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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

SI I. Jl.f^^ 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 

REPORT 

OF THE 

ANNUAL MEETING, 1935 

(105th YEAR) 




NORWICH 

SEPTEMBER 4-11 



LONDON 

OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE. LONDON, VV. 1 

1935 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Officers and Council, 1935-36 v 

Sectional Officers, Norwich Meeting, 1935 ^^ 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes (1831-1935) xii 

Narrative of the Norwich Meeting xvii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1934-35) • • xix 

General Treasurer's Account (1934-35) xxix 

Research Committees (1935-36) xlii 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Norwich Meeting) xlvii 

The Presidential Address : 

Form, Drift, and Rhythm of the Continents. By Prof. W. W. 

Watts, F.R.S i 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

The Story of Isotopes. By Dr. F. W. Aston, F.R.S 23 

The Molecular Structure of Carbohydrates. By Prof. W. N. 

Haworth, F.R.S 31 

Some Geological Aspects of Recent Research on Coal. By Prof. 

H. G. A. Hickling 47 

The Species Problem. By Prof. F. Balfour-Browne 63 

Some Aspects of the Polar Regions. By Prof. F. Debenham ... 79 
Economic Nationalism and International Trade. By Prof. J. G. 

Smith 89 

The Stability of Structures. By J. S. Wilson 113 

Recent Progress in the Study of Early Man. By Sir Arthur 

Smith Woodward, F.R.S 129 

The Pituitary Body and the Diencephalon. By Prof. P. T. 

Herring i43 

PersonaHty and Age. By Dr. Ll. W^-nn Jones 157 

Some Aspects of Plant Pathology. By F. T. Brooks, F.R.S. .. 169 
Education and Freedom. By Dr. A. W. Pickard-Cambridge . . 189 
The Financial and Economic Results of State Control in Agricul- 
ture. By Dr. J. A. Venn 203 



iv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 223 

Sectional Transactions 346 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 474 

Evening Discourses 487 

References to Publication of Communications to the Sections 494 

APPENDIX. 

A Scientific Survey of Norwich and District 1-120 

Index 121 

Publications of the British Association (At end) 



'^ritislj l^ssotiation for tlj^ ^.bbanctmtnt 

0f Sticnce. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1935-36. 



PATRON. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT, 1935. 

Prof. W. W. Watts, LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT, 1936. 
Sir JosiAH C. Stamp, G.C.B., G.B.E., D.Sc, F.B.A. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR THE NORWICH MEETING. 



The Lord Mayor of Norwich (P. W. 

Jewson, J. p.). 
The Ex-Lord Mayor of Norwich 

(Alderman F. C. Jex, J. P.). 
The Sheriff of Norwich (Councillor 

W. E.Walker, J. P.). 
The Ex-Sheriff of Norwich (Coun- 
cillor E. J. Motum). 
The Deputy Lord Mayor of Nor- 
wich (Alderman Sir Henry N. 

Holmes, J. P.). 
H.M. Lieutenant for Norfolk 

(Russell J. Colman, J. P.). 
The High Sheriff of Norfolk (C. H. 

Finch, J. P.). 
The Mayor of Great Yarmouth 

(Alderman A. Harbord, M.P.). 
The Mayor of King's Lynn (J. 

Harwood Catleugh, M.B.E.). 
The Mayor of Lowestoft (Major 

Selwyn W. Humphery, J. P.). 
The Mayor of Thetford (Sir William 

Gentle, J. P.). 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of 

Lothian, C.H., M.A. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Desborough, 

K.G., G.C.V.O., J. P., D.L. 



The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Albe- 
marle, G.C.V.O., C.B., T.D. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Leicester, 
G.C.V.O., C.M.G. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich (Rt. 
Rev. Bertram Pollock, K.C.V.O., 
D.D.). 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Hastings. 

The Rt. Hon. Sir Samuel Hoare, Bt., 
G.C.S.I., G.B.E., C.M.G., D.C.L., 
LL.D.,M.P. 

Sir Edward Mann, Bt., J. P. 

Sir Bartle H. T. Frere, K.C, J. P. 

Alderman Sir G. Ernest White, J. P. 

The Dowager Lady Suffield, J. P. 

The Dean of Norwich (Very Rev. 
D. H. S. Cranage, B.D., Litt.D., 
F.S.A.). 

G. H. Shakespeare, M. A., LL.B., M.P. 

Miss Ethel M. Colman. 

John Cator, D.L., J. P. 

Alderman G. J. B. Duff, M.C. D.L., 

JP- 

Major £. H. Evans-Lombe, D.L., 

JP- 
Rev. C. T. Rae, M.A., B.D. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT FOR THE BLACKPOOL MEETING, 1936. 



The Mayor of Blackpool (Alderman 

W. Newman, J.P.)- 
The Ex-Mayor of Blackpool (Alder- 
man G. Whittaker, J.P.). 
The Mayor of Lytham St. Annes 

(CounciUor C. J. Urwin, J. P.). 
The Mayor of Fleetwood (Alderman 

Capt. C. Saer, J. p.). 
The Mayor of Lancaster (Coun- 

cnior J. G. E. Clark, J.P.). 
The Mayor of Preston (Councillor 

E. Ley, J.P.). 
The Mayor of Southport (Councillor 

T. Ball). 
The Mayor of Morecambe (Coun- 
cillor W. TOWNSLEY, J. P.). 
The Chairman, Thornton-le-Fylde 

Council (Councillor A. Swarbrick). 
The Vice-Chancellor, 

University (Prof. J. 

ford, F.R.S.). 
The Vice-Chancellor 

University (Dr. H. J 

INGTON, J.P.). 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Derby 

G.C.B., G.C.V.O., P.C. 



Manchester 
S. B. Stop- 
Liverpool 
W. Hether- 



K.G., 



The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Crawford 
AND Balcarres, K.T., P.C, F.R.S. 

Sir J. Travis-Clegg, J.P. 

Sir George Etherton, O.B.E. 

Sir Cuthbert Grundy, J.P. 

Sir A. Lindsay Parkinson, J.P. 

Sir David Shackleton, K.C.B., J.P. 

His Honour Judge Peel, O.B.E., J.P. 

The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Black- 
burn. 

The Ven. Archdeacon P. J. Hornby. 

Rev. W. S. Mellor. 

Rev. J. R. Carlyle Litt. 

Alderman F. W. Millington, J.P. 

Alderman T. Fenton, J.P. 

H Talbot de Vere Clifton. 

Ashton Davies, O.B.E. 

Squire G. H. Elletson. 

J. R. Robinson, M.P. 

H. AsTLEY Bell, J.P. 

T. B. SiLCOCK, J.P. 

Mrs. T. H. Miller. 

S. H. Renshaw, O.B.E. 

Mrs. Percy Birley. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Prof. P. G. H. BoswELL, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

F. T. Brooks, M.A., F.R.S. ] Prof. Allan Ferguson, D.Sc. 

SECRETARY. ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

O. J. R. Howarth, O.B.E., Ph.D. D. N. Lowe, M.A., B.Sc. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Prof. F. AVELING. 

Sir T. Hudson Beare. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bledisloe, P.C. 

G.C.M.G. 
Prof. R. N. RuDMosE Brown. 
Prof. F. Balfour Browne. 
Dr. W. T. Calman, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Henry Dale, C.B.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Drever. 
Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. B. Forrester. 
Prof. W. T. Gordon. 
Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan 

GB.E. 



H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E. 
Dr. H. S. Harrison. 
Prof. A. V. Hill. 
Prof. G. W. O. Howe. 
Dr. Julian S. Huxley. 
Dr. C. W. KiMMiNS. 
Prof. R. Robinson, F.R.S. 

Dr. C. TiERNEY. 

Prof. A. M. Tyndall, F.R.S. 

Dr. W. W. Vaughan, M.V.O. 

Dr. J. A. Venn. 

Prof. Sir Gilbert T. Walker, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss, F.R.S. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 



Vll 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Past-Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the President and 
Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present General 
Treasurers and General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries 
for the Annual Meetings immediately past and ensuing. 

PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., 

G.B.E., F.R.S. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Rutherford of 

Nelson, O.M., F.R.S. 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, O.M., 

K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I.E., 

K.C.S.L, F.R.S. 
Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. 
Gen. The Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.O., 

C.H., F.R.S. 
Sir F. Gowland Hopkins, O.M., 

Pres.R.S. 
Sir James H. Jeans, F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. 
Sir Frank Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E. 
Sec.R.S. 



Sir JosiAH Stamp, G.C.B., G.B.E. 
Prof. F. J. M. Stratton, D.S.O. 
O.B.E. 



HON. AUDITORS. 

Prof. A. L. BowLEY. | Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S. 

HON. CURATOR OF DOWN HOUSE. 

Sir Buckston Browne, F.R.C.S. 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE NORWICH MEETING. 



CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

P. W. Jewson, J. p. (Lord Mayor of Norwich). 

VICE-CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, 
Sir Ernest White, J. P. 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARY. 
Herbert P. Gowen, F.S.A.A., J. P. 

LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 
Noel B. Rudd, M.A. (Town Clerk) 

ASSISTANT LOCAL SECRETARY. 

Miss Evelyn M. Shearer, RLA. 



viii OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE BLACKPOOL MEETING. 

JOINT LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 



D. L. Harbottle (Town Clerk). 
W. Foster (Director of Attractions 
and Publicity). 



F. E. Harrison (Director of Educa- 
tion). 

E. W. Rees Jones, M.D. (Medical 
Officer of Health) . 



LOCAL HON. TREASURER. 

T. L. PoYNTON (Borough Treasurer). 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1935 « 



SECTIONAL OFFICERS. 

A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

President. — Dr. F. W. Aston, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. H. McCrea, Hugh Ramage, Sir Gilbert T. Walker, 

F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Prof. Allan Ferguson. 
Secretaries. — M. G. Bennett, Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S., Dr. R. O. Redman, 

Dr. Dorothy M. Wrinch. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. D. H. Smith. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Prof. W. N. Haworth, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. T. S. Moore, Hugh Ramage, Prof. R. Robinson, F.R.S., 

W. Lincoln Sutton. 
Recorder. — Dr. J. M. Gulland. 

Secretaries. — Prof. J. E. Coates, T. W. J. Taylor. 
Local Secretary. — J. W. Corran. 



C— GEOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. G. Hickling. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. T. Gordon, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Dr. Bernard 

Smith, F.R.S. 
Recorder. — Dr. A. K. Wells. 

Secretaries. — B. Hilton Barrett, W. H. Wilcockson. 
Local Secretary. — J. E. Sainty. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. F. Balfour Browne. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. R. Gurney, F. Leney, Dr. S. Long, Dr. E. S. Russell, 

Dr. W. Morton Wheeler. 
Recorder. — Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 
Secretary. — Dr. G. S. Carter. 
Local Secretary.- — H. J. Howard. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Prof. F. Debenham. 

Vice-Presidents. — Miss E. M. Colman, Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, 

O.B.E., Prof. E. G. R. Taylor. 
Recorder. — H. King. 

Secretaries. — J. N. L. Baker, Dr. R. O. Buchanan. 
Local Secretary. — J. E. G. Mosby, D.S.O. 



X OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1935 

F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
President.— Pioi. J. G. Smith. 
Vice-President. — H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E. 
Recorder. — Dr. K. G. Fenelon. 
Secretaries. — Dr. P. Ford, J. Morgan Rees. 
Local Secretaries. — W. W. Williamson, R. W. Burleigh. 

A Department of Industrial Co-operation — Chairman, Dr. J. A. Bowie ; Secretary, 
R. J. Mackay — arranged a special programme in connection with this and 
other Sections. 

G.— ENGINEERING. 
President. — J. S. Wilson. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. G. Baily, Sir John Dewrance, G.B.E., Sir James 

Henderson, G. Roadley-Simkin, D. P. Scott, W. H. Scott. 
Recorder. — Wing-Commander T. R. Cave-Browne-Cave, C.B.E. 
Secretaries. — H. M. Clarke, J. E. Montgomrey. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. Henry Baker. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
President. — Sir Arthur Smith Woodward, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — M. C. Burkitt, Capt. T. A. Joyce, O.B.E., H. Coote Lake, 

F. Leney, Dr. Margaret Murray, Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan. 
Recorder. — Dr. J. F. Tocher. 

Secretaries. — K. H. Jackson, V. E. Nash- Williams. 
Local Secretary. — Miss G. V. Barnard. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. P. T. Herring. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. R. J. S. McDowall, Prof. H. E. Roaf, Dr. H. J. Starling. 
Recorder. — Prof. H. P. Gilding. 
Secretaries. — Dr. L. E. Bayliss, Dr. R. C. Garry. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. Michael W. Bulman. 

J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. Ll. Wynn Jones. 

Vice-Presidents. — R. J. Bartlett, Prof. Beatrice Edgell, E. Farmer, Prof. 

E. Rubin, Dr. R. J. Thouless. 
Recorder. — Dr. Mary Collins. 

Secretaries. — Dr. S. J. F. Philpott, Dr. P. E. Vernon. 
Local Secretary. — W. J. Dearnaley. 



K.— BOTANY. 
President. — F. T. Brooks, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Sir Hugh Beevor, Bt., Prof. A. W. Borthwick, O.B.E., Prof. 

Lily Newton, Prof. E. J. Salisbury, F.R.S., Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., 

W. R. Smith. 
Recorder. — Dr. B. Barnes. 

Secretaries. — Dr. E. V. Laing, Miss L. I. Scott, Dr. G. Taylor. 
Local Secretary. — Miss A. M. Geldart. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1935 xi 

L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
President. — Dr. A. W. Pickard-Cambridge. 
Vice-Presidents. — Dr. D. H. S. Cranage, Alderman F. C. Jex, J. P., The Most 

Hon. the Marquess of Lothian, C.H., H. T. Tizard, C.B., F.R.S. 
Recorder. — A. Gray Jones. 
Secretaries. — A. Clow Ford, S. R. Humby. 
Local Secretaries. — J. Beattie, E. W. Woodhead. 

M.— AGRICULTURE. 

President. — Dr. J. A. Venn. 

Vice-Presidents.— Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe, P.C, G.C.M.G., K.B.E., J. A. 

Christie, Russell J. Colman, J. P., Rt. Hon. Lord Hastings, C. T. Joice, 

Prof. J. A. S. Watson. 
Recorder. — Dr. E. M. Crowther. 
Secretary. — -W. Godden. 
Local Secretary. — F. Rayns. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

President.— Proi. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. Tierney. 
Local Secretary. — F. Leney. 



XII 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



l_ 



1831, 
1832, 
1833. 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837. 
1838, 

1839. 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 

1843. 
1844, 

1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 
1851. 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855. 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1859, 
i860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873. 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 



1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 

1893, 
1894, 

1895, 
1896, 
1897. 
1898, 
1899, 



Sept. 27. 
June 19 
June 25 
Sept. 8 . 
Aug. 10. 
Aug. 22. 
Sept. II. 
Aug. 10. 
Aug. 26. 
Sept. 17 
July 20 . 
June 23 . 
Aug. 17 . 
Sept. 26. 
June 19 
Sept. 10. 
June 23 
Aug. 9 . 
Sept. 12. 
July 21 . 
July 2 . 
Sept. I . 
Sept. 3 . 
Sept. 20. 
Sept. 12. 
Aug. 6 . 
Aug. 26. 
Sept. 22. 
Sept. 14. 
June 27 
Sept. 4 . 
Oct. I . 
Aug. 26. 
Sept. 13. 
Sept. 6 . 
Aug. 22 . 
Sept. 4 . 
Aug. ig. 
Aug. 18. 
Sept. 14. 
Aug. 2 . 
Aug. 14. 
Sept. 17, 
Aug. 19, 
Aug. 25, 
Sept. 6 , 
Aug. 15, 
Aug. 14, 
Aug. 20. 
Aug. 25, 
Aug. 31 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 19 
Aug. 27 
Sept. 9 
Sept. I 
Aug. 31 
Sept. 5 
Sept. II 
Sept. 3 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 3 
Sept. 13 
Aug. 8 . 
Sept. II, 
Sept. 16. 
Aug. 18. 
Sept. 7 . 
Sept. 13. 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

lidinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

HuU 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardifl 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 



Presidents 



Viscount Milton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S. ... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S, 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., F.R.S, 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
The Marquisof Northampton, Pres.R.S, 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Eari of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeney, M.D., F.R.S. . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbaim, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell. Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. PhUUps, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

VVUliam R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. .., 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. .., 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. . 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. WiUiamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. .. 
Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. .. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

SirMichaelFoster, K.C.B.,Sec. R.S. ... 



Old Ufe 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


"3 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


II 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


ao 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Ticketsof Admission to Sections only. 

[Continued on p. xiv. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



Xlll 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 





1 










Amount 


Sums paid 




Old 
Annual 


New j 
Annual ^ 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


received 


on account 
of Grants 


Year 


Members 


Members j 








lor 
Tickets 




for Scientific 
Purposes 




. 





— 


— 


— 


353 


— 




— 


1831 


__ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


1832 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


900 


— 






1833 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1298 


— 




£20 


1834 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




167 


1835 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1350 


— 




435 


1836 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1840 


— 




922 12 6 


1837 ! 


— 


— 


— 


mo* 


— 


2400 


— 




932 2 2 


1838 


— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 




1595 II 


1839 


— 


. — 


— 


— 


40 


1353 


— 




1546 16 4 


1840 


46 


317 - 


— 


60* 


— 


891 


— 




1235 10 11 


1841 


75 


376 


33 1 


331* 


28 


1315 


— 




1449 17 8 


1842 


71 


185 




160 


— 


— 


— 




1565 10 2 


1843 


45 


igo 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 




981 12 8 


1844 


94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 




831 9 9 


1845 


65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 




685 16 


1846 


197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


— 




208 5 4 


1847 


54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 





275 I 8 


1848 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 





159 19 6 


1849 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 





345 18 


1850 


61 


47 i 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 





391 9 7 


1851 


63 


60 1 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 





304 6 7 


1852 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 





205 


1853 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 





380 19 7 


1854 


142 


loi ; 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 





480 16 4 


1855 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 





734 13 9 


1856 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 





507 15 4 


1857 


III 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 





618 18 2 


1858 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 





684 II I 


1859 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 





766 19 6 


i860 


184 


125 ; 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 





nil 5 10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 





1293 16 6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 


IC04 


25 


3335 


3640 





1608 3 10 


1863 


182 


103 


I119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 





1289 15 8 


1864 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 





1591 7 10 


1865 


218 


105 


960 


771 


II 


2303 


2469 





1750 13 4 


1866 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 





1739 4 


1867 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45t 


2004 


2042 





1940 


1868 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 





1622 


1869 


303 


195 


1 103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 





1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 





1472 2 6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 





1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


II 


1983 


2120 





1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 





1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 





960 c 


1875 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 





1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


II 


1229 


1268 





1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 





725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 





1080 11 II 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 





731 7 7 


1880 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 





476 8 I 


1881 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 





1126 I II 


1882 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 





1083 3 3 


1883 


317 


219 


826 


74 


26 & 6oH.§ 


1777 


1855 





1173 4 


1884 


33- 


122 


i"53 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 





1385 


1885 


428 


179 


1067 


429 


II 


2453 


2532 





995 6 


1886 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3818 


4336 





1186 18 


1887 


399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 





1511 5 


1888 


412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 





1417 II 


1889 


368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 





789 16 8 


1890 


341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 





1029 10 


1891 


413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 





864 10 


1892 


328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1 661 


1653 





907 15 6 


1893 


435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 





583 15 6 


1894 


290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 





977 15 5 


1895 


383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 





I 104 6 I 


1896 


286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 





1059 10 8 


1897 


327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 





I2I2 


1898 


324 


68 


548 


120 


1 27 


' 1403 


1328 





1430 14 2 


1899 



X Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association 



were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting, 
[Continued on p. xv. 



XIV 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



Table of 



Date of Meeting 



1900, 
1901, 
1902, 

1903. 
1904, 

1905. 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 

1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917 
1918 
1919, 



Sept. 5 .. 
Sept. II.. 
Sept. 10.. 
Sept. 9 .. 
Aug. 17.. 
Aug. 15 .. 
.-^ug. I .. 

July 31 •■ 

Sept. 2 .. 
Aug. 25 .. 
Aug. 31 .. 
Aug. 30.. 
Sept. 4 .. 
Sept. 10.. 
July-Sept 
Sept. 7 .. 
Sept. 5 .. 

Sept. 9.. 



Where held 



1920, Aug. 24 . 

1921, Sept. 7 . 

1922, Sept. 6 . 

1923, Sept. 12, 

1924, Aug. 6 . 

1925, Aug. 26, 

1926, Aug. 4 , 

1927, Aug. 31 

1928, Sept. 5 

1929, July 22 

1930, Sept. 3 

1931, Sept. 23 

1932, Aug. 31 

1933, Sept. 6 

1934, Sept. 5 

1935, Sept. 4 



Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham 

Australia 

Manchester 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 

Bournemouth 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh ... 
Hull 

Liverpool . . . 

Toronto 

Southampton 
Oxford 

Leeds 

Glasgow 

South Africa 

Bristol 

London 

York 

Leicester . . . 
Aberdeen ... 
Norwich 



Presidents 



Sir William Turner, D.C.L.,F.R.S. .. 
Prof. A. W. Rucker, D.Sc., Sec. R.S. 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J.Balfour, M.P., F.R.S... 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. E. RayLankester, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. T. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. t. G. Bonney, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S 

I 

Hon. Sir C. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

SirT. E. Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir C.S.Sherrington, G.B.E., Pres. R.S. 



Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S 

Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G. 
F.R.S 



F.R.S 
K.C 



Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. 
Sir WUliam Bragg, K.B.E. 
Sir Thomas Holland, 

K.C.LE., F.R.S 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S 

Gen. the Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, 

C.H., F.R.S 

Sir Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. Gowland Hopkins, Pres. R 

Sir James H. Jeans, F.R.S." 

Prof. W.W. Watts, F.R.S 



.S.I. 

p.'c. 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


H5 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


^1 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 


376 


40 


172 


13 


242 


19 


164 


12 


235 


47 


288 


II 


336 


9 


228 


13 


326 


12 


119 


7 


280 


8 


358 


9 


249 


9 


260 


10 


81 


I 


221 


5 


487 


14 


206 


I 


185 


37 


199 


21 


191 


II 



' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

' Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

' Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association Francjaise at Le Havre. 

' Including Students' Tickets, los. 

' Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 

• Including grants from the Caird Fund in this and subsequent years. 

' Including Foreign Guests, Exhibitioners, and others. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 





Old 
Annual 




New 
Annual 


Asso- 




-adies 


Foreigners 




Member 


- 


Members 


ciates 


9 




297 


45 ' 801 482 




374 13 


[ ; 794 246 


20 




314 86 647 305 


6 




319 90 1 688 365 


21 




449 " 


5 


1338 317 


121 




937' 411 


430 181 


16 




356 1 93 


817 352 


22 




339 6i 


659 251 


42 




465 112 


1166 222 


14 




290^ 162 


789 90 


7 




379 57 563 123 1 


8 




349 6 


I ' 414 81 


31 




368 95 1 1292 359 


88 




480 ; 149 


1287 1 291 


20 




139 4160' 


539' 


— 


21 




287 


II 


5 


628* 


141 


8 




250 


76 : 251* • 73 







254 


102 1 688' ; 153 


3 






Annual Members 








Old 
Annual 






Transfer- 
able 
Tiikets 


Students' 












Regular 


Meeting 


Meeting 


Tickets 






Members 


and 
Report 


only 










136 


192 


571 


42 


120 


20 




133 


410 


1394 


121 


343^ 


22 




90 


294 


757 


89 


235' 


24 


1 


Compli- 


I 












mentary' 




123 


380 


1434 


163 


550 


308 




37 


520 


1866 


41 


89 


139 




97 


264 


878 


62 


119 


74 




lOI 


453 


2338 


169 


225 


69 




84 


334 


1487 


82 


264 


161 




76 


554 


1835 


64 


201 


74 




24 


177 


122 711 





161 


83 




68 


310 


I617 


97 


267 


54 




78 


656 


2994 


157 


454 


449 




44 


226 


II63 


45 


214 


125 




39 


236 


1468 


82 


147 


74 




30 


273 


1884 


181 


280 


70 




2-) 


237 


1444 


142 


197 


70 



Total 



1915 
1912 
1620 
1754 
2789 
2130 
1972 
1647 
2297 
1468 
1449 
1241 
2504 
2643 
5044' 
1441 
826 



1380 
2768 
1730 



3296 
2818 
1782 

3722 
2670 
3074 

1754 
2639 

5702"' 

2024 

2268 

2938 

2321 



Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 



£1801 
2046 
1644 
1762 
2650 
2422 
1811 
1561 
2317 
1623 

1439 
1176 

-349 
2756 
4873 
1406 
821 



1736 



1272 ID O 

2599 15 o 
1699 5 



2735 15 
3165 19 

1630 5 




o>° 




3542 





2414 5 





3072 10 





1477 15 
2481 15 






4792 10 





1724 5 
2428 2 






2900 13 
2218 14 


fa 
6 



Sums paid 




on account 




of Grants 


Year 


for Scientific 




Purposes 




£1072 10 





1900 


920 9 


II 


1901 


947 





1902 


845 13 


2 


1903 


887 18 


II 


1904 


928 2 


2 


1905 


882 


9 


1906 


757 12 


10 


1907 


1157 18 


8 


1908 


1014 9 


9 


1909 


963 17 





1910 


922 





1911 


845 7 


6 


1912 


978 17 


I 


1913 


1861 16 


4" 


1914 


1569 2 


8 


1915 


985 18 


10 


1916 


677 17 


2 


1917 


326 13 


3 


1918 


410 





1919 


1251 13 


o« 


1920 


518 I 


10 


1921 


722 


7 


1922 


777 18 


6« 


1923 


1 197 5 


9 


1924 


1231 





1925 


917 I 


6 


1926 


761 10 





1927 


1259 10 





1928 


2193 2 


I 


1929 


631 I 


9 


1930 


1319 9 


6 


1931 


1218 13 


n 


1932 


562 19 


ii'» 


1933 


1-123 4 


9 


1934 


1649 2 


4 


1935 



' The Bournemouth Fimd for Research, initiated by Sir C. Parsons, enabled grants on account of 
scientific purposes to be maintained. 

" Including grants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 
to 1926. 

'" Subscriptions paid in Canada were $5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some gain 
on exchange. 

" Including 450 Members of the South African Association. 

" Including 413 tickets for certain meetings, issued at 5s. to London County Council school-teachers. 

" For nine months ending March 31, 1933. 

" .Sir William B. Hardy, F.R.S., who became President on January i, 1934, died on January 23. 



NARRATIVE OF THE NORWICH 
MEETING. 



On Wednesday, September 4, at 8.30 p.m., the Inaugural General Meeting 
was held in the Agricultural Hall, when the Rt. Worshipful the Lord 
Mayor of Norwich (Mr. P. W. Jewson, J. P.) welcomed the Association to 
Norwich. The President of the Association, Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S., 
delivered an address (for which see p. i) entitled Form, Drift, and Rhythm 
of the Continents. 

On Friday, September 6, in the Assembly Room of the Agricultural 
Hall, at 8.1 1; P.M., Dr. S. J. Davies delivered an Evening Discourse entitled 
Diesel Engines in relation to Coastwise Shipping (p. 487). 

On Tuesday, September 10, in the same room, Dr. C. S. Myers, F.R.S., 
delivered an Evening Discourse on The Help of Psychology in the Choice 
of a Career (p. 487). 

A public lecture was given by Sir Arnold Wilson, M.P., on Science and 
Population Problems, in the Prince's Street Lecture Hall, on Monday, 
September 9, at 8 p.m. 

A children's lecture was given by Prof. W. Garstang on The Songs of 
Birds, in the Haymarket Picture House, on Thursday, September 5, at 

II. 15 A.M. 

External public lectures were given as follows : 

Cromer, Lecture Hall, Monday, September 9, at 8 p.m. Weather 
Forecasting. — Mr. A. Corless. 

Fakenham, Electric Pavilion, Friday, September 6, at 8 p.m. Recent 
Changes in British Agriculture. — Dr. B. A. Keen, F.R.S. 

Great Yarmouth, Town Hall, Friday, September 6, at 8 p.m. The 
Unknown North Sea. — Mr. Michael Graham. 

King's Lynn, St. James' Boys' School Hall, London Road, Friday, 
September 6, at 8 p.m. Splashes, atidzvhat they teach. — Prof. A. Ferguson. 

Lowestoft, Town Hall, Monday, September 9, at 8 p.m. Splashes, and 
what they teach. — Prof. A. Ferguson. 

Thetford, Guildhall, Friday, September 6, at 8 p.m. Scientific Basts 
of the Gem-cutter's Art. — Prof. W. T. Gordon. 

A summary of Sectional Transactions on September 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 
will be found on pp. 346-473. 



The Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Norwich (Mr. and Mrs. P. W. 
Jewson) entertained members of the Association at a Reception in the 
Castle Museum on Thursday evening, September 5. 

H.M. Lieutenant for Norfolk (Mr. Russell J. Colman, J.P.) and Mrs. 
Colman entertained members of the Association at a garden party at 
Crown Point on Tuesday, September 10. 

b 



xviii NARRATIVE OF THE NORWICH MEETING 

Garden parties were also given by the Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 
Norwich at the Palace, and the Misses Colman at Carrow Abbey. 

****** 

A special service was held at the Cathedral on Sunday morning, 
September 8, when officers and other members accompanied the Lord 
Mayor, the Sheriff, and Corporation of Norwich in state. The preacher 
was the Rt. Rev. Bertram Pollock, K.C.V.O., D.D., Lord Bishop of 
Norwich. Special services were also held in other places of worship. 

The Very Rev. D. H. S. Cranage, Litt.D., Dean of Norwich, con- 
ducted parties of members around the Cathedral and narrated its history 
on several occasions during the Meeting. 

•It" TT* ^TP ^P ^F ^F 

On Saturday, September 7, general excursions were arranged to the 
Broads (day and afternoon visits), to Thetford and Castle Acre, to the 
coast and Walsingham Priory, and to King's Lynn and Sandringham. 
At Sandringham tea was provided by gracious command of H.M. The 
King. Among other excursions and visits, those devoted to the interests 
of special Sections during the Meeting are mentioned among the Sectional 
Transactions in later pages. 

* -|f- 4^ Jfc 4t. 4fr 

tP *^ tP wr TT 

At the final meeting of the General Committee, on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember II, it was resolved : 

That the British Association places on record its warm thanks for the 
reception afforded to it by the City of Norwich. The generous co-operation 
of the Lord Mayor and the City Council, and the thorough preparations 
made by the local officers and committees, have been deeply appreciated. 
The Association has also to extend most cordial thanks to the scientific, 
educational, commercial, and industrial institutions in Norwich and the 
neighbourhood, for the accommodation and facilities so generously provided 
for meetings, excursions, and visits, and to the citizens of Norwich for their 
most generous interest and hospitality. 

^v 'f^ ^ tP "tP ^F 

On Wednesday, September 11, the President and General Officers, 
Members of the Council, and Presidents of Sections entertained the 
principal local officers at luncheon. 



Geological Excursion preceding the Meeting. 

This excursion took place from August 31 to September 4 under the 
leadership of Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, F.R.S., and Dr. J. D. Solomon. 
The following features were viewed on September i and succeeding days : 
Coast sections from Happisburgh, Mundesley, Overstrand, to Cromer 
(Pliocene and Glacial) — Coast sections from East Runton and West 
Runton to Sheringham, and inland on to Cromer Ridge (Pliocene and 
Glacial) — Coast sections at Weyboume; inland sections on Cromer 
moraine at Kelling and Holt ; Blakeney esker ; Morston raised beach ; 
Hunstanton Boulder Clay at Holkham — Cromer to Norwich by way of 
Cawston, Heydon, etc. ; various glacial deposits. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35. 



Jubilee of H.M. The King. 

I. — The following Address was forwarded to His Majesty The King on 
the occasion of his Jubilee : — 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 
May it please Your Majesty : 

We the Council of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science humbly offer our loyal congratulations on the occasion of the 
celebration of Your Majesty's Jubilee. 

The British Association enjoys the high privilege of carrying on its 
work under Your Majesty's Patronage. Its most valued possession is 
the Royal Charter which Your Majesty was graciously pleased to confer 
upon it ; its most cherished memory that of the encouragement given 
to its labours by four generations of Your Royal Family. 

The Council pray that the inspiration of Your Majesty's favour may 
be long vouchsafed to the Association, which will not cease from its 
endeavours to promote the welfare of Your Majesty's peoples. 

The following acknowledgment was received by the President : — 

Sir, — I have been commanded by The King to convey to you His 
Majesty's thanks for the loyal Address of Congratulation from- the 
Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science on 
the completion of the Twenty-fifth Year of His Majesty's Reign and to 
assure you that His Majesty deeply appreciates the sentiments of loyalty 
and affection to which it gives expression. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

John Gilmour. 

Obituary. 

n.— The Council during the year under review have had to deplore 
the loss by death of four past Presidents of the Association, namely. Sir 
Edward Sharpey-Schafer, F.R.S. (President, 1912 ; General Secretary, 
1895-1900) ; Sir Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. (1915) ; Sir Horace Lamb, 
F.R.S. (1925) ; Sir Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., F.R.S. (1932). 

The Association was represented at the funeral of Sir Edward Sharpey- 
Schafer by Sir T. Hudson Beare (on behalf of Sir Thomas Holland, 
K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., F.R.S.) ; at that of Sir Arthur Schuster by Sir James 
Jeans, F.R.S. ; at that of Sir Horace Lamb by Sir Joseph Thomson, 
F.R.S., and Lord Rutherford, F.R.S. ; and at that of Sir Alfred Ewing 
by Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S., and Prof. F. J. M. Stratton. 

The Association has also suffered the loss of the following office-bearers 
and supporters : — 



XX 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 



Sir John Adams 

Prof. H. B. Baker, F.R.S. 

Sir Robert Blair 

Dr. A. Bramley 

Dr. R. W. Brock 

Prof. E. Cannan 

Mr. C. Carus- Wilson 

Mr. Geoffrey R. R. Colman 

Miss E. R. Conway 

Mr. J. T. Cunningham 

Prof. O. V. Darbishire 

Dr. Shepherd Dawson 

Dr. F. A. Dixey, F.R.S. 

Mr. G. Fletcher 



Dr. Michael Grabham 

Prof. W. L. Grant 

Lady Keith 

Prof. H. M. Macdonald, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. J. R. Macleod, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. A. Robertson 

Dr. R. F. Scharff 

Prof. W. de Sitter 

Mr. C. E. Stromeyer 

Dr. H. H. Thomas, F.R.S. 

Prof. Arthur Thomson 

Prof. H. de Vries 

Prof. Sir James Walker, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. A. Wilkinson 



At the funeral of Prof. H. M. Macdonald, F.R.S., the Association was 
represented by Lt.-Col. E. W. Watt (his fellow local secretary for the 
Aberdeen Meeting last year) and Dr. J. F. Tocher. 



Representation. 

IIL — Representatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follows : — 



Royal Scottish Geographical Society, 50th 
Anniversary ..... 

Nottingham : Memorial Service for Princi- 
pal Stewart, of the University College . 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Pittsburgh Meeting 

International Botanical Congress, Amster- 
dam ...... 



Mus6um National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris, Third Centenary 

Opening of Geological Museum, South 
Kensington, and Centenary of Geological 
Survey ...... 

Deputation to Air Ministry on protection 
of Chesil Bank, etc. .... 



Prof. R. N. 
Brown. 



Rudmose 



Prof. H. S. Holden. 

Prof. Hugh Taylor, 
F.R.S. 

Mr. F. T. Brooks, 
F.R.S., Dr. A. B. 
Rendle, F.R.S., Sir 
John Russell, F.R.S., 
Prof. A. C. Seward, 
F.R.S. 

Mr. J. Ramsbottom. 



Prof. W. W. Watts, 
F.R.S., President. 

Prof. W. W. Watts, 
F.R.S., and Prof. P. 
G.H.Boswell, F.R.S. 



Resolutions and Recommendations. 

IV. — Resolutions and recommendations referred by the General 
Committee to the Council for consideration and, if desirable, for action, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 «x» 

were dealt with as follows. The resolutions will be found in the Report 
for 1934, p. xlviii. 

(a) A further resolution concerning Inland Water Survey, from 
Sections A (Mathematical and Physical Sciences), C (Geology), 
E (Geography), and G (Engineering), together with a resolution from 
Section C concerning the compulsory registration of wells, borings, and 
excavations, were before the Council. It was ascertained that the 
Institution of Civil Engineers was prepared to co-operate in respect of 
the first of these resolutions ; but before action was taken the Minister 
of Health announced the intention of H.M. Government to appoint a 
committee on Inland Water Survey, as had been urged by a deputation 
representing the Association and the Institution (Report, 1934, p. xxix). 
On the appointment of this committee, the Council expressed their 
satisfaction to the Minister, and transmitted to him, for communication 
to the committee, the resolution on compulsory registration of wells, 
etc., referred to above, and also a memorandum by the Association's com- 
mittee on Inland Water Survey, concerning the objects of such survey. 

(b) The Council enquired into the absence of provision for the free 
importation of films for the teaching of science in universities, etc. 
Information was received from the British Film Institute that an 
international convention was expected to be concluded during 1935, 
and to cover such cases as the example brought before the Council. 
Further information is awaited. (Resolution of Section D, Zoology.) 

(c) The Council brought to the notice of the Lord President of the 
Council and the Minister of Agriculture the desirability of accelerating 
the revision of large-scale maps of the Ordnance Survey. It was learned 
that the Chartered Surveyors' Institution was taking similar action, and 
that institution was kept informed of the Council's action. It was 
understood that the matter was receiving the attention of the Minister 
and of H.M. Government. (Resolution of Section E, Geography, 
supported by other sections.) 

(d) The Council brought to the notice of the Board of Education and 
the Scottish Education Department the desirability of continuing the 
production of the Atlas of Geographical Types of the British Isles. 
(Resolution of Section E, Geography.) 

(e) The Council brought to the notice of the Board of Education and 
the Scottish Education Department the need for instruction in schools 
concerning the preservation of amenities, etc. (Resolution of Section K, 
Botany.) 

Finance. 

V. — The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His account has been audited and is presented to 
the General Committee. 

VI. — The Association has received a legacy of £500 under the will of 
the late Sir Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., F.R.S., past President. The Council 
have postponed consideration of the disposal of this legacy, in view of the 
impending changes in general officerships, and they ask the sanction of 
the General Committee to deal with this matter during the ensuing 
session. 



xxii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 

VII. Grants. — The Council made the following grants from funds 
under their control : — 

From the Caird Fund. 

Committee on Seismology . . . . . . , .100 

„ „ Plymouth Table ....... 50 

„ ,, Zoological Record . . . . . .50 

„ ,, Naples Table ....... 50 

From the Bernard Hobson Fund. 

Such part as the income allows of a contingent grant of £40 to the 
Committee on Critical Geological Sections, and of a grant of £30 to 
the Committee on Thermal Conductivity of Rocks. 

From the Leicester and Leicestershire Fund. 

Committee on Routine Manual Factor in Mechanical Ability . . £30 

From General Funds (by authority of the General Committee). 

Committee on Mathematical Tables (additional grant) . . . £50 

VIII. Guarantees. — Grants by way of guarantee have been made (i) of 
£^0 toward the expense of publishing two sheets of the Land Utilisation 
Survey map for East Anglia, it being understood that a contribution 
would be forthcoming also from the local committee for the Norwich 
Meeting, and that the sheets would be ready before the meeting ; (ii) of 
£2^ toward the publication of a book on the antiquities of Macedonia by 
Mr. W. A. Heurtley. 

The Council approved in principle a proposal for the establishment of 
a ' revolving ' fund from which guarantees such as the above might be 
made. 

IX. — An anonymous donation of £^0 was received for the purpose of 
erecting an inscription, which it did not appear to be within the power of 
the Association to carry out. Attempts to get into touch with the donor 
have been unsuccessful. 

President (1936), General Officers, Council and Committees. 

X. — The Council's nomination to the Presidency of the Association 
for the year 1936 (Blackpool Meeting) is Sir Josiah C. Stamp, G.C.B., 
G.B.E. 

XI. — The Council have learned with great regret that Prof. F. J. M. 
Stratton is unable to offer himself for re-election as a General Secretary. 

The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as follows : — 

General Treasurer, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, F.R.S. 

General Secretaries, Mr. F. T. Brooks, F.R.S., Prof. Allan Ferguson. 

XII. Council. — The retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are : 
Sir James Henderson, Sir P. Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., Dr. N. V. 
Sidgwick, F.R.S., Sir G. C. Simpson, K.C.B., F.R.S., Mr. H. T. 
Tizard, C.B., F.R.S. 

The Council have nominated as new members Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, 
F.R.S., Prof. R. Robinson, F.R.S., Sir Gilbert Walker, F.R.S. ; leaving 
two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without nomination 
by the Council. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 



XXIU 



The full list of nominations of 

Prof. F. Aveling 
Sir T. Hudson Beare 
Prof. R. N. Rudmose Brown 
Prof. F. Balfour Browne 
Dr. W. T. Caiman, F.R.S. 
Sir Henry Dale, C.B.E., Sec. R.S 
Prof. J. Drever 

Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Ferguson ^ 
Prof. R. B. Forrester 
Prof. W. T. Gordon 
Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne- 
Vaughan, G.B.E. 



Ordinary Members is as follows : — 

Mr. H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E. 

Dr. H. S. Harrison 

Prof. A. V. Hill, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins 

Prof. R. Robinson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. M. Tyndall, F.R.S. 

Dr. W. W. Vaughan 

Dr. J. A. Venn 

Sir Gilbert Walker, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss, F.R.S. 



XIII. Assistant Secretary. — Mr. D. N. Lowe has been appointed 
Assistant Secretary of the Association in the room of Mr. H. Wooldridge, 
who resigned on accepting another appointment. 

XIV. General Committee. — The following have been admitted as 
members of the General Committee, on the nomination of the Organising 
Sectional Committees under Regulation i : — 

Prof. R. PL Fowler, O.B.E., F.R.S. 

Dr. R. G. J. Eraser 

Dr. H. Godwin 

Dr. A. W. Greenwood 

Dr. Mary J. F. Gregor 



Dr. J. R. Airey 

Mr. T. C. Angus 

Mr. J. N. L. Baker 

Prof. B. T. P. Barker 

Mr. C. O. Bartrum 

Miss E. F. Bellamy 

Prof. M. E. Bickersteth 

Mr. E. G. Bilham 

Mr. H. Binns 

Dr. G. Bond 

Prof. W. L. Bragg, O.B.E., F.R.S. 

Mr. J. M. Caie 

Prof. G. D. Hale Carpenter 

Prof. J. A. Carroll 

Dr. R. E. Chapman 

Dr. L. J. Comrie 

Prof. G. Cook 

Mr. E. G. Cox 

Dr. Brysson Cunningham 

Prof. C. G. Darwin, F.R.S. 

Mr. L. J. Davies 

Dr. S.J. Davies 

Dr, J. Burtt Davy 

Mr. A. G. H. Dent 

Mr. A. F. Dufton 

Mr. E. Wvllie Fenton 

Prof. J. J.'Findlay 

Dr. Margaret Fishenden 

Mr. A. P. M. Fleming 

Dr. P. Ford 

Mr. G. E. H. Foxon 



Mr. R. Griffiths 

Mr. E. R. Gunther 

Prof. B. P. Haigh 

Prof. A. C. Hardy 

Prof. A. Hemmy 

Dr. J. Henderson 

Prof. J. Hendrick 

Dr. R. A. Houstoun 

Dr. E. L. Ince 

Mr. G. V. Jacks 

Miss P. M. Jenkin 

Prof. W. W. Jervis 

Dr. K. Jordan 

Prof. K. D. Kay 

Dr. G. W. C. Kaye 

Dr. D. Kennedy- Eraser 

Prof. C. H. Lander, C.B.E. 

Mr. C. A. Mace 

Mr. R. J. Mackay 

Brig. M. N. MacLeod, D.S.O 

Mrs. E. Mellanby 

Prof. J. Mellanby, F.R.S. 

Mr. W. J. M. Menzies 

Dr. J. C. P. Miller 

Mr. C. A. Oakley 

Mr. F. W. Ogilvie 



' Subject to appointment as General Secretary. 



XXIV 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 



Dr. A. Parker 

Mr. C. C. Paterson, O.B.E. 

Mr. F. T. K. Pentelow 

Prof. J. C. Philip, O.B.E. , F.R.S. 

Dr. E. P. Poulton 

Dr. F. L. Pyman 

Mr. A. Radford 

Dr. R. O. Redman 

Dr. L. F. Richardson, F.R.S. 

Mr. R. R. Robbins, C.B.E. 

Capt. J. C. A. Roseveare 

Mr. D. H. Sadler 

Prof. R. A. Sampson, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Sandon 

Mr. J. T. Saunders 

Mr. F. J. Scrase 

Dr. G. Seth 

Capt. H. Shaw 

Dr. W. F. Sheppard 

Principal J. Cameron Smail 

Mr. A. D. Buchanan Smith 



Prof. R. V. Southwell, F.R.S. 

Dr. L. Dudley Stamp 

Prof. G. C. Steward 

Mr. J. A. Steers 

Prof. J. Tait 

Prof. G. I.Taylor, F.R.S. 

Dr. A. J. Thompson 

Prof. G. P. Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. M. W. Travers, F.R.S. 

Mr. W. B. Turrill 

Dr. P. E. Vernon 

Rt. Hon. Lord Wakehurst 

Miss M. D. Waller 

Prof. R. Whiddington, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. J. W. Whipple 

Mr. R. S. Whipple 

Brig. H. St. J. L. Winter botham, 

C.M.G. 
Prof. W. Wilson, F.R.S. 
Dr. N. C. Wright 
Dr. Dorothy Wrinch 



XV. Corresponding Societies Committee. — The Corresponding Societies 
Committee has been nominated as follows : — The President of the 
Association (Chairman ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard {Vice-Chairman), 
Dr. C. Tierney {Secretary), the General Treasurer, the General Secre- 
taries, Mr. C. O. Bartrum, Sir Richard Gregory, F.R.S., Sir David Prain, 
F.R.S., Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Prof. W. M. Tattersall, Dr. R. E. 
Mortimer Wheeler. 



Future Annual Meetings, etc. 

XVI. — The Council have to report that correspondence has passed 
relating to the possibility of the Association participating in the jubilee 
of the Indian Science Congress Association in 1938, and of a meeting of 
the Association in Australia in 1939 or subsequent year. They have also 
to report receipt of an invitation from Belfast for 1940 or ' any of the years 
immediately following.' 

Miscellanea. 
XVII. Corporation Membership. — The Statute on corporation member- 
ship, adopted by the General Committee at the Aberdeen Meeting, was 
submitted to the Privy Council authorities in accordance with the Charter. 
The Privy Council authorities indicated that the use of the phrase 
' corporation membership' was not strictly consonant with other Statutes, 
and sanctioned the following amended wording : — 

Any British corporate body approved by the Council shall, on payment 
of the sum of thirty guineas, be entitled in perpetuity to appoint one 
representative to attend each Annual Meeting as an annual member of 
the Association, or on payment of the sum of fifty guineas, two representa- 
tives, and on payment of each further sum of fifteen guineas, an additional 
representative. Such subscription shall entitle the corporation or each 
of its representatives to receive the Annual Report on demand. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 xxv 

The Privy Council did not require that the Statute as amended should 
be again referred to the Committee of Recommendations and the General 
Committee, as the effect of the original version was not altered. It was 
therefore resolved that the Statute as above should be incorporated in 
the Statute-book forthwith, and that the matter should be reported to the 
General Committee. 

XVIII. Science and the Life of the Community. — The Council circu- 
lated a memorandum to all Organising Sectional Committees, further 
to that referred to in Report, 1934, p. xxi, on the desirability of 
continuing to include in their programmes subjects bearing upon the 
relations between the advance of science and the life of the community. 
It was indicated that ' the efforts of the Association in this direction ' 
at the Aberdeen Meeting had been ' widely recognised and esteemed.' 

It was resolved that a suggestion, brought forward in General Com- 
mittee at the Aberdeen Meeting, that a collection of communications 
bearing on the above subject might be published by the Association, 
should not be given effect at present ; but without prejudice to future 
reconsideration of the suggestion. 

XIX. Aberdeen Local Fund. — The Council were informed of a decision 
by the Local Committee at Aberdeen on the disposal of the balance 
remaining from the local fund : — 

That, after a ^ro rata return of their donations is made to all contributors 
who indicate they desire such, any balance remaining should be 
distributed equally among the following institutions : the University, 
the Rowett Institute, the Macaulay Institute, the College of Agriculture 
and Robert Gordon's Technical College, with the recornmendation that 
the payments made should be applied by these institutions for the 
purpose of paying the travelling expenses of students or junior workers 
there to future meetings of the British Association, or for purposes of a 
kindred character. 

It was resolved that the Local Committee be thanked for this decision, 
and for their courtesy in communicating it to the Council. 

XX. Town and Country Planning. — In pursuance of the Association's 
interest in the planning of areas, etc., which may appear to require 
protection for scientific reasons (Report, 1934, p. xxix), the Council 
formed a panel of persons who might advise them in the event of requests 
to the Association to make recommendations in this connection. 

XXI. Sub-standard Films.^lt was reported that proposed new Home 
Office regulations for the use of sub-standard films were causing concern 
to educational and other bodies, and the Council has requested the Home 
Office to afford them an opportunity of considering these regulations 
in draft. 

XXII. Section-room Equipment.— With a view to relieving difficulties 
sometimes encountered by local committees the Council have purchased 
some projection lanterns and other equipment for the use of Sections. 
They have to thank Prof. W. T. Gordon and Prof. A. O. Rankine for 
their interest and help in this matter. 

XXIII. Quinquennial Reports.— The Council have considered sug- 
gestions for the publication by the Association of (a) a quinquennial 
report on the advancement of science, and (b) a short statement for 

b 2 



xxvi REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 

general distribution, summarising the various activities of the Association. 
It is intended to give effect to these proposals, and that the first issue of 
both publications should appear next year and cover the period 1931-35 
(from the opening of the second century of the Association). 

XXIV. Galapagos Islands. — The Council have received communica- 
tions concerning the intention of the Government of Ecuador to protect 
the fauna of the Galapagos Islands, and have appointed representatives 
of the Association to serve on any joint committee which may be set up 
to consider this matter. ^ 

Down House. 

XXV. The following report for the year 1934-35 has been received 
from the Down House Committee : — 

The number of visitors to Down House during the year ending June 6, 
1935, has been 6,658, compared with 8,536 in 1933-34, and 7,022 in 1932-33. 
Among gifts to the house during the past year, two call for special 
mention : — 

The Linnean Society, at the instance of Dr. S. E. Chandler, has presented 
a bronze copy of the medal struck on the occasion of the Darwin-Wallace 
Celebration held by the Society in 1908, together with a finely-bound copy 
of the proceedings. 

There was recently found, and presented to the house by Mr. Bernard 
Darwin, an interesting relic of Darwin, namely, a box containing some 
seventy packets of seeds of flowering plants and vegetables. Endorsements 
on many of the packets indicate that they were sent to Darwin from various 
parts of the world, and some came from Kew Gardens. Some are dated, 
the earliest 1855, and the latest 1876. Some of the seeds have been tested 
at Kew Gardens for germination. Concerning these, the Director of Kew 
Gardens, Sir Arthur W. Hill, F.R.S., has kindly communicated with 
the Secretary. He has stated that the following species of Trifolium have 
germinated : — 

Trifolium fragiferum, Kew 17A. 141 seeds sown, 15 germinated. 
Trifolium ochroleucum, Kew. 102 seeds sown, 4 germinated. 
Trifolium pa?inonicum, Kew 17c. 140 seeds sown, 8 germinated. 
Sir Arthur Hill's communication continues : — 

' The other genera tested, Brassica, Convolvulus, Mimulus, Nicotiana, 
Antirrhinum, Nolana, Viscaria, Lathyrus, Anchusa, Papaver, Melilotus, 
Ononis, Lotus and Iberis, failed to germinate. 

' We do not appear to have any reference to the date when the seeds 
marked "Kew" were sent to Charles Darwin, but they must be at least 
S3 years old. It is interesting to note that Ewart obtained negative 
results with S4-year-old seeds of Trifolium fragiferum, whilst the germina- 
tion of 54-year-old seeds of T. ochroleucum and T. panno7iicum appears to 
be a record for those species.' 

The box contained also an original letter from Alphonse de Candolle 
(presumably to Darwin, though not actually bearing his name) : it has 
been published recently in the Journal of Botany. 

A generous gift of plants for the garden has been made recently by 
Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S., from the John Innes Horticultural 
Institution. 

Opportunity has been taken to identify the apple-trees in the orchard 
(some of which are very old) through the kindness of the Imperial Bureau 
of Fruit Production, East Mailing. 

* See further under ' Resolutions and Recommendations,' later. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-3S 



XXVll 



The Genetics Society met at Down House on June 30, 1934, and the 
committee received the thanks of the Society for permission to do so. 

The following financial statement, showing income and expenditure on 
account of Down House for the years ending March 31, 1934 and 1935, 
is unfavourable on account of the very high charges necessitated in respect 
of repairs during the latter year. Two items were the major causes of this. 
The flint-and-brick wall at the end of the kitchen garden (evidently one of 
the oldest pieces of building on the estate) was found to be in urgent need 
of pointing, filling, and buttressing. More serious was the discovery that 
death-watch beetle had attacked the roof of the bay on the garden front of 
the house. An expert from the Forest Products Research Laboratories 
made an inspection, and repairs were carried out in accordance with his 
advice. There now appears no reason to doubt that the damage has been 
localised and arrested. 



Income 



By Dividends on endowment fund and 

income tax recovered . 
,, Grant from Pilgrim Trust 
., Rents ..... 
,, Donations .... 
,, Sale of Postcards and Catalogues 
„ Balance, being excess of expenditure, 

as below, over income 



1933- 



978 

150 

140 

6 

34 



17 
o 

IS 
o 

14 



■34 
d. 

6 
o 
o 

2h 



1934-35 



1,013 
150 
141 

4 

24 



3 

o 

o 

14 

15 



6 
o 
o 
o 

2 



84 13 li 



£1,310 7 8 1,418 5 9i 



To Wages and National Insurance 
,, Rates, Land Tax, Insurances . 
,, Coal, Coke, etc 

„ Water 

,, Lighting and Drainage Plants (includ- 
ing petrol and oil) 
,, Repairs and Renewals : — 

Miscellaneous 

Kitchen garden wall . 

Damage by death-watch beetle 
,, Garden materials 
,, Tree guards and boiler installation 
,, Household Requisites, etc. 
,, Transport and Carriage . 
,, Auditors .... 

,, Printing, Postages, Telephone, Sta 

tionery, etc. 
,, Donations to Village Institutions 
,, Legal Charges (lease of ' Homefield ') 
,, Purchase of Darwin's dining table 

(net) ..... 

,, Balance, being excess of income over 

expenditure .... 



Expenditure (running costs) 

1933-34 

£ s. d. 

831 18 8 

57 4 loi 

103 12 s 

15 4 I 



62 18 3i 



35 9 o 



56 14 8 

17 6 io| 

2 I I 

19 I 2 



41 
5 
7 



6 

5 
5 



4 
o 
6 



9100 

45 9_8i 

I1.310 7 8 



1934-35 
£ s. d 

797 13 

62 3 
126 14 

14 16 



2 

8i 

6 

7 



81 6 7 

73 9 10 

35 I o 

77 8 8 

41 I 

24 3 
30 12 7J 
3 18 10 
19 16 9 

24 13 7* 
550 



7 
4 



1,418 5 9i 



xxviii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1934-35 

It may be appropriate at this time to restate the financial position in 
relation with the general funds of the Association (i.e. as apart from the 
Down House Endowment Fund). The total expenditure which fell upon 
general funds as so-called ' capital ' expenditure was £3,292 15s. zd., as 
stated in the report for 1932-33. Apart from this, the actual excess of 
expenditure over income from 1929 down to March 31 of the present year 
stands at £458 55. ^d. The Council last year resolved, on the recommenda- 
tion of the committee, that any subsequent balance on the side of receipts 
should be placed in a suspense or maintenance fund for the house. It will 
be seen, however, that owing to the heavy repairs necessitated during the 
past year the balance is still adverse, and the prospect of forming any 
substantial maintenance fund under existing conditions may be discounted. 
The committee have also to bear in mind that the Pilgrim Trust grant of 
£150 per annum for five years will expire after the payment in 1937, 
and though a review of the position thereafter is promised by the Trust, 
the committee hope that all those friends of Down House who may be in 
a position to aid in the maintenance of this unique charge will not fail 
to do so. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1934-35 

The resumption this year of the practice of showing in the accounts 
comparative figures for the preceding year (interrupted in consequence 
of the aheration of the Association's accounting period) reveals an increase 
of nearly £700 in membership subscriptions. This improvement is 
attributable mainly to the large attendance at the Aberdeen Meeting, for 
which 2,938 members enrolled, the most since 1928 (Glasgow Meeting), 
excepting the Centenary Meeting ; but also partly to the encouraging 
response to the General Officers' appeal two years ago for regular annual 
subscriptions by banker's order, irrespective of actual attendance at the 
annual meeting in any year. Maintenance and extension of the Associa- 
tion's service in aid of scientific research will be best assured by a stable 
income from membership subscriptions. By March 31 this year 235 
members had adopted the labour-saving method of subscription by 
banker's order, and I hope this promise of growth will be fulfilled, for, 
in spite of much economy and the free services of a host of volunteers, 
the need for greater financial resources still hinders the Association's 

work. 

JosiAH C. Stamp, 

General Treasurer. 



XXX 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Balance Sheet as 



Corresponding 

Figures 
31st March, 

1934. 
£ s. d. 



37,549 7 6 



LIABILITIES 



General Purposes : — 

Sundry Creditors .... 

Hon. Sir Charles Parsons' gift 

(;C 10,000) and legacy (;iC2,000) . 

Yarrow Fund 

As per last Account ;^5,731 14 8 
Less Transferred to In- 
come and Expendi- 
ture Account under 
terms of the gift . 258 



£ s. d. 

117 8 2 
12,000 



£ s. 



Life Compositions 

As per last Account. 2,490 12 2 
Add Received during 
year 



Less Transferred to In- 
come and Expendi- 
ture Account 

Contingency Fund 

As per last Account 
Add Amount trans- 
ferred from Income 
and Expenditure 
Account 

Accumulated Fund 



5,473 14 8 



273 
2,763 12 2 

15 
769 17 11 

454 8 3i 



2,748 12 2 



1,224 6 2i 
16,488 9 



38,052 10 2i 



Special Purposes : — 
Caird Fund 

Balance at 1st April, 1934 . 
Add Excess of Income over Expendi- 
ture for year .... 

Cunningham Bequest 

Balance at 1st April, 1934 . 
Less Excess of Expenditure over In- 
come for the year . . . 

Toronto University Presentation Fund 

Capital ..... 
Revenue ..... 



Carried forward 



9,767 11 
38 12 10 



2,284 19 1 
735 15 9 



178 11 4 
4 7 6 



9,806 3 10 



1,549 3 4 



182 18 10 



49,590 16 2^ 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXI 



at 31st March, 1935 



Corresponding 

Figures 

31st March, 

1934. 
£ s. d. 



37,540 7 6 



I 



ASSETS 

£ s. d. 

General Purposes : — 

Investments as scheduled with Income 
and Expenditiire Account, No. 1 . 37,920 1 1 1 

Catalogues in Stock, at cost (Down 

House) . . . • . — — — 

Sundry debtors and payments in ad- 
vance . . . . ■ • 821511 



£ s. d. 



Cash at bank . 
Cash in hand . 



Cunningham Bequest 

Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 3) . 
Cash at bank .... 



Toronto University Presentation Fund 
Investments (see Income and 
penditure Account, No. 4) . 
Cash at bank 



Ex- 



41 17 5 
7 14 lU 



38,052 10 2A 



SPEcrAL Purposes : — 
Caird Fund 

Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 2) . . 9,582 16 

Cash at bank . . . . 223 7 



1,501 7 
47 16 



178 11 4 
4 7 6 



Carried forward 



9,806 3 10 



1,549 3 I 



182 18 10 
49,590 16 2i 



XXXII 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Balance Sheet as 



Corresponding 

Figures 
31st March, 
1934. 
£ s. d. 



34,331 13 3\ 



71,881 9i 



Brought forward 
Bernard Hobson Fund 
Capital 
Revenue — Balance per 

last Account . . 22 10 6 

Add Excess of Income 

over Expenditure for 

year . . . 22 5 6 



LIABILITIES [continued) 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

49,590 16 2 J 



1,000 



44 16 



Leicester and Leicestershire Fund, 1 933 

Capital 1,000 

Excess of Income over Expenditure 
for year . . . . - 34 4 2 



Down House 

Endowment Fund . . . 20,000 

Sundry Creditors and Credit 

Balances . . . . 150 12 8 



Total of Special Funds 



£33,767 18 10 



NOTE. — There are contingent Liabilities in respect of grants voted 
to Research Committees at Aberdeen in 1934, but not 
claimed at 31st March, 1935, amounting to £509 6s. \d. 

The amount which should, in accordance with Council's resolu- 
tion, have been in the Contingency Fund at 3Ist March, 1935, 
was £1 .375, but the surplus income available for this purpose 
has been insufficient by £15J 13s. 9^d. to meet the full annual 
amount transferable. 



1,044 16 



1,034 4 2 



20,150 12 8 



£71,820 9 0^ 



I have examined the foregoing Account with the Books and Vouchers and certify 
and the Investments, and the Bank have certified to me that they hold the 

Approved. 

Arthur L. Bowley 1- Auditors. 
Allan Ferguson 
23 Queen Victoria St., 
London, E.C. 4. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXlll 



at 31st March, 1935 {continued) 



Corresponding 

Figures 

31st March, 

1934. 

£ s. d. 



34,331 13 3i 



ASSETS (continued) 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 

Bernard Hobson Fund 

Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 5) 
Cash at bank .... 

Leicester and Leicestershire Fund, 1 933 
Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 6) 
Cash at bank .... 

Down House 

Endowment Fund Investments (see 
Income and Expenditure Account, 

No. 7) 

Cash at bank .... 
Cash in hand .... 
Sundry debtors and payments in 
advance . . . . • 

Stock of catalogues 
Suspense Account 
Balance at credit 

I st April, 1934 . 45 9 8J 
Less Excess of Income 
over Expenditure 
for year to date . 84 1 3 U 



71,881 9} 



£ 


s. 


d. 


£ ^■ 
49,590 16 


d. 
2i 


1,000 
44 



16 






1,044 16 
1,034 4 


n 


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34 




4 



2 





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36 


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3 






64 


15 










39 3 5 



20,150 12 8 
£71.820 9 0^ 



the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the Bankers 
Deeds of Down House. 



W. B. Keen, 
Chartered Accountant. 



XXXIV 



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RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

NORWICH, 1935. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

Seismological investigations. — Dr. F. J. W. Whipple {Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw, 
C.B.E. (Secretary), Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. A. T. J. 
Dollar, Prof. G. R. Goldsbrough, Dr. Wilfred Hall, Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S., 
Mr. Cosmo Johns, Mr. A. W. Lee, Prof. E. A. Milne, M.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. 
R. D. Oldham, F.R.S., Prof. H. H. Plaskett, Prof. H. C. Plummer, F.R.S., 
Prof. A. O. Rankine, O.B.E., Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. 
Sampson, F.R.S., Mr. F. J. Scrase, Capt. H. Shaw, Sir Frank Smith, 
K.C.B., C.B.E. . Sec. R.S., Dr. R. Stoneley, F.R.S., Mr. E. TUlotson, Sir G. T. 
Walker, C.S.I. , F.R.S. £150 (Caird Fund grant). 

Calculation of mathematical tables. — Prof. E. H. Neville {Chairman), Dr. L. J. 
Comrie {Secretary), Prof. A. Lodge {Vice-Chairman), Dr. J. R. Airey, 
Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S., Dr. J. Henderson, Dr. E. L. Ince, Dr. J. O. 
Irwin, Dr. J. C. P. Miller, Mr. F. Robbins, Mr. D. H. Sadler, Dr. A. J. 
Thompson, Dr. J. F. Tocher, Dr. J. Wishart. £200 {£150 Caird Fund grant). 

SECTIONS A, C— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 

GEOLOGY. 

The direct determination of the thermal conductivities of rocks in mines or 
borings where the temperature gradient has been, or is likely to be, 
measured. — Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S. {Chairman), T)!. E. C. BuUard, Dr. H. 
Jeffreys, F.R.S. {from Section A) ; Mr. E. M. Anderson, Prof. W. G. 
Fearnsides, F.R.S., Prof. G. Hickling, Prof. A. Holmes, Dr. D. W. Phillips, 
Dr. J. H. J. Poole. £35. 

SECTIONS A, J.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 

PSYCHOLOGY. 

The possibility of quantitative estimates of sensory events. — Prof. A. Ferguson 
{Chairman), Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. {Vice-Chairman), Mr. R. J. 
Bartlett {Secretary), Dr. H. Banister, Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S., Dr. Wm, 
Brown, Dr. N. R. Campbell, Prof. J. Drever, Mr. J. Guild, Dr. R. A. 
Houstoun, Dr. J. O. Irwin, Dr. G. W. C. Kaye, Dr. S. J. F. Philpott, 
Dr. L. F. Richardson, F.R.S., Dr. J. H. Shaxby, Mr. T. Smith, F.R.S., 
Dr. R. H. Thouless, Dr. W. S. Tucker, O.B.E. 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 

To advise the Sectional Committee as to the best method of meeting the 
wishes of Council as expressed in the memorandum on the relation between 
the advance of science and the life of the community. — 

{Chairman) , {Secretary) , Dr. N. V. Sidgwick, C.B.E., 

F.R.S., Prof. J. F. Thorpe, C.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. H. T. Tizard, C.B., F.R.S. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xliii 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

To excavate critical geological sections in Great Britain. — Prof. W. T. Gordon 
{Chairman), Prof. W. G. Feamsides, F.R.S. (Secretary), Prof. E. B. Bailey, 
F.R.S., Mr. H. C. Berdinner, Mr. W. S. Bisat, Dr. H. Bolton, Prof. P. G. H. 
Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. E. S. Cobbold, Prof. 
A. H. Cox, Miss M. C. Crosfield, Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, 
M.B.E., Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S., Mr. F. Gossling, Prof. H. L. 
Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling, Prof. V. C. Illing, Prof. O. T. Jones, F.R.S. . 
Dr. Murray Macgregor, Dr. F. J. North, Dr. J. Pringle, Dr. T. F. Sibly, 
Dr. W. K. Spencer, F.R.S., Prof. A. E. Trueman, Dr. F. S. Wallis, Prof. 
W. W. Watts, F.R.S., Dr. W. F. Whittard, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. f40 
(Contingent grant, part on Bernard Hobson Fund). 

To investigate the reptile-bearing oolite of Stow-on-the-WoId, subject to the con- 
dition that suitable arrangements be made for the disposal of the material. 
— Sir A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S. (Chairman), Mr. C. I. Gardiner (Secretary), 
Prof. S. H. Reynolds, Mr. W. E. Swinton. S20 (Bernard Hobson Fund 
grant) . 

To investigate the bone-bed in the glacial deposits of Brundon, near Sudbury, 
Suffolk.— Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S. (Chairman), Mr. Guy 
Mavnard (Secretary), Mr. D. F. W. Baden-Powell, Prof. W. B. R. King, 
O.B.E., Mr. J. Reid Moir, Mr. K. P. Oakley, Dr. J. D. Solomon, Sir A. Smith 
Woodward, F.R.S. £30 (Bernard Hobson Fund grant). 

To consider and report on questions affecting the teaching of Geology in schools. 
— Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. A. E. Trueman (Secretary), 
Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. C. P. Chatwin, Prof. A. H. 
Cox, Miss E. Dix, Prof. G. Hickhng, Dr. A. K. WeUs. 

The collection, preservation, and systematic registration of photographs of 
geological interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. S. H. 
Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. Ashley, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. G. Macdonald 
Davies, Mr. J. F. Jackson, Mr. J. Ranson, Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S., 
Mr. R. J. Welch. 

To consider and report upon petrographic classification and nomenclature. — 
Mr. W. Campbell Smith (Chairman), Dr. A. K. Wells (Secretary), Prof. E. B. 
Bailey, F.R.S., Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. A. Brammall, 
Dr. R. Campbell, Prof. A. Holmes, Prof. A. Johannsen, Dr. W. p. Kennedy, 
Mr. A. G. MacGregor, Prof. P. Niggh, Prof. H. H. Read, Prof. S. J. Shand, 
Prof. C. E. TiUey, Dr. G. W. Tyrrell, Dr. F. Walker. 

To make recommendations to the International Geological Congress for the 
formation of a committee to consider geological evidence of climatic change. — 
Dr. W. B. Wright (Chairman), Mr. M. B. Cotsworth (Secretary), Prof. E. B. 
Bailey, F.R.S., Prof. W. N. Benson, Prof. J. K. Charlesworth, Sir Lewis L. 
Fermor, O.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. G. W. Grabham, Dr. E. M. Kindle, Dr. Murray 
Macgregor, Dr. A. Raistrick, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. 

SECTIONS C, E.— GEOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY. 

To administer a grant in support of a topographical and geological sur\'ey of 
the Lake Rudolph area in E. Africa.— Sir Albert E. Kitson, C.M.G., C.B.E. 
(Chairman), Dr. A. K. Wells (Secretary), Mr. S. J. K. Baker, Prof. F. 
Debenham, Dr. V. Fuchs, Prof. W. T. Gordon, Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, 
C.M.G., D.S.O. £35 (Unexpended balance). 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

To nominate competent naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the 
Marine Laboratory', Plymouth. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth, F.R.S. (Chairman 
and Secretary), Prof. H. Graham Cannon, F.R.S., Prof. H. Munro Fox, 
Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S. £50. 



xliv RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. 

To co-operate with other sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, 
for the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir Sidney 
Harmer, K.B.E., F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman, F.R.S. (Secretary), 
Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S., Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. £50 (Caird 
Fund grant). 

To make an ecological survey of the Mollusca of the Upper Amazon. — Dr. W. T. 
Caiman, F.R.S. (Chairman), Miss A. M. Laysaght (Secretary), Mr. G. C. 
Robson. £15. 

To investigate British immigrant insects. — SirE. B. Poulton, F.R.S. (Chairman), 
Dr. C. B. Wilhams (Secretary) , Prof. F. Balfour-Browne, Capt. N. D. Riley. 
£10. 

To consider the position of animal biology in the school curriculum and matters 
relating thereto. — Prof. R. D. Laurie (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. H. W. 
Ballance, Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., Miss M. McNicol, Miss A. J. 
Prothero, Prof. W. M. Tattersall, Dr. E. N. Miles Thomas. 

The progressive adaptation to new conditions in Artemia salina (Diploid and 
Octoploid, Parthenogenetic v. Bisexual). — Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S. (Chair- 
man), Dr. F. Gross (Secretary), Dr. J. Gray, F.R.S., Dr. E. S. Russell, O.B.E., 
Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. 

SECTIONS D, I, K.— ZOOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite 
pieces of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Prof. J. H. Ashworth, 
F.R.S. (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. J. Barcroft, C.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. 
E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., Dr. Margery Knight. £50 (Caird Fund grant). 

SECTIONS D, K.— ZOOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry out definite 
pieces of work at the Freshwater Biological Station, Wray Castle, Winder- 
mere. — Prof. F. E. Fritsch, F.R.S. (Chairman) ,7x01. P. A. Buxton (Secretary), 
Miss P. M. Jenkin, Dr. C, H. O'Donoghue (from Section D) ; Dr. W. H. 
Pearsall (from Section K) . £75. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To inquire into the present state of knowledge of the human geography of 
Tropical Africa, and to make recommendations for furtherance and develop- 
ment. — Prof. P. M. Roxby (Chairman), Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, O.B.E. (Secretary), 
Dr. A. Geddes (Assistant Secretary), Mr. S. J. K. Baker, Prof. C. B. Fawcett, 
Mr. W. Fitzgerald, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. E. B. Haddon, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, 
Mr. J. McFarlane, Brig. M. N. MacLeod, D.S.O., Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E. , 
F.B.A., Mr. R. A. Pelham, Mr. R. U. Sayce, Rev. E. W. Smith, Brig. H. S. L. 
Winterbotham. C.M.G., D.S.O. £16 (Unexpended balance). 

To study the land forms of the North-East Land. — Prof. F. Debenham, Prof. 
R. N. Rudmose Brown, Dr. K. S. Sandford. £25. 

To co-operate with bodies concerned with the cartographic representation of 
population, and in particular with the Ordnance Survey, for the production 
of population maps. — (Chairman), Prof. C. B. 

Fawcett (Secretary), The Director General of the Ordnance Survey, Col. Sir 
Charles Close, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G., F.R.S., Prof. H. J. Fleure, Mr. A. C. 
O'Dell, Mr. A. V. Wilhamson. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Chronology of the world crisis from igaq onwards. — Prof. J. H. Jones (Chairman), 
Dr. P. Ford (Secretary), Prof. G. C. Allen, Mr. H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E., 
Mr. R. F. Harrod. Mr. A. Radford, Prof. J. G. Smith. £10 (Leicester and 
Leicestershire Fund grant) . 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xlv 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

Earth pressures. — Mr. F. E. Wentworth-Sheilds, O.B.E. {Chairman), Dr. J. S. 
Owens {Secretary), Prof. G. Cook, Mr. T. E. N. Fargher, Prof. A. R. Fulton, 
Prof. F. C. Lea, Prof. R. V. Southwell, F.R.S., Dr. R. E. Stradling, C.B., Dr. 
W. N. Thomas, Mr. E. G. Walker, Mr. J. S. Wilson. £6 13s. lO^d. (Unex- 
pended balance). 

To review the knowledge at present available for the reduction of noise, and 
the nuisances to the abatement of which this knowledge could best be 
apphed. — Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. {Chairman), Wing-Commander T. R. 
Cave-Browne-Cave, C.B.E. {Secretary) , Mr. R. S. Capon, Dr. A. H. Davis, 
Prof. G. W. O. Howe, Mr. E. S. Shrapnell-Smith, C.B.E. £5 (Leicester and 
Leicestershire Fund grant). 

Electrical terms and definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson {Chairman), Prof. 
F. G. Baily and Prof. G. W. O. Howe {Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Prof. 
W. H. Eccles, F.R.S., Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Sir R. T. Glazebrook, K.C.B., 
F.R.S., Prof. A. E. Kennelly, Prof. E. W. Marchant, Prof. J. Proudman, 
F.R.S., Sir Frank Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E., Sec. R.S., Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To carry out the excavation of Palaeolith cave deposits on Mt. Carmel and other 
sites in Palestine.— Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. {Chairman), Mr. M. C. 
Burkitt {Secretary), Miss G. Caton-Thompson, Miss D. A. E. Garrod. £20. 

To co-operate with the local committee in the excavation of Pen Dinas hill fort, 
Cardiganshire. — Sir Cyril Fox {Chairman), Mr. V. E. Nash-Wilhams {Secre- 
tary), Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Prof. C. Daryll Forde, Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan, 
Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler. £20. 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of copper used by the Sumerians. 
— Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Chairman), Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. {Secretary), 
Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, 
Mr. O. Davies, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Sir Flinders Petrie, F.R.S. , Dr. A. Rais- 
trick. Dr. R. H. Rastall. £25. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's 
Cavern.— Sir A. Keith, F.R.S. {Chairman), Prof. J. L. Mvres, O.B.E. , F.B.A. 
{Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Dr. R. V. Favell, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, 
Mr. A. D. Lacaille. £10. 

To excavate the Roman fort at Brancaster, Norfolk. — Mr. M. C. Burkitt {Chair- 
man), Mr. V. E. Nash WiUiams {Secretary), Mr. K. H. Jackson. £25. 

To investigate blood groups among primitive peoples.— Prof. H. J. Fleure 
{Chairman), Prof. R. Ruggles Gates, F.R.S. {Secretary), Dr. J. H. Hutton, 
CLE., Mr. R. U. Sayce. £10. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the 
exploration of caves in the Derbyshire district. — Mr. M. C. Burkitt {Chair- 
man), Dr. R. V. Favell {Secretary), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong, Prof. H. J. 
Fleure, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. L. S. Palmer, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake. £25. 

To carry out research among the Ainu of Japan. — Prof. C. G. Seligman, F.R.S. 
{Chairman), Mrs. C. G. Seligman {Secretary), Dr. H. S. Harrison, Capt. 
T. A. Joyce, O.B.E., Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan. 

To report on the classification and distribution of rude stone monuments in the 
British Isles. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Chairman), Dr. Margaret A. Murray 
{Secretary), Mr. A. L. Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Prof. V. Gordon 
Childe, Sir Cyril Fox, Mr. T. D. Kendrick. 

To conduct archaeological and ethnological researches in Crete. — Prof. J. L. 
Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. {Chairman), Mr. L. Dudley Buxton {Secretary), Dr. 
W. L. H. Duckworth. 



xlvi RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. 

To co-operate with Miss Caton-Thompson in her researches in prehistoric sites in 
the Western Desert of Egypt.— Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. (Chair- 
man). Mr. H. J. E. Peake {Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S. 

To report to the Sectional Committee on the question of re-editing ' Notes and 
Queries in Anthropology.' — Prof. H. J. Fleure (Chairman), Dr. G. M. Morant 
(Secretary), Dr. H. S. Harrison, Prof. C. G. Seligman, F.R.S. 

To investigate early mining sites in Wales. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), 
Mr. Oliver Davies (Secretary), Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
F.R.S., Mr. E. Estyn Evans, Prof. H. J. Fleure, Prof. C. Darvll Forde, Sir 
Cyril Fox, Dr. F. J. North, Mr. V. E. Nash WiUiams. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

To deal with the use of a stereotactic instrument. — Prof. J. Mellanby, F.R.S. 
(Chairman and Secretary) . 

To investigate the alleged differences in distribution of rods and cones in the 
retinae of various animals. — Prof. H. E. Roaf (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Edridge- 
Green, C.B.E. (Secretary), Prof. J. P. Hill, F.R.S., Dr. F. W. Law, Dr. S. 
Zuckerman. £10 (Caird Fund grant). 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

To develop tests of the routine manual factor in mechanical abiUty.— Dr. C. S. 
Myers, C.B.E. , F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Prof. C. 
Burt, Dr. F. M. Earle, Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear. £30 (Leicester 
and Leicestershire Fund grant) . 

The nature of perseveration and its testing. — Prof. F. Aveling (Chairman), 
Dr. W. Stephenson (Secretary), Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S., Dr. Mary Collins, 
Mr. E. Farmer, Dr. P. E. Vernon. 

To consider definite Hnes of research in social psychology. — Prof. J. Drever 
(Chairman), Mr. R. J. Bartlett (Secretary), Prof. F. Aveling, Prof. F. C. 
Bartlett, F.R.S., Prof. C. Burt, Dr. Mary Collins, Mr. E. Farmer, MissE. J. 
Lindgren, Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. T. H. Pear, Dr. R. H. 
Thouless, Mr. A. W. Wolters. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

Transplant experiments. — Sir Arthur Hill, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. 
W. B. Turrill (Secretary), Prof. F. W. Ohver, F.R.S., Prof. E. J. Salisbury, 
F.R.S., Prof. A. G. Tansley, F.R.S. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To consider and report on the possibility of the Section undertaking more definite 
work in promoting educational research. — Dr. W. W. Vaughan, M.V.O. 
(Chairman), Miss H. Masters (Secretary), Prof. H. R. Hamley, Mr. E. R. B. 
Reynolds, Mr. N. F. Sheppard. £5 (Leicester and Leicestershire Fund 
grant). 

SECTIONS M, E.— AGRICULTURE, GEOGRAPHY. 

To co-operate with the staff of the Imperial Soil Bureau to examine the soil 
resources of the Empire. — Sir John Russell, O.B.E., F.R.S. (Chairman), 
Mr. G. V. Jacks (Secretary), Dr. E. M. Crowther, Dr. W. G. Ogg, Prof. G. W. 
Robinson (frotn Section M), Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Mr. H. King, Mr. C. G. T. 
Morison (from Section M), Dr. L. D. Stamp, Mr. A. Stevens, Dr. S. W. 
Wooldridge (from Section E). 

CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee.- — The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio), Mr. T. Sheppard (Vice-Chairman), Dr. C. Tierne}' (Secretary), 
the General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, Mr. C. O. Bartrum, Sir 
Richard Gregory, Bt., F.R.S., Sir David Prain, CLE., C.M.G., F.R.S., 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Prof. W.M.Tattersall, Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler. 



RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS xlvii 

RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 



The following resolutions and recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at the Norwich Meeting for con- 
sideration, and, if desirable, for action : — 

From the General Committee. 

That the Council be authorised to publish, either by printing in extenso 
in the Annual Report or otherwise, certain contributions to the discussion 
on the Galapagos Islands (Section D, Zoology). 

From Sections A {Mathematical and Physical Sciences), C (Geology), 
E (Geography), and G (Engineering). 

In view of the importance of co-operation with the Ministry of Health 
Committee on Inland Water Survey and with the joint Committee of the two 
Houses on Water Resources and Supplies, it is suggested that a Committee 
of the Council of the British Association be appointed with representatives 
from Sections A, C, E and G. 

From Sections A (Mathematical and Physical Sciences), and 
G (Engineering). 

(Recommendation for communication by the Council to the Ministry 
of Transport) : 

In connection with the demonstration given at the Aberdeen Meeting, 
a year ago , of effective silencers made for the engines of bicycles, the Associa- 
tion understands that the general problem of the noise of motor transport 
is still under consideration by a Committee appointed by the Minister of 
Transport, and that until that Committee reports, no information about 
its work or proposals can be communicated. 

While recognising that there are administrative difficulties in giving 
practical effect to the improvements which technically are possible, the 
Association expresses a hope that the Minister will make an arrangement 
whereby ncAV motor vehicles may be type-tested to ensure that they comply 
with a certain standard of silence, even though that standard may initially 
be a very lenient one. 

In doing so the Association draws attention to the great popular desire 
for improvement and also to the great extent by which many vehicles do 
exceed any noise level which could reasonably be defended as scientifically 
or technically necessary. 

From Section D (Zoology). 

The Comrnittee of Section D recommends to the Council that the British 
Association, in view of its connection with the memory of Charles Darwin, 
should take the initiative in summoning a Committee of British bodies 
interested in the preservation of the fauna of the Galapagos Islands to dis- 
cover what steps can be taken in co-operation with similar bodies in other 
countries, to assist in giving effect to the legislation of the Government of 
Ecuador in this matter. 



xlviii RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

From Section F {Economics), supported by Section J (Psychology). 

The Committee recommends that the Association might indicate the 
importance which it attaches to the development of the social sciences by 
appointing a third General Secretary, who would be specially associated 
with this group of studies. This emphasis would convey to the public 
that the Association has always regarded this form of scientific inquiry as 
it regards the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences. 

From Section G (Engineering). 

Section G recommends that the desirability of adding, for those who 
desire to use it, a definition and specification of the lower yield-point to the 
specification of other properties of mild and moderately high tensile steel 
be brought to the notice of the British Standards Institution. 

The Section submits the following specification for consideration by 
that Institution : 

' After yield has commenced in a tensile test on a standard piece (com- 
prising a portion that is tolerably uniform in section) and before it has 
spread along the whole of the portion of uniform section, the load shall be 
readjusted to a new, steady value (being reduced if necessary) so that yield 
spreads along the uniform portion while the machine continues to elongate 
the piece slowly. The stress value deduced by dividing the readjusted load 
by the initial cross-sectional area of the uniform portion of the test-piece 
shall be known as the lower yield-point.' 

From Section H (Anthropology). 

That the Council of the Association be asked to approach H.M. First 
Commissioner of Works with a view to the immediate scheduling of the 
Pin Hole Cave at Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, as an Ancient Monument, 
and to a proper protection of the site. At the same time it was recommended 
that the following cave sites in the neighbourhood be also scheduled, namely, 
Mother Grundy's Parlour and Langwith Cave. 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies, supported 
by Section D (Zoology). 

(i) That the attention of the respective Councils for the Preservation of 
Rural England, Scotland and Wales be called to the serious effects upon the 
insectivorous bird population through the cutting of hedgerows during the 
breeding season, and the consequent destruction or desertion of the birds' 
nests ; and recommends that the said Councils urge upon local adminis- 
trative authorities the desirability of suspending such operations during 
the nesting period. 

(2) That this Conference of Delegates of Societies in correspondence 
with the British Association for the Advancement of Science assembled at 
Norwich welcomes the facilities afforded by the Town and Country Planning 
Act, 1932, for the preservation of individual sites and objects of scientific 
interest, but views with grave apprehension the indiscriminate building 
development over wide areas of exceptional natural beauty and scientific 
importance ; and requests the Council of the Association to represent to 
H.M. Government the urgent necessity for taking immediate steps to 
schedule such areas, as recommended by the National Parks Committee 
(Report, Section 28 b). 1931, to be developed as national parks. 



CO JAN 1936 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

Norwich, 1935. 

THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



FORM, DRIFT, AND RHYTHM OF THE 
CONTINENTS 

BY 

Professor W. W. WATTS, LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



It is now sixty-seven years since the British Association enjoyed the 
hospitality of the city of Norwich, a privilege which is being renewed 
to-day under the most happy auspices. 

At that meeting we find the scientific community was particularly 
interested in underground temperatures and tidal phenomena, in 
the application of the spectroscope to celestial objects, and in the 
discovery of the oldest Cambrian fossils and the earliest fossil 
mammals then known. Many papers were read on local natural 
history, including those on Norfolk farming and the drainage of the 
County and of the Fens. 

In his address at the meeting the President, Sir Joseph D. Hooker, 
made special reference to the work of Charles Darwin : not to the 
Origin of Species which had been acrimoniously discussed by the 
Association on previous occasions, and notably at Oxford in i860, 
but to some of the work that followed. 

It should be remembered that Hooker was one of the three 
scientific men, representing botany, zoology and geology, whom 
Darwin had selected as judges with whose opinion on the soundness 
of his theory of the origin of species he would be content. The 
others were Huxley and Lyell ; and of the three Lyell was the 
hardest to convince, chiefly because the record of life in the past 
then furnished by the rocks was manifestly so incomplete and un- 
satisfactory that its evidence was insufficient to warrant a definite 
verdict. 

Lyell had set out to ' treat of such features of the economy of 
existing nature, animate and inanimate, as are illustrative of geology,' 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

and to make ' an investigation of the permanent effects of causes 
now in action which may serve as records to after ages of the present 
condition of the earth and its inhabitants.' By laborious study of 
the work of others, and by his own extensive travel and research, he 
had been able to enunciate, for the inorganic world, the principle 
of uniformitarianism, which in its original form we owe to Hutton. 
This principle involved that the history revealed by the rocks 
should be read as the effect of the slow but continuous operation of 
causes, most of them small, such as could be seen in action in some 
part or other of the world to-day. This was set in opposition to the 
opinion of the older geologists who had postulated a succession of 
catastrophes which, by flood, fire and convulsion, had periodically 
wrecked the world and destroyed its inhabitants ; each catastrophe 
necessitating a new creation to provide the succession of life on the 
earth as it then was known. 

But in the organic world Lyell, like Hutton, had failed to detect 
any analogous principle, and, as he rejected all the theories of 
transmutation of species then in vogue, he had to accept their 
absolute fixity ; and to suppose that, as species became extinct one 
after another, replacement by special creations followed. And yet 
the reading to-day of the chapters devoted to this branch in the 
earlier editions of Lyell 's great work produces the haunting feeling 
that a better explanation had only just eluded him. It was the 
story revealed in Lyell's work, Darwin tells us, the new conception 
that the earth had been in existence for vast sons of time, the proof 
that it had been continuously peopled by animals and plants, and 
that these had steadfastly advanced and improved throughout that 
time, which showed him the necessity for an explanation of the 
progression of life, and gave him the first hints of his theory. When 
he had enunciated this he was enabled to repay his master with the 
principle of organic evolution, which brought changes in the animate 
world into harmony with those of the inanimate. 

His Antiquity of Man shows that by 1863 Lyell had become a 
convert, and he afterwards rewrote much of the second volume 
of his Principles accepting the new point of view. This change 
earned from Hooker a testimonial in the 1868 address which, if not 
unique, must certainly be one of the most magnificent ever awarded 
to a scientific work : 

* I know no brighter example of heroism, of its kind, than this, 
of an author thus abandoning, late in life, a theory which he 
had regarded as one of the foundation stones of a work that had 
given him the highest position attainable amongst contemporary 
scientific writers. Well may he be proud of a superstructure, 
raised on the foundation of an insecure doctrine, when he finds 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 3 

that he can underpin it and substitute a new foundation : and, 
after all is finished, survey his edifice, not only more secure, but 
more harmonious in proportions than before.' 

Although infinitely richer than when Darwin wrote, the Geological 
Record still is, and must from its very nature remain, imperfect. 
Every major group of animal life but the vertebrates is represented 
in the Cambrian fauna, and the scant relics that have been recovered 
from earlier rocks give very little idea of what had gone before, and 
no evidence whatever as to the beginnings of life. 

But, from Cambrian time onward the chain of life is continuous and 
unbroken. Type after type has arisen, flourished, and attained 
dominion. Some of them have met extinction in the heyday of their 
development ; others have slowly dwindled away ; others, again, 
have not finished their downhill journey, or are still advancing to 
their climax. 

Study of the succession of rocks and the organisms contained in 
them, in every case in which evidence is sufficiently abundant and 
particularly among the vertebrates and in the later stages of geological 
history, has now revealed that the great majority of species show 
close affinities with those which preceded and with those which 
followed them ; that, indeed, they have been derived from their 
predecessors and gave origin to their successors. We may now 
fairly claim that palaeontology has lifted the theory of evolution of 
organisms from the limbo of hypothesis into a fact completely 
demonstrated by the integral chain of life which links the animals 
and plants of to-day with the earliest of their forerunners of the 
most remote past. 

Further, the rocks themselves yield proof of the geographical 
changes undergone by the earth during its physical history ; and 
indicate with perfect clearness that these changes have been so 
closely attendant on variation in life, and the incoming of new 
species, that it is impossible to deny a relation of cause and effect. 

Indeed, when we realise the delicate adjustment of all life to the 
four elements of the ancients which environ it, air, water, earth 
and fire ; to their composition, interrelationships and circulation ; 
it is perhaps one of the most remarkable facts established by geology 
that, in spite of the physical changes which we know to have occurred, 
the chain of life has never snapped in all the hundreds of millions of 
years through which its history has been traced. 



The physical changes with which Lyell and his successors were 
most closely concerned were, firstly, the formation of stratified rocks 
on horizontal sea-floors, situated in what is now often the interior 



4 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

of continents, far removed from the oceans of the present day, and 
thus indicating important and repeated changes in the position of 
land and water ; and, secondly, the deformation of these flat deposits 
till they were rucked and ridged to build the mountain ranges. 

Before and since Lyell's time geologists have devoted themselves 
to working out the exact and detailed succession of these stratified 
rocks, translating their sequence into history and their characters 
into terms of geography ; the succession of physical conditions 
prevailing at the time of their formation. Further, although animals 
and plants migrate from place to place, the time occupied by the 
migrations of suitable forms is so negligible when compared with 
the length of the chapters of geological history that their fossil 
remains have proved to be the best means for correlating strata 
over broad stretches of the earth's surface. This correlation has 
converted the fragments of local history thus revealed into at least 
the outlines of the geological story of the world. 

It was not till 1885, however, that the accumulation of data of 
this type was sufficient to enable the great geologist, Suess, an 
Austrian but born in this country, to assemble and correlate them, 
and to deduce from them further principles which have been the 
mainstay and inspiration of his successors. We owe to Hertha 
Sollas and her father the rendering of this great work, The Face of 
the Earth, into English ; and to Emmanuel de Margerie and his 
colleagues a French translation enriched with a magnificent series 
of maps and sections such as could only have been brought together 
by one with the most remarkable bibliographic knowledge ; a 
veritable recension of the original. 

The nature and associations and the distribution in time and space 
of modern changes in the relative levels of land and sea, as detected 
at sea-margins and by altitude survey, and of older changes betrayed 
by such evidence as submerged forests and raised beaches, had 
convinced geologists that the unstable element was not the fickle 
and mobile sea, but the solid if elastic earth-crust. They naturally 
applied the same explanation to those encroachments of the sea in 
the past which had resulted in the formation of our stratified rocks. 
But while some investigators were content with one form of move- 
ment — that due to lateral pressure — to explain both the formation 
of mountains and the rise and fall of the land, others called in a 
different cause for the latter. Without entering into a discussion of 
causes it may be well for us to distinguish the orogenic or mountain- 
forming from the epeirogenic or continental movement. 

The evidence collected by Suess proved that these last great land 
and sea changes had occurred simultaneously over whole continents 
or even wider regions. Such great submergences as those to which 
the Cambrian Rocks, the Oxford Clay, and the Chalk are due were 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 5 

of this character ; while, in between, there came times of broad 
expansions of continental land and regressions of the sea. These 
changes were in his view on far too grand a scale to be compared 
with, or explained by, the trivial upheavals and depressions of land 
margins of the present day, which he showed could mostly be 
correlated with volcanoes or earthquakes, or with such incidents as 
the imposition or relief of ice-sheets on an elastic crust in connexion 
with glacial conditions. 

It became necessary for him to replace or supplement oscillations 
of the earth-crust by a world-wide periodic ebb and flow of the 
oceans, to and from the continents ; positive movements of trans- 
gression carrying the sea and its deposits over the lands, drowning 
them and their features under tens or hundreds of fathoms of water ; 
and negative movements or regressions when the oceans retreated 
to the deeps, leaving the continents bare or encrusted with recently 
formed sediments. 

Although the facts cried out for this generalisation Suess was at 
a loss to supply any mechanism competent to produce the wonderful 
rhythm. The problem was difficult because a liquid must maintain 
a horizontal, i.e. an equipotential, surface. It was manifestly im- 
possible to withdraw from the earth, and later to replace upon it, the 
vast quantity of water that would be required ; and, though a shifted 
water-level, or even a varied water-surface relative to the continents, 
might be caused by polar ice-caps, by redistribution of the continents 
carrying their local effects on gravitation, by variations in the rate of 
the earth's rotation, or other far-reaching causes, none of these would 
supply an explanation that fitted all the facts. Regressions of the 
sea could be to some extent explained if Suess's main postulate, 
that the great ocean basins had been slowly sinking throughout 
geological time, were granted. But this explanation only rendered 
more impotent the raising of ocean levels by deposits of sediment, 
and this was almost the only valid cause for transgressions that he 
had been able to suggest. 

Further, it is not possible to ignore the definite relationship that 
exists between the pulsation of the oceans and the raising of moun- 
tains by lateral or tangential stress. Periods of positive movement 
or advance of the seas were times of comparative tranquillity, when 
tangential pressure was in abeyance. Periods of negative movement 
and retreat were invariably marked by the operation of great stresses 
by which the earth's face was ridged and wrinkled in the throes of 
mountain-birth. 



The theory that continuous cooling and shrinkage of the interior 
of the earth afforded an explanation of mountain ranges and other 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

rugosities on its surface was a legacy from the nebular hypothesis. 
In spite of the homely simile of a shrivelling apple, this explanation 
has never received a very enthusiastic v^^elcome from geologists, 
though, in default of other resources, they had to make use of it. 
As knowledge has grown the difficulties have become insurmountable 
to them. 

First, there is its inadequacy to explain the vast amount of lateral 
movement required to account for the greater mountain ranges ; 
their rocks, originally spread over a wider area, having been folded 
and crushed into a narrower width. The shortening of the earth- 
crust thus effected has been estimated in the case of the Rocky 
Mountains at 29 miles, of the Himalayas at 62, the Alps at 76, and 
the Appalachians at the large figure of 200 miles. 

Then there is the periodicity of mountain growth. The great 
epochs of mountain-building, such as the Caledonian, to which 
the chief Scottish and Welsh mountains are due, the Hercynian, 
responsible for the Pennine and South Wales, and the Alpine, 
which gave us * the wooded, dim, blue goodness of the Weald,' 
were associated with vast continental development ; and each was 
separated from the next by a period of relative inactivity lasting 
dozens of millions of years. 

Further, there is the fact that the vigour of mountain-building, 
of volcanoes, and of other manifestations of unrest, has shown no 
sign of senility or lack of energy. The geologically recent Alpine- 
Himalayan range is as great, as lofty, and as complicated in structure, 
as were any of its precursors. The active volcanoes of Kilauea, 
Krakatao, or St. Pierre, and those recently extinct in Northern 
Ireland and the Scottish Isles, were as violent and efficient as any of 
those of the Palaeozoic Era. The earth is * a lady of a certain age,' 
but she has contrived to preserve her youth and energy as well as 
her beauty. 

But it was when Lord Kelvin's dictum struck from geology its 
grandest conception, time, that it became vital to re-examine the 
position. He had demonstrated that, if the earth had been con- 
tinuously cooling down at its present rate, its surface must have been 
too hot for the existence of life upon it a limited number of million 
years ago. The concept of geological time, indicated by Hutton 
in his famous saying that in this enquiry ' we find no vestige 
of a beginning — no prospect of an end,' had been confirmed by 
data accumulated through the painstaking researches of a host of 
competent and devoted observers all over the world. To them, 
familiar with the tremendous changes, organic and inorganic, that 
the earth had passed through since Cambrian time, it was wholly 
impossible to compress the life story of the earth, or the history of 
life upon it, into a paltry 20 or 30 million years. The slow growth 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 7 

and slow decay of mountain range after mountain range, each built 
out of, and in some cases upon, the ruins of its predecessor ; the 
chain of slowly evolving organisms, vast in numbers and infinite in 
variety ; told plainly of long aeons of time. And the duration of 
these aeons can be dimly realised when it is recalled that, within 
a small fraction of the latest of them, man, with the most primitive 
of implements and the most rudimentary culture, has succeeded 
in penetrating to the uttermost corners of the world, and developed 
his innumerable languages and civilisations. 

Huxley, as our representative, took up the challenge in his address 
to the Geological Society in 1869, and asked the pertinent question 
' but is the earth nothing but a cooling mass " like a hot water jar 
such as is used in carriages " or " a globe of sandstone " ? ' And he 
was able to point out at least some agencies which might regenerate 
the earth's heat or delay its loss. 

So it is only fitting that the great physicist, who imposed a narrow 
limit to geological time, should have prepared the way for those who 
have proved that the earth possesses in its radioactive substances 
a ' hidden reserve ' capable of supplying a continuous recrudescence 
of the energy wasted by radiation, thus lengthening out the time 
required to complete its total loss. These later physicists have given 
us time without stint ; and, though this time is the merest fraction 
of that envisaged by cosmogonists and astronomers, we are now so 
much richer than our original estimates that we are embarrassed by 
the wealth poured into our hands. So far from the last century's 
urge to * hurry up our phenomena,' we are almost at a loss for 
phenomena enough to fill up the time. 

The far-sighted genius of Lord Rutherford and Lord Rayleigh 
first saw the bearing of the rate of disintegration of radioactive 
substances in the minerals of rocks on the age of the parts of the 
earth-crust built of them. The extension and supplementing of 
this work by Joly, Holmes, and others, has now enabled us to look 
to the disintegration of uranium, thorium, and potassium, as the 
most promising of many methods that have been used in the 
endeavour to ascertain the age of those parts of the earth-crust 
that are accessible to observation. These methods also promise 
a means of dating the geological succession of Eras and Periods in 
terms of millions if not hundreds of thousands of years. 

The decline and early death to which Lord Kelvin's dictum had 
condemned the earth, according so little with the vigour displayed 
in its geological story, is now transformed into a history of prolonged 
though not perennial youth. It was for Joly, of whose work the 
extent, variety, and fruitfulness are hardly yet fully appreciated, 
to take the next step and see in the release of radioactive energy 
a mechanism which could drive the pulse that geologists had so 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

long felt, and that Suess had so brilliantly diagnosed. As Darwin 
found the missing word for Lyell, so Joly in his theory of Thermal 
Cycles has indicated the direction of search for a mechanism to 
actuate the rhythm of Suess. 

In Joly's conception the running down of the earth's energy, 
though a continuous process, was, through the intervention of radio- 
activity, converted into a series of cycles, during each of which 
relative movements of sea and land must occur ; downward move- 
ments of the continents, associated with positive encroachments of 
the sea ; upward movements, with retreat of the sea, the formation 
of wide land masses, and the ridging of strata to form mountain 
ranges. Thus he forged a link that could unite the continental or 
epeirogenic movement with orogenic or mountain movement. 

The visible parts of mountains and continents, as well as their 
lower and hidden portions, or ' roots,' are made of comparatively 
light rocks. In order to stand up as they do their roots must be 
embedded in denser matter, in which they ' float ' like ice-bergs in 
water. A far larger mass must exist below than is visible above, 
and the bigger the upstanding part the bigger the submerged root. 
Over the larger area of the ocean floor, on the other hand, the 
thickness of material of low density must be very slight, and the 
denser layer must come close to the surface. 

The study of earthquakes, to which the Seismology Committee 
of the British Association has made outstanding contributions, has 
yielded, from the times taken in transmission of vibrations through the 
earth, the best information as to the nature and state of the interior. 
It has proved that the dense layer is solid at the present time. It is 
probably no coincidence that the earth is also but just recovering 
from what is possibly the greatest period of mountain-building, if 
not the greatest negative movement of ocean retreat, that it has 
ever experienced. 

But solidity cannot be the permanent condition of the sub- 
stratum. Heat is generated in it by its own radioactivity, but, 
according to the terms of the hypothesis, cannot escape, in con- 
sequence of the higher temperature generated in the continental 
rocks which cover it. It is therefore retained in the substratum 
and stored as latent heat of liquefaction, so that, within a period 
which has been calculated approximately in millions of years, com- 
plete melting of the sub-crust must ensue. 

The resulting expansion of the liquefied stratum will have at 
least two effects of great importance to us. In the first place the 
unexpanded superficial layers will be too small to fit the swelling 
interior. They will, therefore, suffer tension, greater on the ocean 
floor than on land, aad cracking and rifting will occur, with intrusion 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 9 

and extrusion of molten rock. In the second place the continental 
masses, now truly floating in a substratum which has become fluid 
and less dense than before, will sink deeper into it, sufltering dis- 
placement along the rift cracks or other planes of dislocation. As 
a result the ocean waters, unchanged in volume, must encroach 
on the edges of the continents, and spread farther and farther 
over their surfaces. 

Thus we have the mechanism which Suess vainly sought, causing 
positive movements of the oceans, their waters spreading over wide 
stretches of what was formerly continental land, and laying down 
as sediment upon it the marine stratified rocks which are our chief 
witness of the rhythmic advances of the sea. 

This condition, however, cannot be permanent, for by convection 
of the fluid basic substratum, supplemented by the influence of tides 
within it, and the slow westward tidal drag of the continental masses 
towards and over what had been ocean floor, there will now be 
dissipation of its heat, mainly into the ocean waters, at a rate much 
faster than it has been or could be accumulated. Resolidifica- 
tion ensues, and again there are two main consequences. First, 
the stratum embedding their roots having now become more 
dense, the continental masses rise, and as they do so the ocean 
waters retreat from their margins and epicontinental seas, leaving 
bare as new land, made of the recently deposited sediments, the 
areas previously drowned. Secondly, the expanded crust, left 
insufficiently supported by the withdrawal of shrunken substratum, 
will suflPer from severe tangential stress, and, on yielding, will 
wrinkle like the skin of a withering apple. The wrinkles will be 
mountain ranges, formed along lines of weakness such as those at 
continental margins ; and they will be piled up and elevated to suffer 
from the intense erosion due to water action upon their exposed and 
upraised rocks. 

In this, again, we have a mechanism which supplies what was 
needed by Suess, and one, moreover, which secures the required 
relationship between continental and mountain movement, between 
the broader extensions of continental land and the growth of 
mountains with their volcanoes and earthquakes and the other 
concomitants of lateral thrust. 

Thus a Thermal Cycle may run its full course from the solid 
substratum, through a period of liquefaction accompanied by crustal 
tension, back to solidification and an era of lateral stress : and the 
stage is set for a new cycle. 

Professor Arthur Holmes, in checking Joly's calculations, has 
concluded that the length of the cycles in a basic rock substratum 
should occupy from 25 to 40 million years, a period much too short 



lo THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

to fit the major periods of mountain movement, as determined by 
him from the radioactivity of minerals contained in the rocks. On 
this evidence the Alpine movement should date back from 20 to 
60 millions of years ago, the Hercynian 200 to 250 millions, and the 
Caledonian from 350 to 375 million years. 

In a preliminary attempt to modify Joly's hypothesis Holmes 
postulated the occurrence of similar, but longer cycles (Magmatic 
Cycles) in a denser, ultrabasic layer underlying the basic one, the 
rhythm of which would be nearer to 150 million years. The shorter 
cycles due to the basic layer are held in part responsible for periods 
of minor disturbance, and also to account for the individual varia- 
tions in effect, duration, and intensity of the larger ones. Each of the 
later movements has also evidently been limited and conditioned by 
the results of foregoing ones, and especially by areas of fracture 
and weakness on the one hand, and by large stable masses composed 
of rocks intensely consolidated, or already closely packed, on the 
other. 

More recently Holmes has developed the possibility that the loss 
of heat is mainly due to convection in the liquid substrata, and that 
convection is the leading cause of the drifting and other movements 
of the crust, and the disturbances that have occurred in it. He 
says : — 

' Although the hypothesis involving sub-crustal convection 
currents cannot be regarded as established, it is encouraging to 
find that it is consistent with a wide range of geological and geo- 
physical data. Moreover, it is by no means independent of the 
best features of the other hypotheses. It requires the local 
operation of thermal cycles within the crust, and it necessarily 
involves contraction in regions where crustal cooling takes place. 
It is sufficiently complex to match the astonishing complexities 
of geological history, and sufficiently startling to stimulate 
research in many directions.' 

The phenomena are difficult to disentangle as the number of 
operating causes has been so great and many of them are not fully 
understood. But, underlying them all there is unquestionably the 
pulse within pulse which Suess saw and of which Joly pointed 
the way to explanation. 

The view at which we have arrived is neither strictly uniformi- 
tarian nor strictly catastrophic, but takes the best from each 
hypothesis. As Lyell showed, most of the phenomena of geology 
can be matched somewhere and sometime on the earth of to-day ; 
but it would appear that they have varied in place, intensity, phase, 
and time. And, as Lyell was driven to accept evolution to explain 
the history of life on the earth, so must we employ the same word to 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS ii 

express the life-processes of the earth itself, as was suggested by 
Huxley in 1869 and strongly advocated by Sollas in 1883. 



The contrast in outline and structure between the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans had long been noted when Suess formulated and used 
the differences as the basis of his classification. 

The Pacific is bounded everywhere by steep slopes, rising abruptly 
from profound ocean depths to lofty lands crowned with mountain 
ranges, parallel to its shores and surrounding its whole area. On 
the American side the Coast Range is continued by the Andes. On 
the Asiatic side chains of mountainous peninsulas and islands, sepa- 
rated from the continent by shallow inland seas, extend in festoons 
from Kamchatka and Japan to the East Indies, eastern Australia 
and New Zealand. This mountain ring, as Charles Lap worth 
said, ' is ablaze with volcanoes and creeping with earthquakes,' 
testifying that it has been recently formed and is still unfinished. 

The Atlantic Ocean, on the other hand, is not bordered with con- 
tinuous ranges, but breaks across them all : the Scottish and Welsh 
ranges, the Armorican range, the continuation of the Pyrenees and 
Atlas ; and, on the American side, the uplands of Labrador, New- 
foundland and the eastern States, and the hill ranges of Guiana and 
Brazil. The Atlantic is in disconformity with the grain of the land, 
while the Pacific conforms with it. The Pacific has the rock-folds 
of its ranges breaking like ocean waves towards it as though the 
land were being driven by pressure to advance upon it, while the 
Atlantic recalls the effects of fracture under tension. 

The middle and southern edges of the Atlantic, however, agree to 
some extent with the Pacific type. The Caribbean Sea, with the 
Antilles and the rest of its border girdle, recalls the similar structure 
of the Mediterranean, as it stretches eastwards, with breaks, to the 
East Indian Archipelago ; while the Andes are continued to Antarctica 
in a sweeping curve of islands. The rest of the Indian Ocean is of 
Atlantic type, as seen in the shores of eastern Africa and western 
Australia. 

Another feature of the Atlantic is the parallelism of much of its 
eastern and western coasts, the meaning of which has often attracted 
the speculations of geologists and geographers. With a little stretch 
of the imagination, and some ingenuity and elasticity of adjustment, 
plans or maps of the opposite sides may be fitted fairly closely, 
particularly if we plot and assemble the real edges of the continents, 
the steep slopes which divide the ' shelves ' on which they stand 
from the ocean depths. This has suggested the possibility that the 
two sides may once have been united, and have since broken and 
drifted apart till they are now separated by the ocean. 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

This view, outlined by others, has been emphasised by Wegener 
and dealt with by him in full detail in his work on The Origin of 
Continents and Oceans, and it now plays a leading part in what is 
known as the Wegener theory of continental drift. The hypothesis 
is supported by the close resemblances in the rocks and fossils of 
many ages in western Europe and Britain to those of eastern North 
America ; by community of the structures by which these rocks are 
affected ; and by the strong likeness exhibited by the living animals 
and plants on the two sides, so that they can only be referred to 
a single biological and distributional unit, the Palaearctic Region. 

The hypothesis, however, did not stop at this ; and in the South 
Atlantic and certain other areas Wegener and his followers have 
also given good reasons for believing that continental masses, once 
continuous, have drifted apart. 

Broad areas in southern Africa are built of rocks known as the 
Karroo Formation, of which the lower part, of late Carboniferous 
age, is characterised especially by species of the strange fern-like 
fossil plants Glossopteris and Gangamopteris. Associated with 
them are peculiar groups of fossil shells and fossil amphibia and 
reptiles. Similar rocks, with similar associations and contents, in 
Peninsular India have been named the Gondwana Formation. 
Comparable Formations also occupy large regions in Australia, 
Tasmania and New Zealand, in Madagascar, in the Falkland Islands 
and Brazil, and in Antarctica. 

The correspondence between these areas is so close that Suess 
supposed they must at that date have been connected together by 
lands, now sunk beneath the sea, and he named the continent thus 
formed Gondwanaland after the Indian occurrences. The break-up 
of this land can be followed from a study of the rocks, and it was a 
slow process, its steps occupying much of Mesozoic time. Dr. A. L. 
du Toit's comparison of South African rocks with those of Brazil 
and elsewhere in South America favours even a closer union than 
this between the units now scattered. 

One of the most remarkable features shown by these rocks in all 
the areas mentioned, but to varying extents, is the presence of con- 
glomerates made of far-travelled boulders, scratched like those borne 
by the modern ice-sheets of Greenland and the Antarctic, associated 
with other deposits of a glacial nature, and often resting upon 
typical glaciated surfaces. There is no possible escape from the con- 
clusion that these areas, now situated in or near the tropics, suffered 
an intense glaciation. This was not a case of mere alpine glaciers, 
for the land was of low relief and not far removed from sea-level, but 
of extensive ice-sheets on a far larger scale than the glaciation of the 
northern parts of the new and old worlds in the Pleistocene Ice Age. 
I have never seen any geological evidence more impressive or con- 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 13 

vincing than that displayed at Nooitgedacht, near Kimberley ; while 
the illustrations and other evidence published by David and Howchin 
from Australia are equally striking. 

Du Toit's work on these glacial deposits brings out two remarkable 
facts ; first, that the movement of the ice was southerly, pole-ward 
and away from the equator, the opposite to what would be expected, 
and to the direction of the Pleistocene ice-movement ; secondly, 
that the ice in Natal invaded the land from what is now sea to the 
north-east. 

When it is realised that at this period there is no evidence of glacial 
action in northern Europe or America, but a climate in which grew 
the vegetation that formed the coal seams of our Coal Measures, 
it is clear that we are not dealing with any general refrigeration of 
the globe, even if that would produce such widespread glaciation : 
we are face to face with a special glaciation of Gondwanaland. 

On both sides of the Atlantic these glacial episodes in Carboniferous 
times were followed by dry and desert climates in Triassic time, 
and these by violent volcanic outbursts. Nor are the rocks alike 
only in mode of formation, the structures by which they are traversed 
correspond ; while even in details there is remarkable agreement, as 
in the peculiar manganese deposits, and the occurrence of diamonds 
in ' pipes ' of igneous rock, both east and west of the Ocean. 

Rather than face the difficulties presented by the subsidence of 
lands connecting the severed portions of Gondwanaland, as pictured 
by Suess, Wegener has preferred, and in this he is supported by 
Du Toit and many other geologists, to bring into contact these 
severed parts, which could be fitted together as nearly as might be 
expected, considering the dates of severance. Du Toit's map of the 
period places South America to the west and south of South Africa, 
Madagascar and India to the east, Antarctica to the south, and 
Australia farther to the south-east. Such a grouping would form 
a continent much less wide in extent than that envisaged by Suess, 
and would offer some explanation of the more remarkable features 
of the glaciation in the several areas, as well as the problems of the 
rocks, fossils, and structures involved. 

In its application to the geology of Gondwanaland the modified 
hypothesis of Wegener cuts a Gordian knot ; but it still leaves a 
great climatal difficulty, unless we take his further step and conceive 
that at this date the terrestrial south pole was situated within 
Gondwanaland. No shift in the axis on which the earth rotates 
would, of course, be possible, nor is it postulated : only a drifting 
at that date of continental land across the pole. 

If a hypothesis of drift be admitted for Gondwanaland, it would 
be illogical to deny its application to other regions, including the 
north Atlantic, I have already mentioned some facts in its favour. 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Others are the resemblances of all sedimentary rocks on the two 
sides from the Cambrian to the Ordovician, and from the Devonian 
to the Trias ; the links between the structures of the land, as, for 
instance, between Ireland and Newfoundland ; and the instance 
given by Professor Bailey in his address to Section C in 1928. As 
Bailey then pointed out, the great Caledonian range which crosses 
Scotland, northern England and Wales from north-east to south- 
west on its course from Scandinavia is affected and displaced by the 
east to west Armorican (Hercynian) chain extending across from 
Brittany to South Wales. ' The crossing of the chains, begun in 
the British Isles, is completed in New England ' ; and from here the 
Armorican structure continues its westerly course. This is where it 
should cross if the continent of North America were brought back 
across the Atlantic and placed in the position which, according to 
Wegener, it would fit into in the European coast ! Can the Pilgrim 
Fathers have ever dreamed of such a link between the Old England 
and the New ? 

The hypothesis of continental drift gave rich promise of solving 
so many difficult problems that it was hailed by many classes of 
investigators almost as a panacea. Geographers have seen in it 
an explanation of the forms of continents and the position of 
peninsulas, islands and mountains ; meteorologists have found it 
the solution of some of the problems of past climates and their 
anomalies of distribution over the world ; biologists hope to get 
help with the intense complexities in the distribution of forms of 
lite and many strange facts in migration, and palaeontologists with 
similar difficulties among the ancient faunas and floras as revealed 
by their fossil remains ; geodesists have welcomed escape from the 
rising and sinking of the crust, so difficult to reconcile with the 
demands of isostatic equilibrium ; and it has been already stated 
that drift forms a vital factor in Joly's thermal cycles. 

But there has been no lack of criticism in all these directions. It 
has been assailed on the one hand for the detail attempted in its geo- 
graphical restorations, and on the other hand for its vagueness. Prof. 
Schu chert quotes Termier as saying that it is ' a beautiful dream, 
the dream of a great poet. One tries to embrace it, and finds that 
he has in his arms but a little vapour or smoke : it is at the same time 
alluring and intangible.' It has been objected that ' no plausible 
explanation of the mechanics involved has been offered ' ; that the 
continental connexions postulated present by no means so close 
a match, when fitted together, as has been claimed, in the structure 
or the nature of either igneous or sedimentary rocks ; that there is 
good evidence of extensive vertical movements in recent earthquakes, 
in the accumulation of tremendous thicknesses of sediment indicative 
of shallow-water from base to summit, and in the growth of coral 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 15 

reefs ; that Central America and the Mediterranean are a difficult 
obstacle ; and that the known distribution of the Karroo fossil 
reptiles is not by any means what the hypothesis demands. 

If the idea of drift be accepted it cannot be regarded as a royal 
road out of all our difficulties, nor can it be the only form of 
earth-movement to be reckoned with. The late J. W. Gregory, 
whose life was sacrificed to geological discovery, has studied ex- 
haustively the geological history of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, 
both as revealed by the sedimentary rocks and fossils on their 
borders, and by the distribution of life to-day. He finds that, 
according to our present knowledge, in the two oceans, facilities 
for migration have fluctuated from time to time, periods of great 
community of organisms alternating with periods of diversity. 
Again, at some times connexion seems to have been established 
north of the equator, at others to the south ; and we cannot ignore 
the possibility of migration across polar lands or seas when terrestrial 
climates haye differed from the present. The facts of life distribu- 
tion are far too complex to be explained by any single period of 
connexion followed by a definite breaking apart, even if that took 
place by stages. Mrs. Reid, too, has pointed out that resemblances 
between the Tertiary floras of America and Europe actually increased 
at the time when the Atlantic should have been widening. Unless 
continental drift has been a more compUcated process than anyone 
has yet conceived, it seems impossible to escape from some form of 
the ' land bridges ' of the older naturalists : 

' Air-roads over islands lost — 
Ages since 'neath Ocean lost — ' 

We have no right to expect greater simplicity in the life of a planet 
than in that of an organism. 

As the question of drift must in the last appeal be one of fact, 
it is not unnaturally expected that the real answer will come from 
measurements of longitude and latitude with greater exactness and 
over periods longer than has yet been possible. None of the 
measurements hitherto made has indicated variations greater than 
the limits of errors of observation. Two things, however, may 
militate against a definite answer from this source. Many parts of 
the crust, such as the shield-like masses of Archaean rock, may have 
completed their movement, or be now moving so slowly that the 
movement could not be measured. Careful selection of locality 
is essential, and at present we have little guidance. Also, as the 
displacement of crust must be dependent on the condition of its 
substratum, it will be a periodic phenomenon and the rate of move- 
ment may vary much in time. According to the theory of thermal 
cycles the sub -crust is at present solid, and may not permit of drift. 



1 6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Drift, according to Joly and Holmes, is a cyclical phenomenon ; 
if present-day observations were to give a negative result they v^^ould 
not necessarily disprove it. 

The occurrence of recumbent rock-folds, and nearly horizontal 
sUdes or ' nappes ' in mountain regions, gives positive proof that 
parts of the upper earth-crust have moved over the low^er. In the 
North-west Highlands of Scotland a sliding of at least ten miles 
was proved by Peach and Home, and in Scandinavia it amounts 
to sixty miles. For mountain packing as a whole the figures 
already given are far larger, while in Asia Argand has stated that 
packing of over 2,000 miles has occurred. Thus, when all is said 
and done, movements on a colossal scale are established facts, and 
the question of the future is how far we shall accept the scheme of 
drift due to Wegener, or one or other of the modifications of it. 
It is for us to watch and test all the data under our own observation, 
feeling sure that we shall have to adapt to our own case Galileo's 
words ' e pur si muove.' 



Ever since it was realised that the inclination and folding of 
rocks must be attributed to lateral or tangential stress and not solely 
to uplift, shrinkage of the interior of the earth from its crust has 
been accepted as the prime mover, and whichever of the current 
theories we adopt we cannot deny the efficacy of so powerful a cause. 

The general course of events in the formation of a mountain range 
is fairly well known : the slow sinking of a downfold in the crust 
during long ages ; the filling of this with sediment pari passu with 
the sinking, and associated softening of the sub-crust due to accumu- 
lated heat ; the oncoming of lateral pressure causing wave-like 
folds in the sediments and the base on which they rest ; the crushing 
of folds together till, like water waves, they bend over and break by 
over-driving from above or, it may be, under-driving from below ; 
fracture of the compressed folds and the travelling forward for great 
distances of slivers or ' nappes ' or rock, generally of small relative 
thickness but of great length and breadth, and sliding upon floors 
of crushed rock ; the outpouring and intrusion of igneous rocks, 
lubricating contacts and complicating the loading of the sediments ; 
metamorphism of many of the rocks by crystallisation at elevated 
temperatures and under stress, with the development of a new and 
elaborate system of planes of re-orientation and movement ; and 
elevation of the whole, either independently or by thickening with 
compression and piling up to bring about a fresh equilibrium. 

Such a course of events would be brought about by lateral pressure 
developed during the consolidation phase of each of the thermal or 
magmatic cycles. At each period of their building, mountains have 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 17 

arisen along lines of weakness in the crust, especially coast lines and 
the steep slopes marking the limits between continents and ocean 
basins. This is consistent with Joly's theory that the thrust of 
ocean beds against land margins is the cause. 

But the advocates of continental drift point to the siting of ranges 
across the paths along which the drifting movement is supposed 
to have occurred, and they consider that the moving masses are 
responsible ; and indeed that the ridging and packing of the crust 
has in the end checked and stopped the movement. They note 
that the great western ranges of America occur in the path of any 
western drift of that continent, the Himalayas in the course of the 
postulated movement of India, the East Indies in front of Australia ; 
and that the Alpine ranges of Europe may be linked with the crushing 
of Africa towards the north. 



The ' nappes ' of rock, cut off from their origin and sliding for 
dozens of miles, are a constant source of wonder to all who have 
considered the mechanics of mountain formation. They are so 
thin as compared with their great length and breadth, that it seems 
impossible to imagine them moved by any force other than one 
which would make itself felt throughout their every particle. Such 
a force is gravitation, and it is of interest that some Alpine geologists 
and Dr. Harold Jeffreys have used it in explanation of them. 
Professor Daly has also adopted gravitation on an even greater scale 
in his theory of continental sliding : and one cannot fail to notice 
the increasing use of the term ' crust-creep ' by those working on 
earth-movement . 

Is there no other force, comparable in its method of action to 
gravitation, but capable of producing movement of the earth-crust 
in a direction other than downhill ? Is it not possible, for instance, 
that the tidal influence of the moon and sun, which is producing so 
much distortion of the solid earth that the ocean tides are less than 
they would be otherwise, and, dragging always in one direction is 
slowing down the earth's rotation, may exert permanent distorting 
influence on the solid earth itself ? May it not be that such a stress, 
if not sufficiently powerful to produce the greater displacements 
of continental drift and mountain-building, may yet take advantage 
of structures of weakness produced by other causes, and itself 
contribute to the formation of nappes and to other movements of 
a nature at present unexplained ? 



Our knowledge of geology has been gained by the survey of the 
rocks, the study of their structures, and the delineation of both 



iS THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

upon maps and sections. This work is being accomplished by 
geologists all over the world, and this country and its dependencies 
have contributed their full share. It is therefore opportune to 
note that there has just been celebrated the Centenary of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Britain and, with it, the opening of the new 
Geological Museum at South Kensington. 

A century ago H. T. de la Beche, one of the devoted band of 
pioneer workers then studying the geology of the country, offered to 
' affix geological colours to the new maps of Devon and Cornwall ' 
then in course of issue by the Ordnance Survey. His offer was 
accepted, and, at his own expense and on his own feet, he carried 
out a geological survey of some 4,000 square miles. In 1835 he 
was appointed to continue this task, with a small salary and a few 
assistants. Thus was started the first official geological survey, an 
example widely, followed by other nations and dominions. De la 
Beche 's conception included also a Museum of economic and prac- 
tical geology, a Library, a Record of Mines, for which he secured 
support from a strong Committee of the British Association in 1838, 
and a School of Mines for the scientific and technical education of 
those to be employed in the survey or exploitation of mineral 
resources. In these objects, and especially the last, he was warmly 
supported by the Prince Consort. He lived to see his visions all 
come true, as he collected round himself that wonderful band of 
surveyors, investigators, writers, and teachers, which included such 
men as Playfair, Logan, Ramsay, Aveline, Jukes, Forbes, Percy, 
Hooker, and Huxley. 

Some of the schemes he planned have budded off and grown into 
large and important entities, rendering conspicuous service to 
scientific record, education, and research. But the main duties of 
the Geological Survey remained with it, and have been carried on 
for a century. These are to map the geology of the country on the 
largest practicable scale, to describe and interpret the structure of 
the land, to preserve the evidence on which conclusions have been 
founded, and to illustrate for students and other workers the geology 
of the country and its applications to economics and industry. The 
broad detail of the structure of the whole country is now known, 
but much new work must be done to keep abreast of or to lead 
geological thought. For instance, the study of the cloak of ' super- 
ficial deposits,' which often cover and conceal the structure of the 
more solid rocks below, is essential for the proper understanding 
of soils and agriculture ; and a knowledge of the deep-seated 
geology of the country, which is often widely different from that 
nearer the surface and thus very difficult to interpret, is vital to the 
community for the successful location and working of coal and iron, 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 19 

and for tracing supplies of water and oil and other resources at 
depth. 

Evolution of life on the earth has been by no means uniform ; 
there have been periods of waxing and waning which may be 
attributed to geographical, climatological, and biological influences. 
The development of large land areas, ranged longitudinally or 
latitudinally, the invasion of epicontinental seas, the isolation of 
mediterraneans or inland seas, the splitting of continental areas 
into archipelagos or the reunion of islands into continuous land, the 
making of barriers by the rearing of mountain chains or the formation 
of straits or arms of the sea, the oncoming of desert or glacial 
climates ; all such factors and many others have been of importance 
in quickening or checking competition, and in accelerating or 
retarding the evolution of life. 

Probably, however, even greater effects have followed the inter- 
action of groups of biological changes on one another. As an 
instance I might recall Starkie Gardner's estimate of the results 
following upon the first appearance of grasses in the world. This 
seems to have been not earlier than Eocene, and probably late 
Eocene times. By the Oligocene they had made good their hold, 
peculiarities in their growth and structure enabling them to compete 
with the other vegetation that then existed ; and gradually they 
spread over huge areas of the earth's surface, formerly occupied by 
marsh, scrub, and forest. They have, as Ruskin says, ' a very little 
strength . . . and a few delicate long lines meeting at a point . . . 
made, as it seems, only to be trodden on to-day, and to-morrow to be 
cast into the oven ' ; but, through their easy growth, their disregard 
of trampling and grazing, and by reason of the nourishment con- 
centrated in their seeds, they provided an ideal and plentiful source 
of food. On their establishment we find that groups of animals, 
which had previously browsed on shrubs and trees, adopted them, 
with consequent alterations and adaptations in their teeth and 
other bodily structures. To follow their food from over-grazed or 
sun-scorched regions they required to be able to migrate easily and 
quickly, and it was essential for them to discard sedentary defence 
and to flee from threatened danger. Such defence as was possible 
with heels, teeth, or horns, they retained ; but the dominant 
modifications in their organisation were in the direction of speed 
as their most vital need. 

Side by side with this development, and in answer to increasing 
numbers, came bigger, stronger, and speedier carnivores, to feed on 
prey now so much more abundant, but more difficult to catch. 



20 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

The answer of the grass-feeders, with their specialised hoofs, 
teeth and bones, better suited to flight than fight, was to seek safety 
in numbers, and thus develop the herd instinct, with its necessity 
for leadership and discipline ; but this, in turn, provoked a like 
rejoinder from some types of their enemies. 

When it is remembered how much of the meat and drink and life 
of mankind is bound up with the grasses, including wheat, maize, 
millet and other grains, sugar-cane, rice and bamboo, we must 
realise how close is his link with the development just outlined. 
Practically his whole food supply is provided by them, either directly 
by the agriculturist who grows little else but grasses, or indirectly 
by the herdsman whose domestic animals are fed chiefly on the same 
food. Nor must we forget that almost every one of our domesticated 
animals has been derived from the gregarious types just mentioned, 
which have accepted the leadership of man in place of that of their 
own species. 

It is perhaps not too much to say that the magnificent outburst of 
energy put out by the earth in the erection of the Alps, Andes, and 
Himalayas in Tertiary times was trivial in its influence for man's 
advent and his successful occupation of the earth in comparison with 
the gentle but insidious growth of ' mere unconquerable grass ' and 
its green carpet of ' wise turf ' which in some form clothes by far the 
greater part of the land of the globe. 



The kind of developmental reaction of which this is but a single 
example must clearly have had influence on bodily features other 
than bones and horns, teeth and claws, speed and strength ; and one 
of the most striking has been on intellectual development and the 
size and shape of brain. 

We do not, and perhaps can never, know the quality of the material 
of which the brains of fossil creatures was made, for we have no 
instrument to pierce the veil of time as the spectroscope has pene- 
trated the abysm of space. But we are even now learning something 
about their shapes and convolutions, and more about their mass in 
its relation to the size of the bodies controlled ; from the time of 
the earliest Ordovician fishes, through the history of the amphibia, 
reptiles, birds, and mammals, up to man himself. 

The brain of those gigantic if somewhat grotesque reptiles the 
dinosaurs, the tyrants of Mesozoic time, is relatively tiny. In 
Diplodocus, 80 feet in length and 20 tons in weight, the brain was 
about the size of a large hen's egg. It is true that there was a big 
supplementary sacral ganglion which may have taken chief charge 
of locomotion and helped to secure co-ordination throughout the 
hinder part of its huge length and bulk ; but of true brain there was 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 21 

not more than a quarter of an ounce to control each ton of body and 
limb ; and we begin to understand why they lost the lordship of 
creation. 

The proportion of brain to body improved in those reptiles which 
took to flying, possibly in relation to their acquisition of warm blood, 
and in the birds evolved from reptiles ; but it is only in mammals 
that a marked advance is seen. Here the brain of Uintatherium, 
a great rhinoceros-like animal of Eocene date, weighing 2 tons, 
was about the size of that of a dog. This proportion of half a pound 
of brain to each ton of body shows how far the mammals had gone, 
and still had to go. 

A i2-stone man of the present day has about 3!^ pounds of brain — 
an amount not far short of half a hundredweight per ton. 

Even though we can know nothing of its material, this steadfast 
growth in the guiding principle, through the millions of centuries 
that have gone to its development, is surely one of the most remark- 
able conclusions that we owe to geology. Of all the wonders of the 
universe of which we have present knowledge, from the electron to 
the atom, from the virus and bacillus to the oak and the elephant, 
from the tiniest meteor to the most magnificent nebula, surely there 
is nothing to surpass the brain of man. An instrument capable of 
controlling every thought and action of the human body, the most 
intricate and efficient piece of mechanism ever devised ; of piercing 
the secrets and defining the laws of nature ; of recording and recalling 
every adventure of the individual from his cradle to his grave ; of 
inspiring or of ruling great masses of mankind ; of producing all the 
gems of speech and song, of poetry and art, that adorn the world, 
all the thoughts of philosophy and all the triumphs of imagination 
and insight : it is indeed the greatest marvel of all. 

And when we contemplate the time and energy, the sacrifice and 
devotion, that this evolution has cost, we must feel that we are still 
far from the end of this mighty purpose : that we can confidently 
look forward to the further advance which alone could justify the 
design and skill lavished on this great task throughout the golden 
ages that have gone. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



THE STORY OF ISOTOPES 

ADDRESS BY 

F. W. ASTON, Sc.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.I.C., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



This chapter in the history of science contains much to interest the 
philosopher and offers many illustrations of that interplay of theory and 
experiment by which advance takes place. Theory is the scaffolding of 
science, and just as in ordinary building operations, though some parts of 
it may only be used for a short time before removal, others may function 
for so long a period that they may well be mistaken for the permanent 
structure itself. The postulate of Dalton (1803) that atoms of the same 
element are equal in weight is a good example of very permanent scaffold- 
ing. For over a hundred years it was practically undisputed and on it 
was founded the major part of atomic chemistry. 

About ten years later Prout made the more speculative suggestion that 
all atoms were made up of primordial particles which he thought might 
be atoms of hydrogen. On this view the weights of all atoms must be 
expressed as whole numbers, and if, as Dalton postulated, the atoms of 
any particular element were all equal in weight, the atomic weights and 
combining ratios of all elements must be whole numbers also. Chemists 
soon found that this was certainly not in agreement with experiment ; 
the more results they obtained the more impossible it was to express the 
atomic weights of all the elements as whole numbers, and of the two 
theories Prout's was the one to be abandoned. In this decision they were 
perfectly justified for, as it cannot be too often emphasised, it is more 
important for a scientific theory to be simple than for it to be true. Besides 
it was of little practical importance to chemists if atoms were not equal 
in weight so long as in all the ordinary operations of chemistry they 
behaved as though they were. 

Crookes, however, thought that he had found evidence that they did 
not so behave, and in his remarkable Presidential Address to Section B, 
at Birmingham in 1886, he says : ' I conceive, therefore, that when we 
say the atomic weight of, for instance, calcium is 40, we really express 
the fact that, while the majority of calcium atoms have an actual atomic 
weight of 40, there are not a few which are represented by 39 or 41, a less 
number by 38 or 42, and so on.' Later, he developed this idea in con- 
nection with his pioneer work on the rare earths. He called the com- 
ponents ' meta-elements,' but unfortunately for his reputation as a prophet 
the experimental results on which his idea was founded were later proved 
to be fallacious, and Dalton's postulate was reinstated as an article of 
scientific faith more firmly than ever. 

Its overthrow, deferred for another twenty years, was one of the many 
atastrophic results of the tremendous shock due to the discovery of 



24 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

radio-activity. In the rapid development of this, with which the school 
of Rutherford is so closely associated, the effects of individual atoms, as 
opposed to those of vast multitudes, were observed for the first time. 
Chemists could examine elements in the actual process of the making. 
In 1906 Boltwood observed that his newly discovered element ionium 
was so similar to thorium that if, by chance, their salts became mixed 
it was impossible to separate them by any chemical process. Other 
chemical identities among the products of radio-activity were soon ob- 
served and the most painstaking and delicate methods failed to effect or 
detect the slightest separation. 

Discussing these, Soddy, in 19 10, boldly stated : ' These regularities 
may prove to be the beginning of some embracing generalisation, which 
will throw light, not only on radio-active processes, but on elements in 
general and the Periodic Law. . , . Chemical homogeneity is no longer 
a guarantee that any supposed element is not a mixture of several of different 
atomic weights, or that any atomic weight is not merely a mean number.' 
The generalisation underlying his views was the law connecting radio- 
activity and chemical change, in the discovery and enunciation of which 
he played so prominent a part. This law asserts that a radio-active 
element when it loses an alpha particle goes back two places in the periodic 
table ; when it loses a beta particle it goes forward one place. It follows 
that by the loss of one alpha particle followed by two beta particles, the 
atom, though weighing four units less, will have regained its nuclear 
charge and returned to its original place. 

Such changes result in bodies to which Soddy applied the following 
words : ' The same algebraic sum of the positive and negative charges 
in the nucleus when the arithmetical sum is different gives what I call 
" isotopes "^ or " isotopic elements " because they occupy the same place 
in the periodic table. They are chemically identical, and save only as 
regards the relatively few physical properties which depend upon atomic 
mass directly, physically identical also.' It was fortunately possible to 
put these revolutionary views to an experimental test in the case of one 
element — lead, the final inactive product of the thorium and uranium 
transformations. Uranium of atomic weight 238 loses eight alpha 
particles to become lead of atomic weight 206, while thorium of mass 232 
loses six to become lead of atomic weight 208. Soddy maintained that the 
lead found in uranium minerals should be lighter, and that in thorium 
minerals heavier than ordinary lead of atomic weight 207 • 2. 

The complete chemical inseparability of the heavy isotopes formed in 
radio-active processes passed the most stringent tests and was soon 
accepted. It was later put to a most ingenious and elegant use by Paneth 
and Hevesy, who, by adding to an inactive element a small quantity of 
its radio-active isotope, gave it, so to speak, an indelible label by which 
its movements and reactions could be followed by the almost infinitely 

^ Of recent years the word ' isotope ' has changed its meaning, and is now used, 
for lack of another, to designate any atomic species. In the same way the mean- 
ing of the word ' mass-spectograph ' applied by me to one special type of instru- 
ment has now been extended to any form capable of analysing mass-rays. Such 
changes, though troublesome, are inevitable for the language of science is a 
living rather than a dead one. — F. "W. A. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 25 

delicate methods of radio-activity. These ' radio-active indicators ' 
have been appHed to problems of chemistry, otherwise unapproachable, 
such as the rates of molecular diffusion in the liquid state and the move- 
ments of compounds of heavy elements in the sap of living organisms. 

The application of the theory of isotopes to elements generally was 
another matter. The idea that ordinary elements could consist of atoms 
of different mass received great opposition, for it appeared quite incom- 
patible with such facts as the constancy of chemical atomic weight, the 
apparently perfect homogeneity of elementary gases, and the almost 
incredible invariability of such accurately measurable constants as the 
electrical conductivity of mercury independent of its source. This 
reluctance of orthodox science to accept the theory was, I think, a perfectly 
natural and healthy reaction. Criticism very seldom destroys enthusiasm 
and is usually the best stimulant to further research, whereas too immediate 
a welcome of a new and sensational idea, the outstanding fault of the lay 
press in dealing with science, may lead to waste of effort. It appears to 
me a very regrettable thing that, of recent years, it has been repeatedly 
necessary for experienced research workers to waste their time on the 
thankless task of disproving the claims of well-meaning victims of self- 
deception, of whom Blondlot, with his N-rays, is the classical example. 

The only satisfactory criterion, a method of comparing the masses of 
individual atoms, was at the time in process of development. This was 
Sir J. J. Thomson's ' parabola ' method of positive ray analysis, and here 
at first all the results seemed to support Dalton's postulate, indeed the 
appearance on a sensitive screen of a clear-cut parabolic streak, caused 
by the impact of the atoms of hydrogen, was the first experimental proof 
that it was in any sense true of any element, previously it had been purely 
an article of scientific faith. Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, 
present either as atoms or molecules, gave parabolas in the positions 
expected, and it was only when the rare gas neon was examined that an 
anomaly was observed. Neon, however pure, always gave two parabolas, 
a strong one at 20 and a weak one at 22. Referring to the latter in 
January 1913, Sir J. J. Thomson said : ' The origin of this line presents 
many points of interest ; there are no known gaseous compounds of any 
of the recognised elements which have this molecular weight. Again, 
if we accept Mendeleef 's Periodic Law, there is no room for a new element 
with this atomic weight. . . . There is, however, the possibility that we 
may be interpreting Mendeleef 's law too rigidly, and that in the neigh- 
bourhood of the atomic weight of neon there may be a group of two or 
more elements with similar properties, just as in another part of the table 
we have the group iron, nickel and cobalt.' 

It was my privilege to be associated with him in this work, and as his 
attention was fully occupied with the investigation of a parabola of mass 3 
— now known to be triatomic hydrogen — it fell to my lot to search for 
a proof that neon was not homogenious. This I endeavoured to do by 
partial separation of its hypothetical constituents, using as a test its density 
measured by a quartz micro-balance specially designed for the purpose. 
The first method, that of fractional distillation from charcoal cooled with 
liquid air, failed, as we now know was inevitable. The second, diffusion 



26 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

through pipeclay, though extremely tedious, had more success and I was 
able to announce at the meeting of the Association at Birmingham in 
1913 that, after thousands of operations, a definite change of density, 
amounting to about 0-7 per cent., had been achieved. Further data 
from positive rays was obtained, and, when the War stopped work, there 
were several lines of reasoning indicating that neon consisted of two 
bodies of different mass, and that the behaviour of these was exactly 
that predicted by Soddy for isotopes, but none of these was sufficiently 
strong to carry conviction on so important a conclusion. 

During the War Soddy's prediction concerning the atomic weights of 
leads from uranium and thorium minerals had been triumphantly vindi- 
cated by some of his most severe critics, the experts in chemical atomic 
weights, and when work was started again, although I continued for a time 
to experiment on separation by diffusion by means of an automatic 
apparatus, I realised that the most satisfactory proof of the existence of 
isotopes among the elements in general was only to be obtained by much 
more accurate analysis of positive rays. This was done by means of 
a sequence of electric and magnetic fields which gave focussed images of 
fine collimating slits, thus forming a spectrum dependent upon mass alone. 
This I called a 'mass-spectrograph' {see footnote i). It had a 
resolving power of about i in 130 and an accuracy of mass measurement 
of I in 1,000. This was ample to prove in 1919 that neon consisted, 
beyond doubt, of isotopes 20 and 22, and that its atomic weight 20-2 was 
the result of these being present in the ratio of about 9 to i. Chlorine 
was found to contain 35 and 37, and bromine, of atomic weight almost 
exactly 80, and hence expected to be simple, gave two equally intense lines 
79 and 81. Other elements were shown to be much more complex. 
Krypton, the first of these, had six isotopes, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 86 ; xenon 
and tin even more. Of the greatest theoretical importance was the fact 
that the weights of the atoms of all the elements measured, with the 
exception of hydrogen, were whole numbers to the accuracy of measure- 
ment. This ' whole number rule ' enabled the simple view to be taken 
that atoms were built of two units, protons and electrons, all the former 
and about half the latter being bound together to form the nucleus. 

Although the interpretation of mass-spectra was often far from simple 
owing to the difficulty of distinguishing between lines due to compound 
molecules and those representing true atomic mass-numbers the analysis 
of the more suitable elements advanced rapidly. Dempster at Chicago 
discovered the isotopes of magnesium, calcium, and zinc by means of an 
instrument of his own design with semi-circular magnetic focussing. By 
1925, when I replaced my first mass-spectograph, now in the Science 
Museum, South Kensington, with one of higher resolving power, informa- 
tion on the isotopic constitution of more than half the elements had 
already been obtained. The new instrument was designed primarily for 
measuring the minute variations of the masses of atoms from the whole 
number rule, and had a resolving power ample for the heaviest elements. 
By its means the search for isotopes has been carried on until a few 
months ago. 

The difficulty of obtaining the necessary rays for analysis varies 
enormously from element to element. Two main devices are employed : 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 27 

the ordinary gas discharge which requires the element to be volatile or 
form suitable volatile compounds ; and the anode ray discharge, in which 
the halide or other compound of the element is treated as the anode in 
a discharge at low pressure. The inert gases are particularly suitable to 
the first method, the alkali metals to the second, other groups of elements 
being intermediate. Our knowledge of the mechanism of the discharge 
in both methods is far from complete, so that working with them is still 
rather an art than a science. The element of luck has played an important 
part in cases where the properties of the materials are unfamiliar and 
unfavourable to the conditions of the discharge. 

The analysis of the recently discovered element rhenium offers a good 
example. The only available volatile compound was the heptoxide, 
a sample of which has been kindly provided by the discoverer Noddack. 
The vapour of this crystalline solid was first admitted to the discharge 
bulb, but without success. The solid was then introduced into the bulb 
itself, and, although its vaporisation was so copious that a visible layer 
was formed on the walls, still no lines were obtained. At this stage the 
element was abandoned as quite hopeless and preparations were made to 
go on to another. Purely by chance, this happened to be gold, which it 
was intended to attack by means of its slightly volatile chloride. This 
compound gives off chlorine gas when heated, and, as previously it had 
been noticed that the presence of a halogen gas often stimulated the 
appearance of lines otherwise faint, it was considered just worth while to 
make one trial with it before the rhenium oxide deposit had been cleaned 
off the walls. This was successful beyond all hopes. No lines of gold 
were found but the rhenium doublet appeared in great strength giving 
convincing evidence that it consisted of two isotopes, 185 and 187. 

The technique of anode rays is, if anything, even more capricious but, 
when successful, yields spectra almost free from the lines of compounds 
and is for this reason particularly suitable for the identification of new 
isotopes. This method has been recently applied to the large group of 
the rare earth elements yielding some thirty new isotopes. 

From the point of view of the identification of the more abundant 
isotopes our knowledge is nearly complete. A year ago only four elements, 
palladium, iridium, platinum, and gold, remained without mass- 
spectograph data. Dempster has since developed an entirely new method 
of obtaining suitable rays by using a very intense spark discharge, and 
I have just heard from him that he has already identified five isotopes of 
platinum and one of gold. It seems very probable that the last two 
elements will have yielded before this address is delivered. 

In all some 253 stable isotopes are known of which seven were dis- 
covered by observations on optical spectra, and have since been confirmed 
by the mass-spectograph. This large assembly shows many emprical 
laws, of which perhaps the more remarkable is that no odd numbered 
element, with the possible extremely rare exception the isotope of hydrogen 
of mass 3, has more than two isotopes. Even elements are not so limited. 
The most complex element so far observed is tin, with eleven isotopes 
ranging in mass number from 112 to 124. One of the most astonishing 
results is that, for practically every natural number up to 210, a stable 
elementary atom is known, many are filled twice over and a few three 



28 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

times with ' isobares,' that is atoms of the same weight but different 
chemical properties. Schemes of tabulation of all the known species 
have led to the prediction of isotopes and to theories of nuclear structure 
to account for their occurrence. 

Study of the relative abundance of isotopes in the mixture we still call, 
for convenience, an element, is of interest from two entirely different 
points of view. In the first place since it appears to be perfectly invariable 
in nature, not only in terrestrial but also in meteoric matter, there was 
a slight hope that a systematic measurement of abundance ratios might 
disclose some simple relations bearing on the great problem of how the 
nuclei of atoms were evolved. The relative abundance of isotopes can 
be estimated by several methods but that of the most general application 
is the photometry of mass-spectra. A technique of this was worked out 
in 1929, and a number of elements examined, but the ratios, obtained in 
numbers large enough for statistical treatment, showed no groupings 
other than would have been expected from pure chance. These measure- 
ments have a second important practical value. If we know the masses 
of the isotopes of an element and their relative abundance it is easy to 
calculate their mean weight. This, with proper corrections, can be used 
to check the chemical atomic weight. During the past six years nearly 
every atomic weight has been determined by this purely physical method, 
which has the great advantage of being, in general, independent of purity, 
and requiring an almost infinitesimal quantity of material. 

Instead of the original view that the nuclei of atoms consisted of protons 
and electrons, it is now considered more likely that they are built of 
protons and neutrons. In either case the binding forces holding the 
particles together must represent loss of energy, that is, loss of mass. 
Hence it is that the atom of hydrogen has abnormally high mass, and that 
the accurate determinations of divergences from the whole number rule 
are of such profound theoretical importance. As I have stated, my 
second mass-spectograph was designed for this and found capable of an 
accuracy, in favourable cases, of i in 10,000. The atom of oxygen 16 
was chosen as standard and the percentage divergences expressed in parts 
per 10,000, called ' packing fractions,' were determined for a large number 
of elements. These, when plotted against mass number were found to 
lie roughly on a hyperbolic curve. This drops rapidly from hydrogen, 
passes through a minimum of about — 10 in the region of iron and nickel, 
and then rises gradually, crossing the zero line in the region of mercury. 
Our knowledge in this field has been notably increased by the brilliant 
work of Bainbridge, who set up at Swarthmore a powerful mass-specto- 
graph of an original design which made use of a velocity selector and semi- 
circular focussing. With this instrument he discovered new isotopes of 
tellurium, rectified results on zinc and germanium, and has made many 
of the most accurate comparisons of mass so far known. 

Fortunately for these comparisons, and particularly so for the extension 
of an accurate scale of mass to the heavy elements, particles occur in the 
discharge which carry more than one positive charge. A particle with 
two charges will give a line corresponding to half its mass, one with three 
charges will have an apparent mass of one third, and so on. These lines 
are called lines of the second, third and higher orders. The complex 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 29 

element mercury seems specially provided by nature to help in the work. 
Not only do its nine isotopes provide a most valuable scale of abundance 
but it usually occurs in the discharge, to which its presence is advantageous 
from the point of view of smooth running, and it is unique in its property 
of forming multiply charged ions. Mercury lines up to the fifth and sixth 
orders can be detected so that it provides a perfect natural scale, a link 
between light and heavy atoms absolutely necessary to extend accurate 
measurements to the latter. The packing fraction of mercury, which is 
practically zero, was determined by means of its third order line ^^^Hg+ + + . 

Of the recent episodes in the story I relate certainly the most sensational 
is the discovery of deuterium, the heavy isotope of hydrogen. The events 
leading up to this and following it form a most remarkable sequence. 
In them the elements of nature seem to have joined in an impish, but 
fortunately benign, conspiracy to delude the observer and to turn his 
most sober researches into a sort of blind man's buff. 

The first comparison of the masses, now termed ' isotopic weights,' of 
the atoms ^H, ^'^C, ^*N, and ^^O to a high degree of accuracy were made 
with my second mass-spectrograph and published in 1927. Various 
methods were used which cannot be given in detail here, but since the 
comparison of H with O could only be done through the intermediate 
*He, and even then the ratios measured were very large, little reliance 
could have been placed on the figure for H unless it could be checked in 
some quite independent manner. It was possible to do this by means of 
the close doublet O — CH4, and, when measurements of this appeared 
to support my values for C and H, I had no reason to doubt their sub- 
stantial accuracy. In this I have been justified to some extent for the 
figures have stood for seven years, and a direct determination of the 
He,H ratio, made later by Bainbridge agreed exactly with mine. A 
further support was afforded by the fact that the figures for the four 
elements, all then supposed to be simple, agreed within i or 2 parts in 
10,000 with the accepted chemical atomic weights. 

This satisfactory agreement was completely upset in 1929 by the startling 
discovery of the heavy isotopes of oxygen 17 and 18 which, present in 
small quantity, had naturally been overlooked on mass-spectra of that 
element owing to the technical difficulty of ensuring the absence of the 
isobaric compound lines OH and OHj. The discovery was made by 
Giauque and Johnson by observations on band spectra, which are free from 
this confusing disability, and the careful quantitative work of Mecke, 
made later, showed that, owing to the presence of these isotopes, the 
chemical standard of atomic weight O = 16 was about 2 parts in 
10,000 heavier than the physical one ^^O = 16. Examination of com- 
pounds of carbon and of nitrogen by the same method showed not only 
that these elements also contained heavy isotopes ^^C and ^^N but that 
their apparent abundance, by a most incredible coincidence, was just 
about enough to bring their mean weights into line with that of oxygen. 

Birge pointed out that to satisfy my low estimate of ^H hydrogen must 
also contain at least one heavy isotope. Urey took up the problem and, 
happily unaware of the real uncertainty in the figures concerned, with 
the collaboration of Brickwedde and Murphy fractionated liquid hydrogen 
and proved by examination of the Balmer lines that -H was present. 



30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Washburn showed that its heavier atoms could be concentrated by the 
electrolysis of water. This method was developed so rapidly and bril- 
liantly by Lewis that, soon after its discovery, pure heavy water had been 
obtained in appreciable quantity. The isotope of hydrogen of mass 2 
cannot be treated as a normal isotope. Its exceptional difference in mass 
enables it to be separated with comparative ease in a pure state. It has 
been given the name deuterium, symbol D, and heavy water DjO is 
now obtainable in quantity at reasonable prices, one of the most surprising 
reagents in the history of science and certainly one which would have 
dismayed the founders of the C.G.S. system of units. 

Now comes the interesting sequel. Deuterium and its triatomic 
molecule supply two links, missing before, of the three forming a closed 
chain of masses by which H can be directly connected with O, given a 
mass-spectrograph of sufficient resolving power. These links are the 
doublets D — Hg, at mass 2, C++ — D, at mass 6, and O — CH4 at 
mass 16. By means of an improved collimator I have recently increased 
the resolving power of my mass-spectrograph to that necessary to achieve 
at least a partial separation of the extremely close doublet D — H2, and 
to make a much more accurate estimate of the doublet O — CH^. The 
latter has disclosed the disturbing fact thatthis is really wider than I had 
taken it to be and so no longer confirms the early value of C and H. 
Provisional work on the wide doublet C ++ — D3 makes it reasonably 
certain that my original value for H is 2 or 3 parts in 10,000 too low, as is 
also suggested by nuclear transformation experiments. Here we have 
the pretty paradox of the element discovered providing the means to 
remove that very discrepancy which seemed to point the way so clearly 
to its discovery. In view of its valuable results I am not likely to regret 
my mistake, however serious it turns out to be. The only moral to be 
drawn from this seems to be that you should make more, more and yet 
more measurements. Even a bad one may be of service, but, fortunately, 
it will be essential for you to make a considerable number of good ones 
first, or no notice will be taken of it. 

In the field of isotopes, as in so many fields of physical and chemical 
research to-day, the objective we now aim at is the next decimal place, 
an elusive object which always appears to be running away from the 
observer, like a distant spiral nebula. The need for isotopic weights of 
the highest accuracy is urgent. In artificial radio-activity and trans- 
mutation we see the real beginnings of a great new subject, the nuclear 
chemistry of the future. Its equations can only be founded securely 
upon direct determinations of masses by the mass-spectrograph, and the 
nuclear chemist already demands these to an accuracy of i in 100,000. 
I have little doubt we shall be able to provide him with these in the course 
of a year or two. Armed with reliable equations, and thereby with more 
and more definite knowledge of nuclear construction, he will transmute 
and synthesise atoms as his elder brother has done molecules, with results 
to be wondered at and possibly even misused by his fellow creatures. 
I foresee a time, not immeasurably far distant, when it will be possible for 
us to synthesise any element whatever, wherever and whenever we please ; 
alchemy indeed in the service of man. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



► 



THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 
CARBOHYDRATES 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. W. N. HAWORTH, F.R.S.. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION, 



In his Testament of Beauty the late Poet Laureate, Robert Bridges, 
speaks of : 

' those many organic substances which, tho' to sense 
wholly dissimilar and incomparable in kind, 
are yet all combinations of the same simples, 
and even in like proportions differently disposed ; 
so that whether it be starch, oil, sugar or alcohol 
'tis ever our old customers, carbon and hydrogen, 
pirouetting with oxygen in their morris antics ; 
jLi the chemist booketh them all as CHO, ' 

In my Presidential Address I shall endeavour to expand this estimate 
of the relations of starch and sugars and portray something of the sym- 
metry and the rhythm of the motions which differentiate these from 
cellulose and glycogen and the wealth of other substances which, ' in 
like proportions differently disposed,' constitute the organic group of the 
carbohydrates. The oil and wine I propose to leave with the poet. 

It would, however, be impossible in the time at my disposal to give 
more than a brief survey of the molecular structure of carbohydrates. 
Many have contributed to the advances in this subject. A number 
have been associated with me closely in my own work in this field, and 
if in this rapid summary I do not find it possible to mention the names 
of present and past colleagues, it must be recognised that I acknowledge 
and appreciate more than I can say the services they have rendered to 
this branch of chemistry. 

Ten years have elapsed since a structural model of glucose was first 
presented as a six-atom ring form, an observation I communicated to 



32 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Nature in 1925. The experimental work of the succeeding two years 
made it possible, with the aid of colleagues and pupils, to establish the 
broad generalisation that all normal sugars higher in the series than tetroses 
are constructed on the basis of the six-atom skeleton model which can 




Skeleton Model of Glucose. Model of j3-Glucose. 

be regarded now as the unit of the complex carbohydrates such as cellu- 
lose, starch, and many others. This simple model assumes the character 
of a sugar as soon as it is clothed with hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl 
groups. 

This generalisation, published in 1927, had presented itself as a strong 
probability from the moment it was seen that the representative sugar 
occurring in nature, glucose, conformed to this structural type. The 
experimental basis for the whole of the preliminary work was strengthened 
and supported by the systematic study of the sugar lactones carried out 
between the years 1924 and 1927. In the latter year there appeared a 
paper on the formulation of normal and y-sugars as derivatives of pyran 
and furan, and the suggestion of a new nomenclature. The normal 
sugar types can all be given a standard structure recognisable under the 
name of a pyranose. The labile or y-sugars, which had hitherto been but 
little investigated, were shown to be ascribable to the parent form of furan 
and therefore recognisable under a nomenclature describing them as 
a furanose type. The developments of this nomenclature were there- 
after simple, inasmuch as the spatial arrangement of hydroxyl groups 
and hydrogen atoms, which characterised structurally identical forms, 
could be made abundantly clear by the addition of the characteristic 
prefix defining the kind of configuration which differentiates one sugar 
of any class. This nomenclature has been generally adopted and with 
the advantageous result that much confusion has been banished from the 
literature. Thus arabinose assumes two structural forms represented by 
the terms arabopyranose and arabofuranose and, similarly for the other 
pentoses, xylose, ribose and l)Tcose. The corresponding forms for glucose 
are represented by the expressions glucopyranose, glucofuranose and 
similarly mannopyranose and mannofuranose, and so on for all aldo- 
hexoses and also for the keto forms fructopyranose and fructofuranose. 
This scheme of nomenclature would only have academic interest if it con- 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



33 



cerned merely the crystalline sugars of the hexose and pentose series which 
are ordinarily accessible as free isolated substances. The simple sugars 



Pvranose Forms of Pentose and Hexose. 



a Apabo- 
pyranose r^ jj 

HO 




a-Xylo- 
H ^ pyranose 
■ OH 



xtHr-O' 






Pyran. 




Furanose Forms of Pentose and Hexose. 



crt / 



\ 



Furan. 



'"iK^j' 








\ yin 






h\ph h/oh 


a- Arabof uranose . 






H OH 

a-Glucof uranose. 


«o^c«^ 


/ 


\ 


i" 


K 


^ 


JjJ 


rtHfrt 


1 n 

OH H 

j8-Fructofuranose. 



acquire their wider significance when regarded as the building-stones 
assembled as the constituent parts of those complex natural products 
comprised in the carbohydrate group. It is in such circumstances that 
the allocation of structural forms held in combination whether as a 
di-, tri- or polysaccharide assumes importance, and the allocation of the 



34 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



precise form constituting these complex carbohydrates is a fascinating 
experimental problem. Let us pass to consider the kind of atom model 
which must be ascribed to maltose, cellobiose, sucrose, and the relation- 
ship which these structural types bear to such important carbohydrates 
as starch, cellulose, and inulin. 

There are several ways in which two glucose units may be united 
through the intermediary of a common oxygen atom. Experimental 
work during the past twenty years has enabled us to proceed beyond the 
speculations of Fischer and to arrive at a precise picture for each of the 
disaccharides. The expressions CgHijOg + CeHijOg = CiaHgoOn + HgO 
merely indicate the union of two hexose residues with loss of water to 
give a biose. Of the several hydroxyl positions available for providing 
the point of union of two glucose residues it was found that it is those 
groups at the first carbon atom in one residue and the fourth carbon 
atom in a second residue which furnish the oxygen bond uniting two 
glucopyranose units in both maltose and cellobiose. 





CH^OH 


^ 




V 


4, 


H 


OH 


sp. 


Y 






H 


OH 







CHfiH 




k 


A 




■::::k 


^ 


H 



H OH 

Union of two u-Olucopyranose molecules. 




OH H 

a-Maltose. 





HO-CHi 



HO 




Union of two j3-Glucopyranose molecules. 




CrtpH H 

/3-Cellobiose. 



It will be observed that in the latter formulations two p-glucoses are shown 
united through two OH groups which are spatially above and below the 
planes of the pyranose rings. To bring the final cellobiose formula into 
alignment one of these rings is now inverted. It is of the highest im- 
portance to observe that although the units participating in the union of 
maltose are structurally identical with those assembled in cellobiose, 
yet these products are widely difi^erent in kind. The difference is entirely 
in the spatial arrangement of the left-hand components, indicated as 
a- or p-forms of glucose. It is this simple distinction which provides 
the reason for the different identities of starch, which is formulated on 
the maltose model, and cellulose, which is based on the formulation of 
cellobiose. There exist other polysaccharides in which the linking is 
different. This type may be illustrated by the assembly of two glucose 



B— CHEMISTRY 



35 



molecules united through the hydroxyl positions at i and 6, which is 
found to occur in gentiobiose. Still another mode of union is exemplified 





Maltose skeleton. 



Cellobiose skeleton. 



HO-CH^ 




BO-CH 




CHOH 



Gentiobiose skeleton. 



Sucrose. 



by the formula which applies to sucrose. Here two different hexose units 
are involved, namely, glucose and fructose which are assembled as a pair 
through sharing a common oxygen atom or glucosidic link situated at 
the first carbon atom in each hexose, and it will be observed that whilst 
a-glucose is present as the pyranose form the [3-fructose on the other hand 
occurs in sucrose as the furanose. It may here be added that this struc- 
tural type established for the occurrence of the fructose residue in sucrose 
occurs also in the polysaccharides inulin and the levan from grass. It 
may well be the case that other furanose sugars occur more widely than 
we have suspected in complex polysaccharides. Recently one such 
residue has been found to be present as a terminal group in xylan, or 
wood gum. It appears to be the case that the arabofuranose we have 
found in xylan constitutes also a large part of the molecule of arabic 
acid, which is the modified polysaccharide in gum arabic. 

Returning from this rapid review of these structural forms, and of the 
modes of assembly of pairs of sugar units in a biose, let me now present 



36 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a picture illustrating similar experimental conclusions as to how more 
than two such sugar units are united in the various forms of carbo- 
hydrates. Without giving the intimate experimental basis for these 
conclusions, I may here show how t\vo molecules of cellobiose are united 
in a continuous chain of such units in cellulose, and how maltose units 
are assembled in starch. Let us envisage this process, repeated by 





Two maltose units assembled Two cellobiose units assembled 

as in starch. as in cellulose. 



adding still more maltose units or cellobiose units to our lengthening 
chain and we approach to the constitutional picture representing starch 
and cellulose. Striking as the statement may appear, it is nevertheless 
the case that these two models are structurally identical. They owe 
their differences to the varied stereochemical forms of the same gluco- 
pyranose units which are found to be those of a-glucose in maltose and 
P-glucose in cellobiose. Arranged as a continuous chain, it will be found 
that the models present a perfectly symmetrical picture in the case of 
cellobiose, showing the sixth carbon atom or side chain of each hexose 
residue alternately above and below in the picture, whereas, in the case 
of continuous units of maltose assembled in a chain, this sixth carbon 
atom occurs entirely on one side : a representation less symmetrical than 
that of cellobiose. Moreover, the continued repetition of a-gluco- 
pyranose units in the starch complex, represented by assembling numerous 
maltose residues, provides a model which departs markedly, in zig-zag 
or spiral fashion, from the more or less straight line which is furnished 
by the continuing units of cellobiose in cellulose. And so, as Milton 
puts it : 

' with many a winding bout 
Of linked sweetness long drawn out,' 

we picture the sinuous track of glucose units assembled in the continuous 
chain of the starch molecule. This circumstance appears to account for 
the difficulty of obtaining a regular pattern for starch which marks the 
X-ray diagram obtained for native cellulose. It will be seen that not 
only does the cellobiose picture, as determined by the classical constitu- 
tional methods of organic chemistry, fit perfectly into the size of cell 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



37 



demanded by the X-ray diagram, but this diagram fulfils every particular 
dimension of the repeating pattern of the cellobiose formula : 




e— -5-/3 ^ 



t ms—-^ 



This mental picture of the constitution of cellulose will remain incom- 
plete if we can gain no knowledge of the number of p-glucose units 
constituting the chain length of cellulose. Here an endeavour has been 
made to reach an approximation of the size of the chemical molecule 
by a gravimetric assay of the end group of methylated cellulose. A 
specimen of the latter material, prepared under very carefully controlled 
conditions to avoid chemical rupture, enables us to gain an insight into 
this problem by investigation of its products of hydrolysis. An estimation 
of the weight of tetramethyl glucose obtained from these hydrolysis 
products has yielded under proper technique a value for the average 
length of the cellulose chain, which is thus found to consist approximately 
of 200 glucose units. In this connection, and especially when we come 
to consider the same problem in reference to starch, it must be recognised 
that native cellulose is most probably a molecular aggregate consisting of 
a much larger physical molecule than is here represented. A molecular 
aggregate of such chains, joined by physical links or by co-ordination 
end to end, is calculated to give a much enhanced value for the determina- 
tion of molecular weight by viscosity methods as interpreted by the 
Staudinger constants. Similarly a determination of particle size by the 
sedimentation method of the ultra-centrifuge is now found to give a 
much higher value than that of 200 glucose units. Here again the physical 
molecule or molecular aggregate may be expected to take account not 
only of an aggregation which increases the length of the chain but also 
of the forces which affect molecular aggregation laterally between adjacent 
chains. I think these factors must be recognised in any comparison of 
the molecular weights of cellulose determined by physical and chemical 



38 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



methods. It may well be that in the formation of cellulose in the plant 
a limited chain length of the chemical molecule is imposed by thermo- 




o.Me 



Tetramethyl glucose. Trimethyl glucose + methyl alcohol. 

Methylated Cellulose {x = 200). 



dynamic considerations. We shall see, however, in the case of starch 
that molecular aggregation of the chemical molecule occurs freely in vitro, 
and is promoted by a choice of chemical reagents. Similarly, it has been 
found possible to effect the reverse change of disaggregation in the case of 
starch. Doubtless many of the common reactions to which cellulose is 
subjected in the laboratory and in industry are unconsciously directed to 
a disaggregation of the physical unit in order to promote more facile 
chemical change in the preparation of derivatives. There is no doubt, 
as shown by our recent experiments, that progressive chemical break- 
down occurs the more drastic are the reagents used. Hydrocellulose 
has been found by the method of chemical assay to correspond to a chain 
length of rather less than half that of cellulose and is evidently degraded 
cellulose. Again, the use of oxidising agents promoting the formation 
of oxycellulose is accompanied by a more profound breakdown with the 
formation of portions of very short modified chains, and also invariably 
a residual portion for the most part consisting of a chain of 60-80 glucose 
units. Both hydrocellulose and oxycellulose are frequently formed in 
processes to which cotton is subjected. These products may also accom- 
pany the use of chemical reagents which are empirically employed for the 
preliminary disaggregation of cellulose in the manufacture of the newer 
textiles. But these shortened cellulose chains represent the more soluble 
portions and may be removed by solution. 

An insight into the difficult problem of starch is sloWly being gained. 
We have shown that the mode of linking of a large portion of the starch com- 
plex is represented by continuous units of a-glucopyranose linked through 
the positions i and 4. Here side by side there are given in perspective 
formulae parts of the continuing chains of starch and of cellulose. It is well 
known that the starches contain combined phosphorus and silica, but the 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



39 



quantities present of these so-called extraneous materials seem to have no 
easily recognisable stoicheiometric relation to the unit chemical molecule. 








"Y'iHki "A 



CH,OH 




H OH CH,OH 

A — k " »/ — ° 







H OH 



Methylated starches of different origins have now been examined by the 
method of gravimetric assay of the end group, particularly the starches 
from potato and maize, and also a less common variety known as waxy 
maize starch. Investigated by these methods and prepared in a variety 
of ways, all three methylated starches from these sources show a remarkable 
uniformity in the chain-length of the chemical unit. This corresponds 
to a molecular weight for starch of about 5,000, or 25 glucose residues. 






neo\pJJ/L< 



OMe 





f 










* 


H 


i- 


\c 


:HpMt 


^ 


H 




1 0- 


t 


H 


9ne 
















. 




I 



Tetramethyl 
glucose. 



Trimethyl glucose. 

Methylated amylose and amylopectin {x = 25). 
Methylated glycogen {x = 12 — 18). 



Despite this fact the many different samples we have prepared of methy- 
lated starches exhibit viscosities which, by the use of the Staudinger 
constant, would seem to indicate a chain length of 5, 10, or 20 times that 
just given. The same may also be said of the starch acetates. The 
amylopectin or a-amylose portion, representing the less soluble part of 



40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

starch, shows a much greater molecular size as compared with that of 
amylose (or [3-amylose). In spite of this, however, the end group method 
of determination yields invariably one and the same value for all specimens. 
Moreover, it is possible by keeping amylose for some time to observe its 
molecular aggregation to amylopectin, exhibiting enhanced viscosities 
both for the acetates and for the methylated derivatives. Recently we 
have been able to bring these factors into line and have succeeded in 
preparing, after surface etching of the starch grains with ethyl alcohol 
containing small quantities of hydrogen chloride, a disaggregated starch 
which, in the form of its acetate and its methylated derivatives, furnishes 
the same value for molecular weight both by viscosity methods and by 
the gravimetric assay of the end group. This simplified disaggregated 
variety of starch is not degraded. We believe that it represents the 
chemical unit of starch, and by keeping it for a short time it reverts by 
re-aggregation to physical assemblages of increasingly high viscosity 
corresponding to the original amylose or amylopectin of the starch 
grains. We shall have occasion to inquire into the factors controlling 
this change. In my view, however, there can be no doubt that the chemical 
unit of starch is of limited size, having an average molecular weight of 
about 5,000 and that these units undergo aggregation to physical units 
of much larger dimensions. 

In Birmingham we have now prepared a considerable number of 
break-down products of starch representing the starch dextrins of varying 
chain-length. The study of these products has yielded results of interest 
and value from many points of view. Their gravimetric assay has fur- 
nished progressively different values for the end group, and this graded 
diminution in value corresponds exactly totheirproperties, such as solubility 
of the dextrin and its acetates and the capacity to undergo re-aggregation. 
This convinced us that we were dealing with a terminated chain of glucose 
units and not a closed loop. If the latter model were adopted and a closed 
loop of glucose units, represented as a flat ring, were assumed to be the 
picture of starch, then, in interpreting results of the end-group assay 
method, we should have to envisage side chains of glucose extended at 
regular or irregular intervals from different parts of this loop and to con- 
sider that these side chains were responsible for the tetramethyl glucose 
isolated in the end-group assay of methylated starch. In such an event 
we should expect to find, in dealing with the break-down products of 
starch, no very regular and progressive value for the ' end-group,' and 
indeed it would be possible to isolate a starch dextrin which gave the 
same ' end-group ' value as the undegraded methylated starch. This 
has never been found to be the case. Starch dextrins corresponding to 
17, 12, 9, 7, and 5 glucose units have been prepared. The a-amylodextrin 
obtained by the action of barley diastase on starch shows an end-group 
value corresponding to 17 glucose units. This product is significant in 
that it contains in its diminished chain-length almost all the phosphorus 
which was originally present in starch. Whether for this or other reasons 
this dextrin exhibits a remarkable capacity towards molecular aggregation 
and in this respect differs markedly from samples of glycogen which have 
similarly been examined. The factors which underlie this tendency 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



41 



are of absorbing interest and are under close investigation. These 
glycogen specimens have chain lengths of 12 and 18 glucose units, but 
they display little or no tendency towards molecular aggregation. It 
may possibly be promoted by the interlocking of adjacent chains by forces 
corresponding to those which bring about co-ordination, and by the so- 
called extraneous materials such as combined phosphate or silica. 

What seems clear is that starch polysaccharides of comparatively short 
chain-lengths of 10 or so glucose units are devoid of this property. 

The occurrence of cellulose and starch in the green leaf of the growing 
plant has long been recognised, and so also has the occurrence of a very 
different polysaccharide inulin in the root organ of the Compositce and 
related families, where it replaces the starch found in other types of plant. 
The recent discovery of the presence of a water soluble polysaccharide in 
the leaf of certain grasses has shed new light on the role of fructose and 
its synthetic operations in the plant. This polysaccharide is a levan 
and is composed of repeating units of fructofuranose united through the 
positions 2 and 6, thus displaying a different mode of combination of its 
fructose members from that which obtains in inulin. The formula of 
this levan is given below and its chain length is almost certainly that of 
10 such members of fructofuranose : 




Very different, although related to this, is the type of combination which 
characterises the mode of union of successive fructofuranose members 
comprised in inulin. The break-down of inulin is easily accomplished 
with the mildest acid reagents, giving rise to and indeed providing the best 
source of fructose. What has not been recognised until recently is that 
inulin may under the most unforeseen circumstances also give rise to a 
biose anhydride. An analogy may therefore be drawn between the break- 
down of this carbohydrate to a biose derivative and the break-down of 
starch and glycogen to maltose and that of cellulose to cellobiose. So 
sensitive is inulin in this respect that some of the dextro-rotatory products 
given in the literature as substituted inulins are really to be formulated 
as the I : 2-difructofuranose anhydride : 



„N|_!|/\._c< 




OH H 



OH H 



C 2 



42 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



The tendency for inulin to undergo this change is best understood from 
writing the complete constitution of this carbohydrate in the following 
way. In no case can the constitution of inulin be represented as a flat 
model, inasmuch as the stereochemical arrangement necessitated by the 
I : 2 junctions demands that the model should be spaced in either of the 
following ways : 




tHOH 



OH H 




In the second of these formulas for inulin, which are really identical 
constitutions differing only in the draughtsmanship employed to represent 
them, it will be seen that a simple cleavage along the dotted lines in a 
hydrolysing medium will liberate pairs of fructo-furanose units which 
can readily combine as the difructofuranose anhydride shown above. 
From what has been said of the stereochemical arrangement of inulin, 
and the difficulty of compressing the model within a linear chain, it is 
perhaps not surprising to learn that acetyl inulin and methylated inulin 
give altogether fallacious results for molecular size by the viscosity method 
and the Staudinger formula, from which it would appear that the molecular 
weight is of the order of 1,300. The end group method of assay of 
methylated inulin shows the molecular weight to be about 5,000 and the 
chemical molecule to be composed of 30 fructose units. Alternative 
methods of measurement of molecular weight confirm this value. The 
ebullioscopic method gives indeed an identical value and it has recently 
been found that the osmotic pressure exhibited by inulin derivatives fully 
confirms this figure. I have invited Dr. S. R. Carter to give some account 
of the experimental equipment and the choice of membranes which have 
already been of service in the case of one or two other polysaccharides 
in determining the molecular weight of high polymers. These constitu- 
tional models for inulin and levan illustrate how wide a disparity there is 
between the several carbohydrates which may occur in one and the 
same plant. It must be conceded that in no other natural products 
does the factor of stereochemistry enter so largely as in the carbohydrate 



B— CHEMISTRY 43 

group. Here one has to deal with configurational or spatial arrangement 
and no one model can be selected as typical for the whole group. The 
classical methods of organic chemistry will always be given first place 
among those available for the elucidation of constitution in this as in other 
series of compounds. A great many other factors must, however, enter 
into the discussion and interpretation of these results. Among the more 
important are the considerations which apply to the observations of optical 
rotatory power. It would be difficult to exaggerate the value this property 
possesses for the more intimate explorations of the carbohydrates. 
Occasionally too much has been claimed for the significance of optical 
rotatory power in the sugar group and numerous empirical rules designed 
to correlate structure with this property are valid only within narrow limits. 
During the subsequent discussion, Dr. E. L. Hirst, F.R.S., will speak on 
this subject, so that I need not pursue it further in this address. 

Other problems of the spatial arrangement which carbohydrates assume 
are bound up with such considerations as the conformation of the pyranose 
ring. In this the atoms may be all co-planar, in which case strain will be 
introduced by deflexion of valency direction or the various atoms con- 
stituting the ring may be staggered, in which event the structure will be 
strainless. This question of the different modes of packing the atomic 
assemblages may find some solution by the application of X-ray methods, 
which have already rendered great service in the carbohydrate field. 
Mr. E. Gordon Cox will deal with some experimental results which have 
followed from this line of inquiry. 

In the cell wall of many lichens occurs the polysaccharide lichenin, 
which resembles cellulose except in its property of being water-soluble. 
Recently its investigation has been resumed and many of its properties 
show that it is closely allied in structure to cellulose. Its chain-length 
is, however, considerably shorter, corresponding to about 80 glucose 
units. A pentosan constituent of certain grasses such as esparto, and also 
of wood, is recognised as the polysaccharide xylan. Its recent investiga- 
tion has shown that, although 93 per cent, of xylose may be isolated from 
its hydrolysis products, yet it is by no means the case that the whole of 
this polysaccharide is constituted on the basis of xylose. It is found 
that the deficiency of 7 per cent, is entirely made up by the presence of 
this exact percentage of arabofuranose residues which occur as terminal 
groups in the xylan chain. This observation is a sufficient commentary 
on the need of an inquiry into the finer structure of carbohydrates. 
That the xylose residues are linked as pyranose units through the i : 4 
positions as in cellulose has been made clear. The chemical molecule 
of xylan consists of 18 or 19 xylopyranose residues united in this way and 
terminated at one end by an arabofuranose unit. It is probably aggre- 
gated with two or three other such chains by co-ordination at the reducing 
terminal group. The progressive break-down of xylan gives rise to a 
shortened chain consisting only of xylopyranose residues and these xylo- 
dextrins are invariably terminated by a xylopyranose group isolated as 
trimethyl xylopyranose after the loss of the arabofuranose residue. This 
is confirmatory evidence of the occurrence of xylose units in the body of 
the chain in the pyranose form. It is believable that of the numerous and 



44 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



varied types of polysaccharides which Nature doubtless provides, chemists 
have only succeeded in isolating and characterising a comparatively small 



HOOH^ 




furanose unit. 



Xylopyranose units. 



number. A great many of which we have at present no knowledge will 
doubtless be isolated from natural sources by the application of the more 
modern methods of investigation. It seems evident from the work of 
Raistrick and others, who have prepared complex polysaccharides in vitro 
by the action of moulds on nutrient solutions containing glucose and 
other sugars, that many similar synthetic processes must go on in the 
plant. The detailed investigation of several of these polysaccharides, 
obtained by the agency of micro-organisms, has served to increase our 
knowledge of the type and variety of modes of assembly of sugar units 
in the more complex carbohydrates. It was altogether unexpected, for 
example, that the growth of P. Charlesii on glucose would produce two 
polysaccharides, one composed only of mannose residues and the other 
only of galactose residues. The detailed structure of the former has now 
been investigated and the polysaccharide prepared in this way and known 
as mannocarolose has been shown in our recent work to have a chain length 
of 9-10 mannopyranose units united through the i : 6 positions as indicated 
here. 



MeO 




OMe 



Yields 2:3:4: 6-tetramethyl- Yields 2:3: 4-trimethyliiiannose (II) 
mannose (III). and methyl alcohol. 



Still more striking is the polysaccharide varianose obtained in a similar 
manner by the growth of P. varians in glucose which gives rise to a complex 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



45 



polysaccharide containing three different kinds of hexose residues. The 
constitution and chain length have been investigated and the following 
model is presented for this interesting type : 



CMCHO 



C^a\ct*,fe^t V»ii"i>^ "^ 



Idoii 01- /^llVoSe. 



These examples serve only to illustrate the manifold character of the 
polysaccharides vi^hich are capable of existence and suggest that we are 
at the beginning of our knowledge not only of the structure of this 
group, but also of the functions which such polysaccharides serve in 
Nature. 

Nothing could be more important than the development of the more 
recent discoveries of polysaccharides possessing immunological functions. 
Several of these have been recognised as antigens, and a knowledge of 
their composition, properties, and intimate structure must obviously be 
of immense service. The properties of the specific polysaccharide of 
type III pneumococcus may be imitated by a degraded fragment of arable 
acid derived from gum arable (gum acacia). In our general investigation 
of gums, experiments have proceeded a considerable distance in the direc- 
tion of unravelling the complex structure of arable acid. This is con- 
posed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and glucuronic acid residues, 
and the mode of assembly of these different sugars will, it is expected, soon 
become clear. The glucuronic acid residues are intimately associated 
with a galactose chain and the union occurs through position 6 of the 
latter sugar. The pentose units appear not to be vitally concerned with 
this nuclear portion of the molecule and are capable of removal by scission 
without disturbance of this essential nucleus. 

The carbohydrates of immunological interest are not simple in structure 
and probably have a molecular weight much above 2,000. The most 
characteristic, though by no means the only repeating unit, is represented 
by a bionic acid which in the case of the degraded arable acid contains 
a glucuronic acid residue linked through the sixth position of galactose, 
a mode of union which resembles that which occurs in gentiobiose : 




46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

It is already evident that wider knowledge of the constitution of these 
polysaccharides will lead to great advances in medicine on the side of 
immunology. In order that this branch of the subject may be developed 
here in greater detail, Dr. W. T. J. Morgan has consented to give an 
outline of the broad general results obtained in this field. In concluding 
this review I thank most warmly those of my helpers who by. their 
devotion and skill have contributed to this scientific advance. 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



SOME GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF 
RECENT RESEARCH ON COAL 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. H. G. A. HICKLING, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Tradition almost demands that a Sectional President shall embark on 
that salutary though often painful process known in the outer world as 
stocktaking ; and in my own case the historic succession seems to point 
with no uncertain finger to the department of the geological store where 
the accounting is to be done. My predecessor at Leicester led us to the 
Carboniferous rocks ; at Aberdeen we reviewed the investigation of the 
plants which they contain ; and so it falls to my lot at this meeting to 
take stock of our knowledge of the rock which the plants themselves 
have formed. 

I shall attempt this the more willingly because I believe that this rock 
is not only in itself worthy of more attention at the hands of the geologist 
than it has been generally accorded, but is likely to repay that attention 
by shedding light on some of the major problems of the science. Later 
in the address I shall revert to the conception of coal as a metamorphic 
rock. The idea is ancient, but the data necessary for its establishment 
and more precise definition have been lacking. Perhaps they are now to 
hand. If that be so, we have in this familiar rock an indicator of crustal 
conditions far more delicate than any of the index minerals of the meta- 
morphic petrologist ; so delicate indeed, that should it come within range 
of even the lowest grade of metamorphism, as usually understood, it is 
completely shrivelled up and leaves only a trace of graphite as witness of 
its former self. 

But before this aspect of the matter can be seriously discussed, it is 
necessary to know the nature of the rock itself ; or, rather, rocks, since 
there are many kinds of coal. And this is where our knowledge has been 
most deficient. Any text-book will furnish a body of more or less con- 
vincing circumstantial evidence concerning the conditions under which 
certain deposits of coal have been formed. It may discuss at length 
the question whether the deposits have been formed by the growth of 
vegetation in situ or out of ' drifted ' plant material ; but as to the rock 
itself, the most we are likely to learn is that it contains recognisable 
fragments of plant tissue and, frequently, plant-spores. As to the nature 
and condition of the general mass of the rock, we shall probably learn 
nothing. 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

This is, in fact, a fair indication of the state of knowledge regarding the 
structure of coals in general, up to some thirty years ago. Enough was 
known from such investigations as those, for example, of Grand' Eury on 
the coals of St. ifitienne, to indicate that different coals might have been 
formed from substantially different materials, but far too little information 
was available to enable anyone to determine just how far the conspicuous 
differences in composition between the coals were due to that cause. There 
was complete uncertainty whether even the major differences were deter- 
mined during the accumulation of the deposit, by the kind of plant 
materials concerned and by their state of decay ; or whether the chief 
factor was the effect of physical forces brought to bear on the deposit after 
its burial in the crust. During the past thirty years the state of knowledge 
in this matter has undergone a complete change ; but the investigators 
responsible for the change have, for the most part, been palaeobotanists and 
fuel technologists rather than pure geologists. The results of their work 
have not for the most part appeared in the ordinary geological journals, 
and their geological implications have consequently not received general 
attention. 

Early Microscopic Studies. — The earlier uncertainty regarding the 
structure of coal was due to the extreme difficulty of preparing slices 
sufficiently thin to be in any degree translucent, and so to permit of 
microscopic examination. Nevertheless, so far back as 1831, Henrjf 
Witham had prepared sections in which he had seen plant structure, and 
in January 1833, a paper was read before the Geological Society of London, 
by William Hutton, based on the examination of a considerable collection 
of thin sections. This was, unfortunately, published in brief abstract 
only, but the original manuscript, at present in my possession, shows that 
he had observed most of the features which were noted by later observers 
until very recent times. The paper is accompanied by nine illustrations 
in colour, which greatly assist in the interpretation of his descriptions. 
He notes three types of coal in the Newcastle district, each with a character- 
istic structure. The first and most abundant is (to quote his words), the 
' fine caking coal,' which consists of ' a mahogany-brown coloured sub- 
stance, compact and uniform ; mixed and entangled in this are to be seen 
portions retaining the fine reticulations of the original plants.' From its 
' more or less perfect rhomboidal fracture, when broken ' it is ' seen to be a 
crystalline compound ; the parts composing it must have been in a state of 
solution. . . .' ' Along with this there are generally a number of curious 
elongate cells, filled with a light wine-yellow coloured substance . . .' 
which is ' undoubtedly a bituminous compound . . . and may be volatil- 
ised by a gentle heat so as to leave the cells empty without the surrounding 
coal being altered ' [a remarkable observation]. These cells are, of course, 
the spores, and in the light of subsequent discussion, it is interesting to 
note that the material of which they consist is later described as yellow 
resin. The second variety, or ' slate coal,' is described as largely made 
up of these ' elongate cells ' and consists also ' of a congeries of other 
smaller cells . . . similarly filled with yellow resin ' [the microspores]. 
The third variety is the Cannel, Splint or Parrot coal, which is ' totally 
devoid of crystalline structure ' and displays an ' almost uniform series 



C— GEOLOGY 49 

of these smaller cells.' He notes the frequent interbanding of these 
different types of coal, and acutely observes that since they occur together 
(sometimes in bands ' as fine as a hair ') their differences must be original, 
and cannot be due to any changes subsequent to their entombment. He 
notes especially, the occurrence of ' charcoal ' intimately mixed with 
' the most splendent ' coal as evidence of the fact that the former must 
have been in the condition of charcoal at the time of its enclosure. The 
observation that the coating of some of the larger fossil plants enclosed 
among the shales is ' converted into the finest and most crystalline coal ' 
is noted as evidence that entombment among other plant material is not 
necessary for its conversion into this type of coal. His final conclusion 
is ' that every variety of coal is of vegetable origin,' and ' the difference 
of the nature of these varieties has most probably arisen from an original 
difference in the nature of the vegetables of which they were composed.' 

Hutton had clearly recognised that bright coal consists almost entirely 
of translucent and apparently homogeneous material in which plant 
structures are discernible here and there ; that some dull coal is largely 
composed of megaspores and microspores (the true nature of which 
he could not know) ; and that these types of coal are often finely inter- 
banded, together with layers of mineral charcoal. This was the first 
serious attempt to determine the structures of the different kinds of coal, 
and little advance was made in this matter for over half a century. 

During this long period, advance was due to the slow accumulation of 
isolated observations rather than to any sustained effort to study coal 
itself as a major problem. The difficulty of preparing satisfactory sections 
obviously discouraged most workers from serious attempts in that direction, 
while those who made such attempts lacked some of the knowledge to 
interpret what they saw. By the use of bleaching and macerating agents 
many observers were able to show that such minute details of plant- 
structure as the fine pittings on the walls of wood-fibres were perfectly 
preserved, spores and cuticles were isolated from the coal, and even traces 
of the softer tissues of the plants were found. But it would seem that 
almost all workers throughout this period looked upon the fragmentary 
plant remains merely as interesting indications of the material out of 
which the coal had been made. It appears to have been usually taken 
for granted that such remains were merely items in the mass of the coal, 
a great part of which was assumed to be structureless. It was not expected 
that most of the plant material would have retained any trace of its 
original organisation. The surprise, therefore, of the modern work, is 
the discovery that in the more common types of coal, at least, nearly every 
portion of the mass can be seen to retain evidence of its orginal organic 
structure. 

Recent Work. — The modern period of coal petrology is clearly the off- 
spring of the palaeobotanical research on petrified coal which culminated at 
the close of the nineteenth century. This work gave us a precise know- 
ledge of the structure of the plants which formed the Carboniferous coals, 
and a clear picture of the condition of some of the coal peats at the time of 
their deposition. It was inevitable that this should be followed by more 
determined attempts to see these structures in the coal itself, and was 



50 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

equally natural that such attempts should be made quite independently 
by a number of workers. 

With renewed interest in the subject, advances in the technique of 
microscopic examination were rapid. The first development was E. C. 
Jeffrey's combination of maceration with section-cutting. He treated 
very small blocks of coal for long periods with hydrofluoric acid, thereby 
removing the mineral matter and so far softening the substance that it 
could be sectioned on the microtome like a modern plant. By this method 
sections may be prepared which show much detail with surprising clear- 
ness. Its limitations are the small size of the blocks which can be success- 
fully treated, the liability to tearing of the more delicate portions of the 
coal by even the smoothest razor, and a doubt whether the finer structures 
are not in some degree obliterated by the maceration. While its results 
were a very great advance on the earlier efforts at direct section-making 
by grinding, they are not equal to some of the more recent products of 
the latter method. 

Direct cutting was developed to a high degree of efficiency by Reinhardt 
Thiessen in America and by the late Mr. James Lomax in this country. 
The former aimed, in the first instance, at getting sections of moderate 
size, but of such extreme thinness that the finest details could be studied 
with the highest magnifications. The latter was the pioneer in the 
preparation of large sections, which made possible the examination of an 
entire coal-seam in a moderate number of slices. In the early stages 
these large sections were naturally made with some sacrifice of thinness 
and uniformity, but increasing experience has made possible the attain- 
ment of these features in even the largest sections. 

Simultaneously with the foregoing developments an entirely new 
method of examination was introduced in Germany by H. Winter — namely, 
the examination by reflected light of polished and etched surfaces of coal. 
This method has been developed with conspicuous success in this country 
by Mr. C. A. Seyler, and is extensively used by many workers on the 
Continent. The vividness with which many fine details of plant structure 
in the coal are revealed by this method can only be described as startling ; 
and one of its advantages is that, by variation of the methods of polishing 
or etching, different features can to some extent be revealed at will. The 
size of surface which can be examined is, of course, almost unlimited, 
and a few minutes is sufficient for its preparation. For the examination 
of the complete section of a seam it has obviously great advantages. At 
the same time it must be observed that the character of a good deal of the 
coal substance remains obscure, and the interpretation of the structures 
actually seen can be securely attempted only by close comparison of the 
etched picture with actual thin sections. Used in conjunction, the two 
methods of examination afford a means by which the whole story of a coal 
seam may be deciphered with accuracy and comparative rapidity. 

What have been the results of all the attempts to study the microscopic 
structure of coal ? 

The ' Uniform Brown Substance.^ — Before the time of Witham and 
Hutton coal was often regarded as a deposit from ' solution ' in water — 
as a kind of vegetable ' extract,' which might consequently be expected to 



C— GEOLOGY 51 

possess a distinctive composition, independently of the materials from 
which it was derived. The earlier microscopic observations at once 
limited this idea by demonstrating the presence of plant remains which 
retained their organised structure ; but the ' uniform brown substance,' 
which Hutton had observed to form so much of the coal, clearly appealed 
to many observers as the essential feature, and many references to the 
' coal substance ' seem to be more or less clearly identified with it. The 
foremost question in coal petrology has been, in fact, the nature of this 
brown substance — in particular, as to whether it is, in more modern 
phrase, a colloidal precipitate, or v/hether it represents actual fragments 
of plant material. Since it forms probably quite 75 per cent, of all our 
common coal, this question is of the first importance. As Hutton ob- 
served, it is this substance which forms the general mass of the ' bright 
coal. 

All recent workers have drawn attention largely to this dominating 
material. E. C. Jeffrey named it ' lignitoid material.' He regards it as 
representing pieces of plant tissue, largely woody, in which all trace of 
the original organisation has been destroyed by decay. Thiessen, who 
approached the study of the structure of bituminous coals by way of an 
extensive examination of lignites, in which the structure is more easily 
seen, differed from Jeffrey chiefly in his belief that the structure of the 
original plant material is rarely quite obliterated, and that it can nearly 
always be detected if the sections and the microscopic technique be 
sufficiently good. He named the material ' anthraxylon.' 

The recent trend of work and discussion on this important part of the 
coal has been much influenced by the writings of Dr. Marie Stopes. In 
1 9 19 she essayed a classification of the types of coal substance which can 
be distinguished by eye in an ordinary bituminous seam, and gave some 
account of the constitution of each type as determined by microscopic 
examination. She emphasised again the laminated character of the 
seam, and the fact that the laminas consist of different types of coal 
which can be separated for examination. While earlier writers had 
usually been content to describe the coal as divisible into ' bright ' and 
' dull ' layers, together with occasional bands of ' mineral charcoal ' or 
' mother of coal,' she directed attention to the additional fact that the 
' bright ' coal might be separated into two portions. The general mass 
of the bright substance has a just perceptible fine lamination which gives 
it a silky sheen ; but interbanded with it are many thin layers which at 
once strike the eye by the mirror-like reflection from their perfect cleavage 
surfaces. The same observation was undoubtedly made many times 
before, but failed to attract notice, in the same way that the whole matter 
of the distinctive character of the various laminae which make up the seam 
received only casual attention from time to time. Dr. Stopes was the 
first to apply distinctive names to the different types of laminae. She 
adopted the French fitsain to replace the questionable English term 
' mineral charcoal,' and devised corresponding terms for the other types 
of coal : durain for the true dull bands ; clarain for the ordinary silky 
bright coal ; and vitrain for the brilliant glassy-looking substance. 

Not all the weight of Shakespeare's authority can alter the fact that 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

names are most potent things, especially if they are apt. These names 
directed attention sharply to the facts that common coal is a complex 
mass of different materials, and that some of the chief components (vitrain 
and fusain) or characteristic mixtures of components (clarain and durain) 
can be picked out of the coal and subjected to separate examination. 
They focused that attention and have thereby stimulated a very large 
volume of work on the nature and constitution of these components ; and 
it is no adverse comment to say that this work has necessitated some 
modification of their original definition. 

We can now revert to the ' uniform brown substance.' Dr. Stopes 
observed that the clarain bands were mainly composed of this trans- 
lucent material, finely interspersed with other ingredients, and often 
showing its original plant structure. Vitrain consisted entirely of similar 
translucent material, free from admixture with other substances, but 
seemed to show no trace of structure. 

The development of technique during the past decade has shown, 
however, that this latter distinction was due largely to the physical 
properties of the vitrain. The pure unmixed substance of these bands 
is excessively brittle and most difficult to section effectively ; but it is 
now abundantly shown that a very large proportion of the vitrain, at 
least, retains the structure of the tissue from which it has, in fact, been 
formed, no less clearly than the smaller fragments of translucent material 
which enter into the composition of the clarain bands. In a recent classifi- 
cation of coal ingredients (January 1935), Dr. Stopes has indicated clearly 
that the chief part of the substance of the clarain bands appears to be 
identical with that which forms vitrain. In direct proportion as the 
methods of preparing thin sections or of etching coal surfaces have been 
improved, an ever-increasing proportion of the ' uniform brown sub- 
stance ' of the bright coal has been shown to retain the structure of the 
plants of which it is composed. While it is true that some small portion 
of the mass generally remains apparently structureless, the conviction 
becomes increasingly strong that this is a matter of appearance only. 
This conclusion is made more insistent by the observation that even when 
the structure is most faint and difficult to detect, this is due, not to any 
lack of perfection in the minutest details, but merely to want of contrast 
between the colour of the cell-walls and the material within the cells. 

The relation between vitrain and clarain, which has been the subject 
of very extensive discussion and much confusion, may be regarded as 
now cleared up. Subject to a qualification to be mentioned immediately, 
each separate band or lenticle of vitrain represents a single fragment of 
wood or bark or other piece of plant tissue. Its distinctness and its 
homogeneous character result directly from this fact. In other words, 
each plant fragment of sufficient size to be clearly visible on the coal 
surface constitutes a vitrain lenticle. Clarain, on the other hand, con- 
sists largely of similar plant fragments, which are individually too small 
to be distinguished without the microscope, and are moreover mixed 
with more minute plant debris such as spores, isolated cuticles and other 
matter. It is the minutely heterogeneous character of the mass which 
results in a lower surface lustre. 



C— GEOLOGY 53 

Tzvo views regarding the nature of the ' uniform brown substance.' — 
Thus the ' uniform brown substance ' for the most part, at least, 
represents portions of plant tissue with their organised structures ex- 
quisitely preserved. But the reservation in the preceding paragraph was 
necessitated by the fact that with any technique yet devised, it has been 
impossible to demonstrate that all this material possesses structure ; and 
this fact is frequently seized upon in discussions of the two views which 
are held regarding the essential nature of the brown substance as a whole. 
There are those who regard it as made up entirely of plant fragments, each of 
which now consists only of the remains of the organic substance of which 
that particular plant fragment was originally composed. The alternative 
view is that a large part of the substance of the original vegetation was 
reduced by early decay to the condition of a true fluid, some of which 
was absorbed into those plant fragments which retained their organisation, 
while other portions of the fluid may have solidified as a truly structureless 
gel, and acted as a cement to the whole mass. The latter view is almost 
universally held among Continental workers, and these accordingly are 
disposed to interpret the ' structureless ' material as evidence of such a 
gel. Whatever may be the amount of truth in this latter hypothesis— 
and there is considerable evidence that it applies in some cases — it is 
absolutely unquestionable that the plant remains which now form this 
translucent coal substance have been rendered jelly-like, whether by 
their own decay or by absorption of extraneous material. In nearly all 
cases cell-walls which were clearly rigid have been flattened and folded 
without rupture. Often the entire tissue has been contorted into the 
most fantastic forms, but still remains unbroken. 

So far as appearance is any guide to composition — and there is good 
ground for the belief that it does give some indication— there is little 
reason to suppose that the essential nature of this substance is very differ- 
ent whether the plant-structure be discernible or not. Differences we 
must expect to find when sufficiently detailed chemical examination is 
applied, and it will be of the greatest interest to discover how far they 
are affected by the nature of the original plant material. But for the 
present, all our evidence points to a remarkable general uniformity. 
The discussion of this question is obviously a matter for the chemist, 
but reference to only two of the distinctive qualities of this substance may 
be made, as sufficiently significant. If the purest substance, as represented 
by vitrain, be examined, the ash-content is always found to be amazingly 
low. Not only is it a mere fraction of that present in the rest of the coal 
substance, but it is much below that in any average aggregate of modern 
plant materials. There is no reason to suppose that the vegetation of the 
coal-forests was abnormal in its content of inorganic matter, so we must 
presume either that the inorganic content of this part of the coal has been 
reduced, by leaching out, or that there has been a very large addition of 
pure organic substance. Secondly, this material shows extremely little 
variation in its organic composition, as compared with the other con- 
stituents of the coal. While the hydrogen content, for example, in the 
different ingredients of a single block of bituminous coal may be found to 
range from 3^ to 8 per cent., the variation among samples of vitrain from 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the same block will rarely exceed a twentieth of that amount. It is 
because most coals consist mainly of this substance that they differ so 
little from one another. Prof. Wheeler and his colleagues have shown 
that it is mainly composed of ulmin compounds. 

If, now, I have seemed to dwell unduly on this ' uniform brown 
substance,' which we see practically pure in the bands of vitrain and some- 
what adulterated in clarain, I must repeat that it is by far the most import- 
ant constituent of coal. If anything deserves the name of ' coal substance ' 
it is this, though there are countless reasons why such a designation 
would be most undesirable. But it is none the less unfortunate, in the 
interests of clarity, that we have no universally accepted term by which to 
denote it. It is the ' anthraxylon ' of Thiessen and the ' lignitoid ' of 
Jeffrey. Both these terms offend the more scrupulous by their implication 
that ' wood ' is the only parent substance ; which is far from being the 
case. Some workers have suggested the restriction of those terms to 
such examples as can be shown microscopically to have been formed from 
wood, coupled with the introduction of such terms as ' suberitoid ' for 
examples in which ' bark ' can be shown to be the parent material, and 
so on for other cases. There is grave danger of confusion and misunder- 
standing of much valuable work in a welter of conflicting terminology. 
Dr. Stopes has recently tried to cut the Gordian knot by devising a set 
of co-ordinated terms which will cover all the possible cases. But the 
prime need of the moment is clear recognition of the general similarity 
of this substance irrespective of the plant tissue out of which or in which 
it has been formed. A term is required which has no botanical implica- 
tions. In the vitrain bands we see the substance in its most tangible 
form. But the term vitrain cannot well be applied to the substance 
itself, since it is also the major component of the clarain bands. The 
term vitrinite, however, suggested by Dr. Stopes, offers an escape from 
this difficulty, while recalling the fact that in vitrain we have the 
substance in its purest form. I shall therefore use this term in the 
sequel. 

The other Components of Coal. — We must now take stock of the other 
materials which go to the make-up of an ordinary coal seam. Though 
they are subsidiary in amount to the vitrinite in most portions of the 
seam, it is the character and varying quantity of these other materials 
which primarily differentiate the quality of the coals. 

Most conspicuous and familiar is the ' mineral charcoal ' or fusain. 
This illustrates at once the fact that in some cases the mode of preserva- 
tion of the plant-substance may be of greater import than its original 
nature. The fusain is usually woody tissue, clearly identical originally 
with much of that which has been converted into vitrinite. But how 
different in its present form ! Devoid of any organic substance in its 
cell-cavities ; every cell-wall so brittle as to break at a touch ; always 
extremely low in its content of hydrogen and oxygen, and correspondingly 
high in carbon. Physically and chemically it stands in the strongest 
possible contrast. On account of its porous nature it has commonly 
formed the receptacle for much of the mineral matter which has been 
deposited from solution in the coal, and is consequently a great carrier 



C— GEOLOGY 55 

of ash. Quite moderate variation in the amount of fusain in the coal has 
important effects on its utility for various purposes. Practically as well 
as theoretically it is therefore important to notice that the amount of 
fusain in a seam cannot be estimated by the quantity existing in separate 
fragments or layers of sufficient size to be visible to the eye. Its most 
conspicuous quality is its friability, and it is consequently but natural to 
find much of this material in the form of microscopic fragments in the dull 
coal or durain, and even to some extent among the clarain. 

The next group of coal components may for the purpose of this review 
be designated the ' high-hydrogen ' group— the outer coatings of stems, 
leaves and spores which are characterised by an accumulation of waxes, 
fats, resins and allied substances. Leaving to the chemists the difficult 
problem of determining the precise nature of the materials forming 
these various plant-coatings, and degree of alteration to which they 
have been subjected in the coal, it is enough for us to note the characteristic 
fact that these components of the coal have a relatively high hydrogen 
content, and that they differ so strikingly in chemical properties from the 
rest of the coal that by the roughest chemical treatment the remainder 
of the coal can be broken down while the spore-coats and cuticles are 
left little altered. On this account Dr. Wheeler speaks of these com- 
ponents as the ' resistant plant remains.' Extracted from the coal, these 
coatings are seen under the microscope to differ in stinicture little, if at all, 
from their condition in a living plant. Their obvious relative inde- 
structibility has resulted in their accumulation in the coal in quantities 
much in excess of their natural proportion — in extreme cases, even to the 
total exclusion of other materials. How greatly their presence may 
affect the composition of the coal is indicated by recent work in which 
such material has been mechanically separated from the coal and found 
to have a hydrogen content of nearly 8 per cent. 

Associated with the cuticles and spores in respect of chemical peculiari- 
ties and durability, but differing somewhat in the manner of distribution 
in the coal, are the resinous secretions of the plants. Since the resins 
were originally contained in the wood or bark, they are found largely in 
the vitrinite of the coal. On the other hand, they are often found in local 
aggregations among the more disintegrated plant debris, in such a manner 
as to suggest that the aggregates may represent the resinous content of a 
tissue which has, for the rest been almost entirely destroyed. 

There is one other distinctive ingredient in most ordinary coal seams 
characterised by its minute state of fragmentation. It forms a kind of 
paste, made up of particles of i or 2 microns or less in diameter. Careful 
examination of the rest of the coal substance has shown, as might be 
expected, that it consists of plant- fragments of every size from pieces of 
several inches down to the size of single plant cells. But below that size 
(say 20 to 60 microns) there is an unmistakable jump to the immensely 
more fine paste just mentioned. Obviously it represents quite a distinct 
stage in the degradation of the plant material ; and there is some indication, 
that it has distinctive chemical peculiarities. It is of very dense colour, 
and is consequently opaque except in the thinnest sections. It is essen- 
tially characteristic of the dull coals. So far it lacks a generally recognised 



S6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

title and has been merely described as the ' residuum.' Dr. Stopes would 
christen it ' micronite.' 

' Sapropelic ' Coals. — In the foregoing account of the components of 
coal I have dealt with those to be found in our normal bituminous coals of 
Carboniferous age. So far as my knowledge extends, the account does not 
require material modification in reference to the coals or lignites of other 
ages, except in so far as results from the minor structural differences (such 
as the greater proportion of true wood) in the more recent vegetation, and 
from some difference in the physical character of the materials in the 
lignitic condition. But there are other types of coal, particularly the 
cannels and bogheads, which have a widely different structure and at least 
one very different component material. There is much evidence to sup- 
port Potonie's view that these latter coals are essentially water-deposited 
accumulations of fine plant-residues (sapropels), while the * normal ' 
coals are essentially peat (' humic ') deposits. One of the essential 
characters of a cannel is certainly the fine state of division of all its 
materials. But the feature of most pertinent interest is the occurrence 
in these sapropelic deposits, and in no others, of microscopic oil-bearing 
algae. It is well known that these were described long ago by Bertrand 
and Renault ; and also that their algal nature has been over and over 
again denied. None of the criticism did justice to Bertrand's original 
work, but in the last few years these organisms have been carefully 
re-examined by Zalessky, by Thiessen, by P. Bertrand, and by my own 
colleague Dr. Temperley, who have not only demonstrated their structure 
in greater detail, but have established their essential similarity (and 
possible identity) with the living oil-alga Botryococcus braunii. This 
constituent of the cannels affords the most striking of all examples of the 
effect of original materials on the composition of the coals. There are 
cannels entirely devoid of alga2, and others in which they are present in 
all proportions up to that in the best bogheads, of which they may form 
90 per cent. As the algal content increases, so the percentage of hydrogen 
in the coal rises, from about 6-o per cent, in those without algas up to 
more than 12 per cent, in the purest algal bogheads. 

Types of Coal Aggregate. — I believe these are all the constituent materials 
which have so far been recognised in ordinary coals. It remains to con- 
sider how they are distributed among the various types of coal aggregate. 
With a considerable number of components it might be expected that a 
great variety of aggregates would be formed. It so happens, however, 
that the most important constituents are distinguished by widely different 
average size of the fragments in which they occur ; and in coal, as in 
other fragmental rocks, size is the great sorting factor. The dominating 
component, vitrinite, exists for the most part in fragments much larger 
than those of any other component except fusain. It follows that as 
the average size of the particles in any coal aggregate decreases, so the 
proportion of vitrinite usually becomes less, while that of spores, cuticles, 
resins, fragmented fusain and residuum become greater. This intro- 
duces an important element of order where there might have been almost 
complete chaos. It is a further fortunate circumstance that the physical 
character of the vitrinite — the brilliant cleavage surfaces with which 



C— GEOLOGY 57 

it fractures when in fragments of sufficient size — affords a means by 
which the proportion of this material in the aggregate can at once be 
roughly assessed. The more vitrinite, the brighter the coal, is a rule 
which is seldom broken. Ever since coal was used the different qualities 
of ' bright ' and ' dull,' or ' softs ' and ' hards ' have been recognised ; 
and it is the large or small proportion of vitrinite which is mainly in 
question. 

Complete gradation from the brightest coals, consisting entirely of 
large fragments of vitrinised tissue — that is, of vitrain lenticles only — 
through every stage of decreasing particle size, decreasing vitrinite content 
and decreasing lustre, to the most finely granular dull aggregate is to be 
expected and is easily found. But experience readily shows that in most 
seams there is a small proportion of bands which are unmistakably quite 
without lustre, and that these are sharply separated from the ' bright ' 
coal, even though the lustre of the bright bands may vary widely. The 
distinction of the two types of aggregate clearly corresponds to some 
difference in the mode of accumulation. The really dull bands are usually 
(though not necessarily) characterised by a very much higher content of 
ash than the bright coal, and this excess always consists of a very fine 
clay which must have been water-borne. It is clearly desirable to dis- 
tinguish this true dull coal from the rest of the seam, and hence the term 
durain applied to it is much to be preferred to the merely relative ' dull 
coal,' which is in fact often applied to some of the vitrinite-rich coal 
which is merely less lustrous than the rest. Durain and clarain are the two 
main types of coal in an ordinary bituminous seam. Both are of variable 
composition, and the one may shade into the other though they are 
commonly somewhat sharply separated. The clarain, however, with its 
dominating vitrinite constituent, tends to comparative uniformity of 
composition, while the durain may be far more varied. A rich content 
of spores, cuticles or resins may make the durain conspicuously rich in 
hydrogen ; while a dominance of residuum, or a high content of frag- 
mented fusain, may have the opposite result. It is the variable part of 
the coal. 

The Rank of Coals. — We have now reviewed what microscopic examina- 
tion has disclosed concerning the nature of the various ingredients which 
make up the coal deposits, and have glanced slightly at the various types 
of coal aggregate which these ingredients may form. It has always been 
more or less clearly recognised, however, that coals differ not only in the 
type of aggregate of which they may have been compounded, but in the 
degree to which the original composition of this aggregate has been 
altered. This degree of alteration constitutes what we speak of as the 
rank of the coal, we must now consider the respective shares of type and 
rank in determining the final composition of the coal. 

Ever since Rogers drew attention to the gradual change in the quality 
of the coals as one proceeds towards the Allegheny axis or away from it, 
debate has continued on the question as to how far the quality of the 
coals has been determined by the geological conditions to which they have 
been subjected, and how far it is due to the original plant composition, 
conditions of deposition and the manner of organic decay. No one has 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

ever seriously contended that either set of circumstances has not been 
responsible for some share in producing differences in quality ; but there 
has been the most extreme divergence of opinion as regards the relative 
importance to be assigned to each. From the geological standpoint the 
greatest contribution which is made by the microscope to the study of coal 
is, that it enables us to determine definitely whether the difference in quality 
of two coals can or cannot be attributed to original difference of com- 
position. If they can be seen to consist of entirely similar plant materials 
in a similar state of preservation, then any considerable difference in 
quality must be attributed to some other factor. Conversely, we may 
compare the quality of coals which are visibly composed of different 
materials, and find what are the constant differences between them. 

Composition of the several Components. — In common with most vege- 
table substances, coals consist mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, 
and as the first step in the discussion of this problem we may enquire 
how the proportions of these constituents vary among the different plant 
materials which may be isolated from any single piece of coal. All the 
vitrinite is found to be of very uniform composition. The group of 
cuticles, spores and resins is notably high in hydrogen, but is not ex- 
ceptional in the ratio of carbon and oxygen. Any fusain present will be 
very deficient in both hydrogen and oxygen. In a coal in which the 
general percentage of oxygen is 15, that of the fusain may be as low as 5. 
The chemical composition of the residuum needs further investigation ; 
the indications are that it is usually a little deficient in hydrogen and 
oxygen, but not to such an extent as in the case of fusain. The outstand- 
ing fact is that the different components vary strikingly in their hydrogen 
content (from about 3 • 5 per cent, in fusain to 8 • o per cent, in some spores), 
while only in the case of fusain is there any notable variation in the oxygen. 

Composition of the Aggregate. — How does this variation in the composi- 
tion of the individual plant materials compare with the observed range of 
the bulk composition of different coals ? If we take a very large number 
of representative analyses of lignites and bituminous coals (but exclude 
for the moment anthracites and cannels) we shall find the limits of varia- 
tion of the chief constituents to be approximately as follows : Hydrogen, 
4-5 to 6-0 per cent. ; carbon, 65 to 90 per cent. ; oxygen (varying in 
almost exactly complementary proportion to the carbon) 30 to 5 per cent. 
We see clearly that the whole variation of hydrogen content is well within 
the range observed among the different plant constituents in a single 
piece of coal. There is consequently no reason to suppose that among 
this group of coals the hydrogen content has been appreciably varied 
except by the character of the original materials. Variation in the type 
of coal shows itself in the chemical analysis chiefly in differences of hydro- 
gen content, and it might account for the whole of those differences. 

But the answer is emphatically reversed when we turn to the 
carbon : oxygen proportions. A great increase in the proportion oi fusain 
in the seam is the only change among the plant materials which could affect 
the general oxygen content of the coal very considerably ; but so much as 
10 per cent, of this material would be an exceptionally high quantity in 
any seam, and this amount might reduce the general oxygen content of 



C— GEOLOGY 59 

the coal by about i per cent. The observed range of oxygen content 
in different coals is therefore many times greater than could be produced 
by any known variations of the plant constitution. This observation, 
taken in conjunction with the fact that the microscope fails to reveal any 
general difference of plant constitution between coals with high oxygen 
content and those with little, leaves no doubt that this aspect of the 
chemical history of the coal is determined by something other than the 
type of plant aggregate. It is this difference of o.xygen content which 
chiefly denotes the rank of the coal, distinguishing the lignites, bituminous 
coals and anthracites. 

A very significant feature of this variation in rank is the fact that it is 
continuous throughout its long range. If any very large number of analyses 
of lignites, coals and anthracites be plotted, they will be found to form 
on the graph a very long and narrow belt which is unmistakably con- 
tinuous. The significance of this continuity is emphasized in an interest- 
ing way by the work of Prof. Bone and his colleagues, who have shown 
that the proportions of the different types of organic compounds present 
in the coal vary progressively throughout the series. 

Cannels and Anthracites. — Cannel coals were excluded from the fore- 
going remarks on chemical composition merely because they form an 
extreme and relatively uncommon type. But just for this reason they 
afford the most striking illustration of the dependence of type on mode 
of origin and plant constitution, as also of the fact that in ultimate com- 
position it is the hydrogen which is most affected by these differences. 
Its increase in proportion to the number of algee in the mass is unmis- 
takable, and the figure of 12 per cent, reached in the pure algal cannels 
is sufficiently remarkable to ensure that no one will overlook its significance. 

Anthracites were omitted because in these very high-rank coals the rule 
that hydrogen content is independent of rank breaks down. In these 
coals the oxygen content has been reduced almost to the lowest possible 
limits, and as alteration proceeds further the hydrogen begins to be 
eliminated, and may be reduced to 2 per cent., or even 1 per cent. The 
last stage is graphite. That this hydrogen reduction is the result of a late 
stage of alteration is sufficiently proved by the fact that it is found only 
in those coals in which oxygen is reduced to 5 per cent, or less. Since 
a good deal of the discussion about the significance of rank in coal has 
centred round the anthracites, this fact that hydrogen elimination occurs 
only in the last stages has often been overlooked. For example, the use 
of the carbon : hydrogen ratio as a measure of rank is clearly permissible 
only in these high-rank coals ; but it has often been applied also to those 
of lower rank, in which, as we have seen, the hydrogen variation is ex- 
pressive of the plant constitution of the aggregate rather than of ' meta- 
morphic ' changes. 

The Significance of Rank. — The thesis towards which all my remarks 
have been preparatory is that the rank of a coal is the measure of the 
alteration in composition which the deposit has suffered in consequence 
of the rise of temperature and increase of pressure resulting from its 
burial in the crust. I have been at some pains to distinguish between 
the differences in composition which denote rank and those due to the 



6o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

varying type of the deposit, since this thesis can only be fully established 
when this is done. 

What do we know of the relation between the rank of coals and their 
distribution in the rocks ? 

The oft-quoted fact that Tertiary coals are mostly of low rank (lignites) 
and the Carboniferous ones mostly of high rank (bituminous or anthracitic) 
may be dismissed with the comment that it is in fairly obvious agreement 
with the fact that the former are for the most part contained in relatively 
thin deposits and the latter in much thicker accumulations ; while the 
formation of Tertiary anthracites under appropriate conditions sufficiently 
disposes of any suggestion that the mere lapse of time is a necessary 
factor. 

An association of high rank with areas of intense folding is well estab- 
lished, but is open to more than one interpretation. David White's 
observation that the area of highest rank in the Pennsylvanian and 
Virginian fields does not lie on the Allegheny axis, but to one side of 
it, agrees with the distribution in South Wales and elsewhere. It may be 
held at least to show that the direct effect of movement on the coal sub- 
stance is not a prime factor. The true relation between folding and rank 
is more likely to be found in the relation of both to geosynclines. 

The fact which appears to me to establish- most clearly that change of 
rank must be caused by some geological factors is its areal distribution. 
In every coalfield where substantial variation of rank has been noted and 
examined, the rank of any given seam is found to change progressively as 
it is followed across the field. If the variation be plotted on a map by 
means of lines representing volatile content, carbon content, or any 
suitable measure of rank, these lines are found to be arranged in an 
orderly pattern and — this is the important point — the same pattern is 
repeated by each seam within the area. Wherever the rank of one seam 
is increased, there also is that of the others. Whatever cause has affected 
one has affected all. 

An attempt has been made to meet this fact without introducing 
' metamorphic ' effects by the assumption that the patterns revealed may 
reflect the form of the original basin of deposit, it being further assumed 
that the character of the coal-peat varied progressively from the margin 
towards the centre of the basin. There are many reasons why it is difficult 
to accept this interpretation. Apart from the fact that I do not believe that 
any geologist familiar with all the circumstances could accept the actual 
patterns as related to shore-lines in this way, especially in view of the 
difficulty that the same pattern has to be repeated through a great thickness 
of deposits, there is the complete absence of any shred of evidence from 
the coals themselves that the character of the deposit did change in this 
manner, coupled with much positive evidence that it did not. 

Valuable light is shed on this matter by the detailed information con- 
cerning the composition of many of our own coal seams and their variation 
which is being accumulated by the National Fuel Survey. Many of the 
seams examined, particularly in Northumberland and Durharn, show 
large changes in rank as they are followed across the coalfields. Some 
of the seams are notably ' bright ' coals, with a relatively high hydrogen 



C— GEOLOGY 6 1 

content ; others contain a larger proportion of durain and (commonly) a 
lower percentage of hydrogen. A careful comparison of the analyses 
shows clearly that the seams which are high in hydrogen retain that 
peculiarity regardless of change in rank, while those which are low remain 
low. In this way the chemical evidence supports that provided by the 
detailed examination of the physical peculiarities of the seams, which 
shows them to have, on the whole, a very constant character throughout 
their range. Still further proof of the same fact is provided by the work 
of Dr. Raistrick and others on the very distinctive spore-content of the 
various seams, which again shows a notable constancy and is quite 
unaffected by the changes in rank. The cumulative evidence leaves no 
room for doubt that in these instances the change of rank is quite 
independent of the original constitution of the seams. 

Hilt's Law. — The simplest and most familiar evidence of a relation 
between rank and geological conditions is Hilt's law : that, in any single 
vertical section, the deeper seams are of higher rank than the upper seams. 
In spite of frequent denials, there seems little doubt of the general applic- 
ability of this rule. Apparent failure of the rule in some cases is doubtless 
due to the fact that original differences between seams may affect their 
present composition to a greater extent than small differences of depth. 
But when the differences of depth are substantial, exceptions are rare. 
Another cause of doubt would appear to be a not infrequent misunder- 
standing as to the nature of the law itself, which becomes rather easily 
misconstrued into a statement that the (stratigraphically) lower seams are 
of higher rank than the upper seams. Consequently the fact that a 
stratigraphically lower seam in one place is actually of lower rank than an 
upper seam elsewhere is mistakenly accepted as evidence against the rule. 

The value of Hilt's law lies, first, in the fact that it is unambiguous 
in its significance, and, secondly, in the fact that since we know something 
of the increments of temperature and pressure which correspond to 
given differences of depth, and can compare these with the changes of 
rank produced, it gives us the data necessary to reverse the process, and 
to consider the rank of coals as an indication of the temperatures and 
pressures to which they have been subjected. . The temperature incre- 
ments are clearly so small that most geologists have been inclined to 
attribute the effects mainly to pressure. It is impossible to discuss this 
matter within the limits of this address, so it must suffice merely to refer 
to the experimental work, which has shown how readily coal, even in its 
present condition, yields volatile products at very moderate temperatures, 
and to the fact that in the effects of igneous intrusions we have a series 
of beautiful natural experiments in the alteration of rank of coals by heat 
alone. In some of these natural experiments the resultant effects on the 
coal appear to be in every respect analogous with the ordinary changes of 
rank ; in others they are obviously different. In the latter instances it 
is not difficult to see that the results are due to the rapid application of 
somewhat considerable increments of temperature. There appears to 
me to be quite good evidence to show, on the contrary, that in those cases, 
in which considerable changes of rank of the normal type have been pro- 
duced, the total increments of temperature have been quite small. 



62 ■ SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

If it be true that the rank of coals has been determined mainly by the 
depths to which they have been buried, then it is natural to look for some 
relation between the varying rank of any seam and its present depth 
below the surface, or to relate it to axes of folding. Much has been 
written on this subject, and completely contradictory conclusions reached. 
But this is to be expected. The coal can only indicate the maximum 
temperature or pressure to which it has been subjected, since change of 
rank is almost certainly an irreversible process ; decrease of temperature 
and pressure will not restore it to its former level. Now a little reflection 
will show that, after the completion of the coal-bearing series, the most 
general result of subsequent folding will be elevation and denudation, 
leading to a decrease rather than an increase of load. In so far as this is 
true, the folding will not be reflected by any variation of rank ; while, on 
the contrary, any circumstance which does lead to a further increment of 
temperature will leave its mark. Later burial of the whole series below 
an unconformable cover may lead to a change of rank in the deeper parts 
of the seams, while leaving the upper portions untouched. The time 
factor, moreover, can by no means be left out of account. Geo-isotherms 
creep with exceeding slowness, even in terms of the rate of sedimentation 
and denudation. The duration of burial as well as its depth is therefore 
material. In fact, the whole sequence of events which have determined 
the maximum temperature and pressure reached at any point must have 
been much too complicated to be readily decipherable from the present 
disposition of the rocks. 

In all these complications, however, one cardinal principle remains. 
At any given place, both temperature and pressure must always have 
increased downwards — apart, of course, from the influence of igneous 
intrusions. And so, while the interpretation of the lateral variation of 
rank is involved in many complicating factors. Hilt's law remains as a 
simple and significant sign. Even in this case the significance is liable to 
be obscured by the variation of the original coal substance of the difl'erent 
seams ; but the technique of the microscopic study of coal has now 
reached the point at which, I believe, the eff^ect of this factor can be almost 
completely assessed and eliminated. If this be so, then we are in a position 
to use coal as a geological thermometer — ^or, perhaps, combined thermo- 
meter and barometer — and we may set about calibrating it by means of 
a thorough study of Hilt's law and of the effects of igneous intrusions. 
But we must never forget that the thermometer has one peculiarity — it is 
a maximum thermometer only. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



THE SPECIES PROBLEM 



ADDRESS BY 



PROF. F. BALFOUR-BROWNE, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.Z.S., 
F.R.E.S., P.R.M.S. 



PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



A PREDECESSOR in this Chair ^ called the attention of the Section to the fact 
that Alfred Russell Wallace, in referring to ' the curious correspondence 
both in mind and in environment ' by which Darwin and he reached the 
theory of Natural Selection, accounted for it in the first place by the fact 
that both Darwin and he commenced by collecting beetles and thus 
acquired ' that intense interest in the mere variety of living things which 
led them to speculate upon the " why " and the " how " of this over- 
whelming and at first sight purposeless wealth of specific forms among 
the very humblest forms of life.' 

It is, therefore, with excellent backing that I confess that my main 
interest as a naturalist has always been in this same Order of insects but, 
whereas in the case of these two great men, the study led them to the 
origin of species by means of Natural Selection, I come here hoping that 
absolute faith in that theory is no longer the only hall-mark of a balanced 
mind, because a long experience of the habits and structure of water- 
beetles has led me slowly but surely to the belief that Natural Selection 
plays a much smaller part in the origin of species than has been claimed 
for it. 

I propose to deal mainly with two groups of water-beetles to which 
most of my time has been given, the Carnivorous group or Hydradephaga, 
and the so-called Vegetarian group, the Hydrophilidae. From the fact 
that they inhabit water other than salt water, they occupy isolated areas, 
and these can be roughly grouped as ponds, lakes and rivers, and the 
beetles occupying any one pond, lake or river may be described as a 
community. An intensive study of any such habitat produces a list of 
species forming the community in that particular habitat, and I have 
spent hours working out the percentages of occurrence of the species in 

* VV. T. Caiman, The Taxonomic Outlook in Zoology, Bristol, 1930. 



64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

these communities. Such work certainly justifies the recognition of 
associated species, a pond community differing in its composition from 
that of a lake or river, and a further study of ponds, lakes and rivers shows 
that they also can be classified into types, in each of which the community 
of water-beetles differs in species-composition from the others. A silt- 
pond, for instance, in clay or marl, gravel or sand, has a community 
differing markedly from a detritus pond, where decaying vegetation has 
produced a muddy bottom and somewhat turbid water. Again, a brackish 
pond provides the collector with species not to be found in the previously 
mentioned types, and the peat pond produces other species. The silt 
pond is by far the richest in species and, out of about 250 in the British 
list, from forty to sixty species occur in it and may even be taken in one 
pond at the same time. 

It is, however, obvious that this classification of types of ponds, etc., 
is only a rough one, because the silt pond gradually changes to the detritus 
pond and all ponds are slowly changing their character to pass through 
a swampy marsh stage to dry land. The lake, around its edges, acquires 
pond conditions and the evolution of the lake follows that of the pond. 
Rivers are slowly changing, the less rapid parts tending to silt up and pro- 
duce pond conditions so that, although, as I have said, the intensive study 
of water-beetles justifies the recognition of groups of species associated 
with types of habitat, the same spot visited throughout a series of years 
will provide an ever-changing habitat and an ever-changing community 
of water-beetles. 

Now the obvious explanation of this community grouping of species 
is that some are less well adapted to a particular type of habitat and are, 
therefore, excluded from it by better adapted species, but is this the 
whole explanation ? That there is a struggle for existence is beyond 
dispute, but is it as severe and determinate as is usually supposed ? 
Among vegetarian insects there is often a range of food plants, upon any 
of which they may be found. In most cases there is no evidence that the 
different plants carry monophagous races, in fact it is normal for such 
insects to remain healthy and to complete their life-histories when changed 
from one to another of the plants. In the case of some insects, either 
monophagous or oligophagous, other plants are resorted to under some 
circumstances, indicating that the normal food plants are the ' choice ' ^ 
of these insects and that other plants are food reserves. The Small 
Eggar Moth ^ has a variety of food plants, but I have reared it successfully 
upon laurel, birch, elm, and some other plants which are not included in 
its normal menu. Among the bark-beetles, the majority commonly 
breed in dying or fallen trees or in trees which, owing to fire or other 
cause, have been weakened. These beetles are, therefore, in the nature 
of scavengers, clearing away dying trees ; but at times when great damage 
has been done to the forest by wind, fire or snow, they increase greatly 
in numbers and then attack not only healthy trees of their normal food 

2 It will be understood that I am using the term ' choice ' in the same sense 
as a scientific man uses the term ' free will,' knowing that every action is an 
effect following a cause. 

* Eriogaster lanestris, L. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 6s 

species but other species as well. In the French vineyards a bug * 
attacks the vines, but the damage is done mostly after a clean up which 
entails the destruction of a weed,^ which is the preferred food. ' At 
Dartford in Kent, where henbane and belladonna are grown on a large 
scale for the sake of their alkaloid bases, it has been found that, whereas 
in some years as much as 80 per cent, of damage is done to the former 
crop by the maggot (of a fly) the latter remains unaff^ected, although in 
close proximity. . . . When henbane is absent, belladonna proves quite 
attractive.' This was Cameron's observation upon the Belladonna Leaf- 
miner.^ The Cotton Boll-worm, the caterpillar of a moth,'' a pest of 
various crops, including maize, cotton, tobacco, lucerne, etc., which is 
a very general feeder in many countries, shows a definite preference 
in some for maize over cotton, and one of the methods of control in the 
cotton-fields is to interpose rows of maize, upon which the moths lay 
their eggs in preference to ovipositing upon the cotton. 

In all the above examples, and they could be multiplied many times, 
it is evident that choice plays a part in determining the food of the insect, 
and I think it is possible to show that choice also plays its part in con- 
nection with the habitat occupied by the water-beetles. In the first 
place, the carnivorous water-beetles are not restricted to any type of 
habitat by the nature of the food, since both adults and larvae will consume 
any living organism they can catch and which can be penetrated by their 
mandibles, and the adults will also eat any dead material of a similar soft 
nature. I have kept in captivity many species in both these stages and 
have never had any difliculty in feeding them. In the second place they 
are not restricted by soil conditions or by the nature of the vegetation, 
since they can be kept in captivity under conditions very different from 
those in which they are normally found. Peat pool species live quite 
well in my cement-lined aquaria in hard water and even breed there. 
A brackish pond species * rarely found inland has bred in one of these 
aquaria for three years. I have kept for some years one of the small 
running-water species ^ in tumblers in which the water was never changed. 

All these examples, and many others could be given, indicate that 
neither soil nor plant environment have a direct effect upon the water- 
beetle communities, so that, if the struggle for existence is what segregates 
the species, the active factor must be the internecine strife of the animal 
population. There is undoubtedly a large amount of preying of one 
organism upon another, but unless some species of water-beetles are more 
palatable than others or unless the life-history of different species differs 
to such an extent that the larvae of one species are killed off at a time 

* Nysius senecionis, Schill. (Lygseidae). 
' Diplotaxis erucoides. 

* A. E. Cameron, ' A Contribution to a knowledge of the Belladonna Leaf- 
miner, Pegomyia hyoscyami, Panz., its Life-history and Biology," Ann. Appl. 
Biol., vol. i, 1914, pp. 43-76- 

' Helioihis obsoleta. 

* Hygrotus parallelogrammus. Ahr. 

* Bidessus minutissimus, Germ. 



66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

when another species is safe from attack, it is not reasonable to explain 
these more or less constant communities in that way. Moreover, unless 
we assume that the ' purity ' of a community is maintained by the 
immediate destruction of all emigrants, the struggle for existence cannot 
account for the fact that at no time of the year is there a general mix up 
of communities, even when the new generation, overcrowding its birth- 
place, is migrating elsewhere, indicating that the emigrants choose their 
new homes and do not go to the first water they may find. Ponds in areas 
liable to flooding may contain river species after the flood has subsided, 
but such species will be rare or absent after a period free from flood. 
Neighbouring ponds in an area where ponds are numerous, such as 
brick pits, often provide certain species in certain ponds, even for periods 
of two or more seasons, although the general fauna of all the ponds may 
be otherwise similar. In many places in Scotland the roads in the 
moorland districts are repaired by digging the boulder clay along the sides 
and using this material as ballast. These holes quickly fill with water 
and form typical silt ponds. In the course of time, sphagnum and other 
vegetation fills them and they become peat pools. In Lewis and Harris, 
in 19 14, I paid special attention to these ballast ponds. Of the 23 
examined, 15 were either free from any weed or contained water-grass 
(Glyceria) with, at most, traces of sphagnum ; that is, they were recently 
dug holes. In the 15 ponds 30 species occurred, out of the 52 taken 
by me in the island. Of these 30 species, 13 occurred proportionately ^° 
more often in these ponds than elsewhere, indicating that these species, 
or at least some of them, sought out these silt ponds in preference to the 
much more numerous bog pools. In one of my aquaria, about 12 ft. long 
and 2 ft. wide, there is a bank of stones and earth dividing it into two 
ponds. One of these is preferred by some of these species of water-beetles 
and they always migrate to it when placed in the other. The one they 
prefer is also preferred by the water-shrimp (Gammarus) which is always 
more abundant in it than in the other. 

All these examples show that choice plays a part in the composition 
of these communities, but, just as water-beetles are grouped into com- 
munities associated with types of habitat, so also can they be allocated 
to groups according to their distribution. In the British Islands these 
groups have been recognised, not only for the water-beetles but for the 
whole fauna and flora. H. C. Watson, ^^ in 1832, divided the country 
into provinces based upon the groupings of the plants, and in 1846, 
Edward Forbes ^^ showed that similar groupings could be made of the 
animals. Forbes was the first to off'er an explanation and he regarded 

1" The method of determining the proportional occurrence of these species is 
as follows : Hydroporus nigrita, Fab. occurred in 4 of these 15 ponds and in 
14 of the other 115 collections. Fifteen is about one-eighth of 130, so that, if 
the species were generally dispersed, it should have occurred in 28 of the other 
collections. Actually it only occurred in 18, so that, proportionately, it was 
more common in silt ponds than elsewhere. 

" Outlines of the Geographical Distribution of British Plants, Edinburgh, 1832, 
and The Geographical Distribution of British Plants, London, 1843. 

" ' The Geological Relations of the Fauna and Flora of the British Islands, 
etc.,' Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i, 1846. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 67 

the groups as indicating elements composing the fauna and flora which 
had arrived at difi^erent times. Further, by comparing the European 
distribution of the British species, he suggested the directions from which 
those different elements had arrived and the relative times of their 
arrival. He recognised three preglacial groups, the ' Lusitanian ' in the 
west of Ireland, which he believed came from the Spanish peninsula, the 
' Galilean,' in south-east Ireland and south-west England, from the 
Mediterranean region, the ' Kentish,' from the same source, but later, 
the ' Scandinavian,' which came with the Ice-age from Northern Europe 
and occupies north-west Scotland and northern and western Wales, and 
the ' Germanic ' element, the great post-glacial invasion occupying a 
large part of Ireland, southern and eastern Scotland and north, middle 
and east England. Forbes regarded each succeeding invasion as having 
driven the earlier inhabitants from the territories previously occupied by 
them, the whole theory being based upon the struggle for existence, 
species better adapted to the changed conditions pushing out the less 
well adapted. But, as in the case of the communities in their habitats, 
is this the whole story } Experiment shows that at least some species 
can be reared in districts far beyond their normal range. Two of the 
southern and south-eastern species lived in my tubs in north-east Ire- 
land and I had succeeding generations each year. One of Forbes' s 
Scandinavian species, with a British distribution limited to northern 
and western Scotland and north-west Ireland, lived and bred freely in 
my tubs in north-west Ireland and later in Cambridge. Someone will 
say ' Yes, but these beetles were protected in the tubs.' Protected from 
what ? I imagine that they were chiefly protected from moving else- 
where, from exercising choice. If the struggle for existence were the 
whole explanation of the grouping, how can we account for the fact that 
some species in our islands do not occur under similar conditions to those 
under which they are found on the Continent ? To take, for example, 
one of the north European species ^^ which should belong to Forbes's 
Scandinavian type ; until the last few years it has only been found in 
south-east England and East Anglia, except for a record for a single 
specimen taken in the Isle of Man in 1910,^* but in 1930 it was found in 
Durham, ^'^ and in 1933 in Forfarshire in a place which was thoroughly 
worked in 1908 and where the beetle certainly did not occur. 1^ Another 
Scandinavian species, common in many of the Scottish lochs, flourishes 
in a lake in Berkshire, and certain other ' northern ' species occur in the 
New Forest and in Devonshire, apparently perfectly adapted to the very 
different climatic and organic conditions. Thus it is not only internecine 
strife or lack of adaptability which has caused the changes in the fauna 
but also movements of the insects stimulated by choice, an attribute of 

'* Ilybius subceneus, Er. 

'^ F. Balfour-Browne, ' The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man, etc' 
Naturalist, 191 1. 

1* Joyce Omar Cooper, ' Some Notes on Dytiscidae collected in Northumberland 
and Durham in 1930,' The Vasculum, vol. xvii, 1931. 

** F. Balfour-Browne, ' The Aquatic Coleoptera of the County of Angus, etc' 
Scottish Naturalist, 1934. 



68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the lower as well as of the higher forms of animal life, a point in which 
animals differ from plants and a point which has usually been overlooked 
in discussing the relationship of animals to their environment. 

What I have called choice appears to play an even more important part 
than in mere localisation and distribution of species, and this is brought 
out in the observations that have been made upon biological races. Most 
of the work which has been done in this connection has been upon vege- 
tarian species, but such races are probably much more widely spread than 
has been recognised. Where a vegetarian species has several food plants, 
it has been found possible, in some cases, to induce a preference for one 
of these by keeping a number of generations on that plant so that, ulti- 
mately, a race is formed which restricts itself to that food plant. Although 
in most cases known in nature, no morphological changes have occurred, 
in a few cases changes of habit have appeared and, in a very few, certain 
other changes have been recorded. Thus, the ' Railroad fly,' ^^ an apple 
pest of North America, has a larger race on apple and a smaller one on 
blueberry. Cameron ^ noted a colour variety of the Belladonna Leaf- 
mining fly, known as ' var. betze,' definitely associated with the race 
found on chenopodiaceous plants and absent from the solanaceous race. 
Again, Nuttall.^^ who showed that the head and body lice of man are 
biological races of one species, stated that, although identical in all 
essential points of structure, they differ in habit, in feeding habit, in size 
and in the thickness and length of antennse and length of legs, and he 
explained these differences as due to darkness (inducing longer and finer 
antennae and longer legs in the body form), feeding habit (inducing a 
larger size in the body form, which takes large meals at intervals, the 
head form feeding frequently). Thus he associated the changes with 
physiological influences and, as the two races are on the same host, their 
origin must have been connected with choice on the part of individuals. 

Physiological effects are far-reaching and, although we have as yet no 
good evidence from these biological races that new species have arisen 
in this way, we have abundant evidence of the effects of function upon 
structure. Both Darwin and Wallace stressed the importance of use- 
inheritance, that is, the inheritance of functionally-produced modifica- 
tions, so that it seems possible that physiological change, induced by 
surrounding conditions, may have had far-reaching effects. 

A study of any group shows that species differ in their relationships to 
one another ; some form clusters and are difficult to distinguish, while 
others stand apart. So far as the water-beetles are concerned, the 
clustered species are not usually members of the same community or 
sometimes even of the same district. Although there is no evidence 
that they are recently separated species, the fact that they occupy different 
habitats, and that the differences are small, at least suggests that they 
may have originated from biological races. In this country we have many 
examples of these clusters. The two species Agabus affinis and unguicularis 

1' Rhagoletis pomonella, Walsh. 

1' ' The Systematic Position and Iconography of Pediculus humanus and 
Phthirus,' Parasitology, 191 9. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 69 

are frequently mixed in collections because of their general likeness. They 
differ slightly in general outline and unguicularis is very slightly more 
brassy in colour than affinis, but otherwise only the male secondary 
sexual characters will separate the species. The males differ in the shape 
of the tooth on the inner front claw, in the shape of the aedeagus and in 
the form of the stridulatory file on the under side of the abdomen. Affinis 
is a peat bog species, although in areas where it does not occur, it may 
be replaced by unguicularis, the two not usually occurring together. 
Agabus nebulosus and conspersus are also found mixed in collections, as 
they closely resemble one another in general appearance. The former 
inhabits freshwater ponds and the latter brackish pools, but either can 
live in fresh or brackish water. Nebulosus is usually identified by inex- 
perienced amateurs by two black spots on the pronotum, but in brackish 
water these spots are absent. The secondary sexual characters are again 
the best means of distinguishing the species. In both Grand Canary 
and Madeira, nebulosus occurs and, even under microscope examination, 
it is impossible to find any difference between these ' Atlantic ' specimens 
and those from Europe and North Africa. In the Azores, however, is 
A. godmanni, which is barely distinguishable from conspersus. Agabus 
hipustulatus is a species widely spread over Europe and North Africa and 
is one of the commonest British water-beetles. In the mountains of 
Scotland and on the Continent there is a narrow form of it which was given 
specific rank under the name solieri, but which differs in no way except 
shape and size from the type. In Madeira is an Agabus which in general 
appearance is a large bipustulatus and was so named by Wollaston. 
Sharp, however, recognised small distinctions which definitely give it 
specific rank, zvollastoni, but it is difficult to believe that it has not originated 
from bipustulatus. Agabus guttatus and biguttatus form another pair of 
closely related species, scarcely distinguishable except by the fact that 
the male biguttatus has a toothed claw on the front feet while guttatus 
has not. Both occur in Britain but guttatus extends over Scotland, while 
biguttatus only reaches northern England. In Europe, guttatus is more 
northern and biguttatus more southern and extends to the Canaries where 
it is rather larger than elsewhere. In Madeira there is a small species, 
maderensis, which appears to be a modified biguttatus, the tooth on the 
male claw showing various stages of disappearance. In Majorca biguttatus 
is represented by a form which has been given specific rank under the 
name binotatus, but the relationship with biguttatus is exceedingly close. 
Ilybius fuliginosus, a common European species, is overlapped in the south 
and in the Mediterranean islands by meridionalis , but here again the 
differences seem to be too slight to justify specific separation. 

In all these examples, and there are others in the Dytiscidae and more 
in the Hydrophilidas, there seems to be no interbreeding between the 
related forms, although in many of them opportunities for crossing must 
occur ; but no intermediates have been recognised. There are, however, 
some of these species clusters which, if they could be satisfactorily 
explained, might prove to be intermediates between biological races and 
species. These are cases of which I have elsewhere called * composite 



70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

species,' ^^ a term which does not commit one to an interpretation of the 
phenomenon. I have been studying one of these complexes for some 
years and it consists of a series, at one end of which is what Fabricius 
named (Deronectes) depressus, while at the other end is what Panzer named 
(Deronectes) elegans. Both extremes undoubtedly have as distinct specific 
characters as any of the previously mentioned pairs. The general shape 
diflfers ; although the type of marking and colouring is the same in both, 
elegans is distinctly brighter than depressus. The anterior claws of the 
male depressus are large, somewhat straight and sharply hooked towards 
the apex, while in elegans male they are more delicate and more evenly 
curved from base to apex. Further, the aedeagus is broad with a bluntly 
rounded apex in depressus and narrow and tapering to a point in elegans. 
But between the two extremes of each of these characters there are 
intermediate stages and one can form a complete series from one end to 
the other. A distribution map, based upon the width of the asdeagus, 
making six intermediate stages, shows that depressus is more northern and 
western and elegans more southern and eastern, and depressus is definitely 
more a peat form than elegans. The question arises : Is this a variable 
species controlled by climatic or edaphic conditions ? Is it two biological 
races in process of formation or are these two species which interbreed ? 
At the present time I am trying to solve this problem in the only way I 
can think of, by keeping depressus in my aquaria in Somerset under 
conditions in which previously elegans has lived and bred, and I am 
wondering whether, in the course of several generations, I shall find that 
they have become elegans. 

Now it must be admitted that, although my studies of these water- 
beetles have led me towards the view that new species may arise by the 
means I have suggested, proof is still lacking and the view that acquired 
characters are inherited is still a pious hope rather than a proved fact. 
But in connection with the gap in the evidence on this subject, in the 
case of the water-beetle clusters referred to, it must be pointed out that 
we have no evidence that the species-characters distinguishing the pairs 
are really heritable and not merely the effect of the environment upon 
each succeeding generation. There is evidence from other groups of 
animals that acquired characters may not disappear directly after the 
stimulus which caused them has been removed. Therefore, it may well 
be that, in these water-beetles it would take a number of generations 
before any change would appear in the characters by which they are 
recognised. But, besides the possibility of these species having arisen 
in this way, there is another, based upon the work on Drosophila and 
Oenothera, where it has been shown that new characters may arise from 
changes in the chromosomes of the germ-cells, so that we can still ask 
the question, did the ancestors of water-beetles go into the water by 
choice and then develop adaptive characters, or did changes in form and 
structure create the choice by reason of which these beetles took to an 
aquatic life ? 

1' ' The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Scilly Islands, with some remarks upon the 
Genus Philhydrus and upon " Composite Species," ' E.M.M., vol. 68, 1932. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 71 

Someone is certain to challenge my statement that these species- 
characters are, for the most part, non-vital but, as a fact, comparatively 
few of the characters upon which we rely for classifying the water-beetles 
can be recognised as vital for the survival of their possessors. In the 
general characters there is a uniformity everywhere among water-beetles 
because the obvious features are, first those common to all Coleoptera, 
secondly those which belong to their land-relations, and thirdly those 
which place the species in one or other of these two groups, Hydradephaga 
or Hydrophilidae. These latter characters are such that we recognise 
them as eminently suited to the habits of their owners and we call them 
' adaptive.' The form of the adult is more or less streamlined, and in 
almost all the Hydradephaga the body is smooth and free from projecting 
hairs. The Hydrophilidae are also smooth except for a felting of hairs 
on parts of the underside. The hind legs of both groups are adapted 
for swimming and, in both groups, an air-reservoir exists which enables 
the beetles to remain under water for long periods. The larvae also show 
certain adaptive characters. 

If we now analyse these characters we find that, although in some 
cases it appears that there have been special modifications of structure 
to enable the insect to live in the water, in other cases a change of function 
explains the adaptation. The modification of the hind legs into oars may 
be regarded as a modification of structure, since it is almost inconceivable 
that such legs could be of much use out of water. Moreover, the Hydra- 
dephaga include four families which, according to current opinion, have 
not had a common origin and yet all four have developed swimming legs 
in varying degrees, three of them on much the same lines. The enlarge- 
ment of the basal segment or coxa of the hind leg is to be found in various 
land insects, but the special form of the postcoxae and their fusion to the 
body has developed independently in three of these families. In one, 
the Pelobiidas, which Sharp regarded as having only recently taken to 
the water, the changes in this structure have not advanced far, but, in 
the other two, the coxae are greatly enlarged at the expense of the ventral 
body plate, the metasternum, and in almost all the Dytiscidae the two 
parts form a perfectly smooth surface and present the minimum resistance 
in the water. 

The Hydrophilidae possess clubbed antennae which are of use in 
connection with respiration. These beetles carry their reserve of air not 
only under the wing-cases, like the Hydradephaga, but also on the felting 
of hairs on the under side of the body and, when renewal of air is necessary, 
the beetle comes to the surface and breaks the surface film by pushing 
up one of the antennae. This brings the ventral air-film into communica- 
tion with the atmospheric air and a renewal of the air-supply takes place, 
not only in the two communicating reservoirs but also in the main air 
tubes or trachea which open into these reservoirs. Now the clubbed 
antenna is a structure which occurs in a number of families of beetles, at 
one time all regarded as having had a common origin and classed together 
as the ' Clavicornia,' but now recognised as belonging to dift'erent groups, 
indicating that the clubbed antenna has appeared more than once in the 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Coleoptera. Whether or not it has a special function in other families, 
we can only say that it may have arisen in the Hydrophilidae in response 
to physiological activities. 

If we now concentrate our attention upon the Dytiscidas and examine 
the characters upon which the subdivisions are based, we find that the 
majority of those upon which the tribes, genera and species are separated, 
show different stages of development and, since each stage is obviously 
a survival stage, the progress in evolution can scarcely have been due to 
natural selection or the elimination of the unfit. The Dytiscidas include 
about 1,700 species grouped in about 80 genera and the modern classi- 
fication is based upon that published by Sharp ^° in 1882 in his classical 
volume on the family. First there are two series known as the Fragmentati 
and the Complicati, distinguished by the fact that in the former the 
metathoracic episternum is cut off from the mid-coxal cavity by the 
mesothoracic epimeron, whereas in the Complicati the latter sclerite or 
plate does not intervene. The Fragmentati are divided into two on the 
shape of the post-coxae which are more like those of the land relations in 
the Noterinee and more like those of the Complicati in the Laccophilince, 
we find that the latter are, so to speak, approaching the boundary line 
between the Fragmentati and the Complicati. 

In the Complicati there are three tribes : Hydroporince, Colymhetince, 
and Dytiscince, the first being separated from the others because the 
prosternal process, which projects backwards between the bases of the 
front legs and is a definite feature of the whole family, is bent and does 
not lie in the same plane as the rest of the prosternum, whereas in the 
other two this structure is flat. The Colytnbetina are separated from the 
Dytiscince because the eye is notched in the former and sm.oothly rounded 
in the latter. 

These are characters upon which the main divisions of the Dytiscidas 
are based and our classification is founded upon what we believe to be 
relationships. The ancestral Dytiscid gave rise two to iorms, fragmetitatus 
and complicatus ; the former again divided and produced the Noterine 
and Laccophiline ancestors, while complicatus first gave off the Hydroporine 
and then split to form the Colymbetine and the Dytiscine. But examina- 
tion shows that, very frequently, the tendency to vary in the same direction 
exists on both sides of a division. As already mentioned, the Laccophilince 
tend to become Complicati and, in the Hydroporince, there are variations 
in the bend of the prosternal process, some having the structure almost 
as flat as it is in the Colymhetince and Dytiscince. 

Within the Hydroporince, the largest group of the family, with about 
34 genera and 870 species, another interesting tendency is recognisable. 
In all other Dytiscids we find that the ventral plates of the middle and 
posterior thoracic segments (meso- and meta-sterna) are connected in the 
mid-ventral line. In most of the Hydroporince, however, this is not the 
case, these parts being separated. In the genus Hydroporus, usually 

'" ' The Aquatic Carnivorous Coleoptera or Dytischidae,' Trans. Roy. Dublin 
Soc, vol. ii, series 2, 1882. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 73 

regarded as the highest genus in the group, connection is complete, 
whereas in Deronectes, separated from it only on this distinction, the 
distance between the parts differs in different species and suggests that 
the genus is developing along the same lines as Hydroporus and will 
ultimately join up with it. In the genus Hygrotus, also, one species 
(decoratus) has reached the stage seen in Hydroporus although, as Sharp 
points out, ' the contact is of the most minute and imperfect character.' 

In the land relations of the Dytiscids and in the majority of the members 
of this family, the anterior foot is composed of five easily recognisable 
segments. In the Hydroporince, however, only one section of about 
twenty species (Methlini) possess five normal segments, all others having 
the fourth either reduced in size or absent, and although this tendency 
to reduction has not appeared elsewhere in the family, it occurs in other 
families of the beetles. 

The Colymbetince are separated from the Dytiscince by the shape of the 
eye, a small projection of the fronto-epicranial plate having grown out 
upon one side and so indented the outline. This character is common 
to the Hydroporince and Colymbetince, but in the Dytiscince the projection 
passes outside the eye, which is smoothly rounded. We thus see that, 
although the Hydroporince and Colymbetince agree as to eye condition, the 
Dytiscince having, as it were, advanced farther, in the prosternal character 
the Colymbetince are in advance of the Hydroporince. 

An examination of the upper side of the abdomen of the Dytiscid 
shows eight pairs of abdominal spiracles, of which the first pair are 
elongated transversely. The second pair are often somewhat enlarged 
but the next five pairs are more or less alike in size, the last or eighth pair 
being usually somewhat smaller, and all, except the first, are circular. 
In the Dytiscini, a small group including Dytiscus and one other genus, 
about thirty-two species in all, the last two pairs are greatly enlarged 
transversely and thus this small group differs from all other Dytiscids. 
But a careful examination of other Dytiscince shows a tendency to trans- 
verseness in the hind pairs of spiracles, suggesting that the change is 
going to spread through the whole tribe. The spiracles are, of course, 
the respiratory openings by which air is taken in and expelled from the 
body, so a change in relative size of spiracles probably indicates a change 
in air intake and expulsion. 

The wing-cases of the Dytiscidas are so constructed as to cover the 
upper surface of the abdomen and they are perfectly fitted over the hard 
edges of the abdominal segments. Beneath them is the large air-reservoir 
which, of course, exists in the land beetles but assumes a special function 
in the sub-aquatic beetles. In the Hydroporince these wing-cases are 
usually punctate, as is the rest of the upper surface, whereas in the 
Colymbetince and the Dytiscince punctate elytra are much less common, 
ornamentation usually taking the form of reticulations or modifications of 
these. The punctures are small pits, often with a short projecting hair. 
They may be thickly or sparsely scattered over the wing-cases, and they 
are either all of one size or there may be two sizes, producing what is 
called ' double punctuation.' This latter type occurs in a number of 

D 2 



74 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Hydroporine genera, but it is remarkable that in the higher genera it only 
appears in sections, suggesting that it is a characteristic of the lower 
forms and is disappearing in the higher ones. Further, in a number of 
the Hydroporines, even in those with double punctuation, there are 
frequently other markings, and these are often similar to those found in 
the higher Dytiscids, suggesting that, if the higher forms have lost their 
punctuation and developed reticulation, so the lower ones are, so to speak, 
preparing to follow along the same line. 

Among the secondary sexual characters displayed by the Dytiscidas is 
a widening in the males of the anterior and sometimes also of the middle 
pair of feet, and this occurs in varying degrees throughout the family. 
The sexual importance of these structures is in connection with coitus 
when the front feet rest upon the pronotum of the female while the middle 
feet lie along her wing-cases towards the apex. 

The under side of each of the three basal segments of the foot is covered 
with a brush of hairs of two kinds, simple hairs tapering to a point and 
sucker-hairs, open at the apex and capable of being applied to a smooth 
surface and of adhering to it. These sucker-hairs occur in every species 
of Dytiscid I have examined, from the Noterines upwards, but they 
show considerable variety, from what appears to be a mere widening tube 
with an open end to a pedicel carrying a very highly-developed sucker- 
disc ; but the sucker-hairs are, apparently, definite in number and 
position in each genus and, certainly in the higher forms, in each species. 
Here we have a structure which performs a definite function and which 
Chataney ^^ has shown has evolved from a simple hair, and whose stages 
of growing complexity can be traced through the Dytiscidag from the 
lowest, in which they are simple wide tubes and few in number, to the 
highest, in which elaborate and often very numerous suckers are to be 
found. Moreover, not only can this gradually improving structure be 
traced as described, but in the Colymbetina, with about twenty-seven 
genera and 560 species, each stage can again be recognised, suggesting 
that the evolution of sucker-hairs, which appeared in the Hydroporince, 
appeared again independently in the Colymbetince. With regard to the 
Dytiscinae, there seem to be no early or intermediate stages, all the forms 
possessing highly complex structures but, within the group, a further 
variation has taken place. All the Hydroporines and Colymbetince have 
the apex of the sucker elongate and parallel-sided, not rounded, but in 
only one group of the Dytiscinee, the Cybistrini, containing about one 
hundred species, does this type occur, all the other sections, with about 
two hundred species, having circular suckers. Chataney, who has studied 
these suckers, has shown that in the Cybistrini every species can be 
identified by the arrangement of the suckers and, if this is not strictly 
true for other groups, there is very little overlapping from one species 
to another. 

In all this wonderful evolution no change whatever has taken place in 
the female pronotum and wing-cases which, apparently, have been equally 

^1 ' Sur le Tarse des Dytiscides,' Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. Ixxix, 1910. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 75 

suitable for the simple feet of the lower forms and for the elaborate 
suckers of the higher ones, but there is one point which may be urged as 
showing the necessity for the evolution of a more prehensile foot and that 
is the increased size of individuals in the higher groups. A size census 
of the Dytiscids shows that the Hydroporince include the smallest species, 
the Colymbetince, those of intermediate size and Dyttscinee the largest, 
each group overlapping its neighbour. Therefore those who regard this 
evolution as the result of natural selection will suggest that the inefficient 
individuals have been constantly weeded out and that the more efficient 
have bred more efficient, and so on. When we remember that both in 
Colymbetince and Dytiscince species with a more simple and a more 
complex arrangement of suckers are to be found side by side, each stage 
of complexity being entirely efficient for its purpose, we may be justified 
in wondering where any elimination of the unfit takes place. 

Another character of the male feet, to which it seems impossible to 
attach any vital importance, is the form of the claws at the apex, which 
are usually two in number. The claws of the front feet may be alike, 
fine, gently curved and tapering to a point, or they may be sharply curved 
at the base or they may differ from one another. The males of neighbour- 
ing species may be distinguishable by them, as we have seen, and the 
differences in these claws seem to be unrelated to other characters. In 
the Hydroporince, the inner or anterior claw of certain species has an 
extension on the inner face, which might be described as a tooth, but 
only odd species possess it and not all the species in a genus or section 
of a genus. In Hydroporus, for instance, seven out of the thirty-six British 
species show this ' tooth,' but they are distributed in four sections of the 
genus. In Agabtis again, the distribution of species with a toothed claw 
follows no recognised relationship. Sharp made twenty-three sections in 
this genus and of these, so far as I can find, only six or seven contain 
tooth-clawed species ; in some sections all the species having a tooth, in 
others only odd species. 

In practically all female Dytiscids the anterior and middle feet claws 
retain the normal curve and tapering form and suggest usefulness, but 
it is difficult to ascribe any utility to the modified claws of many males. 
The toothed claws are definitely prevented from performing any function 
of gripping, while in other cases the shape or size also makes impossible 
any such function, and yet in some genera the form of these male claws 
can be used for systematic purposes. 

The claws of the hind feet, on the other hand, show a definite line of 
evolution, as did the tarsal suckers of the male forefeet. In the Noterince 
the hind legs end in a pair of delicate, gently-curved and pointed claws, 
but in the Laccophilince reduction has taken place and although a number 
of authors have described two claws, in Laccophilus at least, only one 
exists. In the Complicati the arrangement seems to be constant for most 
of the genera, but each seems to have had its own idea as to these claws. 
The genera can be grouped as they have two equal or two unequal claws, 
but although those genera usually recognised as lower in the scale all 
come into the ' equal ' group and most of the higher genera into the 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

other, Dytiscus, one of the highest, has two equal or subequal claws. 
Only in Cybister has one claw disappeared, and in the related genus, 
Megadytiis, the male has two equal claws, although the outer is greatly 
reduced in thickness, while in the female the outer is not only reduced 
in solidity but also in length. All through Agabus, one of the lower 
genera, the claws are similar in both male and female, but in Ilybtus, 
with unequal claws, the male outer one is more or less triangular and 
blunted, while in the female it still retains the normal cur\'ed and pointed 
appearance. Thus while in Ilybtus the male seems to be in advance of 
the female, in Megadytes the female is nearer to the one-claw stage. 

The foregut of the Dytiscid ends posteriorly in a structure known as 
the proventriculus, which is usually very muscular and armed with spines 
and hairs on its inner wall. Its functions are to crush solid particles of 
food and to filter fluids passing forward from the mid-gut. It is tubular 
and consists of eight lobes, four of which, the primary lobes, alternating 
with the others, project farther into the lumen and overlap the secondaries. 
On making a comparative examination of this structure about a year ago, 
I was struck by the fact that the four most conspicuous lobes in a number 
of species were oval in shape, while in others they were triangular, and 
an examination of more than a hundred species showed that, except in 
one genus, the same type of proventriculus was constant throughout 
every genus. Further, it showed that, whereas all the Hydroporina came 
into the ' round ' group with the Noterince, the Laccophilince were in the 
' triangular ' group with the Dytiscinte, the Colymbetince being in both 
groups, the single genus Copelatus having one subgenus in one and the other 
subgenus in the other. This proventricular character, therefore, seemed 
to be inexplicable on any theory, until I discovered that the round lobes 
so prominent in the one group are the secondary lobes, not the primaries, 
as I had described them,^^ so that the change which has taken place has 
not been from round to triangular but has been a development of the 
secondaries so as to squeeze out the primaries which have been greatly 
reduced. Moreover, whereas the prominent primaries were very 
obviously crushers, the improved secondaries are much less crushers and 
more efficient filters, and this fits in with the thesis I have already put 
forward with regard to various external characters that definite evolu- 
tionary lines run through the family, always from a more simple to a more 
complex stage. But here again it is difficult to recognise any part played 
by a struggle for existence or elimination of less efficient types, seeing 
that a whole series of these exists. 

One other character to which considerable importance is attached by 
systematists is the male and, to a less extent, the female sexual armature, 
the apical part of the male armature consists of a median asdeagus and 
a pair of lateral lobes or parameres, the organ of intromission being the 
asdeagus. These three parts are frequently of extreme importance in 
separating species, but they also retain a constancy of type in each genus. 

** ' The Proventriculus in the Dytiscidae as a Taxonomic Character,' Stylops, 
vol. iii, 1934. 



D.— ZOOLOGY 77 

The parameres are unequal in size in the Fragmentati, but otherwise they 
are alike throughout the family. In most genera the parameres are free 
from one another except at the base, whereas in some they are united 
along one side, the one to the other. But the shape and chastotaxy of the 
parameres varies in different genera and different species, as does also 
the form and size of the aedeagus. It is most probable that the variations 
that occur would in no way affect coitus between many species in any one 
genus and, similarly, in many cases coitus between species of different 
genera would be possible, so that, although the idea underlying the 
systematic value of the armature is the mechanical isolation of the species, 
it seems as if the modifications are mostly evolutionary and of no vital 
importance. 

The function of the parameres is presumably as claspers during coitus 
and, if so, appearance suggests that there is a varying degree of efficiency ; 
but in this connection it is interesting to notice that in three genera — 
I have so far discovered no more — -what appear to be sucker-hairs have 
appeared on these structures. These are of a simple form and may not 
be very efficient, but they suggest a developing line of evolution. In the 
genus Ilybiiis, all the seven British species possess these hairs, which are 
rather more rudimentary in one or two species — e.g., I. ater and obscurus. 
In Rhantiis, out of thirteen species examined, only three possess them and 
in one, adspersus, they are so concealed among the simple hairs of the 
apical brush that it is impossible to imagine that they can function at all. 
Out of twenty-two species of Agahus examined, only one, chalconatus, 
possesses the suckers, which, in this case, form a very efficient-looking 
tuft near the apex. 

I have selected some of the main characters upon which the classification 
of the Dytiscidse is based and I have endeavoured to show that, in at 
least many of them, a progressive development can be recognised. These 
characters are not vital to their possessors, since various stages in their 
development exist side by side, so that natural selection can have had 
nothing to do with their progress. Such lines of increasing complexity 
are recognisable throughout the world of living things. In plants, for 
instance, the gradual reduction of the gametophyte and the evolution of 
the sporophyte is a progression through many families. The tendency to 
cluster flowers into heads, brought to perfection in the Compositce, runs 
through a number of families, as does also the opposite tendency to isola- 
tion and specialisation of the individual flower. In animals, increase in 
size, repetition of form, development of horns and innumerable other 
tendencies, all appear to be of the same order as the progressive lines in 
the Dytiscidae. 

The discoveries in connection with chromosome control of characters 
suggest that the orthogenetic tendencies may be the outcome of mutations, 
under control of mathematical laws and caused by external stimuli, 
although some authors look upon directional evolution as an inherent 
property of the organism like growth and reproduction. On the other 
hand, it seems possible that if function can cause variation in structure, 
these evolutionary lines may be responses to physiological activities, 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

assuming that acquired characters are inherited. The inheritance of 
acquired characters must also depend upon the ultimate effect upon the 
germ-cell-chromosomes of changes in habit, physiological activity and in 
structure in individuals, so that the only centre vs^hich can be responsible 
for the origin of new species is the one which is responsible for maintaining 
orthodoxy and the chief struggle for existence seems to be in the chromo- 
somes, which are perpetually endeavouring to maintain their normal 
constitution and relationship against agencies endeavouring to change 
them. 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE POLAR 
REGIONS 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. F. DEBENHAM, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



We are accustomed to the saying that the world is becoming smaller every 
year, yet it is still the privilege of very few to visit personally all the 
major regions of the world. We do say, and say wisely, that it is the 
duty of geographers, if possible, to visit the lands of which they read and 
write ; but we know all the time that this is a counsel of perfection so 
rarely attained that it may almost be left out of practical consideration. 
We are, in fact, in the mass, still immobile on this world of ours, and we 
still have to take our impressions of regions other than our own from picture 
and narrative. Nevertheless, with so many travellers apt at descriptive 
writing, with such a world-wide Press, and, perhaps even more vitally, 
with so much broadcasting, we can, if we care to try, summon a very 
clear picture of the main natural regions of the world. It is not, for in- 
stance, difficult for the normal reader to imagine the green hell of the 
Amazonian forest, the parched solitudes of the great desert belts, or the 
towering magnificence of the Himalaya. 

Each of us, according to the extent of our reading and the vigour 
of our imagination, carries a picture in our minds of these major regions, 
and no doubt all of you have a fairly vivid picture of the polar regions in 
your minds. What is not so easy to come by, however, is an appreciation 
of that picture in terms of its value to mankind. I propose, therefore, to 
guide your facility for correlation by briefly sketching, not the polar regions 
themselves, of which you already have an idea, but the influence those 
regions may have, and perhaps should have, on both the material and the 
ethical progress of mankind. 

There is now a vast literature of the polar regions, both north and 
south, but the proportion of those books and papers which deal with the 
subject on a broad basis is very small, and is certainly not easily accessible. 
In many of these books we are invited to conjure up the sensations of the 
polar explorer, to feel his frost-bites, to savour his pemmican, to glory in 
his pack-ice and his glaciers, even to die his death. Not the least part 
of our interest in polar work is due to these invitations so graphically 
offered to us in text and illustration. 

Much more rare is it to find a polar explorer viewing his territory as 
a whole, and trying to fit it into the scheme of the world in general. In 



8o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a word, we are rather encouraged to regard the polar regions as places 
apart, extraneous to the real comity of the world. 

It is perhaps a natural but nevertheless a lamentable fact that imme- 
diately one speaks of values the listener interprets it in pounds, shillings 
and pence, and indeed many will never get farther than that, and can hardly 
conceive of a value that cannot be stated in the terms of the economist. 
We will therefore first consider the kind of value of the polar regions 
which appeals most quickly to the public. 

There is little need to sketch the history of man's attempts to achieve 
economic gain from the polar regions. From the days when Martin 
Frobisher attempted to find a quick route westwards to the Spice Islands 
via the North-West, and Barents a similar route eastward, down to more 
recent times when, though the routes had lost value, the products of 
hunting, fishing and mining attracted venturers with similar motives, 
the chief aim of promoters of polar expeditions has been one of ultimate 
gain. It is true that many of the leaders of the expeditions had little care 
for the commercial side, but the money that sent them forth was, in the 
greater number of cases, put out in the time-honoured hope of all ages 
that it would bring in interest in some form or another. 

There is certainly such a thing as the romance of commerce in the 
North, for most of its industries have something peculiar and unusual 
about them. We may instance the cryolite mines of Ivigtut in Greenland, — 
a strange mineral found in quantity nowhere else in the world, which 
however is almost essential to the large-scale production of aluminium. 
Again, until recently a large proportion of the ivory for use in northern 
China did not come from the present-day elephants of the rain forest 
belt of Asia, but from the mammoths of primeval times whose tusks lay 
for many thousands of years buried in the mud of the great Siberian 
rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. 

Romantic or not, the story of Arctic trade has a grim and melancholy 
side, in that several of its most promising ventures have died a slow and 
painful death by reason of the cupidity of man and his unwillingness to 
co-operate either to preserve life or even to preserv^e it sufficiently for 
his own benefit. The history of the whaling industry in the Arctic is 
an instance of this incapacity of man to co-operate in taking the most 
common-sense measures to cherish a valuable industry. There is every 
reason to hope that the day of non-co-operation has passed and that a 
similar fate to whaling in the Antarctic will not take place, for it is prob- 
ably common knowledge that many bodies, in which we may include the 
League of Nations, the Norwegian whalers themselves and the Discovery 
Committee of the British Government, are at work in their various 
spheres to prevent any extermination of the southern whales, and at 
the same time to regularise an industry which, even in these days of 
synthetic materials, still has its vital uses to man. How large that in- 
dustry now is may be gathered from the fact that the annual catch of whales 
in the southern seas is about 20,000 : how mindful it now is of its own future 
may be seen from the fact that whereas the average whale used to provide 
only 60 or 70 barrels of oil it is now made to yield nearly 120 barrels of 
oil besides other products. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 8i 

The fur trade in the Arctic has never suffered quite such staggering 
blows as the whaUng industry, yet it is not so very many years since nothing 
less than international complications were a strong enough threat to 
ensure that the fur-bearing seals should not be exterminated as a species. 
That is precisely what did happen in the Antarctic in the early years of 
last century, when in less than a decade all but a few hundred of this kind 
of seal were slaughtered. 

These products of hunting, fishing and mining were the natural re- 
sources of the North and were the first to be exploited, but quite recently 
a new factor in the commercial aspect of the North has come to the 
forefront. With the progress of long-distance aviation and the simple 
application of the principle of great-circle navigation, the idea of using these 
northern latitudes for passenger and even freight routes in the air 
has become not only prominent but almost insistent. 

Owing to the misleading projections on which most of our maps are 
constructed it is not usually recognised that the most direct route between, 
say, Berlin and Montreal or Glasgow and Winnipeg is over Greenland, 
but it is so. It seems to be only a matter of time and the inevitable im- 
provement of aeroplanes before some use is made of a route which was 
first investigated as to conditions by the Watkins Expedition of 1930. 

All these economic aspects of the polar regions necessarily have a 
political bearing. Though it was not until the present century that the 
great Powers began to take a close interest in the idea of possessing polar 
territories, there has been in recent years a degree of keenness in this 
respect which is not dissimilar to that which prompted the partition of 
Africa in the latter part of last century. In the eyes of the historian of 
the future it is probable that the more or less forcible partition of Africa 
will be regarded with condemnation, since in that case there were peoples 
whose rights had to be ignored, and a degree of envy and jealousy 
between participating nations which was far from being creditable. In 
the polar regions the case is different, in that those lands which had a 
native population were taken under protection at an early date by 
Russia, the United States, Canada, and Denmark. Though there has 
been, since the great war, a rush for the remaining unclaimed land areas 
of the north this was, however, carried out with a reasonable lack of 
animosity between the nations concerned. In the north there are now 
no tracts of land which are not either settled in part or specifically claimed 
by one of the Powers. The recent adjudication of rights over East 
Greenland by the International Court at The Hague in favour of Denmark 
has settled what might have been a standing cause for bickering. 

In the Antarctic regions, which are far less known than the Arctic, the 
political aspect has come forward of recent years almost entirely on account 
of the whaling industry which, though now largely carried out at sea, 
had at first to depend upon land stations for its full operation. It 
cannot be said, even by the British nation, which claims the greater part 
of the Antarctic continent, that the matter is settled in a satisfactory way 
as yet. It seems that none of the usual precedents of international law 
can be made to apply to the land mass of Antarctica, for not only is 
occupation, in the proper sense of the word, more or less impossible, but 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

not even the most sanguine company-promoter could say that the land, 
as such, has a value. The vi^ealth of the Antarctic to man lies in the seas 
around it, which are free to all, and such claims as there have been for 
land sectors have been based variously on the protection of whales, the 
pursuit of whaling, the juxtaposition of civilised land and possibly, but 
not certainly, the assertion of land claims merely as a gesture. Naturally 
these claims are apt to be inconsistent. 

It is difficult, if not dangerous, for the layman to step in where only the 
diplomat is accustomed to tread, but one is forced to wonder whether the 
various Foreign Offices concerned in claims to territory in the Antarctic 
have been fully and wisely informed as to what is the real value of some 
of the zones or sectors which have been the subject of negotiation in recent 
years. A claim to land which is almost entirely covered by ice, which 
has no harbours and can rarely even be approached by a ship is surely 
a shadowy if not a useless one, and invites the suspicion that an aggressive 
and capricious spirit lies behind the claim. 

None of the nations concerned is quite free from blame in this respect, 
and no special nation is referred to in particular. 

It is probably too late for any alternative arrangement to be adopted, 
but had there been a League of Nations in existence at the beginning of 
this century, before any claims had been laid in the Antarctic, the pro- 
tection and administration of this last and least useful continent would 
have been a most appropriate subject for League administration as an 
' international park ' of vast proportions which should be open to all 
nations who would respect its amenities. 

Political might-have-beens, however, are no more useful than social 
ones, and claims to territory, which can do little beyond giving a large 
splash of colour on the map, are bound to continue. 

One point, however, must be made clear as a matter of common justice 
to possible claimants, and that is that territory claimed should at least be 
investigated, and we can well imagine that it is for the purpose of carrying 
out this obvious duty that the British Government has felt kindly towards 
recent Antarctic exploration by its nationals. 

Summing up this economic aspect of the polar regions, the warning 
may be given that even now, as in the past, there is a tendency to ascribe 
potential wealth merely on account of the existence of land masses. In- 
deed, even explorers, who should have known better, have been heard 
to speak glibly of the untapped mineral resources of the polar lands, 
neglecting to tell their public that though these resources undoubtedly 
exist, they are for the most part covered by thick ice sheets or rendered 
inaccessible by topography, or climate, or both. Quite a brief calculation, 
for instance, would show that the proportion of the Antarctic continent 
available to the prospector and miner is to the total land mass in somewhat 
the same proportion as the area of the city of Norwich is to the whole of 
England. 

Although the land can have little value in the Antarctic there is, strangely 
enough, a natural resource in the air which, however fantastic it may appear 
to us, may yet have a substantial interest for our descendants. It is a 
truism of science that we draw practically all our sources of power from the 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 83 

sun, either indirectly in the form of coal and oil, or directly in the form of 
water power, in which the sun by evaporation has raised water to a height 
from which gravity, suitably used, returns power to us. Now, although 
water is one of the things of which there is a great scarcity in the polar 
regions, and the movement of ice masses can hardly be handled by 
engineers, yet meteorological processes are doing the same thing for air, 
raising masses of air in one area which sink down in another, and so pro- 
vide a source of power less tangible but just as real as that of water in 
a highland lake. The persistence, the strength and the frequency of 
the Antarctic blizzards compels anyone who has experienced them to 
feel that here is a vast source of power as yet untapped. May we be 
permitted to forecast that some day the miseries of the storm-bound 
parties of Mawson's expedition, when for a whole year the wind averaged 
gale force, may be atoned for by our descendants making use of this power 
when coal is scarce and oil exhausted, while all the water power in the 
temperate regions is fully harnessed ? 

It would be unwise and inappropriate to burden a presidential address 
with statistics of wind in the Antarctic, but I do invite you to compare in 
your mind the power in the well-known falls of Niagara, about 6,000 tons 
of water falling per second, with the power in the little known Adelie 
Land, where an air river of at least 50 miles in width and probably some 
hundreds of feet in depth is moving outwards from the plateau at an 
average velocity of 50 miles per hour or about 70 ft. per second for most 
of the year. 

I will not further anticipate some H. G. Wells of the future who will 
ring the Antarctic with windmills producing power to be sent by wireless 
to the southern hemisphere, but merely assure my audience that the winds 
of the Antarctic have to be felt to be believed, and that nothing is quite 
impossible to physicists and engineers. 

We will not refer in detail here to the well-known efforts of the Cana- 
dians in particular, guided by the enthusiasm of Mr. Stefansson, towards 
increasing the pastoral value of the Canadian Arctic by the introduction 
and preservation of reindeer and other animals. This must go on ; 
but in spite of Mr. Stefansson's arguments one is forced to believe that 
if we limit these efforts to the truly Arctic lands the net effect on the world 
production of meat will be slight. 

We pass now from the economic aspect of our subject to some others 
which have less appeal to the man in the street, but which must never be 
omitted in any consideration of a region by a geographer. 

If we ask ourselves why so many people have gone to the polar regions 
in the past for other than economic reasons, the answer is perfectly 
plain. To say they have gone because they wanted to is too bald a way of 
putting the answer. Their motive in going is because the polar regions 
have offered them something which they cannot get elsewhere. One of 
these things is solitude and relief from the company of too many of their 
fellow men. One must be careful in dealing with such an abstract part 
of the subject to define that love of solitude or, as the journalist would 
call it, ' the lure of the wide open spaces.' To begin with, it affects only 
a very small proportion of men and, I venture to suggest, very few women. 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

It also is usually of a temporary nature, and the man who considers him- 
self most content in the heart of the Sahara, or on the plateau of Green- 
land, is very often so content because he knows that at the end of a certain 
term of residence in such a place he has Paris or Piccadilly to return to 
for contrast. When he does return, however, he is likely to be bothered 
and fussed with the apparently seething mass of his fellow creatures, to 
be bustled out of his contentment by a world of telephones and postmen 
and the daily press, and to consider very quickly that the lives and aims 
of men in the mass are sordid and small compared to the simple life of 
the lands from whence he has returned. We may smile at these psycho- 
logical effects, and we may consider that the explorer type, who is rest- 
less in civilisation, is a person apart, to be given his way but not to be 
pampered. 

On the other hand, we must not forget that not only are holidays neces- 
sary to man, but that, with increasing rapidity and ease of transport, the 
holidays of civilised peoples will tend to be taken farther afield. Even 
before the War there were such things as pleasure cruises to the North ; 
but what is just as feasible and has not yet come, is the extension of these 
cruises into summer holidays on land in the Arctic. Nor is it too wild a 
forecast to say that in time to come there may be a Brighton of Spitzbergen, 
a resurrection, in fact, of the Smeerenberg of two centuries ago, when 
each summer a large township established itself on Spitzbergen for the 
whaling. The township will be a city of rest and holiday instead of a 
city of greasiness and blubber ; but the means of establishing such a 
centre come closer to hand with every new invention. 

It is true that the Antarctic can never be considered a playground for 
the southern hemisphere, except for those who are willing to undergo 
an uncomfortable, if not a risky, sea voyage or a rather long aerial journey. 
It is true also that in the North, under present circumstances, the amount 
of territory available for holiday purposes is practically confined to 
Spitzbergen, now known as Svalbard. The accessible parts of Greenland, 
for instance, belong to the Greenlander under the careful guardianship 
of Denmark, and must not be looked upon as a holiday resort. The 
Franz Josef Archipelago is not always accessible, and the more distant 
Nova Zemlya, as well as the Canadian Arctic islands, will be for a long 
time to come too far from the main centres of population in Europe and 
America. 

This consideration of the polar regions as a holiday resort for the citizens 
of crowded lands, leads us naturally to a far greater value which has as 
yet hardly been considered by civilisation, a value which indeed may yet 
prove to be more worthy of study than all those we have so far mentioned; 
It is reasonable to suppose that when some far-travelled medical man comes 
to write a book on the geography of diseases we shall be able to come by 
a clear idea of where health is best to be sought. The ordinary geo- 
grapher would, however, even now be able to make something of an essay 
on the distribution of healthiness over the world. Leaving out cities as 
unnatural, or at least unhealthy aggregations of humans, he would at once 
say that on the whole the most unhealthy parts of the world were in the 
Tropics, though he would have to have a special category for tropical and 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 85 

oceanic islands, which as a rule are decidedly healthy. He would, if 
he were wise, consider that the Steppe deserts were healthy zones ; but 
probably he would decide that the temperate zone as a whole, provided 
it is not too far from the sea, is the healthiest belt of the world for man. 
It is almost certain that he would entirely forget that the polar regions 
are definitely the most healthy segments of the earth's surface, for the 
simple reason that the ordinary disease-bearers, whether they be rodents 
or insects or minute bacilli, find the conditions either impossible for 
existence or inhibitive. 

But we are not concerned here so much with the healthiness of the 
zone as with its value from a remedial point of view, for we are certainly 
not going to migrate in millions to the Arctic just because we cannot there 
contract the diseases of our own lands. But what we may well pay 
attention to is the corollary to that healthiness, namely that many, though 
not all, of the diseases contracted in temperate climates can be cured by 
residence in the polar regions. 

I am aware that it is more than dangerous, indeed provocative in the 
highest degree, for anyone outside the medical faculty to say how far 
special diseases are curable by residence in a pure air and a cold one. 
It seems, however, from the experience of sanatoria in the Alps, etc., 
that it is the sufferers from pulmonary diseases who are most likely to 
get benefit from such residence. The question will at once be asked as 
to what the polar regions can supply which is not already obtainable, 
say, in the Alps. For an answer to this question we must look to the 
doctors ; but it does seem likely that residence in a vast territory free 
from germs or the conditions for their transport must, prima facie, be 
better than residence in an alpine region which is surrounded by, and is 
merely above, zones teeming with possibilities of disease. If this thesis 
is correct, and it is one which a small period of research could easily con- 
firm or refute, then surely we are neglecting an aspect of the polar regions 
which is of major importance to mankind, more valuable than all the 
industries they will ever support. 

If it be true, as I believe, that the greatest gifts of science to mankind 
lie in the realms of preventive and remedial medicine, then surely here is 
an investigation which should not be left as merely a pious hope in a 
presidential address, but deserves promulgation and action. 

To test the value of the suggestion there is needed some research and 
experiment, most appropriately to be carried out under the auspices of 
one of those international bodies such as the Rockefeller Foundation, which 
has already done so much for remedial medicine. For assistance in 
carrying out this research there is needed the sympathy of governments, 
especially that of Norway, in whose care is the most promising territory 
in the Arctic for that purpose, namely, Svalbard or Spitzbergen. 

Let us remember too, before we allow hands of horror to be raised at 
the expense of such research, that in the past sums of money have been 
spent in Spitzbergen itself for the erection of an airship hangar and pro- 
vision of the airship itself for a few hours' flight to the Pole, which would 
be sufficient to erect a hospital and run it for many years in an experiment 
which might be of permanent value to the world. We must be properly 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

cautious as to results, but at the same time let us preserve our sense of 
proportion in the value to man of how we spend money in the polar 
regions. It is almost lamentable to consider the sums of money which 
have been spent in what you will all understand by the term of ' stunt 
expeditions ' and place those sums in contrast to the difficulty in raising 
money for such an object as this. 

I am aware that in thus inviting consideration of the possibility of 
establishing sanatoria in the polar regions I shall be incurring the dis- 
pleasure of explorers, both of the past and of the present ; but my answer 
to such would be that the end is worthy of the means, and that just as 
an. Alpine hotel, full of youth and health, can now be found one hundred 
yards from a sanatorium filled with the ailing, there is room in the polar 
regions both for sanatoria and for expeditions. 

We may now turn to yet another aspect of the polar regions, and one 
which possibly has a more direct appeal to this Association of scientists 
than those which have so far occupied our attention, namely, the value 
to the scientist, both pure and applied, of the phenomena which are 
peculiar to these regions — phenomena whose existence is well known but 
whose study is still in its early stages. 

No doubt each science will claim the chief value of these phenomena 
for itself, but it is without any particular bias to one or the other that 
I should venture to place in the first rank the subject of meteorology as 
likely in the future to gain most by a prolonged and more intensive study 
in high latitudes. 

We have spoken of the more or less permanent blizzards on parts of 
the Antarctic continent, and we ourselves live under the intermittent 
threat of depressions over Iceland. We can therefore, without much 
imagination, see that even if our weather is not actually manufactured 
at the polar ends of the world , it is profoundly affected by them. Meteoro- 
logists themselves have long been aware of this, and in two successive 
onslaughts, namely, in 1882 and in 1932, a determined effort was made 
to collect data simultaneously and widely within the precincts of the 
Arctic. The conclusions which have been drawn from these results are, 
as yet, hardly in full circulation, but you will meet few meteorologists 
who do not sigh for more and more data from the polar regions. 

The phenomena of magnetism and aurora, which are somewhat akin 
to those of meteorology in that they occur in the atmosphere, are also 
best studied in high latitudes, where, too, the most promising investi- 
gations of the ionosphere seem to be likely. 

When we come to the more earthly sciences, the immediate value to 
mankind is perhaps less evident. In the science of geology, for instance, 
especially in its branch of tectonics, we cannot afford to do without close 
investigation of two segments of the earth comprising together nearly 
one-tenth of the surface of the globe, and indeed the structure of the earth 
must become the more interesting the nearer one gets to its axis of rotation. 
The geologist has a hard task in lands where the rocks are usually buried 
beneath ice-caps, and has to be more than usually ready with the in- 
spired guess than in other parts of the world. 

In the Antarctic in particular, the highest of all continents and the most 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 87 

closely hidden, there are obviously to be found keys to some of the major 
problems of earth structure. We may instance only one which, no doubt, 
is occupying the attention of the geologists of the British Graham Land 
Expedition at the present moment, an expedition which hopes to press 
far to the south of the Archipelago where they are wintering, and to deter- 
mine why and where the folded ranges of South America and Graham 
Land merge into or butt against the faulted escarpments of the Australian 
sector of the Antarctic. 

It is in these larger problems of geology that the polar geologist can 
give most assistance to science. It is not long since the papers, in America 
at all events, were full of the discovery of coal beds by Admiral Byrd's 
geologist within 300 miles of the South Pole, and it was interesting to see 
that this discovery, which however was originally made by the Shackleton 
party in 1908, moved the press public to exclamations of wonder that 
such things could be. Nevertheless the great controversies of whether 
the Poles have shifted in the past, and whether the continents are drifting, 
must draw their best evidence, both for and against, near the axis of the 
earth. 

There has recently been published a fresh determination of the position 
of Sabine Island on the coast of north-east Greenland which tends to 
show that there is a definite westerly drift of some metres per year. 
Similar observations of Jan Mayen are even more startling. For these 
and other reasons, therefore, the geo-physicist, whom we may call the 
mathematical cousin of the geologist, must keep his attention on the 
polar lands. 

In the biological sciences also there are major problems to which the 
data of high latitudes alone can give the key, such as the drift of oceanic 
waters and the movements of plankton and their associated salts. The 
biologists, however, are already active in these investigations and need 
no spur to action. The many-sided character of the work of the Dis- 
covery Committee in this branch, over all the waters of the Antarctic 
ocean, is evidence of how carefully work on this aspect of the polar regions 
is being carried out. 

Lastly, I would ask your permission to consider yet another aspect 
of the polar regions, one which is perhaps more psychological than 
geographical, namely, their value as an outlet to that spirit of adventure 
and urge for exploration which has always been an attribute of man, and 
which will not diminish however small the world may grow. It is a spirit 
which is at work equally in the small child climbing the apple tree, the 
schoolboy exploring his own small horizon, the undergraduate forming 
alpine clubs to scale the peaks of his own college, and the city clerk 
spending his week-ends living dangerously in sailing dinghy or on motor 
bicycle. 

In all of these there is a curious combination of an urge to test one's 
abilities and yet a desire for a secondary and more useful object in the 
deed itself, and this dual purpose is particularly evident in most of the 
young men who come to the Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge 
seeking ways in which to visit the Arctic. 

Looking over the files of the geographical journals of the past few years, 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

it is possible to see how many young men turn annually to the Arctic to 
satisfy their need for an outlet. If we include the official expeditions 
of governments such as that of the Soviet, we shall find that every summer 
more than fifty groups of investigators go to the Arctic and, were it less ex- 
pensive, the number would easily be trebled. Only a few of these groups 
go for purely scientific work, and still fewer for hunting alone. They are, 
in fact, as a rule imbued chiefly with a desire to see strange places and en- 
dure strange things, and only in a secondary way to bring back useful 
results. There has been of recent years a happy tendency for these 
groups to go and come back without undue fuss and publicity. I would 
suggest that this use of the Arctic as an outlet to a healthy and laudable 
desire is one which should not be left out of any assessment of values, 
even though it must necessarily apply only to a small number of people. 
These suggestions as to aspects of interest in high latitudes will, no 
doubt, appeal to some and bore others, but in conclusion I would beg 
of you, as geographers, not to ignore these uninhabited zones, and I would 
like to repeat the words of a recent booklet on the subject, that whether 
it likes it or not, the world must take an interest in the polar regions. 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



ECONOMIC NATIONALISM AND 
INTERNATIONAL TRADE 

.\DDRESS BY 

PROF. J. G. SMITH, M.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The Council of the Association has recently suggested that the sections 
should endeavour in their proceedings at the annual meeting to appeal 
occasionally to the interests of an audience somewhat wider than that 
whose main interests lie in the purely technical aspects of the sciences 
studied. This clearly prescribes for me the general field of my Presidential 
Address to this Section this year ; and, at a time when serious dislocation 
in normal international trading relations is the major factor hindering 
economic improvement and preventing a return even of that measure of 
prosperity which the world enjoyed before the depression entered on its 
acutest phase, the part of that field calling for special attention is not 
difficult to choose. This is the growth or accentuation of Economic 
Nationalism, or Self-Sufficiency, Autarchy, Isolation or Insulation, 
undoubtedly one of the most powerful of the disturbing influences now 
at work in the economic sphere. It is with it that my address will mainly 
be concerned. 

I. 

Economic self-sufficiency is no new phenomenon. The tendency to 
national exclusiveness is as old as human nature itself and it by no means 
calls for unrestricted condemnation. Indeed, in spheres other than the 
economic, nationalism and national movements have made no small 
contribution to the general progress and the happiness of mankind ; and 
we could contemplate, if not always with unfeigned admiration at least 
with a considerable degree of equanimity, the diversity in civilisation, in 
language and in culture which is due to the multiplication of small 
countries and to the determination of national groups to resist by every 
possible means attempts at assimilation by larger and by more powerful 
peoples. 

Generally, when national movements arise they spring from motives 
other than economic ; and in earlier times purely economic weapons 
were not of importance in the struggles which ensued. This, of course, 
was due not to reluctance to employ any weapon which came to hand, 
but rather to the fact that the economic sword had not really been tested 
and there was as yet no ground for confidence that it would prove effective. 
In modern times, however, it has, or is thought to have, become indis- 
pensable. It may, therefore, be worth while to consider some of the 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

reasons for this belief. Before doing so, it is necessary to draw a contrast 
between the world of to-day and the world of a short time ago. For the 
purpose in view the period immediately prior to the War will serve very well. 

II. 

First and foremost, the peace treaties of 1919 and following years 
increased the number of countries and national boundaries in Europe. 
In all these new areas trade barriers were immediately set up to protect 
industries the establishment of which was encouraged and often financed 
by the states themselves so that they might have under direct control in 
their own territories as many as possible of the processes necessary for 
the production of armaments. As it is not difficult for producers of very 
wide ranges of commodities to persuade governments that their own 
special products are essential, or, alternatively, that their factories can 
readily be adapted for the manufacture of war materials, the field embraced 
in these new protective systems was progressively extended until it soon 
covered the whole range of agricultural and industrial activity. Important, 
however, as was this stimulus to economic self-sufficiency it might have 
spent its force and gradually petered out if the structure of international 
relations had not at the same time been radically altered by a change in 
the mutual indebtedness of nations, which occurred with such rapidity 
as to render impossible smooth readjustments to the entirely new con- 
ditions thus created. This transformation from debtor to creditor, 
which was the experience of the United States of America, and from 
creditor to debtor, the outstanding example of which was Germany, 
called for a complete reversal of the general attitude towards the Balance 
of Trade which up to that time had been current in the countries con- 
cerned. It demanded some re-orientation of ideas, also, on the part of 
other countries where the diff'erences between the new and the old 
positions were of degree rather than of kind. Unfortunately, the line of 
least resistance was followed everywhere, both by statesmen and by 
peoples ; and difficulties were accentuated instead of being surmounted. 

A country which is on balance a debtor has gradually to build up credits 
abroad so as to pay the interest on its debts, to meet amortisation instal- 
ments or make provisions of some other kind for repayment. It can only 
do this by contriving to have a favourable balance of trade and this, in 
turn, can be secured only by an increase in exports, or a reduction in 
imports. A large increase in exports, however, is not always easy to 
effect for a country which is already highly industrialised. Such a com- 
munity is largely dependent on foreign sources for its supplies of raw 
materials. For it, therefore, increased exports of manufactured goods 
means increased imports of raw materials which, in turn, have to be paid 
for by further exports. This is impossible unless the volume of foreign 
trade as a whole is increased at the same time. It is just because this 
latter increase is not taking place, or is comparatively insignificant in 
amount, that older industrial debtor countries fail to build up the balances 
required from them by their creditors and that creditor countries, in 
turn, find it difficult to expand their export trade and at the same time 
pursue a policy of drastic restriction of imports. Further, if a country 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 91 

previously debtor becomes creditor the problems attending readjustment 
appear to it to be almost insuperable. In every case, in both debtor and 
creditor countries, there was marked reluctance to attempt any solution 
which might offer a reasonable promise of success. This was especially 
unfortunate ; for no cause has contributed more to the present dislocation 
of international trade and to the financial and currency troubles accom- 
panying it than this one outstanding fact — the reluctance or the inability 
of the countries concerned to handle the problems presented to them by 
their changes from general debtor or general creditor position to that of 
general creditor of or general debtor to the rest of the world. 

Of the theoretically appropriate policy in the new situation thus 
created there never was any doubt. Creditor countries should have 
accepted additional imports from their debtors and encouraged them to 
build up favourable trade balances in the shortest possible time. This 
implies, of course, that exports from the creditor countries should have 
been discouraged and a drastic reconstruction of internal productive 
systems undertaken. Of the practical difficulties in the way of such far- 
reaching changes the economist is well aware ; and he would have offered 
his sincere sympathy along with the maximum of encouragement to any 
statesman attempting the task. But to statesmen who not only shirked 
a duty admittedly difficult but who adopted a policy calculated even to 
increase the obstacles in the way of ultimate reconstruction he cannot be 
equally indulgent. The offer of loans to debtor countries by their creditors 
was a profound mistake ; and disaster was inevitable when the borrowing 
and lending was mainly short-term. Long-term loans, which would 
have been more helpful by permitting time for readjustments, were 
discouraged by legislative restrictions in the debtor countries themselves 
as well as by the natural reluctance of the lenders to risk their money for 
any length of time in areas where disturbances, both economic and political, 
were liable to occur without preliminary warning. In such a nervous 
atmosphere alarms were inevitable ; and a climax was reached in the 
summer and autumn of 193 1 . Since then the forces making for economic 
self-sufficiency have suffered little check in any country in the world. 

It is from the events of this year, 1931, that the existing highly- 
developed system of barriers to international trade sprang, armed as it 
were overnight. The seed, however, had been sown long before ; and 
tentative efforts by debtor countries to control transactions in foreign 
exchange and to reverse adverse balances of trade were not unknown 
several years prior to this date. But now, in addition to extensions of 
tariffs and the raising of existing rates, the device of the quota was developed 
to the full, and condemnation was passed on anything which, like the most 
favoured nation clause in commercial treaties, was designed to disentangle 
foreign trade from the obstacles which encumbered it. The more liberal 
of existing trade agreements were everywhere denounced and restrictive 
measures or one-sided bargains substituted. Currency difficulties in any 
country were used by its trade rivals as a pretext for further tariff increases 
on its merchandise. In a brief space of time the whole structure of 
foreign trade as it existed before the war was swept away ; and nothing 
systematic or definitely planned has, so far, taken its place. 



92 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

III. 

Apart from the predominant influence just noticed which precipitated 
the onset of this pohcy of economic nationaHsm in all its violence it is 
probable that, in any case, there would have been some accentuation of 
tariflFs and high protection during the period considered. Conditions 
which formerly favoured freedom of trade in international intercourse 
have altered or have given way altogether to new alignments of economic 
forces which inevitably suggest protection as the more desirable policy 
to pursue. It is worth while making a digression at this stage in order to 
examine these influences and to assess their importance in the general 
economic progress of the world since the early days of the free trade 
movement in Great Britain. 

Before the discovery and opening up of large tracts of agricultural land 
in countries outside Europe the cultivation of the soil in the older countries 
was carried on under conditions of diminishing returns. Population, 
especially in the recently industrialised areas, in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century was growing rapidly. This meant a rising cost of living 
due to continuous increase in the prices of foodstuffs ; for the production 
of the latter could only be expanded at an enhanced cost per unit. 
Current economic doctrine, at that time dominated by Ricardo and his 
followers, compared the product of industry to a cake to be divided 
among those who had contributed to its making. If wage-earners 
obtained a larger share profits were lower. It was, therefore, thought to 
be in the interests of industry to pursue a policy of free imports ; for 
free imports, especially of food, meant low cost of living, low wages and, 
consequently, higher profits. The interests of agriculturists were over- 
looked and in the struggle which ensued the industrialists gained a decisive 
victory in England. Free Trade won and the French commercial treaty 
of i860 marked the end of the fight for a time. Much freedom of trade 
was v/on also in continental countries a little later than in England, 
although in their case agricultural opposition was never completely 
crushed. 

Contrast this with the position to-day. Under stress of the War 
agricultural production was expanded everywhere, a technique almost 
entirely new was introduced and scientific aid of every kind enlisted, 
with the consequence that agriculture has come to be conducted, although 
perhaps only temporarily, under conditions of increasing returns. The 
rate of increase of population in the principal industrial countries has 
fallen and food prices are low. Ricardian economics are no longer 
authoritative and fears of scarcity have vanished. Industrialists, therefore, 
no longer have the motives they once had for maintaining free imports ; 
and they are strengthened in the opposition they now offer to their former 
policy by the difficulties they encounter in export trade. Since many of 
them are mainly dependent on this trade they are driven to seek alternative 
markets at home to replace those they are losing abroad. It is only 
natural, therefore, that they should become advocates of the partial or 
complete exclusion of goods which are likely to compete with them in the 
single remaining market they control. The greater the fall in their exports 



' 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 93 

the more uncompromising the support they lend to the movement 
towards economic self-sufficiency. 

Again, in the first half of the nineteenth century freedom of trade 
facilitated the discovery of new markets and of new openings for capital. 
Notwithstanding warnings of the danger to investments in countries 
politically unstable, where effective supervision by foreigners was im- 
possible, there was a very great export of capital from Europe to the rest 
of the world. In this England took the lead, although Ricardo was among 
those who pointed to the dangers ; and, as export of capital is mainly 
export of goods and a country cannot hinder imports if it wishes to export, 
the free trade movement was of necessity welcomed in Europe by in- 
dustrialists as well as by financiers. Now, however, foreign investments 
have lost their attraction. Interest rates are scarcely commensurate with 
the risks involved and the danger of loss of capital has in no way diminished. 
Moreover, the time is past when even the most powerful government dare 
collect interest or principal of debts from foreigners for its own subjects 
by threat of military or naval demonstration. Holders of foreign 
securities have learned much through open repudiation of debts by 
revolutionary governments and through currency devaluation. They 
have also learned that if free trade is a necessary concomitant of freedom 
of foreign investment it is not worth retaining the former merely to assure 
a continuance of the latter. 

In the early days of industrialism international trade promoted division 
of labour in every meaning of that term. This, in turn, permitted such 
a lowering of costs that the standard of life was raised in almost every 
country in the world. Moreover, international intercourse quickly dis- 
seminated everywhere knowledge of new inventions and of new com- 
modities with consequent expansion of trade and production. In a period 
of rapid change such as that, freedom of trade offered the maximum of 
opportunity to those wishing to seize it. Any policy except that of 
unrestricted freedom would have created obstacles. 

Conditions are now very different. Modern large-scale rationalised 
industrial units are exceedingly vulnerable. Unless they can operate at 
or near the output for which they are designed and find markets at prices 
covering costs for all they produce they must soon go under or be recon- 
stituted. It is only natural, therefore, that there should be an insistent 
demand from their managers and shareholders for guarantee of the home 
market, the only market from which the foreigner can with certainty be 
excluded, and that Empire Preference should be welcomed by them for 
the security of whatever overseas trade agreements of this kind are 
expected to promote. 

Again, scientific progress and technological invention which used to lend 
support to a free trade policy are now among the most powerful of forces 
encouraging economic nationalism. Standardisation of processes and of 
output, development of intricate machine tools which can be operated by 
comparatively unskilled labour after a brief period of training, wide distribu- 
tion of electrical power and the growth of technical education in every 
branch of industry enable new factories to be set up with equal prospects 
of success almost anywhere throughout the world. So, Lancashire finds 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

competitors in India and Japan ; and Irish Free State workers come to the 
Midlands for a few months' training and return home to operate factories for 
hollow-ware, gloves, hosiery, and many other commodities in little centres 
selected at random which never before had an industry of any kind. When 
industries are thus set up in new environments adaptation of size of unit to 
the market for the product is possible to a greater degree than in older 
industrial areas ; for imports can be rationed or prohibited and the permitted 
extent of the industry strictly controlled by the government. It frequently 
happens, therefore, that such new concerns, unhampered by evil traditions 
of management or by restrictions imposed by labour, succeed in producing 
at reasonably low costs per unit within the closed national boundaries. 
Thus, the policy appears to be justified by its early results, although the 
situation of industries in isolation from the main centres of their activity is 
likely at a later stage to create difficulties not easy to surmount. But 
even if justification on purely economic considerations were not so easy 
to discover as it is, cogent reasons of a social or political nature can readily 
be offered for a policy of self-sufliciency in as many industries as possible. 
Diversification and actual increase, even if small, of employment may 
well be worth some sacrifice ; and in a world overwrought and nervous 
concerning armaments and the future of peace the fact that every industry 
is or may be important for war adds much to the responsibilities of states- 
men when they are called upon to outline the appropriate policies in trade 
and industry for the countries they govern. 

Price movements and currency troubles, too, have not been without 
their influence on this trend in the direction of closed or self-contained 
economic systems ; for it is only within the limits of such a system that 
even a partial measure of success can be attained in attempts to maintain 
a stable level of wholesale prices, much less of prices in general. Apart 
from the detailed control on the monetary side of the volume of credit, 
the destination of credit, velocity of circulation, volume of saving and 
investment and so on which need not be touched on here, it is necessary 
to control the volume of production and of imports as well as many 
individual prices of goods and services, and the volume of exports if stable 
price levels are to be secured. Thus, quotas, foreign exchange regulations, 
occasional prohibitions of certain imports and certain exports are inevit- 
ably part of such a scheme of money management. Moreover, the con- 
sequences of attempts to keep price levels stable are such as to encourage 
or provoke further measures of repression in the field of foreign trade ; 
for a stable price level usually conceals several different movements and 
a fall in the prices of such commodities as are exported may be accom- 
panied by a rise in the prices of foodstuffs and materials which it is 
imperative to import, a definite worsening of the terms of trade which 
stimulates demands for further restriction or control. This was the 
experience of Sweden when she succeeded in keeping her wholesale price 
level stable between 1930 and 1934. The other significant example of 
an experiment of this kind, that in the United States of America, especially 
between 1925 and 1929 when the general price level was kept stabilised, 
led ultimately to conditions of monetary inflation. Subsequent events 
there give little encouragement to those who looked for an end to the policy 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 95 

of self-sufficiency in the continent of North America. The precise 
relation between monetary troubles and the movement towards economic 
self-sufficiency — which is cause and which is effect, whether both are due 
to a third group of fundamental causes, will appear later ; but there is no 
doubt that monetary management of any kind for any purpose calls for 
increasing control over the course of international trade and that the task 
of management is easier the more nearly the economic system involved 
happens to be self-contained. 

The movement towards economic self-sufficiency, therefore, has its 
roots deep in the past. In the political sphere in the nineteenth century 
nationalism sought for unity and fought oppression to win self-determina- 
tion. Then, at the beginning of that century and during the latter part 
of the eighteenth century, economic organisation was simple. Machinery 
was relatively unimportant and production was on a small scale. By this 
time, also, economic activity had become increasingly free. The fetters 
forged by the mediaeval guilds and mercantilism had been cast aside. 
Markets were unrestricted and mobility unimpeded. A domestic 
capitalist system had been evolved and with it had come political freedom 
and political democracy. This general scheme of organisation lasted until 
well on towards the middle of the century without radical change ; and 
contemporary economic theory regarded it as its problem to explain the 
economic processes of a society dominated by small competing units 
entirely free from political interference. In the ideal world of these 
theorists Free Trade was a necessary condition for territorial division 
of labour. Free movement of capital and unimpeded mobility of popula- 
tion were equally important in their view ; and anything which offered 
obstacles to the attainment of the ideal of a single price in a single market 
co-extensive with the world was, on that account, condemned. But 
towards the end of the nineteenth century large aggregates of capital came 
to dominate the field. It was not that the earlier small competing units 
of the classical economists had become less numerous but rather that they 
had become less significant. As industrialisation proceeded the growing 
scarcity of economic opportunity favoured, even demanded, the consolida- 
tion and the integration of trade and industry. As the size of units 
increased economic opportunity became still more circumscribed and 
competition grew still more relentless. Under these circumstances 
legislation and public opinion were powerless to prevent the trend towards 
monopoly ; and the cartel movement spread, at first within national 
boundaries, and, later, it was extended to the international sphere. 

Meantime, nationalism, which originally had merely poHtical aims, 
changed its character and became, fundamentally, an economic movement. 
This was due, in some part, to the attainment of most of its former ambi- 
tions, but mainly, to the causes just described and to the continuous 
expansion of economic activity which now absorbs by far the greater part 
of the energy of the whole of society. Thus, the world of the first quarter 
of the twentieth century provided an environment exceptionally favourable 
to the growth of a very militant movement for economic self-sufficiency. 

This long-term influence has been reinforced, temporarily, by the con- 
ditions attendant on the great depression. New areas of production have 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

been brought under monopolistic control or centralised supervision in 
order that governments may be enabled to support trade and industrial 
organisations in their efforts to regulate production and prices. National 
cartels have been strengthened and international cartels have been 
difficult to maintain. Governments everywhere have used the oppor- 
tunities thus presented to them to turn to narrow national account the 
general tendency already in force towards large-scale organisation and 
monopolistic control. It may be that these short-term forces will effect 
deeper and more permanent changes in the economic system of the world 
than could ever have been accomplished by the longer-term forces which 
they supplement. 

IV. 

In designing and improving methods for securing national economic 
isolation statesmen often appear to act on the assumption that absolute 
self-sufficiency is an ideal capable of practical realisation. This, assuredly, 
is not the case. Apart from the fact that the price which would have to 
be paid is prohibitive, experience has shown that new devices by new 
traders can make headway even against the most drastic restrictions yet 
devised. But at a price which seems reasonable in the short-run or the 
real burden of which is not immediately apparent, a very considerable 
degree of economic self-sufficiency can be attained by small as well as by 
large nations especially if the measures pursued are in harmony with the 
long-term forces favouring the trend. Little attention, however, is paid 
to this proviso when regulations are being drafted ; and, even when 
circumstances are propitious for the success of an attempt at further 
isolation, disaster often ensues through too vigorous use of double-edged 
weapons, which, when wielded at all, demand more skill in management 
than is ever likely to be available. 

Much can be learned from a study of the partial closing of markets in 
European countries to agricultural products from the remaining countries 
in the world. These older industrial counties aim at developing regulated 
agricultural production for reasons partly creditable and partly sinister. 
German import duties on wheat and rye, for example, may be anything 
in the neighbourhood of 300 per cent, of the general world market prices. 
France plans to be, and is in fact, largely self-contained in cereals. Wheat 
production is encouraged in England by guaranteed prices and by enact- 
ments designed to secure that all is sold which is produced. In every 
European country some or every branch of agriculture receives subsidy or 
high protection. The consequences of these measures for the newer 
extra-European agricultural countries are serious. As example, consider 
the case of New Zealand with exports entirely agricultural and the largest 
foreign trade per head of population of any country in the world. The 
story of her troubles is set out in the adjoining table of indices which covers 
the years of intensification of agricultural self-sufficiency in Europe. 

Commenting on this table a New Zealand Government official publica- 
tion points out ' that in the aggregate the volume of production has been 
well maintained but the outcome of trading operations may be summed 
up as follows : Between 1928 and 1932 the index figures indicate that the 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 



97 



a 

< 



N 

h 
O 

o 



o 
Q 



Aggregate 
Value of 
Imports. 


1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 '-I 
"^ 

M ' ' ' ' ' ' 


Aggregate 
Value of 
Exports. 




HH ' ' ' ' ' ' 


Volume of 
Goods avail- 
able for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


ONi-ijHOONroN 
i-i N II O^00 00 

tH HH M M H-t 


Index- 
number of 
Import 
Prices. 


1 1 1 1 1 1 00 
M ' ' ' ' 


Index- 
number of 
Export 
Prices. 

IGG 


Volume of 
Imports. 


sO t1-\0 OSvO vO 
00 n 0>0v0v0 

M M HH HH 


Volume of 
Exports. 


OOONvOOsONm 


Volume of 
Production. 


000 t^N Tht^ThN 
OOi-iNNmmN 




vo t^oo <:^ HH N ro 

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98 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

volume of exports increased by i8 per cent. In exchange for the greater 
quantity of exports, after making provision for payment of interest and 
other fixed claims, we received in return, for 1932, 34 per cent, less quantity 
of imports compared with the position in 1928. The net effect of this 
was that for 1932 the quantity of goods available for consumption in the 
Dominion was 25 per cent, lower than in 1928. On the same basis the 
shortage for 1933 was 26 per cent. This was a real loss due principally 
to (a) having to set aside a larger quantity of produce to meet fixed 
obligations overseas ; and (b) the fact that the terms of barter in Great 
Britain have gone against us, with the result that in exchange for a given 
quantity of primary products we now receive less manufactured goods 
than formerly — that is to say, the prices of primary goods have fallen 
more than the prices of manufactured goods.' What can New Zealand 
do if this continues ? Nothing, except divert some of her population to 
new local industries, uneconomic secondary industries is the term em- 
ployed, and keep out every article she can produce at home. 

As a contrast, consider the case of Canada. Like New Zealand's, her 
total foreign trade per head of population is large. Indeed, she usually 
comes third in order of magnitude of this item and runs Denmark closely 
for second place. But, unlike New Zealand, she is an important manu- 
facturing country with much developed mineral wealth, as well as being 
a producer and large exporter of agricultural commodities. Her industries 
have been built up with imported capital behind high tariff walls ; and 
she pursued for years what was, in essence, a mild policy of economic 
self-sufficiency when other new countries were developing in more narrow 
grooves. Her foreign trade in commodites for 1934 amounted in value 
to $1,145 million, which was an increase of nearly 25 per cent, on the figure 
for 1933. It is estimated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics that 
Canadians purchased in 1934 some $300 million of foreign securities or 
of Canadian securities held abroad and that Canadian governments and 
corporations retired $75 million in bonds owned abroad, while purchases 
of Canadian securities and investments by foreigners amounted to 
$355 million. Thus, there was a net export of capital in that year of 
$20 million which cannot but be regarded as satisfactory, especially as 
the increases in foreign trade in commodities was due in equal shares to 
increases in both imports and exports of goods. It is difficult to resist 
the conclusion that Canada is now reaping the reward of her foresight in 
developing variety in her economic system instead of continuing a narrower 
specialisation in the production of primary agricultural commodities. 
Probably she will continue to enjoy comparative prosperity in a disordered 
world, if she is content with a moderate diversity in her economic life ; for 
the price to be paid for an over-ambitious programme of self-sufficiency 
is high, especially in a country the main wealth of which consists of primary 
products and which is, on the whole, still a debtor on balance to the rest 
of the world. This price is nothing less than a definite lowering in the 
standard of life of its people. 

Equally with other countries exporting agricultural products the United 
States of America have experienced the special difficulties during the 
depression in which the fall in the prices of foodstuffs was so much greater 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 99 

than the fall in the prices of manufactured goods. But even before this 
crisis became acute the foreign trade of that country with Europe was 
diminishing. Some of the loss, no doubt, can easily be ascribed to other 
causes (there is no difficulty in finding quite a number) ; but the main 
cause was the attempt to initiate and develop self-sufficiency in agri- 
culture by those countries in Western Europe which used to be considerable 
importers of foodstuffs from the United States. The extent to which 
the export trade of the latter was shifting before American economic 
conditions began to change (largely for reasons special to America itself) 
is well exhibited by a comparison between the year 1913 and the year 1925. 
During that period there was a reduction in exports of about $100 million 
(close on 4 per cent, of the total). But those to Europe fell by 20 per cent., 
those to the rest of North America by 7 per cent., while exports to Asia 
and to Africa were in each case more than doubled. There was an 
increase, too (though a less striking one of only 8 per cent.), in exports to 
South America. The falls in every case were largely in agricultural 
products ; but the increases that took place were mainly in manufactured 
articles, although Asia took a little more of foodstuffs. Such changes as 
these almost certainly have a long-term trend. In any case they are in a 
different category to those which accompanied the low level of prices in 
the years immediately subsequent to 1929. 

If the great depression had been allowed to nm its course in a fully 
competitive world economic system in which no obstacles were presented 
to a reasonably free marketing and distribution of commodities, the 
prices of producers' goods would have fallen more in proportion than 
the prices of consumers' goods. This would have called into action a 
number of readjusting forces, and if the experience of previous periods 
of recovery from depression had been repeated, demand would have revived 
in such a way that a new position of equilibrium would, in a short time, 
have been attained. But the course pursued by this depression has 
differed very markedly from that of any other which the world has yet 
experienced. Market competition has been much restricted and prices 
of producers' goods have been maintained or have fallen less than the 
prices of consumers' goods, with the consequence that there has been an 
exceptionally serious diminution in the production of all durable goods. 
Agricultural commodities, the most important group of consumers' goods, 
suffered the heaviest fall in price of all; and, although there has been a slight 
increase in consumption in consequence of this great fall in price, demand 
for foodstuffs is very inelastic and could never have increased to the extent 
required for a restoration of equilibrium. For such a result a diminution 
of output is necessary. It was some time before this was realised by the 
principal agricultural communities producing for export. These have 
instituted or are instituting restriction schemes which are exceedingly 
difficult to handle with effect. But the positive measures taken by many 
countries which are usually importers of foodstuffs to maintain and even 
to expand their agricultural production create still greater difficulties and 
lead to the absurd phenomenon of some governments paying bounties 
for the production of food for the non-production or destruction of 
which other governments pay equally large compensation. 



IGO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

V. 

Prior to 1929 the long-term influences which prompted or rendered 
easy a policy of considerable national self-sufficiency had sufl^ered a check. 
The movement towards stabilisation of tariffs and liberalisation of com- 
mercial relations between the different nations of the world seemed likely 
to gather strength ; and the excessive nationalism engendered by the War 
was subsiding slowly. But in the latter part of that year there was a 
collapse of confidence ; and the onset of the great depression created 
an entirely new situation. Since then short views on international 
commercial policy have been dominant everywhere. 

It is a mistake, however, to conclude that the motives which have 
prompted measures of restriction in all countries since 1929 have had as 
their aim the destruction or even the curtailment of international commer- 
cial relations. Examination of the discussions in legislatures and study 
of the trade agreements actually concluded indicate that the principal 
object of all countries was (and is) to increase the volume of their foreign 
trade as a whole. But the volume of exports at the current low world 
prices, especially in the case of primary products, got out of line with the 
volume of imports. Strict control of the latter, therefore, was imperative 
if balances of trade (or rather the balances of income and outgo accounts) 
were not to be upset ; for the consequences of this are a drain of gold 
reserves, depression of value of currency units and threat to the financial 
solvency of governments. 

The course of events can be well illustrated by taking Great Britain as 
example ; but it must be borne in mind that the special conditions of this 
country do not permit of strictly parallel comparisons elsewhere. The 
very great fall in gold prices which set in towards the end of 1929, due 
mainly to the financial collapse in that year in the United States of America, 
caused heavy curtailment in the foreign demand for British exports. On 
the other hand, British demand for foreign goods increased because of 
their new and lower prices. The diff^erence, therefore, between the total 
value of visible imports and total value of visible exports was greater than 
before. This would not have mattered much if ser\dces rendered to 
foreigners and interest payments due by foreigners had not shrunk at 
the same time ; for the gap could then have been largely filled by a reduc- 
tion in the annual amount of new capital invested abroad or, with greater 
difficulty, by a realisation of part of the foreign securities held by English- 
men which still retained a reasonable value. As a matter of fact the 
gap was not filled to a sufficient extent in either of these ways. The 
consequence was an adverse balance in the income and outgo account 
of foreign trading which was estimated at ;(^io4 million in 193 1 and 
^^56 million in 1932, and an insistent demand on London for gold. Some 
gold did leave England and the Bank of England took the action which 
was usual and appropriate when this happened. Money rates, therefore, 
rose, prices tended to fall, exports were encouraged and imports were 
discouraged. Further adjustment, however, was necessary ; for the 
situation, though not without precedent in kind, was unparalleled in 
extent. The fall in prices ought to have been accompanied by a fall in 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS loi 

costs which did not take place. It is not necessary here fully to explain 
why ; but it is evident that wages, one of the main elements in cost, 
cannot easily be reduced, and costing schemes in general are not sufficiently 
elastic to meet very rapidly changing conditions. When it was realised 
that this readjustment was not possible the alternative remaining was to 
prevent gold prices falling still further. This demanded a continuous 
export of gold as long as world prices went on falling, a policy which 
would not have steadied prices in Great Britain even if it had been possible 
to pursue it ; for the loss of gold would only have led to still lower price 
levels at home. When, ultimately, the gold standard had to be abandoned 
in 1 93 1, the only weapons left were tariffs and the whole apparatus of 
restrictions under which economic self-sufficiency cloaks its aims. These 
expedients had already been utilised by other countries when they sought 
to improve their balances of trade so as to maintain price levels and 
protect monetary standards. It is probably correct, therefore, to con- 
clude that one of the principal reasons underlying the institution during 
the past few years of the very great mass of restrictions on international 
trade is the protection of currencies and the financial solvency of govern- 
ments. Under normal circumstances a country by imposing tariffs and 
restrictions on imports can hope to protect its currency from attack and 
maintain it at or near gold parity without experiencing an intolerable 
downward pressure on prices ; for its limitation of imports is not 
accompanied by a fall in its exports. The success of this policy, therefore, 
depends on the extent to which other countries freely admit its goods. 
If every country simultaneously restricts imports the trade of each is 
depressed by the tariffs and quotas of the others more than it is stimulated 
by its own. The object sought, improvement in trade balances, is not 
attained. Instead, the general effect is contraction in the volume of 
international trade with increase of unemployment and additional currency 
c ifficulties all round. 

VI. 

Much can be learned from a review of the growth of high protective 
policies and of restrictive economic nationalism during the years of the 
depression. Few countries were without import duties of some kind in 
1929. The obvious and immediate step, therefore, when trade balance 
difficulties were encountered, was to raise those duties so as to guarantee 
to home producers a larger or more exclusive share of the domestic 
market, and, in this way, relieve the growing unemployment caused by 
the fall in prices combined with the constancy of costs. Budgetary 
difficulties, too, due to reduced public income led to general or flat 
increases in duties in many countries so that revenue might be main- 
tained ; and governments of debtor countries (Australia, Latin America, 
e.g.), which were large borrowers on private or public account, finding 
their burdens increased owing to the decline in prices and their lower 
returns from exports, were driven to reduce all imports which were not 
indispensable so that national receipts and national payments might be 
balanced. Retaliation then followed from countries at the moment less 
embarrassed ; for these were finding their usual export trades hindered 



I02 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

by the tariffs and restrictions of those nations which had first experienced 
difficukies. There were, therefore, further instalments of tariffs in ever- 
widening circles ; and by the latter part of 193 1 the export trade of all 
countries had as a consequence shrunk to a very marked extent. 

Meantime, France had revived the quota method of control under which 
limitations are imposed upon the quantities of particular goods that may 
be imported over an allotted period of time. Other countries followed, 
the assumption (or justification) being that quotas are temporary measures 
of defence designed to limit imports to the quantities which can be absorbed 
in a period of restricted demand. It is probable, however, that their 
real attraction was their certainty in result (which is usually greater than 
can be assured by tariffs) combined with the fact that treaty obligations 
frequently rendered tariff changes immediately impossible. 

At first quotas were fixed permitting supplying countries shares in 
proportion to their exports during a period preceding restriction. Soon, 
however, they were turned into weapons with which to bargain for 
increases in exports. They are now regularly employed by way of threat 
to extract concessions or counter-advantages from other countries in the 
shape of reduced duties, release of blocked funds, guaranteed purchases 
or other commercial privileges. Their use has been extended far beyond 
the purpose for which they were originally devised. Fortunately they 
are not popular with traders ; for their administration involves much 
interference with the ordinary routine of business. 

In the confusion following the financial difficulties which came to a head 
in September 1931 when Great Britain abandoned the gold standard 
and depreciation overtook the currencies of many other important 
countries, centralised control over the transfer of funds abroad was adopted 
by nearly all the governments whose monetary systems were then altered 
in basis and even by some whose currencies still continued to be linked 
to gold. The original purpose of this control was to prevent speculation 
and to protect the values of the currency units from the consequences of 
the withdrawal of funds for deposit or investment abroad. In actual 
working no difficulties at first were placed in the v/ay of importers ob- 
taining exchange for payment for food, raw materials or other commodities 
deemed to be essential. But, very soon, governments began to use 
exchange control as a supplement to other means of restricting imports ; 
and by direct refusal of facilities they were able, more effectively than by 
tariffs and quotas, to discourage foreign transactions whenever they 
desired. This power to discriminate led easily to the next step — the 
granting of preference or priority in exchange on the basis of the country 
from which the imports were to come. It was argued that favour ought 
to be shown to those who were good customers and that it was desirable 
to obtain as near a correspondence as possible in imports and exports 
with every trading country. Further development soon followed and 
control over foreign exchange became a bargaining weapon, just like 
quotas, whereby the threat to withhold or delay payment for imports from, 
or of debts due to, a given country was used to exact commercial privileges 
or special trading facilities. 

At this stage it became evident that the bargaining power arising from 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 103 

this exchange control of countries whose products were mainly foodstuffs 
and raw materials was inferior to that of the older manufacturing and 
commercial countries in Europe ; for the latter were creditor countries 
and the prices of their products had not fallen as much as those of the 
products of the former. It was natural, therefore, for the financially 
more powerful countries to require that exchange funds arising out of 
their purchases should be reserved for the purchase of goods from their 
subjects and for the remitting of interest on investments held by their 
citizens. Further, a number of exchange clearing arrangements were 
set up between these weaker countries and their creditors as well as 
between the older countries themselves. In these provision was made 
for the direct balancing of credits derived from all the transactions between 
the pairs of participating countries and, occasionally, even for the reciprocal 
admission of allocated volumes of specified classes of goods on terms akin 
to barter. This whole episode of exchange control is a curious mixture 
of repression and restriction of trade combined with ingenious devices for 
mitigating the damage done by measures which are admittedly short- 
sighted. 

Primarily, quotas and exchange control were means by which a govern- 
ment sought to safeguard its general balance of trade. Their use for 
this purpose can readily be justified as a defensive measure in the 
exceptional conditions now prevailing in international trade to-day. It 
might even be admitted that a country which relies for its livelihood on 
the export of a few special commodities has the right to safeguard its 
market for those goods and secure for them reasonable terms of entry to 
other countries when commercial treaties are being negotiated. But the 
extension of the principle of general balance of trade which offers a basis 
of control for the total trade of a country with all foreign countries to the 
case of import and export trade with every individual external group is 
a development which cannot but prejudice the future rehabilitation of 
world trade on any sound or equitable foundation. 

This new concept, then, of bilateral trade balancing, this unwarranted 
extension of an old and useful general guide, is due to the realisation that 
it is possible, by using quotas and exchange control, to re-arrange trade 
relations with individual foreign countries on what can be a substantially 
equal barter basis. Such an ideal makes a wide appeal in a period of 
depression when normal trade outlets are choked ; and it is significant 
that more than one-third of the commercial agreements concluded by 
European countries, both among themselves and with countries outside 
Europe, during the past two years have been dominated by the principle 
that as far as possible in every case imports should approximately balance 
exports. Now this insistence upon the equalisation of imports and exports 
between two countries where equality did not exist before is much more 
likely to scale down the higher of two unequal figures than to raise the 
lower. The country with the larger volume of exports has almost certainly 
to reduce its shipments to the volume it imports from the other country, 
with the consequence that its exporting industries suffer loss, part of which 
i:i turn is passed on to the producers of the materials it utilises whether 
they be fellow citizens or subjects of another group of foreign countries. 



T04 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

But the case against bilateral trading rests firmly on the fundamental 
economic facts upon which every international exchange of goods is built. 
Difference in climate, in natural resources, skill of peoples, efficiency and 
standards of life in the different countries of the world determine the 
type and amount of product which any selected country can export, and 
at the same time they prescribe the special character of the imports it 
requires. Inequalities in the amounts passing to and fro between each 
pair of countries are in the normal course of events. Anything else 
could scarcely be expected. But these inequalities usually balance off 
in the aggregate transactions of world trade and finance in consequence 
of triangular or multilateral movements of services, trade and capital. 
Moreover, multilateral trade is the means by which younger countries 
develop their productive resources ; for they obtain capital from one group 
of countries which may not desire to be paid the interest due to them in 
the form of the borrowers' goods, but, instead, may be willing to receive 
it in the form of products of a third group of countries which, in turn, 
find it convenient or imperative to have the commodities that are produced 
with the aid of the borrowed capital. In this way countries other than 
the borrowers and lenders share in the increase of wealth that attends the 
use of the additional capital. The many-sided trade occasioned by trans- 
actions of this kind has largely determined present economic structure 
and the distribution of economic activities among the peoples of the world. 
Reference has already been made to the fact that the inequalities in trade 
between all the separate pairs of countries in the world are cancelled and 
disappear when they are consolidated, and that this process of adding up 
the sums on each side of the general world balance sheet of international 
economic relations is accomplished through triangular or many-sided 
movements of services, trade and capital. It is obvious, therefore, that 
anything which interferes with the freedom of movement of one of these 
factors may damage an essential part of a very delicate machine which it 
may be exceedingly difficult to repair. Unfortunately, the general control 
and practical cessation of foreign investment in every country is an out- 
standing example of such interference. But alarmist movements and 
withdrawals during the depression of short-term funds held abroad by 
certain creditor nations have wrought even greater havoc ; for the countries 
suffering the withdrawals met them largely by their normal commodity 
exports to the creditor countries at a considerably reduced level of prices. 
They then had nothing left with which to buy anything from the countries 
which had been the other sharers in the triangular or multilateral trade. 
Thus a short circuit occurred, cutting out intermediate links in the chain. 
Even when the withdrawals took the form of exports of gold from the 
debtor countries the exhaustion of the liquid resources of the latter led 
to similar results. 

If trade had been comparatively free when the change took place in the 
capital item in the balance, a readjustment would have been possible and 
the intermediate links could have been restored. The withdrawals 
(coupled with the cessation of capital exports by the creditor nations 
which preceded the withdrawals) tended to affect the price levels of the 
countries involved. This, in the absence of trade restrictions, would 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 105 

of itself have altered the totals of exports and imports, slowed down the 
pace of the machine, as it were, without stopping it altogether. Freedom 
to search for new markets would then have speeded it up again in a very 
short time. But the new trade barriers prevented those rapid adjust- 
ments in the quantities of imports and exports which usually occur when 
there is variation in capital movements ; for every country aimed at 
protecting its own domestic production from the dislocation that might 
follow a rise in its imports. The consequence was further increases in 
the gaps between commodity prices in different countries which, in turn, 
led to additional import restrictions and to general slowing down of trade. 

When restrictions are being imposed for the reasons just described 
due regard has to be paid to the possibility of retaliatory measures. 
Therefore, the victims are selected with care. They are invariably the 
countries in trade with which the restricting country has an excess of 
imports over exports on consolidated account of goods and services. The 
effect of this is a reduction of trade balance between the two parties in 
question and consequent further curtailments of the opportunities for 
triangular or multilateral trade. 

Attempts to gauge the contraction in triangular merchandise trade since 
1929 have been made by the Economic Intelligence Service of the League 
of Nations. The difficulties in the way of accurate estimation are con- 
siderable ; and much allowance must be made even when guesses are 
obviously well-founded. Of the general truth of the conclusions there 
is no doubt. The following table (taken from Review of World Trade, 
1933) setting out the results of a careful examination of the trading 
accounts of 22 countries which together handle about three-fourths of 
the international commerce of the world, shows how the percentage 
proportion of bilateral trade has increased during the depression at the 
expense of triangular trade. 





1929 


193 1 


1932 


1933 


Bilateral Trade 


• 79-7 


8i-s 


82-5 


83-4 


Triangular Trade 


• 20-3 


i8-5 


17-5 


i6-6 



lOO-O lOO-O lOO-O lOO-O 



This tendency is exceedingly serious for countries which have a highly 
specialised production and which, therefore, are dependent on the sale 
and export of a small number of commodities. Chile, Greece, Bolivia 
and certain agricultural countries are examples. It is only because of 
triangular or multilateral trade that such nations can effect satisfactory 
balances on income and outgo account ; for, frequently, they cannot 
dispose of enough of their products in the countries from which they 
borrow in order to offset the payments due from them to these creditors 
for goods inported and for interest on loans. The pressure exerted on 
them, then, in consequence of the growth of bilateralism, to increase their 
exports to countries which do not want their products leads to low prices 
which, in turn, stimulate further production, so that the total of receipts 
deemed necessary may not be impaired. It is in this way that the 

E 2 



io6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

contradiction arises of financial distress accompanied by excess supplies of 
certain categories of goods which is so marked a feature of the present 
depression. But it would be a mistake to conclude that bilateral trade 
treaties can never benefit either or both of the contracting parties. This 
can happen when the currencies of each are reasonably free from fluctua- 
tion, when neither is greatly indebted to the other, especially on short 
term, when there is mutual confidence in each other's [political stability 
and each has need of the other's specialised products or is willing to 
purchase them. A possible example is the case of Sweden and Great 
Britain. Such instances, however, do not controvert the fact that other 
countries lose more than is gained by the two more fortunate nations. 
At the best such agreements merely divert trade. They can do nothing 
to enlarge it. 

VII. 

What are the prospects for the future ? Will trade barriers disappear 
or be modified ? Will all these exceptional contrivances for safeguarding 
trade balances be forgotten when the present emergency passes ? It is 
too soon yet to give an answer to these questions ; but in any case the 
restoration of comparative freedom in international trade will be slow. 
Until the most fundamental cause of all restrictions is removed — dis- 
parities in the price levels of the same commodities in different countries 
due to different degrees of currency depreciation — it is unreasonable to 
anticipate much progress. But at the same time it is well to guard against 
exaggeration of the extent to which self-sufiiciency is actually a conscious 
deliberate policy of the principal industrial and commercial countries in 
the world to-day, and to avoid the conclusion that every restrictive 
measure on imports is actuated by considerations mainly non-economic 
and national. On the contrary, it would be more correct to assume that 
the aims of restriction are to enlarge the volume of international trade 
as a whole, however paradoxical this may seem. It is reasonable, therefore, 
to expect that barriers will be removed when it is discovered that they 
hinder rather than foster the attainment of this object. 

Some relaxation of the quota system has already been devised. There 
is a tendency now to use it not to place absolute limits upon the volume 
of imports but, rather, to set a maximum limit to the quantities of goods 
to which a lower scale of duties apply, there being reciprocal agreements 
that imports above this limit shall be admitted on a higher scale of tariffs. 
This plan is designed to avoid serious disturbance in a given price level 
within the importing country for each commodity coming under the 
scheme. It has been embodied in treaties between Austria and Hungary, 
Roumania and France in reference to wheat, and in several other treaties 
between countries in central and eastern Europe in reference to other 
commodities. If there must be prohibitions or restrictions, it is fairly 
well adapted for the protection of the internal price levels of commodities 
whose domestic production is considered desirable or in the case of which 
there are official marketing schemes which have to be nursed with care. 
This system of tariff quotas as distinct from import quotas would seem, 
therefore, to offer help to countries engaged in planning internal pro- 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 107 

duction in certain products the prices of which it is desired to stabilise 
without at the same time restricting an import trade which is tending to 
expand. But the uncertainties and the abuses inherent in all systems of 
quantitative control are exceptionally great in the administration of any 
quota scheme. Unless there is a return in practice to the early original 
purpose of quotas, and governments refrain from using them as special 
bargaining weapons, the prospects for increasing freedom in international 
trade are none too bright. 

In the treaty of i860 between France and Great Britain there was 
embodied for the first time the principle of competitive equality in trade, 
or the assurance of equal opportunity to all friendly competitors, the 
principle generally referred to as the most-favoured-nation principle or 
clause. The example thus set was followed in the majority of trade 
agreements concluded since that date between the important commercial 
nations of the world. This led to a considerable extension of freedom of 
trade ; but, occasionally, intensification of economic nationalist move- 
ments offered opposition to the simple working of the clause. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that since 1929 it has been overlooked or has been 
evaded by the institution of many new types of preferential trade arrange- 
ments. To the question, shall the principle be maintained or re-estab- 
lished, or is it to disappear and be no longer embodied in future commercial 
treaties, a conclusive answer cannot now be given. Reasons, however, 
can be offered for the view that it will not be abandoned completely but 
that it is likely to be retained in a modified form to play a part again in 
the general liberalisation of trade. 

Even if some measure of quantitative regulation of international trade 
survives the depression it is improbable that important industrial countries 
will consent to abandon the rights they now possess in the way of assurance, 
which is given them by the most-favoured-nation clause, of equal oppor- 
tunities for their exporters to supply the imports required by other 
countries. If they did, their merchants would soon complain, with 
justice, of unfair and unequal conditions of competition. That importance 
is still attached to the survival of the principle and that its complete 
abandonment, therefore, is unlikely appears from the report of the Com- 
mittee on Tariffs and Commercial Policy of the London Economic 
Conference of 1933. This Committee suggested modifications that might 
make its application more elastic and better suited to the changed con- 
ditions of trade in 1933. ' There was a general opinion,' the Committee 
reports, ' in favour of the maintenance of the most-favoured-nation clause 
in its unconditional and unrestricted form — naturally with the usually 
recognised exceptions — stressing the points that it represents the basis 
of all liberal commercial policy ; and that any general and substantial re- 
duction of tariffs by the method of bilateral treaties is only possible if the 
clause is unrestricted, and that this method would avoid the constant 
resumption of negotiations. 

* However, certain delegations manifested a strong tendency in favour 
of allowing new exceptions in addition to those hitherto unanimously 
admitted, on the ground that, although the unconditional and unrestricted 
most-favoured-nation clause does, under normal conditions, secure for 



io8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

trade the indispensable minimum of guarantees and prevents arbitrary 
and discriminatory treatment, if insisted on with too great rigidity, it may 
obstruct its own purposes in a period of crisis and difhculty such as we are 
now passing through.' 

An additional exception of importance which, however, has not yet 
won general acquiescence was suggested by the American delegation to 
that London Conference and repeated at the Pan-American Conference 
in the following December. The proposal was that, under certain 
conditions, the benefit of multilateral pacts for the reduction of trade 
barriers which are open to adherence by all countries should not be 
claimed by non-participating countries. The general underlying idea is 
that if collective agreements are made among groups of countries which 
are prepared to reduce barriers to trade between themselves, other 
countries not willing to undertake the same obligations should not benefit 
by such pacts merely because they have general most-favoured-nation 
agreements with some of the participants. Rigidity of interpretation of 
this kind has held up several Danubian pacts which aim at closer economic 
relations between countries in central and eastern Europe. Perhaps, too, 
it was responsible for the breakdown of the Ouchy Convention in 1932 
between Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg. It will not be easy to get 
a general informal understanding among nations that they should not 
press their claims unreasonably and so destroy the chances of success of 
all collective agreements for the reduction of trade barriers. There are 
signs, however, that such an understanding is not impossible of attainment. 
This is fortunate ; for on it will depend the future successful working of 
the most-favoured-nation clause. 

The favourable attitude towards the problem of the most-favoured- 
nation clause on the part of the London Conference Committee on Trade 
and Commercial Policy was only one of many indications that the delegates 
on that occasion were ready to recommend a definite reversal of the worst 
of the restrictions now hindering trade. There could not but be general 
agreement that the unsettled monetary situation, which called for stabilisa- 
tion and general adjustment of international financial relations, was the 
most fundamental of the problems demanding solution and that, failing 
success here, no useful purpose would be served in proceeding with 
discussions on the removal of the ordinary barriers to trade. When, 
therefore, it became apparent that agreement concerning currency 
stabilisation was impossible, owing to the reluctance of certain govern- 
ments to give up the power of control over internal price-levels which 
they considered currencies unlinked to gold conferred upon them, there 
was no option left to the representatives of other governments except to 
decline to enter into either short-term or long-term undertakings con- 
cerning trade policy and related questions. But it is important to note 
that there was a fairly general consensus of opinion that the shrinkage in 
world commerce was due to a considerable, although an undefined, 
extent to high tariffs and all the other barriers, such as quotas and exchange 
control, which had been devised since 1929. 

In accordance, then, with this general feeling, in order that there might 
be a favourable atmosphere for international discussion and for possible 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 109 

concerted action, a customs truce was agreed to, which embraced countries 
handling fully nine-tenths of the trade of the world. The deliberations 
of the Committee, as far as they went, indicated agreement, on the part 
of the responsible representatives of most governments, with liberal views 
on trade policy and with the opinion that restrictions generally were 
undesirable. But it is one thing to express adherence to an ideal, and 
another to make sacrifices in its pursuit ; and there is no doubt that the 
breakdown of the Conference on the monetary problem brought relief 
to the embarrassed trade delegates of more than one nation. It was 
demonstrated, however, that it is only through international conferences 
of this kind that progress can be looked for in the straightening out of the 
present tangle of barriers to trade. 

The failure of the Conference led to immediate denunciations of the 
tariff truce and to a temporary reaction in favour of additional restrictive 
measures. Further meetings for discussions on trade policy ought not 
to be convened until currencies are reconstituted upon firm and permanent 
foundations ; for mutual suspicions that trade concessions may be under- 
mined by currency manipulation create an unfavourable atmosphere for 
fruitful deliberation. 

While the prospects for general international agreement to scale down 
tariffs and remove other barriers do not offer hope for early action, 
regional agreements carefully chosen as starting points may indicate the 
path to continuously widening areas of comparative freedom of trade. 
Reference has already been made to the proposed Danubian pacts and 
to the Ouchy Convention of 1932 which failed through the insistence of 
the stronger nations on their rights under the most-favoured-nation 
clause. Where, however, important and influential nations are concerned 
which can command the acquiescence of weaker nations in less rigid 
interpretations of this principle of competitive equality much progress is 
possible. Perhaps the Ottawa agreements of 1932 in which Great Britain, 
her colonies and self-governing dominions all participated are a case in 
point. But if these Ottawa pacts illustrate the possibility of a wide 
extension of areas enjoying comparatively unimpeded trade they also 
clearly indicate the underlying conditions necessary for success. There 
is no need, here, to review the results of the Ottawa Conference and assess 
its value to the mother country and to the dependencies. But it would 
not be easy to refute the criticism that this series of trade agreements 
between the several parts of the British Empire have been trade-diverting 
rather than trade-enlarging in their effects. Moreover, they demand 
sacrifices on the part of some of the participants which in the long run 
may prove to be intolerable. 

Certain historical analogies are instructive. Nineteenth-century Europe 
offers examples of several movements in which a number of small con- 
tiguous independent countries formed a customs union, within which 
trade was largely free, and so built up an economic unit better balanced 
than any of the constituents singly could ever hope to be. The German 
States in 1830 came together in this way and abolished tariffs over a wide 
area in central Europe where, previously, there had been more than a 
score of States large and small. Unfortunately such movements are 



no SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

never wholly, perhaps not even principally, economic ; for they have their 
roots deep in national sentiment. Economic union, therefore, has been 
followed by political union, just as the establishment of a powerful con- 
solidated homogeneous kingdom in France followed the abolition of 
provincial tariffs there in the eighteenth century. It is the feeling or 
suspicion that there is this tendency for political union to follow customs 
agreements among neighbouring states with similar cultural institutions 
which inspires opposition to the proposed Danubian pacts and other trade 
conventions in central and eastern Europe. It may be that the tendency 
does not work in the reverse direction and that the growing independence of 
units which have hitherto been in close political union is shown in their 
determination to assert themselves in the economic sphere. It may also be 
the case that it is felt that a measure of economic independence or self- 
sufficiency is necessary for the proper enjoyment of the newly granted 
political independence. Whichever is true the attainment of real economic 
unity in the British Empire will not be an easy task. 

VIII. 

It will now be abundantly clear that the short-term influences making 
for economic self-sufficiency draw much of their inspiration and derive 
most of their impetus from instability of currencies and the unforeseen 
and violent movements of prices which always accompany unstable 
standards of value. The first and most pressing problem, therefore, 
is that of currency stabilisation ; for on its solution depend not only the 
disappearance of those novel and harmful restrictions on international 
trade already examined, but also, which is much more important, full 
economic recovery everywhere throughout the world. That must be the 
excuse, if one were needed, for a glance at some of the considerations 
bearing on the choice of policy to be pursued in connection with this 
general question of currency reconstitution. 

It will be remembered that the principal cause of the failure of the 
World Economic Conference of 1933 was the realisation that it was not 
then possible to secure agreement even among the more important nations, 
much less the general consent of representatives of all the countries 
present, on a programme of currency stabilisation. Much has happened 
since then and more than one nation has discovered how to contrive a 
more even balance on income and outgo account through the medium of 
a currency freed from gold which can be manipulated so as to ward off 
awkward price movements at home and the immediate need for internal 
economic readjustment. It is probable, therefore, that if another 
world conference were to meet now, general agreement concerning action 
would not be any easier to obtain than it was two years ago. This, how- 
ever, ought not to interfere with joint or single action on the part of some 
of the financially stronger nations whose lead the weaker would necessarily 
have to follow. Indeed, the latter, during a period of international 
monetary chaos like the present, can indulge without much hurt to them- 
selves or the rest of the world in experiments aimed at self-sufiiciency 
and permit fluctuations in the external values of their currencies without 
serious repercussions elsewhere. But the fluctuations of the rates of 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS iii 

foreign exchange in the large and influential financial centres are very 
damaging to international exchange and it is a mistake to assume that 
such movements necessarily produce equilibrium. Experience here 
reinforces theory in demonstrating that the contrary is almost certainly 
true and that they cause more dislocation than they cure. It is evident 
that it is only by an international monetary standard of some kind 
permitting of stability in foreign exchange rates that the temporary 
excesses in the trend towards economic self-sufficiency can be cured and 
prosperity restored. 

If this be granted and if agreement in the re-establishment of an inter- 
national standard is not to be looked for immediately, the case for single- 
handed action by Great Britain is considerably strengthened. We have 
most of any country to lose by a permanent shrinkage in international 
trade, and the position of London as a leading world centre of finance 
carries with it much prestige and considerable responsibility, a fact as 
important in matters political as it is in matters economic. The question, 
then, can be put very simply, although it is not equally easy to supply an 
answer. Which is to be the policy of this country if and when it decides 
to give a lead to the rest of the world— stabilisation on gold or stabilisation 
on sterling as a paper pound ? 

The latter makes a more cogent appeal to thoroughgoing economic 
nationalists than the former. For this there are many reasons. Reference 
has already been made to the most important — the greater control over 
its domestic economy which is possessed by a government whose monetary 
system is not intimately linked to a general international standard in the 
way demanded by a general foundation of gold. Of less significance are 
the difficulties which would ensue from the correction of the present 
maldistribution of gold. These, it is felt, would involve retreat from 
positions of self-sufficiency which have not yet been consolidated and 
which, if lost, could only be recovered in a future crisis or depression. 
Further, it is pointed out that important countries, including Great 
Britain, have for some time worked an exchange system without the use 
of gold and that the experience gained demonstrates the possibility of 
avoiding all the difficulties which accompany the working of the gold 
standard, especially those due to variation over long periods in new supplies 
of the metal and the occasional maldistribution of general stocks which, it 
is asserted, can never be effectively avoided. It is only by stabilisation on a 
sterling paper basis, therefore, the argument continues, that Great Britain 
(and the world) can escape another economic crisis in the course of time. 
The case against stabilisation on a paper basis rests primarily on 
prudence and expediency. The insulation from external economic 
influences so desired by the nationalists is a dangerous privilege for which 
a very high price has invariably to be paid. Further, monetary manage- 
ment on a paper standard demands constant vigilance, a continuity of 
policy and a trust in the moderation of governments which few people 
are willing to concede. Most important of all is the fact that the world 
is not yet ready to abandon an international standard based on gold. 
The problem, therefore, is not whether to return to gold, but when, and 
on what terms. 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

To the question ' when ' the answer at first sight appears to be de- 
finitive — -not until there is a general state of equilibrium between the price 
levels of the important commercial countries of the world. As long as 
sterling is undervalued as regards the currencies still on gold and uncertain, 
probably overvalued, as regards the dollar, stabilisation is undesirable. 
It would merely repeat the disastrous consequences of the mistake of 
1925. But here there is a vicious circle. It is uncertainty with regard 
to the futures of currencies and, predominantly, of sterling which is the 
main cause of the lack of harmony between foreign exchange rates and the 
price relationships of the leading countries. Until there is assurance 
concerning the future gold basis of sterling equilibrium between price 
levels is unlikely to ensue merely as a consequence of market fluctuations 
in rates of exchange. Rather than rely, therefore, on price levels, which 
are so much the playthings of doubts, alarms and apprehensions, to bring 
exchange rates into harmony with one another it would appear the better 
course partly to reverse the process, stabilise sterling on a gold basis 
tentatively, and by maintenance of steady sterling exchange rates look 
forward to internal prices elsewhere adjusting themselves to the new 
situation thus created. There is little to be gained by waiting on further 
developments before initiating such a plan. On the contrary, delay is 
adding to the difficulties that will be encountered whenever stabilisation 
on any basis is ultimately attempted ; for the present downward trend 
in sterling creates trouble for countries financially weaker than Great 
Britain, encourages competitive currency depreciation and further curtails 
the volume and value of international trade. 

If the case for early stabilisation, then, be granted, the implementing 
of the policy calls for a very careful, gradual and tentative approach. 
Anything in the way of a full and immediate restoration of the gold 
standard is impracticable ; but the preliminary steps required should not 
present serious difficulties. It is not proposed now to enter upon a 
detailed examination of those steps or of the further steps involved, and 
the degree of co-operation which may be needed from the central banks of 
the United States of America and the leading gold countries in Europe. 
Neither is it necessary to discuss the part which might conceivably be 
played by that recent addition to the machinery of the London Money 
Market, the Exchange Equalisation Account, in consolidating and main- 
taining the new situation when a de facto becomes a de jure stabilisation. 
It is sufficient to register the conclusion that until this task is performed 
there will be continued encouragement to ill-timed attempts to attain and 
maintain economic self-sufficiency, to the detriment of full recovery in 
international trade throughout the world. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



THE STABILITY OF STRUCTURES 

ADDRESS BY 

J. S. WILSON, F.C.G.I., Hon. A.R.I.B.A., M.I.C.E. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The subject I have chosen appeals to me because I have had to devote 
much time to various aspects of it and, by experimental research have 
endeavoured to contribute something to the solution of some of its 
problems. 

From the engineering point of view, stability is a somewhat dull subject, 
yet the history of its development is of great interest. Instead of trying 
to deal with the subject in a comprehensive up-to-date way, I propose to 
describe some of the more interesting episodes in its history. 

The meaning of stability is not easy to define. In dynamics and 
mechanics we have stability of steady motion and stability of equilibrium, 
of position and of friction. To the civil engineer the word is usually 
applied to the power of a structure to withstand for an indefinite time all 
the loads and forces that may be brought to bear on it. 

As an indication of the wide range covered by my title I may call your 
attention to a few examples. The most stable structure ever built is 
probably the Great Pyramid of Egypt. It consists of large blocks of 
limestone carefully shaped and piled together to the height of 480 ft. on 
a base measuring 830 ft. square. Another instance of a great pile : a pile 
of bricks laid one on another, is a tall chimney such as the celebrated one 
at St. Rollox in Glasgow. This had a height of 435 ft., and at its base a 
diameter of 40 ft. It was pulled down a few years ago after having stood 

since 1842. 

A masonry dam built across a valley to impound water is another form 
of structure the stability of which must be beyond question, as failure 
would lead to disastrous flooding. 

Then we have the arch, the most beautiful and fascinating form of 
construction invented by man. In its simple form we have arches across 
rivers of imposing size and graceful stability, while in cathedrals and other 
great buildings we have it in the groin, dome and buttress. 

In each of the above instances, strength and stability depend mainly 



114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

on the resistance to compression offered by stone or brick. A com- 
plementary form of structure dependent on the resistance to rupture by 
the pulling asunder of its parts, is the suspension bridge, the stability of 
which depends almost entirely on the tensile resistance of the chains or 
cables. The greatest structure of this form is undoubtedly the George 
Washington Bridge over the Hudson River, New York, with its span of 
3,400 ft. 

In most iron and steel structures the resistance of the material to both 
tension and compression contributes to their stability in equal proportions, 
as is found in the great girder and cantilever bridges. 

Reinforced concrete, in which the great strength of concrete to resist 
compression is combined with the power of steel to resist tension, owes 
its development largely to the facility with which it can be built and 
shaped. It has been applied to many large structures which present 
problems in stability of considerable interest. 

Tunnels of masonry or brickwork, and cast-iron lined tube tunnels, 
subject to the pressure of great depths of earth, are forms of structure 
the stabilities of which are not easy to calculate. 

In estimating the stability of a structure, the principal factors are the 
strength or resistance to rupture of the material and the balance or direc- 
tion of the forces or loads brought to bear on it. The ultimate strength 
of a simple part of a structure can be calculated without difficulty by 
applying to it the breaking stress determined by experiment for the 
material used. It is not easy, however, to estimate the strength of that 
element to withstand the long-continued action of loads and forces to 
which it might be subjected in use. Thus, the elementary part in 
question might be required to withstand, for an indefinite time, a load of 
ten tons applied in a particular way. The part could be designed so that 
it would require 100 tons, ten times the working load, to break it, and it 
would no doubt fulfil the requirement and carry the ten tons satisfactorily. 
On the other hand, it might be made with a breaking strength of only 
thirty tons and be able to carry the imposed loading equally satisfactorily. 
The second design requiring so much less material, would be the more 
economical and more correct one. Although put simply and somewhat 
crudely, that is the essential problem underlying the measure of 
stability having regard to the economical use of material, and it is 
interesting to note that, so far as applies to civil engineering structures, 
the advance made in its solution during the last fifty years has not been 
great. 

The rupture or breaking down of a structural element by a force is 
dependent on the detail of its incidence and the resulting intensity of the 
stress induced in the material. To make clear the manner in which the 
stability of some forms of structure is gauged, it is necessary to outline 
the approach to the problem. 

To fix the directions of, and arrange for the balance of loads and forces, 
the conception of action along lines was introduced at an early stage. 
The position of such a line with respect to the boundary of a member 
offering resistance, governs the distribution and intensity of stresses in 
the material. In estimating the intensity of stress, the position of the line 



G.— ENGINEERING 115 

in a lamina of the part under consideration is usually considered, and 
in it the distribution of the stress follows the ' trapezium law,' which is a 
particular case of Galileo's solution of the beam problem. Thus if the 
line representing the centre of action of the load or thrust is on the centre 
of the section of the member, the stress intensity would be the same 
throughout the section. If the line of action is off the centre, then the 
intensity is increased on the side towards which the line has moved. 
The diagram representing the distribution of stress is a trapezium, the 
centre of gravity of which is on the line of action. 

In a pier or buttress which supports and at the same time resists the 
thrust of an arch, the line representing the resultant of the weight and 
thrust of the arch is deflected downwards by the weight of the buttress, 
and the buttress may be so shaped that the deflected line is everywhere 
near the centre giving a uniform intensity of stress in the masonry, and 
uniform pressure on the ground below the foundations. On the other 
hand, the balance may not be so good, and the line may be towards the 
outer side of the buttress, giving high concentration in the masonry and 
ground. 

The maximum intensity of stress in the masonry compared with the 
stress which will crush the particular material is a measure of the stability ; 
similarly with respect to the natural formation below the foundation, the 
comparison is between the maximum pressure it is considered capable 
of carrying, and the highest pressure with which the masonry bears 
on it. 

If the resulting line of action is anywhere outside the boundary of the 
part, then the part would be without stability unless the material of which 
it is composed were capable of withstanding tensile stresses. 

The tracing of the position of the line of action of the thrusts and loads 
in an arch, which must be kept well within its thickness, is the basis of the 
design and measure of the arch's stability. 

Historically the problem of the masonry arch is extremely interesting. 
The arch form of construction has been known for thousands of years, 
and several magnificent arches built by the Romans are still in a very 
good state. Although the arch is a form of construction very generally 
used, their occasional failure in the past has kept alive a feeling of un- 
certainty, if not of mystery, as to their strength and stability. Real 
progress in the theory of the design and strength of the arch is com- 
paratively recent. Thus in 1870 the late Prof. W. C. Unwin, one of our 
greatest students of engineering construction wrote ^ : — 

' . . . it is but recently that a theory of the strength of arches has even seemed 
possible, and the theory has not yet been so far developed as to be applicable 
for practical purposes to the complex conditions of masonry bridges. 
Hence, in dealing with arched structures, the engineer is compelled to 
proceed in a manner not rigidly scientific. He adopts assumptions not in 
strict agreement with the nature of the materials he is using, if only such 
assumptions permit him to form a theory embracing the most essential 
circumstances of the problem, and if any error so introduced either favours 

1 Chatham Lectures. 



ii6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the resistance of the structure, or is capable of elimination by comparison 
of the results of the theory with existing and successful structures of the 
same kind. In fact, he is often content, so to speak, with formulae of 
interpolation, or formulae which permit him to determine from known 
structures or given dimensions the proper proportions of other structures 
of different dimensions.' 

In a masonry arch the line of thrust might occupy one of a variety of 
positions any of which would satisfy the requirements of equilibrium. 
For the purposes of design or estimating stability, some particular line 
must be chosen and this can only be done by making assumptions, the 
validity of which must have regard to the method of construction and the 
probable conditions of stress in the masonry. One of the assumptions 
referred to by Unwin relates to the position of the line of thrust at the 
crown or springings. Since Unwin wrote, one of the advances made 
has been the introduction of definite hinges, at the crown or at the spring- 
ing level, or at both places, to ensure the line of thrust passing through 
those points. These hinges render the problem of strength and stability 
much more definite, but with respect to arches without hinges the position 
is still very like that described by Unwin, although much has been done 
by comparing and analysing existing structures, and many ' formulae of in- 
terpolation ' have been proposed. In the monumental work by Sejourne,^ 
particulars are given of all arches of appreciable size throughout the world : 
details of construction are given, and the proportions are analysed and 
compared. 

Up to the first half of the nineteenth century, knowledge of the strengths 
and characteristics of materials and of the branch of engineering science 
now known as ' applied mechanics,' was not sufficient to establish or 
disprove the accuracy of various theories relating to the design or stability 
of a masonry arch then in vogue or from time to time propounded ; 
efforts to make progress in the problem depended almost as much on 
dialectics as on mechanical principles. 

An interesting incident occurred at the time the bridge across the 
Thames at Blackfriars was proposed in 1759. Of the competing designs 
the one by the architect Mylne for a bridge with elliptical arches was 
chosen, although at that time only one bridge with elliptical arches 
existed — Ammanutis' bridge in Florence. A design for a bridge with 
semi-circular arches was submitted by Gwyn, an equally well-known 
architect. Some persons objected to the elliptical arches, and even Dr. 
Johnson expressed himself on the stability of the two forms of arch. 
Boswell records that ' Johnson's regard for his friend Mr. Gwyn induced 
him to engage in a controversy against Mr. Mylne, and after being at 
considerable pains to study the subject he wrote three several letters in 
the Gazetteer in opposition to his plan.' Johnson's letters appeared in 
the Gazetteer for December i, 8, and 15, 1759, from which the following 
extracts are given : — 

' Those who are acquainted with the mathematical principles of archi- 
tecture are not many ; and yet fewer are they who will, upon any single 

* Grandes Voutes, by Paul Sejourne, 1913-1916. 



G.— ENGINEERING 117 

occasion endure any laborious stretch of thought or harass their minds 
with unaccustomed investigations. We shall therefore attempt to show 
the weaknesses of the elliptical arch, by arguments which appeal simply to 
common reason, and which will yet stand the test of geometrical examina- 
tion. Any weight laid upon the top of an arch, has a tendency to force 
that top into the vacuity below ; and the arch thus loaded on the top stands 
only because the stones that form it, being wider in the upper than in the 
lower parts, that part that fills a wider space cannot fall through a space 
less wide ; but the force which laid upon a flat would press directly down- 
wards, is dispersed each way in a lateral direction, as the parts of a beam 
are pushed out to the right and left by a wedge driven between them. In 
proportion as the stones are wider at the top than at the bottom, they can 
less easily be forced downwards, and as their lateral surfaces tend more 
from the centre to each side, to so much more is the pressure directed 
laterally towards the piers, and so much less perpendicularly towards the 
vacuity. 

' Upon this plain principle the semi-circular arch may be demonstrated 
to excel in strength the elliptical arch, which approaching nearer to a straight 
line must be constructed with stones whose diminution downwards is very 
little, and of which the pressure is almost perpendicular. It has yet been 
sometimes asserted by hardy ignorance, that the elliptical arch is stronger 
than the semi-circular ; or in other terms, that any mass is more strongly 
supported the less it rests upon the supporters. If the elliptical arch be 
equally strong with the semi-circular, that is, if an arch, by approaching 
to a straight line, loses none of its stability, it will follow, that all arcuation 
is useless, and, that the bridge may at last, without any inconvenience, 
consist of stones laid in straight lines from pillar to pillar. But if a straight 
line will bear no weight, which is evident at the first view, it is plain likewise, 
that an ellipsis will bear very little ; and that as the arch is more curved its 
strength is increased. Having thus evinced the superior strength of the 
semi-circular arch, we have sufficiently proved, that it ought to be 
preferred. ..." 

Johnson goes on to state that " the elliptical arch must always want 
elevation and dignity," and that the only bridge of the elliptical kind 
had " stood two hundred years without imitation." 

A correspondent of the journal maintained that although an elliptical 
arch may not be as strong as a semi-circular one, ' the semi-ellipsis may 
yet have strength sufficient for the purposes of commerce ' ; also ' that 
the convexity of the semi-ellipsis may be increased at will to any degree.' 
In the third letter, Johnson points out that the advocate of the elliptical 
arch does not promise that ' it will stand without cramps of iron, and 
melted lead and large stones and a very thick arch,' and recommends all 
' those who may still doubt which of the two arches is the stronger to 
press an egg first on the ends, and then upon the sides.' 

Contemporary writers disclosed the fact that Johnson consulted Mr. 
Simpson and Mr. Miiller, both professors at Woolwich Academy. 
Neither favoured the semi-circular arch in preference to the elliptical, 
and he then procured ' from a person eminently skilled in mathematics 
and the principles of architecture, answers to a string of questions drawn 
up by himself, touching the comparative strength of semi-circular and 
elliptical arches.' 



ii8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Throughout a long period in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
mathematicians and others applied themselves to finding the exact form 
of the line of thrust that would ensure equilibrium in a mass of masonry 
bridging a void. The upper boundary of the mass was a horizontal 
surface representing the road surface and the lower one the intrados of 
the arch, shaped to conform to the line sought. The effect of hollow 
spaces over the haunches was investigated also. The influence of a moving 
load was regarded as negligible in comparison with the weight of the 
masonry or could be allowed for by adding an extra layer of masonry over 
the upper surface. 

The shape of this arch of equilibrium was compared in great detail 
with those of the ellipse, cycloid, parabola, catenary and semi-circle or 
segment of a circle. Diff^erent writers strongly advocated one or other 
of these curves as being the true curve for an arch. The elaboration with 
which this was done seems remarkable, for many must have known that 
to build an arch to conform to a particular curve with the exactitude 
suggested is practically impossible. When the centering on which an 
arch is built is removed and the arch supports itself, the compression of 
the mortar in the joints and of the voussoir stones, allows the arch to drop 
an amount which is quite sufficient to alter the shape appreciably ; thus, 
the arches of Perronet's famous bridge at Neuilly dropped on decentering 
enough to alter the radius curvature at the crown from 150 ft. to 244 ft., 
and if intended to be elliptical, it might have conformed actually more 
closely to a cycloid. 

Differences of opinion on the correct proportions of arches were very 
sharp. Two writers of ability and experience at the beginning of the last 
century disagreed on important principles of design, for instance, Samuel 
Ware, Professor at Woolwich, in a pamphlet published in 1822 maintained 
that the thickness of an arch at the crown should be proportional to the 
radius of curvature. In opposition to this John Seaward in an equally 
learned paper on the subject published in 1824 argued that Ware was 
entirely wrong and that the span should be the governing factor and 
added : — 

' An ingenious writer in a late publication has strongly recomniended 
that in the forming of an arch, the depth of the voussoirs should be made 
to bear a certain ratio to the radius of curvature at the crown, without any 
reference to the span of the arch : by which I presume it is intended that 
the depth of the voussoirs should bear some certain relation to the lateral 
pressure. Much as I admire the talents of the gentleman in question, 
I feel obliged, in this particular, to differ from hini toto ccelo.' 
' ... if there be two arches of the same span, but the one having double 
the radius of curvature to the other, it is certain that the liability of the 
equilibrium being destroyed, would not be greater in the former than it 
would be in the latter : therefore on that account it is clear that the flat 
arch would not need a greater depth of voussoir ; although according to 
the doctrine held out it would have been necessary to make it double. 
Indeed, it is demonstrable that with the same depth of voussoirs the flat 
arch (provided the abutments are immovable) would be by far the strongest ; 
because, from the increased lateral pressure, it would require a much 
greater force to disarrange the parts and destroy the equilibrium.' 



G.— ENGINEERING 119 

Such contradictory statements made by those who set out to be authori- 
ties on the subject were of little help to engineers or architects who had to 
take the responsibility for the actual building of an arch. The effect of 
the conflicting ideas can be illustrated by reference to Blackfriars bridge 
in Norwich. It is the first of the only two bridges known to have been 
designed and built by Sir John Soane, the architect of the Bank of England. 
It is a single arch bridge and was built in 1783. The contractor was 
John de Carle, stonemason of Norwich. Sir John Soane's specifica- 
tion describing the method to be adopted in constructing the bridge is 
preserved. 

Although the Portland stone arch is of ample proportions, the architect 
appears to have had little confidence in the simple arch principle, and as 
will be gathered from the following extracts, he required the masonry 
of the bridge to be cramped and fastened together with iron in every 
possible way, so as to eliminate all possible risks of failure. 

' To build the Arch with Portland Stone, the Voussoirs of which it is to be 
constructed, are to be of the Number, form. Workmanship and Dimensions 
expressed in the Drawings : the Arch Joints are to be wrought exceedingly 
true and exact and be perfectly smooth and to be set dry inMilld Lead of four 
pounds to the foot and in order to prevent flushing the extremities of the 
said Joints next the Soffite of the Arch are to be flarched off and pointed 
up after the Center is struck as shall be directed. In the middle of each 
joint of each Voussoir is to be inserted two Cubes of Cast Iron of the weight 
of three Pounds each let equally into each Stone, and Channels are to be 
sunk from the Tails of the Voussoirs to the cavities for the Iron Joggles and 
the said Cavities and Channels are to be run full of lead.' 

' To provide and fix four Tyes or Chain Bars across the Bridge in the 
Positions marked in the drawing of Swedish Iron three Inches broad and 
three quarters of an inch thick with strong Corkings at each end to lay 
hold of 4 other bars each nine feet long and one inch square to be let down 
into the Ashler and fixed therein with Lead.' 

' To cramp all the Cross Joints of the Key Course and in the Arch joints 
thereof are to be twelve Joggles to consist of Bent Hooks nails staples and 
other Irregular Pieces of Small Iron filled and crammed into Dovetail 
holes to be cut into the Arch Joints of the Key Course and these adjoining 
of the two next Courses down to the middles of the Stones and to Run the 
same with Lead.' 

Some years ago I inspected and reported on this bridge. I found it 
in very good condition. There was little, if any, evidence of the ci'amps. 
It was to be expected that their corrosion would have burst pieces off the 
masonry but in this instance the iron must have been very effectively 
protected from moisture or the architect may have finally decided to leave 
much of it out : it certainly could not have added appreciably to the 
stability. Many fine buildings have suffered badly from the corrosion of 
iron cramps. For many years architects and builders of the past were 
extraordinarily lavish in their use of cramps. They put them in plain 
ashlar walls and places where they could have had no beneficial effect. 
The obsession for cramps in masonry is very like the present tendency to 
embed steel in all concrete. Concrete properly reinforced, is an admirable 
material for construction, but large masses of concrete frequently have 



I20 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

steel wire and rods laid in them, the proportion of the steel being so 
entirely inadequate in comparison with the concrete that its addition 
suggests a magical rather than a mechanical influence. 

For the longest spans, reinforced concrete has now superseded masonry ; 
but fine masonry arches of 300-ft. span have been built. The construction 
of spans of increasing length has been made possible by improved tech- 
nique in building. To avoid high stresses arising at the springing and 
key stone, as a result of the settlement or elastic deformation of the 
centering, as weight is added during building, and as a consequence of the 
initial deformation of the arch itself when the centering is removed, gaps 
are left in the arch, and special forms of construction are now introduced 
to act as temporary hinges, so that when the bridge is completed and 
the gaps filled in, the position of the line of thrust is fairly definitely 
known. 

To economise in the quantity of masonry and make it possible to use 
higher compressive stresses, arch bridges are now made with ribs of a 
width comparable with the depth of the arch, instead of the arch being 
made continuous for the whole width of the bridge. 

In reinforced concrete arches either permanent hinges of steel are 
introduced or else all the reinforcing bars are drawn together at the 
critical points to form a temporary hinge, and the surrounding concrete 
is filled in only on completion. 

Reinforced concrete arches with spans as great as 590 ft. have been 
constructed. 

The stability of a masonry dam is a problem that has exercised the 
minds of engineers and mathematicians for many years. The failure of 
the Bouzey dam in France in 1895 gave prominence to the problem. The 
Bouzey dam was straight with a length of 1720 ft., and the water held up 
had a maximum depth of about 40 ft. When the dam failed, the upper 
30 or 35 ft. of its height for a length of 560 ft. was swept away, and the 
flood, passing down the valley, caused great havoc, and eighty-six people 
lost their lives. 

Investigations after the disaster revealed many points of interest. In 
the original design, the maximum pressure on the masonry was the only 
factor considered in calculating its proportions. In the course of the 
investigations after the disaster it was shown that the resultant of the 
thrust combined with the weight of the masonry was so placed that a 
tensile stress of 1-3 tons per sq. ft. must have been imposed on the 
masonry. Laboratory tests proved that the maximum tensile strength 
of the masonry was only 60 per cent, higher. In opposition to the theory 
that the parts that failed had overturned by virtue of this weakness, it 
was held by some that failure was by shearing. The shearing stress being 
calculated as 1-32 tons per sq. ft. by some, and as 3 -2 tons per sq. ft. 
by others. 

Rankine, in 1871, had recommended that no horizontal joint in a dam 
should be expected to withstand any tensile stress, in other words, there 
should be no uplifting tendency. After the Bouzey disaster — it was con- 
sidered advisable that at the upstream face there must always be a definite 
compressive stress, and the French Government introduced the regula- 



G.— ENGINEERING 121 

tion that on horizontal joints there should be a vertical compressive stress 
at the water face equal to not less than the water pressure at the joint. 
Such compression in the masonry would tend to prevent access of water 
to any joint or crack. 

The late Sir Benjamin Baker, in 1904-5, at the time when I was his 
chief assistant, was faced with the problem of raising the Aswan dam. 
(At present the dam is being raised a second time.) The investigations 
after the disaster in France had shaken confidence in the accepted method 
of gauging the stability of a dam, and in 1904 a memoir was published 
entitled Some Disregarded Points in the Stability of Masonry Dams, by 
Prof. Karl Pearson and Mr. Atcherley. By mathematical investigation 
the authors concluded that although a dam might satisfy the usual condi- 
tions regarding the stresses on horizontal planes, it might still be subjected 
to dangerous tensile stresses on vertical planes in the vicinity of the 
downstream toe. That conclusion seemed most unlikely to engineers 
interested in the subject, but however incredible it might seem, it de- 
manded attention as coming from so eminent a mathematician. In 
arriving at their results, the authors of the memoir based their calcula- 
tions on an assumed law governing the distribution of shearing stress 
across the base. The unsatisfactory state of affairs could only be cleared 
up by determining the distribution of shear and other stresses. 

Jointly with my friend the late William Gore, I made an attempt to do 
this, and we embarked on a series of elaborate experiments with india- 
rubber models. 

It is just thirty years ago, and although I was busily engaged assisting 
Baker, and Gore was assisting the late G. F. Deacon, we did the whole 
work in our own time independently of the office work. Rubber had been 
used already by several workers as an elastic medium for strain investiga- 
tions, but I think the methods we devised for getting at the stresses were 
an advance on earlier work. Our investigations were described and 
discussed at the time at the Institution of Civil Engineers ^ and in 
Engineering,'^ in which journal there was a long correspondence on the 
subject. 

The models were made of slabs of rubber i in. thick with a smooth 
white surface, and shaped to represent the transverse section of a dam. 
The model was strained by weights carefully adjusted to represent the 
water pressure against the face and the weight of the masonry, on the 
assumption that the masonry had a specific gravity of 2 ■ 25 . The model was 
divided into sections, and the ' masonry weights ' were hung on transverse 
pins put through the rubber. Plates pulled by cords against the water 
face represented the water pressure. To ensure the exact relative posi- 
tions of the loads, the model was so shaped that when fully strained it 
had the correct profile. A network of lines was ruled on the rubber, 
and large-sized photographs on plate -glass were taken under the strained 
and unstrained conditions. Corresponding lengths on the two negatives 
could be measured accurately, and from them the strains and stresses were 
calculated. The intensity of shear at various points was measured by 

* Minutes of Proceedings Inst. C.E., vol. 172, 1907-8. 

* Engineering, 1905, 1907. 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

comparing angles on the two plates. Our investigations enabled us to 
plot curves of stress- distribution on section lines at various heights. 
The curves were of quite different shape. We found no evidence of the 
reputed tensile stress at the downstream toe. The shear stress diagram 
was practically a triangle with the maximum at the downstream edge, and 
the vertical stress distribution agreed substantially with the' trapezium 
law.' 

These experiments helped materially to clear up the situation and to 
re-establish confidence in the method that had been in general use for 
estimating the stability of masonry dams. 

During the last few years investigations, both experimental and mathe- 
matical, of problems relating to the design of large concrete dams and 
curved dams, have been made in the United States. The influence of 
heat, both natural and that generated by the setting of cement, on stresses 
and stability, has received much attention. In these gigantic structures, 
monolithic construction and the use of too large masses of concrete has 
been found accountable for serious cracking. In discussions on these 
problems, the investigations I made with Gore have been referred to as 
' the English Tests.' 

The suspension-bridge or ' philosopher's bridge,' as it has been called, 
is a fascinating type of structure. In the course of the development of 
its design and stability there have been some astonishing occurrences. 
In its most elementary form the suspension-bridge formed of strong 
flexible climbing trees or roots has been used by primitive peoples for 
centuries. Examples made of wrought iron appear to have been in exist- 
ence in the eighteenth century. Samuel Brown, who was granted a patent 
in 1817, designed and constructed some of the earliest in this country. 
His main suspension chains were made of long open welded links or long 
plate links connected together with round bars and shorter plate links. 
The chains, which were made up with several links side by side, connected 
with common hinge pins, were of uniform strength throughout their 
length, and the road or platform was suspended by vertical rods from the 
short links. In addition to the main chains Brown put chains at the 
platform level to prevent undulation. Within its limitations it was a 
satisfactory form of construction. In a bridge which carries a series of 
loads on a flexible chain, the loads and the chains are only in equilibrium 
when the chain assumes an appropriate shape, and to support any addi- 
tional weight or rearrangement of weights the chain changes its shape 
slightly. With a moving load the tendency of the platform of a suspension- 
bridge to undulate with the passage of the load has handicapped the 
development of this type of bridge. An early attempt to use it for a 
railway proved a complete failure. 

Telford's famous bridge across the Menai Straits, with a span of 570ft., 
completed in 1826, is of the simple suspension type. At first the platform 
was too flexible and caused anxiety, but that part was altered and made 
stiflter. The bridge is still in service, and is standing proof that in 
principle and construction it was sound. A few years later, a stage in the 
quest for stability in suspension-bridges reflects in a remarkable degree 



G.— ENGINEERING 123 

the ignorance in the mechanics of design of some engineers of those days. 
The wrong ideas of these men led to the suspension-bridge being regarded 
with suspicion for many years. 

A supposed improvement was introduced by a Mr. James Dredge, with 
the object of reducing the amount of iron required, and it was claimed 
also that his bridge was stronger and less flexible. Claims for the im- 
provement were demonstrated with models (which could not have been 
exactly representative) and the soundness of the construction was vouched 
for by those who were supposed to have expert knowledge, while the 
excellence of the scheme for building bridges according to the new prin- 
ciple was pressed by several eminent persons. After a large number of 
bridges had been built in this country and in India, all confidence in the 
type, and indeed in suspension-bridges generally, was severely shaken when 
a large bridge of Dredge's improved type collapsed under its own weight 
when on the point of completion, and a second one failed to carry its test 
load and collapsed later. 

A patent for the above ' improvement ' was granted to James Dredge 
in 1836 for a ' Taper Chain Bridge.' Dredge conceived the notion that 
instead of carrying all the component links of the chain the whole length 
between the supporting towers and hanging the platform on vertical sus- 
pension rods, the links or components of the chain could be deflected 
down in a diagonal direction at successive intervals, and made to terminate 
at their connections to the platform and so displace the suspension rods. 
Thus in a bridge with eleven bays and ten cross girders, starting at the 
tower with six links in the chain at each side, the two outer links would 
be carried down diagonally from the tower to the first cross girder, 
leaving ten links (five on each side). Then from a point over the first 
cross girder the outer two links would pass diagonally to the second 
cross girder, and so on for the five bays, leaving only two links at the 
centre of the bridge. The scheme converted the bridge virtually into 
two cantilevers or brackets projecting from the towers towards the centre. 
The saving of iron was enormous, and appealed so strongly to those who 
advocated the new principle that exaggerated statements, in perfectly 
good faith, were made, as the following extracts from the journals of 
the day show. Though fundamentally wrong, any criticism that may 
have been made was rendered ineffectual by the weight of the approving 
authority and by the difficulty experienced at the time with the Menai 
bridge. 

Lord Western wrote to the Editor of The Times as follows : 

' Sir, If you will notice, in any way, in your widely circulating paper the 
improvement in Bridge Architecture detailed in this letter of mine to 
Lord Melbourne, you will materially assist in bringing forward genius and 
the promulgation of an improvement in the department of science of 
considerable national importance, which is my only motive. 

* On Saturday last I introduced Mr. Dredge, the Inventor of this 
improvement in bridge building, to the Marquis of Northampton, at his 
evening assembly. He brought his models and drawings with him, and 
they attracted great attention and admiration. On the Monday morning 



124 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

following, a trial of strength of the old system of building relatively to 
Mr. Dredge's, with two models of bridges, each formed out of the same 
weight of iron wire, namely six ounces, was made in the Marquis's garden, 
the Marquis and Lord Compton and others present. The model upon the 
old system was first loaded. It bore i8 half- hundred weights, and with 
the next half broke down. The model formed upon Mr. Dredge's principle 
sustained 34 half-hundreds when upon the addition of another half hundred, 
the wooden structure on which the chains were hung (answering to the 
towers of masonry, which form the fulcrum to suspension bridges) gave 
way altogether, and the bridge came down, but the chains were unbroken ; 
and upon Mr. Dredge's calculation, would have sustained 500 more, making 
in all 2300 lbs. Mr. Dredge can build bridges on this plan, at one-third 
the expense of the present method : he requires only one-third the quantity 
of iron, and his bridge will be stronger and freer from vibration and 
pendulous motion. 

' I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant, 

' Western.' 

The long letter to the Rt. Hon. Viscount Melbourne from Lord Western 
contains many interesting passages : 

' Having heard that Government is about to expend a further sum of 
money on the reparation of the Menai Bridge, which is said to be in a 
perilous state, I cannot refrain from entreating your attention to the vast 
improvement that has been made in the construction of suspension bridges 
by Mr. Dredge of Bath. . . .' 'He [Mr. Dredge] insists on the 
possibility of reconstructing the iron work of the Menai Bridge at a less 
sum than the superfluous iron would sell for, so much less is requisite than 
was there used ; and he pledges himself to the power of the bridge, if the 
irons are altogether altered and reconstructed on his principle, to be capable 
of supporting on transit 1000 tons. The Menai bridge is believed to have 
cost near ^C 150,000 and to have consumed in its construction about 2000 tons 
of iron and to be declared only capable of sustaining 733 tons on transit. 
Before I submit . . . a detail ofsome experiments Mr. Dredge has made . . . 
I will endeavour to give some explanation ... of the fundamental principle 
upon which his mighty fabric is erected. I must give it merely as it has 
struck my unlearned common sense, and which it has, from its simplicity, 
with a force so irresistible that it makes me believe I fully understand it.' 

' I conceive the grand foundation may be said to be the rendering the chains 
strongest, and indeed very much the strongest, at the base, tapering them, 
by regular degrees to the centre, where they come at last, in fact, to a cipher. 
From the cipher commence, therefore, their size, weight and strength, 
which regularly increase, by degrees, quite up to its base, which base, you 
know, in a suspension bridge is the tower of masonry on which the chains 
are hung. In truth it is the application of that principle horizontally which 
is so obviously necessary in all perpendicular erections, of superior size 
and strength at the base, and tapering away to a cipher on its ultimate 
summit — as for example, the obelisk, the pyramid, the church spire ; and 
which principle he shows to be as effective horizontally applied as it is in 
the perpendicular, indeed, it may be said to be far more effective, as it has 
to support, in so difficult a position, comparatively with the perpendicular, 
its own intrinsic weight and a heavy transit load besides. 

' The main chains of the Menai bridge are the same size throughout. 



G.— ENGINEERING 125 

creating thereby an enormous intrinsic and superfluous weight, exceeding 
that which it has to sustain on transit, and this it is which constitutes the 
grand vice of the present system, and which, sooner or later, Mr. Dredge's 
must supersede. Mr. Dredge's bridge may be well imagined by supposing 
a church spire laid horizontally, and met by another of equal dimensions 
at the point. . . . 

' Thus his genius has led him, by the simplicity and perspicuity of his 
conceptions to effect a discovery which I firmly believe will turn out of 
great national importance, the recognitions of which by the country will, 
I am sure, be felt by him as the highest possible reward.' 

' Mr. Dredge's principle of suspension bridge building completely over- 
throws the theory and practice of a Telford, a Brunei, whose experience and 
talents we are bound highly to respect, and to whose genius I readily offer 
the humble tribute of my admiration ; can we then be surprised that the 
public should evince some fear, and some reluctance, hastily to adopt 
Mr. Dredge's novel principle or theory, in substitution of that which has 
been so long acted upon ? They ought, therefore to pause, they ought to 
inquire if there are any persons about to direct the construction of other 
suspension bridges : it is a duty they owe to those for whom they may be 
acting, to examine fully into the merits of a novel system which promises 
fairly such advantages, before they determine to persist in the further 
adoption of the present, of the correctness of which the state of the Menai 
bridge and the vast expenditure it occasions, may well create a doubt, 
independently of the obviously faulty principles in which it is, I think, 
clearly shown to be constructed .' 

The praise of influential people was supported by some of the technical 
papers. For instance, the Surveyor, Engineer and Architect commends 
Lord Western and ' those other high honourable and likewise discriminat- 
ing noblemen and gentlemen ' who took an interest in Dredge's im- 
provement, and the article goes on to state that ' on the part of the 
profession and of scientific men generally ' there was a disposition to 
' throw cold water on it,' and continues : ' It is true that Mr. Dredge 
does not belong to the profession or lay any claim to a niche in which 
avowed science deposits her numerous mummies, living or dead, and this, 
in conjunction with the pretty common feeling that nobody has a right 
to invent anything but themselves, may tend to warp their judgments, 
which everyone knows are very straight.' 

Dredge's first bridge was built in 1836, across the Avon at Bath ; it had 
a span of 150 ft., and it and others which followed must have had a slight 
margin of stability, more by accident than design, through their timber 
platforms being sufficiently stiff to withstand the compression. 

Dredge attended the Newcastle Meeting of the British Association in 
1838, and read a paper on his bridges and ' Mathematical Principle ' to 
the Mechanical Section. He had such confidence in his designs that 
he made the most preposterous statements. For instance, he told his 
audience that whereas the main chains of Telford's Menai suspension- 
bridge had a sectional area of 260 sq. in. and a total weight of 1,900 tons, 
under his ' Mathematical Principle ' 30 sq. in. of sectional area and a 
weight of 70 tons would have been sufficient. 



126 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

According to his own account of the meeting, several members were 
critical, but he convinced them in a way which suggests that members 
of ' Section G ' of those days were easily satisfied. He wrote : ' The above 
paper excited a discussion in which several members opposed my plan. 
I produced a drawing of a bridge, copied from the Saturday Magazine, 
March 1834, at Wandipore, which clearly proved that the principle in the 
construction of bridges I now advocate was acknowledged 195 years ago ; 
whereupon my plan received the unanimous approbation of the Mechanical 
Section.' 

Dredge made good use of all the praise and influential support he 
received. In proof of his principle and claims he published elaborate 
calculations, and it is remarkable that his principle and calculations appear 
to have been approved by several who were considered to be experts and 
whose opinions carried weight. The Surveyor, Engineer and Architect 
denounced criticism as a striking example of professional prejudice, 
congratulated Mr. Dredge on his two bridges in Regent's Park and 
announced that three additional bridges had been ordered by the 
Commissioners of Woods. At least twenty-seven bridges were built, 
including five in Regent's Park, London, four in Wiltshire, and a number 
in India. 

The failures began in India. A bridge of 200-ft. span collapsed before 
it was completed, and another one failed to carry its proof load and 
collapsed also. A paper published in 1849, in which the failure of these 
bridges is referred to, states that seven bridges in India had had to be 
remodelled by engineers there on an ' improved principle.' The 
description of the alterations suggests little improvement on Dredge's 
design. 

The disastrous source of weakness in Dredge's bridges was, of course, 
the timber roadway platform. With no appreciable strength in the 
chains at the centre, the stiffness of the platform was all-important. 
In India, that part had failed by buckling, and sooner or later all the 
bridges must have suffered badly. Dredge seemed unable to appreciate 
the weakness, for in his book published in 1851, he argues that platforms 
always have ample margins of strength, and that in ' large structures 
the platform may be lighter in consequence of the horizontal strain 
being more efficient to prevent undulation than the heavy trussing and 
cross- planking which are used in the old system for the purpose.' 

I have not been able to follow the later history of these bridges, but 
I believe that no single example exists. 

Several suspension-bridges, built before any of Dredge's, are still in 
use. In all these the chains are of uniform strength throughout, and the 
whole weight of the bridge is suspended from them. 

The flexibility of these bridges under heavy moving loads is a source 
of trouble, and of wear and tear of the platforms. Nevertheless, when 
the chains are pulled by the loads into a line of equilibrium, so long as 
the anchorages are secure and the towers are sound, the stability depends 
solely on the tensile strength of the chain, and under these conditions almost 
all suspension bridges have a substantial margin of strength or stability. 



G.— ENGINEERING 127 

If overloaded, long before rupture of the chains could occur, the excessive 
sagging or deformation of the platform w^ould act as a warning. Where 
the ultimate strength depended mainly on the resistance to compression 
of the platform, as in Dredge's bridge and others built about the 
same time, the failure by the buckling of the platform would be 
sudden and disastrous. The failure of Dredge's bridges, in spite of 
the confidence with which they were recommended, created a strong 
prejudice against suspension-bridges of all kinds and retarded their 
development. 

One of the early suspension-bridges still in use, is that across the Thames 
at Marlow, built by W. Tierney Clark, F.R.S., in 1829. I examined 
and reported on this bridge some years ago and found it in a remarkably 
good state. In the development of the stability of suspension-bridges 
this one is of particular interest, for it was the first built with stiffening 
girders. The ends of the cross girders in this bridge are all stiffly 
connected by parapets made in the form of girders, and any cross girders 
on which a heavy load might rest cannot deflect the suspension chain, as 
it would do if the parapet girders were not there. 

In the modern suspension bridge the stiflfening girder is as important 
a feature as the chain or cable, and its introduction has made it possible 
to construct the gigantic bridges in the United States. The interaction 
of the stiffness or flexibility of the girder with the curvature of the 
suspension cable, is the governing factor in the stability of the modern 
suspension bridge. It is a problem of considerable complexity and the 
calculations are laborious. 

It would be difficult to find more striking evidence of the advances 
made in the hundred years the British Association has been doing its 
work advancing science, than is provided by the comparison of great 
suspension bridges of to-day with the early ones I have referred to. The 
latest example with its span of 3,400 ft. and others of more than 1,500 ft. 
compare with Telford's of 570 ft. and the others of 50 to 200 ft. Cables 
composed of thousands of steel wires, four times as strong as iron, laid 
side by side to form cables 3 ft. in diameter, take the place of the iron 
chains ; and the flexible timber platform, so easily deformed by moderate 
moving loads, is now replaced by deep steel stiffening girders with upper 
and lower decks, providing double tracks for both electric railways and 
street trams and road width for many cars. Instead of the stability of the 
structure being a matter of dispute, and of the extraordinary uncertainty 
I have tried to describe, the stability is now determined and gauged by 
calculation, some of which is very elaborate ; but it is based on applied 
mechanics. 

The important aspect of stability which is governed by the character- 
istics of the materials — their resistance to compression and tension and 
to the repeated application of stress — on which economy of construction 
depends, I have not dealt with. That side of the problem has not ad- 
vanced as much as might have been expected. Engineers of a hundred 
years ago had much more confidence in their materials than we appear 
to have. In many of their structures, which are still standing and which 



128 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

have proved their stability, the stresses are, according to modern standards, 
dangerously high. To have added episodes relating to that side of the 
subject would have made this address too long. I have restricted myself 
to the part which is within the scope of ' Applied Mechanics,' a branch of 
engineering science closely associated with this section, for it was named 
and developed by Rankine, a staunch supporter of the British Association, 
and three times President of Section G. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



RECENT PROGRESS IN THE STUDY 
OF EARLY MAN 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR ARTHUR SMITH WOODWARD, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION, 



When meeting in East Anglia it is appropriate that the Section of Anthro- 
pology should devote some special attention to Prehistoric Archseology. 
In this part of England as long ago as 1797, John Frere made the first 
scientific observations on palaeolithic implements which he had dug out 
of a superficial deposit at Hoxne. During recent years Mr. J. Reid Moir 
has excited wide interest by his discoveries of the oldest known stone 
implements which he has collected with remarkable zeal and discussed 
with acute observation. Here also arose the ' Prehistoric Society of East 
Anglia,' which has been so well supported during its career of over twenty 
years, that it has gradually widened its sphere until now it becomes the 
' Prehistoric Society ' devoted to advances in its subject in all parts of the 
world. We are, indeed, now confronted with problems much greater 
than those which the pioneers in western Europe dealt with, when they 
were laying the foundations of research in prehistory. Traces of men 
who lived before the dawn of history in widely separated parts of the 
earth's surface have been discovered in increasing abundance during 
recent years ; and a study which at first was more or less local has now 
become one of world-wide scope. 

Among the several branches of science which contribute to our under- 
standing of the subject, those of palasontology and geology are of con- 
siderable importance. Dr. Friedrich E. Zeuner has recently demonstrated 
this by his valuable paper on the Pleistocene chronology of central Europe 
in the Geological Magazine for August 1935. The period of man's 
existence on the earth has been so short that there has been no appreciable 
evolution among the mammals associated with successive human races ; 
but many migrations and extinctions are observable, so that these mammals 
can often be used for determining the relative ages of the isolated deposits 
in which human remains and implements occur. In some cases also the 



I30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

mammals are probably enough to show the nature of the climate and the local 
conditions under which they lived. The contemporary geological changes, 
though small, likewise help in explaining migrations and perhaps some 
extinctions ; while the peculiar circumstances of the Great Ice Age, under 
which early man flourished in the northern hemisphere, varied so much 
from time to time, that they have been used in forming a plausible chrono- 
logy. As a palaeontologist and a geologist, therefore, I propose to discuss 
some of the latest developments of prehistory. 

It has long been recognised that the earliest men of which traces have 
been found in Europe did not originate on this continent but were 
immigrants from some other region. Western Europe, at least, was a 
kind of refuge to which successive races retreated. It is thus important 
to examine the numerous associated mammals to ascertain whence they 
came ; for most of these mammals seem also to have been irrunigrants to 
Europe just before or during the Pleistocene period when man began to 
live here, and they may give a clue to his origins. 

Sir W. Boyd Dawkins was one of the first to take a broad view of the 
mammals which accompanied the successive races of early man in Europe, 
and he eventually published a map to illustrate their mixed origin. In 
addition to some which were already in the middle of the European 
continent, others seemed to have come south from the Arctic regions, 
others had passed directly west from the middle of Asia, while a few 
could only be explained as having come north from Africa over old land 
bridges to Gibraltar and southern Italy. These mammals might not all 
have lived together, but they at least showed how varied were the routes 
open to the movements of primitive men. 

It now appears that the tracing of the wanner types of mammals to an 
African source was a mistake. It was due to the erroneous reference of 
certain fossil elephant teeth from Spain and Sicily to the existing African 
species, and to the wrong idea that the dwarf elephants found fossil in 
Malta were closely related to the same species. It was also supported by 
the fact that the cave hyaena of Europe proved to be identical with the 
spotted hyaena, which at present lives only in Africa to the south of the 
Sahara. Recent researches seem to have proved that during the Pleisto- 
cene period there was no direct communication between Europe and 
Africa, either through Gibraltar or through Sicily and Malta. Geologists 
are satisfied that certain shells which are characteristic of northern seas 
could not have entered the Mediterranean to be found there in Pleistocene 
sea beaches if the Straits of Gibraltar had not been open. Others have 
remarked that among the numerous remains of mammals which occur in 
some of the caves at Gibraltar, there is nothing distinctly African. Dr. 
Raymond Vaufrey has more recently examined the fossil mammals and 
stone implements found in the caves and other Pleistocene deposits of 
Sicily and Malta, and he shows clearly that although these islands 
were connected with Italy at the time, they never had an extension to 
Africa. 

The supposition that Sicily and Malta are remnants of a former land 
bridge between Europe and Africa has been so widely accepted that 
Dr. Vaufrey's conclusions need to be emphasised. There is no doubt 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 131 

that the fossil elephants found both in Sicily and Malta are dwarf forms 
of Elephas antiqtms, which was widely distributed in Europe in early 
Pleistocene times. The fossil hippopotamus of these islands may also have 
been derived from the species which had already reached southern 
Europe in the Upper Pliocene. All the fossil mammals, indeed, have 
European or Asiatic, not African affinities. Associated with them there 
are no traces of Palasolithic man, such as must have occurred had the 
islands been a route for migration between Europe and Africa. I agree 
with Dr. Vaufrey that the two fossil human molar teeth from Malta 
which have been referred to Neanderthal man, are of both doubtful 
age and uncertain relationship. No Palseolithic implements have 
been found in Malta, and only very late Palaeoliths occur in Sicily 
above the deposits in which the remains of dwarf elephants and hippo- 
potamus are met with. The earliest stone implements in Malta are 
Neolithic. 

The latest discoveries of fossil mammals in the caves of Palestine and 
Syria, as interpreted by Miss Dorothea M. A. Bate, show that during the 
early half of the Pleistocene period, Asia and north Africa were much more 
closely connected than they have been since. The country was com- 
paratively well watered, with luxuriant vegetation and forests, and mammals 
could readily migrate both east and west. Even so characteristic an 
African animal as the wart-hog (Phacochcerus) was then living in Palestine. 
The connection of Asia with Africa was thus as definite as that with 
Europe ; and the explanation of the partial identity between the Pleisto- 
cene mammals of Africa and Europe is probably, that they had a 
common source in Asia and diverged west in two different directions, 
one southwards, the other northwards. 

This conclusion is supported especially by the apparent origin and 
former distribution of the spotted (or cave) hy^na, Hycena crocuta. In 
the Pliocene deposits of the Siwalik Hills in northern India, there are 
jaws and other remains of hyaenas which are not quite H. crocuta but 
may well represent its ancestors. By the Pleistocene period the typical H. 
crocuta was already in existence in India, as shown by a tooth discovered 
in the Karnul caves, Madras. Remains of the same species have also been 
found in Pleistocene deposits in central Asia and even in China. They 
are likewise widely spread over Syria and northern Africa, where only the 
striped hyaena {H. striata) lives to-day. H. crocuta, therefore, is not an 
African animal. It originated in Asia, spread thence in different direc- 
tions in the Old World, and has survived only in southern Africa, which 
is at one extremity of its former wide range. 

The origin of the lion is not so clear, but as it still lives in Asia and was 
widely spread there until recent times, it is at least as much an Asiatic 
as an African mammal. The same may be said of the leopard and the 
caffer cat, which are also found sometimes among the European Pleistocene 
mammals. As the tiger of Asia is still as characteristic of temperate 
regions as it is of the tropics to which it seems to have migrated only 
within comparatively recent times, and as the finest examples occur in 
the Altai Mountains, the original home of the great cats is probably in 
the north. The fine cave lion of Pleistocene Europe, therefore, seems 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

to have lived under congenial conditions, though they were very different 
from those under which the African lion exists to-day. 

The hippopotamus, which is also at present an African animal, arrived 
in Europe probably before man, but it survived during the early part 
of the Pleistocene period when man was here. Even if it did not originate 
in Asia, it was in India nearly in its present form when the Siwalik rocks 
were deposited. It may therefore have reached Europe from Asia ; and 
recent discoveries in the caves of Syria show that it was also widely dis- 
tributed in the direction of Africa. The occurrence of the animal in 
Europe, even so far north as Yorkshire, has generally been regarded as 
proving that mild conditions, with open waters, prevailed over Europe 
when it lived here. A few years ago, however, Mr. Marius Maxwell 
found in the Lorian Swamp of Kenya Colony a peculiar race of 
hippopotamus which existed in a region of scrub out of reach of water 
in which it could habitually swim. The Pleistocene hippopotamus 
of Europe, therefore, may have been adapted to unusual conditions 
of life. 

It is interesting to observe, in conclusion, that none of the character- 
istically African antelopes occur among the European Pleistocene fauna. 
Remains of the gazelle have been found, but this animal is as much 
Asiatic as African. The Saiga antelope and Nemorhoedus, which are 
Asiatic to-day, the one living on steppes, the other on mountains, are the 
only other antelopes which reached Europe in Pleistocene times ; and 
Nemorhoedus seems to have been the ancestor of the little rock-climbing 
Myotragus, which is now extinct, but has been found in caves in the 
Balearic Isles and perhaps in Sardinia. 

The Pleistocene mammals of Europe, therefore, show that when they 
flourished on this continent, the only direct land communication was 
through Asia. The earliest races of men must have reached western 
Europe by that route ; and as a succession of stone implements, remarkably 
similar to that which is now so well known in Europe, has already been 
found with early Pleistocene faunas in Africa, it might at first be supposed 
that there were parallel migrations of the same men from the Asiatic to 
the African continent. Implements like languages, however, afford no 
certain clue to the races which made and used them, and the same tools 
must have been invented independently more than once. As the late 
Sir Baldwin Spencer remarked, ' In Australia we have in use at the 
present day a practically complete series of stone implements, represent- 
ing all the various stages of culture known in prehistoric Europe,' yet all 
these implements are the handiwork of a single race of modern man. 
Homo sapiens, at one and the same time. It is therefore unfortunate 
that hitherto no human remains have been found in undoubted association 
with any of the earliest implements and Pleistocene mammals in Africa. 
Two years ago a committee of geologists which met in Cambridge ex- 
pressed itself as satisfied with evidence which Dr. L. S. B. Leakey sub- 
mitted in order to prove that he had discovered modern types of human 
skull and lower jaw with very primitive implements and early Pleistocene 
mammals in Kenya Colony. In fact, it appeared as if the same types of 
implements in the same geological stage in Europe and Africa had been 



H— ANTHROPOLOGY 133 

made by two distinct genera of men. Quite lately, however, Prof. P. G. H. 
Boswell, under the guidance of Dr. Leakey, has examined the geological 
formations in the region where the discoveries were said to have been 
made, and he is now convinced that there is no proof of the association 
which has been claimed. The human remains in question seem to have 
been obtained from disturbed deposits, and may have been buried at a 
comparatively recent date. With later types of stone implements and 
remains of modern mammals, the only satisfactory fragments of the 
human skeleton which have hitherto been found in Africa belong to the 
genus Homo. Many of the fossil forms are related to the surviving 
South African bushman, and if any of these passed directly from northern 
Africa into Spain, as has sometimes been supposed, they must already 
have learned to make rafts by which they could cross the Straits of 
Gibraltar. 

The only fossil hitherto discovered in Africa, which suggests that that 
continent may have produced man, is the immature skull from a deposit 
of uncertain age (probably Pleistocene) at Taungs in Bechuanaland, which 
was named Australopithecus by Prof. Raymond A. Dart in 1925. It 
belongs to an ape, and seems to exhibit more human characters than the 
skull of any of the existing apes ; but Prof. Dart's complete account of 
the fossil has unfortunately not yet been published. 

The earliest known jaw of an ape, Propliopithecus, was discovered long 
ago in the Oligocene of Egypt, and numerous jaws of apes related to the 
existing chimpanzee are now being found in the Miocene of south-east 
Africa. Equally abundant, however, are the jaws of apes in the Mio- 
Pliocene deposits of northern India, and some of the teeth preserved in 
them exhibit a remarkable approach to those of man. I still think, indeed, 
that according to our present knowledge the links which connected apes 
with man are most likely to be found in south-central Asia. As the late 
Joseph Barrell pointed out, the east to west ridge of the Himalayan 
Mountains was gradually raised up at the time when northern India was 
covered with a great forest which swarmed with apes of many kinds. 
The formation of the ridge separated off a northern portion of the forest 
which became subject to comparatively inclement conditions. The apes 
stranded in this northern portion would be disturbed by the extensive 
destruction of the trees, and the survivors would be driven to be ground- 
apes and change their habits of feeding. They would thus be modified 
in the direction of man. Regarded from the zoological point of view, of 
course, man is an arboreal mammal which has left the forest. His remote 
ancestors, by continuing to live in the forest, preserved their jaws, teeth, 
and limbs nearly on the primitive mammalian plan, while the brain alone 
made progress ; and, as Dr. H. S. Harrison has remarked, if there had 
been no trees during the Tertiary era, man would probably not have 
appeared in his present form. 

These considerations, with the geographical distribution of the few 
oldest known remains of fossil man, led the late Dr. Davidson Black to 
make plans for a systematic examination of the later Tertiary deposits of 
south-central Asia. In 1925 he reviewed the whole subject in an im- 
portant paper published by the Geological Society of China. In the 



134 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

summer of 1932 he actually traversed a route from eastern China, through 
northern India, to Syria and the western coast. Dr. Black, unfortunately, 
did not live to see the realisation of his project, but we are glad to learn 
that Father P. Teilhard de Chardin will take his place in researches 
beginning in India this autumn. 

It is very interesting to notice that if central Asia was actually the 
region in which the human family originated, the few known fragments 
of the oldest fossil men are distributed geographically just as a palaeonto- 
logist would expect them to be. The late Dr. W. D. Matthew pointed 
out that if each race of animals evolved at a single centre, a succession 
of waves of increasingly advanced genera must have radiated outwards 
from that centre. The latest and highest types would be found at the 
actual place of evolution, and they would be surrounded by rings of less 
advanced types of lower and lower degree until the lowest would occur 
at the outer limit. 

The fragments of the oldest fossil men hitherto discovered are indeed 
very few, but although allowance for negative evidence may cause some 
hesitation, it is at least noteworthy that they are all on the periphery of 
the Euro-Asiatic continental area. Eoanthropus and Heidelberg man 
were found on the western margin of Europe, Pithecanthropus at the 
southern margin of Asia, and Stnanthropiis close to the eastern coast 
of Asia. If human types were evolving near central Asia, the places 
of these actual discoveries are in a distant partial ring round the 
source. 

It is, of course, impossible to be sure that all the primitive men just 
mentioned were living at approximately the same geological period. They 
date back to a time evidently before burials, and three of them were found 
in river deposits, while the fourth was met with under peculiar conditions 
in a cave. If, however, the geological and pal^ontological arguments 
for their correlation be considered, I think it will be agreed that they 
must have been nearly contemporaneous. The geological age of Eoanth- 
ropus from Piltdown, Sussex, is perhaps the most difficult to determine, 
because it was found in a flood-deposit which contains mammalian 
remains and flint implements of more than one stage at the end of the 
Pliocene and beginning of the Pleistocene periods. Attempts have been 
made to sort the fossils according to their colour ; but the varied staining 
has no special significance, owing to the irregular distribution of the 
difl"erent ferruginous materials in which they were buried. The colour of 
the first pieces of the skull of Eoanthropus itself, indeed, were altered by 
Dawson, who dipped them in bichromate of potash with the intention of 
hardening them. 

Notwithstanding the difficulty of interpreting the discoveries at Pilt- 
down, I think there is no doubt that the skull of Eoanthropus is of the same 
age as the river gravel itself. It is not waterworn, and the brain-case, 
the delicate fragments of the face, the half of the lower jaw, and the canine 
tooth were lying separately in four diff'erent places, all close together. 
If these remains had been transported far, and especially if they had been 
washed out of an earlier deposit, they would not have been associated in 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 135 

this way. Two lower teeth and a piece of the lower jaw of a typically 
Pleistocene beaver, found isolated, also seem to be contemporaneous 
with the gravel ; and two teeth of the ordinary Pleistocene Hippopotamus 
appear to be in the same state of mineralisation, and are likewise not 
waterworn. Very similar are the base of an antler of a red deer [Cervus 
elaphus), which is characteristically post-Pliocene, and a piece of the 
metapodial of a small deer which has evidently been broken and scratched 
by man. Most significant of all the fossils which are obviously contem- 
poraneous with the gravel and the human skull, is a piece of bone, 16 in. 
long, which has been worked by man nearly into the shape of the blade 
of a cricket bat. Direct comparison shows that this piece was flaked 
from the middle portion of an elephant's femur which was about 5 ft. 
in length. It, therefore, represents an elephant larger than the mammoth 
of Middle Pleistocene and later date, and doubtless belongs to one of 
the gigantic Lower Pleistocene elephants, such as E. meridionalis or 
E. antiquus. 

Highly mineralised and waterworn fragments of teeth of Mastodon and 
Rhinoceros (probably R. etruscus) are exactly like the fossils from the Plio- 
cene Crags of eastern England, and must have been washed out of a local 
Pliocene deposit which has been completely destroyed. With them may 
also be associated some broken fragments of a much mineralised tooth of 
Elephas, which most resembles the Upper Pliocene E. planifrons. The 
fossils clearly contemporaneous with the gravel and with the skull of 
Eoanthroptis, therefore, represent a Lower Pleistocene mammalian 
fauna ; while the more highly mineralised fragments have been derived 
from an earlier formation. 

If this mammalian fauna be compared with the fossil faunas occurring 
in the terraces on the sides of the valley of the Thames, it is found to agree 
best with that in the ' High Terrace ' which remains from 80 to 90 ft. 
above the present level of the river. This terrace, which is obviously 
older than the ' Middle Terrace ' where the mammoth and woolly 
rhinoceros are found, is generally admitted to date back to a warm episode 
at the beginning of the Pleistocene period. The Piltdown gravel with 
Eoanthroptis, 80 ft. above the present level of the river Ouse in 
Sussex, may thus be ascribed to the same remote date in the history 
of man. 

The lower jaw of Heidelberg man. Homo (or Protanthropus) heidel- 
bergensis, was found in a river deposit at Mauer, near Heidelberg, in direct 
association with mammals which are typically Lower Pleistocene in 
western Europe, though they also include at least two species which are 
survivals from the Upper Pliocene. In this case the mammalian remains 
are numerous and well preserved, so that they can be readily named. If, 
as I suppose, the primitive molar of an elephant at Piltdown is derived 
from an older formation, not contemporaneous with the gravel in which it 
was found, there cannot be much difference in age between Piltdown and 
Heidelberg man. 

The remains of Pithecanthropus were discovered in a river deposit at 
Trinil in Java, which is a very unstable volcanic region on the southern 



136 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

edge of the Asiatic continent. It therefore, seems possible to date them 
not only by the associated mammahan remains, but also by the fossil 
shells in the marine formations, both earlier and later, which now form 
part of the island of Java. The successive marine deposits, as might be 
expected, are marked by an increasing percentage of existing species of 
shells among the fossils. As determined by Dr. L. J. C. van Es, the river 
deposit at Trinil rests unconformably on a marine formation which is 
shown by its fossils to be of Middle Pliocene age. The gap in the geo- 
logical series indicated by this unconformity is filled in other districts by 
marine deposits which contain 66 to 70 per cent, of existing species of 
shells, and may, therefore, be regarded as Upper Pliocene. Hence the 
conclusion that if a marine formation equivalent in age to the Trinil 
river deposit were found, it would contain more than 70 per cent, of 
existing species of shells and might thus be referred to the Pleistocene. 
The percentage of existing species of freshwater shells in the Trinil 
deposit supports this conclusion, and as the associated land mammals 
(Stegodon, Hippopotamus, etc.) much resemble those in the Lower 
Pleistocene Narbada river deposits of India, Pithecanthropus evidently 
dates back to the beginning of the Pleistocene period. 

The skulls and lower jaws of Sinanthropus were met with not in a river 
deposit, but in a cave which had evidently been occupied for a long period 
by man. They were associated with rude stone and bone implements, 
and even with remains of fires. The deposits in which they occurred 
are proved by the Chinese geologists to be older than the widespread loess 
of China, which in places contains the remains of the woolly rhinoceros 
[R. tichorhinus), and in other places the mammoth {Elephas primigenius). 
These, it will be remembered, are two of the characteristic fossils of the 
' Middle Terrace ' of the Thames valley, which dates back to the latter half 
of the Pleistocene period. With Sinanthropus are found remains of a 
large extinct beaver, Trogontherium, and a rhinoceros very like R. mercki, 
which are specially characteristic of the ' High Terrace ' of the Thames 
already mentioned as the probable equivalent of the Piltdown gravel. 
If, therefore, the widely distributed mammals just enumerated were 
living at the extreme eastern and western limits of their range in the Old 
World at one and the same time, as seems most probable, Sinanthropus 
dates back to the early part of the Pleistocene period and must have been 
a contemporary of Eoanthropus. 

These facts, I think, are enough to show that in the beginning the human 
skull was much more varied than it is at the present day. There were, 
indeed, several distinct approaches to modern man before his type 
became fixed and persistent ; just as there were parallel lines of evolution, 
effective and non-effective, in the ancestry of other modern mammals. 
That the four known examples of the earliest men were all closely related, 
is proved by the skull of Sinanthropus, which exhibits a remarkable com- 
bination of the special features of the other three. In the contour of the 
top of the head, with the great depressed bony brow- ridges, it is so like 
the skull of Pithecanthropus, that some anatomists have actually referred 
it (though without good reason) to the latter genus. In the fine spongy 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY i37 

texture of the skull it agrees with Eoanthropus, and differs from all other 
known skulls of men and apes. In its relatively broad base and in the 
shape of the occiput, it also agrees with Eoanthropus. In its lower jaw 
and teeth, it most resembles Homo heidelbergensis. 

It is also interesting to notice that at the east and west extremes of their 
range, these dawn men had attained much the same grade in the habits 
of daily life. Sinanthropus made small stone implements by the rude 
working of flakes, and they are as varied in shape as the implements met 
with in the Mousterian deposits of Europe. He cut deer antlers into short 
lengths, and seems to have used the bases of the antlers as hammers. 
Bits of brain-case seem to have been made into cups ; some of the upper 
jaws were evidently used as files, and some of the lower jaws as small 
picks, with the coronoid process as working tip. The long bones were 
often broken to extract the marrow. Sinanthropus was also acquainted 
with the use of fire, and numerous successive hearths were discovered in 
his dwelling place. Eoanthropus similarly made rude stone implements 
by the chipping of flakes of varied shape, and he also worked bone in 
such a way as to suggest that he had previously used wood. He also had 
hammer stones, and he split long bones, doubtless for extracting the 
marrow. He was similarly acquainted with the use of fire, as shown 
by the discovery in the Piltdown gravel of charcoal and burnt flints, 
which include stones indistinguishable from the ' pot boilers ' of later 
periods. 

Up to the present, unfortunately, the earliest men in other parts of 
Euro-Asia are known only by stone implements, but these are so 
widely scattered that there is an extensive area which may be hopefully 
searched for primitive human remains. The greatest difficulty is one 
which I have already mentioned, the apparent absence of intentional 
burials. 

The next stage in man's development is much better known, because 
by this time he had learned to bury his dead in security. As examples 
have been found in caves so far apart as France and Palestine, burial had 
doubtless become a general custom. Many whole skeletons are therefore 
available for study. 

This stage is that of Neanderthal or Mousterian man, which is geolo- 
gically the latest to retain several specially ape-like characters associated 
in a single individual. Its Asiatic origin is now still clearer to a palseonto- 
logist than that of earlier man. Burials in caves which seem to be ap- 
proximately of the same date, reveal a comparatively high Neanderthal 
type in Palestine, a low and bestial type in western Europe. On Matthew's 
principle already mentioned, the first is therefore nearest to the original 
source. The accompanying stone implements support this conclusion, 
for whereas in western Europe the implements are merely trimmed broad 
flakes, in Palestine there are also many narrow blades which resemble 
those made by later (Aurignacian) man in Europe. The Asiatic type of 
Neanderthal man was indeed progressing in skill to meet his increasing 
needs. 

Since 1913 our conception of Neanderthal man has been based on the 

F2 



138 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

admirable description of the skeleton from La-Chapelle-aux-Saints by 
Prof. Marcellin Boule in his classical memoir in the Annales de Paleon- 
tologie. This and the earlier accounts of more fragmentary remains from 
the Neanderthal cave in Germany and the Spy cave in Belgium, have led 
to the prevalent idea that the type of man in question exhibited too many 
degenerate features added to his ape-characters, to be the ancestor of the 
modern Homo sapiens. A few years ago, however, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka 
pointed out that other skulls of Neanderthal man, especially those from 
central Europe and the fragment found by Mr. Turville Petre in Galilee, 
Palestine, were less different from the skull of modern man than most of 
the western European examples, and Hovio neanderthalensis might, after 
all, prove to be the ancestor of Homo sapiens if he could be traced to his 
source. At last, through the discoveries of Miss Dorothy Garrod and 
Mr. Theodore McCown in the caves of Mt. Carmel, Palestine, we seem 
to be approaching that source. They have disentombed a series of buried 
skeletons which are nearly complete ; and according to the preliminary 
reports on the collection by Mr. McCown and Sir Arthur Keith, they 
belong to a race which exhibited a remarkable mingling of the characters 
of Neanderthal and modern man. They seem to show us modern man 
in the making. 

Even the latest phases in the development of stone- age man appear to 
have begun in Asia, as already generally admitted. It is usually difficult 
to distinguish the skeletons of domestic animals from those of wild animals, 
but Raphael Pumpelly's discoveries in Turkestan show that domestica- 
tion of several familiar animals was probably beginning there at a very 
early date in Neolithic times. 

Until typical Homo sapiens had come into being, man's only outlet from 
Asia seems to have been by land in the direction of Europe and Africa. 
As soon, however, as he had attained this final stage of development he 
must have been able to construct rafts or boats, by which he crossed the 
narrow seas of the East Indies to Australia, and. perhaps the equally 
narrow seas at Behring Straits to North America. 

Australasia. 

Australia is shown by its past and present animal life to have been 
separated by sea from the rest of the world during the whole of the 
Tertiary era, including Pleistocene times, and it was isolated too early 
to be inhabited by the ancestors of the apes. Man is therefore certainly 
an immigrant from overseas, and we know that he reached the country 
when various relatively large Pleistocene marsupials were still living there, 
because a fossil human skull has been found at Talgai in Queensland 
directly associated with their remains. This skull is essentially the same 
as that of the existing Australian aborigines, who have retained a mode 
of life like that of the latest Palaeolithic hunters of the mainland. Some 
of the immigrants evidently took with them a semi-domesticated dog, 
the dingo, of which fossil remains have been found in old inhabited 
sites. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 139 

It is remarkable that very few traces of men who might be related 
to the ancestors of the Australians have hitherto been recognised in their 
homeland in Asia. The skulls of Homo wadjakensis from an old lake 
deposit at Wadjak in Java, discovered and described by Dr. Eugene 
Dubois, may perhaps be placed among them. The skulls named Homo 
ijavanthropus) suloensis more recently discovered by Dr. W. F. F. 
Oppenoorth in an old deposit near the Solo river in Java, seem to be 
intermediate between the skulls of Pithecanthropus and the modern 
Australian, though they have not yet been described in detail. As many 
have observed, the skull of Rhodesian man {Homo rhodesiensis) from a cave 
in northern Rhodesia, also exhibits several resemblances to the skull of 
the modern Australian. Other skulls dug up in South Africa have also 
been described as exhibiting Australian characteristics. Sooner or later, 
therefore, fossil ancestral types of Australians will probably be found 
widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World. 

North America. 

In at least part of the first half of the Pleistocene period there must have 
been a direct connection between Asia and North America in the region 
of Behring Straits. There may have been an isthmus of land, or there 
may have been only islands and continuous ice ; but there was certainly 
a passage which allowed such mammals as the mammoth, bison, sheep, 
goat, elk, wapiti, reindeer and black bear to reach America for the first 
time. So far there is no evidence that man accompanied these animals, 
and it may be that by then he had not yet reached the north-east corner 
of Asia. The woolly rhinoceros similarly never passed from Asia to 
America, although it was abundant and widely spread through the northern 
lands in the Old World. Its absence from America shows that in some 
cases there were impediments to emigration. 

The earliest traces of Palaeolithic man hitherto discovered in N'orth 
America date back only to the later part of the Pleistocene period. Last 
year Mr. J. Dorsch, when collecting for Mr. Childs Frick, found at 
Fairbanks, Alaska, some small end-scrapers and conical cores, which 
Dr. N. C. Nelson recognised as identical with those which he had collected 
a few years before in large numbers in the Gobi desert. These seem to 
have been made by some of the latest Palseolithic men ; and the only stone 
implements hitherto found in North America in direct association with 
the remains of typically Pleistocene mammals show that, when man 
arrived in that country, he had already learned the supreme art of trimming 
stone by pressure-flaking. In pattern, indeed, his implements resemble 
those of Solutrean man in Europe, and even include the familiar Solutrean 
leaf-shaped blades, besides the characteristic spear points. 

The Yuma points, however, as these American spear points have been 
termed by Prof. E. B. Renaud, of Denver, are accompanied by more 
elaborate points of a peculiar type which has not hitherto been found in 
the Old World. These are known as Folsom points, from Folsom in 
Union County, New Mexico, where they occur associated with the remains 



I40 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of an extinct species of bison. Thie Folsom points are somewhat elongated 
and pointed blades, with a truncated base which is usually a little excavated; 
and the middle of each face is hollowed by the skilful removal of a longi- 
tudinal flake, which allows it to be clasped by a projection from the end 
of the spear. These points were, therefore, hafted differently from any 
of those known from the Solutrean of western Europe. They show that 
the American late Palaeolithic man evolved new ideas on the spot. 

The skeletal characters of this race of man are still not known with 
certainty. The only human bones and teeth hitherto dug up closely 
resemble the corresponding parts of the surviving North American 
Indians, and it is uncertain whether any of them are as old as the remains 
of the Pleistocene mammals with which they are supposed to have been 
sometimes associated. The Solutrean-like implements, however, have 
lately been satisfactorily proved to be contemporaneous with extinct 
mammals of Pleistocene age in several localities, especially in New Mexico, 
Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Nebraska. 

Two years ago, I had the privilege of visiting one of these localities, 
by the kind invitation of Dr. John C. Merriam, President of the Carnegie 
Institution, Washington, and Dr. Edgar B. Howard, of the Pennsylvanian 
University Museum, Philadelphia. It was on the dry prairie between 
Clovis and Portales in Curry County, New Mexico. Excavations were 
then in progress by Dr. Howard and a party of fellow-workers, and the 
results have lately been described by Dr. Howard himself in a valuable 
well-illustrated memoir on ' Evidence of Early Man in North America,' 
published in the Museum Journal of the University of Philadelphia, vol. xxiv, 
Nos. 2-3, June 1935. I can appreciate and endorse his conclusions. 

The locality near Clovis is in the course of an old river which deposited 
gravel and then dried up into a series of shallow lakes which eventually 
became filled with silt and sand, probably windborne. There are sand- 
dunes around to-day. In the sandy silt of the old lakes there are well- 
preserved remains of the mammoth and extinct species of bison, besides 
freshwater shells which indicate a colder climate than that of New Mexico 
at present. There are also stone implements, including Solutrean-like 
blades and less elaborately worked scrapers ; and in one spot the explorers 
found a mass of charcoal which contained burnt bones and chipped 
flints, evidently the remains of a contemporary hearth. Beneath the sandy 
silt several Folsom and Yuma points were obtained, and still further 
down, below the handiwork of man, there were remains of horses and 
camels. 

In Burnet cave, near Carlsbad in New Mexico, Dr. Howard also found 
a Folsom point and bone awls directly associated with remains of extinct 
bison and musk ox, and traces of old hearths ; and in Gypsum cave, near 
Las Vegas in Nevada, Dr. M. R. Harrington, of Los Angeles, discovered 
stone implements with remains of horses and camels and the small ground- 
sloth Nothrotherium, again with the charcoal of old hearths. Several other 
equally clear cases of the association of human implements with typically 
Pleistocene mammals in the south-western States of America might be 
cited, but these are enough to show the nature of the evidence which has 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 141 

been obtained. There can be no doubt that during the latter part of the 
Pleistocene period, when extensive northern ice still reduced the normal 
temperature of more southern latitudes, man who made stone implements 
by the technique which is still practised by the modern North American 
Indians, was very widely distributed over the continent. 

It is generally supposed that a few of the typically Pleistocene mammals 
survived in North America to a later geological date than any in Europe. 
The remains of the Ohio mastodon, for example, occur in post-Pleistocene 
swamp deposits ; and dried mummies of the little ground sloth Nothro- 
therium have been found in southern caves with coprolites, which show 
that it fed on the same vegetation as that which still exists in the neigh- 
bourhood. It seems, therefore, very difficult to determine the geological 
age of the earliest man in North America as compared with the successive 
late phases of stone-age man in the Old World. The only hope centres 
in satisfactory discoveries of human remains and implements in the 
deposits on the fluctuating edge of the northern ice sheet. 

South America. 

Some of the typically Pleistocene mammals in the southern part of 
South America also appear to have survived until comparatively recent 
times. Man was almost certainly associated with them, but nothing is 
known to distinguish this race from modern South American Indians. 
The supposed ancestors of the human family reported by Florentino 
Ameghino from the Tertiary rocks of Argentina, are due to erroneous 
interpretation of the fossils, as already pointed out by Hrdlicka and others. 

The first fossilised remains of man in the South American continent 
were discovered exactly a hundred years ago in the caves of Minas Geraes, 
Brazil, by the Danish naturalist, Dr. Peter Wilhelm Lund, whose centenary 
has just been celebrated by the scientific men of Brazil in Lagoa Santa and 
Bello Horizonte. Under the direction of Prof. Anibal Mattos, three 
volumes have been published in Bello Horizonte, giving an account of 
Lund's researches, with a Portuguese translation of his scientific papers. 
At first Lund hesitated to conclude that the human skeletons which he 
found in the caves were as old as the bones of extinct mammals with which 
they were associated : he thought they might be burials or otherwise 
accidentally introduced into the old deposits. In the end, however, after 
much experience of many diggings, he became convinced that, although 
the fossil skeletons were very like those of the existing Botocudos, they 
must have belonged to man who was contemporary with the mammals 
which afterwards became extinct. 

Some years ago the late Dr. Francisco P. Moreno, Dr. Rudolph Hauthal 
and I, described the discovery of the dried skin and other remains of an 
extinct ground sloth {Neomylodon or Grypotherium), with fragments of 
other extinct mammals, in a cave in Last Hope Inlet, Patagonia. Here 
again, the presence of fires, cut and worked bone, and masses of hay cut 
for food for the ground sloth, led us to infer that man lived in Patagonia 
with the various Pleistocene mammals which are now extinct. 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



Remote Islands. 



The races of men who eventually reached New Zealand and other 
remote islands, were so far advanced in civilised life that they scarcely 
concern a palaeontologist. They only interest him on account of the 
disturbance of the existing wild life and the extinctions which they have 
caused. The ethnologist now joins the human anatomist in attempting 
to explain the distribution of these people and to discover their relation- 
ships. They occupy a lowly sphere in the modern world. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE PITUITARY BODY AND THE 
DIENCEPHALON 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. P. T. HERRING, M.D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The pituitary body, the ' Glans pituitam excipiens ' of Vesalius (1543), 
from the time of Galen to the seventeenth century, was looked upon as 
an organ for separating the waste products from the brain and diverting 
them into the nose and pharynx. In the transformation of vital into 
animal spirits the residues were removed as pituita or phlegm, and the act 
of sneezing was held in high esteem as a means of clarifying the mind. 
In 1660 Victor Schneider described the structure of the mucous membrane 
of the nose, and in 1672 Richard Lower finally disposed of the older 
theory. Lower indeed ventured to suggest that the pituitary secretes, 
not into the nose, but into the brain. 

The gland was termed the Hypophysis Cerebri by Soemmerring in 
1772, and Rathke, the embryologist, discovered its dual mode of origin 
in 1832. Clinical medicine gave the first clue to its function : the disease 
Acromegaly was described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, and somewhat later 
associated with overgrowth of the pituitary body. 

Experimental research upon the organ may be said to date from 1895, 
when Oliver and Schafer discovered that the gland contains an active 
principle, which, when injected into the blood, raises the blood pressure 
and increases the activity of the heart. In 1905 Alfred Frohlich described 
a pathological condition in man, associated with obesity and genital 
infantilism, to which he gave the name ' dystrophia adiposogenitalis.' 
Since that time, and particularly during the last few years, great advances 
have been made in the knowledge of the functions of the pituitary body, 
and of that part of the brain to which it is attached. The work of Harvey 
Cushing calls for special mention, for to him and his pupils many of the 
most valuable contributions are due. 

Anatomical and Structural Features. 
The structures formed from the wall of the posterior part of the primary 
cerebral vesicle or diencephalon are perhaps more diverse in character 
than those of any other portion of the central nervous system. In 
addition to nerve cells and nerve tracts the diencephalon gives rise to 
organs obviously secretory, the choroid plexus, and, in fishes, the saccus 
vasculosus. The paraphysis, when present, is probably glandular in 
function. Two prominent evaginations of the brain wall, one above and 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

one below, form respectively the pineal body and the nervous lobe of 
the pituitary. In their development these two bodies show a remarkable 
resemblance. No true nerve cells are found in them, but they contain 
peculiarly modified neuroglia and ependyma cells. Both pineal and 
pituitary present in some animals appearances strongly suggestive of 
glandular function, their acini opening into the third ventricle. In 
reptiles the pineal body and the nervous lobe of the pituitary are com- 
posed of branching tubular structures resembling glands which discharge 
their contents into the cerebrospinal fluid. In birds the nervous lobe 
of the pituitary retains this hollow character. In mammals both organs 
are for the most part solid, though in some the nervous lobe of the 
pituitary retains to a variable extent its original cavity in free communica- 
tion with the third ventricle. The pineal body is said to be missing in 
crocodiles, and the nervous lobe of the pituitary fails to develop in the 
cartilaginous fishes. The receptors for light, the retinse, arise from the 
wall of the diencephalon, and the dorsal or pineal eye, when present, is 
probably a receptor of a similar nature. The pineal eye is but a part of 
a complex system in which glandular structures at its base are to be 
regarded as forerunners of the pineal body of the higher vertebrates. 
A highly specialised form of ependyma, extending from the pineal recess 
over the front of the posterior commissure into the iter, was named by 
Dendy the subcommissural organ. Its function is unknown, but its 
histological appearance is suggestive of its being a receptor, open to 
stimulus by the cerebrospinal fluid which bathes its surface while passing 
from the third ventricle into the iter. 

The pituitary body is the only one of the diverse structures of the 
diencephalon which receives an accession of epithelium from an outside 
source. This it gets at a very early stage of development by the ingrowth 
of Rathke's pocket from the buccal epithelium. The pouch or pocket 
retains its original cavity in most mammals as the cleft of the pituitary, 
and its dorsal wall comes into intimate contact with the nervous outgrowth, 
maintaining and even increasing this intimacy during the life of the 
individual. The union of buccal epithelium with the nervous element 
appears indeed to be to some extent a symbiosis. Transplantation of 
the pituitary body in the tadpole is said to be successful only when a 
certain amount of nervous tissue is included with the epithelial. The 
invasion, of the nervous lobe of the pituitary by this epithelium takes place 
normally to a variable extent, and it is not uncommon to find masses of 
these cells attached to the floor of the third ventricle or scattered individually 
in the cerebrospinal fluid in the neighbourhood of the infundibulum. 

The coming together at an early stage of development of the pituitary 
of two hollow processes, the one from the mouth and the other from the 
wall of the diencephalon, has naturally suggested that their union denotes 
an old association between the brain tube and the alimentary canal. 
Julin pointed out the resemblance of the early stages of development of 
the pituitary to that of the subneural gland of the Ascidian larva, a gland 
which is often spoken of as the Ascidian hypophysis. KupflFer regarded 
Rathke's pocket as the vertebrate representative of an ancient mouth, 
the palaeostoma, denoting an ancestral communication between the 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 145 

anterior end of the gut and the brain tube. The history of the pituitary 
is one of great significance, and its epithehal components make up the 
greater part of the organ in all vertebrates. 

With the development within the cranium of the epithelium of Rathke's 
pocket the several structures which make up the pituitary body are com- 
pleted. These have been named the pars glandularis, the pars intermedia 
and the pars tuberalis ; the two latter portions being developments of 
that part of the epithelium which is more particularly associated with the 
pars nervosa. The epithelial structures arise from the same source and 
show little differentiation in the early stages of growth of the organ. 
Changes in structure, no doubt associated with changes in function, occur 
later, but it is probable that even in the adult the gland possesses a reserve 
of cells from which more specialised types may arise as occasion requires. 

Although the division of the pituitary body into components, showing 
different structural characteristics, is the rule in mammals, great variations 
in their relative amounts occur in different species and also in individual 
animals of the same species. The pars glandularis is the predominant 
feature in all vertebrates ; the pars intermedia, pars tuberalis and pars 
nervosa are much more variable. The close connection between the 
epithelial derivatives and the diencephalon is always found. 

The pars glandularis or anterior lobe of the mammalian pituitary con- 
tains three distinctive kinds of cell, differing in their relative proportions 
and positions in different animals. The chief element is the chromo- 
phobe or mother-cell. It closely resembles the type of cell characteristic 
of the pars intermedia, though whether the two are identical in structure 
and function cannot be stated. These cells appear to be the least differ- 
entiated of the elements arising from Rathke's pocket, and evidence 
points to their being able to undergo further development with the forma- 
tion of the two other types met with in the lobe, acidophil and basophil 
cells. Severinghaus states that Golgi bodies appear in the chromophobe 
cells of two kinds, filamentous networks and perinuclear rings. The 
nature of the Golgi body indicates the type of cell which is in process of 
development ; the cells possessing the network become acidophil, and 
the ringed cells form the basophil element. The chromophobe cells 
are the most abundant, but it is as yet undetermined whether they are 
functionally active as such, or are merely reserves from which the secre- 
tory elements are subsequently formed. In the human pituitary body 
Rasmussen estimates the chromophobe cells at 52 per cent, of the total, 
the acidophil at 37, and the basophil cells at 11 per cent. Variations in 
their relative numbers have been described in different physiological 
conditions. Charriper and Hatterius state that in the female rat the 
basophil cells predominate during oestrus, and the eosinophil cells during 
the interval. Modifications of the cells have been described as occurring 
in pregnancy, after castration, and in other conditions. The histological 
picture can be very varied, and can be rapidly changed. 

Mode of Secretion. 
In all vertebrates the epithelial lobe is characterised by extreme vascu- 
larity. In elasmobranch fishes the arrangement of its cells in acinar 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

formation around blood vessels is a striking feature. In the mammalian 
pituitary the circulation is sinusoidal, and provision is made for the 
cellular secretion to enter directly into the blood. The epithelial lobe 
is obviously an endocrine gland which pours its products into the general 
circulation. Its secretion would, therefore, appear to be destined more 
for general purposes in the body than for action localised to its immediate 
neighbourhood. 

The pars nervosa, when suitably fixed and stained, holds masses of fine 
granular particles in especial abundance around the blood vessels. These 
granules probably represent a storage of the secretion peculiar to the lobe. 
Their mode of origin is not yet settled. They may be derived from the 
epithelial investment, and more particularly from the breaking down of 
the epithelial cells which penetrate the pars nervosa from the pars inter- 
media, but the granules are found in all parts of the lobe, and not merely 
in the neck where penetration by epithelium is most evident. A study 
of the comparative anatomy of the posterior lobe, especially in reptiles 
and birds, suggests that the nerve elements play some part, and that the 
modified neuroglia or ependyma cells may be secretory. There are 
examples of secretion by cells of nervous origin, the chromophil cell of 
the medulla of the suprarenals being a prominent one. The pineal body 
contains material which acts upon the melanophores of the tadpole, and 
there appears to be no cell other than the parenchymatous, a modified 
form of neuroglia, to account for it. 

The hormones of the posterior lobe differ in certain respects from those 
of the pars intermedia. The pressor substance is peculiar to the pars 
nervosa, occurring in the pituitary body of all vertebrates which possess 
a pars nervosa, and absent from those which have none. On the other 
hand many of the activities possessed by extracts of the posterior lobe are 
also shown by extracts of the pars intermedia, though as a rule less strongly. 
It is probable that this material is elaborated by cells of the pars inter- 
media, pars tuberalis, and even by cells of the pars glandularis. Hyaline 
material is of common occurrence, especially in the neck of the posterior 
lobe, and similar material is found in acinar-like structures in the pars 
tuberalis and pars intermedia. In some animals, and occasionally in the 
human pituitary, the formation resembles small thyroid vesicles. The 
material is sometimes a secretion and at others a product of the actual 
breaking down of cells which have wandered into the pars nervosa. In 
some cases it has been traced into the veins of the lobe, and from there 
to the adjacent wall of the brain. Its origin is clearly epithelial. 

Three ways are open to the secretion of the posterior lobe : direct 
absorption into the blood vessels ; penetration into the adjacent nervous 
floor of the tuber cinereum ; and direct entry into the cerebrospinal 
fluid. There is evidence that all three routes may be taken. The histo- 
logical features of the posterior lobe are suggestive of its being a brain 
gland which furnishes a secretion for local action in the diencephalon. 
The blood vessels of the lobe are relatively much less numerous than those 
of the anterior lobe, and are capillaries, not sinusoids. Their arrangement 
is peculiar. Popa and Fielding have described a venous portal system in 
the human pituitary body. Capillaries in the pars nervosa, intermedia 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 147 

and tuberalis, unite to form veins which run through the infundibular 
process to break up again into capillaries in the hypothalamus. Their 
anatomical arrangement suggests that they collect the products of the 
posterior lobe and convey them directly to the nervous tissue of this part 
of the brain. It is customary to speak of nerve ' centres ' and to regard 
them as subject to the direct influence of physical and chemical stimuli. 
The term ' centre ' is convenient, but misleading. By analogy with what 
is known of the manner of working of the nervous system stimuli act 
upon some form of receptor which is adapted to respond to a specific form 
of stimulus. The passage of material from the pars nervosa into the 
cerebrospinal fluid points to the possibility that there are such receptors 
in the diencephalon. The subcommissural organ occurs to one as a 
possible receptor, but there is no experimental evidence bearing upon its 
functions. This organ, too, while highly developed in many animals, is 
not nearly so conspicuous in the adult human brain. 

Connections of the Pituitary Body with the Brain. 

In all vertebrates some part of the pituitary body is closely bound up 
with the floor of the third ventricle. Even in cartilaginous fishes the 
ventricle runs backward for some distance to end in the large-paired 
saccus vasculosus, and its ventral wall is invested with epithelium. In 
the mammalian pituitary abundant non-medullated nerve fibres have been 
described by Greving and by Pines. They are said to arise chiefly from 
the cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. The fibres con- 
verge into the infundibulum, and spread out in the posterior lobe to form 
basket-like endings in the pars nervosa. Many of them penetrate the 
epithelium of the pars intermedia, and according to CroU end in knob-like 
structures in the cells. CroU points out that non-medullated fibres are 
relatively few in number in the posterior lobe which is also sparsely 
supplied with blood vessels, and regards them as secretory rather than 
vasomotor. Roussy and Mossinger also find nerve fibres arising from 
cells in the supraoptic, paraventricular and inferior hypothalamic nuclei, 
apparently secretory in function, which enter the pituitary to supply the 
pars intermedia, pars tuberalis and islands of epithelium in the pars 
nervosa. They state that lesions of the tuber cinereum must damage some 
of these fibres and thereby aff'ect the gland. Sympathetic nerve fibres 
have also been described as entering the gland with the arteries, and Dandy 
has traced fibres from the carotid plexus along the vessels of the stalk 
and into the anterior lobe. 

Experimental work supports the view, expressed by Harvey Cushing, 
that nuclei in the diencephalon supply nerve fibres to all parts of the 
pituitary body, and exercise a controlling influence upon its secretion. 
An example of pituitary response through the nervous system is furnished 
by the observation of Fee and Parkes that removal of the pituitary of the 
female rabbit within one hour after copulation prevents ovulation, but 
later removal than this has no such inhibitory eff"ect. It is known that the 
injection of a suitable extract of the anterior lobe of the pituitary brings 
about ovulation, and it is reasonable to infer that the stimulus of mating 
induces reflexly in the rabbit sufficient hormone for the purpose in about an 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

hour's time. Zondek speaks of the pituitary sex hormone as the motor 
which sets the reproductive cycle going, and Harvey Gushing adds the 
comment that the emotional self-starter is probably in the diencephalon. 

The hypothalamus, comprising the tuber cinereum, mammillary 
bodies, infundibulum and pars nervosa of the pituitary body, optic 
chiasma and subthalamic tectal region, forms an important part of the 
diencephalon which has been slow to reveal its secrets. The region is 
difficult of access for experimental purposes, and its exposure is attended 
by damage which may obscure the results obtained. Moreover, both 
Harvey Gushing and Beattie have shown that some anaesthetics prevent 
the occurrence of reactions which might otherwise be expected to result 
from stimulation of its parts. Much information has been obtained 
from the clinical examination of patients suffering from lesions of the 
hypothalamus, but the mass of information thus yielded is extremely 
difficult to interpret. Harvey Gushing has demonstrated in the conscious 
human being an immediate and striking response to perfusion of the 
third ventricle by solutions of pituitrin and of pilocarpine. The response 
was so rapid that the drugs could not have been absorbed into the blood 
vessels, but must have acted locally, a fact which strongly suggests the 
presence in some part of the third ventricle of a receptor mechanism. 
The effects were those of a general vaso-dilatation of the skin blood 
vessels, profuse sweating and a fall in blood pressure. The patient's 
temperature fell, as did also the basal metabolic rate, both remaining low 
for some time. The same dose of pituitrin given intravenously to the 
same patient had the opposite effect upon the circulation, producing pallor 
with no sweating, and increased intestinal peristalsis. Injected sub- 
cutaneously the dose had no appreciable effect except as an antidiuretic. 
Perfusion of pituitrin through the ventricles of dogs gave rise to vascular 
dilatation, sahvation, excessive panting, pulmonary oedema and gastro- 
intestinal hypertonicity, results which were prevented by a previous use 
of atropine. 

Harvey Gushing assumes as a working hypothesis that, under emotional 
stimuli, the posterior lobe of the pituitary body discharges its secretion 
into the cerebrospinal fluid, or by the venous portal system into the 
hypothalamus, where it diffuses through the ependyma and influences 
nuclei in this part of the brain to bring about a parasympathetic effect. 
' Beattie and his co-workers have obtained somewhat similar results 
from the direct stimulation of various parts of the hypothalamus in animals, 
and they support Gushing's hypothesis of the presence of a parasympathetic 
centre in the hypothalamus. They found that stimulation of the lateral 
margin of the infundibulum gives rise to increased peristalsis and secretion 
in the stomach, which disappears on section of the vagus. There is also 
increased tone and movement in the bladder. Stimulation of the tuber 
cinereum produces slowing of the heart and other cardiac effects revealed 
by the electrocardiograph. 

Evidence has been accumulating that there is also an important sym- 
pathetic mechanism in the hypothalamus. Claude Bernard in 1849 dis- 
covered that puncture of the wall of the fourth ventricle produces a 
glycosuria. Harvey Gushing and his pupils have shown that in dogs a 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 149 

puncture of the third ventricle, or injury to various parts of the hypo- 
thalamus, are almost as effective as the Bernard piqure. Stimulation of 
the exposed pituitary body gives a similar result. Gushing believes that 
the glycosuria resulting from the Bernard piqure may be explained by the 
injury of descending nerve fibres from the hypothalamus lying super- 
ficially in the middle line of the floor of the fourth ventricle. Karplus and 
Kreidl showed that in cats stimulation of the hypothalamus lateral to the 
infundibulum produces dilatation of the pupil, separation of the eyelids 
and retraction of the nictitating membrane. They also obtained profuse 
sweating of the feet and a rise of arterial pressure, all dependent upon an 
intact sympathetic system. Houssay and Molinelli in 1926 stated that 
weak stimulation of the hypothalamus gives rise to a considerable increase 
in the secretion of adrenaline. Beattie, Brow and Long have shown 
that the posterior part of the hypothalamus is the portion related to 
the sympathetic system. Its stimulation produces the secretion of 
adrenaline. Beattie states there are probably two distinct mechanisms 
in the hypothalamus, an anterior or parasympathetic, and a posterior 
or sympathetic. There is further evidence for the location of a higher 
co-ordinative sympathetic mechanism in the posterior part of the hypo- 
thalamus. Bard has shown by serial sectioning of the brain in living 
cats that the condition, designated by Cannon ' sham rage,' occurs after 
ablation of cortex, corpora striata and the cranial half of the diencephalon, 
and disappears when a section is made between the diencephalon and the 
mid-brain. The phenomena of sham rage are largely those of intense 
stimulation of the sympathetic system. The diencephalon is one of the 
oldest portions of the brain, and the hypothalamus exists throughout the 
vertebrate series. Rioch, in a study of this region in carnivora, finds 
evidence of a general pattern in its nuclei and tracts. Eaves and Croll 
have shown that the grey matter of the hypothalamus is more severely 
aff"ected in chronic epidemic encephalitis in the human subject than any 
other part of the brain with the possible exception of the substantia nigra, 
and that the pituitary body is frequently involved in the lesions. 

Evidence is accumulating that the hypothalamus is an important, if not 
the main, site of integration of the basic activities which are common to 
the life of all vertebrates. The metabolism of solids and of water, with 
its accompaniments of hunger and thirst, the regulation of body tempera- 
ture, emotional reactions, sleep, mating and reproduction, may have an 
anatomical basis in this part of the brain. The pituitary body is an 
essential part of the mechanism whereby the hypothalamus is enabled to 
carry out and control its vital activities. 

Hormones of the Pituitary. 
Many hormones are now allocated to the pituitary body, and more may 
be discovered. It is as yet impossible to say that the numerous prepara- 
tions which have been made represent substances actually secreted by 
the gland, and until the hormones can be isolated in a pure state we cannot 
be certain of their properties. The hormones of the anterior lobe are 
carried by the blood to all parts of the body, and their ultimate effects 
are complicated by the enhancement or otherwise of the internal secretions 



ISO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of other glands upon which they act. The secondary resuhs may indeed 
be more pronounced than the primary. 

The mode of action of the active principles of the posterior lobe is 
even more obscure. It has already been noted that effects of a different 
nature are produced according to the way in which the extracts are 
exhibited. We cannot at present be certain whether they act locally 
upon the diencephalon, or more generally through the blood stream. 
Possibly both methods may be utilised. 

In disturbances of the human pituitary body, and especially in those 
occasioned by the growth of adenomata, there is the further complication, 
stressed by Harvey Gushing, that the pituitary body lies in a rigidly 
enclosed case. The growth of one element must be at the expense of 
another. An adenoma of the growth-producing cells not only exercises 
its own action by increasing production of the growth hormone, but it 
leads to a diminishing output of other hormones, the lack of which shows 
its own train of symptoms. Hence arise so many of the different syn- 
dromes associated with pituitary disturbance. Secondary effects still 
further complicate the picture. The hypothalamus may be involved, and 
differences of opinion arise as to whether symptoms are attributable to the 
pituitary or to the brain. 

The Anterior Lobe. 

Hormones have been more or less completely separated from the anterior 
lobe which stimulate growth and exercise a controlling influence over 
many important organs of the body, the gonads, thyroids, parathyroids, 
thymus, cortex of the suprarenals and the mammary glands. Extracts 
have also been prepared which exert a powerful influence upon meta- 
bolism, especially of carbohydrate and fat. 

The growth hormone has been so far isolated by Evans to yield a 
white hygroscopic powder, stable in dry air, and containing about 15 per 
cent, of nitrogen. From Cushing's observations in adenomata it is 
probably a product of the acidophil cells. The growth hormone has 
been successfully used to produce giants in growing rats and dogs. 
It has also induced conditions in adult dogs similar to acromegaly. The 
hormone appears to stimulate the osteoblast to increased bone formation. 
It would be interesting to test its effects in cartilaginous fishes, the 
pituitaries of which are lacking in acidophil cells. Impure extracts bring 
about splanchnomegaly and other changes which may be due to their 
admixture with other active principles. 

The gonad-stimulating, or gonadotropic hormone, is probably a 
product of the basophil cells. In a basophil adenoma recorded by Teel 
typical hypertropic changes occurred in the ovary. Zondek and Aschheim, 
and Smith and Engle, found that implantation of anterior lobe tissue in im- 
mature female rats and mice brings about rapid sexual maturity. Zondek 
and Aschheim prepared two extracts of the anterior lobe, which they called 
prolan A and prolan B, the one acting as a stimulus to the maturation of 
the Graafian follicle, and the other bringing about its rapid luteinisation. 
Collip has shown that the material of these authors, prolan, is obtained 
from the placenta and from the urine of the pregnant animal. Evans and 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 151 

others believe that prolan is not the true gonadotropic hormone. It is 
termed by CoUip the A.P.L. or anterior pituitary-like substance, and is 
probably activated by the true gonadotropic hormone of the pituitary. 

It has long been known that removal of the anterior lobe of the pituitary 
results in rapid atrophy of the gonads, male or female. 

Extracts of the anterior lobe exert a similar influence upon the thyroids. 
Removal of the anterior lobe is followed by atrophic changes in them, 
while the injection of suitable extracts leads to their hypertrophy, even in 
the hypophysectomised animal. Loeb and Aron independently ascer- 
tained that extracts of anterior lobe produce in the guinea-pig hyperplasia 
of the thyroids, exophthalmos and other changes similar to those found 
in Graves' disease. Shockaert has obtained striking results of the same 
nature in young ducks, and Houssay and others have produced them in 
various animals. It has been shown that exophthalmos may be caused 
by the injection of suitable extracts, even after removal of the thyroids. 
Marine has obtained exophthalmos by the use of methyl cyanide, and 
looks for its cause in the lessened oxidation acting through the dien- 
cephalon upon the pituitary body and the sympathetic system. Graves' 
disease appears to be a syndrome in which the pituitary body and the 
diencephalon play an important part. 

The thyrotropic hormone has been prepared in a state of considerable 
purity, but it is not known from which type of cell it arises. Anderson 
and Collip have noted that repeated injections of this preparation bring 
about some immunity to its actions. 

Houssay and Sammartino have noted atrophic changes in the para- 
thyroids of dogs after removal of the anterior lobe, and Anselmino and 
Hoffmann have produced enlargement of these bodies by the injection of 
extracts of the lobe. Other workers have also obtained evidence of a 
parathyrotropic hormone in the anterior lobe. 

Removal of the anterior pituitary sets up atrophic changes in the cortex 
of the suprarenals, and Evans has shown that this can be prevented by 
the use of suitable extracts of the lobe. Houssay finds that the zona 
fasciculata and zona reticularis are the parts mainly affected. There is 
no change in the structure of the medulla or in its content of adrenaline. 
Collip has succeeded in separating the adrenotropic hormone from the 
others. 

Riddle and Bates have prepared a hormone, prolactin, from the anterior 
lobe which induces lactation in the fully developed mammary gland, 
growth and functioning of the crop-gland in pigeons, and brings about 
broodiness and the inhibition of ovarian function in fowls. 

Harvey Gushing and his co-workers have drawn attention to the changes 
in carbohydrate metabolism which are exhibited by patients and by 
experimental animals in hyper and in hypo-pituitary states. Houssay 
and Magenta found that after removal of the pituitary body dogs are 
especially sensitive to insulin, and become rapidly hypoglycaemic. 
Houssay and Biasotti showed that the glycosuria following pancrea- 
tectomy can be prevented in toads by removal of the pituitary body. 
Somewhat similar results were obtained in dogs. Removal of the 
pituitary diminishes the glycosuria caused by pancreatectomy, and dogs 



153 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

so treated may survive for six months without recourse to the use of 
insulin. The animals lost weight, but there were occasional periods 
during which they actually gained weight. Hypoglycemia was a feature 
of the condition and some of the dogs required injections of glucose to 
keep them alive. Houssay believes that the pituitary is antagonistic to 
the pancreas in carbohydrate metabolism, and that the anterior lobe is 
the main factor. It is of interest to note that Houssay and Biasotti found 
that injury to the tuber cinereum or to the mammillary bodies has no 
influence upon the course of pancreatic diabetes. 

Baumann and Marine have produced glycosuria and hyperglycaemia 
in rabbits by the daily injection of the anterior lobe, and Evans and his 
co-workers obtained the same result in two out of four dogs by the daily 
injection of the growth hormone continued for eight or nine months. 

Repeated injections of anterior lobe extracts have also been found to 
produce ketonuria, lipaemia and cholesterolaemia, in addition to hyper- 
glycaemia and increased resistance to insulin. 

The Posterior Lobe. 

The posterior lobe furnishes an extract, pituitrin, which is rich in 
physiological activity, but which has not so far been separated into more 
than two fractions, each possessing its own definite properties. The 
pressor effect was discovered by Oliver and Schafer in 1895, and located 
to the posterior lobe by Howell. There are anomalies in its action upon 
the circulation. A second dose within half an hour of the first produces 
a fall in blood pressure. Noel Baton and Watson found that it has no 
pressor eff'ect in the bird, and Hogben and Schlapp showed that it has 
no perceptible action upon the circulation of the tortoise and frog. On 
the other hand Krogh and Rehberg found that removal of the pituitary 
in the frog results in a generalised capillary dilatation, which may be 
overcome by the injection from time to time of small amounts of pituitrin. 
Krogh believed that the secretion of the posterior lobe is essential for the 
preservation of capillary tone, and this view has obtained wide acceptance. 
No part of the pituitary, other than the pars nervosa, yields an extract 
which has a pressor action upon the mammalian circulation though some 
of the other actions of pituitrin are obtainable from extracts of the pars 
intermedia. This of itself is evidence of there being at least two active 
principles in pituitrin, and confirmation came from the work of Kamm, 
Aldrich and others in the laboratories of Parke, Davis and Company. 
These workers obtained on a commercial scale a pressor substance, 
beta-hypophamine, vasopressin or pitressin, and a substance acting upon 
uterine muscle, alpha-hypophamine or oxytocin. 

The pressor substance has little action upon uterine muscle, but stimu- 
lates other plain muscle, raising blood pressure and provoking peristalsis. 
Harvey Gushing has noted that in human subjects compression or destruc- 
tion of the pituitary stalk by tumours is almost invariably associated with 
low blood pressures, while histological evidence of hypersecretion is 
often accompanied by raised blood pressures. Gushing has described 
a pathological condition associated with basophil adenoma of the pars 
intermedia in which the cells of the latter invade the pars nervosa. He 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 153 

regards these cells as the origin of the pressor principle, the excess pro- 
duction of which is primarily responsible for some of the phenomena 
accompanying the condition. Hofbauer in 19 18 suggested that the 
toxaemias of pregnancy, and especially eclampsia, might be due to over- 
action of the posterior lobe of the pituitary body, and other observers have 
come to the same conclusion. Gushing is inclined to support this view. 
Numerous records of hypertension associated with basophil adenoma of 
the pituitary have been published by pathologists since their attention 
was drawn to it, though the exact mode of production of the secondary 
lesions is not yet understood. Kraus suggests that cholesterolaemia may 
be a factor, Ashoff believes that the deposition of cholesterol in the 
intima of the arteries is the starting point of atheroma, and that the 
deposition of calcium follows. Moehlig found that in rabbits, receiving 
a diet containing excess of fat, repeated injections of pituitrirt produce 
atheroma and other evidences of arteriosclerosis. The phenomena 
associated with Cushing's syndrome, or pituitary basophilism, are ascribed 
by some to over action of the adrenal cortex, but evidence is accumulating 
in favour of their primary origin from the pituitary body. 

Magnus and S chafer described a diuretic action of posterior lobe extract 
in 1906. In experimental animals the diuretic effect of an intravenous 
injection is often very pronounced, but it is only temporary, and is suc- 
ceeded by a cessation of urine secretion. Farini and Van der Velden, in 
1913, independently ascertained that extracts of the posterior lobe, injected 
hypodermically, act as antidiuretics, and can be used to control the polyuria 
of diabetes insipidus in man. The work of Starling and Verney upon the 
isolated kidney of the dog showed that pituitrin increases the percentage 
and amount of chlorides in the urine while decreasing the water eliminated. 
Starling and Verney concluded that the pituitary body provides a sub- 
stance which normally regulates the output of water and chlorides by the 
kidneys. Priestly showed that pituitrin inhibits for several hours in man 
the diuresis which normally follows the intake of large quantities of water, 
and this antidiuretic property is now well established. The hormone, if 
it has a separate entity, is found in vasopressin and not in oxytocin. 

Maddock obtained persistent polyuria in dogs by the application of 
silver clips to the stalk of the pituitary, a result which Gushing believes to 
be due to a blockage of the secretion of the posterior lobe which is thereby 
prevented from passing into the blood vessels or directly into the cerebro- 
spinal fluid of the third ventricle. Gamus and Roussy (1920), and Bailey 
and Bremer, showed that polyuria might be equally well provoked by 
injury of the tuber cinereum and other parts of the hypothalamus. 
Richter has also proved that polyuria and polydipsia may be induced in 
the rat by puncture of the floor of the third ventricle in situations which 
cause no direct injury to the pituitary body. Eaves and GroU find that in 
the human subject severe lesions of the hypothalamus do not give rise 
to diabetes insipidus, but that relatively mild lesions may do so. The 
injection of pituitrin has been employed successfully in the treatment of 
many cases of diabetes insipidus, but not in all. Lesions of the hypo- 
thalamus are liable to interfere with the normal outlet for the products of 
the lobe by damaging the venous portal system or destroying the nerve 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

fibres which convey secretory impulses to the gland. Removal of the 
posterior lobe in dogs does not always produce polyuria, and this is ex- 
plained by Trendelenberg as due to the presence of the hormone in the 
floor of the third ventricle. That this is a possible factor will be apparent 
from the frequency with which cells of the pars intermedia are normally 
found in this part of the brain wall. Further evidence of the importance 
of the pituitary in the control of water metabolism is seen in the experi- 
ments by Briill. The kidney vessels of a dog were perfused alternately 
with blood from a normal dog and blood from a dog which had had its 
pituitary body removed. Polyuria and retention of chlorides were 
obtained with the blood from the animal lacking a pituitary body. 

Gushing expresses the view that grey matter in the hypothalamus, 
possibly the nucleus supraopticus, is an important cell station for the 
integration of nerve impulses regulating water intake and output, and 
that the hypothalamus and the posterior lobe of the pituitary body make 
up a neuro-epithelial structure, the parts of which are mutually inter- 
dependent in their functions. 

The relationship of the secretion of the posterior lobe to the metabolism 
of carbohydrate and of fat is still obscure. Goetsch, Gushing and 
Jacobson obtained evidence of an influence of the posterior lobe upon 
carbohydrate metabolism, and looked to the reflex liberation of a pituitary 
hormone as the cause of glycogenesis in the liver. Burn showed that an 
extract of the posterior lobe, which he later identitied in the vasopressin 
fraction, prevents the fall of blood sugar which follows an injection of 
insulin. Vasopressin has little immediate action upon the amount of 
sugar in the blood, and Dale regarded the pituitary principle as a direct 
antagonist to insulin. Hynd and Rotter found that in white rats, 
especially in those upon a carbohydrate diet, vasopressin induces a slight 
hyperglycaemia accompanied by a fall in liver glycogen and a rise in 
muscle glycogen. The amount of fat in the liver increases, as was first 
pointed out by Goope and Ghamberlain, but soon falls and is followed 
by a greater accumulation of glycogen. The ultimate effect of the in- 
jection is the reverse of that first seen. Raab ascertained that pituitrin 
decreases the amount of fat in the blood, and is the more potent when 
injected into the ventricle. Moreover the effect is abolished by a variety 
of nerve lesions. On these grounds Raab believed that pituitrin acts on 
a nervous mechanism in the hypothalamus. In later work Raab con- 
cluded that a separate principle is the factor responsible, and that it is 
a product of the anterior lobe. 

Smith has shown that injuries to the tuber cinereum may result in great 
obesity in rats, and Gushing has reported that one of Maddock's dogs, 
in which a clip was placed on the pituitary stalk, eventually became very 
fat. 

The deposition of fat in various parts of the body and the increased 
tolerance for sugar are well-known features of some forms of pituitary 
disturbance in man, but the opposite conditions also occur. It is at 
present impossible to determine how far the posterior lobe of the pituitary 
is concerned in these alterations of metabolism. Many of the observations 
were made before the importance of the anterior lobe was discovered. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 155 

Houssay and Biasotti consider that the pituitary as a whole is active in 
metabolism, but that the anterior lobe is the more important. Harvey 
Gushing looks to a nervous control in the hypothalamus, in which pituitary 
and nervous mechanisms work together in the regulation of the metabolism 
of solids as they do in the case of water. Hunger and thirst are sensations 
of primary importance to the animal. The nerve impulses responsible 
for their production act on the diencephalic mechanism, and the pituitary 
body is called upon to make the necessary adjustments. 

The action of pituitrin as a stimulant of uterine muscle was discovered 
by Dale in 1906. The hormone, now known as oxytocin, is a product 
of the pars intermedia, though stored in greater abundance in the pars 
nervosa. It is held by some to be an important element in the termination 
of pregnancy. The active principle is not confined to the mammalian 
pituitary, and it is said to be present in the Ascidian ' pituitary.' This 
fact alone points to a wider application of the hormone. 

Ott and Scott in 19 10 described the galactogogue effect of posterior lobe 
extracts. The material responsible can be formed by cells other than those 
of the posterior lobe, for it is present in the elasmobranch pituitary and 
must therefore have an epithelial origin. 

The action of pituitrin upon melanophores has been described by 
Hogben and Winton and others. It is interesting to note that the ex- 
pansion of the melanophores brought about by pituitrin is the reverse of 
that produced in tadpoles by extracts of the pineal body. 

Zondek and Krohn have recently claimed the presence of a specific 
hormone, ' intermedin ' which gives a characteristic erythrophore effect 
in the minnow. The hormone is said to be formed by the cells of the 
pars intermedia and liberated into the third ventricle. Traces of it may 
be found in the wall of the ventricle, but not in the blood or in the fourth 
ventricle. Its action is presumably upon a local nerve mechanism in the 
diencephalon, and is said to be specific. 

Other activities of the posterior lobe have been described. Dodds and 
Noble have advanced the theory that the control of blood destruction is 
exercised by the posterior lobe through an influence upon reticulo- 
endothelium. They have obtained by the injection of extracts in rabbits 
hasmorrhagic lesions of the acid-secreting areas of the stomach, and rapid 
destruction of red blood corpuscles accompanied by an increase of 
macrocytes. 

Other effects upon the blood are described. The production of ulcers 
in the stomach and upper parts of the intestine has been attributed to 
the action of pituitrin upon nervous mechanisms in the hypothalamus 
controlling the blood vessels of these areas. 

A multiplicity of actions can undoubtedly be evoked by extracts of the 
posterior lobe, but one may well question if all be normal functions. 
The oxytocic principle is found in male as well as in female animals, 
and there is a remarkable similarity in many of the products of the 
pituitaries of all vertebrates, irrespective of their apparent physiological 
requirements. One is compelled to conclude that the active principles 
of the pituitary are such as are necessary for the regulation of common 
and fundamental processes in the life of the animal. 



iS6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Conclusion. 

The pituitary body is anatomically and physiologically bound up with 
the diencephalon in all vertebrates from the earliest stages of development. 
The diencephalon itself is the site of integration of nerve impulses con- 
cerned in the regulation of many of the fundamental processes of life. 
It possesses a diversity of structures, not the least important of which is 
that derived from the buccal mucous membrane, the epithelial elements 
of the pituitary body. The pituitary body provides the brain with an 
armamentarium of hormones. Some of these exert their actions directly 
upon peripheral tissues through the blood stream ; others act locally upon 
nervous mechanisms in the hypothalamus. All are under the control of 
this part of the brain. 

The diencephalon and pituitary body form a working unit, and have 
functions of far-reaching importance in the control of fundamental 
physiological processes. It is probable that the pineal body is another 
part of the same mechanism, but its functions are still to be discovered. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



PERSONALITY AND AGE 

ADDRESS BY 

DR. LL. WYNN JONES, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



We meet this year in the shadow caused by the grievous loss of our 
ex-President, Dr. Shepherd Dawson. All who were privileged to work 
in close association with him could not fail to be impressed by his genial 
personality, by his concern for scientific accuracy in psychological work, 
and by his earnest and successful endeavours to advance the study of 
important social problems which demanded expert psychological know- 
ledge and skill. His contributions have greatly enriched our science and 
will long remain a tribute to his memory. 

I must now turn to indicate in what respects the scope of our study 
this morning has to be limited, bearing in mind that there are many 
possible approaches to the study of personality. 

On the psychical side psycho-pathologists, and especially psycho- 
analysts, have in recent years made outstanding contributions. On the 
physiological side biochemists, and especially endocrinologists, have made 
some promising advances, although there is no unanimity of opinion 
as to the exact functions of the various crino-pathologies. When 
psychiatric, physiological, and biochemical experts have perfected their 
collaboration it is reasonable to expect that our knowledge of human 
personality will be enhanced. But leaving aside the approaches I have 
mentioned to their respective experts and considering only the more 
familiar approach of the ordinary psychologist, I propose to limit the 
field still further by directing your attention to one particular aspect of 
it — namely, an account of recent investigations with adult subjects. It 
will be expedient as far as possible to consider results of a definitely 
objective character such as would have appealed to the great pioneer, 
Sir Francis Galton, who, over fifty years ago, wrote : ' I do not plead 
guilty to taking a shallow view of human nature, when I propose to apply, 
as it were, a foot-rule to its heights and depths. The powers of man are 
finite and if finite they are not too large for measurement.' To-day the 
possibility of mental measurement is continually being taken for granted 
and disputes only arise as to ways and means, or as to its feasibility in 
special domains. Thus it has been usual to distinguish between tests of 
abilities on the one hand which easily satisfy the canons of measurement, 
and tests of affective and conative traits, the so-called tests of ' personality,' 
which satisfy those canons with difficulty, if at all. It may be occasionally 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

convenient to restrict the meaning of personality in this way, but I see 
no vaUd objection to following a common practice and regarding per- 
sonality in its widest connotation as the integration of all the marks of 
mind and body, as affected by nature and nurture. But as it is difficult 
to say anything scientific about a ' total personality ' there must be some 
attempt at analysis. Up to a point there is considerable agreement. 
Thus there may be a general acceptance to include at least five great 
classes of factors of personality which, according to McDougall, seem to 
be in great measure, though not entirely, independent variables in the 
make-up of personality — namely, (i) the factors of intellect, (2) of dis- 
position, i.e., the array of innately given conative or affective tendencies, 
(3) of temper, i.e., the general peculiarities of the mode of working of all 
the conative tendencies, (4) of temperament, i.e., the influences, direct or 
indirect, of bodily metabolism upon the psycho-physical processes of the 
nervous system, and (5) of character, i.e., matters of acquired organisation 
of the affective tendencies in sentiments and complexes. 

Investigators, however, diverge widely when they attempt to elaborate 
such a scheme with a view to the actual testing of concrete personalities, 
and there is no limit to the number of traits which, it is claimed, can be 
tested in the sense that the values obtained may be represented by actual 
magnitudes or, at least, be placed somewhere along a continuum. 

It thus becomes apparent that in our present study the dependent 
variable, personality, cannot usefully be employed. It involves a large 
number of dependent variables, every one .of which in turn must be 
studied with reference to the independent variable, age. Here, in age, 
we have a variable which gladdens the heart of the tester. For there is 
usually, at least in this country, documentary evidence of it which ensures 
scientific accuracy. It is fortunate that such evidence is available, as 
otherwise after the age of twenty-five there would be little, if any, proof 
of age, whether of the living or dead, which would be conclusive in medical 
jurisprudence. It is true that common knowledge comes more or less to 
our aid, enabling us to make a fair approximation to the decade within 
which a person may be, but any closer approximation must be made with 
so many reservations as to be hardly worth consideration. Crow's-feet 
about the eyes or white hair often appear in the young from suffering 
or shock or for no apparent reason. To say that a person is thirty years 
of age is a definite reference to solar time, but that person may be sixty 
years old when judged by physical, physiological, or psychological criteria 
of oldness. And the last sentence would still hold if the words ' thirty ' 
and ' sixty ' are interchanged. Such considerations are vital as well as 
interesting with reference to individual biographies, but in psychology, 
no less than in other sciences, due regard must be placed on tendencies. 
If it becomes possible by laborious investigations to ascertain what is the 
tendency for a trait to change with advancing age it may be well worth 
the trouble. A failure to appreciate the significance of tendencies is 
obviously the cause of letters appearing periodically in the press, which 
attempt to draw a universal conclusion, possibly on the strength of some 
alleged practice by a few centenarians. 

A word may now be added on the difficulty of distinguishing between 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 159 

the adjectives ' senile ' and ' pathological.' If a person of ninety were 
found as mentally alert as he was at fifty he would certainly be ab- 
normal but decidedly not pathological. If, however, he showed the 
expected mental deterioration due to age, it would seem preferable to 
denote it a senile and not a pathological change. Similarly with 
presbyopia. In the early forties it is quite the normal occurrence for 
people to become aware of the steady diminution of accommodation 
power. It is true this is a sensory deterioration, but probably most of 
those who have experienced it would prefer to call it a senile rather than 
a pathological change. With a little ingenuity it might be possible to 
find a still less objectionable term, for there are individuals who resist 
the suggestion that it is a senile change and by refusing to wear glasses 
may do themselves harm, just as, at the other extreme, are individuals 
who harm themselves by concluding that they are already old at the 
first onset of the symptoms. 

Other senile changes such as those which slow down the motions of 
a sprint runner occur in the twenties. Such senile changes may be 
contrasted, for instance, with definitely pathological changes such 
as dental decay during childhood. In the individual personality, 
then, there may be both pathological and senile changes occurring 
which cause a deterioration of functions long before the total personality 
has attained its maximum integration. Unfortunately, ' maximum 
integration ' is a little vague, but it is probably true that most personalities 
are not fully integrated till long after maturity is reached. More- 
over, there are functions which improve with age, at least up to middle 
age, others which deteriorate with age, and still others which are 
largely independent of age. 

A few years ago the readers of many German newspapers were invited 
by Giese to give an account of the signs by which they noticed that they 
had become old, and to say at what age these signs first appeared. When 
these reports were analysed it appeared that the average age of becoming 
subjectively old was forty- nine years, but this age of becoming old varied 
widely with the individual — indeed from age eighteen to eighty-two. 

The bodily signs were twice as numerous as the mental. The bodily 
signs in decreasing order of frequency from 17-4 to 1-2 per cent, may 
briefly be summarised thus : (i) Motor (muscles, back, teeth, bones, 
extremities), (2) nerves (including memory and insomnia), (3) sensory 
(eye, ear), (4) skin (hair, wrinkles), (5) fatigue, (6) sexual, (7) circu- 
latory (heart, arteries), (8) metabolic (sugar, gout, fat), (9) digestive, 
(10) kidney, (11) respiratory. 

It would, of course, be expected that the layman would be more likely 
to refer to bodily symptoms than to mental, and it was natural that the 
more educated should show a higher percentage of mental signs. 

The subjects who reported mental signs were divided into three classes : 

(i) The negatory type. About 18 per cent, of those who reported 
mental signs opposed the suggestion of being old and either indignantly 
refused to acknowledge it or perhaps referred to the health or longevity 
of their stock. 

(2) About 38 per cent, ascertained that they were old by noting the 



i6o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

way they have been treated by the outside world in various situations and 
the Hke. 

(3) About 44 per cent, reported experiences from their own intro- 
spections — it might be some intellectual change in reaction such as the 
emergence of old recollections, or it might be an affective change such as a 
disinclination for amusements. 

Important is the fact that bodily and mental manifestations certainly do 
not go together and have widely different values for different individuals. 
Some lay great stress on bodily signs and hardly any on the mental, while 
others do just the reverse. It is not, of course, suggested that the per- 
centages reported above would agree with medical diagnosis, as the 
subjects belonged to a sample of the general population. Moreover, 
many of the physical symptoms reported had probably a mental origin, 
for, as Prof. M. Greenwood stated in a recent lecture on ' The 
Temperamental Factor in Industry,' ' it is becoming realised more and 
more how easily emotional disturbances may result in bodily ills that 
can be cured only by dealing with their psychological causes.' 

Before referring to some systematic experiments with adult subjects 
it may be useful to account for the fact that this is largely a new develop- 
ment. Child psychology has largely occupied the attention of psycho- 
logists during the last thirty years. The educational and vocational 
implications were so obvious and tremendous that it was only fitting 
that ' Children first ' should virtually be the slogan. But it is equally 
clear that the study of children is in many respects less difficult than 
that of adults. 

(i) Adult populations are relatively inaccessible. 

(2) There are formidable statistical difficulties relating to the selection 
of samples. 

(3) The widely different kinds of experience and mental backgrounds 
of adults make it difficult to differentiate between what is largely native 
and what is largely acquired. 

(4) Care must be taken, on the one hand, that tests do not unduly 
favour the adult by involving his greater retention of some kinds of know- 
ledge and acquired skill, or, on the other hand, do not unduly handicap 
him owing to his lack of practice in activities similar to those demanded 
by the tests, or by virtue of changes in his attitude towards testing or 
through his having formed habits which do not conduce to high scoring. 
Children have probably greater incentives to put maximum effort and in 
many cases they have probably enjoyed superior schooling. 

(5) There is the danger of assuming that conclusions drawn in child 
psychology hold also for adults. Thus the relation of speed to power 
may be different for adults. 

(6) Finally, the rate of growth (or of deterioration) is generally slow 
in maturity. During childhood it is easy to distinguish between the 
general mental capacity of two average children differing in chronological 
age by only one year, but who would care to differentiate between the 
average youth of twenty and the average man of forty ? For biologically 
senescence depends on the increase of protoplasm and on the differentia- 
tion of cells. Thus the rate of growth depends on the degree of senescence, 



J— PSYCHOLOGY i6i 

and senescence will be at its maximum in the very young stages and the 
rate of senescence will diminish with age. 

On all these grounds it is not difficult to account for the ceaseless 
activity in child psychology. In fact, progress has been so great that 
some consider future possibilities to be strictly limited. Without accept- 
ing such a view it is nevertheless true, as Professor Walter Miles has 
pointed out, that although psychologists have exhibited great interest in 
the child and the adolescent yet there remain five or six decades of human 
life relatively untouched. 

At least four recent investigations merit our attention. They were 
initiated by Terman, Thorndike, Walter Miles, and Charlotte Biihler 
respectively. It is significant that each had already made outstanding 
contributions in child psychology, and each research was furthered by 
a grant, so that a band of experts were able to collaborate and produce 
results which would be quite unattainable by a single investigator who 
had to meet the charges out of his own pocket. 

In 1926 there appeared the second volume of Terman's Genetic Studies 
of Genius. It is entitled The Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred 
Geniuses, and the investigations were carried out by Dr. Catherine M. Cox 
(now Mrs. Walter R. Miles) under the direction of Terman. Grants 
from the Commonwealth Fund of New York and the Thomas Welton 
Stanford Fund were available. It was concluded that youths who 
achieve eminence have, in general, a heredity above the average and 
superior advantages in early environment : they are characterised not 
only by high intellectual traits, but also by persistence of motive and 
effort, confidence in their abilities, and great strength or force of character. 

Thorndike's Adult Learning appeared in 1928. His purpose was to 
study the changes in the amount and changes in the nature of ability to 
learn from about age fifteen to about age forty-five, and especially from 
age twenty-five to age forty-five. The research was done with the aid of 
a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. Some of the conclusions may 
be briefly summarised : 

(i) The differences in rate of learning between old and young are small 
in comparison with the differences within either group, and when other 
factors than age are equalised the influence of age approaches zero. 

(2) Adults learn much less than they might partly because they under- 
estimate their power of learning, and partly because of unpleasant attention 
and comment. It is disuse and lack of practice and not inner degeneration 
which is likely to affect learning. 

(3) Ability to learn a systematic logical language, Esperanto, rises 
from 8 to 16 and probably to 20 : it is then stationary to 25 or later and 
then drops very, very slowly to 35 and somewhat more rapidly, but still 
very slowly, to 45 or later. 

(4) The gain made in 50 or 100 or 500 hours of study of a modern 
language by a group of any age from 20 to 40 will be greater than the 
gain made by a group aged 8 or 10 or 12. The facts are in flat contradiction 
to the doctrine that childhood is the period for easiest learning to read, 
write, or understand the hearing of a language. 

(5) Learning representing an approximation to sheer modifiability 



i62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

unaided by past learning shows more inferiority in the case of adults 
than was indicated by the experiments taken as a whole. Actual learning 
of such things as adults commonly have to learn shows, however, con- 
siderably less. 

(6) The curve of ability to learn from 22 to 42 is a very slow decline, 
and this decline is no greater for inferior intelligence than for superior. 

Thorndike studied all sorts of learning and in each case analysed the 
curve of ability to learn in relation to age. Although he realises that 
a curve of total or average ability may be unattainable, yet he was able to 
conclude in general that nobody under 45 should restrain himself from 
trying to learn anything because of a belief that he is too old to be able to 
learn it. ' If he fails in learning it, inability due directly to age will very 
rarely, if ever, be the reason. The reason will commonly be one or 
more of these : He lacks and always has lacked the capacity to learn that 
particular thing. His desire to learn it is not strong enough to cause him 
to give proper attention to it. The ways and means which he adopts are 
inadequate, and would have been so at any age, to teach him anything. 
He has habits or ideas or other tendencies which interfere with the new 
acquisition, and which he is unable or unwilling to alter. In the last 
case mere age may have some influence.' 

Thorndike's conclusions are particularly important when we consider 
schemes for adult education, and it is interesting to see how well his 
experimental findings agree with Cicero's dicta on age : ' But, you argue, 
the memory grows feebler. I believe it does unless you practise it, or if 
you are by nature rather dull. . . . What of' lawyers, pontiffs, augurs, 
philosophers when they are old ? How much they remember ! The old 
retain their wits, provided their earnestness and energy lasts ; and this 
happens not only with men who are illustrious and who have held high 
office, but also in a life of privacy and repose.' 

Having reported facts concerning the relation of adult learning to age 
we may pass on to consider some of the most important human abilities 
in their relation to age, and important in this respect are the Stanford 
Later Maturity Publications which have appeared from 193 1 onwards 
under the direction of Prof. Walter R. Miles, and which were aided by 
a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. A reference to some of these 
abilities is now necessary. 

Sensory and Motor Abilities. 

The importance of abilities such as reaction speed and co-ordination of 
movements in the various industries and sports hardly needs mention. 
Motor skills are so varied that each has to be studied by itself, and although 
some evidence for group factors in this field has been obtained, yet in the 
main it is the specificity of each ability which is striking ; and this is not 
surprising when it is considered that some demand considerable visual 
acuity, others visual attention, others muscular power, others neuro- 
muscular speed of reaction, and so forth. 

Probably visual acuity is at its maximum in the teens. It is probably 
one of the first physiological functions to show a very slight deterioration 
with age. About the age of fifty on the average this deterioration may 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 163 

become sufficiently serious to handicap the individual in occupations 
where visual requirements are exacting. In industry, of course, there 
are other factors which affect the issue, such as the efforts of an employer 
to get cheaper, that is, younger, labour, or the effort of the employee him- 
self to acquire a more responsible position. The more striking fact, 
according to Miles, is the relatively small, although steady, decrement 
shown throughout the life-span in tests such as reaction speed or rotary 
motility. ' Guessed on the basis of what industry has popularly said of 
the old and also in terms of the derogatory reports made by old people 
about themselves, the situation has appeared far harsher than the objective 
data warrant.' 

Intellectual Abilities. 

Under this heading may be considered tests of memory, manipulations 
of symbols and of space areas, interpretations of meaning in verbal form 
and all the so-called higher mental functions which figure in tests of 
intelligence. Here again the deterioration due to age as such is relatively 
small. The differences between individuals at the older ages are often 
quite marked, so that other factors are probably at least as weighty as age 
in accounting for an individual's actual score. Thus Sorenson found that 
the mental abilities of adults who participate in schemes of adult education 
are maintained at a high level over a long span of adult years. 

Miles also points out that when speed is the stressed element in an 
intelligence test for adults, then the decrement due to age is greater than 
it is when power in unlimited time is stressed. The fact that intelligence 
tests are usually standardised for children also points to the need of 
further research when dealing with adults. 

Interests. 

Here we turn to one of the Stanford Later Maturity Publications — 
namely. Change of Interests with Age, by Prof. Edward K. Strong. 
It is based on examination of more than two thousand men between the 
ages of twenty and sixty representing eight occupations. The following 
quotation gives the author's standpoint : ' If " vocational interest " is 
defined as " the occupation an individual likes best now," then the con- 
clusion must be reached that vocational interests are very unstable. 
There are ample data to prove that boys and girls and also older persons 
change their " first choices " very frequently, and in most cases without 
apparent rhyme or reason. But if "vocational interest" is defined as 
" the sum total of all interests that bear in any way upon an occupational 
career," then we find surprising stability, certainly among adults, and, as 
far as we have been able to judge, also among young men of college age 
and presumably among still younger people.' 

That is to say, just as we do not probe an individual's intelligence by 
one test but by as many as we can afford time for, so it should be with 
interest. 

The slight differences found between men of twenty-five and fifty-five 
years of age seem to indicate that interests are not particularly affected 



164 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



by years of activity in a given occupation, and that therefore interests are 
responsible for choice of occupation rather than a resultant of it. 

Older men are no more catholic in their interests than younger men, 
but their likes and dislikes are not identical with those of younger men. 
Thus the older men are not so interested in situations involving physical 
hazards, or in anything which interferes with established habits. This 
factor appears to be of great significance for both employer and employee. 
Many an employer is unsuccessful not so much for lack of abilities, but 
owing to a disinclination to introduce a change, and the old employee 
often becomes unemployed not on account of inability, but because he 
has no desire to change his methods when changes are deemed essential 
by the management. 

I now turn to the extraordinarily interesting book of Prof. Charlotte 
Biihler, Der Menschliche Lebenslauf ah Psychologisches Problem, which 
was published in 1933. The investigations were aided by a grant from 
the Rockefeller Foundation. The course of man's life is studied by the 
aid of 200 published biographies of poets, writers, inventors, scientists, 
statesmen, musicians, painters, theologians, business men, financiers, 
actors, singers, sportsmen, and philosophers. For comparison, fifty life- 
histories were obtained from the Old People's Homes in Vienna. 

Life is regarded from several aspects : as a biological phenomenon, 
as a series of events and experiences, and from the standpoint of work 
produced. Its normal structure — ascent, culmination, and decline — is 
discussed. It is impossible to do justice to this pioneer study in a brief 
sketch, and I will only single out what appears to be the importance of age 
in athletic records. Here, then. Prof. Biihler has at hand the severe tests 
of the athletic field as substitutes for psychological tests in order to 
ascertain when various motor abilities are at their maxima in the case of 
the best athletes. On analysing the best lists for the year 1930 the 
following were the results : 



B. 



Individual Sports. 


Age. 




Group Sports. 


Age. 


Sprint run 


• 23-5 


A 


Boxing 


. 21 -9 


Long jump . 


• 23-5 




Wrestling . 


• 22-3 


Throwing the javelin 


. 24-2 




Football 


• 23-8 


Medium run. 


24-3 


B. 


Jiu-jitsu 


. 26-0 


Hurdles 


24-5 




Hockey 


. 26-4 


High jump . 


24-8 




Tennis 


. 28-5 


Pole vault 


25-4 








Putting the weight. 


25-4 








Long run 


25-6 


C. 


Polo 




Rowing 


26-5 




Riding • . 


up to 50 


Throwing the discus 


26-9 




Trotting . 




Weight lifting 


30-5 








Throwing the hammer . 


31-0 









It is characteristic of Group A that the activities demand a maximum 
expenditure of energy per second. Economy of eff^ort plays no part here. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 165 

In Group B there is demanded economy of effort and a proper distribu- 
tion of it. As for Group C, in addition to the greatest economy of effort, 
enormous demands are made on technique which only comes after long 
experience. 

As two typically British sports are not included in the table — namely, 
cricket and golf — I have attempted to get corresponding figures for 
batsmen, bowlers, and golfers. Taking the season of 1934, the names of 
eighty-three batsmen who exceeded a thousand runs in first-class cricket 
appear. The median age is 30 years (the quartiles being 27 and 33 and 
the extremes 19 and 47). Then the bowling averages were analysed. 
The median age is again 30 years (the quartiles being 26 and 34 and the 
extremes 20 and 50). 

Taking the names of the forty golfers who headed the Open Champion- 
ship list in 1934, the median age is about 35 years (the quartiles being 29 
and 39 and the extremes 24 and 45). 

Taking a still higher standard, it appears that batsmen who have 
exceeded three thousand runs in a season show a median age of 
34-5 years (the quartiles being 30 and 39 and the extremes 27 and 44). 

And, in golf, the thirty-seven open champions since 1894 show a 
median age of 31 years (the quartiles being 28 and 37 and the extremes 
23 and 44). 

Applications to Education and Industry. 

Not only do psychological investigations show in a clear light how 
widely adults of a particular age differ from each other, but they also show 
that age is not the main cause of most of the differences. Even in a test 
of reaction speed the average man of eighty is only 50 per cent, slower 
than the average man in his prime, and even the latter is less speedy than 
some men of eighty. 

Industrial accidents also decrease with increasing age owing to the 
greater experience and caution of the older workers. Not so, however, 
with pedestrian accidents. Very high, according to Dr. Ford, would 
appear to be the rate of fatalities for those over sixty-five years of age in 
an American city. Further research may determine the relative effective- 
ness of such factors as decrease in muscular agility, increase in weight and 
consequent decrease in speed of movement, preservation of traffic habits 
from days when cars were not a hazard, impairment of sensory acuity, 
absent-mindedness, and a variety of senile effects on mentality. 

In industry it is necessary to investigate how far the handicaps of the 
older workers are due to their own physiological, mental, or vocational 
disabilities and how far to the age prejudice of employers, as there are 
degrees of disability sufficiently serious to necessitate special legislation 
for the purpose of extending retirement pensions. Again, in organising 
schemes of adult education, it is important to know the capacities 
and mental characteristics, whether native or acquired, of the individual 
pupils. Ancient customs and opinions which had little scientific backing 
have in the past made it difficult for many of the unemployed to embark 
on any training for a new career. But the verdict of psychology is that 
such training is possible. The human organism cannot with impunity be 



i66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

thrown on the scrap-heap Hke a cheap car. In the long run it will 
successfully resist such treatment. In self-preservation one of its reactions 
is to turn to schemes of adult education. It is only in exceptional circum- 
stances, when the fight becomes too unequal, that a whole community 
sinks into listless apathy as at Marienthal. 

But the main motive for adult education is not self-preservation ; 
rather is it an enhanced idea of the self as an enduring entity, as a per- 
sonality conscious of powers unexercised and unrealised, striving steadily 
towards its own goals. However excellent primary education may be, 
there must remain many lessons which an adult can only learn when the 
need arises. The gardener cannot train his tree while yet a seedling : he 
must wait till its branches begin to shoot, and he tends it until it ceases to 
grow. At present, however, the salvaging of adults of mature age has not 
been systematically taken in hand, partly owing to the pressing need of 
finding employment for adolescents. Here, again, age as a variable has 
to be taken into consideration. What should be the age allowance for 
scholarship candidates for secondary schools or for the universities ? 
What should be the school-leaving age ? Is the break from school to 
industry too abrupt ? There are indications of stagnation, if not actual 
retrogression, to be found in the duller half of the child population for the 
years immediately following this break if extent of vocabulary and richness 
of concepts be taken as criteria. It is true that vocabulary and concepts 
cannot be divorced from real life, but the question here is whether 
such individuals have made sufficient initial progress before the break 
to enable them later on effectively to discharge their responsibilities as 
citizens in the modern world. 

Theoretical Implications. 

A most important development in modern psychology is the search for 
innate, basic, unitary traits of personality. There is accumulative evidence 
in favour of the existence of a number of unitary traits or factors, and it has 
been found convenient to denote them provisionally by letters of the 
alphabet, analogous to a practice of physics and other sciences. This does 
not in the least imply that their functional interpretation is necessarily less 
clear than that of concepts such as introversion and the like. It is true 
that polysyllabic words have sometimes only to undergo a very cursory 
censorship, but this practice leads to abuses of the language mechanism 
which may retard individual cerebral evolution. Besides, the less popular 
use of letters to denote new concepts is not likely to proceed indefinitely, 
if only for the fact that the introduction of such a letter is preceded by 
many thousand hours of laborious work. 

Closely connected with the study of traits is the difficult question of 
the eff'ectiveness of past experiences. Spearman's researches show that 
retentivity is independent of ^, and there is evidence that the old tend 
to deteriorate in tests of immediate memory. How far is the balance 
redressed when the extent and variety of all their previous experiences as 
well as their integration are taken into account ? It is hardly necessary to 
illustrate the dire effects of lack of experience. Thus the brilliant young 
debater is often pulverised by one who is dull but elderly. My second 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 167 

example is a very intelligent person who has been totally blind from birth. 
I found that the subject had no idea at all of the size of the sun as it 
appeared in the sky. The subject imagined that most stars had five points, 
but that some had six or even eight, and that a rainbow had the shape of 
a tied bow, and so forth. Manifestly all knowing, even in the case of the 
gifted, must start frorh experiencing. 

Now that the method of factorial analysis is becoming increasingly 
effective, not only in the case of cognitive abilities, but also with regard to 
personality in all its aspects, it becomes necessary to study age as one of 
the ' primordial potencies ' more systematically. Not only during child- 
hood and adolescence, but throughout the life-span. This will determine 
the relative importance of the various traits at different stages of life, and 
this in turn will lead to a fuller psychological interpretation of the unitary 
traits themselves. 

Bibliography. 

Adams, H. F., ' The good judge of personality,' /. Abn. Psychol., 22, 1927-28. 
Barkin, S., ' Economic difficulties of older men,' Personnel J., 11, 1933. 
Bolton, J. Shaw, ' The evolution of mind ' (Lumleian Lectures), The Lancet, 

March 23 and 30, 1935. 
BtJHLER, Ch., Der Menschliche Lebenslauf als Psychologisches Problem, 1933. 
Conrad, H. S., Jones, H. E., Hsiao, H. H., ' Sex differences in mental growth 

and decline,' /. Educ. Psychol., 24, 1933. 
Cox, C. M., (Mrs. W. R. Miles), ' The early mental traits of three hundred 

geniuses,' 1926. 
Dorland, W. a. N., ' The age of mental viriUty,' 1908. 
Ehinger, G., ' Ddclin des aptitudes avec I'age,' Arch. d. Psychol., 20, 1927, and 

23, 1931- 
Ford, A., ' Pedestrian accidents and age,' Personnel J., 8, 1930. 
Galton, F., ' The measurement of character,' Fortnightly Rev., 42, 1884. 
Giese, F., ' Erlebnisformen des Alterns,' Deutsche Psychol., 5, 1928. 
Hevdt, C, ' Der Einfiuss des Alters bei Eignungsuntersuchungen,' Industr. 

Psychotechnik, 2, 1925. 
HoLLiNGWORTH, H. L., ' Mental growth and decline,' 1927. 
Jones, H. E., and Conrad, H. S., ' The growth and decline of intelligence,' 

Genet. Psychol. Monog., 1933. 
Jones, Ll. Wynn, ' Theory and practice of psychology," 1934. (Ref. to age 

allowances on pp. 229, 230.) 
Kennedy, F., ' Age correction as an explanation of the discrepancy between 

scholastic attainment and mental test results.' Supplt. to Scottish Educ. J ., 

March, 1931. 
Martin, L. J., and deGruchy, C, (i) ' Salvaging old age,' 1930 ; (2) ' Sweeping 

the cobwebs," 1933. 
McDougall, W., ' "The chemical theory of temperament applied to introversion 

and extroversion,' /. Abn. Psychol., 24, 1929. 
Miles, W. R., ' Measures of certain human abiUties throughout the life span,' 

Proc. Nat. Acad, of Sciences, 17, 1931. 
Miles, W. R., ' Change of dexterity with age,' Proc. Soc. for Exp. Biol, and Med., 

29, 1931- 
Miles, W. R., ' Correlation of reaction and co-ordination speed with age in 

adults,' Amer. J. Psychol., 43, 1931. 
Miles, C. C, and Miles, W. R., ' The correlation of intelligence scores and 

chronological age from early to late maturity,' Amer. J. Psychol., 44, 1932. 
Miles, W. R., ' Age and human ability," Psychol. Rev., 40, i933- 
Miles, W. R., ' Abilities of older men," Personnel J., 11, 1933. 
Miles, C. C, ' Influence of speed and age on intelligence scores of adults,' /. 

General Psychol., 1934. 



i68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Nelson, H., ' The creative years,' Amer. J. Psychol., 40, 1928. 

ScHORN, M., ' Lebensalter und Leistung,' Arch. f. d. ges. Psychol., 75, 1530. 

SoRENSON, H., ' Mental ability over a wide range of adult ages,' /. Appl. Psychol., 

17, 1933- 
Spearman, C, ' The abilities of man,' 1927. 

Stone, C. P., ' The age factor in animal learning,' Genet. Psychol. Monog., 5, 1929. 
Strong, E. K., ' Change of interests with age,' 1931. 
Thorndike, E. L., ' Adult learning,' 1928. 

Tramm, K., ' Alter und Leistung,' Industr. Psychotechnik, 1, 1930. 
Weiss, E., ' Leistung und Lebensalter,' lyidustr. Psychotech., 4, 1927. 
Whitman, R. H., ' Sex and age differences in introversion-extroversion,' /. Abn. 

Psychol., 24, 1929. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



SOME ASPECTS OF PLANT 
PATHOLOGY 

ADDRESS BY 

F. T. BROOKS, M.A., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Since the Aberdeen meeting of the British Association botany in Britain 
has suffered the loss of Prof. O. V. Darbishire, Prof. R. A. Robertson and 
Dr. R. C. Knight. Prof. Darbishire in particular was a staunch supporter 
of the British Association and those of us who attended the Bristol meeting 
in 1930 will remember the lively interest he took in the affairs of Section K. 
Prof. Darbishire is well known for his researches on Lichens, and he made 
notable contributions to their physiology, morphology and systematics. 
Of great kindliness of heart he was always eager to help others, and I recall 
with gratitude the large measure of assistance he gave me when I was 
revising Scott's Flowerless Plants a few years ago. Without request 
he generously placed at my disposal several hitherto unpublished figures 
illustrating the morphology of Xanthoria parietina. Prof. Robertson had 
only recently retired from his long tenure as head of the botanical depart- 
ment of St. Andrews University where he had designed and organised 
new laboratories. Dr. R. C. Knight, unfortunately cut off in the prime 
of life, was a brilliant investigator at the East Mailing Research Station, 
where he had made important contributions to our knowledge of the 
physiology of fruit trees. In a wider field botanists mourned the death 
earlier this year of Prof. Hugo de Vries whose researches have had a pro- 
found influence on plant physiology and genetics. His career will always 
be a landmark in the history of botany. 

During the meeting of the British Association held in Norwich in 1868 
I may remind you that Sir J. D. Hooker, then Director of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, was the President of the Association and that the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, often referred to as the Father of British Mycology, 
was the President of Section D which then comprised both Botany and 
Zoology. 

Norwich, the metropolis of East Anglia, is a particularly appropriate 
place for a gathering of botanists, partly because of the great interest taken 
in our subject by the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society and the 
Norfolk Research Committee, and partly because of the varied character 
of the vegetation in the vicinity. Much important work has already been 
done on the vegetation of these interesting tracts of country. I need only 
recall the pioneer work on the vegetation of Blakeney Point by Prof. Oliver, 

G 2 



I70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Prof. Salisbury and their colleagues, the botanical survey of Scolt Head by 
Messrs. Deighton and Clapham — now being greatly extended by Dr. V. J. 
Chapman, the accounts of the vegetation of the Holme Salt Marsh by 
members of the Cambridge Botany School, the investigations on the 
vegetation of the Norfolk Broads by Miss Pallas — again being studied by 
Dr. Godwin and Mr. Turner, and the researches on the plant communities 
of Breckland by Mr. E. P. Farrow, an area which I hope will always remain 
a happy hunting-ground for the botanist and which Dr. A. S. Watt has 
been investigating in great detail for some years. In addition. East Anglia 
is floristically one of the most interesting parts of the British Isles, as is 
evident from Prof. Salisbury's classical monograph. The East Anglian 
Flora, published through the great enlightenment of the Norfolk and 
Norwich Naturalists' Society. The same Society sponsored the Flora 
of Norfolk in 1914, which was edited by Mr. W. A. Nicholson and which 
contained an especially interesting chapter on Physiography and Plant 
Distribution by Mr. W. H. Burrell. 

Norfolk has been the home of many famous botanists. Sir Thomas 
Browne, who had great interests in botany, natural history and horticul- 
ture, lived in Norwich for many years before his death in 1682. Sir J. E. 
Smith, who founded the Linnean Society in 1788, was a native of Norwich. 
Sir W. J. Hooker was born in Norwich. The Rev. Kirby Tanner, who 
published a Flora of Norfolk in 1866, died at Norwich in 1887. Another 
renowned Norfolk botanist and mycologist was Dr. M. C. Cooke who was 
born at Horning and lived in the county until the age of twenty. His 
range of botanical interests was widespread, but he is chiefly remembered 
as an outstanding authority on the Fungi. His Illustrations of British 
Fungi and Mycographia are still indispensable to mycologists. One 
of the most eminent Norfolk naturalists was Dr. C. B. Plowright of King's 
Lynn, a physician with many scientific interests, who in the latter half of 
the nineteenth century made innumerable contributions to our knowledge 
of the Fungi, especially of the life-histories of the Rusts. His work 
culminated in the publication in 1889 of the Monograph of the British 
Uredinece and Ustilaginece, which for many years was the standard book 
on these groups. It is of interest to know that Dr. Plowright's son-in-law, 
Mr. T. Fetch, the well-known tropical mycologist, is spending his retire- 
ment at North Wootton, near King's Lynn, where he is still making 
important contributions to mycology, especially as regards entomogenous 
fungi. Mr. H. J. Howard, of the Norwich Museum, is one of the chief 
authorities on the Mycetozoa, Mr. E. A. Ellis of the same Museum is an 
ardent botanist who has recently published a valuable list of the Rust 
Fungi of Norfolk, and Dr. G. Edward Deacon of Brundall is an assiduous 
student of the Fungi who has contributed to our knowledge of the Botrytis 
disease of roses and who has been of great assistance to myself in providing 
material of certain other rose diseases under investigation at Cambridge. 

I propose now to deal with some aspects of plant pathology which I 
hope may be of interest to general botanists. Perhaps, too, it is not 
inappropriate that this address at Norwich should deal with the subject of 
disease in plants, for Norfolk farmers were among the first agriculturists 
to become convinced that barberrry bushes had some influence in the 



K.— BOTANY 171 

establishment of ' Mildew ' in wheat, or ' Black Rust ' as it is now called. 
For instance, Marshall writing in 178 1 in The Rural Economy of Norfolk 
says ' the idea that the barberry plant has a pernicious quality (or 
rather a mysterious power) of blighting wheat which grows near it, whether 
the idea be erroneous or founded on fact, is nowhere more strongly rooted 
than among the Norfolk farmers.' Fundamentally, plant pathology is a 
branch of botany, and I hope that the tradition which has grown up in 
this country of training plant pathologists first to be all-round botanists 
will always be maintained. Later on, of course, they should become 
familiar with the practices and economics of crop production, but unless 
they have been inculcated with an adequate knowledge of botanical 
principles and are well acquainted with botanical technique they will 
always be handicapped as investigators of the problems of disease in plants. 

Mycologists and plant pathologists have frequently been the scientific 
pioneers in the development of the extensive Departments of Agriculture 
which are now universally present in tropical countries. Tropical agri- 
culture is often chiefly applied botany, for it is usually much more con- 
cerned with plant than with animal production. The first problems of 
crop production in the tropics which clamoured for attention were those 
of epidemic disease, and the early mycological investigations shewed that 
it was just as essential for crop plants to be studied by scientific experts in 
the tropics as in temperate countries. Credit is due to these mycological 
pioneers for the confidence they won as to the merits of the application of 
science to the improvement of crop production in the tropics. Nowadays, 
of course, botanists of many kinds are employed in the tropical Depart- 
ments of Agriculture. 

Some notable advances have been made in recent years in the control of 
plant diseases. First and foremost, the discovery by Biffen ^ that suscep- 
tibility and resistance of wheat varieties to Yellow Rust (Puccmia glumarum) 
were inherited in Mendelian fashion gave a great impetus to plant breeders, 
often working in association with plant pathologists, to synthesise new 
varieties of crop plants which would be resistant to specific diseases and 
which at the same time would retain the valuable commercial qualities of 
the older varieties. In addition, selections of resistant forms from amongst 
mixed populations and the independent propagation of these resistant 
types have also led to marked improvement in crop production through 
reduction of disease. Such genetical and selection methods have led to 
great advances in the control of certain wilt diseases. Black Rust of wheat 
in North America, and the serious leaf-curl virus disease of cotton in the 
Sudan. The skill of the geneticist indeed may be the only hope for the 
maintenance of certain kinds of cultivated plants as, for example, Antir- 
rhinums, which were devastated in this country last summer by Puccinia 
Antirrhini. Direct control of this Rust appears to be impossible at present, 
and until new resistant races of this popular plant have been built up 
the outlook for its continued cultivation in this country is a dismal one. 
Fortunately, some progress in this respect has already been made in the 
United States. It is sometimes claimed that the work of the plant pathologist 
will pass wholly into the hands of the plant breeder in the course of time. 
1 Jour. Agric. Sci., 2, p. 109 (1907). 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

I do not subscribe to this view. While full of admiration for the achieve- 
ments of the geneticists in disease-control, I think there will always be an 
extensive field for plant pathologists in the elucidation of the problems of 
disease in plants, which must precede control, and in direct attack on many 
diseases. The plant breeder is sometimes faced with almost insuperable 
difficulties, for there is often complete or almost complete linkage between 
susceptibility to a specific disease and high quality, which is extremely 
difficult to break. This is notably true of potatoes, in which the best 
varieties are almost invariably susceptible to Blight {Phytophthora in- 
festans). In passing, however, it may be mentioned that Dr. Salaman 
and Miss O'Connor have recently achieved some desirable syntheses 
between domestic potatoes and species of Solanum which are immune to 
Blight, and that these productions shew considerable promise for the 
future. Again, many crop plants are liable to severe attack by several 
different diseases, and since susceptibility and resistance are often trans- 
mitted independently for each specific disease the work of the geneticist 
becomes well nigh endless. With arborescent plants breeding for disease- 
resistance is necessarily slow even when possible, and the time can hardly 
be visualised when the services of the pathologist will not be required for 
the control of the diseases of woody plants ; for example, it is difficult to 
conceive of the breeding of a strain of the rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis) 
which will not be liable to attack by the root and bark diseases that com- 
monly afflict it. Furthermore, disease-resistance, although of great gene- 
tical significance, is not usually unmodifiable under diverse environmental 
conditions. A variety bred for resistance in one locality may become 
susceptible if transferred to a different environment. It must be remem- 
bered also that parasitic organisms are liable to evolutionary change just as 
their hosts are, and one cannot postulate therefore that their parasitic 
proclivities will remain constant over long periods of time. There is 
evidence that new physiologic forms of parasitic fungi arise both by 
hybridisation and by mutation, and this capacity of micro-organisms to 
change must always be borne in mind by geneticists and plant pathologists. 
Lastly, it is sometimes hardly worth while to try to build up disease- 
resistant varieties, for completely efficacious treatment of the disease in 
question by simple mycological means may be already available. Bunt in 
wheat, for instance, can be entirely eliminated in most countries by fungi- 
cidal treatment of the grain before sowing, so it is scarcely worth while 
for the plant breeder to labour in this field. 

Another advance in the control of plant diseases lies in the greater 
attention now paid to plant sanitation or plant hygiene. Such preventive 
treatment, following the same lines as in medical and veterinary sanitation, 
aims at the abolition of the sources of infection wherever possible. The 
efficacy of plant sanitation is best seen in intensive cropping in fruit 
plantations and under glass. For instance, by preventing the fungus 
Stereum purpureum from sporing within and on the confines of fruit 
plantations the risk of Silver-leaf disease is appreciably reduced. 

The elimination of certain seed-borne parasitic diseases by fungicidal 
treatment of the seed before sowing without impeding germination, the 
control of some epidemic diseases by spraying the shoot system with 



K.— BOTANY 173 

fungicides, and the protection of wounds in woody plants against parasitic 
invasion have all received much attention in recent years and have met 
with a considerable degree of success. 

More care is now paid than formerly to growing plants under the best 
environmental conditions with a view to diminution of parasitic attack, 
including modifications of cultural practice which tend to favour the host 
at the expense of the parasite. The ecological study of disease in plants, 
as I may term it, is only in its infancy, but it promises to be one of the 
most fruitful aspects of pathological investigation in the future. Environ- 
mental conditions often determine whether a disease will become serious 
or not. In the Malayan rubber plantations for instance Pink Disease, 
caused by Corticium salmonicolor, is only severe in the regions of highest 
rainfall. Reinking ^'^ has summarised our knowledge of the relation- 
ships which often exist between certain types of soil and Fusarmm wilt 
diseases. He points out that the wilt disease of bananas caused by F. 
cubense is much more severe in Central America on sandy than on clay 
soils. The study of the temperature-relationships of parasitic fungi 
which infect their hosts below soil level has already yielded results of the 
highest value, notably at the University of Wisconsin under the leadership 
of Prof. L. R. Jones. For instance. Walker and Jones ^ have shewn that 
at soil temperatures of 29° C. and above Urocystis Cepulee, the cause of 
the smut disease of onions, cannot cause infection because the spores do 
not germinate normally ; at such temperatures, however, the host grows 
well. It is in connection with the action of weak parasites, especially root 
parasites, that attention to the well-being of the host will prove to be of 
the greatest consequence. Claims are occasionally made that by growing 
plants in the best environment pathogenic organisms will be reduced to 
impotence. Such claims, however, cannot be justified in general. Al- 
though there may be some truth in this belief with regard to certain weak 
parasites, it is not true in connection with the incidence of obligate para- 
sites such as Downy Mildews and Rusts. Fungi of this kind generally 
thrive best when their hosts are in a vigorous state. The same consid- 
erations apply to many virus diseases. The ' Spotted Wilt ' virus, for 
instance, is at least as severe in its many hosts grown under good conditions 
as when they are enfeebled. It is not implied that the incidence of virus 
diseases is entirely unrelated to the condition of their hosts ; Spencer ^ 
has shewn that tobacco plants which made the most rapid growth were 
somewhat less susceptible to certain mosaic viruses than plants in which 
growth was retarded by excess nitrogen. It is maintained, however, that 
plants grown under normal nutritive conditions shew no particular 
resistance to appropriate virus diseases. 

Of greater academic interest to botanists are the mutual relations between 
parasitic micro-organisms and their hosts. The province of the plant 
pathologist is particularly intriguing in this respect, for he has to study a 
complex of two organisms in relation to environmental conditions. The 
pioneers of plant parasitology such as the brothers Tulasne, de Bary, 

la Zentralbl.f. Bakt., II, 91, p. 243 (1935). 
2 Jour. Agric. Res., 22, p. 235 (1921). 
* Phytopathology, 25, p. 178 (1935). 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Brefeld and Marshall Ward outlined some of the main features of the 
relations between parasitic fungi and their hosts, but the physiological 
interpretation of fungal parasitism has made greater strides in recent years, 
as was pointed out by Prof. V. H. Blackman in his presidential address to 
this Section in 1924. In particular, the mode of initiation of infection by 
fungus and bacterial parasites has been elucidated in no small degree, and 
the reactions of resistant varieties to attempted invasion by parasitic 
organisms have been interpreted to a considerable extent. 

Before dealing with some of the wider aspects of modern research in 
plant pathology I will mention a few recent investigations which have had 
repercussions in the field of pure botany. Craigie,* in charge of the 
Dominion of Canada Rust Research Laboratory, in carrying out an in- 
tensive study of Puccinia graminis, discoveted that it was heterothallic 
and that its spermatia, hitherto believed to be functionless, were accessory 
' fertilising ' agents. Drayton,^ another Canadian plant pathologist, has 
discovered peculiar sexual arrangements in the genus Sclerotinia during 
his investigation of S. Gladioli, the cause of a serious disease of Gladiolus, 
and has demonstrated for this species at least that the microconidia are 
essential for fertilisation, although they were formerly thought to be of no 
importance in the life-cycle. In connection with the grafting of high- 
yielding strains of rubber trees on to seedling stocks in Malaya some failures 
occurred which led Sharpies and Gunnery,® pathologists of the Rubber 
Research Institute there, to investigate the processes involved in the union 
of stock and scion, and their results are probably the most complete which 
have been published concerning the manner in which this union is estab- 
lished. A few years ago Tetley "^ compared, from the embryonic condition 
onwards, the development of plum leaves, silvered through the influence 
of Stereum purpureum, with that of healthy leaves, and she has added 
considerably to our knowledge of leaf development as an outcome of these 
investigations. Again, in connection with an intensive study of Silver-leaf 
disease my colleagues and myself ^ devised a method of injecting plum 
stems with non-living extracts of Stereum purpureum by means of which 
silvering of the foliage was induced without the intervention of the living 
fungus. This method of injection has obvious applications in certain 
physiological researches and has already been used in a modified form by 
Thomas and Roach ^ in investigations on the nutrition of fruit trees. 
These are a few of many illustrations which might be given of the intimate 
relationships between plant pathology and other branches of botany. 

With regard to the wider aspects of recent researches in plant pathology 
I will first deal briefly with progress which has been made in the study of 
the epidemiology of certain parasitic diseases, i.e. the study of the distri- 
bution in space and time of the causative micro-organisms which develop 
epidemically under favourable conditions. The rapid onslaught of a 
parasitic disease on a cultivated crop is a striking phenomenon, and the 

* Phytopathology, 81, p. looi (1931). ^ Mycologia, 26, p. 46 (1934). 

' Ann. Bot., 47, p. 827 (1933). ' Ann. Bot., 46, p. 633 (1932). 

' Jour. Pomology and Hart. Set., 5, p. 61 (1926). New Phytologist, 30, p. 128 

(1931)- 

° Jour. Pomology and Hort. Sci., 12, p. 151 (1934). 



K —BOTANY 175 

manner in which this comes about has only been explained for some of 
the most serious diseases during the last few years. To explain how a 
fungus epidemic disease arises it is necessary to know what is the source 
of the abundant inoculum and to understand the precise environmental 
conditions in which infection of the host and rapid spread therein can take 
place. Not so long ago a sudden outbreak of Puccinia graminis in the 
wheat crop was looked upon as being something akin to magic. This 
holds no longer, for researches in countries where this fungus is rife have 
explained almost completely how such epidemics arise. In countries 
with mild winters, like the southern United States and Australia, it is now 
known that P. graminis survives from season to season by means of uredo- 
spores, so that the intervention of the barberry bush is unnecessary ; the 
same is true under somewhat different conditions for Kenya Colony. In 
the important wheat belt of North America, where epidemics of P. graminis 
are still severe, there are two serious sources of infection of the crop, as 
pointed out by Stakman ^^ : firstly, ascidiospores from naturalised bar- 
berry bushes which have been infected from the teleutospores that survive 
on the straw of the previous crop notwithstanding the severity of the 
winter ; and secondly, uredospores brought by winds from Mexico and 
Texas, for by using aeroplanes for trapping spores in the upper air it has 
been shewn that there is a drift of inoculum northwards. As might be 
expected from these considerations there is a lag in the time of development 
of epidemics of P. graminis as one proceeds northwards to the limit of 
wheat cultivation in Canada. One important outcome of these investiga- 
tions has been the demonstration that spores of parasitic fungi can be 
distributed by wind in a living condition over a much greater distance than 
was formerly thought possible. In the plains of northern India the 
problem of the annual recurrence of P. graminis is of a different nature. 
The barberry plays no part in the life-cycle, but the difficulty there is to 
account for the over-summering of the fungus owing to the very high 
temperatures in the plains, which kill the uredospores. Mehta,^^ how- 
ever, working for several years under great difficulties, has solved the 
problem. He has shewn that at altitudes of about 4,000 feet along the 
flank of the Himalayas uredospores on volunteer wheat plants and stubble 
survive the moderate summer temperatures ; by this means the following 
wheat crop in the hills is infected during November and December, and 
the uredospore stage is maintained as the temperature does not fall suffi- 
ciently low to kill it. In this way a source of inoculum is provided in the 
hills, which is blown by the prevailing north-westerly winds to the wheat 
belt in the plains, where infection usually occurs at the end of January or 
early in February. Mehta has also demonstrated that similar foci of 
infection occur in the lower reaches of other mountainous regions in 
India. In Britain the barberry is necessary for the annual recurrence of 
P. graminis as the uredospores do not normally survive the vicissitudes of 
our winter climate. Unlike the position about a century or so ago, how- 
ever, this fungus is no longer a menace here, for nowadays it generally 
attacks the cereal crops too late in the season to do appreciable harm. 

1" Proc. Fifth Pacific Science Congress, 4, p. 3177 (i934)- 
11 Indian Jour. Agric. Set., 3, p. 939 {i933)- 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Other cereal rusts, e.g. Puccinia glumarum and P. triticina, are widespread 
in Britain in certain seasons. Both these fungi over-winter in England 
in the uredospore condition, sometimes undergoing prolonged incubation 
in the host during low temperatures, although more precise information 
is needed with regard to the duration of such incubation periods. Alter- 
nate hosts appear to play no part in the recurrence of P. triticina and 
P. glumarum in this country, and in fact no alternate host for the latter is 
known. 

Much attention has recently been paid to the elucidation of the environ- 
mental conditions which promote epidemic outbreaks of potato Blight 
(Phytophthora infestans) and the Downy Mildew of the vine {Plasmopara 
viticola). By careful study of weather conditions warning can now be 
given in some countries as to the appropriate times for spraying these 
crops with protective fungicides. 

The storage rots of citrus fruits, bananas and apples have now been 
intensively studied, and some interesting correlations have been traced 
between the distribution of the causative fungi in the plantations, including 
the prevalence of their spores in the air, and the rots which subsequently 
develop ; this has been the subject of special investigation in apples by 
Home ^2 and Carter.^^ In this connection a somewhat similar occurrence 
in another mycological field may be mentioned. Mould growths occa- 
sionally develop on meat kept in cold storage for long periods, rendering 
the meat unsightly. There is evidence that unhygienic conditions in the 
abattoirs promote these mould growths. Such fungi develop readily on 
plant debris and animal excreta, so that if the air surrounding the carcases 
is heavily laden with spores the meat will become dusted with them. The 
spores subsequently germinate and produce unsightly growths unless 
appropriately low temperatures are constantly maintained. 

In no branch of mycology has there been greater activity during the 
last decade than in the determination of physiologic or biologic forms 
of parasitic fungi, especially the Rusts and the Powdery Mildews. In 
general, these physiologic forms cannot be differentiated by morpho- 
logical criteria, but only by their host relationships. In Puccinia graminis 
for instance more than one hundred clearly defined forms have been 
identified on wheat alone. The plant pathologist has now to visualise 
therefore the occurrence, within many species of fungi, of large complexes 
of forms which differ in their parasitic proclivities, and thereby the task 
of the plant breeder in producing resistant varieties of cultivated plants is 
sometimes greatly complicated. In the determination of these physiologic 
forms of parasitic fungi their reactions on a range of differential host 
varieties are studied under known environmental conditions. In work 
of this kind it is essential that the host varieties should be genetically pure 
and that the inoculation tests should be carried out on plants at the same 
stage of development within precise limits of temperature, light, humidity 
and mineral nutrition, for variations in these respects may cause profound 
disturbances in the infection picture. 

^^ Rep. Food Investigation Board, 1932, p. 285. Proc. Roy. Soc, B, 117, p. 154 

(1935)- 

1* Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, 19, p. 145 (1935). 



K.— BOTANY 177 

Thanks to the researches of Stakman and Levine" in the United 
States, Newton and Johnson ^^ in Canada, Waterhouse ^^ in Australia, 
Macdonald^'^ in Kenya, Mehta ^^ in India, and Verwoerd " in South Africa 
much is now known about the physiologic forms of Pticcinia graminis on 
wheat. Johnston and Mains ^o in the United States, Scheibe ^^ in Ger- 
many and Mehta -- in India have described many forms of Puccinia 
triticina, Gassner and Straib ^ in Germany have shewn that Puccinia 
ghimarum consists of a complex of forms, and so on with many other fungi 
which are obligate parasites. Work has been proceeding recently at 
Cambridge concerning the physiologic forms of Puccinia triticina, P. glu- 
marum and P. coro?iata which occur in Britain. With P. triticina and 
P. glumarum several forms have been determined which have not hitherto 
been described on the Continent of Europe or elsewhere notwithstanding 
the great attention which has been paid to these fungi. This is a some- 
what surprising result and points perhaps to independent mutational 
changes here. 

An interesting question of nomenclature has arisen out of Gassner and 
Straib's investigations on Puccinia glumarum. Many years ago Eriksson,^'' 
who was the pioneer investigator of specialised parasitism in the Cereal 
Rusts, divided P. glumarum into P. glumarum Tritici, P. glumarum Hordei, 
P. glumarum Secalis, etc., thinking that each trinomial indicated a distinct 
physiologic form. More recently it has been held that P. glumarum 
Tritici, for example, comprises a number of forms, all of which were 
thought to be confined to wheat. Gassner and Straib,^^ however, have 
now shewn that this trinomial nomenclature is invalid, for some forms of 
P. glumarum will readily infect wheat, barley and rye provided that the 
variety range of each cereal is sufficiently extensive. Whether the same 
considerations apply to the nomenclature of Puccinia graminis is not yet 
known. Here there are P. graminis Tritici, P. graminis Avence, P. graminis 
Secalis, etc., each containing many forms. Certain forms of P. graminis 
Tritici and P. graminis Secalis are known to infect some barley varieties, 
and Mehta ^^ shewed that P. graminis Secalis in England would infect a 
variety of wheat called Red Sudan. Logically it might be desirable to 
drop the trinomial nomenclature for P. graminis, but owing to the immense 
number of physiologic forms of this fungus it will probably be found 
convenient to retain it. 

In other types of parasitic fungi, including species of Fusarium which 
infect the underground parts of their hosts, distinct physiologic forms or 

i« Minnesota Agr. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bull. 8 (1922), 

" Dept. Agric. Canada, Bull. No. 160, N.S., (1932)- 

1* Froc. Linn. Sac. of New South Wales, 54, p. 615 (1929)- 

1' Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., 18, p. 218 (i933)- 

" Indian Jour. Agric. Sci., 3, p. 939 (1933)- 

19 S. African Jour. Science, 28, p. 274 (1931)- 

20 U.S. Dept. Agric, Tech. Bull. No. 313 (1932)- 
" Arb. a. d. Biolog. Reichsanst., 18, p. 55 {1930)- 
" loc. cit. 

23 Arb. a. d. Biolog. Reichsanst., 21, p. 121 (i934)- 

" Ber. d. deut. hot. Ges., 12, p. 292 (1894). 

2^ loc. cit. 

26 Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, 8, p. 142 (1923). 



178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

strains are known which differ in pathogenicity. In Fusarium cubense, 
the cause of the devastating Panama or Wilt disease of bananas in the 
West Indies and Central America, Hansford ^^ has shewn that some 
strains, morphologically indistinguishable from F. cubense, are non- 
pathogenic to the banana. Botrytis cinerea comprises innumerable 
small genetic units which differ appreciably in morphological characters 
and to some extent in pathogenicity, as demonstrated by Brierley.^^ As 
research extends and as these forms hitherto included in Botrytis cinerea 
become more clearly differentiated by morphological and cultural criteria 
some of them are elevated to the rank of distinct species. 

How have these innumerable minor forms of parasitic fungi arisen ? 
Doubtless hybridization between genetically different strains of fungi 
which reproduce themselves sexually has played an important part in their 
evolution, as has been demonstrated for Puccinia graminis in North America 
and Australia. But how did these inherently different strains of sexually 
reproducing fungi arise ? They may, of course, be the outcome of sexual 
interactions in the distant past, but this does not entirely account for their 
abundance at the present time. Although evolution may proceed mainly 
by the interactions of dissimilar gametes, as claimed by some authorities, 
there is abundant evidence in the fungi that evolution has occurred to a 
considerable extent by gene mutation. Sexual processes rarely occur in 
the life-cycle of Puccinia triticina and its sexual stage probably does not 
exist in this country. Puccinia glumarum is now probably entirely asexual. 
Yet in both these fungi there are many physiologic forms. It seems 
likely, therefore, that evolution in such fungi as regards pathogenicity has 
proceeded by changes of a mutational character. Mutants in fungi com- 
monly arise as regards colour and other cultural characteristics without the 
intervention of sexual processes, so it is not surprising if changes in patho- 
genicity occur in the same manner. Some such changes have been ob- 
served under experimental conditions. For instance. Miss F. M. Roberts ^^ 
in her investigation of the British physiologic forms of Puccinia triticina 
has found that one form, which had been stable during a long succession 
of uredospore generations, suddenly gave rise to a form which differed 
markedly in pathogenicity from the parental stock. Such a change can 
only be accounted for by mutation, for the original culture was started 
from a single spore so that any question of an admixture of forms can be 
ruled out. 

It may be asked whether these physiologic forms of fungi are stable 
entities. There is no doubt that in general they are, apart from occasional 
alterations through hybridisation and gene mutation. Although these 
forms are usually constant in their parasitism it would be rash to be too 
dogmatic about the matter. Miss Roberts has discovered one form of 
Puccinia triticina which seems to be genetically unstable in its behaviour 
on the differential host varieties : under constant environmental conditions 
it apparently varies in pathogenicity at different times. 

The prevailing opinion of the general stability of physiologic forms of 

^' Kew Bulletin, p. 257 (1926U 

28 Ann. App. Biol., 18, p. 420 (1931). 

2' Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1935 (not yet published). 



K.— BOTANY 179 

parasitic fungi as regards their host relationships may be contrasted with 
the views of Marshall Ward ^^ who believed in their ' educability ' to live 
upon hosts which they did not normally attack. As an outcome of his 
researches on the Brown Rust of brome grasses he believed that certain 
host species and varieties enabled a particular physiologic form of the 
fungus to pass from one group of species of the genus Bromus to another. 
His hypothesis of the existence of ' bridging hosts ' has not, however, 
been substantiated by later work, and the evidence now available tends to 
invalidate the conception that fungi can be easily ' educated ' to attack 
new hosts. In N. America barley is readily affected by a form of Piiccinia 
graminis Tritici which attacks wheat strongly and rye feebly, and also by a 
form of P. graminis Secalis which attacks rye but not wheat. It might be 
thought, therefore, that barley would act as a ' bridging host ' and would 
enable the form of P. graminis Secalis to pass from rye to wheat. Stakman 
and others,^! however, have shewn that even if the form from rye is 
cultivated constantly on barley for many uredospore generations it does 
not become capable of attacking wheat. Since Marshall Ward enunciated 
his hypothesis of ' bridging hosts ' the technique for the investigation of 
physiologic forms has been much improved. Nowadays it is considered 
necessary to establish cultures from single spores because of the known 
occurrence in nature of mixtures of forms, sometimes even in the same 
spore pustule, and special precautions are taken to prevent contamination 
of the stock cultures. Mr. P. W. Brian has been carrying out at Cambridge 
a re-investigation of the host relationships of the Brown Rust of brome 
grasses by modern methods. The results which he has obtained so far 
do not support Marshall Ward's conception of ' bridging hosts.' The 
latter's results appear to be explicable on the basis of the existence of 
more physiologic forms than had then been identified and by the possible 
intermixture of different forms in the spores used for inoculation. Mar- 
shall Ward's hypothesis of the ' educability ' of parasitic fungi is neverthe- 
less a fascinating one and evidence for it may yet be forthcoming. 

One of the most striking features of heteroecious fungus parasites is the 
contrast between their frequent extreme specialisation to one or a few 
particular hosts during one phase of the life-cycle and their ability to live 
upon entirely unrelated hosts at different stages in the life-cycle. Heter- 
cecism is, of course, a common feature of parasitism in general, but we have 
no precise clue as to its origin even though the biological advantages of 
this mode of life are evident. It is remarkable, for instance, that Puccinia 
Pruni-spinosee occurs only on certain species of Prumis during one part of 
its life-cycle and only on a few species of Anemone during another. On 
the other hand a rust fungus may have a wide range of hosts during one 
phase of its life, although this may perhaps be wholly or partly due to the 
existence of different physiologic forms, and a single unrelated host for 
the remainder of its life. Further information is needed as to whether an 
apparently wide host range for one phase in the life-history of such fungi 
is often due to a multiplicity of physiologic forms : probably it is not, for 
in Puccinia glumarum certain forms thrive both on wheat and barley. 

'0 Annates Mycologici, 1, p. 132 (1903). 
31 Jour. Agr. Res., 16, p. 221 (1918). 



i»o 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



The extreme dissimilarity in systematic relationship between the teleuto- 
spore and ascidiospore hosts in the hetercecious Rusts is very striking. 
The metabolism of the dissimilar hosts is probably vastly different, yet 
the fungus flourishes during both its alternating phases. The divergence 
between the teleutospore and aecidiospore hosts cannot be wholly bound 
up with the usual stomatal infection of the former and cuticular penetra- 
tion of the latter, for unless there are important metabolic differences 
between the two phases of the fungus it is difficult to understand why the 
aecidiospores do not infect, by way of the stomata, the host on which they 
are produced since they infect the alternate host in this manner. It may 
be thought that change of host is correlated with an alteration of the fungus 
from the haploid to the diploid condition, or vice versa, but so far as the 
sexual processes of the few hetercecious Ascomycetes are understood this 
does not apply, nor does the correlation hold good for the hetercecious 
worms among animal parasites. If we try to understand hetercecism on 
a genie basis we may perhaps suppose that in a hetercecious fungus there 
are two genes or sets of genes controlling metabolism which become 
separately active during the different phases of the life-cycle. It is easier 
to visualise hetercecism arising suddenly by a large change than to con- 
ceive of its evolution by a succession of minute variations. In connection 
with hetercecism in the Rust Fungi further information is required as to 
what happens when aecidiospores and sporidia are placed on the hosts 
from which they have been derived and also on other plants which play 
no part in the perpetuation of these fungi, comparable with the knowledge 
which is available about the behaviour of uredospores on inappropriate 
hosts. Gibson ^^ shewed some years ago that uredospores germinated 
normally on inappropriate hosts and formed appressoria over the stomata 
and vesicles below the stomata, from which hyphae grew out ; these, how- 
ever, were unable to establish haustoria in the mesophyll cells and speedily 
died. Mrs. Hanes ^^ has recently shewn that on inappropriate hosts 
which are fairly closely related to the proper ones the behaviour of the 
germinating uredospores is sometimes of another kind. In the cereal rusts, 
for instance, if uredospores are placed on leaves of the wrong cereal 
the initiation of infection is normal, but at a slightly later stage there is 
sometimes a violent reaction between parasite and host which leads to the 
death of the mesophyll cells involved ; the fungus then makes no further 
progress in the tissues. Such behaviour is comparable with the well- 
known hypersensitiveness of resistant host varieties to specific rust fungi. 

With the Powdery Mildews (Erysiphaceae) Corner^* has shewn that 
on inappropriate hosts the early stages of penetration are the same as on 
the proper host, i.e. the cuticle is pierced mechanically by a stylar process 
which in its passage through the cellulose part of the wall is preceded by 
a local swelling of the latter, the papilla. The penetration process, how- 
ever, usually develops no further in the inappropriate host and is probably 
killed by toxic substances in the ' host ' cell. 

In contrast to the extreme specialisation of obligately parasitic fungi to 

^^ New Phytologist, 3, p- 184 (1904). 

^^ Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1933 (not yet pubhshed). 

^* New Phytologist, 34, p. 180 (1935). 



K— BOTANY i8i 

their hosts, many fungi which invade the host tissues through wounds and 
which can Hve also in a purely saprophytic manner generally shew no pro- 
nounced degree of specialisation to particular hosts. Steretim purpureum 
from a birch stump, for instance, can attack a wide range of living trees such 
as plum, apple and laburnum, and Polyporus squamosus can invade many 
kinds of broad-leaved trees. Apart from Stereum purpureum and a few 
other species there is little precise information yet available concerning 
the initiation of infection by fungi which obtain entry into the host through 
exposures of the wood. We do not know exactly, for example, how such 
common fungi as Polyporus squamosus and P. betiilinus infect living trees. 
With Stereum purpureum Moore and I ^^ have shewn that prior to infection 
the spores are usually sucked a considerable distance into the vessels, 
where their germ tubes are in less danger of desiccation than on the exposed 
surface. In this connection it is of interest that the spores of most of 
these wound parasites are much narrower than the diameter of the vessels 
in the wood of their hosts. Experiments with many such fungi indicate 
that under certain conditions the spores are readily drawn into the vessels, 
and this is probably an important factor in the initiation of attack by fungi 
of this class. Again, S. purpureum much more readily invades fresh wounds 
in the wood than those which have remained under the influence of the 
host's response to wounding and the action of other micro-organisms.^^ 
This fungus can also infect new wounds with greater facility at some 
periods of the year than at others, probably in correlation with the varying 
metabolic condition of the tree. Whether such factors operate in connec- 
tion with other fungi which infect their hosts through exposures of the 
wood is not known. In large trees the heart wood differs greatly from 
the sap wood, especially in containing no living cells. It is known in a 
general way that some fungi, e.g. Polyporus squamosus, attack the heart 
wood more vigorously than the sap wood, whereas others spread chiefly in 
the sap wood, but further information is required concerning the influence 
of these two classes of woody tissues on the initiation of invasion by fungi. 
There is also a wide field for further research on the early stages of infec- 
tion of plant tissues by other classes of fungi which live sometimes as 
saprophytes and sometimes as parasites. Thanks to Marshall Ward,^^ 
Blackman and Welsford,^^ Brown ^^ and others we now have an almost 
complete picture of the initiation of parasitism by Botrytis cinerea and 
allied fungi in which the secretion of toxic enzymic substances plays the 
principal role. It is perhaps in the initiation of attack that the most 
interesting features of fungal parasitism are shewn. This is exemplified 
in Green's ^^ recent investigations on the rots of oranges caused by 
Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, mould fungi which are familiar to 
everyone. In addition to infection through wounds these fungi can infect 
perfectly sound fruits under certain conditions, although the outer yellow 

^^ Proc. Cambridge Philosophical Soc. {Biolog. Set.), 1, p. 56 (1923). 
^" Jour. Pomology and Hort. Sci., 5, p. 61 (i9.;6). 
" Ann. Bat., 2, p. 319 {1888). 

38 Ann. Bot., 30, p. 389 (1916)- 

39 Ann. Bot., 29, p. 313 (1915). 

•" Jour. Pomology and Hort. Sci., 10, p. 184 (1932). 



1 82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

rind is very resistant to invasion. If these moulds are grovirn in orange 
juice they produce substances, perhaps enzymic, which cause the pectic 
decomposition of the outer rind, thereby destroying its resistance to 
attack. In this way the spread of rotting from one mouldy orange to 
sound fruits in contact with it can be accounted for. On the other hand, 
if these fungi are grown on the usual synthetic media they are incapable 
of producing this resistance-destroying system, as Green terms it. This 
is an interesting illustration of the fact that the biochemistry of micro- 
organisms varies considerably according to the nature of the substratum 
on which they grow. 

Another branch of plant pathology which is receiving much attention 
at the present time and which will probably assume greater importance in 
the future is the influence of one micro-organism on another in the estab- 
lishment of disease. In ecology generally the factors of competition and 
the influence of one plant on another have long been held to be of supreme 
importance. The effect of such interactions is now receiving attention 
from plant pathologists, and the judicial consideration of factors of this 
kind will lead to a better ecological interpretation of the incidence of 
disease in plants. Fawcett *^ has already stressed the importance of this 
aspect of plant pathology. 

The effects of associations of micro-organisms in culture are often pro- 
found. A mixed culture of two organisms can often produce a result 
which neither of them alone can induce. Such an effect has been termed 
' synergism ' by Holman and Meekison.*"^ One organism may change 
the substratum so that it becomes suitable for the growth of the other, 
but the interactions of the two associates on the original medium are some- 
times of a more intricate nature. For associations of bacteria the literature 
has been reviewed by Buchanan and Fulmer,*^ and this has been done 
to some extent for fungi by Harder,** Porter *5 and Machacek.*^ The 
sequence of fungi on natural substrata is related to such associations. On 
a tree log, for instance, a succession of different fungi usually develops in 
orderly sequence over a period, one species apparently preparing the way 
for another. An analysis of the factors which determine such a succession 
would be of great interest. The effects of combinations of specific yeasts 
and bacteria are illustrated by the fermentation processes induced by 
the ginger-beer plant and by kephir grains. The influences of micro- 
organisms on one another in culture may be very diverse : instead of 
producing an effect which neither alone can bring about, one organism may 
greatly stimulate the activity of the other or may completely inhibit it, 
or the two organisms may be entirely indifferent to one another. In 
Nature associations of diverse micro-organisms are the rule rather than 
the exception, so it is important for the microbiologist and the plant 
pathologist to study these complexes. 

*i Phytopathology, 21, p. 5-^5 (1931). 

*2 Jour. Infectious Diseases, 39, p. 145 (1926). 

^3 Physiology and Biochemistry of Bacteria, vol. iii (1930). 

*^ Naturw. Zeiischr. Landw. Forstw., 9, p. 129 (1911). 

" Amer. Jour. Bot., 11, p. 168 (1924). 

" Macdonald College, McGill University, Tech. Bull. No. 7 (1928). 



K.— BOTANY 183 

In the domain of plant pathology I will first mention some examples in 
which a host, attacked by one fungus, is thereby rendered more susceptible 
to a second fungus. If a variety of wheat normally resistant to Puccinia 
glumarum is attacked by bunt {Tilletia Caries) it becomes susceptible to 
the rust, the effect of the bunt mycelium being apparently to break down 
the resistance to the rust. Again, Johnston *^ and Roberts ^^ have shewn 
that if a variety of wheat normally resistant to Puccinia triticina is affected 
by Erysiphe graminis it becomes susceptible to the rust in the immediate 
vicinity of the patches of mildew. Fawcett *^ has indicated that combined 
inoculations of Diplodia natalensis and Colletotrichum glceosporioides into 
slight wounds in the bark of citrus trees produced a much greater effect 
than did either organism applied alone. In another series of experiments 
on citrus trees he ^° found that inoculations of Phytophthora citrophthora 
combined with a Fusarium led to the formation of more rapidly enlarging 
lesions than did inoculations with the Phytophthora alone ; the Fusarium 
introduced by itself did not spread at all, so that in this instance an 
innocuous organism facilitated the progress of the parasite. 

In a bacterial disease of cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) my col- 
league Dr. Dowson ^^ has found, as Smith ^^ had previously indicated, 
that the predominant yellow bacterium (Bacterium Rathayi) is constantly 
associated with a white bacterium : inoculations with the slime containing 
both organisms reproduce the disease but all inoculations with the yellow 
bacterium alone have failed. 

In recent investigations on virus diseases of plants, Kenneth Smith ^^ 
and others have demonstrated that the symptom expression of a complex 
or association of two viruses in certain hosts is quite different from that of 
either virus acting alone. Viruses profoundly modify the metabolism of 
the plants they infect and a promising line of enquiry is the influence 
which they have on the incidence of specific fungus and bacterial diseases. 
In this connection Prof. Murphy of Dublin informs me that the potato 
variety Champion, which is the early days of its cuhivation in Ireland was 
very resistant to Phytophthora Blight and is now very susceptible, has, in 
his opinion, lost its resistance through more or less universal mosaic infec- 
tion. This opinion is borne out by the investigations of Davidson,^* who 
has shewn that virus-free stocks of this variety are still markedly resistant 
to Blight. 

On the other hand, the effect of micro-organisms on one another is 
frequently one of antagonism. Two organisms may mutually inhibit the 
development of each other, or one may be greatly impeded in its growth 
by the other. In the latter case one organism may exercise some toxic 
influence on the other or it may utilise the available food material so 
rapidly as to starve the second organism. Factors of this kind may perhaps 

" Phytopathology, 24, p. 104.5 (i934)- 

^8 Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1935 (not yet published). 

*^ Florida Agric. Exp. Sta., Annual Report, 1912. 

5" Jour. Agr. Res., 24, 191 (1923). 

" Ann. App. Biol., 22, p. 23 (i935)- 

'2 Bacteria in Relation to Plant Diseases, vol. iii, p. 155 (i9i4)- 

" Proc. Roy. Soc, B, 109, p. 251 (1931)- 

" Econ. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, 2, p. 319 (1928). 



i84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

play an important part in the specificity of saprophytism exhibited by 
certain fungi. The first fungus to appear on a newly exposed oak stump 
is commonly Stereum hirsutum whereas on a birch stump S. purpureum 
takes this position. In the laboratory these fungi can be grown in culture 
both on oak and on birch wood. Both fungi are widespread and their 
spores are probably equally abundant in the air so that their chances of 
alighting on oak and birch stumps are similar. Allowing that oak wood 
is initially slightly more favourable for the growth of S. hirsutum than for 
S. purpureum, at a later stage the permeation of the wood already by 
S. hirsutum probably prevents the development of S. purpureum. As 
previously indicated the occupation of exposed wood in plum trees by 
comparatively harmless micro-organisms tends to prevent subsequent 
invasion by the dangerous Stereum purpureum. 

In plant pathology there is now a large mass of data concerning the 
inhibiting effect sometimes evident of one organism on another. In many 
instances the inhibiting organism is purely saprophytic, but more rarely 
two pathogenic organisms inhibit each other. Fawcett and Lee '^^ record 
that on inoculating the fungus Dothiorella gregaria and the bacterium 
Pseudomonas juglandis together into walnut branches no lesions were 
formed, although D. gregaria is parasitic on the branches and P. juglandis 
causes a blight of the leaves and young stems ; here the bacterium inhibited 
the pathogenicity of the fungus in the branches. Of particular interest 
and of great importance is the antagonism shewn by certain saprophytes 
to pathogenic fungi which invade the underground parts of their hosts : 
indeed it is not too much to say that a new chapter in soil microbiology 
has been opened with the recognition of this factor of biological antago- 
nism. In 1924 Porter ^® shewed that inhibition of infection of wheat 
seedlings by Helminthosporium resulted when a certain bacterium as well 
as the fungus was introduced into the surrounding soil, and that there was 
considerable delay in the infection of flax seedlings by Fusarium Lint when 
the same bacterium was included in the soil. The manner in which such 
inhibition is brought about is unknown, but perhaps the bacterium in its 
growth produces some substance which is toxic to the fungus. In 1923 
Millard "'' demonstrated that Actinomyces scabies, a commonly occurring 
soil organism which causes potato Scab, could be prevented from attacking 
potatoes by incorporating large quantities of green manure in the soil. 
Millard and Taylor ^^ subsequently shewed that when another, purely 
saprophytic, species of Actinomyces, A. prcecox, was incorporated in the 
soil with A. scabies the latter was suppressed. They suggest, therefore, 
that in green manuring for the control of potato Scab saprophytic species 
of Actinomyces, and perhaps also soil bacteria, are favoured to such an 
extent in competition with A. scabies that the latter is inhibited. More 
recent work on the antagonism of other soil micro-organisms to infection 
by pathogenic fungi in the soil has been ably reviewed by Garrett,^' but 

^^ Citrus Diseases and their Control, p. 38 (1926). 
^* Amer. Jour. Bot., 11, p. 168 (1924). 
^' Ann. App. Biol., 10, p. 70 (1923). 
^' Ann. App. Biol., 14, p. 202 (1927). 
^' Biolog. Reviews, 9, p. 351 (1934). 



K.— BOTANY 185 

there are some features of these investigations to which I would hke to 
refer. Simmonds ^° in Canada first directed attention to the rapid deterio- 
ration of inocula of fungi which cause foot-rot of cereals when added to 
unsterilised soil, an effect which was attributed by Broadfoot ®^ to the 
antagonism of other micro-organisms in the soil. Henry *^ shewed that 
the growth of Helminthosporium sativum, one of the fungi causing foot-rot 
of wheat, in sterilised soil might be completely suppressed by adding 
small quantities of unsterilised soil or by simultaneous inoculation of the 
sterilised soil with certain other fungi and bacteria. In a later paper 
Henry ^^ has elucidated some puzzling results concerning the effect of 
temperature on the pathogenicity of some of these foot-rotting fungi. 
Since the optimum temperature for the growth of wheat seedlings is about 
15° C. and that for the growth of the foot-rotting fungi ranges from 24° C. 
to 30° C, it might be thought that there would be a greater incidence of 
foot-rot at 24° C. than at 15° C. The reverse effect, however, is sometimes 
seen. Henry explains the decrease in infection by Ophiobolus graminis 
with rise of temperature in unsterilised soil as being due to the antagonism 
of other soil micro-organisms to the pathogen, which is not operative at 
the lower temperature. In sterilised soil there is the expected increase in 
infection by this fungus with rise of temperature to about 24° C, and 
Garrett ^ has found that in a naturally occurring sand in South Australia, 
which is practically devoid of micro-organisms, O. graminis is most patho- 
genic at 24° C. 

Further work will doubtless elucidate the nature of this antagonism to 
pathogenic fungi in the soil, which is exhibited by other constituents of 
the micro-flora. It may be that saprophytic organisms sometimes starve 
out the pathogenic fungus, but another explanation is that the saprophytes 
secrete toxins which kill the pathogen. One example of antagonism has 
been elucidated by Weindling ^^ in the latter manner. He has shewn that 
the saprophytic fungus Trichoderma lignorum secretes a lethal principle 
which destroys the hyphae of Rhizoctonia Solani, one of the common 
causes of the ' damping off ' of seedling plants. By adding Trichoderyna 
spores to Rhizoctonia-iniested soil under conditions which favour the 
secretion of the toxic principle he has been able to control this disease in 
citrus seedlings. Weindling's results concerning the toxic influence of 
T. lignorum on certain pathogenic fungi in the soil have been confirmed 
by Allen and Haenseler.^** Pathogenic fungi which live in the soil are 
notoriously difficult to control. When more is known about the antago- 
nism of other micro-organisms to them it may be possible to devise 
methods of biological control, such, for example, as altering soil conditions 
in such a way as to favour the antagonistic action of other members of the 
micro-flora. Some interesting data on this subject have been presented 

60 Report of Dominion Botanist, Canada, 1927, p. 98. 

6' Report of Dominion Botanist, Canada, 1930, p. 92. 

*" Canadian Jour. Res., 4, p. 69 (1931). 

6^ Canadian Jour. Res.. 7, p. 198 (1932). 

" Jour. Agric. South Australia, 37, p. 664 {i934)- 

«5 Phytopathology, 22, p. 837 (1932). 

" Phytopathology, 25, p. 244 (i935)- 



i86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

by King, Hope and Eaton,^®^ who have found in Arizona that the appHca- 
tion of organic manures to soil infested by the cotton root-rot fungus 
{Phymatotrichum omnivonim) greatly reduces the disease. They consider 
that the organic manures so stimulate other soil organisms as to bring 
about conditions unfavourable for the root-rot fungus. The fungi causing 
foot-rot of cereals are very diverse, and further study of biological an- 
tagonism may throw light upon the reasons why this disease is chiefly 
caused by Fusarium culmorum in England, by Ophiobolus graminis in 
South Australia, by Helminthosporiiim sativum in New South Wales, 
and by O. graminis, H. sativum, Gibberella Saubinetii and Fusarium spp. 
respectively in different parts of Canada and the United States. 

Much attention is being paid at present to the fungus root diseases of 
perennial tropical crops such as rubber, tea, cocoa and oil-palms. The 
plantations are often established in land previously under high forest in 
which these pathogenic fungi are indigenous, but in which root diseases 
never assume alarming proportions. When the jungle is felled, however, 
and a rubber plantation for instance is made, the balance of nature is upset, 
with the result that fungi such as Fames ligtiosus and Ganoderma pseudo- 
ferreum spread underground rapidly by means of rhizomorphs and become 
a potential menace to the plantation. Considerable progress has already 
been made towards a proper ecological interpretation of this class of root 
diseases, and I should like to pay a tribute to the work accomplished by 
tropical mycologists in this respect, especially in Malaya, Ceylon, the Gold 
Coast and the West Indies. 

Certain important bacterial diseases of plants have been intensively 
studied in recent years, especially as regards their incidence in relation to 
environmental conditions. When I was a student there was considerable 
scepticism as to whether bacteria were ever pathogenic to plants, but it is 
now universally acknowledged that many serious plant diseases are caused 
by these organisms. I can refer to only a few investigations in this field. 
Stoughton ^"^ has made a special experimental study of the environmental 
conditions requisite for infection by Bacterium malvacearum, which causes 
the ' black-arm ' or ' angular leaf spot ' disease of cotton in the Sudan, 
Uganda and other countries, and Massey ^ and Hansford and others ^* 
have made notable contributions to our knowledge of the epidemiology 
of this disease in the field. Riker and his colleagues ^^ in the United 
States have thrown further light on the Crown Gall disease of numerous 
plants caused by Bacterium tumefaciens, and have clearly distinguished 
the galls produced by it from the overgrowths which are sometimes the 
response to wounding. Wormald '^ has shewn that one of the most 
serious diseases of plum trees in this country is caused by Bacterium 
mors-prunorum. Day '^ has brought forward evidence that the ' water- 
mark ' disease of the cricket -bat willow in the eastern counties of England 

««^ Jour. Agr. Res., 49, p. 1093 (1934). 

"' Ann. App. Biol., 20, p. 590 (1933). 

*^ Empire Cotton Growing Review, 11, p. iS8 (1924). 

«' Ann. App. Biol., 20, p. 404 (1933). 

'" Jour. Agr. Res., 48, pp. 887 and 913 (1934). 

'1 Jour. Pomology and Hort. Sci., 9, p. 239 (1931). 

'^ Oxford Forestry Memoirs, No. 3, 1924. 



K.— BOTANY 187 

is caused by a bacterium, and Dr. Dowson is carrying out further investi- 
gations on this disease, an account of which will be given during the present 
meeting. 

Time does not permit me to deal with the important advances which 
have been made recently in our knowledge of the innumerable diseases of 
plants caused by viruses — some of which are of great importance — and of 
the properties of the viruses themselves, but Dr. Kenneth Smith, one 
of the most successful workers in this field, will discuss some of the more 
notable of these advances during the meeting. I will only add that these 
remarkable ultra-microscopic agents of disease should be of interest to all 
biologists for they may belong to a borderline territory between the living 
and the non-living. 

During the early development of plant pathology little attention was 
paid to the study of disease in plants of a functional kind, i.e. to disease 
not induced by parasitic agency. For a long time information about this 
class of diseases was fragmentary and vague, and in some respects this 
statement is still true. In certain ways non-parasitic diseases of plants 
are more difficult to investigate than those due to parasites, and not much 
progress can be made with the elucidation of some of them until more is 
known about normal plant physiology. Some notable advances have been 
made, however, in the understanding of certain diseases of this class, and 
some of these investigations have resulted in important contributions to 
plant physiology. This is especially true of diseases which are caused by 
insufficiency of elements in the soil that had not hitherto been suspected 
of being of importance in plant nutrition. Warrington '^^ and Brenchley ''* 
startled the botanical world some years ago by demonstrating that boron 
was an essential element in the proper nutrition of certain green plants. 
Since then Brandenburg '^ has suggested that boron-deficiency in the soil 
is the cause of the serious ' heart-rot ' disease of sugar beet and mangolds. 
Another element having the property — formerly unsuspected — of exer- 
cising an important role in the nutrition of some plants is manganese. It 
has long been known that oats did not thrive on certain soils unless salts 
of manganese were added. On such land the oats were stunted in growth, 
the leaves were affected by grey blotches, and the plants died prematurely, 
the disease being known as ' grey leaf ' or ' grey-speck. ' Small amounts of 
manganese sulphate applied to the soil enabled a healthy crop to be grown. 
Samuel and Piper '^^ have shewn by careful experiments that minute quan- 
tities of manganese must be available in the soil to allow of the normal nutri- 
tion of oats and certain other plants. Such a disease as that of ' grey leaf ' of 
oats is now known as a ' manganese deficiency ' disease. Another inter- 
esting example of the importance of nutritional factors in the maintenance 
of well-being in crop plants is afforded by the researches of Storey and 
Leach ''^ on a grave disease of tea bushes in Nyasaland, which causes 
chlorosis and rapid death. They have demonstrated that this disease is 

" Ann. Bot., 37, p. 629 (1923)- 

" Ann. Bot., 41, p. 167 (1927)- 

" Phytopath. Zeitschrijt. 3, p. 499 (i93i). 

'« Ann. App. Biol., 16, p. 493 (1929)- 

" Ann. App. Biol., 20, p. 23 (i933)- 



i88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

due to insufficiency of available sulphur in the soil ; it can be speedily 
remedied by the application of sulphur or salts containing sulphur. 
Several of the functional diseases of apples in storage, some of which are 
caused by respiratory disturbances, have been investigated by plant 
physiologists at the hovf Temperature Research Station, Cambridge, and 
by pathologists in the United States and Australia. I will refer briefly to 
one of these troubles. For many years large losses had been incurred in 
the importation of apples from the Antipodes into this country, owing to 
the disease known as ' brown heart,' which is characterised by a brown 
discoloration of the flesh between the skin and the core. Kidd and 
West ''^ shewed that this condition was brought about by disturbances in 
the respiration of the cells of the apple owing to the accumulation of a 
high percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere surrounding the 
fruit in the holds of the ships. Nowadays greater care is taken than 
formerly to ensure adequate ventilation in the holds of ships carrying 
cargoes of apples, with the result that ' brown heart ' has been practically 
eliminated. Another kind of plant injury that is receiving renewed 
attention is that caused by frost. In this connection I have time omy to 
refer to the damage sustained by the larch tree in Britain by late spring 
and early autumn frosts. Day and Peace '^^ claim, I think justifiably, 
that much of the canker or blister disease of the larch tree, generally 
believed to be due to a species of Dasyscypha, is primarily caused by 
such frosts, which kill groups of active cambium cells. There is still 
an enormous field for research on the functional disorders of plants not 
caused by parasitic organisms, and it is particularly in this branch of the 
study of disease in plants that the help of the physiologist is required. 

Plant pathology is a subject with wide ramifications and many-sided 
interests. It is an important connecting link between botany and crop 
husbandry, and the economic importance of the study of plant diseases is 
self-evident. From the academic standpoint research in plant pathology 
is becoming more and more closely associated with physiology, and it is 
clear that future advances in the understanding of disease in plants will 
become more and more dependent upon the use of analytical methods 
similar to those employed by the physiologist. In this address I have tried 
to shew that plant pathology has a contribution to make to our knowledge 
of botany in general and that many pathological investigations are of 
interest to the pure botanist. Furthermore, just as researches in medical 
science have added greatly to our comprehension of the attributes of 
protoplasm so does plant pathology provide an instrument for increasing 
our knowledge of general biological principles. 

'^ Dept. Set. and Indust. Res., Food Investig. Bd., Spec. Rep. No. 12, 1923. 
" Oxford Forestry Memoirs, No. 16, 1934. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



EDUCATION AND FREEDOM 

ADDRESS BY 

A. W. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, D.Litt., LL.D., F.B.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It has not been unusual at the meetings of the British Association to 
discuss questions which have a peculiar practical interest and I venture tn 

British Association, Norwich, 1935. 



Section K : President's Address : Corrigendum. 
Page 170, line 21. For Tanner read Trimmer. 



p.t.o 

the individual to the State, not only in his external life and action, but 
also, so far as education and propaganda can achieve it, in thought and 
will. In all three countries the methods adopted have been essentially 
the same — the ruthless exercise of force, the extermination of persons who 
seemed likely to be irreconcileable, and thereafter the continuing threat 
of death, imprisonment and loss of goods, the employment of espionage 
in its most inhuman and revolting forms, creating distrust between 
members of the same family and between friends who seemed inseparably 
united, and the enforcement of methods of education and psychological 
manipulation calculated to mould impressionable minds into one and the 
same rigid and uniform shape, and to permit no independence of judg- 
ment or of action. The suppression of truth and the propagation of 
convenient falsehoods have been regular elements in the system. Any 



i88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

due to insufficiency of available sulphur in the soil ; it can be speedily 
rennedied by the application of sulphur or salts containing sulphur. 
Several of the functional diseases of apples in storage, some of which are 
caused by respiratory disturbances, have been investigated by plant 
physiologists at the Low Temperature Research Station, Cambridge, and 
by pathologists in the United States and Australia. I will refer briefly to 
one of these troubles. For many years large losses had been incurred in 
the importation of apples from the Antipodes into this country, owing to 
the disease known as ' brown heart,' which is characterised by a brown 
discoloration of the flesh between the skin and the core. Kidd and 
West '^^ shewed that this condition was brought about by disturbances in 
the respiration of the cells of the apple owing to the accumulation of a 
high percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere surrounding the 
fruit in the holds of the ships. Nowadays greater care is taken than 
formerly to ensure adequate ventilation in the holds of ships carrying 
cargoes of apples, with the result that ' brown heart ' has been practically 
eliminated. Another kind of plant injury that is receiving renewed 

British Association, Norwich, 1935. 



Section L : President's Address : Note. 

Page 190. Mr. Wells has informed me that the paragraph 
which refers to his book " The Shape of Things to Come " 
misrepresents it. I am sorry if this is so, though after re- 
reading the book I cannot see that the paragraph misdescribes 
what is to be found there. But I am content that our readers 
should judge for themselves, and I am therefore anxious that 
his disclaimer should be known to them. — A. W. P.-C. 



P.T.O. 

\j± LJKJi.aiiy 111 g^_ll^_lal aiiu tuiiL mdiiy paLiiuiugicai investigations are ot 
interest to the pure botanist. Furthermore, just as researches in medical 
science have added greatly to our comprehension of the attributes of 
protoplasm so does plant pathology provide an instrument for increasing 
our knowledge of general biological principles. 

''" Dept. Set. and Indust. Res., Food Investig. Bd., Spec. Rep. No. 12, 1923. 
" Oxford Forestry Memoirs, No. 16, 1934. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



EDUCATION AND FREEDOM 

ADDRESS BY 

A. W. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, D.Litt., LL.D., F.B.A., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



It has not been unusual at the meetings of the British Association to 
discuss questions which have a pecuHar practical interest and I venture to 
offer some observations on the connection between education and freedom, 
in the belief that the subject is one of critical importance to-day and that it 
is essential that those who are concerned with education should determine 
their attitude to it. 

No one with any power of discernment can have failed to note two 
opposite tendencies at work in the present day : the one, a tendency 
antagonistic, both in intention and in fact, to freedom ; the other, a 
tendency to lay claim to freedom in ways which it is not always possible 
to defend. Of the second of these tendencies I do not intend to say much 
to-day, though I shall refer to it incidentally later on. It is seen in a 
number of educational theories which would so far as possible exclude 
discipline from life in the supposed interests of free development ; and 
also in a certain impatience with all forms of authority, of which those who 
are associated with young people have been more conscious in recent 
years than (for instance) before the war. But the other tendency we 
can see writ large in the recent history and present condition of nations 
and also reflected in the smaller letters of individual mentalities. In 
Germany, Italy and Russia we are watching the complete subordination of 
the individual to the State, not only in his external life and action, but 
also, so far as education and propaganda can achieve it, in thought and 
will. In all three countries the methods adopted have been essentially 
the same — the ruthless exercise of force, the extermination of persons who 
seemed likely to be irreconcileable, and thereafter the continuing threat 
of death, imprisonment and loss of goods, the employment of espionage 
in its most inhuman and revolting forms, creating distrust between 
members of the same family and between friends who seemed inseparably 
united, and the enforcement of methods of education and psychological 
manipulation calculated to mould impressionable minds into one and the 
same rigid and uniform shape, and to permit no independence of judg- 
ment or of action. The suppression of truth and the propagation of 
convenient falsehoods have been regular elements in the system. Any 



IQO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

thinking which runs counter to the ideas promulgated by the ruler is 
sternly discouraged. The individual exists simply to carry out those 
ideas, and it will be bad for him if he does not do it. 

Now if such phenomena were only presented to us by foreign peoples, 
they would even then merit our very serious attention ; but he would be 
very blind who did not see the same tendency at work among ourselves. 
We call ourselves a Democracy, and the essence of democracy is that it 
rests upon the free expression of individual thought ; but the rigidity 
of organisation in our political parties has increased during the present 
century to an ominous degree, and with it the application of what is called 
' party discipline,' depriving the individual of all freedom of action and 
speech, whatever freedom of thought he may privately retain. Some 
of those who listen to me would not, I feel sure, have to look far to find 
not merely parliaments or municipal councils, but even education com- 
mittees, in which the vote of every member of a party, on questions 
imperatively demanding free and open discussion and not suggesting 
a division by parties at all, is determined by a previous party meeting, so 
that, whatever the discussion may bring forth, he dare not vote other- 
wise, on pain of being drummed out of his party ; and the spectacle of 
the management of (e.g.) higher education in some great city or county by 
such rigidly organised majorities, most of whose members may never have 
received any higher education themselves, and may have little or no know- 
ledge of schools or of teaching, and yet may not deviate an inch from the 
course marked out for them by their organisers, whatever considerations 
may be urged by persons of experience and independent judgment, is a 
spectacle in which comedy and tragedy are about equally blended. 

It is at least equally serious, that some of the constructors of the imagi- 
nary Utopias which have been most popular with the younger generation 
in the last few years clearly envisage and apparently approve of political 
and educational systems based upon the complete elimination of in- 
dividuality. Mr. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Mr. Wells' 
delineation of The Shape of Things to Come both assume that it is 
possible to organise individual freedom out of existence ; and the means 
suggested to supplement certain catastrophes, which occur conveniently 
and give the imaginary State-builders a tabula rasa, are violence at the 
beginning and the ruthless crushing out of opposition at all stages. Even 
if the motives of the Government are benevolent to the utmost degree 
(and no one will deny Mr. Wells' State-builders this merit) the governed 
have no voice in their own lives. ' Democracy,' says Mr. Wells, ' asks 
people what they want ; what is required is to tell them what they want, 
and see that they get it.' His new government, he tells us, was meant 
' to rule not only this planet, but the human will ' ; and education was 
devised accordingly. It is open, of course, to any of us to treat such 
works as nothing more than rather unconvincing pieces of fiction ; but 
the fact that they have found a definite response from a great number of 
young people at the impressionable age of University studentship gives 
them a significance which intrinsically they may hardly merit. 

For the events of our own times have shown that there is more than 
imagination in these pictures ; that it is possible in fact so to educate and 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 191 

to govern as to eliminate freedom of thought and life, to make human beings 
efficient members of an all-embracing organisation, cogs in a machine, and 
to convince a large number of them that that is the best life for them ; and 
it is certain that the idea of such an organisation has for many persons a 
great attractiveness, and that they are prepared to believe that it is worth 
the price. It is easy, but it is not of much service, to argue that the cause 
of these phenomena in modern States is fear, generated by war and the 
expectation of war, leading men to transfer to times of peace a rigidity 
of organisation which is only necessary or even excusable in the presence 
of war itself ; that in all the three foreign countries which have been men- 
tioned military aims and preparations are intimately interwoven with the 
new political systems, and that if security can be achieved on a large 
scale without war, freedom will again lift her head. Or it may be urged 
that judgment on these new systems is premature, since none has lasted 
a generation, and the second generation has often been the end of violently 
imposed governments. We may also suspect that many of those who in 
our own country are disposed to uphold systems of this kind as an ideal, 
almost unconsciously think of themselves as the organisers, and not as the 
organised, and that the realisation of their notions might incidentally 
involve them in some unpleasant surprises. Yet it is none the less a fact 
that a large number of quite serious persons are definitely prepared to 
find their ideal in a state of society in which the freedom of the individual is 
to play a far smaller part than is consistent with any kind of democracy, 
and to fashion education so as to create and perpetuate such a state. 

Now if this view is accepted, if it is definitely decided that freedom is 
not worth keeping, the consequences in the field of education will obviously 
be accepted also — the strict control of all that is to be taught, and of the 
method of teaching it ; the exercise of thorough-going espionage upon 
teachers and pupils, and the encouragement in both ranks of the giving 
of information against colleagues and companions ; the supervision of 
every part of the individual life, so that there may be no loophole any- 
where for the intrusion of counter-influences, and no opportunity for 
the expression of free thought. There may be those who feel that such a 
state is what ought to be ; and I do not now propose to argue with them ; 
but what I have to say to-day is based upon the opposite assumption, 
that individual freedom, subject to such a minimum of restriction and 
organisation as is necessary for life as a member of a community, is the 
indispensable condition of a good and even a tolerable human existence, 
and that just as the educational systems of coercive States, real or imaginary, 
are directed to the maintenance of the systems of government and life 
which have given rise to them, so the educational system of a democratic 
State, which is based on the principle of freedom, should be directed 
towards the maintenance of that freedom, and the encouragement of its 
responsible use. I am convinced that my old masters, Plato and 
Aristotle, were right in thinking that it is the business of education to 
bring up young citizens in what they call the ' spirit of the polity ' (t6 
^eo? T^(; TtoXiTeta?) , and that it makes all the difference, whether the polity 
is one in which thought as well as life is subject to strict prescription by 
authority, or one in which the actions of the State and the life of the 



iga SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

community are the result of free discussion between those whose minds are 
trained to be free and encouraged to express themselves freely. As the 
principle of the direction of education in accordance with the ' spirit of 
the State ' must necessarily result, in the authoritarian State, in training 
citizens not to think, so education in the spirit of a polity of free men and 
women must above all train them to think freely and accurately, and to 
desire to carry the results of their thinking into action. As the former 
type of State will try to produce a standardised and unresisting mentality, 
the latter will allow the utmost variety and will look for the good life of 
the community to the clash in rational discussion of the most diverse 
views, brought to judgment before the bar of a public opinion in the 
formation of which all alike may take their part. 

The freedom of which I am speaking has two aspects. It includes, in 
the first place, the power of the individual to realise the good, as he under- 
stands it, in his own life ; and in the second place, the power to take an 
equal share with any other citizen in determining the action of the com- 
munity of which he is a member, and in bringing about the realisation of 
good in the community as a whole, or, in other words, in the lives of others 
as well as himself. In both aspects freedom depends in part upon the 
individual's own capacity, in part upon the political and social structure and 
behaviour of the community, i.e. upon the will of others. 

So far as the individual life is concerned, I do not think that much 
argument is needed to show that the freedom which serious persons 
desire, and the freedom which is desirable, is just freedom to realise 
whatever is regarded as good — as possessing- value ; the power to act 
in accordance with a deliberately chosen ideal of good, in whatever 
sphere of action. (It is an illustration of this that the determinist, who 
thinks that human actions are determined by something other than human 
free will, usually alleges his theory as the reason (or excuse) why he or 
others cannot do good.) So far as the community is concerned, the ideal 
State and community will be a democracy in which every individual is 
free to realise the highest values, physical, moral and spiritual ; and the 
realisation of some of these is only possible if he can enter into freely 
determined mutual relations with others, participating fully in the life of 
the community, communicating his share of good to it, receiving his share 
of good from it. The community and the State will recognise fully the 
value of the individual personality, and will acquiesce in no condition 
which makes any individual merely a means to the well-being of others, 
or to the stability of the organised community, for the sake of which in 
authoritarian States, real or Utopian, individuality is sternly suppressed. 
Doubtless such an ideal community is far in advance of anything that has 
so far been realised ; but it is the ideal at which democracy aims and 
which is implicit in most of the social reforms effected or demanded in 
our own day ; and, so far as I can judge, it is the one political ideal which 
is worth working for. Ever since the authoritarian State and the authori- 
tarian Church of the Middle Ages had to yield most of their power to a 
steadily broadening political freedom and a growing liberty of thought, 
the principle which has been implicit in all political progress in the Western 
world has been that of the inviolability of the individual personality, and 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 193 

the imperative obligation to ensure the freedom and security of the 
individual under a reign of law resting upon the consent of those who obey 
it and who co-operate for those common ends which all feel to be also their 
own — like players in an orchestra, each making his own contribution and 
playing his own part, and yet sharing fully in the combined result, the 
perfection of the whole. The whole trend of what is called progress has 
been an advance from a condition in which the individual has been under 
domination or cruelly hindered by his environment to one in which he has 
been at liberty to express himself, to act upon his own understanding, and give 
his co-operation by his own free consent. It is to this end that men have 
striven for and to a great extent attained equality before the law ; safety 
of person and life ; freedom from arbitrary arrest and espionage and toler- 
able material conditions of existence ; and to this end, in so far as it is not 
yet secured, reformers are striving, when they seek to remove adverse 
conditions of every kind. It is a reversal of all that has been accounted 
progress hitherto, when liberty is denied and overthrown by force as in 
some continental countries, or when the faint-hearted, or those who 
would avoid the responsibilities which freedom carries with it, take refuge 
in submission to the authority of a person or an organisation without con- 
sidering whether they can rationally do so. For my own part, I can only 
express complete agreement with the sentence which sums up the spirit 
of Sir Percy Nunn's well-known text-book [Education: its Data and First 
Principles, p. 4) : ' Nothing good enters into the human world, except in and 
through the free activities of men and women, and educational practice 
must be shaped to accord with that truth.' 

But the desired freedom of the individual has to encounter obstacles of 
more than one kind, and it is in a great measure with these that education 
has to deal. The obstacles are partly in himself, partly in the community. 
It is obvious at once that no one, as he is, is completely free. It is indeed 
the assumption of almost all educational theory and practice that everyone 
has some degree of freedom to accept or reject the good, in whatever 
sphere ; to act or refuse to act in accordance with an ideal ; to use what 
education may give him well or ill — ^just as it is the working assumption 
of the Law Courts, and indeed of everyone in his actual dealings with 
others, and in his judgments on their conduct and his own. If the 
assumption were not true, a great deal of our conscious experience 
would have to be explained away ; and if it were not made, the whole 
of the practical life of men in communities would have to be reorganised 
from top to bottom. At least the burden of proof may be laid upon 
those who deny it ; and (though this is not the place, nor would the 
time suffice, to argue the matter) the conventional objections raised 
by the determinist against the reality of human freedom have become 
much more unconvincing than they used to be found by some 
philosophers. Nevertheless, it remains undoubtedly true that no one's 
freedom to realise good in any sphere is complete. It is agreed that 
everyone is greatly hampered by the effects of heredity, which, whatever 
the mechanism, seem to be mental as well as physical ; by the influence of 
body upon mind ; by the tendencies imparted by early environment and 
habituation, largely unconscious, yet so powerful as often to fill the well- 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

wisher and the educator with a feeling not far from despair ; and by the 
results of his own actions. Yet it is probably a fair summary of what may 
be inferred from common experience, that each individual has at any 
moment a certain balance or reserve of freedom, i.e. of power to act in 
the way which he recognises to be good — a balance or reserve which he 
can increase or diminish by every individual act, every exercise of will, so 
far as he is free. Therein lies (as all moralists have seen) the importance 
of each single action ; for it is in the determination of single actions 
that increased freedom must be won. By constant action in one direc- 
tion, habits are formed which it is very difficult to break. By repeated 
choice of the higher as against the lower values, the choice of these 
becomes easier ; freedom is increased. Accordingly, one purpose at 
least of education is to set what seem to be the higher values before the 
immature mind in such forms as it can understand, and to encourage the 
habit of choosing them. About most of these higher values there is 
really very little doubt, and in such forms as kindness, unselfishness, 
truthfulness, fair play, thoroughness, neatness and other elementary kinds 
of beauty, they are as accessible to young minds as to old. 

Further, the importance of discipline depends upon the fact that without 
it — without a certain external compulsion at times — the immature per- 
sonality may not discover that it has the freedom to choose something 
other (and, as it will afterwards recognise, something better) than that 
which immediately appeals to it. The youthful mind has, as Aristotle 
puts it, the power of rational deliberation and choice, but has it in an 
imperfectly developed form, and so the practice of it has to be artifici- 
ally stimulated by some more mature personality which has authority. 
Discipline, correction and guidance reveal the power of choice — of doing 
what you do not want to do ; and in time self-discipline follows and 
freedom increases in proportion — freedom, that is, to pursue and realise 
ends or values deliberately chosen, because they are recognised as good. 
No one can possibly be less free than one who has always been allowed 
to do what he likes ; he will never have discovered that he can do anything 
else. To deprive the young, in the name, forsooth, of freedom, of all 
benefit from the experience of earlier generations — to put no values 
before them as good — is not, in fact, to increase, but to restrict their free- 
dom by denying them the conditions of a fair choice. The young mind 
has neither the information nor the training to decide everything for 
itself. But it is the object of education and of discipline that it may ulti- 
mately have these, and may do some things no longer because they are 
imposed by authority, but because they are recognised to be good, and 
other things, it may be, because the ideas suggested by authority have now 
been revised and modified by the growing reason. And if the discipline 
and guidance are accompanied so soon and so far as is possible, by reasons 
which will not only suggest why it is that such and such acts and habits 
are good and so cause the discipline to be willingly accepted, but will, 
above all, help to form the habit of reasoning and of considering what is 
good or bad, the result, so far from hampering freedom, will be to elicit 
and enhance it. 

There is no time this morning to discuss the many ways in which those 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 195 

who are responsible for the education of the young may supplement or 
counteract the influence of the home (which in this matter is inevitably 
the most important) in the presentation of values for choice, or, in other 
words, of standards of good and bad, fair and ugly. Many of these ways 
are familiar and obvious ; the most powerful no doubt are wise suggestion 
and example ; but it is clear that not only in the general life of the school 
as a society, but also in the choice of literature, in the study of characters 
both in literature and history, and in the presentation, in however simple 
a form, of the working in history of cause and effect, an immense oppor- 
tunity is open to the teacher, though how far that opportunity is diminished 
at least in Secondary Schools (happily, much less in Primary) by the 
cramping influence of examinations is a very grave question, to which 
I shall return. Further, I am convinced that the tendency for many years 
to relegate the study of the Bible to a place of almost complete unimport- 
ance in the curriculum has been a fatal mistake, though here again it is 
the Secondary rather than the Primary Schools that are most guilty. 
Almost all the principles which distinguish the most progressive modern 
civilisation from the barbarism to which some apparently desire to return 
are those which are found in the New Testament and which as a mere 
matter of history have found their way into civilisation from that source ; 
and it is significant that both in Germany and Russia the consciousness of 
this has been so strong that the suppression of freedom has been closely 
combined with an attack upon the Christian religion. If it is urged that 
the young ought to be left free to make up their own minds about religious 
matters, I reply that they have at least the right to be given the chance to 
do so by being supplied with the materials for the decision, as is done 
in regard to every other matter which is of importance ; otherwise 
they have no real freedom of choice ; and it is at least reassuring that in 
our Training Colleges and in the Training Departments of Univer- 
sities, and still more in the minds of the future teachers themselves, more 
attention is now being given to the best ways of teaching a subject 
which both for the understanding of human nature and society and for its 
bearing on practical life is far more important than any other.^ But in 
what I propose to say about training in thinking generally, training in 
thinking about values will be implicitly considered, and to this we may 
now proceed. 

For education has much more to do in the cause of freedom than the 

^ Sir Percy Nunn (op. cit., p. 98) wisely insists that ' the old pedagogic arts, 
which represent not merely the blunders of the past but also the successes won 
during centuries of sincere and patient effort, can never become obsolete ' and 
that suggestion on the part of the teacher (which is one of the most effective 
forms of guidance) ' is not by nature a foe to spontaneity, but a necessary instru- 
ment in the process by which a man becomes truly the captain of his own soul.' 
The young scholar will assuredly be exposed to the strong influence of suggestion 
exercised by his companions ; and to rule out suggestion, and even something 
more, by older and wiser personalities would be merely silly. Even the most 
rigid applicants of the principles of Mme Montessori (whose influence for good 
upon educational practice is unquestioned) admit a very large measure of guid- 
ance and suggestion, and restrict the imperfectly developed freedom of the very 
young by a careful limitation of the possibilities of choice and of going seriously 
wrong. 



196 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

encouragement of a habit of discriminating between good and evil, or 
better and worse, and the suggestion of the lines of such discrimination. 
For before Hfe is far advanced, the simple problems and issues of early 
days are merged in far more complicated issues, requiring the utmost 
clarity of thinking ; and not only does the true discrimination between 
values itself become more difficult, but a knowledge of facts, a power of 
analysing them and appreciating their bearing, and therewith an under- 
standing of the particular conditions in which the realisation of ideals of 
good has to be attempted, become essential ; in short, a clearness of percep- 
tion and judgment without which the best intentions may end in disaster ; 
for it is difficult to set limits to the harm which may be done in the world 
by the muddle-headedness of good people. 

For effective thinking two conditions are necessary : first, that the 
materials with which thought has to deal shall be as far as possible true, 
or, in other words, that truth about facts shall be accessible ; secondly, 
that the mind itself shall have been trained to work accurately and 
honestly ; and if freedom in political and private life is to be preserved, 
those who educate others must put them in the way of obtaining truth 
about facts and of distinguishing truth from falsehood in what is pre- 
sented to them and in their own reasoning. It would take a very brave 
man to deny the immensity of the obstacles. Even in a country as 
free as our own, the temptations to accept opinion manufactured by others, 
not always for the best ends, are enormous. The leaders of parties, 
of trade unions, of organisations of all kinds, tend more and more to 
dictate what their followers shall accept without question, and it is 
much easier to accept it than to work out patiently the reasons for and 
against. Even more plausible and easily accepted is what a man is told 
by the newspaper which he habitually reads ; and there are few news- 
papers which any one has a right to trust as aids to right opinion and 
action, and very few which can be trusted to tell the truth and nothing 
but the truth in the presentation of facts. The effect of selection 
and suppression and of headlines beyond which many will not pene- 
trate may be to create impressions which are almost wholly false ; 
and when nearly every newspaper is the organ of a party or of a 
proprietor whose aim is to make money or to damage a particular 
statesman or group of statesmen, when the paper which would succeed 
as a commercial speculation dare not say what would be unpopular 
with its particular clientele, how is the citizen, young or old, to obtain 
the materials for sound judgment ? Until some means can be devised 
whereby full and accurate reports of important matters are placed 
within reach of all (perhaps by a free service of State), to expect a sane 
and dispassionate public opinion is to demand bricks without straw. 
Yet some preparatory work may be done on the lines which are followed, 
at least in a few schools, in which in some upper forms present-day 
problems are discussed, or the news of the week presented, in ways which 
encourage older boys and girls at least to think about them, to be aware 
of the two or more sides that each question presents, to realise the duty 
which lies upon them, or will shortly lie upon them as citizens, to get 
the best information and to form their opinion with a high sense of 



I 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 197 

responsibility and a disregard of the interest of class or self. They can 
be led to realise that democracy is less a system of equal rights than a 
system of equal responsibilities ; and even the common life of the school 
can teach them how much one clear and decided mind can do in shaping 
the opinion of its own circle. In many ways the school may encourage 
independence and sincerity of thought, and afford some antidote to the 
malignant influence of a very large part of the popular press. It is 
constantly repeated that any man has a right to his opinion ; and this is 
true if it is his opinion . But it is not true, if it is some other person 's opinion , 
accepted without thought ; nor even if it is his own, but formed without 
reflection and deliberate impartiality. The foundation of habits of im- 
partial and critical judgment can be laid at school, and if they are not laid 
there, the odds are heavily against their being laid anywhere else.^ 

The teaching of history is an obvious instance of the opportunity which 
education aff'ords for the formation of habits of careful judgment. As in 
all other matters, there must be an impartial presentation of facts and 
issues, and, if possible, opportunity of discussion of a kind suited to the 
age of the pupils. In this connection it is rather alarming to hear of a 
great Education Authority proposing to review and revise the text books 
of history to be used in its schools in the interests of the political party 
which is dominant at the moment. (The other explanations offered are 
too transparent to deceive anyone.) The same thing has happened before 
now in America, a deliberate attempt being made to impart an anti- 
British bias ; and it is happening now in Germany. Now it is quite 
possible that many of the current text books are biased, consciously or un- 
consciously, in a particular direction, and that the bias needs correction ; 
but you cannot correct it merely by substituting the opposite bias, but 
only by a fresh and impartial estimation of evidence : this is a task which 
requires the trained skill of the historian, and its fulfilment is frustrated if 
the conclusions are dictated beforehand. The task of the teacher is to 
encourage his pupils to think by the presentation of evidence or of opposite 
points of view ; the desire of the politician is to prevent them from think- 
ing, so that they may swallow his particular notions without question ; 
and it is this which must be resisted at all costs. ^ 

^ It would be easy to apply this contention especially to the particular case 
of international affairs, about which it is urgently necessary that an intelligent 
future voter should, in the present state of the world, have an elementary know- 
ledge. In this matter I agree wholly with a writer from whom I more often differ, 
Prof. H. Laski, when he writes that ' our educational systems are at no point 
adapted to confer upon the masses that knowledge even of the larger aspects of 
international affairs without which reason is powerless ' {The State in Theory 
and Practice, p. 267). A little superficial teaching about the League of Nations 
is in a great number of schools the utmost that is attempted. Even in Adult 
Education of all kinds, very little attention is given to international relations. 

* The fear that the discussion of recent history and contemporary events in 
schools may result in one-sided propaganda is, I think, in the main mistaken. 
Of course there is a small number of teachers who are strong party-politicians, and 
they are obviously not the persons for this work, for although strong party-spirit 
is apt to evoke as much opposition as support, they are not likely to produce a 
spirit of fair-minded consideration for both sides. But teachers whose aim is 
that which I have tried to describe are likely to be able to discipline themselves 
to fairness. 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

In other ways, the dangers of dependent, unventuresome and even 
servile mentality may be partly met by the school. Young people are 
much more likely to think for themselves, if, subject to the necessary 
framework of school discipline which is scarcely felt so long as it is wisely 
controlled, they do things for themselves. This is well understood in the 
older Public Schools, but I confess that in a great number of Secondary 
Schools — and Secondary Schools are of special importance, because from 
them should come the leaders of opinion in nearly all those smaller circles in 
which, much more than on platforms, public opinion is made as well 
as most of the future teachers of the mass of the people — I should 
like to see a good deal more room for independence and self-government. 
It is bad enough, though perhaps almost inevitable, that everyone now 
plays the same games, which he takes over ready-made, but it is worse that 
even for the purpose of these, the organisation is largely in the hands of 
masters or mistresses ; and the same thing is often true of the School 
Societies. It is impossible to train young people in the free use of judg- 
ment without letting them exercise it freely in their own affairs and (with 
slight and obvious limitations) make their own mistakes, and grow in the 
power of judging how to act and of understanding the characters one of 
another ; for in a free State, the power to choose persons is as important 
as the power to choose between policies, and there is no place so good as 
a school for learning either to lead or to choose and follow a leader. In 
schools in which the leaders are not chosen but imposed, this lesson is 
not learned ; and there must be hundreds of such schools, in which pre- 
fects, captains, debaters, readers of papers are all appointed from above, 
and in which even the prefect is little but a keeper of order in passages, and 
the captain does merely what he is told.* 

The fact that the standard games are provided with such completeness 
of arrangement that the individual has merely to take his place in the 
organisation would matter less if the forms of amusement available, apart 
from the school, gave more scope for individuality ; but no one can deny 
the effect of the mechanised drama, which is the almost universal re- 
creation on certain days in the week, in producing a standard mentality 
(one might almost say a uniformity of bad taste) and in confining in- 
terest (O monotonously narrow lines; and the fact that the interest in 
sport of which our countrymen boast takes for nine-tenths of them the 
form not of healthy personal activity but of massed attendance at the 
performances, provided for them by no effort of their own, of two teams 
of hired entertainers or of a few trained dogs, is not indicative or productive 
of an active intelligence. If education is to counter this, it must encourage 
those occupations of leisure in which the individual can exercise his own 
free choice and express himself — the performance (not merely the hearing) 

* I have learned something about these things, not only from frequent visits 
to schools, but also from interviewing for some years a large number of candidates 
for admission to my own University, and it is with a thrill of delight which comes 
only too rarely that I hear of schools which seem to have caught something of 
the spirit which animated (for example) Newbury in the headmastership of 
Mr. Sharwood Smith. 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 199 

of music and drama, the practice of handicrafts, of arts, of gardening, 
of all kinds of performances which are personal, not mechanical. It 
must set before the young the infinitely various ways of spending time 
worthily ; and must encourage an attitude towards books and reading 
which few of our examination-ridden youth attain.^ For all these things 
are the activities of free minds, not of those which accept unthinkingly 
everything which is superficially attractive and is therefore accepted by 
crowds. Without some such influence from education, we can expect 
only passive minds, barren of ideas, and unable to rise by freedom of 
thinking to meet the perpetually changing needs of the world in which they 
are called upon to live. Moreover, unless our young citizens become 
accustomed to activities worthy of free minds , before the great increase of 
leisure which is commonly predicted is upon us, we are likely then to see 
nothing but greater crowds thronging the picture palaces, dance halls, 
race-courses and football grounds, and degenerating as those must whose 
only interest is in exciting and profitless kinds of pleasure. 

As I have spoken of examinations, I had better say explicitly that I 
rank examinations, not in themselves, but as they are treated in most 
schools at the present time, among the worst enemies to education in 
freedom of thought and independence of judgment. Examinations can 
be, and should be, invaluable aids to education ; but it is a condition 
of this that they should be only an incident in the work of the school, 
testing at convenient points the work of both teachers and pupils, and 
really, and not merely by profession, following and not directing the 
curriculum. Their usefulness is undoubted in training the young mind 
to do what it will continually have to do afterwards — viz. to bring whatever 
knowledge and resource it may have to bear on a particular point at a 
given moment, and in this both intellectual and moral qualities are in- 
volved. But where the whole work of the school is planned to cover or 
lead up to the syllabus of some particular examination ; where every 
subject is studied at a rush in order to work into the pupils' minds what 
are virtually prescribed answers to questions which may almost be said 
to be prescribed — so narrow is the range from which they can be drawn ; 
where the teacher does not dare to encourage his pupils to think ; where 
he cannot go at his own pace and cover in his own way the ground which 
he can effectively cover, for fear of the effect on the statistics by which the 
Local Education Authority, knowing little of education, judges the efficiency 
of his school and his own fitness for promotion, or by which the employer, 
knowing even less, judges the suitability of individuals for purposes never 
contemplated by the examination authorities — there examinations are a 
very mischievous thing. Examining bodies may do their best, as those of 
which I know anything honestly and untiringly do, to consult the teachers 
in schools and keep closely in touch with their curriculum, so as to keep 
the examination requirements well within it, and leave ample margin for 
generous methods of teaching and for work altogether outside the examina- 

* It is painful to think of the thousands of boys and girls whose books are 
taken away from them so soon as the examination, in preparation for which they 
were used, is over. 

H 2 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

tion syllabus ; and any one who knows anything about the teachers of the 
present day will recognise that thousands of them would gladly train their 
pupils' minds, and not merely prepare them for examinations ; but no one 
who has seen much, at any rate of Secondary Schools, and has heard on every 
Speech-day the predominant emphasis on the results of examinations, and the 
proofs which every school confidently produces that its averages are above 
those of the whole country, can doubt that the attitude towards exami- 
nations which is forced upon schools is wholly wrong ; and I have no 
doubt that herein lies the chief obstacle to an education which should 
produce men and women of alert and independent minds, proof against 
ready-made answers to any problem, adaptable and originative, and with 
the powers of vision and of criticism with which nature has endowed them 
unblurred and ready for use. It would take too long to-day to enter 
upon a discussion of the remedies, which might in fact involve a very 
large reconstruction of our whole educational system. The thing most 
essential is to distinguish examinations as an aid to education from 
examinations as a test of fitness for purposes external to the school. As 
it is, the attempt to combine the two aims has had a sufficiently long trial, 
and has proved a most unhappy failure.^ The external purpose has 
virtually eclipsed the internal. I should certainly not abolish exam- 
inations, even external examinations — which may be of great use to a 
school if they are based on the actual and freely arranged work of the 
school ; but there should be no issue of certificates of any kind, nor 
any publication of results beyond the school itself. Scholarships and 
positions outside the school might be awarded for the most part upon 
special examinations involving no specially prepared work, and much 
more weight might be given to school records (in schools much more 
thoroughly and regularly inspected than at present) ; and the activities 
of Local Education Authorities might be restricted, so far as possible, to the 
non-educational aspects of school life and work. I cannot develop these 
suggestions to-day, and I make them in the full assurance that they will 
never be put into practice. But unless the habit of working and teaching 
for examinations before everything else is abjured, I see little hope of the 
type of education which alone can save democracy, and bring up a race 
of free men and women. 

There are other reforms which are urgently needed, if our present 
system of education is to be brought nearer to the fulfilment of such an end. 
The prolonging of the time of education is obviously one, provided that 
the education is of the type which liberates and trains the mind, and 
does not merely rivet its fetters more tightly. '^ A great reduction in the 
size of classes in most subjects is another ; not necessarily in all subjects, 
nor for all purposes ; but such a reduction as will give the individual 
member of the class a chance, and will enable a teacher to encourage a 

' Of course so long as the present system continues, it will be the work of the 
examining bodies to diminish the mischief done by it as far as they can, and so 
far as I can judge they are doing this very conscientiously. 

' The fact that in Russia education is compulsory up to the age of eighteen is 
not without significance. 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 201 

pupil who has a line of his own to follow it up, and to see that every 
pupil is mentally active and not merely receptive. Young people have 
not indeed enough experience to prescribe or to conduct their own studies 
to the extent imagined by some enthusiasts ; but they have minds which 
should not be allowed to be inert or be driven along precisely the same route 
as twenty-nine or thirty-nine other minds, and the smaller the class the less 
the risk of this. Even under the present adverse conditions, the teacher 
must be asking himself (as the best teachers do even now) during every 
minute of his work, ' Am I leading this or that boy or girl not merely to 
absorb but to think } ' And the continuous effort involved in this may 
carry with it the need of an increase in the number of teachers, and 
perhaps some changes in their training. 

It has been impossible to speak to-day of the application of the principles 
which I have been inculcating to University work and to the various 
forms of Adult Education. The more examination-ridden University 
education is, the less it fits men and women for freedom ; but a discussion 
of the methods of University instruction would need much more than 
another hour, and in any case, unless the foundations of freedom are laid 
at school, the University has a very unpromising task. The contribution 
which Adult Education might make is very well discussed by my friends, 
Mr. J. S. Fulton and Mr. C. R. Morris, in Chapter IX of their recently 
published book, entitled * Itt Defence of Democracy ,' and to this I must 
be content to refer. 

The suggestions which I have made as regards educational practice 
have nothing new in them, but I have deliberately chosen familiar in- 
stances to illustrate my main contention ; these matters are continually 
in the minds-of those who take education seriously, and there is indeed 
a danger that we may get too used to hearing about continued education, 
small classes, reform of examinations and the rest. My object has been 
to assert that these are no matters merely of theory or of finance or of 
administrative or political convenience, but of vital and immediate 
urgency, if we are not unconsciously to bring up a race which, with its mind 
stunted, its capacity for freedom undeveloped, will be the easy prey of the 
politician, the journalist and the dictator; and that if a free democracy 
is to continue, we must educate for it, for in many respects our present 
educational system is better calculated to produce a servile and passive 
mentality than to elicit an activity of mind and an independence worthy of 
free men and women. 

It is evident that these suggestions postulate a great increase in ex- 
penditure upon education. Such expenditure is the premium by which 
the life of a people of free men and women must be assured, and what- 
ever may be the incidental consequences of spending money upon this 
instead of upon other objects, I am convinced that it will be abundantly 
rewarded. We have reached a point in the history of Western civil- 
isation when the forces which make for the enslavement or the inertness 
of mind and spirit are active as they have not been for centuries. It is 
therefore incumbent upon us to test our educational institutions and 
methods at every point by their tendency to produce or to hinder 



202 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

freedom of mind, to cut out all that makes for the standardisation of 
individualities or is hostile to ultimate independence of judgment, at the 
same time so setting before the young the higher values, which make for 
good life and good citizenship, that they may have the chance of freely 
making them their ov/n. If we can do this, we may yet see the develop- 
ment of a type of humanity richer in freedom, self-discipline, courage 
and vision than any which the world has yet known. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC RE- 
SULTS OF STATE CONTROL IN 
AGRICULTURE 

ADDRESS BY 

J. A. VENN, LiTT.D., F.S.A., J.P. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The changing practices, derived from scientific progress, observable in 
post-War British agriculture, have upon recent occasions been described 
and discussed by this section of the Association. It seems, therefore, 
not inappropriate now to draw attention to some other aspects of the 
industry which can claim to be fundamental in any appraisement of our 
rural complex and have also special relevance when we meet in such a 
centre as Norwich. I refer in particular to its financial and social economy 
as well as, more generally, to its present-day bearing upon other human 
activities, all of which have, as a direct result of State action, suifered 
great changes. And here, may I explain that in the title of this address 
the term ' Control ' has designedly been substituted for the arguably 
more correct ' Intervention ' or the defensible ' Assistance,' for none can 
aver that the policies and activities of those engaged in primary produc- 
tion are now as spontaneous and untrammelled as they would be had not 
successive Administrations, in order to counter exigencies of varying 
magnitude, visited agriculture, as Zeus visited Danae, in ' a shower of 
gold ' — I borrow the simile of a well-known politician. 

History and economics are frequently indissoluble. This is so in the 
present instance, and, although, prior to an examination of the extra- 
ordinary changes brought about by the recent extension of State influence, 
I do not ask you retrospectively to accompany me in a study of the 
recognised mediaeval methods of controlling trade or of regulating prices 
and wages (some of which survived into the nineteenth century), yet I 
must, in order to illustrate the magnitude of the change that has taken 
place in the national outlook upon this subject, first crave permission to 
effect comparison between the State's reactions to the situation confronting 
it at the present time and in two other comparatively modern periods of 
depression. I refer, of course, to (a) the two disastrous decades that 
followed upon the Peace of 1815, and {b) the eighties and the nineties of 
last century. Significantly, it is only during such times of stress — whether 



204 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

engendered by war or by monetary causes — that what is still the greatest 
industry of these islands (in its capitalisation, the numbers of its em- 
ployees, and the value of its output) receives any appreciable measure of 
recognition, for, if we exclude what is familiarly designated ' Education 
and Research ' — a euphemism for the semi-official dissemination of 
scientific knowledge amongst practising agriculturists — international 
peace and domestic prosperity have ever tended to be accompanied by 
apathy and neglect of rural interests. 

It is a trite, and familiar, saying that ' History repeats itself,' but, in 
the years that followed the Napoleonic war, the legislative attempts of 
our forebears to counter falling prices (including a National debt multi- 
plied, as is ours now, tenfold), unemployment, social unrest, and many 
other evils only too familiar to us were, mutatis mutandis, and up to a 
point in time, remarkably similar to those which we ourselves put forward 
a hundred years later. It was, indeed, to the historian, a cause of surprise 
that, in the years 1918-1922, the administrators concerned did not appear 
to be acquainted with the sequence of events three generations earlier ; 
much unnecessary friction and heartburning, many a miscalculation, 
involving either ultimate repeal of legislation or excessive expenditure of 
public funds might, it seemed then, with a little knowledge of economic 
history, have been avoided. Thus, the Agriculture Act of 1920, conceived 
in the mistaken view that a world shortage of wheat was imminent, and 
guaranteeing, therefore, to home producers abnormally high prices for a 
considerable number of years — which, it was feared, might also be pro- 
ductive of further wars — had its counterpart in the equally abortive Corn 
Law of 181 5, the aim of which was also to remunerate under peace condi- 
tions British farmers and land-owners upon a war-time scale of values. 
Upon both occasions the officially unforeseen, or ignored, superabundance 
of supplies — derived in the one case from home-produced sources, in the 
other from the ends of the earth — frustrated man's efforts to perpetuate 
artificial prices. Listen to an impatient leader-writer of The Times in 
January 1826, who wrote : ' V/hat the nation pants for, is a sensible fall 
of prices. Bread must be had cheap. Rents must be sacrificed to the 
lives of the people. It is monstrous impudence to talk about the ruin of 
the farmers from a lowering in the price of produce. The farmers want 
nothing better than low prices, if they can but get their lands at pro- 
portionate rents. . . . The paper currency has been pushed to madness, 
as a temporary help to the manufacturing interest against the monopoly 
of corn. Leave the loaf of bread to find its own value. It is horrible to 
tell a starving family, " You shall have no food but at a price beyond your 
means of procuring it." ' In our own post-war experience the loaf 
found ' its own value ' more quickly, and the Press could soon point out 
that it cost but a fraction of the corresponding price on the Continent, 
thereby suggesting in effect that it might be too cheap. Incidentally, the 
policy of the now unfortunately defunct Empire Marketing Board and 
of Ottawa's resolutions were, in the 181 5 Act, also forestalled, for thereby 
the effective order of preference was the familiar one of (i) home produced, 
(2) Canadian, and (3) foreign {viz. European) wheat. 

Again, up to 1836 (with the exception of London, where the custom 



M— AGRICULTURE 205 

had ceased in 1822) Justices of the Peace, sitting in special Assize, deter- 
mined the retail price of the loaf, allowing certain margins of profit to 
miller and baker. Their findings were thus promulgated to our grand- 
parents : ' The Assize of Bread for this town was reduced three farthings 
in the quartern loaf wheaten, the price of which is now eightpence three 
farthings ' {Cambridge Chronicle, March 1822). We ourselves may 
correspondingly read in our morning newspaper such edicts as the fol- 
lowing : ' The London millers announce that the current price of standard- 
grade fiour in the Home Counties is now 27^. per 280 lbs.' The principle 
is the same, but, as in many other cases, we have witnessed a substitution 
of independent and unbiased bodies by combinations of almost mono- 
polistic trade interests. 

In the legislation of 19 18 and 1925, which prevented any material 
increase in the level of tithe payments, there is ample evidence that the 
popular agitation which had been successful in securing the passage of the 
Commutation Act of 1836 was still alive, and it is almost certain that, 
exactly a century later, there will be placed upon the Statute-book another 
far-reaching measure to regulate or to modify the incidence of this charge. 
In passing, may I point out that if nowadays, in order to control tithe 
disputants, extraneous police detachments are sent to Kent, in the early 
nineteenth century troops were being despatched to that same county, 
where ' the disturbances [on the part of the agricultural labourers] have 
now attained to almost alarming magnitude. Each day brings fresh 
accounts of violence and outrage, and fear and excitement everywhere 
prevail ' [The Times). 

Yet again, the Reform Act of 1832 had its correspondingly expanded 
successor in our Representation of the People Act ; both, by enlarging 
the field of responsibility, reflect the same psychological reaction to times 
of stress. The legal treatment of the rural workless had, after twenty 
years of misery and even of bloodshed, been mercifully metamorphosed 
by the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act, the principles of which survived 
until a few years ago when, once again, the recurrent twin problems of 
unemployment and the inequitable distribution of the resultant charges 
forced the State to recast the whole system in various Acts of Parliament, 
ranging from reconstitution of Local Government to extended provision 
for social insurance. 

This chronological analogy could be further extended by effecting com- 
parison between the crude Protective duties current for a generation after 
181 5 and their ostensibly revenue-producing successors of recent years. 
Sugar-beet may illustrate the continuity of international agrarian history, 
for, although the Germans could claim priority in this field, it was as a 
result of our blockade of France that the crop was first subsidised and 
commercially developed by that country ; while the former nation's 
submarine threat led to our adoption of a like policy in the Great War. 

It is, indeed, only when one turns to the human element — and then 
especially in its capacity as an employee — that this remarkable series of 
analogies breaks down, for a century ago the evils associated with the 
prevalent system of rural employment are epitomised in such words as 
' Tolpuddle,' ' Swing,' and in many another place — or family-name, 



2o6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

while the then customary and legal relationship subsisting between land- 
lord and tenant would scarcely be credited by the present-day representa- 
tives of either body. Listen to ' The Thunderer's ' views upon the first 
stirring of agrarian Trades Unionism. ' The public, we believe, are not 
aware of one subject with which the Cabinet has been occupied at its 
recent meetings ; and when they come to hear it, those who watch 
political symptoms will confess that one of a more truly portentous 
character has seldom offered itself to the attention of this or any other 
Government : we mean the spirit which has for some time directed the com- 
binations of the working classes against their employers. If this spirit 
proceeds as it threatens, we give it as our well-weighed opinion, that 
neither lawful authority nor private property (as for commerce and manu- 
factures, they are out of the question) will be worth as much as five years' 
purchase from the date at which we are writing ' (September 30, 1825). 
Here we do indeed find an altered outlook, for the Agricultural Wages 
Boards, the logical corollary of Trades Unionism, have eventually been 
supported by all political parties. 

Can I better illustrate the changes wrought by the passage of those 
five-score years than by enumerating some of those infractions of the law 
for which participants in agriculture could then and can now suflFer fine 
or imprisonment ? Then, these penalties faced the worker who, with two 
or three of his fellows, ' combined ' for the purpose of seeking an increase 
in his rate of remuneration ; now, punishment awaits the employer who 
fails to pay an independently determined minimum wage. Then, retailers 
who sold bread above the standard price fell foul of the law ; now, pro- 
ducers vending commodities (e.g. milk) below a stated price suff"er col- 
lectively administered financial retribution, as also do those who dare to 
raise more than an arbitrary acreage of certain crops (e.g. potatoes), whilst 
only a predetermined minority has eflFective access to some others (viz. 
hops). Take other fields for comparison. Then, forestalling and regrat- 
ing, although absolved from any legal stigma, were still looked upon 
askance as potential dangers to trade ; now, their practice forms, in effect, 
the recognised livelihood of large sections of the comntiunity. Then, 
landlords were omnipotent ; now, fortified by Agricultural Holdings Acts 
innumerable, the tenant can virtually dictate his terms to a subservient 
owner. In the 1820's and the 1830's the tenant-farmer, as well as the 
landowner, staggered under the weight of National taxation, while together 
they had also to meet special duties upon a multiplicity of capital and 
productive goods — e.g. cart- and saddle-horses, gigs and traps, the malt 
they produced — and they had also to contribute, without any special 
concessions, to the unmodified demands of the rate-collector at a time 
when, even in rural areas, local taxation could exceed 20^. or 30J. in the 
pound, and they were, literally, tithed in kind. Now, as I shall hope to 
demonstrate later, the emasculated charges that remain can be laughed at 
by those men's great-grandsons. To illustrate, however, in passing, to 
what a small extent the vast remission of taxation is appreciated by these 
interests, I recall how, a few years ago, a meeting of East Anglian farmers 
passed with acclamation a resolution protesting against the weight of 
taxation that then crushed their industry. Their surprise was great when 



M.— AGRICULTURE 207 

informed that it had been originally adopted in the same county exactly 
a century earlier. 

When summarising the results of the policy followed during the post- 
Napoleonic war era, it is significant to observe that its cost to the 
Exchequer was negligible, for, rocklike, it rested on the axioms that con- 
sumers should pay to the utmost (in order that tenants and landlords might 
be re-established in secure positions) and that workers must, for the sins 
and omissions of statesmen, unavoidably suffer in full the blasts of an 
economic hurricane. A hundred years ago there emerged no measures 
aiming at the rehabilitation of agriculture that could incommode the tax- 
payer, and, if we exclude the reliefs granted to the rural poor, none 
affected the ratepayer. Nor, in consequence, did any real change in the 
practical side of the industry reveal itself. War-expanded cereal acreages 
were, for the time being, required to meet the Malthus-defying trend of 
population ; and here, in this county, on Lord Leicester's and other 
reclaimed marshes, the bullock, where once the bittern had boomed, 
could, it was claimed, still batten, but not necessarily with profit to its 
owner. The inevitable emergence of Free Trade was, as a result of the 
hostility engendered by the Act of 181 5 and its successors of the twenties, 
possibly antedated by a decade. 

Such, from the landowner's and the farmer's standpoints, were then 
the results of two decades of European war. The worker, thanks to a 
compulsory and biased system of enclosure and also to the loss of extraneous 
sources of family income — attributable to what is popularly known as the 
Industrial Revolution — found his resources permanently crippled and his, 
often hereditary, association with the land dissolved. The Nation, whilst 
recognising no obligation as resting upon itself, could, during the next 
generation, watch with equanimity the astonishing march of bricks and 
mortar across the northern face of England's green and pleasant land — and 
also, incidentally, outwards from London across its brown and fertile 
arable fields. By an almost unbelievable piece of parsimony the only 
official connection between the State and agriculture had been severed 
when the old Board of Agriculture, formed under stress of war and in 
recognition of Arthur Young's unique services, failed by little more than 
two years to survive his retirement in 1820. Its resurrection, oddly 
enough, occurred during a time of high farming, and when depression 
was a thing of the past, with the establishment, in 1865, of a branch of the 
Privy Council charged with the control of animal diseases. 

The vast changes in a century revealed by such a synthesis must, if 
the causes are sought, be placed in two categories. On the one hand, 
those improvements in the relationship of master and man, that strengthen- 
ing of the position of the tenant at the expense of the landlord, the great 
amelioration in the social life of all those who labour on the land — these 
are attributable to a steady and continuous readjustment of standards, 
without regard to any fluctuations in the state of agriculture itself, which 
have equally affected other industries and the rest of the community, and 
have not resulted from any ad hoc expenditure upon the countryside. 
On the other hand, all changes improving the financial stability of the 
industry, reliefs of a fiscal character, all complementary economic adjust- 



2o8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

ments, synchronous with each successful attempt to improve the material 
and technical equipment of the farmer, can be progressively correlated 
with recovery from the two last periods of depression, and obviously 
indicate a growing sense of responsibility, not perhaps invariably altruistic 
in character, towards an undertaking which had been for too long the 
Nation's creditor. 

The first of what may be termed the two modern agricultural (and 
general) depressions that followed upon a generation-long period of 
unexpected prosperity, due to monetary causes which more than countered 
the incidence of Free Trade and its accompanying policy of laissez faire, 
I need not describe to this audience, for the effects produced in the eighties 
and nineties, especially upon the arable districts, are familiar to all and 
remembered by many. The predominant cause was a world disparity 
between the demand for, and the supply of, gold which had brought 
about an average fall in commodity prices of 40 per cent. ; subsidiary 
causes were the rapid growth of overseas competition and a series of 
climatic vicissitudes. On that occasion, despite the recommendations of 
numerous witnesses before the Royal Commission of 1894, which ranged 
from suggestions for the adoption of bimetallism to the re-introduction 
of import duties, it is noteworthy that remedial measures were practically 
confined to reliefs from taxation. The rates on agricultural land, repre- 
senting at that time only some 2s. to 2s. 6d. per acre, or less than 2 per cent, 
of outgoings, were halved by the Agricultural Rates Act of 1896 ; payment 
of tithe was legally shifted from tenant to landlord, and the maximum 
incidence of Land Tax was reduced from 45. to is. in the pound. The 
total cost of the first and last of these measures was less than one and a 
half million pounds per annum, for the Treasury had agreed to meet 
only the then existing half share of the produce of rates on farmed land 
(;^ 1, 3 20,000) so that thereafter the taxpayer could with equanimity view 
the rising poundage — not so other contributors. The Nation, as repre- 
sented by its publicly uttered or published opinion, and the administration 
were content to leave the trinity of British agriculturists to find its own 
solution. True, the housing, education, and health of rural workers were 
now the subject of State intervention, but these were matters of general 
application and represented no special solicitude towards agriculture. 
Hours and conditions of labour remained, in this industry, unregulated. 
The farm was not yet a factory ; still less was it a controlled unit of pro- 
duction. It is perhaps a legitimate claim to make that the initiation, in 
1866, of seemingly so unimportant a matter as the collection of agricultural 
statistics formed the real foundation-stone of that structure — a Ministry — 
which was progressively to foster, and to direct, the farmer. Certainly, 
for the first time, there was thereafter available basic information relating 
to the then position and the future potentialities of British agriculture. 

Although no farmer of the nineties would have dreamed of giving vent to 
the apocryphal cry of his grandfather ' What we want is another war,' 
yet, had he. but known it, nothing but such a catastrophe would have 
moved any administration to succour his industry. Actual hostilities, 
with their terrible aftermath of general unemployment, overtaxation, debt, 



M.— AGRICULTURE 209 

deflation, and psychological sequelcr, are clearly pre-requisites to any 
determined efforts to help our paramount industry. But, in the nineties, 
no foreigner threatened us, our secondary products were freely exchanged 
for an abundance of cheap food obtained from the ends of the earth, few 
statesmen worried over the loss of some millions of acres of arable land 
or the emigration of a few hundred thousand agricultural workers. Left 
to fight, by their own resources, an economic blizzard, the farmers spon- 
taneously developed such new forms of their industry as the long-distance 
milk trade and the production of fruit, vegetables and other foodstufi^s of 
a luxury character which the growing wealth of the country could com- 
mand ; the meat trade, at first a standby when cereal prices sagged, was 
latterly well-nigh overwhelmed by overseas competition. Providentially, 
foresight and determination at home were supplemented abroad by 
application of the cyanide process to the extraction of gold and the proved 
ability of native races to endure life at a depth of more than a mile below 
the earth's surface when winning this economic prophylactic. World- 
prices moved responsively upwards, carrying with them those of British 
agricultural products, and recovery was well on its way by 1908. 

At that time, too, the State tentatively assumed certain additional 
responsibilities ; by strengthening the powers of the Board of Agriculture ; 
by legislating — it must be admitted, abortively, in the first instance — for 
the provision of small-holdings ; and in certain other ways that would 
now be dismissed as parochial, but which were, at the time in question, 
the subject of astonished comment. Again, however, the cost was low — 
in keeping, indeed, with canons sacred to Gladstonian finance — and it 
might, for instance, be claimed that technical instruction to the farmer 
owes its inception to an unexpected windfall of ' whisky-money ' rather 
than to any pre-determined Government policy of succour. So passed 
away, almost imperceptibly, the second great period of rural depression 
in these Islands, and it did so without aflFecting either the National outlook 
or the National purse. 

Any commentary upon the years 1914-19, with their story of rigid 
control applied to every feature of the industry, is fortunately not called 
for, nor am I here concerned with the gigantic cost of that control to the 
State, for my real objective is the third great period of agricultural de- 
pression — that which, starting in 1922, is, with most of its problems, still 
facing us. As I have already stressed its causatory and fundamental 
resemblance to that regnant from 181 5 to 1830, I can pass on to analyse 
and to evaluate the remedial measures that have emerged, for, in contra- 
distinction to previous experience, we may now claim that peace hath 
her subsidies no less diverse than war. The thirteen years in question 
can be divided into two distinct periods — the first productive of direct 
subsidies, grants-in-aid and reliefs from taxation ; the second marked by 
an entirely new development, i.e. the attempted control both of home 
production and of importation, accompanied by the re-establishment, 
after eighty-six years, of fiscal duties. 

I might perhaps at this stage be expected to assess the weight of this 
depression and to effect comparison between it and its two predecessors. 



2IO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

For various reasons, however, I do not regard this as incumbent upon me, 
but vi^ill confine myself to the following brief statements. British agricul- 
ture does not form one industry, but is, in reality, composed of many, 
and depression has rarely weighed with equal severity upon all of them 
simultaneously ; in general, the arable districts have suffered longest and 
heaviest, and in proportion to the weight of their soil — none more so than 
East Anglia ; war profits carried many farmers well into the lean years ; 
it was only in 1931 that agricultural bankruptcies equalled the level 
attained in the nineties (when at most one in five hundred farmers failed 
annually) ; new products, and the expansion of the more remunerative 
older ones, frequently brought help where it was most needed ; the 
economic situation of the landowner has declined even more than that of 
the tenant ; while, justifiably, the standard of living of the worker is now 
greatly superior to what it was in 1914. 

In approaching my main thesis I propose, before attempting to estimate 
the results accruing from the policy each represents, to enumerate, and, 
as far as possible, to assess the total cost to the State of the various reliefs 
and disbursements of an eleemosynary character that these post-war years 
have witnessed. I do not apologise for this, as I feel confident that a 
large majorit}^ even of the agricultural community does not appreciate 
the weight or the diversity of these aids. 

First must be placed the direct, recurrent and non-recurrent, grants. 
Chronologically, in the forefront of the former comes the Corn Production 
Acts (Repeal) Act, which, in 192 1, resulted in the payment of over eighteen 
million pounds to the growers of wheat and oats in Great Britain. By 
this means some three-quarters of all the occupiers of agricultural land 
received £2 ^^^ £a P^^ ^^^^ respectively, or an average of about j(^8o per 
head, for the crops in question raised that year. Additionally, a further 
million pounds was deflected to the furtherance of rural education and 
research. 

The subsidising of sugar and molasses derived from home-grown beet 
— nowadays a much discussed product — will, with the perfectly legitimate 
inclusion of the concurrent Excise remissions, during the eleven years 
of its existence have cost the taxpayer slightly over ^47,000,000. At 
this stage, I will say nothing in regard to the proportionate distribution 
of that vast sum between farmer and factory, nor will I comment upon 
the very debatable economic repercussions affecting sugar refiners, 
foreign cane and beet producers, British shipping interests, or home road 
and rail services. The benefits derived from the introduction of this 
crop into our farming economy have been undeniably great, but the 
spectacle of two hemispheres subsidised to compete for an over-stocked 
market is a remarkable one. 

The redemption of a solemn war-time undertaking to settle ex-Service 
applicants upon small-holdings caused the expenditure, through the 
medium of the County Councils, of £15,250,000. The precise cost to 
the State of establishing the 17,000 persons in question is extraordinarily 
difficult to assess, but I am indebted to friends at the Ministry of Agri- 
culture for the following information. Some nine-tenths of the sum 



M.— AGRICULTURE 211 

was advanced by the Public Works Loan Commissioners, and the high 
rate of interest on post-war borrowings, coupled with an excessive cost 
of equipment, accounts for the resultant excess of annual expenditure over 
annual income. This long-term commitment will, by the final year, 
2003, have aggregated some ^^40 ,000,000. As the Ministry is in reality 
paying interest, but not the charges upon the loan, the overall average 
annual deficiency payment will be ^565,000, equivalent to £34 for each 
small-holder. At the present time the charge is some ^800,000 per 
annum — in 1950 it will be ;£7oo,ooo. The weight of such protracted 
liabilities, both from the national and the personal aspect, is apt to be 
overlooked, and, remembering the economic hardships to be faced, it 
is perhaps fortunate that less than half the would-be settlers waited for 
land. 

The Forestry Commission will, under two separate programmes, have 
expended in fifteen years just under £6,000,000. This is, in effect, a 
variant form of long-term subvention that w'ill shortly begin to yield 
substantial returns as the Commission's properties become commercially 
remunerative. 

The cattle and milk subsidies officially represent in part contingent 
liabilities which are to form claims upon any levies that may hereafter 
be collected upon imported meat and upon the future resources of the 
Milk Marketing Board. Even, however, if we accept as certain such re- 
payments, there remain non-returnable State contributions, amounting 
in the year 1934-5 to /^ 1,600 ,000, designed to improve the quality of 
milk, to provide for its sale at reduced rates to schools, and to assist in the 
production of manufactured grades. During twelve months ending 
last June, £2,924,000 had been spent on the beef subsidy, which now 
averages £330,000 a month. 

The various post-war measures by which credit has been made more 
freely available to the industry have caused what would, in normal times, 
have been regarded as heavy expenditure. Under the Agricultural 
Credits Act of 1928, a State subscription of £10,000 per annum was 
guaranteed to the Agricultural Mortgage Corporation, and this piece 
of legislation, together with the previous Trade Facilities Act, has led to 
the granting of loans exceeding a million in amount. 

While it was implicit in the Wheat (Quota) Act that no expense should 
fall upon the Exchequer, the corollary of an enhanced price for British 
wheat now calls for annual payments exceeding £7,000,000, and it is 
clear that the ' deficiency payments ' themselves have, up to now, been 
worth to the producer somewhat in excess of £4 per acre of wheat. If 
the whole charge is deflected to the wheat-eater — which it is claimed is 
demonstrably not the case — the extra expenditure per household must 
be in the neighbourhood of 15^. per annum, or, say, 2hd. per week. 

It is with the greatest diffidence and hesitation that I countenance the 
possibility of combining under one head these recurrent or terminally 
fixed payments, for they vary so greatly in their characteristics and in the 
relative exactitude with which they can be assessed, but I may hazard the 
suggestion that, to the taxpayer, their gross weight, exclusive, of course, 
of the ' wheat deficiency payments,' has during the last fifteen years 



212 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

exceeded £90,000,000, or an average of £6,000,000 per annum — say, 
55. for every acre of crops and grass in England and Wales : a very dis- 
proportionate share has, however, rightly been deflected to the arable 
districts. As will be indicated shortly, the actual sums expended in recent 
years, due to the incidence of meat and milk grants and the expansion in 
beet acreage, have been twice, or even two and a half times, this over-all 
average. 

Next come the annual State disbursements of ever- widening range, made 
through the medium of official and semi-official bodies, that represent an 
aggregate sum which would, in pre-war years, have elicited astonishment. 
Owing to the number of different heads under which the relevant votes 
fall, it is extremely difficult to determine the total sum thus expended, 
but at the present time it clearly exceeds £2,500,000 per annum, and 
ranges from capital grants for building extensions to the establishment 
of teaching posts and the provision of a complete system of agricultural 
scholarships, while, too, whether directed to the Outer Isles of Scotland 
or to the English countryside, it ameliorates the life of the peasant. 

The addition of the last-mentioned item will, in such a year as the last, 
bring the grand total of current payments— again exclusive of ' wheat 
deficiency grants ' — to over £15,500,000 per annum, which large sum it 
must, however, be admitted, represents barely 2 per cent of the nation's 
Budget. In 191 3-14 the amount corresponding to the above-mentioned 
£2,500,000 was £900,000, which, like it, was expended through the 
Board of Agriculture, the Scottish Department of Agriculture, and the 
Development Commission. Drawn from a budgetary expenditure of 
less than £200,000,000, this figure is not only widely disparate to that 
recorded above, but, fantastically, apart from the de- rating contribution, 
it represented the then total National outlay upon the industry. 

In view of the fact that grants-in-aid may, from the standpoint of 
recipients, be very different from that of the taxpayer, it will naturally be 
asked what proportion of the above financial assistance has reached those 
actually engaged in farming operations. The answer would appear to 
be as follows. The whole of the wheat and oats subsidy of 1921 was 
received by cultivators, as are now the ' deficiency payments ' under the 
Wheat Quota Act, which, with scarcely any loss, balance the ' quota ' 
charges on flour. The sugar-beet subvention presents an extremely 
difficult problem, which the Greene Committee of Inquiry avoided answer- 
ing beyond saying that, in 1934-35, its cost was equal to £17 an acre. 
While boldly venturing into this controversial field, I should perhaps first 
refer to the suggestion, sometimes made, that, with an average net cost 
of production — always extremely elusive to determine — of some £13 or 
£14 per acre and cash receipts of £19 per acre (on a beet price of £2 per 
ton), the factories would, in the event of the subsidy being withdrawn, 
increase their contribution to the price from £2 to £4 per acre and that 
therefore, the gross value of this assistance can be reckoned as high as 
£15 per acre. A second possible method of evaluation rests upon the 
assumption that the diff"erence between the cost of production and the 
average return of £19 represents the subsidy's value. Such a diflFerential 
would be some £5 or £6 per acre (including the value of by-products) 



M.— AGRICULTURE 213 

which, of course, excludes any advantage derived by the worker owing to 
enhanced wages. Yet another theory, strongly Protectionist in character, 
insists that, in effect, the home producer is not being subsidised at all 
until his rates of benefit exceed those provided for his most favoured 
Imperial competitors ; this basis would give a value of ^6 per acre. To 
me it seems plausible to hazard the suggestion that, despite various 
difficulties associated with rates of exchange, the fairest method is to 
attempt to locate the difference between the average of world beet prices 
and of those ruling domestically. I arrive thus at a present-day world 
value of 25^. per ton, compared with 40^. for the internal price, which 
gives a difference of 15^., or, with a yield of 9-5 tons, of ^(^7 per acre. This, 
then, is the figure I propose to use in connection with certain tabular 
statements that follow. Incidentally, all the methods enumerated above, 
except the first, give results that correspond closely with the widely 
spread empirical belief that one-third of the gross State expenditure has 
reached the farmer and his employees. 

It is obvious that, in the case of beef, the 55. per live cwt, or average 
sum of approximately ^2 los. per beast, represents a clear addition to 
the impossibly low prices that would otherwise have been secured ; the 
failure to occur of an anticipated rise in prices led, incorrectly, to the 
claim that middlemen had absorbed these grants. Admittedly, the con- 
sumer is paying more for his milk, and the distributor is enjoying no 
smaller margin, while in this trade the producer can point to a guaranteed 
outlet rather than to substantially enhanced prices as the principal result. 
Sums devoted to afforestation, the provision of small-holdings, and, to 
a certain extent, sugar-beet, have percolated to many grades of cultivators 
— actual or potential — but a small proportion has doubtless remained with 
owners, who find land values improved thereby, while certain ancillary 
trades, e.g. transport and building construction, have been provided with 
augmented outlets. Few of the grants have failed to provide additional 
employment or at least to prevent diminution in the numbers of wage- 
earners. 

When one turns to investigate the truly remarkable reliefs from the 
' burdens ' — both statutory and non-statutory — which have been imple- 
mented during the last ten or twelve years, one finds tax- rate- and tithe- 
payer all affected. By the Agricultural Rates Act of 1923, which halved 
the contribution of agricultural land (already, under the provisions of the 
1896 Act, reduced by fifty per cent.), the Exchequer thereafter handed 
over to the local authorities of Great Britain an annual sum exceeding 
;(;3 ,800,000 ; this, of course, was in addition to the ;^ 1,320 ,000 per annum 
falling due under the Act of 1896. In 1925 the derating of agricultural 
buildings necessitated a further contribution, amounting to ,^700,000 per 
annum. In 1928 the remaining quarter of local taxation falling upon land, 
representing ^4,132,000, was remitted. The occupiers of agricultural 
land and buildings in England and Wales alone have, by these means, been 
relieved of payments which would, in recent years, prior to the readjust- 
ment of the Block Grant system, have amounted to about ;^i6,ooo,ooo 
per annum, equivalent to an average of 12^. per acre ; rather more than 
^^^^ (;C9>°oo>ooo) of this sum must have come from the pockets of the 



214 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

taxpayer, the bulk of the remainder being charged upon non-agricuhural 
ratepayers. It may be recorded that this relief represents some ^^40 per 
' average ' holding, or ^^50 per occupier per annum. Similar remissions 
and reliefs have been accorded in Ireland where, in the case of the Free 
State, it has been calculated that payments from farmers have been 
reduced by ^^2,000,000 per annum ; in Scotland £800,000 has been re- 
mitted to landlords and £150,000 to tenants. 

Even taking into consideration the recent slight fall in the poundage 
of local rates, it is true to say that, in the aggregate, reliefs from rating 
must, in Great Britain, represent some £15,000,000 per annum. What- 
ever theory maj^ postulate, or particular interests suggest, there is now 
no evidence, any more than was the case on previous occasions, that, as 
rates were remitted agricultural rents rose, so the full concessions have 
been enjoyed by their intended beneficiaries. 

Rightly classified as a ' productive industry ' under the general de- 
rating scheme, agriculture secured yet a further concession, assessed at 
£800,000 per annum, in the shape of preferential rates for rail transport 
applicable to certain types of produce. 

Finally, in approaching the vexed and even hazardous topic of tithe, 
all interests will perhaps allow me to state that, by the legislation of 191 8 
and 1925, landowners have been relieved of payments which, had this 
charge been permitted to pursue the course dictated by the then existing 
legislation, would up to date have involved them in an additional contribu- 
tion of £11,000,000. As the whole subject is, as it were sub judice, I will 
only throw out the suggestion that, had some form of sliding scale, in- 
dicative of variations in the purchasing power of money, been retained in 
the last Act, the difficulties experienced by both owners and payers might 
have been much reduced. The ' pegging ' of tithe has, of course, relieved 
only those farmers falling within the category of owner-occupiers. 

Having now enumerated the principal ad hoc payments and remissions 
secured by British agriculture, and attempted to indicate their ultimate 
distribution as well as their cost to the nation, it is only reasonable that I 
should refer to certain factors. State-dictated, that figure upon the other 
side of the rural balance-sheet. The first of these was the re-establish- 
ment of the statutory Wages Boards, which, by raising rates of remunera- 
tion above the level existing prior to 1924 (under the voluntary system of 
Conciliation Committees) to the extent of slightly over 6.y. per week, 
have caused an addition of £10,250,000 to the annual cost of labour in 
England and Wales (itself representing one-third of all outgoings) which 
in turn is equivalent to some 8^. per acre over-all and may, in the arable 
districts, easily exceed 12s. per acre. Real wages, due to a steady fall 
in the cost of living, synchronously advanced. Secondly, our, as it proved 
to be, premature return to the Gold Standard in 1925, by raising the value 
of the sovereign some 5 per cent., also, for a period, militated to the extent 
of another 10s. per acre against the farmers' returns ; it is fair, however, 
to point out that in its incidence it was not peculiar to the industry under 
discussion. 

Ignoring for the moment any consideration of the financial advantages 
derived from import duties or from the avowedly price-raising quantitative 



M— AGRICULTURE 215 

control of home produced and imported commodities, it is now possible 
to strike a general balance based on the principal, and still effective, of 
all the foregoing items in their reaction upon the producer. At levels 
current now or in 1934-5, it reads, for Great Britain, approximately as 
follows : 

Credit Debit 

' Wheat deficiency payments ' . £7,180,000 ^ 
Sugar-beet subsidy (calculated at 
I7 per acre) 



;^2,820,000 2 

^3,300,000 3 

£1,600,000 * 

£900,000 

£450,000 



Meat subsidy . 

Milk grants 

Smallholdings and allotments 

Afforestation . 

Ministry of Agriculture, Scottish 

Department and Development 

Commission . . . £2,500,000 

Local taxation reliefs . . £15,000,000 

Wages Boards. ..... £10,250,000 

Net Gain . . . £23,500,000 

(i) Cereal year ending September 1934 (official estimate for 1934-5 
= £6,865,000) 

(2) Year ending March 1935. 

(3) Calculated for year ending September 1935 : future commit- 
ments estimated at £4,000,000 per annum. 

(4) Year ending March 1935 : exclusive of ofRcially returnable 
advances. 

In reviewing these figures, it must be remembered that the official 
index-number applicable to agricultural commodities produced at home 
now stands at only some few points above the 1911-13 parity, while, 
with labour costing double what it did in 1914, and the price of many 
requisites increased by 50-70 per cent, the weighted average cost of pro- 
duction lies in the region of 50 per cent above the 1911-13 level. The 
margin to be bridged, therefore, exeeds several times over the credit 
balance revealed above, which, in round figures, may be taken as equi- 
valent to some 15^. an acre. 

While taking care not to impinge seriously upon the more practical 
aspects of the question to be dealt with by other speakers, it will perhaps 
be appropriate if I illustrate by local example, derived from such a typical 
arable area as Norfolk, the results of State assistance. This is the soil 
which, in ancient times, according to that great Norwich medico-antiquary. 
Sir Thomas Browne, protected certain ' minor monuments from the drums 
and trumpets of three conquests.' It has subsequently had to endure 
a similar number of economic assaults upon its own productivity. 

Here, in 1934, the 990,000 acres of farmed land derived, in round figures, 
the following major pecuniary advantages : ' wheat deficiency payments ' 
(calculated on the Wheat Commission's official basis of 3^. iioy^d. per 



zi6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

cwt.), £436,000 or £3 15^. for every acre grown ; rating reliefs (at 135. in 
the pound on agricultural land and buildings), 3^650,000 ; the sugar-beet 
subsidy brought into the county some £1,617,000 of which, dare I say, 
utilising my previous basis of £7 per acre, £666,000, therefore, reached the 
producer ? The meat subsidy, together with the grants directed towards 
education, small-holdings, afforestation, and so forth, must have amounted 
to at least £200,000, or 45. per acre. We arrive, then, at a total of 
£1,952,000 or, say, £2 for every acre in agricultural utilisation. From 
this must be deducted £596,000, or 12^. per acre, as a result of the in- 
creased rates of remuneration ordained by the Wages Board, leaving a 
nett gain of £1 8s. It is a curious coincidence that sugar-beet benefits 
and wage increments should so nearly cancel one another out, for it has 
been repeatedly claimed by East Anglian farmers that the former were 
entirely absorbed by the imposed higher cost of labour. 

When it is borne in mind that the over-all per-acre value of our soil 
products is barely £8, and that it may cost £7 10^. to raise an acre of wheat, 
£4 los. in the case of seeds hay, and £30 in that of potatoes, the advantages 
derived are, if not striking, at least appreciable. Statistically, the resultant 
changes in Norfolk agriculture are not unexpected. Wheat is now back 
to its pre-war acreage, while (regulated) potatoes and the fruit areas have 
increased ; the other, and unsubsidised, cereals have declined, while 
sugar-beet has largely supplanted turnips and mangolds. Milch cattle 
are now more than 50 per cent, above their pre-war numbers, the sheep 
population is only two-thirds of what it was, but pigs, beneficiaries under 
the new regime, have practically doubled. The arable land has not been 
reduced disproportionately to the national loss attributable to the demands 
of a more mobile and discriminating urban population. It is probable 
that increased mechanisation, as much as financially dictated staff reduc- 
tions, has been responsible for the withdrawal of some two thousand 
whole-time male employees during these fourteen post-war years. 

Norfolk may, indeed, be taken as illustrative of the recent post-war 
tendencies exhibited by the country as a whole, and frequently unappre- 
ciated by the man in the (urban) street. They are as follows : a slight 
increase in the physical output of the soil, a decline in arable area, which 
would undoubtedly have been much larger but for the grants-in-aid 
directed to specific crops ; a marked transference from the production of 
feeding-stuffs to that of sale crops ; a reduction in the number of workers, 
accompanied by a greater output per person employed ; and a redistribu- 
tion between the different classes of livestock, which still account for 
three-quarters of the total agricultural output expressed in terms of 
money. Nationally, there has occurred a very marked augmentation in 
the consumption of Imperial as opposed to non-Imperial supplies, 
together with an increase in the per caput consumption of the more 
expensive foods. 

Of the expenditure which has brought about these results, land-owners, 
have, directly, received little, and their position has, owing to permanently 
enhanced costs of maintenance and repairs, continued to deteriorate. 
Tenant-farmers have, by it, been enabled partly to bridge the gap that 
would otherwise have rendered them impotent to function as producers. 



M.— AGRICULTURE 217 

The economic betterment of rural workers can best be measured by 
recording that their weekly wages now stand at some 75 per cent, above 
the pre-war level, while the cost of living index-number remains in the 
region of 40. Remembering the immovable attitude of the administra- 
tion, and also the public apathy of forty to fifty years ago, and knowing 
the terrible situation that faced their predecessors yet a century earlier, 
the present representatives of what is justly one of the most famous 
agricultural counties in England, must surely feel encouraged by these 
tangible signs of support to continue their efforts to escape from the dark- 
ness of depression into the light of returning prosperity. 

Let us now leave the subject of direct financial impacts and benefits, 
resultant upon State action, to be weighed according to individual opinion, 
and consider the repercussions attributable to higher policy which involve 
economic and fiscal adjustments often extraneous in character. The 
precursors of marketing reform on the grand scale emerged in the shape 
of the Horticultural Produce Act of 1926 and the ' Rings ' Act of 1927 
(both of which attempted to strengthen the position of the farmer in regard 
to the sale of his produce), extension of the C.O.D. system, and the 
setting up of the ' National Mark ' — -all these supplemented the Empire 
Marketing Board's policy of concentration upon the business functions 
of the producer. The cost of that Board during its short life (at first a 
million per annum, subsequently reduced to half that figure) was small 
compared with the incipient value of its work, which clearly paved the 
way for the far more ambitious operations of the Agricultural Marketing 
Acts. By the latter legislation our internal policy was completely altered, 
and over-riding powers were conferred upon proved majorities to transfer, 
withhold, process, or otherwise dispose of, ' regulated products ' in order 
to control output, with the economic suggestio falsi that, if fully successful, 
such a price-raising system would merely readjust profit margins between 
farmers and intermediaries without raising prices to consumers. When, 
however, it became apparent that unrestricted supplies from overseas 
were effectively paralysing the original (1931) Marketing Act, its successor 
was passed which gave to the Board of Trade full powers quantitatively 
to control imports of any agricultural commodities already subject to the 
provisions of the former Act. 

The delicate ' gentlemen's ' (but, not necessarily, economists') agree- 
ments, soon sought with the Scandinavian group of countries, and with 
certain South American producers, in the hope that their exports might be 
cut down to the required figures — generally expressed as percentages 
{circa 60-90) of some basic year or average of years — were not always easy 
to conclude. Trade agreements or Ottawa pledges will have prevented, 
in the case of certain articles — e.g. milk, meat and dairy produce — the 
introduction until this, or even the next, winter of such undertakings 
with some foreign Countries and with several of our own Dominions and 
and Dependencies. With import duties also imposed, in 1932, upon a 
majority of agricultural and horticultural commodities, including one on 
foreign wheat at 2s. per 480 lb., and 10 per cent, ad valorem on foreign 
flour, our Free Trade principles, zealously guarded since 1846, were 
jettisoned and ' the people's food ' was taxed indeed. 



ai8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

It is extremely difficult to estimate in terms of money the net results 
of a ' planned ' agriculture at home, combined with reduced non-Imperial 
imports, but, during the second reading of the 1933 Marketing Act, the 
Minister of Agriculture claimed that, as a result of past policy, ' We shall 
be able to show that we have secured a rise of 20-30 per cent, in whole- 
sale prices without a rise of more than i or 2 per cent, in retail prices.' 
On the other hand, the Ministry's official Agricultural Statistics, 1933, 
Part II, p. 99, reads as follows : ' In the first six months of 1933 the 
monthly numbers were between 11 and 15 points lower than the year 
before. Later, however, there was a recovery, and in the last quarter of 
the year the index was 7 points or more higher than in the corresponding 
months of the previous year, while a margin of 6 to 7 points was main- 
tained throughout the first quarter of 1934.' The figures in question, of 
course, refer to commodities sold off farms (valued at ^(^222,000, 000 in 
1932-1933) and are, therefore, wholesale. During the last year they have 
averaged some 7 to 8 per cent, above the level of 1932 and 1933. This, 
for Great Britain, is equivalent to an aggregate rise of ^ii;,ooo,ooo to 
^17,000,000 in producers' receipts as compared with Mr. Elliot's implied 
rise of ^{^44,000,000 to ;£66,ooo,ooo. If we feel justified in ascribing the 
whole of the officially recorded increase to the influence of the Marketing 
Acts and their supplementary legislation, this is the sum that must be 
added to the grand total {^z-i^z^oo ,006) of subsidies and reliefs previously 
enumerated, for the new policy is supplementary to the old — based upon 
long-term grants — which of course continues side by side with it. We 
thus arrive at a figure approaching ;^40,ooo,ooo as representing the cumu- 
lative annual benefits derived from the three policies, viz., grants, remis- 
sions, and augmented prices. The new method is far more potent than 
the old, and, although it is arguable to what extent, if any, middlemen's 
returns have been aff^ected, it concerns most intimately the consumer. 
The direct taxpayer, it should be emphasised, has thereby gained a measure 
of respite at the expense of the indirect. 

Including these price- and quantitative control devices, the home market 
is now in possession of an almost complete battery of economic weapons. 
So far, that is to say during the last three years, the result has been seen 
in this relatively small rise in the (wholesale) price of its products, accom- 
panied by a considerable increase in the proportions of Empire, at the 
expense of foreign, consignments. This has been accomplished at the 
cost of a growing dependence upon outside direction and some expansion 
in the numbers of persons ancillary to the industry. Forms to be com- 
pleted, contracts to be signed, instructions to be obeyed, inspections to 
be suffered — these are the penalties of a planned and a regimented 
industry . 

In the case of potatoes, some hundreds of transgressors were last Spring 
summoned to appear before the management of their Board on charges of 
failing to make returns of stocks, for selling products below the size fixed 
by the regulations, or for rendering inaccurate acreage returns ; fines 
up to ^20 were inflicted. The demand for potatoes as human food is, to 
a certain degree, elastic, and the Boards have it in their power, by with- 
drawing small varieties, to raise the price of those in other categories ; 



M.— AGRICULTURE 219 

acreage restrictions should then prevent any tendency to overproduction. 
So far, potato prices, whilst not soaring, have substantiated economic 
theory, while heavy duties on imported ' earlies ' have buttressed the 
whole structure. 

The milk industry has perforce become accustomed to receiving, 
through eleven ' pools,' payments calculated in pence per gallon to two 
places of decimals, and varying with the status of the producer, the season, 
the locality, and the intended utilisation of individual consignments ; 
many producers and a larger proportion of consumers remain in ignorance 
of the destination and of the source respectively of a commodity whose 
production and handling are vital to health. Significantly, no provisions 
for limiting output have at present been imposed, and the Board's 
energies have mainly been devoted to increasing the consumption of 
fresh milk at the expense of that unremuneratively disposed of for 
manufacturing purposes ; the average price secured by producers rose 
last year by about a penny a gallon, but has since declined by perhaps 
a halfpenny. 

Producers responded too well when first invited to contract for the 
supply of high-grade bacon pigs, and, if prices were to be maintained, 
limitation of supplies was essential. When faced with markedly higher 
retail prices consumers became restive, there was evidence that demand 
was shifting to alternative commodities, and simuhaneously the European 
exporter expressed open dissatisfaction with his reduced opportunities. 
In these circumstances, the change of policy announced last June and 
July met with complete agrarian approval. Levies raised on foreign 
bacon are now to be used to maintain, or to augment, the price of pigs 
at home and, incidentally, a tariff on imported beef will in due course 
operate in a similar manner. It thus looks certain that the movement 
of these substantial economic straws indicates a general change in direction 
of the political or administrative winds. 

Certain branches of the industry, such as fruit, vegetables, and poultry, 
have rejected regulating schemes, preferring, presumably, to trust, in 
conjunction with specially granted fiscal protection, to those insular 
advantages that they possess. 

British agriculturists, having witnessed for long the evils of neglect 
and laissez faire, would have been foolish to refuse, at any rate for a time, 
this form of assistance on the ground that it involved certain sacrifices 
on their own part, and, when looking around at other occupations, includ- 
ing those of their fellows in many different countries, were wise to accept 
compulsory co-operation. For, as with armaments, so with industry, it 
appears unfortunately at the moment to be the accepted rule, si vis pacem 
bellum para—\i the primary producer wants enhanced prices and there- 
after stability, he must seek both by outbidding in tariffs, subsidies, and 
exchange restrictions, the aims of foreign countries. Agriculture will 
assuredly be the last industry spontaneously to support the reintroducton 
of Free Trade. 

The passage of a hundred years has witnessed a vast change in the 
treatment of social and economic problems, and nowhere is this more 
marked than in agriculture, where consideration has ousted severity and 



220 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

preferential treatment superseded laissez faire. We see agriculturists 
throughout the world, white, yellow, brown, black, faced with the twin 
problems of apparent overproduction and under consumption. If 
analysed, however, the former generally appears to be due, in the main, 
not to technical improvements such as mechanisation, combined with 
higher rates of yield, but to State maintenance of artificially augmented 
crop areas by means of devices, often meretricious in character, designed to 
bolster up sub-marginal producers or those attracted to the industry by 
the lure of war-time price levels. Equally, we observe many secondary 
industries in this and other countries struggling against reduced prices 
and augmented costs of production. Everywhere we see nationalism, 
elevated upon a pedestal, temporarily defying, with the aid of every device 
known to the wit of man, economic and financial vicissitudes, which in 
turn clog the transference of men, money, commodities and services. 
We see European states fostering their peasantry by every artifice in order 
to secure agrarian tranquillity, and we see, simuhaneously, the United 
States of America pouring out thousands of millions of dollars to improve 
the prospects of her more extensively engaged producers. Everywhere 
the cry is ' More land for the people 1' and ' More people for the 

land!' . 

Have we in this country not done wisely to pursue, during the latest 
of three onslaughts, a middle course (in relation to the above examples) 
on the one hand, not extravagant in money, nor, on the other, by persuad- 
ing an undue proportion of our population to live on, or by, the land, 
subversive of ethical standards ? Even such a policy as ours represents, 
however, a complete break with tradition and with outlook in regard to 
social as well as to economic matters, and it has been accomplished at first 
by comparatively heavy financial commitments, in turn to be succeeded 
by the adoption of a ' planned economy ' that has called for readjustment 
in the respective interests of consumers, distributors, overseas producers, 
and even of other industries, some of which latter are themselves un- 
sheltered from the blasts of world competition. This ' emergency ' 
programme, as it was first termed, has been carried through at the cost of 
a reduction in the initiative and freedom of producers, by a certain trans- 
ference from ' dirty boot ' farming to the filling of forms, by a progressive 
dependence upon outside authority, and, psychologically, by the growth 
of what may tend to become a defeatist attitude. Yet, the appeal non 
tali auxilio has yet to issue in any volume from the lips of rural spokesmen. 
Up to the change of policy in 1932, the direct cost— even if we include 
those long-term commitments — had, by post-war standards, not been 
excessive, but the nation, or, rather, the urban population, has now 
acquiesced in a policy which more and more afltects not merely the pro- 
ducer and the tax-payer but every householder in the land, so that, 
latterly, a price raising objective has had to sustain criticism and inquiry 
from a far wider field. 

I have refrained from discussing certain factors axiomatic to the new 
system, such as its effects upon our secondary industries hitherto engaged 
in exchanging their products for imported foodstuffs ; the future trade 
and financial relationships likely to subsist between ourselves, our own 



M.— AGRICULTURE 221 

Dominions and foreign countries, as a result of the restrictions imposed ; 
and the political and economic risks attaching to any serious increase in 
the cost of urban living brought about by a virtually monopolistic and 
dominant rural hegemony. Upon these questions, that are of over- 
whelming importance and pregnant with danger, each must form his own 
conclusions. Fundamentally, too, the farmer whose production costs 
are high now secures recognition that formerly was the reward of his 
more efficient brethren. Nor can it be denied that this system of regulated 
production will, as a concomitant to increased profits for those permitted 
to remain, logically necessitate the exercise of restraint upon every soil 
product, including those essential to health, raised upon each commercial 
unit of land, which in turn must bring under review the determination of 
rent as well as (now) profits and wages. Whether justified on economic 
grounds, such a procedure would be open to attacks based on other, and 
wider, considerations, very difficult to counter. Even technically, a 
quota system has inherent disadvantages which render its stability un- 
certain and necessitate frequent revisions and adjustments to neutralise 
fluctuations in different sources of supply and in prices. Home producers 
prefer import duties to restriction, and we in this country must not 
forget that the latter method presents to our own kith and kin overseas a 
virtually insoluble problem- in the shape of consequential control of their 
own individual producers. It is therefore certain that the latest pro- 
posals, initiating a movement from quotas to levies, with a modicum of 
Dominion preference, will meet with approval from both parties. During 
the last two or three years we have travelled farther than in the whole of 
the previous century, and, perhaps kindly, ' the iniquity of oblivion has 
scattered her poppy,' for we are in danger of forgetting to what an extent 
our rural and national economy has been transformed by official recog- 
nition of some of the above-mentioned paradoxes. 

Although my role has been merely that of expositor, I hope neverthe- 
less that I have been sufficiently provocative to call forth the opinions 
of others upon these reflections. It is said that ' a rolling stone gathers no 
moss,' but, may I suggest that, if, in its third descent during a century into 
the valley of depression, British agriculture gained a protective covering 
sufficiently effective to shield it from the worst economic shocks, in future 
this accretion may actually hamper it when progressing over the smoother 
and level terrain of normality that we hope lies in front of it ? One is 
left wondering if the present system of ' reorganisation ' will survive any 
considerable passage of time, or whether, legislation having telescoped 
chronology, the comparatively near future may not witness, even as 
subsidies gave way to planned economy, some relaxation from control, 
some restoration of individual liberty of action, initated, maybe, by nation- 
wide restoration of the gold standard giving greater freedom to world 
trade, and accompanied by the abolition of fear and avarice which would 
increase reciprocally the demand both for manufactured articles and 
primary commodities. One of the world's dictators has recently uttered 
the following dictum : ' What the situation calls for is the free movement 
of goods, of people, of capital, and of credit.' We, in these islands, have 
more to gain than any other nation by such a consummation. 

H3 



222 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Looking back on the past history of British agriculture, I am confident 
of one thing — whether that time be far distant or near at hand, the in- 
dustry will resume its prosperity — its importance it has never lost — and 
unborn generations will regard the present epoch as affording one of those 
many trials through which, during countless generations, it has emerged 
unscathed but remodelled, this time not despite a policy of laissez faire, 
but as a result of considered action and preferential treatment of an all- 
embracing character. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Fortieth Report of Committee (Dr. F. J. W. Whipple, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. 
Shaw, C.B.E., Secretary ; Miss E. F. Bellamy, M.A., Prof. P. G. H. 
BoswELL, O.B.E., F.R.S., Sir Charles Boys, F.R.S., Sir F. W. 
Dyson, K.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. Wilfred Hall, Mr. J. S. Hughes, 
Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S., Mr. A. W. Lee, Prof. E. A. Milne, M.B.E., 
F.R.S., Mr. R. D. Oldham, F.R.S., Prof. H. H. Plaskett, Prof. H. C. 
Plummer, F.R.S., Prof. A. O. Rankine, O.B.E., F.R.S., Rev. J. P. 
Rowland, S.J., Mr. D. H. Sadler, Prof. R. A. Sampson, F.R.S., 
Mr. F. J. Scrase, Dr. H. Shaw, Sir Frank Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E., 
Sec.R.S., Dr. R. Stoneley, F.R.S., Mr. E. Tillotson, Sir G. T. 
Walker, C.S.I., F.R.S.). 

Personal. — The deaths of two members of the Committee are recorded 
with deep regret. These were Sir H. Lamb and Prof. H. M. Macdonald, 
both distinguished for their work in applied mathematics ; both had 
served on the Committee since 1915. Reference must also be made to the 
deaths of two former members. Sir Alfred Ewing was one of the group 
of British scientists who helped to develop the beginnings of instrumental 
seismology in Japan. As early as 1881 he devised the method, sub- 
sequently adopted by Galitzin, of obtaining a long free period for the 
vertical seismograph, by attaching the spring below the axis of the lever. 
He was naturally one of the first members of the Committee formed when 
Davison and Milne joined forces in 1895. He served until 1909. Sir 
Arthur Schuster, who was a member of the Committee from 1910 to 193 1, 
took great interest in the organisation of international co-operation. It 
may be recalled that he was chairman of the Committee, appointed in 
1904 by the International Association of Academies, to consider the 
advisability of co-operation in seismological investigations. This Com- 
mittee recommended ^ that the Associated Academies should take action 
with their respective governments in favour of joining the International 
Seismological Association, founded at Strasbourg in 1903. Schuster be- 
came an active member of the Permanent Commission of this Association, 
and presided over the meetings held at Zermatt in 1909, and at Manchester 
in 191 1 . To throw light on the question whether microseismic disturbance 
was related to sea waves, Schuster had apparatus made for counting and 
so finding the average period of the waves.^ This apparatus was set up 
at the lighthouse at South Shields, and was maintained in operation by 
Mr. H. Morris-Airey. It appears, however, that no detailed comparison 
with seismographic records was ever carried out. The set of Galitzin 

1 Cf. B.A. Report, 1905, p. 92. 

* Assn. Int. de Sismologie, C.R., 191 1, p. 69. 



224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



seismographs, which were his gift to Eskdalemuir Observatory and which 
are now in operation at Kew Observatory, may be regarded as a token of 
Schuster's strong belief that good instruments, well standardised, were a 
necessary aid to progress in seismology. 

Miss E. F. Bellamy and Mr. J. S. Hughes, both of the University 
Observatory, Oxford, have been co-opted as members of the Committee. 

Finance.— The annual grant of £ioo from the Caird Fund and the 
special grant of £50 from the General Fund of the British Association were 
allocated to the University Observatory, Oxford, for the maintenance of 
work on the International Seismological Summary. The Committee also 
voted the sum of £50 from the Gray-Milne Fund for the same purpose. 
It will be necessary to make like provision for the coming year. 

The Committee has authorised the making of a large metal sphere, on 
which the positions of all seismological stations are to be permanently 
marked. It is expected that it will be possible to measure epicentral 
distances on this sphere with an accuracy which has not been attained 
previously by such simple means. 

The memoir by Dr. Jeffreys and Mr. K. E. Bullen, in which the results 
of their analysis of the travel-times of earthquake waves are set out, has 
been published by the International Seismological Association. {Travaux 
Scientifiques, Serie A., Fasc. 11.) The data on which the memoir depends 
were derived from the I.S.S., and it was regarded as appropriate that a grant 
should be given from the Gray-Milne Fund to enable the tabular matter to 
be printed with the text of the memoir. It will be recalled that standard 
tables based on the work of Jeffreys and Bullen have already been taken 
into use in the preparation of the I.S.S. 

The income of the Gray-Milne Fund is still suffering from the lapse of 
the dividends due from the Canadian Pacific Railway. 





Gray-Milne Trust Account. 








£ s. d. 




£ s. 


d. 


Brought forward . 


. 294 19 I 


International Seismo- 






Trust Income 


46 14 10 


logical Summary 


50 





Bank Interest 


I 7 10 


Operation of Seismo- 










graphs 


15 18 


8 






Milne Library 


9 15 


9 






Fire Insurance 


15 









Printing (Jeffreys and 










Bullen Memoir) 


63 7 









Carried forward 


303 5 


4 




£343 I 9 


£343 I 


9 



Bound Volumes of the Summary. — In accordance with a recommendation 
of the Committee recipients of the I.S.S. were given the choice between 
quarterly parts, and the bound volume, for the year 1930. The bound 
volume was chosen by 135 and the parts by 205. The volume, strongly 
bound in blue cloth, is now on sale (post free £1 is.) and is to be obtained 
from The Director, University Observatory, Oxford. 

A New Catalogue of Earthquakes.- — A catalogue of earthquakes, of the 
years 1925 to 1930 inclusive, has been prepared by Miss Bellamy, and is 
being published by the British Association.* This catalogue is based on 

* See pp. 230 seqq. 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 225 

the International Seismological Summary and is in the same form as that 
for the years 1918 to 1924, which was due to Prof. Turner, and appeared 
with the Report for 1928. 

In these catalogues the earthquakes are in chronological order. It is 
hoped that it will also be possible to publish a continuation of Turner's 
Index Catalogue of Epicentres 191 3 ■0-1920-5, in which a geographical 
arrangement is adopted. This is in course of preparation. 

Seismographs. — A second Milne-Shaw seismograph has been supplied 
by Mr. J. J. Shaw to the Liverpool Observatory and Tidal Institute at 
Bidston, in order to give the two horizontal components of tilting of the 
red sandstone of Bidston Hill with the rise and fall of the tide in the Mersey 
estuary. These investigations are being conducted by Prof. Proudman 
and Dr. Doodson in their research on tidal phenomena. 

A working seismograph has been constructed by Mr. Shaw and erected 
on the second floor of the Science Museum, South Kensington. The 
pendulum (370 lbs.) is supported on the main outer wall of the building 
and records upon smoked paper in order that the public may see the seismo- 
graph in operation. The record travels 8 mm. per minute and runs for 
two days. The instrument is also fitted with a bell-ringing device such that 
an earthquake will give alarm, but slow tilting of the building, due to tem- 
perature, etc., produces no effect. 

A Milne-Shaw seismograph is on order and nearing completion for 
Brisbane. Prof. Alexander Brown reports that the two seismographs 
provided by the Committee on loan to the University of Cape Town are 
functioning satisfactorily. 

British Earthquakes. — A small earthquake occurred near Inverness on 
August 16, 1934, at 2.15. The shock was felt over the Highlands and was 
recorded by the seismographs at the English stations, including the Wood- 
Anderson at Kew. 

Other small disturbances which may have been due to such causes as 
the collapse of old workings in mines were reported in the newspapers on 
the following dates : 

Llanhilleth, Monmouth . . . March 2, 1935 
Aspley, Nottingham . . . May 3, 1935 
Jersey July 28, 1935 

The Quetta Earthquake. — Last year we were reminded by the devastation 
on the borders of Bihar and Nepal how liable India is to great earthquakes. 
This year we have to mourn the loss of some 15,000 lives in an earthquake 
of almost equal severity at Quetta, on May 31, 1935. Only a few months 
earlier, Mr. W. D. West, of the Geological Survey of India, in his report on 
two earthquakes which occurred in 193 1, had written : ' At present the 
majority of buildings in Quetta are about as unsoundly built from an 
earthquake proof point of view as it is possible for them to be.' It is 
satisfactory to note that the need for special regulations governing building 
in the areas liable to earthquakes is appreciated by the local authorities in 
India. The desirability of the provision of more seismological stations 
with suitable equipment is emphasised in the latest annual report of the 
Geological Survey of India, and we should like to lend all possible support 
to this plea. 

Montserrat. — A series of small earthquakes in the West Indian island, 
Montserrat, has caused material damage and considerable alarm, the dis- 
turbances being associated with the emission of large quantities of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen and other gases from vents near to Plymouth, the only 



326 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

town on the island. Mr. F. A. Ferret, the American vulcanologist, has 
been consulted and has equipped a small research station. These occur- 
rences have emphasised the need for more seismological stations in the 
West Indies. 

Microseisms. — Two papers on microseisms by A. W. Lee have been 
published during the year. At Kew Observatory, as previously at Eskdale- 
muir, the amplitude and period of the microseisms recorded by the North 
component seismograph have been measured four times a day. Mr. Lee 
made similar measurements of the microseisms recorded by the East and 
Vertical component seismographs during the year 1932. It was found that 
on the average the amplitudes of the three components were equal. As a 
result of this investigation it was decided that the vertical movements 
should be measured and published as from the beginning of 1935. 

In the other paper Lee has developed a method of determining the 
direction from which microseismic waves approach an observatory. The 
successful application of this method provides a verification of the hypo- 
thesis that these waves are of the Rayleigh type, the movement of the 
ground being such that the earth particles move round ellipses or circles in 
a vertical plane ; the motion is retrograde, being opposite to that of a point 
on a wheel rolling along the ground in the direction of propagation of the 
wave. It is found that the microseismic waves generally approach England 
from N.W. and are associated with storms in the Atlantic. 



The International Seismological Summary. 
A Note by Mr. J. S. Hughes. 

The International Seismological Summary for 1930 has been completely 
distributed, and the first quarter of 193 1 is in the Press. The year promises 
to be an unusually heavy one, partly on account of increase in the number of 
stations, and partly by increased seismic activity in the early months. The 
Hawke Bay-New Zealand earthquake of 193 1 (Feb. 2) is followed by 
numerous aftershocks, but owing to the uncertainty of the times from several 
of the New Zealand recording stations, only the few largest are sufficiently 
recorded for the purpose of the Summary. Other records from New Zea- 
land definitely attributed to aftershocks have been tabulated in full as far 
as the end of February. 

The new tables of Jeffreys and BuUen have now been in use for over 
a year, and the experience gained of them fulfils the hopes entertained of 
a more even fit of observation with theory along the whole scale of epicentral 
distance (as far as 100°). In particular, the few well-recorded earthquakes, 
for which nearly all the observational material was obtained within 20° of 
the epicentre, can now be determined with great accuracy. As stated in 
the Introduction to the I.S.S. for 1930, the P phase carries most weight 
in analysing the observational material and, as a result, the S phase recorded 
at distances where it is not usually confused with any other phase, sometimes 
shows systematic errors not easily explained, and much in excess of the 
probable error of the time curve. On 1931 January isd. and i6d. two earth- 
quakes occurred at epicentre 16 -4° N. 96 • 3° W., but, whereas for the earlier 
shock the residuals are nicely balanced both in azimuth and as between P 
and S, for the latter, although the P is equally good, the S is systematically 
late by several seconds. This effect is opposite to that where S is read too 
early and a suitably increased Tq would make residuals resemble those 
associated with a shock of slight focal depth. This phenomenon is attri- 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 227 

buted to Z effect or high focus in the superficial layers of the earth's crust, 
but it is difficult to believe that a difference of focal depth in so very shallow 
a stratum should produce so great an effect on the travel time. The two 
shocks from the same epicentre make it impossible to attribute the dis- 
crepancy to peculiarities of internal structure, at least in this case.'' 

The Seismological Bulletin of the Central Meteorological Bureau of Tokyo, 
for 1 93 1, contains readings from many stations in Japan which would not 
otherwise be received by the I.S.S. Several of these readings appertain to 
large distant earthquakes, but mostly they are records of local shocks 
obtained with seismographs with short periods. Wherever possible, the 
epicentre determined at Tokyo is adopted for the Summary, but in a few 
cases it is necessary to modify the position in the light of information from 
other sources. As one example of the excellence of these readings, it may 
be mentioned that the table for the shock of 1930 November 25d. igh. with 
epicentre35 • i°N. 139 •o°E. contains recordsof thirty-nine Japanese stations, 
all with A less than 10°. 

Further valuable data have begun to appear in 1931 from the group of 
stations in California, whose headquarters is at Pasadena. They are 
Haiwee, La Jolla, Mt. Wilson, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and Tinemaha. 
All their observations are extremely good and their position most fortunate, 
for, although they exist primarily for carrying out experiments on short wave 
transmission, they are able to record shocks in those distant parts of the 
Pacific too far west to give satisfactory readings at places near the Atlantic 
coast and for which observations to the east and north-east would otherwise 
be scanty. Pasadena itself, with its large instrumental equipment, often 
gives several readings for each phase, but when these only differ by one or 
two seconds the earliest is considered sufficiently representative. 

The earthquakes of 1930 July 23d. oh. and November 2id. 2h. from 
41-1° N. 15-4° E. and 40-0° N. 19-5° E. are notable for lists of nearly 
seventy stations with A not greater than 22°. The epicentres are both given 
by De Bilt, the latter being quoted from the Bulletin of the Russian stations, 
and is of much greater accuracy than the round figures suggest. Here 
again we have large positive residuals for S, though in the nearest stations 
S* or S^ may be recorded instead of S. 

1930 December 3d. i8h. epicentre 18-2° N. 96-4° E. is strangely 
unsatisfactory. Although there are two large groups of observing stations 
in azimuths round 55° and 320°, consisting of nearly all the best data from 
Japan and Europe, yet the residuals are scattered indiscriminately over the 
wide interval between ±8s., which at 70° of A corresponds to a range of 
apparent errors in distance of about ±i"5°. There has been here some 
general difficulty in reading the phases, and examination of the traces for 
Oxford instruments shows marked but not exceptional disturbance by 
microseisms which in the case of instruments of high magnification might 
make it impossible to distinguish a P of very small amplitude. As contrast to 
this, the shocks of 1930 July 2d. and 1930 September 22d. i4h., with origins 
in the same neighbourhood, show as good a fit as can be wished, both for 
Japanese and European records. For these dates microseisms are almost 
entirely absent from the Oxford films and it remains a question whether 
stations in Japan as well as in Europe were troubled by the microseisms in 
making their readings of the December 3d. films. 

* It may be that in the first of these two earthquakes no appreciable compres- 
sion waves were generated at the focus so that the phase recorded as P was really 
the phase sP ; the latter phase is generated from shearing waves which reach 
the surface near the epicentre. The interval between sP and S is less than that 
between P and S.— F. J. W. W. 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Transmission Times. 
By Dr. Harold Jeffreys. 

The paper on ' Transmission Times,' by Mr. K. E. Bullen and myself, 
has been published by the International Seismological Association, part of 
the cost being covered by a grant from the Gray-Milne Fund. I have now 
rediscussed the whole of the data, supplemented by some further earthquakes 
and special studies. The P times are found to have standard errors of 
about 0-3 sec. at most distances, rising to about i sec. at 105°. S seems 
also to be well determined between about 25° and 70° ; but at shorter and 
greater distances different earthquakes giving good series of observations 
give times differing by about 10 sees, when the adjustable constant Z is 
chosen to fit the times from 25° to 70°. The core reflexions PcP and ScS 
have been tabulated from Scrase's and Stechschulte's studies of deep-focus 
earthquakes. On combining these with the observed times of PKP and 
SKS times of K for all distances in the core have been found. A number 
of other core phases have been computed. SKKS, where it is best deter- 
mined from observation, agrees well with the calculated times. The only 
noteworthy changes from the times given in the Jeffreys-Bullen tables are 
in SKKS beyond 170°, and in PKP2, which has to be reduced by about 
7 sees. 

In a further paper, five deep-focus shocks have been discussed. The 
effect of focal depth has been calculated and allowed for, so as to reduce 
the observations to a standard focal depth, namely for a focus at the top of 
the lower layer. The intervals pP-P, sP-P, and sS-S, when adjusted in 
this way, give determinations of the times lost in passage through the upper 
layers. The results are not quite consistent, but what seem to be the best 
determinations agree with thicknesses of 14 km. and 28 km. for the upper 
and intermediate layers respectively ; the standard error of the sum is 
about 3 km. It seems probable that this work may lead to a determination 
of Z for a known focal depth and to crucial tests of the doubtful parts of the 
S table, but this part of the analysis is not yet complete. 

The Long Wave Phase of Earthquakes. 

By Dr. R. Stoneley. 

The presence of this phase of a seismogram is generally attributed to the 
passage of elastic waves over the surface of the earth. Two distinct types 
of wave are known to be theoretically possible : Rayleigh waves, in which 
the motion of the ground has both vertical and horizontal components but 
is always in a vertical plane through the line of travel, and Love waves, in 
which the motion is horizontal and perpendicular to the direction of pro- 
pagation. The velocity of a surface wave on the earth depends on its period ; 
the first surface waves to appear on a seismogram are the Love waves of very 
long period, which should, and apparently do, travel faster than the longest 
Rayleigh waves. Some progress has been made in separating these two 
types by choosing earthquakes whose surface waves arrive in a N., E., S., or 
W. azimuth ; for instance, if waves arrive in an E. azimuth, a N. component 
seismograph will record the Love waves and the E. and Z components the 
Rayleigh waves. In this way the transmission times of waves of different 
periods can be found. The velocity of travel is not the wave velocity, but 
the group velocity ; the wave velocity can, however, be obtained from this 
by niamerical integration when some assumption has been made about the 
velocity of a wave of very long period. The integration has been carried 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 229 

out ^ with some of the data that were published by W. Rohrbach. The 
velocities derived for Love waves across Eurasia fit very closely the theory 
of the propagation of Love waves in a double superficial layer, and corre- 
spond to a continental structure in which about 15 km. of granite rest on 
some 30 km. of tachylyte, with dunite as the underlying material. The 
observations of Love waves which have travelled across the floor of the 
Pacific are consistent with the presence of a layer of granite 10 km. thick, 
with dunite as the subjacent material, or alternatively with the presence of 
about 16 km. of diorite over the dunite. 

One further difficulty arises in separating the two types of surface wave. 
Either the transition from ocean to continent, or variations of thickness of 
the upper layers within a continent or below an ocean floor, will cause, in 
addition to a scattering of waves, regular refraction and reflection. It is, 
therefore, not correct to assume that in general these waves travel by a great 
circle path from epicentre to recording station. This point is further 
discussed in the paper above cited. 

It is desirable to call attention to the intrinsic differences that may occur 
between diflFerent earthquakes. Prof. H. H. Turner found that, for the 
majority of the earthquakes that he investigated, the observations of L, the 
onset of the long wave phase, indicated transmission times corresponding 
to 0-477 minutes per degree, or about 3-9 km. /sec. This corresponds to 
the onset of the Rayleigh waves and may be distinguished as LR. The 
corresponding onset of the Love waves (or ' Querwellen ') should correspond 
to about 4-4 km. /sec, or 0-42 min./deg. Actually, Turner" found that 
for one earthquake, 1926 October 3d. igh. the observations of L corre- 
sponded to 0-41 min./deg., so that in this earthquake the onset of the Love 
waves, which may be denoted by LQ, was specially prominent, although for 
European stations the arrival was in an easterly azimuth, and the E. com- 
ponents, on which the I.S.S. was preferentially based, would have been 
expected to record mainly the Rayleigh waves. Some stations record both 
LQ and LR ; Simla E., for instance, gives in that earthquake LQ, whereas 
Simla N. records LR. Evidently, then, the primitive S movement in this 
earthquake was predominantly of an SH type, and such earthquakes may 
not be common ; at any rate, the point is worth further investigation, and 
information may be forthcoming from a study of the body waves. The 
fact that one of the two L onsets may be found among the ' Additional 
Readings ' is a justification, if any were needed, for Turner's policy of 
printing as many readings in the I.S.S. as space and financial considerations 
would allow. 

Those who have had experience of the heavy analysis and computation 
involved in the problem of Rayleigh waves in a heterogeneous medium will 
welcome a paper ' in which Dr. Jeff'reys applies Rayleigh 's Principle to find 
the velocity of Rayleigh waves. Even in the unfavourable case in which 
the whole change of properties occurs in a single abrupt transition, the 
velocity of a wave of any given period can be calculated within a few 
per cent. ; and the saving of labour is enormous. 

Reappointment. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, for the continuation of the 
grant of £100 from the Caird Fund, and for a special grant of £50 for the 
maintenance of the International Seismological Summary. 

^ R. Ast. Soc, Mon. Not. Geophy. Siippi., Ill, 262 (1935). 
' International Seismological Summary, 1926. 
' Geophysical Supplement, III, 253(1935). 



230 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

CATALOGUE OF EARTHQUAKES 

1925-1930 



(i) In 1928 the late Prof. Turner prepared a ' Catalogue of Earthquakes, 
1 91 8-1924,' which was pubHshed by the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. It was his intention to pubhsh a further Catalogue, and 
he was engaged upon this, upon his ' Shallow and Deep Earthquake ' 
research, and upon the revision of the tables within a month of his lamented 
death in Stockholm in 1930. Since then I have endeavoured to fulfil his 
wish by completing the manuscript of the Catalogue to the end of 1930, 
being the last year for which the I.S.S. is complete. The Catalogue, 
therefore, contains the statistical summary of the world's earthquakes for 
six years, 1 925-1 930. This Catalogue has been compiled as voluntary 
work at home, and is offered as a contribution to earthquake science and 
as a personal memorial of respect to Prof. H. H. Turner. 

(2) A characteristic of the period 1925-1930 has been the increase in the 
number of epicentres determined and the consequent increase in the size 
of the I.S.S. on which this Catalogue is based. This increase in the 
number of epicentres is presumably or entirely due to the increase, in the 
number of stations which send good readings to Oxford. Thus when the 
work was taken over from Shide in 191 8 only some 120 stations were 
available, while by the end of 1930 readings are being received from over 
300 stations. The consequent increase in the number of epicentres 
determined is well shown in the following table, which is self explanatory. 
It is interesting to note that, apart from 191 8, old epicentres form in the 
mean one-half the total of determined epicentres in each year. The increase 
of pages in the I.S.S. is due not only to more quakes and records being 
received, but to more phases being identified and included in the 
' Additional Readings ' given, at the end of each quake. 





Epicentres. 


Year. 


New. Old. 


1918 


171 201 


1919 


III 212 


1920 


1 1 1 223 


1921 


103 15s 


1922 


119 191 


1923 


185 359 


1924 


120 350 


192s 


133 347 


1926 


151 461 


1927 


167 495 


1928 


177 418 


1929 


217 385 


1930 


207 446 


Total . 


. 1972 4243 





Ratio. 


Pages in 


Total. 


New Old. 


I.S.S. 


372 


0-85 


218 


323 


0-52 


170 


334 


0-50 


200 


258 


0-67 


176 


310 


0-62 


222 


544 


0-52 


316 


470 


0-34 


284 


480 


0-38 


324 


612 


0-33 


427 


662 


0-34 


473 


595 


0-42 


440 


602 


0-56 


518 


653 


0-46 


426 



6215 Ratio is 0-465 

The increase in the number of quakes and in the number of pages of 
print appears to be maintained, subject to slight variations from year to year. 
Though the number of quakes given for 1930 (653) is 51 more than 1929, 
the number of printed pages is 92 less ; this is partly accounted for by the 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 



231 



700- 



600- 



500- 



400- 




300- 



jfmamjjasono 
Fig. I. — Total number of Earthquakes in 1918-30 occurring in various months. 



1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 



140- 

130- 

120- 

110- 

100- 

90- 

80- 

70- 

60- 

50- 

40- 

30- 

20- 

10- 

FlG. 2.- 




-Number of Earthquakes occurring in maximum and minimum months. 

I 2 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

omission in the tabular part of all stations which recorded only L or M ; 
those giving L waves are mentioned by name at the end of ' Additional 
Readings ' : this change was introduced in the Summary for 1930. 

(3) The material now available in this and the previous catalogue strongly 
confirms an earlier suggestion of Prof. Turner on the monthly frequency 
of earthquakes. A count of the total number of epicentres occurring per 
month over the whole period 1918-1930 gives a marked maximum in Septem- 
ber and some evidence of a secondary maximum in the spring ; these two 
periods account for nine maxima in the thirteen years. Attention is directed 
to the only other months having a maximum, March, April, June, and 
August. This is well shown by Fig. i, for which the abscissa is the month 
and the ordinate is the total number of earthquakes occurring in that month 
for the whole period. A related question is how pronounced this maximum 
is in any given year. This is shown in Fig. 2, where the upper complete 
line gives the number of earthquakes occurring in the ' Maximum Month,' 
and the lower broken line the number of earthquakes occurring in the 
' Minimum Month,' each as a function of the year. The letters attached 
to each point denote what months in each of the years 191 8 to 1930 are 
the ' Maximum ' and the ' Minimum.' The vertical distance between 
the two lines is a measure of the departure from a uniform number of 
earthquakes per month throughout the year, so that 1923, the year of the 
frequently repeated earthquake in Japan of September i, was a year with 
a very pronounced maximum, while 1921, 1922 and 1925 were years with 
very uniform distribution. 

(4) It is necessary to repeat some part of the explanation of the columns 
in the present Catalogue ; the former Catalogue for 1918-1924 gives the 
explanation and reasons more fully. 

The first column is the day of the month, given at the head of each group, 
with the To, of the shock in hours, minutes and seconds of G.M.T. from 
midnight. 

The second and third columns show the latitude (North +, South — ) 
and longitude (East + , West — ) of the epicentre. 

The fourth column has the number of stations which have given 
recognisable observations of the shock ; this number indicates very roughly 
which are severe shocks observed at considerable distances, and which are 
only slight and local. The number in this column really represents the 
number of stations in the world that have sent records to Oxford and been 
used in the tabular part. These shocks, for which the preliminary wave P 
has been observed at a distance of at least 80° from the epicentre, are marked 
with an asterisk (*). The dagger (f) in column four refers to notes collected 
at the end. Most of these notes show the cases of anomalous focal depth, 
expressed in fractions of the earth's radius and measured from the normal 
focal depth as reference depth. 

" The fifth column, headed ' Former Occasions,' is, it is hoped, an addition 
of some value. It was left an open question for some years whether earth- 
quakes were apt to recur at precisely the same epicentre or merely in 
proximity to it ; and accordingly independent determinations of epicentre 
were made for successive shocks in the same neighbourhood. But it 
gradually became apparent that the hypothesis of exact recurrence was 
often as good as any other, while the convenience of utilising the calculations 
of A and azimuth already made was considerable. Accordingly the habit 
of using old epicentres became gradually established ; and there is this 
to be said in favour of it, that those who doubt the validity of the implied 
hypothesis may be glad to have an easy reference to test cases." 

" The sixth column, ' Minor Ents.,' shows the number of observations rele- 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 233 

gated to the notes in the I.S.S., as cases where there is not sufficient material 
to give an epicentre. Many of them are records at a single station only, 
unsupported by any independent observation. On some days there are only 
sporadic observations of this kind, with no serious shock ; but no day in 
the six years is completely blank. It will be seen that the number of residual 
observations of this kind is given, on days when there are also several 
considerable shocks, against the last shock for that day." 

TT • • /-M. ^ r , Ethel F. Bellamy. 

University Observatory, Oxford. 

1935. J««e 13. 



234 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





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ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 235 



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236 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 








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roiOrorO'^roO'iom'* M-miO 
CM CMCMCMCMCMCM^McMCMCMtJ-CMCMCM 

ea eaoCcacataiTcacaoi-Scacoci! 

lO lOfOlOLOlOlOCMlOlOlO-^miOiO 

CM cmcmcmcmcmcmcmcmcmcmcmcmcmcm 

OiOiOiOiOiOiOiOiOiOiOiOiOiOi 


CD 
CM 

>. 

a 
1/1 

CM 

Oi 


Oit^CO 
— CM CM -" 

>.>%>-. fci' 

CO CO CO (9 

ID ID ID ■* 
CM CM CM CM 

Oi Oi Oi Oi 


19* 
01* 
•1-81 


■* ■* t~- 


t^ •* t^ 

00 — Tf CM 
* * * 


cOOTrost^CDrC — cot^rOCMOOOOTfos'^coiOt^Tt'*- t- 
■*00CO CO CMlO TfrOCMrOCM 10 — — CO — — — 

** * *#** ** * 


UO lO 


lO CO C^ 00 "O 


000000000000 — — OOOOU-JOOO — 


oooooooooor^ 


10 — ■ 00 t-~ 10 

f^ fM t^ fO lO 10 

+ + 1 + + + 


CD t-- t^ 0> — t~- 
CO CO 10 — ■* CM 

++++++ 


— M*'*cocororO'*rorOTl-Tj-05rOTfroroiO'«trot^Tj-Ttu-) 
■^rocoCMCMCMCMroCMCMroroOOCMroCMrot-cocDiOroro- 


10 "1 


10 — ' 


lO CO 


cDr~r~-oooot-oor-r~-ioo>-oioor-oor~f~oo 


CO (O "1 '*• O) 
n CM ro ro 

+ + 1 + 1 + 


— CD ^ t- 00 
ro CO CO CO 

1 + 1 ++ 1 


OiOU^TtTj-T^f^iOCMCMiOiOCOTflOCMCDOiOCMTj-lomco 
rororoCMCMCMCMco — — coco — CMro — cocOcoCMrococo-* 

++++++++++++++++++++ 1 +++ 


14 7 10 48 

14 15 19 18 

15 11 57 

15 18 25 36 

16 2 20 
16 10 27 50 
17 

18 7 22 30 

18 16 4 6 

19 5 23 35 

20 7 53 48 
20 11 4 48 
20 22 46 6 


— Tj--^lO"^CMCM_;4 ^ — CjtM o^i'lfO^- — ^^ 
CJCJO oc^ CJO 
OC5 ii-^^^-^Oi nco oeg_cOr^_r:; 0=^00 0^^ ^^ 
Tt -^ CO CM CM j5 'l- j2 <^ « 1^ "^ « -C '^ "^ J3 — ' "^ J3 j; •* 

^ c/;co-, cocflcocfl 
OlCMt^t^ — — m^rOf^CDt^OOiO— _CMO,-COiO,-_CM 

CO CM ^ t^— ,^- ^«'— Oi CM^ ^^CM 

^-CMcOcocorO'^'^'^iOiOiOiOCDCOCDCOt^r^t^OOOOOOCJiO^N 
(NCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMtMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMcOrO 


00 00 — 


r~ 


CO 


CO CD 


CM 


Tf Oi — Tl- — ro 
ro — — CM — — — 


00 t^ 


m — 


CM t^ CO CM 


u 

u 

p 

eg 






CO to 
— — 10 

10 CM 10 
CM CM CM 

000 


f^ CO CM in »0 O) CM 

_ — — — — "" t^cM to— 'in — 

4J ti l-I l-I U< b 1^ •-< ^ 1-! -M >-" 

CMOJ^^i^iO »0 lOlO OiOCM— ^ 
CM — CMCMCM CM CMCM (MCMCMCM 

oy (7> o> Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi 


-- 

■* lO 
(M <M 

Oi Oi 


CTl 
CM 

u 

a, 
< 

CM 

Oi 


CM ID 
CM CM CD 

d t.' ^ 

Q<§ 

Tj- ro ■* 
CM CM CM 
Oi Oi Oi 


CO 

<o 

* 




00 
00 
* 


c^ 00 00 

CM — 


CMt^rocOOOlO^^CDCOCO'^^t — t^CD"^-^ 
— — — — 0> '^ <M 
* # * 


CD ■5t 
ro — 
* 


ID 00 ro ro 

— CM -q- CM 

* * * 


00 t^ — 
CM 







10 


oooooomioioooiomiooo'* 





10 


r- ID 

t~- ID ID 

CM ro r~ 

+77 


CO 
CM 

+ 


t" er> m a> 
U-) ■* CM CM 

+ + + + 


i0005CT>0)rOrOOCDCDrot^ — — r- — 
CJ)CMCMCMCMt~-OCM CMCOrO'S-^CMO 

+ 1 ++++++ 1 +++++++ 


Oi CO 
<M CM 

+ + 


00 CO 10 ID 
CM CD tT -^t 

+ + + + 







10 in 


OOIOUIU^OOOOOOOOO — CM 





ID 


CO 

Oi Oi -^ 
ro ID ro 

+ + 1 


+ 


Tj" 10 0^ lO 
CO CO fO CO 

1 ++ + 


CM^iOiOUll/^t^CNJI^r^^cOOOCMt^ 
— 'S-cococo-^CMCMco rorO'*'* CO 

++++++++++++++++ 


1 + 


05 00 ID 
CM — ID ID 

+ 111 


CO 

trt 
m 

00 

CO r~ 00 


Oi 


Tt 10 

10 — CO 

— t^ t- "1 

•* CM eg CM 

CM CJ) 2 
— — CM CM 


— OOlOOmulOt~lO-*CDiOCOOO 
^-lO^'^CO'^ — COlOlO'^roiOCO"^ 

TtcDOO — ■*CMCMCM — TfCMCD— •0000 
fO — in — .corOiOTf lO-*-* CMCM 

— lO-*COCOOiiO(J>i/l— 'OmOCNJOO 

roTt-*ioioioincocor^t^oo<35<3>ooo — 


00 00 CM >0 
roro — 10 — CM •<1-CM — 

CM 00 C~- ■<}• ■* CO CO 00 
— CO — — CMCM CMIO 

r005 O5CO0000 OCMO 
CM — — ^ CM CM — 

CMC0-*lOlOCOC0t^00050)O 
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMfO 




■ ' "* 









238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





-6 
c 
8 

CM 






ro (30 


r- — a> CM a> 00 

CO CM — — . _ _ 


t^ CO O) 


i s 

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i> .^ <u .^ ,; ■" b^ 

lO lO u^ lO — Tf OJ 

fM rvj CM cvj CM rg cvj 
0> 05 o> o> O d o 


00 _ 00 00 ■* 

— — fOCOCM— t- >" — "^ t- 00 00 f^ 

(0001/1101005 lO rOCM-^i/>i/1ulCM 
OJ — CMCMCM— CM CMCMCMCMCMCMCM 
^ Oi O^ Oi 0> Oi Oi Oi Oi OJ Oi ^ o> ^ 


o — 
CMOO . 

c— o, 
« 3 u 
<—,>—,ai 

■* ul CO 
CM CM CM 
Oi Oi Oi 




C 




t- 


-f- 
— ^^ooooi^iO'*or~-cor^05c£)cMr~-0)ooocDcDcDt^ 

«_ CO — ^ CM .- CO — ro CO CM lO __^„^_ 


t~- CM lO 




W 

ti 

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o 


o 
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a 

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o 

7 

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m 

CD 

CO 


OOOOOlOOOOOOOiOCSOOOiOOOOOiOOOOOiO 


O O lO 




0>^^0>m<MCOroCO — -^Tfr-COCMCMCMOOOtoCMCMCMO 
— mro — lO — CM-^ft^CMrot^moCDCD uotOCMCOcOCOro 

7++++++ 1 7+7-7+7 1 1 1 +++ 111 + 


to CM 05 
CO CD lO 

1 1 + 






ot^t^OTfooouior~oocoooooioooooTf 


O O lO 




TiJ-ulLnOOOCOCMr<10000iO^^CT>OOCOOt^corOC»OOOOt~- 
rorococT) ^ __rr)ro — n-) — — . — ■>*• — ^_-„ro 

+ + + + 1 + + + 1 ++ M + +++ 1 1 + + + + + 


CO 00 o> 

CM — CM 

1 + + 







lO-^OCMUIiO-^CDOiOiOiOOCMOOOOmt^OOOu^O OCDCM 
in in ir^ ^ lOiO -^lO >— roiO-^iO^rOc^— ^ — COCM 

OOrorOOlOOCO— 'Tf"lcD';f-*CMU1cO00'*mcor~0000CM 00-*CM 
CJCMi/l— ^— ' — '■* ^— Tj-cgCMlOCMCMroro^ Ul iT) m 

00O>r<100O>t^CMt^C^CMCOC»<X)-*lOt^00 — Tj-OO— •'*00O5 1/1 — — 
rOCOrO'<*Tj-'^TtlOCDCOCDt^t^t^t^t^t^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO>0 — — OJrO 


g Former Minor 
Occasions. Ents. 


05 




CM 


CO o o t^ 
— CM 


CDOOt^ OO-^OO — 00 0"*COcorO 
— — . CM — — T3-— .CMCM — 






05 CM — ^ 

>;•>;' >:• a 

3 3 3 3 
1— >l— > t— 1 1—. 

■* lO ■* U1 

CM (M CM M 

C75 C7) CI O^ 


12 00 2to-,~ lOCO^'*'^ 
— _ ^~"Oa>'' CM CM — 

« S .^Sbcc msCCC 
CM •* oOTfTfiiiui loioinioio 

CM CM — CMCMCMCM CMCMCMCMCM 
05 05 050>0503C) Oi Oi Oi <Ji Oi 


CM 

ti 

3 
< 

CM 
CM 

o> 




lil 

CO 
CM 


— r~ CM CO lo 05 

— ro (35 CVJ CO 

* * * 


COOOOO— ■ COCJlulOcocoCO-^OOOTj-CMt^ 
lO 05— "CMcOrO — CM CM —.-co 


t~- 




CO 

« 


W 

ti 
C 




o 




o o o o o o 


O O lO U1 O lO m O O O O 00 o o o o o 


U1 

+ 




o 


Tf -"t CO lo lo lo 

Tj- Tf CM CM CM CM 

7+77+7 


>-CMiOO CMOOrocMCMt^rfTj-rococococo 
t--CM(3500 -^CM •<1''*COCMCOCMCMCMCMOO 

1 + 1 1 +++++ 1 1 +++++ 1 


CM 

7 




o 




O O O O O O 


OOOO U1 O CO lO lO O O t^ O O O O lO 


lO 

+ 




o 


— — r<1 CO t~ ro 
Tl- rf •* CO -"a- 

++++++ 


OCJICMCO COCMlOcOrO — OlO^-^f-*-*!^ 
rococo CO CMcocoCMCMCMCM— ■ 

1 + 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 ++++++ 


lO 

7 


o 

o 


•6 




O CM O O O ID 
U-) — lO — ■* "I 

ro 00 m CO 02 OJ 
-^t — CO — — 

ro lO -^^ ^- — CM 
CM CM CO '*'*•■* lO 


U1001OO OiOOO-^OOCOOOiOrfCD CM 00 
CMCMCMTt CM-* — rOCMCO — rO-^lO — CM 

(M— iLO^- OC010CDOOCOCOC00005C35000 Tt O 
•*iOtJ-tJ- M-iO-*iOir)uiCMroco-^co CM U1 lO 

rooooro rooOCOmocMOOiOtOcotOCM Tf t^ 
CM CM —___-__ (M (M — — CM — 

CDC0COt^0005O)O — CMCMrO'<l''<*"'<}"T}'M--*u1CDt^OO(35 











ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 



239 



r~cMO uifo- lOtOTj-coiooi ojTtio o> 00 


CM 


Ul t3) — 
CM — CM — 




in 


•<t 


1925 July 10 

1924 Dec. 3 

1922 Apr. 5 

1925 July 17 

1915 Feb. 28 
1924 May 20 


1924 Feb. 22 
1923 Aug. 24 


1925 Mar. 8 
1920 Nov. 27 

1924 June 22 


CO 

to 

3 
< 

CM 

C35 




00 

"3 

1— > 
10 

CM 

a> 




1925 July 6 
1925 Mar. 18 
1923 Dec. 4 


LO lOCMt^t^— • roco^H 
# Tt CM Tf CO — — 
* * * * 


r- t~- 


CO 1/5 ro to 10 
— CM — — — — CM 
* * 


TJ- 


to 


CM 


to to CO O) m 

CM — 

* 


OU100O1O lOiOio 


000 


10 10 10 


IT) 

CO 

to 

7 


10 00 >o 

00 ro Tf CM t~- 
co I^ to CO 10 to 

++++++ 


to to- for~— rot^io 

to — TfOrO'* CM 00 

1 +++++ +++ 


— — tj> 

t CO 

1 + + 


"0 05 05 t^ ^^ — r^ 

(M t^ t35 CM 10 t^ 

+T++T+ 1 


OOt^OO COlOlO 


00 10 in 


>0 lA) UO 10 



00 

CM 
1 


i^ ■* t^ r^ 10 

CO t~- to >0 00 
CM to ■* CO (O CO 

+++++ 1 + 


CO UICMIOCMCM rOCMro 
CM ■* — — CM ■* -"t 

1 ++ M + + + + 


CM 00 
■* Tf to 

+ + + 


CO 00 t^ U-) 10 

CM 10 CO CO CO 

1 +++++ 


4 20 18 12 
5 

6 22 28 30 

7 3 13 45 
7 16 59 8 
7 21 7 40 
7 22 30 40 
8 

9 20 30 32 
>0 15 3 30 
!1 13 40 6 
!2 


23 
24 

25 13 .5 48 

26 2 53 50 
26 12 46 
27 

28 4 37 55 

29 4 54 18 
29 14 3 8 

29 19 8 54 

30 12 16 50 

30 18 43 10 

31 8 46 18 


1 2 25 40 

2 

3 

4 22 6 

5 5 10 

5 20 11 33 

6 7 15 24 
6 10 37 4 

6 14 20 48 

7 2 52 45 




00 1^ CM a> 

CO — — CM 


CO CO t^ 10 

CM CM 


to 




•<t 




CM 




10 

CM 


t^ CM 


1923 July 21 

1924 Oct. 13 

1924 Mar. 4 

1925 June 14 
1925 June 14 
1925 June 21 

1925 June 21 
1920 Sept. 16 
1923 Sept. 9 


1925 June 10 
1925 Feb. 7 

1914 Nov. 28 


1925 June 28 
1925 June 28 

1924 Oct. 18 

1923 Mar. 30 

1925 June 28 

1925 June 29 
1925 June 29 
1925 June 29 
1925 June 29 
1925 June 19 


CM 

u 

1—1 
10 

CM 


1920 May 5 
1922 Nov. 19 
1922 Sept. 3 


CO-^iOOOOt}- LO-<tlOCMC35tDtD "^OOCMrooOlOrOOJCMiOrOCO-* 
— ip _ CM — — — t3> CM lO CO — — t^ 
* * * * * * « 


— CM 


00 00 


— 00 


000000 00 OOOOiOOiOO COlOCMCMCMOOOCMCMOOOOOOiOO 


in •* 
in — — 

— CM 

+ + + 


OCMOfOTfTj- TfoiOOO- roui _t^_ 
■^t^ CMcoco rO-^r^iOro O co^^— h 

1+ +++ ++1++++ ++7 


— — OtMOi- CJ)C»050>t3>tMOa> 

— — coo> — — — — — — — r^Tt — 

77+++T7777T7+T 


10000 r^t-" t^cOOOOroO —OTfTj'TifOCM'iCrl'OOOOOO 


10 


+ 45-5 
+ 36-5 
+ 42-4 


— r^t^'^lOiO lOCMO-* — UOOO Ot0t0t0t0t35OC0C0-<j'4'-^-^4-i^ — 4- 
■*cOCOCMcoco CO'*' iOtJ-co-* rOTf-^TTTtCM — '*TtcotOrocoro — Tfro 

++++++ ++ ++++ ++++++++++++++ 1 ++ 


OTj-OCMrOtO OOOOTtrJ-iO-"*- fMlOC3>iOlOOlOOOOCMl/)OOCMiOlO 
CM COCMTt^^ iO^lOCM^^CM — iOf0^lOCO»OlO^^— CO — ,— T:f 

OOTtOtO'*— OOCOtOcOOt^— t^CMOiOOco — ■>*■ — CMcotO-*tO-*tD00 
m CM lOTfTflO CO— CMCMCM Tf- Tfttro-* rO>OTj" — 

tOcocO'^^lOOO r0^tOC>0^-tO t^OO-^CMCOtOcotOCMTftOtOtOOOfOtOO) 

•"O- — ■ — — CMCOCOfOfO-*-*'^iOtor~-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOa>t350>0>t3>000 
— CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMrOrOfO 


1 1 18 10 

2 16 38 55 

3 6 16 40 



240 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



H 






lO-^CDro or^coto — 


a> 


— O 
ro — 


CD 


CM — 
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u- 


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t^ o in CM 
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+ + + + 


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lO 00 00 ■* 
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CO lO CD ■* 
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fM m r^ ■* -"t 

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CM ro ro lO 
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m 

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r- 00 


CO O ■* CO 
CM — 


CM 00 CJ> 


m t- 


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CD I^ 00 05 O O — 
— — — — (M CM (N 


CM CO Tt ■* 
CM CM CM CM 


mmm'0'ot~-ooa>aio 

CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMrO 




^^ 


CM ro •* Tf 










00 O •* r^ 
CM ro CM — 


CM CO — 


ro 
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30 r^ ■* o) 


m 

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lO 00 






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t^ 00 


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CD 




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613 

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lO ■* lO 
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m in 

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m tc 

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m m 

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m 

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ro m 

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CJ> 0> 


m 

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CD CM lO 

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+- -(- 

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m f~ o> 
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Lat. N. Long. E. 


o 
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lO O "O O lO "O 


m o mo 


lO O 00 


o m 




omooaoommo 
iooor~-*cM — ooio 

COrot^CDro CM— ' — 

1 +7+++ 1 7+ 




O O O CO o o 
cj O ro ro r<^ CO 

+7+ 1 ++ 


O CM O CO 
■* t^ ro •* 

1 1 + 1 


— . o t^ 

lO lO CM 

+ + + 


00 o 
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+ + 


Tf o ■* o ■* •* 


m m ■^ <D 


u^ O — 


o ■* 

CM t^ 

m ro 

+ + 




cj>r~CM'*'mo — r"-'* 
— .romu^ro-^ ro — 

++++++ 1 ++ 




t-- OS t^ CM t^ t^ 
ro -^ CO ^ ro CO 

++++++ 


— u^ t^ Tj- 

CM CO CO CM 

+ 1 + + 


<35 t^ CM 

m 

1 1 + 




<B 


r- O CD CM CM o 
CM •* u^ Tf — -^ 


00 — O ro 
^ CM CM CO 


O O CD 

ro — 


CM •<* 

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OOOCMCMOOOO 
ro ■««• lO CM Cvj CM CM 




^" 




B 


CO r~- CM CO ■^ CD 
■* ■* — CM — 


CM X lO 00 


00 O) r^ 


m 00 
CM m 




CD ro ■* 
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r~ lo "" 


Tf ■* Ti- 




o 




J3 


CO t- CO r^ CO t- 


r- C35 o CO 


■* CD C7) 


CM o 

CM 




rj- lO lO CM CM ro 
— — CM 


ro 
CM 


— o 

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H 




TJ 


r^ r~ r~ 


r- 00 cj) o 


— — CM CM ro 


■*-*"*iOCDCDt~000)C3>050)C7>0 


O 
CM 


N CM 


CM ro 
CM CJ 

















ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 



241 



— CMOO — t^OOtOCO 

— — — CO CO 



■>t 00 r- CM — lo 
— — CM pg — 



roioioiO'^— rft~»o>cMr- 



D 3 



10 ro 
CO CM 

O) c:5 



JO 

u 

CM 



1—1 

CM 

05 



2 — 'i" 



> 

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CM 



<NJ CM 



— O t^ CT) 



00 T^ 



- ^ - ?^ S 3 
a a c c tiX" 

■^ o> 00 m ■* ■* 
f\J _ „ oj — — 
O) 03 05 0> O) o^ 



to 

00 — 



00 10 
— (>) 






s>.u 



c 3^ 

3*5 3 



^o4S 

t^ u^ M O 10 
— (M CM CM CM 

05 o o 05 o> 



■* I~- <£> t^ — t^ 

r- CM 



CM O) <M 10 lO CO "O 

(O — O — — — ' •* 

* — * * 
* 



00 10 (\J 00 CO 00 ov 
CO (M — (NJ CD CJ 
* * * 



CO C^ 

CNJ — 

# 



r- Tj- cj) CM i^ 
* 



00 O O CM O O 

lO CO f^ '— CO t^ 
00 00 t^ ^ CM 

I 1 I +++ 



O lO 00 00 o o o 

t^ r^ CM o o CM o 
uo — Tf r<l o r^ o 

++ I ++T+ 



o 10 >o 10 o o o 



(O CM >/5 00 o CO in 

CM — 00 r<^ 00 O — 



00 rr) 
CM t^ 



+11+ ++ +1 



o o o o 10 

Tj- 00 to o — 
O CM CM U3 Tf 

+ + + + + 



ro in o t~ m o 

CM [^ CT> CO i~- m 
— — • CM Tt n r- 

+ + I + + + 



O O CM ro O O O 



rf 00 O uo t^ to t^ 
CO ro — CO CM — CM 



oooinroooo 00 



■^oocMr-O'i'O) inoo 

CM ■* CM r<1 — 



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Z46 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





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248 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 249 



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1926 Aug. 2 
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1917 Jan. 6 
1926 Apr. 18 


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7 6 20 45 
7 6 31 5 

7 11 39 55 

8 9 38 45 










Ul 00 CM 
CM CO CM 


S 

CO 
CM 





C35 O ro — 
ro — CM 


CM 


t^ — CM •* 05 


1926 Oct. 28 

1926 Oct. 29 

1925 May 5 
1921 May 28 

1926 Oct. 30 
1926 Oct. 31 




ro 

U 

CO 

CM 


1919 Nov. 18 
1922 May 4 
1926 Nov. 2 
1926 Nov. 2 
1926 Aug. 18 
1926 Oct. 5 

1925 Oct. 5 

1926 Nov. 3 
1925 Aug. 31 


1926 Nov. 6 
1926 Oct. 19 
1926 Nov. 2 
1926 Sept. 15 


1917 Apr. 16 
1926 Nov. 2 

1924 Dec. 12 
1926 Nov. 12: 


— t^cDO-*t^r^ 

— CO — Tf ro lO 
• « * * 


CO 00 


— OOOCM-'^lO COrOLO- 
CM ro Tj- — CM O ro 
* * * # * — * 


00 00 CO O) o> 
— * — 


O lO 00 CO — > CO 


OOCOlOCOOlOlOiO 

OOOroorot^roro 
COCMrrcMCMCM'^-'i' 


lOOOOOOOOOO ooou^oou^omo 


O O O 00 CO CO 


t^CMt^CM — ■^'^fTfiO-* ul>OCMr-.t^CM — roro 
CMCOCMCMroiOiOU-j t^ 00 ■^lOio rOM-O 

TT++++++i7 11+++1++T 


03 Tj. CD ro ro ro 
Ol m ro •» ro ro 

++++ 1 1 


h-fJiOcOlOOlOlo 
(MCO — coojob — — 

1 +++++++ 


10 t^ 10 10 CO lO 10 10 

00 CM ro 10 ■<i' CO CO CD CO 4- CM CO t^ 00 00 lO -^ rO 00 
Tf uo CM — ■* •* 't CO — — ro ro ro 

++++ 1 ++++ 1 +++ 1 1 + 1 1 + 


O O O O 00 00 

CD CO •51- CO CO CD 
Tf CO ro »0 »0 

1 +++++ 


2 32 
8 40 

37 58 

11 21 
46 24 
41 42 
43 15 

12 38 


in 00 O O lO O CO ■* CM O ro CO lO lO CM O CO lO O 
— — roroiO CMiil'l'ro roro — LOCMrororoco 

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ro CMiO ■^ u-)ioro lO— — IT) 


O CM T}- lO CM lO 
M- lO — — 

r- ■^ CD — ro — i 

ir> m u-> lo CM 



® O — o ro 05 — r^ — lo ro — CO o> — CM r~. 00 r^ — 05 o> o> — — CD CM ro o oo co r~. m 

— ^' — — *— • -^CM — — CMCM^^— »^^^ CMCM — CM — .^m ^ 

?^?i°°^°^n CMCMCgCMCMrorOTflouliOCOCOCDCOr-t-OOOOlO — CMCM 



2S4 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





c 



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o 

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lO^ CMiO to- ro^O>rOcou^OO CMOO 
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4 




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to r- t^ 
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ro r~- to r<^ — 

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■<t CO lO CO c<^ 

1 ++++ 


o 
in 

+ 


t~ r- m m o o 

o o 00 ■* 00 — 

CM CM to 00 CM CO 
+++++ + 




o o m 00 o 
in to CO i^ CO 

— 05 tj> — CM 

+ 1 + + + 


o o o 

■* 4" •* 
in in in 

+ + + 




o 

1 


t^ t~- m o t^ o 

CM CM 00 to ro t3> 
CO CO *— CO ■— CO 

++ 1 ++ + 




o o in ro in 

CD to in CM to 
m — CM ■* CO 

+ + + + + 


o o o 
to to to 

+++ 





. O I^ O u^ to CM 

m rr> <M — m — 

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.00 00 CX) O r»5 to 

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CO 

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m m t- to 00 to 

— CO — CO 
CO CM O) O to •* 

m in -^ CO 

CO •* CM O t- to 

cMcoco-^mintot^ooo^c 


cM-*oino cMOm 
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CM ro ■* •* CO m ro 
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> — CMro-^TfintOtDtO 








§ s 
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to 
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CM 




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tN — eg — 

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CO to Tf to 
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a 

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ti tj cj 6 

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in to 
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t^ to to 
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— — oor~-cM'>*'cor^ 

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to in r^ o^ 05 1^ 05 
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lO O CD O O O 


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in 
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<\i CO — t~ r^ 

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1 +++T 


TtmmmcDO^ooooooot^-* 
TftO ■^ — — — OOmiOro 

+++++++77 1 ++ 


in in in to to to r^ 
— — — eg eg t-~ — 


1 1 1 ++ 1 + 




CO o r^ o lo o 


ooiomooooomoio 


o 
in 

CM 

+ 


o o o m in CM ro 


- CM (M r~ t35 to — 

Tf lO CO O Tl- 

++++++ 


CMOilOlO- — — OOOOCM-rfOO 
..J- — t~- Tf-<tmm — coco 

+1+1 +++ 1111+ 


O) O) o> 00 00 — eg 
eg CM CM m ■* 

+++++++ 




.•■^lOOtDCMCM COOCMOOlOOCMComOOO lO 
(OiOTj-rO *- t^ ^H^-TtTl-iOTj-w-CM CD rj* 

.Tft^.-«^-c<^CM tO^-cOrOro^CMCMO-^0>^ fO 
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in o o o ■* o> lo 
CO eg CM CM eg ro 

to ro 00 — r^ tt — 
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00 oi CM 00 o ■* eg 
—. — — — eg CM CO 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930. 



255 



o 



^ 10 O) Ti- 00 

— CM -- ~ — 



CM 
CM 



CM 



r^ 10 -« CO 10 o 

— — CM CO CM 



J- CM- ^-tOC^OJ 



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CM 

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CM t-00 

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^cd2^2: 



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- o u o 3 



CO Oj 0> O CD CO 
<M — — CM (NJ CM 



r^ CD ro uo Tf 
O) CM (\J <\j CNJ 



AS 



lU 

o 

CM 

C7> 



CM 



Q 

CM 



if' Z' rOCMCM— . ^rO„CM rn rri ~ _r-. 

** * ** #*# # 



iCpiOCpOlO t--<»00 t~.<poO^OOOO>OOlO CO 0010 lO CM O *S 

'TfCM^rfCN]^-^-OOQ)OO^^COC\]f<^in-^T^rOOOCO«r^iri_lr4,r^ L '^ 

+++++ I +++++++++ I +T++++++T+ I 2 



<3incpc3iOCMt--lOinOOcoOOOiOOOOO — lOOcDOt-O 
®00CDCO0002CMCOOr^4-CDOC0O'i-J- OOOOcici3rr,QOtoAfn,^ 

++++++++++++ + ++ 1 I I ++++++ I 



~^Z2!2!255!!^?^'^5^'^'°S^2'^'*°°""'^'^'^'^"^'^'^^"* 

tocDCDr-t-t^QOooo)0)oo — (Mc«iTtioiniococDcDt-f-r^QOQo 

— '" — ""-'—'-" — ~ — ^<>)CMCMCJCMCM(MtMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMSj 



10 a> 

CO Cvj 



"^ Gi 00 0> <Ji 



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CO 



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CM CO 
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+ 



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CM 00 
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00 lO 

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+ + + 



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■* O CM CO 
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COCDOOOOCO COOOiOf- 
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ro 



CM 
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CO — 

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C35 05 05 05 



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CM CM CM CM CM 



c c 

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r^ c^ t^ t- t^ 

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CO lO 00 

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CD CO ■* O •^ 



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coooco foocDoor^ 

CO CD — — . CO CO 

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-170 
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oocM or~-ooco 

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CO CO CO CO t;- (35 r^ 00 CO 00 00 00 00 00 

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I +++ ++++ ++7+ 1 7 +++7+7-++ 



0000 10 CM CO CO 10 o o o o o 

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+ + + + I I 



10 P~ 10 o 



t^ CO CM CM 
CO CO Tf ^ 



I ++ I ++++ 



lOlOloiOiOiOiOiO 

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+ 1 + M M I 



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10 lO 10 Tf 

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C35 O O — 
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00 (O ":)• 10 

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rocO"*OiOlOiOO 
coroCM^^rocOrfco 



CO^OOOOJCMOCOCO 

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CO — lOCDi^co— -in 

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f.OiO.OCOt-t-t-.t-OOOO-CMCgCMrO'Ct-UI.O.OCDt-OOOOO-CMCOM-^Tj-to.OCOCO 

'"~~"""~ — — — — • — — CMCMCMCMCMCvJCMCMCMCMCMCM 



256 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 






a 


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CM CM 



— (M 



05 — 
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t^ t~ t~ 
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ca a ««^ kS o-tS o.o- Q-'a'u Q<g' a 0.0.0.33 ao 



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++++++ I ++ I + I + I +++++ I +++++++ 



+++++++ I + I ++ I ++ 



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CDCMCM>^CDiOt^rniOI^CDi^4-^^-j-<0^^-'^0-- 
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+++++++++++^ 



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10 S^co 

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. ^OT C3) oTo O - CM CM CM CM ^rO Xrf ^^^Tf-^J-lOlOUIiOiOLOiOiO^Jf 



QO__COOcM — f^ — 
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ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 257 






t^ r- g O) 00 oi CM — ^ — _ _ _J _ oi — ^ — (£, — — — . „ °° — — CM eg oj cvj 

h u; ■ tj U." U !-' I-.' JO 1-.' U-' l-I C Ih" jj ul U U ^ Ih' >. U.' Ih' IH* C I-.' ^ fi iJ ti Ih' 2 l-I d 

a a S -53 a a^2 a u a a a a a o a a a g a-q a aaaa o 5r & g* a 5 a « 

r-r^t^oi^t^t^r^t^t^ t^r^ r^t— cot— t~-t^i/^t^cot~- r-t— t— r- cocMi—rot-- — t— ■^ 

OJM<MCM<NJf\J(xjCM<M(N) OJfM CMrj(MrgCv]<N](M(N|CM<M CMCMCJOJ CMCMO-ICMCMCgCMOJ 

Oi<J>OiO^O>OiOiOiOiO> Oi 0> 0>Oi<yiO^O>OiO>0>OiOi Oi0)0>0) OOOjOO^OjOOJ 

Mrjr-ooor-iooo-^ojoocDt-cDCMfo — cjt- — Vo t- oi m ■* cm — lo 5^Tt irj — cm'co m'ai cd^tc 





* 


MOOOOOOOOOOiOOO'^TCOOiOOOOOiOOOOOOOOOOOiOmiO'^OOiOOOOOOOOlOOOlO 


<!}• CD t— t~- rf '^l- 
■O M CD 0> ro ro 


t-';J-00-*O)C:5^CJ)rl-r}-c3)t-CDTfCD'* — ■*CDCDCD05'<S"lOmoOT}-0-*rgTrO 
lOrocoro — — rocDrorot— ior\I<^, CMfOt— roOOO^-rocDrococo-^ro-^roCM 



+•+ I I +++++++++ I ++ I ++++++++++++ I ++++++++ 



>iooor^t^or^ior-oooot^iot^r^ootor^ior^u->r*-r*r-t^oor^oioo>-ot^ot^o 

+-+ I + + + I + I + + + + I + + + I ++ I + + + I I I ++ 1 + I + + + + + + 

SOOOO 2^0 C50O "OCM ^00 M <5— OiD "CM cjio "CMOOCMO ^OOO gcO "O "O 
timrr, -g u M- -5 — -3 — CO -5 CM -g -g in — ro -g Tf -g -^ -^ ■* 10 LT) -5 m m ro-g ro -g 10 -g ro 

§CO-.0_g^r^_gn O^Tt O^ O OrJ--rr) O^ 0_ Orooo-O g O CD lO O lO © tJ- Oq 

co-oio -g CO -S - "S "'• -^ -S "^ ■« « — "S -S •g'^'M'^f^-S-'^--S-'S'^'§<^ 

3oOCDCTiOO^CMOOi-OOOrO-^t— CO00rO00CJ>roC— O5CO'n-<S"00C3>int- — ror-Tj-CMrOcOOiOrO 

00>C7>0)C3)0— — CMCMrorOrO-^-^iOCOCDCDCDt-t-OOQOOlCJJOOJCJiOOOO — — CMCMro 
■__,„___-__„_-_-___-__,__„„____(^J(^J(^^(^Jt^Jf^J^^JC^4CM 



otMCD mi-o •* orfoo mooooo 

-•CM — — CM ro CMCMCM CM CM CM — 

rjCO-„r-COr000 — roOiO — 00— — — CM CM rOCM Tf lOCOCMt-'^Tj'Ol 

- — 2~OJ CMCM CMlO CMCMrt CM CDCMCM — CMCMCMCM 

^l^.C->^^^u^>^UUUtjuu> u JJ >-' Oi 1^ Ih" >> u (3>j 1^ l.; >-. la' u.' 1-" k.' 

3c5CrtCP3ac3{iiCac3ccca(v)cacao cnc cd-^ cdflcg ca -^cdc^^cdcdcce^ 

-t-cDt-'^cDcor-iO'Ot-t-t-cDC-i— o> r~cD t— m t— t-ro t- cot-t— cor-t-t-r- 

-ICMOJCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM— CMCM CMCM CMCJCM CM CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM 

i>03C50)0)c?)0)<^0)<j)cj)Cj;0)0)0)Ocjj Oi Oi Oi <ji 05c7)cj) O) oiOi<yi(ji<yi(yiOiOi 



■>CMO<Jl'*0000)r~CDro>n-*I--mTf — 00O> — 10 — OmoO-* — O'-OJCOCMCMCMiOr^t-CD 
— __ _ 00 — CM — CMt- cnro — CM— < — Tf ro^ — — — — — 

boOOOOCMOOOOCt-OOOOOOOOt-'OOOOOOOOOOOlOlOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

r^mTtocMcorfoocD'^oooot-TfoO'^rfTft— o-<*oocD-*TfcDmTft— inTf'^O'^oococD 
lirjcgrot-M-Olrol— CMrol—t— lOrot— — ncot— oont— CMroroiO00rocD00rorOfnr»1t-CMCM 

-+++ I +++T++TT++T+ I +7""++++ I T I +T+++T++++ 

-r-op~ooooot-omt-ooot-ooor-oor~oot— omot-oor-r-ot-ooo 

JlOCOmt^CMCMlOOOCMiOOOOOTfinoOCMCDiOCMrOiOOmiOCD'^-'OmiOlOlOiOCOiOOmiO 
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1926 Mar. 22 

1927 May 2 
1927 May 3 

927 May 4 
927 May 5 

926 Sept. 22 
1927 May 6 

1927 May 7 

925 Dec. 1 1 

927 May 8 
1926 Oct. 12 

927 May 10 
927 Feb. 14 

927 Apr. 16 
927 May 9 


927 May 10 
923 Apr. 27 
927 May 1 1 
926 Sept. 23 


918 Nov. 14 
927 May 12 

926 June 12 
923 Oct. 9 
920 Feb. 20 

927 May 13 

927 May 15 
927 May 14 
927 Apr. 27 
927 Apr. 26 
927 May 15 
927 Jan. 31 




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. CMiOiOl/l-^^CO CDOOiOTCOOOOOiOTtCHOCMiOOlcgiO-Ht^iO- — lOI 

CM'^'^roCMro rocorocj roro— • lOrororoCOro ■^ro roro 

+ + I ++ I I +1 + + + I I + + + + + + + + + I ++ I I + + 

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ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-193° 261 



— 00 10 c 

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1 

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1927 July 16 
1927 July 16 

1927 June 29 


CM 
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1927 July 6 
1927 July 22 
1927 July 22 

1926 Oct. 2 
1917 Apr. 4 

1927 Julv 22 


1927 Julv 23 
1927 May 9 
1923 Sept. 30 


1918 Aug. 11 

1927 July 25 

1927 July 23 

1923 Oct. 9 

1924 July 3 


1927 July 23 
1927 July 4 
1922 Nov. 13 


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+ + 


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ooO'omirjooooioooiOO'O 

4-OiOm — •^ — r~OOiO — CM — (35 
ro — — -^lOCMiOOOiOiO-^CO- 

-+ 1 +++++7+++++ 1 

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++++++ , +++ I +++++++++ I ++++ I +++ I +++ I +++ 



- - o Tf ^ o> r- CO CO CM CO 2:^0 CM CM o 2^2 CM Lo CO - 3j:^ M 00 CO - 00 j:^ - 1:; :::,- ^ j:i,^ 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



1-1 

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— — CMOJ ogcMro CMPJ 


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++ 1 +++++++++ 1 +++ 


— t^ — TrTj'rrTf-*'*Tt-e3)'<tcD-* 
OiOcorororOfOrororOfO CMco 

7+7++++++++ 1 ++ 


Z 

tj 
J 





OOiOOOiOiOCVJOOuOOOroOt^t^ 


ooiomu^ioiou^miot^LOOio 


1 +++ 1 + 1 ++++ 1 + 1 1 1 


1 1 ++++++++++++ 





B 


t^O>t^ — OO'+OCDOOOCMOCOOO 
CM rO C<I r)" CM CO CO CM — lO lO CM Tt 

oo"*t-~o>t^rocDoo)coir)r-cMOLn<M 

— — 't "sTrO-V — CO — rou'J'O — TfCM 

cMCMa>too>ooocMi>oa>oo[-- — CO 

OJ _ — _ CMCM — .— . _CMCM 

— c<irO"^^mu-)io>ocDt^t^ooooooooo3 


ootoooooO'*ir)uioot-oco 

— ■*r<^ CMCM — iOCMCM-<trO 

>-00'*iO-*OroCM — n0500000 
CO CM "-) — ■* CM rn ^ CM CM ■* CO 

cr)CD(OCMcOcotDt-rO-*>OCOO)CM 
— CMCM „____ 

OO — — — CMCM<MCM(MCMCMCMrO 




1 


1^ ' 

on 
^6 


•6 

*-> 

a 
o 

I 
1 




— — ' ro ■* OJ CO CO 


05 Tf Tf — CM 

— — CO •* CO 




CD —CM r-j O "^ 00 Olio tn 00 ro T*- 

r^t^ t^r~CM t^cMt^uit^co lot^ot^to m to 

OJCM CMrOCq CMCMCMCMCMCM (MCMCMCMCM — CM 

Oi Oi Oi 03 Oi ^ 0^ 0^ 0^ Oi <y) O3CJ503C3503 0^ Oi 


lO CM CM CM C:5 

u: bi) 2 bi) -s 
<; ^i-vOJcfi 

•* t^ t-- t^ CO 
CM CM CM (M CM 

(J> O) C7) 03 0> 


4-* 




-(- -f- ^ 

— oor^t^co — >r)cjJt^t^-*cD'^ — cdtj-cdoc^- >oooo 

rJ-^O- — ro— OCO* -*- CMCO'S-CMrOCMOO- 

**** #*— * # *#** 
* 


+- 

to lO CM CO Tl" t^ •<* 

CO in CM cvi 


W 

c 
o 







o m ui lo >o 1/5 o 


050)U^C^^r0CCCMl0■^fC^^C£>r^OOOt^t^CDC^00O) — 
r^I>-cDrJ-^^iMOOro-^u-)CMT}-CMCM U-) — oooro 

77 1 +7+7 1 ++7+++ 1 ++++77 1 7- 


CM Tf CM CM ■* CM O 
'^ ro t^ t^ CO I> — 

+++++++ 


>3 


o 


OOlOOOOt^Ot^iOiOOiOlOOOOOOOiOOlO 


lo r- o o lo o o 


— — ooocDcj — oiooo^oio — loioioojio — roooo 

+++ ++ 1 +++++++++++++++ 


t-. Tj- — — t^ — r-- 

CM CO M- rf CO '^ ■<* 

+++++++ 





CO 

s 


lOOOCOOiOOOrO-^OCMOtOOOirjOO 
UOCD — rOCMTtt^roOrjcofMOcOOJCDiO 

r-oootot^ — lOrorg — o^ — «; — coo 

— — — — —CM — <M CM 

— — CMnror<^-*icioir)CDCDt~-t--r-t^oo 


lO 00 00 O CM O 
■* tT cm — 

t^ -^ CO C7) lO CD 

lO -^ T^ ^- CO CO 

O CO CO — — — 
00 00 00 cs o o - 


CM ■* CO ■* lO Tf O 

^ m CO CO CO in 

CO Tf IM CO — lO 00 
CO <M CM — ro •* "1 

O — O CD t^ t^ O 
— CMCMCMCMCMCMfO 







ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 263 



ro CNi— — CO-* — — PJ — CJ rO'<f — — CM 



f»5 ■* O ■* t^ — 1/1 t~- CD 

MCMrvlCMCMCMCMOgrjCOfMCM CMCNJOJCMCJ 



* ** ** ## # ^** 



05 
CM 


05 0> T}- 

CM •* — 


iO 


to 


•1 

>— > 


OSajO<: 


CM 


t^ ■* t^ t— 1~- 

CM (M rj CM CM 
0> Ot Oi Oi Oi 


*^ 


_ _ — _ — 



o 



3l0l0i0l000000>000 lOlOO OOiOOOlOO ^ oooooo>oo 

>;S!2!E"2!'^"^~~'~'°°'~' 10TJ-05 r~CMioo>(N O5ooootor^r^r--oo 

a CO !r> t^ CO lO ro n CM m — ' 10 00 CO <£> 00 tJ- to t- t- «D 00 00 CD CM OJ CM 

++++++++++T+ ++7 +1+1+ 2 +III++I+ 



OlOlOOlOOOiOOlOt^t^ 01010 CDiOt^lOCM OOOlOOOOO 

''2!2!nS!S®'-''*'-*'^"^ co-^t^ cjjioocM^" lO'^-'raiioioiO'*' 

— •TTTr'*'** rOTfroro ^Tf^f CMro*<^coro co^-^^'— 'CMCMiOiO 

I +++++ ++++ I +++ +++ I + +++ I ++ I I 



O <5 Cf) O O C>J lO QO 00 CD 00 00 O — O lO O O O CD CO lO lO CM Tf — O O 

OlOroiOiOCM— OJiO —10 loS Srr — M-^m-S'rO 

^^!2Sr, 2i2Si2'^'^"=' ^tro— ^cMoort-o r^t~-o>uT*(Nio — 

-iro-^coCM-^'^tCM'* ro lO — ■>r — "S-rOCM^ ^CMiO — fO lO 

SCMCMOOOOiOOCMrOiOCMOO fOCOt^ COCOt-OOO rO^<3>cOCMt~- — t- 

:*>TfTtlOCDCDt^t--t^.t^00(35O — CMcOTfTfiOCDt^OOOTOOOO — .CMtMCMCO-*-*'*"^ 
""'"~"'"""~"'^'~-"'-"'-' — CMCMCMC^ICJCMCMCMCMCMCMrororOro 



!^!5!^ jnS f^ f^ -H t- 1000 a> oi t- CM o looiio 

10 — CM CMrO— .CM — ro — •— — rOCMCJCM — — CM 



M o2S ""^"^ ° ~ <=>00 f^ ^ r^ CD C31 Tf 

_ OJ — <M CO— 03_ CMt^C3> CM— .CM-^.— loj;; CM — CM 

K5 JT: JT; S "^ t~- Tf t^ t^ CO t^ t~- r- t^ CO CTi t^ t^ t~ t^ r- 

ii; S^~S^ CMCMCMCM CVJCMCM CMCMCMCM— CMCM CMCMCM 

35 01 Oi 0> Oi 0> <J> (J> C5O505 <35C3>05<DC»0)0> 050Cn 



-i— -f— -f- 

lOrOO'<^OCOOOtO'*TfCDCJC»CMOfOtDr-CMlOt^r~Or~-lOt^CDiOCMCD r^-<tCM 

CM — -O CM — 10 CSiCM—iCM — — CO lOCMI~-— pg,™.^.^,™ CMrO—' 
TT * * ***# « 



o ooioo'OOioooo'^'OoiooooooooocDooooooio 000 

r~. COCDt^CM — CM — CMC^ICMOO- — CDCO'^OlOCMOfOCMOcOOlOOrOt^O rOCVjro 

rJ COCOCM CDrfTj-T^CM-^roOOOOrOt^OOiOO-JfrOTfrj-cMT}-- CMO'*- CD tJ-tTt)- 

+ ++ I I++++T++I I +7 I ++++++++++++++ +7+ 

O OOOr^iOOiOOiOOCOOOiOOiOiOOOOOJOC'JiO'^OOiOiOiO lOOCM 

N '^'^iO<OTtiOCDiOOiOrr)iOU^C^]Tj-OifOiOiOCv]<DiO(^fOCDrO<N100Tj'0 00<MCO 

+ ++ I ++ + + + + + + +++ I + I I +++ + +++ + + + + + + + + 

O rf — in — lOTfiOOOCMOOCDCMOOCMroOOOOOTfCMOCMTfoOOOOiOiO OJCOO 

— miO'^iO'*'*- rf — — mcM coM-cocM"* ■^lO-* — cmcoco*- — cmcoio 

'D CM"*lO^Ot^rOCDCDt^CMTf05t^O^ — -^CWOC^^iOOOaiiOiOCMCOr^CMfO "*^-co 

1" CM — — TTlOCM'^a-- CO — 10 — CMCOiO — — CMCMIO- lO lOlOrOCM— CO'*'* 

-" — ^ — CO — 05CMC0O — CMCOOt^CMCMOOcocOlOOOiOOOcOTfcOCMOCOCM lOt^r^ 

-. — — CM — — OjfsjCMCMCM — — CM — CM — — CM — — CM — — — 

"0^iOCDCDCDt^OOOOC35C?)0000'-'^--^-CMCMCMrO**'*'***lOlOlOCDCDr^0005050>0^- 

;— — — — — — — — — — — CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMfMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCJCMfOCO 



K2 



264 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



si 

3 




1 


1 
(^ 

(M 

05 




fM CO 
CM CJ 


00 <3) 0010 •* (M CO 10 •* CvJ 
— CM CO— < CO— coco -rf in 


CM a> 




4-1 

u 
CO 

«o 

05 


^^~C0 u,'*c^_- — ^ — CO COCMCM 

°°^o SoS'^UkSsu cjj5"-> 
t^t^t^t^ cor^t^t^t^-*coco t~-oi^ 

CMCOCOCM COCOCOCJCOrvJCOCO CMCMC^ 
Oi 0> Oi 0^ OiOiO>0><JiOi<JiOi 0> Oi a 


-cr> 2° 
CM lO Tf f^ 

^^-« >• ^ c 
Z 1— lO 1— > Z I— > 

t^ t^ t^ — t-- ^ 

CJ CO CO CO CO CM 
<J> 03 0^ 0> (^ Oi 


CO 




ro 
* 


t^ro-*mro — t^M-COOlt^lOOCOOlOC^O 

— rn corocot-~ r»iro— -"S-ro 

— * ***** * 
* 


•<*ioooco-5j-Tra3 — CO 
05 00 10 — CO in 
— * * * 


W 

§ 

►J 





o> 


oooou^inoocoooooooooooioo 


00001000000 


CO r~ 

cj 


— — — — .-^COt ^ — C7)I^C32I^OOt^-*COCO 

COCOCOCO COiDCJrDt^LO f rn rr, ro f rr) 


0000 — 00 — OOOOOro 
COCOt^ Tft^-^l-COlO 


+ + 


1 1 1 1 1 ++ 1 + 1 + 1 +++++ 1 


++ 1 ++++++ 


3 





a> 


CJ>0)0iCJ>OOO05I~-OOiOiOI^C0t~-iO-* 


OOCOOOOiOOiO 


10 00 

1 + 


Tf^->*"*c^r~- — -Tfcoco-^t-iocMcoirjroco 
r^roromroco — rn rororo rororo'O 

+ + + + + + + + 1 1 1 + M + + + + 


000-*i0 — root^ 
t^t-~rOiOC0iOr<)t^CJ 

++ 1 1 +++++ 




to 

E 


CM 10 
— • CO 

to CO 

— CM 
CO CM 

CO CM ro 


— >0 CO CO 00 — •* t~- 00 ■* CO CO ■* Tf CM •* CO CO CO 

ot^o-*-*oocoo3'*rno — >ocMoor~ioco cocoo>'*^o>o>oot~ 

rOOOOOirjCO — CMinOm-* — COOICM'*— O-*t^>OO>00Tl- — — 

— — CM CO CM — — —CO — — —CO 

'*-*^-*mmiOCOC0t~-0000C35OO — CMC0rO^'*'*'*'*"^u^"lCO 






S.2 

i 

CO 



:^ 


1 




00 lO 
CO CO 


CO r^ ■* 00 

VO Tt- -"t CM CM 


a> CO 1 

CO CT) — CO 




Tj-iocor-co — ca '^t-cj^ — cj cv)-co_<m_-;_-<oct> «d —^_t^ 

oo-:2cjou— &'cJcj4iS""*'t5w"i)&"'^"-> § "^3 
OOS.OOaS, coOOfa^OOOSSOcocoO^O A' OZ< 




* * * 


•(- 

'S-OJiO 01000C003' 
CO * CJ CO # 

* 





OOiOiiOO»i^LOuOCDOOOOOOOiOCOuOOiOOOOOO OC0CX)OO' 







0000000100 — ooocomoooioooioooioo or^r^mOi 


lOioooooLocoo-^oo-^ioiocTiooiOLOcMTf-^iorfTfior^-rt" ^foococc 

CMOJcOrOCOn^rOrO-^rOCMCMCOrOCOCO-^T-^fCOTf-^CMrfrO COrJ-^n-* 
+ + + + + + + ++ 1 ++ 1 + + + + + + + + + + + 1 + 1 1 ++, 


d 


-6 


00 r~ 

■* ro CO 

CD — a> 

r<1 CO — 
CO rn ■* 

10 CO r- 


•>S"CT>lO00i0OU^r003lO-*in00r000r0CMi0l0t^iOO I^OCOOOO 
— COCOCO CM C0lOlO"^lO CM CM^--^^- CO iO^-Tj* 

OOrO"*^c003r-t~<3)l>CMiOroi/lC>OOOa)Oir)OOCO ioo>ror~o 
CO (^roco-^ro-*-*- — CMTfcMocMcocotnco'*' CMiorr 

lOO) — ocoairo-*r~m — fO'^-^'ot^cocot^t^-Tfio coococoi^' 
_ _ oa — — — —CO ^^— — — 

t~-l>t^000000050500 — — — — — — COCMCOCOmrDn-lOlOirjCDCO 




;. 












1 

i 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 265 



r- Oi 

■M — 


CO 




m t~ r~-coego>or^ — 
— — — CM — CMeg — CM 


CO m re 

CM — CM 


-0 
1 

eg 




- 


00 


rf 


1925 Apr. 23 
1927 Nov. 10 
1925 Jan. 14 

1927 Nov. 16 
1927 Oct. 27 


1925 Jan. 19 
1927 Sept. 18 

1926 Nov. 7 

1924 Nov. 5 

1927 Oct. 30 

1926 Oct. 11 

1927 Nov. 12 

1925 Nov. 30 


c 

3 
1— > 

eg 

Oi 


1921 Feb. 10 
1926 Dec. 7 
1913 Mar. 6 
1918 Jan. 14 


1917 Nov. 14 
1927 Nov. 30 
1927 May 2 
1927 Aug. 16 


CO .■ 

u 

V 

QO 

eg eg 

Oi Oi 


-f- ■( — H -(- ■(- 

— OlCM^CMCMCMCOOCDiOiOOOTfincDu-jcoCD 

org — — — CD — — CMCM — — — cM(3>rg — 

— »* * #*** 

* 


+- 

lO Oi 

— r^ 

* 


— CD t- 00 
CM 


CO — 

* 


ro 


— rj- rf 00 


ooooinocMOoiooooiomooooioo 





10 00 


t^ 00 10 ro CO m 

01 — — CO CM CM !3) 
— — 00 CO CM 

++++ 1 1 + 


COOOr^t^-CDCDOOiOOOrO 
CJcOCDCDCMCMCDCg — 

+++ 1 ++++TT 


roegooi — cDocooc7> 

t^— CMroOOt^iOCM 

7 i 1 ++7 1 1 ++ 


Oi t~- 

eg CO 

7 1 


+ 177 
- 78 
+ 83 
+ 11 


or-ooooooioiot^ooioooo>iO'*CMr^oio 





m 


r^ IT) i~- t~- CM 
CO o> •* 10 m eg 

■>!• CO CO CO CO CO 

1 ++++++ 


r~CM — cot^O — "^t^OOCTlCMOOrO — CD<3>Tf'*05 
-^CM CMCOCO ■— r^-^^ 10 -"^^CM 

+111 ++++++ 1 +++++ 1 1 ++ 


— lO 
eg 

+ 1 


CO r~ CO 

Tl- CO rf 

1 1 + + 


OJiOlOCMCMCDCDOCDOCDiOCDOCDOOTfcgu-) 
CNJCM-^CMcorocoro-^fO^co co^"^ — lOiO 

OlOcO'^iOTf^-CDC^JOO^iOcO'^'^coOCMCMCM 

— -^comncM tv^roiocM cm — — >/5 — lo — 

— CO'^OCMCO — (NJroCDt^OOroOt-iOOOcoCMO 
<M — — CMCM — — _-Cg — — — — CM — 

cot~r^r-t^ooooooaioia>050200 — — — cMcoTt 


25 19 52 30 

26 12 53 52 
27 

28 10 12 8 

28 14 28 42 

29 11 34 26 

30 2 58 8 


1 4 37 21 
1 9 55 36 

1 22 47 18 

2 6 55 10 

3 10 9 10 

3 10 13 30 

4 3 53 4 










u^ Tf 
■<*■ CM CO eg 


CM 


CO -* 00 CD ■* CO 

— — — eg CM — 


t^ 


Oi Oi eg 

■* CM CO 




- 




1 

CM 
Oi 


■* 


1927 Sept. 5 

1927 Oct. 13 
1924 Jan. 26 




CO'*- 
CM -< 

>. Ih' 

US a 

Oi t^ 
— CM 
Oi Oi 


1925 Feb. i 

1927 Aug. 24 
1923 June 1 
1927 Aug. 5 

1927 Oct. 24 
1925 Jan. 25 


1927 June 7 
1927 Oct. 24 

1927 Oct. 28 


CM 

eg 

u 

C 
3 

CM 

Oi 






— — — CTlOO 
CO CO — CM CM 
« * # 




^ 


•ou^coTj-t^ioioom 

CM CO — 

— # 
* 


-f- 

— r005TrcOcOiOt35r-(3>t-ro 

— eg — CO eg — CO — — 
* * * # « 






o> 

CD 

1 


00 10 




CO lO 


'00oooooli^oo 


OOOCMOiOOOiOOOOO 




— 05 t- CD ■* 

00 •* eg 10 r- CM 

++ ++ 1 + 




1 1 


CD — CDcoOTfcocOOO 
10 co^C^rococoro 

+ M + 1 +"7 + 


oooocoroa;ioegc3><35T)-t-oo 

rOCMCM'* t^— Tl-ij--<}-t- 

++7-+++ 1 +++++ 


•0 r>. CM 10 in 




CM 


lOio^tioor^OTfo 


Tj>l000iOCDO»n(0v0CDOO 






1 


— CO CM Tf — 05 
•* ■* CO CO •* 

II +111 




00 t^ 
CO 

1 + 


++++ 1 + 1 ++ 


t~--*0)ro-*CT>CMTrcDOr^O> 
CO— rO'^cor-rfroco CO 

+ 1 ++++++++ 1 + 


16 12 21 
16 14 12 
17 

18 12 44 42 

19 13 48 38 
19 14 41 45 
19 21 58 36 
20 



ID tT 

ro 
CM 

CM eg 


cjcotj-cmiocmootj-o ocDcoooTfegoooioio 
— co^cocMco^^ — CO wi u^Tj-^io^^ ^^T^ 

eicDc^iOir){X)^-CTJt^ ro — ■— CMCJ^Tfoor^coio- 
com corg^fioro mco'S-egrj-eg ■^cmcm'^cm 

TfromoiOOTfu-Jt^- — t^OlLO — — rOfOCOror^ro 
— — — — _ — eg — — CM CM — — CM 

egroTj-TtTfioiOLomiocDr^t^r^oooocjsoo- — — — 
CMegcMCMCMCMegcMegcMCMCMegCMCMCMCMrocococoroco 




00 

CO 
Oi 

CD 

— ej 



266 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Minor 
Ents. 


3 

c 
o 

s 
s 

00 


•* r«5 O CM O 05 lO — t^ lO O fO ro O 
_ .-, ^ ..., CM — CJ — ro ——CM —CM 


CM CO O CM lO CO 


6 
§ 

2 

00 
CM 


CO CM 
CM CM 




o 


00 o^ o „ o Tt t^ ■* •* a> "^ 

O) u,(M— '_CMtoCM_^CM— CMCMcMCg CM 

CO cot^uiooiocMt^f-t^r-t^ lor^r^ro co 

CM CMCMCMCgCMCMCMrjCMCMCg CMCMCMCM (M 


6 

Q 

(M 




> 

i 

t- 




lO — — CMCM— CM CO — CMTf— — 

* * * # * 


CO 
CO 

* 




t^ 
t^ 


W 

si 

c 
o 


O OOOOiOi/iOlOOiOiOU^ 000l/500r0t^ 


o 

+ 




o 
00 

CM 

+ 


^- CD-^COOrot^rO^OiOCM — rjCO— .r^CMCOCD 
ot^ t^OJ-^rot^r-- t-CM rOTfCTlTt-OlMror^ 

1 +i+++i7T+++ ++ 1 +++++ 


2i 
d 


lO OO00101OO10OC35101O OOOiOOOCMTf 


o 

ro 
1 




o 
ci> 

+ 


o a> — o> ■* <£) — 

CM lO CM ff) 

1 + 1 ++ 1 


•*CMO>rotOOO — lOCOOO-^CMlOt^ 
— CMCM^COrO M-ro- CM CMCOrf 

1 1 ++++ ++++ 1 +++ 


.0> tDCDOOCMlOCMTj>COCMOlO OlOO>OOOOCOO CM 

•CO f-ooiooor^tMinooo'*oo colocoo — cooo) lo 
g — i/)ii-) ■*cM'<* — CM — rn m u^u-jcMCMio — 

• CO OCMCM-^OCMCM-* — lOO r~ — — 00 — CMCMrO CO 
•C- — — CM — CMCM — OOCMCMCM 

.CMr0'*'*»0C0t~000)O — — CMro-^-^iOCOCOt^OOOOOO- 
"O- — — — — — — — — CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMrOCO 


00 

CM 

lO 
— CM ro 


o S 

^6 


■4-> 

a 

f 

05 


CO (M CM lO — 
CM — — CM 


o 


Ol Tt OrorJ-cO r00500)t~^C35COOO — 
CM CM CMro- — __ro— — — — — 


u^ 


o ci ^ 

QQ -S, 

CM CM CM 

0> 0> Oi 




jJ U -• b o a 6 
[^ CO 00 rf r^ i~- r~- 

Ol CM — CM CM CM CM 

<7i Oi <J) C71 O^ 0> 05 


CO _- 
— _ 00 

i ^i 

cfi QZ 

ro t- t^ 
(M CM <M 






CO 

< 
o 

Oi 




M 


O fj~iO 00 
— ■* CM 




■^TttOCJiOOt^OrOrO 
c\] — ro — CM 

# * 


-f— 

lO ro O CO t- 05 
<M — * # 


ro 
* 


- 


CO 


w 
c 


lO lO o o 

05 CT> O — 
CM CM C» ■* 

+ + I + 




cj>mioocjoot--o 


O O O O O 


O 

CM 

ro 

+ 


o 
in 

+ 


00 

I 


CM 

+ 


00a5O><Mt-^(Mt^tM 

ro ro r^ CM r^ t^ 

+++T++T+T 


ro 00 0> ^ t^ 
CO ro CM >r) 

+ + + + + 


3 


CM CM O O 

- M CM 00 r~- 

CO CO CO ro 

+ + 1 + 




OCDOOOOOCOO 


t- O ro O O lO 


o 

7 


CO 

lO 

+ 


00 

+ 


rO-^'^C^)^ CM^CM 

+++ 1 + 1 1+1 


•^ ro 00 — ^ — 
CM ■y ro ^ 

+ 1 + 1 1 + 


d 


.o^o o 

«> <NJ O ro CO 

,; 00 ^ cj> ro 
S — 1n^ ro 

^^CM^t;- 0> 
• •^f-^iOCOt^OOO 


t^OOTfCMCMOiOCMin OOOOCOmiT) 
CMirjCvJ^-^-ro- ••^-^ ^-lO-^rO^^^^ 

-*0000roO5iO — roro O — •* — COOT 
■*(VJ-!J-ro^CMCMr^llO lO — TfCMCMrl- 

CM00O5LOlOt^rO0000 f-COOCMt^O) 
)000 — — — CMCMCMrO'^'OCOCOt^OOOO 


00 CM •* 

'^f "1 — 

o 00 CO 

lO CM 

ro Tf lO 

— CM ro ••* "1 CO 
CM CM CM CM CM CM 









ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 267 



CO 00 t^ -^ 
CM — CM CM 


CO 


CO 


r»j 


00 ■* 10 — 


OiO tM-*c3> 00 CO 00 
— — CO CM — — 


1926 Nov. 5 

1925 Aug. 6 

1926 June 1 

1928 Jan. 6 
1913 June 28 

1926 May 20 
1928 Feb. 6 

1927 Sept. 5 
1922 Oct. 11 




1923 Feb. 8 
1925 May 30 
1919 Oct. 9 


■t-> 
a 

CM 


CO " 
CM — 


6 

<u 

Q 

CM 


1926 Oct. 1 

1923 Aug. 8 

1927 Sept. 30 
1925 Feb. 7 

1927 July 11 

1928 Jan. 10 
1927 June 9 

1927 Nov. 20 

1924 Dec. 13 

1928 Feb. 21 
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1926 Sept. 28 
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1924 Dec. 22 
1927 June 14 


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1927 Nov. 18 

1926 Nov. 26 

1927 Nov. 17 

1928 Jan. 6 

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1927 Sept. 4 

1928 Jan. 8 
1928 Jan. 6 

1927 Nov. 11 
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268 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 



269 





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27© 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





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05 o> CTi 05 o> 05 cj> o> 00 a> •* a> o cm — co cj o ■* •* ro ^ o -^^ lo 

ij ih' t; u u." u; 1.; i<' In' t; ^ In' u y i.; i,' u c ^ rj u; t; u; i-; t; t; >< t; 

ooooooooooooooooooooi^oooo cMoooooooot^t^oooooo oooooo — oo 

CJCMCgCJCMCMCMCMCMrMCMCNJCM CMCMCMC^JCMCJCMCMCMCJ CMCMCO CMCJ 
OiOiOiO>O^O^OiO>OiOi<y>O^Oi C35O505O5O>OlO50)O>O> O5050i C750> 


CO 

5 

CO 




fOCOt^ — 05CM — CD ^CD 00 ro"5^0 r<1 CO oT^OJ O O 0> t^ r?t- O CO ^00 ro o 
CMCM Tf-^J-t- Cjro — C^CMIO — .« 

# * * 




o 


COCDCOCOCOCDCDC005COC0050>»Oroc00505roCD^^CDCOO>roiOCOa>iOTt*CO 
CMCMCMCMCMrJCJOaCDCM'*CDCOrOCMCMCDCDCJt^l>Jt^t^CD(Mt~-rjCOlOOOJ 

++++++++ 1 ++ 1 1 +++ 1 1 +T+T7 1 +++ 1 +7+ 


Z 





t^r^t^r-t^r^t^t^ot^ooooooooocMOCMCMOoot^O'Oior^ 

— — . — — — i — — — ro — CMrorot— OOOOrorooo — ^ — — m00O5 — rof~00-H 
^■"^•'^TfTf-^tt^ — M-M- — — -^roro — — roioCMiOiO — roro-* — CO — •<i" 

+ + + + + + + + i ++ 1 1 + + + 1 1 + + + + + 1 + + + 1 +4- + 


6 


09 

E 

13 


ooooco-^cocDrooo "oo " "ooooco 2 ^.OOOOCOOOO «00OO "OCJO 
— lO CO — "5 — ^ -g "3 lO — rj- -^ -g 'T CM 1/^ ■* ro -15 — ■* ■* -g 1/5 CO ■* 

CMCDiOt^t~-05 — O 2"0'r) 2 2-*05ro 2 2'*'*'*— <M 2 — «5"^ 2<35t^O> 
CO'S-'^t- UO CMrt-g -= -C iO U5 — -C -C — .* Tj. CJ rr> ^ CO — CM -g IT) CO >0 

C0CDt--0005OC0CM^CD00r0'*-*(3>OCM — — U0050 — coo— >C35^iOOJ<r) 
— CM CJ ^^ s_^^_- _ CM •"^^^ — — CM CM ^-' -— '— . — . CM 

O50>0505050)050501000 — CMCJC0CMr<^'5}''*'*TfT)-Tj'iolO>OiOCOCOCO 
—.—. — —.—. — — — — CJCMCMCMCMCMCMCJCMCJCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCJ 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 



271 



— a> 00 r- o> 

CM -^ >0 CM ■* 


? 


00 

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10 


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— t"- S f~ 00 °0 ^ "^ 00 '- .^ .^ CD 
'"CM CM'^CMCMCM"— 'CMCOt^t^ — c 

r»oo oo'S-oooooo-*t^oooot^<o t^ 

CMCM CMCMtMtMCMCM — CNJCM(M(M CM 
0> Oi O505050>0500^050>0>0^ Oi 


— ro 

u >, 

CO 00 
CM CM 






1928 June 2 

1928 June 3 
1928 June 3 
1928 June 4 
1927 July 5 
1927 May 17 


a^ !> fu (u 

c c c c c c c 

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 

eg CM CM CM (NJ (M CM 
Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi 






— Ot~-a>OOOlOrOOtDT)-TtOTj-mro 
»»)ro — — lOtO — • — CO-* — — T3-roiO 
♦ *— ** * *»# 
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* 


^-OOCOOO^^OiC^iOOrot^Oro^iO — 
■^O5»^CMr0 — r^CM COCMCMC>J 

* * * * * 


looio'oo'oioiooinioioooioo 


lOiOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOOOOOOOCMOO 

rot^mrororororororo0000>0><io)4- — <i 

^CMrfTf-'t-^TftJ-Tf'q-l^OMCMCMCMt^rOCM 


OOOOCMCMOCMCMCMt^rrjCMCM 

CCt^M-Tj-OOrfTj-Tj-^J — rt-* 


00 t^ 

•* CM CM 00 
+ + + + 


1 1 ++ +++++++ 


+++++++++++ 1 ++++ 1 ++ 


rOOOO>OOOOlOCDOOlOOOCMiO 


OCMOOOOOOOOOOu^tOiOiOiOOO 


fOmOOtOOOOOOrOOOuliOro — 
CM T}-';}- — rfT^Tj- -^-"S-^roCM ■* 

1 1 ++ 1 +++ 1 ++++++ 1 


OrOOOOOOOOOroiOOOOOOiTj'io 

+++++++++++ 1 ++++ 1 ++ 


10 — CM — ro <N ■* — ' 10 10 10 

OOrOOO — lOCMOilO — uom 
CM ■^i/l^rOiOCMCM pjro 

«'*mcj)cDu-)ioa)<Mor-oo 
co<or^r^ooooooooo^o^^'— ' 


31 12 33 24 
31 13 48 48 
31 20 53 33 
31 23 23 54 


CMOOrOOOOCM'^rO 
CO CM — Tf -- 

COOroCMUO— .COCMOO 
10 CM — CM 

■"tOOCgroiOOOCMOOJ 


2 17 30 15 

2 20 12 54 

3 6 38 12 
3 8 30 48 

3 9 18 35 

4 7 52 45 

5 5 55 18 

6 19 10 15 

7 6 24 32 
7 12 53 36 


CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMrOfOrO 








« 1/1 CM lO •* 




CO 

CM 


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lOCOOOO COCOt~->O00 
l<' In' J2 •-< iH 1-' !-<' Ih' Ih 

aaJS g" a D. a a a a 
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rOCMCM — (VJCMCJCMCMCM 


3 

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1927 Sept. 30 

1928 May 2 


Ih' 

00 

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CM 
CM CM 


1928 Apr. 20 

1927 Aug. 12 

1928 May 14 
1923 June 2 
1928 Mar. 29 
1928 May 15 


(O — ■*•* — CMCMOO — ^CO 

« — _r-cM-* — •* — 
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•* 


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CD 00 
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* —* * 




§ roCMOOOrOfO 
50 (r)rOOOCMO>05 

gj r^-Tfcor^t^CMCM 

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CNJ 

+ 


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+ + 


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1 T++ 1 1 + 1 + 1 + 


00CD-*CM000O<NJCO0O 
— ."^rl-Ttt^r^CM — t^ 

1 + + + 1 M + 1 


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"1 CO 10 CM r^ t^ 




to 

CO 

+ 


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I+++ 1 1 + 1 + 1 + 


10 CM 00 r~ Tt o) o5 

rri CM r<i CO ro CO CO 

1 ++++++ 


OCMlOt^iOlO-^CDlO 
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+ 1 + 1 1 1 + 1 


2ti (b shocks 
27 7 
27 13 18 
27 13 48 50 

27 20 34 50 
27(16 shocks 

28 17 58 50 

28 (17 shocks 

29 9 49 12 

29 (10 shocks 

30 11 19 48 


1 11 12 
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1 15 58 18 

1 18 54 36 

2 14 3 13 

2 21 54 21 

3 1 25 13 
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5 13 40 50 
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7 

8 4 45 54 

9 20 1 30 



1 

2 20 27 52 

3 20 6 10 

4 2 46 55 
4 6 55 15 

4 22 14 36 

5 2 36 4 
5 5 43 30 
5 14 3 22 
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1 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



§i2 




— 00 Tf to Tt 
m — — 


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m c«^ 


O) 


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■* — COCMCOCM — CM ■ 


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C75 05 05 C35 


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— CM <3) U1 CM 00 — ■ 
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0>05050>CM005rOO>CJ50>05r^rl'050)0)M'CJ>iOCO 

t^t^o — c~-cM t^ — r~o)cot^t^ — o>t^r-CM 

++ 1 1 ++ 1 ++ 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 ++ 1 14 


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COCOOOUIOOOCOOu^OCMOOOiOOOOlI^ 



n O <SI O m <J1 OOt^ -^TtiOir) — miOOO'^'Orou^CD — lOiOOit— lO — -« 

*i coco-^tO CO ■*"*• rOU^fO"* — "O CO'* 

^ + I + 1 + ++ ++ I I + I I ++ I I I + I I I I + I I 



'"> .CMt^lOOOOO ^O CMCDrME;O002lOOi.OS00CM>.^O-<t>.u1-^ 

P_l W'i'CM CM CMIO — rflO-J^rOo'^CM-g -^ ■*-g-g — UO'^rflO 

w •roOt^r~-o> roio <MCOTf2rooO_2a5ro2o2oOo22"^CM2o5Ul 

^ grOlO — OJ-a- CO— eg (M -g — CO M CM lO-^Tf-CcM TJ--C^_ cj^^ 

f5 .— -CM'OOiOi 05rO 05 — OluOOror'OOCri — CMrot^t^- — — CMIO — O500 

C_^ J5O0 — — CM — — -^OJ CM J^— — "— ' ~— - ^^N— -— _, ^— — 

^O .O — CMroro-*LOmcDt^OOOOOOOOO>05CJ>000 — — CMrOTfiOCDr^t-'OOOj'' 

t-H -O — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CMCMCMCMCM(MCMC>OCMCMCMC^CMCM 



!W 



CO fOr^OOCMt^CM 0><D Tj* lOOOOO 

CM CM— CM— — ro CM— r~. rorOCM 

r^oooo u^ro co CM ui in \r> i^t^t^cD r~'*t^ooo>oo 

^CM m — CM _<^ — -" ■ °°— <>J — Tf_ — _, — 

So c«c!n,Q. -So CMuO, ccac dCCCac^CCCra 

6-s «5 3^^ r?n «5nrJ^ 3^,5^3 3333^3333351 

t; g I— ><; H-,<; <; til u h-i^ua! ^-^i— >c/}i— > ^-,^-^1— ,1— iajH-><,>— ih-,i— ,,< 

,Oo rot^-^oooo oot^ oooocDt^ oooot^oo t^oooooot^ooiooooooooo 

lilO — M<M<M(NJ CMCM CMCMCMCM (Mr<l(MCM CMCM(MCM(M<MCgC\ICMCM(M 

O Oi O: Oi O: Oi <J505 0505050 0505C7505 O505CD05O5O505O5O505O5 



e ^ 0)0 — lOiO 100 CMlOCOr^OO — O — CDiOt"--*- •* — TfCMiOCMrorO- 

i3 e 10— — rg — OC7>rororO'*^'0— CMCM ro05 

rrio * —**—*** ** *# 



w 



ca 



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I OO'^'OOO 010 OOOOOOOOOOCMOCMCMOOCMOOOOOOOlO 

K .1.1^ — — Tt cDco — TfocD- — — 10 — r^ooi^i^ — ■*r^t^ — — — ooos 

bo >C° COt^ — — ro mm — rOroCMCMCMCMM-CM05t^a505CM<M05C\lCMCMCMCDt^ 

J ?5 +TT++ ++ +++++++++ I + I I ++ I +++++T 



t^ CD 10 r~ 


m 


ID ro 


r<)(T)OroCv]iOf\JCvjroOCM^^fOrorOU^ OB 


— CM ro ^ 10 
° ro — CO ^ ro 

+ 1 + + + 


ro — 

++ 


10 ■* — lO CM 


cMr^t^oocDnocDcDCMr-coojcMCMfvjr^ obl 


+++++++ 1 ++ 1 +++ 1 +++++ 1 ll 



O .eOOOOrO 00 0000(OmOoStDt„05^t^O„00ir5O„„„Tj- 

ha> — u-jTj- ^CMro — ro— oro^ij- miOTj-J2cM — ^_2SSiooO 

00 O U CJ o 

I— < •ro050'*CM CO— TftOt— — CMCO^CDo0500-^0050tDoOO'00 

^ grorO-^Tj-lO — — m CMtJ-- — ojCMj^- ';fCMCMj2"^'*'0_s5_2_2Tt--<t 

O.OSTfCMOO-* Tj-tO t^OOO<0!Ot^2°0,mCO^f^co_uCMiO— """roO 
^_, J5— — — — rO_CD CJCM^ — — CM'^f^'^i- 

o .00000505050-" — CMroro'*'^"i>io>ncotor~t^t~t^r^ooooooooo50 — -« 

^ -O „_-_____ — — — _, — _-_ — ___„„_„_pjfg(vj 

•i: 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 273 



(D 


t~:i 




00 00 

rj CM 


■^ iO — 

n — CM 

• 


>o 1/5 10 


10 00 ro 
— 00 T)- 



in ifi cc 

-q 33333333 u ^ ^^ 3 "a -3 .|l 
r~- ooootxDoooooooooooocx) — 00 

CM CMCMCNjrgtMC^OCMCMCMCMCNJCM 



(£> CM lo «D r~ t^ 

f<^ ro -^ CM CM ^^ 


CM 


o> — 


0^ 
rj- ro 


CD 


CM 
CM 


CM CM ^ 




CM 




CM 


00 


— 

ro — 


1°° 
C4 


July 
July 
May 








C 
(0 
1—1 


C 
3 
>— 1 




3 3 

1— >i — 1 


00 00 rj- 

CM (M CM 

Oi <y: <^ 




00 

CM 

05 




00 

CM 


00 
CM 

ai 


00 00 

CM CM 
0> 05 


00 CM 
CM (M 



ocoint^Tf — — — — — '(OCTi-^cDooro-^Oi t~- m 00 r~'*roooa)io 

„_,„_ — IDCMCM'* CMlOtO — CMIO 

* — * * * * 



a * 

s o o o o o o o o o o "o o o o o u^ CM o o 10 00 00100000 

7++ 2 + I I 1 I M I I I ++ I I ++ I + + + + ++ I + M 



"1 


05 — 

+ 1 + 


•* 

— ro CM 


— 00 00 

•* ■* CM 


CM CTi 


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i/^f^f^t^r^t^t^t-t^i^ioiooootooao o ^ — tou-jroou^o 

rorMCMCMCv]r^lCMCMCMCMCOC£>CMCM^-<tCOt£> •* CO CM t^COUDlOCMOO 

•d-COCDCDCDCOCO(D<OCDron- -Jfrf— .— ro rO CMrocMrOroCM 

+ + + + + + + + + + + + I I ++ + + I + + ++ I ++ I 

•rfOCM00I>C0a>050>-*'*l0-*0>-*i0C0— ro t^ »o ocmococdo 

5 CM — Tt CM 10 — — in ro CM PJ >o ro •* — — ro ro ■* 

rororOCOOOiomO't — — CMCM-^OOCD— iT, ro CO O5CD0Oir)00lO 

lOiO^CMro-* roioro'* ■* — CMCMM- — ro CM-* ro — 

rocOOlOOOO — — — ' — OOr ^ro-^OOTf (N IT) 00 OOOOCMiOt^ 

„ — ^CMCMCMCOCMCM — CM— — — __ — 

____ — —. — —< — — CMCMrorOro-^-^iOCOr-OOCDO — CMrO'^'^'OiOiDiO 



CM CM — — m -* 
t ro ro CM CM — 



OC;!'*"^ t^'^tCOCM CMO> rOOlCM 

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(D — CD CM ^ t^ ro — O — — — C35 CM O) CM Ol O f- t^ — rO rO rO O O rO 00 00 — lO — ■ CM O 

— ^--^/^- <M-- ' ^— CMCM — CM CM — — — CM — 

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(MCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCOrO — — 



274 








REPORTS 


ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 


1 




13 

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CI 

1 

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CM 




00 t^ 


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— CD 

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oiot- — ooooooou^Moommt^oo 
lO — CMion ro — 0JiOTf'!3-rocMCMro 

t^O5tMi/)U0O>lOt^CO — lOTf-*OOOOOCM~ 

OOt^OiCMOOTt-CVJromt^O— •CDroO)-<i-00a> 

t-OOOOOOOOO — — (MCMPOCJl^rOrfu^loiD 


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CD t~- 00 Oi O 
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in o ■* 

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t~ 00 00 00 00 

CM CM CM (M CM 
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CM — CM — CM — — rO'tCMin- OOCM CM 

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CO CM 00 O CD CO 00 CvJ CM CM ro lO ■* in 00 O 00 O O O lO CM lO O >0 O O — •<* 

-^^^ ro ■^iOCMCOco^^^CMtJ' .^^-^ro^^ ^^ -MIOCM CMlO 

OS CD •<* o •* CD p~ — o •* o CO r^ ro in Tf — . cvj ro 00 00 00 (o CJ> — « — CD t^ 
•^ro'* mmiO"* ■* CO — — in — ■^CM — '* — — Tt" ^„_to 

rOt^CO CMCO — t^OJroO — CO — rOCOCTlTfin — rOO — t~- — -^OOCvJcOCO 
— — — CM — — CM CM CM — CM CM 

cDcDcDt^ooooiOO-^^^^CMCocMcococoTf'^'^'^'^inininincocococor^ 

__ — — — — — CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMOJOOCMCMCMCMCMOJ 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 


1925- 


-1930 275 


CMroiO— 'CD f-co 00 CM 
.— TJ-CJCMCM — CM m 


O rf r^ 05 


00 o 
— ro 


— a> CMM-CMro COCDCM — 
t— CMCOOJCM — — — CM 


1928 Aug. 20 

1928 Oct. 11 

1926 Sept. 8 
1928 Sept. 25 

1927 May 8 

1928 Oct. 9 
1928 Apr. 11 


CO 
CM 
Oi 


CO 
CM 

C9 

CM 

Oi 


00 CM 
CM CM 

Oi Oi 


1928 June 5 
1928 Oct. 15 

1923 Feb. 19 

1927 Oct. 12 

1926 Nov. 5 

1927 Mar. 14 

1928 July 5 


3»lO CDt^CDCJ>-*Tj-— ■COCO'"* 
X) rO — ' CO — — — lO CM-* 


lO CD 

•* o 
* — 

* 


CM 1/2 <3> 
CO lO 
# # 


m -f CO Oi 00 (o oo-*t^cot^ 

— CD-* —CM CD 00 eg CM 

* # * * * # 


O Tf CM lO m O O O lO lO CM t^ 


>0 CO 


o o o 


CO 10 CO CO lO 00 10 


r^O I^rorJ-CMCJLOror^It^cO 
n -^ Oi^^t^t^Oi'TiroOiOl 

++ 1 +++++++ 1 + 


_ CD 
iO CD 

++ 


+ 179 
- 56 
+ 16 


ro CO I^ O) CD 00 "1 t^ ■* 10 00 C^ 
l>C~-t^CMCDl>ro lOrooOCD — 

1 1 7+++7- ++ 1 ++ 


lO t- CM o o 00 00 o ro t^ cj in 


O lO 


1> o o 


inrooioinoo oioro^oio 


;OiO CDCDroCDCDfO»/)tocDCM 
ro — — — . CM CO CM ■* CO — 

++ + 1 ++++++++ 


CO 00 
CM 

1 + 


00 ro — 
CM lO "*■ 

1 1 + 


inLoooooot^u-) — ri-rgroro 

CO — CMrOCM iO* — — * 

1 1 1 ++ 11 +++ 1 + 


4 18 22 45 

5 6 58 24 
6 

7 

8 

9 3 10 

9 14 36 50 

20 36 30 

1 23 32 28 

1 23 44 16 

2 7 26 9 

2 7 29 30 

12 12 23 5 

13 13 8 33 

3 15 16 56 
4 

5 8 30 45 
5 14 19 32 
6 

7 6 15 22 
7 15 19 25 
7 17 38 21 
8 

9 5 41 30 
9 5 49 
9 10 18 50 
!0 12 46 44 
!1 13 11 55 
.1 15 17 6 
1 16 16 45 
2 

3 17 52 6 

4 7 2 

5 12 32 48 

5 12 36 9 

6 4 29 36 
7 

8 




t^ 00 OJ CO lO 
— t^ CO CM 


s 

■♦^ 

CO 
00 

CM 
Oi 


Oi t^ 
CM CM 


lOO<35Tft^iOrO'0 fOCJ) 00 l/5rOCO 
CM ~ CM ■* — — CM CM CO — CM — — 


1928 Aug. 2'7 
1920 Apr. 15 

1926 Aug. 23 

1927 Oct. 31 

1927 Jan. 3 

1928 Aug. 29 
1928 Aug. 30 
1928 July 9 

1918 Nov. 16 
1928 Aug. 30 
1922 Nov. 20 


1919 June 15 

1917 Aug. 6 
1923 May 15 


CO 

»— 1 

00 
CM 

Oi 


1928 May 1 
1928 Aug. 16 
1926 Dec. 25 


1927 Sept. 19 
1926 June 5 
1918 Nov. 28 

1928 June 1 
1928 June 7 

1928 June 15 
1928 Sept. 14 
1923 Sept. 9 
1915 Aug. 11 


C3)t^CMCMO00rr)I^t^000)O 
CMCgCMCM — — — CM 
* * * * 

i 


+- 
00 m 05 t^ 
00 -"t — * 
# # 


lo 00 


4- 
CM CM CM 
— ro * 

* 


oocDO)(Ma)ro-*iocooooo 

Tl-t-CDt^— <CM « — 

* * * # * 


lo)Ooor~r~c^O(3)mr~io 


O t^ 00 O lO o 

— . lO — lO CM Tf 
t^ 0> t-- O CM CM 

+ 1 7+7 1 


+ 143-2 
+ 143-5 
+ 145-0 


00000100*0000 


— (JiTft^ — — .— .COOOiO — c^ 
lOrO — -^CMCMCMO) (35CMrO 

+++++++++ 1 + 1 


■* — OOlt^OCD — — 000 
CDlOror--CMCJ*CMCM00 — 

++7+++ 1 7-+ 1 + 


t-OOOOOOOTfOOO 


O CM 00 O lO O 

O IT) ro 00 4- lO 
fO — ^- CO »/) 

++ 1 1 + 1 


+ 22-3 
+ 40-0 
- 5-5 


>Ot^OOCMOcorOroOro 


Qoroot^corocor^oocMcooo 

COrO'* raCMCMCM^ — CM 

+++ 1 ++++++++ 


CMlOrO — rOiOCMCMCMUOO) 
ro ^-ro roCM — — ro 

+1+1 +++++ 1 + 


>-OOOOrOOOiOOCM — CO'^ 
>0-*tO-* lO — CMmiOrOC^J 

OJOOOmcDO'tCMOCOiO-* 
— '/JfOCM — r0>O — — lO-V — 

-*t^ — oor^cooooo — o>n 

t-t~0000C3)OOOOO — — 
CMCMCMCMCMcorororocorocO 


1 6 8 52 

1 23 53 42 

2 16 56 51 

3 1 5 52 
3 4 1 54 
3 5 40 51 
4 

5 2 23 48 

6 6 28 30 

7 2 49 20 
8 

9 

10 17 28 51 

11 37 

11 12 36 12 

12 1 19 

13 3 26 12 

13 19 3 20 

14 8 1 52 
14 21 10 58 

14 21 14 18 

15 9 32 24 

16 2 58 6 















276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 










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■*-» 


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rf) o <NJ O ■* ■* t^ <0 O — 00 ■* 
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O) 


lO •* o> 

— CM CO 


1928 Oct. 24 
1928 Dec. 3 
1928 Dec. 8 
1928 Feb. 17 

1928 Dec. 8 
1928 Dec. 9 

1928 Apr. 10 


1927 May 21 

1926 Dec. 12 

1928 Dec. 12 

1927 Mar. 19 
1923 Apr. 24 
1926 Sept. 9 


> 
O 

CM 


1928 July 15 

1925 Aug. 11 
1928 Jan. 24 
1928 Nov. 5 


t^TtlOlO>OiOO><M00'tcO 
00 rj- Tt ■* ro -^ — 
* ***** 


— rorc5I~-OCMiOOO)iO 

— — O — — — roCM — 

« 


t- o — 


— lO CO O) CO 

* 


0101/510000000 — OuOOOOt^iOOOOCOO 


lOOiOOlOOOO 


■*-*CMCMt^Tf-t^t^t^CDO — 05C0 — CO — CTiCDcriiO 
o roror-t^iOt~-iOiOO>(MTft^CDt^OO TfCD05C0t^ 

++ 1 1 ++++++ 1 I+T+++++I 1 


OrocniOrOCMCM-— 

oo^cMTj-r^-^co 

+++++ 1 ++ 


lOiOOOiOOiOiOO^iOOiOiOOOOiOiOOOCMO 


lOOiOO-^tiOOM 


Tt^iOiOOOOOrot^-OOCDOt^'i- — lOOCM — lO 

1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 +++ 1 + 1 +++++ 1 1 


coCM"-r^^-LOiOrf3 

"* lo n CM CO ro CO 

+++++ 1 ++ 


00 O 00 r- CD O 00 lO CO r<1 00 CO O O CO ■* CD O ■* ■* CO 
tn -^CMroiOco — CMr<^u-)T}- ro^r- — CMCMiO 

.;' r<^l>rot^t~- — iOO(nCM03TfiOC3)iOCDCDOOOO — CO 
£3 — CM — lOlO — ro COIOCM— m CMIO rf 

• 05r~-ror~rOcOiOOO-*l>u-)00 — OrooiOO- 0000 
J3 — — — CM — — — CM— CM — — 


3 39 27 
9 16 24 

4 42 27 
11 37 
15 15 50 

6 34 42 

1 40 36 

23 17 35 



o 

r° -(Or^C— 00000005C:50iOOO — CMCMrO(-orO-.S''^lOCOt-00000)0>t350 — — 

H ~ — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — _pjCMCM 



^w 



t^^'* roiO lOrO'* O •^COCMCMOCMCMiO 00 COO 

CM rO— — — CM — — CMrC)CM — COCM TfCvJ 



roO (M C5 co_ '^-*ro 

— CM CMIO ^ CD — COOO — S — (M CO 

L, « ., 00 . . ... 

C.2 "S "■" -5^k23 v2^3 ° 0-u 3 3 

Es 0^, QQ ^ ^ < S2< Z<:fe<.< 

r?H 00 i~- COCO c- oot^ oooooo oooot^oor^ 

l^ir CMCM CMCM (M CMCM CMCMCM CMCMCMCMCM 

L/ C3)C35 Oi Oi OS 0>CT) 05050) OSOJOCTSOS 



e C COO) t^O-^ lOTf t^OCMroCD OOOO) COt--iOO>t^iOTt 
13 O rocMjJt^CM — O — CM — TfiO ro — — — — — 
(Zjy **<D* — *** *** 
r -a * 

WS CMCM SjioiOro Ot~- OOOrOlOO lOOOO lOOOOiOOO 

hO . . cJ . . . . . ... 

P r^t^ tjr^- O "*— — 'OOrocOiO rooot^ — rorocOrororo 

M TJo Oi-* 2;Ot^-* 00(M C0C01O1O05 lOCDiO t^rocol>-c:2 — ■!}• 

oO \ ^ oo " " — — — — — — — — — — 



00 
CM 
05 



I + s I I + I + +++ I + +++ +++ I +++ 



CMCM OlOCM O— CMC01>1010 lOCOO Orf-cfCMiOlOO 



O lO CM 


O — 


CM CO 1> lO lO 


lO CO o 


r~ lo o 

CM CO 

+ + + 


CD — 
CO CM 

+ + 


CO O O) •* <M 
ro CM CO lO lO 

+ 1 + + + 


lO o ■* 

CM ro 

1 1 1 



COCO r~lOO CD— roOO)-*<M lOO-* lOCMCM — lOCOCO 

— Tl' CM CO COC^I roCMcoiOiO CMro CO lOCMTTCM 



^ ++ + + + ++ + I + + + I I I + + + + + + + 



O . lOOO C3500O — — CMOOiOOlO COOtO -!f00O5lOtOiO00 

L^ w -^ rO'— CO lOiO -^CM-^Tf coco^ 10-* roiO^-Tf 

M ■ CO-* CMOOOO CMIO — TfCMCOCD CMt^O CMCMt^-I^'^t^ — 

^ S^ '-^CM Tj-Ti.cMro CMrf rococo— ^co^^ 

Q . ■to TfcocD -* <J> •t-tcoiooo — CMCM ttMt--roiOro — 



O 



h. WJ >«' ^^ 
73 CM CO CO 



050-" — — — CMrorotiOCOCOt^t^OOO>0 — CMfO'^'OiOlOlOCOCOr"- 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 



277 



^00'* CMrfOO 00— <35rO 



CM 



CM 



— u^ O CO 

— CD CM CM 



00 10 00 

CM — — 



O ro 

CM — 



CM 



in 



10 

CM 

_>. 
I— » 

CM 



00 
CM 



00 
CM 



CM 

3 
00 

CM 



XI 

to 

CM 



CM 

3 
< 

CM 
CJ> 



^ 



CM 
CM 

05 



— C3i 
— „ — CM 

p^ flj o '-^ 

00 r- 00 00 

CM CM CM (NJ 
CJ) O^ Oi O^ 



00 o 

CM CM 



r~ -sf o t^ c3> CO 

ro CM O) 
* * 



CJ500<DiO lOrO CDCX3001O 
_ — — — CM ^ 



000000 



O Tf 05 O rO CO 
ro CJ5 lO C^J CM 



00 CO O) 



^ O O O <M 
O) CO ro CM "S- 



OOUOlOCD OOO'^CM 

— — CO ^ — — 

# — 

« 



O 00 CD t~ 10 lO O 1^ O 10 O "1 10 O 00 rO O CD 



CM— CM05t~-— roO — lO 
CO CM — lO-* ■* t— ID 



-* O t^ O 
in — t~- CM 



I ++ +++ 2 ++++ + 



+++ +11+ ++++ 



t^ CO CO CM CM 

rl- r- CO — t^ t~ 
1 lil ro CO 

1 ++ 1 ++ 


+ 47-7 
+ 46-5 
+ 26-5 



IOO5OJU0 00 tr> C^t-OLO CMLOOO t^oot^o 

ArMCO— CO-* fMO'>*CO CMUlCDiO C350 — t~ 

COCM'* COCO CO COCO -^roro Ti--q-ro — 

+ + + + ++ +11+ ++ I I + + + + 



O^OOCDt^- CMincD 
•^roiOCMCM lOroro 



r~ ro CM "^ a> ■* 
ro ■* — •* 



CO CM — •* ■* 00 



CM ■* ro 
CO CO CO 



10 CO CO o 

10 



00 O CO CO 
ro ■* CM 



10 ■* 
CM CM 



(Jl 00 
10 



u^ 00 O CM 
■* •* CM — 



— 10 ro t^ 

■"d- CM 



o o ■* o 

— CM 



CM CM 10 r- 
lo in CM CO 



ro 0> — O 

CO CM ■* 



ro "«■ "^ O 

•* ■* CM 



CMrO'^>')mcDr~00000>00 — 
POCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCOrorO 



fOCDCMCD COO O^^t^OO CM — OOCO O00CTit~- 
— — CMCMrO'^^'0«Dt^OOOOa>0 — — — CMCOCOTfTt 



oioiocM^^ Tf^-cor^u^ 

P0_«ro — CM ,™cM — — — 



t-- 00 
CM — 



O 

CD 



C3> CM 
CO CM 



OJ-^' 



1927 Apr. 

1928 Nov 
1926 Jan. 
1926 Nov 


4-^ 

00 
CM 
Oi 


00 t~ f^ CO 00 00 
— — CM r~ 

— # 

* 


00 lO c^ 10 










a> Oi 



CO 


CM 


CM 


CM CM 


4-> 






u 
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zz 


00 


t- 


00 


00 00 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM CM 


a> 


05 


cn 


a> o> 






^~* 





000 

(U u <u 




V u 





QQQ 


QP 


Q 



CO 00 00 00 00 00 00 
CM CM CM CM CM CM CM 
01 Oi a> <3) O) <J> C33 



CD 
CM 



_^,«rtC— OJCDCDrot^'* 

CMCOCM 0> CMCOtOCO 

* # # * * 



r~ 00 O CM CO CT> CM 
0> CO t^ CM CM ro 

I + I + 1 + + 



OCMOiOOiOiOOOO 

■^t— COOCMCMO'^'*'*" 

T}-e35iocMCM t-~t--r~t— 

T I 1 +++ I "77 



. OfO-^COOOCliOCOOiO"^ 

^ ro CM ro O CO OJ 

s * * 

u ooouolOiO(^Ju^OlOO 

■ij 

Q rororocorgojr*<Mt^<Mir> 

i I I I 1 I I + I + I I 



CO "^ 



o CO 10 in o "1 f- 



t^' o CM m CD r- 10 

— CM CM — >n ■^ CO 



focMinooroioooo 



+ 



+ I + + 



CD UO O) CO ^ CM 
CO ^- <M ^- -«^ CM 

++++ 1 + 1 


Oi 05 05 
CM CM CM 

1 1 1 



ooooooooomocM 

4-"=f'*'nmiorMiO'*'OTf 
forororocoro*^rororo 

1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 + 


100 

CO ro 
ro 

+ + 



00 CM m o CO o CM 
— tn in »n ro CO 

CM t^ in o> O ro 00 

Tf CM ro m ro CM -^ 

00 in o to 00 ^ r~- 



ooooooininoooQO 
ro in '— ' .— " ■^ CM ^ 

CSOrocOroroCDroCMOiOi 
— CMCO Tj- — cM-^m 

(3) — r~00'*CMint^ro 



OOOiO — CMroro-^mcOP-OOOOOOOOOOWOlOiO^O 
— — CMCMCMCMCMCJCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCVJCMCO 



oooincDincMOfoocoo ocm 

rocM-^^-in-^ro C^J^- CM-— 

coGiCMO^-m — •^05 — CO CM*^ 

— roCM-^- ■^■^CMCOCM -^ 

■^C3^00-^»Ororo^^in^-CM CM-^ 

— CM CM — — — 

_— . — CMCMCMCMrorororo-^mm 



278 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 





1 

1 




■^ O) 00 
— ro eg 


1 

1 

CM 


— r«- 


in t~- — ro — -. 00 
CD CM CM CM Ol ro CVl 


ro ro 00 CO 
ro CM ro CM 


4 




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• • 

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t* 00 
CM CVl 

a> OS 


00 ro 

0> Oi OJ Oi 
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0> 0> 05 05 


— — t^ t^ 
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t< .^ S S 

05 CD O) Oi 
CM CM CM CM 
0> Oi Oi a> 






S 

03 





-f- 

lO t^ 00 IN CD 
0> <M 
* 

O CVJ lO Tf U1 

ro -^ 0> (N i 
CO -"^ CM 

T+ + + + 


— 0> t^ CM O 
CO — — CM — 

# 


lOCO — Tl-CTl^r^CM- C3>rfiO-*rO 
CMro CM ro — — — OOOJCOro CM 
— # # * * * # 


ro 


,3 


t- t^ IT) CM CM 


lOlO lOiOOOlOiOOOOt^Tful 


CD 
CM 

+ 


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ro ro a> Oi 

77+ 1 1 


oio ooooorjcMrocMi/ioorom 
t^ro iot^t^r~oo-^t~--^coTi-r~ 


+1 ++ 1 1 +++++ 1 + 1 


2i 

13 





t~ — . Tf O in 

ro ro r^ o CO 
iC ro ■* ■* 

+ + + + 


CM CM lO 0> 0> 


"It-- mt^iouiooomioco- lo 


CD 

t^ 
ro 

+ 


O O CO ro ro 
lO lO ■* — — 

+++++ 


com rOOOOlOJCDCOU^CMOOCMroO 
roiO m r<-i -^ -rf oj^_iOTt> — 

++ ++++ 1 1 + 1 ++++ 





CO 

s 


rt rt in U^ IT) 

O Tf o CM ro 
ro CM — Ti- 

0> Oi t^ o — 

CO t>- r~- 00 00 

CM CM CM CM CM 


OCOlOOO OO COrO-^COOOulTfroOOOOCM CM 
ro — ■* lOio roCMro t\) '3'rO'*"^roro — 

— <MCM05t~ O— ■*0)-*lOCD-<t — o-*co — m — 
roiororoio — lO lOrO'^ >o — lOro-^CMCM 

t^OOOiOO rOCO COCO — lO — OCMO-^CMrOrO — 
— — CM — — — — — „^(M — — — 

__H — — — cMrOrOTl-loCOf-r^t^OOOSCTlOO- — CMrO 


2 *3 


§ 

1 
CM 




t^ ■* Tf 00 
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ro r- 
CM — 


CM i/5Tf C»— r~05COroCO<3) 
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o 

1 

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ci> 

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o> <ji Oi oy 


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e-o' c c d ^ c 

5> /i; CO ca cs Hp- ca 
MO I— ii— ,1— ,,<:h h- , 

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COCOOCOOOCMOOCMCMOCDU1rO'00>00000>/50 


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CMOJ — COrJ-- CMOOOlCMrorO-^iO — Tl'CMOJOJOa) rO(35 

+++ I + 1 + 1 ++++T++++ 1 1 1 i+i 1 


— 05 
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+ 1 a> 


^ 

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OOrOCOCMOTfioulrOUOOCOlOOOl/IOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


ro 00 


t^t^OlOCMOiOOiOCMrO — CMOCM — •"tlMCMCMCMt^CDCM 
-^-^ro^-^- CM ro^coro*^^^ro^--^^^ — ^ --^ 

+++++ +++++ 1 ++++++++++++ 


CM CM 

+ + 





E 


O00O"*OOC0O)r0-*00lOl0lOOOCM00OCJOCMt~CM cor~ 
CM->«'rOM-ro roro — CMCM'* lO — <M — •>^u-)lO-<lf lO- 

COrOCDlOOOr^CMt^CTJ-^CMtOOOOCOro^COCTJOOOrOCOCD rO»0 
■*CMt\l-tr — — mCMiOrO"* -"J-- roCMCMroro lO >0 

OOtJ-O- CM — Oro — ■*CvJ'*OlOO'* — Oro — CMrOCO— COOO 

ir)cocot^t^r^ooo>050i0^^'-^ — — •CMCMro'^'^iococor^oooso^- 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 279 








05 




10 — 




05 CO CD CO 00 


00 




on 









CO 




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ro ID ■q- ro CO Tj- 


(M 






CO 








t^ 00 






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u^ c^i 00 " c~J "^ 


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rrj^- 


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July 
Feb. 
July 
Mar 

Feb. 
Mar. 


a 






Aug. 
July 
Mar. 


Mar. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
Mar. 


S3 <=« 




<y> tr- 






0> 00 


t^ 


CM t~- CO o> a> Oi 


— 00 






CD i^ a> 




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CM 


CM CM CM CM CM CM 


CM CM 






CM CM CM 








o> o> 






Oi a> 


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O) Oi 0> 0> 05 05 


a> o> 






0> 05 


0^ Oi Oi 1^ 


C3> 0> 




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^^ ^^ 


*^ 


^^ ^4 ^^ ^-, *~* ^^ 


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00>000)OOlOC0050>OTl'0)>0'*CM-*OOt^'>*->d-CM 


— ■* OJ 


^^ 


CMCJCMCDiO-^-^t-CMrOOTf — 






IM 




^-" 


CM 


10 t^ m 00 ro u^ 


CM 


CM 




^^ _ ^^ v^ 


^ M^ , , , 1 


* 




* 


* 




* 


* * * # 














10iOr~-0050000000-rfOOlOlOOOOOlOlO — 


oioiooooiooincococoioioiomr^ 



t;»a>i2CM — cDro-^co-^Tfoo — Tf — o — (MrfTtOTt'ioCMiOrO'^t^CMT}- — — — •mrocoroo 
Trm'<^TfrO"*u^cDiOTl'rorO'^^a>CM050rorocor^mT}'05<3> <35CD'*t^r~-t~Tr'i"CMM*-^ 

+++++ i ++++++++ I + I +++++++++++++++++++++ 



iOOt^CMr^OCMOCMOOOt^C7>lOlOiOiOOlOiOOOOOiOiOiOCMOOlO^-^-^^OOOOOCD 

0)COffiCMC<l(\lrl-COTf(35mCMOOOO'*C3i'*iOrr-^OCMrM050>m'^ — 0000CT>C3>O>C3>C35CDO5'a- 
rOCJro — roo— . — — .^-^ roro — — — CM-rfrJ- CMfOr<lCM t^ CMfOrororocorocOflco 

+++++++ I +++ I ++++++++ I 1 ++++++++++++++++ 



l0O00r00000r0OOOr0CD00CMCMCMCD-<J'0>O<DCD0>CD-*Tf00CMOCDir)0000OCMC00500 
■* — >Oro^— • ■* — roioroiO'^r'iinio rororo co"^CM — — c<iio ^--^ roCMCM 

'tr^CD'0r«1t^CMOO'^00CMOOc0OCDr0»0rJ-05CM — r-CD'^iOiOOCO — COr-CM — -"COCM 
— roiocM — lOCM ro — — rfroCMiO — r<^ roioro — — -^lOCMCM ro— 'COrO — rJ-CMco 



— — — — — — eg — CMOJCM 

■*Ttioir)i0l0CDCDC0r-t^0000000>O — 


CMrOrorOTfTj-Tj-ioiOCOCOCOCOt^r^t^f^^-t^-r 
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMC 


~ t^ 






M CM 


u^ CO ■* CM t^ 

— CM CJ •* •* C\ 


CM r^ CM 00 <J> ■* CM 00 CO 
CO •* OOCMCMCM— CM — 


ro ■* CO CO 
eg "S- t^ CM CM 


,r~- m 00 

CO CO CM CM 


1927 July 14 
1925 June 28 
1929 Feb. 3 
1929 Jan. 31 
1927 Oct. 2 


1926 Aug. 20 

1929 Jan. 1 
1929 Feb. 8 


1929 Feb. 10 

1928 Jan. 5 

1929 Feb. 3 
1928 Mar. 4 


00 
(M 

(U 

G 

3 
1—1 

00 

CM 

C35 


="CM 

ll 

00 CD 
CM CM 
(35 (35 


1928 May 13 

1928 Dec. 7 

1929 Feb. 24 


CD 

i 
00 

CM 

05 


0— .— .OOtJ-^OOCM 
3 — Tf — i CM CM CO 

:** 


— — ■ CM ro CO t^ 
CO — — — CM 00 eg 
* 


CO 1/5 CM CD CO 

ro CO ■* 10 — ■* 

* # 


— 10 

— CO 


10 

# 


00 t^ ■* 10 ■>* Tj- 


CO 
CM 
* 


ooooooinco 


00 >0 lO 00 00 CM CO 


cjiocMOomo— • 


00 


CO 10 >o 10 


00 

00 

CO 

+ 


-000 — 001^05 
Mrororooioo^-q- 

1 +++ 1 1 ++ 


CO <^ (M n — ro 
O) — ro (35 C3> •* 

1 +++ 1 1 + 


— .coco — (^ — t^CM 
05 CM CM 05 lO CM CO 

1 ++ 1 +T+ 1 


ro t^ 

+T 


— CO CM — ■* Tf 
■* t ■* t~- CO CO 

++ 1 1 ++ 


OlOOOOOOiOt^ 


ro 10 05 CO 05 CO 


(351O00001OO1O — 


r^o 


1/5 CD lO 10 


CO 



CM 
1 


-"OOiOJCM-* — (35 
CM CM -" — CO •^ 

1 1 ++++++ 


oj m CO CM CM CO CO 

— CM CM CO — — ■^ 

+++++++ 


rOO(35CM — lOOOCM 
— CO — ■<1' lO Tf 

+++++ 1 1 + 


1/5 (35 
CO — 

+ 1 


r^ CM — ■* ■>* 
ro ■'t — CO ■* ■* 

+++ 1 ++ 


rooooioo-^rot- 

- 10 — 10 Tt CO — • 


CD ■>* Tf 
fO Tf lO — 

Tj- — U1 t^ t^ (35 
■* 10 CM ro ro CM 


— OSTflOCOCMt^ 
CMCM-^rg-* — — eg 

C0(35O'*C0r0'^(35 
_ rO Tt — CM •* lO 


05 10 

t^ CO 
CM 


CD CO (35 00 CO CM 

— CO CO — CO — 

00 — ' CO lo 
CO •* — CO »o 


10 

<35 
CM 



i'^O'it^COO^^ CMt^ — CMcoi/5t^ CM-*iO00(35(35O00 CO— ■<a'(350 — COiO CO 

JCMfOCOCO'*lOCOt-»0000(35C35000-"CMCO'*'/5'OCDCOr-OOa500 — CMCMCMcOTtTj-ioCD 

— — — — '— — — — — — — — — — CMCgcMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM 



28o 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



g. Former Minor 
Occasions. Ents. 


'4-' 

a 

I 
1 




IT) CM — 


ro O CD 
CO CM Tl- 


1 

Ol 
CM 






— C» "* O lO ro CO 
lO ro ■* ■* ^ CM CM 




05 0> 00 00 
CM CM CM CM 

O^ Oi o> o^ 


•* 00 00 
CM » CM CM to 

1h' CJ t,' C >. 

a> 00 a a> to 

CM (M CM CM CM 

<7i Oi O^ <J> Oi 






j;^ CM — <35 ro — 0> 

m a> a> oi ai oo oo 

CM CM CM <M CM CM CM 

Oi 0> Oi 05 0> 05 o^ 


o 




•^■*CD-<^00ioai0000CMO3 
rO M- — — CM U^ CM 

* * 


CvJ 

* 

o 

+ 

o 


lO — OOO) — OOOro— 'ro — CM>00>-* 
(M — r^ — — CO — rOC^JCMCD— 00 — 

"■ * # * # 
* 

ooocjiDooioor^t^oc^ioocor- 

cDi> — obci3<j>r^^.c^cbcMt^4->^ — 
uocM — r~.iO'*iniomcococMt^ro-* 

+++ 1 +++++++++++ 


W 

a 
o 


■*TCi/100U100CMOCMOJiO 


Tf-*:^r<^CO — ■* — ■*—• — rf 
+++ 1 ++++++++ 

pJCMr^coiooioooi/^oooot^ 


4-* 


OlOOOOOCOO-^-^OCMCMOOrO 


■* •* — r^ — Tt -sf ■* « 
++ 1 + 1 +++ 1 +++ 


rooororo'OCO'S'-^OOOOcou-jroOcot^ 1 
— coco-* ro-^coroco— ' •* cjl 

++++ 1 ++ 1 ++ 1 1 + 1 1 + 


d 


en 
g 

-a 


OOCniOCOOOrorjiorO'^OCD 

CMC^iO — cvJOOOOmroOJLOOO 
^^ TJ- — lO ro ro rn in •* 

CMCMOO — — CM^COTfOiOOOO 
CJCM — — CM(>4 _____ 

u^u^cD^^t^^~ooooooooo)0 

CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMOJCvJCMm 


CO 

CO 

00 
CO 


CvlrOOCMiO— 't>CDCMOCDt~->*'0000 
CMroCMro-*inojiO_-.Ti-roco ■* 

r^cocMcocMiooocji — cooo-a--*iot^ 
roro— TJ-CM — .roio Tf — ro— ' 

lOCJi — CMCMTfOOCOCOCOLOOOCOcO— < 

— — CMCMCM— — — — — CM 

— — — — — CMrororfiocol>t^t^t^ 




T3 

a 

? 
1 

1 




CM ro ■* CM a> 
lO _, _ oi CM 


t> 


CM 


00 


ro u^ — I^ 00 r^ — 
— CM •* — CM ro CO 


1.2 

H CO 

g 
o 




00 00 t^ ro r- lO 
CM (M CM CM CM CM 

O^ (^ O) 05 05 (J) 


2 r- CM 

C35 CO 05 
CM CM CM 
C^ O Oi 




o 

CM 
U 

a 

< 

CM 




00 00 <3>CDa0CJ>O5C:>CD 
CM CM CMCMCMCMCMCMCM 
05 0> Oi 0> Oi 0> Oi Oi Oi 


i 




ro CO 0> t^ — t^ 
CM CM lO 

* 


rf Tj. 00 CM 

— CM CO CD 

* # * 


^ 


en 




CO — Tf'^-U-JCM — OrO'^OOOOCM . 
T^ro lO-^C^iOiO^^-^^^- — 
* # # 


Lat. N. 1 Long. E. 


o 


O 00 O lO lO o 

ci> 00 r^ lo r^ 4- 

CM n 0> CM 

+ + 1 1 1 + 


00 00 lO lO 

ro CO CO ■* 
03 __ rf rf 

1 1 + + 




o 

+ 




OlOiOu^roCDOCMlOCMCMCMlO, 


— — coio(M-*r ^o — — — t~ 

CMcoroCTiroCMu-)- -a-- — — t^ 

+++ 1 +++++++++ 





o ^ o in o o 
uo i^ CO m m ^ 

ro CO ^^ ro ^ CO 
++++ 1 + 


ro CO O m 

CM O CO 00 
_ CO 

+ 11 + 




CM 
CO 

+ 




OiOOOPOOOOOOiOOOOOOOO 


O — COCM- t^-*rocx)rororoio 
CM-*ro — "* cO"*CM'<J'-*rfr\J 

++++++ 1 ++++++ 


h 
d 


-a 


O in CO CM O Tf 00 CD 00 

__ _ .^ __ T^ _ lO TJ. CO — 

cD005cot-oo mo>-*c^ 

Tt _- T}- _- CM — 

___f0^-00 CDcoiOO 

01 CM — CM CM — CM 

r^t^oooooocooo— ' — — 

CMCMCMCMCJC^JCMCOrOCOrO 




O COlOCDlO"*00<3>CMT}.000 010 
CM -^^^ -^-^^-^CO^^CMCMCOC^J 

CO CD 00 ■* — CM CO CM ro 't 00 CM CO ro 
CM CMrOrOCO^^^-lO-* •^rO'^^O 

CO OOroOO) — OrOiOcDCDcDOrO 
CM CM — _- — CM CM 

cMro-*>oioco^-ooooa>oooooo 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 281 




ly^b Jan. 13 

1925 Oct. 21 

1926 July 1 
1929 May 11 
1929 Feb. 15 

1929 May 4 

1928 July 8 

1929 May 1 

1929 May 15 

1928 Aug. 23 
1923 May 25 

1926 Nov. 6 

1929 May 18 
1928 Nov. 15 

1928 Mar. 30 

1929 May 21 
1929 May 21 
1929 May 21 
1929 May 21 
1929 May 21 
1929 May 21 
1926 Sept. 6 


— — n 10 ro — — — r~ ro— roorj 0> — — <^iOCMCJ •*■<»• 

* * * ##— ** #* 

* 


oo!Doooor»'*oo Tti/iiooooiooiooioooooooooooooooio^oor^occsoj 

7) COOiO — — — Ot^tOtD MC\]tMCDt-~f\jr~ — r-CD;D — — — — — — — CDtMiOOOI^CDOi 

■1- +" 1 ++ 1 ++ 1 + +++++++++7++++++++++++T 1 + 


ioor^ioiooocj-*Loo — oooou^oi^oiooMioooooooooooooooot^mniorotM 

OOiCNl-^Tj-OJOlOOiOOO OOOCOCM- 0>^05 — -* — — — — — — — ^ — r^OlOOOirO 

f + 1 1 +++++++ +++++++ 1 ++++++++++ 1 1 +++ 1 1 


Z> roOOOOOiOOCMCMOrD lOC^ 2T}'f0005CDOO^-ri-iOfOC>Or^0500COtOiO'<^CMt^CJ 

t^t^Oi^rOrf — CJ^r- — — SiMroCMt^OOroCJt^ulMt^OO- t^-COCDCOt^-^OiCvJ 

\J — r~00O) — Ot^COCTiro roi^O- 0> — CDiOCO'^CSiCDCOtDt-t^OO — OO0000r<^ — 00 

00500 — — CMPJCvJrOroro^iOiO"lCOt^OOC005<3500 — — — — — — — CJtMrorflOmcD 




f^ <M QOfsJiOI^ 00CX3<O 0> CM — CO^- 
;f<l Tj-inCMCMCM CO- — CJ>/2-^ 


5 — — COf^CMCM ..^(M^ ro CO roOiOCJOlOOO- — CM(M<M(MMC\] m 
i^ — _CM_„ <^_CM — oo<N ~CJ — — — CMCMCMCM OJCMCMCMC^PJOJ <M(M 

U C U C '^ t.' In' r! 1-' bb 1-^ -; _Q • >> ti' 1h' l-I Ui U U U fc,' fc,' U U U)' I-' In' M U 

7i a^ ^7: a^ <yi <y> <y> oocT^co oo^o cocD05a>a50>c7>c7>05 o> Oi Oi o^ Oi Oi o> ooo^ 
^iS(Nir\itM<MCM CMOor-j rj.^fNj cjcMc^jtMrgcjcgcMfM (n)C^J(M(\)<>jmcm <mc\j 
7i tji Oi Oi 0^ o> o> <y> ci 0^ 0^ ty 0^ Oi(y>o^c>o^o>o^o>Oi cxi o^ o^ o^ o^ oi o> Oi <j> 


13— •rt'i/^-rt'rl'Tj-OOt^OCO- — 0>0t^<0t~- — 05iO'* — ■5f0500'*OCMOO-*<0<X)>-CMTtt~.00 
OfOCvJCM rOr<1 — — — — -*<MCM — rO Tf CO — CM — tJ-tJ- — — — — 
* * 


104fMCMlO"OlOOOCMOOCMiOOlO>00>OOOCMinCMCMCMCMNOCMCMCvJC^CMCMCMOiOCM 


^„__ — — — Q^_CT>(V) — — — [^ — lOO'*- •* — — — — — 00 — — — — — — — Oirj — 

,-„__or)rOr^CMra — COCO — ^t-CMt^COTfCM- ro — — — — — — — — — — — — -q-co — 

F++++++ 1 1 +++++ 1 + 1 ++++++++++ 1 ++++++++++ 


'ooooooouTiTOOOooiDOooioooioooio- ooioooooooooooooooooooooooooo — moo 


'Tmr^rri4*'^4't~'Or«l — P~rOCD — lO'^I^COU^rOTtrriirirocnfOiOrOr'orororOrrirocoCOro 

F++++++ 1 1 + 1 1 ++ 1 + 1 +++++++++++++++++++++ 


00<N>OOOCMiOiOtO — r~t~-'* — CMOt~-<M00CVJ — COCOSmcDCMmCMmt^O"TtTOiOCM 

_: u^ fg — ro ■* 10 CM Tf CM u-> >0 iO •* U-) CM — CO CM CM Tf — "^ lO 10 Tt ro CO ■* ■<*■ -g ■* — lO 

boiMOO — CMrr)i^'S'"^^""'<^CM'*O>00-*00mcDO)O52aiy3r-lOrr) — OOt^ 2rotOCJ50 
5?COCM — CO-*'<* CMCM — — 10 — — Ttrom — — rf-t^ro^coMCM — n-gu^- irjio 

3-.OU^OOfr)rOCO — — 0>^CJ>0-*CO«D — aOrorfCM — uO'~Oo>05CMOOO>0'<l--*f*)iOTrTtCM 
CM CM CM CM — — — — — — "" C- "" — — — •—' — CM 

U-«racMCMCMCMnroro'*'0'Ococot^t^t^r~-ooa>c»ooo — — — CMCMCMCMMCMrorO'*-* 





282 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



u 




CO 

S 


M 

a 



CM 



CM 



CO 
CM 



CO 
CO 



— 00 



CM 



005CMCN) — roCMroro in •* 
CM — <Nr^ItMr^<Nl — CMt^OOCM 

caacccccacca 

333D333D3333 
1— ^1— .►— ii— i^-^i — ii— .1— )i— ,1— ,1 — ,1— 1 

CMCMCMCMCOCMCMCMCNJCJCMIM 



^ to lO 
3 CM CM 

^ big 

lo 00 O) 

CM <M (NJ 
0> 0> Oi 



CM 

a 

3 



coo5r-Ttoofooc3> 

CM — CM — CMCMCOCM 

C fii c c c 



i%a,Q 



3 3 3 



0> O>O5O>00CJG5O5O> 
CM CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM 

0> 05CTi0^050^00>0 



OS 



"S C^CO 0> 00^ CO t-CMO)CMlOCM — lOiOCM io~io ■^ot~.oot~ocoio>oc;i 
g — COrOCM — coco- — — CM — CM ■* — CM CO — OOCM 

o . * ^- 

i CMCMCMCM050»CM(r>CMrOCOC\lt~OOCMCMCOCOOCMlCCMOCMC35C3)CM jKj 

S CMCMCMCMCDCDCM — CMrvlCMCMTfOCMCJOSOlCDCMt'-CMCOCMCOCOCM 0> 

>?0 t^t^t^t^CMCgt^Tj-t^ — — t— r^rO'*t~-CMCM t^rOt^O>r-CMCMt^ iM 

^ +++++++++7T+++++ 1 I 1++++++++ " 

05 

OOOOOOOOcorOOO- OOOOOOCMcOCMOOOOOOOOOOOOOOrOCOOO 
„ — — — — OOOO— t^ — 0505- OlOCO — ^^ — — 05 — CM — 0000 — 

TfTf'^Ti- ^m-^CMCM'^iOrocO'^iOiOt^'sJ-rO'* -a- M- 

I I I I ++ I + I I I I +++ I I I + 1 + I + I ++ I 



CM 

* 



CM 

+ 



o 

o 



+ 



•^CM 

"73- 



cfl , 






o 

T3 CM CM 



00 KJcoo^r^^OTCKjooocD^Jt^oo "■* "co "Tfco " 

"o "o CM o ro — u — o lO — -S 'S" "3 CO 73 CO ro-3 

O OO O O nno n 

05_elMI>j3-*r3CMrOr|aicOCTlr-cor-CJ> 2oO 2a> 2T!-ro 2 

CO M — "* M M — — m CM '^ re M n- — CO -g — •§ rO-§ ^ — -g 

00COrr5_-,CMjvjCMc£)O5 — cO00CD|2^'^'>Jt^fMC^ — CDCMIOO) 

CMCMrOcorO-<*''*iOlOiOCDCDCDCDt^t~-t~-t^OOOOCnO>000 
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMrOrOrO 



a 

CO 



W 

si 

c 
o 








O lO 
CM ■* 


CO CO 


00 t^ 

CM — 




cs ca 
^§ 

CM CM 

0> CTi 


o 

o 


1929 May 30 
1929 May 30 
1929 May 30 

1929 May 30 


■i 

c 
o 
u 


r^t^CM05COfOCMiOCOC3^00t^ 
fO rO^-CM--^C35 ^-<LO — 

— # * * 
* 


i. 

CJ> 
CM 


t^OlOC^OOOOOOOOO 


o — Tfovot^-oocooooocooo 

CO — 050CM cOCOCOCDrrCD 

T+ 1 T++ 1 1 1 1 + 1 




cMmoooior-^-t~t^cMt~- 



•* 00 

CM CM 


CM 


<3> ■* 
CO CO 


CM 


CM 


(7) 
CM 


CD 


CO CO 




^ 


CO CM 




<>) CM — 


> 


1) u 
C C 
3 3 




V 

C 

3 


^4 




Mar. 
Feb. 

Mav 


CM 


CM CM 
CJ> CJ) 




CM 


<J> 00 
CM (M 




Oi <Ji <J> 
CM eg CM 

o> o> <J> 


'■^ 


^— .— « 




'"' 


^^ ^^ 




^— 1 »^ r-^ 



„ o-*co-*'S'r~-'*-<t'*^cM-* 

" u^Tj- — ro-^iococoroco'^ro 
+ + + I ++ I I I I + I 

• OOiOOOOOOOCOCMOOCOCMiO 
"■^ro-* — — 'S'CO'* "O 

JOlOOiOOCM- cOTft^OO — 
gro — lO-*— 'CO'^"^'^ — — "O 

•CM03rO'*t~COC350 — CMO^ 
rCCM — CM CM — — — — 

_:cor^r-oooocnoooo — — 

T3cMCMCMCMCMCMrOrococorocO 





+- +- ^-f— (- 

Ult^- lO — coOOOOJOlt^Tj-OOOiOCO 
lO — 00 — COt^CMCDCOro— — 

* — * # * * 
* 


^ 


CMUlCMCOCOrOOcOCMOOlOlOOOOO 


CM 


— l>I^t^t^r-CDt^-a't^00iOCMrOTf — 
COCMCOCOCDCOCMCO- lOrocOroOiroO 

++++++++ 1 ++ 1 +++ 1 




t^ioincococoiorocMooomior-oo 




cDt^-^-^-^-^r^-tj-- '^cococMioiocM 
cMfo^^-^i* ^ CO mco CO — 

1 + + + + + + + MM + + + 4 



COcooOt-- S00iOCOr000rfOU^OCM>0 
COrOCMrO-grri/^co •<a'CM 10-* ■* 

coooooe3i 2'<*mcooooroiocMOioCJ 

■^lOcOCM-^ — lO — -^ IC — CM 

t~r iOror^iooo^ioooicocM — 

— CMCM^' — — — — — — 

— — CMCOcO"*'*'OtOCOCOt>t~0000a. 



ON EARTHQUAKES, 1925-1930 283 



t 


CO 




fO 


m ■* to — t^ 
ff) CJ «5 10 CJ 


CM 


CM 








4 ro — 

■> t^ 00 

4 (M (>J 
3 03 03 


03 03 03 

<M (M <M 

03 03 03 


— 10 

be >, 

I-- 03 
PJ CM 
03 03 


10 10 

03 03 
(M CM 
03 


n CM t^ 
cMcot^t^'~^r^oooo^'"'*5 

fe 1— >p— .1— .1— .^H- .^^O! (^ 

00O3O3O3a3O3O3O3O3^CM 
(MCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM 
030303003030303030303 










CD 
00 '- 

03 C7> 
CM CM 
03 O) 













CM lO — — U^ 03 t^ 
1 -3- CO ro — "^ CM 

m # * 



CMi/3CDm — OOr~mt~-cot~«'*CMCDrOCOCOiOCDOOCO-*COiOU1CM03iO-* 

— CMCM — — O300 ...--^ _ro_«^ — ■q-CMcoCDcoC^co — 03CM— < 

— *—*** — *« * ** * ##— # # 



>OOOiOCOiOlOlOO'0>OCOrOrc)'*OCOCOCOOJrOPOr003lOOOOCOlOOOOt~'*CMO 

>tDCMOlOt^lOlOtOL00303000000CD-^OOOOCOCMOOOOOOCDOCM03-^000030000-^03CM'-' 

iTCM>oco'3'rococorc3t--r^t— r^t^Tj-cMt^t^r^t^t^r^t^CMr-t^t^u^jrom — ■^ouD'3't^r^ 

T+++T I I 1 +TTTT7 I +T7T+7TT++T7T++++T+++ I 



>U^uOOOC^r^r^t^OOOiOU^uOO>iOiOU-)iOOOU^lOiO(r5ir)<>JCDOOOOOiOiOCJOOt^OOO 

++ 1 ++++++++++++++++ I +++++++++++ I I ++ I 1 



'lOiOTfOOOOOOCMCOCDloa>'^OCO'^003rOOcO>OCOOOr~-'^OOrc)OOi/3'l*00'OC«lt^rfcO 
JiO->tCMC»3CM — — CO'^IO rO'* — > •*■*•*•*— iUliOlorcju-JCMiO — in-* ro 

-CM^OroCMOO'^ — CDt^00i/3COO3cc3COCMCDt^rc3CM'^00t^cC3 — C0C0TfCX>C0OOr^C0rJ-0003 
«lOCM»/3 CM-^COiO — coco ^CM^^CMCJ"^ roCM rO»OiOiOcoiOiOU*3cO'<^u^CM 

>OOOt-0^t^t^t^lO'*'^CMCOCMOcoc003 — OCM0300r--03rOO'Ot^t^CM-^0003r^OO'^ 
< — CM — — CMCM — OJ ,-. — — 04_^_«_^_^ _« 

ifOcococo'*'a''*'*io"iioioioc£)CDcDr^t-~r^coooooo3030 — — cjfMcocoroTfTtioioio 



CO CM— CM tT ro -"l" 10 CM 10 CO CO 



'^ —, — coo coco CO coco rfiom iOCOmt^cOr^C33CM03 0>030 

;r0O3X. CM — — — 03 — — — — — — — — . „_(.g_„_^„„ _-_f.4 



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284 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 






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286 



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oocjjio lococoiOCTiOiroTcr^cMcM rfcoo t^mt~-r^rfco cD'4-a) — -^ 

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-+++ + I I + I ++++++ +++ ++++++ +++ I + 



CMOO'^ iOOOOOC-~m<350COOOO't cor~— OiOCOO-^ro -^CM-* ooco 

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10 "Oi^ CMCJOooromoo — co-*r- t^cia> rot^cjoooro r^rocM cjco 

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lOCOCOr-OOOO)© — CJCMCMro-<r-*lOCOt^t^OOO)0>a)05C350>0— — — CMrOTt-rf 
— — — — — — — CNJCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCJCMCMCMCMrOrO 



288 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



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REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



2 « 








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