cent. Stock at cost 
£4.338 6s. 2d. Conversion 3} per cent. Stock at cost 
£400 3i per cent. War Loan Inscribed Stock at cost 
Second Mortgage on Isleworth House, Orpington, Kent 

(Value of Stocks at date, £6,353 i8s. lod.) 



. 1,200 o o 

. 3,300 o o 

404 16 o 

700 o o 

£5,604 16 o 



XXXVl 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Pro formt Account of Income 

For the Year April i, 1932 — 



■4 verages, 

24 

75 

I 

170 

160 

52 

210 
2,026 

75 
1,700 



EXPENDITURE 



To Heat, light, and power 

Stationery 

Rent 

Postages . . . • 

Travelling expenses ....... 

Exhibitioners ........ 

General expenses ....... 

Salaries and Wages . . . . • . 

Pension contribution ..... 

Printing, binding, etc. 

Grants to Research Committees from general funds 

Down House, excess of expenditure over income (including 
'capital ' expenditure) ...... 

Transfer to Contingency Fund (nine months) 



£ s. 


d. 


29 9 


10 


57 14 


7 


I 





217 14 


2i 


187 6 


I 


53 5 


6 


371 3 


5 


1,958 


9 


75 





1,186 6 


4 


259 14 


II 


105 17 


54 


375 





4,877 13 


I 



Down House accounts for the year will be found in the 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXVll 



and Expenditure (General Funds) 

—March 31, 1933 



INCOME 



Averages, £ 
2,500 



566 
242 



250 



'.577 



By Annual Membership subscriptions 
,, Life compositions, amount transferred 
,, Sale of publications .... 
,, Advertisement revenue 
,, Unexpended balances of grants, returned 
, , Liverpool exhibitioners 
, , Centenary Fund donations 
,, Income tax recovered for 1931-32 
,, Bonus on conversion of War Stock 
,, Interest and dividends .... £1335 19 
,, Interest on mortgage . . . . 26 5 

,, Sir Alfred Yarrow's gift, capital transferred . 156 o 

,, Excess of expenditure over income for the year . 



I 


s. 


d. 


1.933 


15 





45 








477 


5 


2i 


357 


5 


3 


16 


5 


10 


22 


10 





93 


I 


6 


288 


7 


9 



81 10 2 



1,518 

44 



o 

4i 



£4.877 13 I 



Report of the Council (Down House Committee's report). 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

LEICESTER, 1933. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

Seismological Investigations. — Dr. F. J. W. Whipple (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw, 
C.B.E. [Secretary], Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. C. Vernon 
Boys, F.R.S., Sir F. W. Dyson, K.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. Wilfred Hall, Dr. H. 
Jeffreys, F.R.S., Prof. Sir Horace Lamb, F.R.S., Mr. A. W. Lee, Prof. H. M. 
Macdonald, F.R.S., Prof. E. A. Milne, M.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
F.R.S., Prof. H. H. Plaskett, Prof. H. C. Plummer, F.R.S., Prof. A. O. 
Rankine, O.B.E., Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Mr. D. H. Sadler, Prof. R. A. 
Sampson, F.R.S., Mr. F. J. Scrase, Capt. H. Shaw, Sir Frank Smith, K.C.B., 
C.B.E. , Sec. R.S., Dr. R. Stoneley, Mr. E. Tillotson, Sir G. T. Walker, 
C.S.I. , F.R.S. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Prof. E. H. Neville [Chairman], Dr. L. J. 
Comrie [Secretary], Prof. A. Lodge [Vice-Chairman], Dr. J. R. Airey, 
Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S. , Dr. J. Henderson, Dr. E. L. Ince, Dr. J. O. 
Irwin, Dr. J. C. P. Miller, Dr. E. S. Pearson, Mr. F. Robbins, Mr. D. H. 
Sadler, Dr. A. J. Thompson, Dr. J. F. Tocher, Dr. J. Wishart. £100. 

SECTIONS A, E, G.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 
GEOGRAPHY, ENGINEERING. 

To inquire into the position of Inland Water Survey in the British Isles and the 
possible organisation and control of such a survey by central authority. — 
Vice-Adml. SirH. P. Douglas, K.C.B., C.M.G. [Chairman], Lt.-Col. E. Gold, 
D.S.O.. F.R.S. [Vice-chairman], Capt. W. N. McClean [Secretary], Mr. E. G. 
Bilham, Dr. Brysson Cunningham, Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Dr. A. Ferguson, 
Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S., Mr. W. T. Halcrow, Mr. T. Shirley Hawkins, 
O.B.E., Mr. W. J. M. Menzies, Mr. H. Nimmo, Dr. A. Parker, Mr. D. Ronald, 
Capt. J. C. A. Roseveare, Dr. Bernard Smith, F.R.S., Mr. C. Clemesha Smith, 
Mr. F. O. Stanford, O.B.E., Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, C.M.G., D.S.O., 
Capt. J. G. Withycombe, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. £40. 

SECTIONS A, J.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 

PSYCHOLOGY. 

The possibility of quantitative estimates of Sensory Events. — Dr. A. Ferguson 
[Chairman], Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. [Vice-Chairman) , Mr. R. J. 
Bartlett [Secretary], Dr. H. Banister, Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S., Dr. Wm. 
Brown, Dr. N. R. Campbell, Dr. S. Dawson, Prof. J. Drever, Mr. J. Guild, 
Dr. R. A. Houstoun, Dr. J. O. Irwin. Dr. G. W. C. Kaye, Dr. S. J. F. Philpott, 
Dr. L. F. Richardson, F.R.S., Dr. J. H. Shaxby, Mr. T. Smith, F.R.S., 
Dr. R. H. Thouless, Dr. W. S. Tucker, O.B.E. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

To excavate Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — 
Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. [Chairman], Prof. W. G. Feamsides, F.R.S. 
[Secretary), Mr. W. S. Bisat, Dr. H. Bolton, Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. E. S. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xxxix 

Cobbold, Prof. A. H. Cox, Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude EUes, M.B.E.. 
Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S., Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling, 
Prof. V. C. Illing, Prof. O. T. Jones, F.R.S., Prof. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., 
Dr. F. J. North, Dr. J. Pringle, Dr. T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, F.R.S.. 
Prof. A. E. Trueman, Dr. F. S. Wallis. £20 (Caird Fund, contingent grant). 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of 
Geological Interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. S. H. 
Reynolds {Secretary), Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. F. Jackson, Mr. J. Ranson, Prof. 
W. W. Watts, F.R.S.. Mr. R. J. Welch. 

To investigate Critical Sections in the Tertiary and Cretaceous Rocks of the 
London Area. To tabulate and preserve records of new excavations in that 
area. — Prof. W. T. Gordon {Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge {Secretary), 
Mr. H. C. Berdinner, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S. , Miss M. C. 
Crosfield, Mr. F. Gosling, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling. £15. 

The Stratigraphy and Structure of the Palaeozoic Sedimentary Rocks of West 
Cornwall. — Mr. H. Dewey {Chairman), Mr. E. H. Davison {Secretary), 
Mr. H.G. Dines, Miss E. M. Lind Hendriks, Mr. S. Hall, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. 

To consider and report upon Petrographic Classification and Nomenclature. — 
Dr. H. H. Thomas, F.R.S. {Chairman), Dr. A. K. Wells {Secretary), Prof. 
E. B. Bailey, F.R.S., Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. A. 
Brammall, Dr. R. Campbell, Prof. A. Holmes, Prof. A. Johannsen, Dr. W. Q. 
Kennedy, Dr. A. G. MacGregor, Prof. P. Niggli, Prof. H. H. Read, Prof. 
S. J. Shand, Mr. W. Campbell Smith, Prof. C. E. Tilley, Dr. G. W. Tyrrell, 
Dr F. Walker. £6. 

To prove the character of the Palaeozoic Rocks underlying the Carboniferous of 
the Craven area. — Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. {Chairman), Dr. R. G. S. 
Hudson {Secretary). Prof. O. T. Jones, F.R.S., Prof. W. B. R. King, O.B.E., 
Mr. W. H. Wilcockson. £30 (Bernard Hobson Fund grant). 

SECTIONS C, E.— GEOLOGY. GEOGRAPHY. 

To administer a grant in support of a topographical and geological survey of 
the Lake Rudolph area in E. Africa. — Sir Albert E. Kitson, C.M.G., C.B.E. 
{Chairman), Dr. A. K. Wells {Secretary), Mr. S. J. K. Baker, Prof. F. 
Debenham, Dr. V. Fuchs, Prof. W. T. Gordon, Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, 
C.M.G., D.S.O. £35. 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. {Chairman), 
Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. {Secretary), Mr. E. Heron-Allen, F.R.S., Dr. W. T. 
Caiman, F.R.S., Sir P. Chalmers Mitchell. C.B.E. , F.R.S., Mr. W. L. Sclater. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the 
Marine Laboratory. Plymouth. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth, F.R.S. {Chairman 
and Secretary), Prof. H. Graham Cannon, Prof. H. Munro Fox. Prof. J. 
Stanley Gardiner. F.R.S. £50 (Caird Fund grant). 

To co-operate with other Sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, 
for the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir Sidney 
Harmer, K.B.E., F.R.S. {Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman. F.R.S. {Secretary), 
Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S., Prof. D. M. S. Watson. F.R.S. £50 (Caird 
Fund grant). 

To consider the position of Animal Biology in the School Curriculum and matters 
relating thereto. — Prof. R. D. Laurie {Chairman and Secretary), Mr. H. W. 
Ballance. Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., Miss M. McNicol. Miss A. J. 
Prothero, Prof. W. M. Tattersall, Dr. E. N. Miles Thomas. 

To determine the behaviour of a limited and uniform plankton population observed 
under natural conditions. — Dr. G. P. Bidder {Chairman), Mr. A. C. Gardiner 
(Secretary), Dr. J. Gray, F.R.S., Mr. J. T. Saunders. £3 lOs. 6d. (Un- 
expended balance). 



xl RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. 

The biology of a tropical river in British Guiana and of the neighbouring districts. 
— Prof. J. S. Gardiner, F.R.S. {Chairman). Dr. G. S. Carter and Mr. J. T. 
Saunders {Secretaries), Dr. W. T. Caiman, F.R.S. , Prof. J. Graham Kerr, 
F.R.S., Dr. C. Tate Regan, F.R.S. 

SECTIONS D, I, K.— ZOOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite 
pieces of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth, 
F.R.S. {Chairman and Secretary), Prof. J. Barcroft, C.B.E., F.R.S., ProL 
E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., Dr. Margery Knight. £50 (Caird Fund grant). 

SECTIONS D, K.— ZOOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry out definite 
pieces of work at the Freshwater Biological Station, Wray Castle, Winder- 
mere. — Prof. F. E. Fritsch, F.R.S. {Chairman), Mr. J. T. Saunders {Secretary), 
Miss P. M. Jenkin, Dr. C. H. O'Donoghue {from Section D) ; Dr. W. H. 
Pearsall {from Section K). Slh {/40 Caird Fund grant). 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To co-operate with the Ordnance Survey in the production of a Population 
Density Map (or Maps) of Great Britain and to endeavour to get this pub- 
lished as soon as the 1931 Census is available ; and, further, to examine the 
possibility of making similar Maps of the Empire, utilising the International 
Map (i : 1,000,000) as the base. — Brig. H.S.L.Winterbotham,C.M.G.,D.S.O. 
{Chairman), Capt. J. G. Withycombe {Secretary), Mr. J. Bartholomew, 
Lt.-Col. A. B. Clough, Prof. F. Debenham, Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Mr. H. King, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, O.B.E., Prof. 
O. H. T. Rishbeth, Prof. P. M. Roxby, Mr. A. Stevens. 

To inquire into the present state of knowledge of the Human Geography of 
Tropical Africa, and to make recommendations for furtherance and develop- 
ment.^Prof. P. M. Roxby {Chairman), Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, O.B.E. {Secretary), 
Dr. A. Geddes {Assistant Secretary), Mr. S. J. K. Baker. Prof. C. B. Fawcett, 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. E. B. Haddon, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Mr. J. McFarlane, 
Col. M. N. MacLeod, D.S.O., Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A., Mr. R. A. 
Pelham, Mr. R. U. Sayce, Rev. E. W. Smith, Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, 
C.M.G., D.S.O. £5. 

To investigate the mapping of historical data for medieval England and to take 
steps to advance such work. — Mr. J. N. L. Baker {Chairman), Dr. H. C. 
Darby, Mr. E. W. Gilbert, Mr. F. G. Morris, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. 

SECTIONS E, K.— GEOGRAPHY, BOTANY. 

To complete t^vo maps of England on the i /M. scale showing (i) the distribution 
of woodland (based on physical evidence) after the establishment of climatic 
conditions approximating to the present, and (ii) the distribution of wood- 
land on the basis of evidence derived from earlv topographical writings 
and maps.— Sir John Russell, O.B.E., F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. P. M. 
'Ro-x.hy {Secretary) ; Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, 
O.B.E., Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, C.M.G., D.S.O., Capt. J. G. Withy- 
combe {from Section E) ; Prof. E. J. Salisbury, Dr. T. W. Woodhead {from 
Section K). £25. 

SECTIONS E, L.— GEOGRAPHY, EDUCATION. 

To report on the present position of Geographical Teaching in Schools, and of 
Geography in the training of teachers ; to formulate suggestions for a 
syllabus for the teaching of geography both to Matriculation Standard and 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xli 

in Advanced Courses and to report, as occasion arises, to Council through 
the Organising Committee of Section E upon the practical working of 
Regulations issued by the Board of Education (including the Scottish 
Education Department) affecting the position of Geography in Schools and 
Training Colleges. — Prof. Sir T. P. Nunn {Chairman), Mr. L. Brooks {Secre- 
tary), Mr. A. B. Archer, Mr. J. N. L. Baker, Mr. C. C. Carter, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Dr. O. J. R. Howarth, O.B.E., Mr. H. E. M. Icely, Mr. J. McFarlane, 
Rt. Hon. Sir Halford J. Mackinder, P.C, Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A., 
Dr. Marion Newbigin, Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, O.B.E., Mr. A. Stevens, Prof. 
C. B. Fawcett {from Section E) ; Mr. J. L. Holland, Sir R. Gregory ,r 
Bt., F.R.S., Mr. E. R. Thomas, Miss O. Wright, Prof. Godfrey Thomson 
{from Section L). 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Chronology of the World Crisis from i929onwards. — Prof. J. H. Jones (Chairman), 
Dr. P. Ford {Convener), Mr. G. N. Clark, Prof. H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E., 
Mr. R. F. Harrod, Mr. A. Radford, Prof. J. G. Smith. 

SECTIONS F, G, I, J, L.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS, 
ENGINEERING, PHYSIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY. EDUCATION. 

Industrial Co-operation : to report on the provisions for co-ordinating and 
stimulating scientific work bearing on business practice, and to make 
recommendations. — Dr. J. A. Bowie {Chairman), Mr. R. J. Mackay {Secre- 
tary), Prof. J. G. Smith, Major L. Urwick {from Section F) ; Prof. W. 
Cramp {from Section G) ; Mr. G. P. Crowden {from Section I) ; Dr. C. S. 
Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. {from Section J); Sir Richard Gregory, Bt., F.R.S. 
{from Section L). 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

Earth Pressures. — Mr. F. E. Wentworth-Sheilds, O.B.E. {Chairman), Dr. J. S. 

Owens {Secretary), Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. Fulton, 

Prof. F. C. Lea, Prof. R. V. Southwell, F.R.S., Dr. R. E. StradUng, Dr. W. N. 

Thomas, Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson. £9 5s. 3d. (Unexpended 

balance) . 
Electrical Terms and Definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson {Chairman), Prof. 

F. G. Baily and Prof. G. W. O. Howe {Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Prof. 

W. H. Eccles, F.R.S., Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Sir R. Glazebrook, K.C.B., 

F.R.S., Prof. A. E. Kennelly, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Sir Frank Smith, 

K.C.B., C.B.E., Sec. R.S., Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

Stresses in Overstrained Materials.— Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. {Chairman), 
Dr. J. G. Docherty {Secretary), Prof. G. Cook, Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. 
Wilson. £10 (Unexpended balance). 

To review the knowledge at present available for the reduction of noise, and 
the nuisances to the abatement of which this knowledge could best be 
appUed. — Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. {Chairman), Prof. T. R. Cave-Brown- 
Cave, C.B.E. {Secretary), Mr. R. S. Capon. Prof. G. W. O. Howe. £10. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To report on the Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Prof. J. L. Myres, 
O.B.E., F.B.A. {Chairman), Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Secretary). Mr. A. Leslie 
Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. 
Gordon Childe, Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Dr. Cyril Fox. 

To report on the Classification and Distribution of Rude Stone Monuments in 
the British Isles. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Chairman), Dr. Margaret A. Murray 
{Secretary), Mr. A. L. Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Prof. V. Gordon 
Childe, Dr. Cyril Fox, Mr. T. D. Kendrick. 



xlii RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of Copper used by the Sumerians, 
— Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Chairman), Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. {Secretary), 
Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, 
Mr. O. Davies, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Sir Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., Dr. R. H. 
Rastall. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Prof. J. L. 
Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. {Chairman), Mr. L. Dudley Buxton {Secretary), Dr. 
W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. Evans, F.R.S., Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's 
Cavern.— Sir A. Keith, F.R.S. {Chairman). Proi. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. 
{Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. Favell, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, 
Mr. A. D. Lacaille. £5. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the 
exploration of Caves in the Derbyshire district. — Mr. M. C. Burkitt {Chair- 
man), Dr. R. V. Favell {Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. L. S. Palmer, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake. £25 (Caird Fund grant). 

To co-operate with Miss Caton-Thompson in her researches in prehistoric sites in 
the Western Desert of Egypt. — Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. {Chair- 
man), Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S. 

To report to the Sectional Committee on the question of re-editing ' Notes and 
Queries in Anthropology.' — Dr. H. S. Harrison {Chairman), Mr. L. Dudley 
Buxton {Secretary), Miss R. M. Fleming, Prof. C. Daryll Forde, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, F.R.S., Capt. T. A. Joyce, O.B.E., Prof. C. G. Seligman, F.R.S., 
Mrs. Seligman, Miss C. Wedgwood. 

To carry out the excavation of Palaeolith cave deposits on Mt. Carmel, Palestine. 
— Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. {Chairman), Mr. M. C. Burkitt {Secretary), 
Miss G. Caton-Thompson, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, £30. 

To carry out research among the Ainu of Japan. — Prof. C. G. Seligman, F.R.S. 
{Chairman), Mrs. C. G. Seligman {Secretary), Dr. H. S. Harrison, Capt. 
T. A. Joyce, O.B.E., Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan. £50. 

To co-operate with the local committee in the excavation of Pen Dinas hill fort, 
Cardiganshire.— Dr. Cyril Fox {Chairman), Mr. V. E. Nash-Williams {Secre- 
tary), Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. Daryll Forde, Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan, 
Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler. £25. 

To excavate a prehistoric and Roman mining site in Rio Tinto, Spain. — Mr. 
M. C. Burkitt {Chairman), Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. {Secretary), Prof. V. 
Gordon Childe, Dr. Margaret A. Murray, Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. 
£15 (Caird Fund, contingent grant). 

To investigate blood groups among the Tibetans. — Prof. H.J. Fleure {Chairman), 
Prof. R. Ruggles Gates, F.R.S. {Secretary), Dr. J. H. Hutton, CLE., Mr. 
R. U. Sayce. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The supply of Oxygen at high altitudes. — Prof. J. Barcroft, C.B., F.R.S. {Chair- 
man), Dr. Raymond Greene {Acting Secretary), Mr. G. S. Adair, Mr. E. N. 
Odell, Major J. A. Sadd. £5. 

To deal with the use of a Stereotactic Instrument. — Prof. J. Mellanby, F.R.S. 
{Chairman and Secretary). 

SECTIONS I. J.— PHYSIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY. 

The conditions of vertigo and its relation to disorientation. — 

{Chairman), {Secretary), Prof. J. H. Bum, Dr. R. 

S. Creed, Squadron-Leader E. D. Dickson, Prof. J. Drever, Dr. J. T. 
MacCurdy. £20. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xliii 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

To develop tests of the routine manual factor in mechanical ability. — Dr. C. S. 
Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. {Chairman). Dr. G. H. Miles {Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Dr. F. M. Earle, Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear. £20 (Caird 
Fund, contingent grant). 

The nature of perseveration and its testing. — Prof. F. Aveling {Chairman), 
Mr. E. Farmer {Secretary), Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S. , Dr. Mary Collins, 
Dr. W. Stephenson. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

Transplant Experiments. — Sir Arthur Hill, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. {Chairman), Dr. 
W. B. Turrill {Secretary), Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S.. Prof. E. J. Salisbury, 
Prof. A. G. Tansley, F.R.S. 

Fossil Plants at Fort Gray, near East London. — Dr. A. W. Rogers, F.R.S. {Chair- 
man), Prof. R. S. Adamson {Secretary), Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 

The anatomy of timber-producing trees. — Prof. H. S. Holden {Chairman), Dr. 
Helen Bancroft {Secretary). Prof. J. H. Priestley, D.S.O. £10. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To consider the position of science teaching in Adult Education classes, and to 
suggest possible means of promoting through them closer contact between 
scientific achievement and social development. — Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., 
F.B.A. {Chairman), Mr. C. E. Browne {Secretary), Major A. G. Church, 
D.S.O., Dr. Lilian J. Clarke, Miss E. R. Conway, C.B.E., Prof. C. H. Desch, 
F.R.S., Mr. A. Clow Ford, Sir Richard Gregory, Bt.. F.R.S., Mr. S. R. 
Humby, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Miss H. Masters, Mr. E. R. Thomas. £10. 

To consider and report on the possibility of the Section undertaking more definite 
work in promoting educational research. — Dr. W. W. Vaughan {Chairman). 
{Secretary). Miss H. Masters, Mr. E. R. B. Reynolds, 
Mr. N. F. Sheppard. £5. 



SECTIONS M, E.— AGRICULTURE, GEOGRAPHY. 

To co-operate with the staff of the Imperial Soil Bureau to examine the soil 
resources of the Empire. — Sir John Russell, O.B.E., F.R.S. {Chairman). 
Mr. G. V. Jacks {Secretary). Dr. E. M. Crowther, Dr. W. G. Ogg, Prof. G. W. 
Robinson {from Section M) ; Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Mr. H. King, Dr. L. D. 
Stamp, Mr. A. Stevens, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge {from Section E). 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — The President of the Association {Chairman 
ex-officio). Mr. T. Sheppard {Vice-Chairman). Dr. C. Tiemey {Secretary). 
the General Secretaries, the General Treasurer. Mr. C. O. Bartrum, Dr. F. A. 
Bather, F.R.S., Sir Richard Gregory, Bt., F.R.S., Mr. J. V. Pearman, Sir 
David Prain, CLE.. C.M.G.. F.R.S., Sir John Russell. O.B.E., F.R.S., 
Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 



xliv RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 



The following resolutions and recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at the Leicester Meeting for con- 
sideration and, if desirable, for action : — 

From the General Officers. 
That it be a recommendation to the General Committee to request the 
Council to consider by what means the Association, within the framework 
of its constitution, may assist towards a better adjustment between the 
advance of Science and social progress, with a view to further discussion 
at the Aberdeen Meeting. 

From Section D {Zoology). 
That the Committee of Section D (Zoology) of the British Association 
regards with grave apprehension the continuing spread of the Musk Rat 
in the British Isles. It has learned with satisfaction that steps are now 
being taken by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to deal with the 
pest, and it earnestly hopes that no effort will be spared to exterminate 
the species completely in this country. 

From Section E {Geography). 
(i) That the Council be asked to urge upon the proper authorities the 
desirability of including population maps in the Census returns. 

(2) That the Council be asked to draw the attention of His Majesty's 
Government to the backward state of geodetic surveys in the British 
Colonies and Dependencies, and to point out to the Government that the 
lack of reliable surveys and maps greatly delays scientific and material 
progress. 

(3) That the Council be asked to approach His Majesty's Government 
with a view to accelerating the revision of the large scale maps of the 
Ordnance Survey. 

From Section K {Botany). 
That in view of the value of the cricket-bat willow as a subsidiary farm 
crop, which can be grown satisfactorily by the small farmer as well as by 
the estate owner, the Government be asked to facilitate investigations of 
the diseases or pests causing 'speck,' 'stain,' and 'water-mark.' 

From Section L {Educational Science). 
That 1 ,000 copies of each of the reports on Science in Adult Education 
and on General Science with special reference to Biology be reprinted 
and placed on sale at the price of sixpence per copy, and that free copies 
be distributed to the Press and to a selection of local education authorities 
and schools. 

The following recommendation was approved for immediate action : — 

From Section E {Geography). 
That copies of the printed report on the Position of Geography in 
Dominion Universities be circulated to the universities in the Dominions. 

I \r; .r»M "K^ \ 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

Leicester, 1933. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



SOME CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF LIFE 

BY 

SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS, PRES.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



I. 

The British Association returns to Leicester with assurance of 
a welcome as warm as that received twenty-six years ago, and of 
hospitality as generous. The renewed invitation and the ready 
acceptance speak of mutual appreciation born of the earlier experi- 
ence. Hosts and guests have to-day reasons for mutual congratu- 
lations. The Association on its second visit finds Leicester altered 
in important ways. It comes now to a city duly chartered and the 
seat of a bishopric. It finds there a centre of learning, many fine 
buildings which did not exist on the occasion of the first visit, and 
many other evidences of civic enterprise. The citizens of Leicester 
on the other hand will know that since they last entertained it the 
Association has celebrated its centenary, has four times visited 
distant parts of the Empire, and has maintained unabated through 
the years its useful and important activities. 

In 1907 the occupant of the Presidential Chair was, as you know. 
Sir David Gill, the eminent astonomer who, unhappily, like many 
who listened to his address, is with us no more. Sir David dealt 
in that address with aspects of science characterised by the use of 
very exact measurement. The exactitude which he prized and 
praised has since been developed by modern physics and is now so 
great that its methods have real aesthetic beauty. In contrast I 
have to deal with a branch of experimental science which, because 
it is concerned with living organisms, is in respect of measurement 
on a different plane. Of the very essence of biological systems is 
an includable complexity, and exact measurement calls for condi- 
tions here unattainable. Many may think, indeed, though I am 

B 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

not claiming it here, that in studying Life we soon meet with aspects 
which are non-metrical. I would have you believe, however, that 
the data of modern Biochemistry which will be the subject of my 
remarks were won by quantitative methods fully adequate to justify 
the claims based upon them. 

Though speculations concerning the origin of Life have given 
intellectual pleasure to many, all that we yet know about it is that 
we know nothing. Sir James Jeans once suggested, though not 
with conviction, that it might be a disease of matter — a disease of 
its old age ! Most biologists, I think, having agreed that Life's 
advent was at once the most improbable and the most significant 
event in the history of the Universe, are content for the present to 
leave the matter there. 

We must recognise, however, that Life has one attribute that is 
fundamental. Whenever and wherever it appears the steady 
increase of entropy displayed by all the rest of the Universe is then 
and there arrested. There is no good evidence that in any of its 
manifestations life evades the second law of thermodynamics, but 
in the downward course of the energy-flow it interposes a barrier 
and dams up a reservoir which provides potential for its own re- 
markable activities. The arrest of energy degradation in living 
Nature is indeed a primary biological concept. Related to it, and 
of equal importance is the concept of Organisation. 

It is almost impossible to avoid thinking and talking of life in this 
abstract way, but we perceive it, of course, only as manifested in 
organised material systems, and it is in them we must seek the 
mechanisms which arrest the fall of energy. Evolution has estab- 
lished division of labour here. From far back the wonderfully 
efficient functioning of structures containing chlorophyll has, as 
everyone knows, provided the trap which arrests and transforms 
radiant energy — fated otherwise to degrade— and so provides power 
for nearly the whole living world. It is impossible to believe, 
however, that such a complex mechanism was associated with life's 
earliest stages. Existing organisms illustrate what was perhaps an 
earlier method. The so-called autotrophic bacteria obtain energy 
for growth by the catalysed oxidation of materials belonging wholly 
to the inorganic world ; such as sulphur, iron or ammonia, and 
even free hydrogen. These organisms dispense with solar energy, 
but they have lost in the evolutionary race because their method 
lacks economy. Other existing organisms, certain purple bacteria, 
seem to have taken a step towards greater economy, without reaching 
that of the green cell. They dispense with free oxygen and yet 
obtain energy from the inorganic world. They control a process in 
which carbon dioxide is reduced and hydrogen sulphide simultaneously 
oxidised. The molecules of the former are activated by solar energy 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 3 

which their pigmentary equipment enables these organisms to 
arrest. 

Are we to believe that life still exists in association with systems 
that are much more simply organised than any bacterial cell ? The 
very minute filter-passing viruses which, owing to their causal 
relations with disease, are now the subject of intense study, awaken 
deep curiosity with respect to this question. We cannot yet claim 
to know whether or not they are living organisms. In some sense 
they grow and multiply, but, so far as we yet know with certainty, 
only when inhabitants of living cells. If they are nevertheless 
living, this would suggest that they have no independent power of 
obtaining energy and so cannot represent for us the earliest forms 
in which life appeared. At present, however, judgment on their 
biological significance must be suspended. The fullest under- 
standing of all the methods by which energy may be acquired for 
life's processes is much to be desired. 

In any case every living unit is a transformer of energy however 
acquired, and the Science of Biochemistry is deeply concerned with 
these transformations. It is with aspects of that science that I am 
to deal and if to them I devote much of my address my excuse is 
that since it became a major branch of inquiry Biochemistry has 
had no exponent in the Chair I am fortunate enough to occupy. 

As a progressive scientific discipline it belongs to the present 
century. From the experimental physiologists of the last century 
it obtained a charter, and, from a few pioneers of its own, a promise 
of success ; but for the furtherance of its essential aim that century 
left it but a small inheritance of facts and methods. By its essential 
or ultimate aim I myself mean an adequate and acceptable de- 
scription of molecular dynamics in living cells and tissues. 

II. 

When this Association began its history in 1831 the first arti- 
ficial synthesis of a biological product was, as you will remember, 
but three years old. Primitive faith in a boundary between the 
organic and the inorganic which could never be crossed, was only 
just then realising that its foundations were gone. Since then, 
during the century of its existence, the Association has seen the 
pendulum swing back and forth between frank physico-chemical 
conceptions of life and various modifications of vitalism. It is 
characteristic of the present position and spirit of science that 
sounds of the long conflict between mechanists and vitalists are just 
now seldom heard. It would almost seem, indeed, that tired of 
fighting in a misty atmosphere each has retired to his tent to 
await with wisdom the light of further knowledge. Perhaps, how- 
ever, they are returning to the fight disguised as Determinist and 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Indeterminist respectively. If so the outcome will be of great 
interest. In any case I feel fortunate in a belief that what I have to 
say will not, if rightly appraised, raise the old issues. To claim, as 
I am to claim, that a description of its active chemical aspects must 
contribute to any adequate description of life is not to imply that 
a living organism is no more than a physico-chemical system. It 
implies that at a definite and recognisable level of its dynamic 
organisation an organism can be logically described in physico- 
chemical terms alone. At such a level indeed we may hope ulti- 
mately to arrive at a description which is complete in itself, just as 
descriptions at the morphological level of organisation may be 
complete in themselves. There may be yet higher levels calling 
for discussion in quite different terms. 

I wish, however, to remind you of a mode of thought concerning 
the material basis of life, which though it prevailed when physico- 
chemical interpretations were fashionable, was yet almost as in- 
hibitory to productive chemical thought and study as any of the 
claims of vitalism. This was the conception of that material basis 
as a single entity, as a definite though highly complex chemical 
compound. Up to the end of the last century and even later the 
term ' protoplasm ' suggested such an entity to many minds. In his 
brilliant Presidential Address at the Association's meeting at Dundee 
twenty-two years ago. Sir Edward Sharpey-Schafer, after remarking 
that the elements composing living substances are few in number, 
went on to say : ' The combination of these elements into a colloid 
compound represents the physical basis of life, and when the chemist 
succeeds in building up this compound it will, without doubt, be 
found to exhibit the phenomena which we are in the habit of asso- 
ciating with the term " life " ' Such a compound would seem 
to correspond with the ' protoplasm ' of many biologists, though 
treated perhaps with too little respect. The Presidential claim 
might have seemed to encourage the biochemist, but the goal 
suggested would have proved elusive, and the path of endeavour has 
followed other lines. 

So long as the term ' protoplasm ' retains a morphological signi- 
ficance as in classical cytology, it may be even now convenient 
enough, though always denoting an abstraction. In so far, how- 
ever, as the progress of metabolism with all the vital activities which 
it supports was ascribed in concrete thought to hypothetical qualities 
emergent from a protoplasmic complex in its integrity or when 
substances were held to suffer change only because in each living 
cell they are first built up, with loss of their own molecular structure 
and identity, in o this complex, which is itself the inscrutable seat 
of cyclic change, then serious obscurantism was involved. 

Had such assumptions been justified the old taunt that when the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 5 

chemist touches living matter it immediately becomes dead matter 
would also have been justified. A very distinguished organic 
chemist, long since dead, said to me in the late eighties : ' The 
chemistry of the living ? That is the chemistry of protoplasm ; 
that is superchemistry ; seek, my young friend, for other ambitions.' 
Research, however, during the present century, much of which has 
been done since the Association last met in Leicester, has yielded 
knowledge to justify the optimism of the few who started to work in 
those days. Were there time, I might illustrate this by abundant 
examples ; but I think a single illustration will suffice to demon- 
strate how progress during recent years has changed the outlook for 
biochemistry. I will ask you to note the language used thirty 
years ago to describe the chemical events in active muscle and 
compare it with that used now. In 1895 Michael Foster, a physio- 
logist of deep vision, dealing with the respiration of tissues, and in 
particular with the degree to which the activity of muscle depends 
on its contemporary oxygen supply, expounded the current view 
which may be thus briefly summarised. The oxygen which enters 
the muscle from the blood is not involved in immediate oxidations, 
but is built up into the substance of the muscle. It disappears into 
some protoplasmic complex on which its presence confers instability. 
This complex, which like all living substance, is to be regarded as 
incessantly undergoing changes of a double kind, those of building 
up and those of breaking down. With activity the latter predomi- 
nates, and in the case of muscle the complex in question explodes, 
as it were, to yield the energy for contraction. ' We cannot yet 
trace,' Foster comments, ' the steps taken by the oxygen from the 
moment it slips from the blood into the muscle substance to the 
moment when it issues united with carbon as carbonic acid. The 
whole mystery of life lies hidden in that process, and for the present 
we must be content with simply knowing the beginning and the 
end.' What we feel entitled to say to-day concerning the respira- 
tion of muscle and of the events associated with its activity requires, 
as I have suggested, a different language, and for those not interested 
in technical chemical aspects the very change of language may yet 
be significant. The conception of continuous building up and 
continuous breakdown of the muscle substance as a whole, has but 
a small element of truth. The colloidal muscle structure is, so to 
speak, an apparatus, relatively stable even as a whole when meta- 
bolism is normal, and in essential parts very stable. The chemical 
reactions which occur in that apparatus have been followed with a 
completeness which is, I think, striking. It is carbohydrate stores 
distinct from the apparatus (and in certain circumstances also fat 
stores) which undergo steady oxidation and are the ultimate sources 
of energy for muscular work. Essential among successive stages in 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

the chemical breakdown of carbohydrate which necessarily precede 
oxidation is the intermediate combination of a sugar (a hexose) with 
phosphoric acid to form an ester. This happening is indispensable for 
the progress of the next stage, namely the production of lactic acid from 
the sugar, which is an anaerobic process. The precise happenings 
to the hexose sugar while in combination with phosphoric acid are 
from a chemical standpoint remarkable. Very briefly stated they are 
these. One half of the sugar molecule is converted into a molecule 
of glycerin and the other half into one of pyruvic acid. Now with 
loss of two hydrogen atoms glycerin yields lactic acid, and, with a 
gain of the same pyruvic acid also yields lactic acid. The actual 
happening then is that hydrogen is transferred from the glycerin 
molecule while still combined with phosphoric acid to the pyruvic 
acid molecule with the result that two molecules of lactic acid 
are formed.^ The lactic acid is then, during a cycle of change which 
I must not stop to discuss, oxidised to yield the energy required by 
the muscle. 

But the energy from this oxidation is by no means directly available 
for the mechanical act of contraction. The oxidation occurs indeed 
after and not before or during a contraction. The energy it 
liberates secures however the endothermic resynthesis of a sub- 
stance, creatin phosphate, of which the breakdown at an earlier 
stage in the sequence of events is the more immediate source of 
energy for contraction. Even more complicated are these chemical 
relations, for it would seem that in the transference of energy from 
its source in the oxidation of carbohydrate to the system which 
synthesises creatin phosphate, yet another reaction intervenes, 
namely, the alternating breakdown and resynthesis of the substance 
adenyl pyrophosphate. The sequence of these chemical reactions 
in muscle has been followed and their relation in time to the phases 
of contraction and relaxation is established. The means by which 
energy is transferred from one reacting system to another has till 
lately been obscure, but current work is throwing light upon this 
interesting question, and it is just beginning (though only beginning) 
to show how at the final stage the energy of the reactions is con- 
verted into the mechanical response. In parenthesis it may be noted 
as an illustration of the unity of life that the processes which occur in 
the living yeast cell in its dealings with sugars are closely similar to 
those which proceed in living muscle. In the earlier stages they are 
identical and we now know where they part company. You will, I 
think, be astonished at the complexity of the events which underlie 
the activity of a muscle, but you must remember that it is a highly 
specialised machine. A more direct burning of the fuel could not 
fit into its complex organisation. I am more particularly concerned 
^ Lecture by Otto Meyerhof : in the Press (see Nature). 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 7 

to feel that my brief summary of the facts will make you realise how 
much more definite, how much more truly chemical, is our present 
knowledge than that available when Michael Foster wrote. Ability 
to recognise the progress of such definite ordered chemical reactions 
in relation to various aspects of living activity characterises the 
current position in biochemistry. I have chosen the case of muscle, 
and it must serve as my only example, but many such related and 
ordered reactions have been studied in other cells and tissues, from 
bacteria to the brain. Some prove general, some more special. 
Although we are far indeed from possessing a complete picture in 
any one case we are beginning in thought to fit not a few pieces 
together. We are on a line safe for progress. 

I must perforce limit the field of my discussion, and in what 
follows my special theme will be the importance of molecular 
structure in determining the properties of living systems. I wish 
you to believe that molecules display in such systems the properties 
inherent in their structure even as they do in the laboratory of the 
organic chemist. The theme is no new one, but its development 
illustrates as well as any other, and to my own mind perhaps better 
than any other, the progress of biochemistry. Not long ago a 
prominent biologist, believing in protoplasm as an entity, wrote : 
' But it seems certain that living protoplasm is not an ordinary 
chemical compound, and therefore can have no molecular structure 
in the chemical sense of the word.' Such a belief was common. 
One may remark, moreover, that when the development of colloid 
chemistry first brought its indispensable aid towards an under- 
standing of the biochemical field, there was a tendency to discuss 
its bearing in terms of the less specific properties of colloid systems, 
phase-surfaces, membranes, and the like, without sufficient reference 
to the specificity which the influence of molecular structure, where- 
ever displayed, impresses on chemical relations and events. In 
emphasising its importance I shall leave no time for dealings with 
the nature of the colloid structures of cells and tissues, all important 
as they are. I shall continue to deal, though not again in detail, 
with chemical reactions as they occur within those structures. Only 
this much must be said. If the colloid structures did not display 
highly specialised molecular structure at their surface, no reactions 
would occur ; for here catalysis occurs. Were it not equipped 
with catalysts every living unit would be a static system. 

With the phenomena of catalysis I will assume you have general 
acquaintance. You know that a catalyst is an agent which plays 
only a temporary part in chemical events which it nevertheless 
determines and controls. It reappears unaltered when the events 
are completed. The phenomena of catalysis, though first recognised 
early in the last century, entered but little into chemical thought 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

or enterprise, till only a few years ago they were shown to have 
great importance for industry. Yet catalysis is one of the most 
significant devices of nature, since it has endowed living systems 
with their fundamental character as transformers of energy, and 
all evidence suggests that it must have played an indispensable 
part in the living universe from the earliest stages of evolution. 

The catalysts of a living cell are the enzymic structures which 
display their influences at the surface of colloidal particles or at other 
surfaces within the cell. Current research continues to add to the 
great number of these enzymes which can be separated from, or 
recognised in, living cells and tissues, and to increase our knowledge 
of their individual functions. 

A molecule within the system of the cell may remain in an inactive 
state and enter into no reactions until at one such surface it comes 
in contact with an enzymic structure which displays certain adjust- 
ments to its own structure. While in such association the inactive 
molecule becomes (to use a current term) ' activated,' and then enters 
on some definite path of change. The one aspect of enzymic 
catalysis which for the sake of my theme I wish to emphasise is its 
high specificity. An enzyme is in general adjusted to come into 
effective relations with one kind of molecule only, or at most with 
molecules closely related in their structure. Evidence based on 
kinetics justifies the belief that some sort of chemical combination 
between enzyme and related molecule precedes the activation of 
the latter, and for such combinations there must be close correlation 
in structure. Many will remember that long ago Emil Fischer 
recognised that enzymic action distinguishes even between two 
optical isomers and spoke of the necessary relation being as close 
as that of key and lock. 

There is an important consequence of this high specificity in 
biological catalysis to which I will direct your special attention. 
A living cell is the seat of a multitude of reactions, and in order 
that it should retain in a given environment its individual identity 
as an organism, these reactions must be highly organised. They 
must be of determined nature and proceed mutually adjusted with 
respect to velocity, sequence, and in all other relations. They must 
be in dynamic equilibrium as a whole and must return to it after 
disturbance. Now if of any group of catalysts, such as are found 
in the equipment of a cell, each one exerts limited and highly- 
specific influence, this very specificity must be a potent factor in 
making for organisation. 

Consider the case of any individual cell in due relations with 
its environment, whether an internal environment as in the case of 
the tissue cells of higher animals, or an external environment as 
in the case of unicellular organisms. Materials for maintenance of 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 9 

the cell enter it from the environment. Discrimination among 
such materials is primarily determined by permeability relations, 
but of deeper significance in that selection is the specificity of the 
cell catalysts. It has often been said that the living cell differs 
from all non-living systems in its power of selecting from a hetero- 
geneous environment the right material for the maintenance of its 
structure and activities. It is, however, no vital act but the nature 
of its specific catalysts which determines what it effectively ' selects.' 
If a molecule gains entry into the cell and meets no catalytic influence 
capable of activating it, nothing further happens save for certain 
ionic and osmotic adjustments. Any molecule which does meet 
an adjusted enzyme cannot fail to suffer change and become 
directed into some one of the paths of metabolism. It must here 
be remembered, moreover, that enzymes as specific catalysts not 
only promote reactions, but determine their direction. The glucose 
molecule, for example, though its inherent chemical potentialities 
are, of course, always the same, is converted into lactic acid by an 
enzyme system in muscle but into alcohol and carbon dioxide by 
another in the yeast cell. It is important to realise that diverse 
enzymes may act in succession and that specific catalysis has directive 
as well as selective powers. If it be syntheses in the cell which are 
most difficult to picture on such lines, we may remember that 
biological syntheses can be, and are, promoted by enzymes, and 
there are sufficient facts to justify the belief that a chain of specific 
enzymes can direct a complex synthesis along lines predetermined 
by the nature of the enzymes themselves. I should like to develop 
this aspect of the subject even further, but to do so might tax your 
patience. I should add that enzyme-control, though so important, 
is not the sole determinant of chemical organisation in a cell. Other 
aspects of its colloidal structure play their part. 



III. 

It is surely at that level of organisation, which is based on the 
exact co-ordination of a multitude of chemical events within it, 
that a living cell displays its peculiar sensitiveness to the influence 
of molecules of special nature when these enter it from without. 
The nature of very many organic molecules is such that they may 
enter a cell and exert no effect. Those proper to metabolism follow, 
of course, the normal paths of change. Some few, on the other 
hand, influence the cell in very special ways. When such influence 
is highly specific in kind it means that some element of structure 
in the entrant molecule is adjusted to meet an aspect of molecular 
structure somewhere in the cell itself. We can easily understand 
that in a system so minute the intrusion even of a few such molecules 

B 2 



,io THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

may so modify existing equilibria as to affect profoundly the observed 
behaviour of the cell. 

Such relations, though by no means confined to them, reach their 
greatest significance in the higher organisms, in which individual 
tissues, chemically diverse, differentiated in function and separated 
in space, so react upon one another through chemical agencies trans- 
mitted through the circulation as to co-ordinate by chemical trans- 
port the activities of the body as a whole. Unification by chemical 
means must to-day be recognised as a fundamental aspect of all 
such organisms. In all of them it is true that the nervous system 
has pride of place as the highest seat of organising influence, but 
we know to-day that even this influence is often, if not always, 
exerted through properties inherent in chemical molecules. It is 
indeed most significant for my general theme to realise that when 
a nerve impulse reaches a tissue the sudden production of a definite 
chemical substance at the nerve ending may be essential to the 
response of that tissue to the impulse. It is a familiar circumstance 
that when an impulse passes to the heart by way of the vagus nerve 
fibres the beat is slowed, or, by a stronger beat, arrested. That is, 
of course, part of the normal control of the heart's action. Now 
it has been shown that whenever the heart receives vagus impulses 
the substance acetyl cholin is liberated within the organ. To this 
fact is added the further fact that, in the absence of the vagus influence, 
the artificial injection of minute graded doses of acetyl choline so 
acts upon the heart as to reproduce in every detail the effects of graded 
stimulation of the nerve. Moreover, evidence is accumulating to 
show that in the case of other nerves belonging to the same morpho- 
logical group as the vagus, but supplying other tissues, this same 
liberation of acetyl choline accompanies activity, and the chemical 
action of this substance upon such tissues again produces effects 
identical with those observed when the nerves are stimulated. 
More may be claimed. The functions of another group of nerves 
are opposed to those of the vagus group ; impulses, for instance, 
through certain fibres accelerate the heart beat. Again a chemical 
substance is liberated at the endings of such nerves, and this substance 
has itself the property of accelerating the heart. We find then that 
such organs and tissues respond only indirectly to whatever non- 
specific physical change may reach the nerve ending. Their direct 
response is to the influence of particular molecules with an essential 
structure when these intrude into their chemical machinery. 

It follows that the effect of a given nerve stimulus may not be 
confined to the tissue which it first reaches. There may be humeral 
transmissions of its effect, because the liberated substance enters 
the lymph and blood. This again may assist the co-ordination of 
events in the tissues. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS ii 

From substances produced temporarily and locally and by 
virtue of their chemical properties translating for the tissues the 
messages of nerves, we may pass logically to consideration of those 
active substances which carry chemical messages from organ to 
organ. Such in the animal body are produced continuously in 
specialised organs, and each has its special seat or seats of action 
where it finds chemical structures adjusted in some sense or other 
to its own. 

I shall be here on familiar ground, for that such agencies exist, 
and bear the name of hormones, is common knowledge. I propose 
only to indicate how many and diverse are their fuctions as revealed 
by recent research, emphasising the fact that each one is a definite 
and relatively simple substance with properties that are primarily 
chemical and in a derivate sense physiological . Our clear recognition 
of this, based at first on a couple of instances, began with this century, 
but our knowledge of their number and nature is still growing rapidly 
to-day. 

We have long known, of course, how essential and profound is 
the influence of the thyroid gland in maintaining harmonious growth 
in the body, and in controlling the rate of its metabolism. Three 
years ago a brilliant investigation revealed the exact molecular 
structure of the substance — thyroxin — which is directly responsible 
for these effects. It is a substance of no great complexity. The 
constitution of adrenalin has been longer known and likewise its 
remarkable influence in maintaining a number of important physio- 
logical adjustments. Yet is is again a relatively simple substance. 
I will merely remind you of secretin, the first of these substances 
to receive the name of hormone, and of insulin, now so familiar 
because of its importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates and its 
consequent value in the treatment of diabetes. The most recent 
growth of knowledge in this field has dealt with hormones which, 
in most remarkable relations, co-ordinate the phenomena of sex. 

It is the circulation of definite chemical substances produced 
locally that determines during the growth of the individual, the 
proper development of all the secondary sexual characters. The 
properties of other substances secure the due progress of individual 
development from the unfertilised ovum to the end of fcEtal life. 
When an ovum ripens and is discharged from the ovary a substance, 
now known as oestrin, is produced in the ovary itself, and so functions 
as to bring about all those changes in the female body which make 
secure the fertilisation of the ovum. On the discharge of the ovum 
new tissue, constituting the so-called corpus luteum, arises in its 
place. This then produces a special hormone which in its turn 
evokes all those changes in tissues and organs that secure a right 
destiny for the ovum after it has been fertilised. It is clear that 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

these two hormones do not arise simultaneously, for they must act 
in alternation, and it becomes of great interest to know how such 
succession is secured. The facts here are among the most striking. 
Just as higher nerve centres in the brain control and co-ordinate the 
activities of lower centres, so it would seem do hormones, functioning 
at, so to speak, a higher level in organisation, co-ordinate the activities 
of other hormones. It is a substance produced in the anterior portion 
of the pituitary gland situated at the base of the brain, which by 
circulating to the ovary controls the succession of its hormonal 
activities. The cases I have mentioned are far from exhausting the 
numerous hormonal influences now recognised. 

For full appreciation of the extent to which chemical substances 
control and co-ordinate events in the animal body by virtue of 
their specific molecular structure, it is well not to separate too widely 
in thought the functions of hormones from those of vitamins. 
Together they form a large group of substances of which every 
one exerts upon physiological events its own indispensable chemical 
influence. 

Hormones are produced in the body itself, while vitamins must be 
supplied in the diet. Such a distinction is, in general, justified. 
We meet occasionally, however, an animal species able to dispense 
with an external supply of this or that vitamin. Evidence shows, 
however, that individuals of that species, unlike most animals, can 
in the course of their metabolism synthesise for themselves the 
vitamin in question. The vitamin then becomes a hormone. In 
practice the distinction may be of great importance, but for an 
understanding of metabolism the functions of these substances are 
of more significance than their origin. 

The present activity of research in the field of vitamins is prodigious. 
The output of published papers dealing with original investigations 
in the field has reached nearly a thousand in a single year. Each 
of the vitamins at present known is receiving the attention of 
numerous observers in respect both of its chemical and biological 
properties, and though many publications deal, of course, with matters 
of detail, the accumulation of significant facts is growing fast. 

It is clear that I can cover but little ground in any reference to 
this wide field of knowledge. Some aspects of its development have 
been interesting enough. The familiar circumstance that attention 
was drawn to the existence of one vitamin (B^ so called) because 
populations in the East took to eatmg milled rice instead of the 
whole grain ; the gradual growth of evidence which links the 
physiological activities of another vitamin (D) with the influence of 
solar radiation on the body, and has shown that they are thus 
related, because rays of definite wave-length convert an inactive 
precurser into the active vitamin, alike when acting on foodstuffs 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 13 

or on the surface of the living body ; the fact again that the recent 
isolation of vitamin C, and the accumulation of evidence for its 
nature started from the observation that the cortex of the adrenal 
gland displayed strongly reducing properties ; or yet again the proof 
that a yellow pigment widely distributed among plants, while not 
the vitamin itself, can be converted within the body into vitamin A ; 
these and other aspects of vitamin studies will stand out as interesting 
chapters in the story of scientific investigation. 

In this very brief discussion of hormones and vitamins I have so 
far referred only to their functions as manifested in the animal body. 
Kindred substances, exerting analogous functions, are, however, of 
wide and perhaps of quite general biological importance. It is 
certain that many micro-organisms require a supply of vitamin-like 
substances for the promotion of growth, and recent research of a very 
interesting kind has demonstrated in the higher plants the existence 
of specific substances produced in special cells which stimulate 
growth in other cells, and so in the plant as a whole. These so- 
called auxines are essentially hormones. Section B will soon be 
listening to an account of their chemical nature. 

It is of particular importance to my present theme and a source 
of much satisfaction to know that our knowledge of the actual mole- 
cular structure of hormones and vitamins is growing fast. We have 
already exact knowledge of the kind in respect to not a few. We are 
indeed justified in believing that within a few years such knowledge 
will be extensive enough to allow a wide view of the correlation 
between molecular structure and physiological activity. Such 
correlation has long been sought in the case of drugs, and some 
generalisations have been demonstrated. It should be remembered, 
however, that until quite lately only the structure of the drug could 
be considered. With increasing knowledge of the tissue structures 
pharmacological actions will become much clearer. 

I cannot refrain from mentioning here a set of relations connected 
especially with the phenomena of tissue growth which are of par- 
ticular interest. It will be convenient to introduce some technical 
chemical considerations in describing them, though I think the 
relations may be clear without emphasis being placed on such 
details. The vitamin, which in current usage is labelled ' A,' is 
essential for the general growth of an animal. Recent research has 
provided much information as to its chemical nature. Its molecule 
is built up of units which possess what is known to chemists as the 
isoprene structure. These are condensed in a long carbon chain 
which is attached to a ring structure of a specific kind. Such a 
constitution relates it to other biological compounds, in particular 
to certain vegetable pigments, one of which a carotene, so called, is 
the substance which I have mentioned as being convertible into the 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

vitamin. For the display of an influence upon growth, however, 
the exact details of the vitamin's proper structure must be established. 
Now turning to vitamin D, of which the activity is more specialised, 
controlling as it does the growth of bone in particular, we have 
learnt that the unit elements in its structure are again isoprene 
radicals ; but instead of forming a long chain as in vitamin A they 
are united into a system of condensed rings. Similar rings form 
the basal component of the molecules of sterols, substances which 
are normal constituents of nearly every living cell. It is one of 
these, inactive itself, which ultra-violet radiation converts into 
vitamin D. We know that as stated each of these vitamins stimu- 
lates growth in tissue cells. Next consider another case of growth 
stimulation, different because pathological in nature. As you are 
doubtless aware, it is well known that long contact with tar induces 
a cancerous growth of the skin. Very important researches have 
recently shown that particular constituents in the tar are alone con- 
cerned in producing this effect. It is being further demonstrated 
that the power to produce cancer is associated with a special type of 
molecular structure in these constituents. This structure, like that 
of the sterols, is one of condensed rings, the essential difference 
being that (in chemical language) the sterol rings are hydrogenated, 
whereas those in the cancer-producing molecules are not. Hydro- 
genation indeed destroys the activity of the latter. Recall, however, 
the ovarian hormone oestrin. Now the molecular structure of cestrin 
has the essential ring structure of a sterol, but one of the constituent 
rings is not hydrogenated. In a sense therefore the chemical nature 
of CEStrin links vitamin D with that of cancer-producing substances. 
Further, it is found that substances with pronounced cancer-pro- 
ducing powers may produce effects in the body like those of oestrin. 
It is difficult when faced with such relations not to wonder whether 
the metabolism of sterols, which when normal can produce a sub- 
stance stimulating physiological growth, may in very special circum- 
stances be so perverted as to produce within living cells a substance 
stimulating pathological growth. Such a suggestion must, however, 
with present knowledge, be very cautiously received. It is wholly 
without experimental proof. My chief purpose in this reference to 
this very interesting set of relations is to emphasise once more the 
significance of chemical structure in the field of biological events. 

Only the end results of the profound influence which minute 
amounts of substances with adjusted structure exert upon living cells 
or tissues can be observed in the intact bodies of man or animals. 
It is doubtless because of the elaborate and sensitive organisation of 
chemical events in every tissue cell that the effects are proportionally 
so great. 

It is an immediate task of biochemistry to explore the mechanism 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 15 

of such activities. It must learn to describe in objective chemical 
terms precisely how and where such molecules as those of hormones 
and vitamins intrude into the chemical events of metabolism. It is 
indeed now beginning this task which is by no means outside the 
scope of its methods. Efforts of this and of similar kind cannot 
fail to be associated with a steady increase in knowledge of the whole 
field of chemical organisation in living organisms, and to this increase 
we look forward with confidence. The promise is there. Present 
methods can still go far, but I am convinced that progress of the kind 
is about to gain great impetus from the application of those new 
methods of research which chemistry is inheriting from physics : 
X-ray analysis ; the current studies of unimolecular surface films 
and of chemical reactions at surfaces ; modern spectroscopy ; the 
quantitative developments of photo-chemistry ; no branch of 
inquiry stands to gain more from such advances in technique than 
does biochemistry at its present stage. Especially is this true in the 
case of the colloidal structure of living systems, of which in this 
Address I have said so little. 

IV. 

As an experimental science, biochemistry, like classical physi- 
ology, and much of experimental biology, has obtained, and must 
continue to obtain, many of its data from studying parts of the 
organism in isolation, but parts in which dynamic events contmue. 
Though fortunately it has also methods of studying reactions as they 
occur in intact living cells, intact tissues, and, of course, in the intact 
animal, it is still entitled to claim that its studies of parts are con- 
sistently developing its grasp of the Wholes it desires to describe, 
however remote that grasp may be from finality. Justification for 
any such claim has been challenged in advance from a certain philo- 
sophic standpoint. Not from that of General Smuts, though in his 
powerful Address which signalised our centenary meeting he, like 
many philosophers to-day, emphasised the importance of properties 
which emerge from systems in their integrity, bidding us remember 
that a part while in the whole is not the same as the part in isolation. 
He hastened to admit in a subsequent speech, however, that for 
experimental biology, as for any other branch of science, it was 
logical and necessary to approach the whole through its parts. Nor 
again is the claim challenged from the standpoint of such a teacher 
as A. N. Whitehead, though in his philosophy of organic mechanism 
there is no real entity of any kind without internal and multiple 
relations, and each whole is more than the sum of its parts. I never- 
theless find ad hoc statements in his writings which directly encourage 
the methods of biochemistry. In the teachings of J. S. Haldane, 
however, the value of such methods have long been directly 



i6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

challenged. Some here will perhaps remember that in his Address 
to Section I, twenty-five years ago he described a philosophic stand- 
point which he has courageously maintained in many writings since. 
Dr. Haldane holds that to the enlightened biologist a living organism 
does not present a problem for analysis ; it is, qua organism, axio- 
matic. Its essential attributes are axiomatic ; heredity, for example, 
is for biology not a problem but an axiom. ' The problem of 
Physiology is not to obtain piecemeal physico-explanations of 
physiological processes ' (I quote from the 1885 Address), ' but to 
discover by observation and experiment the relatedness to one 
another of all the details of structure and activity in each organism 
as expressions of its nature as one organism.' I cannot pretend 
adequately to discuss these views here. They have often been 
discussed by others, not always perhaps with understanding. What 
is true in them is subtle, and I doubt if their author has ever found 
the right words in which to bring to most others a conviction of 
such truth. It is involved in a world outlook. What I think is 
scientifically faulty in Haldane 's teaching is the a priori element 
which leads to bias in the face of evidence. The task he sets for 
the physiologist seems vague to most people, and he forgets that 
with good judgment a study of parts may lead to an intellectual 
synthesis of value. In 1885 he wrote : ' That a meeting-point 
between Biology and Physical Science may at some time be found 
there is no reason for doubting. But we may confidently predict 
that if that meeting-point is found, and one of the two sciences 
is swallowed up, that one will not be Biology.' He now claims 
indeed that biology has accomplished the heavy meal because 
physics has been compelled to deal no longer with Newtonian 
entities but, like the biologist, with organisms such as the atom 
proves to be. Is it not then enough for my present purpose to 
remark on the significance of the fact that not until certain atoms 
were found spontaneously splitting piecemeal into parts, and others 
were afterwards so split in the laboratory, did we really know any- 
thing about the atom as a whole. 

At this point, however, I will ask you not to suspect me of claiming 
that all the attributes of living systems or even the more obvious 
among them are necessarily based upon chemical organisation alone. 
I have already expressed my own belief that this organisation will 
account for one striking characteristic of every living cell^ — its ability, 
namely, to maintain a dynamic individuality in diverse environments. 
Living cells display other attributes even more characteristic of 
themselves ; they grow, multiply, inherit qualities and transmit 
them. Although to distinguish levels of organisation in such 
systems may be to abstract from reality it is not illogical to believe 
that such attributes as these are based upon organisation at a level 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 17 

which is in some sense higher than the chemical level. The main 
necessity from the standpoint of biochemistry is then to decide 
whether nevertheless at its own level, which is certainly definable, 
the results of experimental studies are self-contained and consistent. 
This is assuredly true of the data which biochemistry is now acquir- 
ing. Never during its progress has chemical consistency shown 
itself to be disturbed by influences of any ultra-chemical kind. 

Moreover, before we assume that there is a level of organisation 
at which chemical controlling agencies must necessarily cease to 
function, we should respect the intellectual parsimony taught by 
Occam and be sure of their limitations before we seek for super- 
chemical entities as organisers. There is no orderly succession of 
events which would seem less likely to be controlled by the mere 
chemical properties of a substance than the cell divisions and cell 
diff^erentiation which intervene between the fertilised ovum and the 
finished embryo. Yet it would seem that a transmitted substance, 
a hormone in essence, may play an unmistakable part in that 
remarkable drama. It has for some years been known that, at an 
early stage of development, a group of cells forming the so-called 
' organiser ' of Spemann induces the subsequent stages of differentia- 
tion in other cells. The latest researches seem to show that a cell- 
free extract of this ' organiser ' may function in its place. The sub- 
stance concerned is, it would seem, not confined to the ' organiser ' 
itself, but is widely distributed outside, though not in, the embryo. 
It presents, nevertheless, a truly remarkable instance of chemical 
influence. 

It would be out of place in such a discourse as this to attempt 
any discussion of the psycho-physical problem. However much 
we may learn about the material systems which, in their integrity, 
are associated with consciousness, the nature of that association may 
yet remain a problem. The interest of that problem is insistent 
and it must be often in our thoughts. Its existence, however, 
justifies no pre-judgments as to the value of any knowledge of a 
consistent sort which the material systems may yield to experiment. 

V. 

It has become clear, I think, that chemical modes of thought, 
whatever their limitation, are fated profoundly to affect biological 
thought. If, however, the biochemist should at any time be inclined 
to overrate the value of his contributions to biology, or to under- 
rate the magnitude of problems outside his province, he will do well 
sometimes to leave the laboratory for the field, or to seek even in the 
museum a reminder of that infinity of adaptations of which life is 
capable. He will then not fail to work with a humble mind, however 
great his faith in the importance of the methods which are his own. 



i8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

It is surely right, however, to claim that in passing from its 
earlier concern with dead biological products to its present concern 
with active processes within living organisms, biochemistry has 
become a true branch of progressive biology. It has opened up modes 
of thought about the physical basis of life which could scarcely be 
employed at all a generation ago. Such data and such modes of 
thought as it is now providing are pervasive, and must appear as 
aspects in all biological thought. Yet these aspects are, of course, 
only partial. Biology in all its aspects is showing rapid progress, 
and its bearing on human welfare is more and more evident. 

Unfortunately the nature of this new biological progress and its 
true significance is known to but a small section of the lay public. 
Few will doubt that popular interest in science is extending, but it is 
mainly confined to the more romantic aspects of modern astronomy 
and physics. That biological advances have made less impression 
is probably due to more than one circumstance, of which the chief, 
doubtless, is the neglect of biology in our educational system. The 
startling data of modern astronomy and physics, though of course 
only when presented in their most superficial aspects, find an easier 
approach to the uninformed mind than those of the new experimental 
biology can hope for. The primary concepts involved are para- 
doxically less familiar. Modern physical science, moreover, has been 
interpreted to the intelligent public by writers so brilliant that their 
books have had a great and stimulating influence. 

Lord Russell once ventured on the statement that in passing 
from physics to biology one is conscious of a transition from the 
cosmic to the parochial, because from a cosmic point of view life 
is a very unimportant affair. Those who know that supposed parish 
well are convinced that it is rather a metropolis entitled to much 
more attention than it sometimes obtains from authors of guide-books 
to the universe. It may be small in extent, but is the seat of all the 
most significant events. In too many current publications, pur- 
porting to summarise scientific progress, biology is left out or receives 
but scant reference. Brilliant expositions of all that may be met in 
the region where modern science touches philosophy have directed 
thought straight from the implications of modern physics to the 
nature and structure of the human mind, and even to speculation 
concerning the mind of the Deity. Yet there are aspects of bio- 
logical truth already known which are certainly germane to such 
discussions, and probably necessary for their adequacy. 

VI. 

It is, however, because of its extreme importance to social pro- 
gress that public ignorance of biology is especially to be regretted. 
Sir Henry Dale has remarked that ' it is worth while to consider 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 19 

to-day whether the imposing achievements of physical science 
have not already, in the thought and interests of men at large, 
as well as in technical and industrial development, overshadowed 
in our educational and public policy those of biology to an ex- 
tent which threatens a one-sided development of science itself 
and of the civilisation which we hope to see based on science.' 
Sir Walter Fletcher, whose death during the past year has deprived 
the nation of an enlightened adviser, almost startled the public, 
I think, when he said in a national broadcast that ' we can find safety 
and progress only in proportion as we bring into our methods of 
statecraft the guidance of biological truth.' That statecraft, in its 
dignity, should be concerned with biological teaching, was a new 
idea to many listeners. A few years ago the Cambridge philosopher. 
Dr. C. D. Broad, who is much better acquainted with scientific 
data than are many philosophers, remarked upon the misfortune 
involved in the unequal development of science ; the high degree 
of our control over inorganic nature combined with relative ignorance 
of biology and psychology. At the close of a discussion as to the 
possibility of continued mental progress in the world, he summed up 
by saying that the possibility depends on our getting an adequate 
knowledge and control of life and mind before the combination of 
ignorance on these subjects with knowledge of physics and chemistry 
wrecks the whole social system. He closed with the somewhat 
startling words : ' Which of the runners in this very interesting race 
will win it is impossible to foretell. But physics and death have a 
long start over psychology and life ! ' No one surely will wish for, 
or expect, a slowing in the pace of the first, but the quickening up 
in the latter which the last few decades have seen is a matter for high 
satisfaction. But, to repeat, the need for recognising biological 
truth as a necessary guide to individual conduct and no less to state- 
craft and social policy still needs emphasis to-day. With frank 
acceptance of the truth that his own nature is congruent with all 
those aspects of nature at large which biology studies, combined with 
intelligent understanding of its teaching, man would escape from 
innumerable inhibitions due to past history and present ignorance, 
and equip himself for higher levels of endeavour and success. 

Inadequate as at first sight it may seem when standing alone in 
support of so large a thesis, I must here be content to refer briefly 
to a single example of biological studies bearing upon human 
welfare. I will choose one which stands near to the general theme 
of my address. I mean the current studies of human and animal 
nutrition. You are well aware that during the last twenty years — 
that is, since it adopted the method of controlled experiment — the 
study of nutrition has shown that the needs of the body are much 
more complex than was earlier thought, and in particular that 



20 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

substances consumed in almost infinitesimal amounts may, each in 
its way, be as essential as those which form the bulk of any adequate 
dietary. This complexity in its demands will, after all, not surprise 
those who have in mind the complexity of events in the diverse 
living tissues of the body. 

My earlier reference to vitamins, which had somewhat different 
bearings, was, I am sure, not necessary for a reminder of their nutri- 
tional importance. Owing to abundance of all kinds of advertise- 
ment vitamins are discussed in the drawing-room as well as in the 
dining-room, and also, though not so much, in the nursery, while 
at present perhaps not enough in the kitchen. Unfortunately, 
among the uninformed their importance in nutrition is not always 
viewed with discrimination. Some seem to think nowadays that if 
the vitamin supply is secured the rest of the dietary may be left to 
chance, while others suppose that they are things so good that we 
cannot have too much of them. Needless to say, neither assumption 
is true. With regard to the second indeed it is desirable, now that 
vitamin concentrates are on the market and much advertised, to 
remember that excess of a vitamin may be harmful. In the case of 
that labelled D at least we have definite evidence of this. Neverthe- 
less the claim that every known vitamin has highly important 
nutritional functions is supported by evidence which continues to 
grow. It is probable, but perhaps not yet certain, that the human 
body requires all that are known. 

The importance of detail is no less in evidence when the demands 
of the body for a right mineral supply are considered. A proper 
balance among the salts which are consumed in quantity is here of 
prime importance, but that certain elements which ordinary foods 
contain in minute amounts are indispensable in such amounts is 
becoming sure. To take but a single instance : the necessity of a 
trace of copper, which exercises somewhere in the body an indis- 
pensable catalytic influence on metabolism, is as essential in its way 
as much larger supplies of calcium, magnesium, potassium or iron. 
Those in close touch with experimental studies continually receive 
hints that factors still unknown contribute to normal nutrition, and 
those who deal with human dietaries from a scientific standpoint 
know that an ideal diet cannot yet be defined. This reference to 
nutritional studies is indeed mainly meant to assure you that the 
great attention they are receiving is fully justified. No one here, 
I think, will be impressed with the argument that because the human 
race has survived till now in complete ignorance of all such details 
the knowledge being won must have academic interest alone. This 
line of argument is very old and never right. 

One thing I am sure may be claimed for the growing enlighten- 
ment concerning human nutrition and the recent recognition of its 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 21 

study. It has already produced one line of evidence to show that 
Nurture can assist Nature to an extent not freely admitted a few 
years ago. That is a subject which I wish I could pursue. I cannot 
myself doubt that various lines of evidence, all of which should be 
profoundly welcome, are pointing in the same direction. 

Allow me just one final reference to another field of nutritional 
studies. Their great economic importance in animal husbandry calls 
for full recognition. Just now agricultural authorities are becoming 
acutely aware of the call for a better control of the diseases of animals. 
Together these involve an immense economic loss to the farmers, and 
therefore to the country. Although, doubtless, its influence should 
not be exaggerated, faulty nutrition plays no small share in accounting 
for the incidence of some among these diseases, as researches carried 
out at the Rowett Institute in Aberdeen and elsewhere are demon- 
strating. There is much more of such work to be done with great 
profit. 

VII. 

In every branch of science the activity of research has greatly 
increased during recent years. This all will have realised, but only 
those who are able to survey the situation closely can estimate the 
extent of that increase. It occurred to me at one time that an 
appraisement of research activities in this country, and especially the 
organisation of State-aided research, might fittingly form a part of 
my address. The desire to illustrate the progress of my own sub- 
ject led me away from that project. I gave some time to a survey 
however, and came to the conclusion, among others, that from eight 
to ten individuals in the world are now engaged upon scientific 
investigations for every one so engaged twenty years ago. It must 
be remembered, of course, that not only has research endowment 
greatly increased in America and Europe, but that Japan, China, and 
even India have entered the field and are making contributions to 
science of real importance. It is sure that, whatever the conse- 
quences, the increase of scientific knowledge is at this time under- 
going a positive acceleration. 

Apropos, I find difficulty as to-day's occupant of this important 
scientific pulpit in avoiding some reference to impressive words 
spoken by my predecessor which are still echoed in thought, talk and 
print. In his wise and eloquent address at York Sir Alfred Ewing 
reminded us with serious emphasis that the command of Nature has 
been put into man's hand before he knows how to command himself. 
Of the dangers involved in that indictment he warned us ; and we 
should remember that General Smuts also sounded the same note 
of warning in London. 

Of Science itself it is, of course, no indictment. It may be thought 



Z2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

of rather as a warning signal to be placed on her road : ' Dangerous 
Hill Ahead,' perhaps, or ' Turn Right ' ; not, however, ' Go Slow,' 
for that advice Science cannot follow. The indictment is of man- 
kind. Recognition of the truth it contains cannot be absent from the 
minds of those whose labours are daily increasing mankind's com- 
mand of Nature ; but it is due to them that the truth should be 
viewed in proper perspective. It is, after all, war, to which Science 
has added terrors, and the fear of war, which alone give it real 
urgency ; an urgency which must of course be felt in these days 
when some nations at least are showing the spirit of selfish and 
dangerous nationalism. I may be wrong but it seems to me that, 
war apart, the gifts of science and invention have done little to 
increase opportunities for the display of the more serious of man's 
irrational impulses. The worst they do perhaps is to give to clever 
and predatory souls that keep within the law, the whole world for 
their depredations, instead of a parish or a country as of yore. 

But Sir Alfred Ewing told us of ' the disillusion with which, now 
standing aside, he watches the sweeping pageant of discovery and 
invention in which he used to make unbounded delight.' I wish 
that one to whom applied science and this country owe so much 
might have been spared such disillusion, for I suspect it gives him 
pain. I wonder whether, if he could have added to an ' Engineer's 
Outlook ' the outlook of a biologist, the disillusion would still be 
there. As one just now advocating the claims of biology I would 
much like to know. It is sure, however, that the gifts of the engineer 
to humanity at large are immense enough to outweigh the assistance 
he may have given to the forces of destruction. 

It may be claimed for biological science, in spite of vague references 
to bacterial warfare and the like, that it is not of its nature to aid 
destruction. What it may do towards making man as a whole more 
worthy of his inheritance has yet to be fully recognised. On this 
point I have said much. Of its service to his physical betterment 
you will have no doubts. I have made but the bare reference in this 
address to the support that biological research gives to the art of 
medicine. I had thought to say much more of this, but found that 
if I said enough I could say nothing else. 

There are two other great questions so much to the front just now 
that they tempt a final reference. I mean, of course, the paradox 
of poverty amidst plenty and the replacement of human labour by 
machinery. Applied science should take no blame for the former, 
but indeed claim credit unfairly lost. It is not within my capacity 
to say anything of value about the paradox and its cure ; but I con- 
fess that I see more present danger in the case of ' Money versus 
Man ' than danger present or future in that of the ' Machine versus 
Man ' ! 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 23 

With regard to the latter it is surely right that those in touch with 
science should insist that the replacement of human labour will 
continue. Those who doubt this cannot realise the meaning of 
that positive acceleration in science, pure and applied, which now 
continues. No one can say what kind of equilibrium the distribution 
of leisure is fated to reach. In any case an optimistic view as to 
the probable effects of its increase may be justified. 

It need not involve a revolutionary change if there is real planning 
for the future. Lord Melchett was surely right when some time 
ago he urged on the upper House that present thought should be 
given to that future ; but I think few men of affairs seriously 
believe what is yet probable, that the replacement we are thinking of 
will impose a new structure upon society. This may well differ in 
some essentials from any of those alternative social forms of which 
the very names now raise antagonisms. I confess that if civilisation 
escapes its other perils I should fear little the final reign of the 
machine. We should not altogether forget the difference in use 
which can be made of real and ample leisure compared with that 
possible for very brief leisure associated with fatigue ; nor the 
difference between compulsory toil and spontaneous work. We have 
to picture, moreover, the reactions of a community which, save 
for a minority, has shown itself during recent years to be educable. 
I do not think it fanciful to believe that our highly efficient national 
broadcasting service, with the increased opportunities which the 
coming of short wave-length transmission may provide, might well 
take charge of the systematic education of adolescents after the 
personal influence of the schoolmaster has prepared them to profit 
by it. It would not be a technical education but an education for 
leisure. Listening to organised courses of instruction might at first 
be for the few ; but ultimately might become habitual in the com- 
munity which it would specially benefit. 

In parenthesis allow me a brief further reference to ' planning.' 
The word is much to the front just now, chiefly in relation with 
current enterprises. But there may be planning for more funda- 
mental developments ; forfuture adjustment to social reconstructions. 
In such planning the trained scientific mind must play its part. Its 
vision of the future may be very limited, but in respect of material 
progress and its probable consequences Science (I include all 
branches of knowledge to which the name applies) has at least 
better data for prophecy than other forms of knowledge. 

It was long ago written, ' Wisdom and Knowledge shall be 
stability of Thy times.' Though statesmen may have wisdom ade- 
quate for the immediate and urgent problems with which it is their 
fate to deal, there should yet be a reservoir of synthesised and 
clarified knowledge on which they can draw. The technique which 



24 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

brings Governments in contact with scientific knowledge in parti- 
cular, though greatly improved of late, is still imperfect. In any 
case the politician is perforce concerned with the present rather 
than the future. I have recently read Bacon's New Atlantis afresh 
and have been thinking about his Solomon's House. We know 
that the rules for the functioning of that House were mistaken 
because the philosopher drew them up when in the mood of a 
Lord Chancellor ; but in so far as the philosopher visualised therein 
an organisation of the best intellects bent on gathering knowledge 
for future practical services, his idea was a great one. When civilisa- 
tion is in danger and society in transition might there not be a 
House recruited from the best intellects in the country with 
functions similar {mutatis mutandis) to those of Bacon's fancy } A 
House devoid of politics, concerned rather with synthesising 
existing knowledge, with a sustained appraisement of the progress 
of knowledge, and continuous concern with its bearing upon social 
readjustments. It is not to be pictured as composed of scientific 
authorities alone. It would be rather an intellectual exchange 
where thought would go ahead of immediate problems. I believe, 
perhaps foolishly, that given time I might convince you that the 
functions of such a House, in such days as ours, might well be real. 
Here I must leave them to your fancy, well aware that in the minds 
of many I may by this bare suggestion lose all reputation as a realist ! 

I will now hasten to my final words. Most of us have had a 
tendency in the past to fear the gift of leisure to the majority. To 
believe that it may be a great social benefit requires some mental 
adjustment, and a belief in the educability of the average man or 
woman. 

But if the political aspirations of the nations should grow sane, 
and the artificial economic problems of the world be solved, the 
combined and assured gifts of health, plenty, and leisure may prove 
to be the final justification of applied science. In a community 
advantaged by these each individual will be free to develop his own 
innate powers, and, becoming more of an individual, will be less 
moved by those herd instincts which are always the major danger 
to the world. 

You may feel that throughout this address I have dwelt exclusively 
on the material benefits of science to the neglect of its cultural value. 
I would like to correct this in a single closing sentence. I believe 
that for those who cultivate it in a right and humble spirit. Science 
is one of the Humanities ; no less. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



SEASONAL WEATHER AND ITS 
PREDICTION 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. SIR GILBERT T. WALKER, C.S.I. , F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION, 



I HAVE chosen the subject of seasonal weather for my address, because 
its economic importance is obvious to most men who have hved in the 
Tropics, and its scientific problems are full of interest. Unfortunately 
there is an additional motive, the need of warning against dangers ahead. 
For the difficulties of long-range forecasting are not in general adequately 
recognised, so that some of the most progressive countries in the world 
are inclined to make predictions on an insecure basis ; their technical 
staff does not realise that though the prestige of meteorology may be 
raised for a few years by the issue of seasonal forecasts, the harm done 
to the science will inevitably outweigh the good if the prophecies are 
found unreliable. We only learn from experience that while the fore- 
casting efforts of a charlatan are judged by their occasional successes, it 
is the occasional failures of a government department which are remem- 
bered against it. 

In a country where conditions are as changeable from day to day as 
they are here, it is natural that we should think in terms of wet or fine 
days rather than of wet or dry periods ; but in the greater part of our 
empire the different seasons are much more sharply defined, and so 
their dominant features stand out more clearly. Also the variability of 
their seasons is in general materially greater than here. Thus in the 
annual rainfall measurements of the last half-century the smallest rainfall 
of Great Britain has been 23 per cent, below normal ; but that of large 
areas in South Africa has been in defect by 40 per cent., in north-east 
Australia by 50 per cent., and in the Punjab by as much as 58 per cent., 
or two and a half times that of this country. 

Now a season that is unusual seems to have some abnormal factor 
permanently at work diverting the weather from its ordinary course ; 
in India I found, when issuing the daily forecast in a dry winter, that I had 
at times to predict no rain, when with identical conditions as shown by 
the weather map I should in a wet winter have predicted a widespread 
fall. Even in England, in winter, there is an appreciable persistence 
in the characteristics : during the last sixty years the fifteen wettest 
Januaries were followed by Februaries of more than average rainfall in 



26 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

ten cases ; and with dry Januaries also there is a similar two-to-one 
chance of a prolongation of the character. It is this persistence, especially 
when it is preceded by abnormal features in other regions, that seems 
now to hold out most promise of reliability in forecasting. In agricultural 
countries in which a failure of the rains involves a national calamity, the 
desirability of making preparations in advance has long ago led to efforts 
at prediction ; and the demand has been so great that the supply has 
been forthcoming before its quality would bear the most cursory 
examination. The causes of unusual weather seem hopelessly obscure 
to the layman ; and hence primitive ideas, surviving in the depth of our 
natures from countless ages of magical practices, still come to the 
surface in connection with it. In India I have been officially asked 
what is the need of an expensive and difficult scientific inquiry into the 
causes of drought when Hindu astrology will indicate what is coming ; 
and many a country that claims to be dominated by Western science fails 
to recognise that events in weather obey the ordinary laws of physics and 
chemistry. The almost universal idea that weather must repeat itself 
after a certain number of years finds its origin, I believe, ultimately in 
the ancient belief in the control of our affairs by the heavenly bodies 
with their definite cycles — a belief which clearly shows itself in the 
supposed influence of the moon on the weather. Be that as it may, the 
faith in periods is so deep-seated that even in scientific discussions the 
ordinary tests for validity are very often ignored : more than once I have 
seen in journals of repute the artless remark of an author that if he were 
to limit his results to those which would satisfy the criteria of reality 
he would obtain few results of interest ! 

Another regrettable feature of current practice, even in important 
memoirs, is that of classing together processes with true periods and 
those sometimes called ' quasi-periodic,' of which the period varies. 
If our ideas are to be applied with success in the present enterprise 
their currency must be stabilised, and no good can come of attempting 
to pass off a vague surge of a few years as a three-year period. 

After these preliminary remarks I propose to make a rapid sketch 
of the relationships that have been found between seasonal features in 
different parts of the world, then to describe the efforts that have actually 
been made to issue long-range forecasts, and finally to consider the 
directions from which improvements can be hoped for. 

In the collection of World Weather Records, of which the publication 
was made possible by American generosity six years ago, there are about 
a thousand series of monthly data of pressure, temperature and rainfall ; 
and these form but a scanty network. If quarterly values were com- 
puted and correlation coefficients between each pair for contemporary 
seasons, as well as for seasons one quarter before and after, we should 
have about four million coefficients. Co-ordination and generalisation 
are imperatively called for, and the development of the subject lies in the 
discovery of regions over which the variations are linked together. 

After preliminary efforts by Buchan, Hoffmeyer, Blanford, de Bort, 
Hann, Meinardus and Pettersson, the far-reaching possibilities were 
first visualised by Hildebrandsson, who plotted pressure curves for ten 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 27 

years of sixty-eight stations scattered over the world and drew attention 
to the relations between them : among these the opposition between 
Sydney in Austraha and Buenos Aires was fated to have great influence : 
his subsequent studies involved temperature and rainfall also. In 1902 
the Lockyers confirmed the existence of the see-saw between pressure 
in the Argentine and in India or Australia ; and using graphical methods 
produced a world map, dividing areas in it according as their pressures 
varied with India or South America. They were followed by Bigelow's 
study of relationships with solar prominences. During recent years 
considerable development has followed the introduction of statistical 
methods, particularly in the hands of Exner, and of members of the 
meteorological services of England and India. 

It will be convenient if I may here introduce a technical phrase. If 
we have two series of numbers of which the variations are connected, 
there will be a certain proportion of the variations of each which are 
associated with those of the other, and this proportion is called the 
correlation coefficient between the series. If it is nearly unity the numbers 
vary closely together ; if it is small there is little relationship between 
them ; and if it approaches — i the relationship is close, but one series 
goes up when the other goes down. 

Let us now consider some of the results of the analysis of seasonal 
features. It has long been known that in the North Atlantic Ocean there 
are two types of winter. In one pressure is high near the Azores and 
south-west Europe, and low in Iceland, while temperatures are high in 
north-west Europe ; in the other type all these features are reversed. 
(See the three upper graphs in Fig. i.) Let us suppose that we want 
to know the effect of these types on, say, temperature in Labrador. 
An obvious plan would be to plot the variations in successive winters, 
December to February, of the quantities which increase together, such 
as Vienna pressure and Stornoway temperature, and also of the quantities 
which decrease when the former increase, such as Iceland pressure, 
reversing these so as to secure similarity of the graphs. We could then 
draw a graph which is the mean of all these, and could regard it as 
expressing the variations of the North Atlantic fluctuation as a whole. 
(See the lowest graph of Fig i .) If now we were to plot Labrador tem- 
perature below it we should see that its variations were, like those of 
Iceland pressure, strongly opposed : and on reversing Labrador there 
would be very strong similarity. So Labrador becomes a good example 
of the second group. Now we want to know the eflFect of the North 
Atlantic oscillation on the pressure temperatures and rainfall of a large 
number of places ; and if in this way we put a hundred graphs under one 
another, some easy to classify and some doubtful in character, it would 
be difficult to draw satisfactory conclusions in a manner capable of 
convenient and accurate expression. So instead of graphs we use 
numbers. Having found by preliminary investigation the stations which 
are most representative, we calculate the figures in successive years for 
the North Atlantic oscillation as a whole, and then work out the correlation 
coefficients of this with the pressures, temperatures and rainfalls of all 
the places in which we are interested. These coefficients are plotted 



28 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



in Fig. 2, and in its top chart we see that the rise of pressure with a 
positive fluctuation is greater as far east as Vienna and as far west as the 
Bermudas than it is at the Azores. There is also to be seen in the second 
chart conspicuous warmth in the east of the United States as well as in 
north-west Europe, and marked cold to the south-east of the Mediterranean 
as well as along the north-east of North America. On rainfall, in the 
lowest chart, the influence is less widespread. The small amount of 
persistency is shown in Fig. 3. The first of its three graphs shows how 




b S I I I I BOI I I I 85 1 I I MO I I I 1 95 I I I I 00 1 I I I OS I I I I 10 I I I I IS I 

Fig. I. — N. Atlantic Oscillation. 



close are the relationships of pressure in December with the figures 
expressing the fluctuations of the North Atlantic in that month ; the 
second and third, which give the relationships of pressure and temperature 
in January with the fluctuations of the oscillation of the December before, 
show that little effect of the December conditions survives after a month. 
The more critical in my audience may object that if you are sufficiently 
astute in choosing your successive numbers for the fluctuation you can 
make a certain amount of agreement with any system of pressures and 
temperatures ; and to this the reply is that the fit is very much closer 
than can be explained in this way. Others may urge that all these 
arguments are merely numerical, and quote the jibe that by statistics 
you can prove anything. But if you wish to understand phenomena 
you must collect the facts, and if they are numerical it is only in the 






Fig. 2. — Relations of N. Atlantic oscillation with contemporary pressure, tem- 
perature and rainfall of December to February. Numbers based on series 
shorter than 30 years are in brackets ; those for areas are in circles. 



3° 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 




Fig. 3. — Relations with the N. Atlantic oscillation of December. 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



31 



very simplest of cases that you can see relationships by merely plotting 
curves and comparing them. Statistical methods are inevitably forced 
on us by common sense when we want accurate and reliable inferences 
from series of data, just as a sextant is forced on a sailor when he wants 
to determine accurately the altitude of the sun. One who has lost an 
important lawsuit, owing to the ingenious argument of the opposing 
counsel, may object that by logic you can prove anything ; but that is 
an inadequate defence for being illogical on all occasions. As a matter 
of fact, when studying relations of cause and effect statistical methods 




Fig. 4. — Illiteracy and unemployment. 

show us what quantities vary together, but strictly by themselves they 
tell us nothing as to causation. If we compare heights of fathers and 
sons, we learn that tall sons have tall fathers ; but in spite of that fact 
we are not convinced that the child is literally father to the man. 

Let us consider an example from data published in 1906 regarding 
unemployment and illiteracy as measured by the percentage of persons 
who could not sign their name in the marriage register (Fig. 4). Clearly 
the correlation coefficient between these two factors might lead to most 
undesirable inferences regarding the usefulness of education. But we 
could not expect to arrive at the truth if we ignored such an important 
fact as the amount of trade, and on admitting the data of this factor we 
see at once that faith in the value of our elementary schools need not be 
uprooted ; for the revival of prosperity produced marriage, especially 
among those in a humble position who could not write, as well as a 




Fig. 5. — Relations of N. Pacific oscillation with contemporary pressure, 
4 temperature and rainfall. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 33 




Fig. 6. — Relations of Southern Oscillation of December to February with con- 
temporary pressure, temperature and rainfall. 

c 



34 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 




Fig. 7. — Relations of Southern Oscillation of June to August Avith contemporary 
pressure, temperature and rainfall. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 35 

decrease in unemployment ; so that the last two factors varied similarly. 
We see, then, that we may be misled if we do not take into account all the 
factors that may be operative. In other words, statistical methods like 
logarithm tables are invaluable as a tool for giving correct numerical 
results with the minimum of mental labour ; but neither tool possesses 
imagination or judgment, and neither of them is a substitute for expert 
knowledge of the subject to which it is applied. 

Let us now turn to the North Pacific Ocean which, in spite of its 
limited access to the Arctic seas, is subject to fluctuations very similar 
to those of the North Atlantic. A similar treatment yields Fig. 5, in 
which increased pressure gradients go with high temperature to the 
north-east and south-west, and low temperature to the north-west and 
south-east. It will be noted that in both the North Atlantic and Pacific 



1875 


1890 1910 


1930 


V^8;\ fV^ 


^A^vAjvVlA 


A^ 


\ 1880-1 


1890-91 1910-11 

d . /I 


1930-31 


V 

FOLLOWING A 
SUMMER. f\J 


The Southern Oscillation. 


lr 



Fig. 8. — Forecast of December to February from previous June to August. 

Oceans a fluctuation is classed as positive when the pressure gradient 
is strong and the wind circulation is active. 

The largest known system of related seasonal weather is that called 
the ' southern oscillation ' (or ' southern fluctuation '), which has features 
in the southern summer of December to February somewhat different 
from those of the southern winter of June to August. It will be seen 
in Figs. 6 and 7 that at both times of the year the fluctuation is called 
positive when pressure is high in the southern Pacific and low in the 
Indian Ocean, and temperature is mostly low in the Tropics ; but the 
economic importance is in connection with rainfall, for the fluctuation 
has a correlation coefficient of over o • 8 with the summer rainfall of north- 
east Australia, over 0-7 with the monsoon rainfall of India and with the 
Nile floods, o-6 with the rainfall of large areas in South America, and 
over 0-5 with that of a region in South Africa. 

A surprising fact comes out on comparing the numerical series giving 
the characteristics of the summer and winter values of this fluctuation, 
the control of the southern winter on the succeeding summer being 
expressed by a coefficient of 0-82, the corresponding data being plotted 
together in Fig. 8 ; but the relationship with the previous summer is 



J^~^~-t 




Fig. 9. — Indications of D-F pressure, temperature and rainfall from Southern 

oscillation of previous J-A. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



37 



only 0-2. The immediate effect of this is that numerical values of the 
winter oscillation give us a means of predicting three months in advance, 
at any rate approximately, the summer values of the oscillation and 
therefore of the pressure, temperature and rainfall associated with them. 
In Fig. 9 are the relationships of the values of the pressure, temperature 
and rainfall of December to February, with the numbers indicating the 
fluctuation of the previous June to August. These express relationships 
which have held for about fifty years, and show that we have arrived, 
not at a mathematical figment, but at a physical reality of commercial 
value. 

These methods of prediction can be improved on by study of the 
relationships of individual areas. For example, the coefficient of 0-64 
of rainfall of north-east Australia with the oscillation of the previous 
winter becomes 0-79, when we base it on previous pressure at Honolulu, 



'k '«5 



■90 



■95 



1900 



'OB 



■io 



•20 



25 



•30 



MEAN 

+ 3-7 
-3-7 



1 1 


1 1 1 1 


III! 


1 II 1 


1 1 1 1 
ACT 

A 


1 1 1 1 
UAL 

A 


II 1 1 


1 1 1 1 


II 1 1 


Nil 


V 


T/ 


Vr 


V ' 


n' 


y V 


v\ 


^r^ 


/ w 


V 




vu 


V 


^ 


A A 


V 


Aa 


\ 


^/ 


V 








C A L C 


U LAT 


E 


^\ 


1 ^ 


V 


v^ 



Fig. 10. — N.E. Australian rainfall, October to April. 



Port Darwin and South America ; a comparison of the actual rainfall with 
that given by the formula is shown in Fig. 10. Similarly, the o • 56 of South 
Africa becomes o • 72 . But a certain amount of the improvement effected in 
this way by selecting the biggest factors is bound to be fictitious, even 
when there appear to be adequate independent reasons for thinking that 
the relationships are real ; and, if this precaution is ignored, the more 
promising the formula, as indicated by the closeness of its apparent 
relationship, the greater is the likelihood of disappointment. 

It must be admitted that a real control of o • 7 by previous conditions 
is about as good as is now available for forecasting, and the difference 
between the actual and the forecasted amounts will still be considerable ; 
so predictions can only be issued with restraint if public confidence is 
to be won. The natural consequence is silence, except when the 
indications are markedly favourable or unfavourable : in a race with 
thirty starters a conspicuously good horse may, without undue risk, be 
backed to come in within the foremost six, and we may feel confident 
that a thoroughly bad animal will be in the last six ; but it would be 
unwise to hazard much on the likelihood that a commonplace individual 
will finish among the central six. It may at first sight seem a confession 



38 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of weakness to issue no forecast when conditions appear roughly normal ; 
but it is better to admit your limitations, and only speak when you can 
do so with some safety, than to issue predictions when they are little 
more than guesses. 

The objection is sometimes raised that though a foreshadowing 
of abundant or scanty rain over a region may be right four times out of 
five, owing to local variations the predictions will not be so successful 
when applied to a particular farm ; and it must be admitted that this 
criticism is valid. But in England, as I learn from Sir John Russell, 
there are modifications of treatment and manuring that are appropriate 
before wet seasons and others before dry ; in South Africa, in hilly country, 
the upper levels are better for cultivation in wet years and the lower 
ones in dry years ; in India, if the rains fail, cotton and millets will 
grow though the ordinary crops may perish. We may hope that, 
when our methods have improved, the prediction when applied to a 
particular farm will be right at least three times in five years ; and if 
this is consistently acted upon, it will prove of material value in the 
long run. 

Of further applications of these methods some are worthy of a passing 
notice. For Siam, whose summer rain has a coefficient of 0-7 with the 
contemporary southern oscillation, a former Indian colleague has worked 
out a foreshadowing formula with a relationship of o-8. And at length 
China, which has suffered terribly from floods as well as droughts, is 
receiving attention. A graduate from Shanghai, now working in London, 
finds that the Yangtse valley and three areas along the coast have enough 
data for a preliminary investigation, and has worked out formulae for 
prediction with coefficients between o-6 and 0-7. Mention should also 
be made of the researches of Okada in connection with the rice crop 
of Japan. 

Let us now turn from the academic to the practical, and see how far 
these theoretical methods justify themselves in actual experience. I 
believe that the earliest regular seasonal forecasts based on meteorological 
instead of astrological data were those of the Indian monsoon of June 
to September, started half a century ago in India by H. F. Blanford, 
and depending mainly for their success on the ill-effect upon the monsoon 
of excessive winter or spring snowfall in the Himalayas ; finally, however, 
he made the big generalisation that droughts might be associated with 
unusually high pressure over a great part of Asia, at Mauritius and in 
Australia. Eliot continued the monsoon forecasts from 1887 to 1903, 
but data in those days were scanty ; he attempted far too much detail, 
his mode of expression was somewhat pontifical, and the newspapers 
became sarcastic ; so latterly he obtained immunity from criticism by 
printing the forecasts as confidential documents. The gradual intro- 
duction of statistical methods in India has undoubtedly led to improve- 
ment ; but as we have seen it is much easier to predict the rainfall of 
December to February than that of June to September, and the length 
of the series of Indian data is not yet great enough to give complete 
reliability. After careful scrutiny I estimate that of the forecasts issued 
before the monsoon periods from 1905 to 1932 two-thirds were correct ; 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



39 



but I consider that this is not good enough and that we have been too 
ambitious. Also while the approximate prediction formula of 1908 has 
stood the test of time with credit, the later ones of 1924 for north-west 
India and the Peninsula separately, although certainly better in theory, 
have not, in the short period of trial, proved so successful. The contrast 
between the working of the formulae before and after their date of 
preparation will be seen in Fig. 11. 

Happily in Southern Rhodesia, which in 1922 adopted statistical 
methods similar to those of India with only twenty-four years of data to 
work upon, the results have been eminently satisfactory. Out of eleven 




Fig. II. — Calculated and actual Indian rainfall. 



years since publication was begun, there have been eight in which a 
departure of over 3 in. was given by the formula, and in seven of these 
the character was correctly indicated (Fig. 12). 

At Batavia the efficient Dutch observatory under Braak started in 
1909 to issue forecasts founded on the simple rule that low pressure 
from January to June was followed by abundance of rain from July to 
December. The rule demanded a more complete presistence of pressure 
than actually prevails, and in 1927 Berlage adopted a formula based on 
three local conditions, together with data of the rare rains of northern 
Peru : this gives, on paper, a relationship of over o'8. 

In Australia calamitous failures in the rains have long demanded 
forecasts, and these led to the production of weather cycles, which broke 
down so frequently that their use was discarded. In spite of this 
experience, however. Hunt, the Commonwealth Meteorologist, put 



40 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



forward in 1929 a theory of a four-year period, based on the cooling 
effect of the widespread growth of luxuriant vegetation produced by the 
rainfall in areas that were parched. I believe that the theory has not 
been adopted officially. 

When we turn from the tropical and subtropical to the temperate 
regions, where the persistence of conditions is in general conspicuously 



l?22/3 23/4- 24/S 25/6 2hl7 Ij/d Z'S/'f 2^/30 dOjl 3/ /a ^z/a 



I I 



I I 




S. RHODESIA RAINFALL, OCT-APR. 



Fig. 12. 



smaller, we must expect greater difficulties in making long-range forecasts. 
In America the relations of weather and crops have probably been worked 
out more scientifically than in any other country, so that the commercial 
value of reliable predicting has long been recognised ; and not only by 
farmers, but by those interested in water supply, in power schemes, 
in transport and in commerce generally. Thus one of the Californian 
hydro-electric companies makes its own forecasts, because it may spend 
four million dollars more for crude oil in a dry than in a wet year. In. a 
country of exuberant vitality it is not surprising that many efforts should 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



41 



have been made to provide for the general demand. In an article in 
1927, by C. F. Brooks, we read that in the absence of forecasts ' western 
farmers have paid a " rainmaker " thousands of dollars at a time ' actually 
to produce rain ; that during the previous ten years ' well over fifty long- 
rangers of greater or lesser repute have been publishing and, in a great 
many cases, accepting money for worthless or damaging forecasts.' As 
in Europe, they have predictions based on occurrences on critical days, 
such as Candlemas or St. Swithin's, as well as on the doings of animals 
and birds. Thus Brooks quotes from an almanac of 1870 : ' When 
you see 13 geese walking injun file and toeing in you can deliberately 
bet yure last surviving dollar on a hard winter, and grate fluktuousness 
during the next seazon in the price of cowhide boots.* 

Undeterred by the difficulties, G. F. McEwen, of the Scripps Institution 




Fig. 13. — Atlantic Icebergs and the previous oscillation. 



of Oceanography in California, has for some time been forecasting rainfall 
by empirical methods, and at first attained considerable success, largely 
on the basis of a short series of ocean temperatures. These, however, 
as he has recognised, have not of late made good their early promise ; 
and he is driven to using sunspot numbers, a cycle of five or six 
years, and a complex method of smoothing in the hope of attaining 
reliability. 

A less difficult task confronts the International Ice Patrol Service of 
the United States in their desire to obtain advance information of the 
amount of Arctic ice drifting into the western North Atlantic. I do not 
know what progress has been made, but the dependence on the previous 
North Atlantic oscillation, with which there is a coefficient of o -60, would 
appear to suggest a useful starting-point (Fig. 13). 

In Europe the only seasonal forecasts known to me that have a scientific 
foundation, and have been madefor a number of years, are those of Sweden 
and Russia. In Sweden Wallen has for eighteen years made predictions 
for rainfall and for the height of water. Regarding rainfall, he smoothes 
by taking the sums of consecutive twelve months ; and then, assuming 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

that the nature of the fluctuation so disclosed will not change suddenly, 
he forecasts that the total rainfall of some definite period, usually six 
months or a year, will be greater, or less, than it was in the previous year. 
Now a moment's thought will make it clear that a man will in the long 
run be right three times out of four if, when last year's rain was in defect, 
he predicts an increase, or if it was in excess he forecasts a diminution. 
So I think it is not unfair to say that success under the Swedish condi- 
tions begins at 75 per cent. The success actually attained is 82 per cent., 
which is encouraging ; and the success in dealing with water levels 
is phenomenally great, being slightly over 90 per cent. 

The seasonal conditions of Russia, which are not very closely related 
with those of the North Atlantic, have been carefully examined by W. Wiese. 
In 1923 the Hydrometeorological Office of Leningrad started publishing 
forecasts of ice in the Barents Sea, and out of seventeen monthly fore- 
casts of which I have information fifteen were approximately correct. 
Predictions of the rainfall of April and May in central and east Russia 
were initiated at the same time, and all the first four years they were 
approximately correct : the biggest difference between the actual and fore- 
casted amounts was only 20 per cent. 

No account of European activity in this department could ignore the 
enterprise of Prussia four years ago in creating at Frankfurt a.M. a post 
for research into long-period forecasting. Dr. Franz Baur has for the 
present wisely limited his activity to the issue of a forecast of ten days ; 
it would be impossible to expect results under these conditions 
which are as accurate as those of daily weather work, but I am in- 
formed that their standard fully demonstrates the trustworthiness of 
the principles employed. It is only by experiments of this kind that 
satisfactory methods of prediction can be developed. 

We may now pass to the consideration of improvements in our methods, 
and the fundamental question at once arises — what is the physical cause 
of seasonal fluctuations ? We should naturally look for it in variations in 
the energy received from the sun, and it is surprising that an increase 
in solar activity as measured by sunspots produces a slight decrease in the 
circulations in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. In the southern 
fluctuation the tendency of numerous spots is to produce positive values, 
but even there the biggest seasonal correlation coefficient is only 0-26, 
which is much too small to provide the explanation that we seek. 
Moreover, it probably arises because a positive fluctuation is associated 
with low temperatures between latitudes 40° N. and 40° S. ; and these 
are linked with an increase in sunspots. 

In order to verify that the daily pressures are not produced by short- 
lived emanations from the sun tabulations of the relationships between 
daily and weekly, as well as the monthly and seasonal, values at distant 
places have been made ; for if the daily values over the earth are controlled 
from outside there will be close parallelism between these daily and 
weekly pressures. It was found that between 31 daily contemporary 
pressures at Honolulu and Batavia the coefficient was —0-12, which is 
negligible ; between 39 weekly ones it was +o-io, between 47 monthly 
June pressures it was — 012, and between the pressures of 47 three- 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 43 

monthly seasons of June to August it was —0-46. Between Samoa and 
Batavia December pressures the coefficient was — 0-38, and for the 
season December to February it was — o-6o. Thus it is between the 
characteristics that persist over months, not over days or weeks, that 
relationships exist. 

Being forced off short-lived phenomena we search for an explanation 
in terms of slowly changing features, such as ocean temperatures ; and 
the big variations from year to year in the amount of pack ice in the 
antarctic seas forces itself on our attention. But here the reports of 
twelve years from the South Orkneys yield a relationship of only 0-32 
with the southern fluctuation, instead of about 0-9, as we should want in 
a prime cause ; and the variations at the South Orkneys come after rather 
than before those of the southern oscillation. The biggest ocean region 
is the Pacific, and as an index of its seasonal water temperature we 
may use the corresponding air temperature of Samoa, which shows a 
greater persistence than any factor in the world as yet examined ; the 
relationship between its summer and autumn values is as large as 0"94. 
But unluckily the correlation coefficients show clearly that it is mainly 
the southern fluctuation in winter that controls the Samoa temperature. 
Thus a short-cut to the explanation of our fundamental problems seems 
as far away as ever. Our three big fluctuations each form a system of 
changes which are apparently held together by meteorological links : 
and there is, in my opinion, as yet no satisfactory proof of any free periods 
associated with them. 

Let us now consider in what direction new developments seem likely. 
A moment's reflection will convince us that in view of the variations of 
rainfall over large areas, such as Brazil and Central Africa, which are 
scarcely affected by the three big fluctuations, there must be others, 
some of which are probably on a big scale. For example we should, on 
the analogy of the northern oceans, expect a fluctuation of pressure 
between the antarctic low pressure belt and the high pressure belt of 
30° S. We are at once reminded of the marked opposition which Simpson 
found during the short period of four years for which data were available 
between pressure at McMurdo Sound and that in a belt round the earth 
extending from about 25° S. to about 50° S. All students of this subject 
have found it natural to regard the fluctuations in the amount of pack 
ice in the antarctic seas as likely to control sea and therefore air tempera- 
tures over large regions, and the most southern station from which as 
many as twenty-five years of data are forthcoming is the South Orkneys. 
Its winter pressure does show the opposition that we should expect with 
that of Australia, but not with the high-pressure region of South America 
or Mauritius ; so that it gives little support to the view that there is a 
general pressure oscillation between the low and the high pressure belts 
of the southern hemisphere. On the other hand, the air temperature at 
the South Orkneys may be regarded as an index of the sea temperature : 
and as the ocean current through the Drake Passage would take about a 
year to reach South Africa, we are not astonished at the relationship of 
o • 56 between the South Orkneys air temperature in winter and that of the 
next winter at Cape Town. This is not, however, as close as the corre- 



44 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



spending relationship of 0-84 shown in Fig. 14 between the winter tem- 
perature at New Year Island at the extreme south-east of South America, 
and that at Cape Town a year later. The far greater influence of New 
Year Island is interesting, since between Cape Horn and the South 
Orkneys there runs E.N.E. a line which the recent Discovery expedition 
calls the Antarctic Convergence ; here the cold antarctic water meets the 
northern warmer water and dives under it. So while the current flowing 
past New Year Island can after a year approach South Africa that from 
the South Orkneys is cut off by a barrier. 

If I may summarise these remarks, I would say that although seasonal 
foreshadowing is still very imperfect it has come to stay ; for situations 
will arise from time to time, as they did in India in 1905, in which it 




NORMAL 



Fig. 14. — Departures from normal of Ano Nuevo temperature, June to August, 
and of Cape Town temperature, June to August, of following year. 



can be foreseen with practical certainty that rains will fail and a warning 
will then be of great value. But those who prepare formulas by the 
selection, based merely on the closeness of their apparent relationship, 
of a few out of many factors must remember that they cannot expect the 
value of all these factors to be maintained ; and if they have a fore- 
casting formula which on paper works out with a coefficient of, say, 0-75, 
they must realise that this is in reality probably not more than o-6, or 
in some cases even 0-4. And I would plead for a much severer standard 
in handling questions of periodicity. If these views are right, no 
anticipations should be published except on the strongest evidence of 
excess or defect until the experience of fifteen or twenty years has justified 
a less cautious policy. 

Finally I would express the hope that the subject may, by its potential 
value to the race, and by the many-sided nature of its interests, enlist the 
services of some of my hearers who are qualified to unravel some of its 
intricacies. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



NATURAL COLOURING MATTERS 
AND THEIR ANALOGUES 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. ROBERT ROBINSON, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



On taking the Chair of this Section I should Hke to express my thanks 
for the great honour which you and the Council of the British Association 
have conferred on me. 

Although the subject which I have selected for my address is necessarily 
somewhat technical, it occurred to me that the problem of flower colour 
is of general interest, and the gist of what I have to say is a contribution 
to the answer to the question : why are some flowers blue and others, 
containing the same pigment, red ? In the interests, too, of members of 
this audience who are not organic chemists I propose to allow the spoken 
to diverge from the written word, and I shall venture also to attempt the 
performance of a few simple experiments. 

In every country and throughout the ages emotions have been stirred 
and curiosity aroused by the display of colour in Nature, but it is perhaps 
not generally realised that the ready availability of artificial colouring 
matters suitable for every kind of tinctorial purpose, from boot polish 
to finger nails, is a comparatively recent development. We read of the 
ancient Tyrian purple, the purple of kings, and of the red cosmetic pig- 
ments of natives of the Orinoco, so rare that they were used as the basis 
of exchange ; in contrast, at the present time dyes of all shades may be 
indulged in to an extent controlled certainly by individual courage, taste and 
discretion, but hardly at all by limitations of purse or social status. It may 
be that this * freedom of the hues ' has been enjoyed for so brief a period 
that a state of equilibrium has not yet been reached and we are not using our 
privileges in this matter either as fully as possible or as wisely as possible. 

It is not, however, for an organic chemist to discuss such problems as 
that of masculine sartorial conservatism on the one hand, or to attempt an 
estimate of the aesthetic value of the film-fan magazine cover on the other. 

The chemist has been attracted to the investigation of natural and 
artificial colouring matters for a variety of reasons, including not only 
colour-pleasure, the incentive of the knowledge that chlorophyll and 
haemoglobin perform some of the most important functions in vital pro- 
cesses, and the industrial importance of dyestuffs and pigments, but also 
on account of the fact that visible colour more than any other property 
facilitates the experimental study of organic substances whether by 
analysis or synthesis. It furnishes a standard of homogeneity or a measure 
of concentration, it is an invaluable guide in the search for methods of 



46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

separation and purification, and it at once indicates, by its appearance or 
disappearance, the occurrence of a chemical reaction. Small wonder 
that the successful outcome of the investigation of many colourless sub- 
stances has awaited the discovery of some characteristic colour-reaction ; 
a noteworthy example being Vitamin A. Odour is a more specific 
property than colour as judged by the eye, and in a more limited field it 
has proved equally useful to chemists who prefer to follow their noses. 
However, we cannot yet resolve odours in a spectrum. 

Thus the pursuit of a fascinating object has been along a path of 
relatively low resistance and the pioneers have been richly rewarded. 

Like a list of best books, a catalogue of outstanding achievements 
invites destructive criticism. I do not fear this, however, in recalling 
the researches of Laurent, Kekule, Baeyer and Heumann on indigo ; of 
Sir William Perkin, Hofmann, Otto and Emil Fischer, Meldola and many 
others on the basic dyes ; of Griess and his host of followers on the azo- 
compounds ; of Arthur Perkin and of Kostanecki on the flavones and 
flavonols ; of Willstatter on the respiratory pigments and the antho- 
cyanins ; and, not least, of Hans Fischer on the synthesis of the prosthetic 
group of the blood pigment. 

No attempt can be made to cover this vast field, but the mere mention 
of these topics serves to prove the immense theoretical and practical value 
of a study of organic colouring matters. The work proceeds and a long 
chapter on the natural carotinoid pigments is even now being written by 
Karrer, Kuhn and others ; it is of great chemical and biological interest. 

Before dealing with the special group of the anthocyanins, some aspects 
of which have recently been studied at Oxford, attention may be directed 
to the analogies in constitution existing between natural colouring matters 
and artificial dyestuffs. 

As the result of the researches of Baeyer, indigotin is generally regarded 
as having the formula I, but a technical digression may be made to the 
effect that the formula H has not yet been completely disproved. 

, ^ , NH\ /CO 
NH\^ ^CO 

\/ ^CO'^ ^NH 

(I) (11) 

The oxidation of indoxyl to indigotin appears to favour I, but then 
Gabriel has shown that the oxidation of diketohydrindene (HI) by means 
of alkaline persulphate furnishes dihydroxynaphthacenequinone (IV). 




COv 
CO^ 

(III) 



OH 



O 



CH, 




B— CHEMISTRY 



47 



All the indigotin syntheses can give II just as well as I, and II can yield 
isatin on oxidation. The recent researches of E. Hope prove that some 
of the products of the action of benzoyl chloride on indigotin possess the 
skeleton of II, but of course this may arise from an intramolecular 
rearrangement. The chief argument against II is derived from a con- 
sideration of the numerous classes of indigoid dyestuffs which are easily 
formulated on the model of I. 

The industrial analogues of indigo are its substituted derivatives, the 
thioindigos {e.g. V) and similar indigoid dyes, and indanthrone (VI). 
The first-mentioned classes were made in imitation of the indigotin 



COn 





CO' 



NH 



NH 



CO 



CO 




(V) 



(VI) 



structure, but in the case of indanthrone flattery was unconscious. 
Both indigotin and indanthrone contain the chromophoric quinone 
group — CO — C = C — CO — and closely situated auxochromic — NH — 
groups. 

Graebe and Liebermann's recognition of the constitution of alizarin 
(madder) (VII) led, as in the case of indigo, to the industrial synthesis of 
the colouring matter itself and of numerous derivatives and analogues. 



OH 




OH 




(VII) 



(VIII) 



At the present time we recognise in retrospect that the most important 
outcome of the work on madder was the attention focussed on the study 
of anthraquinone and its derivatives. It may seem a far cry from the 
adjective natural dyestuff to the modern vat dyestufi Caledon Jade 
Green (VIII), but the descent is in the direct line — alizarin, Alizarin 
Blue, benzanthrone, dibenzanthrone, Jade Green. Technical analogues 
of the anthocyanidins are to be found in the phthaleins, pyronines and 
rhodamines, and some more or less close dyestuff analogy can be found to 
correspond with most of the series of natural colouring matters. 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The most recent, and certainly one of the most interesting, examples of 
this kind is found in the phthalocyanines which contain a porphyrazine 
structure, that is the porphin skeleton of the natural porphyrins in 
which some — CH= groups are replaced by — N=. Dr. Linstead will 
shortly give an account of his investigations of these substances and of 
their remarkable properties. 

It was primarily with cognisance of Dr. Linstead's work that I ventured 
to direct your attention to analogues of natural colouring matters ; this is 
at the technical end of the scale, and in contrast Professor Kuhn has kindly 
consented to describe some novel natural colouring matters of high 
biochemical interest. 

The following sections of this address deal with developments of the 
chemistry of the red, blue and violet colouring matters of flowers and 
blossoms. 

Structure and Synthesis of the Anthocyanins. 
A brief description of the chemistry of the anthocyanins is necessary at 
this stage. The brilliant and pioneering researches of Richard Willstatter 
and his co-workers ( 1 9 1 4- ) established the main features of the chemistry 
of the anthocyanins which were recognised as saccharides, occasionally 
acylated, of the anthocyanidins. They exhibit amphoteric character, 
forming salts with both acids and bases. Thus the violet pigment cyanin, 
which can be isolated from blue cornflowers, red roses, deep red dahlias 
and other flowers, forms a blue sodium salt and a red hydrochloride. 
The hydrolysis of the latter by means of hot aqueous hydrochloric acid 
into cyanidin chloride and glucose is represented by the equation : 

C27H31O16 CI + 2H2O = CisHiiOeCl + aCeHiPe 
cyanin chloride cyanidin glucose 

chloride 

The constitution of cyanidin chloride (X) has been established by analysis 
and numerous syntheses ; the first of these (Willstatter and Mallison) 
utilised the reduction of quercetin (IX) by means of magnesium in 
aqueous methyl alcoholic hydrochloric acid solution (demonstration). 

CI 



HO 



y^^0\ OH HO/V/O^ OH 




C-< >0H 



Cs 



C-< >0H 



Cn 



\/Nco/ ^OH H2+HCI \/\cH^ \0H +H2O 

HO HO 

(IX) (X) 

In this process a widely distributed anthoxanthin yields a widely 
distributed anthocyanidin, and the temptation to assume that similar 
reactions occur in the plant laboratory is very great. There is, however, 
very little justification for this view and the experimental support brought- 
forward in its favour will not survive careful scrutiny. The alleged 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



49 



crystalline anthocyans prepared by the reduction of natural flavones or 
plant extracts containing them are nothing but the said flavones with 
a small proportion of adsorbed colouring matter of anthocyanidin type. 
It seems much more probable that the flavones and anthocyanins are 
independently synthesised, although perhaps from a common starting 
point. The existence of genetic factors which control the occurrence of 
anthoxanthins independent of that of anthocyanins is strong evidence in 
favour of this view. 

The anthocyanidins which have been isolated are the following : 
pelargonidin (XI), cyanidin (XII), peonidin (XIII), delphinidin (XIV), 
petunidin (XV), malvidin (XVI) and hirsutidin (XVII), represented as 
chlorides. All have been synthesised by unambiguous methods and the 
synthetic specimens have been carefully compared and identified with the 



CI 

Ho/vo:_ 



\/\/OH 
HO 

(XI) 

"c6o„ 

HO 

(XIII) 

CI 

HO/VO. 

/OH 



OH 



CI 
HO/\;CK_/ 



HO 

(XII) 



OH 




OH 




OMe 
OH 



CI 



HO 



OH 
OH 



W/OH OH 
HO 

(XIV) 




HO 



MeO/ 




HO 



(XV) 
Si. OMe 

/OH OMe 



(XVII) 




Numberim Scheme. 



natural products. It will be observed that pelargonidin, cyanidin and 
delphinidin are the fundamental types, peonidin being a methyl ether of 
cyanidin and petunidin, malvidin and hirsutidin being, respectively, the 
mono-, di-, and trimethyl ethers of delphinidin. 



so 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



The greater number of the anthocyanins fall into a comparatively 
restricted number of categories, including : 

(a) the 3-monoglucosides and 3-monogalactosides, 

(b) the 3-rhamnoglucosides and other 3-pentoseglycosides, 

(c) the 3-biosides, 

(d) the 3 : 5-diglucosides, and 

(e) the acylated anthocyanins. 

It is unnecessary to recount the steps taken in reaching these conclusions, 
but they have been finally justified by synthesis in many instances. 

In group (a) we find callistephin (XVIII), the monoglucoside of pelar- 
gonidin occurring as one of the pigments of the aster and as the main 
pigment of scarlet carnations and many other flowers ; the related 
galactoside, fragarin, is the colouring matter of the strawberry. 

In the cyanidin series the corresponding pair is chrysanthemin and 
idffiin (XIX), the former of wide distribution and the latter occurring 
in the skins of cranberries and in the leaves of the copper beech. 

Peonidin 3 -monoglucoside (XX), termed oxycoccicyanin, is found in 
the skins of the larger American cranberries and cenin or malvidin 
3 -monoglucoside (XXI) is the colouring matter of the skins of purple- 
black grapes, as well as of certain cyclamen and primulae. The delphi- 
nidin representative undoubtedly occurs in bilberries in admixture with 
other pigments, and it has not yet been fully examined ; the petunidin 
and hirsutidin representatives have not been isolated from natural sources, 
although there is reason to believe that the former occurs in the berries 
of the Darwin barberry and the latter has been synthesised. 



HO 




HO 



OH 



OC«H„0 



6^ ^11'-' 5 



(XVIII) 



CI 
H0/\/0^ 



HO 



OH 

OCeH^Os 
(XIX) 



C\ 
Ji, OMe 

HO/VO\L^~XoH 




HO 

(XX) 




OMe 
OH 



CI 
H0/\;0^ 



OMe 
HO 



(XXI) 



In groups {b) and (c) we find large classes of anthocyanins of which 
only a few representatives have been closely studied. These include 
keracyanin (cyanidin 3-rhamnoglucoside), probably identical with antir- 
rhinin (Isolated by Miss R. Scott-Moncrieff), and mecocyanin (XXII), 



B— CHEMISTRY 



SI 



a pigment of red poppies which is now recognised by synthesis as 
cyanidin 3-gentiobioside. There is very little doubt that pelargonidin 




OH 
OH 



CI 
HO/VO^ 



\/\//O.CH-CH(OH)-CH(OH)-CH(OH)-CH-CH2.0.C6Hii05 

HO I O 1 

(XXH) 

3-rhamnoglucoside colours the scarlet gloxinia and that pelargonidin 
3-biosides are of widespread occurrence, for example, in the ordinary 
orange-red nasturtium and in the flowers of the scarlet runner bean. 

The anthocyanins of groups (a), {b) and (c), when derived from the same 
anthocyanidin, exhibit similar behaviour as indicators. Thus chry- 
santhemin,keracyanin and mecocyanin all give a violet solution in aqueous 
soda and this becomes blue on the addition of caustic alkali. On partial 
hydrolysis mecocyanin and antirrhinin actually yield chrysanthemin. 

The anthocyanins of class (d) are the most widely distributed and best- 
known members of this series of natural pigments ; they include pelar- 
gonin (XXni), the colouring matter of the scarlet pelargonium and 
possibly the first anthocyanin to be obtained in a crystalline condition 
(Molisch's experiment), also cyanin (XXIV), the isolation of which from 
the blue cornflower by Willstatter and Everest in 19 14 was the first of 
an impressive series of investigations. 



HO 





CfiHiiOs-O 



/O-CfiHiiOs 



(xxni) 



CgHiiOjO 



\/\/oc,u,,o, 

•0 

(XXIV) 



Peonin from the deep red peony and malvin (XXV) from the wild 
mallow or from certain primulae, are the peonidin and malvidin repre- 
sentatives in this group, which is completed by petunin and hirsutin. 
Quite recently the delphinidin member has been isolated from Salvia 

patens. 

The anthocyanins of group {d) differ from those of groups (a), [b) and 
(c) in their alkali-colour-reactions and in their marked instability to 
aqueous sodium hydroxide. Thus cyanin, which compares with meco- 
cyanin in group (c), gives a pure blue solution in aqueous soda and the 
dilute solution becomes very quickly yellow on the addition of sodium 
hydroxide (demonstration). . 

Pelargonin, cyanin, peonin, malvin and hirsutin have been synthesised 



52 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



and an example of the methods adopted may be schematically indicated 
in the case of malvin. 



CH2N2 



MeO 
Ac0/^)C0CI ^ 

MeO 

MeO 
AcO<^^CO • CH2 • O • CHO 

MeO 



MeO 

AcO<^~\cO-CHN2 



MeO 



EtOH 
HP 



HCO2H 



COCHoOH 



HO/\OH Bromoacetoglucose 

\XCHO KOHinMeCN 
HO 

H0/\ OH '^ HCl m 

\/CHO EtAc 
(AcO)4-C6H70-0 



/ 



MeO 

AcO 

MeO 



Bromoacetoglucose, 
AgaCOs 



OMe 
NoAc 
CO ~OMe 



CH, 



OCeH^OCOAc)^ 



acetylated 
malvin 
chloride 



hydrolysis Ba(0H)2 

>- 

H2SO4, HCl 

(XXV) 



CI 
^ OMe 

HO/Y-^_/-x^OH 

OMe 
\/\/0CeH,,05- 



CeHnOs-O 



The anthocyanins can be characterised and qualitatively distinguished 
by their distribution between immiscible solvents, and in the case of 
disaccharides the use of n-butyl alcohol is convenient (demonstration). 

Acylated anthocyanins occur in all the anthocyanidin series ; thus, on 
hydrolysis, delphinin, the pigment of species of delphinium, furnishes 
^-hydroxybenzoic acid as well as glucose and delphinidin. 

Many other delphinidin derivatives are acylated by means of /)-hydroxy- 
cinnamic acid, probably attached to the sugar hydroxyls, and pelargonin 
and cyanin also occur in acylated forms. These so-called complex antho- 
cyanins are characterised by high distribution numbers ; they are usually 
acylated 3 : 5-dimonosides, but in the delphinidin series, gentianin and 
violanin appear to be /)-hydroxycinnamates of delphinidin monoglucoside 
and rhamnoglucoside respectively (Karrer). There is also some evidence 
of another type of depside anthocyanin in which the acyl group is directly 
attached to the anthocyanidin molecule and the glucoside group is borne 
by the hydroxyl of the acid residue. 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



53 



Anthocyanins as Indicators and the Causes of Variations of 

Colours of Flowers 

(With Mrs. G. M. Robinson). 
The amphoteric character of the anthocyanins accounts for the exhibi- 
tion of a wide variety of colours in a range of solutions of graded pU, and 
this method (demonstration), using buffered solutions, can be employed 
for the characterisation of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Under the 
specified conditions the results are fully reproducible and the pU values 
have been controlled by electrical methods as vsrell as by the use of indi- 
cators. Thus, if the pH of an acid cyanin solution is increased until the 
violet tone matches that of an alkaline cyanin solution, the pH of which 
is decreased in order to reach the same condition, then thepH of the violet 
solution will be found to be 7 •0-9-0, depending on the shade of violet 
produced. Cyanin is red in solutions o£ pH 3-0 or less, violet at ^H 8-5 
and blue at pK no. The red, violet and blue forms are the oxonium salt 
(XXIV), the colour-base (XXVI) and the sah of the colour-base (XXVII). 



H0/\/0\ 
C= 



OH 



C = 



ONa 



5O C 



COCeHiiO, 



=0 



CO-CfiHiiOs 



V/^CH^ 
C«H„0.0 C CeH.iOsO 

H 

(XXVI) (XXVII) 

(There is no evidence in regard to the assumed position of the quinonoid 
group and the acidic hydroxyl.) 

Now cyanin was isolated by Willstatter and his colleagues from the 
blue cornflower and from the red rose, and it seemed quite a simple step 
to assume that the cell-sap in the cornflower was alkaline and that in the 
rose acid, particularly in view of the fact that the absorption spectra of the 
coloured aqueous extracts correspond with these conditions. 

It has indeed been generally assumed that the indicator colour of the 
anthocyanin will give a measure of the ^H of the cell-sap, but unfortunately 
this method cannot be relied upon for several reasons. In the first place 
there is a glaring anomaly in the fact that direct measurement by electrical 
methods (glass electrode as arranged by Mrs. Kerridge) shows that the 
cell-saps are all well on the acid side of the neutral point. Thus the 
conventional view for red flowers may well be correct, but some special 
circumstances must be invoked in the case of blue flowers. 

Turning at once to the blue cornflower (the cultivated annual kind), 
a blue filtered extract made with distilled water was found to be sufficiently 
acid to turn blue litmus red. Using 3 g. of petals in 14 c.c. of distilled 
water {pU 6-3 owing to dissolved CO 2), the pU was 4-9. (These 
quantities were used throughout the experiments and the use of larger 
relative quantities of the petals did not alter thepH appreciably.) Addi- 
tion of a buffered solution oi pU 4-4 did not affect the colour, but the 
colour changed to violet when the B.D.H. Universal Buffer, pH 9-0, 
was added. It was at once apparent that the only simple explanation is 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

that the cyanin anion is present in a complex form, giving a stable aggre- 
gate with a negative charge ; in some way the strength of cyanin colour- 
base as an acid must be vastly increased. 

Some form of colloidal solution was considered most likely to fulfil the 
necessary conditions, and Dr. Conmar Robinson, of the Chemistry 
Department, University College, London, kindly examined a filtered, 
distilled-water extract of blue cornflowers and reported as follows : 

* The solution contains ultramicrons easily visible in the slit ultra- 
microscope, but small enough to be in fairly rapid Brownian movement. 
Microcataphoresis showed them to be negatively charged. Without 
more quantitative work it is impossible to say if these particles can repre- 
sent the bulk of the material present, but this seems probable if the 
solution is very dilute ; the possibility of observing a colloidal impurity 
is always a trap. The visibility of the ultramicrons suggests a lyo- 
phobic colloid. It is, however, not precipitated even by 2N NaCl, 
which indicates that a protective colloid is also present.' 

Our next step was to attempt the production of blue cyanin sols stable 
in neutral or weakly acid solution, and some measure of success was 
achieved, although the solutions are by no means so stable as those from 
the blue cornflower. 

If a little crystalline cyanin chloride is added to boiling tap-water 
{pH 8-o) then the usual violet solution results (see above), the colour 
being what we consider ' normal.' If, however, the cyanin is triturated 
in the cold for a minute with the water and gradually heated to boiling 
with shaking, then a beautiful blue solution results. The fact that the 
same materials can be used to produce two entirely different results shows 
that it can only be the state of aggregation of the cyanin which can have 
stabilised the anionic charge and hence produced a blue colour under 
the conditions that normally produce a violet solution. If very small 
quantities of cyanin chloride are employed, this phenomenon can be repro- 
duced using distilled water. Willstatter and Everest found that their corn- 
flower extracts contained xylan and other polysaccharides, and we have 
attempted to produce blue acid cyanin solutions in the presence of various 
polysaccharides. The addition of dispersed xylan and various kinds of 
starch, also Agar- Agar, makes the preparation of blue solutions of ^H about 
7 ■ 5 a very simple matter (demonstration), but we have not yet found a way 
of imitating the cornflower solution in respect to its stability at pH 5-0. 

Probably these colloid associations are much more readily formed at 
values of ^H between 5 • 5 and 6-5, and on the whole the blue flowers have 
less acid cell-saps than the red flowers. The petals of the rose in contrast 
with the cornflower constitute an exception (^H 5-6), and the following 
further provisional results may be quoted although no great accuracy 
can be claimed for a method which involves the destruction of the petals. 
The pigment of the orange-red polyantha rose ' Gloria Mundi ' is found 
to be pelargonin and the pU was 5-5. On the same plant some flowers 
had reverted to the cyanin type. The red-flowered hydrangea had petal 
P}^ 3 '751 whilst the blue flowers gave pH 4-9 ; similarly the red-flowered 
linum (anthocyanin based on delphinidin) gave petal pH 4-6, and the 
blue variety pU 5-9. Blue anchusa, 6-2; Meconopsis Baileyi, 5-3 
(Miss R. Scott-MoncriefF found that blue and violet flowers had the 



B.— CHEMISTRY 55 

same petal pU) ; sweet-peas, all about 5-3 ; delphiniums, 5-6 (most 
violet shade), 5-8 (most blue shade) ; clematis (blue), 5-4 ; viola, 6-2 
(blue violet), 6-o (reddish violet) ; lobelia (blue), 5-7. 

It must be emphasised that these variations oi pH are quite insufficient 
in themselves to account for the colour changes and it is evident that the 
most important single factor for flower colour, given the nature of the 
anthocyanin, is the question of the condition of the pigment in solution, 
and it would appear that all blue flowers are coloured by colloidal solutions 
of their respective pigments. 

Methods for the determination of the pH of the cell-sap of flowers 
depending on the use of the flower colours as indicators may be sound, 
but only if it can be guaranteed that the colloidal condition of the pigment 
solution is not altered by the extraction with the buffered solutions which 
are employed. In any case, the results bear no relation to the colours 
observed in vitro using isolated anthocyanins and they cannot be trans- 
ferred from flower to flower ; the colour series depends almost as much 
on the other conditions in the cell-sap as on the pH and on the nature of 
the anthocyanin. Another aspect oi pK of the cell-saps is that the higher 
values appear to be associated with the formation of delphinidin deriva- 
tives. The remarkable distribution in the tropaeolum — Empress of India 
— is as follows : leaf, delphinidin diglycoside (pH 5-6) ; calyx, cyanidin 
3-bioside (^H 5'o); flower, pelargonidin 3-bioside (^H 4-5). On the 
other hand three scabious with anthocyanins based respectively on 
pelargonidin, cyanidin and delphinidin had all the same petal /)H 5-0. 

We have already discussed elsewhere the influence of certain substances 
termed co-pigments on the colour of anthocyanin solutions ; these effects 
are to be detected in strongly acid solution and the presence or absence 
of these substances is undoubtedly a factor to be taken into consideration. 
The extent to which the co-pigment effect is bound up with colloid 
phenomenon is a matter for future experiment and discussion, but it is 
convenient to maintain the term co-pigment for the present. 

Dr. E. A. H. Roberts has observed the shift of the absorption bands 
of chrysanthemin and oenin chlorides on the addition of papaverine 
(strongly blueing effect) and narcotine (weak effect), and correlated this 
with a corresponding change (lowering) of the distribution number of the 
anthocyanin using amyl alcohol (demonstration). 

It seems clear that papaverine salts and oenin salts combine in solution. 
The relation between the distribution number of oenin chloride and the 
concentration of the pigment seems to require the assumption that the 
molecules of the anthocyanin are associated (2 mols.) in aqueous solution 
and free in amyl alcohol. Chrysanthemin and idasin behave similarly, 
also malvidin 3-galactoside. This phenomenon appears to be related to 
that of co-pigmentation. 

The naturally occurring co-pigments include the anthoxanthins (flavone 
and flavonol saccharides, etc.) and tannins and some efficient substances 
not yet identified. 

The justification for assuming the operation of this factor can best be 
indicated by an example. Certain herbaceous phlox contain pelargonin, 
but have a much bluer-red colour than other flowers coloured by this 
anthocyanin. But the same observation applies to the extract in i per 



56 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

cent, hydrochloric acid, and moreover the presence of much anthoxanthin 
is noted. Hence, all the circumstances point to co-pigmentation of the 
pelargonin salt in the flower petal. 

Finally, we do not know whether or no traces of iron and other inorganic 
substances may affect flower colour. In this connection the case of the 
blue hydrangea is always quoted, and we have observed that when the 
stalks of red hydrangea flowers are immersed in very dilute aqueous 
ferric chloride, the flowers slowly become blue. The ashes of many 
flowers contain 1-2 per cent. FejOg, and the anthocyanin test for iron is 
one of the most delicate known. 

Summarising, the main factors affecting flower colours are : 
(i) The nature and concentration of the anthocyanins and other 
coloured substances present. 

(2) The state of aggregation of the anthocyanin in solution — the pH 
of the cell-sap is one of the subsidiary factors affecting this, and naturally 
the presence or absence of protective colloids is another. 

(3) The presence or absence of co-pigments and, problematically, the 
effect of traces of iron and other complex forming metals. 

Time does not permit me to deal with other anthocyanin types such as ges- 
nerin, the leuco-anthocyanins, the yellow anthocyanin oiPapaver nudicaule, 
or the nitrogenous beet-pigment and its analogues ; I will close, appro- 
priately I hope, on an experimental note by attempting a demonstration of 
some of the tests which we employ for the recognition of anthocyanidins. 

(i) The oxidation test — addition of 10 per cent, aqueous sodium 
hydroxide to a dilute solution shaken with air — petunidin and delphinidin 
are at once destroyed, the other anthocyanidins are relatively stable. 

(2) Extraction with amyl alcohol, addition of sodium acetate and then 
of a trace of ferric chloride. Characteristic colour reactions are observed, 
and in particular if cyanidin is present the violet amyl alcoholic solution 
changes to pure blue in the last stage. Pelargonidin, peonidin and 
malvidin give no ferric reaction. 

(3) Distribution between i per cent, aqueous hydrochloric acid and 
a mixture of anisole (5 vols.) and ethyl woamyl ether (i vol.) containing 
5 g. of picric acid in 100 c.c. Delphinidin is not extracted by the organic 
layer, petunidin is taken up to a slight extent, cyanidin to a considerable 
extent, and malvidin, peonidin and pelargonidin are completely extracted 
if the solution is sufficiently dilute. 

(4) Distribution between i per cent, hydrochloric acid and a mixture of 
cyclohexanol (i vol.) and toluene (5 vols.). Delphinidin and petunidin 
are not extracted at all ; malvidin gives the organic layer a faint lilac 
tint ; cyanidin a pale rose tint ; peonidin, and still more pelargonidin, are 
extracted by the organic layer to a considerable extent. 

The deductions are confirmed by a study of the colour reactions of the 
anthocyanins. 

In conclusion I must express my very deep indebtedness to all co- 
workers in these fields, and especially to Dr. D. D. Pratt, Prof. A. Robert- 
son, Dr. W. Bradley and Dr. A. R. Todd on the synthetic aspects of the 
work, and to my wife, without whose co-operation a survey of natural 
anthocyanins could not have been attempted. 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



A CORRELATION OF STRUCTURES IN 
THE COALFIELDS OF THE MIDLAND 

PROVINCE 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. WILLIAM GEORGE FEARNSIDES, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The effort called for in following rock outcrops over hilly country compels 
the field geologist to think in three dimensions, and, in mountain ground, 
whatever his first interest, he comes early to a stage when structure gets 
the lion's share of his attention. The rougher the country, the more 
trouble is taken to interpret the implications of its surface geometry, until, 
having achieved a partial solution, the researcher can project his imagin- 
ings in depth and predict the locus of the outcrop in another place. In 
this lies the fascination of our science, and each hill district of Britain is a 
shrine to some enthusiast who would interpret the anatomy of our ancient 
alps. 

Lowland and coalfield country is less attractive, and it is because he 
must that the mining geologist and the official surveyor there collects his 
information. Without some knowledge of its solid geometry no geologist 
can evaluate a coalfield property, nor should the engineer advise how the 
development of mineral may proceed. The whole geometry of a coal 
seam is never known until its wealth is spent, but, pending complete 
solution, it is possible by stages to project from the fully known to the 
unknown ; and in the older coalfields, where mining records have been 
kept, there is such accumulation of local three-dimensional information 
as can never be made available in the best exposed of mountain ground. 

Mine plans are made on a scale so large that, for quick appreciation 
and interpretation as contributions to regional geology, their records must 
be reduced to the dimensions of a map. Treated thus over great indus- 
trial districts, where hundreds of square miles of several coal seams have 
been wrought, they afford exact and documented evidence as well of 
lateral variation of original sedimentation as of the size and form of 
impressed structures. In detail such information is the stock-in-trade 
of mineral agents, but in bulk it is rarely considered except by consulting 
engineers and the maker of the plans. 

Coalfields are extensive, their folding broad, and only where relief is 
exceptional and the rocks diverse does regional structure leap to meet the eye. 
Coal Measure rocks other than sandstone are soft and weather deeply, 
so that only where artificial excavations expose fresh material, or where, 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

by feature mapping of the harder bands, the position of others can be 
interpolated, can a coalfield map be made from surface evidence. Under 
such conditions, in country which is marred and scarred by man, it is no 
wonder that the local amateur is content to collect fossils from spoil-banks 
or from brick-pits, and accepts from the professional what he is told about 
the stratigraphy and structure. 

Fortunately the officers of the Geological Survey now have full access 
to mining information, and , as they compile the evidence they are recording 
it upon the revised edition of the official 6-in. geological maps. As the 
map sheets are issued their economic usefulness is recognised by the 
mining profession, but, because of their fullness of detail and because 
established prejudice regards all coalfield information as uninteresting 
and dull, the subject matter has not received from other geologists the 
attention it deserves. 

As one whose business it is to teach geology at a university closely 
associated with industry in the East Pennine Coalfield, I find the call for 
local application of our science more often concerned with underground 
geometry than with the composition of the rocks. Therefore, in training 
men to lead in mineral exploitation, I have insisted that structural geology 
is a science of measurement, and that the real geology of an area is not 
fully known until it can be represented by a model true to scale. 

From accumulated mining information, or from the modern geological 
6-in. maps, it is not difficult to exemplify the shape and size of individual 
structures, but in presenting a completed picture of a coalfield — even of a 
district so far exploited as that of Yorkshire — the gaps in present know- 
ledge are so wide that, lacking a working hypothesis to summarise the 
shapes and distribution of the folds and faults, one must exterpolate, and 
continually correct approximations as new information comes along. 
During my years at Sheffield I have enjoyed the sport of correlating 
nearby coalfield structures on dead-reckoning not less than similar pursuits 
among the mountains, and it is in the hope that, from a review of obvious 
trend-lines over a wider area an ordered plan of regional structure may 
emerge, I have chosen the subject for this address. I am confident 
that the study of coalfield structures is an open field for the advancement 
of science, and as mining development proceeds in Coal Measures con- 
cealed beneath the newer rocks, successful projection of the buried 
structures promises no inconsiderable industrial reward. 

Where Coal Measures rest conformably on Millstone Grit, the major 
folds and faults disturbed both formations together, and the unit of struc- 
ture is therefore greater than the coalfield. Recent investigations, in 
establishing Upper Carboniferous zonal correlations, have made it certain 
that a Pennine basin filled with Millstone Grit and Coal Measures 
extended to the Midlands. The limestone massif of the Peak lines up 
with Charnwood Forest, the downfold of Cheshire continues into Shrop- 
shire ; so for a manageable unit of structure it is logical to take the area 
within the nearmost outcrop ring of pre-Carboniferous rock. This is 
the Midland Coalfield Province. It lies all within a circle of sixty miles 
radius round Buxton. Its bounds are set towards the north by the scarp 



-GEOLOGY 



59 



of the rigid block of Craven ; in the west by the compacted ridges of 
Denbighshire and the Berwyns ; and on the south by the ragged ribs of 
ancient rock which fringe the Midland barrier of St. George's Land. 
Towards the east its unknown boundary lies buried beneath thick Permian, 
Trias and Jurassic rocks, where no man has seen or touched the rocks 
below the Carboniferous. This Midland Coalfield Province includes the 
great coalfields of Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire ; of 
Lancashire and Cheshire, and North Staffordshire ; and the lesser fields 
of North Wales, Shropshire, South Staffordshire and Worcestershire, 
Warwickshire, South Derbyshire and Leicestershire : and also the proved 
and probable extensions of these coalfields underneath the Trias. Within 
this Coalfield Province are nearly a thousand working mines, five hundred 
of them each employing more than a hundred men in the winning and 
working of some 120,000,000 tons of coal per year, or more than half the 
total mineral wrought underground in Britain. 

Study of regional structure must begin with notice of the mode of 
accumulation of the local rocks and of the crustal movements which allowed 
their accommodation, but in dealing with so wide an area in an address, 
one cannot do more than mention the distribution and the varying thick- 
ness of the sedimentary groups exposed. For details of their constitution 
and stratigraphy a reference to the Geological Survey Sheet and District 
Memoirs} and for a brief discussion and bibliography the chapters by 
Garwood, Wright and Kendall in the 1929 Handbook of the Geology 
of Great Britain, must suffice. The only further references noted are 
to certain recent contributions not included in that extensive bibliography. 

The Midland Carboniferous Geosyncline. 
At all exposures round the edges of the Midland Province, older beds 
of the Visean overlap with discordant unconformity against a land topo- 
graphy of moderate relief. Tournasian rocks are only recognised in the 
deep trough south of the Craven Fault, where, in Pendle and the Craven 
Lowlands, downward movement began early in the Carboniferous, and 

* The Geological Survey Publications drawn upon for information herein 
summarised, include those descriptive of i-in. maps, New Series, Sheets numbered : 



76 


Rochdale . 


1927 


126 


Nottingham and 




77 


Huddersfield 


1928 




Newark 


1908 


85 


Manchester 


1930 


137 


Oswestry . 


1928 


86 


Glossop 


1933 


138 


Wem 


1924 


96 


Liverpool . 


1923 


139 


Stafford . 


1927 


1 00 


Sheffield . 


1914 


141 


Derby and Burton- 




108 


Flint 


1924 




on-Trent 


1905 


no 


Macclesfield 


1906 


142 


Melton Mowbray 


1909 


112 


Chesterfield 


1929 


152 


Shrewsbury 


1933 


113 


Ollerton . 


1911 


153 


Wolverhampton . 


1929 


121 


Wrexham . 


1927 


154 


Lichfield . 


1926 


123 


Stoke-on-Trent 


1924 


155 


Atherstone 


1910 


125 


Derby and Wirks 




156 


Leicester . 


1903 




worth . 


1908 


158 


Birmingham 


1924 








169 


Coventry . 


1926 



together with those relating to the parts of i-in. maps, Old Series, Sheets 
numbered ; 53, 60, 61, 72, 73, 80, 81, 82, 87, 88, 89 and 90, which have not 
been recently revised. 



6o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

was progressive until 10,000 ft. of pre-Coal Measure sediment was accom- 
modated. Three thousand five hundred feet of alternating Visean shales 
and reef knolls in this mid-Pennine trough contrast sharply with the 
equivalent 400 ft. of Great Scar Limestone and overlying shale deposits 
on the adjoining Ingleborough block. 

Across North Wales and the southern Pennine district, Visean sedi- 
ments are mainly bands and banks of shallow-water limestone, 1,800 ft. 
thick at the head of the Vale of Clwyd, and a little more in the open section 
along the Wye Valley in Derbyshire. Locally in the High Peak district, 
and to a much greater extent where pierced by borings in search of oil 
beneath the Derbyshire and Staffordshire Coalfields, these limestones are 
interstratified with submarine eruptive products. Towards the Midlands 
the amplitude of Visean movements was less, and as the marginal beds of 
limestone lap against St. George's Land, though all the subdivisions are 
represented, their total thickness has diminished to about 1,000 ft. on the 
northern flanks of Charnwood, and to less than 300 ft. east of the Wrekin 
towards the Severn Valley. 

Visean deposits of the Midland Province end with shallow-water lime- 
stones containing the D3 facies fauna, which may or may not belong to 
one horizon. At some places cherty beds pass up to earthy ' black beds ' 
and bituminous shales. Elsewhere the last of the grey limestones are 
impersistent shell banks and limestone breccias, and there is striking 
evidence of an interformational non-sequence. With application of 
modern zonal methods to the faunas of the shales which overlie the lime- 
stones, it has been recognised that in Pendle, between the topmost Visean 
limestone and the beds with faunas identical with the lowest Edale shales 
of Derbyshire, at least 3,000 ft. of land waste was accommodated. Lower 
Lancastrian shales and grit bands are 3,000 ft. thick in Staffordshire,^ but 
have not been recognised in the Derwent Valley, so in Peakland the non- 
sequence may become an unconformity. Transgression near the same 
horizon has been followed along the edges of the Craven- Ingleborough 
block, and the relation of the Holywell shales to the underlying cherts and 
Cefn-y-fedw series in North Wales requires a similar explanation. These 
evidences of structural disturbance are not regular, and whether we regard 
them as marking areas of local uplift, or attribute the non-sequence to 
cessation of downward movement, we must recognise that they coincide 
with arch folds which now dominate the local structure. 

Most important of the early Lancastrian upfolds, from the point of 
view of coalfield distribution, is the limestone plateau outcrop, the * massif ' 
of the High Peak of Derbyshire.^ Its margins have steep dips, but 
though its place is the north-west extension of the Charnwood Pre- 
Cambrian platform, there is underground evidence that its topmost lime- 
stones extend widely in all directions beneath the overlying shales,* and 
it cannot be accepted either as reef mass or as a pre- Lancastrian horst. 

^ S. W. Hester, ' The Millstone Grit Succession in North Staffordshire,' 
H.M.G.S. Summary of Progress for 1931, Pt. II, p. 34 (1932). 

^ W. G. Fearnsides and others, ' The Geology of the Eastern part of the Peak 
District,' Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. 43, p. 152 (1932). 

* T. Sington, ' The Search for Petroleum in Derbyshire now in progress,' 
Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 57, p. 25 (1919). 



C— GEOLOGY 6 1 

Moreover, its monoclinal edges are plicated by pitching cross-folds, on 
whose arches are the reef knolls and beds of limestone breccia, and in 
whose troughs there Is the appearance of conformity from cherty limestone 
to Lancastrian shales older than those which are continuous oyer inter- 
vening arches. These cross-folds have persisted as belts of instability 
throughout and beyond the period of the Carboniferous. Their extended 
axial lines are marked by rapid pinching out of sandstones of the Millstone 
Grit deposits, and they line up with the steep-sided anticlines and synclines 
of the Derbyshire and Midland Coalfields. The most northerly of these 
curving cross-folds terminates and contains the High Peak limestone area, 
and beyond it there is no evidence of pre-Lancastrian uplift of any central 
Pennine fold. 

During the later Lancastrian or Millstone Grit period, and on throughout 
the Coal Measures, negative movement, though progressive, was punctu- 
ated by frequent delays. Sediment was delivered to Yorkshire in such 
quantity that it could not be accommodated until regional settlenient had 
made its place. During the waiting periods therefore it drifted on 
towards Cheshire and built its lenses on the front of the growing delta. 
As sinking proceeded there was agitation in the shallows, and coarse 
material was entrapped in deepening troughs. Coarseness of sediment 
in such measures, though it must always be an index of the velocity of the 
inwash current, can in no wise be accepted as a criterion of proximity 
to a shelving shore. 

Lancastrian sediments are thickest north of the Lancashire Coalfield, 
where more than 5,000 ft. of shales and grits were accommodated. The 
Millstone Grit divisions lose thickness southward round about the Peak 
district, but in Staffordshire the bore-hole at Rownall Hall, started below 
the Middle Grits, had not reached limestone at a depth of 2,700 ft.^ 
Against the encircling fold which ends the limestone outcrop of the High 
Peak at Castleton, lenses of sandstone, which are exceptionally strong in 
the ' edges ' of Kinderscout, lose half their thickness. We have no proof 
that P. or lower E. beds were ever deposited over the High Peak district, 
but mineral constitution seems to show that the coarsest Middle Grits 
were persistent from the Derbyshire Edges east of the Derwent to the 
Roaches of StaflFordshire. Within the East Pennine Coalfield, deep 
borings indicate a wedging out of the whole series south-eastwards, from 
1,500 ft. thick at Renishaw to less than 300 ft. at Kelham. The available 
records are all from trial oil wells in anticlinal areas, and there is evidence 
of grits and shales outcropping north-west of Charnwood, and Lower 
Lancastrian E2 shales persist beyond the Hathern boring .« South- 
westwards across Lancashire the advancing Millstone Grit delta did not 
reach North Wales, and in 400 ft. of Holywell shales all the Lancastrian 
zones are represented. 

Despite pulsatory and progressive subsidence, the whole South Pennme 
area was filled and levelled to a plain before the period of the Millstone 
Grit was ended, and the latest G. marine band spread over and drowned 

• H. P. W. Giffard, ' The Recent Search for Oil in Great Britain," Trans. Inst. 
Min. Eng., vol. 65, p. 221 (1923)- 

• ' Wells and Springs of Leicestershire,' p. 99- H.M.G.S. Mem. (1931)- 



62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a coal seam which extended across the Midland Province. This is the 
famous Alton, Halifax Hard, Bullion, Upper Foot, or Crabtree Coal Marine 
Band . Near the top of the Productive Measures the Mansfield , Sharlstone , 
Dukinfield, or Speedwell Marine Band is similarly continuous in all Pennine 
coalfields, and the thickness of measures between the two affords a trust- 
worthy indication of the aggregate amplitude of negative movement in the 
various districts during the Coal Measure period. By measurement of 
this distance we recognise in South-east Lancashire, where the intervening 
thickness exceeds 4,000 ft., the regional centre of the Coal Measure collect- 
ing dish. About that centre in all directions the thickness of sedi- 
ment accommodated diminishes to 2,000 ft. in less than 50 miles. By 
plottings of isohypses of sediment between successive coal seams, we can, 
with labour and persistence, prove the local variations in the amplitude 
of depression to any degree of accuracy we choose. Each coal seam grew 
at water-level during a waiting period, but individual coals are not 
sufficiently persistent, and only exceptional groups of coals have a coalfield- 
wide distribution. For comparative studies of variations of the rate and 
amount of movement as between one coalfield and another, we therefore 
depend upon the modern method of identification and correlation of Coal 
Measure horizons by interstratified non-marine lamellibranch zones.' 

Consideration of the lowest group, the Halifax Coal Measures, shows 
them thickest in North or Central Lancashire, where also the Millstone 
Grits are thickest. There more than 1,000 ft. of Coal Measures underlie 
the Arley Mine. Equivalent measures ^ at outcrops in Yorkshire, Derby- 
shire and North Staffordshire are less than half that thickness. The 
Ovalis zone, 600 to 1,000 ft. thick in Yorkshire, is more than 1,500 ft. 
thick in Central Lancashire. It thins eastwards across Yorkshire, and 
to the south-east across Derbyshire to Nottingham. The Modiolaris 
zone, the main coal-bearing belt, maintains through Yorkshire and 
Derbyshire a wonderfully constant thickness, about 1,000 ft., along the 
strip of country where Park Gate and Barnsley coals are wrought. This 
zone is fully i ,200 ft. thick about Oldham, but thins southwards through 
Cheshire into North Staffordshire, and more rapidly westwards across 
Lancashire. 

Variation of thickness in the Similis-Pulchra zone is much more rapid. 
This zone attains its maximum thickness in the Pennines south-east of 
Manchester. East of the Pennines a plotting of isohypses for the sedi- 
ments between the Barnsley Coal and the Mansfield Marine Band proves 
a thinning from over 1,000 ft. at outcrop to less than 500 ft. in the most 
easterly of working pits, which rate of thinning, if continued, would give 
the Barnsley Bed the Mansfield Marine Band for its roof within a very 
few miles east of the Trent. Beds between the Mansfield and the Shafton 

' D. A. Wray and A. E. Trueman, ' The Non-marine Lamellibranchs of the 
Upper Carboniferous of Yorkshire and their zonal sequence,' H.M.G.S. Summary 
of Progress for 1930, Pt. Ill, p. 70 (1931). 

^ A. E. Trueman, 'A suggested correlation of the Coal Measures of England 
and Wales,' Proc. South Wales Inst. Eng., vol. 49, p. 63 (1933). 

* D. A. Wray, L. Slater and G. E. Eddy, ' The Correlation of the Arley Mine 
of Lancahsire with the Better Bed Coal of Yorkshire,' H.M.G.S. Summary of 
Progress for 1930, Pt. II, p. i (193 1). 



C— GEOLOGY 63 

Marine Bands in Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire similarly wedge out 
rapidly towards the east and south. Across Lancashire the westward 
diminution of thickness is continuous. About Oldham the Dukinfield 
Marine Band is 1,250 ft. above the Furnace Coal, whereas at Tyldesley 
its place is less than 800 ft. above the Rams. In the trough of North 
Staffordshire near Tunstall the Speedwell Marine Band is 1,400 ft. 
above the Ten Foot Coal, but there is rapid wedging out of measures 
both towards the western anticline and towards the south. 

The Pottery Marl and Blackband Ironstone series of the A. Phillipsii 
zone in North Staffordshire may be 1,200 ft. thick. They pass up into 
an equal or greater thickness of red and mottled Etruria Marls. In 
South-east Lancashire 1,800 ft. of grey measures, including the Bradford 
group of coals, overlie the Worsley Four Foot (which may be the Shafton 
Coal of Yorkshire), and underlie the variegated marls and limestones of 
the Ardwick series. East of the Pennines Etruria Marls are preserved 
only in the centres of the synclines. Beneath them in South Yorkshire, 
above the Shafton Marine Band, grey beds, mostly sandstones, are 
1,200 ft. thick, but between Mansfield and Nottingham equivalent 
measures thin south-eastwards to less than 300 ft. 

Because of cumulative displacement by negative pulsations, and 
because the supply of sediment was never-failing, Coal Measures in the 
great coalfields which flank the southern Pennines are an expanded series. 
Southwards along the margins of the Province less accommodation was 
provided, and Productive Measures taper out against the Midland barrier 
of St. George's Land. Zonal correlation by non-marine lamellibranchs is 
not yet available for the Thick Coal district of South Staffordshire and 
Warwick, and the best suggestion for correlation of horizons is by the tracing 
of coal seams in relation to occasional marine bands. Away from the 
Pennines, the G. or Alton Marine Band has not been proved beyond South 
Derbyshire, where it lies about 1,000 ft. below the Main Coal, and has 
below it Millstone Grit. A more persistent marine band overlies the 
Main Coal in Leicestershire and the Seven Foot Coal in Warwickshire, 
and this may be the White Stone Band below the Heathen Coal of the 
Black Country and the Pennystone of Coalbrookdale. If one may guess 
that it is also the Speedwell Band of Staffordshire, its position within 
200 or even 100 ft. above the pre-Carboniferous bed-rock of the Thick 
Coal districts is evidence that these shores of the Midland barrier did not 
come within the belt of sedimentation until a late stage of the infilling of 
the Coal Measure basin. If it represents the marine band above the 
Seven Foot Banbury, at the base of the Modiolaris zone, it must indicate 
that the creeping transgression which brought these beds across the 
upraised edges of Midland Visean and Lancastrian deposits was in- 
ordinately slow. The thickness of the Productive Coal Measure sedi- 
ments accommodated in the Midland coalfields is from one-tenth to one- 
fifth of that disposed in the Central Pennine area of North Staffordshire, 
Conditions must have been strangely static for a very long period when 
the Thick Coals were growing, but within that series there are no more 
appearances of stratigraphical discordance than where equivalent sedi- 
ments are thick. 



64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Increase of the thickness zone by zone towards the centre in the southern 
Pennine area may be accepted as evidence of progressive geosynclinal 
development and its differential deepening. There is compounded with 
this regional settlement increase of thickness in troughs and thinnings 
towards the crests of local folds. Probably the best-known coalfield 
example of such local variability is the Potteries syncline and the adjoining 
Western or Rearers anticline of North Staffordshire. There from crest 
to trough the total thickness of Productive Measures underneath the Red 
Beds varies within two miles from 2,500 to 3,500 ft. Individual coal 
seams continue across the whole coalfield ; marine bands and shales with 
non-marine lamellibranchs are similarly persistent, and the variable 
component in the measures is the coarse land waste which accumulated 
in thicker and more numerous sandstone lenses towards the centre of the 
trough. There is no evidence that the crest of this fold was so uplifted 
that some beds might have been denuded ; and it follows that the develop- 
ment of the anticline was by differential sinking of the lateral troughs. 
As with the regional tilting towards the centre of the geosyncline, so in 
this local folding the rate of change of thickness was slow until the more 
important coals had grown (Ovalis and Modiolaris zones), but becomes 
increasingly differential through and towards the later part of the Similis- 
Pulchra zone. 

The Horseshoe anticline in the North Wales Coalfield has a slightly 
different history. It too was sinking more slowly than neighbouring 
areas when measures containing the Lower Coal series were deposited 
across it. Thereafter, though it continued to receive a share of sediment, 
it maintained a line of shoals which acted as a barrier and diverted the 
flow of sediment, so that there is striking dissimilarity between the 
Bulkeley Fireclay series formed in the troughs of Flint, and the Upper 
Coal and Cefn Rock series deposited contemporaneously in Denbighshire. 
At its northern end along the Dee estuary, before the deposition of red 
Upper Coal Measures over it, some hundreds of feet of measures were 
denuded from its broken and upraised crest. Series of wash-outs in 
coal seams under sandstones in the Flintshire syncline are interpreted 
as erosion features produced by stream-courses directed longitudinally by 
the folding of the trough. 

In Coalbrookdale, Productive Measures, including some hundreds of 
feet of measures newer than the Pennystone, were sharply folded and 
faulted by posthumous disturbances of pre-Carboniferous post-Silurian 
folds. These movements were mainly completed and the anticlinal crests 
denuded before the overstep of Upper Coal Measures, which is the 
unconformity of the Symon ' Fault.' 

Statistical studies of colliery records within the open folds of Yorkshire 
are bringing evidence that above the Barnsley Coal, and especially towards 
the top of the Similis-Pulchra and through the lower parts of the Phillipsii 
zones, the total thickness and the proportion of sandstone in the sedi- 
mentary column increases progressively to a maximum over the deepest 
parts of the Frickley and Maltby troughs.^ There is no suggestion of 

• ' Sections of Strata of the Yorkshire Coalfield,' Midland Inst, of Min. Eng. 
(1927). 



C— GEOLOGY 6s 

any emergence of the Don Valley fold before the Red Beds were deposited 
over it, but both in Yorkshire and in Derbyshire, where the folds are 
steeper and narrower, it is probable that by the time the latest coal streaks 
of the A. Phillipsii zone had accumulated, the workable coals lay many 
hundreds of feet deeper in the synclines than over the anticlines between. 

The latest grey beds of the Phillipsii zone pass up by alternations into 
the Red and Mottled series which for convenience is taken as the lowest 
division of the Upper Coal Measures. These variegated and ill-stratified 
Brick and Tile Marls (Etruria Marls) are over 1,250 ft. thick in the 
trough of the Potteries Coalfield, and as the Ruabon Marl group in 
Denbighshire their thickness is hardly less. Of the equivalent Ardwick 
group of the Manchester syncline, over 1,000 ft. remains below the 
Collyhurst Sandstone. At Farnsfield in Nottinghamshire, some 600 ft. 
of variegated beds are preserved beneath the Permian in the deepest part 
of the East Pennine basin. In South Staffordshire, the thickness of the 
Marl group is very variable, from 800 to 150 ft. within two miles, and 
there is evidence that with redisturbance of local folds across the Black 
Country, trough-like areas were developed in which deposition kept pace 
with the sinking of the floor. In Warwickshire and in Shropshire, and 
in the south of South Staffordshire, the Marl group overlaps the Productive 
Coal Measures against the shores of islands, whose waste provided the 
fragments which compose the Espley Rocks. 

The Newcastle-under-Lyme group of the Potteries is 600 ft. thick. 
Its variegated grey and green beds mark a temporary late return to normal 
Coal Measure conditions in the south-west Midland area. As the 
Halesowen Sandstone group of South Staffordshire and Warwickshire, 
and the Coalport group of Shropshire, its component members thin as 
they overstep towards the south, and it rests with slight unconformity on 
the Old Hill Marls or older rocks below. 

Over the eastern part of the Midland Coalfield Province, the strati- 
graphical record of the early development of structures ends with the 
deposits of the A. Phillipsii zone. In the south-west, red and purple 
marls, sandstones and conglomerates, deposited in reasonably strict 
conformity upon the latest coal-bearing series, carry on the history of 
settlement and contemporaneous filling of a land-locked basin to a later 
stage. 

In North Staffordshire some 700 ft. of red, purple and grey marls and 
sandstones form the Keele group. Over the Warwickshire Coalfield and 
all round the South Staffordshire Coalfield this group maintains its 
thickness, but in Shropshire it tapers out south-westwards as it overlaps 
beyond the coalfields against the edges of older land. Upwards it passes 
into the calcareous Enville group of Staffordshire or the Corley group of 
Warwickshire, with interstratified lenses of conglomerate, and in the 
higher parts has great wedges of breccia, scree or torrent-borne products 
derived from neighbouring Lower Carboniferous, Silurian, Cambrian 
or Pre-Cambrian outcrops upraised towards the south. In southern 
Warwickshire,^" the thickness of the extended Corley group is not less 

*" F. W. Shotton, ' On the Geology of the Country around Kenilworth,' 
Q.J.G.S., vol. 85, p. 170 (1929). 



66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

than 3,500 ft., and along the Severn Valley the Clent Breccias are also 
thick. Northwards and westwards, as the breccia beds tail out, the group 
becomes difficult to separate from calcareous Keele beds with which they 
are included in the 2,000-3,000 ft. thick Erbistock series of Denbighshire. 
The accommodation of such thickness of Upper Coal Measures over 
the Western Midlands necessitated the shifting the Pennine geosynclinal 
centre towards the south. To what extent the uprising of the Derbyshire 
High Peak area was contemporaneous, is not known, but pebbles in 
Midland conglomerates have not been traced to any Pennine source. In 
the Ingleton Coalfield the highest Red Beds with bands of Spirorbis lime- 
stone are associated with brockram scree deposits, and by this stage uplift 
to the north and denudation of the escarpment of the Craven Faults had 
there exposed the Lower Carboniferous, 

In the Concealed Coalfield of Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire basal 
Permian transgresses 5,000 ft. of folded Coal Measures. The simple 
geometry of the floor on which the Permian rests shows that, following 
the storm of crustal movements, the cycle of denudation was completed. 
The regular eastward slope of that buried peneplain from Tynemouth to 
Nottingham is proof that that side of the Pennines was already con- 
solidated as a structural unit, which, rippled by gentle swelling of the 
underlying cross-folds, and cracked a little by rejuvenated coalfield faults, 
has since been tilted as a whole. Such later displacements as, east of 
Leeds and about Nottingham, have also cut the Trias, are of amplitude 
insufficient to distort the structural pattern, which, born before the end 
of the Visean, developed during the Lancastrian and Productive Coal 
Measure period, attained maturity when the Red Beds of the Midlands 
were being deposited, and was dissected and planated before tilting and 
regional settlement depressed it to receive the sediments of the Magnesian 
Limestone sea. 

West of the Pennines, the CoUyhurst Sandstone rests with sharp dis- 
cordance upon the tilted Ardwick group, and westwards transgresses 
3,800 ft. of underlying Productive Coal Measures. Its thickness alters 
abruptly, sometimes by hundreds of feet, at the crossings of important 
faults, and its disposition suggests accumulation in the fault scarp hollows 
at the foot of the upraised and faulted Pennine and Rossendale anticlinal 
ridges. The Manchester Marls above it are displaced, but not otherwise 
affected by faulting which also cuts the Trias. They contain a fauna 
correlated with the Lower Magnesian Limestone, and pass up by transition 
into the Bunter Sandstone of the Cheshire Basin. 

South of the Pennines the evidence of post-Carboniferous chronology 
is mainly buried under Trias, which banks against a land surface composed 
of every kind of older rock. Each exposed Midland coalfield is a dish or 
dimple in an upraised horst, bounded by faulted folds of variable pitch, 
which are axially convergent on the Coal Measure geosynclinal centre west 
of the Peak near Manchester. In middle limbs outside the lateral crests 
are powerful but discontinuous boundary faults, flanking the Trias-filled 
deep depressions which contain concealed coalfields. These boundary 
faults are late Carboniferous structures which displace alike all members 
of the Productive and Upper Coal Measures, to and including the Keele 



C— GEOLOGY 67 

group, and much of the Corley and Lower Enville beds. Several of them 
line up with older breaks in the pre-Carboniferous platform, and many 
are known to have continued their displacement during and after the 
deposition of the Trias. Marl conglomerates towards the top of the 
Upper Coal Measures suggest contemporaneous movement of neighbouring 
faults, but pebble and breccia beds are torrent-borne from southern lands, 
and the main displacement of both folds and faults is later than the Upper 
Coal Measures deposits. Possibly the latest Enville, Corley and Erbistock 
beds are contemporaneous with some Magnesian Limestone, but proof is 
lacking, and the steady structure demonstrated in the basal Permian 
peneplain is not yet recognised west of Derbyshire. 

There being no fossils in the Trias of the Midland Province, the age of 
movements affecting it cannot be checked by zoning. Wedges of Bunter 
Sands and Keuper Marls in Nottingham overlap the wedge of Magnesian 
Limestone to rest on Coal Measures and older rocks in Derbyshire and 
Leicestershire. Tilting continued with sedimentation, and east of the 
Pennines the sloping surface of concealed Coal Measures is buried under 
a thousand yards of Permian and Trias within a few miles east of the 
Trent. The great basin of Cheshire with its salt beds, and Shropshire 
with its patch of Lias, downfolded as it filled. Its depth and what lies 
under it are matters for conjecture, but the Plumley borehole pierced 
2,500 ft. of Keuper, and Bunter Beds at Heswall have been proved 
2,200 ft. thick. The turn-up of Trias to the western anticline of 
Staffordshire, and the Red Rock Fault of Cheshire, is evidence of further 
substantial settlement, since the deposition of the down-till;ed beds. 

The Trias basin of Staffordshire sagged as a duplex trough on either 
side of the faulted saddle of the Black Country. The western downfold, 
like the Shropshire basin, is edged about with latest Carboniferous Red 
Beds, and within it conformable passage between the two formations is 
not impossible. In the depression to the east of Stafford, the Chartley 
boring passed through 2,000 ft. of Trias, and outliers of Rhaetic lie further 
to the east. From the north part of this basin fingers of Bunter extend 
along steep-sided valleys scored in the southern ending of the Pennines. 
The edges of the Leicestershire platform are also ragged ; and against and 
over them Bunter is overlapped by Keuper, which completes the transgres- 
sion of Trias across the coalfield synclines of Warwickshire and Leicester- 
shire, and overtops the sharp, upstanding peaks of Charnwood Forest. 
That core of Pre-Cambrian in Charnwood, along with the western portion 
of the Pennine block, must have been elevated as the Nottinghamshire, 
Staffordshire and Cheshire Trias basins were being filled. Eventually 
all elevations, cluttered up in their own debris, were buried under the 
great bulk of material washed to the Midlands by torrents or wind-swept 
from the foothills of the great Hercynian Chain. By the time the desert 
deposits of the Keuper were covered by the Rhaetic Sea, the whole Midland 
Province had been upgraded to a plain. 

Wherever there is exposure of bare rock, and diversity of rock character 
to show it, there is evidence that the even lie of Trias and post-Triassic 
rocks has been disturbed by later movements, but in the Midland Coalfield 
Province, except for certain arcuate groups of east-west faults which cross 



68 . SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the Pennines, and a few north-west fractures occupied by Tertiary dykes, 
the disposition of those faults agrees so closely with the trend of older 
structures that all may be interpreted as posthumous adjustments of the 
underlying floor. The later structural history of the Midland Coalfield 
Province is not documented by its own deposits, and we may leave the 
stratigraphical study of its development at this stage. 

Fold Distribution. 

A striking feature of the small-scale geological map of England is the 
alignment of the coalfields in east-west rows. The coalfield of South 
Wales is an east-west downfold in the forefield of the Hercynian mountain 
chain, and it has been assumed that, beyond the upfold of the Midland or 
Mercian Highland barrier, the Midland group of coalfields occupies the 
following trough. The history of coalfield evolution outlined above tells 
us that the Midland barrier was already a structural unit when Carbon- 
iferous rocks were laid against it. There is no suggestion of natural 
separation of the southern Midland coalfield district from the greater 
coalfields around the southern Pennines. The filled Carboniferous 
geosynclinal basin, subsequently everted, must for structural purposes 
be considered as a whole. The wide pre-Permian break between its 
Yorkshire-Lancashire edge and the downfold containing the Durham- 
Cumberland alignment also may be a Hercynian master-upfold, but 
pending analysis of its structures, it were well to suspend judgment. 

With the idea that east-west downfolds across the Midlands are 
Hercynian, goes the notion that the Pennine * backbone of England ' is 
a complementary north-south cross-fold ; but there is divergence of 
strikes within it, and as we know that the limestone district of Derbyshire 
was upstanding at the time of the pre-Lancastrian unconformity, it is 
difficult to accept it as other than a rejuvenated and accentuated group of 
older structures. 

Having looked for and failed to recognise the leading lines of the 
supposed Hercynian chessboard in the arrangement of coalfields within 
the Midland Province, I long since suggested ^^ that the upstanding High 
Peak massif of limestone of Derbyshire is founded upon an extension of 
the pre-Cambrian platform of Charnwood Forest, and I would now 
maintain that contention by a demonstration of the distribution of its 
supporting folds. To this end I have had compiled, first by pantographic 
reduction from the i-in. geological maps to the j-in. scale, and then by 
photography and retracing, the diagram (Fig. i), on which are plotted in 
correct relationship all fold- lines which the officers of the Geological Survey 
have located and indicated on the published maps P The result is striking, 
both in confirming the alignment of the High Peak plateau with Charnwood 
Forest, and in its emphasis of the persistence of other ridge lines from the 

11 W. G. Fearnsides, ' Some Effects of Earth Movement on the Coal Measures 
of the Sheffield District,' Pt. II., Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 51, pp. 445-450 
(1916). 

1^ The laborious work of this reduction was undertaken by William Pulfr«y, 
M.Sc, Ph.D., research worker in the Department of Geology at Sheffield 
University, to whom I return grateful thanks. 




FOLD AXES 

MIDLAND COALFIELDS 



/ 



C— GEOLOGY 69 

scattered outcrops of Lower Palaeozoic formations around the Midlands in 
later foldings of the Carboniferous rocks. There is no chessboard or other 
interlacing of the folds. The folds are congruent, curving, clustered or 
divergent ; acute and often steeply pitching where there is great change 
of stratigraphical level, but ill-defined and widely separated where the 
troughs are broad. It is difficult to perceive how, in yielding under 
unilateral stress, sheets of new-made Coal Measures could have wrinkled 
in such forms. It seems more likely that, like blankets on the bed of 
a restless sleeper, they have heaved and buckled in accommodating them- 
selves to the movements down below. It is recognised that in the con- 
temporaneous filling of each deepening syncline, as old folds tightened 
differences of rigidity between adjoining areas must have been perpetuated, 
and thus, whatever crustal thrust has later disturbed the underlying Lower 
Palaeozoic platform, could not do other than exaggerate existing strains. 
Established lines of yielding have been from age to age rejuvenated, but 
the plotting of fold-lines has discovered no local bending structures in 
the Midland Coalfield Province, which can be determined as begun by 
late Carboniferous movements, or as having adopted a novel impressed 
Armorican or Hercynian trend. 

To the coalminer the unit of structure is the coalfield — a group of 
several down-folds forming a distorted trough or synclinorium. For the 
geologist arches are more conveniently described as individual structures. 
The complex ridge of Charnwood pitches down north-westward under 
the Trent Valley, beyond which, by Ashbourne, folds rise to culminate 
near Buxton. Northwards the Pennine anticlinal crest droops down 
some 2,000 ft. under Kinderscout. Thence it continues almost on level 
course along the mid-Pennine ridge of Millstone Grit, and curves a little 
towards the east to Keighley. At intervals of a few miles the High Peak 
ridge throws off, most noticeably towards the east, trailing transverse 
folds, which spread fanwise across the Derbyshire Coalfield. These trans- 
verse folds are sinuous in plan, and variable both in amplitude and pitch. 
Locally intensified, they bring up the limestone inliers of Crich and 
Ashover, and the cracked domes which were pricked for oil, successfully 
at Hardstoft, but unsuccessfully at Brimington, Renishaw, Ridgeway and 
Ironville. Never straight, their direction swings round in reversed ' S ' 
bends almost through a quadrant. To the north in the moorland country 
the transverse undulations are less acute, their crest-lines swing first 
northwards, and then eastwards and a little southwards, as they lose 
themselves in the broad trough of the Yorkshire Coalfield. 

On the west side of the Pennine-Peak-Charnwood ridge-line the change 
of geological level is rapid. In Leicestershire the Thringston Fault puts 
Coal Measures against Pre-Cambrian, and with the two or three sharp 
infolds of minor coalfields west of Buxton, the High Peak adjoins the 
Cheshire Plain. This last great downfold, however, is not a simple 
structure. To it, as to a neck, the extensions of the folds between 
Charnwood and the Longmynd come to meet and join. The triangular 
form of the North Staff"ordshire Coalfield demonstrates the gape of the 
virgation within whose southward opening rise the ribs which are the 
Productive Coalfield of the Midland district. The plotting shows that 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

each major fold axis in the Midlands, if extended northwards, would come 
to Manchester. Within the convergence the pitch of folds is somewhat 
variable, but there is no evidence of interweaving, or rise and fall by cross- 
folding, which can be interpreted as compounding with broad east-west 
Hercynian folds. North and west of Buxton folds in the Millstone 
Grit country swing southwards round the High Peak ridge, and there 
is rude symmetry of fold distribution in Staffordshire and Derbyshire 
about the north-west line of the extended Charnian axis. 

Across the Manchester Coalfield the broad trough is cut to ribbons by 
north-west faults, which break the measures, as, bending, they dive 
towards the Cheshire Plain. Minor folds alongside major faults have 
axes which diverge westwards from the Pennine fold. The east-west 
Rossendale anticline of mid-Lancashire is so broad a swell that, as with 
its neighbour the even broader Cheshire basin, the location of its merging 
in the Pennine fold is ill-defined. The sharp monocline which makes the 
Pennine crest near Todmorden bends round to the east towards Keighley, 
and the triangular trough of the Burnley Coalfield is evidence that the 
Charnian midrib of the South Pennine structure, which is more or less 
continuous from Leicestershire, has here ended. 

Beyond the North Lancashire Coalfield the trend of sharp folds in the 
Craven lowlands is north-easterly. They swing to the eastwards through 
Skipton as far as Leeds, to follow and define the northern edge of the 
Yorkshire Coalfield. From their divergence to the westwards it is evident 
that the Craven lowlands and North-west Lancashire is a structural unit 
quite distinct from the North Lancashire Coalfield, and there is similarity 
of structure between this Pendle-Bowland area adjacent to the Craven 
Faults and the fold virgation in North Staffordshire. 

The structure of the North Wales coalfield country north-west from 
Shropshire has lately been discussed by officers of the Geological Survey, 
and folds affecting Carboniferous rocks are interpreted as due to tightening 
and adjustment of structures already developed in the Lower Palaeozoic 
rocks .^^ Whether or not the upstanding mass of the Longmynd has 
protected from Hercynian fold invasion the plains of Southern Cheshire, 
resultant movement in Flint and Denbighshire has produced the horse- 
shoe anticlines whose range is more or less parallel to the Lower Palaeozoic 
outcrop, and in groups separated by great tear faults they bulge eastwards 
upon the Cheshire Plain. 

Fault -Pattern. 
Following the consideration of fold axes, a similar plotting and reduction 
has been made ^* of the distribution and alignment of recorded faults, and 
the intricate patterning of Fig. 2 results. From comparisons of super- 
posed diagrams, as first reduced to the J-in. scale, it is clear that the 
dominant families of faults follow the limbs of folds, but that they sweep 
in curves of radius larger than the axial curvature of folds. No fault 

1' C. B. Wedd, ' The Principles of Palaeozoic and later Tectonic Structure 
between the Longm^md and the Berwyns,' H.M.G.S. Summary of Progress for 
igsi, Pt. II., p. I (1932). 

" Also by Dr. Pulfrey. 







FAULT STRUCTURE 

IN THE 

MIDLAND COALFIELDS 



/ 



C— GEOLOGY 71 

outcrop is really straight or continuous for many miles, but major fault- 
lines curve with a radius which is often greater than ten or even twenty miles. 
Leading faults, changing direction, give off tangential branch faults or 
receive tributaries which trail in at angles less than 45°. Transverse 
faults are usual across the troughs of pitching synclines. Where trans- 
verse and longitudinal faults cut the country into more or less quadrangular 
blocks, faults which are ending bend to meet the curve of the persistent 
fault. 

Large faults are generally associated with change of dip or change of 
strike of strata, and are therefore inconstant in their throw. Large 
faults frequently occur en echelon in the middle limbs or sides of troughs, 
where their direction makes a small angle with both the strike of the 
measures and the pitch axis of the fold. Mostly faults tend to converge 
towards a rise of pitch. Transverse faults sometimes displace the crests 
of anticlines, but are of greater importance as they reduce the effect of 
pitch along the synclines. Most transverse faults bend and lose their 
throw as they approach the steeper middle limbs of folds, and change the 
curvature of their direction as they pass from anticline to syncline. 

Certain groups of complex or paired trough fractures sweep in 
discontinuous arcuate curves across the Midland Coalfield Province on 
a radius as great as fifty or sixty miles. These are not obviously related 
either to the trend of noticed folds or to the longitudinal or transverse fault 
breaks, with some of which they join. Of them the most extensive system 
follows a rude semicircle through the North Lancashire and East Pennine 
Coalfields from Accrington, by Todmorden to Huddersfield and Sheffield, 
and across Derbyshire to the Dukeries. If it is continuous with the fault 
belt which from Blackburn extends to Wigan and St. Helens, it may 
encircle the Cheshire Basin. 

Other fault groups which bend round the High Peak of Derbyshire 
also cross the Pennines. These carry on through the Derbyshire and 
Nottinghamshire Coalfield, and may encircle the platform of Charnwood 
Forest. The most northerly of this group traverses the Pennines from 
Rochdale to the Calder Valley, and intercrosses with the Todmorden- 
Sheffield disturbance in the Rishworth Moors. A more southerly group 
close to the limestone boundary at Castleton passing by Holmesfield and 
Chesterfield to the south of Mansfield, crosses and recrosses the reversed 
' S ' bend of the Brimington anticlinal axis. 

In Flint and Denbighshire also, arcuate groups of fractures likewise 
slice across the horseshoe fold axes. These are circumferential to the 
Silurian buttress of Snowdonia. Where, in the Trent Valley, Trias is 
banked against the southern ending of the Pennines, broadly arcuate 
east-west fractures cut directly across the Pennine Carboniferous folds. 

Appreciation or description of coalfield fault pattern is difficult except 
by diagram, but regional trends change gradually, and within the Midland 
Coalfield Province the only apparent discontinuities are gaps or obscurities 
due to lack of information. Drift obscures the fault outcrops in the Trias 
country, and Carboniferous, deep bedded under Trias, reveals its structure 
only as the coal is worked. 

The criss-cross fault arrangement of the Yorkshire Coalfield has been 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

compared by Professor Kendall ^^ to the crack lattice produced by twisting 
slabs of glass, and the differential lifting of the Pennines was suggested 
as the agency of the twist. The analogy is a good one in that it reminds 
us that the simplest kind of stress may in a single operation by resolution 
produce the diamond fault-block pattern. North of the Don the most 
persistent faults are longitudinal in the flanks of the wide West Yorkshire 
trough, wherein they converge and anastomose, with rise of pitch north- 
westward. In this area transverse faults preserve an almost constant 
north-easterly direction. Most of their movement was pre-Permian, but 
some have since increased their displacement, and certain east-west faults 
which are longitudinal in the flank of the northern boundary anticline 
extend into the Trias. There is to the north of the Don anticline, near 
Rotherham, one area twenty square miles in extent without a charted 
fault. That, however, is exceptional, and triangular or quadrangular 
blocks, of a few score acres to three or four square miles, are characteristic 
of the Yorkshire Coalfield. 

In Derbyshire, and with less certainty in Nottinghamshire, the fault 
pattern is recognisable as an extension of that better defined in Yorkshire, 
but local folds of variable pitch dominate the Derbyshire structure. 
Faults following the general north-west elongation of the coalfield basin 
join with the arcuate groups, and bend eastward to cut across the limestone 
area of the High Peak. In Derbyshire there is no strong development of 
north-east fractures, and the few faults which break the Permian outcrop 
south of Sheffield are either north-westers, or in the south, near Notting- 
ham, where they become important, members of the east-west arcuate 
system of the southern ending of the Pennines. 

In Lancashire transverse faults have cut the coalfield into boat-shaped 
strips which taper sharply where neighbouring members of the same fault 
series join. About Manchester the master fractures traverse steep 
measures in the trough of the wide syncline as it pitches to the Cheshire 
Basin, and are eff^ective in reducing the average rate of dip. The 45° 
hade of these fractures is exceptional, and must have come by tilting as 
displacement continued during and after the deposition of the Permian 
and Trias. South of Manchester the fractures bend southwards as they 
tail off in the sharp rise of measures in the Cheshire margins of the Peak. 
Towards the north the leading fault lines take a double bend, and swing 
round first westwards and then northwards to cross the Rossendale 
anticline. In North Lancashire, and all the way from Wigan to Todmorden, 
the pattern is broken by the great encircling fault group into which both 
from north and south the local strip fractures trail. In South Lancashire 
to the west of the great Pendleton-Irwell Valley Fault, the north-west 
breaks are less powerful and more widely spaced. There are also strike 
faults, possibly an arcuate series, in the edges of the Cheshire Basin, and 
about Wigan and St. Helens a diamond block pattern, not unlike that of 
Yorkshire, has resulted. 

The swarm of faults v/hich in North Wales slices the country into 
narrow strips range generally north and south, with some eastward 
convexity, and cut across the horseshoe folds obliquely. Northwards 
" P. F. Kendall and H. E. Wroot, Geology of Yorkshire, p. 243 (1924). 



C— GEOLOGY 73 

from Wrexham, and along the Dee estuary, they diverge somewhat to the 
westward, but east of Hawarden they bend as if to complete beneath the 
Trias the encircling fractures of the Cheshire Plain. The continuation 
of the Bala or Llanelidan Fault tears across the whole Carboniferous 
outcrop, as does the east-west fault through the Vale of Llangollen. 
North-south faults trail into or branch from these old deep-seated fractures, 
by whose repeated movements the wedge of ground between them may 
have been subjected to horizontal torsional stress. The ring of fractures 
round the slab of Ruabon Mountain is not matched in any British coalfield. 
Further to the south, longitudinal faults bend south-westwards, and the 
Denbighshire Coalfield ends at east-west cross-fractures which also cut 
the Trias. 

Within the Cheshire Basin faulting is recorded only in broken outcrops 
of Triassic sandstones. The known pattern follows that in neighbouring 
outcrops of Carboniferous rocks. At the Staffordshire border the Red 
Rock Fault is at once marginal to the basin and longitudinal in the flank 
of the Rearers anticline. Across it both folding and fault movements 
have been renewed since the deposition of the Trias. 

Between the Red Rock Fault of Cheshire and the plateau of the Peak, 
fractures which gather from East Lancashire die in the lower flanks of 
the steep upfold. Along the crest of that main Pennine fold in Yorkshire 
and Cheshire, longitudinal displacements replace the narrow folds con- 
verging to it from the south, and form the Pennine anticlinal fault. Out 
of this across the Millstone Grit moors, minor branch fractures, cross- 
connected, curve away to the eastward in a wide half-circle, to join the 
longitudinal series of the Yorkshire and Derbyshire Coalfield. 

The triangle of country which lies between the Peak of Derbyshire, 
the Longmynd and Charnwood, has longitudinal faults which branch as 
they diverge southwards in the middle limbs of folds. As boundary 
faults in the edges of the exposed coalfields of the Midlands, some of 
these are associated with great change of stratigraphical level. They 
range with slight obliquity to the strike of pre- Carboniferous structures, 
and are in the flanks of late Carboniferous upfolds, which have completed 
perhaps the last third of their movements during or since the deposition 
of the Trias. Faults developing in the limb of the western anticline of 
Staffordshire turn and cross the Potteries syncline obliquely, their 
considerable throw reducing the effect of southward pitch. Numerous 
adjustment faults, often in pairs, traverse the crests of anticlines in the 
North and the South Staffordshire coalfields, and also the coalfield 
synclines of South Derbyshire and Leicestershire. Only east-west faults 
of the arcuate group in the northern margin of the Staffordshire-Trent 
Valley Basin are recognised as breaking across both anticlines and 
synclines, or as having direction unrelated to Carboniferous and oldier 
structures. 

In his studies of structure in the country between the Longmynd and 
the Berwyns, Wedd has discussed the development of faults by resolution 
of horizontal stress to lateral shear or spiral torsion, where compact rocks 
have met obliquely an advancing Hercynian crustal wave. Possibly 
structural disposition along other ribs of reinforcement in the pre- 

D 2 



74 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Carboniferous floor of the Midlands has located faults of lateral shift, 
but details await attention, and the subject is too large for further 
discussion here. 

Coalfield Dimensions. 

In the foregoing description and discussion of structural pattern, 
reference to size has intentionally been omitted. In coalfield engineering 
size is the prime factor controlling development, so, for the better applica- 
tion of the principles which have emerged in the qualitative analysis, 
I shall conclude with notes on the dimensions of those structures in and 
about the several coalfields of the province which have been proved, or are 
likely to prove, important in industrial planning and development. 

The largest and most productive of British coalfields is that of Yorkshire, 
Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, the East Pennine or East Midland 
Coalfield, a continuous complex downfold or synclinorium, more than 
seventy miles long between Bradford and Nottingham, and forty miles 
wide along the river Don. Half or more than half of its total area to 
and beyond the rivers Ouse and Trent is buried under Permian and Trias ; 
and there, though folds and fault belts from the exposed area can be pro- 
jected, real knowledge of pre-Permian structure has only come with mining 
exploration and development. Denudation had taken toll of all the up- 
raised anticlines before the Magnesian Limestone was deposited, and so 
between Leeds and Nottingham the Basal Permian rests in turn on each 
and every member of the Productive Coal Measures series. 

The Yorkshire Coalfield north of the Don is a comparatively simple 
dish structure, cracked and broken by its faults. Its deepest part is the 
Frickley trough between Pontefract and Doncaster, where the floor of 
lowest Coal Measures lies 4,500 ft. deep twenty miles in from outcrop. 
Towards the south the broad swell of the Don anticline ends in the 
1,500 ft. deep descent to the Maltby Basin, whose slope is broken en 
echelon by the north-easterly Don Faults. Between Doncaster and 
Worksop the central part of this South Yorkshire Basin includes a patch 
of Upper Coal Measures, and here, with 5,000 ft. of Productive Coal 
Measures, is probably the deepest part of any coalfield east of the Pennines. 
Despite truncation at the Permian unconformity, some Productive Coal 
Measures extend for several miles beyond the Trent. 

Contrasting sharply with Yorkshire, where faults are the main dis- 
turbers of continuous mining development, Derbyshire is characterised 
by steep-sided folds of variable pitch, which undulate the measures in 
troughs and arches, nearly, but not quite, high enough to obscure the 
synclinal structure of the coalfield as a whole. From the suburbs of 
Sheffield, the Ridgeway-Renishaw anticline, 1,000 ft. high, pitches 
south-eastwards and bulges the Silkstone Coal outcrop some six miles 
east, and continues by Barlborough and Whitwell underneath theDukeries. 
Four miles to the south, it has for neighbour the curving hogsback of the 
Brimington anticline, which for eight miles between Holmesfield and 
Duckmanton maintains an even crest level, while the synclineof Dronfield, 
Staveley and Bolsover, pitching with undulations, descends 2,000. ft. 
alongside the steep east-facing flank which at Brimington rises 1,000 ft. 



C— GEOLOGY 75 

within a mile. The back slope to the Chesterfield syncline starts immedi- 
ately, and, though not so high, is similarly steep. By sudden change of 
pitch and oblique cross-faulting, 600 ft. of crest elevation is lost at Hasland, 
and about Heath the hogsback becomes a terrace. Southwards the crest 
picks up in the 500 ft. high, mile wide, cracked dome of Hardstoft, beyond 
which, broadening as it pitches, it flattens out eastward in the swell which 
holds the coals at convenient depths across the Sherwood Forest area 
east of Mansfield. The Chesterfield-Clay Cross-Tibshelf syncline, two 
to four miles wide, 500-1,000 ft. deep, broadens and opens out to the 
Oxton-Thurgarton Basin of Nottinghamshire. It is bordered on the 
west by the uneven crest which brings limestone to surface at Ashover, and 
by the broken dome of Ironville, three miles long and two miles wide, in 
which the measures rise 600 ft. This towards the south-east is paralleled 
by the wider anticlines of Cossal and the Erewash Valley. Further to the 
westward are the local basins of Swanwick, Ripley, and Heanor — this 
last two miles wide and 500 ft. deep — which form dimples in the terrace 
in which the margin of the coalfield extends south-westwards towards 
Derby. 

Concerning the extension of fold structures beneath the Nottingham- 
shire Trias, more, and more exact, information is desirable. In Derby- 
shire no trough or crest line ever keeps an even course, and though on a 
small-scale map we may outline in simple curves the information avail- 
able from existing pits and boring records, it is not to be expected that 
all pre-Permian folds in Nottinghamshire are broad and open. Levels in 
the Top Hard Coal between Welbeck and Ollerton rise to the eastward, 
and within two miles there is a further steeper rise to Wellow. Explora- 
tions along the line from Mansfield to Kirklington show sharp diversities 
of level of quite 1,000 ft., and to the south of this line, borings at Farns- 
field, Oxton and Thurgarton have proved 500 ft. of red Upper Coal 
Measures infolded underneath the Permian. Despite the presence of 
Upper Coal Measures in this central trough of Nottinghamshire, because 
of southward thinning of the several subdivisions of the series, it is likely 
that the deepest part of the Nottinghamshire basin is shallower by at least 
1,000 ft. than that of South Yorkshire. 

As the East Midland Coalfield fills the broad synclinorium which flanks 
the Peak uplift on the east, so the Lancashire coalfields, and whatever 
there may be beneath the plains of Cheshire, occupy the deeper downfold 
which abuts upon it from the west. Extended Charnwood, being more 
rigid, has been given greater elevation than the prolongation of the 
Longmynd, but west of this latter under the great oval area which extends 
from Manchester to Shrewsbury (sixty miles), and from Chester to Con- 
gleton (thirty miles), Carboniferous rocks are so deeply depressed and 
covered with Trias as to have remained unproved. A borehole 2,500 ft. 
deep at Plumley near Northwich ended in Keuper, and under the central 
500 ft. of Lias proved at Prees the basin is probably deeper still. 

The fall-off westward from the Peak within the East Lancashire coal- 
field to Manchester, is amazingly steep, 7,000 ft. within the six miles of 
mining ground between Oldham and Manchester, 3,500 ft. in an unbroken 
two-mile dip-slope under Stockport town ; and the whole thickness of 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the local Carboniferous from the lowest Di to the zone of A. tenuis has 
been exposed and bevelled off in the sixteen miles between Miller's 
Dale and Stockport. 

Steep dips in the Manchester corner of the Lancashire Coalfield are 
half compensated in the pitch of the broad Cheshire syncline by low- 
hading, north-westerly throw-back faults, which die in the limbs of the 
anticlines on the north and east. The Irwell Valley-Pendleton Fault, 
with a throw of not less than 2,000 ft. under the suburbs of Salford, is 
about the last and the greatest of the slasher system faults. Beyond it, 
with steepness decreasing from i in 3 to i in 6 or less, the Lancashire 
outcrop of Productive Measures sweeps westward to Wigan, where, 
across more faults, it elbows south by St. Helens and Prescot, and so 
beneath the Trias and across to Wales. Decrease of dip in Lancashire 
is associated with transgression of Productive Measures by Permian or 
by overlap of Trias on to Millstone Grit towards the west. 

The northward rise of Coal Measures from under the Cheshire Basin 
continues to a height greater than their local thickness, which in the east 
exceeds 8,000 ft. Across the ten miles wide plateau of the Rossendale 
Anticline which ranges east-west from Bacup to Chorley, the beds of 
Millstone Grit are almost flat, and stratigraphically only some 1,000 ft. 
lower than in the neighbouring crest of the Pennines, from which this 
fold is separated by a mile-wide sloping ridge or neck. 

The North Lancashire Coalfield is a triangular downfold only some 
1,500 ft. deep, tucked in between the Rossendale plateau and the Pen- 
nines, and is cut off towards the north-west by the sharp uprise of Millstone 
Grit and Lower Carboniferous, which outcrop in the Forest of Pendle 
and the lowlands of Craven and the Kibble. This shallow downfold 
contains little more than Lower Coal Measures. 

The horseshoe folds of Flintshire lie to the east and alongside the 
upstanding mass of limestone and Lower Palaeozoic rocks of Denbigh and 
Snowdonia, much as the folds in Derbyshire flank the east side of the 
limestone massif of the Peak. The most easterly of them through 
Hawarden, rising and falling transversely 2,000 ft. in about three miles, 
is of similar dimensions to the Brimington anticline. By Caergwrle it 
turns into the profound pre-Trias disturbance of the Llanelidan Fault, 
a branch of the Bala Fault which crosses Wales. The Denbighshire part 
of the coalfield is also traversed by a 1,000 ft. fault through the Vale of 
Llangollen, but most of the curving fractures which cut the North Wales 
coalfield into longitudinal strips are mainly effective in stepping back 
steeply-inclined measures as they dip under the Trias of the Cheshire 
Plain. The westerly transgression of the Trias in Lancashire is matched 
south of Chester by the sudden incoming of the Midland type of Upper 
Coal Measures at the line of the Bala Fault. By Wrexham these red beds 
increase in thickness, and, overlapping the Productive Measures against 
pre-Carboniferous rocks of Shropshire, are probably continuous to Staf- 
fordshire and provide a large part of the filling of the southern half of 
the Cheshire Basin. 

Although it adjoins the Cheshire Basin, there is no suggestion that 
North Staffordshire was ever downfolded with it. The utmost that can 



C— GEOLOGY 77 

be claimed is that the marginal strip of coalfield between the crest of the 
Rearers Anticline and the Red Rock Fault was dragged down as the basin 
deepened. The Rearers Fold or Western Anticline of Staffordshire is 
interpreted as an acute upfolding of an extension from the Longmynd. 
Within the coalfield, mining has proved that the coal seams rise and fall 
transversely across it 1,500 ft. within three miles, and that where the fold 
is asymmetrical the slight overturn is towards the west. Where, by 
Astbury, the convergence at the Red Rock Fault brings Trias against 
D2 limestone, the eastward drop into the Biddulph trough introduces 
5,000 ft. of measures within two miles. The divergent Eastern or Endon 
anticline is a part of the gentler north-eastward rise out of the Potteries 
Coalfield trough towards Derbyshire, and is defined eastward by the 
steep-sided shallow syncline of Rudyard and the narrow flat-bottomed 
Shaff along Coalfield. The main trough of Staff'ordshire pitches a little 
to the west of south at about 500 ft. per mile, but powerful north-west 
faults make the pitch only partially effective. In fifteen miles the coalfield 
widens southward from one to fifteen miles, and within its gape there is, 
about Newcastle and Trentham, already 5,000 ft. of Productive Measures 
overlain by more than 2,000 ft. of Upper Coal Measures. Within North 
Staffordshire, Trias transgresses and is banked against every member of 
the Carboniferous series, and is itself quite steeply tilted by secondary 
uplift of the Rearers and other anticlines. 

The southward pitching of the Potteries downfold is towards Newport 
and the East Shropshire Coalfield. Inlying outcrops of red Upper Coal 
Measures follow the line of the Rearers fold towards the Longmynd, but 
spread also eastwards towards Lilleshall, where a sharp uprise of the 
Wrekin ridge brings up Cambrian and Carboniferous Limestone, and the 
only suggestion of closure of the Stafford- Shropshire basin includes the 
great oval of Trias and Upper Coal Measures which extends forty miles 
south to Kidderminster and Bewdley, with Stafford and Wolverhampton 
on its eastern side. In this downfold, as in the southern half of the 
Cheshire Basin, the Upper Coal Measures are thick, but development 
from the deep pits already working out westwards from the Black Country 
is evidence that almost all its deep downfolding is subsequent to the 
deposition of the Productive Measures. 

The South Staffordshire or Black Country Coalfield is essentially a 
twenty mile long, four to eight miles wide, flat-topped, north-south ridge 
or plateau, tilted slightly towards the south and diversified with minor 
ridges and hollows, which are re-awakened pre-Carboniferous structures. 
From the trend of its minor folds and bounding faults one may guess that 
it lines up with the Eastern (Endon) anticline of North Staffordshire, and 
that the pitch which brings up limestone under Trias north of Cannock 
is responsible for the ending of the coalfield there. 

As the Black Country is a plateau, so the Lichfield-Birmingham Trias 
area is a steep-sided downfold several thousands of feet deep, widening 
southwards and flanked towards the east by the rise to the Warwickshire 
Coalfield. Possibly this is the trough of the Cheadle Coalfield continued 
southward under the Rhaetic outlier of Abbots Bromley, but a local rise 
of pitch allows rocks older than the Trias to appear at surface between 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Walsall and Tamworth, and so divides an Uttoxeter-Burton-Lichfield 
basin from the Birmingham- Stratford syncline to the south. 

The Warwickshire Coalfield is an open syncline two to seven miles wide, 
which widens as it pitches down toward the south. Between Kenilworth 
and Coventry it contains over 4,000 ft. of pre-Trias red beds, the thickest 
development of Upper Coal Measures known in Britain. It is elevated 
somewhat above the level of the Birmingham syncline, from which the 
Productive Measures are separated by the crest of Cambrian rock which 
outcrops at Dost Hill. Towards the east the Warwickshire Coal Measures 
rise sharply with the Nuneaton ridge of Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian, 
over and against whose east-facing side the Leicestershire Trias banks 
and overlaps. This spread of Trias is continuous with that of Lichfield 
and the Trent Valley, but whereas as far as the western margin of the 
Warwickshire and South Derbyshire Coalfields the Lichfield trough 
contains a great thickness of Red Upper Coal Measures underneath the 
Trias, the Cambrian and older rocks of Leicestershire form a diversified 
upraised platform and upon it the Bunter is overlapped by Keuper. 

Across the Leicestershire platform, shallow folds of variable pitch strike 
in a general north-westerly direction towards Dovedale and the conver- 
gence of North Staffordshire, in parallel with the south-west edges of the 
Peak. On it, en echelon on either side of the south-east-pitching Ashby 
anticline, lie the coalfields of South Derbyshire and Leicestershire, each 
six or eight miles long and containing about 1,500 ft. of rich Productive 
Measures across which the Trias rests directly. The structural boundary 
of the Leicestershire Coalfield towards Charnwood is peculiar. For 
miles it is a steep fold, broken by a fault, the fissure being occupied by an 
igneous intrusion. But as the fault bends round north-westward it cuts 
across the pitch of the folds, and, whereas on the coalfield side with east- 
ward dip older rocks appear in order northward from under the Coal 
Measures, on the Forest side towards the north the Pre-Cambrian is 
succeeded by Carboniferous Limestone ; and west of Melbourne, where 
Millstone Grit is overlain by Trias, this powerful boundary fault has lost 
its throw. Movements along this fault were completed before the overstep 
of the Trias. 

Conclusion. 

In the assembly of this information I have noted many structural 
associations the significance of which has not been elucidated. The 
plotting of formational thicknesses of strata by zones has confirmed the 
Midland Province as a structural unit of deposition. Examination of 
Coal Measure stratigraphy has proved its slow development as a Coal 
Measure geosynclinal basin which was everted before Permian time. In 
cross-section the folding of the Province is duplex in all directions, and 
in general it is now a synclinorium with a central lop-sided crumpled 
dome. This bifid, asymmetric elevation, which is the central Pennine 
fold, divides the eastern coalfield from a western, more deeply depressed, 
Trias-filled syncline, and within the fork of double uplift is Staffordshire 
and the fingering coalfields of the Midlands. 

The narrow folds which compose the western branch of the Pennines 



C— GEOLOGY 79 

have for core in Shropshire the worn plexus of Lower Palaeozoic rocks 
which had been foothills to the Devonian Caledonian Alps. The Charn- 
wood core of the eastern limb in Leicestershire is compressed Pre-Cam- 
brian and igneous material. Several, probably all, synclines within the 
Carboniferous synclinoria are disposed between ribs of reinforcement in 
the pre-Carboniferous foundations, which are aligned with the anticHnals 
of their cores. The synclinals deepened intermittently but progressively 
as the geosynclinal filled ; and though as a whole the Province may occupy 
an early downfold in the foreland of the Hercynian alpine chain, its 
leading fold-lines are re-emphasised and rejuvenated structures which 
in origin are older. 

In the beginnings of my study of fold and fault distribution in the 
Pennines, I was content to follow custom, and use established regional 
names for trend. The East Pennine Coalfield has obvious north-west- 
south-east elongation and is continuous to Charnwood. Its longitudinal 
folds and faults, though they bend in flowing curves, do not stray far 
from the Charnian direction. The north-east-south-west oval of the 
Cheshire Basin may be Caledonian, and though it lies athwart the com- 
pressed folds of Wales, it is flanked by folds and faults which are 
rejuvenated Caledonian structures. The Pennines as a hill range trend 
north and south, but north-south folds are only dominant in them for 
some twenty miles along the borders of Derbyshire and Cheshire, where 
they are bunched between the Caledonian trough of Cheshire and the 
Peakland extension of the Charnwood ridge. Continuing with slight 
divergence through North Staffordshire, they point southward as a hand 
with outstretched fingers, the thumb along the Caledonian folds of 
Shropshire, the long fingers following the coalfields of the Black Country 
and Warwickshire, and the little finger the Charnian of Leicestershire — 
a Midland fan of congruent folds and faults, Caledonian and Charnian, 
but on the average ' Pennine ' in direction. Northwards also, but in 
curves which are asymmetric, trend-lines from the central Pennines open 
out, in Lancashire bending westwards but in Yorkshire eastwards, to 
return southwards and unite with Charnian structures in Derbyshire and 
Nottinghamshire. 

Surely in this continuous variation of fold and fault direction within 
the type area from which the Pennine trend was named, we see the appli- 
cation of regional trend nomenclature reduced to an absurdity. The 
Pennine uplift is not a simple group of parallel pressure ridges ; and, 
having traced the loosening of its sheaf of structures through the Midlands, 
and seen them almost box the compass in the coalfields on either side, 
I have concluded that as a synonym for north-south trend of structure 
the name of ' Pennine ' must disappear. Forced correlation in use of 
nomenclature cannot express tectonic virgation, and for precision in 
indicating fold direction in the course of this address, I have gone 
back to compass-bearing, and for specifying fault-lines I am content to 
mention their alignment and locality. 

Charnian, Caledonian, Hercynian, are well-established names for 
ancient mountain ranges. With reason they are used to designate 
structure impressed when those mountain folds were being compressed. 



8o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

During the filling of the Coal Measure geosyncline, local folds of the 
Pennine family were lines of delayed settlement, and it seems unlikely 
that the Midland Province area was then being compressed. Moreover, 
within this area the flanks and crests and troughs of the folds affecting 
Carboniferous rocks are broken by normal faults of extension, whose 
' wants ' or ' barren areas ' go far to compensate the shortening of the 
base line required for maintenance of continuous cover for the folds. 
From mining records we have indications that certain longitudinal faults 
had cracked and suffered adjustment as the Coal Measures were deposited, 
but the main displacement of all coalfield faults belongs to the time of 
Hercynian uplift, after the accumulation of the Upper Coal Measure 
Red Beds, and before the planation which made ready for the deposition 
of the Permian. 

By pattern and by distribution over all the area studied, Pennine and 
older and newer faults and folds are so closely associated that it is 
inconceivable that they should have come into existence or developed 
separately. Lateral compression does not explain the existence of 
normal faults along the middle limbs of folds, nor the characteristic 
back-step adjustments in the pitch of troughs ; and by stages Pennine 
structures must have been both tensional and compressional. Only by 
meticulous measurement of the extent of wants and barren areas in 
disrupted sheets of sediment which were once continuous, such as coal 
seams, could the relative importance of positive and negative strains be 
evaluated. It is in the hope that geologists interested in such problems 
will seek out and compute the exact geometrical information available 
in coalfield mine plans, that I have stressed their interest in the opening 
remarks of this address. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



THE MECHANICAL VIEW OF LIFE 



ADDRESS BY 

DR. J. GRAY, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Each year it becomes more difficult to review the progress which is being 
made in the diverse fields of modern zoology, for as individuals we are 
necessarily specialists, and we tend to forget that the greatest contribu- 
tion which zoology has ever made to human thought was not the result 
of a specialised inquiry. The concept of organic evolution was, on the 
contrary, a brilliant process of integration from every branch of the 
subject, which spread its effect far beyond the confines of zoology itself. 
Although it is impracticable to review, even in the most general terms, 
the progress of the science as a whole, it is perhaps possible to take stock 
of one particular branch of the subject and to discuss its contributions 
towards problems which are of some general scientific and human interest. 
To an increasing extent, experimental zoologists are borrowing the 
weapons of physical chemistry, and possibly the time has come to consider 
the general point of view which underlies this type of attack on zoological 
problems. What is our conception of the essential nature of the living 
organism ? Do we believe that the activity of living matter and its 
potentiality for change can be expressed adequately in terms of physical 
units ? Do we incline to the belief that living animals have been evolved 
from inanimate matter ? 

The aim of experimental biologists is to express the living organism in 
terms of its dynamic activities and to consider its structure as an active 
and functional machine. It is not infrequently suggested that this is the 
province of the physiologist and the biochemist. I venture to think that 
this is not the case. Let us consider one of the fundamental tissues of 
an animal's body from the point of view of the physiologist and from that 
of the zoologist. To the physiologist, a muscle is all but invariably an 
isolated preparation functioning under conditions which are often remote 
from those which exist in the body of the organism. Such preparations 
have thrown light on the phenomena of muscular contraction, and on the 
process whereby the muscle is induced to contract when it receives a 
nervous impulse. On the other hand, how many physiologists know, or 
are even interested to know, how a frog jumps ? To the zoologist a 
frog's sartorius should represent an essential part of the locomotory 
machine ; it must be studied in situ and in a way which will illuminate, 
not the nature of a muscular twitch, but the behaviour of the animal in 
its own natural habitat. It is idle to suggest that there is not much 
common ground between physiology and experimental zoology, but, 
from a broad standpoint, the conception of the organism as a single living 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

entity is, or should be, the more peculiar attribute of experimental 
zoology. To some extent it is true that we cannot understand the full 
potentiality of a frog's musculature until we have a precise knowledge of 
the dynamic properties of a muscle fibre. The fibre is, or appears to be, 
a less complicated system than the muscle which is working in situ, and it is 
tempting to start with the simpler unit and to pass on to the more compli- 
cated systems by a series of apparently logical steps. To a significant 
extent this argument has appealed to experimental zoologists. We start by 
being interested in the organism as a whole, but soon decide to concentrate 
on one specific organ. Eventually the organ gives place to the cell, and 
thence it is an easy step to the bottom of the ladder where we gather 
together to discuss the structure and the functions of living material in 
terms of atoms and molecules. This point of view is of peculiar signifi- 
cance, for, by means of a common language, zoologists, physiologists, 
chemists and physicists have developed, and are continuing to develop, 
a fruitful field of work. It is, however, a field on which it is dangerous 
to tread without adequate safeguards. It is all too easy to over-simplify 
a problem and to ignore the fundamental properties of living matter ; it 
is all too easy to make artificial pearls and cast them before appreciative 
swine. It is, nevertheless, in this field that the foundations of all biology 
eventually may rest, and perhaps the time has come when we should 
review, as impartially as we can, the relationship between the animate 
world of animals and the inanimate world of the physical chemist. 

The appHcation of physical and chemical methods as instruments of 
biological research needs no defence. Its justification is seen in the 
results which have been obtained. During the past twenty-five years 
our knowledge of the living cell, of the respiratory process, and of the 
mechanisms of nerve and muscle fibres has been placed on a high level 
of precision by methods which are identical in type with those used for 
the study of physico-chemical processes in inanimate systems. In so far 
as these results bear on their own peculiar problems, zoologists must 
accept them, and they must influence our conception of the organism as 
a whole. By using appropriate methods we can define the physical 
properties of living matter, but there always remains the possibility that 
the living organism may possess properties of another nature which 
cannot be defined in physical units. 

When, as biologists, we are asked to define our conception of the nature 
or origin of living matter, we must confine ourselves to views which are 
based on the facts of observation. The more accurate and extensive are 
our observational data, the more precise and the more satisfying will be 
our conclusions. The material with which the biologist must deal is of 
extreme diversity and complexity, and we naturally turn to the physical 
world for standards of measurement which will help us to arrange our 
material and to place our observations in a reasonable relationship to each 
other. As I understand it, the age-long discussion between the mechan- 
istic and vitalist schools of thought turns on how far we believe — on the 
basis of observation — that the facts of biology can be sorted out into an 
harmonious and satisfying series without invoking conceptions which are 
found to be unnecessary in dealing with the facts of observation within 
the physical world. The centre of gravity of the problem shifts from 



D.— ZOOLOGY 83 

time to time, but for many years two concepts appear to have influenced 
the discussion to a marked extent. Firstly, the synthesis of organic 
compounds from inorganic material suggests that there is no fundamental 
difference between the type of substances found in or made by living 
organisms and those which are found in or formed by purely inorganic 
systems. Secondly, the inferences drawn from the theories of organic 
and terrestrial evolution suggest that these two processes are funda- 
mentally similar and involve the operation of fundamentally comparable 
forces. Not a few biologists have in fact maintained that living matter 
' owes its origin to causes similar in character to those which have been 
instrumental in producing all other forms of matter in the Universe ' 
(Schafer, 1911). This was the view of Ray Lankester, who elaborated a 
series of intermediate steps whereby the first type of living organism was 
evolved from inanimate matter. I imagine that not a few modern 
zoologists would tolerate, if not actually accept, a similar view. From 
this it is often, but not always, implied that there is a fundamental 
continuity in the properties of all matter and that the only properties 
which a living organism can possess are those which can be defmed in 
physico-chemical terms. 

Opposition to such a view has not been wanting. In 1912 Sir Oliver 
Lodge replied to the views set forth by Sir Edward Schafer and stressed 
the existence in organisms of a principle, not easy to define, which is 
absent from the world of physics and chemistry. From time to time the 
battle has been renewed, and both biologists and physicists have taken an 
active part. It is a curious but pertinent fact that the most far-reaching 
mechanistic views have been and are being put forward by biologists, the 
more cautious views or the vitalistic views are held by physicists and 
chemists. T. H. Morgan, the author of so much fundamental work in the 
realm of pure biology, states in a recent book : ' When, if ever, the whole 
story can be told, the problem of adaptation of the organism to its 
environment, and the co-ordination of its parts, may appear to be a 
self-contained progressive elaboration of chemical compounds.' Even 
Dr. Barnes accepts the spontaneous origin of living matter as a natural 
phenomenon : ' If we could reproduce in the laboratory the conditions 
which existed upon the earth when life first appeared we should cause it 
to appear again.' On the other side, we find physiologists (whose experi- 
mental contributions to science are of a severely physico-chemical nature) — 
J. S. Haldane and A. V. Hill — regarding the purely physical outlook with 
distrust. It all seems rather like Alice in Through the Looking-glass. 

The exponents of the mechanistic view have been curiously indefinite 
in the exposition of their opinions. I confess that a study of the more 
popular works on physical science leads me no nearer to an understanding 
of those ' causes ' which, according to Sir E. Schafer, ' have been instru- 
mental in producing all other forms of matter in the Universe ' ; nor 
have such chemists as I have had the good fortune to meet been very 
familiar with the concept of ' co-ordinated series of self-regulating and 
self-propagating chemical reactions,' such as are described by Prof. 
Hogben. According to Prof. Hogben, we may look for a complete 
solution to the nature of life within a mechanistic framework, fortified by 
the conviction that ' The mechanist has a cheerful attitude to knowledge 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

and refuses to capitulate to the fear of the Unknown : the vitaHst, a 
sadder but not necessarily a wiser type, finds balm in the limitations and 
failures of human effort.' So far as I have been able to observe, it is by 
no means obvious to note in the writings of Dr. Haldane, Prof. Hill, 
or the Bishop of Birmingham those signs which are usually associated 
with a contemplation of the failures of the human intellect. 

The mechanistic view of life seems to imply that if, at any instant of 
time, we were to know the precise distribution of the matter and energy 
which are present in an organism, we would have a complete under- 
standing of all its properties. In other words, the behaviour of living 
systems can be completely defined in terms of laws which are fundament- 
ally similar to those which describe the behaviour of inanimate systems. 
It is of interest to consider how far this conception is based on the results 
of observation, and how far it rests on a rather indefinite foundation of 
intuitive belief. 

Let us look for a moment at the theory of the evolution of animate 
from inanimate matter. From a biological point of view it seems at 
first sight reasonable — it seems to be the natural conclusion to draw from 
the process of evolution which characterises the world of living organisms 
and the universe as a whole. The theory gives us a comfortable feeling 
of continuity of thought. Let us look at the position from a physical 
point of view. As a physical phenomenon it is undoubtedly possible for 
a living organism to have been evolved spontaneously from inanimate 
matter. It is also possible for a stone to leap spontaneously from the 
surface of the earth. These things are possible, but are they probable ? 
To obtain some estimate of the degree of probability it may be useful to 
consider the phenomena of Brownian movement. As biologists we are 
very familiar with the spontaneous motion of very small particles lying 
in a liquid medium. We believe that each excursion is due to a difference 
in the intensity of molecular bombardment along the axis of movement. 
The smaller the particle, the greater is the chance that a molecule of water 
will hit the particle without a simultaneous encounter from another 
water molecule coming in an opposite direction. Water molecules are 
moving at random, and the direction of collision is one of chance — the 
larger the particle, the greater is the chance of an equal average intensity 
of bombardment from all directions at any given moment. Now since all 
water molecules are free to move in any direction, the actual number of 
molecules moving in a common direction at any given moment will vary 
from moment to moment, and the same is true for the molecules of a 
pebble on the ground. It is possible for all the particles in a suspension 
of Indian ink to move simultaneously in one direction. It is also possible 
for all the molecules of a pebble to perform the same feat — but in view of 
the very large number of other possibilities, \he probability of simultaneous 
co-ordinated movement is very, very small unless we are dealing with 
very small numbers of molecules. The degree of smallness can be judged 
by putting ten black and ten white balls into a box and drawing them 
out at random in lots of ten. The probability that we will draw ten 
white or ten black balls is five times in one million. If we increase 
the numbers and draw one hundred balls, the probability of drawing 
balls all of one colour is so small that we say that anybody who 



D— ZOOLOGY 85 

expected it to occur must be slightly demented. In the case of the 
Brownian particles, the chances of ten contiguous particles moving 
simultaneously in the same direction are even smaller, and in practice we 
sum all this up by saying that as long as vi^e are dealing with reasonably 
large numbers of molecules, the events which we observe are the most 
probable events, and we assume that the improbable events do not in 
fact occur. On this arbitrary but effective basis rest most, if not all, the 
laws of physics and chemistry which we apply to the study of living matter. 
We say, in effect, that stones do not leap spontaneously from the earth 
because the chances against it are so extremely great ; similarly we state 
that the pressure of a gas is always inversely proportional to its volume, 
except on a negligible number of occasions. The organisation of the 
simplest living organism is clearly more complex than that of a stone or of 
a motor car, and it carries out processes which are infinitely more complex 
than the sorting out of black from white particles. What, in fact, is the 
probability that any chance distribution of molecules should lead spon- 
taneously to the dynamically active mechanism of the living organism ? 
Would any serious credence be given to the suggestion that a motor car 
or even a footprint on the sands came spontaneously into existence without 
the intervention of directive forces ? Why, then, should we accept the 
spontaneous origin of living matter ? It is possible, but it is so improbable 
that, if considered as an observable phenomenon, in any other sphere of 
human thought it would be discarded as a figment of a deranged brain. 
Why should biology accept a standard of probabilities incomparably less 
satisfying than that of other branches of knowledge ? 

Left to himself, the chemist does not seriously consider the spontaneous 
origin of proteins from COg, water, and simple salts, nor does the physicist 
admit the spontaneous origin of organised machines. Biology itself pro- 
vides not one shred of observational evidence to support the spontaneous 
origin of living matter in the world to-day, and yet not a few biologists 
are prepared to postulate the spontaneous origin of intermediate stages 
between the living and the inanimate worlds — to my mind, the spontaneous 
origins of these stages represent physical events which are so improbable 
that we cannot describe them in terms of ' laws ' which only apply to 
events of an entirely different order of probability : if these inter- 
mediate stages actually occurred they must be classified as miracles, 
not as ' natural ' events. We may be told that in past ages, events which 
are now very improbable were in fact of quite frequent occurrence. As 
scientists we cannot accept this statement without some assurance as to 
what were the nature of the conditions which made the origin of life 
inevitable or even probable. The distribution of energy and of niatter 
in past epochs may have been different ; but if such conditions produced 
the living organism, is it not strange that every attempt to reproduce 
them in the laboratory have completely failed ? 

We can put the facts in another way. Within the physical world all 
systems appear to move towards the state of greatest probability, and the 
events which take place within a dynamic system are those which tend 
to destroy structure and not those which elaborate it. Is there any evi- 
dence which suggests that, within the physical world, a dynamic machine 
has spontaneously come into existence ? That such an event might 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

happen is true, but has it, in point of fact, ever occurred under the observa- 
tion of mankind ? Unless a positive answer can be given to this question, 
the behef in the spontaneous origin of living matter seems to be a negation 
of the principles which underUe scientific thought. 

If we dechne to accept the spontaneous origin of Hving from non-Uving 
matter, there is no particular reason why we should hope to express all 
the properties of an organism in terms of physical laws ; we might just 
as reasonably try to express physical phenomena in terms of biological 
conceptions. It seems more logical to accept the existence of matter in 
two states (the animate and the inanimate) as an initial assumption. 
Some properties are naturally common to matter in either state, and it is 
therefore legitimate to study the so-called physical properties of living 
matter ; but just as the fundamental concepts of physics are based on 
observational facts, so those of biology must conform to the same condi- 
tions. The physicist is not concerned with the origin of inanimate 
matter ; he is content to investigate it as he finds it. The biologist must 
likewise accept the living state as he finds it and not allow his science to 
rest on theories, however spectacular or attractive. It is not easy to 
define Life, but in practice most people will admit that matter in the living 
state possesses characteristics which are fundamentally diflFerent from 
those of inanimate objects. 

The central characteristic of living matter is its state of organised 
dynamic structure. This is obvious in all the larger forms of animal life, 
but it is equally true in so-called ' homogeneous ' protoplasm. This 
important fact emerges from the study of such cells as the eggs of echino- 
derms and molluscs. From a biological point of view, the eggs represent 
not only very remarkable chemical laboratories, but also systems which 
are capable of transforming themselves spontaneously into highly differen- 
tiated organisms. A study of the physical properties of the eggs shows, 
conclusively I think, that the cytoplasm consists of a fluid matrix in which 
lie the granules which are visible under the microscope. The viscosity 
of the fluid matrix has been measured by observing the rate at which 
granules or particles move through the cytoplasmic matrix when exposed 
to a given intensity of centrifugal force — and the value so obtained is 
confirmed by observing the velocity at which such granules redistribute 
themselves spontaneously by Brownian movement. We conclude from 
such observations that the cytoplasm of the cell with all its complicated 
biological properties possesses, in the aggregate, the general properties of 
a liquid and not of a solid. Similarly, the immature nucleus of the oocyte 
has the general properties of a fluid, and yet it proceeds spontaneously 
to form the highly differentiated system seen during meiosis. Within the 
fluid system of the cytoplasm or the nucleus, single molecules or aggregates 
of molecules will distribute themselves at random (just as do the granules 
we can see through the microscope), unless these molecules are subjected 
to suitable restraint. When we try to picture the cell or the nucleus as a 
complex chemical laboratory, it is by no means easy to visualise the type 
of forces which are necessary to hold the various particles or molecules 
in their proper position relative to each other. Were the matrix of the 
cell of a solid nature, the problem would be much simpler. It may be 
suggested that the application of centrifugal force destroys the real struc- 



D.— ZOOLOGY 87 

ture of the egg, so that under natural conditions the cytoplasm possesses 
the properties of a solid rather than those of a Hquid. If this be the case, 
we are faced with the striking fact that the centrifuged egg develops 
normally, so that any structure which is destroyed by centrifugal force is 
very rapidly regenerated spontaneously when the force ceases to be 
applied — such powers of spontaneous regeneration are unknown in the 
physical world. The evidence is, however, against the view that the low 
viscosity of cytoplasm is more apparent than real, and the suggestion is 
entirely inadmissible in respect to the nucleus for, in this case, the fluid 
nature is revealed without the application of any force other than gravity. 
If we base our conception of the structure of protoplasm on the facts 
revealed by physical methods, we must imagine a system of very great 
chemical complexity and of very great potentiality for spontaneous self- 
differentiation within a fluid framework. Protoplasm cannot be regarded 
as a fluid crystal, for it possesses dynamic properties which are constantly 
expressing themselves in a variety of ways. Two general conclusions 
seem possible. We may assume that the molecules of protein and of 
other substances in the cell are so arranged in respect to each other that 
they constitute a highly active chemical system, and that the mechanism 
which maintains this molecular orientation is such that individual mole- 
cules or groups of molecules are able to move in the way necessary to give 
fluid properties to the whole system but not free to distribute themselves 
at random. If this be the case, the whole cell must be regarded as a 
fundamental unit, whose organisation is such that its structure cannot be 
destroyed by centrifugal force. So far such an organisation is not known 
in dynamically comparable systems of an inanimate nature — we must 
regard it for the time being as an attribute peculiar to the living state, 
and as an attribute which is as fundamental as any of those employed for 
the description of inanimate matter. An alternative view is, however, 
possible. 

We may look on a mass of protoplasm as a very fine emulsion, the funda- 
mental units of which are extremely small. If we assume that the pro- 
perties of the system as a whole are essentially those of each individual 
unit, then we have no great difficulty in seeing how mass disturbances fail 
to aflrect the properties of the whole system. The displacement of the 
particles by diifusion, or other causes, throughout the mass of the system 
will not influence the fundamental properties of the cell or nucleus if these 
properties are essentially those of the small individual units. The con- 
ception of the living cell as an aggregation of a very large number of funda- 
mental units is in keeping with the fact that small fragments of egg-cells 
retain some at least of the properties of the whole system. It is also in 
keeping with the very small dimensions (as in viruses) within which 
living phenomena have been observed. There is some evidence to support 
the view that single differentiated cells also represent aggregates of very 
small living units. For example, a suspension of the spermatozoa of the 
sea-urchin Echinus in sea-water, after a period of maximal activity, enters 
a phase of declining mechanical and respiratory activity. If we consider 
a single spermatozoon during this period of senescence, we find that the 
intensity of its mechanical and respiratory activity declines in a way which 
is characteristic of a population of units which differ from each other in 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

their viability — the single cell behaves, in fact, as though it represented a 
large population of much smaller units of activity. 

If we accept the view that the fundamental unit of life is extremely 
small, we can see that mechanical disturbances throughout a suspension 
of such units may induce no very far-reaching results. The conception 
of protoplasm as an emulsion of small vital units suspended in a fluid 
system is perhaps the most satisfactory picture we can derive from available 
facts ; but it breaks down when we try to think of the mechanism whereby 
the cell differentiates itself as a whole — for here we must postulate some 
form of co-ordinated relationship between individual units. If, however, 
we shelve this difficulty for the moment and accept the general conception 
that * vital ' properties are associated with very small units of structure, 
a variable number of which are normally aggregated together as a suspen- 
sion to form a single cell — it is obvious that we must exercise very great 
caution in the application of the statistical laws of physics in describing 
the properties of the fundamental units of life. The only legitimate laws 
are those applicable to the behaviour of single units of activity. So far 
as I can form an opinion, such determinate laws have not yet been forth- 
coming. I am inclined to think that the intrinsic properties of living 
matter are as mysterious and as fundamental as the intrinsic properties 
of the molecule of a radio-active substance : when the physicist can tell 
us why one particular molecule explodes and why another goes on existing, 
I venture to think that we can begin to consider the possibility of defining 
the fundamental properties of living protoplasm in physical terms. At 
present, however, the physicist seems more inclined to define physical phe- 
nomena in terms of biological conceptions, for, according to M. Poincare 
and others, * modern physics is presenting us with apparent examples 
of spontaneity and foresight.' For the moment, however, we must con- 
clude that although physical methods have provided important facts con- 
cerning the state of living material, they have not as yet thrown much light 
on its fundamental properties. 

If we now turn to the behaviour of an echinoderm egg-cell after fertili- 
sation, it is again possible to define certain physical characteristics. We 
can observe changes in the mechanical properties of localised regions of 
the cell and of the nucleus, but we have no adequate picture of how these 
events are initiated. We are, however, acutely conscious of the high 
regulative power of the whole system. If we destroy, by mechanical or 
other means, the astral radiations seen in the cell at the anaphase of mitosis, 
these structures are regenerated in what we can reasonably call the right 
place at the right time. The whole process of nuclear and cell divi- 
sion, when regarded impartially as a physical event, represents an orderly 
process of formation of structural elements — and has physical attributes 
similar to those which characterise the formation of an inanimate machine 
from unorganised material. All attempts to define the mechanism 
whereby this orderly process of segregation is initiated, in terms of physical 
units, are, in my opinion, fanciful. It is more reasonable, at present, to 
regard such powers of effecting an orderly distribution of material as an 
intrinsic and fundamental property of living matter. The operation of 
this power no more involves disobedience of physical or chemical laws 
than does the manufacture of a motor car. 



D— ZOOLOGY 89 

After cell division has been in progress for a very short period the cells 
which are formed by an egg of a sea-urchin begin to show a marked 
difference in arrangement from those of a polychaet worm. At the end of 
the third cleavage cycle, the cleavage pattern of a sea-urchin is seen to be 
orthoradial — the cleavage furrows between the upper quartet of cells lie 
immediately over the furrows of the lower quartet. In the polychaet, 
however, the arrangement is spiral, not orthoradial, for the furrows of the 
first quartet of smaller cells lie between the furrows of the basal quadrant 
cells. By experimental means we can force the sea-urchin egg to 
divide in a way characteristic of the worm. This is done by increasing 
the centripetal force which tends to press one cell against another, and we 
can show that the arrangement in the polychaet worm is that assumed by 
a system of spheres so arranged as to pack together within a minimum 
volume. The arrangement in the polychaet is essentially the same as in 
the egg of the mollusc or polyclad turbellarian. What conclusions can 
we draw ? The classical interpretation associates the similarity in the 
cleavage pattern with a common phylogenetic relationship. From an 
experimental point of view one is inclined to a totally different view — viz. 
that the similarity in form is due to a similarity in the intensity of the 
mechanical forces operating on the cells. In the worm, mollusc, or tur- 
bellarian the centripetal pressure acting on the cells is sufficient to force 
the cells to occupy a form in which a maximum volume is enclosed by a 
minimum area of surface. In the sea-urchin this is not the case. The 
pattern as such plays no essential role in determining the fate of the egg. 
A spirally cleaving sea-urchin egg develops normally ; it does not develop 
into a worm or mollusc. The mechanical view is peculiarly attractive, 
but it has one serious objection. When the dividing cells of a molluscan 
egg rotate so as to reduce their centripetal pressure to a minimum, a rota- 
tion to the left is as effective as a rotation to the right — and on each occasion 
one would expect an equal number of rotations to the left as to the right. 
In a few cases this seems to occur, but in others the left-handed or right- 
handed pattern appears to be due to determinate and not to chance forces — 
for at any given stage of cleavage all the eggs show a rotation to the right 
or to the left. That this phenomenon is correlated with mechanical 
asymmetry is quite probable, and it may be that the nature of this 
asymmetry will eventually be observed. In the meantime, however, we 
seem to be faced with the fact that a mechanical condition which is satis- 
fiable in either one of two ways, is, in fact, only effected in one way. 
Does it not look as though a disturbance has occurred in the probability 
values of the system ? It is as though we were presented with a bag of 
black and white balls — and each time we pick out the black balls and reject 
the whites. Before we attribute a determinate behaviour to the cleaving 
egg-cell we must, of course, make certain that the chance of left- or right- 
handed cleavage is mechanically of equal probability. Up to the present 
we can only say that no mechanical difference is apparent — and in the 
absence of such definite evidence we are free to interpret the facts either as 
evidence of a deficiency in our knowledge of the mechanics of the system, 
or to the possibility that there exists in the egg a potentiality which makes 
certain events more probable than they could be in inanimate systems. 
One is tempted to suggest that the cells of a molluscan egg turn one way 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

or another for intrinsic reasons : an event starts inside the cells — quite 
independent of any external influence — ^just as in the exploding molecule 
of a radio-active substance. In other v^ords, the cell has an individuality 
of its own — which is free from the limitations of statistical laws. The 
field of cell cleavage is full of possibilities for future inquiry, and would 
well repay more intensive study. 

We must, however, now turn to certain wider aspects of experimental 
embryology, which are best observed in the eggs of the lower vertebrates. 
Within this field the progress of the past twenty-five years has been 
spectacular. By grafting fragments of the developing embryo of the newt 
into positions which they do not normally occupy, it is possible to get 
a picture of embryological development which is incomparably more 
satisfying than any hitherto available. We know that there exists in the 
egg a region or regions which are capable of influencing the fate of the 
neighbouring tissues. Each of these so-called ' organising centres ' 
determines in some way the process of tissue differentiation : the raw 
material is, as it were, full of potentialities for differentiation, but the 
exact line which will be followed is affected by the organisers. Once the 
process of differentiation has reached a critical stage, the fate of the tissue 
is determined ; before that period, the raw tissue can be built up into 
a variety of different structures. Quite recently it has been shown that 
such organisers are curiously non-specific — an organising centre from 
a chick can induce organ-formation in the undifferentiated tissue of 
a mammal ; and, still more remarkable, the organising centre does not 
appear to lose its activity after death. These facts are admittedly be- 
wildering — but two points seem to emerge quite clearly. Firstly, the 
potentiality of the organism to control its fate is established at a very early 
stage. If we carry back the facts of experimental embryology to their 
beginning, we see that the essential biological difference between the 
egg of the sea-urchin and the egg of the mollusc (Dentalium) is a difference 
in the relative time at which development becomes independent of 
organising centres — in the sea-urchin it is relatively late ; in Dentalium 
it occurs before the egg begins to cleave. By accepting the concept of 
an organising centre the facts of embryology thus appear to arrange 
themselves in an orderly manner — and this, after all, is the supreme test 
of any scientific hypothesis. The second great inference to be drawn 
from these facts is the present inadequacy of expressing the facts in 
physico-chemical terms. The only point at which the phenomena 
seem to be susceptible to physical analysis is the apparent activity of an 
organising centre after death. This would suggest that the action of an 
organiser is either mechanical in its nature or is comparable to that of 
a trigger which releases specific lines of development from unorganised 
tissues of high potentiality. By physical methods we can hope to elucidate 
the physical attributes of this trigger action, but I do not think that the 
facts, so far as they are known at present, present a very convincing argu- 
ment in favour of a mechanistic hypothesis. From a broad standpoint, 
the obvious conclusion we must draw from the facts of experimental 
embryology and from the regeneration of lost parts is that the organism 
behaves as a co-ordinated system even in the very earliest stages of its 
development ; and that this co-ordination is of a degree of complexity 



D.— ZOOLOGY 91 

quite unknown in the physical world. It is important to notice that this 
complexity of structure is essentially of a dynamic nature. We may say, 
if we feel disposed, that it is a system which is physically unstable — but 
where in the chemical world do we find such unstable systems acting in 
such a way as to build up and not to break down a highly complex 
structure ? 

It must be noted that the organising centres of the egg possess physical 
properties by virtue of which their activity may be influenced by external 
conditions. The development of a frog's egg is affected in a definite 
way by a gradient of temperature applied along particular axes, and we 
know that the egg will not develop in the absence of atmospheric oxygen. 
Can we not say with equal truth that the production of a motor car would 
also be affected by keeping one end of the factory at 30° C. and the other 
at 0° C. ? Would it not also be affected by depriving the system of 
atmospheric oxygen ? The effect of such conditions can be measured 
in terms of physical chemistry, but do they throw any real light on 
the type of organisation necessary for the production of a car or of an 
organism ? 

Within the sphere of embryology we can recognise, more clearly than 
in any other biological science, the two main attributes of living matter : 
(i) an inherent complexity of structure, and (2) a dynamic potentiality 
of initiating events which either do not occur at all or only occur very 
infrequently in inanimate systems. 

Similar inferences can be drawn from another great sphere of experi- 
mental inquiry — namely, a study of the relationship between the fully 
grown organism and its physical and chemical environment, but in this 
case we tend to concentrate on the physical events rather than on the 
potentiality of the organism to control or vary its own activities. For 
example, many animals have the power to elaborate a peculiarly beautiful 
chemical machine for the conveyance of oxygen to the tissues. In such 
cases our main objective is a description of the physico-chemical properties 
of such respiratory systems, and as these are clearly susceptible to statistical 
treatment they can be described in terms of known physical laws. So 
also, in the adult animal, the phenomena of co-ordinated behaviour are 
clearly associated with the central nervous system, and the physical signs 
of this co-ordination are rapidly being analysed by appropriate physical 
methods, but it is important to remember that the phenomena of regulative 
control are present long before the central nervous system has been fully 
differentiated, and are not infrequently detectible in the undivided egg. 
If we are fully to understand the mechanisms of respiration and of co- 
ordinated behaviour we must bear in mind the manner in which the 
fully formed systems come into existence, and not concentrate exclusively 
on the more obvious physical characteristics of the fully developed 
mechanisms. 

Let us now try to summarise the position. The only laws which 
physics has provided for an analysis of biological phenomena rest on a 
statistical basis ; they only apply to systems which contain a large number 
of participating units and only describe natural phenomena in terms of 
probability and not of absolute truth. If we accept these laws as a means 
of describing the behaviour or the structure of an organism, we must 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

accept the conventions attached to the laws and agree to ignore such events 
as are improbable although they may conceivably occur. From this 
point of view, the spontaneous origin of living from inanimate matter 
must be regarded as a highly improbable event, and as such can be assumed 
not to have occurred. Similarly, the development of an organism from 
so-called undifferentiated protoplasm involves processes which are entirely 
without parallel in inanimate nature. So long as this state of our know- 
ledge persists, it is dangerous to assume that the statistical laws of physics 
can satisfactorily describe all biological events. Our knowledge of the 
physical and biological properties of living matter suggests that the 
fundamental unit of structure is extremely small, and that it contains 
potentialities for change which are unique in the universe. These pro- 
perties we must accept as fundamental axioms of our science which may 
or may not prove (in the future) to have their parallel in the physical 
world. It may seem presumptuous for the biologist to set up postulates 
peculiar to his own sphere ; it would be more fitting perhaps for him to 
accept, with medieval humility, the assumptions of his physical brethren. 
One wonders, however, at times whether the concepts of intrinsic 
organisation and of emergent evolution are entirely absent from modern 
physics. Even if this is not the case, we can fortify ourselves by the 
knowledge that physics has from time to time changed its fundamental 
assumptions with advantage to itself and to the world. Those biologists 
who are inclined to accept the views I have ventured to put forward 
may be encouraged by the remark of Prof. Niels Bohr which very 
recently came to my notice. He says : ' The existence of life must 
be considered as an elementary fact that cannot be explained, but must 
be taken as a starting-point in biology, in a similar way as the quantum of 
action, which appears as an irrational element from the point of view of 
classical mechanical physics, taken together with the existence of the 
elementary particles, forms the foundation of atomic physics.' 

Not infrequently the physiologist can restrict his interest to the physical 
properties of isolated organs— the origin of which does not concern him. 
The zoologist, on the other hand, knows that the beautifully adapted 
mechanism known as an ' organ ' was evolved from a system unlike itself 
and may, in turn, initiate something new. For this reason, he cannot 
afford to forget what may be called the ' intrinsic potentiality of the living 
organism.' He may or may not be able to use this conception as a 
guide to more adequate observations, but it should be constantly in his 
mind. Experimental zoology can be divided into two types of study : 
(i) the investigation of the physical and the chemical properties of living 
organisms ; (2) a study of the intrinsic potentialities of living matter, 
revealing as it does a co-ordination of events which is without inani- 
mate parallel. In the first type of work we must use each new weapon 
which the physicist can give us. In the second type of work, however, 
biology must be the mistress and not the servant of physics or of chemistry 
— she must make her own foundations, and build on them fearlessly, 
prepared to change her views, if need be, but not prepared to force the 
wine of life into bottles which were designed for use in the simpler and 
less intoxicating fields of chemical science. 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



GEOGRAPHY AS MENTAL EQUIPMENT 

ADDRESS BY 

THE RT. HON. LORD MESTON, K.C.S.I., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION, 



Most of us believe that every branch of human knowledge wisely 
pursued — every true science, in fact — provides training for the intellect, 
furniture for the mind, and solace for the spirit. That this claim can 
justly be made on behalf of geography is the argument of an amateur 
observer in the present paper. To hear geography described as a 
science at all comes not without an element of surprise to many in our 
older generation, whose education followed normal lines in the third or 
the early fourth quarter of last century. To them geography was the 
dreariest part of their school curriculum, an arid catalogue of physical 
features and figures. To-day it presents itself as a systematic grouping 
of facts, with their causes and their effects, fascinating in their variety and 
vividly human in their interest. In this sense it is a new science, so new 
that many of its devotees mournfully speak of it as the Cinderella of 
sciences. It is, says Dr. H. R. Mills, a synthetic science — and most 
synthetic products are relatively new — deriving its data largely from 
geology, meteorology, anthropology, and other bordering sciences. Its 
youth, however, is among its charms ; and for its entry into the fraternity 
of sciences it has two illustrious sponsors. One is the gallant succession 
of explorers of the earth's surface, whose enterprise, though it never 
ceases, has reached a definite stage of accomplishment with the opening 
up of Arabia, the surveys of the Antarctic continent, and the fiight over 
Everest. The other is the growing body of students engaged on the 
human aspects of geography, in tracing out the relations between 
man and his physical environment, which constitute its philosophic 
basis. 

Being anxious to avoid all shadow of controversy, I must here pause 
to register the claim, pressed by Professor Burrows among others, that 
geography is not young but very old, as old at least as Ptolemy, a mother 
science which has given birth to astronomy, botany, archaeology, as well 
as the other specialised sciences already mentioned. Which of these 
two views is the more orthodox may be left for another day. What is 
common to them both is that geography is a function of a number of 
other sciences ; and one of the difficulties attending its future may quite 
possibly be that of establishing boundaries between it and them, whether 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

they be lineal descendents or merely neighbours. Even the layman knows 
how puzzling it is — and often how unnecessary — to mark out frontiers 
between adjoining sciences. There will often, probably always, be an 
undefined borderland, into which both neighbours stray on their legitimate 
rounds, though working generally, unlike trespassers across political 
frontiers, in mutual helpfulness when they meet. Such a borderland 
must of necessity surround geography ; and in some directions indeed 
it seems to be more extensive than the science, when thoroughly estab- 
lished, will require. All that need be postulated at present is that, in 
order to be a competent geographer, it is not imperative that you should 
first be a skilled astronomer, geologist, and historian. Your value as a 
teacher and as a student will be enhanced by some acquaintance with 
these and the other bordering sciences ; but to the ordinary man or 
woman with no such equipment, geography will still offer a vast and 
self-contained field of intelligent interest. It is from the standpoint of 
this ordinary man or woman that I would invite you to survey with me 
some portions of the field, to consider how they serve the purposes of a 
true science, and then to enquire how this science can be advanced (the 
word is taken from the British Association's title) so as to enter more 
intimately into the cultural outfit of future ordinary men and women 
like ourselves. 

I. 

To many there is a particular attraction in that remote corner of the 
field where geography stands disclosed as a science, not of immutable 
but of ever-changing data, as a study not of a solid earth and everlasting 
hills, but of a surface amply responding to Lucretius' doctrine of flux. 
We mortals of the day live, it is surmised, in an inter-glacial epoch. It 
is only a fraction of time since this green and pleasant land of England 
was buried deep under an ice-cap, such as Admiral Byrd saw with some- 
thing akin to terror, when he was flying in the Antarctic. It may be 
only another fraction of time before all that we see around us to-day 
is crushed into oblivion by another glacial visitation. How many such 
changes and catastrophes in the past will the record of geography unfold 
when we are able to read it .'' Meanwhile we can only guess at some of 
them ; picture after picture of an earlier world-surface passing through 
the mind, without any pretence at chronological sequence. We can 
travel, for example, from the ice-bound Britain of which we have just 
been thinking to the African Sahara, then a moist, warm expanse of open 
grass-land, abounding in flocks and herds, and peopled by men primitive 
enough, but yet with a startling artistic skill in rock drawings. Or, instead 
of wandering south from the glaciers of Central Europe, we can turn 
east to the other gigantic ice-fields, which then lay over the uplands of 
Asia and segregated, in their own home territories, to develop on their 
own separate lines, the progenitors of some of the chief racial families 
of mankind to-day. On our way we should pass that ancient central 
Asian ocean which is now representated by shrunken fragments in Lake 
Aral and the Caspian Sea. If, following the same line of thought, we 
try to cast our mind still further back, we get into a sphere of endless 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 95 

speculation in picturing some of the tremendous changes which have 
taken place in the distribution of land and sea since the Tertiary era. 
The union of England and France by a river valley instead of a stormy 
Channel would be a relatively modern feature in the landscape ; so would 
the land-bridges across the Mediterranean, of which only the broken 
piers remain in Malta and certain other islands. Working backwards, 
the student would see North America severed from South America by an 
ocean which has long receded ; and Africa divided in two by another 
great stretch of water. As if in compensation, he would find the Asiatic 
continent running unbroken through Malaya into Borneo and Java, 
until it faced, across a comparatively narrow waterway, the ancient 
Australiasian continent, which embraced Celebes, New Guinea, their 
adjacent archipelago and our modern Australia. To depict in the 
imagination a world so constituted, is given to few of us ; but I would 
suggest one help, however inadequate, in carrying the fancy back into the 
Tertiary age. Climb the Puy de Dome — now an easy enough task — 
on a clear day, and let the eye travel slowly over the mass of clear-cut 
volcanic cones which surround you on almost every side, ranging from 
mountains 4,000 feet high to mere pimples on cultivated fields. Then 
imagine all these at work, belching out flame and fume, lava and sulphur, 
the sky darkened by smoke and dust, and the earth a maze of roaring 
furnaces. It is from such an inferno that time has evolved the smiling 
landscape of Auvergne to-day. 

Out of any attempted survey of this particular part of the field, or 
what we might call pre-historic geography, two reflections emerge. 
The first is that, at this phase, geography is entirely dependent on 
other sciences, especially geology, and cannot yet claim an independent 
existence. The second is that, at this phase, it has hardly any conceivable 
interest for us except in relation to the movements of life — and primarily 
of man — about the globe. Amid these forgotten seas, those wastes of 
glaciers and zones of volcanic fire, there seem to have been stray enclaves 
of habitable land. It is those oases which form the focus of our interest 
to-day, with the help which they give in explaining the sharply differential 
characteristics of certain races of the human family. Or, if the mind 
turns rather to the puzzling similarities which have been detected in 
widely scattered races, it may find, in the hypothesis of old land-bridges 
over otherwise pathless oceans, support for the theory of early migrations. 
Did the primitive Mongol, after long isolation in eastern Asia, succeed 
in drafting some of his tribes across the Bering Strait to become the 
progenitors of the American Indian } Did the human family which we 
call the Alpine race, imprisoned through a long glacial epoch in Turkestan, 
ultimately force their way into Russia, the Balkans, Mesopotamia and 
Southern India ? Similarly, did the stock which scientists try to dis- 
entangle as the Nordic, after protracted incubation behind the Ural 
mountains, issue through the melting ice into the Baltic coasts and finally 
dominate the Indo-European situation ? Or was the conformation of 
the ancient continents such as to permit the aboriginal negroes of Africa 
to wander, almost all the way dry-shod, the enormous distances through 
Asia to Australia or into Melanesia ? These are gigantic assumptions ; 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

but, as we know, they are not regarded as impossible by the school of 
anthropologists, who trace all mankind to one ancestral home. There is, 
of course, another theory, but the controversy is not within the ambit of 
my topic to-day. It may be that the march of our science will yet test 
both hypotheses more thoroughly than is feasible at the present state of 
our knowledge. There is at any rate little question that in the subject 
of these rival views lies the chief interest of modern man in pre-historic 
geography. 

II. 

That constant change is the law of geography, as of life, is an axiom 
which calls for no dramatic flights of fancy into a remote past. Change 
is all around us to-day ; and to many lay students of geography the 
visible and superficial changes, as opposed to the vaster geological move- 
ments, in the face of nature have a peculiar attraction of their own. 
Picturesque details are always with us. One of us, for example, may 
have examined the treasures collected by Sir Aurel Stein as evidence that 
vast tracts in Central Asia, which are now no better than sandy deserts 
were, not so very long ago, the home of a rich and cultured people. 
Another may have served in Mesopotamia, and seen how the traditional 
Garden of Eden has been transformed into a malarial waste of marshes. 
A third, staying at home and spending a summer holiday on the South 
coast of our own country, may have reflected that Roman galleys once 
sailed from the beach where he stood across to the Thames through 
waterways which are now the cornfields and hop-gardens of Kent. 
These half-obliterated watercourses are for ever catching the observant 
eye : they abound across the railway line from Amiens to Boulogne, and 
their well-worn pebbles are turned up by the plough in countless English 
denes and combes. 

The agencies of change, however, are tireless rather than picturesque ; 
and their very assiduity makes them the fitting subject of study and 
experiment. Probably the easiest of them all, from the ordinary student's 
point of view, is the wastage of mountain ranges. Look, for example, 
at a hill such as the Saleve outside Geneva, and no trained eye is needed 
to see how it is steadily slipping into the plain below. A vivid picture 
rises to my memory from another continent. It was one morning, after 
two days of torrential rain, at a hill station in the outer Himalayas. A small 
plateau, on which rested a military cemetery amidst a glade of deodars 
and rhododendron trees, had broken away during the night from the 
rock behind and dropped, as a solid mass, into the valley i,ooo feet 
below. There it lay, with the trees and the tombstones still standing, 
athwart the stream which ran through the valley and which was rapidly 
banking up into a temporary miniature lake. Some houses in the valley 
had been engulfed in the landslide, and several lives lost. By this time 
no doubt the scar on the hillside has healed, and part of the debris — 
disintegrated deodars, graves and ruined homesteads — is helping to build 
up a patch of new rice land somewhere in the Sunderbuns. The incident 
opened my eyes to the evidence everywhere of similar attrition which has 
been going on unremittingly since the mountains came into being ; and 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 97 

in India, with its fine cadastral records, there are potentiaUties of measuring 
the erosion of the hillsides and the corresponding formation of deltas. 
In most maritime countries another possibility of quantitative study 
exists in the relentless crumpling of the earth's surface which is slowly 
raising some coast lines and depressing others. These, after all, are only 
casual examples of the knowledge which is capable of being gleaned in 
this part of the geographical field — the part commonly described as 
physical geography. And, incidentally, it seems less than justice to 
stigmatise this branch of our science as synthetic. It relies for help 
on research in climatology, meteorology, oceanography and so on ; but 
its problems have a dignity of their own, and a clear place in the general 
pursuit of physical knowledge. The surface of our lithosphere ; its 
response to the influences which beat upon it — rain, winds, tides, ocean 
currents, etc. ; the processes of denudation, accretion, desiccation, 
fertility, and so on, these offer material for study and the systematic 
assemblage and analysis of facts which justify the claim I set out to urge 
on behalf of geography as a whole. The philosophy and purpose of 
physical geography will be discussed later ; . they are in close accord 
with the reflections in which we indulged as we meditated on pre-historic 
geography. 

III. 

Meanwhile let me turn to another aspect of geography, more familiar 
to most of us laymen because it bulked so largely in our early education — ■ 
that side of it which is associated with history and is sometimes called 
political geography. In the dark ages of last century to which I am 
always alluding, it hardly merited so imposing a name ; for the theme 
of our ordinary school maps was mainly the division of the land into 
national and administrative areas ; and the acme of absurdity was reached 
when we were set to draw maps of England, with its counties a mosiac 
of gaudy colours, but often with no place for rivers, mountains or even 
towns. From that imbecility it seems a long journey to a modern 
historical atlas, such for example as the admirable compendium edited 
by Mr. Ramsay Muir. But the relation of geography to history is still 
far from sufliciently intimate in our ordinary teaching of either subject. 
This would be true even if it referred only to the intelligent use of 
maps as adjuncts, so to say, of visual instruction in history. To take 
an example, consider how few persons of a normal standard of education 
could sketch, with the haziest approach to accuracy, a picture of the 
Europe with which Cromwell had to deal, or contrast it with the Europe 
which Napoleon started to reconstruct. Then think how little terrors 
such a question would have for anyone who had glanced at two half- 
pages in Mr. Ramsay Muir's atlas. On one side he would have seen, 
the date being that of our English Restoration, three of the great con- 
tinental powers of that day — Sweden, Poland and Turkey — holding 
between them a solid block of territory stretching from the Arctic Ocean 
to the Mediterranean, which shut Russia off from the sea and out of 
Europe, dominated Prussia and dwarfed all the modern States of Central 
Europe. On the opposite half-page he would have observed that, when 



98 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Napoleon came on the scene, Poland was dismembered and no longer 
on the map, Sweden and Turkey were maimed and shrunken, and the 
three great realms of Russia, Prussia, and Austria were overshadowing 
Europe. Let a person of the most moderate intelligence get those two 
vignettes into his head, and the framework for nearly a century and a 
half of crowded history is at his command. 

It is of course by no means only, or even mainly, of its cartographic or 
diagrammatic functions that we think when we try to press geography 
into closer touch with history in our educational system. Geography 
and its first cousin economics have very largely shaped history, and 
without some knowledge of them the study of history is liable to be both 
arid and misleading. That is a truism to which it will be convenient to 
return later. A consequence of it, however, at which it is worth while to 
glance in passing, is that geography has much to teach to those who are 
actually making history to-day, and equally merits attention by those who 
fill the useful role of critics of the makers of history. We are frequently 
told that a little knowledge of geography would have been of advantage 
at Paris while the Peace Treaties were being negotiated in 1919-20. 
Possibly so ; but a bowing acquaintance with geography would not be 
out of place in the multitude who find it so easy to pull the treaties to 
pieces. I say nothing about the Polish corridor. For various reasons we 
may fear or even dislike it ; but geography jogs our memory as to the 
long history of Poland's wide access to the sea, and as to the isolation in 
which East Prussia was born and prospered. A less simple issue is 
raised by the energetic and expensive propaganda now being carried on 
for a revision, on ethnological and geographical grounds, of the new 
boundaries of Hungary. The ethnography of the Succession States of 
the old Habsburg Empire may well puzzle the wisest of us ; but the 
framers of the Treaty of Trianon were certainly not ignorant of geography. 
It is one thing to claim that the broad plain between the Tatra range and 
the Danube eastward of Bratislava is Magyar in culture. It would have 
been a very different matter to include that fertile area in the borders of 
Hungary ; and the prosperity which has come to Bratislava and Komarom, 
in spite of racial grievances, is some tribute to the geographical basis of 
the new boundaries. Further east, still along the Danube, there were 
racial arguments for leaving a slice of Carpathian Ruthenia in Hungary ; 
but the result, to quote Dr. Seton Watson, would have been ' to cut the 
natural communication between a long series of valleys, to cut off the 
hinterland — one of the poorest and most neglected districts of the old 
Hungary — from the plains which produce the food, to leave Ruthenia 
without railways, and to destroy the railway connections between Czecho- 
slovakia and Roumania.' These are minor but pregnant instances of the 
value of the large-scale map in the making of history. 

Having now glanced at several sections of the perimeter of our field, 
we have found in each of them one definite pointer towards the centre of 
interest which is common to them all. Prehistoric geography attracts 
us by reason of its mystery and romance ; but the romance lies in the 
fact that the grim powers of nature — oceans, volcanoes, sinking con- 
tinents, towering glaciers — were all co-operating in the slow preparation 



E— GEOGRAPHY 99 

of a surface for our globe on which hfe can exist. When we come nearer 
historic time, we think of geography in terms of a medium in which at 
least primates can multiply and move, and in which ultimately homo 
sapiens can establish abiding places for his different families. If we then 
turn to physical geography, we are thinking mainly of how the forces of 
nature can be observed and calculated in their action upon the habitable 
globe ; in other words, in what measure they are tending to make it 
more endurable or less endurable for human beings. Lastly, when we 
come to political geography, we are concerned frankly with, and only 
with, the distribution of the habitable area of our planet among the 
various groups of men and women who call themselves nations. It is 
the human aspect of geography which is permanently in the background 
of all its sections ; and the essential scientific value and interest of 
geography lies in the part which it plays in preparing and furnishing a 
home for mankind. Of what interest or value to us would be the geo- 
graphy of the Milky Way, or even of the Moon, so long as we know of no 
life which it would influence ? and is not our sporadic excitement about 
the geography of Mars aroused solely by our curiosity as to whether the 
changes observable on that planet are, or are not, the work of hands and 
intelligences somehow akin to ours ? 

IV. 

Thus we arrive at what seems the predestined centre of the field, at 
geography which has no adjectival label, and which one would hesitate 
even to call human geography, lest there should thus be conveyed some 
suggestion of implied antithesis. It is the study of geography as the 
science of man's physical framework, his home, the material for his 
existence. Seeing that all life lives together, what we are really thinking 
of is not man alone, but animals and plants as well. By the inclusion of 
these, however, the area to be surveyed becomes so vast that I cannot 
touch to-day on those parts of the field which are of special interest to 
the zoologist and the botanist. They have their own entree to our 
science, but in a sense so specialised that the ordinary amateur geographer 
has no qualifications for discussing it. Taking human geography 
therefore as exactly what its name indicates and no more, we find in its 
lay-out the whole study of the relations between man and inanimate 
nature. If this round globe had a voice which we could hear, and if it 
cared to use our language, it would probably describe our theme as the 
study of a tiny and prolific parasite upon its skin. We naturally think 
better of ourselves. Our study is one of actions and reactions ; it in- 
vestigates the reasons why the multiplication and distribution of man is 
influenced by geographical features, and on the other hand the methods 
by which man, reacting to those features, endeavours to modify them. 
It is the whole problem of environment and adaptation. As that 
eccentric but stimulating writer, Hendrik Van Loon, expresses it, ' the 
roots of any given people are situated deep in the soil and in the soul. 
The soil has influenced the soul, and the soul has influenced the soil.' 

As on all other subjects on which students feel deeply, sharp differences 



loo SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

have arisen over the treatment of this human geography, mainly focus- 
ing, it would appear, on the order of precedence between environment 
and adaptation in time-space. It would be unbecoming, without know- 
ledge of the arguments, to enter this arena ; but I submit that some of 
the disputants have been a little severe in pouring scorn on the early 
exponents of the theme. Old Jean Bodin, it may be, did not see much 
beyond his nose when he divided the world into the cold zone of the 
stupid but vigorous democrats, the hot zone of the intelligent but lazy 
victims of theocracy or any other despotism, and the temperate zone 
occupied by happy France and its ideal monarchy. But at least he did 
some mapping out in his own way, just as Strabo had done in his, and he 
set men thinking. Then Buckle, if I may miss all the great names in the 
interval, comes in for a good deal of mild sarcasm. It is true that his 
famous chapter upon the influence of nature on man is marred by 
curious lapses ; as, for example, when he professes ignorance of the cause 
why all the mighty rivers in the New World flow to its eastern coast, and 
none of them to the western ; or again, when he lumps together the 
peoples of Sweden and Norway, and of Spain and Portugal, as being ' all 
remarkable for a certain instability and fickleness of character.' But, if 
occasional odd sayings like these are overlooked, there is much in his 
general argument with which at least one school of modern anthro- 
pologists must be in sympathy. That there is any radical or original 
diff"erence between the various races of mankind, he regards as ' alto- 
gether hypothetical,' and the existing discrepancies he endeavours to 
trace to the influences of climate, soil and food. It must be admitted 
that, as his analysis proceeds, the promised explanation of racial differences 
evaporates, but there survives a review of political and social tendencies, 
in which there is little to challenge, especially when we remember that 
he is dealing exclusively with early societies. In such societies, he argues, 
the accumulation of wealth is largely a matter of cUmate and soil ; with 
wealth comes leisure, and with leisure comes civilisation. Hence civilisa- 
tion appeared first in those lands where nature unaided begat wealth- — 
in India, Egypt, Peru and Mexico. But where food is abundant and 
cheap, population tends to increase unduly, and the standards of life 
deteriorate. Thus, in countries where climate and soil are favourable 
and food is ' provided by nature gratuitously and without a struggle,' 
wealth has always abounded, but it has been unequally distributed ; and 
consequently there has been no just division of political power, no 
democratic spirit, but only despotism in the upper, and ' contemptible 
subservience ' among the lower orders. Progress accordingly has been 
insecure and society unstable ; natural decay has set in, and the invasions 
of sturdier races have completed the tale of doom. 

As a philosophic survey, there seems no patent absurdity in all this, 
though it sounds somewhat elementary now ; and the argument is relieved 
by teUing patches of colour, as when Buckle describes how the alluvial 
wealth of Southern Asia transmuted the roving savages, the wandering 
shepherds of Arabia into the cultured monarchs of Cordova, Delhi and 
Baghdad. An even finer passage is that in which he distinguishes Brazil 
from other countries where nature is generous with her gifts. In the 



E.— GEOGRAPHY loi 

flow and abundance of life, he writes, ' Brazil is marked above all the other 
countries of the earth. But, amid this pomp and splendour of nature, 
no place is left for man. He is reduced to insignificance by the majesty 
with which he is surrounded ' ; and so on. Finally we reach an argu- 
ment which is independent of any purely literary charm ; it comes when 
Buckle leaves climate, soil and food, and speculates on man's sensitiveness 
to what he calls the aspects of nature. They fall into two categories, 
those which excite the imagination, and those which address themselves 
to the understanding. In countries where the former abound, in the 
shape of mighty mountains, earthquakes, or devastating pestilence, man 
is conscious of his own unimportance, and the powers of nature fetter 
his will. Where, on the contrary, nature is gentle in her manifestations, 
man regains confidence and exercises authority. Buckle takes India and 
Greece as types of the two extremes. In India the tropical grandeurs 
and perils have led to an uncontrolled ascendancy of the imagination, 
which runs riot in its literature, its art, and its theology ; fear governs 
men's minds and the gods are monstrous. In Greece, at the opposite 
end of the scale, nature is friendly, and the imagination quickly loses its 
supremacy. Reason gains dominion, superstition dies, and the enquiring 
and sceptical faculties of the understanding are cultivated. A touchstone. 
Buckle suggests, is to be found in hero-worship : the canonisation of 
mortals soon became a recognised part of Greek religion ; while in India 
the whole tendency was to widen the distance between men and their 
deities. From this pregnant series of contrasts he concludes that ' every- 
where the hand of nature is upon us, and the history of the human mind 
can only be understood by connecting with it the history and the aspects 
of the material universe.' 

V. 

In this summing-up we may all agree. Generalisation is a seductive 
and flowery meadow, but it is studded with pitfalls, and into several of 
these it may be that Buckle, with all his erudition, stumbled. Neverthe- 
less is there not wide scope for investigation into the role which geography 
plays, at first in shaping religions, and afterwards in maintaining morals ? 
This very contrast to which we have just been listening between Greece 
and India is full of suggestions. Wherever it was situated (and this 
probably we shall never know), there was assuredly one common ancestral 
home for the main gods of Olympus and the earlier occupants of the 
Indo-Aryan pantheon ; on this point the evidence of philology is con- 
clusive. The possibility is that, in the region where they were first 
worshipped, those divinities were the great natural phenomena, which 
man, as soon as he learned to think, watched with wonder and reverence : 
the Sky-father, the Earth-mother, the Sun, the thunder, the fertilising 
rain-cloud. Most of these survived into Greek mythology, but it was 
very largely mythology. They had come down from some ancient cradle 
of the race as a part of its culture. They were honoured by shrines, by 
sacrifices, and oflferings on festive occasions ; but they were never the 
object of fear. In that land of clear air and sparkling sea, there was no 
gloom about the temples. The deities in time were personified, moving 



I02 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

like men and among men, with similar passions to men. The Greek 
artists fashioned their statues in the form of men and women, supreme 
only in their grace and beauty. Poets narrated their conversations and 
sang of their quarrels. Gradually, alongside the formal national rites in 
their honour, the impish popular wit began to fasten upon them. Jupiter's 
infidelities, Juno's jealousies. Mercury's petty larcenies, Vulcan's 
stupidity, Cupid's mischief, finally scattered the idea of awe, and the 
Greek mind was liberated to reason out for itself the problem of existence 
and the canons of right living. In all this geography undoubtedly had 
a hand. Her peculiar mountain system had divided Greece into a 
number of separate little communities, allies at times, enemies at others, 
but always vigilant for their physical fitness in the defence of their home 
cities. Her extensive and sheltered seaboard brought to her doors all 
the busy intellectual life of the Mediterranean world. With athletic 
bodies, sane and alert intellects, her children had no room for super- 
stitous fears of the unknown, and they laid the foundations of modern 
scientific thought. 

Into India virtually the same theogony had been imported by the Indo- 
Aryan invaders of two or three millennia before Christ. But into how 
different a world they came. Isolated by gigantic mountain ranges and 
stormy oceans from her neighbours, India had very little living contact 
with the thoughts or interests of other lands. Within her borders the 
workings of nature were hard and often cruel. Drought and famine at 
periodic intervals swept off their thousands and their hundreds of 
thousands. Diseases attacked the land in mass formation ; so did flood, 
earthquake, tempest, everything against which man is powerless. Beasts 
of prey swarmed, and no humble home was safe from snakes whose sting 
was inevitable death. The landscape, too, had its times of grimness, as 
those of us know who have lived in the plains through Indian hot weathers. 
The hills were awe-inspiring rather than friendly, and the forests held 
particular dread for those early simple people. In this environment the 
gods soon lost all human touch. The first Veda had addressed them in 
stately and reverent hymns ; but its strains were foreign to the soil and 
were never renewed. The Hindu pantheon became a huge gallery of 
godlings and goblins, in which the heavenly beings of the primitive 
Aryan stock got for the most part changed into objects of terror to be 
propitiated and, whenever possible, avoided. The cult of Krishna, it is 
true, shows how the human heart yearns for a divinity which is consoling 
and kindly ; but Sri Krishna's observances are only a brief interlude in 
the gloom of India's religious life. The representations of the gods in 
statuary and painting are deliberately monstrous, as if to mark their 
distance from man, and to our western taste almost always repulsive. In 
tracing this connexion between the rigours of nature and the severity of 
men's creeds, I would not be taken as ignoring that side of India's mind 
which strives daringly to plumb the unknowable. In pure metaphysic it 
is possible that India has something to teach to lands where geography 
is kinder ; but here again the vague mysticism of her speculation has 
some analogy to the vastness of her plains and the inaccessible sanctuaries 
of her hills. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 103 

If we turn to two other great religions, Judaism and Islam, is it 
altogether fanciful to surmise that geography has been directly concerned 
in their development ? Their central idea is the oneness of God, not 
as a universal soul, but a solitary, omnipotent and jealous power. We 
are told by scholars that Judaism in origin was the triumph of one tribal 
god, Jehovah, over a number of other rivals. It is not implied, as I 
understand, that the individual tribes were polytheistic, though each 
had its own name and attributes for its own protecting deity. Be that 
as it may, the conception of unity was paramount among the Hebrew 
stock ; and it was militantly re-stated by Mahomed. Why did 
unitariansim so fiercely possess the mind of Arabia, to the exclusion of 
the more complex creeds which permeated the rest of Asia ? The 
Semitic spirit will hardly furnish the explanation, because it has not 
always and everywhere been incompatible with idolatry. It is in the 
daily life of the desert- dweller that we must look for the reason, in its 
solitude, its stern simplicity, its concentration of thought and purpose 
on the business of the moment. There is no room for the luxury of 
polytheism, and no time ; furthermore, the unity of surrounding nature 
postulates the same quality in the Creator. With other religions the 
case may not be so straightforward ; and I am not sure how far it is 
possible to pursue the same line of thought into the great reforming 
movements of the world. Buddhism, for example, presents a curious 
problem, with its complete disappearance from the land of its birth and 
its fervid acceptance in other geographical areas. Or, coming back to 
Europe, we have the familiar theories as to the spread of Calvinism and 
the present-day distribution of Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. 
The ground, however, is too delicate for an amateur geographer. There 
is also very little left of the raw material for such enquiries. Our modern 
creeds cross oceans and capture new territory, just as our modern lan- 
guages do, with more reliance, let us hope, on their intrinsic merits than 
on geographical considerations. 

VI. 

The last section of the survey through which we have been scampering 
is human geography on its material and practical side. Here we study 
nothing less than the eternal conflict of nature versus man, — the role 
which Michelet assigned, though not convincingly, to history. Often it is 
a real conflict, with times and places at which nature defeats man, with 
others at which man gains, or seems to gain, the victory. Often, and 
more often as civilisation advances, it settles down into bouts of diplomacy, 
where man endeavours to get on terms with nature. Geography, if he 
understands it, helps to tell man where defeat has hitherto been final, 
where victories can be snatched, how relations of mutual aid can be 
established. Moralising in a general way on individual instances, it 
would point to the Alpine barrier, which at first protected Rome from 
the north, later admitted the barbarians, and then for centuries compli- 
cated Italy's connection with Central Europe, until engineering skill 
bored holes through it and cleared away many of the old troubles. Or 
it would tell how the Appalachian barrier for long dictated the lines of 



104 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

colonisation in North America, pinning the English settlements down 
to the Atlantic coast, and leaving the Mississipi valley open to the enter- 
prise of the French. Or, harking much further back, it vs^ould point 
to an older barrier, the tumbled hills and impenetrable forests running 
across the Indian peninsula parallel to the Nerbudda valley, which 
protected, it may be for a thousand years, the Dravidian culture of the 
south from the invasion by Indo-Aryan influences. As types of whole 
nations which have had to wrestle with nature, it might single out Spain 
and Holland. Spain, after the melting away of its oversea dominion and 
the decay of its prestige in Europe, unconsciously surrendered to its 
geographical position. Sheltered behind the Pyrenees, it showed a 
disposition to cut itself out of European politics ; partitioned into un- 
connected sections by intractable mountain ranges, it has allowed the 
same habit of local dissension, which rendered it an easy prey to the Moors, 
to divide its people and weaken its national life once more. Holland, 
on the contrary, typifies a stout refusal to surrender to nature. Its 
people, undismayed by losing their former command of the High Seas, 
turned upon their own sea and ejected it ; so that they have transformed 
into a rich agricultural and industrial land what was once a vast expense 
of tidal marsh and fen, and they are still doing it. 

These are only haphazard incidents in the age-long contest. The 
chief purposes of human geography are to record how the forces are 
arrayed to-day, and to help in the intelligent estimating of how they 
will sway the future. The materials for its task are the extreme diversity 
of nature on the one hand, and the unity of man on the other ; for it 
must deal with the family of mankind as a whole, and with their needs 
as a whole : a home, food, and clothing, and the labour on nature's products 
by which they earn their shelter and their means of existence. As it 
stands on the threshold of its modern task, geography has to sound its 
trumpet and call in the support of its bordering sciences, geology, 
climatology, botany and all the others, but most especially of one which 
has not yet been mentioned ; for only with their help can it succeed. 
How it will prosper in its endeavour is the responsibility of our educa- 
tionalists ; and it is no small satisfaction to know how far they are prepared 
to go in giving our new science its appropriate place in the teaching 
curricula of our educational system. But in that direction there is still 
much to be done. For, in order to fit geography more usefully into 
the mental equipment of educated men and women, it seems that the 
problem is to secure a new emphasis on the physical features of our 
globe, so as to give them an organic and dynamic, rather than a tabular 
and static, value. 

If we think of the world as an abiding place and study the geography 
of any one country first from that point of view, it does not satisfy us to 
know the names of its chief towns and rivers, or of its mountains, capes, 
and bays should it happen to possess any. Each city has some 
individuality, and a dossier of its own, into which we should like to 
peep. There is something to tell us how it came into existence, whether 
it is growing or decaying, what keeps it together, what is its racial, political, 
or commercial importance ; in short, why men built it, why they live in 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 105 

it, and what they do. We should also, if time permits, be interested to 
know something of its story in the past, what men in it have fought for, 
whether it has often changed hands or creeds, and such personal details 
as to why we call it Oslo when it was once Christiania, or why old St. 
Petersburg is now Leningrad or whatever its name is to-day or may 
happen to be to-morrow. When we get outside the cities, the countryside 
also has its tale. Is it agricultural ; and if so, what is the pressure of 
population on it ; or is it mainly a land of manufacturing activities ? 
How much of it is unoccupied, and why ; has it been converted into a 
home for grouse and stags instead of hardy crofters, or has man been 
warned off by malaria or the tsetse-fly ? If the next chapter of our 
study is the sustenance which the country offers to man, we find a great 
deal to discard in our old authorities, and much investigation to be 
undertaken with a fresh mind. In the matter of climate, for example, 
we must get rid of our smug statistics of average rainfall and mean 
temperature — among the most misleading data which pseudo-science 
has ever invented. The climate of the country which we are surveying 
will require a more intelligent, though not necessarily an elaborate, 
estimate. So with the soil, and the fertility of its different areas ; its 
irrigation if the rainfall needs supplementing, and the facilities for 
artificial irrigation. Thence to the produce of the soil is an easy step, 
though here also discrimination is advisable. Rice may be grown which 
the indigenes can eat, but which it would be useless to export because it 
is unsuitable for milling ; or cotton which its growers can use, but with 
so poor a staple that no manufacturing country will look at it. The 
agricultural output as a whole needs more sympathetic treatment than 
our text-books often give it. The same may be said about the mineral 
products, especially coal ; and the careful student will watch the opening 
for the development of electrical energy, which we must continue to get 
from either fuel or water until Faraday's great-great-disciples discover 
how to extract it from sunbeams or the circumambient ether. Another 
step takes us to the manufacturing features of the country. What are 
its industrial centres .'' To what extent are its manufactures rooted in 
the soil, or due to other special causes, or merely fortuitous ? It will be 
increasingly important to discriminate between industries with definite 
local advantages (like shipbuilding on the Clyde) and industries at the 
mercy of foreign competition (like jute in Dundee, and now cotton in 
Lancashire). Is the necessary labour available among the adjacent 
population ; are wages high or low ; can labour be imported if required .'' 
Finally, how does nature help or hinder the marketing of the 
output ? 

The last question brings up the whole problem of transport, the third 
point of view from which the geography of the country has to be studied ; 
and here the co-operation of nature and man has a sphere particularly 
its own ; especially in the navigation of great rivers, a subject on which 
the ordinary reader is often profoundly ignorant. Whether nature co- 
operated, or was defeated, in the matter of the Suez and Panama canals, 
is little more than a dialectic point. The important fact is that transport 
is (as indeed it always has been) in a state of transition ; the advantages 

E 2 



io6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

which it confers are constantly being bestowed here and confiscated there ; 
and a vigilant geography is possibly more essential at this point than at 
any other. It is true, says Chisholm, that man cuts through an isthmus 
if it is in his way ; but geography determines what isthmuses to cut, 
and deploys the local conditions which man must understand before he 
decides to act. Railways are amenable to the same set of considerations ; 
so are harbours : geography has a powerful say in the alinement of the 
former and the location of the latter. Many generations may not pass 
before transport by air has revolutionised all this, and left our railways 
and highroads as curiosities in the same category as our English canal 
system to-day. But, like the free extraction of electrical energy, this 
is a contingency which we can leave geography to deal with when the 
moment arrives. Meanwhile it should be teaching us something of what 
has been done to make transport easier and shorter, and pointing the way 
to further advance in the same direction. 

If commerce and industry, the lifeblood of the progressive races of 
mankind, are becoming more and more dependent on sound geographical 
knowledge, is it heresy to step down for an instant, and suggest that 
geography might also help man to enjoy his life .'' In one of the latest 
manuals on the United States, it was refreshing to find an enthusiastic 
page about the Yellowstone Park and the Grand Canon. Might it not 
be possible, in text-books on our own land, to hear a little about the 
Scottish highlands, or the Welsh mountains, or the Cumberland lakes ? 
And generally, would it be practicable, without poaching on Baedeker, 
to touch here and there on the beauty spots of the world, or even to 
mention, in passing, a great picture-gallery or a famous shrine } 

Let me, with apologies for this lapse into aesthetics, return to the country 
in which we were asking geography to tell us something of its residents, 
its primary products, its industries and its means of transport. It is not 
the only country in the world ; and by the time that we have pursued 
similar investigations for its neighbours, we shall have reached two 
incidental conclusions of some importance. One is the intimate alliance 
which must be established between geography and economics. They 
have become sister sciences. On its commercial side geography's kin- 
ship with economics is just as close as it is with geology on the physical 
side ; the only diff^erence in the relationship being that, whereas on the 
structural side of its work geography builds upon data provided by 
geology, on the human side it may very well, without loss of self-respect, 
engage itself in furnishing reliable material for the economist. The 
second conclusion is borne in upon us as we study the movements of 
population, the changes in industry which are liable to throw whole 
divisions of the labour army out of employment, the competition for 
markets, and all the struggle for existence on the earth's crust. They 
suggest that geography may become a more useful agency than hitherto 
for locating danger-spots in the world from the standpoint of international 
peace. There are plenty of Naboth's vineyards in our midst, and an 
intelligent study of geography should help to identify at least some of 
them, and to warn in time whatever organisation the nations may entrust 
with the policing of our unruly humankind. 



-GEOGRAPHY 107 



VII. 



I must now bring my rambling tale to a close. It has been a plea, 
not to a converted audience like this, but to a sceptical and on the whole 
an older generation, that geography is entitled to the full honours of 
a science. To the objection that it has to borrow so much of its raw 
material from other sciences, the answer is that the material is already 
there for the service of human knowledge generally, just as mathematics 
is at the service of astronomy, or physics and chemistry at the service of 
geology. Moreover, there is none of the bordering sciences which is 
prepared to undertake the tasks and fill the role of geography. Its 
positive claim is that, while always indenting freely on existing sources of 
knowledge, it is building up for itself, sifting and classifying, a body of 
knowledge which is found nowhere else, and which has a unity of its own 
and a purpose of its own. This process, we claim, raises it definitely to 
the dignity of a distinctive science. 

Its unity is not impaired by the variety of its interests, some of which 
we have been cursorily surveying. Like many a family that is only lately 
ennobled, it can assert a respectable antiquity. It may not be able to 
produce maps showing the exact conformation of the earth's surface in 
the ages when it was occupied by the mammoth and Neanderthal man ; 
but, from the teachings of geology, it can deduce approximately the position 
of land, water and ice-caps at the time when the races of mankind were 
in their cradles ; and, keeping abreast of geological change, it can guess 
the routes of their subsequent migrations. It can bring the moulding of 
the habitable globe, with reasonable certainty, down to our own day ; 
and the careful geographer can record the surface changes which are now 
going on, and estimate their force and their pace. Alongside of those 
changes he will examine the physical influences which make certain 
portions of the earth suitable or unsuitable for human occupation, as well 
as those which facilitate or obstruct the intercourse of mankind. Geo- 
graphy will then carry us into the detailed investigation of the settlements 
of mankind, with reference more particularly to their national groupings 
and needs. Here, hand in hand with economics, it will explore the 
manner in which the various countries of the world are used for man's 
habitation, and under what conditions of life and labour and productivity 
they are occupied. Finally, geography in its hours of leisure may tell 
us where to see the supreme glories of nature, and in its more serious 
moods it may warn the League of Nations where to expect those causes of 
economic and territorial friction which imperil world peace. 

Through all this diversity runs a golden thread of unity, in the human 
interest which binds the whole story together. Geography is essentially 
the science which treats of man's home, and the steady adaptation of the 
surface of our globe to be his dwelling-place and his workshop. And 
just as geography has its essential unity, so also is it transfused by a 
common purpose, the study of the relations between man and nature. 
If to this it can add — and why not ? — the ambition to help in improving 
those relations, then we complete its scientific purpose by associating with 
it a moral aim. Thus, at the risk of wearisome repetition, it is claimed 



io8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

that we have the assemblage, the testing and the analysis of facts, with 
a unified direction and a definite practical aim, which amply respond 
to the definition of a science. And to the three criteria which the ordinary 
man expects science to satisfy, geography presents a ready face. As 
a training for the intellect, it does not rely on balances, test-tubes, 
mathematical formulae, and the like ; but it answers Dr. Whitehead's 
desideratum in being a process of measuring rather than of classifying ; 
and it is an adequate school for exact observation and wise deduction. 
As a contribution to the solacing spirit of humanity, its work in removing 
misunderstandings between peoples and forestalling friction may become 
increasingly valuable. And as a mental equipment it yields to none of 
the kindred branches of knowledge. Apart from its importance to the 
traveller and the student of international aff'airs, it is essential to the 
economist. Not less so to the historian ; you have only to compare 
Trevelyan's account of Marlborough's campaigns with most other narra- 
tives of the same events, in order to see how an acute appreciation of the 
geographical setting of warfare is powerful to convert arid prose into a 
living picture. Lastly, without geography the statesman is liable to 
grievous error ; and it is indispensable knowledge to the practical 
industrialist and the planner of big business. 

Feeling as we do on the subject, can we expedite the advancement of 
geography to its proper place in our educational system ? It was for the 
purpose of evoking discussion on that question that I ventured on this 
address, speaking as one who learned nothing about geography in youth, 
and who realises the handicap. Since Oxford and Cambridge formally 
recognised the subject forty years ago great strides have been made. 
Perhaps the most encouraging advance is the growing attention to regional 
studies, to what Dr. Bryan calls the cultural landscape. It is a landscape, 
as he shows us, upon which each one of us looks out every morning of our 
lives ; and its very familiarity may have led in the past to its neglect. 
But on the steady advancement of this regional work, if we can only get its 
methods properly taught, will depend the future of the science. Mean- 
while the foundations for it have to be laid in the elementary and secondary 
schools, and it is here that we still find blind spots in the national outlook 
on the advantages of the systematic teaching of geography on modern 
lines. At a recent exhibition held in this city a remarkable demonstration 
was given of the remedies which are being applied ; and in other directions, 
especially in the admirable character of some of our newer text-books, 
there are signs of better things coming. The time is ripe for a combined 
forward move ; is it possible for our meeting here to provide the necessary 
stimulus ? 

In conclusion, may I offer this Section E my most grateful thanks for 
the high honour they have done me in electing me their President for the 
year, and my heartfelt apologies for the poverty of my response. 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



THE GOLD STANDARD 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. J. H. JONES, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



When the Association, through its representatives, conferred upon me 
the honour of electing me President of Section F for the current year, 
I felt that the subject of the Presidential Address was determined for me 
by the present state of affairs in the world. Currency stability, broadly 
defined — or, better, undefined — is a condition of economic and social 
progress. The outstanding problem of statesmanship is to restore that 
stability which the world enjoyed before the outbreak of the recent war. 
I believe that the causes of present instability and the conditions of 
future stability can be described without the introduction of technical 
terms likely to bewilder those who are not professional economists. 
I therefore felt it to be my duty to devote my paper to a discussion of the 
gold standard and to address the lay rather than the professional section 
of the audience. I shall begin with a very brief survey of the past. 

I. 

Before the war of 1914-18 the gold standard was among the things 
taken for granted as an element of western civilisation. It had served 
England for nearly a century. The echoes of the bimetallic controversy 
on the continent of Europe had already died away. It was a controversy 
that belonged to the nineteenth century. The silver question had 
ceased to be ' spot news ' in the newspapers of the United States of 
America. The spirit of nationalism in currency affairs was on holiday. 
When, in the last three decades of the nineteenth century, one country 
after another joined the gold standard group, their action was held to be 
a sign of progress and they seemed to hold their heads higher than before. 
They acquired prestige. It was thought that in the Far East the process 
of industrialisation would be marked — as, indeed, it had already been 
marked in India and Japan — by a transition from a silver standard to 
a gold standard adjusted to national conditions. 

An unvarying price average was not, however, among the achievements 
of the gold standard. For roughly two decades before the Franco- 
Prussian war, the so-called general level of prices had risen under the 



no SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

influence of an increase in the rate of annual supply of gold following 
upon the Australian and Calif ornian discoveries. The post-war boom, 
which reached its greatest height in the winter of 1872-73, was followed 
by a downward trend which, if measured from the top of the boom to 
the bottom of a depression, continued for approximately twenty-three 
years. This trend in prices is usually attributed to a fall in the rate of 
annual supply of gold, but I believe it to have been due, in greater measure, 
to a rapid increase in the world demand for gold required for monetary 
purposes. It covered the period during which the gold standard became 
popular. One after another of the silver and bimetallic countries trans- 
ferred their allegiance to gold. The United States returned to gold 
after several years on a paper standard. New territories were exploited, 
and the respective Governments adopted the gold standard. The world 
demand for gold reflected the process of transition ; it grew far more 
rapidly than trade and population, and more rapidly than it could be 
expected to grow under any other conditions or at any time in the future. 

By the end of the century practically the whole of the modern industrial 
world was on the gold standard, and from that time forward the standard 
was free from the complications and dangers created by the appearance 
of new disciples. It had become, to all intents and purposes, a world 
standard. It could be judged on its merits as an international standard. 
For the time being the countries that had not yet adopted it could be 
regarded as relatively minor exceptions. The growth in the demand 
for gold would be expected to keep pace with the growth in population 
and in trade per head. During the remainder of the period ending in 
1914 there was a fall in the relative amount of gold needed as money. 
Not only was the banknote increasingly employed in ordinary transactions, 
but in English-speaking and other communities the cheque or its equi- 
valent was growing in popularity. While on the one side the rate of 
increase in the demand for gold was affected by the cessation of the 
march of nations towards the gold standard and the growth in the use 
of substitutes for gold coins, on the other the rate of annual supply was 
increased by the development of the South African gold mines. For 
these reasons the downward trend in prices came to an end about 1895 
or 1896 and was replaced by an upward trend which continued until the 
outbreak of the world war and the suspension of the gold standard. 

The rise in prices during this period was not acceptable to everybody. 
The lag in wages caused serious discontent and probably hastened the 
growth of national organisations capable of much good but also of serious 
harm. Forces were being generated which have materially helped to 
shape economic and social events since the war. But the period of rising 
prices was also one of rapidly developing trade and relatively high profits. 
The discontent was that of the employed worker rather than, as at present, 
of the unemployed worker. The former might complain of inequalities 
in the distribution of wealth, but he could not complain of the pernicious 
effects of ' deflation.' As the gold standard permitted a steady increase 
in the supply of money, and a rise in prices, the arguments now frequently 
employed against the gold standard would have sounded foolish. The 
standard itself was enjoying a respite from popular criticism. In its 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS m 

broad sense it was accepted on all sides as not merely inevitable but _also 
desirable. 

Then came the war, with the usual economic consequences of war. 
The gold standard was abandoned by nearly every country and currencies 
were left to the mercy of needy Governments. The inevitable war-time 
inflation was followed by the customary post-war boom and the process 
of inflation was carried a stage farther. The subsequent period of 
depression and falling prices imposed a searching test of economic policy 
and revealed the degree of exhaustion from which the various countries 
suffered. Currency instability and trade depression were associated in the 
minds of people as cause (or part cause) and effect. It was assumed 
that if and when currency stability was restored the world would have 
a chance of recovery : without such stability recovery was impossible. 
It was known, even at that time, that stability was a term that begged 
most of the questions at issue, but such a detail was of no consequence 
at a time when people longed for the restoration of pre-war conditions. 
The world that disappeared in 1914 appeared, in retrospect, something 
like our picture of Paradise. The financial leaders were strongly sup- 
ported by public opinion when they pressed for a return to the gold 
standard. 

The world returned to gold. The defeated countries, whose currencies 
had been destroyed by inflation pursued to its logical end (though not 
in obedience to logic), created new currencies linked to gold. After 
' looking the dollar in the face ' for a couple of years we restored the gold 
standard in 1925 at the pre-war rate. In the following year France and 
Belgium stabilised their currencies in relation to gold and in 1928 restored 
the gold standard, France fixing her currency at about one-fifth the 
pre-war gold value. Meanwhile most other countries had joined the 
gold standard group. Within the space of four years the gold standard 
had been restored, and it remained in office — though not always in 
power — until 1931, when it was again destroyed. From 1924 to 1929 
most of the currencies of the world were stable, and the economic 
world made rapid progress, although, for reasons that will presently be 
noted. Great Britain did not enjoy a reasonable share of that progress. 

The depression in trade after 1929 imposed too heavy a strain upon 
our own country and in 193 1 we again suspended specie payment. Our 
example was followed at intervals by a large number of other countries 
and now the world is divided into two parts, the group of countries that 
have abandoned the gold standard and those that still, in fact or in theory, 
have clung to it. When, a few months ago, the United States joined the 
former, it became evident that the influence of gold was weaker than it 
had been at any time since the war. 

In this country the gold standard had appeared to act as a strait-jacket. 
The paper pound had been given such a high gold value that our free- 
dom was severely restricted. In spite of pessimistic predictions before 
the step was taken the feeling engendered by the suspension of gold in 
193 1 was one of newly found freedom. The fall in the external value 
of our currency actually stimulated trade. We found, however, that 
we were merely enjoying a larger individual share of a diminishing total. 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

And other countries discovered that they could, with advantage, join in 
the game of ' beggar-my-neighbour,' which France had been quietly 
playing for several years and we had begun to play in boisterous fashion. 
Then followed the new practice of * competitive depreciation ' with the 
aid of instruments euphemistically called ' exchange stabilisation ' or 
' exchange equalisation ' funds. Before this new practice spread we 
were enjoying our new freedom. Gold was a * fair weather standard,' 
to which we were in no hurry to return. America wanted us to return 
to gold, but why should we rush into new danger .<* Disillusionment 
came when the United States (and therefore Canada) joined in the new 
game. The most recent experience, with new and strong players, has 
led us to believe that, after all, the game is not worth the candle, and 
that what we had termed a strait jacket was merely that sort of discipline 
which is a condition of freedom. The gold standard promises once more 
to become popular. 

II. 

The brief survey that I have submitted suggests the need for a restate- 
ment of monetary theory. In spite of all that has been published in 
recent years I do not believe that the monetary standard has yet received 
adequate treatment as a separate problem. In most cases the discussion 
of the standard has been more or less incidental to the discussion of other 
problems that either appear more urgent or are regarded as the central 
theme of the writer. Naturally I do not propose, in this paper, to attempt 
to fill the gap. But I venture to attempt to place before you those issues 
which, in my opinion, can be appreciated by the general public and must 
be faced if we wish to restore and afterwards maintain the gold standard 
in this and other countries. Moreover, I shall submit reasons for my 
belief that we should again seek to establish that standard, and that some 
modifications recently suggested would tend to weaken rather than enhance 
its value as an instrument of social progress. 

Money is the means by which we secure ownership of things that we 
desire, or obtain services of various kinds. The amount of money paid 
for goods and services is the result of bargaining between buyers and 
sellers, and this result is influenced by certain fundamental considerations. 
One of these is the connection or sympathy that normally exists between 
the rates of payment (which I shall call wages) prevailing for personal 
services. If a coal miner earned ten times as much as a railway worker 
everybody would know that there was some highly abnormal influence 
at work which would ultimately disappear. Relative wages are governed 
by silent and persistent forces known to every student of elementary 
economics. They tend to arrange themselves around a mean wage in 
the manner determined by such forces. In a world of change the dis- 
persion of actual wage rates at any time is never precisely that which the 
persistent forces tend to produce ; nevertheless the correcting influences 
are always at work. Again, the ' short period,' during which deviations 
from the ' normal ' distribution about the mean level may continue, tends 
to grow longer. The mills of competition grind slowly. But they con- 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 113 

tinue to grind. We know that a rise or fall in the wages of one group 
will not be permanent unless it is followed by a corrresponding change in 
the wages of the other group, or unless there has been a change in the 
nature of the persistent forces to which I have referred. It is precisely 
this sympathy in wage movements that gives significance to the conception 
of an average wage and to movements in that average. 

If it be true that the relationship between individual wages is not 
arbitrary, it is also true that the relationship between individual prices is 
not arbitrary. In the long run prices are governed by costs, and costs 
ultimately mean wages. Even economic rent, in the last resort, is a 
function of the wage average. If prices are governed by costs and costs 
by wages, and if relative wages obey a law of distribution, it follows that 
actual prices also tend towards a ' normal ' arrangement or distribution. 
If a house of ten rooms could be purchased for the same sum as a hundred 
tons of coal, everybody would recognise the existence of some abnormal 
influence which could not fail, ultimately, to bring a correcting influence 
into play. A rise or fall in a large group of prices will not be permanent 
unless either a similar change takes place in the remaining group or a change 
has occurred in the real costs, and therefore money costs, of supply. 
It is precisely this sympathy in prices that gives significance to changes 
in the price average or general level of prices. As in the case of wages 
so, too, in the case of prices : the ' short period,' during which deviations 
from the ' normal ' distribution may continue, tends to grow longer ; 
but in the long run the effect of the persistent force of competition 
(broadly interpreted) becomes evident even in a constantly changing 
world. 

These elementary facts seem to me to provide the true foundation of 
a theory of money. The supply of money needed by a community, and 
the supply of money that can be absorbed by a community, is a function 
of the price average. If every pound of wages or of prices were called 
ten pounds, the community would merely be using ten times as much 
money as before. Conversely, if the supply of money is fixed, the price 
average must conform to that supply, and in a state of equilibrium the 
wage average and the price average will reflect the normal distribution of 
individual wages and prices. But a change in the supply of money 
produces intermediate effects before the final state of equilibrium is 
reached. Nor is it necessary to stress the practical importance of these 
intermediate efi^ects, which will presently be considered. At the present 
stage, however, it is desirable to confine our attention to the characteristics 
of a community in a state of equilibrium in the sense of being free from 
the intermediate disturbances of a process of change. 

I have referred to the existence of a normal distribution of wages and 
of prices. The statements that I made are applicable to every community 
in which order is maintained, either through the force of competition or 
by legal enactment. But the normal relationship of wages or of prices 
is not the same in all communities : each has its own characteristics. 
Thus, for example, the relative rates of remuneration of school teachers, 
coal-miners and railway workers may not be the same, under normal con- 
ditions, in Great Britain as in Germany. The normal distribution may 



114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

vary, within narrow limits, even between different parts of Great Britain. 
The statement may be extended to include prices. Nevertheless it is 
true to say that for each community there exists a normal relationship of 
wages and of prices towards which actual wages and prices tend. I 
assume this broad generalisation in all that follows. 

My next statement is equally elementary. It is a truism that some 
commodities and services supply local markets while others supply 
national or international markets. In the market, whether it be local or 
world-wide, there is a strong tendency towards a common price. Within 
this country the price would be quoted in the same money, but in other 
countries it would be quoted in some other kind of money. If, however, 
we exported a commodity we would normally expect to be paid, in foreign 
money, an amount equivalent to the British money obtainable for it if it 
were sold at home. The means of payment may be some foreign money 
— we may, for example, accept payment in marks — but the measure of 
value is our own money .^ 

For the purpose of simplifying the statement I shall assume commodities 
(including services) to be divided into two groups, international and 
domestic, the former comprising those which are commonly exported 
from one country to another and the latter those which supply local 
markets. Further, I shall neglect variations in costs of transport. Finally, 
I shall assume that all communities or countries employ gold as money. 
It follows that international commodities command the same prices in all 
countries. British exports are sold at the same prices as German exports 
or American exports. But we have already seen that the prices of British 
exports are normally related to the prices of all other things produced and 
sold in Great Britain. Consequently the price average or general price 
level in this country will be such as to produce the international prices 
for international commodities, while the wage average or general level 
of wages will be such (under a normal distribution of individual wages) 
as to produce that price average. It does not, however, follow that the 
wage average in this country must be the same as in other countries. 
The wage average will be a function of natural conditions, industrial 
technique and human efficiency ; but it must be such as to enable 
the country to maintain the price average dictated by international 
conditions. 

The same general truth may be expressed in another way. Gold, like 
other international commodities, is distributed among the markets 
(countries) of the world in such a way as to command the same value in 
all. Value in this connection means purchasing power. It follows that 
in the state of equilibrium represented by such a distribution of gold, 
the exports and imports of a country are balanced.^ It must be so, for 

^ It is immaterial that, in this case, we accept the risk of exchange : it would 
be possible for us to cover that risk, and the cost of covering it would be a prime 
cost and a component part of the price in pounds. In a state of equilibrium 
there would be no such risk. 

^ It should not be forgotten that I am assuming exchange to be confined 
to commodities, including services. I shall presently refer to movements of 
capital. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 115 

it is evident that if exports do not balance imports there will be a flow of 
gold from one country to others. This flow will only cease when a true 
equation has been established.^ 

It will be clear from the statements already made that if all countries 
employ gold, and only gold, as currency, each must accept the wage and 
price average or level dictated by the price average of international goods, 
and that this will be determined by the gold supply in relation to the 
demand. If the gold supply is x the price average will be half as high 
as if the supply were 2x, for in making such a comparison we may assume 
the rapidity of circulation to be the same in the two cases. Such a currency 
therefore imposes a discipline upon each country ; it must march in step 
with the others. If one country found a gold mine within its boundaries, 
issued currency to the amount of the new supply and raised wages and 
prices to the extent of the new available currency, exports of other com- 
modities would fall and imports increase, with the result that the gold 
would flow out until a new equilibrium was reached at a correspondingly 
higher international price average. During the intermediate stages the 
industries supplying international commodities would be depressed 
in the country possessing the new gold mine, and correspondingly 
more active in other countries. This change in the state of trade 
would be the active force that would restore the new state of 
equilibrium. 

It will also be evident that the same results will follow if, instead of 
using gold as currency, each country employs paper representing gold, 
pound for pound, or dollar for dollar, so that any variation in the supply 
of gold is automatically followed by a variation in the supply of paper 
currency. Nor is the case altered if gold represents not a hundred per 
cent, but x per cent, of the paper currency. For it is clear that a given 
variation in the supply of gold is followed, automatically, by a similar 
percentage variation in the supply of currency. Moreover, it is obvious 
that the smaller the percentage gold reserve (that is to say, the greater 
the economy in the use of gold) the higher the price average of inter- 
national goods and the wage and price average within each country. But 
it remains true that each country is subjected to the discipline to which 
I have referred. 

Provided one condition is satisfied, the case is not altered if, instead 
of merely employing paper currency the supply of which is automatically 
adjusted to the supply of gold, a country also employs means of payment, 
such as the cheque, the supply of which may vary independently of the 
supply of gold. The condition is that the country remains on the gold 
standard. The gold standard is a legal enactment to the eff^ect that the 
legal tender of a country shall be convertible on demand into a specified 

' In the complex economic system which I shall consider at a later stage, 
exchange equilibrium between two or more countries may be defined in either 
of two ways, namely, a rate of exchange which maintains a balance of payments 
and a rate which represents equivalence of price levels. These are not necessarily 
identical. In a changing world they are not even likely to be identical. Failure 
to distinguish between the two, and to state in which sense equilibrium is being 
employed, has clouded much recent controversy. 



ii6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

quantity of gold.* Its economic significance is that it maintains a fixed 
rate of exchange. 

While a country is on that standard it is forced to adjust its price average, 
and therefore its wage average, to the international price average. So 
long as the currency is a stated proportion of the gold supply the currency 
adjustment to a change in the latter is automatic. But when such 
currency is supplemented by means of payment the supply of which is 
not automatically controlled, some other means of adjustment must be 
found. In modern communities the duty of adjusting the supply of 
money, in its broad sense, and thereby administering the Gold Standard 
Act, is entrusted to the Central Bank or some equivalent organisation. 
The Central Bank is given the right to issue legal tender, and the supply 
is always — though, not necessarily — specified in relation to gold supply.^ 
But there is no legal regulation of the use of other means of payment. 
Control is left in the hands of the Central Bank, and the instrument of 
control is the rate of discount, supplemented and made effective by open 
market operations.® 

By means of the rate of discount, reinforced, when necessary, by open 
market operations, the bank is able to control the supply of means of 
payment and thereby to adjust the wage and price average to the inter- 
national price average. That being so, control by law of the supply of 
legal tender is not inevitable. It may still be desirable, for it is usual 
for the discount policy of the bank to be governed by the supply of legal 
tender held in reserve and this, in turn, is determined by gold movements. 
Nevertheless it represents a stage in the evolution of the credit system 
rather than an integral part of a perfect system. It is even more desirable 
in other countries than in Great Britain. On the other hand it is clear 
that the proportion of gold held against currency may be materially 

• In the English Gold Standard Act of 1925 it was provided that legal tender 
was only convertible into gold provided that the amount to be converted was 
not worth less, at the defined rate, than 400 ounces of gold ; but this provision 
was merely a safeguard against the use of gold for internal purposes, such as 
currency. The paper pound was declared to be convertible into gold at the 
rate of ;£3 17s. lold. per ounce of standard gold, that is to say, it was worth the 
gold contained in the pre-war sovereign. 

• The precise methods differ in different countries. We favour a fixed fiduciary 
issue ; other countries favour a fixed percentage gold reserve. This difference 
is not fundamental. The former produces less violent reactions and therefore 
facilitates a steady adjustment. The latter tends to produce unnecessary 
fluctuations during a process of adjustment to a new state of equilibrium. The 
English method seems to me better than that employed in the United States. 

• It is important to stress the fact that the Central Bank is not a free agent. 
It is entrusted with the duty of maintaining the gold standard, and its action 
must be guided by the need for fulfilling its obligation under the Act which 
defines the standard. Since 1925 the Bank of England has been criticised on 
numerous occasions for pursuing a discount policy which was regarded as inimical 
to industrial progress. I do not suggest that the policy of the Bank has always 
been above reproach. I do not, indeed, believe that academic economists 
usually possess sufficient information to justify comment upon current policy. 
It is clear, however, that much of the popular criticism of the Bank has been 
due to failure to distinguish between the necessities imposed by the Act of 1925 
and the policy of the Bank in circumstances that allowed freedom of choice. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 117 

altered without prejudice to the present system. The latter secures an 
automatic adjustment of the internal price average to the international 
price average, and this may be done with a 30 per cent, gold reserve as 
effectively as with a 40 per cent, reserve. A change from the larger to 
the smaller reserve would permit a substantial rise in the international 
price level. 

The discussion of the gold standard has been based, so far, upon an 
important assumption, namely, that trade between countries consists of 
the exchange of commodities, including such services as shipping. 
I have ignored capital movements and interest payments. On that 
assumption I have tried to show that, when countries are on the gold 
standard, their internal wage and price averages must be adjusted to the 
price average of international goods. In a state of equilibrium trade 
between the countries will be balanced, that is to say, exports and imports 
will be equal in total value. Within each country the wage and price 
averages will represent a normal distribution of particular wages and 
particular prices. If equilibrium is disturbed gold movements will 
follow. In practice the equilibrium between countries will quickly be 
restored through the adjustment of the internal prices of international 
goods following depression on the one side or, on the other, greater 
activity. But the resulting internal disequilibrium is not so quickly 
removed . Some trades are affected more quickly and seriously than others ; 
some are sheltered, others unsheltered. Wage rates in the latter fall out 
of line with wage rates in the former. So long as this adjustment is 
delayed the intermediate effects will continue. But in the long run the 
condition of domestic disequilibrium will be changed and a new position 
of stable equilibrium reached, both within the country and between 
diiTerent countries. 

In the next stage of the discussion it is necessary to consider the effects 
of capital movements. One of the commodities entering into the final 
price average is capital, which, for my present purpose, I shall divide 
into investment capital and liquid capital. It is well known that the 
price of capital is higher in new countries than in countries which, in the 
industrial sense, have reached maturity, and that the diiference is greater 
than the measure of relative risk. Hence we find a movement of capital 
from older to younger countries, enabling the latter to develop more 
rapidly than they would be able to do without such assistance. Investment 
is an import (of bonds) which must be offset by an equivalent export of 
commodities. Other things being equal an investing country therefore 
enjoys an excess of current exports of commodities (including current 
services) over imports. We need not pause to consider whether foreign 
investment or the excess of exports is the cause, or which came first. 
It is sufficient to point out that, in a position of equilibrium, the price 
average within a country must again be such as to make the price average 
of exports equal to the international price average and that, for com- 
modities (including current services), the average will be lower than 
it would be if capital were not being exported. But in due course the 
lending country receives interest, and the amount of interest increases 
annually. This inflow of interest neutralises a corresponding outward 



ii8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

flow of capital. By 1914 the interest receipts of Great Britain were 
apparently less than the amount of capital annually added to our foreign 
investments. Our exports of commodities (including current services) 
appeared to be less than our imports of the same kind. We were rein- 
vesting abroad nearly the whole of the interest upon accumulated invest- 
ments, but apparently we already needed a small proportion of such 
interest to pay for current imports. A debtor state which had ceased to 
borrow also possessed a surplus of commodity exports, the surplus being 
needed to pay the interest on accumulated debt. Such was the position 
of the United States of America before the outbreak of the world 
war. 

The growth of long-term investment was normally so slow and regular 
that it did not destroy the internal equilibrium of the investing country. 
For short periods it might invest more or less than the commodity surplus 
representing the sum available for investment. But in such cases the 
balance of payments was maintained by the transfer of liquid capital. 
The investment operation was supplemented by a credit operation. 
Similarly, if for any other reason there was a temporary excess of imports 
or exports the surplus or deficit was removed by a movement of liquid 
capital. 

It is here that we find the essential difference between investment 
capital and liquid capital. Investment might well be termed an industry 
resembling coal mining or cotton manufacture. It possessed (if we 
ignore cyclical fluctuations) a fairly constant market outside the country 
and had been built up slowly upon the assumption that the market was 
comparatively safe and likely to grow. Other industries, supplying the 
commodities representing the export surplus available for investment, 
had also grown up alongside the investment industry, their growth being 
based upon the assumption of continuity in the growth of investment. 
In short, investment was an integral part of the industrial structure and 
an influence determining the remaining permanent features of the latter. 
It was not an accident of growth or an occasional visitor. Continuity 
was of its essence, and if all foreign markets for British capital had suddenly 
disappeared, industry would have been reduced, for a time, to a state of 
chaos. Liquid capital, on the other hand, was employed, in different 
places and at different times, as an equalising factor. Its purpose was 
to restore or maintain temporary equilibrium when equilibrium had 
already been destroyed or threatened ; to ease the restoration of true or 
stable equilibrium by reducing the intermediate effects of a process of 
change or the effects of some temporary disturbing factor. I shall 
endeavour to show that some of our most serious difficulties since the war 
have been due to the fact that the distinction between investment capital 
and liquid capital has lost much of its pre-war significance. 

III. 

The conditions that I have described in the second section seem to me 
an essential part of a secure foundation for the working of the gold 
standard . But they do not indicate all the conditions that must be satisfied. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 119 

In order that this may be made clear it may be desirable to indicate very 
briefly the features of the pre-war gold standard and the essential 
differences between the working of the pre-war standard and the working 
of the standard since the war came to an end.' 

The pre-war standard was of slow growth and became the foundation 
of a financial system of a highly complex character regarded from the 
point of view both of structure and of function. The standard was 
adopted by one country after another under conditions favourable to its 
operation ; it represented a choice between three or more alternatives, 
and its adoption was regarded as a real advance. The first important 
point that I would emphasise is that the industrial structure had been 
adapted to the requirements of the standard. The normal level of wages, 
costs and prices was adapted to the rate of exchange and consequently 
to the international level of prices. The currency was neither over- 
valued nor undervalued, but neutral. The theory of comparative costs 
afforded a real explanation of the distribution of industry and trade 
between nations. Changes in the distribution of trade were slow and 
continuous and were due either to changes in the relationships of real 
costs of production or to changes in tariff policies. It is, of course, true 
that changes occurred in the relation of the gold supply to the world 
demand for gold and therefore in the international price level, but these 
were so slow as to present no serious obstacle to the adjustment of wages 
and costs in individual countries. In this connection it should be observed 
that gold was allowed to move freely from one country to another in 
response to economic influences and that movement was only due to such 
influences. 

In the second place, the savings of the people were invested in long- 
term securities. A comparatively small amount was added every year 
to the fund of liquid capital employed in financing trade ; but this fund 
was determined by trade requirements and by the opportunities for long- 
term investment rather than by the willingness or unwillingness of their 
owners to invest. 

In the third place, the long-term investments of lending countries, 
such as Great Britain, Germany and France, were appropriate to the 
industrial structures of both lending and borrowing countries. Thus, 
for example, the industrial structure of Great Britain and the annual 
overseas investments of Great Britain formed pieces which fitted together 
to form part of the economic mosaic. 

In the fourth place, although most of the countries of the world were 
living under protective systems, and of systems of greater or less pro- 
tection, tariffs were not employed to correct temporary failures to balance 
international payments during periods of depression. Protection repre- 
sented a choice of alternatives and in each case the system was carefully 
thought out and determined by long-term considerations. For a rela- 
tively long period of years a protective system could be regarded as a 

"> I discussed these in greater detail in a course of four lectures delivered shortly 
before Christmas to the London Institute of Bankers and published in the Journal 
of that Institute. 



I20 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

constant ; international trade adapted itself to that system and for this 
reason the system did not seriously prejudice the operation of the gold 
standard. This statement does not constitute a defence of protection. 

Finally, the credit system of the world was not only firmly organised, 
but organised in such a way as to facilitate the working of the gold standard. 
The Bank of England acted not only as the Central Bank of Great Britain, 
but also as a sort of International Bank of Economic Settlements. In 
time of need it was able to draw funds from other countries and to employ 
those funds at the place of need and in the manner dictated by that 
need. One of the outstanding features of the system was that, when 
any country was in distress, the Bank of England was able and ready to 
mobilise the reserves of the world and to rush to the rescue of that country. 
Credit or liquid capital was thus a balancing influence rather than an 
influence employed to destroy an existing state of equilibrium. If actual 
gold was needed it was forthcoming, as in the case of the United States 
of America during the crisis of 1907 ; if a short-term loan was needed 
gold was not unnecessarily moved from one country to another ; gold 
movements merely supplemented credit operations. Gold was not an 
alternative to a short loan, neither was it moved about in such a way as 
to necessitate a counteracting short loan operation. Both credit and gold 
movements were correcting rather than disturbing influences ; they 
restored rather than destroyed equilibrium. The Bank of England 
adopted a more or less neutral attitude in the sense that it performed the 
essential functions of an International Bank and regarded the problem 
of monetary stability as an international problem. I do not, of course, 
suggest that its attitude was altruistic and that Great Britain voluntarily 
adopted such an attitude merely in the interests of world stability and 
progress. Such was not the case. The economic structure of Great 
Britain and the position that she held as the largest investing country 
and the centre of world finance made her individual interests identical 
with the interests of the world as a whole. There was no conflict, or 
presumed conflict, between the one and the many, 

IV. 

In all these respects the post-war world has differed from the pre-war 
world. Moreover, it seems to me that it is in precisely these differences 
that we find the real explanation of the failure of the gold standard, and 
that, before we can hope to establish any international standard that will 
stand the test of time, it will be necessary to restore those conditions which 
made the pre-war gold standard not merely workable but also highly 
successful. 

In the first place, the post-war gold standard was not of slow growth. 
Most of the countries that had abandoned gold under the pressure of 
war rushed back within the short space of about four years, and with- 
out considering with sufficient care the changes that had occurred in 
the underlying economic conditions. The result was that in some cases 
the rates of exchange were fixed too high and in other cases too low. 
I may refer briefly to the two outstanding examples — Great Britain and 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 121 

France. In 1925 we returned to the gold standard, and in doing so 
gave the pound the same gold value as it possessed before the war, that 
is to say, we restored the pre-war dollar rate of four dollars eighty-six 
cents to the pound. It was felt by many critics that such a value was too 
high in relation to the relative wholesale price levels of Great Britain 
and the United States of America. For several months before we returned 
to gold the dollar value of sterling had been rising, as the result of a 
transfer of funds to this country, without any change in the underlying 
economic conditions. Our price level, it was said, was appropriate to 
the dollar rate that prevailed before such transfer took place, so that in 
restoring gold at the pre-war parity the Government overvalued our 
currency, the extent of overvaluation being estimated roughly at 10 per 
cent. It was therefore necessary to reduce our price level by 10 per 
cent, in order to be able to supply international goods at the international 
price level. 

It seems to me that that criticism was inadequate. After the boom 
of 1930 we suffered a period of severe depression during which wage 
rates in the industries supplying international goods (that is to say, the 
unsheltered industries) were reduced to an extent far exceeding the 
reductions that were made in the rates of wages prevailing in sheltered 
industries. In spite of these reductions the return upon capital invested 
in the sheltered industries fell below the normal rate obtainable in the 
sheltered industries. Thus we were already suffering from an internal 
industrial disequilibrium ; the normal distribution of particular wages to 
which I referred in the second section had been seriously disturbed. 
Although the wholesale price level for international goods was made, 
say, 10 per cent, too high by the return to gold, it represented a price 
level based upon an unduly low wage average in the industries concerned 
and an unduly low average return upon the capital invested in such 
industries. For that reason I believe that the degree of overvaluation 
was seriously underestimated by the majority of those who objected to 
the conditions under which we returned to the gold standard. The 
new standard imposed two tasks upon this country, the first being to 
reduce by 10 per cent, the price average or price level of the products 
of the unsheltered industries, the second being to make this new level 
represent a normal distribution of wages, costs, prices and profits through- 
out the whole of British industry. Even if there had been no other 
factor in the situation it is clear that an almost impossible task had been 
imposed upon the nation. But a further difficulty arose, after 1925, in 
consequence of a fairly steady fall in the world price level itself. In 
spite of the reductions in wage rates in the years that followed the return 
to gold, I do not believe that we succeeded in doing more than keep 
pace with the world price level. We had failed in the double task that 
had been set by the restoration of the gold standard. 

The overvaluation of the pound inevitably produced a depressing 
effect upon British industry. It acted as a veiled tax upon exports and 
a veiled bounty upon imports, with the result that our export surplus 
was considerably less than would otherwise have been the case. At 
the same time the world was in need of capital and the tradition of London 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

as a centre of foreign investment led to an attempt to meet this world 
demand. British capital was invested abroad to an extent exceeding 
the available export surplus, but this result was hidden by the fact that 
during the same period other countries sent their liquid capital to London 
in search of security. I shall return to that point presently ; at the 
present stage I wish to stress the fact that, if such funds had not been 
imported to this country, the underlying weakness of our position would 
have been revealed earlier. It would have been necessary to maintain 
even higher discount rates than those which prevailed and to pursue a 
policy of more severe deflation. The depression in trade would have 
been even greater than actually proved to be the case. This danger was 
averted by the importation of funds from other countries, although such 
importation created a danger of another character which will be presently 
considered. 

The case of France differed materially from our own case. When, 
after a period during which the value of the franc was stabilised, the 
French Government restored the gold standard, the franc was given a 
value of approximately one-fifth the pre-war value in terms of gold. 
But the wage, cost and price levels in that country were such as to suggest 
a value far higher than that actually given to the franc. The result was 
that while in Great Britain the gold wage level was about 75 per cent, above 
the pre-war level, in France it was even below the pre-war level, and even 
at the present time seems to be little if any above the pre-war level. It is 
precisely for this reason that the French at the present time are able to 
contemplate with equanimity the prospect of a return to prosperity with- 
out any rise in the price level of that country. Further, the undervalua- 
tion of the French franc acted as a veiled bounty upon all exports and 
a veiled tax upon all imports. The temporary effect was to increase the 
export surplus (which was further increased by the receipt of Reparation 
payments from Germany) and to enable the French to amass balances 
which were left within call in other countries. The funds that accumu- 
lated in this country were largely French funds. 

In the second place, as we have already seen, a large proportion of the 
savings of the people of different countries, instead of being invested in 
long-term securities, were held within call. Thus a vast amount of 
capital (estimated at two thousand million pounds), which should, and 
normally would, have been invested in industrial and other long-term 
securities, was held in liquid form and was moved about in search 
of security — security which included rapid realisability and was of 
more importance than a substantial difference in the rate of interest. 
That confidence which is generated by peace and normal economic 
development was lacking ; the risk factor was overvalued. One result 
was that industries became heavily burdened with fixed-interest and 
short-term debts. In this connection it is important for the future to 
observe that the distinction between investment capital and what I have 
called liquid capital has lost much of its importance. The war has resulted 
in a large increase in securities (mainly issued by governments) which can 
be realised upon an international market with very little delay. These 
securities are now held to a greater extent than in the past by people who 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 123 

wish to retain their capital within call. They are therefore far more 
susceptible to sudden changes in demand and immediately available 
supply, and their existence on such a large scale has added to the 
instability of the post-war economic world. 

In the third place, a change of the first importance has taken place in 
the financial relationships of nations without a corresponding change in 
their industrial structures. The United States of America provides the 
outstanding but by no means the only example of such change. Im- 
mediately before the war that country, although a heavy debtor, had 
ceased or almost ceased to be, on balance, a borrower. Her industrial 
structure was appropriate to that state of affairs. She possessed a large 
export surplus representing interest upon, and to some extent the repay- 
ment of, the accumulated loans of the past. The war enabled her not 
merely to pay off her debts but also to become an important creditor 
state. Her industrial structure remained practically the same as before ; 
the interest element was transferred from one side to the other side of 
her account with the rest of the world. Not only did she possess an 
export surplus in respect of commodities and personal services but that 
surplus was now augmented (where once it was offset) by interest pay- 
ments. She was like Mr. Manhattan of comic opera fame, " all dressed 
up and no place to go." One factor in the situation is the amount owing 
to America in respect of so-called war debts, but from her point of view 
it is not an important factor. The much discussed transfer problem is 
as relevant to and important for America in the case of other forms of 
indebtedness as in that of the debts of other governments. What is 
peculiar to the so-called war debts is the fact that they represent a con- 
tract between two governments, but this is of no international economic 
significance. 

The failure to fit the industrial structure of the world to the new 
financial relationships between nations constituted one of the real diffi- 
culties in operating the post-war standard. I have already referred to 
the fact that, before the war, gold moved from one country to another in 
response to economic influences and that such movement produced its 
effect upon monetary policy and relative price levels. Since the war 
the changed financial relationships have caused not merely a large-scale 
movement of gold but also a concentration of gold in those countries in 
which the change in financial relationships, with the given industrial 
structure, had not been fully offset by a policy of foreign investment. 
Thus France and America have jointly amassed a large proportion of the 
total world supply. But they have not allowed that supply to produce its 
pre-war effects. About ten years ago Mr. McKenna rightly pointed out 
that America was on a dollar standard, not the gold standard. It is, 
I believe, literally true to say that at no time since 1920 has the United 
States been on the gold standard in the full technical sense of the words. 
It is equally true to say that France, while legally on the gold standard 
since 1928, has never accepted the implications of that standard. The 
reason for the failure of these two countries to employ the gold standard 
in the full sense of the words is to be found in their unwillingness either 
to adapt their industrial structures to the new finanical relationship or to 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

embark upon such a policy of foreign investment as would enable them 
to maintain the existing industrial structure. 

Again, the credit system of the world has been completely disorganised. 
The change in the relative financial strengths of Great Britain, America 
and other countries, has tended to reduce the pre-eminence of London 
as the financial centre of the world ; the power of the City has been 
challenged by New York and Paris. But that is not the only change that 
has occurred. I have already referred to the existence of a large mass 
of liquid capital that would normally have been absorbed by industry in 
the form of long-term investments. This liquid capital has not been 
employed by the Central Banks as a stabilising factor ; on the contrary, 
it has proved to be a disturbing factor. Before the war the Bank of 
England, as the centre or controller of international credit, employed 
such credit in the service of distressed countries and thereby maintained 
financial stability. Since the war it has not been able to perform this 
function with the same effect, while other countries that were able to 
render assistance could not be relied upon. When the credit of any 
country was threatened, foreigners withdrew their funds in search of 
security. When, in 1 931, we needed the type of assistance that we were 
accustomed to render to other countries, the latter deserted us like rats 
deserting a sinking ship. A large mass of liquid capital moved about the 
world leaving crisis in its train and creating embarrassment to the countries 
that it sought, always hunting for security without ever being sure of 
finding it. The most recent victim of the damage wrought by this 
movement is the United States of America. 



V. 

In the fourth section of my paper I have tried to indicate those 
differences between the pre-war and the post-war gold standards which 
accounted for the success of the former and the failure of the latter. The 
question arises whether, under present conditions, it is worth while either 
to restore the gold standard or to establish any other form of international 
metallic standard. It is known to all economists that the difficulties of 
working the post-war gold standard were increased by technical defects 
in banking organisation, particularly in the United States of America 
and in France. A discussion of these defects would not be possible in 
this paper ; I refer to them merely to indicate that I am aware of their 
existence. But I believe, and I therefore assume, that if the more funda- 
mental difficulties to which I have referred were overcome it would be 
possible to solve purely technical problems. 

The essential feature of the gold standard is that it maintains a fixed 
rate of exchange, establishes an international price system in the sense 
of a common measure of value, and controls the internal or domestic 
supply of currency and therefore the domestic level of prices. It seems 
to me that if we are to return to the gold standard it must be a standard 
that retains this feature. Before the war a movement of gold from one 
country to another automatically reacted upon the relative supplies of 
money in the countries affected. It has been suggested by the Gold 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 125 

Delegation appointed by the Economic Section of the League of Nations 
that in future the various countries should maintain free reserves of gold. 
The gold supply of a country should be divided into two parts, the first 
being the legal reserve against currency, the second being the surplus 
available for export. The purpose of the scheme is to secure that an 
export of gold from or an import of gold into the reserve should not react 
upon the currency policy of the country concerned. 

It seems to me that this proposal would destroy the vital element in 
the gold standard. In recent years we have seen how free reserves are 
actually employed in practice. In America they were placed on the 
most inaccessible shelves of the vaults of the Central Banks. In many 
of the smaller countries they were virtually added to the legal reserves. 
They were exported with extreme reluctance and the loss of gold even 
from those reserves reacted upon the discount and currency policies of 
the losers. Further, it is clear that if all countries maintained free 
reserves, a considerable proportion of the total reserve of gold in the world 
would be rendered ineffective as a foundation for currency, with the result 
that the gold price level would be lower than under the alternative system. 
But the real argument against the proposed system is that a movement of 
gold would not be producing the effect upon internal policy that such a 
movement ought to produce under normal conditions. At best we should 
be using the cumbrous method of moving actual gold instead of the pre- 
war method of moving liquid capital or providing credit ; at the worst it 
would delay a domestic adjustment so long as to make such adjustment 
greater and more difficult and thus endanger the standard itself. For 
these reasons it seems to me that the proposal does not constitute an 
improvement upon the pre-war gold standard. The same reasons lead 
me to believe that the suggested compromise of establishing and main- 
taining a wide margin between the buying and selling prices of gold 
would destroy what is most valuable in the gold standard. 

If we ignore other metallic systems it seems to me that the real issue 
lies between the gold standard, rigorously interpreted, and the main- 
tenance of national currencies which are not linked together by being 
linked to gold or to any other common measure. When we abandoned 
the gold standard the alternative achieved considerable popularity in 
this country, but all recent experience has shown that, during a period 
of currency disturbance, it tends to increase rather than reduce our 
difficulties. My objection to the system, however, is due not to the 
fact that it has created or intensified difficulties under present conditions, 
but to the fact that it would create difficulties of the present type even 
though it were introduced under the best possible conditions. The 
system has been advocated on the ground that it would enable us or any 
other nation to pursue a currency policy that would maintain a stable 
price level. For reasons which I cannot give in this paper I believe 
that precisely that sort of stability which they seek is more likely to be 
achieved under the gold standard than under a system in which such 
stability is the immediate object of national policy. But it seems to me 
that a wider and deeper issue than even price stability is involved in the 
discussion of the two alternative monetary systems. The national 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

currency system is but one aspect of economic nationalism or economic 
isolation, of which tariffs is another. A national system of currency is 
intelligible if not defensible for a nation which isolates itself from the 
family of nations. It is not, however, consistent with a policy of inter- 
nationalism in other departments of economic activity. The gold standard 
stands for internationalism in economic affairs ; it is a condition of free 
development of trade between nations. Nor should it be forgotten that, 
if most countries were on the gold standard, secular changes in the value 
of gold would be relatively small. Post-war changes in the value of 
gold have been due not to the gold standard but to the failure of a number 
of countries to operate that standard. 

Without pausing to consider the case for bimetallism, I venture to 
express the belief that the restoration of the gold standard is necessary 
to the progress of the world in that future which is worth considering. 
I am content to leave the twenty-first century to our great-grandchildren. 
I do not, however, suggest that the gold standard should be immediately 
restored ; on the contrary, I fear that political considerations will drive 
us back to that standard before the essential preliminaries have been 
properly considered. In the first place, it would be folly on our part 
to return to gold until we knew precisely the rate of exchange that would 
enable international trade to be distributed in the manner determined 
by real costs of production. The new rates should be determined by 
purchasing power parities. We are not yet agreed, however, upon the 
precise meaning of purchasing power parity, neither do we possess the 
information that would enable us to estimate purchasing power parity, 
howsoever defined. Again, we should not return to gold until the price 
averages of different countries, expressed in their respective currencies, 
have reached those heights which are regarded as satisfactory ; for it 
is clear that subsequent changes must be international rather than purely 
domestic in character. Further, we should not restore the gold standard 
until individual countries are prepared to pursue investment policies 
that are appropriate to the remaining parts of their economic structures. 
It is too much to hope that the great mass of liquid capital which now 
readily — too readily — flows from one country to another will quickly 
be invested in long-term securities and thereby cease to be a danger 
to the financial stability of a number of countries, but it should be easy 
to form an international exchange stabilisation fund under the control 
of an appropriate body which, in effect, would perform the pre-war 
international function of the Bank of England. Such a body would 
direct the flow of funds according to the needs of individual countries, 
not, as at present, in the opposite direction. 

A word should be added on the question of tariffs. Before the war 
the tariff system of each country was determined by long-term considera- 
tions. During the last few years all countries (our own included) have 
found refuge in the doctrines of the mercantilists of earlier days. Tariffs 
have been used not to direct the development of industry but to direct 
the immediate flow of trade. An adverse balance of trade is no longer 
regarded as an incident of economic growth but as a calamity to be avoided 
at all costs. An established system of protection is not inconsistent 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 127 

with the operation of the gold standard, but frequent tariff manipulation 
to meet fluctuating trade balances is bound to render any international 
currency standard impossible. It is too much to hope that the world 
will abandon tariffs as a measure of protection, but it will be difficult 
to maintain the gold standard unless the countries of the world are pre- 
pared to abandon the system of ad hoc trade restrictions to overcome 
occasional deficits on current accounts. I do not believe, however, that 
I am too optimistic in stating that this difficulty would quickly disappear. 
The new practice of adjusting tariffs to failures to balance payments is 
largely the product of the failure of our credit system. If liquid capital 
had gone to the rescue of, instead of running away from, countries with 
adverse balances the need for dealing with the situation in another way 
would not have arisen. I therefore believe that if we could solve the 
problem of controlling the flow of credit, either through the creation of 
an international exchange stabilisation fund, or in some other way, the 
difficulties created by the new restrictions upon trade would also be 
solved. 

We are frequently told that a return to the gold standard is impossible 
so long as the world supply of gold is so largely concentrated in two 
countries. It is no doubt true that the present distribution of gold 
presents a serious difficulty, but I do not regard it as an insuperable 
difficulty. The present distribution of gold is the result of those post-war 
influences to which I have already referred. If we could restore those 
conditions which are essential to the maintenance of the gold standard it 
is not unlikely that a redistribution of gold according to apparent need 
would be accepted. Gold is only preferred to an earning asset so long as 
the earnings of the latter do not exceed the money estimate of the risk 
involved. In the last resort, however, the international price level in 
terms of gold matters less than the domestic price levels expressed in local 
currencies, so that the difficulty created by an unequal distribution of 
gold could be overcome by giving an appropriate gold value to paper 
currency and maintaining a relatively low legal reserve. Moreover, if 
domestic price levels, expressed in local currencies, are sufficiently high, 
the burden of fixed debts necessitating a flow of payments from one 
country to another would not be so heavy as to endanger the gold standard. 
A recent judgment in this country, and still more recent pronouncements 
in the United States, have shown that debts contracted in gold are no 
longer payable in the gold value expressed in the bonds. A foreign debt 
payable ' in sterling in gold ' in this country can be paid in sterling ; 
a gold bond payable in gold dollars can be paid in dollars. This decision 
has produced a profound effect upon the significance of the gold price 
level in the world and, therefore, upon the present distribution of gold 
supplies. For these reasons, while admitting the importance of a change 
in the distribution of gold, I do not believe that the present distribution, 
or the probable distribution in the near future, constitutes an insuperable 
obstacle to the return to the gold standard. 

I hope it will be evident that I neither contemplate nor desire an im- 
mediate return to the gold standard. Many changes must take place before 
such action can be taken with safety. When a new currency measure is 



128 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

passed we shall be legislating not for a year but, we hope, for a generation 
or more. It should not be forgotten, however, that the gold standard is 
a form of discipline which may itself help to restore some of those con- 
ditions that enable it to be operated with success. It is a problem in the 
art of government to decide when the necessary changes have occurred, 
and how much may be left to the discipline of the standard itself. In 
deciding the actual gold value to be given to sterling, I hope that the 
post-war difficulties of the unsheltered industries will not be forgotten by 
the Treasury. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



SOME EXPERIENCES IN MECHANICAL 

ENGINEERING 



ADDRESS BY 

RICHARD W. ALLEN, C.B.E., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The variety and range of subject-matter selected for the addresses of 
this Section reminds me how vast a field of human endeavour is now 
occupied by the engineer ; how manifold are the branches of his pro- 
fession ; how diversified are the activities ; and with reflections such as 
these, I realised that I could not hope to range over the whole of the 
relatively limited though still vast field of mechanical engineering, though 
through a life of fifty years I came to the conclusion that for the purpose 
of this address ' Some Experiences in Mechanical Engineering ' may be 
a suitable subject. 

While discussing the progress which has taken place it seems desirable 
to give some definition of what is meant by ' mechanical engineering . * The 
expression is often used loosely, and indeed it is not easy to sum up the 
scope of mechanical engineering in a few words. For electrical engineer- 
ing activities are almost inseparably interwoven with those of the 
mechanical engineer ; and the same may be said of civil engineering. 
There is in truth no hard-and-fast dividing line between the various 
branches of the engineering profession ; no one point at which we may 
confidently say, ' Here mechanical engineering ends, and there some 
other form of engineering activity begins.' Nevertheless it is manifest 
that if engineering can best be defined as the adaptation of the forces of 
nature for the service of mankind, then, I suggest, mechanical engineering 
may be described as that branch which deals with invention, design, 
construction, and the installation and operation of machinery by means 
of which those forces are harnessed and applied. 

By the extent to which natural resources are thus utilised one may 
measure — materially, if not morally — the degree of civilisation of a people. 
The story of the progress of civilisation, in the use of machinery, is a 
fascinating but a somewhat neglected study. Just as the accumulations 
of succeeding ages have buried the remains of early man, so the rapid 
succession of new inventions and the modifications of old ones have 
heaped up a quantity of material that tends to diminish our appreciation 
of the labours of the past. We are apt to take most things for granted, 
and to pay little heed to the efforts of those earlier workers by whose 
labours we profit — notably in the use of machines. 



I30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The history of discovery and invention constitutes, indeed, a relatively 
insignificant portion of ' history.' Too frequently does this consist 
almost exclusively of a recital of the political changes, the military achieve- 
ments, and the rise and fall of nations and peoples, and of the men who 
have had brief authority over them. Men and even nations pass and are 
forgotten, but knowledge begets knowledge and cannot be stayed, con- 
tinuing to expand at a rate which it seems that no past epoch can possibly 
rival, while it must be exceedingly doubtful whether the future will afford 
a parallel ; but a time will assuredly come when the achievements of men 
and matters of the present day will be appraised at their full value. 

It is, above all, an age of time-saving and labour-saving devices. If 
mechanical engineering is not to fail in its destiny, then its gift to mankind 
must be that of increased leisure. It must be admitted, however, that at 
present the ' load ' is distributed very unevenly, nearly three millions of 
our people being unemployed, so that they must be carried on the shoulders 
of the rest. There can be no question that we are now moving so quickly 
that it often seems doubtful whether mankind can adapt itself to the 
rapidly changing conditions ; and there is thus even a tendency to ques- 
tion the advantage of science, and the value of progress, as factors in 
human happiness. It is as if conservative and unimaginative humanity, 
caught up by a sea of advancing and fast-accumulating knowledge, sorely 
buffeted by the waves it has created, is being carried into unknown waters, 
far from the lighthouses of past experience. 

In mechanical engineering the last few decades have witnessed almost 
incredible advances. We who live in these amazing times cannot appre- 
ciate the rate of change, and can comprehend only imperfectly the vastness 
of the new era. One may recollect that Francis Bacon, whom Sir Richard 
Gregory has designated as the great apostle of modern scientific method, 
' aspired to take all knowledge for his province.' It is a striking com- 
mentary upon the progress of science that engineering knowledge alone 
is now far beyond the scope of any one man, even though he were of the 
mental calibre of the great Lord Chancellor himself. 

It may be useful to look back over the past fifty years and consider the 
changes which that period has effected in the field of mechanical engineer- 
ing . Turning first to electric power plant , we may note that , fifty years ago , 
there were no steam turbines, no Diesel engines, no petrol engines — 
indeed, no internal combustion engines of any kind other than gas engines. 
Again, while the electrical generation, transmission and application of 
power were then practically unknown, it is estimated that the world's 
production of electrical energy to-day is of the order of 200,000 million 
units per annum. As recently as the year 1895 Lord Kelvin put forward 
the statement that he saw no reason why power stations of 100,000 h.p. 
under one roof should not be feasible in the future. This prediction, 
then regarded as a fantastic dream, has been abundantly fulfilled, for the 
development of this power in one turbo-generator is now accomplished ; 
and here we may consider briefly the development of three very important 
contributions to mechanical science — namely, the steam turbine, the 
Diesel engine, and the centrifugal pump. 

The development of the steam turbine has taken place entirely during 



G.— ENGINEERING 131 

the last fifty years. It was the great pioneering labours of Sir Charles 
Parsons, however, which laid the main foundations for the turbine design 
of to-day. He saw the need for compounding his first turbine, of reaction 
type. This simple non-condensing turbine was naturally very un- 
economical, and as a result the condensing turbine was conceived, where- 
upon turbine steam consumptions and costs began to approximate to 
those of the best reciprocating engines. In the early stages of turbine 
development considerable difficulty arose from the fact of this prime 
mover being more suitable for large outputs, for which in those times 
there was no demand. Parsons next initiated the application of the 
turbine to ship propulsion, building the s.s. Turbinia, in which the pro- 
pellers were driven direct ; the result being that, while the turbine speed 
was too low, that of the propellers was too high to give the best results. 

In the meantime the experience gained on the Turbinia had resulted 
in the design and adoption of the geared turbine, which not only improved 
the position for the smaller sets on land, but also found the solution to 
the problem of marine propulsion — namely, a turbine running at a high 
speed and a propeller at a much lower one, thus producing a condition 
which gave maximum efficiency. 

Progress on the marine side has been so rapid that units capable of 
developing 50,000 shaft h.p. have been constructed. 

On land the progress has been no less rapid, and the application of the 
geared turbine has enabled continuous current dynamos to be built for 
capacities up to 3,000 kw. per machine. Further, the application of the 
geared turbine has been extended to operating various kinds of mills 
and to other fields where its greater economy of space and steam con- 
sumption give it advantages over the steam engine. 

Recent developments in turbine design have tended to endorse the 
principle laid down by Carnot, that the temperature of heat supply 
should be separated as widely as possible from that of heat rejection. 
Thus, total temperatures are creeping upwards. Among other means 
of improving the efficiency is that of feed heating by means of steam 
tapped off from the turbine between the expansions. 

There are many examples of large turbine plant approaching a thermal 
efficiency of 30 per cent, from fuel to electricity, and machines have been 
constructed giving, at the terminals, one kw.-hour for 10,000 B.Th.U., 
corresponding to a thermal efficiency of the turbine of more than 
34 per cent. Although there are turbines at present in commission 
developing 200,000 kw., these very large machines, I understand, show 
little, if any, improvement in efficiency over a machine having an output 
of, say, 40,000 to 50,000 kw. ; and it seems rather unlikely that the size 
of unit will tend to increase in the future. 

The development of the oil engine is another feature of cardinal im- 
portance in recent engineering history. It was only forty-one years ago 
that Dr. Rudolf Diesel obtained his famous patent which was destined to 
effect a revolution in the design of an oil engine. It was the intention of 
the inventor to burn coal direct in the working cylinder, but this was 
found to be impracticable, owing to the large quantities of unbumt 
residue. He thereupon turned to the possibilities of oil, and, after four 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

years of persevering experiment, the first practical engine was constructed. 
It may be that a satisfactory internal combustion engine, utilising powdered 
coal as fuel, will be one of the developments of the future ; but so far oil 
has proved to be the only fuel capable of satisfactory employment in 
engines of the Diesel type. 

We may consider for a moment the conditions under which the fuel 
■was to be burnt in the working cylinder, conditions which — whether the 
fuel be in colloidal or liquid form, and whether its injection be by high- 
pressure air or by mechanical means — are fundamentally the same to-day. 
The Diesel cycle relies, for the ignition of the fuel delivered to the cylinder 
during the working stroke, upon the temperature resulting from the high- 
compression pressure to which the charge of air is submitted, a pressure 
of some 500 lb. per sq. in. Ignition begins at about top dead centre, 
and continues for a definite part of the power stroke. The burning of 
the charge takes place at roughly constant pressure, the process being 
sometimes designated as the ' slow combustion ' or ' constant pressure ' 
cycle. In comparison with other available types of prime mover, the 
earliest practical Diesel engines were thermally very efficient, and this, 
together with the manifold advantages of oil for fuel, has led to an 
increasing exploitation of the oil engine down to the present day. 

The advantages of the Diesel engine for ship propulsion — resulting in 
a decided economy as regards fuel, space, weight — were recognised early 
in the present century. A milestone in the history of technical develop- 
ment is denoted by the launching of the Selandia twenty-three years 
ago, a vessel 370 ft. long, fitted with a four-cycle engine. It is interest- 
ing to record that this ship is still in service and very successful results 
are still being obtained. During the last twenty years considerable 
developments in the building of marine Diesel engines have taken place. 

The supply of high-pressure air for fuel injection purposes has always 
been a difficult problem. With normal designs, a pressure of at least 
1,000 lb. per sq. in. must be available, while the compressors must keep 
in tune for long periods of service, involving a considerable maintenance 
charge for suction and delivery valves, cooling coils and compressor pistons. 
Again, several years before Diesel's patent, Ackroyd Stuart had made use 
of mechanical injection on a low-compression engine, but, in spite of the 
various advantages of this system of injection, there was for a long time no 
serious attempt to apply it to the Diesel engine. Not only does the 
employment of mechanical injection remove the disadvantages associated 
with high-pressure air, but dispensing with the compressor drive from the 
crankshaft improves engine balance, reduces the overall length and weight 
of the power unit, and increases the overall thermal efficiency of the 
engine. A notable feature of the mechanical injection engine is the 
ability of the governor to take sole charge of the engine throughout the 
entire power and speed range, without the necessary complications by 
having the blast air supply under control when running under a varying 
speed range.' 

More recent developments in engines operating on both the ' constant 
pressure ' and ' mixed pressure ' cycles have led to gradual but persistent 
reductions in the weight and size of the components, thus enabling speeds 



G.— ENGINEERING 133 

to be raised and the power output per unit of weight greatly increased. 
At the present day engines are made of a vast number of different types, 
two- and four-cycle, single- and double-acting, vertical and horizontal, 
each meeting a particular set of conditions in service. Starting by com- 
pressed air is still the most usual method, being universal in the case of 
large engines. For traction purposes, however, and for the smaller 
stationary sets, electrical and mechanical methods now receive increasing 
attention. 

There is boundless scope for the application of the Diesel engine, both 
actual and potential. Its low initial cost, the limited space required for 
its installation, the ease of starting from cold, and its low costs of operation 
and maintenance, are all contributory to its great industrial exploitation, 
particularly for such public services as water and electricity supply, 
sewage and drainage, apart from industrial application. For marine 
purposes the Diesel engine is making steady progress in its adoption for 
the main propelling machinery. With its convenience and reliability 
for auxiliary purposes it is so widely appreciated as to require only passing 
mention here. Examples of this type of plant are to be seen in many 
modern passenger ships. The recent development of a high-speed 
engine, combined with small size and low specific weight, make this 
engine particularly suitable in railway work for locomotives, where low 
operating costs and low standby losses are essential. This is a sphere 
into which the Diesel engine in our country has only recently entered, but 
its singular suitability for this type of service encourages one to expect 
rapid strides to be made in this direction. So far as industrial road 
vehicles are concerned, this type of oil engine has come to stay, while its 
resiliency of running has permitted its installation in crowded residential 
areas — even in the basements of steel structures consisting of flats, where 
freedom from noise and vibration are imperative. There seems, indeed, 
to be no limit to the sphere of utility — of necessity, even — for this prime 
mover. 

The centrifugal pump is also largely a development of the period under 
review. As is frequently the case, the principle was known long before 
it was applied successfully to practical uses. There is evidence that 
Leonardo da Vinci, the great artist, engineer and inventor, realised the 
possibility of utilising centrifugal force for raising water, though the 
invention of the centrifugal pump is usually attributed to Johann Jordan. 

So far as known records go, centrifugal pumps began to be used for 
industrial purposes in the second decade of last century ; but at the time 
of the Great Exhibition in 1851 they were still regarded as a mysterious 
novelty. One shown by Appold at this exhibition created much interest 
because its impellers would pass an orange, this being one of the first 
steps in an important modern application of this pump, that of dealing 
with solid materials. For a long time the centrifugal pump could not 
compete with that of the plunger type for the greater pressures and heads, 
its efficiency falling off rapidly in the higher ranges, so that its use was 
confined chiefly to low lifts. When Osborne Reynolds's patent was 
disclosed in 1875 the multi-stage turbine centrifugal pump appeared, and 
the use of guide vanes was found greatly to improve the hydraulic 



134 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

efficiency at heads which had hitherto been thought quite outside the 
range of this pump. 

In the pioneer days of centrifugal pump development, when the method 
of calculation for design was somewhat rudimentary, a number of basic 
facts were discovered experimentally, from which empirical relationships 
were devised to meet the various conditions imposed. Later on, the 
advances made in the design of high-speed prime movers, particularly 
of steam engines and electric motors, gained for this type of pump a pre- 
eminence which it has maintained ever since and seems likely to enjoy 
for some time to come. To-day, although we have still much to learn, 
centrifugal pump design has become a highly specialised study, and 
characteristics can be forecast, for numerous combinations of conditions, 
with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Compared with the plunger type, 
the centrifugal pump has the advantages of much lower capital and main- 
tenance cost, with concomitant economy in space and weight, which 
renders it particularly suitable for use on board ship. It can be run in 
special cases with a shut-off head. It has a reasonable measure of un- 
chokeability, while its delivery at constant pressure makes it peculiarly 
applicable to boiler feed and similar duties. 

A striking application of this pump has been in the handling of coal, 
sands, gravels, and the like, where, in spite of the abrasive nature of the 
materials, maintenance costs can be kept comparatively low, while lined 
pumps of special construction are capable of passing stones and boulders 
up to the size of the delivery branch. 

The much improved efficiency now obtainable from centrifugal turbo- 
pumps has led to a marked increase in their use for waterworks installa- 
tions, where the high speed enables large quantities of water to be de- 
livered from a comparatively small bore-hole. The pump is suspended, 
often many hundred feet below the surface, from a rising main, the 
impellers being driven by vertical shafting supported in bearings fitted 
to the rising main itself, or, occasionally, by an electric motor which runs 
submerged. 

A comparatively recent development is the axial-flow type of pump, 
and this, with its advantages of reduced weight and space, and higher 
speed, may — when dealing with low heads — be said to carry the low cost 
of construction and installation a stage further. Because the flow is uni- 
directional, the pump being merely an incident in the pipe, higher speeds 
can be obtained with lighter prime movers. Intermediate types, partly 
centrifugal and partly axial-flow, have also been devised. While no one 
dare prophesy as to the future of the pump, it would appear that both 
centrifugal and axial-flow types are in essence so simple that it is difficult 
to see how any future improvement can be expected, except in detail. 

These technical developments have amazingly increased the field of 
application of the centrifugal pump, particularly for graving and floating 
docks, impounding for wet docks, and in the drainage of watery wastes 
and the irrigation of barren deserts, so as to bring large areas of ground 
previously unproductive into a state of high fertility — often affording, 
indeed, a sure means of subsistence to peoples whose very existence had 
hitherto been precarious. In our own country, before the beginning of 



G— ENGINEERING 135 

the present century, only a comparatively small area of the fenland had 
been drained, and then almost entirely by antique methods, as by scoop 
wheels driven by windmills or beam engines, whose efficiency was in 
inverse ratio to their aesthetic value. Here the development of modern 
steam and oil engine-driven centrifugal pumps has supplied a consider- 
able impetus to reclamation. In China and Japan great areas of waste 
land have similarly been drained and brought into cultivation. 

The economic advantages of irrigation work in Egypt and the Sudan 
are familiar to many. In Egypt during the last fifty years the develop- 
ments are very remarkable for their size and number of installations. 
Only after a visit to that country can one fully appreciate the vastness of 
the enterprise and the work carried out there by the engineer. In the 
Sudan, irrigation schemes date from the Battle of Omdurman, when the 
power of the Mahdi was broken by Lord Kitchener, and the tribes of the 
Sudan, whose previous occupation had been largely that of war, had 
somehow or other to maintain themselves in a country ill supplied by 
nature with the means of peaceful existence. The suggestion that cotton 
could be successfully grown in the Sudan, followed by the construction 
of experimental pumping stations — even so far afield as Fashoda — was 
crowned with success, leading to the foundation of the Gezira Irrigation 
Scheme and to the formation of the Sudan Plantations Syndicate, so that 
to-day the Sudan furnishes a considerable proportion of the world's 
supply of this commodity, and of the highest quality. In many other 
countries, as Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere, irrigation methods 
only possible by the installation of modern pumping plant have resulted — 
as, for example, at Mildura — in the development of Australia's great fruit- 
growing industries. 

Another field in which production has been greatly increased by 
mechanical methods is the tin industry of the Federated Malay States. 
The antiquated Chinese method of raising water from mines by means of 
hand buckets, sometimes in one or two up to as many as six stages, was 
slow, laborious and costly, as compared with the use of a centrifugal pump 
of modern type. Again, the method of hydraulicing — where a jet of 
high-pressure water is directed against a hillside, so as to wash it com- 
pletely away for treatment — has provided still further scope for the use 
of centrifugal pumping plant. 

Shipbuilding has always been one of our national industries in which 
we Britishers take a legitimate pride — an industry in which we are leaders 
throughout the world. Wherever the British flag flies, in the Navy or 
the Mercantile Marine, graving or floating docks are to be found. To the 
engineer the design and construction of such docks present problems of 
absorbing interest — problems ever new, since the conditions to be faced 
differ widely between one country and another, requiring special treatment 
to suit the local surroundings. 

To deal adequately with the pumping machinery required for graving 
and floating docks both at home and abroad would take too long, but 
nevertheless it is a subject which has always appealed to me as one not 
only fascinating but full of romance. 

A survey of recent mechanical progress, though only in outline, would 



136 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

be incomplete without reference to the various classes of machinery used 
for purposes of production. Nevertheless the changes which have taken 
place in recent years are so extensive that they can only be indicated here 
in general terms. It would be difficult, without reference to illustrations 
in the records of the time, or to actual exhibits such as those in the Science 
Museum at South Kensington, to convey to the younger generation of 
engineers how elementary was most of the industrial machinery of 1883 
compared with that of to-day — how relatively limited in quantity, capacity 
and range. Yet already the seeds of change had been sown. For several 
decades British ideals in machine construction had been in conflict with 
those which had found their way to this country from abroad. British 
engineers were accustomed to an ample factor of safety, massive design, 
slow-speed operation, and a regard for appearance. On the other hand, 
engineers in foreign countries were undoubtedly more ready to experi- 
ment freely with novel designs, and were responsible for introducing into 
this country what was then known as the ' manufacturing principle,' 
whereby large numbers of standardised articles were produced by repeti- 
tion processes, with the aid of special-purpose machines designed for 
a single operation, thus reducing the necessity for skilled labour. As 
far back as 1854 ^ it is recorded that Joseph Whitworth visited the United 
States and reported favourably on machinery for repetition work. In 
devising machinery of this kind, he reported, * the Americans showed an 
amount of ingenuity, combined with undaunted energy, which we would 
do well to emulate if we meant to hold our present position in the great 
markets of the world.' About the same time James Nasmyth had visited 
the Colt pistol factory, then newly established in England, ^ and confessed 
that he had felt humiliated by the experience. He remarked further 
that ' The acquaintance with correct principles has been carried out in 
a fearless and masterly manner, and they have been pushed to their fullest 
extent ; and the result is the attainment of perfection such as I have never 
seen before.' ^ But though British engineers of outstanding ability thus 
gave generous recognition to the lessons which were to be learnt from 
abroad, there was — as Nasmyth himself pointed out — ' a degree of timidity 
resulting from traditional notions, and attachment to old systems ' ; and 
this conservatism, no doubt reinforced by relatively lower labour costs, 
still held back the thoroughgoing mechanisation of British industry 
fifty years ago, and indeed for long afterwards. But in the end, with our 
well-known genius for compromise, we have succeeded in combining the 
best features of both types, with the result that British machinery still 
maintains its high prestige in the markets of the world. It is noteworthy 
too that other countries have not hesitated to benefit by the high 
traditions of design and workmanship which have always been upheld by 
British engineers. 

But though the adoption wherever possible of repetition methods, 
involving standardisation and interchangeability of parts, had a marked 

1 New York Industrial Exhibition : Special Reports of Mr. George Wallis 
and Mr. Joseph Whitworth, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, vol. xxxvi. 

* Colt's factory established in England, 1851. 

* Select Committee on Small- Arms, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, vol. xviii. 



G.— ENGINEERING 137 

influence on mechanical engineering progress, there was another influence 
which was destined to bring about revolutionary changes in the design 
and construction of machinery, in this country and, indeed, the world 
over. This was the gradual substitution of science, and the scientific 
method, for the ' rule-of-thumb ' procedure of the so-called ' practical 
man.' The change in this regard has taken place almost entirely during 
the past fifty years. 

As Sir Alfred Ewing pointed out in his Presidential Address to this 
section a few years ago, there were in 1881 a few great leaders — a Kelvin 
or a Hopkinson — who possessed the right kind of basic understanding, 
who could turn to theory for guidance and had the engineer's instinct to 
give it application. But most of the zealous workers of those days were 
groping in what was at best a half light, full of enterprise and enthusiasm 
and not much more. But the few great mentors to whom Sir Alfred 
Ewing referred were the pioneers who helped to bring about what I 
believe to have been a great material revolution in human affairs. For it 
was they, together with other leaders in the universities and elsewhere, 
who laboured at the development of engineering theory, and who first 
taught us to realise the illimitable benefits to be secured by the application 
of physical science to the whole range of engineering activity. When 
I look back over the period now under review I realise that the greatest 
lesson conveyed is that the advancement of engineering is in the last 
resort determined by the advancement of physical science. I would, 
indeed, go further, and say that my experience, specialised though it has 
been, has taught me that the whole structure of modern civilisation rests 
upon the progressive application of physical science to the ever expanding 
requirements of mankind. 

During the past half-century there has been a similarly phenomenal 
development in many other branches of mechanical engineering, notably 
those concerned with the naval and military services, radio-communica- 
tion, aviation, transport (including rail and road), etc. etc. Considerations 
of time make it impossible to deal adequately with these developments 
here, but, as we have already seen, it seems certain that at no previous time 
in the history of the world has mechanical development been so rapid. 

While the history of engineering development is a fascinating subject, 
we have to live in the present, at a time when economic considerations 
have become of vital importance in their bearing upon technical matters, 
so that no apology should be necessary for discussing very briefly the 
scientific methods of carrying out an engineering installation of to-day. 

Years ago any engineering firm of repute could obtain a considerable 
proportion of its work with no particular effort, sometimes even without 
the necessity of preparing a contract. Such times have gone by. There 
is severe competition for what seems often a somewhat limited amount of 
work, and sustained and intensive effort is necessary to secure the amount 
of business requisite to keep open one's works. The soil must be tilled 
diligently — sometimes, indeed, for years — before the crop is reaped. 
To achieve this end no effort must be spared. A prospective customer 
often requires much education as to the savings which will accrue from the 
substitution of new and modern plant for his obsolete machinery, and to 

F 2 



138 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

appreciate fully the varying considerations of first cost, running expenses, 
maintenance charges, and the like. Where, as with Government depart- 
ments or municipal authorities, the scheme has often been developed to 
a considerable extent before tenders are called for, less preliminary work 
by a firm is required. The difficulties of preparing an estimate are not 
always fully appreciated, for changes in the costs of labour and materials 
must be envisaged, while urgent work will require the working of over- 
time, at higher rates. Consideration must be given to the financial stand- 
ing of the customer, the necessary safeguards for both parties must be 
provided, and, in recent years, where foreign customers are concerned, 
the fluctuating rates of exchange have created further problems with 
corresponding anxieties. 

In the engineering of a large installation it is not always possible for 
those at the head of affairs to attend to more than the general scheme. 
An engineer of suitable experience is consequently deputed to conduct 
the whole contract in all its branches, and he will call upon the technical 
experts attached to the various departments concerned. A document, 
referred to as a technical order sheet, is issued containing a concise synopsis 
of the client's specification, all special requirements and relevant matter 
concerning duties, speeds, consumptions of the various units comprising 
the whole installation. This document must further contain all informa- 
tion necessary for the various departments of offices and works. Accurate 
detailed records must be kept of all expenditure incurred in the con- 
struction and installation of the machinery. This can best be done by 
assigning to each section of the work a letter to indicate the class of 
machinery, and a series of numbers to denote the individual items. These 
identification marks will be stamped on each of the parts and will appear 
finally upon the finished article, thus facilitating the ordering of spare 
parts at a later date. Against these numbers, the draughtsman will book 
his time, the foreman will draw his materials from the stores, and the 
workman will fill up his time sheets. The cost office will then have no 
difficulty in ascertaining the expenditure at any stage of a contract, and 
will ultimately arrive at the total cost in full detail, for guidance in future 
estimates. 

The question of housing the machinery has also to be considered, and 
if new plant has to be erected and operated beside existing plant which 
must meanwhile be kept running, difficulties may arise, the overcoming 
of which may call for ingenuity and resource of a high order. The 
preparation of drawings is the most important step in the earlier stages 
of a contract, and success will depend very largely upon the amount of 
thought and time that has been given to the work in the design and 
drawing office. As in the case of correspondence, so also with the drawing 
office, one leading draughtsman must be in charge of the whole of the 
work, so that the various sections of the scheme may be in harmonious 
relation with each other. Having obtained all the necessary technical 
details from the design office, the leading draughtsman will prepare 
a preliminary lay-out of the scheme, and this is critically examined, in 
conjunction with the customer, to settle any new points which may then 
have arisen. When all has been suitably arranged, a general arrangement 



G.— ENGINEERING 139 

drawing is prepared, followed by detail drawings of the larger parts, 
which are issued to the pattern shop and forge, while foundation drawings 
are sent to the customer, so that the buildings can be constructed or 
adapted. Drawings of all remaining details and pipework will follow, 
complete with lists of material and any special drawings for erection on 
site. 

An important section of the works manager's organisation is the plan- 
ning department. This department will interest itself in preparing 
a programme of dates by which the different items must be complete in 
pattern shop, foundry, smiths' shop, machine shop, erecting shop, etc., 
so that the promised delivery date will be adhered to. This also involves 
a programme of work for the larger machine tools extending possibly 
six months ahead, specifying the hours allowed for the different operations. 

The quality of the materials is the concern of the works laboratory, 
which must ensure that all material specifications are complied with, and, 
where the customer's inspector desires to witness tests, must arrange for 
these to be carried out without the causation of delay in delivering the 
material in question to the machine shops. In addition to such routine 
testing, the laboratory should carry out considerable investigatory work, 
to keep up with the ever-increasing demands of the designer and for the 
improvement of materials generally. Those parts of the machinery 
required to withstand pressure must be subjected to hydraulic tests some 
50 to 100 per cent, in excess of the maximum anticipated. 

Where possible, running tests are made at the firm's works under condi- 
tions approximating to those on site. A Diesel engine and dynamo set 
should be tested separately, the engine by the dynamometer brake method, 
and the dynamo electrically ; and a combined test may finally be run in 
the presence of the purchaser. The testing of steam turbines usually 
presents greater difficulties by reason of the great variation in conditions, 
but enough data must be thus accumulated on which to base a judgment 
of performance. Pump testing has also its complications, for a mine 
pump may deliver a small quantity of water against a head of 3,000 ft., 
while a graving dock pump may be required to handle a large quantity 
against a head of less than 50 ft. 

Transport of the finished machinery to site must be considered from 
the efficiency point of view by rail, road, water, or air, the last named from 
necessity rather than efficiency. 

In concluding this part of the address which refers to engineering 
works of various kinds, I have endeavoured to show the changing circum- 
stances in which we live to-day and the difficulties which we have to face, 
requiring constant research and experiment. I would here like to pay 
my tribute to the Director, Sir Joseph Petavel, and his staff at the National 
Physical Laboratory, and express my gratitude for the help they have so 
readily given. It is my experience, and I recommend it to others, that 
when one is faced with a difficult problem the staff at the National Physical 
Laboratory is always ready to offer advice. I have not forgotten the recent 
meeting held at the Royal Society, under the chairmanship of Sir Richard 
Glazebrook, when a discussion took place on the suggestions for research 
work required for the advancement in engineering. 



I40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Further, all engineers owe a debt to the British Standards Institution, 
a very live body under the able directorship of Mr. LeMaistre, which 
has secured for our country a leadership in standards. Much time is now 
saved by the adoption of the various standards recommended by the 
Institution . 

Here also I must refer to the invaluable services rendered by the 
technical Press of this country — of which those old-established journals, 
The Engineer and Engineerhig, are outstanding examples and repre- 
sentative of all that is best in modern journalism. It may be safely 
asserted that no news service throughout the world is actuated by higher 
principles, has a greater regard for accuracy, or shows a more steadfast 
sense of responsibility than that provided by our technical journals. The 
result is a trustworthy and highly educational record of engineering 
progress, illustrated by admirably selected examples of recent practice and 
developments both at home and abroad. To the leading articles in these 
journals most of us have long been accustomed to turn for helpful and 
stimulating comment upon matters of current interest. 

Having dealt very briefly with a few reflections and given examples of 
modern engineering, this cannot be regarded as a complete story without 
a few remarks on the subject of the human side of engineering. 

I have frequently been asked the question by many professors in 
engineering, ' What kind of work do you give our students to do ? ' That 
is a natural question, and the answer is largely dependent on the young 
engineer's outlook after he has served his pupilage. 

The system of training which I am interested in was started by my 
father over fifty years ago, established on a sound basis, and has proved 
remarkably successful. The scheme has been modified from time to 
time to keep pace with changing circumstances, especially post-war 
conditions. 

It will be obvious that the industry cannot be carried on efficiently 
without a continuous supply of highly trained engineers and craftsmen, 
and the training of the engineer is the all-important question. All 
systems of workshop training should be available without payment of 
premium, and it is now general practice to pay wages to all students and 
apprentices. It is necessary to provide workshop training for three main 
classes of students. First, there is the student who wishes to become 
a professional engineer, capable of taking highly responsible positions on 
the administrative, executive, technical or commercial sides of the 
industry. There is, and there always will be, a considerable diversity of 
opinion as to the merits of different systems of training for the higher 
posts, and, since the characteristics and personality of the individual are 
varied, it becomes obvious that the course which is ideal for one is 
not necessarily best suited for another. In any case, a university training 
is desirable, as developing a disciplined mind and ensuring that thorough 
grounding in the fundamentals without which no engineer can be complete. 
An essentially Scottish system of training, which has proved very success- 
ful, is the ' sandwich system ' of winter in college and summer in the 
works. It is sometimes advocated that a student should undergo some 
years of works training before proceeding to the university. My own 



G.— ENGINEERING 141 

experience leads me to believe that a university course, followed by works 
training, will be found generally most successful. Having completed the 
university portion of his training, it is not advisable for the student to 
decide upon the particular section of the industry in which he will engage, 
for, without a thorough working knowledge of the whole, neither he him- 
self, nor those who have so far been responsible for his training, can possess 
sufficient data about his capabilities, or the particular branch of engineer- 
ing for which he is most suited. Before this is decided it is essential that 
he should spend three years in some selected engineering works, passing 
from the pattern shop through the foundry to the forge, on to the machine 
and fitting and erecting shops, through the steam engine, oil engine, and 
electrical testing departments, and so on to the drawing and design 
offices. Interspersed among this portion of his training there will be 
various periods of erection work either at home or abroad. Some time 
in his third year of training he and his superiors can begin to form an 
opinion concerning the branch in which his particular abilities can be 
most fruitfully employed. He may be mathematically minded, in which 
case he would be most useful on the scientific and technical side, A man 
of strong practical bent would find ample scope for his talents in some 
such post as that of assistant to the works manager. Or his predilections 
and personal attributes may constitute him an ideal salesman ; or he may 
have a desire to go abroad. In the training of the engineer this practical 
experience, obtained in all the main departments of a large works, must 
be regarded as a fundamental necessity, and he will obtain at the same 
time that contact with and understanding of his fellow-men which will 
give him a capacity for co-operation and leadership, indispensable for the 
professional engineer of to-day. 

There is next the student who comes into the works from a public or 
secondary school, after reaching School Certificate or Higher School 
Certificate standard. He may ultimately attain to the same posts as are 
available to the university-trained student, but the road is harder, and only 
to be traversed by those possessed of enthusiasm and determination. Not 
only must he pursue a three or four years' course, passing through all the 
main departments, but he must also attend evening classes, so as to raise 
his education as nearly as possible to the standard of the university student. 
During his passage through the works he must become a student of one 
of the three institutions — Civil, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers — 
and, if his capabilities be wide enough, he should take an external uni- 
versity degree. Much hard and intensive work is entailed, and there are 
many who fall by the wayside, either from physical disability or flagging 
enthusiasm. But those who succeed, whose character impels them to 
overcome, by pains and tribulation, an initial handicap which can prove 
very hampering, are among the salt of the profession. 

A further problem of industrial training is involved in the production 
of craftsmen, chiefly recruited from boys leaving an elementary school at 
the age of fourteen or fifteen, who, after a preliminary probationary period 
in the works, are apprenticed, at the age of sixteen years, to some par- 
ticular branch of the trade. It is obvious that the general training of any 
such boy must continue in some way or other during the whole of his 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

apprenticeship, for only thus can he acquire the educational and technical 
equipment necessary for his duties and position. The way to the attain- 
ment of more responsible positions must not be barred even to these, who 
should not be allowed to pursue their way unencouraged by the hope of 
attaining a worth-while goal. Thus, while the boy, during his five years' 
apprenticeship, is attending evening classes and seeking to acquire know- 
ledge in all possible ways by which to qualify himself for the pursuit of 
his trade, he should be able, by competitive examination in the works, to 
qualify for a ' student scholarship,' from which point he may advance to 
positions normally open only to those with university or equivalent 
training. The ' scholarship ladder ' from the elementary school to the 
university must have its equivalent ' apprenticeship ladder ' in the works, 
and it must be just as possible to-day for another George Stephenson to 
begin at the bottom of the social ladder and achieve the heights above. 

The training of boys other than apprentices presents an even more 
difficult problem. Such boys may often be temporarily engaged in 
' blind-alley ' occupations, and it is essential to provide for their transfer, 
at a sufficiently early period, into other channels which provide proper 
opportunities for advancement and the attainment of a satisfactory status. 
Any boy worth training should, of course, become an apprentice, when 
his training is automatically provided for. 

Training, however, is not confined solely to the material and technical 
side. Although the passage of a student through any works may appear 
to be a severe and laboriously practical affair, it should at the same time 
engender a spirit very much akin to the Public School spirit, which is 
essential to the formation of a true engineering character. Amongst our 
own students at Bedford this spirit is fostered, even though past students 
may be scattered over the whole world, by the publication of an annual 
Works Magazine, and the formation of a Past and Present Students 
Association, which holds an annual reunion and dinner, maintaining 
contact which is so valuable. 

One cannot leave this subject without paying a justly deserved tribute 
to the craftsman upon whom devolves the task of translating the ideas of 
others into practical shape. The production of work of the first quality 
necessitates the loyal and intelligent co-operation of all, and the quality 
of the finished article reflects the ability of every one of those responsible 
for its production. There must also be remembered those who are sent, 
often abroad, to bring the erection and completion of some engineering 
works to a successful issue. Such men must possess ability, character, 
and that quality of leadership which, difficult though it may be to define, 
is none the less real and essential. Circumstances may sometimes be 
those presenting unparalleled difficulties, but the fact that they are in- 
variably overcome, and that other countries have on occasion employed 
British engineers to erect their work, affords striking confirmation that 
they stand pre-eminent in their craft. 

I must here refer to the work of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 
The Institution was founded with the objects of promoting the theory 
and practice of the science in all its branches, to promote inventions use- 
ful to its members and the community, to afford opportunities for the 



G.— ENGINEERING 143 

meeting and interchange of ideas, and the collection and publication of 
information concerning mechanical engineering in general. To the 
development of both the science and the art the Institution has made 
many notable contributions, and the advancement in status of the 
mechanical engineer of to-day is due very largely to its intensive and 
continued efforts. 

The work of this body has been no less valuable in the matter of train- 
ing. The successive stages of Studentship, Graduateship, Associate 
Membership and full membership of the Institution — combining an 
examination with the requisite practical experience for each grade — 
constitute a means of qualification for higher posts, and this course 
should be followed by every young student, whether or not he already 
possesses a university degree. To the student who does not, it affords 
an alternative qualification of the same merit. That the Institution has 
faithfully pursued the aim of giving the widest possible training and the 
amplest of opportunities to those young men whose education is not of 
university standard is patent from the fact that it provides, to the ele- 
mentary school boy, a means of attaining further knowledge. Thus, by 
attending the evening classes of any recognised technical institute, and by 
dint of hard work, he can obtain National Certificates in Engineering 
subjects, exempting him from certain portions both of the Studentship 
and Associate Membership examinations. From this point his education 
and works training can proceed, side by side, until he is elected an 
Associate Member. The university engineering graduate, provided he 
possesses the requisite works experience, may be elected to the Associate 
Membership without further examination. It will be clear, therefore, 
that — largely by the efforts of the Institution — a complete scheme of organi- 
sation for training in mechanical engineering exists in this country, 
and that the way to advancement is in no way barred to the young student 
who has not had the advantage of a university training, so that an adequate 
supply of trained engineers should thus be assured. 

It is widely recognised to-day that too intensively mechanised an 
existence has a somewhat soul-destroying tendency. Welfare work is 
designed to counteract this influence, and may be defined as a systematic 
and sustained effort to humanise industry. The efficient worker must 
enjoy both physical and mental health, must possess undistorted ambition, 
and must have a true conception of citizenship and his responsibility to 
all his fellow-men. The making of a community of such individuals is 
the aim of welfare work. The need for such work would be demonstrated, 
if it were not already self-evident, by the fact that the Industrial Welfare 
Society now numbers among its members most of the leading firms in 
the country. The Society is particularly fortunate in having for its 
President H.R.H. the Duke of York. All engineers who have the welfare 
of the industry at heart must be infinitely grateful to His Royal Highness 
for his leadership in this vital matter, not only for the interest he shows 
and the great amount of time which he devotes to visiting so many works, 
but for the many practical suggestions for the betterment of conditions 
which he has made. It is impossible to overestimate the importance of 
welfare work among young men, for they are the next generation of 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

engine.ering workers. The welfare supervisor is responsible for the mental . 
and physical well-being, the work, the progress and the destiny of each 
individual, and he must endeavour to provide such amenities as will lead 
to the achievement of happiness and the making of good citizens. Many 
works now provide a Boys' Club, by which the natural desire of all boys 
for companionship may be fulfilled and a spirit of team work promoted. 
Indoor games of all kinds and reading and writing rooms should be 
provided. The club should be run entirely by the boys themselves, 
who thus learn the meaning of corporate life and individual responsibility. 
The need for physical training is now becoming much more widely 
recognised, and a gymnasium is thus an important adjunct. For the 
welfare of the employees generally there should be the library, and the 
' recreation club,* possessing its own sports field, where the sporting 
instincts of all employees — embracing the vigours of football, cricket, 
hockey, tennis, etc. — may be catered for ; while the sociable habits of 
the men are also fostered by the ' Men's Institute.' In the case of many 
firms much, indeed, is done, and very little is left undone, to improve the 
conditions of all employees, both within and outside the works, and such 
amenities cannot but result in a general widening of outlook and a greater 
happiness. 

In conclusion : these, then, are a few of the thoughts that have occurred 
to me. Whatever their worth, they have at least this advantage — ^that they 
are the product, not of ' a cloistered seclusion, far from the heat and dust of 
life,* but are directly derived from personal contact with, and observation of, 
men and things. And this, after all, is the essence of the scientific method 
as I understand it — to learn as far as possible directly from observation 
and experiment rather than indirectly from books. I find this view 
upheld by one of the greatest of former Presidents of the British Associa- 
tion, the late Prof. T. H. Huxley, who said : * The great benefit 
which a scientific education bestows, whether as training or as knowledge, 
is dependent upon the extent to which the mind of the student is brought 
into immediate contact with facts — upon the degree to which he learns 
the habit of appealing directly to Nature, and of acquiring through his 
senses concrete images of those properties of things which are, and always 
will be, but approximately expressed in human language.' 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



WHAT IS TRADITION ? 

ADDRESS BY 

THE RT. HON. LORD RAGLAN, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A DICTIONARY definition of tradition is * anything that is handed down 
' orally from age to age ' ; that definition I propose to adopt, and shall 
begin by considering what it is that is handed down orally from age to 
age. Tradition then consists of— 

(i) Methods of farming. Traditional methods are in most places 
followed in breeding, feeding, milking and killing animals ; in 
ploughing, manuring and sowing the land, and in harvesting and 
storing the crops. 

(2) Methods of craftsmanship. Houses are built ; weapons, tools, 
implements, utensils, clothes and ornaments are made, in most 
cases, by traditional methods. 

(3) Methods of eating, drinking, and preparing food. 

(4) Methods of dealing with property. Even in civilised countries 
systems of land tenure, inheritance, and transfer of property are 
usually traditional. 

(5) Marriage customs and ceremonies ; bride-price, divorce, etc. 

(6) Rites and ceremonies at birth, death and initiation. 

(7) Etiquette. There are traditional ways of saluting, and of eating, 
dressing, and behaving in company. 

(8) Superstitions. 

(9) Games, sports, songs and dances. 
(10) Traditional narratives. 

Leaving aside for a moment the traditional narrative, we may then 
regard tradition as a code which, entirely in the case of the savage and very 
largely in the case of the civilised, regulates the conduct and activities 
of mankind throughout life. However much tradition may vary from 
group to group, it always has this in common, that it must be learnt in all 
its aspects by the younger members of the group, whatever the group may 
consist of, before the older members will admit them to the full privileges 
of membership. Whether a tradition is rational or irrational makes not 
the slightest difference ; traditions about unlucky days or unlucky 
numbers are enforced as strictly as traditions of honesty and truthfulness. 
The traditions of our best schools and professions contain many absurdi- 
ties, as do those of our courts of justice and of Parliament. 

Tradition, then, is a code of rules, covering every aspect of human life, 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

which, though not taught by schoolmasters or enforced by the poUce, is 
handed down orally from the older to the younger members of the group, 
and enforced by public opinion within the group. 

To this description there is one apparent exception, the traditional 
narrative, and to this I shall devote the remainder of this address. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that in any group the traditional narra- 
tive forms a mere fraction of the great body of tradition, of which some 
at least of the other forms are of far greater sociological importance. 

The traditional narrative takes various forms, such as myth, legend, 
epic poem, ballad, saga and fairy tale. It has been usual in the past to 
divide these into two main classes, those which were believed to contain 
a kernel of genuine historical fact, and those which were regarded as 
purely fictitious. With fiction I shall deal later ; I shall now consider 
the claim of the traditional narrative to be the repository of historical fact. 

The Basis of History. 

The theory that traditional narrative embodies historical fact is based 
on the assumption that among the members of every community in which 
quasi-historical narratives are related there exists, and has existed for 
hundreds or thousands of years, a strong and continuous interest in the 
past history of the community, and a strong and continuous desire to 
preserve the facts of that history as accurately as possible. There appears 
to be no evidence to justify such an assumption. 

Why should anyone wish to know what happened before he was born ? 
There is no obvious reason, and as a fact very few people do. All over the 
world we find people living in the neighbourhood of ancient ruins without 
taking the slightest interest in them. Historic monuments are being 
destroyed in England to-day, and by educated and responsible persons. 
If we wish to know who lived in a certain house a hundred years ago, it is 
of little use to ask the local inhabitants ; we may find some elder whose 
father worked there, but the odds are against it. Do we find, in any part 
of the world, young people sitting at the feet of the aged, and eagerly 
drinking in all that they can tell them of the events of their youth ? 
Nowhere that I have ever heard of ; the old man in his anecdotage is 
universally regarded as a bore. 

Even when there is some slight interest in local history, it is the result 
of inquiries by students or tourists ; persons who study local history are 
called antiquaries, and they are rare in the most civilised countries. 

As regards general history, he would be an optimist who would maintain 
that I per cent, of the inhabitants of Europe had any real knowledge of 
or interest in the subject. It is true that at times and places of high 
general culture there have often been a certain number of persons who 
studied history in the hope of understanding how people thought and 
acted under different social conditions, or of finding in the past the key 
to the future. It is also true that since the time of Herodotus many of 
the masterpieces of prose have beeft historical works, and that history has 
therefore tended to form part of the educational curriculum. None of 
these considerations, however, could affect the illiterate, who are interested 
in the present and the immediate future, but never in the past. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 147 

The only writer on tradition who has touched on this point, so far as 
I can learn, is Prof. Chadwick, who says : ' The existence of a poem 
' or story which deals with reminiscences of tribal conflicts necessarily 
* presupposes an absorbing interest in tribal history.' ^ He goes on to show 
that this interest could only be due to patriotism, but fails to realise that 
patriots are notoriously indifferent to facts ; any fable which gratifies 
their national pride is history to them. The conclusion seems to be that 
since illiterate persons are never interested in history, historical facts can 
never be transmitted by illiterate persons. 

In case, however, we may be thought to have gone too fast, let us ask 
another question : should illiterate persons wish to transmit historical 
facts from age to age, would they be able to do so ? Let us first be clear 
as to what we mean by ' from age to age.' We do not speak of our 
parents' reminiscences as tradition, or apply the term to anything that 
happened within the memory of living men. We apply it only to events 
which may be supposed to have happened in the more or less remote past. 
We must also note that when a tradition is written down it ceases to be a 
tradition, and becomes merely the account of a tradition, unless we can 
be sure that those who repeat it have not been influenced by the written 
record. We may say then that a traditional narrative is one which has 
been handed down for at least a hundred years by people who have 
derived it from purely oral sources. 

Let us now consider what are the sources of history. Apart from 
archaeological evidence, which, howe->'er valuable, is seldom a guide to 
actual incidents, we may divide them into four classes : 

(i) Accounts written at the time by persons who were present at the 
events which they describe — letters, despatches, memoranda, 
diaries. 

(2) Accounts written by persons who were present, but not till some 
time afterwards — autobiographies, reminiscences, inscriptions. 

(3) Accounts written by people who obtained their information from 
actors or spectators shortly after the event — annals, chronicles, 
proceedings of trials, newsletters, press reports, diplomatic corre- 
spondence. These would not be accepted as evidence in a court of 
law, but are often very properly accepted by the court of history. 

(4) Accounts obtained by questioning people as to what happened a 
long time before, or accounts obtained at second or third hand. 
These are often recorded as survivors' tales, conversations, memories, 
gleanings. 

Now it should be clear that the first three are, in varying degree, the 
only genuine sources of history. The fourth may be useful for reconciling 
discrepancies or filling in details, but would not be accepted as a satisfac- 
tory authority for a fact otherwise unknown. I know an old gentleman 
living not far from Leicester who has personal reminiscences of the 
French Revolution of 1848, but the fact would hardly be accepted on his 
sole authority. Second-hand evidence is not admitted in a court of law 
because it is notoriously unreliable. It is admitted by historians, but 

1 H. M. Chadwick, The Heroic Age, p. 273. 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

only if it is given by persons especially well placed or well qualified to 
obtain it. No one would accept a fact on fourth -hand evidence alone, 
yet this is what tradition is at best. Why historical facts should be capable 
of accurate oral transmission for hundreds and even thousands of years, 
while no other fact can pass down the length of a street without hopeless 
distortion, no one, so far as I can learn, has attempted to explain. Until 
someone has done so I shall feel justified in concluding not merely that 
no illiterate person has ever wished to transmit an historical fact, but that 
no illiterate person would be capable of transmitting an historical fact even 
if he wished to, and that M. Gaston Paris was right when he said that there 
was no such thing as historic oral tradition. 

Tradition and Imagination. 

At a later stage I shall give illustrations showing that incidents which 
occur in tradition are never historical, and, conversely, that historical facts 
never find their way into tradition. Here it will be convenient to deal 
with the belief that certain forms of the traditional narrative are the result 
of imagination, and then to set out my own view of the origin of the 
traditional narrative. The attempt to divide it into two classes, the his- 
torical and the imaginative, has been made by various writers, notably 
Hartland, MacCulloch and Krappe.^ 

Hartland tells us ^ that the art of story-telling is the outcome of an 
instinct implanted universally in the human mind, and that in the Mdrchen 
or fairy tale * the reins are thrown upon the neck of the imagination.' 
MacCulloch says that all over the world simple stories were invented, 
and that ' as time went on and man's inventive and imaginative faculties 

* developed, these simple stories . . . became incidents in longer tales.' * 
Krappe says that it is ' certainly excusable to take the common-sense view, 

* and to regard the fairy tale as a definite type of popular fiction, primarily 
' designed to please and to entertain.' ^ 

Having stated it as an axiom that fairy tales are the product of the 
story-tellers' imagination, all three writers proceed, with a convenient 
inconsistency, to show that no story-teller ever displays any imagination 
whatever. It will perhaps suffice to quote Hartland. He says that ' it is 
' by no means an uncommon thing for the rustic story-teller to be unable 
' to explain episodes in any other way than Uncle Remus — " She wuz in 
' de tale, en de tale I give you hke hit were gun to me." ' After telling us 
that Gaelic stories often contain obsolete words ; that Swahili story- 
tellers hardly understand the sung parts of their stories, and that Eskimo 
story-tellers have to stick as closely as possible to the traditional version, 
he concludes that, wherever and whenever stories are told, ' the endeavour 
' to render to the audience just that which the speaker has himself received 
' from his predecessors is paramount.' ® Then where does the imagina- 
tion come in ? There is no more evidence that illiterate people invent 
fables than there is that they transmit historical facts. We must seek the 
origin of the traditional narrative elsewhere. 

* E. S. Hartland, The Science of Fairy Tales ; J. A. MacCulloch, The Childhood 
of Fiction ; A. H. Krappe, The Science of Folklore. 

* Pp. I, 23. * P. 457. 6 p. II. « pp, 18, 21. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 149 

The Origin of the Traditional Narrative. 

I said at the beginning of this address that all forms of tradition, with 
the apparent exception of the traditional narrative, were rules of conduct, 
and I do not believe that the traditional narrative is really an exception 
at all. In my view all traditional narratives are, or once were, rules — 
rules for the performance of rites or ritual dramas. Every rite or drama 
necessarily consists of a sequence of incidents, and the account of such rite 
or drama is therefore necessarily in narrative form. Unlike historical 
events, the interest of which can seldom be more than academic, the 
account of these rites must be preserved, because on their correct per- 
formance is believed to depend the prosperity of the community, and can 
be preserved because, unlike historical events, which occur but once, and 
usually in the presence of but few, these rites are performed repeatedly, 
and in the presence of all. Many of these rites and these narratives are 
world-wide, or nearly so, but variations occur, because there is always a 
tendency to tighten up the ritual in times of adversity and slack off in 
times of prosperity, and the narrative, being an account of what has been 
done rather than what is done, is usually a little different from the ritual. 
Finally, in many cases, the ritual ceases altogether to be performed, but 
the narrative has itself acquired sanctity, and may be passed on, neces- 
sarily with minor modifications, for many generations, until at last it is 
either written down or forgotten. 

In my view this represents, in brief, the history of every genuine tradi- 
tional narrative. I hope to make this \iew convincing by the performance 
of three tasks : the first is to show by illustration that there is no connec- 
tion between tradition and history ; the second is to show that the ritual 
drama has in fact played a large enough part in the life of mankind to 
account for the number and variety of the traditional narratives ; the third 
is to show that the features of these narratives can be explained, and can 
only be explained satisfactorily, as features of the ritual drama. It will 
first, however, be as well to deal with two forms of pseudo-tradition, the 
* family tradition ' and the ' local tradition.' 

' Family Tradition.' 

There are in this country many families whose ' traditions ' take them 
back to the time of the Norman Conquest, when their ancestors are 
alleged to have distinguished themselves either on the side of the Normans 
or of the Saxons. It can be said without fear of contradiction from those 
who have studied the subject that not one of these is a genuine tradition. 
All are the work of pedigree fakers, who have flourished from very early 
times, and there is not a word of truth in any of them. No English 
family can trace a genuine descent to the Saxons, and though there are a 
few families with a genuine Norman descent, this in no cases goes as far 
back as the eleventh century. Innumerable examples of these faked 
pedigrees and spurious traditions can be found in the works of Dr. Horace 
Round and Mr. Oswald Barron. Those who believe that a craving for 
historical accuracy is the ruling passion of the human race would no doubt 
suppose that all these families were very grateful to Dr. Round and 



150 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Mr. Barron for correcting their pedigrees, but they would be very much 
mistaken. I will give one example. 

One of our oldest families is that of Wake, of which the present head is 
Sir Hereward Wake, thirteenth Baronet. The family ' tradition ' is that it is 
descended in the direct male line from the famous Saxon hero, Hereward 
the Wake. The facts appear to be these. In 1166 a Norman called 
Hugh Wac came over from Normandy and married the heiress of the 
Norman FitzGilbert, lord of Bourne, in Lincolnshire. About two 
hundred years later the family of Wake, as it had then become, having 
attained to wealth and importance, thought itself entitled to a more high- 
sounding pedigree, and having discovered that a Saxon called Hereward 
had once owned a small part of the lordship of Bourne, decided to adopt 
the great Saxon hero as ancestor. For this purpose a pedigree was 
forged, conferring titles, ancestors and descendants upon the Hereward 
who lived at Bourne, and to make this pedigree more convincing there was 
conferred upon the Saxon hero the hitherto unheard-of cognomen of ' the 
' Wake.' There are some obscurities in the story, but the following facts 
seem certain : that Hereward was never called ' the Wake ' till he was 
adopted as ancestor by the Wake family about the middle of the fourteenth 
century ; that the Wake family has no traceable connection with Hereward 
or any other Saxon ; and that the first Wake to be christened Hereward 
was born in 185 1. As regards Hereward the Saxon hero, he may have 
been a real person, but the fact that among his exploits are narrated the 
slaughter of a gigantic bear in Scotland, and the rescue of a Cornish 
princess, suggests that he was a mythical hero after whom Hereward of 
Bourne and other Saxons were named. ^ 

This story has many points of interest which can be followed up by 
those who care to do so. I shall leave it there, but before passing from the 
subject of ' family tradition ' shall ask those who believe in it one question : 
Can any one of them produce a single fact about his great-grandfather 
which has not been placed on record ? My great-grandfather, the first 
Lord Raglan, was a man of some distinction, and yet, though I often visited 
his daughters, who lived well on into the present century, I know practically 
nothing about him that is not in print. 

' Local Tradition,' 
Sir G. L. Gomme, in his Folklore as an Historical Science, attempts to 
establish the historical value of local tradition, but is constrained to admit 
that it may often be mere false history, started by the local antiquary. In 
my view, with certain exceptions which I shall come to later, it is always 
false history. Let us take an example. There is a well-known folk-story 
of the Faithful Hound, variants of which are found in many parts of 
Europe, Asia and Africa.^ It is probably derived from a rite, similar to 
that described in Genesis xxii, by which a pretence is made of sacrificing 
a child, and an animal substituted at the last moment. The popularity 
of this story in Wales, and the fact that in an English version the dog 

' D.N.B., s.v. ' Hereward ' ; J. H. Round, Feudal England, p. 161 ; The 
Ancestor, vol. ii, pp. iog-113. 

* S. Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 134 seq. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 151 

is called Kill-hart, apparently led, in the late eighteenth century, to the 
localisation of the story at Beddgelert, a village near Snowdon, the name 
of which is thought to mean the grave of Kelert, an early saint. The fact 
that Llewellyn is a popular North Welsh hero, and the enterprise of a 
local innkeeper, who about 1830 set up a tombstone at a suitable spot, 
were sufficient to establish a ' tradition ' which was accepted by thousands, 
not merely of the ignorant but of the learned.^ 

Where local traditions are not the result of such guesswork, they 
usually arise from ignorance and superstition. Krappe ^^ tells us that 
' the dolmens of France and the British Isles are the work of fairies ; 
' the remains of the Roman limes are attributed by German peasants to 
' the Devil, who divided the earth with Our Lord, and erected the wall 
' to mark the boundary. The ruins of the Roman amphitheatres of 
' Southern France are called the " palais de Gallienne," Galienne being 
' a powerful Moorish princess and the wife of Charlemagne. To the 
' fellahin of modern Egypt the pyramids are the work of the jinn.' Those 
who believe that Caesar's Camp was constructed by Caesar are morally 
bound to believe that the Devil's Dyke was constructed by the Devil. 
Caesar's Camp in Sussex, excavated by General Pitt-Rivers, proved to be 
of Norman origin. 

But while we find on the one hand that local tradition, whenever it can 
be checked, proves to be untrue, we find on the other that real events 
never find their way into local tradition. Near where I live are the 
remains of a score of castles, many of them the scene of historic sieges 
and other events. Yet not only are chere no authentic traditions about 
these events — there are no traditions at all. 

I will conclude my remarks on this part of the subject by noting that 
there is one possibility of a genuine local tradition — where the repetition 
of a ritual drama at a given spot gives rise to the belief that the events 
enacted in the drama, really occurred at that spot. There are various 
parts of the world, particularly Ancient Greece, in which this type of 
tradition has probably come into existence. 

Tradition and English History. 

Those writers who have tried to establish the historicity of tradition 
have invariably, so far as I can learn, adopted the method of taking some 
period the history of which is totally unknown, examining the traditions 
which they assume to belong to that period, striking out all miraculous 
or otherwise improbable incidents, and then dilating upon the verisimili- 
tude of the residue. I shall follow a totally different method. I shall 
take a period the history of which is known, the feudal age in England, and 
see what tradition has had to say about that. According to the usually 
accepted theories, outstanding personalities in the history of a country 
never fail to leave their mark on tradition. Now who were the outstand- 
ing personalities of the period in question ? No one, I suppose, will 
object to the inclusion of William the Conqueror and Edward I. The 
Norman Conquest in the one case, and the conquest of Simon de Montfort, 

* J. Jacobs, Celtic Fairy Tales, pp. 261-264. " Op. cit., p. 75. 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Wales and Scotland in the other, cannot have failed to create a tremendous 
impression at the time, and this impression, according to the theory 
which has been repeatedly applied to the Iliad, for example, should have 
perpetuated itself in tradition. Yet what traditions do we find ? Of 
William the Conqueror, that he fell on landing, and that he destroyed a 
number of towns and villages to make the New Forest. Of Edward I, that 
his life was saved by his queen, and that he created his newly born son 
Prince of Wales. All these traditions are completely devoid of historical 
foundation. Of the real achievements of these two great monarchs 
tradition had nothing to say whatever. 

Similarly the only traditions of Henry II and Richard I are the fabulous 
tales of Queen Eleanor and Fair Rosamund, and of Blondel outside the 
castle. 

With the traditional accounts of Henry V, those that have been made 
famous by Shakespeare, I shall deal at greater length. They tell us that 
he spent his youth in drinking and debauchery, in and about London, in 
company with highwaymen, pickpockets, and other disreputable persons ; 
that he was imprisoned by Chief Justice Gascoigne, whom after his 
accession he pardoned and continued in office ; and that on his accession 
his character, or at any rate his conduct, changed suddenly and completely. 
The authorities for these stories are Sir Thomas Elyot's The Governor 
(153 1 ) and Edward Hall's Union of the Noble and Illustrious Houses of 
Lancaster and York (1542). These two highly respectable authors seem 
to have relied largely on matter already in print, some of it dating from 
within fifty years of Henry V's death. I know no argument for the 
historicity of any traditional narrative which cannot be applied to these 
stories — yet there is not a word of truth in any of them. 

The facts are these. In 1400, at the age of thirteen, Henry became his 
father's representative in Wales, made his headquarters at Chester, and 
spent the next seven years in almost continuous warfare with Owen 
Glendower and his allies. In 1407 he led a successful invasion of Scotland. 
In 1408 he was employed as Warden of the Cinque Ports, and at Calais. 
In the following year, owing to his father's illness, he became regent, and 
continued as such until 141 2. During this period his character as a ruler 
was marred only by his religious bigotry, and what seems to be the only 
authentic anecdote of the time describes the part he played at the burning 
of John Badby the Lollard. In 141 2 an attempt was made to induce 
Henry IV, whose ill-health continued to unfit him for his duties, to 
abdicate, but his refusal to do so, together with differences on foreign 
policy, led to the withdrawal of the future Henry V from court, probably 
to Wales, till his father's death a year later. He did not reappoint Sir 
William Gascoigne as Chief Justice, and there is no truth in the story that 
the latter committed him to prison. 

These facts are drawn from the Dictionary of National Biography, which 
sums up the question by saying that * his youth was spent on the battle- 

* field and in the council chamber, and the popular tradition (immortalised 

* by Shakespeare) of his riotous and dissolute conduct is not supported by 
' contemporary authority.' According to Sir Charles Oman, * his life was 
' sober and orderly, . . . He was grave and earnest in speech, courteous 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY i53 

' in all his dealings, and an enemy of flatterers and favourites. His sincere 
' piety bordered on asceticism.' 

Even had there been no contemporary records of the youth of Henry V, 
there are points in the account adopted by Shakespeare which might lead 
the sober critic to doubt its veracity. The first is that it would be, to say 
the least, surprising that a man should be an idle and dissolute scapegrace 
one day, and the first soldier and statesman of his age the next. The 
second is that the stories belong to an ancient and widespread class of 
folk -tales. Had, however, our critic ventured to express his doubts, with 
what scorn would he not have been assailed by believers in the historicity 
of tradition ! ' Here,' they would have said, ' is an impudent fellow who 
' pretends to know more about the fifteenth century than those who lived 
' in it. The facts which he dares to dispute were placed on record by 
' educated and respectable persons, the first historians of their day. 
' Could anything be more absurd than to suppose that they would invent 
' discreditable stories about a national hero, at a time when all the facts 
' of his career must have been widely known ? No reasonable person can 
' doubt that Falstaff was as real as Piers Gaveston,' As we have seen, 
however, the only evidence for Falstaff's existence is tradition, and tradi- 
tion can never be evidence for an historical fact. He is a purely mythical 
character, who plays Silenus to Henry's Dionysus, as does Abu Nawas 
to the Dionysus of Harun ar-Reshid. 

The assimilation of the king to Dionysus no doubt goes back to a time 
when an aspirant to the throne had to perform various rites and undergo 
various ordeals, but whether these stories had previously been told of 
other English princes, and became permanently attached to Henry V 
through the invention of printing, or whether they were recently introduced 
from classical sources, I have no idea. 

It may be objected that Henry V, an historical character, appears in 
tradition, and that tradition is therefore to that extent historical ; but this 
is not so. The characters in a traditional narrative are often anonymous. 
When named they may be supernatural beings, or persons for whose 
existence there is no real evidence. When the names of real persons are 
mentioned, these names form no part of the tradition, but merely part of 
the machinery by which the tradition is transmitted. Just as the same 
smart saying may be attributed to half a dozen wits in succession, so the 
same feat may be attributed to half a dozen heroes in succession, but it is 
the anecdote or feat which, if it is transmitted from age to age, becomes a 
tradition, and not the ephemeral name. The name selected is that of 
some prominent person whose memory is fading ; who has been dead, 
that is to say, for about a hundred years, or less if the real facts have never 
been widely known. His name remains attached to the tradition till some 
other suitable person has been dead for a suitable length of time. 

This explains certain facts which have puzzled Prof. Gilbert Murray, 
who asks : ' Why do they [sc. the Homeric poets] refer not to any war- 
' fare that was going on at the time of their composition, but to war- 
' fare of forgotten peoples under forgotten conditions in the past ? . . . 
' What shall one say of this } Merely that there is no cause for surprise. 
' It seems to be the normal instinct of a poet, at least of an epic poet. The 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

* earliest version of the Song of Roland which we possess was written by an 

* Anglo-Norman scribe some thirty years after the Conquest of England. 
' If the Normans of that age wanted an epic sung to them, surely a good 

* subject lay ready to hand. Yet as a matter of fact their great epic is all 
' about Roland, dead three hundred years before, not about William the 
' Conqueror. The fugitive Britons of Wales made no epic to tell of their 
' conquest by the Saxons ; they turned to a dim-shining Arthur belonging 
' to the vaguest past. Neither did the Saxons who were conquering them 
' make epics about that conquest. They sang how at some unknown 
' time a legendary and mythical Beowulf had conquered a legendary 
' Grendel.' " 

The true explanation has nothing to do with instinct ; it is that epic 
poetry, like other forms of traditional narrative, deals with ritual drama, 
and not with historical fact. Real people and events can only be identified 
with ritual drama when their memory has become vague. Roland could 
not have been made to fall at Hastings before about 1166, and by that 
time the form of the epic was fixed in writing. What we learn from the 
Song of Roland are old traditional tales which were probably attached to 
Charlemagne about a hundred years after his death. The real facts of 
his career, like all historical facts, have been, and could only be, ascertained 
from contemporary written records. 

In this connection Dr. Leaf remarks : ' When they [the Normans] 
' crossed the Channel to invade England, they seem to have lost all sense of 

* their Teutonic kinship with the Saxons, and it is doubtful if they even 
' knew that their name meant Northmen. The war-song which Taillefer 
' chanted as they marched to battle was not a Viking saga, but the song of 

* Roland.' ^^ He realised that a people can completely forget its origin 
within a hundred and sixty years — yet still believed in the continuity of 
historical tradition ! 

The Ritual Drama. 

If, as I hold, the traditional narrative is always an account of a ritual 
drama, then the present incidence of traditional narratives must coincide 
with the present or past incidence of ritual dramas ; that is to say that in 
areas where traditional narratives are numerous and elaborate, ritual 
dramas must be, or have been, numerous and elaborate, and where they 
are few, simple, or non-existent, ritual dramas must be, or have been, few, 
simple, or non-existent. And, conversely, where we find ritual dramas, 
there we must expect to find corresponding traditional narratives. 

A preliminary survey of the world suggests that our expectations would 
be fulfilled. Thus among the Yuma Indians of the Colorado the principal 
ritual drama is the creation rite, and the principal traditional narrative is 
a description of that rite in quasi-historical language. We find a similar 
drama and a similar narrative among the Marindineeze of Dutch New 
Guinea. Among the Shiluk of the Upper Nile the principal ritual drama 
is the installation of the king, and the principal traditional narrative is an 

1"^ Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, pp. 52-55. 
*^ W. Leaf, Homer and History, p. 46. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 155 

account of this installation, describing how the image of the mythical 
Nyakang is brought to Fashoda as if a real god-king came to Fashoda. 

Where these facts are realised, they are usually attributed to com- 
memoration. I have elsewhere ^^ pointed out the absurdity of the com- 
memoration theory. Why should people put themselves to all this 
trouble without hope of benefit, and why should they expect to benefit by 
commemorating the death of some ancient king ? 

No one will deny that the ritual drama in Ancient Greece was of the 
highest religious importance. The plays and fragments of plays which 
have come down to us represent only a very small fraction of those that 
were written, and probably there were thousands more which were never 
written. These plays made up a large part of the religious life of the 
Ancient Greeks, and there are survivals of them among the Greek peasantry 
to this day. Now one of the leading incidents represented at the ritual 
drama at Athens was the death of Agamemnon. Is there any conceivable 
reason why the murder of a king of Mycenae should have been a leading 
incident in the ritual drama at Athens .'' There can be little doubt that 
it was the dramatised version of a ritual of human sacrifice, a ritual once 
practised all over Greece, by which the old king was ceremonially killed 
by his successor. The myth was localised, but the ritual was universal. 
But while king-killing myths were localised all over Greece, we find no 
battle and siege myths except those localised at Troy and Thebes. I 
venture to conjecture that Troy was once the only place where the 
war ritual was performed ; that all the Greeks used to assemble there 
periodically for a great religious festival , and that later a similar festival 
was established at Thebes for those of the peninsular Greeks who had 
no ships. 

But let us turn to Western Europe. In his Chances of Death Prof. Karl 

Pearson showed what an important part was taken by the miracle or 

mystery plays in the religious life of mediaeval Europe. In some cases 

these plays covered all time from creation till doomsday, and took as long 

as eight days to perform. They took place in the churches, and while 

heaven was represented by a gallery in which sat those who took the 

parts of the Trinity and the angels, Satan and his host appeared from 

below the main stage. Prof. Pearson concluded that these dramas replaced 

heathen dramas of similar character. He says : * That the old heathen 

religion was an essentially dramatic one can scarcely be doubted ; we 

have proof enough not only in written statements, but in a vast number 

of folk-customs of dramatic origin . We find many cases in which heathen 

customs were introduced into Christian churches . . . both monks and 

nuns indulged in dances and masquerades directly connected with 

heathen festivals.' ^* 

The facts which were noted by Prof. Pearson find confirmation and 
amplification in The Culture of the Teutons, by a Danish writer, Vilhelm 
Gronbech, who deals at length with the importance of the ritual drama in 
the heathen religion, shows how the incidents of the dramas can be recon- 
structed from the traditional narratives, and points out the absurdity of 
trying to translate these narratives into terms of history. 

" Jocasta's Crime, p. 44. 1* Op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 281-282. 



156 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

' The legends will not tell us what happened some year or other accord- 

* ing to chronology ; in our craving for a kernel of historical truth in the 
' myths, we naively insinuate that the myth makers ought to think in a 
' system unknown to them, for the benefit of our annalistic studies. . . . 
' Time is, in our experience, a stream of events descending from the 

* unknown mists of beginning and running in a continuous flow down the 
' future into the unknown ; to the men of the classical ages the actual life 

* is the result of a recurrent beginning and has its source in the religious 
' feast. The festival consists of a creation or new birth outside time, 
' eternal it might be called if the word were not as misleading as all others 

* and as inadequate to describe an experience of a totally alien character. 
' When the priest or chieftain ploughs the ritual furrow, when the first 

* seed is sown while the story of the origin of corn is recited, when the 
' warriors act the war game, they make history, do the real work, fight 

* the real battle, and when the men sally forth with the plough or the seed 
' or the weapons, they are only realising what was created in the ritual act.' ^^ 

According to Gronbech, then, the myths and legends of the North have 
their origin in the world of ritual drama, a world in which the terms of 
history are quite meaningless. Other writers are moving in the same 
direction. Mr. C, B. Lewis, in his Classical Mythology and Arthurian 
Romance, seeks to show the ritual origin of the Arthurian legends, while 
M. P. Saintyves, in his Les Coxites de Perrault et les Recits Paralleles, 
performs the same service for such tales as Cinderella and Bluebeard. 
Prof. S. H. Hooke and his colleagues have recently traced the connection 
between Myth and Ritual in Semitic lands. 

It will be seen, then, what a variety of fortunes has befallen the ancient 
ritual dramas. Some have been converted to Christianity ; some have 
been rationalised into pseudo-history ; others have degenerated into fairy 
tales. There are, however, some which survive, or survived till recently, 
in something like their original form. Let us take, for example, the cycle 
of Robin Hood, which forms the most important body of English and 
Scottish traditional narrative. Attempts have of course been made to 
turn him into an historical character, but he remains the god of the tree, 
a figure of world-wide importance. Hod's Oak is the name given in an 
Anglo-Saxon charter to a place in Worcestershire, and he owns hills, 
rocks, caves and wells in Yorkshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, 
Derbyshire, Shropshire and Somerset. His story has been localised in 
Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire and Cumberland, as well as in Scotland, and 
he has been supposed to have lived in the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, and sometimes to have been earl and sometimes churl. But 
wherever and whenever he lives, he always has his Maid Marian, his 
Little John and his Will Scarlet, since it is the incidents of the ritual drama, 
and not its setting, which matter. That he was the hero of such a drama 
there can be no doubt. We are told ^^ that in the fifteenth century the 
May celebration was called ' Robin Hood's festival,' and that he was ' one 
' of the mythical characters whom the populace was fond of personating in 
' the semi-dramatic devices and morris-dances performed at that season.' 
In Scotland he was as popular as in England, and in 1577 the Scottish Par- 
^s Op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 226, 261. " D.N.B., s.v. Hood, Robin. 



H— ANTHROPOLOGY 157 

liament requested the King to prohibit plays of ' Robin Hood, King of May ' 
on the Sabbath. In France Robin des Bois and Marian are found in the 
thirteenth century as characters in the Whitsuntide pastoureUes — a fact 
which rather suggests that the whole story came to England with the 
Normans, more especially as in other northern lands this drama took the 
somewhat different form which is familiar to us as the story of William 
Tell. The latter was long believed to be an historical character, but the 
story is now recognised as a widespread myth. 

Before leaving this part of the subject I should like to touch on two 
forms of the traditional narrative which are much relied upon by those 
who believe in the historicity of tradition — the Icelandic saga and the 
quasi-historical traditions of Polynesia. The most famous of the Ice- 
landic sagas is probably that of Burnt Njal, and the central incident in it 
is the burning of Njal and his sons in their house. When, however, we 
come to examine this story, we find that it is merely a variant of the Irish 
story of Naisi. Let us take one incident. When Skarphedinn and his 
brothers are shut up in the burning house, Gunnar, a man whose relatives 
Skarphedinn has slain, climbs up and looks over the wall ; Skarphedinn 
throws a tooth at him, hitting him in the eye, and causing his eyeball to 
fall out on to his cheek. Naisi and his brothers are shut up in a house, 
and before Conchobar orders his men to set fire to it he sends Trendorn, 
a man whose relatives Naisi has slain, ' to see whether her own shape 
' remained on Deidre.' He peeps through a small upper window ; Naisi 
throws a draughtsman at him and hits him in the eye, so that his eyeball 
falls out on to his cheek. I have no dou'^t that Naisi and Skarphedinn are 
names for a northern variant of Heracles, whose adventures and death 
formed part of the ritual drama. 

For Polynesian traditions I shall rely on Mr. Percy Smith, and he, 
though he firmly believes in the historicity of these traditions, nevertheless 
gives us a number of hints that they are really accounts of ritual drama. 
Thus he tells us that ' much of the old history of the Polynesians was 
regarded as sacred, and its communication to those who would make an 
improper use of it would inevitably — in the belief of the old priests — 
bring down disaster on the heads of the reciters. . . . This teaching 
[sc. of the tribal lore] was accompanied by many ceremonies, incanta- 
tions, invocations, etc. . . . There was a special sanctity attached to 
many things taught ; deviation from the accepted doctrine, or history, was 
supposed to bring down on the offender the wrath of the gods.' ^^ He 
ater tells us that ' there was a class of roving actors and players, who were 
also the custodians of much of the historic traditions,' and that ' the 
history of Onokura is a very remarkable one . . . the narrative is inter- 
spersed with songs and recitative, which would take many hours in 
delivery. It is, in fact, a regular " South Sea opera." ' ^^ 
If these traditional narratives were really history, and if the teaching 
of history followed the same course in this country as it is alleged to in 
Polynesia, we should find professors imploring their pupils not to make an 
improper use of the Constitutions of Clarendon ; boys learning the names 
of Henry VIII's wives with incantations and invocations ; people con- 
" S. Percy Smith, Hawaiki, pp. 14-15. " Ibid., pp. 138, 222. 



1S8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

victed of blasphemy for mixing up Thomas Cromwell with Oliver ; and 
the history of the Corn Laws related with vocal and instrumental accom- 
paniment. These traditions are sacred, not because they contain historical 
facts, which never are and never could be sacred, but because they are 
ritual, which is always sacred. 

Features of the Traditional Narrative. 

I propose to conclude by referring to a number of features which are 
found in traditional narratives of all descriptions, and which can be 
explained, and in my view only explained, on the supposition that these 
narratives are all accounts of ritual drama. 

(i) The narrative is invariably dramatic. This is, of course, charac- 
teristic of the drama, but not of history, which is seldom dramatic. 

(2) Though the characters are often represented as coming from 
different countries, they all speak the same language. In tradition, as on 
the stage, interpreters are unknown. 

(3) The action of the narrative is often carried on by means of songs 
and rhymes ; this never happens in real life. 

(4) The traditional narrative, unlike history, always contains a great 
deal of conversation. If all the authentically recorded utterances of every 
English king from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries were put together, 
they would not amount to the utterances of the meanest stage hero. 

(5) In tradition the costume of the characters is often described in 
detail. It is, of course, important that the leading characters in the ritual 
drama should be correctly dressed, but we are very seldom told what 
historical characters wore. 

(6) Traditional narratives often have a conventional setting, such as the 
gateway of a city, the doorway of a palace, or outside a hut in the forest. 
In real life people seldom give out their secrets at such places, but in 
tradition they make a practice of it. 

(7) In the traditional narrative the hero often spends what he supposes 
to be a day in a cave or on an island, and finds on his return home that he 
has been away a whole year. This does not occur in real life, but on the 
stage a year often elapses between Act I and Act II. 

(8) The characters in the traditional narrative always remain the same age. 
We see this clearly in Homer. Helen's amorous adventures last for about 
thirty years, but at the end she is still a young and beautiful girl. Nestor, 
at the beginning of the siege of Troy, is a hale but very old man ; at the 
end of the siege he is still a hale but very old man, and he returns home 
and goes on being a hale but very old man. In the same way Njal, when 
we first meet him, is a wise old man to whom people go for advice ; forty 
years later he is still a wise old man to whom people go for advice. An 
old Helen, and a young Nestor or Njal, are as unthinkable as an old 
Columbine or a young Pantaloon. 

(9) Not only do the characters remain at the same age, but they are 
all contemporaries. Prof. Gilbert Murray has noticed this ; he says : 
' There is an extraordinary wealth of tradition about what we may call 
' the Heroic Age. Agamemnon, king of Mycenas and Argos, Priam, 
* king of Troy, and the kings surrounding them, Achilles, Aias, Odysseus, 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 159 

' Hector, Paris, these are all familiar household words throughout later 
' history. They are among the best-known names of the world. But 
' how suddenly that full tradition lapses into silence ! The Epic Saga 
' can tell us about the deaths of Hector, of Paris, of Priam ; in its later 
' forms it can give us all the details of the last destruction of Troy. Then 
' no more ; except a few dim hints, for instance about the descendants of 
' i^neas. 

' It is more strange in the case of Mycenae and Sparta. Agamemnon 
' goes home in the full blaze of legend ; he is murdered by iEgisthus and 
' Clytemnestra, and avenged by his son Orestes ; so far we have witnesses 
' by the score. But then ? What happened to Mycenas after the death 
' of i^igisthus ? No one seems to know. There seems to be no Mycenae 
' any more. What happened to Sparta after Menelaus and Helen had 

* taken their departure to the islands of the blest .? There is no record, 
' no memory. 

' ... It is the same wherever we turn our eyes in the vast field of Greek 
' legend. The " heroes " who fought at Thebes and Troy are known ; 
' their sons are just known by name or perhaps a little more ; Diomedes, 
' Alas, Odysseus, Calchas, Nestor, how fully the tradition describes their 

* doings, and how silent it becomes after their deaths ! ' ^^ 

We find the same phenomenon in many parts of the world, and the 
explanation is, in my view, a simple one. When the drama is over, the 
curtain goes down. 

(10) The fact has been noted by Prof. Chadwick that ' the religion 
' of the Heroic Ages is predominantly the worship of gods, while in his- 
' toric Greece and Scandinavia, etc., forms of chthonic worship are more 
' prominent, and survive for centuries.' 20 Supernatural beings, to be 
brought on to the stage, must of course be represented in human or 
animal form. 

(11) Among the commonest of the miraculous events which figure so 
largely in traditional narrative is shape-changing. In the Volsunga 
Saga Freya puts on the gear of a crow and flies off. Sigmund puts on 
a wolf-skin and becomes a wolf. These feats are easy on the stage, but 
difficult in real life. Hartland notes that ' the dress (which transforms 
' the heroine into a swan, etc.) when cast aside seems simply an article of 
' human clothing, often nothing but a girdle, veil or apron ; and it is only 

* when donned by the enchanted lady, or elf, that it is found to be ... a 
' complete plumage.' 21 The stage properties of the ritual drama must 
often have been few and simple. 

(12) There are few traditional narratives which do not include a king 
and queen. Prof. Pearson explained this by supposing that Europe was 
once divided into a vast number of tiny kingdoms, but the real reason 
is that the king and queen are the centre of all ritual, and must therefore 
be represented in all ritual drama. 

(13) A point which has been noticed by various writers is that the 
battle in tradition is always a series of single combats. Prof. Chadwick 
explains this 22 by saying that the possession of armour constituted an 

" Op. at., pp. 52-55. 20 op. cit., p. 424. 

" Op. cit., p. 301. 82 op. cit., p. 339. 



i6o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

overwhelming advantage, and that the object of the battle was to kill the 
leaders, who were expected to distinguish themselves by personal bravery. 
The same considerations, however, apply equally to feudal times, yet we 
never find feudal monarchs engaging in single combat. 

The theory put forward by Ridgeway to account for this and similar 
facts was that people who cannot write keep accurate historical records 
which they transmit orally, but that instead of expressing themselves in 
straightforward language they personify their own and neighbouring 
tribes, and then represent collective activities in terms of individual 
acts. The theory seems to be that at a certain stage in our culture we 
should have described the English conquest of Ireland by saying that 
Britannia jumped a ditch into her neighbour's garden, and the Battle of 
Trafalgar by saying that Britannia quarrelled with Gallia, and threw her 
bucket down the well. 

In criticising this theory, Mr. A. Nutt asked : ' Is there such a thing as 
historic myth at all .'' Do men commemorate tribal wanderings, settle- 
ments, conquests, subjugations, acquisitions of new forms of culture, 
or any of the other incidents in the collective life of a people, in the form 
of stories about individual men and women ? I do not for one moment 
deny the possibility of their doing so ; all I ask for is evidence of the fact.' ^ 
I cannot find that anyone has ever produced any evidence, yet the theory 
is still widely held, and was much later put forward by Prof. Murray, 
who tells us that he strongly suspects the lists of men slain by the heroes 
of the Iliad to be tribal records, condensed, and, ' of course,' transferred 
from their original context. He has already given us an example of one 
of these * tribal records.' In the Iliad it is said that Phzestus was slain 
by Idomeneus, and fell from his chariot with a crash. On this Prof. 
Murray comments : * Idomeneus is the king of Knossos in Crete, and 
Phaestus is only known to history as the next most famous town in the 
same island. That is to say, Phaestus is the town, or the eponymous 
hero of the town. So we have in this passage a record of a local battle 
or conquest in Crete, torn up from its surroundings and used by the poet 
to fill in some details of slaughter in a great battle before Troy.' ^* 
Even if we admitted the possibility of historic myth, it would be diffi- 
cult to explain why a town should be represented as falling from a chariot ; 
why an eponymous hero should be invented for one town but not for 
the other ; and why the poet of the Iliad should have recourse to Cretan 
records in order to fill in details of a battle before Troy, seeing that in 
more important cases he makes use of ' mythological changes and false 
* identifications.' ^^ It is difficult to acquit Prof. Murray of treating 
those portions of the Iliad which fit in with his theories as ' real history,' 
and those which do not as ' the emptiest kind of fiction.' ^® Sir William 
Ridgeway and Dr. Leaf rendered themselves liable to a similar charge. 
The reason for the single combats in tradition is that the original ritual 
combat was between the king and his challenger. It was this tradition 
which induced Shakespeare, with his habitual disregard of historical 
fact, to make Henry IV fight a single combat with Douglas. 

2' Folklore, vol. xii, p. 339, 24 Qp ^U., pp. 232-234. 

« Ibid., p. 229. 26 p_ 233. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY i6i 

(14) Another feature of the traditional narrative is that prophecies 
always come true ; that advice, except in certain special circumstances, 
is always taken ; that people frequently embark on enterprises which they 
well know will prove disastrous ; and that, as Prof. Chad wick notes, the 
characters are always boasting of what they have done and what they 
are going to do. The reason is that all present at the ritual drama are 
participants in the drama, and in order that they may add their share of 
luck to the drama and draw their share of luck from it, it is essential that 
they should fully realise what is going on. And this brings me to my 
last point. 

(15) In many forms of the traditional narrative there is a character who 
takes the parts of prompter and stage manager. It is his business to tell 
the actors what to do, and when necessary to tell the audience what is 
being done. The heathen ritual drama consisted largely of acts which 
were regarded by the Church as sinful, and in the gradual process of con- 
verting these dramas to Christianity we find the prompter coming to be 
identified with the Devil. It is clear in Faust, for example, that Mephis- 
topheles is nothing more than the prompter ; without him there would 
be no drama at all. Similarly, in that wonderful play The Miracle, in 
which we are shown many of the features of the ritual drama, the Spielmann 
plays the part of prompter and stage manager. 

In the Volsunga Saga the part is taken by Odin, who speaks the pro- 
logue and epilogue, and intervenes at critical moments to direct the action. 
Odin, we are told, was represented as an old man with one eye and a 
broad-brimmed hat ; where could he have been so represented except 
on the stage .'' In the Arthurian legends it is Merlin who is the prompter. 
He is always telling the actors what to do and the audience what is going 
to happen. 

In the Homeric dramas there does not seem to have been an individual 
prompter. The gods apparently sat, like the Trinity of the miracle plays, 
on a raised platform. They announced what was going to be done, and 
descended, when necessary, to direct the actors. 

Conclusion. 

Ridgeway assures us that unless we are prepared to maintain that both 
Herodotus and Thucydides are utterly untrustworthy, we must accept 
what they tell us of Greek prehistory ; but we are in reality faced with no 
such alternative. We may well believe that these writers, like Ridgeway 
himself, were genuine seekers after truth, but that, also like him, their 
methods were totally unscientific. He, and nearly all the other writers 
whom I have quoted, not merely start by assuming what they wish to 
prove — namely, that the Iliad is historical — ^but they rely almost entirely on 
internal evidence. It would be possible to prove by this method the 
historical truth of any novel. When Homer says that Ithaka is an island, 
they give him full marks for geography. When he says that it is rich in 
wheat, he does not lose any marks : they merely conclude — at least Dr. Leaf 
did — that in Homer's time some other island was called Ithaka. This kind 
of thing is not science at all : it is merely a parlour game. Unfortunately, 
however, anthropologists have been taught to take it seriously, and are now 



1 62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

engaged, all over the world, in the hopeless attempt to extract history 
and geography from the traditional narratives, instead of putting these to 
their proper use, which is to act as a guide to the rites of the people con- 
cerned, and so to their beliefs and ideas. 

The only sure foundation for the edifice of science is the concrete of 
ascertained fact, reinforced by the steel rods of universally tested theory. 
The ground upon which the edifice of social anthropology had to be built 
was encumbered not merely by the ruins of ancient superstitions, but also 
by the jerry-buildings of pseudo-history and pseudo-psychology, and 
many anthropologists have believed that these survivals could be in- 
corporated in the new edifice. The result has been that social anthro- 
pology has been allotted, very properly, a low place among the sciences. 
It will never occupy what should be its proper place until a vast quantity 
of pre-scientific and pseudo-scientific rubbish has been cleared from 
its path, and if this address helps in the smallest degree to bring about 
this clearance, it will have more than achieved its object. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE ACTIVITY OF NERVE CELLS 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. E. D. ADRIAN, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Since the biologist seeks to understand life, he cannot be accused of 
lack of courage. But he can find out a great deal without approaching 
too near the central problem. He can find out how the living cell develops 
and how it behaves ; he can follow many of the physical and chemical 
changes which take place in it, and could follow more if cells were not so 
inconveniently small. The immediate problems of the physiologist may 
be still further removed from the problem of life. They may deal, for 
instance, with the mechanics of the vascular system or with the physical 
chemistry of blood pigments. But most of us aim at explaining the 
working of the body in terms of its constituent cells, and feel that this 
is a reasonable aim even though we must take the cell for granted. Is 
it a reasonable aim when we are dealing with the working of the nervous 
system ? That is the problem which I shall discuss this morning. 

The nervous system is responsible for the behaviour of the organism 
as a whole : in fact, it makes the organism. A frog is killed when its 
brain and spinal cord are destroyed : its heart still beats and its muscles 
can still be made to contract, all the cells of its body but those of the 
brain and cord are as fully alive as they were before ; but the frog is 
dead and has become a bundle of living tissues with nothing to weld 
them into a living animal. This integrative action of the nervous system, 
to use Sherrington's classical phrase, we may be able to explain in terms 
of the reactions of the constituent nerve cells. We can at least discuss 
the point as physiologists. But the human organism includes a mind 
as well as a body. It may be best to follow Pawlow and to see how 
far we can go without bringing in the mind, but if the reactions of our 
nerve cells are to explain thought as well as action we must face the 
prospect of becoming psychologists and metaphysicians as well. 
Fortunately we need not yet go to such extremes. There are problems 
enough on the physiological plane, and they are made all the more 
interesting by this hint of mystery in the background. 

The nervous system, the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, is 
made up of a large number of living cells which grow, maintain them- 
selves by the metabolism of food-stuff^s, and carry out all the complex 
reactions of living protoplasm. In this there are enough problems for 
anyone ; but we are concerned not with the general properties of living 
cells but with those special properties which enable the cells of the 



i64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

nervous system to perform their functions. Their function is to make 
the organism respond rapidly and effectively to changes in its environ- 
ment, and to achieve this they have developed a specialised structure, 
and a complex arrangement in the body. They send out long threads 
of protoplasm w^hich serve for the rapid transmission of signals, and 
they are linked to one another by elaborate branching connections in the 
brain and the spinal cord. 

The Development of the Nervous System. 
The mapping of this netv?ork of paths v^^as begun many years ago, 
and was the first step in the analysis. No progress could have been 
made vi^ithout it, and its results are of vital importance to neurology. 
We are noMr witnessing a fresh period of interest in the geography of 
the central nervous system, but the problem is not how the nerve cells 
and their fibres are arranged, but why they are arranged as they are. 
R. G. Harrison in his recent Croonian Lecture recalled the time when 
he first cultivated living nerve cells outside the body. That experiment 
made twenty-three years ago, marks the new epoch better than any 
other, for, besides introducing the method of tissue culture, it settled a 
long and bitter controversy as to the origin of nerve fibres. Nowadays 
the most elaborate transplantation experiments are carried out by the 
embryologists on amphibian larvae. Animals are produced with super- 
numerary limbs, eyes, noses, and even spinal cords. The growing nervous 
system is faced with these unusual bodily arrangements, and by studying 
the changes induced in it we can form some idea of the factors which 
determine its normal structure. A review published this summer by 
Detweiler gives a vivid impression of the plasticity of the developing 
nervous system in the hands of the experimenter. As a rule it accepts 
the extra limb or sense organ, links it by nerve fibres to the rest of the 
organism and may develop more nerve cells to deal with it. The forces 
which mould the nervous system seem to come partly from within the 
central mass of nerve cells and partly from the body outside. These 
forces may be chemical or electrical gradients, and often the nerve fibres 
seem to grow in particular directions because they cling mechanically 
to structures already laid down, e.g. to the main arteries of the limbs. 
It is unlikely that a simple formula will be found for such a complex 
arrangement, but the fact remains that the arrangement can be pro- 
foundly modified at the will of the experimenter. Its detail seems to 
depend not so much on the innate properties of particular cells as on the 
environment provided by the rest of the organism. 

The Reactions of the Neurones. 
This new embryological work supports the older in showing that the 
nervous system is made up of ' neurones,' cells with thread-like extensions, 
and that they are the only active elements in it. These elements are all 
cast in the same mould, but are shaped differently by the forces of 
development. To this we can now add the fact that all neurones seem 
to do their work in much the same way. The activity which they show 
is in some respects remarkably simple. It is essentially rhythmic : a 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 165 

series of rapid alternations between the resting and the active state, 
due probably to rapid breakdown and repair of the surface. This at 
least is a fair description of the way in which the nerve fibres carry out 
their function of conducting messages, and we can detect the same 
kind of pulsating activity in the nerve cells of the brain. 

The evidence comes from the analysis of minute electric changes, for 
cell activity sets up electrical eddies in the surrounding fluid, and these 
can be measured with a minimum of interference. The clearest results 
are given by the peripheral nerve fibres which connect the central nervous 
system to the sense organs and the muscles. The nerve fibres are 
conveniently arranged in bundles to form the nerve trunks : each fibre 
is an independent conducting path and there may be a thousand such 
paths in a fair-sized nerve, but it is not a difficult matter to study what 
takes place in the single fibre when it conducts a message. We may 
begin with an external stimulus acting on a sense organ, a structure 
which includes the sensitive ending of a nerve fibre as an essential part. 
The ending is excited by the stimulus, the delicate equilibrium of its 
surface is upset and the disturbance tends to spread along the fibre. 
The spreading is an active process : it takes place because the fibre has 
a store of energy ready to be liberated at a moment's notice, and because 
the changes which attend its liberation at one point upset the balance at 
the next point and cause the same activity there. The spread of a flame 
along a fuse is a well-worn analogy. But the nerve fibre is so constituted 
that a disturbance at any point is almost immediately cut short. The 
change spreads along it as a momentary wave — a brief impulse followed 
inevitably by a brief interval of rest and recovery. If the sense organ 
remains excited a second impulse passes up the fibre, and then another 
and another as long as the stimulus is effective. The impulses in a given 
nerve fibre are all alike in magnitude , rate of travel , etc . , but the frequency at 
which they recur depends on the intensity of the stimulus, rising sometimes 
as high as 300 a second in each fibre, or falling as low as 10. All the 
nervous messages take this form ; the central nervous system is continually 
bombarded by trains of such impulses passing along the slender threads of 
protoplasm from the sense organs, and is continually sending out trains 
of impulses to the muscles. 

The conducting threads or nerve fibres are exceedingly insensitive to 
changes in their environment : their endings in the sense organs are 
exceedingly sensitive. The sole function of the ending is to act as the 
trigger mechanism for firing off the impulses, and the sole function of the 
nerve fibre is to carry the message without distortion. Both are specialised 
parts of the neurone with specialised reactions, but it is important to note 
that these reactions are not peculiar to the nervous system. Muscle 
fibres, developed from the mesoderm and specialised for contraction, 
conduct impulses which seem to diff'er merely in their time relations 
from those in nerve fibres, and they can also be made to behave like the 
sensory endings by treatment with various salt solutions. In sodium 
chloride, for instance, a series of impulses will be set up in a muscle 
fibre when it is stretched, as they would be in one of the sense organs 
whose sole duty is to act as ' stretch receptors.' The muscle fibre makes 



i66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a poor copy of the nervous mechanism, for it reacts jerkily and is often 
damaged in the process, but the ground-plan of the mechanism is the 
same. 

Thus in the activities concerned in the rapid conduction and in the 
setting up of rhythmic trains of impulses, it does not appear that the 
cells of the nervous system have properties not shared in some degree 
by other tissues. 

So far we have only considered what happens in nerve fibres. We 
can tap the messages which pass along the wires between the front line 
and headquarters, but this does not tell us how they are elaborated there. 
A great deal has been found out already by the analysis of reflexes — i.e. by 
sending in a known combination of signals and finding what signals 
come out to the muscles ; indeed, the great part of Sherrington's work on 
the spinal reflexes and Pawlow's on the brain has been carried out in 
this way. An account of the central nervous system which does not 
include a full discussion of such important work is like the tragedy of 
Hamlet without the Prince of Denmark ; but the results are so well known 
that I shall deal instead with a recent line of attack of an entirely different 
kind. This relies on the fact that nervous activity, in the central grey 
matter as in the peripheral nerves, is accompanied by electric changes. 
They seem to be a reliable index of the underlying activity, and by 
recording them we come a step nearer to the main problem. The chief 
difficulty is to interpret the records. In the cerebral cortex, for instance, 
very large electric oscillations are constantly occurring, except in the 
deepest anaesthesia, but they vary from moment to moment and from 
place to place, and it is only in the visual cortex that they are under a 
fair degree of experimental control. Here they can be produced by 
shining a light in the eye (Fischer and Kornmiiller) or stimulating the 
optic nerve (Bartley and Bishop), and the prospects of analysis are more 
hopeful. But at the moment the most significant feature of these records 
from the brain lies in the appearance of the waves. Whenever a group 
of nerve cells is in action, in the cerebral cortex, the brain stem or the 
retina, and whether the nerve cells in question belong to a vertebrate, 
or an insect, the waves are alike in general form. Instead of the abrupt 
spikes which appear in a record from a nerve fibre when a train of 
impulses passes down it, we have more gradual potential changes which 
form a series of waves of smooth contour. In the simpler structures 
where most of the neurones are acting in unison the waves may have a 
regular rhythm (5 to 90 or more a second), which rises and falls when 
the stimulus changes in intensity. It is often possible to make out 
both the abrupt nerve fibre impulses and the slower nerve cell waves, 
and to show that they occur together. In the cerebral cortex of an 
anaesthetised animal there is much more variety and less orderly repeti- 
tion ; the waves usually occur at irregular intervals ; they vary in size and 
duration, and some of them may last for half a second or even longer. 

Nerve cell waves may be the wrong name, for they are probably due 
to the branching dendrites and not to the cell body of the neurone ; but 
there can be no doubt that they represent a characteristic activity of the 
structures which make up the grey matter. They show that the same 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 167 

kind of rhythmic breakdown and repair of the surface takes place in this 
part of the neurone as in the nerve fibre, with the important difference 
that the changes develop and subside much less abruptly. The surface 
is not specialised for rapid conduction ; the forces which restore the 
resting equilibrium are less powerful and there is more tendency to 
spontaneous breakdown and to long periods of uninterrupted activity. 
We know that the activity of the grey matter is far more readily influenced 
by chemical changes than is that of the nerve fibre with its elaborate 
fatty sheath and wrappings of connective tissue, and it seems probable 
that both chemical and electric changes may be concerned in the spread 
of activity from one neurone to another. How this spread takes place 
is still uncertain, and it is admittedly the most important problem we 
have to face. In spite of this we can claim to have some of the main 
outlines of neurone activity. Our nervous system is built up of cells 
with a specialised structure and reactions, but the reactions are of a 
type to be found in many other cells. The rhythmic beat of the heart 
is probably due to surface reactions not far different from those in 
the group of nerve cells which produces the rhythmic movements of 
breathing ; and the factors, nervous and chemical, which regulate the 
heart beat are probably much the same as the factors which control the 
discharge of the neurone. We have a store of energy, replenished con- 
stantly by cell metabolism and liberated periodically by surface breakdown. 
The electrical gradients at the active point cause a spread of the breakdown 
to other regions, but sooner or later restoring forces come into play, the 
membranes are healed and the cycle is ready to be repeated. It is a long 
step from the mechanical precision of an impulse discharge in a nerve 
fibre to the irregularities of a record from the cerebral cortex, but there 
are many intermediate cases which will bridge the gap. 

The Nervous System as a Whole. 

As far as the units are concerned the prospect is encouraging. The 
difficulties begin when we come to the work of the nervous system as 
a whole. Many of its reactions are mechanical enough and can be 
explained in terms of the activity of groups of neurones, but there is 
much that resists this kind of treatment. It is perhaps encouraging 
that the difficulties are greatest when the reactions depend on the cerebral 
cortex, when they involve learning and memory, or, if you prefer it, habit 
formation and conditioning. They have been clearly stated by Lashley, 
and most of them can be reduced in the end to a simple formula, the 
failure of anatomical models of the nervous system. The revolt from the 
anatomical model has been growing for many years, though it may be 
doubted whether its sponsors ever believed in it as much as their critics 
suppose. It gave us diagrams of nerve centres and pathways which 
were valuable enough when they referred to known anatomical structure, 
but not when they referred, as they often did, to hypothetical centres 
and to pathways canalised by use. These too may exist, but they are 
not the whole explanation of cortical activity. 

Clinical neurology is partly to blame for the emphasis laid on exact 
localisation. The neurologist must locate brain tumours by analysing 



i68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the disturbances they produce ; consequently he welcomes the slightest 
evidence of localisation of function in the cortex, and finds the anatomical 
model valuable for correlating his observations. Undoubtedly there are 
well-defined nervous pathways, clear differences in cell structure and 
localised activity in different parts of the brain. As a modern addition 
to the evidence we have Foerster's recent work on the electrical stimulation 
of the human cortex, and his finding that stimulation of the temporal 
lobe may cause sounds and words to arise in consciousness whilst stimu- 
lation of the occipital lobe gives lights or images. Bard has given another 
remarkable example of strict cortical localisation by his observations on 
certain postural reactions in the cat. These depend on a small area in 
the frontal region, are not affected by damage to other parts of the brain, 
and are permanently lost if the frontal area is destroyed. The danger 
nowadays is that we may pay too little attention to such facts ; but it is 
true, nevertheless, that the localisation is a matter of areas rather than 
of single neurones. This is shown by examination of habit formation, 
and by the remarkable way in which the nervous system adapts itself to 
injury. 

It has often been pointed out that we learn to recognise shapes — the 
letters of the alphabet, for instance — however they are presented to us. 
The pattern of black and white made on our retina by the letter A need 
not fall on a particular set of retinal endings connected with particular 
cortical neurones. We have learnt to recognise a relation of lines and 
angles, a pattern of activity in the cortex rather than an activity of specific 
points. This kind of reaction is not due to our superior intelligence. 
Lashley finds it in the rat, and psychologists of the Gestalt school have 
pointed out examples from all manner of animals. There is the same 
neglect of specific neurones in the formation of motor habits, for if we 
have once learnt to write the letter A with our right hand, we can make 
a fair attempt to write it with any group of muscles which can control a 
pencil. 

The adaptations to injury present a different aspect of the same story. 
An insect which has lost a leg will at once change its style of walking to 
make up for the loss. This may involve a complete alteration of the 
normal method, limbs which were advanced alternately being now 
advanced simultaneously ; the activities of the nervous system are 
directed to a definite end, the forward movement of the animal — it uses 
whatever means are at its disposal and is not limited to particular pathways. 

When the central nervous system is injured there is more evidence of 
localised function, but the localisation is no hard-and-fast affair. A rat 
uses its occipital cortex in the formation of certain visual habits. When 
this part of the cortex is destroyed the habit is lost, but it can be re-learnt 
just as rapidly as before with what remains of the brain. A monkey's 
arm is paralysed if the corresponding motor area of the cortex is destroyed, 
but the paralysis soon passes away although there is no regeneration 
of the motor cortex. What is more remarkable is that the recovered 
functions are not associated with the development of a new visual region 
or motor region in the brain. Though they were originally localised 
there is no longer any one part of the cortex which is essential. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 169 

In reactions where there is no evidence of locaHsation (e.g. the learning 
of maze habits in the rat), Lashley finds that the important factor is the 
total mass of the cortex and not the presence of particular regions. The 
effect of an injury depends on its extent and not on its situation. It 
depends, too, on the amount of grey matter (nerve cells and dendrites) 
destroyed, and not on the cutting of connections between the different 
parts of the cortex. Thus the ability of the brain to form new associations, 
and generally to control the behaviour of the animal, depends primarily 
on the total area covered by the nerve cells of the cortex and their inter- 
lacing dendrites. For certain reactions it depends to some extent on 
the arrangement of pathways, but this arrangement is not essential. 
There is more localisation of function in the large brain of man than in 
the very small brain of the rat, for different cortical regions may be 
completely equivalent when they are separated by 5 mm., but not when 
they are separated by 100. But apart from this difference in scale it is 
likely that the human cortex has the same mass effect and plasticity of 
function. 

How do the individual neurones combine to produce a system which 
can recognise a triangle or direct the movements of the organism with 
such disregard of detailed structure ? If particular neurones or path- 
ways are not tuned to triangularity, how can the whole mass be tuned to 
it, and why should the tuning be more certain when the mass is greater ? 
Our data may be at fault and the mass effect an illusion, but there is 
certainly enough evidence for it to be taken seriously. Though there 
is no solution at the moment, I cannot believe that one will not be 
found — a solution which need not go outside the conceptions of physiology. 
It should be possible, for instance, to find out how many neurones must 
be combined to give a system which reacts in this way and what kind of 
structure they must form. The nervous systems of insects may provide 
the clue, for these may contain a few thousand nerve cells in place of the 
ten thousand million in the human brain. It is possible also to study 
the reactions of isolated parts of the central nervous system, to see how 
far their behaviour can be explained in terms of the units which compose 
them. The retina is an interesting example of this kind, for it contains 
an elaborate structure of nerve cells and dendrite connections, and has 
some of the reactions which we might expect from a mosaic of sensory 
endings, and some which depend on interaction between the different 
neurones. But even now we can form some idea of the way in which the 
grey matter can act as a whole. The electric oscillations in the cortex 
and in the grey matter generally are often due to a large number of units 
pulsating in unison. Sometimes there are several competing rhythms, 
and sometimes the collective action breaks down altogether, to reappear 
from time to time when some part of the system is stimulated to greater 
activity. When these collective rhythms appear the neurones are already 
acting as though they formed one unit. There is no need to regard the 
dendrites as forming a continuous network, electric forces may well 
bridge the gaps between them, but they may form a system in which 
activity can be transmitted more or less freely in all directions. The 
patterns of activity in a system of this kind would be like the ripples on 

G 2 



I70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the surface of a pond, with the difference that some of the ripples may 
occur spontaneously, whilst others are due to incoming signals. Inter- 
ference figures and nodes of vibration may then be all important. They 
would at least give a basis for the recognition of relations such as those 
of triangularity or squareness without the need for an excitation of specific 
points, and they might be formed with less distortion in a large pond 
than in a small one. 

This does not take us very far : in fact, the major problems of the 
central nervous system are left in greater obscurity than ever. But no 
one can observe these ceaseless electrical pulsations without realising 
that they provide a fresh set of data and may give a fresh outlook on 
the working of the brain. The facts are still too uncertain to be worth 
treating in greater detail. But they accumulate rapidly, and several 
lines of evidence seem to lead in the same direction. For the present 
it is enough to state our problem, that of the organisation of neurones 
into the nervous system. It is still a physiological problem, and I hope 
that a solution will be found on physiological lines. If it cannot be found 
it will be extremely interesting to see where the breakdown occurs, and 
if it can it will be even more interesting to see what light it throws on 
the relation of the nervous system to the mind. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



THE STATUS OF PSYCHOLOGY AS AN 
EMPIRICAL SCIENCE 



ADDRESS BY 

PROF. F. AVELING, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



As a text for this address, I quote a statement madeby a very distinguished 
physicist. Sir Arthur Eddington writes : ' Mind is the first and most 
direct thing in our experience ; all else is remote inference.' Now this 
statement may mean one of several things. It may mean either that we 
directly apprehend the mind itself as an experiencing entity, or that we 
know, and only know directly, phenomena, the objective mental contents 
and subjective states which, as at one time it was widely held, constitute 
our minds or consciousnesses. In this address I shall maintain that we 
know both, the former as an existent in every act of experience, and the 
latter as events within experience. And I shall maintain this for two 
reasons : first, because I find it to be so on introspection ; and, secondly 
(though this perhaps is not a psychological reason), because, unless we 
grant the immediate awareness of the self as existent and active, as well 
as phenomenal occurrences in experience, it is impossible, so it seems to 
me, to account for our belief in an existing external world and for many 
of the conceptual constructions by means of which the various sciences 
attempt to explain it. I do not wish to prejudge the issue of the problem, 
which, as you realise, is an epistemological as well as a psychological one, 
by asserting anything whatever with regard to the nature of this self that 
we experience directly ; but I do wish to assert the reality of the experi- 
ence. For me at least it is as real as the sensory experience in which the 
physical world, including my own body, is revealed to me. 

Inadequacy of Sensory Experience. 
There is, then, I maintain, more in ' mind ' than the sensory experiences 
which form the starting-point for physical science. This begins with the 
phenomenological world, a world of objects so-appearing to us ; and, on 
the basis of this experience, abstraction made from the fact that it is 
experience, a physical universe of reference is built up in scientific thought. 
It is thus apparent that physical science, omitting a great deal of experience 
from its purview, makes a selection of experiences. Moreover, in con- 
structing from these the physical universe, it makes use of concepts which 
cannot be discovered among those particular selected experiences that 
form its own peculiar subject-matter. What Eddington calls ' remote 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

inferences ' are only made possible by the occurrence of mental processes 
which are also experienced, though not among the crude sensory data with 
which physical science is primarily concerned. Thus all the sciences of 
Nature begin in sensory experience. They abandon this experience for 
conceptual construction. But they return once more to experience to 
verify their constructive work. For it is not only the function of science 
to theorise. If it did this alone, it might end in crazy hypotheses and wild 
speculation. Its function is also to predict and control. And only in 
the immediacy of experience can the accuracy of the predictions be tested, 
or the competence of the controls be established. 

Empiricism. 

I take it that an empirical science is either one which, as the term 
implies, is supported by the evidence of the senses, or one which is built 
up out of the elements of experience. Physical science, beginning and 
ending in sensory phenomena, is an example of the first kind ; psychology 
an example of the second. But the ordinary use of the term ' empirical ' 
limits experience to that of a sensory nature. My plea is that this limita- 
tion is an arbitrary one and due to a philosophical prejudice. There is 
more in experience than sensory elements. Apart from the self and its 
states, affective and volitional, to which allusion has already been made, 
there are thought-things as well as sensed-things, relations as well aj 
elements, correlates as well as original fundaments, in experience. The 
universe of physical science, for example, consists of thought-things ; 
it is a conceptual universe erected on the foundations of a sensed one. 
The external world, as presented to us by contemporary science, possesses 
none of the glamour and richness with which it is clothed in sensory 
experience. It has no colour, nor sound, nor odour, nor warmth, nor 
extension, nor shape, nor material substance. Yet the physicists would 
tell us that they are dealing with ' reality ' ; and that ' reality ' in itself is 
not what we naively suppose it to be. The world that has successively 
been conceived as a world of extended and solid objects, a world of atoms, 
of electrons and protons, of wave motions, is more physically ' real ' for 
physics than the everyday world in which we consciously live. It must 
be so, for indeed it is looked upon as the cause of our conscious world. 
A secular controversy, not yet concluded, has been waged as to which of 
these worlds is the more ' real ' ; for the setting of them over against each 
other is at once as modern as mathematical physics and as ancient as 
Greek philosophy. In calling attention, however, to the distinction, it 
is not with a view to appraising their relative degrees of ' reality.' It is 
in order to point out that both thought-things and sensed-things do in 
fact occur in our experience taken as a whole. A perfect mathematical 
plane triangle when an object of thought, although created by us as the 
result of a purely mental process, and never encountered in any sensory 
fashion whatever, is an experience just as much as a seen or felt (and 
mathematically imperfect) triangle cut out of wood or paper is. Each is 
referred to ' some thing ' ; but both are experiences, whereas the ' some 
things ' are not. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 173 



Empirical and Exact Sciences. 



In the same way as the sciences of Nature, concerning themselves with 
sensed-things, make a selection from among our experiences, omit many, 
and abstract from the fact that they are experiences of ours, so other 
sciences, concerning themselves with thought-things, make another 
selection of experiences, and consider them as if they also were independent 
of us. The empirical sciences that begin with sensory material work 
from this towards its explanation on conceptual lines. Those sciences 
like mathematics, on the other hand, that begin with abstract quantitative 
concepts, work from these concepts and their relations towards a state- 
ment of the implications that are contained within them. The former 
sciences derive the force of conviction with which they impress us from 
the fact that they are ultimately based upon the evidence of our senses — 
* Seeing is believing.' The latter likewise convince us by their proofs, 
because their conclusions evidently follow from their premisses — ' There 
is no proof like a mathematical proof.' The point to be stressed again, 
however, is that both these kinds of science are selective of their material 
and leave out of account much experience which, as such, is as good as any 
other. If seeing is believing, and mathematical proof convincing, the 
immediate living experience of myself knowing and feeling and willing is 
most impressive of all. Though not a Cartesian, in this I agree with 
Descartes that such experience is not merely believable or convincing, 
but indubitable. I suggest that these neglected experiences are necessary 
to explain the constructions of the empirical sciences of Nature, for we 
need no longer concern ourselves with the deductive sciences. And 
I further suggest that it is psychology, concerned with the totality of 
experience, objective and subjective alike, of which we are or may be 
conscious, and making no abstraction from the fact that it is experience, 
which provides an account of the empirical origin of principles of systema- 
tisation and explanatory concepts alike which are used in the other sciences. 
Though these principles and concepts are abstract, and indeed vary in 
degrees of abstraction, from qualities and their relations, through quan- 
tities and their relations, to being and its relations, in a sort of hierarchical 
order, they are and must be abstracted from something ; and if that 
something is not the sensory material with which physical science deals, 
then it must be discovered in some other region of experience. To 
support this contention it is not necessary to have recourse to innate 
ideas ; for it can be shown that observable mental processes, other than 
the apprehension of sensory experience, can account for the facts. And 
these processes are the apprehension and abstraction of relations between 
any experiences, this term being taken in the broadest sense, the pro- 
duction of correlates in respect of any experience, and the immediate 
awareness of the self energising, or being in one way or another busy 
with its objects. I summarise these considerations as follows. All 
systematic principles and explanatory concepts are in some way derived 
from experience. They are all mental products, the results of mental 
processes. They differ in degree of abstraction. Psychology is concerned 
with the totality of experience as such, and the processes, among others. 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

by which systematic principles and explanatory concepts come to be 
formed. And it is the most empirical of all the sciences, since the con- 
cepts of which it makes use are drawn directly from within experience 
itself, or, if inferences from it, are the least remote of all. I shall hope to 
illustrate this by reference to several of the explanatory concepts actually 
in use in physical and biological science and in psychology. But before 
doing this it will be useful to recall and distinguish the several stages by 
which science proceeds and in which such concepts are reached. 

Data of Science. 

The first step taken in any empirical science is to examine, describe, and 
classify the objects, or aspects of objects, with which it deals ; such 
classification being made on the principle of similarity and difference, 
which, it may be noted, does not involve inference, but depends upon the 
immediate experience of relations. The first step in psychology will 
accordingly be to observe, describe, and classify mental processes as such. 
Psychologists are fairly well agreed on the broad classification of these 
processes under the three heads of cognition, affection and conation, or 
knowing, feeling and willing, as aspects or actualisations of the self. But, 
though I have used the terms synonymously, I may note that there appears 
to me to be good evidence that conation (striving and doing) and willing 
(resolving, intending, choosing) cannot be included in the same general 
category ; and, accordingly, that there are at least four broadly irreducible 
kinds of mental event, which will require four groups of concepts to explain 
them. Classification, however, does not merely mean grouping together : 
it means separation as well. Thus cognitive processes separate into 
sensory perception, conception, judgement, reasoning and remembering, 
for each of which a different explanatory concept may be needed. Though 
memory, for instance, may be involved in perception, we cannot explain 
remembering and perceiving in the same way. Incidentally, the postu- 
late of retentivity is a good example of the kind of inference made in 
psychology. It is evidently an inference, for we do not experience 
retentivity. But it is not a remote inference ; and does not become so 
until we further postulate some such thing as persistent brain traces to 
account for it. Similarly different concepts may be necessary to explain 
the experiences of desire, resolution, impulse and striving, whether they 
are classed under two heads or one, and no matter how closely one may 
be involved in the other. 

Structural Analysis. 
The next step consists in the finer structural analysis, so far as this is 
possible, of the phenomenological data. In psychology, this means the 
further splitting up of the products of mental processes. On analogy 
with the procedure of the chemist, who analyses a chemical compound 
into its constituent elements, or of the anatomist, who dissects out the 
fibres of a nerve trunk, the psychologist analyses a percept, memory, 
emotion or will-act. The proverbial seen orange yields in such an 
analysis sensory factors of an elementary kind — colour, odour, sapidity, 
smoothness, and the like. It cannot be said, however, that these are all 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 175 

actually seen, any more than the thinghood with which the orange is 
invested in our thought. Apart from the shape and colour, all the rest 
comes from other experience than visual. The simplest case of visual 
perception is illustrated by a coloured figure, in which (except for thing- 
hood) the experience is wholly visual ; and here analysis gives shape and 
colour as elements. It has been objected that such analysis destroys the 
mental ' whole ' which is so analysed, just as chemical analysis destroys 
the compound, or anatomical dissection the preparation ; and this would 
be still more true did the anatomist separate living structures. He could 
not, by merely bringing them together again, restore the organism, any 
more than the chemist, by merely adding his elements together, could 
recreate the compound. And, indeed, even though we are unable to 
separate one sensation from another in a percept, and can only distin- 
guish them in our thought, this objection holds good. For, if we think 
the sensations separately, and then attempt to add them together con- 
ceptually, we discover that the mere sum of sensations is not the equivalent 
of the percept. This objection has been urged particularly against the 
work of the introspectionist schools, as if they were concerned only to 
find the mental elements out of which all consciousness was once supposed 
to be compacted. But introspection has discovered more than the mere 
sensations that have been distinguished. It has found relations which 
obtain between the sensations, as well as relations obtaining between 
abstract concepts, and between concepts and percepts also. This dis- 
covery is one of the most fruitful of all the empirical observations of 
psychology. A similar consideration might be developed in respect of 
the psychology of volitional processes. The Louvain school, for instance, 
like that of Wiirzburg, analyses the elements that enter into processes of 
resolution and attainment, and of choice. But it would be a mistake to 
think that these elements, so analysed, when conceptually put together 
again, are the equivalents of the will-processes. Here also are discovered 
relations which obtain between them ; and among these is that most 
important of all real relations, the relation, namely, of cause, which is so 
closely identifiable with the self. It is in virtue of this relation that a 
will-act from beginning to end is constituted as a temporal whole. If 
one keeps in mind the fact that both in spatial and temporal ' wholes ' 
neither the sensory and volitional elements nor the relations occur in 
isolation, this procedure of structural analysis is fully justified. 

Functional Analysis. 

A further step is to discover by functional analysis the conditions or 
laws of occurrence of the various events with which the science is con- 
cerned. In psychology, this has meant in the past the attempt to relate 
physical stimuli and their intensities with psychological occurrences, 
as in the case of Weber's Law ; or to relate physiological events with 
psychological ones, as in the localisation of sensory and motor functions 
in definite areas of the cortex, or conative and emotional changes with 
the physiological disturbances indicated by the pneumograph, sphygmo- 
graph or psychogalvanometer. The establishing of such relations between 
physical properties and physiological processes, on the one hand, and 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

psychological processes, on the other, requires, however, that we shall 
already have taken a step away from the empirical standpoint in the first 
sense of the term ; for here we are trying to equate a sensory experience 
with a thought-object, physical or physiological. My sensory impression 
of the weight of a loaded can as greater or less than that of a previously 
lifted can is measured against the ' real ' weights of ' real ' cans as indicated 
by a balance. But what do I know of ' real ' weights and * real ' cans ? 
I have kinaesthetic experiences and can discriminate between them ; 
I refer these to cans, and call them weights. I have likewise visual 
experiences of coloured shapes (the balance and cans) altering their 
spatial relations ; again I refer these to the cans, indeed to the same cans, 
and say they are due to weight. So far as sensory experience alone goes, 
I am equating amounts of felt effort with amounts of seen movement, 
and arguing analogically from one to the other. But how is this possible, 
since the two sets of experiences are not only different, but absolutely 
irreducible } Only, I suggest, because I have conceived something 
which is contained neither in the experience of effort nor in that of visual 
movement — namely, a physical can with physical properties affecting me 
in these ways, a ' same thing ' appearing under two (or more) irreducible 
forms .^ But the kinaesthetic experience of weight does not always 
correspond absolutely with the visual indication ; for the balance can 
detect differences in weight better than I can, or so I believe. And 
I believe this, not in virtue of the sensorial experiences alone, but because 
of even more conceptual construction than has already been indicated. 
In a similar manner, my experience of conation or emotion is equated 
with the visual indications of the instruments I am using. I report more 
or less of ' alertness ' ; I find the galvanometer deflections of greater or 
less excursion ; and I take these to register more or less physiological 
disturbance which is correlated with my experience. Again, there is a 
vast amount of conceptual construction involved in my conclusions. 

These conceptual and inferential procedures, however, are thoroughly 
justified if we admit, as I think we must, that not only sensory experience 
but all experience must be taken into account ; and then we must concede 
a like right of citizenship to whatever we are able to discover within it. 
As we have seen, we find thought-objects as well as sensed-objects and 
relations both ideal and real. Above all, we find an active self busy with 
all these mental objects and relations in the various ways of sensing, 
thinking, feeling, willing, striving, and the like. It is in this complete, 
unselected experience that we discover the experiential grounds for all 
our inferences. 

Explanatory Concepts. 
The last step is to find the least number of suitable explanatory con- 
cepts to cover all the data. Like the conditions and laws of occurrence — 
for indeed they are reached by the same process of functional analysis — 
these may be physical, physiological or psychological. In point of fact, 
for the most part those that have been advanced have been physiological — 

^ Incidentally, this difEerence between sensed-weight and thoughit- weight is, 
I believe, an explanation of the size-weight illusion. 



J— PSYCHOLOGY i77 

special sensory organs, local cortical areas, inhibition centres, association 
fibres, resistance at synapses, drainage of neural energy, and so on. 
There can be no doubt that some of these concepts are illuminating for 
psychology, but again at the price of abandoning the purely empirical 
standpoint in the first sense of the term, and borrowing from experience 
other than sensory in order to make explanatory use of them. And indeed 
the experience from which the loan is taken is precisely that for which 
no physiological explanatory concepts are available. While we may 
accept engrams as the physiological reading of retentiveness, association 
fibres as correlated with the linkages between ideas, and the like, there 
is no suggestion forthcoming from physiology as to what may be the 
physiological bases of becoming aware of experience, abstracting relations, 
producing correlates, the volitional control of mental process, or the 
intimate and immediate awareness of self. Moreover, some of the 
physiological concepts in question have in the first instance simply been 
taken over from psychology, others are yet very speculative and uncertain, 
while others again, plausible enough in hypothesis, would by most ortho- 
dox physiologists themselves be rejected, as, for instance, those of the 
Gestalt theoricians. Still the very fact that these last have been seriously 
put forward shows how little definitely ascertained physiological knowledge 
is as yet of use in explanation of mental events. 

In any case, the physiological phenomena, like the physical ones, do not 
contain the principles of their own explanation within themselves. When 
we examine the segmentation of a cell under a microscope, we conceive of 
it as a process going on in an existent, material and unitary thing. Whence 
do those concepts of existence, matter, unity and thinghood, come ? Cer- 
tainly not, I suggest, from the observed visual phenomena. When we 
stimulate the nerve of a nerve-muscle preparation and notice a contraction 
of the muscle, we conceive of the event as a causal one. Whence did we 
derive our notion of cause ? Not, again I suggest, from the observed 
sequence. When we measure the intake and output of a living organism, 
we do so in terms of energy. From what experience is that concept of 
energy taken ? Again, not from any one, nor from the sum total of 
observations involved in the measurements. All these and like beliefs 
with regard to physiological processes, and in particular in respect of 
their connection with mental events, are inferences from the phenomena, 
made in virtue of experiences of another kind. Physiology, accordingly, 
like physics, is an empirical science in the first sense because it concerns 
itself with certain selected sensory data ; in so far as it is explanatory, it 
is an inferential science. It is none the worse for that, however, even if 
it must borrow some of its concepts from psychology. The point is that, 
generally without acknowledgment, it does so borrow from psychology 
in order to establish the very constructions it offers to reloan to that 
science as explanations of mental events. 

Psychology as Science of Experience. 
We turn now to psychology, the most empirical of all the sciences in 
the sense that it deals directly with experience as such, makes no partial 
selection, but embraces all experiences alike indifferently, and at their 



178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

face value. And here I wish to show how scientific explanatory concepts, 
together with concepts which the physical and biological sciences other 
than psychology usually reject, are all derived from immediate experience. 

Analysis of Concept of Causality. 
Perhaps one of the best ways of developing this thesis is to consider 
first the historical evolution of the notion of causality, which was invoked 
to account for movement or change in the physical universe. After the 
two exceedingly significant though somewhat naive conjectures of love 
and hatred, and of mind as causal principle in Nature, an analysis was 
made by Aristotle, as a consequence of which five explanatory concepts 
were considered necessary to show how any change or movement could 
come about. There were the two intrinsic principles constituting the 
thing to be changed. One of these — ' matter ' — was conceived to be an 
indeterminate though determinable principle, which endures throughout 
the process of change and is, before the alteration, specified in its particular 
mode of being by a determining principle — ■' form.' Change means that 
a new form comes to actuate the matter ; and it involves also the negative 
concept of ' privation,' since before the change the alterable thing is 
' deprived ' of the mode of being it will exhibit after the alteration has taken 
place. Further than this, there are the two concepts of the agent which 
brings the change about, the ' efficient ' cause extrinsic to the thing changed, 
and the reason why the agent acts, the end, goal or ' final ' cause, towards 
the realisation of which the action is directed. Like the earlier attempts, 
this exceedingly acute analysis of causation, applied as it was to events in 
the external world, is an entirely anthropomorphic one. It reads into 
physical phenomena, in a conceptual manner, experiences which are 
wholly subjective. And this is at once apparent in all the examples that 
are brought forward to substantiate it. For instance, I, the agent or 
efficient cause, mould a thing, let us say wax, which is not now a sphere 
but a cube, into a spherical form, because I wish to have a sphere. Or 
I hew a formless block of marble into the shape of a statue. These are 
goal situations, in which an end must be intentionally set up before any 
action takes place ; something is consciously aimed at, or intended. 

De-Anthropomorphisation of Physical Science. 
Now, in the course of the development of scientific thought, first the 
concept of finality was jettisoned as not applicable to events in the physical 
universe : and certainly, though by analogy we can still apply that 
concept, derived from our own immediate experience of volitional activity, 
to the events of Nature, we are unable to discover it within the phenomena 
themselves by which Nature and its events are displayed to us. In those 
phenomena alone there is no indication of goal-seeking. The next con- 
cept to be dropped was that of efficiency, in the sense that one thing 
actually produces changes in others. And though, again by analogy, 
we can apply this concept also to the realities we believe to be sensorially 
presented to us, efficiency is in fact nowhere to be found in the phenomena. 
We are left, then, with sequences of antecedent and consequent, conceived 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 179 

as equivalent in amount of energy. To be sure, temporal sequences, as 
well as spatial relations, are to be obsen'ed in the phenomena themselves, 
and even similarities that can be interpreted as equivalences ; but they do 
not display energy, any more than teleology or efficiency. Most men of 
science go no further than this in their rejection of the concepts originally 
invoked to account for physical causality. That of ' privation,' perhaps 
because too obvious, is seldom considered ; while ' material ' and 
' formal ' principles linger on under other names, such as spatial con- 
figuration or arrangement in stereochemistry, or in the physics of the 
atom. Other men of science, more mathematically and philosophically 
minded, substitute equations for equivalences, and causal indeterminism 
for rigid determinism. The history of the successive modifications of 
the theory of causality, thus briefly and inadequately outlined, is evidence 
of the de-anthropomorphisation of physical science. At every step, how- 
ever, in the refinement of the physical concept one fact emerges — namely, 
that at no point is it possible to dispense with concepts derived from 
experiences other than those actually to be explained. Aiming at ends, 
efficient action, energy, equations, are not found in the phenomena in 
question, any more than thinghood and unity which are necessarily 
involved in any and every conception of causality. What, then, are 
those other experiences in which we have the concrete facts from which 
we abstract the concepts that we apply to the phenomena ? 

Origin of Scientific Concepts : Thinghood, Unity. 
Beginning with the last concepts named, the notions of ' thing,' ' same 
thing,' and of ' unity ' are derived, and can only be derived, from the 
immediate awareness we have of ourselves as unitary, existent and self- 
identical beings. When I see and handle any object, such as a book, 
I have visual and tactile impressions which I refer to an extra-mental 
thing, it matters not what it may be as a physical object. The visual 
impression, however, is not the tactile one ; and neither, nor both to- 
gether, is the book. Sensorially, I do not apprehend the book at all, but 
only ' properties ' of the book. Why, then, do I think that there is a 
book ? I interpret the phenomena, analogically with my immediate 
awareness of myself as affected by states, and posit a physical book with 
physical properties to account for the phenomena. Only later do I refine 
my notions of physical ' properties,' and conceive them, together with the 
book, not as like but as very unlike the original sensory data. The kind 
of mental process that occurs here is even more strikingly illustrated by 
another consideration. I put the book aside, and busy myself with 
some other matter. Then I pick it up again, and see and handle it afresh. 
I believe it to be the same book. But on what grounds ? On the grounds 
of the similarity of the previous and present phenomena. To apprehend 
a relation of similarity between phenomena, however, is not to apprehend 
identity either between the phenomena ^ or between the physical book 
previously posited and again posited now. There is no sensorial way of 
apprehending or of establishing identities. What happens is that again 

* Indeed, as mental occurrences they are absolutely different. 



i8o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

I interpret the similar phenomena, on analogy with my immediate 
(non-sensorial) experience of self-identity, and posit a selfsame physical 
book enduring in time. Finally, my notion of unity also is derived from 
the same source of immediate, non-sensorial experience of myself, and 
analogically applied to sensed -things and thought-things alike. 

Origin of Scientific Concepts : Energy. 
Passing next to the explanatory concept of energy, still in general use 
in the sciences of Nature, we find that this also is not to be discovered 
among the particular selected sensory phenomena with which they deal. 
This concept of physical energy, kinetic and potential, refers to a postu- 
lated persistent entity (' same thing '), constant in amount, which may be 
transformed from one state to another, and is capable of doing work in 
bringing about physical movements. To what source in experience can 
we trace this notion ? Clearly it is not sensorially apprehended in the 
physical phenomena observed. It might at first sight seem that it should 
be traced to kinaesthetic experience, or the sense of effort in bodily 
activity by which different kinds of work are done ; that we read this 
analogically into the physical phenomena, and project the result into a 
' physical ' world. But I do not think that this can be a true explanation, 
for the reason that, like the properties of the book just considered, the 
sense of effort, experienced in one case, is only similar to the sense of 
effort experienced in another. It can in no sensory way be shown that 
they are identical. Likewise, the body, in the same way as the book, in 
any successive pulses of sensorial apprehension, displays no more than a 
relation of likeness. Accordingly, I appeal again to my immediate non- 
sensorial experience of self-identity, in which I discover an active self 
energising in one way or another. It is true I do not find any perpetual 
and unbroken continuity of self-consciousness ; but, whenever I am 
conscious, notwithstanding all the changes that take place in the phenor 
menal world, including those of my own body, I am conscious of the same 
unitary and self-identical I. Now, can we find the basis of the concept 
of energy here ? I maintain that we can, in the sense that this self does 
actualise, or energise, in different ways, now perceiving, now judging, 
now resolving, now enjoying, and the like. And from this I infer, though 
the inference is by no means a remote one, that a self which does all 
these things can do any one of them, even if it is not actually doing that 
one at the moment. Here I find, in immediate living experience, the 
source from which the abstract concepts of energy and dynamism are 
drawn ; and these concepts, applied to the phenomena of motion or change, 
become those of kinetic and potential energy, and are projected upon an 
extra-mental world of things which we have conceived on .analogy with 
ourselves. i, 

Validity of Scientific Concepts. 

There are no doubt other lines of approach to the development of the 

thesis I am maintaining than the one I have taken ; but I have chosen this 

because it most readily allows me to stress the point I wish to make. If 

we begin with the principles and postulates of which the different sciences 



I 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY i8i 

make use in systematising and explaining their selected data, without a 
previous examination of their source of origin, just taking them for 
granted or as obvious, we are extremely likely to give them precedence 
over all others, and to suppose that they possess a greater validity than 
others, or even that they alone are valid. In this way, it would seem that 
commonly accepted principles of physical science, such as those of deter- 
minism or the conservation of energy, have come to be regarded not only 
as of supreme validity in physics, but even as strictly applicable also to 
psychological events, including those from which, by way of conceptual 
construction, they have been derived. I am here in no way trying to argue 
that these principles and postulates are not true. There may be a universe 
of physical objects, in which energy is conserved, and all events rigidly 
determined. What I am arguing is that these thought-things are in- 
ferential constructions from sensory phenomena, which are possible only 
because of experiences other than sensory and phenomenal, and that they 
must not be permitted to displace or contradict those very experiences in 
virtue of which they are built up. If we had worked backwards in the 
history of the evolution of the notion of causality, instead of forwards as 
we have done, we should have found that we were leaving the region of 
remote inference for that of proximate inference, and this again for that of 
experience pure and simple, until at last we reach the immediate experience 
of the self as actively engaged with its mental objects. We should have 
reached then the central core, so to speak, of all experience. And here 
we find, not merely a concept nor a phenomenon, but an actual thing, or 
active substance existing in itself, from which the notions of thinghood, 
substance and activity are abstracted ; we find here an efficient cause 
actually producing its effects, such as remembering a forgotten event or 
altering the character of phenomena by willing to do so, and from this the 
concept of efficiency is derived ; we find a substantial cause in multiform 
relations with sensed-things and thought-things, among which is the goal 
relation, whence the idea of finality or teleology arises. 

Psychological Processes of Concept Formation. 

From such experiences as these, to which we apply relations likewise 
experienced, we derive the proximate inferences such as those of reten- 
tiveness or mental energy, to which allusion has already been made. 
From them also, as well as from our immediate experiences of the appre- 
hension of relations and the production of correlates, we infer the proxi- 
mate principles of noetic eduction. And, lastly, from them again, by 
further applications of relations to them, to phenomena, and to correlates 
already produced in our thought, we reach the far more remote inferences 
of which use is made in the sciences of Nature ; for here we refer our 
experiences to transexperiential, extra-mental causes. But the grandiose 
system of the natural sciences as a whole stands in virtue of these original 
experiences ; and it would crumble away into less than dust did they not 
guarantee it. 

It is for this reason, provided the meaning of the term be not limited 
to sensory experience only, but be extended to all and everything that may 



i82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

be experienced, that I maintain that psychology is the most empirical of all 
the sciences. 

Perhaps I may end with another quotation from the writings of the 
same distinguished physicist from whom I quoted as a text : ' We have 
found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We have 
devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origin. 
At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the 
footprint. And lo ! it is our own.' 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



THE TYPES OF ENTRANCE MECHAN- 
ISMS OF THE TRAPS OF UTRICULARl A 
(INCLUDING POLYPOMPHOLYX) 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. FRANCIS ERNEST LLOYD, M.A., D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It is an honour greatly appreciated and wholly unexpected to have been 
selected to preside over your Section of Botany on this occasion, the 
Leicester Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science. To express my feelings in any plenary sense would take too 
much of your time, better spent on the subject before us. I therefore 
offer you my best thanks for your confidence. If the subject which I have 
chosen is one as full of interest as it is devoid of practical importance (so 
far as we can at present see), I may plead that I am following the example 
of your illustrious Hooker, whose address at the Belfast Meeting in 1874 
was in the same field and equally open to the criticism. 

This subject ^ has the purpose of setting before you the variety and, so 
far as I have compassed them, the minutise of structure and behaviour of 
the door, or valve (as Darwin called it), and its contactual parts, par- 
ticularly the threshold, of some 75 species of the genus Utricularia. Such 
a number out of the whole of some 250 known species may be taken as 
sufficiently representative to allow us to obtain a fair picture of the lot. 
That I have been able to examine this fairly adequate series has been due 
to the helpfulness of correspondents in various parts of the world, 
acknowledgments of which I have already made elsewhere. It must, 
however, be added that the study of preserved material to any good purpose 
would not have been possible without the foundation work of studying 
such living material as has been available, including the following species : 
U. vulgaris, U. intermedia, U. gibba, U . ernarginata, U. capensis, U. reni- 
formis, U. cornuta, U. longifolia, U. coerulea, etc. In this connection 
I should not fail to add that I have had the able co-operation of Mrs. E. R. 
Johnson, nie Reed, of Perth, Western Australia, and of Mr. Allan 
Mclntyre and Mr. A. V. Giblin, of Hobart, Tasmania, in carrying out 

* The present paper may be considered a continuation of my presidential 
address, entitled ' The Carnivorous Plants — A Review with Contributions,' 
delivered at the recent meeting of the Royal Society of Canada, May 18-20, 
1933- A motion picture showing the action of Drosera and of Dioncsa, exhibited 
on that occasion, is shown as part of the motion pictures as completed especially 
for this. 



i84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

certain critical observations, which enable me to say with conviction 
things relating to Australasian species which otherwise had not been avail- 
able in the living form and whose peculiarities well-nigh defied analysis. 
I refer to U. dichotoma and related species, and to Polypompholyx. 

The species of Utricularia (I include Polypornpholyx for the purpose of 
description from now on) fall into two major ecological groups : the 
submersed, floating forms, of which the familiar U. vulgaris and less 
familiar U . purpurea are good examples, and the so-called terrestrial forms, 
of which the frequently cultivated U. reniformis and U. ccerulea may serve 
as illustrations. This statement leads me to emphasise the fact that the 
structure of the bladders, or traps (as I prefer to call them), is far more 
uniform, almost to monotony, within the submersed forms, while the 
contrary is true of the terrestrial. That this should be the case seems 
natural, as the environment of the submersed kinds is more uniform. 
But that the diversity of the remainder should be due to the lack of 
uniformity of environment is not so clear, since the lack is, I imagine, more 
apparent than real. The terrestrial species are all confined to a very wet 
substratum, and grow usually as much submersed as the floating forms ; 
and the species which appear to be the least limited in their need of water 
are those which, like IJ . reniformis, U. longifolia, etc., grow in wet moss as 
epiphytes, etc., and in spite of this are most like the submersed U. vulgaris 
or U. gibba. Whatever the explanation, it is my present purpose rather 
to display the variety of the traps and to attempt to explain their workings. 

In order to approach immediately to this purpose I shall clear the way 
by summarising those properties which are common to all. 

I. Nature of Action. — The trap is a snap-action mechanism — that is, it 
acts with extreme suddenness, much to the surprise of Darwin when he 
examined U. vulgaris} So swift is it that the whole action falls within 
the limits of y'g- second, and by means of superspeed cinephotomicro- 
graphy, taking i6o pictures a second, I have found that the opening 
phase of the door falls within y^^ second, while the closing phase is 
completed in four pictures, or -^j^ second. All the species which I 
have examined act similarly. During this brief moment the side walls 
of the trap spring out, the shape of the periphery as seen in lateral view 
alters correspondingly, the door opens fully and closes, falling into a 
semi-relaxed position, during which a column of water, carrying with 
it any luckless animals if small enough, rushes into the interior of 
the trap. The closing movement of the door shuts off the water 
before the walls have completely relaxed, so that, on closure being 
completed, there remains still some degree of ' negative ' pressure. As 
Merl (1922) showed, complete relaxation may be procured experimentally, 
either by puncturing a wall of the trap or by holding the door open for 
a moment, thus throwing it out of action. I have shown also that cutting 
the velum has the same result. 

^ The action of the trap in U . vulgaris, U. gibba and U. purpurea is demon- 
strated by means of motion pictures. By means of animated diagrams the 
particulars of behaviour of the door are shown for U. gibba, U. vulgaris, U. cornuta 
and U . ccBrulea. The rate of movement of the door of U. vulgaris is demon- 
strated with superspeed motion picture taken at the rate of 160 frames per 
second. The question of irritabihty has been dealt with by me elsewhere (1932) . 



K— BOTANY i8s 

2. Resetting. — After discharge the trap resets itself after a period of 
from 15 to 30 minutes or more, in U. vulgaris, or as long as 2 hours, more 
or less, in U. purpurea. In this operation water leaves the interior of the 
trap by diffusion through the walls, until an equilibrium has been reached 
and the walls have become concave so much as to press tightly on each 
other (in U . purpurea) , or at least to be closely approximated {U. vulgaris, 
U. gibba, U. cornuta). In other words, the trap acts as a cell when sur- 
rounded by a slightly hypertonic solution of a sugar or salt if harmless ; 
but in the case of the trap this condition is not necessary, though with 
sufficiently high solutions of sugar, etc., within, the trap will take up 
water rather than lose it. Czaja (1924) has studied this aspect of the 
physiology of the trap, and tells us that the walls are semi-permeable, 
allowing water to pass but not solutes, but evidently this is not the whole 
explanation. For our present purpose we need not discuss this problem, 
merely recognising the fact that water passes out from the interior of the 
trap, thus producing a reduced pressure within. As a result, the outer 
water presses equally everywhere — on walls and door alike. When, 
therefore, the door is shifted out of its position of equal resistance, the 
water pressing thereon pushes the door in. Thus is furnished a part of 
the energy required to actuate the trap. The remainder (an amount not 
measurable, or at least not yet measured) is supplied by the tensions of 
the (living) walls themselves, which, with an even water pressure within 
and without, still always take on an extreme convexity, when the trap can 
be said to be completely relaxed. From this condition a sound, undamaged 
trap will reset itself in a period considerably longer than that required 
after normal actuation when it is only partially relaxed. 

The energy required for the actuation of the trap is derived from the 
water pressure plus the outward spring of the walls. From now on, this 
will be understood and no further reference made to it. 

3. Watertightness . — Since the above is always true, it must also be that 
the door is watertight.^ I have showji (1929) that this watertightness is 
owing to the presence of a membrane, the velum (Figs. 21-25), which 
arises as a cuticular development from the pavement epithelium of the 
threshold, though in certain species other regions contribute to produce 
an accessory velum (Fig. 15), as we shall see. All the living species 
examined conform to these statements. How the door is engaged when 
the trap is in unstable equilibrium is a particular question, along with 
others, as to the extent and proportions of the threshold, origin and 
extent of the velum, and the method of actuation. These points, there- 
fore, are to be considered specifically in what follows. There is, however, 
one underlying fact which may be mentioned at once in this connection 
— namely, that the free edge of the door is always longer than the threshold 
at its inner angles (Fig. 23). The latter can be readily understood when 
the development of the trap is considered and, as Meierhofer (1920) has 
cleared this up, it is not necessary to further amplify. It follows that the 
door edge cannot lie smoothly along the surface of the threshold when 

^ When the adjective ' watertight ' is used, I imagine that it must not be taken 
too literally. As long as the inleakage is at a lower rate than the outward 
diffusion through the walls, the trap will work. 



i86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

it is parallel with a component thereof ; or, conversely, if it does lie 
smoothly, it is always oblique to the threshold. If, as in the former case, 
the edge is parallel to the threshold, there must be a region where, when 
the door is opened, it buckles. In the normal action of the door the point 
of buckling, which is necessary to its opening at all, is structurally pre- 
determined as to its position. How in particular this is accomplished 
will further appear. 

4. Histology of the Door. — The tissues of the door are of two kinds 
(always of two courses of cells), hinge and middle piece. The former 
occupies a zone around the sides of the door, the latter a more or less 
extensive area at the middle of the lower edge and extending upward from 
this to some distance. Hinge tissue has a course of deep cells backed by 
a thin course (Figs. 3-8). It is extremely flexible, and can bend sharply 
through an arc of 180 degrees without damage. This results, in large 
part at least, from the character of the deep cells, whose periclinal walls, 
inner and outer, are in the form of bellows. The anticlinal walls of both 
courses are reinforced by numerous cellulose props which prevent collapse 
on bending (Lloyd, 1932). In the middle piece the two courses of cells 
are of equal thickness, and while flexible the tissue has a certain rigid- 
ity and resists flexure in both directions equally. The walls are very richly 
provided with cellulose props. The function of the hinge is to keep the 
door flexed outwardly as far as possible. If this outward stress is met by 
the threshold, the effect of the hinge is to exert a thrust of the middle 
piece against the resisting surface [cornuta type). Aside from the above, 
each type of trap requires special treatment. 

5. Trichomes. — In all species there are glandular trichomes on both the 
outer and inner surfaces of the trap. Those on the outer surface are 
usually sessile, of three cells (basal, mid- and capital cell — the last often 
doubled), the pattern of structure of all the glandular cells wherever 
occurring. These are found scattered over the whole plant surface, and 
are not peculiar to the traps, on whose interior surfaces occur trichomes 
of similar basic structure, but the outer two to four cells forming the 
capital are elongated or, if with a single-celled capital, there is a single 
sausage-shaped terminal or capital cell. Some species, therefore, have 
quadrifid and bifid trichomes (as Darwin called them) devoid of cuticle, 
the latter in the vicinity of the threshold ; or bifid and single trichomes, 
correspondingly placed. They may be few or very numerous, e.g. in 
XJ. longiciliata but six ; in U. lateriflora, sixteen ; in U. vulgaris, 
hundreds. The form is very characteristic, but familiar to anyone who 
has only cursorily examined the interior surface of the trap of any species. 

The distribution of these trichomes is various. There is always 
a segregation of single and bifid, or only bifid trichomes : {a) on the 
inner surface of the threshold bolster, {b) on the surface above the inner 
margin of the threshold, and {c) on the general surface of the interior, 
which may be very thickly studded everywhere, or may be many fewer 
and placed in rather definite positions, e.g. they are frequently absent 
from the flanks and confined to the more peripheral, especially ventral 
region, as viewed laterally. What these differences may mean is obscure ; 
I am inclined to regard such as of no importance whatever. 



K.— BOTANY 187 

6. Appendages. — The trap is usually provided with appendages, though 
there are a few exceptions, e.g. U. corntita (Fig. i), U. nana. In the 
submersed, floating, or semi-terrestrial forms resembling U. vulgaris, 
there are two antennas which are more or less fringed with long bristles, 
and similar bristles radiate from the sides and top edge of the entrance, 
but these may be almost entirely absent. Or, instead of antennae, there 
may be two {U. lateriflora, Fig. 13) to about seventeen {U. Kirkii) rows of 
bristling trichomes, forming a funnel-shaped lead to the entrance, which 
may also be provided with a proboscis projecting from the upper 
( U. albina) or from the lower lip of the entrance ( U. longiciliata) ; or the 
latter may occur in the absence of any other appendages [U. elephas). 
On the surface of it, these appendages have been interpreted as guides to 
the entrance, but in many instances it is difficult to regard them as of 
any importance whatever. For our present purpose these may be dis- 
regarded, except as they may have some bearing on the character of the 
entrance. 

In order to avoid confusion arising out of the great mass of material, 
I shall choose types of various groups for special consideration. 

The Type U. cornuta (Figs. 1-8). 

I begin with U. cornuta because it is the simplest in structure, though 
not by this token a primitive form. Schimper published in 1882 a descrip- 
tion which was wrong in most particulars, so far as the structure of the 
door and threshold are concerned. My own account (193 1), brief and 
very incomplete as it was, was offered before I had had the advantage of 
studying living material, and it is wrong in regarding the relaxed position 
of the door in the set position. I can now make amends for my 
inaccuracies. 

The trap in lateral view is rounded with a protruding beak beneath 
which is the entrance, and a stalk. The large traps are about i mm. in 
diameter (Fig. i). Viewed on edge, the sides are seen to be concave 
when the trap is in the set condition, and convex after actuation. Owing 
to the approximation of the stalk and beak, an edge view, showing the stalk, 
does not display the entrance proper, but this I have shown in another 
figure (Fig. 2). In this we see that the entrance is bounded by a lower 
lip in the form of an inverted arch, not quite circular. Above the edge of 
the lip we see some irregular cells projecting radially. These are the 
forward courses of cells of the pavement epithelium. Hanging down- 
ward from the beak and extending inward is the door. This figure is 
a thick section, beginning at/, and extending as far back as, say, d, Fig. 3. 
By consulting this latter figure one sees that the arched entrance leads to 
a curved platform (approximately semi-cylindrical) lined with the pave- 
ment epithelium, made up of glandular cells of elongate form, being the 
capital cells of a closely packed tissue of glandular trichomes. Schimper 
recognised these trichomes as being of structure similar to the glands of 
the outer surface, as also did Goebel, Hovelacque and others for other 
species. But, hitherto, students have supposed that the pavement 
epithelium is uniform in structure, which indeed, when regarded super- 
ficially, it seems to be. If we dissect away the adjacent parts, so_as to 



i88 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 




K— BOTANY 189 



PLATE I— References. 

Figs. 1-8. Utricularia cornuta. Side and front view of the trap. The 
broken lines indicate the set and relaxed conditions. 

Fig. 2. Front view of the entrance. 

Fig. 3. Sagittal section of the entrance showing the relations of door and 
threshold, d^, door in the set position ; d^, door in the open position ; 
i/g, door in the normally relaxed position ; d^^, door when fully 
relaxed ; d.h., door hinge ; d.t., downward thrust of the lateral hinge ; 
o.t., direction of thrust of the door exerted by the overhang ; and the 
resultant thrust (c) when the trap is set. On the right the lure gland. 

Fig. 4. View of the door as from beneath. 7n.p., middle piece ; l.h., 
lateral hinge ; u.h., upper hinge. Cells in lighter outline are those of 
the inner course. m.r.d.e., middle reach of the door edge ; l.r., lateral 
reaches. 

Fig. 5. Threshold, i.z., inner zone ; m.z., middle zone ; o.z. (v.), outer 
zone which bears the velum ; d.h., door hinge ; g., gland which may 
act as a lure. 

Fig. 6. Transverse section of door and adjacent structures : (i) in 
the set position ; (2) relaxed after actuation. This section is 
approximately one through arrow e, Fig. 3. 

Fig. 7. Transverse section (arrow d, Fig. 3) of the door through the 
upper region of the middle piece. The broken lines indicate position 
taken when the door is opening. 

Fig. 8. Transverse section of the door near the free edge (arrow c, 
Fig. 3). t., the heavy line indicates the inner edge of the threshold ; 
d., dotted line indicates the lower surface of the door edge. The two 
oblique arrows indicate the direction of thrust of the lateral hinges on 
the middle piece (m.p.). When the door is opened the middle piece 
bends along the sagittal line. 



I90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

free the threshold, and carefully spread it (which unavoidably tears it, 
spreading the cells a little, but not enough to disturb our observations), 
we may recognise three transverse zones, which I designate the outer 
(o.z.), middle (m.z.) and inner (i.z.) zones, delimited in Fig. 5. These 
zones can be identified with those in Fig. 3, where the threshold is cut 
sagittally. The component cells having the same fundamental structure 
throughout, we find that those of the outer zone are loosely packed and 
that their cuticles are raised up to form a great mass of loose membranes, 
the velum, which, when the door is closed and the trap set, renders the 
door watertight. The middle zone cells, on the other hand, are smaller 
and tightly packed (their outlines, therefore, angular), and their exposed 
faces are flat. This zone is narrowest at the middle and spreads out fan- 
wise toward the lateral limits of the zone, which furnishes a smooth, firm 
surface against which the face and edge of the door can press when the 
trap is set. The inner zone is narrow and lunate, composed of loosely 
packed cells, with more or less irregular contour. Their general surface 
is slightly uptilted toward the outside of the trap. The back edge of the 
threshold is in the form of a roll of tissue, tapering toward the ends. 
I once thought that this furnished a resistant face against which the door 
edge rests, but I was mistaken (1931). This point was finally settled by 
photographing the door and threshold through the wall of the trap while in 
the living, set condition — optically a rather difficult task. 

The door extends from the end of the beak inwardly, is nearly twice as 
long as broad, and contracted at one point (Fig. 4). This point coincides 
approximately with the forward end of the threshold, along the lateral 
margins of which the sides of the door are attached to the wall {d.h., 
Fig. 3). The extreme ends of the free door edge coincide with the 
inner angles of the threshold, while its edge coincides, when the trap is set, 
with the inner border of the middle zone of the threshold. The histology 
of the door, which is composed of two cell courses, is very important if we 
are to understand its effectiveness. The mapping shown in Fig. 4 
indicates four regions. The outer two-thirds, articulating with the wall 
of the trap in the beak, is of cells which have their longer axes transverse 
in the outer course and longitudinal in the inner. All these cells have 
their radial walls strengthened by cellulose props, but these are much 
more numerous and larger in the walls of the inner course of cells. Both 
anticlinal walls of these latter are folded, bellows-like. The inner course, 
as thus constituted, is capable of much expansion and compression. 
Their own proper tendency is to expand, so that a freed door bends 
sharply outwardly. They can bend inwardly in response to pressure on 
the door, however, so that at once they keep the door pressed on the 
threshold, but can be bent inwardly when the door is opened by the 
pressure of water, only to spring the door back into position when that 
pressure is released. Among the outer course cells there is a number of 
gland cells, with oval capitals, which may act as a lure (Figs. 3, 4, 6), 
together with the special oval gland just below the lip of the entrance 
(Fig. 2). The side walls of the door are constituted quite as the forward 
region above described. They (Fig. 4, l.h.) press firmly in lying in con- 
tact with the sides of the threshold {m.z., Fig. 5) and exert a downward 



K— BOTANY 191 

thrust on the middle piece of the door (m.z., Fig. 8), which has quite 
a different structure, in that the two courses are of equal depth, the cells 
small and very densely studded with cellulose props, which appear, in the 
face view of the cells, as more or less regular transverse bands. These 
have the same function as elsewhere, but here are more numerous, because 
of the severe flexing which the middle piece is subjected to during initial 
opening of the door. The properties of the middle piece are stiffness 
and capacity of flexure in either sense.* When the door is closed, the 
middle piece is held firmly against the middle reach of the middle zone of 
the threshold {l.h., Fig. 5) by the downwardly thrusting lateral hinges 
(Fig. 8). 

In addition to the door proper, the beak wall cells also take part in the 
flexures of the door, and further exert a longitudinal thrust on the door, 
so that this is pushed backward and downward. The thrust of the door 
edge is then in the direction indicated by arrow c, Fig. 3, and is down- 
ward against the threshold middle zone. The thrust exerted by the beak 
is referable to the total flexures of the trap when exhausted ; when the 
trap has been sprung and is relaxed, the beak is not bent downward so 
sharply (^3, Fig. 3). 

By making photographic silhouettes of traps in the set, relaxed, and 
totally relaxed conditions, the difference in shape of the curvatures can 
be recorded. It has thus been possible to record the position of the door 
under these conditions. In the set condition the door, as betrayed by 
the longitudinal aspect, is bowed upward, and the transverse curvature at 
e and /, Fig. 3, will be flatter (Fig. 6). This has the effect of a more 
directly downward thrust of the door edge. After actuation the sil- 
houette of the door is as shown by the broken line d^. Fig. 3 ; the beak 
being less bent and the thrust due to the beak being eliminated. If total 
relaxation is obtained (as by puncturing the wall of the trap), the door 
takes the position d^ — the dot-and-dash line in Fig. 3. These contours 
of relaxation serve to emphasise the significance of the curvatures seen in 
the set condition, when the lateral areas {l.h., Fig. 4) clamp the middle 
piece firmly on the threshold (Fig. 8), and the upper region of the door is 
under transverse tension, bowing the door longitudinally. The chink 
between the door and threshold is now filled with the membranes of the 
velum, making the whole watertight. 

Actuation is procured experimentally by slight pressure of a needle 
point (the operation must be without damage to the tissues) on the surface 
of the door in the region e-f, Fig. 3. Sometimes a very light touch will 
do the trick, but I get the impression that the mechanism is not so sensitive 
as that of U. purpurea or U. vulgaris. The smallness of the trap makes 
experimentation difficult. What happens in nature can only be inferred. 
It is to be noticed that there is a total lack of appendages supposed to act 
as guides and lures, the only equivalent being the gland below the 
entrance and the glandular trichomes on the door surface, aggregated 
chiefly in the region of actuation. But it is not difficult to make the 
inference that a small animal (Schimper mentions rotifers, worms and 

* For a full discussion of the histology of the door, see my paper of 1932 in the 
Canadian Journal of Research. 



192 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

crustaceans, and I have seen the same or similar forms), crawling about 
the entrance, could enter far enough to touch and press inwardly, slightly 
denting the surface of the door in that region. This would upset the 
unstable equilibrium and the pressure of water would take advantage of 
the initial flexure, which would then travel toward the door edge at the 
middle of the middle piece (Fig. 7). This, in turn, would nullify the 
lateral thrusts of the sides of the door, and the water pressure would, 
folding up the sides, open the door (Fig. 3). To be noticed is the fact 
that the structure of the door in the region of actuation is such that it 
would give readily to local pressure, though the distributed water pressure 
would be resisted (Fig. 6). 

In summarising the case before us, we note that the threshold is broad 
(ratio of breadth to length, 2 : i approximately) ; that the door is long 
and narrow and has no special tripping mechanism, an initial dent being 
sufficient to upset the unstable equilibrium ; and that the velum is very 
broad. The door is held in tight application to the threshold by the 
thick lateral regions, these exerting a downward thrust on the middle 
piece, which can bend longitudinally. The end of the beak also con- 
tributes to the door mechanism, and has inner course cells which are 
strengthened by props. Although simple in appearance, the door 
mechanism is elaborately endowed with suitable curvatures and cellular 
structures which make its behaviour possible. It is a snap-action 
mechanism, as determined by much careful observation. 

U. cornuta is a New World type, and the few species have the identical 
trap structure. A species (my No. 43) from the Aripo Savannah, Trini- 
dad, collected in fluid by Professor R. B. Thomson in 1931, with spatulate 
leaves (thereby distinguishing it from U. cornuta with linear leaves), and 
U.juncea (Vahl) Barnh., collected by De la Cruz, 1543, in British Guiana 
(my No. 108) and by Britton and Britton (29) in Porto Rico (my No. no), 
are the only other species I know. Of U. juncea I have seen only 
herbarium material. 

The Type U. capensis (Fig. 20). 

I choose for the next type U. capensis, which I had the opportunity 
to study in the living condition on the occasion of the meeting of the 
British Association at Cape Town in 1929. For the use of the laboratory 
and facilities I am indebted to Miss E. L. Stephens, who has continued 
to help me in various ways. The reason for the choice of this type is 
the similarity in the general proportions and curvatures of the mechanism 
we are considering to those of U. cornuta, though it diff'ers in having no 
beak, in the sense we have used the term for that species, nor is the 
posture of the door quite the same. 

The trap (i mm. long) has a thick, and in front, surrounding the 
entrance, massive structure. It is one with a considerable number of 
species in which the front is provided with a number of radiating rows 
of long trichomes, graduated in size, forming guides to the entrance, 
as we may suppose. These trichomes are glandular and have the typical 
three-celled structure, the basal cell being much enlarged and often sub- 
divided. The number and arrangement are such as to lend to the trap 



K.— BOTANY 193 

a rather horrific appearance. Above the entrance the massive wall 
protrudes as an overhang, and from the under side of this the door rises 
abruptly and not, as in U. corniiia, as an extension of the wall ; and we 
have no reason for supposing that the overhang in U. capensis contributes 
to the action of the door, as in U. cornuta, in raising the angular divergence 
with the threshold, contributing to the thrust of the door edge. To 
compensate for this the inner zone region of the threshold has an upward 
slope, thus offering a resistant surface of sufficient angle to afford a 
resting-place for the door edge, while in the door itself there is a set 
transverse bend above the middle piece. 

The door, viewed as a flat object, has a rounded upper region, which 
is, as seen in the longitudinal sagittal section, relatively thin, with a much 
thinner outer course of cells than inner in its upper half and the reverse 
in its lower half. This is correlated with the set transverse flexure, the 
effect of which is to tilt the lower half of the door (the middle piece) with 
respect to the threshold, enlarging the angle of divergence. The lower 
region is differentiated into a large middle piece, whose cell courses are 
of nearly equal thickness, with thicker lateral regions having the same 
structure as the upper hinge region, i.e. thin outer course and thick inner 
course cells. As in U. cornuta, the lateral regions exert a thrust on the 
middle piece. Other features peculiar to U. capensis are, first, a tuft 
of rather large, clavate glands arising from the door upper region and, 
second, arising from the middle point of the upper limit of the middle 
piece, a single, curiously shaped, glandular trichome, which I have called 
the kriss trichome, as well describing the shape of the terminal cell. 
Its stalk (basal cell) is curved gracefully backward ; the mid-cell is short 
and oblique, holding the terminal cell in a backward-reaching position 
between the middle piece and the threshold. If this structure has any 
function, we do not know what it is. The absence of cuticle from the 
terminal cell suggests that, in common with the glandular trichomes, 
mucilage is excreted, but this does not throw light on the peculiar form, 
nor does it help us to know that in another species, U. puberula (New 
World), the door and general structure are similar in every detail but the 
absence of the kriss trichome, there being substituted therefor a pair of 
large, sessile, globular gland (capital) cells. Another species (Old World), 
U. Welwttschu, has, like U. capensis, a kriss cell, but it is more sharply 
curved, scimitar fashion. 

The actuation of the trap seems to be initiated by the contact of the prey 
with the short trichomes on the upper convex portion of the door surface. 
As in U. cornuta, the initial flexure thus caused is transmitted longi- 
tudinally to the middle piece, which, flexing along its midline, releases 
itself from the thrust of the lateral hinges and so the door opens before 
the moving water column. 

Almost identical in structure, as far as the entrance mechanism is 
concerned, is a group of species, the members of which have an elaborate 
guide complex ; but here the radiating rows of glandular trichomes 
arise from a funnel-form elaboration of the front of the trap, while the 
upper sector of this funnel is drawn out into a long rostrum, as first 
described by Goebel (1891). The species, as far as known to me, are 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

U. albina, U. nivea, U. rosea and U. Warburgii, the last two having been 
described in general terms by Goebel. Three other collections, sent 
me by Mr. N. D. Simpson (his Nos. 9579, 9857, 9871) from Ceylon, 
though possibly differing specifically or varietally, have the same general 
structure. They are all Indian (with Ceylon) and found nowhere else, 
so far as known. In all these the glandular armature of the door is as 
in U. capensis, except for the absence of the kriss or other similarly placed 
trichome. The mechanics of the door and threshold are doubtless the 
same. 

Another small group of species (only two, so far as known) of minute 
plants with the habit of U. capensis harmonises with the above in regard 
to the entrance structures. The one is a Tasmanian, U. lateriflora, 
briefly and inadequately described by Kamienski, the other a Ceylonese 
species (Figs. 13, 14), collected by Mr. N. D. Simpson (9482) and sent 
to me (my No. 131). It seems to be undescribed. My lateriflora 
material has two derivations : one lot transmitted by Dr. Merl, but col- 
lected long ago by Rodway in Tasmania (my No. 85) ; the other, a well- 
preserved lot from Mr. Allan Mclntyre, of Hobart (my No. 157). 

U. lateriflora has a very small trap (including the proboscis, 0-65 mm. 
long — a large one) with a huge conical downward-turned proboscis and 
with two short rows of glandular trichomes extending outward and 
obliquely downward from the lower angles of the entrance, increasing 
in size, the smallest at the entrance. They thus form two oblique shelves 
leading to the entrance, which is blocked in front by the proboscis. The 
capital cells of these trichomes are globose. The door is quite like that 
of cornuta, but the armature of sessile glands is aggregated into a patch 
on the convex surface of the upper part. The articulation of the door 
with the wall is, however, like that in U. capensis. The external glands 
are sessile globose. 

The Ceylon plant (Figs. 13, 14) has a trap which, at a casual glance, 
is quite similar to the foregoing. It has, however, a second pair of rows 
of protuberances on each side and above the level of the entrance opening, 
but these are not glandular (Fig. 13). The basal cells of the other rows 
of trichomes are double-celled. The proboscis is smaller and may 
project straight forward or be more or less bent downward — -in this 
there is no constancy. The threshold is composed of fewer and rela- 
tively larger cells, but is clearly zonate, the outer, middle and inner zone 
being readily recognisable. The glands of the outer surface have elongated 
capital cells. 

On the interior surface of the trap there are single, bifid and quadrifid 
absorbing trichomes, but these are very few in number and relatively 
large. In U. lateriflora there are fourteen bifids in five rows on the 
inner flank of the threshold ; six quadrifids above the inner entrance, 
three on each side ; and two to six quadrifids in the interior, making 
about twenty-six in all. 

The Type U. ccerulea (Figs. 9, 11, la). 
The mechanical principles prevailing in all the foregoing prevail also 
in a number of species, of which U. ccerulea may be taken as a type. 



K.— BOTANY 195 

Because of this, my raising U. coerulea to separate dignity has a 
secondary purpose, namely, to point out that the general form of the 
trap assimilates it to the trap of the type under which U. reniformis, 
U. vulgaris, etc., may be subsumed. A mere examination of the form 
of the trap would readily lead one to suppose that U. coerulea and U . 
reniformis are alike. The former has single and bifid absorbing trichomes, 
the latter quadrifid. 

The trap in U. coerulea is rounded in lateral view, and the slightly 
protruding curved overhang is provided with two rather long, curved 
antennas. The threshold is broad and its inner region is uptilted, in 
some species in a marked degree. In sagittal section, the curvatures 
of the threshold are singularly graceful. The door, also as seen in sagittal 
section, curves downward and backward, the edge resting on the middle 
zone of the threshold, in front of the uptilted inner zone. The upper 
outer surface of the door is beset with a good number of clavate trichomes, 
somewhat longer above than below, and differing only slightly in form 
from those of U. capensis, etc., and doubtless serving the same function — 
probably contributing to the attraction of prey or facilitating the actuation 
of the trap, which, without doubt, consists in causing an initial dent in 
the upper region of the door, the pressure of water taking advantage of 
the failure of resistance thus started. In structure, the upper part of 
the door has a thin outer course and a thick inner course of cells, the same 
structure extending round the sides as far as the door edge. This is 
the outer hinge area. The middle piece is thicker and is of cell courses 
of equal thickness, with thick outer walls. This is compressed downward 
on the threshold by the lateral hinge areas, as in U. cornuta. 

Plants with traps of this type seem to be confined to the Old World. 
They range from very small delicate plants to rather large ones — e.g. 
U. equiseiicaulis Blatter and McCann has leaves up to 9 cm. long ; U. 
prehensilis has long twining scapes bearing its yellow flowers. They are 
all ' terrestrial,' the typical habitat being wet, often muddy, places, the 
plants forming dense green mats. The leaves scarcely rise above the 
surface ; when large they lie on the mud, the under surface of the leaves 
bearing traps, often plugged full of the fine sediment and rendered 
incapable of action. 

Of the species fitting the type U. coerulea, there are known to me 
U. Gibbsice, U. albo-coerulea, U. affinis, U. uliginosa, U. bifida and U. 
reticulata, several Ceylonese species only tentatively named (Simpson 
9484, 9487, 9493, 9517, 9580, 9581, 9856, 9971, 9973) kindly sent 
me by Mr. Simpson. I am further indebted to Mr. R. E. Holttum, 
Mr. T. Ekambaram , and Mr. E. Blatter for Malayan and Indian collections. 
The structure of the door is much as in U. cornuta, being as follows : 
the upper half and lateral hinges are composed of a thin outer and 
thicker inner course of cells, the whole effecting outward bending but 
capable of inward swing ; and, surrounded by the lateral areas, is the 
middle piece, appearing as the lower half of the door in sagittal section. 
It is thicker and more rigid and is of cell courses of equal thickness and 
with thick outer walls {cf. Figs. 6-8). 

The pressures inherent in the door itself become apparent when a 



196 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 




K —BOTANY 197 



PLATE II— References, 

Fig. 9. Sagittal section of U. ccBrulea. 

Fig. 10. Sagittal section of U. globularicefolia. 

Fig. II. Sagittal optical section of an entire trap of U. coerulea showing 
the posture of the door and the profile of the entire trap when in the 
set condition (i), and after actuation (2). Inset : longitudinal view 
(diagrammatic) to show the form of the trap as thus seen before (i) 
and after actuation (2). 

Fig. 12. The posture of the door with respect to the threshold in the 
U. vulgaris type (above), and in the U. cornuta type (below). p.d., 
the plane of the door axis ; p.t., the plane of the threshold axis. 
(Compare Figs. 5 and 23 for a better idea of the proportions of the 
threshold, narrow in the vulgaris type, broad in the cornuta type.) 

Figs. 13 and 14. An unnamed species from Ceylon, closely allied to 
U. lateriflora. Fig. 13, the entire trap ; Fig. 14, the same in sagittal 
section. 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

trap is completely relaxed. Then the door becomes quite convex, the 
lower part of the door resting on the threshold for a long distance (Fig. 1 1 ) . 
In the set condition, the posture is reversed. The door, as viewed 
laterally, becomes distinctly concave, and only a relatively narrow strip 
along the door edge rests on the middle zone of the threshold, the edge 
abutting on the raised-up inner zone. It will be seen that this exactly 
parallels the case of U. cornuta. The profile of the trap as a whole shows 
similar changes, from which it is seen (Fig. ii) that the overhang above 
the entrance shares in the flexures which bring the door into the position 
of efficiency in the set condition. These observations rest on a careful 
examination of living material, using the same technique as in the case 
of other species, photographing the living trap before and after actuation, 
and thus obtaining profiles of the door and neighbouring parts. 

As compared with U. vulgaris, U. cosrulea is not so easily actuated, 
nor does it engulf air with the same readiness (Fig. 12). The entrance 
is narrow and the water film does not enter so readily, so that the trap 
may be exposed to air a long time before anything happens, if at all. 
While I have seen traps with air in them, I have not succeeded in seeing 
the spontaneous act. 

The Type U. monanthos. 

The species of this type, which has never been seen elsewhere (volubilis, 
Menziesii, dichotoma, monanthos, violacea and Hookeri are known to me), 
are all Australasian. I am indebted to my genial correspondents, Mrs. 
Eileen R. Johnson, Mr. Allan Mclntyre and Mr. A. V. Giblin, for excellent 
material. 

In form, the trap is peculiar and very distinctive, either almost circular 
in lateral view, or oval ; but the distinction arises in the combination 
of form with two pairs of wing-like appendages, one pair running from 
the stalk to the lower angles of the entrance, the other on the shoulders 
of the trap leading to the upper angles of the entrance. Overhanging 
the entrance is a proboscis, downwardly curved over the front of the 
entrance. Specific differences are to be found in the greater or less 
amount of laciniation of the wings, etc. 

The approach to the entrance has, below it, a large patch of globose 
glandular trichomes, to act presumably as a lure. The entrance opening 
is circular, or nearly so, and is guarded by a thick, circular velum, some- 
what less ample above, arising from sessile trichomes lining the inner 
surface of the wall of the approach to the threshold proper. This circular 
velum is altogether peculiar to this group of species. The upper part of 
the door is so placed that it rests in contact with the circular velum, ^ its 
patch of low glands being exposed at the opening. The threshold is 
very deep and bends downward toward its inner border ; there is here no 
upturned surface to resist the thrust of the door edge. Indeed, the inner 
end of the door bends down over the ridge of the threshold. From inner 
angle to inner angle of the threshold the door, therefore, has a sharp 
permanent downward bend, the effect of which is to increase resistance 

"• I have, of course, not seen living material. It would take adequate study 
to be certain of the exact door posture in the living trap. 



K— BOTANY 199 

to longitudinal flexure of the door upon actuation. The upper part of 
the door is wider than the lower part, forming a large convex surface, 
easily flexed by contact through the circular port formed by the velum. 
When this has been caused by the movement of some animal, the pressure 
of water continues the flexure till it reaches the transverse bend near the 
door edge. The sudden reversal of this bend results, in my opinion, in 
the snap action, which has been observed, following my suggestions, by 
Mrs. Johnson. She assures me that such snap action occurs, the changes 
in contour of the lateral walls and the engulfing of air having been observed 
by her, as also by Mr. Mclntyre. 

The door is peculiar in shape in having an extensive upper region, 
wider than in the lower region, and thin. Near its attachment to the wall 
of the trap, and where the maximum bending occurs when the door 
opens, the outer course of cells is thin. Elsewhere the two courses are 
approximately equal in thickness, except in the lateral reaches of the 
lower region, where these areas exert downward thrust on the middle 
piece. The transverse curvature of the door in this region is not as sharp 
as in such forms as U. capensis, but this is compensated for by the trans- 
verse flexure of the door in bending down over the back part of the 
threshold. In order to understand how important this flexure is we must 
appreciate that it is not a straight flexure, as a bend in a piece of flat paper, 
but a curved one, like the bend between the rim and crown of a bowler 
hat. The overcoming of the thrusts afforded by this arrangement is the 
peculiar feature of the action of this type of door. The effectiveness of 
the watertightness in view of the extensive outwardly bowed upper region 
of the door is procured by the extensive velum, supplemented by the 
adjunctive or secondary velum arising from the trichomes on all sides of 
the entrance in front of the threshold. The whole arrangement must be 
of a high degree of efficiency, and the in-puU of water great, as the sides of 
the trap are thicker than elsewhere, whereas in the other types the walls 
are of equal thickness on the flanks, with the exception of Polypompholyx, 
as we shall shortly see. 

The actuation of this trap appears to be of the same manner as the 
previous forms described — namely, pressure on a thinner area of the 
door, occupied by a group of sessile glands on the surface and so placed 
as to fall nicely within the hole formed by the ring-shaped velum. This 
rather definitely points to the function of the sessile trichomes on the 
upper part of the door, no less for the previous groups of species described 
than for this — namely, as an area of contact by entering prey, possibly 
attracted thereto. 

Polypompholyx. 
In spite of the presence of most of the usual structural stigmata (for 
I failed to find the velum), in my previous publication (1932) I leaned 
toward the view that the door of this plant (of which two species, much 
alike, exist) acts as a simple valve, in the sense meant by Darwin for 
Utricularia. At my request Mrs. Johnson was kind enough to make 
careful observation of the living traps. Her notes, accompanied by 
sketches, leave no room for doubt that snap action occurs. I have made 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

another attempt to determine the presence or absence of a velum with 
material which had been preserved in weak formalin, in which the delicate 
membranes of the velum are not at all well preserved, as I have noticed 
repeatedly in other species, but I have found sufficient indications of the 
velum in the form of very mucilaginous and swollen, as it were semi- 
hydrolysed, remains of the membranes. It is not clear whether the 
velum arises solely from the threshold or also from the glandular trichomes 
just beyond the front of the threshold, and until I obtain well-preserved 
material (in alcohol) the point cannot be settled. 

The threshold is approached, not from in front, but from the sides, as 
the projecting rostrum, the end of it resting on the enlarged stalk, obstructs 
direct approach. There is thus formed, as I have explained elsewhere, 
a sort of atrium, lined with great numbers of long, whip-like, glandular 
trichomes, the same sort occurring on the door itself, which forms the 
roof of the atrium. The capital cell of these trichomes is very long and 
slender, each secreting at its tip a droplet of mucilage. It may be that 
in the living condition these trichomes fill the atrium and act as a con- 
tributory velum. The actual entrance over the threshold is relatively very 
small and hedged about inside with up-jutting trichomes arising from the 
curved tissue shelf, in the front part of which is the pavement epithelium. 
This occupies a narrow strip on both sides of an angular ridge forming 
the front edge of the shelf. This ridge continues laterally to a point 
about half-way up the slope of the threshold, where the threshold pave- 
ment is very narrow. From this point it widens, fanwise, to the articula- 
tion of the door with the threshold, affording a wider out-sloping surface 
of application of the door thereto. The outer and inner zones are broader 
at the middle and narrower at the sides of the threshold. 

The door, as seen en face, differs a good deal from the previous species 
examined, in that it is nearly circular in shape, save for the segment cut 
off by the door edge, making it rather more than semicircular. The upper 
region is very thick, the inner course of cells being very deep and richly 
supplied with props, and capable of much compression. The middle 
piece gradually thins and is curved, and just above it is a weak, thinner 
region, marked by the presence of a number of small, sessile glands. 
This region lies between the upper region of the door, which is covered 
with a dense mass of the aforesaid whip-shaped, glandular trichomes, 
and a narrow strip above the door edge, which engages the threshold. 
The manner of this recalls the condition which is described above for the 
monanthos type — that is, the lower edge of the door is applied to a ridge 
in the threshold, over which it is bent ; but the dimensions of the parts 
are different and the condition is not so striking. The lateral reaches of 
the door are applied to the fan-shaped, outwardly sloping surfaces of the 
ends of the threshold. 

The actuation of this trap must be regarded (in the absence of actual 
observation) as being in the same manner as that of U. dichotoma, etc. 
The middle piece is held tightly against the ridge in the middle reach of 
the threshold by the thick lateral portions of the door, which exert 
a strong downward thrust. As a matter of observation, the lateral por- 
tions of the door are thick, in this being commensurate with its thick 



K— BOTANY 201 

dimensions, as seen in the sagittal section. The very great thickness of 
the hinge region of the door gives the impression of the need of an adequate 
and unusually large amount of available energy for actuation, and in this 
connection we recall that the trap is triangular in form (regarded trans- 
versely), and that the walls of four courses of cells are very thick. The 
roofing wall, as well as the lateral walls, were observed by Mrs. Johnson 
to be concave in the set condition of the trap. It may be argued that, 
roughly speaking, there is available rather more than 33 per cent, more 
energy than in a trap with only side walls. The trap is certainly a much 
more stalwart structure than usual, and can be compared in this only with 
the type of trap represented by U. globularicefolia. 

The Type U. GLOBULARii^FOLiA (Fig. 10). 

With this are several species having traps very much alike — namely, 
U. amethystma, U. tridentata, U. modesta, and U. Roraimense, and, 
according to Merl's (1915) notes, U. bicolor, all New World, neotropical 
probably. 

The general form of this type of trap was described by Merl. It is 
a thick-walled and, in lateral view, well-rounded structure, with the stalk 
and entrance approximated. From the stalk leading up to the lower lip 
of the entrance there is a narrow but deep ramp, clothed along its ridge 
with long, backwardly curved, glandular trichomes in several rows. The 
overhang, which is massive, is forked, forming two strong antennas, also 
clothed with the same kind of trichomes in rows. All these rows of 
trichomes converge at the door, against which the innermost trichomes 
lie, forming a thick circle and, it would seem, an accessory velum at the 
door surface (somewhat as in U. monanthos) , and a long, funnel-formed 
guide to lead prey to the middle region of the door, which is there clothed 
with sessile trichomes. 

The door is relatively small and nearly semicircular in outline, and is 
of nearly equal thickness from insertion to edge, though the inner course 
of cells is thicker toward the insertion. In some species, along the inner 
aspect of the free edge, runs a strip of beading in the form of three or four 
sharp ridges, which may serve to engage the edge of the door against the 
threshold. Its entire absence, however, in some species, throws doubt 
on such an interpretation. The angular divergence of the door and 
threshold is here much greater than in preceding forms, and the thrust of 
the former on the latter is very direct, the water pressure on the door 
having the eff'ect of increasing the angular divergence and thus procuring 
a still more up-and-down thrust. 

The threshold is rather narrow and is supported on a deeply reaching 
shelf of peculiar and graceful form. The outer and middle zones are 
flat, the inner having a velum. The middle zone is very compact. The 
inner zone slopes away, facing inwardly. Its capital cells become more 
rounded and more loosely packed and always bear remains of enlarged 
cuticles, these cells having been subject to the general inflation of the 
cuticular investment giving rise to the velum. Whether the peculiar form 
of the tissue shelf which bears the threshold plays any part in the adjust- 

H 2 



202 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

ments which take place during the setting of the trap after actuation is 
a question which may well be asked, but there is no sure answer ; yet it 
may be recalled that Brocher (191 1) entertained some such idea in regard 
to U. vulgaris, but I think without objective justification. I think the 
bolster of tissue in such forms as U. vulgaris is capable of resisting changes 
of shape, but if this is the case it does not preclude the possibility from 
other forms. 

The histology of the door deserves remark. The inner course cells of 
the middle piece, or rather the region of the middle piece and the area 
above it, where the sessile glands on the outer face of the door are situated, 
are of long cells, running longitudinally to the edge of the door, as far 
as the beading. These cells are, moreover, very richly provided with 
folds and props, indicating great flexibility in precisely that region, the 
middle piece, where in other forms there is a tendency in the other 
direction, namely, of rigidity. This condition is to be met with also in 
the cells of the central hinge in U. vulgaris and similar forms, a point 
where great flexibility in various directions is present (Lloyd, 1932). 
In the globularicefolia type, the degree of complexity arising from folds or 
corrugations in all directions is very great indeed. The effectiveness of 
the application of the door edge on the threshold lies in part in the con- 
siderable curvature of the door edge, so that the line of contact is itself 
nearly the arc of a circle. 

With this type we conclude our remarks concerning these foregoing 
types which may be collectively subsumed under one generalisation — 
namely, that they are all forms in which the actuation of the trap is pro- 
cured by the inbending of a more flexible area of the door, thus upsetting 
the unstable equilibrium set up by the physiological activity of the walls 
in expelling water, a state of reduced water pressure within being preserved 
by the somehow engaged door rendered watertight by a velum. 

In this type, however, we have departed from those in which there is 
a small angle to one in which that angle is quite wide, and the application 
of the door to the threshold is along its edge. In this, the trap is like that 
of U. vulgaris, but is otherwise quite of its own kind. Not in this type 
is the pose of the door surface against the threshold insured by the down- 
thrust of its lateral regions. This thrust is now oblique with relation to 
the threshold, pushing the door edge forward to engage the front of the 
middle zone. The rigidity of the door in its efficient closed position is 
assured by the slope of the sides of the threshold, which faces outward ; 
thus the threshold is a short half-funnel into which the door (being 
longer along its edge than the threshold) is cramped, so that the greater 
the water pressure the tighter the contact of the lateral regions of the door 
against the resisting threshold. 

We pass on to consider another series of types, contrasting with the 
foregoing by having a special tripping mechanism, consisting of long 
bristles or glandular hairs protruding from some point of the door 
surface and correlated with the structure of the door itself. We shall 
consider first a curious Asiatic species which appears to stand in a position 
intermediate between those which we have already considered and those 
which are distinctly typical, e.g. U. vulgaris. 



K.— BOTANY ao3 

The Type U. orbiculata (Figs. 15, 16, 18). 

If a bizarre structure warrants using this species as a type, the choice is 
justified. The plant was first described from the point of view of the 
morphologist by Goebel in 189 1. I have been able to include Goebel's 
Ceylon collection in my studies and I have regarded this material as the 
typical U. orbiculata Wall. It is curious that no other collections sent to 
me from India and Ceylon have yielded species with the characteristic 
tubers of the Goebel material, which he described. All the other 
species sent me are very closely akin to the one before us and, at all 
events, the traps are alike. The trap is pear-shaped in lateral view, with 
the stalk affixed just in front of the middle point of the ventral side. 
Above the oblique entrance there is a short rostrum, giving rise to two 
thick downwardly and outwardly curved antennae, bearing numerous 
uniseriate branches or cilia, each ending in a rather large, globose, 
glandular capital cell. The aspect of this apparatus distinguishes this 
species and its related ones indisputably. The trap is small, scarcely 
ever longer than i mm., exclusive of the antennae. 

When the sagittal section of the entrance is examined, it resembles 
closely that of U. capensis, but on study certain important diflFerences 
appear. The threshold, as in U. coenilea, is sharply uptilted near its 
inner border, and has an unusually deep sulcus running transversely ; in 
this the door edge rests along the edge of the middle piece, which is narrow. 
The door edges along the lateral reaches slope up on either side to the 
inner angles of the threshold. There is a velum supplied by the cells of 
the outer zone of the threshold, this being the primary velum, homologous 
with that found in other types. In front of the threshold the forecourt 
leading thereto is lined, as in U. capensis, with a clothing of stalked 
trichomes, graded in length, the shorter the nearer the threshold, in such 
fashion as to continue the general surface of the latter, thus forming 
a narrow channel leading from the outside to the threshold. These 
trichomes produce long, expanded cuticles which form a secondary velum, 
supplementing the primary (Fig. 15). The membranes are voluminous 
and entirely fill the space fronting the door as far as its middle point. 
We have seen that a secondary velum is thus produced in the U. monanthus 
type, except that in U. orbiculata there is no secondary velum above the 
entrance, but merely for the stretch of the three-quarters cylindrical 
forecourt. Only in U. monanthos, etc., the trichomes supplying the 
secondary velum are scarcely distinguishable from those of the threshold 
proper. 

But it is the door which furnishes the bizarre feature. In general 
proportions it resembles that of U. coerulea ; it is not long and narrow, 
nor is it semicircular, but something between these extremes (Fig. 18). 
As seen in the sagittal section, its posture is oblique with reference to 
the threshold, and correspondingly the lateral hinge regions are extensive 
and well developed, and exert a downward thrust which applies the 
middle piece tightly to the middle zone of the threshold. The middle 
piece is laterally not extensive and is composed of smaller cells than those 
of the hinge regions on either side ; nor is it sharply differentiated from 



204 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 




1 

! 



K.— BOTANY 205 



PLATE III— References, 

Fig. 15. U. aff. orbiculata. Sagittal section of the entrance structures. 

Fig. 16. The same. View looking into the mouth of the trap. 

Fig. 17. Sagittal section of U. Kirkii. 

Fig. 18. U. aff. orbiculata. The door en face. u.h., upper, and l.h., 

lateral hinge ; m.p., middle piece. 
Fig. 19. Transverse section through a, b, c and d, Fig. 17. 
Fig. 20. Sagittal section of entrance of U. capensis. 



2o6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the tissues above, as far as nearly the mid-point of the door. This whole 
stretch is rather massive, hovv^ever, up as far as a middle region wrhich 
forms a small oval or rounded area occupying a space just above the mid- 
point, and which is slightly convex, especially on the inner surface. This 
spot bears a group of, for the most part, short, clavate trichomes, but 
among them are three very peculiarly constructed trichomes. These 
are larger and stand out boldly, and are of two kinds. A single one is 
in the form of a large club with a slightly oblique head, the capital cell. 
This stands at the apex of an isosceles triangle, with the base above, and 
at the angles formed by the sides and base stand the two other trichomes 
which have the following structure. The basal cell is large and oblique 
and set deeply in the door, so that the inner course of cells beneath is 
very shallow. The basal cell is capped by a large mid-cell which in 
turn bears the capital cell, the cuticle of which in its definitive condition 
is shaped like the cowl of a ship's ventilator (hence called by me the cowl 
trichome). Within the cowl is a rounded, thick cellulose wall, from one 
side of which, beneath the upper limb of the cowl, extends a long, tapering 
mass of jelly-like material, which is so transparent that it is difficult to 
see. In order to photograph it I have stained it with ruthenium red. 
Its inner end is cupped, indicating, by its interior surface, where it was 
applied to the rounded cell wall remaining within the cowl. The jelly- 
like mass, except when torn or otherwise damaged, has always a tapering, 
horn-like form, curved much as a cow's horn, and it stands out in front 
of the entrance, pointing forward and downward.^ If one faces the 
entrance, looking into it, one sees the two gelatinous horns pointing 
forward, and behind them the single club-shaped trichome, the whole 
blocking the space left by the radiating trichomes which supply the 
secondary velum (Fig. i6). 

The region of the door above the trichomatous patch is usual hinge 
tissue, the outer course being thin, reversing the relation of the courses in 
the former, the structure of which indicates easy bending and can be 
regarded as a sort of central hinge, such as we shall find in U. purpurea, 
movement of which, on the contact of prey with the protruding three 
trichomes described, can be procured sufficiently to upset the unstable 
equilibrium of the system. Yet to what complexity has the apparatus in 
this type been developed as compared with that in U. cornuta or even 
U. coerulea — and, it would seem, to no better end, no more efficiency 
gained. It may help to regard the gelatinous horns as a lure, but we 
cannot be sure that they are. Their soft and yielding nature does not 
recommend them as a releasing mechanism to assist in actuating the 
door ; only that we do not know even how yielding or otherwise they are 
relatively to the movements of small prey. That not only small but 
relatively large prey can be caught there is no doubt. I have seen a worm 
twice as long as the trap itself lying coiled up inside, which had evidently 
been caught at a gulp, since if they are caught by the pinching of the 
door they usually stay in the position caught. i 

' My earlier description of the gelatinous horns (1932) is faulty. 



K— BOTANY 207 

The Type U. vulgaris (Figs. 21-24). 

Of the members of the genus, no species has been more under 
examination than U. vulgaris. F. Cohn and Darwin were the leading 
students of an earlier day (previous to 1883) : it was then accepted that 
the door was a simple, inwardly moveable valve, which the prey opened 
easily by pushing against it. Its recurrence to its original position pre- 
vented escape. We need not recount at length the views that the bladders 
were floats, about which there was a lot of discussion finally closed by 
Goebel (1889). It was not till Brocher (1910) made the important 
observations that the bladders engulf air when a plant is raised from the 
water, and was led to see that only when the trap is set, that is, when it 
is in a condition of unstable equilibrium brought about by the exhaustion 
of the water content, that it can do so, he appreciated that the trap is 
watertight, but thought it merely plugged with mucilage, and that the 
trap could act but once. Merl (1921) found that the action of entrapping 
prey could be repeated, and determined the time necessary for the renewal 
of that condition of unstable equilibrium, namely, 15 to 30 minutes — 
observations which were made also by Czaja at nearly the same time. 
It was not quite certain to Merl that the whole action (aside from the 
exhaustion of the water from the interior of the trap) is purely mechanical, 
but Czaja took this position definitely. Recently M. Kruck (1931) has 
resuscitated the view, never very firmly held, that the action of the door is 
a sequel of the transmission therethrough of the stimulus from the protuber- 
ant, stiff, ' irritable ' hairs : but this has nothing to support it. It is a curious 
fact that none of the above-mentioned observers, nor any others, had 
observed accurately the position of the door and its mode of contact with 
the threshold, nor had anyone save Withycombe suspected the inadequacy 
of Brocher's idea of the way in which the watertightness of the door is 
procured. For my part, I have shown that this is due to the presence of the 
velum, that the contact of the door and threshold is a delicate adjustment 
involving a tripping mechanism, and that the whole action is mechanical 
and depends for its efficiency on the physical properties and adjustments 
of the various parts. What these are may now be briefly summarised. 

The door may be a continuation of the upper wall above the entrance 
(Fig. 24), or it may arise from a projecting overhang, e.g. U. gibba 
(Fig. 21). This produces no observable difference in the sensitivity of 
the mechanism. In any event, the door is very delicately constructed, in 
some species surprisingly thin, e.g. my No. 27 from Tropical Africa — 
a U. gibba-Vike. form. The shape is nearly that of a quarter-spherical 
surface, one edge being attached to the walls of the trap, the other con- 
stituting the free edge of the door, the convex surface being turned out- 
wardly. A wide outer zone is flexed in front (that is to say, in the middle 
third of the door), so that it is here concave and may be regarded as 
a hinge, or, at all events, a region where the maximum bending can occur, 
as when the door is opened. The outer course of cells is very thin ; the 
iimer, thick and richly provided with transverse corrugations supported 
on the ends of props (observed by Meierhofer, 1902) in the radial walls 
(Lloyd, 1932). These cells are elongated radially in the door and, in 



2o8 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 




K.— BOTANY 



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2IO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the middle area thereof, fade into a somewhat different form of cell, in 
which the corrugations are very prominent and regular and have given 
rise to some misrepresentation. The corrugations are continuous from 
cell to cell, and are very regularly concentric, giving the impression that 
they are the walls of isodiametric cells. The centre thus indicated lies 
just at a point where the door is at its thinnest, the central hinge, and 
immediately below this thin spot issue four (sometimes abnormally more) 
gracefully curved and pointed, stiff, three-celled trichomes. These are 
the tripping hairs, and constitute mechanically a latch lever. At their 
bases they are inserted close together in the upper part of a thickened mass 
of tissue, with courses of cells of equal thickness, the middle piece. This 
is slightly thinner along its middle line, that is, in the sagittal plane. 
When the door is opened the middle piece folds inwardly along this line. 
It acts as a mechanical unit with the latch lever, any movement of which 
disturbs the edge of the door one way or another, in any case effecting its 
release from a slightly outwardly turned surface of the threshold against 
which it rests. On either side the middle piece merges quickly into the 
outer hinge tissue. 

The threshold, supported on a strong, upturned bolster of tissue, is 
nearly circular in axial view, its arc length being shorter by about lo per 
cent, than the edge of the door (Lloyd, 1932). Since it is the door edge 
which lies in contact with the threshold, its curve lies obliquely from its 
point of attachment — the inner angle of the threshold — to a point in the 
middle in front of the middle zone. This is raised slightly, affording 
a resting-place for the door edge, resisting its inswing. At the sides the 
front surface of the door rests on triangular areas of the threshold at each 
end, these areas facing obliquely outwardly, so that the door under the 
pressure of the outer water is tightly cramped into place. The outer 
zone, wider at the sides than in the middle, carries a velum, consisting of 
several rows of bladdery cuticles, to which is attached a loose membrane 
arising from the cells of the middle zone and, to some extent, of the outer 
zone. The total threshold surface is shaped in correlation with the 
emplacement of the door edge. Important is the angle of divergence 
between the plane of the door and that of the threshold, which approaches 
90 degrees, whereas in the series previously considered {U. globularieefolia 
excepted) that angle is a narrow one (Fig. 12). That is, {a) the position 
of the surface of resistance for the emplacement of the door edge is in 
front of the threshold when the angle of divergence is great and in the 
back when that angle is small ; {b) in the latter case also the thrust of the 
sides of the door is directly down on to the threshold, while, when the angle 
of divergence is large, this thrust is directed obliquely forward, toward 
the middle point of the door edge ; (c) the outer zone is wide, furnishing 
a very wide and ample velum when the angle of divergence is small, or 
narrow when large. 

Actuation of the door occurs when the latch lever is touched in any 
direction. Many trials have failed to convince me that the sensitivity of 
the mechanism is greater for one direction than another. This can be 
understood when one sees that an upward swing of the middle piece frees 
it from the resisting threshold ridge, while a downward swing releases 



I 



K.— BOTANY 211 

short lengths of the door edge on either side of the middle piece. In 
either event the result is the same. The inward movement of the door 
under the pressure of a column of water consists first in a longitudinal 
flexure of the middle piece, which, as the reversal of door curvatures 
advances, becomes curved inwardly. The flexures then move into the 
lateral hinge areas together with the outer hinge, reversing the curvature 
of the whole door. At the top of its swing the door edge is simply curved 
in the arc of a circle (approximately), and the opening, as seen by the 
observer stationed so that he may look into the trap along its axis, appears 
circular, or nearly so, the threshold forming the lower arc, the door edge 
the upper. I have satisfied myself that this is a correct record of the 
movement, by taking motion pictures at high speed (i6o frames per 
second), which I shall have the pleasure of showing you. This seems to 
be a simple enough matter, but, as it has been described otherwise, it is 
not superfluous to have spent some effort in getting at the facts. 

It is an interesting cell structure which allows such free movement, 
which is at the same time completely reversible, so that the door springs 
at once into its original position on the slacking of the water column. The 
whole movement occupies -^-^ second . Furthermore , one may play with the 
door with a not too sharp needle point or with a minute glassbead, moving 
the door hither and yon, with no harmful effect. There is an admirable 
elasticity and flexibility of the tissues which fit its needs (Lloyd, 1932). 

U. resupinata. — In describing the above I have erred to a purpose in 
regarding all the species of the type U. vulgaris as submersed, freely 
floating forms. There are some exceptions, all (?) American species. 
U. resupinata will serve to illustrate a small group of species which are 
terrestrial to the extent that they grow anchored in the bottom of ponds 
where the water is shallow, or in similar situations (wet sand, etc.). In 
U. resupinata the traps are dimorphic, larger ones growing on the terete 
green leaves, and supplied with the vulgaris type of appendages (branched 
antennae and lateral bristles), and small ones on the underground parts, 
with appendages much reduced or absent. The middle piece of the 
door is somewhat more massive than in vulgaris, but, aside from this, there 
is no notable difference. 

Another exceedingly curious plant is U. neottioides, belonging to 
Kamienski's segregate Avesicaria — a poor name for a plant with abundant 
traps. The plant grows in running water, attached to more or less solid 
substrata. The stolons in contact with hard surfaces grow and appear 
after the fashion of Podostemon. From these arise free stolons with 
linear, leaf-like branches, and near the axils occur the traps, which are 
peculiar in having the entrance and stalk at opposite ends. One may 
imagine this to be correlated with the movement of water, the trap being 
stream-lined and the entrance where the back-swirl occurs. The structure 
of the door and threshold is practically identical with that of U. gibba. 
The antennae are very small and bear one or two short branches.'' The 

' It would be gratifying to see good material of U . rigida, another species 
growing in ' swift-running water ' and attached to the substrata. It is said to 
be devoid of traps (Stapf, Flora of Tropical Africa). Later: the material has 
been seen at Kew, but no traps were found. 



212 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

actuation of the trap is accordingly by pressure on the bristles, not seen 
by von Luetzelburg, who gave a good description of the plant as a whole. 

U. RENIFORMIS. 

This plant, w^ell known in cultivation in our greenhouses, is a large, 
orchid-like species from the American tropics. Its habitat is in the 
wet moss and other compact epiphytic growth on stems of big grasses, 
trees, etc. The stolons are thick and white, and bear, for an Utricu- 
laria, very large reniform leaves, long flowering scapes with large, 
purplish flowers, and a lot of very minute traps, smaller than the traps of 
minute species, e.g. U. gibba. With this as typical are associated an array 
of species, severa of which are similarly large or, at any rate, of impres- 
sive size, such as U. longifolia, U. montana, U. Lundii, U. Endresii, 
U. Gliickii, with some much smaller, even diminutive, species, of which 
I have examined U. Dusenii, also seen in cultivation. They are all neo- 
tropical, none of the type occurring in the Old World. 

Except as to minutiae of structure, there is really very little to say in 
comparison with the vulgaris type. Instead of the elaborately branching 
antennae of the floating forms, in the terrestrial forms we are considering 
the antennae are merely tapering horns, curved backwards or forwards, 
from an overhang curved downwards over the entrance. In this respect 
they ally themselves with gibba rather than with vulgaris. The stalk of 
the trap, which in lateral view is well rounded, is usually closely approx- 
imated to the entrance. The door is like that of U. vulgaris, but has 
a more massive middle piece, more so in some species than in others. 
Whether this difference indicates anything as to the delicacy of action or 
not it is difficult to say. The traps of U. reniformis do not seem to engulf 
air by any means as readily as those of the floating forms, and this may 
advantage them, growing as they do merely in a very wet environment 
and not submersed. In all cases actuation of the trap is achieved by 
contact with four latch-lever bristles. I have already pointed out that in 
form the trap of U. ccerulea looks like that of the reniformis type, the differ- 
ence being revealed in the absence of the door bristles and in the possession 
of bifid trichomes instead, as in the American species, of quadrifids. 

The threshold is so placed that the face of it is directed obliquely 
outwardly, giving a very characteristic form to the bolster of tissue which 
bears it. This position suggests that the trap is less easily actuated. 

Three peculiar American and one African species can naturally be 
mentioned in this connection, all sufficiently peculiar to deserve specific 
examination. These are U. Lloydii, U. nana, U. longiciliata, and U. 
Kirkii. 

U. Lloydii Merl in MS. is a small plant of terrestrial habit, bearing 
traps which resemble the globularicefolia type in the possession of a steep 
ramp leading up to the entrance from the level of the stalk. The traps 
are dimorphic, the two forms being, in certain details of structure, 
very strikingly different. This dimorphism was first noticed by Merl, 
who drew my attention to it before I had examined the plant at all. 
There can be no doubt of the dimorphism, which, in lack of conclusiye 



K.— BOTANY 213 

evidence, would certainly obtrude itself. The two kinds of traps may be 
found on the same stolon, close together. 

In the one form the door resembles that of the reniformis type, save 
that the middle piece is not so highly specialised. There is, however, 
but a single tripping bristle, straight, tapering and pointed. The basal 
cell and the next cell to it form a special stiff, hinge-like base. There are 
a few short, clavate trichomes on the upper part of the door surface. 
Over the general surface, both on the ramp and elsewhere, are scattered 
globular, sessile trichomes. In the other form there is no tripping bristle 
at all. The door carries numerous long clavate trichomes, and similar 
still longer ones are found along the ridge of the ramp and under the 
antennas, which here resemble those of the globiilaricefolia type. Thus one 
form of trap resembles reniformis and the other globular icefolia. Neither 
Merl nor I have been able to correlate surely the distribution of the two 
kinds of traps with position on the plant. 

The second species of the American triad, U. nana, also resembles 
reniformis, but is lacking antennae, and for this reason recalls cornuta. 
We need not particularise further than merely to point out that, instead 
of there being only one tripping bristle, as in one form of trap in 
U. Lloydii, or four, as in reniformis, there are just two, standing side by 
side. Their basal cells are somewhat enlarged, but show no striking 
form such as noted in U. Lloydii. The structure of the door is, however, 
precisely like that in U. Lloydii. 

The third species, U. longiciliata, was examined by Merl, who observed 
(1915) that there arises from the middle of the door, just above a massive 
middle piece, a single glandular trichome, consisting of a slender, cylin- 
drical basal cell, a short mid-cell, and an ovate capital cell. In view of 
the massive character of the middle piece and the smallness of the 
trichome, it is not easy to believe that the door is actuated by contact 
with the trichome. The form of this trichome allies the trap with that of 
our last type, U. purpurea. The likeness is perhaps rendered still more 
striking by the fact that there is below the entrance a strong protuberance 
bearing two widely spreading branches. A single protuberance is to be 
seen in some of the allies of U. purpurea, though none in others. There is , 
moreover, also a small rostrum above the entrance, somewhat as in an 
Old World species described above (my No. 131, unnamed). Though 
the general type of trap, aside from the curious appendages, allies 
U. longiciliata with the vulgaris type, I am inclined to look upon it as 
indicating an alliance with U. purpurea on account of the door trichome. 

Finally, here we must place a most intriguing type which I collected 
in Africa at the Victoria Falls, namely, U. Kirkii (Figs. 17, 19), identified 
for me by Dr. Rendle ; and in this connection I recall the kindness of 
Dr. Saunders, who supplied me with vials for my collection, having been the 
more provident. U. Kirkii is a small, blue-flowered plant of terrestrial 
habit, growing in ground where there was abundant seepage, with a trap 
looking to be almost identical with that of U. capensis, but that the rows 
of the more slender peristomal trichomes below the entrance are raised 
somewhat on a collar, as in U . albino. Like capensis, too, it has a broad 
threshold, the lateral thrust of the door being downwards. 



214 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The upper moiety of the door, as seen in sagittal section, is uniform in 
thickness, with the outer course of cells thin, but somewhat thinner 
toward its lower limit, where it meets the middle piece. The character 
of its tissues marks the upper region as hinge. This hinge extends 
around the sides, forming much thicker lateral hinges. It is evidently 
convex (at least in the relaxed position), and is clothed rather densely with 
short, clavate trichomes. Just at the lower limit and close to the middle 
point (here the door is thin) there are two stiff bristles arising out of the 
outer course of cells. These extend downward and forward. The 
middle piece is quite thin along its sagittal line, just below the upper part 
of the door, but on each side there is a large bulbous protuberance. The 
two masses become thinner toward the door edge, to which they extend, 
and appear to be stiffening agents, giving rigidity to the middle piece in 
one direction without limiting its flexibility in the other. They are 
derived entirely from the inner course of cells (Fig. 19, b), merely by 
enlargement without additional cell-divisions, in the fashion in which 
the knob of the door of U. purpurea is formed (here from the outer cell 
course) (Fig. 25). It is evident that the thin line of door tissue between 
the bulbous masses is a longitudinal hinge. 

The threshold is like that of U. orbiculata, with a deep transverse 
depression which receives the middle piece edge. The precise posture of 
the door when the trap is in the set position still eludes us, as the material 
could not be studied at the time of collection. It may be suspected that 
the posture represented in the diagram, while probably correct for the 
relaxed posture, should, for the set condition, be less convex, giving the 
middle piece a larger angle of contact with the threshold. We may be 
sure that this occurs, but precisely to what extent we do not know. In 
the relaxed position the tripping bristles appear to lie in the trichomatous 
clothing of the approach to the threshold. Less convexity of the door 
would result in bringing them up into a position which would seem to 
be a better one for their functioning. But in any event it seems fairly 
certain that their position is such that the prey should press down on 
them in approaching the door, their downward swing resulting in prying 
up the upper part of the longitudinal hinge. 

As in the case of U. orbiculata, U. Kirkii combines some of the mechanical 
features of the cornuta type with those of vulgaris. 

In view of the anatomical facts displayed, it would seem that actuation 
of the trap takes place as follows : Pressure on the two juxtaposed trichomes, 
inserted just above the two protuberances and so placed that impact will 
usually be from above, will push the upper part of the middle piece 
inwards along the middle thin line between the protuberances. This 
initial flexure allows the water pressure to act in the usual manner. The 
flexure travels upward along the middle of the upper region, where the 
door is relatively thin, and backward to the door edge. 

The Type U. purpurea (Figs. 25, 26). 

We have come to the last type to be considered, wholly American and 
chiefly confined to the tropics, or at least to South America. North 
America has the one species of which I have been able to study living 



K.— BOTANY 215 

material, found growing in the vicinity of Montreal. It is well adapted 
to motion picture photography, and I show you some results. 

Irrespective of species, the plant body consists of a main axis with 
verticillate lateral axes, each member of which normally bears a terminal 
trap. In some species the trap is wholly devoid of appendages ; in others 
a proboscis-like upturning extension of the lower lip of the entrance is 
to be found, e.g. U. elephas Luetz. The walls are thin and bear three 
kinds of trichomes on the outer surface (Lloyd, 1933), one of which secretes 
a fatty oil. The interior surface bears numerous quadrifids and a dense 
row of bifids on the inner flank of the threshold bolster. 

From our present point of view the point of interest is the form and 
functioning of the door and threshold. These are, in structural detail, 
very different from the foregoing. The most readily observable differ- 
ence is the presence of a radiating group of tripping trichomes, arising 
from a knob-like protuberance placed a trifle above the middle point of 
the door at the upper limit of the middle piece, which is here very large 
but fundamentally like that of vulgaris. The trichomes are of two kinds 
in U. purpurea, of only one kind in U. elephas, U. cucuUata, etc. Each 
trichome consists of a long, tapering, terminally expanded cell bearing 
a short, disc-shaped mid-cell, this bearing a spherical capital cell with 
a much enlarged cuticle ; or, in other species, the end cell may be fusiform 
(Goebel, 1891). At the periphery of the tubercle the end cell is much 
smaller, as is the expanded outer end of the stalk cell. This difference 
has probably no significance. These are the only trichomes on the door 
in v. purpurea ; in cucuUata there is in addition a patch of short, clavate 
trichomes forming an oval group below the tubercle. 

The door consists of two chief regions, the middle piece below the 
tubercle and the sigmoid (the outer) hinge. The relative thickness of the 
two courses of cells changes as we proceed from the outer edge to the 
tubercle, so that the maximum flexure can occur where the outer cells 
are the thinnest, namely, just above the cuticle. It is here that the door 
chiefly bends on being opened. The lateral region is similar in structure 
to the outer hinge. The middle piece is massive, the cells being of equal 
thickness. The edge of the door is beaded with a three-quarters bead of 
some thickness, the bead being turned outward. When the trap is set this 
bead rests along the middle zone of the threshold, the velum resting against 
the door edge, over the beading. 

The threshold is narrow in the middle, widening fanwise toward the 
sides, where the door is attached to it. In its narrower middle part the 
outer zone bears an ample velum, consisting chiefly of the ballooned 
cuticles of the component cells, the middle zone cells contributing little, 
contrary to the case of vulgaris. The middle zone is narrow, of small and 
compact cells, and is slightly dished to receive the door edge. The outer 
zone is unique in having the cuticles enlarged and filled with a stiff 
mucilage (a hydrolysed cellulose probably), forming a resisting ridge 
against which the door rests when the trap is set. The emplacement of 
the door otherwise is as in vulgaris, the lateral reaches lying against the 
broader lateral reaches of the threshold, where a broader zone of velum 
cells occurs. 



2i6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Actuation of the trap can be caused by touching the glandular door- 
trichomes, when the trap is exhausted of water ; in these species, 
owing to the thinness of the walls, it proceeds till the two walls are in close 
contact with each other. This is well shown if a trap which has swal- 
lowed a bubble of air is allowed to reset itself — a process which occupies 
about two hours in this species, four to eight times as long as in vulgaris. 
During this period the bubble changes shape in adapting itself to the 
changing contours of the interior, and this is well shown in the motion 
pictures. In whatever direction the trichomes are touched — the traps 
are not all equally (mechanically) sensitive — the actuation takes place. 
The explanation lies in the rotatory movement of the tubercle, and it is 
so poised that in whichever way it is moved, up or down, the effect is to 
raise the door edge a very slight amount, but sufficiently to upset the 
equilibrium. 

Summary. 

The foregoing account is based on the study of about 75 species of 
Utricularia (including Biovularia and Polypompholyx). 

The bladders (called here the traps) appear in a great variety of form. 
The types selected to represent these forms illustrate the whole range of 
variety, so far as known. 

The study of living material of a number of species shows that certain 
properties of the trap heretofore known to us from the study of chiefly 
U. vulgaris are possessed by all. These are, briefly, a watertight door, 
snap action on actuation accompanied by the inrush of a column of water 
carrying with it the prey responsible for the actuation, the immediate 
return of the door to its original position, and the subsequent exhaustion 
of water from the lumen of the trap resulting in resetting it. This reset- 
ting consists in the close adjustment of the door at all points with the 
threshold. The resulting posture of the door enables it to resist the even, 
if considerable, pressure of outside water on it, the watertightness being 
achieved by the sealing along the door edge by the velum. The effective- 
ness of the door posture depends on the shape of the threshold, which is 
always slightly funnel-shaped , the sides converging inwardly. In addition , 
there is a more markedly outfacing ridge or surface against which the 
middle reach of the door edge finds application, resisting the inswing of 
the door. 

The structure of the door is correlated with the function of its various 
regions. It is composed of two courses of cells, the relative depths of which 
vary according to the function. While the whole is remarkable in its 
capacity for bending, we can recognise areas which can bend very freely 
and through a large arc. This is hinge tissue, in which one course of 
cells is thin, the other thick. The thick course always takes the maximum 
compression. The upper part of the door and the regions around the 
sides are hinge tissue. The capacity of compression and extension of the 
deep cells depends on their bellows structure, their periclinal walls being 
corrugated, each corrugation being supported by stiffening rods in the 
anticlinal walls. The occurrence of props in the anticlinal walls is general 
throughout the door tissues, so that the chief characteristic of hinge tissue 



K.— BOTANY ai7 

is the corrugation of the peridinal walls (inner and outer). The middle 
portion of the lower half (more or less) of the door has cell courses of 
equal thickness very strongly supported by large, numerous rods. The 
cells themselves become exceedingly small, especially as they approach 
the door edge. The structure is such as to give some and equal pliability 
in either direction, combined with considerable rigidity. This is the 
part of the door which has to remain in a rigid condition to give the 
door its footing on the threshold. The extent of these parts of the 
door varies with the species and peculiarities of shape of the entrance 
structures. 

There are two general classes of trap : 

(a) Those in which the threshold is broad (from back to front), the 
outer zone bearing a broad velum, the middle zone being broad also, and 
the inner zone narrow. The door in such cases is longer than broad, and 
is so placed that when the trap is set the door edge is held in position by 
the downthrust of the lateral hinge, contributing with longitudinal thrust 
to the firm application of the door edge to a more or less upturned surface 
near the inner limit of the threshold. The angle made by the plane of 
the door with that of the threshold is a small one. The door is devoid 
of special organs for actuation, unless sessile or short trichomes scattered 
on the upper convex surface of the door may be so regarded. At all 
events, actuation follows only on the application of sufficient pressure by 
prey trying to enter to make an initial dent in the surface. This allows 
the outside water to exert its pressure in folding the door lengthwise. 
The fold, travelling to the door edge, releases it from the downward 
thrust of the sides, and the door is opened. The action is by no means 
as vigorous as in the other kind presently described, nor as easily procured. 
But procured it can be, and is vigorous enough to carry in the intruding 

(b) Those in which the threshold is narrow. The outer zone is 
relatively broad, and bears an ample velum ; the middle zone is narrow in 
the middle, widening toward the sides relatively more than in the class (a), 
and with an inner zone which is broader. The surface of application of 
the door edge is at the front of the middle zone along the middle reach ; 
along the lateral reaches the surface of the door is applied to broader, 
fan-shaped extensions of the middle zone facing outwards, procuring the 
funnel-like shape of the entrance, into which the door is cramped under 
pressure of water. Here the velum also is broader and deeper. The 
door stands at a large angle to the plane of the threshold. It is provided 
with trichomes which constitute a latch lever for the actuation of the trap. 
Contact therewith disturbs the door edge sufficiently to allow the pressure 
of water against it to become effective in opening the trap and engulfing 
the prey. 

One cannot boast that all the species fit nicely into one or the other of 
the above two categories. Beyond the general statement as made, each 
kind of trap demands its own description. One is impressed by the 
epigrammatic saying of the Italian botanist, Caruel, which was brought to 
my attention by Goebel in conversation about this very question,' to wit : 
' La pianta cresce crascuna alia sua idiosyncrasia.' 



3i8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



Bibliography. 

Brocher, F. : ' Le probleme de rutriculaire,' Ann. biol. lacustre, 5, 33-46 (1911). 
CoHN, F. : ' Ueber die Function der Blasen von Aldrovanda und Utricularia,' 

Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen, 1 (3), 71-92 (1875). 
Crouan Fr^res : ' Observations sur un mode particulier de propagation des 

Utricularia,' Bull. soc. botan. France, 5, 27-29 {1858). 
CZAJA, A. T. : ' Die Fangvorrichtung der Utriculariablase,' Z. Botan., 14, 705- 

729 (1922). 

' Ein allseitig geschlossenes, selektivpermeables System,' Ber. deut. botan. 

Ges., 40, 381-385 (1922). 

' Physikalisch-chemische Eigenschaften der Membran der Utriculariablase,' 

Arch. ges. Physiol. (Pfluger's), 206, 554-613 (1924). 
Darwin, C. : Insectivorous Plants, New York, 1875. 
GoEBEL, K. : Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen (Marburg), Part I, 1889; Part II, 

1891. 
' Morphologische und Biologische Studien. V. Utricularia.' Ann. Jard. Bot. 

Buit., 9, 41-119 (1891). 
Kruck, M. : ' Physiologische und cytologische Studien iiber die Uiricularia- 

blasen,' Botan. Archiv., 33, 257-309 (1931)- 
Lloyd, F. E. : ' The mechanism of the water-tight door of the Utricularia 

trap,' Plant Physiol., 4, 87-102 {1929). 
' The range of structural and functional variation in the traps of Utricularia,' 

Flora, 125, 260-276 (1931).- 

' The range of structural and functional variety in the traps of Utricularia 

and Polypompholyx,' Flora, 126, 303-328 (1932). 

' Is the door of Utricularia an irritable mechanism ? ' Canadian Journ. 

Res., 7, 386-425 (1932)- 
' The structure and behaviour of Utricularia purpurea,' Canadian Journ. 

Res., 8, 234-252 (1933)- 
' The Carnivorous Plants. A Review with Contributions,' Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Canada, Third Series, 27, App. A, 1-67, 16 pi. (i933)- 
LuETZELBURG, P. VON : ' Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Utricularia,' Flora, 100, 

145-212 {1910). 
Meierhofer, H. : ' Beitrage zur Anatomie und Entwickelungsgeschichte der 

Utriculariablasen,' Flora, 90, 84-113 (1902). 
Merl, E. M. : ' Biologische Studien iiber die Utriculariablase,' Flora, 115, 59-74 

(1921). 

' Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Utricularien und Genliseen,' Flora, 108, 127- 

200 (1915). 

Schimper, a. F. W. : ' Notizen iiber insectenfressenden Pflanzen,' Bot. Zeitschr., 

40, 225-234, 241-247 (1882). 
Skutch, a. F. : ' The capture of prey by the bladderwort. A review of the 

physiology of the bladder,' New Phytologist, 27, 261-297 (1928). 
WiTHYCOiMBE, C. L. : ' On the function of the bladders in Utricularia vulgaris,' 

Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., 46, 401-413 (1924). 



I 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 



ADDRESS BY 

J. L. HOLLAND, B.A. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



I PURPOSE this morning to follow the sound example of those of my 
predecessors who have confined their addresses for the most part to matters 
of which they have had first hand experience. My own experience during 
the last thirty years has been that of an administrator in a humble way, 
and I have therefore chosen as my subject ' The Development of the 
National System of Education.' I hasten to assure you, however, that 
I do not design to discuss more than one or two phases of that develop- 
ment. The title is comprehensive enough to enable me to bring under it 
all the things I wish to say, but an inclusive treatment of it would 
require more time than is at your disposal to-day, and a more competent 
exponent than I can claim to be. 

It is vividly present to the mind of every educationist that he is 
serving a society which is disturbed by great private and public anxieties. 
The causes are world-wide. We see the foundations of social order and 
well-being shaking in country after country and we wonder how long our 
own land will be spared. In such times of unsettlement that man is hap- 
piest who, with a small thing to do, sees it and does it, who takes short views 
and lives a day at a time, like the caretaker of whom one read recently 
dusting the benches in the Parliament House while revolution was being 
made in the streets without. But the minds of thinking men are quickened 
by the turmoil and must work, and if at times they are depressed by a sense 
of helplessness, that is not the dominant note. It must needs be that 
changes come. By taking thought with their fellows, men can, it may be, 
help to determine the direction and extent of the changes. There pro- 
bably never was a time when every department of social and economic 
life was more vigorously canvassed than it is to-day. Large conventions, 
which in normal circumstances men accept as the price of being allowed 
to get on with their work, are the subject of ceaseless debate ; the quiet 
corners which usually escape notice are ruthlessly being turned out, and 
proposals for reform come from every quarter. 

Education does not sue to be excused from the general re-valuation. 
True that in one aspect it is a great institution with a membership of 
thousands of men and women, concerned like all institutions with the 
effects reform may have on the lives and fortunes of its members. True 



220 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

also that the need for re-construction has notoriously been made a pretext 
for paying off private grudges against individuals and whole classes in 
society. Teachers — some teachers — are apprehensive of similar treat- 
ment, and are naturally stirred to take preventive action. Yet an educa- 
tional system does not consist alone of schools, however numerous and 
well articulated one with the other, nor of teachers, however highly 
qualified : it requires to be informed by an understanding on the part of 
the community at large of the purpose of the schools and the aims of the 
teachers. In the first Presidential Address of this Section, more than 
thirty years ago now. Sir John Gorst defined the task of the British 
Association as the ' inculcation of a scientific view of things in every 
department of fife.' 

Education is such a department of life and it cannot function ade- 
quately and healthily unless the nation applies to it that trained organised 
common sense in which, as Huxley said, science consists. On this view 
it is the increasing manifestation of public concern for education which 
enables us to have an educational system at all, and if there are gaps, it is , 
because our public have not yet learned steadily to regard the whole, but 
concentrate now on one part of the field and now on another like an 
infantry company advancing by irregular rushes. Out of the inquisition 
then to which education is being subjected, in common with other social 
services, will assuredly come a summons to advance which mere in- 
difference can never give. 

But the educationist and the teacher should not adopt a passive 
attitude toward the great debate, leaving it to go forward while he immerses 
himself in professional duties. He owes it to the service for which he is 
enrolled to think out his own position, to look before and after, so that 
where he hears education attacked or misrepresented he may be ready to 
explain and defend it. He will not be long in any company without 
having the opportunity. Teachers are often criticised, whether justly 
or not let them judge for themselves, for living wholly in an immature 
world of their own as a caste apart, different from other men. Exaggerated 
devotion of that kind in any sphere leads to unpopularity and loss of 
influence. There is a time to put off the gown : men are flesh and blood 
and apprehensive, and the teacher does right to meet them in the ways of 
the world as a man and not as a schoolmaster. I recall some words of 
Dr. Arnold's, written at the time when he was actively engaged with the 
establishment of the new London University and was writing his History 
of Rome. ' I hold,' he wrote, ' with Algernon Sidney, that there are but 
two things of vital importance — those which he calls Religion and Politics, 
but which I would rather call our duties and affections towards God and 
our duties and feelings towards men : science and literature are but a 
poor make up for the want of these.' 

Nor are his pupils likely to suffer by this suggested diffusion of the 
teacher's interest. I have seen it said that Thomas Arnold found that his 
work with the Sixth at Rugby never went better than during that 
strenuous time. Routine, like a strangling weed, is only too ready to 
creep over any school with deadening effect, unless conscious efforts are 
made to keep it under. But where the teacher himself is a link between 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 221 

the school and the world outside there is a freshness and rich actuality 
about his teaching compared with which mere formal or traditional 
routine is a feeble thing. 

The development of an educational system in a democratic country 
such as ours is a difficult and complicated enterprise. Consider by way 
of contrast what is happening in certain other and ultra-modern states. 
You are struck at once by the dominance of a single leading idea, to which 
there is little that corresponds in our own society. In soviet Russia it 
is being said that the one purpose of education is to create active workers 
for the construction of a socialistic state. Of Germany much the same 
can be said. The Nazi Minister of the Interior only the other day 
declared that the time had come for abandoning liberal notions of 
free individual development. The child must be reared for complete 
absorption in and subservience to the corporative state. Whatever else 
we may think of it, this concentration on a single aim undoubtedly 
simplifies and speeds up the work of educational construction or re- 
construction. But for us such an immense simplification is out of the 
question. Our system of education has to meet, and if it may to adjust, 
many differing demands : the demand of the parent, of the community, 
of industry, of the state, demands which are not quite the same to-day 
as they were yesterday, and will not be constant to-morrow. And all 
these demands have to be reconciled with the demand that the child or 
young person shall be assisted freely to develop his individual character 
and ability. In the familiar words, ' adequate provision must be made 
in order to secure that children and young persons shall not be debarred 
from receiving the benefits of any form of education by which they are 
capable of profiting.' It is in this assertion of the rights of the individual 
that the English system of education differs fundamentally from those of 
our neighbours who are obsessed, as we think, with the notion of the 
omnipotent state. And it is because of this principle that the educa- 
tionist disappoints many would-be reformers in our own country who 
wish to re-construct our education in the interest of early occupational 
competence. 

Not that the educationist and those who hold with him are blind to 
social and economic necessities, but their concern is for the future 
Education cannot dispose of present emergencies any more than a tree 
can grow ripe fruit overnight. It takes a generation for its policies to 
come into full bearing. The men and women of to-day must deal with 
their own difficulties. The one thing of which we can be certain in these 
rapidly-changing times is that to-morrow will be different. It is, there- 
fore, no mere theory but the soundest possible practice that we should 
develop the powers of youth that they may face emergencies , the nature 
of which we cannot predict, with moral courage, adaptability, and re- 
sourcefulness. But 

If we draw a circle premature, 
Heedless of far gain, 
Greedy for quick returns of profit, sure, 
Bad is our bargain. 



222 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The birth of this Section at Glasgow in 1901 came just between the 
passing of the two Acts which laid the foundation of our present educa- 
tional system. The Board of Education Act of 1899, as its title implied, 
set up a State Department under a Minister for the superintendence of 
matters relating to education in England and Wales. It brought together 
two previously existing departments, namely, the Education Department 
in Whitehall, which since 1870 had been developing and systematising 
elementary education, and the Science and Art Department in South 
Kensington, which independently administered the Government grants 
for schools of art and science and generally promoted what we now call 
technical education. The Act passed with little public notice, for very 
few people outside the service saw it for the prelude that it was. 

It was far otherwise with the Education Act of 1902, the second great 
statutory landmark in the development of our educational system — Forster 's 
Act of 1870 being the first and Mr. Fisher's Act of 191 8 the third and 
latest. The feature of this Act which attracted most attention, giving 
rise to bitter public controversy at the time, was that which enabled the 
voluntary schools, previously only state-aided, to receive assistance from 
local rates. The Church schools were put upon the rates, in return for 
some concessions to public control. Although the old controversy has 
died down, it flames up here and there and now and then as smouldering 
fires will in disconcerting fashion. Many attempts have been made since 
to settle the issue once for all ; they have all broken down. I do not 
propose to discuss the consequences of this dual system at any length, 
for the subject was dealt with ably and faithfully in a recent Presidential 
Address to this Section. 

But three things perhaps I may suggest. Firstly, no settlement is 
likely to prove permanent which does not give the local authority the right 
to insist that the best qualified applicants shall be appointed to teach in 
in the non-provided schools, and secondly does not allow of the employ- 
ment of any teacher who holds the State certificate in any public element- 
ary school. And thirdly, the present arrangement occasions serious waste 
of teaching power and of public funds, which last, at any rate, is of great 
moment in the present state of national finances. It is, I think, un- 
fortunate that the recent Act, enabling the closing of schools which are 
educationally unnecessary, is crippled by insistence that duality must be 
maintained as a condition precedent. 

But the fundamental change which the Act of 1 902 made was the crea- 
tion of local education authorities charged with responsibility for all 
forms of education in their areas, namely, the councils in the adminis- 
trative counties and the county borough councils. In the county boroughs 
the Act replaced one popularly elected authority by another, though with 
widely extended powers, for in almost all the county boroughs there had 
been school boards responsible for a provision of elementary education 
adequate for the needs of the area, so far as those were not met by the 
voluntary schools. In the county areas, however, the position was very 
different. For though the counties have a long administrative history, 
the popularly elected County Council was a very young body and had 
hardly got into its stride before these new duties were thrust upon. it. 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 223 

Moreover, and apart from certain powers which the councils exercised 
under the Technical Instruction Acts, to which I shall refer again, the 
only previously established education authorities in the county areas were 
the school boards, which had been let in under Mr. Forster's Act where 
the voluntary schools were unable to supply sufficient elementary educa- 
tion. These authorities were scattered irregularly in pockets, usually 
small, over the county areas. Their suppression was locally unpopular. 
Their members, who generally represented what there was of enlightened 
educational opinion in their several localities, had to be conciliated, for 
they were inclined to go into opposition to the new county authority, and 
beyond that, the County Education Committee and its officers had a 
sufficiently heavy task in bringing home to the rate-payers that they were 
now members of a large education area, and in stimulating and focussing 
appreciation of the educational needs of the area as a whole. 

An administrative area for education purposes is not created merely 
by tying together a number of smaller education authorities, or even by 
clothing an authority existing for other purposes with educational powers. 
For effective functioning a common outlook has to be achieved and the 
will to organise and work together for common purposes must be evoked. 
It is a slow process which cannot yet be said to be fully accomplished, 
certainly not in many areas as regards education beyond the secondary 
stage. This weak position in which the counties were in contrast to the 
county boroughs, was in part reponsible for a serious departure in the 
Act from the principle that education is one and that educational adminis- 
tration must be single. I refer, of course, to the Part III authorities 
responsible for elementary education only. Of these there are about 
one hundred and seventy boroughs and urban districts — islands for the 
most part in the areas of the sixty-two English and Welsh counties, and 
containing not quite a third of the total county populations — islands of 
all sorts and sizes from little towns of 9,000 and 10,000 to the urban areas 
round London with populations nearing the second hundred thousand. 
Many of them are beyond doubt very efficient within their statutory 
limitations. They have a civic pride in their schools which is not com- 
mon in the county areas. On the other hand, most of them are too small 
to form satisfactory administrative units even for elementary education, 
and generally they are a clog on the development of the national system. 
The central authority cannot forget them in framing its regulations and 
settling its administrative precedents, yet reasonable treatment for Little 
Pedlington may be merely annoying when meted out to a large county or 
county borough. They cut across county schemes of organisation, and 
while it is only fair to admit that they desire as a whole to co-operate, they 
complicate, and therefore add to the expense of administration. More- 
over, officers and teachers tend to move to the larger areas, and in the 
long run the quality of the local education service is injuriously affected. 

But the principal reason for removing the anomaly of the Part III 
authority is that with its existence is bound up the preservation of the 
statutory distinction between elementary and higher education. It was 
inevitable that, on the transfer of organised elementary education from the 
school boards to the new local authorities, the whole apparatus of parlia- 



224 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

mentary enactment and departmental regulation, including separate 
rating, should go over into the new regime. There were no beginnings 
even of organisation in higher education out of which a unified system 
could be constructed. The distinction, however, always was unreal. 
Higher education is by statute education other than elementary, which in 
the absence of a definition of elementary education gets us nowhere. 
There is no definition of elementary education in any statute, but an 
elementary school is defined as a school in which the principal part of 
the instruction is elementary, which recognises the possibility of some- 
thing more than elementary instruction being given in it. At one time 
indeed the old Science and Art Department impartially aided the teaching 
of science in both elementary and secondary schools. 

In actual practice, higher and elementary institutions have always 
overlapped, both as regards the ages of the pupils attending them and 
as regards the details of the curricula followed. The distinction is purely 
administrative, serving no useful educational purpose, and the modern 
development of the division between primary and post-primary has made 
it not merely useless, but absurd. It is also a nuisance, for it involves 
debatable apportionments of common expenditure, separate accounting, 
and other duplicate arrangements. Economy will be promoted in more 
than one direction by its abolition. 

The tide of opinion is setting towards the eflracement of the Part III 
authorities — witness the recent Act which forbade the creation of any 
more of them as the result of the re-arrangement of local areas under the 
Local Government Act of 1929. There is already a clause in the Educa- 
tion Act which allows them to surrender their powers to the county 
council. Need I say that the instances of such surrender are few. If 
local authorities, educational and other, have a common characteristic, 
it is the pertinacity with which they cling to the powers they possess. 
' What we have we hold ' is their motto. Some of the Part Ill's should 
be absorbed into the adjacent county area, the larger of them should be 
vested with full powers. No authorities should be allowed to survive 
which are unable to support a reasonable number and variety of schools at 
least to the end of the secondary stage ; on which principle sonrie county 
and possibly some county borough authorities ought to lose their present 
powers. 

The relative positions of the central and the local authorities are very 
different in the two spheres of elementary and higher education. The 
Act of 1870 was extremely regulative. The powers, the duties, and the 
procedure of the school boards were prescribed with great particularity, 
and the control of the central authority was secured through its minutes, 
the well-known Code of Regulations for Public Elementary Schools, 
which, after confirmation by Parliament — an almost nominal proceeding- 
become the conditions of the payment of parliamentary grant. And the 
Code was even more detailed than the Statute. There were 130 articles, 
many of them with sub-sections, in the first Code under the Act of 1902. 
The school board and their successors were to enter the field of elementary 
education, but there must be no walking on the grass. It reminds me of a 
one-time open path which I used to take through beautiful country, but 



L— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 225 

I go that way no more, for now galvanised netting is high on cither hand 
for a mile or so, and one arrives at the end in a state of exasperated longing 
for a pair of wire cutters. Some of you may know that walk and the 
educational institution which at vast expense has put such a slight on our 
common ability to behave ourselves. 

There are still stretches of the old statutory fencing in the Education 
Act, although nominally it was all taken down in 1918. The Code of 
Regulations, however, is far less detailed than it used to be. The 130 
articles with sub-sections have shrunk to a reasonable 27. For this 
comparative freedom local authorities have to thank another predecessor 
of mine in this Chair, Lord Eustace Percy. Lord Eustace claimed that 
the Code, as revised in his time at the Board, gives the authorities a wider 
field for the exercise of their discretion, and the claim can be freely allowed. 
' The limit of useful State control is to be found at the point where it 
ceases to be an expanding and stimulating force and tends to fetter or 
sterilise.' Those words are quoted from Sir Robert Morant, the archi- 
tect — if any one man can be so styled — of our present educational system. 
For fifty years from the time of Robert Lowe's Code of 1863, elementary 
education moved in fetters, and the marks of that servitude are still upon 
it ; only gradually is it recovering the vigour, the elasticity, and variety of 
which a too restrictive control deprived it. 

On the other hand, the local authority was given full power from the 
beginning to supply or aid the supply of higher education as it thought fit 
after considering the needs of its area and consulting the Board of Educa- 
tion. In theory, the central authority is here a friendly adviser, and can 
exercise no control so long as the local authority is prepared to finance its 
own schemes entirely. The friendly adviser, however, in this case is 
usually ready to back the advice with offers of financial assistance, and 
although at first in a number of instances authorities were willing to pay 
the piper for a tune they preferred, there are not many higher institutions 
left— I do not myself know of any — under local authorities, which the Board 
does not aid. At the same time, this power the local authorities have of 
resuming their independence is very real and colours all their relations 
with the Board. I wish to avoid all suggestion of a reluctance on the part 
of the Board to give the local authorities their due, or of serious differences 
of opinion between them, for in fact consultation between the Board and 
the authorities is frequent and close, and the differences which do occur 
are in matters of detail rather than of principle. But the position is that 
of two parties in a negotiation which either of them can break off, one 
perhaps more easily than the other, and for which each of them desires a 
successful conclusion. 

The administration of the Exchequer grants under regulations framed 
by the Board is the greatest factor in the relations of the central with the 
local authorities. By most people these grants are regarded merely as 
subventions in aid of local expenditure. They are that, but they are also 
a powerful instrument for the furtherance of national policies and a precise 
technique has been worked out for so using them. There is not time to 
develop this point, but an example will illustrate my meaning. I select 
one which at the present time is agitating the county authorities — an 



226 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

example of misuse of the instrument. Two of the elements in the formula 
under which the grants for purposes of elementary education are assessed 
are the expenditure of the authority on teachers' salaries, of which fifty 
per cent, is met by grant and administrative expenses, of which the 
Exchequer finds twenty per cent. 

Reorganisation in county areas involves the provision of senior schools 
at nodal points to which the older children of the surrounding district are 
transported. The process is attended by some saving in salaries, and 
within certain limits the larger the school the more economically can it be 
run. Not only so, the larger school can combine variety in the curriculum 
with greater uniformity in the classification of the pupils, and in the end 
should prove the better school. But a larger school means a wider 
gathering ground and a heavier transport cost. Yet the Board appro- 
priate half the saving in teachers' salaries and leave the authority to bear 
four-fifths of the heavy cost of transport. The effect of the grant regu- 
lations is therefore to dissuade the authorities from plans which are 
nationally economical and educationally desirable and to reinforce the 
understandable preference of the countryside for the small and less 
efficient school near at hand. 

This method of giving grants in proportion to expenditure, and at rates 
varying with the type of service aided, was brought into full operation in 
education by Mr. Fisher's Act of 1918. Obviously it is designed to 
encourage expansion and to stimulate authorities to the more adequate 
discharge of their duties. The argument that the Board bears part of 
the cost can be very convincing. Though not simple in administration 
it keeps pace with the growth of institutions, and through the provision 
of an overriding minimum grant it recognises the importance of the local 
organisation of schools. Notwithstanding its occasional misuse education 
committees generally approve it, though perhaps some of them who are 
chary of expansion and have no wish to be stimulated still hanker after 
the old method of separate grants on a per capita basis for individual 
institutions. 

In the discussions which are raging round education and everything 
else the method of the percentage grant is challenged on the ground that 
it lends itself to extravagance and involves a meticulous interference with 
the business of the authorities, objections which you will observe tend to 
cancel out, and it is suggested that block grants assessed over an authority's 
expenditure during a standard year and fixed for a term of years, three, 
five, or even seven, should be given instead. A block grant has none of 
that flexibility which enables the percentage grant to be administered in 
immediate conformity with Governmental pohcy, out of which no local 
authority can expect to be allowed to contract itself. Nor can I see why 
a central department or sub-department, with a policy of its own, should 
be less disposed to encourage expenditure on the part of a local authority 
under a block system grant, which defers the day of reckoning, than under 
a system which automatically obliges it to share the cost. The last report 
of the Estimates Committee of the House of Commons comes to the 
support of my contention, for the Committee therein publicly censures 
the Board of Control for pressing local authorities to incur unnecessary 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 227 

expenditure and the Board is a department of the Ministry of Health, 
where the block grant system obtains. Can you even imagine the Board 
of Education nowadays risking any such rebuke ? 

The task to which the new local authorities of 1902 were principally 
called was the development and organisation of an adequate system of 
secondary education. It was not a virgin field of which they took posses- 
sion. There were the endowed grammar schools, mostly of pre-Reforma- 
tion foundation, individually independent, usually small and struggling 
to make ends meet on very inadequate resources, some of them too dis- 
heartened even to struggle — mere class alternatives to the ordinary 
elementary school. There were the schools of the companies, and of the 
religious bodies, not quite so hard pressed, frequently with ends to serve 
other than those which a public system must ensure. There were the 
organised science schools — the categories are not mutually exclusive, 
taking grants from the old Science and Art Department for the teaching 
of specific subjects. There were the centres for the training and education 
of pupil teachers provided by the old School Boards, and there were the 
private schools, good and bad, demanding to be taken into account. 
Rightly indeed were the authorities enjoined to a careful consideration 
of the needs of their area before attempting to bring order into this 
chaos. 

The story of the last thirty years in secondary education is absorbing for 
those of us who lived in it. By strenuous and persistent efl^ort the local 
authorities have transformed the face of this department of national 
education in a generation. It would be difficult to instance another 
movement which achieved as much in as short a time and with so little of 
that wasteful effervescence which characterises and sometimes mars great 
outbursts of activity on a national scale. The story cannot be told now ; 
I can do no more here than mark the line and pace of the development by 
way of giving substance to the high claim I have made for the authorities. 
The Board of Education lost no time in giving a lead. Local authori- 
ties might be sceptical about the need for more secondary schools, but they 
knew that at least the elementary schools must be staffed and that they 
had to find the teachers. In 1903 new Regulations for the Instruction 
and Training of Pupil Teachers were issued, in which it was indicated that 
up to sixteen years of age the intending pupil teacher should be educated 
in a secondary school. That meant that every boy or girl in the public 
secondary schools of some areas would be needed for the teaching pro- 
fession, and the question of increasing facilities was at once brought out 
of the realm of theory. 

A year later came the first Regulations for Secondary Schools, with a 
definition of the term, very general in form, which has not yet been super- 
seded. In the regulations the length of the course, the subjects of study, 
even the minimum of time to be devoted to each subject, were all pre- 
cisely stated. You will look in vain for this last requirement in the 
regulations of to-day. 

Of these two sets of regulations it can, I think, be said that, while in 
form they were prescriptive, laying down conditions which must be 
complied with if the Parliamentary grant was to be taken, the underlying 



228 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

intention was that they should be educative, in the one case formulating 
for the first time a conception of the secondary school for the guidance of 
authorities and teachers, in the other suggesting that the function of 
the secondary school passes beyond the education of the single pupil to 
the service of the community. 

The only other set of regulations which require mention before we 
consider the evidence of progress in the development of the secondary 
school system, are the Regulations of 1907, in which the greater part of 
the 1904 Regulations were included, but which were also further pre- 
scriptive in two important respects. In the first place, no new schools 
could be placed upon the grant list unless the representatives of elected 
authorities formed the majority of the governing body. This was no 
doubt intended to be the first step towards bringing all the schools aided 
by Government grants under local popular control. So far, however, as 
the local education authorities are concerned, the eff"ect has not been 
quite what appears to have been expected. The representatives of the 
popularly elected authorities keep up a useful contact between the aiding 
authority and the aided school, but in my experience they count for very 
little in the control which the aiding authority exercises, for they are 
prone to put the interest of the school they serve first, and the authority 
which appoints them receives but secondary consideration — a very 
English and, on the whole, a healthy habit. 

The other prescription of the 1907 regulations was of much more 
consequence. Provision was to be made for the admission in the normal 
case of 25 per cent, of the new pupils in any year from the public 
elementary school, free of all school fees, but in every other respect on 
the same footing as the fee-paying pupils. The percentage stood as an 
obligatory minimum until the new Special Place Regulations took eflcect 
a month or so ago, but as a permissive figure it has been raised first to 
40 per cent, and three years ago to 50 per cent. 

I shall have something to say in a moment about the practical effect of 
this regulation. The older among us will remember with what doubt 
and hesitation it was received by the schools, for as Sir Robert Morant 
expressed it in another of his early reports, the idea that elementary and 
secondary schools represent not successive stages of education but 
alternative kinds of education, meant for different social classes, was deeply 
rooted. Those doubts vanished long ago : for the free place holder, 
with few exceptions, readily took on the colour of his new school ; on the 
whole he remained longer and stayed the course better than his fee-paying 
fellow. 

Until the Board and the authorities got down to work it had been 
commonly assumed that their task would be in the main to bring the 
existing unorganised and sporadically created secondary schools into an 
efficient system. The field appeared to be full of resources : what was 
necessary, was in the words of the Bryce Commission, ' to correlate and 
harmonise the forces and agencies already at work.' The local authori- 
ties very soon discovered gaps which needed filling, but what was not 
generally foreseen was the tremendous drive for secondary education 
which an awakened public opinion was about to motive. It was,, for 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 229 

example, at first taken for granted that the new free places would be filled 
without competition, indeed that they might even go unfilled for lack of 
qualified applicants. 

Let us see what has actually happened. In 1902 the number of schools 
receiving State aid through the Board was under 300, and the number of 
pupils taking an approved course under 32,000. Three years later the 
number of schools had risen to 600 and the pupils to 100,000. By 191 1, 
the last year of Sir Robert Morant's term at the Board, the number of 
grant-aided schools was 862 and the number of pupils had passed the 
150,000 mark, if we include those in schools recognised as efficient but 
not in receipt of grant. 

The first year of the War came and found 205,000 children in the 
schools. Down to that point the rising tide of numbers from 100,000 
to 205,000 in ten years had encouraged authorities and administrators to 
lay their plans with confidence. The flow was steady as well as strong ; 
there was no falling off in demand to warn us that high water was nearly 
reached. Was the War that warning ? Had we come to the turn ? 
The answer soon came in a thrust for secondary education the like of 
which this country had never seen before — is hardly likely to see again. 
In the five years 191 5 to 1920 the school numbers leaped with accelerating 
speed by 113,000. The thrust was not due, as the cynics suggested, to 
easy money which enabled parents to pay school fees without feeling 
them much, for in the next year, the year of the first economy wave, there 
was a further leap of 32,000 and, save for a slight fall of less than 
1,000 in 1924, the advance has continued until in 1932 there were 
452,000 children, nearly 10-5 per 1,000 of our total population, receiving 
secondary education in nearly 1,600 schools recognised as efficient, of 
which the local authorities provide not quite half. 

In the discussion of educational problems the layman probably gets 
less help from the professional than, as paymaster, he is entitled to, not by 
reason of undue reticence on the part of the professional, for we are a 
talkative profession, but so much of the talk is about temporalities — pay 
and pensions, status and prospects — and argument at the top of the 
voice, in other words shouting one's opponent down, is very fatiguing to 
the listener. So the layman is driven to reason from his own youthful 
experiences until he renews his contact with the schools through his 
children. It is not surprising that the idea that the secondary school is 
a class school should still linger on. Is there anything in it ? Rapid as 
the growth of the schools has been, the free place holders have increased 
even more rapidly. In the first year of the century there were about 
5,500 children from public elementary schools attending the secondary 
schools with the help of public funds. By 1906, the year before the 
Free Place Regulations were made, there were 23,500. Within four years 
of the passage of the Regulations there were over 49,000 free place 
holders, and nearly a third of the total numbers in the schools were in 
this category. At that time one out of every twenty- two elementary school 
leavers in England went to a secondary school, and one out of every forty- 
six received free education there. This process of social interfusion has 
gone on without a check during the twenty years which have since elapsed, 



230 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

until last year the ex-elementary school child constituted 71 per cent, of 
the English secondary school population and one in eight of elementary 
school leavers made his or her way to the secondary school, every other 
one with a free place. Such figures speak for themselves. 

The story of secondary education hitherto, as we have seen, has been 
one of uninterrupted expansion, but we are at the end of a generation and 
there are indications that the national impulse behind the movement is 
faltering, or perhaps making ready to find another channel. The 
example of Wales, which even now has half as many more children in 
proportion in its secondary schools as there are in the English schools, 
stands as a warning to would-be prophets. Nevertheless, I doubt 
whether many more schools of the secondary type will be founded, and 
when the population ' bulge ' of the first two post-war years ceases to 
have effect, the tide of numbers may be expected definitely to ebb. What 
becomes, what has become, of these thousands of pupils, old and new ? 
The parallel extension of State control over, and interference with, the 
lives and business of its citizens, the creation of new departments of 
State, the great increase in the Civil Service, both central and local, 
before the War accounted for many of them. They staff the teaching 
profession. About sixteen per cent, of them go to the universities and 
other institutions of higher education. Nearly two-fifths of them enter 
the minor professions, or become clerks or go into business. Less than 
fifteen per cent., rather more than a tenth of the whole, enter any kind of 
industry. But the Civil Services have ceased to multiply, the teaching 
profession is over-full, and the clerk is being replaced by machines of 
every sort. The schools have been remarkably faithful throughout to 
the conception of an education mainly literary, given through a balanced 
curriculum of subjects mainly traditional. They have turned their 
pupils almost exclusively in the direction of the academic, the professional, 
the ' black-coated ' occupations. 

They are staffed from the academic group in the nation, and while it 
has ensured high intellectual standards, that fact has enabled them to 
tolerate the adaptation of their curriculum to the requirements of the 
universities, until recently , with no sense of discomfort. They are academi- 
cally controlled, not only in the advanced work which is the prelude to 
university study for the small fraction of abler pupils, but also through 
the certificate examinations which are the goal of the average. The 
irruption of the free place holder has made little difference. The social 
ideals which underlie the schools' practice are congenial, if anything too 
congenial, to the poor child and his parents, ambitious that he shall 
escape the drudgery which they have had to undergo. To them a 
secondary education stands for advancement in life and the promise has 
hitherto been realised. 

But, as I have already pointed out, the prospects of advancement along 
the customary lines are not so bright as they were. And another factor 
needs to be reckoned with. For five-and-twenty years we have been 
transferring picked boys and girls from the elementary schools to the 
atmosphere of the secondary school. No wonder industry complains 
that it is being robbed of its best recruits. The thoughtful employer 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 231 

agrees that his junior employees are better mannered, more self-respecting, 
more amenable than those of pre-war days, but he does not find in them 
the alertness, the resourcefulness, the desire for responsibility which a 
sufficiently high proportion of their fathers displayed. Yet British 
industry was probably never more in need of these qualities in its workers 
than it is to-day. 

Is it the business of the secondary school to meet that n .^ed of industry ? 
We have in our organisation proceeded on a theory which, nakedly 
expressed, appears to be this. We will choose as well as we may, at about 
the age of eleven, those children who can undergo a further five years of 
full-time education with profit to the community and to themselves ; 
they shall go to the secondary school ; the rest shall complete the compul- 
sory elementary school course, and as for any education beyond that, it 
shall be a voluntary part-time affair. On that theory the secondary 
school is the common full-time school for adolescents. Can we say that 
it is performing so comprehensive a service satisfactorily ? Not unless 
we have the hardihood to maintain that full-time study, extending over the 
period of adolescence, is only necessary for those who are to enter the 
academic or professional classes or the public service, or the managerial 
ranks in industry. 

The schools are now finding themselves obliged to go further afield in 
the search for suitable openings for their pupils, and the contacts they 
are making in this way will in time react healthily upon their work. There 
will be a broadening of the curriculum and maybe a less scholastic 
approach to the more traditional subjects, especially when the grip of the 
School Certificate examinations is relaxed. But anything in the nature 
of a general turn over to the American high school type is to be depre- 
cated, though one would like to see that alternative tried out in some 
of the larger urban areas. The average secondary school is perhaps 
fortunately lacking in the capacity for so great a change, and were the 
change forced upon it by authority much that is honourably distinctive 
would be lost. The high intellectual standards, on which are based not 
merely the after competence of the professional classes, but the whole 
leadership of the nation, would certainly be impaired. If, however, the 
secondary school is to be left unaltered, save for developments from within, 
to continue its present contribution to the national life, there will need to 
be a reduction in the number of its pupils for at least two reasons. 

We are admitting to the schools to-day children who are unequal to 
the curriculum, and whose motive for attempting it is mainly social 
ambition. As Sir Michael Sadler, another former President of this 
Section, pointed out years ago, ' it is possible to over-stimulate the 
intellectual susceptibility of people of mediocre talent without adding 
much to the sound stock of critical or practical judgment possessed by 
the nation ' — a form of waste, he went on to add, ' which we are distinctly 
in danger of incurring ' : a form of waste which we must confess is actually 
being incurred. There are also children of another type in the secondary 
schools, not necessarily inferior, who would be better suited by a less 
academic and more practical curriculum. If these two groups are to be 
turned back, the senior school, the modern school of the Hadow Report,, 



232 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

will have to receive them for the present. About the part these modem 
schools will play in English education, I hope to say something later. I 
believe that they will very shortly attract in large measure that public 
interest and support without which no type of school can grow freely in 
our soil. Whether they will develop to any large extent courses for 
industry and commerce, between say the ages of fifteen and eighteen, and 
at the end of the general course, or whether these courses will be provided 
in association with the technical schools as a kind of high school accom- 
modated in technical institute buildings, as some of the old organised 
science schools used to be, is a question for the future. I shall have to 
point out presently that outside the secondary school there is very little 
evidence of a demand for voluntary full-time education after the com- 
pulsory age is reached, so that any development of such education towards 
industry and commerce is bound to be gradual. 

The inquirer approaching the subject of instruction for industry and 
commerce cannot fail to be struck by the unsystematic — almost hap- 
hazard—manner in which facilities appear to be disposed. It is only in 
a few large and highly industrialised areas that one finds evidence of 
constructive planning. Over a large part of the country the field is 
occupied, though not covered, by a medley of institutions which often 
have little relation one to another. The local school of art will probably 
have no connection with the technical college : as likely as not the com- 
mercial school or department will be quite independent of the industrial 
departments of the college ; yet surely design has an important place in 
industry, and what is commerce essentially but the exchange of the 
products of industry ? Again, the institutions themselves overlap to a 
surprising extent. The official titles — technical school, technical college, 
evening institute, and so on — afford no certain clue to the range and 
standard of the instruction which is given in them. 

This state of affairs is partly an inheritance from the early nineties of 
last century, when the nation was aroused chiefly by the extraordinary 
expansion of German trade, though the reports of Commissions and 
Committees played their part in the awakening, to the need for more 
and better commercial and technical training, and insisted that something 
must be done. Under the national impetus technical instruction made 
a fresh start. The municipalities and the counties were constituted 
authorities by the Technical Instruction Act of 1889, with rating powers, 
and were encouraged to get to work by Exchequer grants of nearly a 
million pounds out of the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Account, 
popularly known as the whiskey money, which were applied to this purpose 
as an afterthought on the part of Parliament. Many of the municipalities 
hastened to erect technical colleges, sometimes with no very precise ideas 
about the character and extent of the instruction which they were going 
to provide, enthusiasm usurping the place of a careful survey of existing 
provision and of local needs. 

The present confusing position is also in part a consequence of the 
lines on which our educational system is organised. In most continental 
countries technical instruction is a function of the State, and can be 
planned on a national basis, or at least on the basis of large provinces 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 233 

whose inhabitants earn their Hvelihood in groups of connected industries. 
But in this country the local education authorities are primarily responsible 
for providing technical and other forms of instruction. There are a few 
instances of localised industries whose boundaries coincide, or nearly so, 
with local authority areas, and in those areas systematic planning has led 
to satisfactory results. But industry as a rule has no respect for adminis- 
trative boundaries. In consequence, the attempt to provide for the needs 
of an area without reference to what neighbouring authorities are doing 
usually involves some waste of resources, as well as a loss of efficiency, 
particularly in the higher branches of instruction, by which only a select 
few have the capacity to profit. 

The situation calls for regional planning as the next step in the organisa- 
tion of higher technical education. A beginning has been made by 
groups of authorities, notably in the West Riding of Yorkshire and in 
south Lancashire. In others progress is impeded by causes which I 
have mentioned earlier in this address. It will not be easy gradually 
to transform the local authority colleges into groups of co-ordinated 
regional institutions. In some of the regions the Board of Education 
will probably in the end have to give a strong official lead, instead of 
depending, as they appear to do at present, upon the tactful and unofficial 
ministrations of their inspectors and other servants. 

The public interest displayed in the late eighties and nineties in the 
new movement for technical instruction soon waned, for the early results 
were disappointing. It had to be realised that technical education is not 
self-sufficient, and cannot be successfully provided in the air, so to speak. 
To be of value to the individual and to the community it must build on 
a sound foundation of general education, and the successful completion 
of the elementary school course, gravely deficient as it then was in the ele- 
ment of science, was not such a foundation. When this was understood, 
the more thoughtful authorities began to give attention and to divert 
some of their funds to the encouragement of the teaching of science and 
other subjects which were more cultural than technical, and to the 
transfer of the brighter elementary school scholars to the secondary 
schools. Their activities in these directions paved the way to some 
extent for the renascence of secondary education which I have already 
discussed. It was not until the Great War was over that industry and 
commerce began to ask on any considerable scale, and apart from isolated 
instances, for the help of the schools in meeting the great changes brought 
about by the application of new scientific discoveries to manufacturing 
processes, and by the invasions of the machine in every department of 
work. Industry and commerce are still busily discussing their require- 
ments and endeavouring to formulate their demands upon the schools. 
As regards industry, at least, the discussions can hardly yet be said to 
have issued in any very clear conclusions. To borrow the language of 
the theatre, what the educationist hears for the most part are ' confused 
noises without.' So long as industry is obliged to make its comments 
' off stage ' one can hardly expect anything else. 

At this time of day it is unnecessary to stress the argument for a close 
association between the industrialist and the educationist in the business 

I 2 



234 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of technical instruction. The need is admitted, though there is here and 
there some Ungering reluctance to set about devising methods for meeting 
it. The method officially favoured is the advisory committee of manu- 
facturers and employees. My own experience in connection with the 
boot and shoe industry, however, leads me to advocate the direct repre- 
sentation of the manufacturing interest on the management committee of 
the institution or department. There is the same time-lag in the manu- 
facturer's notion of what the schools are doing, the existence of which 
in the mind of the general public I have already referred to. That time- 
lag is quickly recovered where there is immediate contact with the institu- 
tion itself. Not only does responsibility put a keener edge on service of 
any kind, but advice is tendered more carefully and is generally more 
practicable where that responsibility exists. The typical manufacturer 
is accustomed to see to the carrying out of his own ideas ; he does not 
take kindly to sitting in another room and framing recommendations 
which a committee of management can ignore if it chooses, and is some- 
times even disposed to regard as critical of its own action, or more usually 
inaction. For there is a type of public man which has a great capacity for 
deluding itself into the belief that popular election at once endows the 
elected representative with knowledge adequate for the performance of 
any public duty. Therefore let the manufacturers and employees have 
their representation on the governing body of the technical school or 
college, sharing in the give and take of its discussions, and in its responsi- 
bility for the conduct of the school. The ultimate power of the purse 
can easily be retained for the local authority by requiring an annual 
estimate of expenditure classified under appropriate headings, which 
when approved, must not be exceeded without going through the process 
of the supplementary estimate. 

Technical education in this country rests upon a voluntary basis. As I 
have shown, it owes little to suggestion or consistent stimulation from 
above. The old term ' further education ' would be a better description 
of it, for the desire to ' get on ' and prosper is only part of the story. 
Its chief motive force still is the craving of the individual for self-im- 
provement. The youth of ordinary elementary education, on whom it 
dawns at about eighteen or nineteen years of age that his prospects of 
economic advancement are small, bestirs himself to take advantage of it. 
But there are numbers of students who want to develop particular studies 
for their own sake, and again others who are not content to accept the 
riddle of this unintelligible world, which every man becomes aware of 
sooner or later, without making an effort to unravel it. These conditions 
explain why further education is so largely part-time education. They 
also explain the great number of students to be found in the part-time 
classes and institutions of all kinds. There are now about a million of 
these students, of whom perhaps 50,000 are studying in their employers' 
time, or partly so, during the day, and the rest are attending night schools 
in their own time. Contrast that figure of a million with the number 
of those who are engaged in pre-employment full-time vocational courses. 
There are hardly more than 30,000 of them. If we examine the position 
at the critical age of fifteen to sixteen years we find that there are no more 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 235 

than 1,000 in full-time technical college courses and day technical classes, 
and another 1,000 in full-time art courses, junior and senior, while there 
are about 6,500 in junior technical schools. Finally, bring into the com- 
parison the 63,500 adolescents of the same age in the secondary schools 
and the remnant of 16,500 who are in the elementary schools. Even 
when allowance is made for the fact that practically all the elementary 
school remnant, and rather more than 7,000 of the secondary pupils aged 
fifteen to sixteen, will eventually find their way into industry, the volume 
of full-time pre-employment education of any kind for industry appears 
painfully small. 

The administrator or the teacher can do very little to make good the 
deficiency. As Mr. Ramsbotham said the other day, ' the course of 
education is primarily governed by its social surroundings, by the thoughts 
and actions, the needs and aspirations of adult society, and not by the 
desires or ideals of educationists.' The regional co-ordination of schools, 
even the association of industrialists with their work, will not of them- 
selves create a demand. What is lacking is a conviction on the part of 
adult society that this form of instruction is a necessary element of our 
national well being. The nation must will to have it so, and as yet there 
are few signs, apart from the vociferation of interested parties, that the 
nation is not quite content to have it otherwise. 

In our development of technical education on a part-time basis for those 
already in employment we differ from continental countries, where in 
the main technical instruction is conceived to be a full time pre-employ- 
ment training. We differ from them also in another important respect. 
While we recognise that there must be grades of employees, workmen, 
charge hands, foremen, departmental managers and so on, neither the 
educationist nor the typical industrialist agrees that you can conclusively 
predict beforehand the grade in which the recruit will ultimately come to 
rest. There are too many examples of men in high position who owe 
their success to their character, their temperament, and their capacity, 
rather than to any specialised training they have picked up on the way, for 
us easily to accept the theory of the stratification of labour which lies behind 
the graded schools of the Continent. It has been said that the process 
of horizontal stratification into classes which will leave the individual 
little opportunity for advancement has begun in this country, and that 
the division of the nation's youth into those who are and those who 
are not to receive a secondary education is a new social phenomenon 
whose consequences will be very far-reaching. But there are, and for a 
long time to come there probably will be, many ways of obtaining a 
secondary education without passing through the gate of the annual schools 
examination. 

It is repugnant to our national thought and practice that an insuperable 
line should be drawn through Society at any age. So it comes about 
that at every stage in our educational system we busy ourselves on behalf 
of those who have not followed the orthodox routes, that they may have 
an opportunity of making up what they have lost. We even play with 
the idea that loss may be converted into gain, the competitors turning up 
at the starting post for the next stage of the race with certain advantages 



236 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

derived from the very independence of the Une they have taken to get 
there. We may yet come to the dravsring of Hnes and the erection of 
fences dividing the people, but if we do the educationist, I fancy, will be 
the last person whom the community will choose for the job. 

I have already indicated that the number of young people who 
voluntarily avail themselves of the evening institutes and other forms of 
part-time education reaches a substantial total, but for every one who 
does so there are at least three whose official education ceases when they 
leave the elementary school at fourteen. It is often suggested that this 
is a point at which the principle of compulsion should be introduced into 
a hitherto voluntary system. The compulsory continuation school 
clauses of the Fisher Act have been on the statute books for fifteen years. 
They would secure that every employed young person received in- 
struction in the employer's time for the equivalent of one day a week 
between the ages of fourteen and sixteen and later between sixteen and 
eighteen. Why not put them into force ? For a short time they were 
applied in London, but the enforcement broke down because London 
draws so much of its juvenile labour from contiguous areas to which the 
clauses were not applied. There is still one day continuation school 
under Mr. Fisher's scheme which owes its success largely to the con- 
sistent support of the local employers. For the rest the clauses are a 
dead letter. They are, I fear, destined to remain so for a long time to 
come. Their general enforcement would be a very costly matter. It was 
calculated in 191 9 that a complete system would require at the end of the 
third year no less than 32,000 teachers. Enforcement by areas would 
only be less costly on the assumption that some areas would not enforce, 
and the London experience goes to show that enforcement on that assump- 
tion is impracticable. For enforcement by industries, which is a 
conceivable alternative in some industries, Mr. Fisher's Act did not 
provide. 

We are told that the nation is already spending upon the social services 
the utmost it can afford under present conditions. It may be so, though 
apparently the indulgence of a taste for expensive town halls is of no 
social service and is, therefore, permissible. At any rate in a time in 
which education is only allowed to expand at the price of making counter- 
vaihng economies elsewhere, on the principle of the Irishman's blanket, 
which you remember he lengthened by cutting a piece off the bottom 
and sewing it on the top, the day continuation school can be no more than 
a day dream. Moreover, when funds again become available, the raising 
of the school age has the first claim. We are too far committed to that 
by the adoption of the Hadow policy of senior schools to draw back. 
We may regret that it should be so and that the case for the continuation 
schools has never been properly put to the nation for decision. Indis- 
putably the transition from school to industry is the most critical operation 
in adolescent life. Is it not far more important for society that so 
bewildering a change of outlook and environment should be explained 
and related to the adolescent's previous experience, that he should be 
guided and steadied through the first years of independence by teachers 
who themselves have a knowledge of industrial conditions, than that .the 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 237 

transition should be deferred in favour of one more year of full-time 
schooling ? 

But if we cannot have what we would like, let us try to make the best 
of what we have. It is a solid gain that the young employee's efforts to 
improve himself in the evening school are no longer regarded by em- 
ployers in general as entirely his own affair. Fees are paid by employers, 
prizes are offered, reports are called for, and are sometimes allowed to 
influence wages and promotion ; and interest is shown in many other 
ways. These are all good in themselves, but a time-off system, such as 
already obtains, for example, in the large engineering centres, would be 
better than all of them put together. Is it treating education seriously 
to relegate it, as we do, to the hours which should be hours of leisure 
after the day's work is done ? The youth of lively and independent mind 
is repelled by such an arrangement. The standard and quality of the 
work are alike depressed. It is notorious that irregularities of attendance 
occur which no other educational institution would condone. Better 
work is done in the evenings than we have any right to expect, for youth 
will be served whatever the conditions. But until the classes can be held 
in the day, the employer finding his share of the time required, there is 
no prospect of any further large development of part-time education. 

The nearest approach which has been made in this country to the type 
of school with a strictly vocational outlook, but so far comparable in other 
respects with the secondary school that it can reasonably be regarded as 
alternative to it, is the junior technical school, which has been officially 
recognised for about twenty years, though there was much earlier experi- 
ment. At the present time there are about 170 of these schools, with 
about 20,000 pupils between them. They recruit these students at 
thirteen or fourteen years of age for a three or four years' course of full- 
time education, with the object of preparing them for entry into industry. 
Sometimes they prepare for a single local trade, but usually for a group 
of allied trades. Their success — and they have been very successful — 
is conditioned by their ability to place their students advantageously at 
the end of the course, for enrolment is voluntary, and parents and pupils 
naturally expect some return for the deferment of employment which 
the course involves. Their association with industry is, therefore, bound 
to be close, and for the same reason they have individually no latent 
possibility of indefinite expansion. They are ill suited to the conditions 
of recruitment and employment in some industries — for example, agri- 
culture and the iron and steel industry. There should, however, be room 
for a carefully prepared increase in the number in areas where industries 
predominate, to which the junior technical school is an appropriate 
introduction. 

Their position in the educational system is a little anomalous, for the 
. age of entry does not synchronise with the leaving age in the elementary 
schools, and falling as it does in the middle of the secondary school course, 
they tend to lose the children who are recruited by the secondary schools 
a year or two earlier, for some of whom the junior technical course would 
be more suitable. To overcome this difficulty it has been proposed that 
the junior technical school should be made a complete alternative to the 



238 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

secondary school, recruiting its students at eleven for a five or six years' 
course, the first two years of which would be devoted to their general 
education. I doubt, however, whether this would advantage the schools. 
With the choice between the secondary school and the technical school 
before them, most parents would elect for the secondary school, and not 
for social reasons only. It is too early to decide at eleven years of age 
that a boy or girl is to enter one of a group of trades at sixteen or seven- 
teen. Even if the object were realised, one would anticipate a large 
increase later on in the number of misfits, and some weakening of the 
vocational purpose, confused, as it would be, by the need to give a general 
course to the younger pupils. 

Meanwhile, the schools are experiencing no difficulty in getting pupils : 
rather they are threatened with a different danger, for they have been so 
successful that in many of them recruitment becomes a matter of selection 
among applicants, and is decided by competitive tests, which as at present 
conducted are no certain guide to the comparative ability of the applicants 
to profit by the instruction given. On the other hand, self-selection by 
the pupil is no certain guide either. 

I can offer no solution of this very interesting little problem. It is 
interesting because we are here within sight of one of the fundamental 
difficulties which the fashionable modern doctrine of the planned society 
encounters. By whom in such a society, and on what principles, are the 
allocations of man-power to be made, and how, if at all, can they be 
reconciled with the preservation of that freedom to strive for advance- 
ment which I have already spoken of as one of the ideals of democracy ? 
Hitherto we have not been much troubled in education with this aspect 
of planning, for the junior technical school is unique among our institu- 
tions in the deliberate equation of supply to demand. But we are likely 
to hear a good deal more about it in the immediate future unless economic 
conditions alter substantially for the better. Although we may not believe 
that education can be reorganised on the quota system, so many and 
no more being trained to be clerks, so many to be machinists, and so on, 
yet I think this feature of the junior technical school is well worth re- 
taining for the sake of the light which will be thrown on the bigger 
question by the working out of the equation on a small scale. 

This discussion of the organisation of pre-employment vocational 
education, fragmentary though it is, should not conclude without some 
reference to the effects which the reorganisation of elementary education 
at the age of eleven into primary and post-primary stages is likely to have. 
This reorganisation is well on the way to accomplishment in the urban 
areas. In the country areas there are special difficulties, due in the main 
to sparseness of population, which it will take years to overcome. 

While it is too early to speak positively of the results of reorganisation, 
certain tendencies can already be discerned. It is much that we are getting 
rid of the confusion of aim between primary and post-primary, to which 
was traceable the general feebleness and failure to grip the minds of their 
pupils, which was found in many of the old mixed schools. The junior 
school can now apply itself unhindered to the business of the primary 
stage — development of the ability to communicate with others through 



L— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 239 

reading, writing and speech : the active exploration of the material environ- 
ment, including drawing and handwork : the formation of ideas of 
magnitudes of all kinds and the application of the ideas of number to their 
expression. The little country junior school, in particular, freed from 
the incubus of the handful of older scholars who could be such a nuisance 
to themselves and their teachers, is going to be a happier and more 
efficient place. Singleness of purpose promotes earlier accomplishment ; 
there is good reason to hope that in this respect a year at least of school 
life may be saved, and that the curriculum on which not so very long ago the 
elementary school child was released at thirteen years of age may be 
effectively completed by the average child of eleven to twelve. 

In the new senior school, taking children of eleven to fourteen and 
fifteen, the most conspicuous feature is the break with the old bookish 
tradition of elementary education. From a third to a half of the school 
time is given over to practical work — science, experimentally studied, 
including domestic science, woodwork and metal work, and many handi- 
crafts. It is commonly postulated that there shall be no vocational bias 
in this practical work, not even in the later years. At the same time, the 
children, in the words of the Hadow Report, are to be ' encouraged to 
take an interest in local industries and occupations, and illustrations for 
teaching in the several branches of the curriculum should be drawn, where 
possible, from local examples.' 

Allow me for a moment to follow the argument whither it leads. In 
what way that is educationally profitable, and not merely superficial, can 
we interest the older children in local industries and occupations ? In 
the case of the modern mass industry, I suggest that at least one way is to 
explain to them the fundamental process or processes on which the industry 
depends, and to allow them where possible to try their hand at them. 
For example, the boot and shoe industry, which is staple in the area in 
which we meet and the area from which I come, is a mass-production 
industry. 

In shoemaking the fundamental process is the attachment of the upper 
to the sole, in the case of the welted shoe by means of stitching mediated 
by the welt and the insole. If that is explained to the children as a process 
of development in time which is not yet completed, and if they are allowed, 
under expert guidance, to try their hand in simple materials at this and the 
immediately connected operations of the original handsewn work as 
practised before the days of machinery, an intelligent interest in that 
particular local industry will have been aroused, and the educational 
effect will extend beyond those of them who know that this is the industry 
which they will take up when they leave school. But what you will in 
fact have done is to put the children through the first lessons which the 
lad who is entering the industry takes in the department of boot and shoe 
technology at the local technical college or in the monotechnic. Teachers 
are prone to be too gingerly in the use they make of vocation in the schools. 
Academically minded people with no personal experience of industry or 
commerce assume an opposition between education through vocation and 
general education : the one they say tends to dwarf the growing mind 
and to narrow the outlook, as against the liberalising, expanding influences 



240 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of the other. In practice, as my example, I hope, has indicated, there 
need be no sharp opposition : indeed all education should have its 
vocational side, for if on the other hand it seeks to create in the pupil an 
understanding of his surroundings, on the other it endeavours to give 
him the appropriate power of using them for his own purposes. The 
real trouble is that we are very short of teachers of the right kind, by which 
I mean persons trained to teach who also have an industrial vocation in 
their fingers. 

Vocational bias or no, the senior schools bid fair to endow their pupils 
with a craft skill, besides other things, for which later they will demand an 
outlet. In the nature of the case they will find that outlet in local industry. 
While I am far from wishing to suggest that these practical developments 
in the senior school will dispense us from the necessity of establishing 
junior technical schools, where conditions are suitable, I do draw the 
conclusion that if, by the interaction of the junior and senior schools, 
the general level of intelligence is being raised — and it is — and if in the 
senior school the skill of the individual is being trained to a high pitch — 
and again it is — the senior school will make a very substantial direct con- 
tribution toward the training of the rank and file of our industries. As 
one Trade Union leader expressed it, ' Industry to-day is worthy of a 
better workman.' Many industries are going to get him, chiefly through 
the agency of these senior schools. 

Practically all the students in the technical classes and institutions of 
every kind are either in employment or are reasonably assured of employ- 
ment when they are ready for it. But for a large section of the juvenile 
population no such comforting prediction can be made. The national 
conscience is troubled about the problem of adult unemployment. It is 
no longer enough that the State should provide the unemployed with 
the bare wherewithal to keep body and soul together. Voluntary agencies 
are springing up to help the unemployed men and women to maintain 
their self-respect and to keep healthy in mind and body. But the nation 
is not yet fully alive to the magnitude of the problem of juvenile unem- 
ployment and to its terrible consequences. Is there any worse example 
of social waste than that the young boy and girl should be carefully 
nurtured for good citizenship and then plunged without warning into a 
world in which they find they are not wanted, in which their instinct to 
be independent is thwarted and the opportunity of honest useful work is 
denied them ? Could they have any experience more destructive of 
mental and moral fibre — in a word, more decivilising ? Yet this is the 
daily experience of thousands of them. 

According to the latest figures which are available (May, 1933), 108,000 
young people between the ages of fourteen and eighteen were registered 
with the Ministry of Labour as unemployed though desiring employment. 
Bad as they are these figures do not tell the worst. Registration at the 
Employment Exchange is voluntary between the ages of fourteen and 
sixteen, and if allowance be made on that account there are probably 
not less than 160,000 young people unemployed. The number has more 
than doubled in the last quinquennium, and it is likely to increase, for 
owing to the high birth-rate of the two post-war years there will be an 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 241 

increase in the number of boys and girls leaving the elementary schools 
next year of something like 50 per cent, over the number who have left, 
or are leaving, during 1933, and for the same reason the number of juven- 
iles between fourteen and eighteen years of age available for employment 
will continue to grow for another five years. ■ The Churches, the juvenile 
organisations, and other agencies are making great efforts to cope with 
the evils resulting from this mass of unemployment. The contribution 
of the State, however, is so small as to verge on the insignificant. The 
Minister of Labour took credit recently for an increase from ^110,000 
last year to 3(^150,000 this year in his expenditure upon courses of instruc- 
tion for unemployed juveniles. Even so, the percentage of the registered 
and insuied unemployed juveniles who were regularly in attendance at 
these courses was less than twenty-three, and the percentage of those 
registered and uninsured was only ten. 

This state of things increases one's regret that the Continuation School 
Clauses of Mr. Fisher's Act have not been put into force. The Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act of 1930 empowered the Minister for Labour, 
after consultation with the Board of Education, and subject to regulations 
approved by the Treasury, to arrange with local education authorities for 
the provision of courses of instruction for insured contributors under the 
age of eighteen, and to require attendance at such courses, where they 
are available, as a condition of the payment of unemployment benefit to 
any young person. These are the courses which I have just mentioned. 
As there are less than one hundred of them, however, in the whole of 
Great Britain, a very large fraction of the juvenile unemployed are beyond 
their reach. There are in addition arrangements whereby the juvenile 
unemployed can be sent to the ordinary evening institutes. In May, 
which, of course, is not a typical month in this respect, less then 200 
juveniles had that advantage. 

It is not easy to suggest even the lines of a comprehensive scheme for 
bringing these young people under official educational guidance, for the 
incidence of the condition varies greatly from area to area. In some 
areas the numbers are such that separate centres are economically feasible : 
in others, juvenile unemployment is almost non-existent. But some steps 
could be taken, given the support of public opinion. 

In the first place, boys and girls should be encouraged, subject to 
reasonable age limits, to remain at school until situations can be found 
for them. 

In the second place, the recommendation of the recent Royal Com- 
mission that the age of entry into unemployment insurance be lowered to 
fourteen should be enacted, subject to credit being given against the 
Unemployment Fund in respect of voluntary attendance at school beyond 
that age. This proposal has in the past encountered the opposition of 
teachers and administrators who fear the effect that the possibility of 
entry into employment with insurance may have upon school attendance 
beyond the minimum insurable age. But under the safeguard mentioned, 
the inclination to seek employment at the earliest possible age will be 
weakened, and in any case the position is, I submit, too serious to warrant 
the continuance of opposition on educational grounds. 



242 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

In the third place, the responsibiUty for framing schemes for dealing 
with their own unemployed juveniles should be thrown upon the local 
education authorities. The IBoard of Education since Mr. Fisher's Act 
has had the power to require the authorities to submit schemes providing 
for the progressive development and comprehensive organisation of 
education in their several areas. The scheme procedure is, therefore, 
familiar both to the Board and to the authorities. When the schemes 
have been submitted to, and approved by, the Board, it will become 
the authorities' duty to carry them out. The change would involve the 
transfer to the Board of Education of the administration of all Exchequer 
grants in aid of juvenile unemployment schemes, subject to such condi- 
tions as the Minister of Labour might think fit to impose. The procedure 
suggested is on all fours with that which is followed in the medical inspec- 
tion and treatment service. The local responsibility for that service is 
cast upon the education authorities : at the centre the Minister of Health 
is responsible, the Board of Education acting as his agents directly in 
contact with the authorities. 

The training of the unemployed juvenile is strictly an educational 
matter. The Ministry of Labour was established for quite other purposes. 
It is responsible for the disbursement of millions of money to individuals, 
and the method of check and counter-check, which in the public interest 
it is bound to adopt, leaves no room for that play of local initiative which 
is a characteristic feature of the relations subsisting between the Board 
of Education and the local education authorities. The problem cannot 
be dealt with properly on the somewhat rigid lines to which the Ministry 
is habituated, for it varies from area to area. The Board of Education's 
administration, on the other hand, is flexible, and the local authorities are 
accustomed to it. They would be encouraged by the change and would 
be put upon their mettle. But the essential condition of progress in this, 
as in all educational business, is an enlightened public interest. A 
society awake to the degrading influence which enforced idleness is having 
upon this large section of its citizens-to-be could not tolerate a half- 
hearted parsimonious handling of so grave an evil. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



CHEMISTRY AND AGRICULTURE 

ADDRESS BY 

DR. ALEXANDER LAUDER, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A RECENT President of this Section referred in his presidential address 
to the fact that while many of his predecessors in this chair had been 
chemists, none of them in recent years had taken the relation of chemistry 
to agriculture as the subject of his address. A glance at the subjects of 
the addresses for the past twenty years shows that the presidents who 
have been chemists have confined themselves to general agricultural 
questions or to problems of agricultural education or research. It is 
true that in his address at Toronto in 1924 Sir John Russell dealt with 
' Present Day Problems in Crop Production,' and in his masterly survey 
of the progress of agriculture during the past century, delivered at the 
Centenary Meeting of the Association in 1931, he surveyed the develop- 
ment of agricultural chemistry during the century, the treatment in both 
cases being necessarily general. 

The importance of the application of science, particularly of chemistry, 
to agricultural practice has been realised for a very long time. In his 
address to the first meeting of this Section at Dundee in 191 2, Sir Thomas 
Middleton dealt with this aspect of the subject (' Early Associations for 
Promoting Agriculture and for Improving the Improver '). So far as the 
British Association is concerned, this importance, as we shall see later, 
was early realised. As far back as 1839, a petition to which many 
influential names were attached was presented to the General Committee 
asking for the formation of a separate Section for Agriculture. The 
proposal was rejected however, and for many years there was no direct 
representation of agriculture ; more recently, a Subsection for Agricul- 
ture was formed which was attached either to Chemistry or Botany, and 
the present Section was definitely established in 1912. 

When the Association last met in Leicester in 1907, agriculture was 
represented by two papers presented to the Chemical Section. One was 
a discussion on the qualities of wheat and flour, dealing particularly with 
the strength of flour, and the second on the ' Production of Acid or 
Alkaline Reactions in the Soil by Manures,' by Mr. A. D. Hall. A glance 
at the recent programmes of this Section will give some idea of the 
developments which have taken place since we last visited Leicester. 

At the meeting of the Association in Swansea in 1880 Sir J.H. Gilbert was 
President of the Chemical Section, and devoted his address to the appli- 
cation of chemistry to agriculture. He pointed out that not only was the 



244 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

application of chemistry to agriculture included in the title of the Section, 
but that in 1837 the Committee of the Section had requested the late 
Baron Liebig to prepare a report on the condition of organic chemistry. 
The first part of his report, entitled ' Organic Chemistry in its Applications 
to Agriculture and Physiology,' was presented in 1840, and the second 
part on ' Animal Chemistry or Organic Chemistry in its Application to 
Physiology and Pathology ' followed in 1842. It is not necessary for me 
to refer to the far-reaching effects of these reports. As Sir John Russell 
said in his Centenary address, they can ' without exaggeration be described 
as the most important publication in the whole history of agricultural 
science.' Sir John Gilbert went on to point out that in the forty years 
which had elapsed since the publication of Liebig 's reports, no president 
had taken agricultural chemistry as the subject of his address, and, as 
I have already pointed out, the subject has generally been avoided during 
the succeeding fifty years. 

Gilbert devoted about a third of his address to an historical introduction 
and to a detailed description of the new views brought forward by Liebig. 
He then went on to discuss how far Liebig's views had been modified in 
the course of time, and to state the conclusions which had been arrived at 
by recent work on plant and animal nutrition. 

As regards plant nutrition, the main problems were the sources of carbon 
and nitrogen, and the views then expressed by Gilbert are still held without 
serious modification at the present day. He confirmed the opinion of 
De Saussure and Iviebig, that the greater part, if not the whole of the 
carbon, was derived from the carbon dioxide of the air. It is worthy of 
note in passing that he was greatly interested in the effect of continuous 
daylight on the carbon assimilation of plants and also of the effect of 
illumination by electric light, but concluded as regards the latter that the 
determining factor was the cost, which is still the position at the present 
day. 

He then turns to the difficult question of the nitrogen supply of plants 
and describes the results obtained at Rothamsted by Lawes and himself. 
The careful experimental work led to no conclusive results. Summing 
up the result of the inquiry, Gilbert says that ' although the recorded 
evidence is admittedly very conflicting, we then came to the conclusion, 
and still adhere to it, that the balance of the direct experimental evidence 
on the point is decidedly against the supposition of the assimilation of 
free nitrogen by plants. Indeed, the strongest argument that we know 
of in its favour is that some such explanation is wanted.* 

The explanation followed some six years later, when the memorable 
results of the Hellriegel and Wilfarth investigations were published. 

In the later part of his address, he dealt with two questions which were 
then exciting much attention, viz. the origin of muscular power and the 
sources of fat in the animal body. 

The conclusion arrived at was that the fat of the herbivora is largely 
produced from the carbohydrates of their ration. As regards the origin 
of muscular power, he concluded after a careful review, ' that all the 
experimental evidence at command tended to show that by an increased 
exercise of muscular power there was, with increased requirement for 



M.— AGRICULTURE 24s 

respirable material, probably no increased production and voidance of 
urea, unless owing to excess of nitrogenous matter in the food or of a 
deficiency of non-nitrogenous matter, the nitrogenous constituents of the 
body were drawn upon in an abnormal degree for the supply of respirable 
material.* 

He concluded his address by stating that ' while much remained to be 
done both in chemistry and physiology as regards the above problems, 
yet I think we may congratulate ourselves on the re-establishment of the 
true faith in regard to them, so far at least as the most important practical 
points are concerned.' 

I have dealt somewhat fully with the state of knowledge of our subject 
fifty years ago in order that we may appreciate more fully the changes 
which have taken place since then. A great deal of the investigations 
during the past half-century have been concerned with the more accurate 
and detailed working out of the ideas discussed by Gilbert and his con- 
temporaries and the explanation of many points in agricultural practice 
which had been evolved by centuries of experience by farmers, and while 
nothing spectacular in the way of change may have resulted, the cumu- 
lative effect of the more accurate knowledge about soils, fertilisers, crops 
and nutrition has undoubtedly been important. 

In addition, several discoveries of fundamental importance have been 
made : the synthetic manufacture of ammonia and nitrates ; the effects of 
vitamins in animal nutrition ; the theory of base exchange in soils ; and 
the development of bacteriology, to mention some of the more outstanding 
only. 

Some of these, although they might be described as advances purely 
from the scientific side, have yet had practical applications of the highest 
importance. The theory of base exchange in soils, which may be said to 
have originated in this country with the early work of Way in the fifties of 
last century and is associated in modern times with the names of Gedroiz, 
Hissink and Wiegner, has provided an explanation of absorption and 
exchange phenomena and of soil acidity, and has been successfully applied 
to the reclamation of alkali soils in Hungary (Von Sigmond) and the 
Western States of America, as well as in the treatment of land recovered 
from the sea. 

Amongst other notable advances which have had a practical application 
may also be mentioned the use of sulphur for reducing fungoid attacks 
on crops and for reducing alkalinity in soils, particularly soils used for 
growing potatoes, and the study of the functions of elements which occur 
only in minute quantities in plants, e.g. copper, manganese and boron. 
The application of modern statistical methods to the interpretation of 
field experiments and of biological experiments generally, has led to a 
more accurate appreciation of the experimental errors involved, and of 
the significance attached to any result. 

Since the last meeting in Leicester, very real advances have been made 
in our knowledge of the chemistry of the proteins, carbohydrates and fats, 
and of enzymes ; this has led necessarily to a clearer appreciation of the 
processes concerned in the synthesis of plant products and of animal 
metabolism. 



246 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Among the major problems awaiting solution are the methods by which 
plants take up their nutrients and the further development of biochemical 
methods generally. 

The Soil. 

The study of the soil may be approached from two points of view. In 
the first of these it is regarded as the seat of certain chemical, physical and 
biological processes which are investigated entirely from the scientific 
point of view without any reference to agriculture. This has been the 
method of attack of the Russian school in particular, and the supposition 
is that when a sufficient body of knowledge has been accumulated in this 
way, the consideration of the facts obtained may result in practical appli- 
cations of value to the agriculturist ; it should be emphasised, however, 
that the approach in the first instance is purely scientific. The interesting 
volume published a few months ago by Prof. G. W. Robinson of 
Bangor gives a clear exposition of the methods of this school and of the 
results which have, so far, been obtained. The other method has been 
to study the soil as the medium of plant growth, to investigate practical 
problems as they arise and to have as its definite aim the giving of advice 
to those engaged in agriculture as to improving their methods of tillage 
and crop production. It is obvious, of course, that no definite division 
can be made between the two methods of approach, as is shown by the 
history of recent developments. In this country, while the former 
method has been by no means neglected, as witness the large amount of 
research work carried on at Rothamsted and to a lesser degree elsewhere, 
it is the latter method which has been in the main officially supported 
and subsidised by successive governments. 

Amongst the scientific methods which have emerged and received 
considerable prominence and support in recent years is the modern 
method of soil classification. This, while belonging to the scientific 
method of investigation, also seeks to justify its existence by the claim 
that it is of immediate importance to the farmer. The method was first 
developed in Russia where it was shown as early as 1879 that climate is 
responsible for the great tracts of similar soil found in that country ; 
this idea was developed by later workers and more recently by Glinka 
and others, who recognised some of the limitations of the original method 
and proposed in place of the earlier zonal type of classification a system 
based on the effect of climate on the development of the soil profile. 
Soils were divided into two great groups. In the first were placed the soils 
in which the profile shows that the external soil-forming processes, 
especially climate, have predominated ; the second group comprises those 
soils in which the internal process, i.e. parent material, still predominates. 
These groups are further subdivided, but the whole system lays special 
emphasis on the development of the soil profile — that is, the vertical section 
from the surface soil to the unweathered parent material. 

Although soil surveys had been carried out for a considerable time in 
Europe and the United States, modern soil surveying may be said to date 
from the first International Soil Congress held at Budapest in 1909. 
At this meeting Glinka explained the new method of classifying and 



M.— AGRICULTURE 247 

mapping soils on a climatic basis, and soil surveys on the new basis were 
soon begun in a large number of European countries and in the United 
States. At the International Soil Congress held at Rome in 1934 it was 
agreed to construct a soil map of Europe, and in 1926 the special committee 
representative of the different countries concerned met in Hungary to 
discuss in the field the practical details of the work on which the map 
was to be based. At a subsequent meeting in Budapest the details of 
the methods were adjusted, and it was agreed to undertake the construction 
of a map of the soils of Europe based on as uniform a method of surveying 
as possible. The ' General Map of the Soils of Europe,' under the 
editorship of Prof. Stremme, Danzig, was published in 1927. The 
English text, translated by Dr. W. G. Ogg, of the Macaulay Institute for 
Soil Research, Aberdeen, was published in 1929 with the aid of a grant 
from the Department of Agriculture for Scotland. The first edition of 
the map is on the scale of i : 10,000,000, and preparations for a second 
edition are in progress. 

The idea of a soil map of Europe is an ambitious one and the conception 
is not without its attractiveness. In the present state of our knowledge, 
however, it appears to many that the plan is possibly premature and that 
there is a great element of unreality in the results. It is only fair to the 
editors to say that they fully realise the difficulties of carrying out a survey 
of this extent on a uniform basis, and admit that the results are imperfect 
and will require to be modified in various ways. It seems fairly clear, 
however, that the difficulties of making such a map have been seriously 
underrated. Few workers in Europe have any extensive knowledge of 
soils outside their own countries, with the inevitable confusion as regards 
classification and nomenclature. At home, our soil workers have to be 
content with spending a few weeks in the field each summer. It is evident, 
therefore, that the difficulties are great and that the rate of progress must 
be slow. At the same time, the meetings of workers from different 
countries at the International Soil Conferences with the resultant exchange 
of ideas and experiences must be valuable in the development of the subject. 

Turning next to the methods employed in surveying, the profile is 
studied as regards horizons, colour and texture changes, structure, drain- 
age and vegetation. The surface horizons are naturally more extensively 
studied. As regards the chemistry of the profile, most weight is placed 
on the ratio of silica to sesquioxides ; other factors examined are the 
presence and accumulation of salts, including calcium carbonate, and 
changes in acidity with depth. On the results of these observations, the 
soil is placed in its appropriate class. In passing, it may be noted that 
there appears to be a certain reluctance on the part of the advocates of 
these methods to ascertain by means of carefully conducted field experi- 
ments whether some of the differences they are mapping are really signifi- 
cant in practice and whether some of the finer differences which they 
map, between soils within the same type, have any reality and make any 
appreciable difference in agricultural practice. 

As regards the utility of soil surveys generally, a reasonable case can 
be made out for the benefits which are likely to follow a careful survey of 
a new country which is just being developed. The difficulty there, is to 



248 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

provide the staff and funds so that the survey work is kept ahead of the 
development. 

In a country Hke this, on the other hand, there is considerable doubt on 
the part of many as to whether the benefits which are supposed to follow 
such a survey will ever be realised. The question of suitable crop distri- 
bution and association is well established as the result of generations of 
experience and is not likely to be seriously altered as the result of such an 
investigation. It is claimed that a soil survey on the scale of i inch to 
the mile would be of great importance in connection with manuring and 
in the interpretation of the results obtained by the various methods of 
estimating the available plant nutrients in the soil. Before undertaking a 
survey of such magnitude, it should be pointed out that such a claim would 
require to be based on the results of a wider series of accurate field trials 
than are available at present. At the same time, the importance of survey 
methods from the purely scientific point of view and also in connection 
with land reclamation problems should not be overlooked. 

What the farmer wishes to know about his soil is whether it is adequately 
supplied with nitrogen, phosphates and potash, and whether there is 
sufficient lime present to give a satisfactory soil reaction. These are 
reasonable questions, but it must be admitted that in the past the task of 
the agricultural chemist who had to attempt to answer them was by no 
means easy. Much progress has been made in recent years, and although 
much still remains to be done, more satisfactory replies can now be given 
to the farmer's questions than was formerly the case. 

With regard to nitrogen, no method exists by which we can judge the 
requirements of a soil as regards this element ; the fact that most soils 
respond to dressings of soluble nitrogenous fertilisers is about as far as 
we can go in the way of prediction. 

At the same time, it must be pointed out that considerable progress 
has been made in the difficult question of the nature of the soil organic 
matter. The recent work of Page in England, Schmuck in Russia and 
Waksman in America (S.C.I. Ann. Rep., vol. xvii (1932), p. 461) has shown 
that the so-called ' humic acids ' are in all probability protein-lignin 
complexes. Synthetic products of this type have been prepared and 
agree closely in properties with the humic acids found in soil organic 
matter. 

On the other hand, the lime requirement of a soil can now be given with 
reasonable accuracy by routine methods which are suitable for use on a 
large scale. The question as to whether the dressing of lime which is 
theoretically desirable can be recommended is generally an economic 
rather than a chemical one. 

To determine what the requirements of a soil are with regard to available 
phosphates and potassium is a more difficult matter. The most that can 
be aimed at at present is to be able to say whether the soil is well supplied 
or moderately supplied with these constituents, or is deficient in them. 

The difficulties of discriminating between the available and non- 
available constituents in a soil are obvious. In the first place, the way in 
which plants take up their nutrients from the soil is still a matter of con- 
troversy, and the fact that the soil is a heterogeneous and ever-changing 



M.— AGRICULTURE 249 

system of extreme complexity greatly increases the difficulties. The 
chemical methods generally employed involve the extraction of the soil 
with water or some dilute solvent and the estimation of the phosphates 
and potassium which come into solution under standard conditions. 
When the results can be interpretated in the light of field experiments 
or experience, they are a very useful guide in advisory work. The fact 
that the method is an empirical one is a great drawback, but the more 
serious objection is that the results give a measure of the condition of a 
soil at a particular time only and obviously cannot apply to its condition at 
different times throughout the year. There is probably no hard and fast 
line between the ' non-available ' and the ' available ' constituents, the 
one set gradually merging into the other. 

These fundamental difficulties have suggested the idea of making use of 
the plant itself as an index to the available plant nutrients in the soil. 
Much work from this point of view has been carried out and two methods 
based on these principles have been in use on the Continent for several 
years. These are the well-known methods of Mitscherlich and Neubauer. 
These methods, as well as Wiesemann's modification of Mitscherlich 's 
method, have been very ably and critically reviewed by Dr. R. Stewart in 
a recent publication of the Imperial Bureau of Soil Science {Technical 
Communication No. 25, 1932). 

Mitscherlich 's method is based on his claim to have discovered a Law of 
Plant Growth which is applicable to all plant species ; he claims to have 
established that the plant yield can be increased by each single growth 
factor, even when it is not present in minimum, so long as it is not present 
in maximum. In its original form it was given by Mitscherlich as follows : 
The increase of crop produced by unit increment of the lacking factor is 
proportional to the decrement from the maximum. This can be expressed 
mathematically as follows : 

| = C(A-,) 

where y is the yield, A is the maximum yield and x the growth factor. 
(It is interesting to observe that this equation is identical with that for 
a mono-molecular chemical change.) 

Mitscherlich developed an elaborate technique for applying his theory 
to the testing of soils by means of pot experiments. Here again, certain 
arbitrary assumptions had to be made, e.g. as regards the depth of 
sampling, the effects of the subsoil and the permeability of the subsoil. 
These assumptions regarding the sampling factor undoubtedly raise 
serious difficulties and have been the subject of adverse criticism. 

From his estimation of the manurial content of the soil, Mitscherlich 
then calculates the manurial requirements, the calculation being greatly 
simplified by the assumption of the constancy of the effect factor, which 
means that the manurial requirements for any one soil are the same for all 
crops. 

Mitscherlich's method has been subjected to severe criticism, first on 
his theoretical assumptions, his treatment of his experimental data and 
the applicability of the Logarithmic Law ; and secondly, on the constancy 



2SO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of the ' Effect-Factors.' Notwithstanding these criticisms, Mitscherlich 
had such faith in the usefulness of his method that he has developed 
stations in different parts of Germany for testing soils by his methods. 
The Soil-Testing Society in East Prussia had in 1931 no less than five 
stations and the number of pots in use was 25,000, equivalent to 2,500 
soils tested. The original cost of a test was £s~£,^> but this has been 
very much reduced in later years. This is direct evidence, at any rate, of 
the belief of the practical farmer in the value of the test. It is satisfactory 
to know that an installation of Mitscherlich pots has been set up at the 
Macaulay Institute for Soil Research at Aberdeen, and that in addition a 
large series of field pots have been laid down on different types of soil 
according to the Mitscherlich plan. It will be interesting to see what 
agreement is found between the results of the tests and the results obtained 
by laboratory methods of extraction. 

The Neubauer method, on the other hand, depends on the estimation 
of the nutrient content of the soil by the growth of young seedlings. The 
method depends on the absorption of phosphates and potassium by plants 
in the early stages of their growth. By adopting a standard technique, 
and using rye seedlings as his crop, Neubauer proved that the amount 
absorbed was constant for a given sample of soil. By using a large 
number of seedlings and by diluting the soil with sand, he considered 
that the phosphates and potassium taken up by the seedlings would 
represent the total available supply of nutrients in the soil. This would 
give the nutrient content of the soil without any reference to the manurial 
requirements of a particular crop, the estimation of this being the same 
problem which is met with in all chemical extraction methods of analysis. 

Having determined the root-soluble nutrients in this way, the next 
problem was to calculate from the figures obtained the manurial require- 
ments of the various crops. To do this he makes two main assumptions — 
(i) that under the conditions of the test the seedlings absorb the total 
quantity of available phosphates and potassium, and (2) that crops under 
field conditions can utilise only a certain fraction of the total amounts 
present owing to the different conditions of growth. Making the above 
assumptions and estimating the quantities of phosphates and potassium 
removed by the various crops, he then calculates the ' limit values ' for 
the various crops. In order to calculate the amount of fertiliser to be 
applied to soils showing less than the ' limit values,' he again assumes 
that only 60 per cent, of the potash applied and 20 to 33 per cent, of the 
phosphates are availing during the year of application. 

Neubauer's method has also been subjected to considerable criticism 
on the analytical details, the influence of external factors and the deter- 
mination of the ' limit values.' 

The analytical work concerned requires a high degree of accuracy and 
possibly some of the criticism of the method has been based on results 
obtained without sufficient care having been taken in the analytical work. 

The question of practical interest is how do the results obtained by the 
two methods agree, and which method is the more reliable as to the 
manurial requirements of a particular soil and crop ? Neither of these 
questions is easily answered. It may be said at once that there is a wide 



M.— AGRICULTURE 251 

divergence between the figures obtained and yet, applying the different 
standards of the two methods, it is claimed that there is a good agreement 
in both cases between the results of field trials and the recommendations 
of the methods. It should be pointed out that the method of comparison 
is purely qualitative, i.e. if a deficiency of potassium has been indicated 
by the test and there is a response to a dressing of potassium salts in the 
field, this is taken as a case of agreement. 

One general difiiculty which applies to both methods is that they can 
be carried out only at institutes specially equipped for the purpose. The 
Mitscherlich method requires a whole season to carry out the test, while 
the Neubauer requires much supervision and extreme accuracy in the 
analytical work. Attempts have therefore been made to devise simpler 
biochemical methods suitable for the ordinary laboratory use ; of these, 
two are of special interest. 

The Azotobacter Method. — The Azotobacter chroococcum is a well- 
known soil micro-organism which has the power of fixing soil nitrogen, 
and its use as a method for testing soils was first worked out in Denmark. 
The organism is very sensitive to acid conditions, and this was used as the 
basis of a method for measuring the ' lime requirements ' of a soil. This 
method has been superseded by the more convenient and more accurate 
physico-chemical methods now employed. In addition to requiring a 
non-acid medium, the rate of growth of the organism depends also on the 
supply of phosphates, and later the method was adopted for the estimation 
of the available phosphates in the soil. The defect of the method is that 
there is no accurate means of estimating the development of the bacteria 
and that the results are therefore only qualitative in character. 

The Aspergillus Method. — The principle of this method is the same as 
that described above, but it has the advantage of being more quantitative 
in character, as it is possible to collect the fungus and weigh it. It was 
found that under standard conditions the growth of Aspergillus fiiger is 
proportional to the amounts of available potash and phosphates in the soil. 

The mould is grown in a suspension of the soil in a culture solution 
containing all the constituents necessary for growth except the one being 
tested for. The mixture is inoculated with the organism and incubated 
for four to six days. During that time, the mycelium develops and covers 
the surface of the liquid Hke a felt. It is then removed, washed, dried 
and weighed. The estimations are carried out in triplicate or quadrupli- 
cate, and the results of a large number of experiments have shown that the 
standard error is of the order 4 per cent. The particular strain of 
organism employed and the form in which the nitrogen is supplied are 
important factors in the success of the determinations. 

The method has been worked out by Prof. Niklas and his colleagues 
at the Agricultural Research Station at Weihenstephen, near Munich, 
and has also been subjected to a critical examination by Dr. A. M. Smith, 
Edinburgh, who has tested the method with a variety of Scottish soils, 
as well as investigating the eflFect of different sources of nitrogen on the 
process. 

The results obtained by this method have been compared with those 
obtained by Neubauer's method and have shown on the whole very good 



252 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

agreement, especially for potassium. The richer the soil as estimated by 
the Neubauer method, the greater the growth of Aspergillus. For phos- 
phates the agreement between the two methods is very good as far as 
poor soils are concerned, but is only moderately good for the intermediate 
or richer soils ; one difficulty is that the absorption of phosphates by the 
fungus is not constant for different types of phosphates. 

The Aspergillus method is therefore likely to be valuable in estimating 
the potassium and phosphate requirements of a soil. The results, as 
might be expected, are more reliable for potassium than for phosphates, 
and while not rigidly quantitative, give information as to whether the soil 
is rich or poor in these constituents. It has the advantage of being rapid 
and requiring no expensive apparatus (A. M. Smith and R. CouU, Scot. 
Journ. Agr. vol. xv (1932), p. 262). 

The whole question of available plant food is necessarily bound up 
with the complex relationships which exist between plant and soil, and it 
is unlikely that any simple or single method will be devised to overcome 
the inherent difficulties of the problem and be generally applicable to 
different sets of conditions. The admitted lack of agreement obtained 
with the various methods at present in use is undoubtedly due, to a large 
extent, to the variety of factors involved, as well as to the fundamental 
objections which may be raised to any one method. We are still very 
ignorant of the process of assimilation by the growing plant, and until 
we have more information on this subject, methods of estimating availa- 
bility must continue to be largely empirical and the results merely first 
approximations. 

The usual method of approach to the problem has been to study the 
effect of the soil or plant medium on the plant. In Edinburgh attention 
has in recent years been directed in the opposite direction — namely, to a 
study of the effect of the plant on the soil. The alterations to be observed 
are, of course, small, but by applying methods which might almost be 
described as analogous to modern micro-methods of analysis, measurable 
changes can be followed with considerable accuracy. The results which 
have been obtained are interesting and sometimes rather unexpected, and 
although it is scarcely to be supposed that they will furnish a complete 
picture of the relationship between soil and plants, one feels that any 
contribution to the subject from a new angle may be of value in the study 
of such a complex problem. 

Fertilisers. 

Turning next to the progress which has been made in the manufacture 
and use of fertilisers since the time of Gilbert's address, there are one or 
two notable dates and achievements to be mentioned. 

In 1878 Thomas and Gilbert introduced their new basic process for 
the manufacture of steel which resulted in the production of basic slag as a 
by-product. It was a few years before the value of the slag as a source of 
phosphates for plants was discovered. The importance of the new slag 
in agriculture was first realised in Germany. The earliest experiments 
in this country were carried out in England by Wrightson and Munro in 
1885, and by A. P. Aitken in Scotland about the same time ; a year. or 



M.— AGRICULTURE 253 

two later J.J. Dobbie carried out the first experiments with the slag in 
North Wales. 

The now classic experiments laid down by Prof. Somerville in 1896 
and carried on and developed by his successors, Sir Thomas Middleton 
and Prof. Gilchrist, have demonstrated the value of this addition to phos- 
phatic fertilisers and show as the result of twenty-five years' experiments 
that basic slag is, for certain types of soil, even more valuable than 
superphosphate. Changes in the modern methods of steel making and 
the effect of the large amount of scrap iron and steel available in the years 
succeeding the war brought about a considerable alteration in the com- 
position of the slags produced in this country. About ten years ago, 
therefore, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries set up a permanent 
committee on basic slag ' to consider the development and improvement 
of the manufacture of basic slag and the extension of its use.' This 
committee has produced a valuable series of reports, the last (tenth) report 
being published in September 1932. The work of the committee has been, 
in general, ' to make a detailed study of the agricultural values of the slags 
now available to farmers and the chemical means by which these values 
can be expressed.' By means of the old but empirical citric acid test, the 
slags produced in this country can be divided into two groups--a high- 
soluble group in which 80 per cent, or more of the phosphoric acid is 
soluble in 3 per cent, citric acid and a low-soluble group in which less than 
40 per cent, is soluble. The experiments in recent years have been 
carried out with hay, and while no final conclusion can be drawn at this 
stage, the results indicate that with this crop the high-soluble slag showed, 
in the first year, a slight superiority over superphosphate and a marked 
superiority over mineral phosphate and low-soluble basic slag, and there 
was in addition a considerable improvement in the quality as well as the 
quantity of the hay obtained from the more active phosphatic fertilisers. 
The figures obtained for the recovery of phosphoric acid were interesting. 
For two years, the recovery of phosphoric acid added were superphosphate 
12 per cent., high-soluble slag 9 per cent., mineral phosphate 4 per cent, 
and low-soluble slag 2 per cent. 

Pot experiments with barley carried out from 1927 to 193 1 gave similar 
results, the high-soluble slags giving better resuhs even than superphos- 
phate on certain types of soil (e.g. Millstone Grit) and markedly better 
than the low-soluble slags. 

It must always be borne in mind that basic slag is a by-product and that 
its composition may be altered by changes in the methods of steel manu- 
facture. The need for the work of such a committee is, therefore, 
obvious and the committee should be continued. 

The beneficial effects of mineral phosphates as fertilisers was noticed 
as far back as 1845. New sources of material and improvements in the 
methods of grinding have led to a great extension of their use in recent 
years. 

Superphosphate. — Improved methods of manufacture and better 
sources of raw material have led to a progressive improvement in the 
quality of this fertiliser. In 1907 the total world production was 7,813 ,570 
metric tons and in 1930 this had been almost exactly doubled (15,582,162 



254 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

metric tons). There has, of course, been a fall since then, but this is due 
very largely to the prevailing depression. Formerly, superphosphate was 
considered an acid manure and its continued use was supposed to deplete 
the soil of lime and to increase its acidity. A large amount of experi- 
mental work has been carried out in recent years, and the result is 
to show conclusively that the objections to the use of the so-called 
physiologically acid manures have been the result of misconceptions or 
possibly even misrepresentations. The use of superphosphate does not 
generally increase the acidity of the soil. 

Nitrogenous Fertilisers. — Attention has already been directed to the far- 
reaching effects of Leibig's reports to the British Association in 1843 and 
1847. In the year 1898 the Association was again to take a prominent part 
in the development of agriculture . The President that year was Sir William 
Crookes, who devoted his address to showing that if the rate of increase then 
assumed of the world's population was correct, the world would be faced 
with a wheat famine in the not far distant future. He pointed out also 
the necessity, if we were to increase the production of wheat, of the 
increased use of ammonium salts and nitrates as fertilisers. As regards 
nitrogenous fertilisers, he showed that we were living on our capital 
of combined nitrogen compounds and that there was also the danger of a 
nitrogen famine to be faced. The remedy he suggested was to devise 
methods for ' fixing ' or bringing into combination the nitrogen of the 
atmosphere, and he actually sketched methods and estimated costs of 
effecting this combination by electrical means. As far back as 1784 
Cavendish had shown that oxygen and nitrogen could be made to combine 
under the influence of the electric spark. Many years were to elapse, 
however, before a practical commercial method was evolved. The 
earlier methods were electrical in character and were developed in 
Norway and Italy, where cheap supplies of electrical energy were available. 
These methods have been more or less superseded, and ammonia is now 
manufactured by a synthetic method on an enormous scale at the works 
of the Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., at Billingham. The method 
used is a modification of the Haber-Bosch process. The practical diffi- 
culties which had to be faced were great ; of these I need only mention 
the problem of working at pressures of over 200 atmospheres — i.e. over 
3,000 lb. per square inch — and at an elevated temperature, to enable you 
to realise some of the difficulties which had to be overcome. The success- 
ful development of the method is certainly one of the greatest triumphs 
of chemistry and engineering in modern times. By this process, which 
incidentally dispenses with the use of sulphuric acid, sulphate of 
ammonia can now be prepared more cheaply than from gas liquor 
where the ammonia is obtained as a by-product. 

By the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid by means of a suitable 
catalyst ammonium nitrate can be prepared, and by mixing this with calcium 
carbonate a valuable fertiliser, known commercially as ' nitro-chalk,' is 
manufactured. 

Concentrated Complete Fertilisers. — One of the most interesting develop- 
ments of the synthetic ammonia industry has been the manufacture of 
concentrated complete fertilisers containing nitrogen, phosphates and 



M— AGRICULTURE 255 

potash in suitable proportions and all soluble in water. The basis of 
these fertilisers is a mono-ammonium phosphate which is made by 
subjecting finely ground rock phosphate to the action of a mixture of 
sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate. This gives directly a solution 
of mono-ammonium phosphate containing a little ammonium sulphate 
and calcium sulphate is precipitated. The mono-ammonium phosphate 
contains 12 -3 per cent, nitrogen and 61-7 per cent, phosphoric acid and 
is thus a highly concentrated fertiliser. By mixing this with ammonium 
sulphate and a suitable potash salt, a wide range of fertilisers can be 
obtained. The ingredients are finely ground and then passed to a special 
incorporator in which they are churned by means of paddles, whilst 
saturated steam is blown in. In this way, granules are formed which 
are then dried ; roughly, one ton of such fertilisers supplies as much 
plant food as two tons of the ordinary mixed fertiliser of similar com- 
■^osition. They possess the obvious advantage of reducing freight and 
handling charges and cost of distribution to the land ; they are granular 
in texture and very easy to sow, and they can be stored without risk 
of deterioration ; further, the constituents are all soluble in water. 

Another point claimed in their favour is that they contain little except 
the three fertilisers, nitrogen, phosphates and potash, while the ordinary 
fertilisers contain appreciable, and in some cases large, amounts of calcium, 
sulphur, and other elements. It is possible that in some soils the absence 
of the additional substances might be a disadvantage, and a careful com- 
parison of the new fertilisers with the old mixed fertilisers will be necessary 
to show that no disadvantage attends the use of the new compounds over 
a number of years. Accurate field experiments on a wide variety of soils 
were carried out in this country in 1930 to compare the relative effects 
of the concentrated complete fertilisers and of mixtures of sulphate of 
ammonia, superphosphate and potash giving the same amounts of nitrogen, 
phosphates and potash. With the three crops examined (oats, potatoes 
and sugar beet), the concentrated fertilisers gave the same average increases 
in yield as the equivalent ordinary mixtures. At certain centres, however, 
the concentrated fertilisers gave better results and at others a poorer yield 
than the ordinary mixtures. The work is being continued. 

It is obvious that if the concentrated fertilisers were used continuously 
over a number of years, increased attention would require to be given to 
Hming. 

Biochemistry. 
When we consider the development of organic chemistry during the 
past century, we see that the earlier workers were much occupied with 
the investigation of the substances which occur naturally in plants and 
animals ; although many individual organic substances were known before 
this time, the modern developments of organic chemistry may be said to 
date from Wohler's memorable syntheses of oxalic acid in 1824 and of 
urea in 1828. While the early organic chemists were much interested in 
those compounds which occur in plants and in the animal body, the trend 
of investigation, particularly in this country, then shifted to the investi- 
gation of more theoretical questions, e.g. the investigation of radicles, 



256 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the theory of substitution and types and the theory of structure. These 
investigations gave a great impetus to organic synthesis and the number of 
known carbon compounds increased rapidly. Most of the substances 
investigated, e.g. the many products obtained from coal tar, had no 
connection with animal or plant life, and organic chemistry became much 
more the chemistry of the carbon compounds than that of living organisms. 
Until the beginning of the present century, the interest in the chemistry 
of natural products steadily declined, and it is only since then that the 
development of Bio-chemistry, as we know it now, may be said to have 
taken place. The monumental work of Emil Fischer on the purines, the 
simpler carbohydrates, the proteins and the tannins, to which he devoted 
the greater part of his life, laid the foundations of this new branch of the 
science. His method for the separation of the amino-acids by first con- 
verting them into esters and then separating the esters by fractional 
distillation under greatly reduced pressure, has been invaluable in the 
study of this group of substances. By 1906 bio-chemistry as a separate 
branch of the science may be said to be firmly established, and in that year 
three journals devoted entirely to bio-chemistry appeared in Britain, the 
United States and in Germany respectively. The work initiated by 
Fischer has been carried on by a brilliant band of workers in this and 
other countries, amongst whom may be mentioned Perkin, Willstatter, 
Gowland Hopkins, Robinson, Barger, Haworth, Windaus, Wieland, 
Hans Fischer and Dakin. 

It is obvious that the investigation of the chemical changes which take 
place in a living cell presents difficulties of a very high order. The 
reactions involved take place in very dilute solution ; the intermediate 
bodies formed have a very brief existence, being rapidly changed into 
some further product ; so that, while we may know the initial substances 
involved and the final product of the reaction, there may be little known 
as to the various stages in the formation of the final product. 

While there have been great advances in our knowledge of the structure 
of many of the substances found in plants and animals, we still know rela- 
tively little about the processes by which they are formed. The various 
stages in the fundamental process of photo-synthesis have not yet been 
worked out, although plausible suggestions as to what takes place have not 
been wanting. We are ignorant of the stages by which amino-acids in 
plants are formed from nitrates and carbohydrates and little is known of 
the methods by which carbohydrates are changed into fats and vice versa. 
In the same way, while we have a considerable amount of knowledge as 
to how the proteins, fat and carbohydrates are broken down in animals, 
little information is as yet available as to how similar changes are brought 
about in plants. A notable recent advance is Robinson's theory of the 
way in which alkaloids are synthesised in plants, which has enabled him 
not only to predict the constitution of certain alkaloids, but also to effect 
the synthesis in vitro of alkaloids and alkaloid-like substances. 

It is interesting to note in passing that where individual instances of 
katabolism have been worked out, the breakdown does not occur, as a 
rule, in the manner which the organic chemist would expect. The same 
is true of the degradation of the amino-acids in the animal body. 



i 



M.— AGRICULTURE 257 

In a series of lectures on the amino-acids, proteins and the proteolytic 
enzymes recently delivered in this country, Prof. Max Bergmann of 
Dresden describes the recent advances which have been made in our 
knowledge of the amino-acids and the polypeptides, as well as of the 
changes brought about by the enzymes which attack them. He shows 
that for more than thirty years chemists have been endeavouring to 
discover suitable methods for the synthesis of peptides containing the 
more complex amino-acids, but that only recently has a general method 
been developed. It is generally assumed that in the proteins the amino- 
acids are linked together by condensation of the carboxyl group of one 
amino-acid with the amino group of the next, a molecule of water being 
eliminated and an amide or peptide linkage formed ; the ordinary protein 
molecule is supposed to consist of a large number of such linkages. 
Bergmann points out that the outstanding problem of modern protein 
chemistry is to determine the effect of combination in peptide linkage on 
the different amino-acids, and,' secondly, how the nature of the peptide 
linkage itself is influenced by the character of the amino-acids which take 
part in its formation. 

Investigations along these lines, while yet in an elementary stage, have 
thrown much light on many of the biological processes, e.g. the trans- 
formation of an amino-acid to a fatty acid, the biological degradation of an 
amino-acid to a keto-acid, and, conversely, the biological synthesis of 
creatine and many other reactions of the highest importance. Willstatter, 
Waldschmidt-Leitz and Bergmann and his fellow-workers have also devoted 
much time to the action of the enzymes which attack proteins and have 
made significant advances along this line of work. Summing up, Berg- 
mann states : ' The key to present day and future protein chemistry lies 
in the development of new synthetic methods, in the action of enzymes on 
proteins, and on an extension of the knowledge of protein metabolism 
both in normal and pathological cases.' 

Similar advances in our knowledge of the structure of the carbohydrates 
have also been made. The work of Purdie and Irvine at St. Andrews 
and of Haworth and his school at Birmingham, of Staudinger, Zechmister 
and Mark in Germany and of other workers in the United States has been 
particularly important in elucidating the structure of these complex 
bodies. 

The structure of the simple sugars and of the di-saccharides has now 
been more or less worked out. The introduction of the six atom ring 
formula and the greatly increased use of stereo-chemical methods of 
exhibiting differences in structure have been important factors in the 
developments which have been made. 

More recently, the constitution of the polysaccharides has been engaging 
much attention and speculation, and notable advances fall to be recorded 
both by chemical and by X-ray methods of investigation. The adoption 
of Haworth 's hexagon formula for glucose has led to new interpretations of 
the experimental evidence bearing on the constitution of these substances. 
It has been shown by Haworth and his co-workers that the constitution 
assigned to cellulose rests ultimately on the constitution assigned to the 
di-saccharide cellobiose and the mutual linking of /8-glucopyranose 



258 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

residues in a chain through positions i and 4 of the glucose molecule is 
the fundamental principle of modern cellulose structure. By purely 
chemical methods of investigation, they have shown that in some forms 
the cellulose is a straight chain of limited length containing not more than 
100 cellobiose or 200 glucose units. 

The question of the size of the cellulose molecule has been attacked 
by various other methods — by viscosity measurements of cellulose dis- 
solved in Schweizer's reagent or of the acetate or nitrate in organic media 
(Staudinger), by study of the cleavage products obtained by enzymes and 
by the X-ray methods of the Braggs and of Mark. The interesting fact 
emerges that the results obtained by the X-ray investigations of cellulose 
structure are in such wonderful agreement with the views adopted from 
chemical methods. Sir William Bragg pointed out in a lecture recently 
delivered to the Royal Institution that cellulose is the fundamental mole- 
cular combination occurring in vegetable growth and that it is pre- 
eminently the molecule of growth in the vegetable world. The cellulose 
occurring in plants cannot have the same properties in all directions for 
growth takes place along definite lines. The fibrous nature of cellulose 
has long been recognised, as we see by the use which is made of it in 
spinning threads and ropes which can stand an immense strain in one 
direction. Bragg 's investigations have shown that cellulose is made up 
of crystals, or crystallites, invisible under the microscope, but capable of 
detection by X-ray methods. These crystallites are partly oriented, 
having one direction more or less in common and to this arrangement of 
the crystallites the peculiar and characteristic properties of cellulose are 
due. Recent studies by Thiessen have indicated that the structure of 
the pure cellulose fibre is the same as that of lignified tissue, except that 
the spacing in the latter is wider to accommodate the lignin. Reference 
has already been made to the fact that the organic matter of the soil is 
derived from this lignin complex from which the cellulose has been 
removed. 

It has already been noted that the various stages in the building up of 
carbohydrates in plants have not yet been satisfactorily explained. At 
the same time, much work of the highest importance on the composition 
of the chlorophyll in plants, the active agent in the utilisation of the 
radiant energy from the sun, has been accomplished during the last 
twenty years. In 1912 Willstatter and his co-workers at Munich 
showed that chlorophyll as ordinarily obtained is really a mixture of 
two substances, chlorophyll a (C55H7205N4Mg) and chlorophyll b 
(CgsH^oOgNiMg). They also investigated the yellow or reddish-brown 
pigments, carotene (CjoHje) and zanthophyll (C40H56O2), which accom- 
pany the chlorophylls and which are generally referred to as the carotinoids. 
By a series of brilliantly conceived investigations, Willstatter has been able 
to throw much light on the structure of these complicated bodies and, 
in particular, on the relation between the chlorophyll of plants and the 
haemoglobin of blood. In this connection reference must be made to 
the work of Hans Fischer who has already synthesised hasmin and made 
great advances towards the synthesis of chlorophyll. 

Enzyme Action. — It has long been known that enzyme action plays a 



M.— AGRICULTURE 259 

highly important part in most of the chemical reactions talcing place in 
plants and animals. In addition, the breaking down of complex mole- 
cules by the action of enzymes is often employed in investigating the 
constitution of these substances. 

The action of enzymes has been known for over 100 years. KirchhofF 
in 1814 had discovered the catalytic action of the glutinous component 
of wheat meal, and later, in 1833, Payen and Persoz separated an active 
preparation of this enzyme from malt, the enzyme now known as amylase. 
While much work of a preliminary kind was carried out in the succeeding 
years, the results obtained were frequently inconsistent and confusing. 
This is not to be wondered at when we consider the excessive complexity of 
these bodies, the difficulties of purifying them and the extremely com- 
plicated reactions in which they play a part. It is again Willstatter, 
whose brilliant work on chlorophyll has just been described, who has been 
mainly responsible for the great advances which have been made in our 
knowledge of the enzymes during the past fifteen years. He began by 
improving the technique of the methods of preparation, introducing 
quantitative methods of control, and in this way was able to prepare 
specifically pure enzymes. This has led to a much more accurate know- 
ledge of the specification of enzymes and has cleared up much of the con- 
fusion which existed previous to his work. He has investigated the 
colloidal characteristics of enzymes, the significance of the H-ion concen- 
tration of the medium and the action of enzymes as synthetic agents — to 
mention only a few of the outstanding results. In addition, a rational 
classification of the enzymes is now possible and much more detailed 
information about their specific action is available. While the chemical 
constitution of the enzymes has not yet been solved, there is no doubt that 
the results of Willstatter and his school have been most stimulating to 
those engaged in bio-chemical research and have had an important appli- 
cation to the many industries which make use of enzymes in manufacturing 
processes. 

Vitamins. — A discovery which will always be associated with the 
name of the distinguished President of the Association this year 
(Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins) is the importance in nutrition of the • 
accessory food substances now known as vitamins. As far back as 1881, 
it was noticed that milk cannot be replaced by an artificial mixture of its 
chief constituents. In 1905 Pekelharing of the University of Utrecht 
made the striking claim that there is an unknown but essential substance 
in milk and other foods which is essential to nutrition. This work was 
overlooked, and it was not until the publication of Hopkins' work in 1912 
that general interest was attracted to the subject. The progress since 
then in the study of these bodies is most striking. One of the most 
remarkable facts which have resulted from these investigations is the large 
number of substances of the vitamin type required for the proper nutrition 
of the higher animals, the number being stated to be at least nine. Ordi- 
narily, five different vitamins are recognised, designated A, B, C, D and E. 
Vitamin B is now subdivided into no less than five substances, commonly 
referred to as the Vitamin B complex. 

Vitamin A. — It is now fairly definitely established that Vitamin A is 



26o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

formed by the liver from the pigment carotene ; this pigment occurs in 
carrots, green leaves, and various vegetables ; it is a hydrocarbon, CjoHgg, 
which is synthesised in plants by the action of light. Carotene has a 
deep colour, but Vitamin A is colourless. How carotene is converted into 
Vitamin A in the tissues is uncertain. The empirical formula CjoHgoO 
(or C20H32O) has been suggested, and it appears probable that within 
the next few years the constitution of this vitamin will be known and then 
its preparation by synthetical methods will be a possibility. 

Vitamin B. — Much work has already been carried out on the various 
members of the Vitamin B complex, but the position is still obscure and 
rather confusing. It is still uncertain how many active substances are 
present and there is still no general agreement as to their properties. 
Bj and Bg are the only two about which definite conclusions are at present 
available. B^ has been obtained in the crystalline state and contains both 
nitrogen and sulphur. The provisional formula C^jHi^ONgS has been 
suggested. It is anticipated that the pure product will be available in 
the near future. While a considerable amount of work has been carried out 
as to the chemical nature of B^, little definite information has yet been 
obtained. 

Vitamin C. — The striking investigations of Szent-Gyorgyi and of 
Waugh and King have led to a great advance in our knowledge of this 
vitamin. What appears to be the essential substance in the vitamin was 
isolated and found to have the formula CgHgOg ; it was named hexuronic 
acid. The preparation of a larger quantity of the material from the 
juice of Hungarian red pepper by Szent-Gyorgyi has enabled the consti- 
tution of the acid to be worked out by Hirst, Cox and Reynolds at 
Birmingham. The substance is now named ascorbic acid, and its anti- 
scorbutic properties are so marked that it may well prove to be Vitamin C 
itself. 

Vitamin D is now available as a commercial preparation under the 
name ' Calciferol.' It is prepared by the irradiation of ergosterol with 
ultra-violet light ; its formula is C27H42O. 

The discovery of vitamins has undoubtedly thrown much light on many 
of the difficult problems of nutrition and disease, and there can be no 
doubt that, as our knowledge of these substances increases, more and 
more use will be made of them in feeding. Already some notable advances 
have been made. The close connection between the yellow coloured 
pigment carotene and Vitamin A has just been referred to. Milk and 
butter produced in the summer months, when the cows are at pasture, 
have a yellow colour which is associated with the presence of carotene and 
of Vitamin A. On the other hand, butter produced from winter milk, 
when the cows are stall fed, is much whiter in colour and has a much 
lower content of carotene and Vitamin A. The popular view which 
associates the yellow colour of milk with ' richness ' is therefore not at 
fault, and incidentally the importance of prohibiting the colouring of 
butter and cheese should be mentioned. The problem was how to 
provide food with the necessary carotene or Vitamin A content during the 
winter months. Experiments on the artificial drying of grass carried out 
at the Agricultural Research Station at Jealotts Hill, Berkshire, have 



M.— AGRICULTURE 261 

shown that grass can be rapidly dried in a band drier at a temperature of 
200° approximately, with scarcely any loss of digestibility or nutritive 
value and, what is more surprising, with only a small loss of the carotene 
content. It was also shown that the carotene content and the nitrogen 
content of pasture herbage were associated, grass of high nitrogen content 
being rich in carotene, so that by properly balanced manuring the carotene 
content of the pasture might be maintained at a higher level. A winter 
feeding experiment with cows was then arranged and the artificially dried 
grass was used to replace an equivalent amount of the ordinary food, with 
the result that the carotene and Vitamin A content of the butter was kept up. 
This effect was not produced by the addition of ordinary green silage. 
The importance to the public health of being able to produce in winter 
butter which, in regard to colour and Vitamin A content, is equal to the 
butter produced in summer from grass-fed cows, can hardly be over- 
estimated. 

As regards vitamins generally, the most important problems are the 
differentiation of the different vitamins and the determination of the 
vitamin requirements of man and the higher animals. By the time this 
is done, it appears probable that there will be an abundant supply of 
pure vitamins to compensate for the deficiencies in the ordinary rations. 

While talking of nutrition, the part played by the mineral matter of the 
food must also be mentioned and the necessity for maintaining a correct 
ratio between the basic and acidic constituents. Much important work 
has been carried out in this country in recent years by the Rowett Institute 
and the Animal Nutrition Research Institute at Cambridge on the mineral 
content of pastures. In his Presidential Address at Bristol in 1930 
Prof. Du Toit described the far-reaching results of Theiler's work in 
South Africa on phosphorus deficiency, and referred also to Aston 's 
work on iron deficiency in New Zealand. 

Agricultural Development. 

Sufficient has been said of the scientific advances in recent years to 
indicate the great importance of their application, when possible, to 
agricultural industry. At one time it was only too apparent that there 
existed a long lag between scientific discovery and its application in agri- 
cultural research, but this has diminished considerably in recent years ; 
indeed, it may now be said that any new line of work is almost at once 
turned to account in agricultural investigation. 

This agricultural work is undertaken mainly at the new agricultural 
research institutes, although a considerable amount of work is still carried 
out at the universities and the agricultural colleges. 

The development of these research institutes has been one of the most 
marked advances connected with agricultural science which have taken 
place in recent years. 

In Scotland alone, for example, institutes have been established within 
the last few years for research in animal nutrition, in animal diseases, in 
animal genetics, in plant breeding, in dairying and in soil science, and the 
progress in England has been equally great. 

How are the results of these investigations brought before the farmer 



262 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

and what is his response to them ? How far are they being incorporated 
into modern agricultural practice ? 

It is one of the functions of the agricultural colleges to be the connecting 
link between the research institutes and the farmer. Advisory services 
in connection with the colleges now cover the whole country, so that 
farmers desiring advice have it provided at their own doors and without 
cost. Mention must also be made of the services of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries, the Department of Agriculture for Scotland and 
the Ministry of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, whose various publica- 
tions, journals, bulletins, etc., contain much valuable information. 

As to the reaction of the farmer, one is bound to admit that, owing to 
the inherent disinclination of the older farmers to listen to new ideas, 
the response is not what we should desire. At the same time, the more 
intelligent and progressive farmers are fully aware of the value of the 
advisory work of the colleges and make use of them regularly. The 
whole attitude of the farmer to the colleges is vastly different from what 
it was twenty-five or thirty years ago, and the amount of advisory work is 
increasing year by year. 

This much must be admitted, however, that there is still room for 
improvements in agricultural methods and that much of the farming still 
requires to be raised to the level of the best practice. 

We may state, therefore, with confidence that the difficulties of 
present-day agriculture are not due to the lack of scientific advice avail- 
able to the farmer ; indeed, it is even sometimes alleged that the 
present-day troubles of agriculture are due to scientific research and to 
an abnormal increase in production ; even the Minister of Agriculture 
remarked semi-humorously the other day : ' Improvements in technique 
are the great curse of the modern world. Some infernal scientist comes 
along and shows us how two blades of grass can be made to grow where 
one was before. Instead of that being the highest praise, it is one of the 
most damning accusations you can make against any man or any country just 
now.' An amusing piece of invective, but no help to us in our difficulties. 

In a paper contributed to this Section last year at York, Mr. E. M. H. 
Lloyd, the Assistant Secretary of the Empire Marketing Board, quoted 
figures to show that the world production of food stuffs and raw materials, 
though it increased rapidly after the set-back due to the war, had not 
reached, in 1929, the continuation of the pre-war trend. The statistics 
suggest that world agricultural production is, in fact, less now than it 
would have been but for the war. ' The agricultural crisis is due to the 
fall in prices ; and this fall of prices is due more to diminution of effec- 
tive demand through a contraction of consumers' money incomes than to 
any exceptional increase of supply.* 

It is certain, therefore, that the advances in the application of science 
to agriculture are not the causes of the prevailing agricultural depression 
throughout the world, but that these are to be sought for in the absence 
of satisfactory schemes of collective planning, marketing, stability in the 
value of money and the maintenance of better equilibrium between prices, 
wages and debts, to quote again from Mr. Lloyd. 

Whatever opinion may be held as to over- or under-production of agri- 



M.— AGRICULTURE 263 

cultural produce in the world as a whole, this much at any rate is clear : 
that an increased production of home-grown food is of paramount 
importance to our own country. 

There are two main reasons why this is so urgent. We have to remember 
that in the industrial changes which have taken place since the war many 
of our industries have either disappeared or have been so reduced in 
amount that there has been a serious displacement of labour. So far as 
one can see, there is no prospect of these industries recovering their 
former size in this country, and, while new industries may be introduced, 
there is a grave fear that the displacement of many workers from their 
previous occupations is permanent. No better way of using this displaced 
labour can be imagined than to employ it on the land to increase our 
home agricultural production. It is unnecessary to point out or minimise 
the obstacles to so profound a change — the disinclination of an urban 
population to move to the country, the problems of housing and wages, 
and the necessity of obtaining a remunerative price for the food produced 
are only some of the more obvious difficulties involved. 

The second reason is equally important, and that is to supply the 
consumer with as large a proportion as possible of fresh food which has 
not been subjected to chilling or freezing or to any of the chemical 
manipulations or treatment which are much too common nowadays. 
The deleterious effects of some of these processes on the general quality 
of food is now well appreciated, and it is certain that, no matter how care- 
fully these methods are carried out and controlled, the resulting product 
is not as good as the fresh material. The aim of the home producer 
should be, therefore, to produce the type of food in largest quantity 
where this quality of freshness is of the highest importance — e.g. meat, 
milk, butter, eggs, poultry and market-garden produce and fruit. In 
this way he can best meet the menace of overseas competition. At the 
same time much work will require to be done to educate the consumer 
to appreciate the superior value of fresh home-grown food as against 
that which has been chilled or preserved. It is quite certain that the 
consumer will not purchase home-grown produce for sentimental reasons : 
he will have to be convinced that the quality is better and that he is 
getting equally good value for his money. It will be necessary in this 
connection for the home producer to study the public taste a little more 
carefully perhaps than he has done in the past. 

The modern farmer must now choose between two courses. He may 
either adhere to traditional systems under which his products have to 
meet those of overseas competitors who possess dominant advantages in 
the production of most of their crops, or, on the other hand, he may alter 
his system to meet the new conditions and produce those commodities 
which will command an unassailable position in the home market. 

This alteration in the system of farming will mean many important 
changes ; more concentrated foods must be grown, e.g. beans and peas, 
and less concentrated foods imported. In this connection the highly 
nutritive quality of young grass and the methods for its utilisation should 
receive more attention ; the growing of hay on a quality basis and the 
adequate use of silage should also be mentioned. 



264 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Another problem to which sufficient attention is not being paid at 
present is the use of the poorer quality of land, such, for example, as we 
find in Scotland at elevations of 600 feet and over. Much of this, under 
proper methods of management, could produce a larger number of store 
cattle, milk and milk products, and poultry than it does at present. In 
more favourable times the possibility even of further land reclamation 
should not be overlooked. It may seem futile at a time when there is 
such difficulty in getting any adequate return from our best land to 
suggest that further land should be reclaimed ; the present conditions, 
however, will not, we hope, be permanent, and we have to consider what 
may be possible in more normal times. The spectacle of large areas of 
land suitable for reclamation and close to our great industrial centres 
reflects little credit on the agricultural policy of the past generation or 
two. In many of these areas there are abundant supplies of labour near 
at hand, and the difficulties of housing and transport would be reduced 
to a minimum. It is not suggested that at the present such reclamation 
would be economic, but as a means of using unemployed labour it would 
at least have the merit of leaving something tangible as the result. In an 
article contributed to The Times last November, Sir Daniel Hall gives 
an interesting account of the enormous reclamation and land drainage 
work which has been carried out in Italy during the past ten years, and 
points out that the agriculturally minded man must regard it as the 
biggest bit of constructive work since the war ended. In conclusion he 
says : ' A great work. But what of the cost ? As yet, it is impossible 
to judge of the finance, for who shall say what land is worth or is going 
to be worth .? But the Italian State is said to have expended £31,000,000 
gold in the last ten years on " Bonifica," against which it is claimed that over 
a million acres have been or are being reclaimed. The severely economic 
English view would be that, since land is going out of cultivation, it is 
waste of money to make more. But in Italy men do still live by the land ; 
the money has been spent in Italy and almost wholly on labour, and there 
is something real and lasting to show for the expenditure. It is a return 
to the high Roman way, to the courage that drove the first roads and 
built the bridges through Barbarian Europe.' 

The importance of agriculture, not merely as a means of producing 
additional home-grown food but as an industry of fundamental social 
value, is now being realised by all sections of the community. 

With the good offices of statesmen, scientists, economists and others 
interested, and with the goodwill of the people at large, it is not too much 
to hope that the British farmer will choose wisely, and that the character 
and energy which have distinguished him for generations will enable him 
to secure once more for our British agriculture that prosperity which is 
vital to the welfare of our nation. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Thirty-eighth Report of Committee (Dr. F. J. W. Whipple, Chairman ; 
Mr. J. J. Shaw, C.B.E., Secretary ; Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., 
F.R.S., Dr. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S., Sir F. W. Dyson, K.B.E., 
F.R.S., Dr. Wilfred Hall, Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S., Sir H. Lamb, 
F.R.S., Mr. A. W. Lee, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, F.R.S., Prof. E. 
A. Milne, M.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. R. D. Oldham, F.R.S., Prof. H. H. 
Plaskett, Prof. H. C. Plummer, F.R.S., Prof. A. O. Rankine, 
O.B.E., Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. Sampson, F.R.S., 
Mr. F. J. Scrase, Dr. H. Shaw, Sir Frank E. Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E., 
Sec.R.S., Dr. R. Stoneley, Mr. E. Tillotson, Sir G. T. Walker, 
C.S.I., F.R.S.). 

Dr. J. E. Crombie. — In August 1932 the Committee lost one of its most 
valued members by the death of Dr. J. E. Crombie, who had served since 
191 5. He was a practical seismologist and maintained in turn in his beau- 
tiful home near Aberdeen seismographs of several patterns, the last one 
being a Milne-Shaw. In 1919 when a home had to be found for the seis- 
mological equipment and library from Milne's station at Shide in the Isle 
of Wight, Dr. Crombie provided funds, which were, after some delay, 
devoted to paying part of the cost of a well-schemed extension of the Uni- 
versity Observatory at Oxford. It was his generous help that enabled Prof. 
Turner to continue the international seismological work through the years 
of financial stringency. Dr. Crombie was a man of many interests, and 
served well his University and the City of Aberdeen. His memory is held 
in honour by his colleagues on the Seismological Committee. 

By his will Dr. Crombie provided that on the death of his wife his trustees 
should allocate the sum of £1 ,000 free of Government duties to the Seismo- 
logical Committee of the British Association ' to be applied towards assisting 
in the investigation of seismological research.' 

Dr. Crombie's seismographs were bequeathed to the University of 
Aberdeen. The Milne-Shaw seismograph has been set up for trial in a 
cellar at King's College, Aberdeen. An Agamennone seismograph has been 
presented to the Science Museum, South Kensington, which already had a 
Mainka seismograph given by Dr. Crombie. His other Mainka seismograph 
remains at Aberdeen. 

Finance. — The Accounts for the year ending June 30, 1933, differ in 
several respects from those for the preceding year. The new scale of sub- 
scriptions adopted by the International Union for Geodesy and Geophysics 
in 1930 came into force in 1932 and in spite of prognostications, on which 
the statement in the last report ' no increase in the subvention from the 
International Seismological Association towards the cost of the International 
Seismological Summary is to be anticipated ' was based, there has been an 
increase from £259 to £404- In view of this increase, the Committee was 



266 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



able to withdraw the application to the Council of the British Association 
for a special grant for the year. 

On the other side of the General Account there is a large saving in printing, 
but a new item appears, the Committee having accepted for this year the 
responsibility, formerly borne by Dr. Crombie, for part of the salary of the 
scientific assistant at the University Observatory, Oxford. 

The income of the Gray-Milne Trust Fund has fallen (temporarily it is 
hoped owing to the lapse of the dividend due from the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. There has been no considerable call on the Fund during the 
year. It is anticipated, however, that the charges for printing the memoir 
by Messrs. Jeffreys and Bullen referred to below will come out of the Fund. 

It is hoped that at the meeting at Lisbon in September 1933 of the 
International Seismological Association such a grant will be given to the 
University Observatory, Oxford, as will allow the work on the International 
Seismological Summary to be continued there. The Committee wishes to 
assist the Observatory by devoting to this purpose the £100 payable from 
the Caird Fund. The Committee is not asking for an additional grant 
this year. 

Accounts, July 1932-JuNE 1933. 

General Account. 

£ s. d. 

I.S.S. — Printing . 254 15 o 
Printing and Stationery 491 

Postage . . ■ . 12 2 5^ 

Computing . . 87 11 5 
Scientific Asst. 

(Salary, Part) . . 150 o o 

Translation . . o 10 o 





I 


5. 


d. 


Brought forward 


192 


3 


8 


B.A. Caird Fund 


100 








U.G.G.I., for I.S.A. 


404 


II 


3 


Sale of I.S.S. . 





13 


7 


Bank Interest 





7 






509 7 11-^ 



£697 15 6 



Operation of Seismo- 
graphs . . . 8 16 7 
Committee expenses . o 10 o 

518 14 6^ 

Balance carried forward 179 o iii 



£697 IS 6 



Brought forward 
Trust Income 
Bank Interest 



Gray-Milne Trust Account 

£ s. d. 
• 342 19 3 

66 14 10 
I 13 8 



£ s. d. 
Miss Bellamy (Honora- 
rium) . , . 30 o o 
Milne Library . . 4 14 o 
Fire Insurance . . o 15 o 
Press Cuttings . . i i o 



Balance 



36 10 o 
374 17 9 



£411 7 9 



£411 7 9 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 267 

The International Seismological Summary. — During the latter half of 1932 
there were two issues of the Summary. These completed the volume for 
the earthquakes of 1928. The issues containing the Summary for the first 
two quarters of 1929 have been printed. Prof. Plaskett reports that the 
MS. for the rest of that year is nearly ready for the printer. As far as the 
records for 1930 have been received, they have been copied on to cards in 
readiness for analysis. It is proposed to take into use at once such new 
tables as may be adopted at the meeting of the International Seismological 
Association at Lisbon. 

Seismographs. — The five seismographs belonging to the British Associa- 
tion have remained on loan to the Seismological Stations at Oxford (2), 
Edinburgh, Perth (W. Australia) and Cape Town. 

Interesting memorials of the earliest seismological station in England 
have been obtained recently by the Science Museum, South Kensington. 
Early in 1932 Miss Morey of Newport, Isle of Wight, presented to the 
Museum the original lamp-post on which Milne erected his first seismograph 
at Shide. The drum and recording mechanism of this seismograph, which 
were in the possession of Mr. W. H. Bullock, have been purchased and an 
effort is to be made to reconstruct the apparatus as accurately as possible. 

A good many parts of old instruments from Milne's workshop are now 
at the University Observatory, Oxford, but it appears that there is nothing 
of definite historical interest, and with the approval of this Committee 
Prof. Plaskett will dispose of the material at his discretion. Some of the 
parts found in this collection have been lent to the Rev. H. Pain of Turville 
Vicarage, Henley-on-Thames, who has constructed a seismograph and 
obtained good results. 

During the year the Milne-Shaw seismographs supplied by Mr. Shaw 
to the Department of Geology, Liverpool University, and to the Depart- 
ment of Geology, University of Vermont, have been brought into operation. 

British Earthquakes. — A valuable paper dealing with the macroseismic 
evidence of four recent Scottish earthquakes has been published by Dr. 
G. W. Tyrrell in the Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, 
Vol. xix, Part I, 1931-32. The shocks examined are : 

(i) The Oban earthquake of 1925, December, 23^ 12''. 

(2) The North Sea earthquake of 1927, January, 24" s"*. 

(3) The Collentraive earthquake of 1927, January, 27*' 9''. 

(4) The Lochgilphead earthquake of 1927, January, 27^ 16''. 

On January 14, 1933, at about 8''30™ an earthquake was felt over a large 
area in the North of England ; and a slight after-shock, felt at i6h. 3m. on 
the 17th, was recorded at Stonyhurst. A report on this earthquake has 
been prepared by the Rev. J. P. Rowland. An earthquake which was felt 
in Jersey on April 12 was recorded by seismographs in England, 

Small disturbances not recorded by seismographs were reported by 
newspapers as occurring on the following dates : 1932, December 3 1 , Devon ; 
1933, April 23, Canterbury. A weak tremor, reported as being felt at 
Great Harwood, Lanes., on 1933, July 7, was reported at Stonyhurst 
at i2h. im. 

The Revision of Seismological Tables. — The following note has been 
contributed by Dr. H. Jeffreys and Mr. K. E. BuUen : 

The observations recorded in the I.S.S. from 1923 to 1929 are being 
used to construct revised tables for the principal waves recorded in large 
earthquakes. The method used is equivalent to a least-square solution by 
successive approximation. The numbers of earthquakes used in the 
respective regions are : Europe, with the Mediterranean and Central 



a68 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Asia, lo ; North and Central America, with the North Atlantic, 19 ; South 
America, 4 ; Japan, 15 ; Pacific and Indian Oceans, 9 ; total, 57. These 
have been selected as specially well observed and capable of having the 
epicentres well determined from the data. 

The solution for P proved to be straightforward. The times already 
found by H.J. and published by the Committee were right within a second 
up to about 19° ; but there is a sharp bend in the curve at this distance, 
the maximum correction needed being — 5.7s. at 30°. Beyond that dis- 
tance smaller corrections are needed, reaching + is. about 60°. At greater 
distances still the corrections are again negative, reaching — 3s. at 105°. 

In the case of S there was much difficulty owing to misidentifications. 
It seems that the H. J. tables are nearly right to 15°, but need a slight in- 
crease to 19°, and that there is at this distance a discontinuity similar to 
that found for P ; a correction of — 8.7s. is needed at 30°. The correction 
vanishes about 60° and is about +4S. beyond 80°. 

The waves through the core ^ have also been discussed and times have 
been found for PKP(= P'-PcPcP), SKS(= ScPcS) and SKKS( = ScPcPcS). 
The forms of the curves differ very little from those given by Gutenberg, 
but additive constant corrections are needed to adapt them to the same 
focal depth. Times for the diffracted P at distances up to 143° have been 
obtained. 

The outstanding problems relate to the determination of focal depth and 
of the depths at which PP, PS and SS are reflected. So long as the focus 
is within the upper layers the effect of focal depth is simply to make S arrive 
early by about the same amount at all distances, the forms of the P and S 
curves remaining unaltered. This additive constant can be determined 
and allowed for. But it remains doubtful to what focal depth the standard 
S curve corresponds ; though several methods have been tried none seems 
satisfactory. The additive constant varies between different earthquakes 
by as much as i8s. This is inconsistent with the supposition that P move- 
ment is always generated by the original shock ; in that case the variation 
could only be about 5s. There seems to be no doubt that in some earth- 
quakes there is primitive P movement and in others none. All the curves 
have been made to correspond to the same focal depth, but there remains 
some doubt as to what that depth is. Some earthquakes not recorded as 
having deep foci in the I.S.S. have proved to have foci 50 to lookm. below 
the top of the lower layer. 

PP, PS and SS are frequently recorded, but the residuals are irregular and 
it is still uncertain whether any definite conclusions can be drawn from them. 

The bends in the P and S curves at 19° may be the result of either a 
rapid continuous increase of velocity or a discontinuity at a depth of about 
400km., the velocities rising by about 10 per cent, when it is crossed. On 
the former alternative points of large amplitude would occur, which have 
been sought by Miss Lehmann but not found. A discontinuity on the 
other hand would give reflexions, which again have not been found, but 
their amplitudes would in any case be small. The most likely one to be 
observable may be one of PP type reflected on the inside of the discon- 
tinuity, just as SKKS is the best observed reflexion on the surface of the 
central core. 

Other waves recorded with fair frequency are PKS, P'2 and SKSP. 
An attempt will be made to construct empirical tables for these also. 

Valuable supplementary information has been received in correspondence 
with other seismologists, especially Miss I. Lehmann, Miss E. F. Bellamy 

^ The letter K is used for a compressional wave through the core [Kernwelle) . 
The notation is taken from Bulletins issued from Georgetown. 



MATHEMATICAL TABLES 269 

and Messrs. Gutenberg, Scrase, Byerly and Hodgson. This will be 
acknowledged more fully later. 

Hi^h Focus Earthquakes. — That earthquakes with deep foci occur is well 
established, but the significance of the observations which led Turner to 
attribute high foci to certain earthquakes is not yet known. Mr. E. Tillotson 
has chosen for investigation an earthquake of this type, ' The African 
Rift Valley Earthquake of 1928, Jan. 6.' Mr. Tillotson has examined about 
100 original records of this earthquake. There is no doubt as to the 
location of the epicentre, which is in the Subukia Valley, Kenya Colony. 
The anomalies in the observations are still under consideration. 

Microseisms . — The discussion, by Mr. A. W. Lee, of the microseisms 
recorded in all parts of the world during January 1930 has been completed 
and will be published shortly. Data are available for 57 observatories. 
The most disturbed of them are Reykjavik and Honolulu. 

In Europe microseismic storms do not occur in the absence of barometric 
depressions over the eastern part of the Atlantic, but some deep depressions 
are not accompanied by large microseisms. No evidence for a direct 
connection between microseismic disturbance and the sea-disturbance in 
particular regions has been found. 

Periodicity of Earthquakes. — Two notable papers by Dr. C. Davison (a 
former member of the Committee) on periodicity in earthquakes have 
appeared recently in the Philosophical Magazine (Ser. 7, Vol. 15 (1933) ). 
In the first paper the eleven-year period is discussed on the basis of statistics 
covering the whole globe and the last two centuries. It is found that in all 
parts of the world earthquakes are more frequent in the years of many 
sunspots. In the second paper a 19-year period is investigated. In this 
case the maximum frequencies of the northern hemisphere tally with the 
minimum frequencies of the southern hemisphere. The period seems to 
be identical with the nutation period of the earth and it is therefore demon- 
strated that the strains associated with the movements of the earth's axis 
are factors in determining when earthquakes shall occur. 

Reappointment. — The Committee asks for reappointment and for the 
confirmation of a grant of £100 from the Caird Fund. 



MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 

Report of Committee on Calculation of Mathematical Tables (Prof. E. H. 
Neville, Chairman ; Prof. A. Lodge, Vice-Chairman ; Dr. L. J. 
CoMRiE, Secretary ; Dr. J. R. Airey, Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S., 
Dr. J. Henderson, Dr. E. L. Ince, Dr. J. O. Irwin, Dr. E. S. 
Pearson, Mr. F. Robbins, Mr. D. H. Sadler, Dr. A. J. Thompson, 
Dr. J. F. Tocher, and Dr. J. Wishart). 

General activity . — Six meetings of the Committee have been held, in London. 
The grant of £50 has been expended as follows : 

Calculations connected with the Bessel functions 

y\{x),yMx),yi{x),y-i{x) 27 lo o 

Calculations connected with the confluent hypergeometric 

function . . . . . . . . .1000 

Calculations connected with the Bessel functions Y^ix) 

and yx(a;) for ;x; = 60(0 1)16 o . . . . . 7 10 o 

Secretarial expenses . . . . . . .500 



37© REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Cunningham Bequest. — (a) The work on the table of reduced ideals and 
primitive units in real quadratic fields has been continued by Dr. E. L. 
Ince. It is hoped that the manuscript will be ready for the printer by the 
end of this year. 

ib) The printing by a photographic process of Prof. L. E. Dickson's 
tables of the minimum decompositions of the numbers 1-300,000 into fifth 
powers has been put in hand. This will constitute the Committee's 
Volume III. 

(c) The Council has authorised the preparation and publication of 
a volume containing all the prime factors of all numbers up to 100,000. 

The calculations are being done voluntarily, in duplicate, one copy 
by Mrs. E. Gifford, and the other by Miss E. J. Ternouth, of Reading 
University, and Prof. A. Lodge. 

{d) The purchase, for table-making, of a National Accounting machine 
(formerly called the Ellis) has been authorised, and the machine is now on 
order. It contains an eleven-column keyboard, printing mechanism, and 
six adding mechanisms. 

Bessel functions . — The sub-committee formed to draw up a report on the 
tables of Bessel functions which have appeared in the Reports of the Com- 
mittee, with a view to the possibility of their publication in one volume, has 
now completed the examination of these tables. Interim reports were made 
during the session, and action was taken for the preparation of the Y func- 
tions. The full report and recommendations of the sub-committee will be 
considered during the next session. 

The Committee has calculated, at the request of Dr. R. Stoneley, 
7-figure tables of the functions J\{x) , y-\{x) , yi{x) , jf-iix), for the range 
X = o-oo(o-oi)o-5o(o-02)2-5o(o-05)5-o(o-i)20o. 

The preparation of printer's copy of Joix) and y^ix) to 10 decimals for 
X = oooo(oooi)i6-oo(ooi)25-oo has been completed, as has also copy of 
8-figure values of Io(x) and I^ix) for x = o-ooo(oooi)s-ooo. 

The preparation of an 8-figure table of Yq{x) and Yi{x) for x = 
o-oo(ooi)i6oo has been begun, and will be carried to completion next 
year. 

Airy integral. — The Committee has received a request from Dr. H. 
Jeffreys for the tabulation of the Airy integral and its first derivative. It is 
hoped that this may be done next year. 

Confluent hypergeometric functions . — The Committee has received a request 
from Dr. R. Stoneley for certain calculations in connection with these 
functions. The work is being put in hand by Dr. A. J. Thompson. 

Publication. — The Committee has expressed to the Council its desire for 
the publication of the following material : 

(i) The Legendre functions described in the last report ; 

(2) The Bessel functions of orders ± \ and db f described in this report ; 

(3) The Bessel functions y^ix), J'i(x), Iq{x) and Ii{x) described in this 

report. 
Reappointment. — The Committee desires to be reappointed, with the 
addition of Dr. J. C. P. Miller, and with a grant for general purposes of £100. 



TERTIARY AND CRETACEOUS ROCKS 271 

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES OF SENSORY EVENTS. 

Interim Report of Committee appointed to consider and report upon the 
possibility of Quantitative Estimates of Sensory Events (Dr. A. 
Ferguson, Chairman ; Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S., Vice- 
Chairman ; Mr. R. J. Bartlett, Secretary ; Dr. H. Banister, Prof. 
F. C. Bartlett, F R.S., Dr. Wm. Brown, Dr. N. R. Campbell, 
Dr. S. Dawson, Prof. J. Drever, Mr. J. Guild, Dr. R. A. Houstoun, 
Dr. J. O. Irwin, Dr. G. W. C. Kaye, Dr. S. J. F. Philpott, Dr. L. 
F. Richardson, F.R.S., Dr. J. H. Shaxby, Mr. T. Smith, F.R.S., 
Dr. R. H. Thouless, Dr.W. S. Tucker). 

The Committee met on four occasions ; memoranda prepared by members 
have been circulated. 

The memoranda which have been circulated have dealt critically with 
{a) the possibility of quantitative estimates of sensory events, {h) the mean- 
ing of the term measurement in its application to the estimation of sensory 
magnitudes, and (c) the validity of the modes of presentation and interpreta- 
tion of the Weber-Fechner law. 

The matters so raised and discussed have resulted in the resolving of 
many doubtful points and in raising clear-cut issues of fundamental import- 
ance, but it is evident that further discussion and research are necessary 
before a satisfactory synthesis of opinion can be effected. 

The Committee is agreed that {a) a critical resume of past work on the 
Weber-Fechner law, paying special attention to experimental conditions and 
introspective reports, would be of great value ; and that {b) further experi- 
mental work should be undertaken on the measurement of just noticeable 
differences, equal-appearing intervals, and ratio estimates in the various sensory 
fields, full use being made of modern physical instruments. 

In furtherance of the above, at the suggestion of the Committee, work has 
been commenced at Cambridge, at Cardiff and at Edinburgh, and it is hoped 
that other psychological laboratories will be able to give assistance later. 

The main work of the Committee is necessarily carried out by the 
interchange of memoranda between its members, and the Committee desires 
to record its indebtedness to the Council of the British Psychological Society 
for their hospitality and for the assistance which they have given in the 
duplication of the memoranda involved. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, without grant. 



TERTIARY AND CRETACEOUS ROCKS. 

Report of Committee appointed to investigate Critical Sections in the 
Tertiary and Cretaceous Rocks of the London Area and to tabulate 
and preserve records of new excavations in that area (Prof. W. T. 
Gordon, Chairman ; Dr. S. W. Wooldridge, Secretary; Mr. H. C. 
Berdinner, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Miss M. C. 
Crosfield, Mr. F. Gosling, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. 
Hickling), 

The grant allotted to the Committee for 1932-33 was expended in investi- 
gating the structure of a critical area south of the Lower Greensand 



273 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

escarpment near Nutfield, Surrey. Here and eastwards at Tilburstow 
Hill, Godstone, a number of outliers occur south of the main scarp. The 
beds in several cases are highly inclined and much disturbed, and at first 
sight a strong suggestion is conveyed of a major fault parallel to, but to the 
south of, the main escarpment. Such a fault would lie in a known zone 
of tectonic instability, and would form an important element in Wealden 
structure. An alternative hypothesis attributed the outlying disturbed 
masses to large scale slip-faulting of the type seen on many British sea- 
coasts, as well as along the banks of the Panama Canal. A large number 
of borings were made under the supervision of Mr. F. Gosling, B.Sc, 
F.G.S., and the evidence from these has been brought together in maps 
and sections, which it is hoped will shortly be published. The evidence 
so far obtained is definitely opposed to the hypothesis of regional faulting, 
but enables the detailed reconstruction of a structural arrangement con- 
sistent with bodily slipping of portions of the former scarp-face. An 
important contributory factor in the process here, and probably elsewhere, is 
the flattening, or reversal of the general northerly dip, in the vicinity of 
the present escarpment. 



SEX PHYSIOLOGY. 



Final Report of Committee on the Influence of the Sex Physiology of the 
Parents on the Sex-ratio of the Offspring (Prof. J. H. Orton, Chair- 
man ; Mrs. Ruth C. Bisbee, Secretary ; Prof. A. M. Carr- 
Saunders, Miss E. C. Herdman). 

The Effect of Altered Sex Physiology of the Parent on the Sex 
Ratio of the Offspring in Guinea-pigs. 

Some years ago a series of experiments was carried out and yielded 
extremely interesting results. Some male guinea-pigs each had one testis 
removed when only a few weeks old. When they became adult they were 
used for breeding, and gave offspring in the proportion of 2 V? : i <?• As 
there were more than 300 young, it seemed fairly certain that the proportions 
were not due to chance. 

An attempt has been made during the past three years to repeat these 
experiments on a small scale, but the animals have bred so slowly that the 
number of offspring is still too small to give a conclusive result. As they 
are breeding so slowly it has been decided not to continue the experiments 
during the coming year, but to wait until the animals can be kept under 
more normal conditions. It is not proposed, therefore, to ask for any 
further grant at the present time. 

A grant of £5 was received last year and was used for the maintenance 
of the stock. 

Mrs. Bisbee wishes to express her gratitude to the Committee for the 
financial help which she has received, and to assure them that the work 
will be continued as soon as possible. 



ZOOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 273 



ZOOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication (Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., 
Chairman ; Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S., Secretary ; Mr. E. Heron- 
Allen, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. T. Calman, F.R.S., Sir P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, C.B.E., F.R.S. ; Mr. W. L. Sclater). 

During the past year the Secretary has been consulted on various questions 
of publication and has offered advice in the terms of previous reports by 
the Committee. 

A difficult question has been raised by the Entomological Society of the 
South of England regarding the publication of papers reproduced by dupli- 
cator or other methods than type printing. The Society suggests that a 
minimum limit of 500 copies should be fixed and that the papers should in 
all other respects conform to the requirements of the International Rules 
of Zoological Nomenclature (which are essentially the same as the condi- 
tions laid down by your Committee). We do not think that any distinction 
can be drawn between the various processes of multiplying copies, provided 
that the results are reasonably permanent. The size of the edition must 
be governed by ordinary economic forces and by the probable number of 
people interested in the particular subject. It is important that the publica- 
tion should be advertised ; an edition of 50,000 would be of little use if not 
made known. 

Attention is again drawn to the undesirability of mentioning the systematic 
name of an animal in the title of a paper without any indication of the class 
to which it belongs. Editors of publications in applied, economic, and 
ecologic zoology would help their colleagues by insisting on closer adherence 
to the accepted rules and methods of nomenclature. 

It may assist editors and authors if we mention that the International 
Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, as well as other information of use in 
preparing papers, have recently been printed in the following : 

Krejci-Graf, Karl. ' Scientific Nomenclature and the Preparation of 
Papers.' Geol. Surv. Kwangtung and Kwangsi. Special Publication. 
XII. Canton. December i, 1932. 

Pearson, Joseph. ' Ceylon Journal of Science. Instructions and Rules 
to be observed by Authors and Editors.' March I933- Private circulation 
only. 

The Secretary has protested in Nature (vol. cxxxii, p. 102, July 15, 1933) 
against the waste of time caused by the omission of page numbers from the 
opening pages of chapters, articles, and so forth. 

The Committee seeks re-appointment with the same constitution as last 
year, and without a grant. 



L 2 



274 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



HUMAN GEOGRAPHY OF TROPICAL AFRICA. 

Report of Committee appointed to inquire into the present state of Know- 
ledge of the Human Geography of Tropical Africa and to make 
recommendations for furtherance and development (Prof. P. M. Roxby, 
Chairman ; Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, O.B.E., Secretary ; Prof. C. B. 
Fawcett, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. E. B. Haddon, Mr. R. H. 
KiNViG, Mr. J. McFarlane, Col. M. N. MacLeod, D.S.O., M.C., 
Prof. J. L. Myres, F.B.A., Mr. R. U. Sayce, Rev. E. W. Smith, 
Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, C.M.G., D.S.O.). 

Past Activities of the Committee. 

The Committee, which was first appointed after the Oxford Meeting of 
the Association in 1926, was occupied during the first period of its work 
in bringing its proposed activities to the notice of a wide circle of people 
in Africa who are in a position to supply data. This was most effectively 
done by the issue of a pamphlet of 46 pages, first printed in 1930 and re- 
printed in 1931, containing : (i) An introduction setting forth the nature 
of the gap in our knowledge of the material life of African natives, in so far 
as it relates to the use of land and is directly aifected by local environment ; 

(2) a list of subjects upon which information is specially required ; and 

(3) reprints of two essays of the kind which the Committee desired to receive 
from residents throughout Africa, these reprints to be regarded as models.^ 

This pamphlet was sent : (i) in bulk to the Governments of the various 
British Colonies and Mandates in Tropical Africa, and was distributed by 
them to their local officers, and (2) to a number of selected missionaries 
and other residents. The response from members of the latter group has 
been slight, but there is every indication that the interest of Government 
Officers in various parts of Africa has been aroused. The Committee has 
already been able to procure publication of an essaybyMr.L.H.L. Foster on 
the Mlanje District of Nyasaland {Geography, 1932), and is now seeking pub- 
lication for two reports from Tanganyika Territory, by Mr. G. D. Popplewell 
and by Messrs. E. A. Leakey and N. V. Rounce respectively. Other docu- 
ments have been received which, though not suitable for separate publication, 
yet furnish much useful information. Among these are a paper by Mr. R. C. 
Northcote on the Rungwe District of Tanganyika Territory, and reports 
on specific points by officers of the Agricultural Department of Sierra 
Leone. To all of these gentlemen the Committee gratefully acknowledges 
its debt. 

The Committee has further obtained co-operation in several of the 
University Geography Departments in this country, especially with the 
view of constructing population maps of the African Colonies. 



Northern Rhodesia. 

While the Governments of all the Colonies have helped the Committee 
by distributing the pamphlet, the Government of Northern Rhodesia 

^ Arrangements have now been made by which copies of the pamphlet may be 
obtained, price yd., post free, from the Clerk, Geographical Association, Municipal 
High School of Commerce, Princess Street, Manchester. 



GEOGRAPHY IN DOMINION UNIVERSITIES 275 

invited all the District Officers of the territory to submit reports. Twenty- 
eight of these District reports have now been received by the Committee, 
while only five remain to be sent in. Thus, by the acquisition of what 
it is hoped will soon be material for a complete review of the human 
geography of a large African territory, the Committee is enabled to enter 
upon the second stage of its work, that of examining, collating and making 
available to a wider circle the information so generously compiled by the 
responsible officers on the ground. 

The Committee gratefully acknowledges the courtesy extended to it 
by the Government of Northern Rhodesia, and hopes to make the fullest 
use of the results thus acquired as soon as possible, when it will make the 
proper acknowledgment to the individual contributors. 

Further Outlook. 

The Committee having received certain reports, as above mentioned, 
from other East African territories, hopes that the latter Colonies will in 
the near future yield more comprehensive material. It seems likely that 
this result may be hastened by the present visit to East Africa of Mr. S. J. K. 
Baker, a former member of the Committee. 

It is of course recognised that while the data now accumulating have 
their chief value as contributions to knowledge of specific geographical 
relationships, they will also possess considerable value to anthropological 
and ethnological studies. The Committee therefore intends to establish 
and maintain close touch with bodies which for any reason may be interested 
in the material accumulated, such as the Royal Anthropological Institute, 
the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and the International Institute 
of African Languages and Cultures. 

In short, it will be seen that the real work of the Committee lies before it. 

Reappointment and Expenses. 

The Committee therefore asks to be reappointed, with the addition of 
the names of Mr. S. J. K. Baker, Dr. A. Geddes, and Mr. R. A. Pelham. 
It asks for a grant of £5 to cover secretarial expenses in 1933-34, and it 
intimates that any profits accruing from sale of the pamphlet will be handed 
to the General Treasurer of the Association. 



GEOGRAPHY IN DOMINION UNIVERSITIES. 

Report of Committee appointed to ascertain the place which Geography 
occupies in the curricula of the universities in the various Dominions 
of the Empire (Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Chairman ; Dr. L. Dudley 
Stamp, Secretary ; Dr. L. J. Burpee ; Prof. F. Debenham ; Dr. C. A. E. 
Fenner ; Prof. Griffith Taylor ; Prof. J. H. Wellington). 

I. Activities of the Committee. 
Having collected preliminary suggestions from the members of the 
Committee then in England, the Chairman and Secretary met and drew 
up a draft of a letter and questionnaire to be circulated to all universities 
concerned. These drafts were circulated to the members of the Committee 



ty6 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

for suggestions and approval. It was agreed to co-opt Dr. Benson to 
help in New Zealand. Copies of the letter and circular as finally approved 
by members of the Committee were then duplicated (Documents A and B 
attached) and distributed as follows : — 

(a) in bulk to Dr. L. J. Burpee for distribution to Canadian universities 
and the collection of replies. 

(b) in bulk to Dr. C. Fenner for Australia. 

(c) in bulk to Prof. J. H. Wellington for South Africa. 

(d) in bulk to Dr. W. N. Benson for New Zealand. 

(e) in bulk to Prof. Griffith Taylor for the collection of comparable 
details of the leading universities of the United States. 

(/) individually by the Secretary to the universities of India, Singapore, 
and Hong Kong, 

(g) individually by the Secretary to the universities and university colleges 
of the British Isles for the collection of comparable details. 

An Interim report was presented in manuscript to the 1932 (York) 
Meeting of the Association and contained details of the replies received 
from South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, India, and the Far East, with 
replies received from the British Isles and the United States for purposes 
of comparison. The replies from Canada had not, at that time, been 
received ; and since the Interim Report certain other replies to the 
questionnaire have been received from other parts of the Empire. 

The sections which follow deal with the major parts of the British Empire 
in turn. 

II. Dominion of New Zealand. 

Dr. W. N Benson of the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 
who was co-opted a member of the Committee and collected the replies 
to the questionnaire from his colleagues, summarises the position in New 
Zealand as follows : 

' The four constituent colleges of New Zealand University are all con- 
cerned with the same prescriptions and the differences between the replies 
merely reflect different arrangements for dealing with the subject. The 
prescriptions are contained in the New Zealand University Calendar. 
Briefly Geography figures in the Entrance or Matriculation examination, 
in the Entrance Scholarship examination requiring one or two years further 
high school work. Examination of these prescriptions is conducted by 
University teachers, almost invariably the Professors of Geography in 
association with one or more assistants, usually University or Teachers' 
Training College lecturers. Economic Geography is also taught by a 
lecturer in the Department of Economics in each college, for the purposes 
of the B.Com. degree only, such requiring only one, or sometimes two, 
hours per week, unaccompanied by any laboratory work. Geology in 
its general aspects as a subject for the B.A. course, first year work only, is 
taught in the Auckland and Wellington Colleges by the Professor of 
Geology, associated with a lecturer from the Teachers' Training College 
in Auckland and a lecturer from the Economics Department in Wellington. 
There has resulted from this the emphasis on the physical and economic 
side, without (unless it be in Auckland) any special attention to the human 
side. In the hopes of encouraging advanced study in Geography and the 
appointment of a teacher specialist in the subject, the University has approved 
courses for a second and third year in Geography for the B.A., but as yet 
provision for the teaching of such courses has not been made by any college. 
The several replies summarised are thus : — 



GEOGRAPHY IN DOMINION UNIVERSITIES 277 

Auckland : Professor of Geology and associate lecturers from the Teachers' 
Training College are doing most of the B.A. first year Geography 
course ; Professor J. A. Bartrum, M.Sc, F.G.S. ; Lecturers, C. R. 
Laws, M.Sc, and — Jones, B.Sc. (Training College). 

Wellington : Professor C. A. Cotton, D.Sc, F.G.S. (Department of 
Geology) ; Miss Hilda R. Heine, M.A., Ph.D., for Economic 
Geography. 

Christchurch : R. S. Allan, M.Sc, Ph.D., Lecturer in Geology (not 
giving instruction in Geography every year) ; G. C. Billing, Lecturer 
in Economics Department, gives the Economic Geography course. 

In addition, the giving of Economic Geography lectures in Auckland by 
a lecturer in the Department of Economics should be noted. 

' It is worthy of remark that it is not possible to take Geography as a 
subject for the B.Sc. degree, nor to take both Geography and Geology as 
subjects for the B.A. degree on account of the overlapping in Physical 
Geography.' 

Details of Auckland University College were supplied by Professor J. A. 
Bartrum (Professor of Geology), details of Victoria University College, 
Wellington, by Professor C. A. Cotton, and for Canterbury College, 
Christchurch, by Dr. R. S. Allan (Lecturer in Geology). 



III. Commonwealth of Australia. 

The replies from Australian universities were collected by Dr. Charles 
Fenner, of the University of Adelaide. He summarises the position as 
follows : 

' The attached schedule discloses the replies to the questionnaire 
submitted by the above Committee to the Universities of (i) Sydney, 
(2) Melbourne, (3) Adelaide, (4) Brisbane, (5) Perth, (6) Hobart. 

' Sumrning up the position it may be said that, except in one instance, 
the teaching of Geography is not in an advanced position in the universities 
of Australia. The exception is the University of Sydney, where a complete 
and well-equipped department of Geography is in existence, carrying out 
a four-year course of work, including Honours, branching into the faculties 
of Science, Arts, and Commerce, and conducting research work. 

' In other Australian universities there exist movements making for the 
progress of geographical teaching ; these come mainly from three directions : 
first, from departments of Commerce, which stress the need for the teaching 
of Economic Geography ; secondly, from departments of Geology, where 
it is felt that their physiographic teaching should develop into geographical 
work ; and thirdly, from the public and private schools of the various 
States, where teachers of geography feel the need for university teaching 
and guidance. 

' The movement towards the extension of geographical teaching from a 
geological basis has advanced well in the University of Queensland, as 
reported by Professor H. C. Richards, and also in the University of 
Adelaide, where Sir Douglas Mawson has interested himself in the matter. 
In the latter case Geography is at present a one-year Arts subject ; in the 
former, progress has been held up on account of expense. 

' In the Melbourne University the teaching of Economic Geography is 
on a sound basis, and there is some correlation with the Geology Department. 
There is no geographical teaching in Perth, and only a one-year course in 
Economic Geography in Hobart. Thus, apart from the University of 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Sydney, no Australian university is doing geographical work at all com- 
parable with that of the leading universities of Britain.' 

IV. Union of South Africa. 

Replies to the questionnaire from the Union of South Africa were 
collected by Professor J. H. Wellington of the University of Witwatersrand, 
Johannesburg. The position is shown in the schedule. 

V. The Dominion of Canada. 

The replies to the questionnaire from Canadian universities were collected 
by Dr. L. J. Burpee. Dr. Burpee summarises the position as follows : — 

' It will be seen from the replies received that very little has yet been 
done in this direction (i.e. the establishment of Geography, in the universities). 
In the sense in which the question is meant, it must be said that so far 
there is no Department of Geography in any Canadian university. It will 
be noted that the University of British Columbia and the University of 
Montreal both report a Department of Geography but it would seem that 
for all practical purposes the situation is the same in these universities as 
in Toronto and McGill and most of the other universities, where Geography 
is more or less a course in the Department of Geology and the Department 
of Economics. It will be noticed that from Professor Innis* letter that 
Toronto University has for some time been feeling its way towards the 
establishment of a Department of Geography, but the time is not yet ripe. 
I think the same situation applies to several other Canadian universities, 
and probably after we have got through this period of depression some 
progress may be anticipated.' 

The actual position is shown in the attached schedule. 

VI. India and the Far East. 

The questionnaire was sent to all the Indian and Far Eastern universities 
(i.e. including Singapore and Hong Kong) and replies were received from 
all those mentioned in the schedule. 

VII. Summary. 

For purposes of comparison, Professor Griffith of the University of 
Chicago obtained replies to the questionnaire from a number of representative 
universities in the United States. 

It will be clear from the replies to the questionnaire that Geography does 
not yet occupy the important position in the curricula of the universities 
of the Dominions that it does in the universities of the Home Country, 
or in the universities of the United States. In the universities of Australia 
and New Zealand the subject is represented, and there is a remarkably 
strong department in the University of Sydney. In South Africa the 
subject is important, especially in the Universities of Witwatersrand and 
Pretoria. 

In India the subject is growing in importance ; there is a specially strong 
department in the modern University of Rangoon. 

The position in Canada, which cannot be said to have any full department 
of geography in its several universities, is a remarkable contrast to the 
United States and to the Home Country. 



GEOGRAPHY IN DOMINION UNIVERSITIES 279 



Document A. 

Dear Sir, — On behalf of the Committee appointed by Section E (Geo- 
graphy) of the British Association at its Centenary Meeting held in London, 
September 23-30, 1931, to inquire into the position of Geography in the 
universities of the Empire, we enclose a short questionnaire relative to the 
position occupied by Geography in your University. 

It will be of great assistance to us if you will be so good as to answer the 
questions as fully as possible and also add any other information bearing 
on this topic which you think would be of value. 

(signed) C. B. Fawcett (Chairman). 
L. Dudley Stamp (Secretary). 

The Committee consists of the following : L. J. Burpee (Ottawa) ; W. N. 
Penson (Dunedin) ; F. Debenham (Cambridge) ; C. B. Fawcett (London), 
Chairman ; C. Fenner (Adelaide) ; Griffith Taylor (Chicago, late of 
Sydney, N.S.W.) ; L. Dudley Stamp (London, late of Rangoon), Secretary ; 
J. H. Wellington (Johannesburg), with power to co-opt. 



Document B. 
Questionnaire. 

(1) What is the position of Geography as a subject — 

(a) in the Matriculation or other entrance examination ? 

(b) in Intermediate or other pre-graduation examinations ? 

(c) in the First Degree (Pass and /or Honours) and in what faculty or 
faculties ? 

(d) in Higher Degrees ? 

(e) in other qualifications recognised or awarded by the University 
(e.g. Diplomas) ? 

(f) as part of the training for Degrees in other subjects ? 

(2) (a) Is there a Department of Geography ? 

(b) If so, in what faculty or faculties ? 

(c) Is Geography independent or combined with one or more othel 
subjects in a joint Department ? 

(3) What is the teaching staff in Geography ? Please give names and 
status. 

(4) What, if any, members of the staffs of other departments teach 
Geography ? Please give names and status. 

(s) What proportion, if any, of the work takes the form of laboratory 

work (in hours per week) ? 
(6) Please give any other information which bears on the subject. 

Beplies should be sent as follows : — 

From Canadian universities to Dr. L. J. Burpee, International Joint 
Commission, Ottawa. 

From United States universities to Prof. Griffith Taylor, University of 
Chicago. 

From Australian universities to Dr. C. Fenner, University of Adelaide. 

From South African universities to Prof. J. H. Wellington, University of 
the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg. 

From New Zealand institutions to Dr. W. N. Benson, University of 
Otago, Dunedin. 



28o 



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284 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



OS 

u 

1 

s 


Physical (Junior Matric. 
only recognised as en- 
trance by Sch. of Agric). 

Geog. only in Econ. and 
Geol. courses. 


No. 


None. 


1 


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1 


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v 

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Yes. 

Yes. Arts. 

No. 

B.A., B.L., B.S. degrees. 

No. 


1 1 
d 


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(a) in Matric. or other 

entrance. 

(b) Inter, or other pre-grad. 

(c) First degree : 

Pass 

Honours . 
Faculty . 

(d) Higher degrees . 

(e) Other qualifications 

(/) Degrees in other subjects. 


a. (a) Dept. of Geography 

(b) In what faculty ? . 

(c) Independent or com- 

bined Dept. 


3. What is the teaching staff in 
Geography ? 
Professor(s) . 
Reader(s) 
LecturerCs) 
Others .... 


4. Teachers of other Depts. 
teaching Geog. 


5 . What proportion of the work 
is lab. work ? Hours per 
week. 


I 
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vO 



GEOGRAPHY IN DOMINION UNIVERSITIES 



289 



1 

1 


No exam. 
No exam. 
Yes. 

Commerce (compulsory). 


No. 

Commerce. 

Combined with Dept. of Com- 
merce. 


I (R.N. Dube). 


1 


1 






J5 
t-i 

.SP 

< 


Yes. 

No particulars 
received. 


Yes. 


I (I. R. Khan). 
1 (S.Q.Ahmad). 




1 




< 


Yes. 

Arts and in 3 colleges 
Commerce. 


M, 


n„ 


1 
1 


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u 

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c 


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3. Teaching staff : 

Professor(s) .... 
Reader(s) .... 
Lecturer(s) .... 
Others ..... 


4. Teachers of other Depts. teaching 
Geography. 


5. What proportion of work is lab. 
work ? Hours per week. 


c 

'-t-» 

s 

u 

(U 

JS 

■M 


r . Position of Geography : 

(a) in Matric. or other entrance . 

(b) Inter, or other pre-grad. 

(c) First degree 

Pass 

Honours . 
Faculty . 

(d) Higher degrees . 

(e) Other qualifications 

(/) Degrees in other subjects 


2. (a) Dept. of Geography 

(b) In what faculty ? 

(c) Independent or combined dept. 



zgo 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 






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GEOGRAPHY IN DOMINION UNIVERSITIES 



291 



C 


Yes. Compulsory. 
Yes. 

Yes. 

Arts. 

No. 

Subj. in Dipl. in 
Edn. and B.Ed 


No. 


I (S. C. Chatterji). 
I (S. N. Chatterji). 


J3 

ca 


2 ( I St year), 3 (2nd 
year). 


Training in Sur- 
veying. 


Osmania 
(Hyderabad). 


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MM 


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Recently 
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I . Position of Geography : 

(a) in Matric. or other entrance 

(6) Inter, or other pre-grad. . 

(c) First degree : 

Pass .... 

Honours 

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(d) Higher degrees 

(e) Other qualifications . 

(/) Degrees in other subjects . 


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(b) In what faculty ? 

(c) Independent or combined 

Dept 


3. Teaching staff : 

Professor(s) .... 
Reader(s) .... 
Lecturer(s) .... 
Others .... 


4. Teachers of other depts. teaching 
Geography. 


5. What proportion of work is lab. 
work ? Hours per week. 


6. Other information . 



292 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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296 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



EMPIRE SOIL RESOURCES. 

Report of Committee appointed to co-operate with the Imperial Soil Bureau 
to examine the soil resources of the Empire (Sir John Russell, O.B.E., 
F.R.S., Chairman ; Mr. G. V. Jacks, Secretary ; Prof. C. B. Fawcett, 
Mr. H. King, Dr. L. Dudley Stamp, Mr. A. Stevens, Dr. S. W. 
WooLDRiDGE, Dr. E. M. Crowther, Dr. W. G. Ogg, Prof. G. W. 
Robinson). 

The Committee has secured the assistance of several noted geographers, 
who are now engaged in collecting climatic and ecological data of the 
different countries of the British Empire. Corresponding maps are being 
prepared, and it is hoped that a fairly complete series will be ready by the 
end of the year. The Committee has held one meeting, in conjunction with 
its collaborators, at which progress was reviewed and a progranmie outlined 
for the continuation of the work. 



STRESSES IN OVERSTRAINED MATERIALS. 

Interim Report of Committee on Stresses in Overstrained Materials (Sir 
Henry Fowler, K.B.E., Chairman ; Dr. J. G. Docherty, Secretary ; 
Prof. G. Cook, Prof. B. P. Haigh, Mr. J. S. Wilson). 

The following interim report is submitted : 

'The work of the Committee on the yield point and on stress distributions 
in the initial stages of plastic yield in a variety of cases is proceeding. It^is 
hoped that a full report of these experiments will be submitted in 1934. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed for another year. 



ELECTRICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. 

Report of Committee on Electrical Terms and Definitions (Prof. Sir J. B. 
Henderson, Chairman ; Prof. F. G. Baily and Prof. G. W. O. 
Howe, Secretaries ; Prof. W. Cramp, Prof. W. H. Eccles, F.R.S., 
Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Sir R. Glazebrook, K.C.B., F.R.S., 
Prof. A. E. Kennelly, Prof. E. W, Marchant, Sir Frank Smith, 
K.C.B., C.B.E., Sec. R.S., Prof. L. R. Wilberforce). 

In last year's report reference was made to the undesir ability of making 
a technical report pending the decision of the Symbols, Units and 
Nomenclature (S.U.N.) Commission of the International Union of Physics 
which had just been constituted. 

This Commission has reported, and this report goes a long way to 
remove the difficulties our Committee had encountered. As further reports 
of the above Symbols, Units and Nomenclature Commission are expected, 
we ask for reappointment. 

The Committee ask for reappointment without grant. 



y 



EARTH PRESSURES 297 



EARTH PRESSURES. 

Eighth Interim Report of Committee on Earth Pressures (Mr. F. E. 
Wentworth-Sheilds, Chairman ; Dr. J. S. Owens, Secretary ; 
Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. Fulton, 
Prof. F. C. Lea, Prof. R. V. Southwell, F.R.S., Dr. R. E. 
Stradling, Dr. W. N. Thomas, Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. 
Wilson). 

Since the Committee's last report, a meeting was held at Garston on 
June 22, 1933, when the Committee had the advantage of meeting Prof. 
Jenkin and hearing from him an account of the work he has done during 
the past year. A short report from him is appended. 

His work, of which the Committee would again express high appreciation, 
has been of great importance. The work has consisted almost entirely of 
investigations and experiments on the mechanical properties of clay, the 
experiments being carried out with apparatus devised by him. It is hoped 
that these investigations and experiments will lead to an understanding of 
the fundamental principles of the mechanics of clay, and that it will then 
be possible to estimate the forces exerted by clay, used, for instance, as a 
.foundation of a structure or as backing for a retaining wall. 

The Committee would endorse Prof. Jenkin's conclusion that, although 
no definite results have been reached so far, the experiments are working 
well, and a promising theory is being worked out. 

They recommend that his and their work be carried on for a further 
period. 

Report for the British Association Earth Pressures Committee. 

May 15, 1933. 

Since my report dated July i, 1932, the work on the mechanics of clay has 
been carried on continuously. 

The filter press has been improved so that samples of air-free clay can 
now be prepared under any load up to 1,000 lb. (100 lb. per sq. in. in the 
largest cylinder). The pressure/moisture curve for China clay has been 
determined with this press. The result was quite unexpected : the mois- 
ture left in the clay is found to depend much more on the way the clay 
is handled than on the pressure. Rotating the piston in the press greatly 
reduced the water content, and rotation in alternate directions produces a 
still greater reduction in the water content. 

An apparatus for measuring conjugate pressures on clay cylinders has 
been made and a full series of tests with it carried out. The results were 
again unexpected. It is found that the hydraulic conjugate pressure is 
transmitted through the clay in a few seconds by the water in the clay, so 
that it has no effect ; the compression strengths are not altered by the 
presence of the hydraulic pressures. Tests were made with positive con- 
jugate pressures up to about i atmosphere, and also with negative pressures 
approaching i atmosphere. 

This apparatus has also been used to measure the compression strengths 
of clays of all moisture contents, and a complete curve of strength against 
moisture content has been plotted. 

To extend this curve into the region of partially dry clay — i.e. clay into 
which air has penetrated — a simple compression testing machine has been 



298 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

made suitable for applying the larger loads needed. The tests with this 
apparatus are almost complete. 

To enable autoniatic records of compression load/strain curves to be 
obtained, and particularly to enable hysteresis loops to be recorded, the 
shear apparatus, referred to in the last report, has been slightly added to. 
With the new additions a very large number of records have been made on 
clays of various water contents, and some particularly interesting experi- 
ments have been made on clay tested under water and under oil. This 
* hysteresis loop apparatus ' produces records on smoked glass, which are 
varnished and stored. 

At the present time a full investigation is being made on shear strengths 
in the shear apparatus. One of the many difficulties is that water is often 
extruded from the clay during the test. The cause of this extrusion is the 
point under investigation at the moment. 

A good deal of thought and time has been spent on the design of a kneading 
apparatus which is wanted to mix the clay produced in the press so as to 
destroy any possible lamination. Some interesting results have been 
obtained, but no method has yet been found by which clay can be kneaded 
without introducing air. 

All these experiments are valueless unless they lead to the understanding 
of the fundamental principles of the mechanics of clay. They are sufficient 
to show that none of the existing theories are tenable, and they all appear at 
present to point to an explanation which is fundamentally very simple,, 
though disguised by many subsidiary effects. All the work at present is 
aimed at checking the accuracy of this hypothesis. Though there are many 
difficulties, none of them appear to be insuperable. The great trouble 
of endless creep has not appeared in any of the tests, all of which give 
definite results. 

Conclusion. — Though no definite results have been reached so far, the 
experiments are working well, and a promising theory is being worked out. 

C. F. Jenkin. 



BRITISH SOMALILAND. 

Report of Committee appointed to make a preliminary survey of some reported 
archceological sites in British Somaliland (Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 
Chairman ; Mr. R. U. Sayce, Secretary ; Prof. J. L. Myres, 
F.B.A.). 

The Committee was appointed at the Bristol Meeting in 1930, to enable 
Dr. L. S. B. Leakey to visit Somaliland and make preliminary examination 
of some reported archaeological sites. Dr. Leakey was, however, prevented 
from going to Somaliland, either on his journey to Kenya Colony or on 
his way home ; and has accordingly refunded the grant. 



DERBYSHIRE CAVES 299 



DERBYSHIRE CAVES. 

Eleventh Interim Report of Committee appointed to co-operate with a 
Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the exploration of 
caves in the Derbyshire district (Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Chairman ; 
Dr. R. V. Favell, Secretary ; Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. L. S. 
Palmer, Mr. H. J. E. Peake). 

No new excavation work has been undertaken by the Committee during 
the current year, but the excavation of the Pin Hole Cave, Creswell Crags, 
has been steadily advanced by Mr. Leslie Armstrong, F.S.A., who reports 
as follows : 

' During the autumn of 1932 work was concentrated upon the depressions 
in the floor of the passage on the east side of the main chamber, referred 
to in the report for 1932. Removal of the breccia over the whole area of 
the passage and the trefoil-shaped terminal chamber revealed four large cavities 
in the rock floor, one of which coincided with the width of the passage and 
extended 7 ft. along it. These were entirely filled with cave earth to a depth 
of 2 ft. 6 in. overlying sterile red sand. The cave earth was of Mousterian (i) 
age and yielded examples of the usual fauna, of which the most interesting 
specimens are the greater portion of the skull and lower jaw of a young 
mammoth with complete dentition, and two large fragments of the lower 
jaw of giant deer. Human occupation of the large cavity was demonstrated 
by a small but well-preserved hearth and the presence of a stone pounder, 
animal bones (split and charred), and crude artifacts of quait^ite and crys- 
talline stalagmite. Similar tools were recovered from the smaller cavities 
at the rear of the chamber. The most important finds in this level were 
several worked bone tools, including a bone knife and two awls. The red 
sand which underlies the cave earth was removed to a depth of 2 ft. and 
carefully sieved but, with the exception of the uppermost layer, proved to 
be entirely sterile and to have been introduced by water — probably during 
the original formation of the cave. 

' Upon completion of the work in the east passage attention was turned 
to the large inner chamber of the cave, where operations had been suspended 
at the i2-ft. level in order to facilitate the excavation of the passage. This 
has now been completely excavated to the base — a total depth of 17 ft., of 
which the lowest i ft. 6 in. was entirely sterile and consisted of red sand, 
similar to that found in the passage cavities and previous sections of the 
main cave. 

' The layer of fallen slabs which, throughout the cave, has so consistently 
marked the division between the Mousterian (i) and Mousterian (2) levels 
was found to be exceptionally thick and to include several massive slabs 
of tabular limestone. The underlying cave earth (Mousterian (i) in age) 
was also interspersed throughout by rocks and fragments of limestone, 
many of them of large size and entailing considerable labour in their removal, 
despite the disintegration which is common to all rocks and also to the cave 
walls at this level. 

' The presence of so many rocks no doubt rendered this portion of the 
cave unsuitable for general occupation, and, in consequence, the remains 
recovered there in the Mousterian (i) zone have been less numerous than 
elsewhere in the cave. ^They include, however, a superb side scraper of 
flint and a number of quartzite fragments, split bones, etc. 



300 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

' Work is now proceeding at the rear of the main chamber, where the 
width of the cave gradually contracts to a mere passage. It is hoped that 
the section under examination will be excavated down to the base level 
before the proposed visit to the cave by Section H during the forth- 
coming meeting at Leicester, in which case the complete stratification of the 
cave deposits, 17 ft. in thickness, will be exposed to view.' 

Since the York Meeting, the bone upon which a masked human figure 
is engraved, and also the engraved mammoth ivory lance point, have been 
presented to the British Museum. The most important artifacts and a 
characteristic group of associated objects, faunal remains, etc., have been 
placed in the County Museum, Derby, in accordance with the decision of 
the Committee. 

The Committee desires to be reappointed, and makes request for a 
further grant to enable the work at Creswell to be completed. 

M. C. BuRKiTT, Chairman. 
R. Vernon Favell, Secretary, 



DISTRIBUTION OF BRONZE AGE IMPLEMENTS. 

Report of Committee appointed to report on the Distribution of Bronze 
Age Implements (Prof. J. L. Myres, F.B.A., Chairman ; Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake, Secretary ; Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong ; Mr. H. Balfour, 
F.R.S. ; Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton ; Prof. V. Gordon Childe ; 
Mr. O. G. S. Crawford ; Prof. H. J. Fleure ; Dr. Cyril Fox). 

It is now twenty years since this Committee was appointed at the 
Birmingham Meeting in 1913. Hitherto the Committee has been engaged 
in compiling an illustrated card catalogue of all the * Metal objects of the 
Bronze Age ' in museums and private collections in the British Isles, and 
it is able to report that, with insignificant exceptions, all the specimens 
in England and Wales have been drawn, measured and described, and it is 
hoped that by the time that the Association meets in Leicester all the 
cards will have been stored in the drawers of the cabinet, which is being 
housed for the Association by the Society of Antiquaries. 

At an early date it was found that if strict uniformity was to be preserved, 
all the cards should be prepared by one draughtsman. For this purpose 
the services of Mr. C. H. Howell were engaged, and retained until a few 
years ago, when the work, then nearing completion, became too intermittent 
to necessitate the services of a whole-time officer. Since then the cards 
have been prepared by Miss L. Chitty and Mrs. Michell-Clarke. While 
the funds necessary for the remuneration of these draughtsmen have been 
partly supplied by donations from generous patrons, a large part has been 
received from grants made to the Committee by the Association. The 
balance from these grants became exhausted before the end of 1933, since 
which date Mrs. Michell-Clarke has very kindly completed the work of 
drawing the specimens at the British Museum free of charge. Thus, the 
Committee believes, it has full information respecting all the metal objects 
of the Bronze Age in England and Wales, excepting the specimens of 
foreign origin in the British Museum, the Ashmolean and the Museum at 
York. In addition, it has a complete series of cards from the Isle of Man 
and the Channel Islands, cards for the majority of the specimens in Scotland, 



BRONZE AGE IMPLEMENTS— KENT'S CAVERN 301 

and of a considerable number from Ireland, as well as of those in the 
Harvard Museum and of the early specimens in the Museum of Copenhagen. 

When the catalogue was first projected, the Committee hoped that, with 
international co-operation, it would have been possible to extend this 
catalogue so that it would cover the whole of Europe and the adjacent 
lands. With a view to thus widening the scope of this work, the Secretary 
attended a Meeting of the Association Fran9aise at Le Havre in July 1914, 
where he had an opportunity of bringing the matter to the notice of its 
Anthropological Section. Though much interest in the project was 
expressed, the mobilisation of the French army on the following day 
prevented for a time any help from this direction. Last year the Secretary 
brought the matter before the International Congress for Prehistoric and 
Protohistoric Sciences, and took representatives of France, Germany and 
other countries to see the catalogue. So far, however, no movement for 
extending the work upon the continent has been apparent. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, to make recommendations 
for the maintenance of the catalogue and for future work. 

The Committee has considered the situation resulting from the virtual 
completion of the catalogue for England and Wales, and for the consequent 
need for a change of procedure in order to deal with accessions for the 
future. Without such provision the catalogue will rapidly become 
antiquated. The catalogue is now housed by the Society of Antiquaries, 
but without provision for accessions ; and it does not seem likely that the 
Society of Antiquaries would make such provision. 

The Committee recommends that the best permanent repository for the 
catalogue, and for the incompleted records for Scotland and Ireland, would 
be the British Museum, provided that arrangements can be made for 
systematic record of accessions. In the event of an independent survey 
being made of the bronze implements of Scotland and of Northern Ireland, 
the Committee recommends that items should be duplicated for exchange 
between the national catalogues of those countries and the Committee's 
catalogue. 

The Committee recommends that if this destination of the catalogue is 
approved, the Chairman and Secretary should be authorised to discuss the 
matter with the Director of the British Museum, and to report to the 
Organising Committee of Section H. 



KENT'S CAVERN, TORQUAY. 

Report of Committee appointed to co-operate with the Torquay Natural 
History Society in investigating Kent's Cavern (Sir A. Keith, F.R.S., 
Chairman ; Prof. J. L. Myres, F.B.A., Secretary ; Mr. M. C. 
BuRKiTT, Dr. R. V. Favell, Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Miss D. A. E. 
Garrod, Mr. Lacaille). 

The following report has been received from the excavators, Messrs, F. 
Beynon and Arthur H. Ogilvie : 

' Excavation in the vestibule adjoining the northern entrance to Kent's 
Cavern was begun on October 3, 1932, and on April 24, 1933, was adjourned 
to the next winter season. 

' Work began by digging a trench 24 ft. long by 3 ft. wide alongside the 



302 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

eastern wall of the chamber up to the entrance door. The surface of the 
present floor there is 5 ft. 9 in. below the level of the original granular 
stalagmitic floor, and the trench attained a depth of i ft. 6 in. at the inner 
end up to 5 ft. at the entrance, the depth being determined when bed-rock 
was reached. After sorting all excavated material this trench was refilled, 
and three other wide trenches at right angles to the first were made, begin- 
ning at the entrance to the cavern transversely across the passage way. Each 
portion was filled up as soon as bed-rock was encountered, that imme- 
diately inside the door being 7 ft. deep, the next 8 ft., and the third 4 ft. 3 in. 
deep. It is interesting to note that the foregoing shows that the opening 
into the cave at this point must have been at least three times the height that 
it appeared when operations were begun early last century. 

' Specimens of the usual cave fauna were found, including a right ramus 
of the lower jaw of a hyena, with its condyle and lower border ungnawed ; 
it is most unusual to find one in this state in Kent's Cavern, as the hyena 
always seems to have left as little as possible of the remains of his deceased 
relatives. 

' The discovery of the bony base of a rhinoceros horn is also of interest. 

* Artifacts found included a fine bone awl and two similar but less 
noticeable specimens ; also small tines of deers' antlers which seem to 
have been used as borers. Flint flakes and chips were met with occasionally, 
and encourage the belief that more finished flint-work, of which they are 
the remains, will be found not far away next season.' (Signed) F. Beynon, 
Arthur H. Ogilvie. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, with a small grant for the employ- 
ment of a labourer to remove excavated material after examination. The 
expenditure on labourer's wages during the period covered by this report 
amounted to £8 13s. gd., of which £5 was met by the British Association's 
grant. 



SUMERIAN COPPER. 



Fifth Interim Report, by Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S., of Committee appointed 
to report on the Probable Sources of the Supply of Copper used by the 
Sumerians (Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Chairman ; Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S., 
Secretary ; Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S. ; Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton ; 
Prof. V. Gordon Childe ; Mr. O. Davies ; Prof. H. J. Fleure ; 
Sir Flinders Petrie, F.R.S. ; Dr. R. H. Rastall). 

Since the publication of the last Report the analytical work of the Committee 
has been transferred from the University of Sheffield to the National 
Physical Laboratory. Specimens have been received from a number of 
sites, together with a few ores. The presence of arsenic in relatively high 
proportion in several objects of early date has made it necessary to regard 
this, like nickel, as a key element, which should assist in the location of the 
source of the original copper. Unfortunately, the information as to the 
actual composition of copper ores in the regions now being studied is very 
scanty. As a rule, the statements in works of reference, and even in 
geological monographs, are confined to a record of the occurrence of copper, 
together with a figure expressing the average richness of the ore, with 
statistics of production where the mine has been recently worked. It is 



SUMERIAN COPPER 303 

rare to find any mention of the presence of accessory elements. Such 
specimens as have been received for examination, except for the native 
coppers described in the First Report, have been from deep-seated deposits 
of pyrites, whilst the ancient copper was undoubtedly derived mainly from 
oxidised outcrops. Some specimens have proved to be slags from compara- 
tively modern workings. The search for ores is being pursued, and the 
Committee is indebted to Sir Arnold Wilson for his assistance in procuring 
theni and in advising as to possible sources. Arsenical copper ores, some- 
times containing nickel, are found in Armenia, south of Lake Van, and in 
Anatolia, at Yenikoi, south of the Sea of Marmora, whilst the ore at 
Kastamouni, near to the Black Sea, is known to contain nickel. The known 
occurrences have been mapped, and the region within which such mixed 
ores, containing both arsenic and nickel, may occur appears to form a band 
extending through Anatolia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, but sources farther 
afield cannot at present be excluded. 

A piece of thin metal from Professor Langdon, from the 1930 excava- 
tions at Kish, reported as of date 3200 B.C., gave 95-17 per cent, copper, 
o-o8 nickel, 4-60 arsenic, and 0-15 iron. This proportion of arsenic is 
unusually high. Two objects of early date from Ur were received from the 
British Museum for micrographic examination, having a core of uncorroded 
metal. One proved to be a copper and the other a bronze, the structure 
showing that the former had been hammered and slightly reheated after 
casting, whilst the bronze was in the cast condition. Analyses : — 







Copper. 


Tin. 


Nickel. 


Arsenic. 


Lead. 


Spear. 


U 12239 BML III 


• 97-2 


0-56 


1-36 


— 


trace 


Axe. 


U 12098 BML XVI 


• 87-93 


11-65 


0-20 


— 


0-22 



An arrow head from Anau, obtained from the Hermitage Museum at 
Leningrad, from its Director, through the good offices of the Foreign Office, 
was accidentally omitted from an earlier Report. A core of unoxidised 
metal was present, and the composition was : — 

Copper, 96-85. Tin, 2-35. Iron, 1-25. 

Nickel, arsenic and lead were absent. The object was found in the North 
Kurgan, but the layer in which it occurred was not indicated. 

An analysis has been received from Philadelphia of the copper spearhead 
found by Mr. Woolley at Ur below the ' Flood ' level, and described as 
copper. The copper found was 99-69 per cent., with o-i6 arsenic, o-oi 
iron, and 0-12 zinc, without a trace of nickel, tin, or silver. The zinc 
reported must be regarded as doubtful. The writer at one time found zinc 
in a number of specimens, which was at last traced to the presence of that 
metal in the glass vessels used for analysis. 

The largest number of specimens examined has come from the excava- 
tions of the Oriental Institute of Chicago at Tell Asmar and Khafaje, sent 
by Dr. H. Frankfort, to whom the Committee is indebted for a grant of 
£20 to supplement that received from the Association. The bronze dagger 
which appears first on the list is of special interest, since it still held the 
remains of an iron blade, analysis showing that this iron is of terrestrial 
origin, and not, as in the case of other early iron objects, examined by the 
Committee, forged from a meteorite. 

A portion of a spearhead from Nineveh, submitted by Mr. Mallowan, 
although completely oxidised, proved to be of pure copper, tin and nickel 
being completely absent, whilst the minute quantity of iron found (0-15 per 
cent.) may well have been derived from the soil. 

A batch of specimens has been received recently from Dr. H, H. von der 



304 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Osten, Field Director of the excavations of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, 
at Alishar Hoyiik, in Anatolia. The analyses, so far as completed, are 
included in the table. 

An Egyptian razor of the Fourth Dynasty was received from Sir Robert 
Mond. This thin razor, in very perfect preservation, had all the appearance 
of being of copper, but the analysis showed it to be a true bronze. Determina- 
tions of hardness showed that the edge had been hardened by severe 
hammering. Analysis : — 

Copper, 88-5. Tin, 8-5. Iron, i- 8. Lead, 0-3. Nickel, o- 01. 

A little slaggy matter was present. 

Mention may be made of a few analyses published elsewhere. Dr. C. F. 
Elam has examined five objects from Mr. Woolley's finds at Ur {J. Inst. Met., 
1932, 48, 97) and found two objects from the earliest levels to be true bronzes, 
whilst the later specimens contain either no tin, or a small and variable 
quantity. This is in accordance with our own observations. The nickel 
content recorded is mostly higher than that found by us, but is of the same 
order. Sir Harold Carpenter has examined an Egyptian axe head of early 
Dynastic age, this being a large object, weighing over three pounds. 
Analysis {Nature, 22 Oct., 1932) : — 

Copper, 97-35. Nickel, 1-28. Arsenic, 0-49. 

Lead, 0-17. Iron, 0-15. Manganese, o- 06. 

The remainder being oxygen. Manganese is known to be associated with 
copper in Egyptian ores. 

In the table which follows, the highly oxidised specimens have not been 
re-calculated, the reason being that the amount of earthy matter present is 
sometimes so large as to make it uncertain whether some of its components 
are to be attributed to the metal, whilst other specimens contain sulphur, 
derived from the ore, and present in the metal as sulphide. This sulphur 
has not been determined, but its presence is noted. In view of the high 
proportion of sulphur in many of the objects from Mohenjo-daro in the 
Fourth Report, specimens of the soil were obtained from Mr. Mackay, 
with the object of determining whether this sulphur was derived from the 
soil. Two samples were received, labelled ' Top of mound ' and ' Lowest 
levels ' respectively. Neither contained any sulphide, and the total quantity 
of sulphate in the lower layer was only 016 per cent., that in the upper 
layer being 1*92 per cent. The sulphur found in the specimens had, 
therefore, come from the ore. In the case of the Tell Asmar specimens, 
a core of uncorroded metal is sometimes present, in which sulphide may 
be detected under the microscope. It does not follow that the pyritic ores 
were deliberately smelted ; it may have been that the outcrop ores were 
more or less contaminated by sulphides. 



Tell Asmar, Pre-Sar- 










Ar- 






gonid hoard. 




Copper. 


Tin. 


Nickel. 


senic. 


Lead. 


Iron. 


Bronze dagger 


1080 


88-6i 


7-60 


0-67 


trace 


0-94 


0-46* 


Vase . 


1051 


85-51 





0-02 


0-05 


0-36 


— 


Vase . 


1085 


85-53 





0-07 


0-06 


099 


— 


Tell Asmar, Akkadian. 
















Lump or ingot 


764 


95 -oi 





0-62 


0-25 





— t 


Implement . 


1317 


52-90 





0-13 


0-67 




t 


Wire bangle . 


1239 


93-96 





o-n 


O-Il 






Arrow butt . 


559 


87-48 


0-74 


0-32 


1-57 






* Some oxide. 




t Much sulp 


hur. 







SUMERIAN COPPER— MECHANICAL ABILITY 305 











Ar- 






Tell Asmar, Early Dynastic. 


Copper. 


Tin. 


Nickel 


senic. 


Lead. 


Iron. 


Dagger blade . 1329 


90 82 


2 63 


0-33 


0-I5 





0-15 


Sickle blade . . 1131 


88-11 








2-23 





0-40 


Arrow butt . . 1048 


61 -50 





0-36 


0-37 





— t 


Arrow butt . . 1097 


70-0 


trace 


0-39 


0-86 






Rolled pin . . 1038 


95-49 





0-30 


1-27 


c 


1-30 


Rolled pin . . 986 


87-81 





0-90 


2-08 





I -04 


Khafaje, Early Dynastic. 














Dagger blade . 1296 


49-83 





0-29 


0-94 


0-22 


— — 


Rolled pin . . . 4^5 


39-70 











trace 




Rolled pin . . 187 


77-98 





trace 


0-22 







Lump . . . 152 


78-73 


6-31 


0-2Z 


090 







Alishar Hoyuk, Anatolia, 














Copper age and transi- 














tion period. 














e — 700 


58-12 


4-82 


0-04 


0-14 


I -22 




e— 833 


61-36 


IO-8 


0-51 


0-03 







e 963 


60-52 


0-76 


trace 


o*ii 


0-40 




t 


Much sulphur 











MECHANICAL ABILITY. 

Final Report of Committee appointed to inquire into the factors involved in 
Mechanical Ability (Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S., Chairman ; 
Dr. G. H. Miles, Secretary ; Prof. C. Burt, Dr. F. M. Earle, 
Dr. Ll. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear). 

Arising out of the work reported to the Association by the Committee 
on Vocational Tests in 1 931, the present Committee arranged for a thorough 
revision and statistical examination of the results to be made. As an 
outcome of this work the need was apparent for a further examination of 
the routine manual factor which plays an important part in the process of 
repetitive manual operations. 

I. Suitability of Measures. 

Reliability. — The suitability of the measures upon which the conclusions 
of this report are based was carefully investigated. The reliability of the 
' mechanical ' tests (assembling and aptitude), as indicated by their inter- 
correlations, was in the neighbourhood of 0-6 to 0-7. That of the routine 
tests, based on the correlation of one test with a general repetition, varied 
from 0-52 to 0-91. The reliability of the 'intelligence' tests, based 
on the correlation between the sum of the odd sub-tests and that of the 
even, varied from o-8 to 0-9. 

The intercorrelation of each ' trial ' with the other trials constituting 
the test was examined in the data on the routine tests obtained from the 
adult subjects. The figures indicated that the reliability of manual tests 
depended primarily on the number of repetitions (or ' trials ') rather than 
upon the complexity and length of the ' trial ' itself. About the same 
degree of ' reliability ' could be expected from a given number of trials, 

M 2 



3o6 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

irrespective of the length of the operations that are being tested, and which 
constituted the ' trial.' 

The figures also showed that, so far as the first five trials that constituted 
these tests were concerned, one ' trial ' was about as reliable as another. 
A similar result was observed during the much longer practice period, for 
it was found that the reliability of the ' test ' was much the same from 
one day to another, irrespective of the stage of the subjects' practice. 
Generally, the tests measured ' initial ' ability to about the same degree 
of accuracy as they predicted ability after practice. 

Little difference in reliability was observed between the adults and 
elementary school subjects. 

Incentives. — The correlation between the scores made at the various 
tests, and estimated ' incentive,' proved to be negligibly small. The 
results which we have now to examine can, therefore, hardly be explained 
on the basis of differences in incentive. 

II. The Special Abilities (or Group-factors). 

The Mechanical Factor. — Having secured reliable measures of ability, our 
next step was to determine the intercorrelations of all the tests in the 
case of each group of subjects tested (i.e. the ' adult ' group, and the several 
elementary school groups). It was at once evident from these correlations 
that the data tended to fall into three groups, viz. : (i) a ' mechanical ' group 
consisting of the mechanical aptitude tests and the mechanical assembling 
tests ; (ii) a routine (or ' manual ') group composed of the routine assembling 
and stripping tests, and the simple manual tests, and (iii) a general 
intelligence group consisting of the tests and estimates of intelligence, and 
general school subjects. 

The next step was to determine, by Spearman's method of tetrad- 
differences, how far these observed differences in the correlation coefficients 
are due to chance, or to differences in the degree of correlation which all 
of the other tests showed with the intelligence group. The application of 
this criterion indicated that although the general positive correlation running 
throughout the data could best be ascribed to a general factor common to 
all, there were also present group-factors, tending to produce a closer 
relationship between members of the same group than could be accounted 
for by this general factor. 

To determine more precisely the location and range of the group-factors, 
the influence of the general factor was next statistically eliminated and the 
tetrad-difference criterion was then applied to the resulting specific 
correlations. 

It is impossible to present here the numerous correlation tables examined 
in the course of the analysis. It must suffice to say that the following 
conclusions were clearly indicated : 

(i) The specific intercorrelations of the ' mechanical ' group were 
best explicable by a single group-factor common to both the ' aptitude ' 
and the ' assembly ' tests. This seemed most reasonably identified with 
the mechanical factor (' m ') which was disclosed in the aptitude type of 
test in a previous research, and whose presence was thus confirmed in the 
present research, and shown, for the first time, to be present in suitable 
tests of the mechanical assembling type. 

(2) The mechanical aptitude type (which, it will be remembered, involved 
no manual activity) were more highly saturated with the mechanical group - 
factor than were the assembling type, and therefore provide better measures 
of this special ability. 



MECHANICAL ABILITY 307 

(3) It was definitely established that the group-factor in the ' mechanical ' 
group was not the same as the group-factor in the routine ' manual ' tests. 

The Routine Alanttal Factor. — Statistical analysis of the manual tests 
along similar lines indicated that : 

(i) The specific intercorrelations of the routine 'manual' assembling 
and stripping tests, and the simple manual tests, could be best explained 
by a single group-factor. 

(2) This routine (or ' manual ') factor was clearly distinguishable from 
the ' mechanical ' factor seen in the mechanical aptitude and mechanical 
assembling tests. 

(3) In general, the more complex assembling tests were more highly 
saturated with this factor than were the simpler manual tests. 

(4) Where the tests were both very simple and very similar (such as 
screwing and unscrewing the turnbuckle), small additional factors common 
to the pair of tests concerned, and to these only, were observed. 

The ' Abilities ' in Assembling Work. — The independently measurable 
' abilities * or * group-factors ' in assembling work were thus found to be 
(i) a mechanical factor, associated with the solution of a mechanical problem ; 
(ii) a routine manual factor associated with the manual activity involved 
in this work ; and (iii), to a less extent, general intelligence. As the work 
assumes a routine character the mechanical factor tends to disappear. 
There was little evidence of the routine factor in the mechanical assembling 
operations. In these the manual activity involved appears to function 
specifically, rather than as a group-factor. 

The Organisation of Manual Activity. — The more complex forms of 
manual activity appear to depend on a broader and more important group- 
factor than earlier work on simpler manual tests would lead us to suppose. 
As the operations become simpler they depend less upon this common 
factor and more upon factors specific to the particular operation. The 
measurement of this group-factor, in relative independence of other factors, 
as provided by suitably constructed tests, would seem to be essential 
wherever vocational guidance or selection in the sphere of manual activity 
is in question. 



III. The Mental Processes in Manual Activity. 

The analysis divides into two parts. The first attempts to elucidate the 
cognitive processes involved in the solution of the mechanical problem 
which accompanies certain forms of manual activity such as that of the 
mechanical assembling operations. It thereby extends to manual activities 
the analysis of mechanical aptitude which the writer has already described 
in a former work. In the former analysis the problems were of a different 
kind and v/ere uncomplicated by manual activity. The present extension 
of the analysis to include manipulative operations throws light on another 
large class of engineering occupations. 

The analysis also includes an examination of the processes underlying 
the cognition of shape, and the relation of these to drawing and design. 
The results are therefore of vocational interest wherever the worker is 
called upon to deal with spatial material. 

The second part of the analysis deals with those manual activities which 
involve no special mechanical problem and which we termed routine 
assembling operations. It attempts to unravel the cognitive processes 
associated with the manual factor which our objective measurements 
disclosed. It includes an account of the kind of knowledge that is acquired 



3o8 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

by practice at manual operations, and an analysis into elementary processes 
of the mental activity essential to its acquisition. 

The ' mechanical ' factor and the ' routine manual ' factor appear to 
enter into many occupations. It is hoped, therefore, that these analytical 
results when published ^ may find wide application in the field of vocational 
psychology, as also the methods of analysis which have been adopted. 



TRAINING IN PSYCHOLOGY. 

Report of Committee appoitited to inquire into (a) the occupations for which 
a training in psychology is necessary or desirable, (b) the place 
psychology should occupy in the curricula for University degrees in 
Arts, Science, Medicine, Education, Economics and other subjects 
(Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S., Chairman ; A. R. Knight, Secretary ; 
Prof. F. AvELiNG, Dr. Wm. Brown, Prof. J. Drever, Prof. Beatrice 
Edgell, C. a. Mace, Prof. T. H. Pear, Dr. R. H. Thouless, 
Prof. C. W. Valentine, A. W. Wolters). 

I. The Occupations for which a Training in Psychology is 
necessary or desirable. 

I. A training in psychology is now recognised to be necessary for 
(i) teachers, who aim at forming mind and character, (ii) medical 
practitioners, who aim at curing mental as well as physical disorders, and 
(iii) industrialists, who aim at directing human energy in the most economical 
way ; and educational, medical, and industrial psychology are three 
established branches of applied psychology. But a training in psychology 
is also helpful to any other person whose work lies in dealing effectively 
with human beings. It helps him not merely because it provides him 
with important and special knowledge of the human mind and of human 
behaviour, but also because it develops in him the habit of dealing with 
human relations and problems in an objective, scientific manner. 

2. (i) Medicine. — Every physician should have received, in his medical 

course, a training in general psychology, and in the psychological 

treatment of mental disorder. 

(ii) Education. — Intending teachers require a training in general 

psychology, and in the facts about mental growth and the formation 

of character, individual differences, abnormal and delinquent 

behaviour, the measurement of abilities, and the applications of 

psychology to methods of teaching. 

(iii) Theology. — Clergymen require a training in general and abnormal 

psychology, in the psychological facts underlying religious and 

moral behaviour, and in the technique of effective pastoral work. 

Missionaries require, in addition, some knowledge of racial 

psychology and of the mental life of primitive peoples. 

(iv) Law. — Both branches of the legal profession require, or at any 

rate benefit by, a training in general psychology, especially in its 

^ A detailed account of the analysis outlined in this report will be published in 
book form by the National Institute of Industrial Psychology. , : i"> 



TRAINING IN PSYCHOLOGY 309 

relation to motivation, intelligence, mental defect, testimony, and 
the technique of appraising and dealing with people, 
(v) The Services. — Officers in the Navy, Army, and Air Force require 
a training in general psychology, especially in its bearing on the 
selection and training of recruits, leadership, discipline, morale, 
and the mental disorders of warfare. Colonial administrators 
also require a training in general psychology and in the psychological 
problems raised by the government of native races, 
(vi) Industry and Commerce. — Those aiming at executive or adminis- 
trative posts in industry and commerce, or at salesmanship and 
advertising, need a training in general psychology and in the 
various branches of industrial and vocational psychology. 
(vii) Social Work. — Those professionally or unprofessionally engaged 
in social or welfare work require a training in general psychology, 
(viii) Other occupations. — A training in general psychology, especially 
in its dynamic aspects, is desirable for economists, historians, 
anthropologists, literary critics, biologists, and everyone else who 
aims at describing or explaining the thought and behaviour of 
men or animals. A course on the special senses is also required 
in scientific work where accuracy of observation depends on the 
accuracy of the response of human sense-organs. And there may 
well be other occupations for which some training in psychology 
is necessary or desirable. 

II. The place Psychology should occupy in the Curricula for 
University Degrees in Arts, Science, Medicine, Education, 
Economics and other Subjects. 

1 . The present position of psychology in the universities of Great Britain 
lacks uniformity. In some universities there is a Professor of Psychology, 
while in others there is not even a specially appointed lecturer. In some 
there is a full, self-contained honours course in psychology, while in others 
psychology, if it is taught at all, forms merely a subordinate part of a course 
in some other subject. Again, in some universities a course in psychology 
qualifies for degrees both in Arts and in Science, while in others it qualifies 
for only one of these degrees or for neither. And these are not all the 
anomalies. 

2. Psychology should occupy such a place in university curricula as 
will exhibit its distinction from philosophy and its status as an independent, 
positive science. The fundamental concepts used in psychology do indeed 
stand in need of philosophical analysis, as do those used in any other branch 
of empirical science. Moreover, since psychology deals with the thought 
and behaviour of men, its connection with philosophy and the other 
humanities is much closer than that of other sciences, like physics or 
chemistry. And for these reasons it is entitled to a prominent place in 
the Faculty of Arts in each university. Still, its position as one of the 
established biological sciences requires that it shall also be taught in every 
Faculty of Science. Its special cultural value should not be allowed to 
prejudice its scientific status. An independent, positive science that is of 
special importance to Arts students is still an independent, positive science. 

3. (i) Arts and Science. — There should be pass courses and honours 

courses qualifying for degrees both in Arts and in Science, 
(ii) Medicine. — Courses in psychology should be compulsory for first 
degrees in medicine. 



3IO REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

(iii) Education. — Courses in psychology should be compulsory for 
degrees or diplomas in education. 

(iv) Theology. — Courses in psychology should be available for 
theological students, and compulsory for those proposing to engage 
in pastoral work, 
(v) Law. — Courses in psychology should be available for law students. 

(vi) Military Subjects, etc. — If university courses are provided for 
prospective candidates for the fighting services, psychology should 
be made a compulsory subject in such courses.^ Training in 
psychology should also be given to those aiming at the colonial 
adniinistrative services. 

(vii) Economics, Commerce, etc. — Courses in psychology should be 
provided for degrees in economics, commerce, industrial adminis- 
tration, etc. 
(viii) Social Science, etc. — Courses in psychology should be compulsory 
for degrees or diplomas in social science, mental hygiene, welfare 
work, etc. 

(ix) General. — Short courses on the art of study and effective thinking 
should be available for all university students, especially freshmen. 

4. At present the Committee makes no recommendation as to the precise 
nature and length of these several courses, except in so far as the first part 
of this report indicates the different kinds of course which different 
occupations demand. But it does strongly recommend three things : 
(i) Every course should include experimental work, (ii) Even where some 
special application of psychology — as to medicine, or education, or 
industry — is the main subject of the course, this should always be presented 
against a sound background of general psychology, (iii) Every course 
should be given by a trained psychologist. At present psychology is often 
set before students (especially in Faculties of Medicine and Theology) by 
unqualified persons, with the result that the teaching and examinations are 
unsatisfactory and out-of-date. 



TRANSPLANT EXPERIMENTS AT POTTERNE, WILTSHIRE. 

Report of Committee on Transplant Experimoits (Sir Arthur Hill, 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Chairman ; Dr. W. B. Turrill, Secretary ; 
Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ; Dr. E. J. Salisbury ; Prof. A. G. 
Tansley, F.R.S.). 

This Committee was appointed by the British Association at the 1930 
meeting and reappointed at the meetings in 193 1 and 1932. 

The second report on the progress of the experiments is being published 
in the Journal of Ecology for August 1933- A third report is in preparation. 

The balance of £2 6s. 2d. of the British Association grant has been used 
to meet (in part) expenses represented by vouchers (receipts) which have 
been submitted. No further grant is asked for this year. 

1 Professor Pear and Dr. Thouless dissent frota this on the ground that specific 
instruction in the application of psychology to problems of warfare should not be 
given in universities. 



KLEINIA ARTICULATA 311 



KLEINIA ARTICULATA. 

Final Report of Committee appointed to investigate the effect of conditions 
on the growth, structure and metabolism of Kleinia articulata (Prof. D. 
Thoday, Chairman ; Mr. N. Woodhead, Secretary ; Dr. F. F. 
Blackman, F.R.S.). 

The starvation experiments referred to in the last report showed that 
malic acid is broken down in the later stages, and associated with this is 
a marked increase in the pW of the sap. When protoplasmic breakdown 
occurs in the pith, the pH of the escaping sap reaches about 8. 

Observations on wound-healing have been continued and extended to 
Kleinia neriifolia and other species. The distribution of solutes in these 
other species has also been examined. 

An experiment, lasting five weeks, was carried out in the three chambers 
previously mentioned, each chamber illuminated by a 500-watt Osram 
lamp with white dispersive reflector and running-water screen. In each, 
24 cuttings, previously sprouted in the dark, were exposed respectively to 
daily periods of illumination of 8 hours, 12 hours and 15 hours. The 
temperature in the chambers during illumination was about 18-20° C, and 
fell in the intervals to about 16-17° C. In the 15 -hours chamber many of 
the sprouts rapidly withered. In the i2-ho\.irs chamber most of the shoots 
showed a more or less marked tendency to plagiotropism, which was only 
shown by a few in the 8-hours chamber. The average elongation was 
greatest with the shortest daily illumination, least with the longest. 
Further experiments are contemplated for further analysis of these effects. 

The stock of plants was depleted by this experiment, and attention has 
since been concentrated on replenishing it. The work will be continued, 
but the Committee does not apply for reappointment. 

The following papers have appeared during the year : 

H. Evans : ' The Pentosan Content of Kleinia articulata,' Biochemical 

Journal, xxvi, 1095-1100 (1932). 
D. Thoday and H. Evans : ' The Distribution of Soluble Calcium and 

Phosphate in the Tissues of Kleinia articulata and some other Plants,' 

Ann. Bot., xlvi, 781-806 (1932). 
D. Thoday and H. Evans : ' The Distribution of some Solutes in the 

Tissues of Kleinia articulata,' Ann. Bot., xlvii, 1-20 (1933). 



3ia REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



GENERAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS. 

Final Report of Committee on the Teaching of General Science in Schools, 
with Special Reference to the Teaching of Biology (Dr. Lilian J. 
Clarke, Chairman ; Mr. G. W. Olive, Secretary ; Mr. C. E. 
Browne ; Major A. G. Church, D.S.O. ; Mr. G. D. Dunkerley ; 
Mr. S. R. HuMBY ; Sir Percy Nunn ; Mr. E. R. B. Reynolds ; 
Dr. E. W. Shann ; Dr. E. M. Thomas ; Mr. A. H. Whipple ; 
Mrs. Gordon Wilson ; Miss von Wyss). 

Contents. 

I. Introduction. II. Historical Review of Reports previously issued on 
the Teaching of Science. III. Analysis of the Results of the Questionnaire. 
IV. Examinations. V. Out-of-School Activities in relation to Science. 
VI. Summary and Conclusions. 



I. Introduction. 

The committee undertook to ascertain as far as possible the position occupied 
by General Science with special reference to the inclusion of Biology in the 
curriculum of secondary schools of England and Wales. The term General 
Science has frequently been taken to mean physics and chemistry alone. It is 
therefore to be understood that the term when used in this report means a 
course or syllabus which includes at least a study of living things, both plant 
and animal, together with physics and chemistry. In order to give the inquiry 
its maximum value, the co-operation of heads of secondary schools and 
science teachers was invited, and this assistance was fully and freely given. 
Teachers were obviously interested, and a large number of questionnaires 
were returned, completed in detail and supplemented by explanatory notes. 

At the outset, members of the committee were conversant, broadly 
speaking, with the position occupied by General Science in the schools. 
They were aware of the work undertaken by various bodies and pioneers 
in the past, and of the investigations already made. Their first step was to 
prepare a historical review of the growth of opinion in favour of Biology as 
a part of the general science work of a school. Their next step was to obtain 
as complete and comprehensive information as possible on — 

(i) The extent to which General Science was already adopted in the 
schools ; 

(2) The attitude of heads of schools and science teachers towards the 
value of General Science under the present organisation of schools. 

This infornnation they sought largely by means of questionnaires, circu- 
lated to schools throughout the country. In this connection, certain 
selected schools were invited to supply information on special features of 
their out-of-school activities, as ancillary to the work carried on in school. 

As examinations play a large part in determining the type of science work 
in schools, and exercise a restricting influence on a school's freedom in the 
choice of subjects or in the scope of a subject, the committee have considered 
the problem of school examinations in relation to the adoption of General 
Science as a school subject. 

Out-of-school activities play an important part in science teaching. It 
was essential, therefore, to obtain information on this point also, and again 



GENERAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS 313 

heads of schools and science teachers gave every assistance. The mass of 
information actually received was large as well as pertinent, and the report 
can do no more than present this in outline. 

At the end of the report will be found a summary as well as a statement 
of the conclusions at which the committee has arrived. 

II. Historical Review. 

The principle that School Science should include more than elementary 
physics and chemistry can be traced back many years. It was in fact present 
in the minds of those who first advocated the study of science in schools. 
Huxley in 1854, when referring to the educational value of Natural History 
sciences, said : ' Biology needs no apologist when she demands a place, and a 
prominent place , in any scheme of education worthy of the name . Leave out 
the Physiological sciences from your curriculum, and you launch the student 
into the world, undisciplined in that science whose subject matter would 
best develop his powers of observation ; ignorant of facts of the deepest 
importance for his own and others' welfare ; blind to the richest sources of 
beauty in God's creation ; and unprovided with that belief in a living law, 
and an order manifesting itself in and through endless change and variety, 
which might serve to check and moderate that phase of despair through 
which, if he take an earnest interest in social problems, he will assuredly 
sooner or later pass.' 

The Royal Commission in i860 recommended that all boys should receive 
instruction in some branch of natural science during at least part of their 
school life, that there should be two branches : one consisting of chemistry 
and physics, and the other of physiology and natural history, animal and 
plant. 

At the Nottingham Meeting of the British Association, 1866, a committee 
was appointed, which included Professors Huxley and Tyndall and Canon 
Wilson, * To consider the best means of promoting Scientific Education in 
schools.' Ample reference to their report, issued in 1867, was made in the 
Report on Science Teaching in Secondary Schools, published in 1917, 
but it may be noted here that the list of science studies recommended 
included : simple facts of astronomy, of geology, and of elementary physio- 
logy, experimental physics, elementary chemistry, and botany. 

Canon Wilson, in his Essays on a Liberal Education, published in 1867, 
describes the methods adopted when introducing science teaching in 
Rugby School ; he explains that it was lack of equipment and of teachers 
that limited the work actually adopted to Botany and Physics, these two 
being claimed as the standard subjects for the scientific teaching in schools. 
Chemistry was not then considered possible owing to difficulties in obtaining 
suitable apparatus and equipment. 

In 1884 Prof. H. L. Armstrong, when speaking at the International 
Conference on Education in London, said : ' In my opinion no single 
branch of natural science should be selected to be taught as part of the 
ordinary school course, but the instruction should comprise the elements 
of what I have already spoken of as the science of daily life, and should 
include astronomy, botany, chemistry, geology, physics, physiology and 
zoology. . . . The order in which these subjects should be introduced is 
a matter of discussion ; personally I should prefer to begin with botany, 
and introduce as soon as possible the various branches of science in no 
particular order but that best suited to the understanding of the various 
objects and phenomena to which for the time being the teaching had 
reference.' 



314 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Encouraged by grants made on results of examinations by the Science 
and Art Department, and influenced by the establishment of scholarships 
in Natural Sciences at Oxford and Cambridge, and by the inclusion of 
science subjects in the requirements of London Matriculation examinations, 
most schools had by 1890 included science teaching of some kind in their 
curriculum. The teaching of botany, however, did not long survive in 
boys' schools, by the end of the century it was mainly confined to girls' 
schools. In 1903 a British Association Committee on ' The Teaching of 
Botany in Schools ' issued a report on methods of teaching the subject. 
The report drew attention to the need for substituting an experimental study 
of living plants for the excessive study of classification and morphology 
which then obtained in the majority of botanical classes ; emphasis was laid 
on the need for the pupils to work for themselves, to be the inquirers, and 
the recorders of actual experiences instead of being the recipients of didactic 
lessons by teachers. It was further asserted that ' In Botanical and Zoo- 
logical teaching, more than in any other scientific courses, it is easy to adopt 
improved methods.' 

Instead of developing on broad lines advocated in the early years, science 
teaching in boys' schools became almost wholly concerned with physics 
and chemistry, and for the most part with only very restricted parts of 
those subjects. The influence exerted by the highly specialised university 
requirements for a science degree contributed in no small way to consolidate 
this tendency, for the majority of science degrees were awarded to persons 
without the most elementary knowledge of biology. 

The withdrawal of botany and zoology as compulsory subjects for the 
Intermediate Science Examination of London University in 1898 has been, 
in the opinion of many teachers, a contributory cause for the decline in 
interest in biology in schools, and a cause of the deficiency of candidates 
for that subject at the University. All London graduates in science had, 
up to that time, at least some knowledge of biological principles and 
facts. 

The report of the British Association Committee on * Science Teaching 
in Secondary Schools,' published in 1917, gives a survey of the position 
of science teaching at that date, and includes important memoranda on 
methods of teaching science, on the value of experimental work, on inspec- 
tion and examination, and on school organisation so far as it affects the 
adequate treatment of the subject. 

About the same time the Civil Service Commission attempted to bring the 
teaching of science in schools more into relation with the facts of daily life 
by demanding for certain examinations a much broader type of science study 
than was usual in schools. Similarly the Science Masters' Association 
made a vigorous effort to obtain recognition for General Science in the 
School Certificate Examinations. In response to this the Oxford and 
Cambridge Joint Board and the Delegates of the Oxford Local Examination 
provided a General Science paper alternative to those of the special subjects 
of physics and chemistry. 

In 1 917 the extension of sixth-form work in grant-aided secondary 
schools was encouraged by the institution of advanced courses by the Board 
of Education. The grant of £400 made in connection with each such 
course made it possible to free a teacher for the instruction of a compara-